WorldWideScience

Sample records for hiv-specific humoral responses

  1. HIV-specific humoral and cellular immunity in rabbits vaccinated with recombinant human immunodeficiency virus-like gag-env particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haffar, O.K.; Smithgall, M.D.; Moran, P.A.; Travis, B.M.; Zarling, J.M.; Hu, S.L.

    1991-01-01

    Recombinant human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1)-like gag-env particles produced in mammalian cells were inoculated into two New Zealand white rabbits. In parallel, two control rabbits were inoculated with the homologous HIV-1 virions inactivated by ultraviolet light (uv) and psoralen treatments. The humoral and cellular immune responses to HIV-1 were evaluated for both groups of animals. Recombinant particles elicited humoral immunity that was specific for all the viral structural proteins. The antibodies recognized both denatured and nondenatured proteins. Moreover, the sera neutralized the in vitro infectivity of the homologous virus in CEM cells. Importantly, the recombinant particles also generated a T helper response by priming with the HIV proteins. Similar results were observed with inactivated virus immunization. Therefore, the authors results suggest that the recombinant HIV-like particles elicit functional humoral immunity as well as cellular immunity and represent a novel vaccine candidate for AIDS

  2. Evaluation of Different Parameters of Humoral and Cellular Immune Responses in HIV Serodiscordant Heterosexual Couples: Humoral Response Potentially Implicated in Modulating Transmission Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Julia Ruiz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available As the HIV/AIDS pandemic still progresses, understanding the mechanisms governing viral transmission as well as protection from HIV acquisition is fundamental. In this context, cohorts of HIV serodiscordant heterosexual couples (SDC represent a unique tool. The present study was aimed to evaluate specific parameters of innate, cellular and humoral immune responses in SDC. Specifically, plasma levels of cytokines and chemokines, HIV-specific T-cell responses, gp120-specific IgG and IgA antibodies, and HIV-specific antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC activity were assessed in nine HIV-exposed seronegative individuals (ESN and their corresponding HIV seropositive partners (HIV+-P, in eighteen chronically infected HIV subjects (C, nine chronically infected subjects known to be HIV transmitters (CT and ten healthy HIV− donors (HD. Very low magnitude HIV-specific cellular responses were found in two out of six ESN. Interestingly, HIV+-P had the highest ADCC magnitude, the lowest IgA levels and the highest IgG/IgA ratio, all compared to CT. Positive correlations between CD4+ T-cell counts and both IgG/IgA ratios and %ADCC killing uniquely distinguished HIV+-P. Additionally, evidence of IgA interference with ADCC responses from HIV+-P and CT is provided. These data suggest for the first time a potential role of ADCC and/or gp120-specific IgG/IgA balance in modulating heterosexual transmission. In sum, this study provides key information to understand the host factors that influence viral transmission, which should be considered in both the development of prophylactic vaccines and novel immunotherapies for HIV-1 infection.

  3. Carnauba wax nanoparticles enhance strong systemic and mucosal cellular and humoral immune responses to HIV-gp140 antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Mauricio A; Loxley, Andrew; Eatmon, Christy; Van Roey, Griet; Fairhurst, David; Mitchnick, Mark; Dash, Philip; Cole, Tom; Wegmann, Frank; Sattentau, Quentin; Shattock, Robin

    2011-02-01

    Induction of humoral responses to HIV at mucosal compartments without inflammation is important for vaccine design. We developed charged wax nanoparticles that efficiently adsorb protein antigens and are internalized by DC in the absence of inflammation. HIV-gp140-adsorbed nanoparticles induced stronger in vitro T-cell proliferation responses than antigen alone. Such responses were greatly enhanced when antigen was co-adsorbed with TLR ligands. Immunogenicity studies in mice showed that intradermal vaccination with HIV-gp140 antigen-adsorbed nanoparticles induced high levels of specific IgG. Importantly, intranasal immunization with HIV-gp140-adsorbed nanoparticles greatly enhanced serum and vaginal IgG and IgA responses. Our results show that HIV-gp140-carrying wax nanoparticles can induce strong cellular/humoral immune responses without inflammation and may be of potential use as effective mucosal adjuvants for HIV vaccine candidates. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Polyfunctional HIV-Specific Antibody Responses Are Associated with Spontaneous HIV Control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret E Ackerman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Elite controllers (ECs represent a unique model of a functional cure for HIV-1 infection as these individuals develop HIV-specific immunity able to persistently suppress viremia. Because accumulating evidence suggests that HIV controllers generate antibodies with enhanced capacity to drive antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC that may contribute to viral containment, we profiled an array of extra-neutralizing antibody effector functions across HIV-infected populations with varying degrees of viral control to define the characteristics of antibodies associated with spontaneous control. While neither the overall magnitude of antibody titer nor individual effector functions were increased in ECs, a more functionally coordinated innate immune-recruiting response was observed. Specifically, ECs demonstrated polyfunctional humoral immune responses able to coordinately recruit ADCC, other NK functions, monocyte and neutrophil phagocytosis, and complement. This functionally coordinated response was associated with qualitatively superior IgG3/IgG1 responses, whereas HIV-specific IgG2/IgG4 responses, prevalent among viremic subjects, were associated with poorer overall antibody activity. Rather than linking viral control to any single activity, this study highlights the critical nature of functionally coordinated antibodies in HIV control and associates this polyfunctionality with preferential induction of potent antibody subclasses, supporting coordinated antibody activity as a goal in strategies directed at an HIV-1 functional cure.

  5. HIV-1-Specific Antibody Response and Function after DNA Prime and Recombinant Adenovirus 5 Boost HIV Vaccine in HIV-Infected Subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes S Gach

    Full Text Available Little is known about the humoral immune response against DNA prime-recombinant adenovirus 5 (rAd5 boost HIV vaccine among HIV-infected patients on long-term suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART. Previous studies emphasized cellular immune responses; however, current research suggests both cellular and humoral responses are likely required for a successful therapeutic vaccine. Thus, we aimed to understand antibody response and function induced by vaccination of ART-treated HIV-1-infected patients with immune recovery. All subjects participated in EraMune 02, an open-label randomized clinical trial of ART intensification followed by a six plasmid DNA prime (envA, envB, envC, gagB, polB, nefB and rAd5 boost HIV vaccine with matching inserts. Antibody binding levels were determined with a recently developed microarray approach. We also analyzed neutralization efficiency and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC. We found that the DNA prime-rAd5 boost vaccine induced a significant cross-clade HIV-specific antibody response, which correlated with antibody neutralization efficiency. However, despite the increase in antibody binding levels, the vaccine did not significantly stimulate neutralization or ADCC responses. This finding was also reflected by a lack of change in total CD4+ cell associated HIV DNA in those who received the vaccine. Our results have important implications for further therapeutic vaccine design and administration, especially in HIV-1 infected patients, as boosting of preexisting antibody responses are unlikely to lead to clearance of latent proviruses in the HIV reservoir.

  6. Gastrointestinal immune responses in HIV infected subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LRR Castello-Branco

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available The gut associated lymphoid tissue is responsible for specific responses to intestinal antigens. During HIV infection, mucosal immune deficiency may account for the gastrointestinal infections. In this review we describe the humoral and cellular mucosal immune responses in normal and HIV-infected subjects.

  7. [The humoral immune response in mice induced by recombinant Lactococcus lactis expressing HIV-1 gag].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaofei; Zhang, Cairong; Liu, Xiaojuan; Ma, Zhenghai

    2014-11-01

    To analyze the humoral immune response induced by recombinant Lactococcus lactis expressing HIV-1 gag in mice immunized orally, intranasally, subcutaneously or in the combined way of above three. Fifty BALB/c mice were randomly divided into 5 groups, 10 mice per group. The mice were immunized consecutively three times at two week intervals with 10(9) CFU of recombinant Lactococcus lactis expressing gag through oral, intranasal, subcutaneous administration or the mix of them. The mice that were immunized orally with Lactococcus lactis containing PMG36e served as a control group. The sera of mice were collected before primary immunization and 2 weeks after each immunization to detect the gag specific IgG by ELISA. Compared with the control group, the higher titer of serum gag specific IgG was detected in the four groups immunized with recombinant Lactococcus lactis expressing gag, and it was the highest in the mixed immunization group (PLactococcus lactis expressing gag can induce humoral immune response in mice by oral, intranasal, subcutaneous injection or the mix of them, and the mixed immunization can enhance the immune effects of Lactococcus lactis vector vaccine.

  8. Longitudinal dynamics of the HIV-specific B cell response during intermittent treatment of primary HIV infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godelieve J de Bree

    Full Text Available Neutralizing antibodies develop in natural HIV-1 infection. Their development often takes several years and may rely on chronic virus exposure. At the same time recent studies show that treatment early in infection may provide opportunities for immune preservation. However, it is unknown how intermittent treatment in early infection affects development of the humoral immune response over time. We investigate the effect of cART in early HIV infection on the properties of the memory B cell compartment following 6 months of cART or in the absence of treatment. The patients included participated in the Primo-SHM trial where patients with an early HIV-1 infection were randomized to no treatment or treatment for 24 or 60 weeks.Primo-SHM trial patients selected for the present study were untreated (n = 23 or treated for 24 weeks (n = 24. Here we investigate memory B cell properties at viral set-point and at a late time point (respectively median 54 and 73 weeks before (re-initiation of treatment.At viral set-point, the memory B cell compartment in treated patients demonstrated significantly lower fractions of antigen-primed, activated, memory B cells (p = 0.006. In contrast to untreated patients, in treated patients the humoral HIV-specific response reached a set point over time. At a transcriptional level, sets of genes that showed enhanced expression in memory B cells at viral setpoint in untreated patients, conversely showed rapid increase of expression of the same genes in treated patients at the late time point.These data suggest that, although the memory B cell compartment is phenotypically preserved until viral setpoint after treatment interruption, the development of the HIV-specific antibody response may benefit from exposure to HIV. The effect of viral exposure on B cell properties is also reflected by longitudinal changes in transcriptional profile in memory B cells over time in early treated patients.

  9. HIV-specific antibodies but not t-cell responses are associated with protection in seronegative partners of HIV-1-infected individuals in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Marie; Pean, Polidy; Lopalco, Lucia; Nouhin, Janin; Phoung, Viseth; Ly, Nary; Vermisse, Pierre; Henin, Yvette; Barré-Sinoussi, Françoise; Burastero, Samuele E; Reynes, Jean-Marc; Carcelain, Guislaine; Pancino, Gianfranco

    2006-08-01

    To study biological factors related to protection against HIV-1 infection in Cambodia, we recruited 48 partners of HIV-1-infected patients who remained uninfected (exposed uninfected individuals, EUs) despite unprotected sexual intercourse for more than 1 year and 49 unexposed controls (UCs). HIV-1-specific antibodies (IgA anti-gp41 and IgG anti-CD4-gp120 complex), T-cell responses, and cellular factors that may be involved in protection (peripheral blood mononuclear cell [PBMC] resistance to HIV-1 infection and beta-chemokine production) were evaluated. Anti-HIV-1 antibodies were higher in EUs than those in UCs (P = 0.01 and P = 0.04 for anti-gp41 and anti-CD4-gp120, respectively). We observed a decreased susceptibility to a primary Cambodian isolate, HIV-1KH019, in EU PBMCs as compared with UC PBMCs (P = 0.03). A weak T-cell response to one pool of HIV-1 Gag peptides was found by ELISpot in 1 of 19 EUs. Whereas T-cell specific immunity was not associated to protection, our results suggest that HIV-specific humoral immunity and reduced cell susceptibility to infection may contribute to protection against HIV-1 infection in Cambodian EUs.

  10. Profiling Humoral Immune Responses to Clostridium difficile-Specific Antigens by Protein Microarray Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negm, Ola H; Hamed, Mohamed R; Dilnot, Elizabeth M; Shone, Clifford C; Marszalowska, Izabela; Lynch, Mark; Loscher, Christine E; Edwards, Laura J; Tighe, Patrick J; Wilcox, Mark H; Monaghan, Tanya M

    2015-09-01

    Clostridium difficile is an anaerobic, Gram-positive, and spore-forming bacterium that is the leading worldwide infective cause of hospital-acquired and antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Several studies have reported associations between humoral immunity and the clinical course of C. difficile infection (CDI). Host humoral immune responses are determined using conventional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) techniques. Herein, we report the first use of a novel protein microarray assay to determine systemic IgG antibody responses against a panel of highly purified C. difficile-specific antigens, including native toxins A and B (TcdA and TcdB, respectively), recombinant fragments of toxins A and B (TxA4 and TxB4, respectively), ribotype-specific surface layer proteins (SLPs; 001, 002, 027), and control proteins (tetanus toxoid and Candida albicans). Microarrays were probed with sera from a total of 327 individuals with CDI, cystic fibrosis without diarrhea, and healthy controls. For all antigens, precision profiles demonstrated ELISA in the quantification of antitoxin A and antitoxin B IgG. These results indicate that microarray is a suitable assay for defining humoral immune responses to C. difficile protein antigens and may have potential advantages in throughput, convenience, and cost. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  11. A High Frequency of HIV-Specific Circulating Follicular Helper T Cells Is Associated with Preserved Memory B Cell Responses in HIV Controllers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claireaux, M; Galperin, M; Benati, D; Nouël, A; Mukhopadhyay, M; Klingler, J; de Truchis, P; Zucman, D; Hendou, S; Boufassa, F; Moog, C; Lambotte, O; Chakrabarti, L A

    2018-05-08

    Follicular helper T cells (Tfh) play an essential role in the affinity maturation of the antibody response by providing help to B cells. To determine whether this CD4 + T cell subset may contribute to the spontaneous control of HIV infection, we analyzed the phenotype and function of circulating Tfh (cTfh) in patients from the ANRS CO21 CODEX cohort who naturally controlled HIV-1 replication to undetectable levels and compared them to treated patients with similarly low viral loads. HIV-specific cTfh (Tet + ), detected by Gag-major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) tetramer labeling in the CD45RA - CXCR5 + CD4 + T cell population, proved more frequent in the controller group ( P = 0.002). The frequency of PD-1 expression in Tet + cTfh was increased in both groups (median, >75%) compared to total cTfh (<30%), but the intensity of PD-1 expression per cell remained higher in the treated patient group ( P = 0.02), pointing to the persistence of abnormal immune activation in treated patients. The function of cTfh, analyzed by the capacity to promote IgG secretion in cocultures with autologous memory B cells, did not show major differences between groups in terms of total IgG production but proved significantly more efficient in the controller group when measuring HIV-specific IgG production. The frequency of Tet + cTfh correlated with HIV-specific IgG production ( R = 0.71 for Gag-specific and R = 0.79 for Env-specific IgG, respectively). Taken together, our findings indicate that key cTfh-B cell interactions are preserved in controlled HIV infection, resulting in potent memory B cell responses that may play an underappreciated role in HIV control. IMPORTANCE The rare patients who spontaneously control HIV replication in the absence of therapy provide a unique model to identify determinants of an effective anti-HIV immune response. HIV controllers show signs of particularly efficient antiviral T cell responses, while their humoral response was until recently

  12. Non Castigat Ridendo Mores: evaluating the effectiveness of humor appeal in printed advertisements for HIV/AIDS prevention in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soscia, Isabella; Turrini, Alex; Tanzi, Emilio

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates the effects of different emotional appeals in HIV/AIDS prevention campaigns using printed advertisements. More specifically, it examines the effectiveness of humor appeal compared with shock and fear appeals. The authors experimentally test the level of attention drawn and the spontaneous recall arising when young Italian adults are shown different HIV/AIDS prevention campaigns. Findings show that humor appeals are less effective than fear and shock appeals, evidencing the failures in HIV/AIDS prevention campaigns in Italy, a country where the former communication strategy has been used in substantive ways. The results also indicate the higher effectiveness of fear appeals (over shock and humor) in printed HIV/AIDS advertising campaigns. The implications of these results for further studies and for improving the design, implementation, and evaluation of HIV/AIDS campaign efforts are also discussed.

  13. Dataset of aqueous humor cytokine profile in HIV patients with Cytomegalovirus (CMV retinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayant Venkatramani Iyer

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The data shows the aqueous humor cytokine profiling results acquired in a small cohort of 17 HIV patients clinically diagnosed with Cytomegalovirus retinitis using the FlexMAP 3D (Luminex® platform using the Milliplex Human Cytokine® kit. Aqueous humor samples were collected from these patients at different time points (pre-treatment and at 4-weekly intervals through the 12-week course of intravitreal ganciclovir treatment and 41 cytokine levels were analyzed at each time point. CMV DNA viral load was assessed in 8 patients at different time points throughout the course of ganciclovir treatment. The data described herein is related to the research article entitled “Aqueous humor immune factors and cytomegalovirus (CMV levels in CMV retinitis through treatment - The CRIGSS study” (Iyer et al., 2016 [1]. Cytokine levels against the different time points which indicate the response to the given treatment and against the CMV viral load were analyzed. Keywords: Cytokines, CMV retinitis, Dataset, HIV, Luminex bead assay

  14. Nod2 is required for antigen-specific humoral responses against antigens orally delivered using a recombinant Lactobacillus vaccine platform.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara A Bumgardner

    Full Text Available Safe and efficacious orally-delivered mucosal vaccine platforms are desperately needed to combat the plethora of mucosally transmitted pathogens. Lactobacillus spp. have emerged as attractive candidates to meet this need and are known to activate the host innate immune response in a species- and strain-specific manner. For selected bacterial isolates and mutants, we investigated the role of key innate immune pathways required for induction of innate and subsequent adaptive immune responses. Co-culture of murine macrophages with L. gasseri (strain NCK1785, L. acidophilus (strain NCFM, or NCFM-derived mutants-NCK2025 and NCK2031-elicited an M2b-like phenotype associated with TH2 skewing and immune regulatory function. For NCFM, this M2b phenotype was dependent on expression of lipoteichoic acid and S layer proteins. Through the use of macrophage genetic knockouts, we identified Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2, the cytosolic nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing 2 (NOD2 receptor, and the inflammasome-associated caspase-1 as contributors to macrophage activation, with NOD2 cooperating with caspase-1 to induce inflammasome derived interleukin (IL-1β in a pyroptosis-independent fashion. Finally, utilizing an NCFM-based mucosal vaccine platform with surface expression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 Gag or membrane proximal external region (MPER, we demonstrated that NOD2 signaling is required for antigen-specific mucosal and systemic humoral responses. We show that lactobacilli differentially utilize innate immune pathways and highlight NOD2 as a key mediator of macrophage function and antigen-specific humoral responses to a Lactobacillus acidophilus mucosal vaccine platform.

  15. Improved humoral and cellular immune response against the gp120 V3 loop of HIV-1 following genetic immunization with a chimeric DNA vaccine encoding the V3 inserted into the hepatites B surface antigen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fomsgaard, A.; Nielsen, H.V.; Bryder, K.

    1998-01-01

    response and a uniform strong anti-HBs CTL response already 1 week p.i. in all mice. DNA vaccination with the chimeric MN V2/HBsAg plasmid elicited humoral responses against both viruses within 3-6 weeks which peaked at 6-12 weeks and remained stable for at least 25 weeks. In addition, specific CTL...... responses were induced in all mice against both MN V3 and HBsAg already within the first 3 weeks, lasting at least 11 weeks. Thus, HBsAg acts as a `genetic vaccine adjuvant' augmenting and accelerating the cellular and humoral immune response against the inserted MN V3 loop. Such chimeric HIV-HbsAg plasmid...

  16. Improved humoral and cellular immune responses against the gp120 V3 loop of HIV-1 following genetic immunization with a chimeric DNA vaccine encoding the V3 inserted into the hepatitis B surface antigen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fomsgaard, A; Nielsen, H V; Bryder, K

    1998-01-01

    response and a uniform strong anti-HBs CTL response already 1 week p.i. in all mice. DNA vaccination with the chimeric MN V3/HBsAg plasmid elicited humoral responses against both viruses within 3-6 weeks which peaked at 6-12 weeks and remained stable for at least 25 weeks. In addition, specific CTL...... responses were induced in all mice against both MN V3 and HBsAg already within the first 3 weeks, lasting at least 11 weeks. Thus, HBsAg acts as a 'genetic vaccine adjuvant' augmenting and accelerating the cellular and humoral immune response against the inserted MN V3 loop. Such chimeric HIV-HBsAg plasmid...

  17. Unpolarized release of vaccinia virus and HIV antigen by colchicine treatment enhances intranasal HIV antigen expression and mucosal humoral responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhang

    Full Text Available The induction of a strong mucosal immune response is essential to building successful HIV vaccines. Highly attenuated recombinant HIV vaccinia virus can be administered mucosally, but even high doses of immunization have been found unable to induce strong mucosal antibody responses. In order to solve this problem, we studied the interactions of recombinant HIV vaccinia virus Tiantan strain (rVTT-gagpol in mucosal epithelial cells (specifically Caco-2 cell layers and in BALB/c mice. We evaluated the impact of this virus on HIV antigen delivery and specific immune responses. The results demonstrated that rVTT-gagpol was able to infect Caco-2 cell layers and both the nasal and lung epithelia in BALB/c mice. The progeny viruses and expressed p24 were released mainly from apical surfaces. In BALB/c mice, the infection was limited to the respiratory system and was not observed in the blood. This showed that polarized distribution limited antigen delivery into the whole body and thus limited immune response. To see if this could be improved upon, we stimulated unpolarized budding of the virus and HIV antigens by treating both Caco-2 cells and BALB/c mice with colchicine. We found that, in BALB/c mice, the degree of infection and antigen expression in the epithelia went up. As a result, specific immune responses increased correspondingly. Together, these data suggest that polarized budding limits antigen delivery and immune responses, but unpolarized distribution can increase antigen expression and delivery and thus enhance specific immune responses. This conclusion can be used to optimize mucosal HIV vaccine strategies.

  18. HIV-1-Specific IgA Monoclonal Antibodies from an HIV-1 Vaccinee Mediate Galactosylceramide Blocking and Phagocytosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Vaccine-elicited humoral immune responses comprise an array of antibody forms and specificities, with only a fraction contributing to protective host immunity. Elucidation of antibody effector functions responsible for protective immunity against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) acquisition is a major goal for the HIV-1 vaccine field. Immunoglobulin A (IgA) is an important part of the host defense against pathogens; however, little is known about the role of vaccine-elicited IgA and its capacity to mediate antiviral functions. To identify the antiviral functions of HIV-1-specific IgA elicited by vaccination, we cloned HIV-1 envelope-specific IgA monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) by memory B cell cultures from peripheral blood mononuclear cells from an RV144 vaccinee and produced two IgA clonal cell lines (HG129 and HG130) producing native, nonrecombinant IgA MAbs. The HG129 and HG130 MAbs mediated phagocytosis by monocytes, and HG129 blocked HIV-1 Env glycoprotein binding to galactosylceramide, an alternative HIV-1 receptor. These findings elucidate potential antiviral functions of vaccine-elicited HIV-1 envelope-specific IgA that may act to block HIV-1 acquisition at the portal of entry by preventing HIV-1 binding to galactosylceramide and mediating antibody Fc receptor-mediated virion phagocytosis. Furthermore, these findings highlight the complex and diverse interactions of vaccine-elicited IgA with pathogens that depend on IgA fine specificity and form (e.g., multimeric or monomeric) in the systemic circulation and mucosal compartments. IMPORTANCE Host-pathogen interactions in vivo involve numerous immune mechanisms that can lead to pathogen clearance. Understanding the nature of antiviral immune mechanisms can inform the design of efficacious HIV-1 vaccine strategies. Evidence suggests that both neutralizing and nonneutralizing antibodies can mediate some protection against HIV in animal models. Although numerous studies have characterized the

  19. Humoral and cellular immune responses to modified hepatitis B ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These findings indicate that the vaccine induced both a humoral and cellular ... Keywords: Hepatitis B virus, Plasmid DNA, Vaccine, Spleen cytokines, Humoral and cellular immune responses ... produced in mice. ... were performed and HBsAg specific IgM and IgG ..... and protection elicited against Plasmodium berghei.

  20. Epstein-Barr Virus-Specific Humoral Immune Responses in Health and Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middeldorp, Jaap M

    2015-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is widely distributed in the world and associated with a still increasing number of acute, chronic, malignant and autoimmune disease syndromes. Humoral immune responses to EBV have been studied for diagnostic, pathogenic and protective (vaccine) purposes. These studies use a range of methodologies, from cell-based immunofluorescence testing to antibody-diversity analysis using immunoblot and epitope analysis using recombinant or synthetic peptide-scanning. First, the individual EBV antigen complexes (VCA , MA, EA(D), EA(R) and EBNA) are defined at cellular and molecular levels, providing a historic overview. The characteristic antibody responses to these complexes in health and disease are described, and differences are highlighted by clinical examples. Options for EBV vaccination are briefly addressed. For a selected number of immunodominant proteins, in particular EBNA1, the interaction with human antibodies is further detailed at the epitope level, revealing interesting insights for structure, function and immunological aspects, not considered previously. Humoral immune responses against EBV-encoded tumour antigens LMP1, LMP2 and BARF1 are addressed, which provide novel options for targeted immunotherapy. Finally, some considerations on EBV-linked autoimmune diseases are given, and mechanisms of antigen mimicry are briefly discussed. Further analysis of humoral immune responses against EBV in health and disease in carefully selected patient cohorts will open new options for understanding pathogenesis of individual EBV-linked diseases and developing targeted diagnostic and therapeutic approaches.

  1. Structure-based stabilization of HIV-1 gp120 enhances humoral immune responses to the induced co-receptor binding site.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barna Dey

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 exterior envelope glycoprotein, gp120, possesses conserved binding sites for interaction with the primary virus receptor, CD4, and also for the co-receptor, generally CCR5. Although gp120 is a major target for virus-specific neutralizing antibodies, the gp120 variable elements and its malleable nature contribute to evasion of effective host-neutralizing antibodies. To understand the conformational character and immunogenicity of the gp120 receptor binding sites as potential vaccine targets, we introduced structure-based modifications to stabilize gp120 core proteins (deleted of the gp120 major variable regions into the conformation recognized by both receptors. Thermodynamic analysis of the re-engineered core with selected ligands revealed significant stabilization of the receptor-binding regions. Stabilization of the co-receptor-binding region was associated with a marked increase in on-rate of ligand binding to this site as determined by surface plasmon resonance. Rabbit immunization studies showed that the conformational stabilization of core proteins, along with increased ligand affinity, was associated with strikingly enhanced humoral immune responses against the co-receptor-binding site. These results demonstrate that structure-based approaches can be exploited to stabilize a conformational site in a large functional protein to enhance immunogenic responses specific for that region.

  2. Oral administration of type-II collagen peptide 250-270 suppresses specific cellular and humoral immune response in collagen-induced arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ping; Li, Xiao-Yan; Wang, Hong-Kun; Jia, Jun-Feng; Zheng, Zhao-Hui; Ding, Jin; Fan, Chun-Mei

    2007-01-01

    Oral antigen is an attractive approach for the treatment of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Establishment of immune markers and methods in evaluating the effects of antigen-specific cellular and humoral immune responses will help the application of oral tolerance in the treatment of human diseases. The present article observed the effects of chicken collagen II (CII), the recombinant polymerized human collagen II 250-270 (rhCII 250-270) peptide and synthesized human CII 250-270 (syCII 250-270) peptide on the induction of antigen-specific autoimmune response in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and on the specific cellular and humoral immune response in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) and mice fed with CII (250-270) prior to immunization with CII. In the study, proliferation, activation and intracellular cytokine production of antigen-specific T lymphocytes were simultaneously analyzed by bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation and flow cytometry at the single-cell level. The antigen-specific antibody and antibody-forming cells were detected by ELISA and ELISPOT, respectively. CII (250-270) was found to have stimulated the response of specific lymphocytes in PBMC from RA patients, including the increase expression of surface activation antigen marker CD69 and CD25, and DNA synthesis. Mice, fed with CII (250-270) before CII immunization, had significantly lower arthritic scores than the mice immunized with CII alone, and the body weight of the former increased during the study period. Furthermore, the specific T cell activity, proliferation and secretion of interferon (IFN)-gamma in spleen cells were actively suppressed in CII (250-270)-fed mice, and the serum anti-CII, anti-CII (250-270) antibody activities and the frequency of specific antibody-forming spleen cells were significantly lower in CII (250-270)-fed mice than in mice immunized with CII alone. These observations suggest that oral administration of CII (250-270) can

  3. Respons imun humoral pada pulpitis (Humoral immune response on pulpitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trijoedani Widodo

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Pulpitis is an inflammation process on dental pulp tissue, and usually as the continuous of caries. The microorganism in the caries is a potential immunogenic triggering the immune respons, both humoral and celluler immune responses. The aim of this research is to explain the humoral immune response changes in the dental pulp tissues of pulpitis. This research was done on three group samples: Irreversible pulpitis, Reversible pulpitis and sound teeth as the control group. The result showed that there were three pulpitis immunopathologic patterns: the sound teeth immunopathologic pattern showing a low humoral immune response, in a low level of IgG, IgA and IgM, the reversible pulpitis pattern showing that in a higher humoral immune response, IgG and IgA decreased but IgM increased, the irreversible pulpitis pattern showing that IgG and IgM increased, but it couldn't be repaired although it has highly immunity, and it showed an unusually low level of IgA. This low level of IgA meant that irreversible pulpitis had a low mucosal immunity.

  4. Increased sequence diversity coverage improves detection of HIV-Specific T cell responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frahm, N.; Kaufmann, D.E.; Yusim, K.

    2007-01-01

    The accurate identification of HIV-specific T cell responses is important for determining the relationship between immune response, viral control, and disease progression. HIV-specific immune responses are usually measured using peptide sets based on consensus sequences, which frequently miss res...

  5. Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara Vector Induces Specific Cellular and Humoral Responses in the Female Reproductive Tract, the Main HIV Portal of Entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlin, Romain; Nugeyre, Marie-Thérèse; Tchitchek, Nicolas; Parenti, Matteo; Hocini, Hakim; Benjelloun, Fahd; Cannou, Claude; Dereuddre-Bosquet, Nathalie; Levy, Yves; Barré-Sinoussi, Françoise; Scarlatti, Gabriella; Le Grand, Roger; Menu, Elisabeth

    2017-09-01

    The female reproductive tract (FRT) is one of the major mucosal invasion sites for HIV-1. This site has been neglected in previous HIV-1 vaccine studies. Immune responses in the FRT after systemic vaccination remain to be characterized. Using a modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) as a vaccine model, we characterized specific immune responses in all compartments of the FRT of nonhuman primates after systemic vaccination. Memory T cells were preferentially found in the lower tract (vagina and cervix), whereas APCs and innate lymphoid cells were mainly located in the upper tract (uterus and fallopian tubes). This compartmentalization of immune cells in the FRT was supported by transcriptomic analyses and a correlation network. Polyfunctional MVA-specific CD8 + T cells were detected in the blood, lymph nodes, vagina, cervix, uterus, and fallopian tubes. Anti-MVA IgG and IgA were detected in cervicovaginal fluid after a second vaccine dose. Thus, systemic vaccination with an MVA vector elicits cellular and Ab responses in the FRT. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  6. Pleurodeles Waltl Humoral Immune Response under Spaceflight Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bascove, Matthieu; Touche, Nadege; Frippiat, Jean-Pol

    2008-06-01

    The immune system is an important regulatory mechanism affected by spaceflights. In a previous work, we performed a first study of the humoral immune response induced by the immunization of Pleurodeles waltl during a 5 months stay onboard the Mir space station. This analysis indicated that heavy-chain variable domains of specific IgM are encoded by genes of the VHII and VHVI families. However, the contributions of these two families to IgM heavy-chains are different in flown animals [1]. To better understand this immune response modification, we have now determined how individual VH genes have been used to build specific IgM binding sites in animals immunized on earth or in space. This new study revealed quantitative and qualitative modifications in VH genes expression. These data confirm that a spaceflight might affect the humoral response.

  7. Humoral immune responses of experimentally Eimeria ninakholyakimovae-infected goat kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Lorena; Muñoz, María Del Carmen; Molina, José Manuel; Ferrer, Otilia; Rodríguez, Francisco; Pérez, Davinia; López, Adassa María; Martín, Sergio; Hermosilla, Carlos; Taubert, Anja; Ruiz, Antonio

    2017-04-01

    Although cellular immune reactions seem to be crucial for protective immune responses in Eimeria spp. infections, there are also evidences on an active involvement of the humoral counterpart. In the present study, we have analyzed the humoral response of goat kids subjected to primary and challenge infections with Eimeria ninakholyakimovae. Specific levels of IgG and IgM in serum samples and IgA in the ileal mucus were estimated. In infected kids, significantly increased levels of IgG were observed from 3 weeks post infection onwards in addition to an enhancement of specific IgM and secretory IgA levels. A wide range of peptides of sporulated oocyst antigen (SOA) was recognized by specific IgG as determined by immunoblotting. However, no correlations were found between immunoglobulin levels and OPG counts after challenge infection. Overall, these data indicate a significant specific humoral response of E. ninakohlyakimovae-infected goat kids that does not seem to convey immunoprotection. Further studies should be addressed to clarify if the lack of correlation might be associated to the type of antigen used for the immunoenzimatic assays, the age of the animals or other factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Specific Nongluten Proteins of Wheat Are Novel Target Antigens in Celiac Disease Humoral Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    While the antigenic specificity and pathogenic relevance of immunologic reactivity to gluten in celiac disease have been extensively researched, the immune response to nongluten proteins of wheat has not been characterized. We aimed to investigate the level and molecular specificity of antibody response to wheat nongluten proteins in celiac disease. Serum samples from patients and controls were screened for IgG and IgA antibody reactivity to a nongluten protein extract from the wheat cultivar Triticum aestivum Butte 86. Antibodies were further analyzed for reactivity to specific nongluten proteins by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting. Immunoreactive molecules were identified by tandem mass spectrometry. Compared with healthy controls, patients exhibited significantly higher levels of antibody reactivity to nongluten proteins. The main immunoreactive nongluten antibody target proteins were identified as serpins, purinins, α-amylase/protease inhibitors, globulins, and farinins. Assessment of reactivity toward purified recombinant proteins further confirmed the presence of antibody response to specific antigens. The results demonstrate that, in addition to the well-recognized immune reaction to gluten, celiac disease is associated with a robust humoral response directed at a specific subset of the nongluten proteins of wheat. PMID:25329597

  9. Respons imun humoral pada pulpitis (Humoral immune response on pulpitis)

    OpenAIRE

    Widodo, Trijoedani

    2005-01-01

    Pulpitis is an inflammation process on dental pulp tissue, and usually as the continuous of caries. The microorganism in the caries is a potential immunogenic triggering the immune respons, both humoral and celluler immune responses. The aim of this research is to explain the humoral immune response changes in the dental pulp tissues of pulpitis. This research was done on three group samples: Irreversible pulpitis, Reversible pulpitis and sound teeth as the control group. The result showed th...

  10. Cross-reactive microbial peptides can modulate HIV-specific CD8+ T cell responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher W Pohlmeyer

    Full Text Available Heterologous immunity is an important aspect of the adaptive immune response. We hypothesized that this process could modulate the HIV-1-specific CD8+ T cell response, which has been shown to play an important role in HIV-1 immunity and control. We found that stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs from HIV-1-positive subjects with microbial peptides that were cross-reactive with immunodominant HIV-1 epitopes resulted in dramatic expansion of HIV-1-specific CD8+ T cells. Interestingly, the TCR repertoire of HIV-1-specific CD8+ T cells generated by ex vivo stimulation of PBMCs using HIV-1 peptide was different from that of cells stimulated with cross-reactive microbial peptides in some HIV-1-positive subjects. Despite these differences, CD8+ T cells stimulated with either HIV-1 or cross-reactive peptides effectively suppressed HIV-1 replication in autologous CD4+ T cells. These data suggest that exposure to cross-reactive microbial antigens can modulate HIV-1-specific immunity.

  11. Specificity and polyreactivity of the antibody response during natural HIV-1 infection

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xin

    2006-01-01

    The specificity and polyreactivity of the antibody response in natural HIV-1 infection were studied. First, to investigate the overall antibody response, overlapping linear peptides were used to screen sera taken from HIV-1-infected individuals. The polyclonal antibody response was relatively stable during long-term infection, compared with acute infection, and mostly directed against immunodominant regions. Low level, transient antibody responses were detected against membrane proximal exter...

  12. Humoral immune response of the small-spotted catshark, Scyliorhinus canicula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, Kathryn; Smith, Lauren E; Williams, Rebecca; Cao, Wei; Lee, Mike; Jensen, Allan; Dooley, Helen

    2013-05-01

    Cartilaginous fishes are the oldest group in which an adaptive immune system based on immunoglobulin-superfamily members is found. This manuscript compares humoral immune function in small-spotted catshark (Scyliorhinus canicula) with that described for spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias), another member of the Squalomorphi superorder, and nurse shark, the model for humoral immunity in elasmobranchs and a member of the Galeomorphi superorder. Although small-spotted catshark and nurse shark are separated by over 200 million years we found that immunoglobulin isoforms are well conserved between the two species. However, the plasma protein profile of small-spotted catshark was most similar to that of spiny dogfish, with low levels of pentameric IgM, and IgNAR present as a multimer in plasma rather than a monomer. We show that an antigen-specific monomeric IgM response, with a profile similar to that described previously for nurse sharks, can be raised in small-spotted catshark. Lacking polyclonal or monoclonal antibody reagents for detecting catshark IgNAR we investigated phage-display and recombinant Fc-fusion protein expression as alternative methods to look for an antigen-specific response for this isotype. However, we could find no evidence of an antigen-specific IgNAR in the animals tested using either of these techniques. Thus, unlike nurse sharks where antigen-specific monomeric IgM and IgNAR appear together, it seems there may be a temporal or complete 'uncoupling' of these isotypes during a humoral response in the small-spotted catshark. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Long-term nonprogression and broad HIV-1-specific proliferative T-cell responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesrina eImami

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Complex mechanisms underlying the maintenance of fully functional, proliferative, HIV-1-specific T-cell responses involve processes from early T-cell development through to the final stages of T-cell differentiation and antigen recognition. Virus-specific proliferative CD4 and CD8 T-cell responses, important for the control of infection, are observed in some HIV-1+ patients during early stages of disease, and are maintained in long-term nonprogressing subjects. In the vast majority of HIV-1+ patients, full immune functionality is lost when proliferative HIV-1-specific T-cell responses undergo a variable progressive decline throughout the course of chronic infection. This appears irreparable despite administration of potent combination antiretroviral therapy, which to date is non-curative, necessitating life-long administration and the development of effective, novel, therapeutic interventions. While a sterilising cure, involving clearance of virus from the host, remains a primary aim, a functional cure may be a more feasible goal with considerable impact on worldwide HIV-1 infection. Such an approach would enable long-term co-existence of host and virus in the absence of toxic and costly drugs. Effective immune homeostasis coupled with a balanced response appropriately targeting conserved viral antigens, in a manner that avoids hyperactivation and exhaustion, may prove to be the strongest correlate of durable viral control. This review describes novel concepts underlying full immune functionality in the context of HIV-1 infection, which may be utilised in future strategies designed to improve upon existing therapy. The aim will be to induce long-term nonprogressor or elite controller status in every infected host, through immune-mediated control of viraemia and reduction of viral reservoirs, leading to lower HIV-1 transmission rates.

  14. Immunization of neonatal mice with LAMP/p55 HIV gag DNA elicits robust immune responses that last to adulthood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ordonhez Rigato, Paula; Maciel, Milton; Goldoni, Adriana Leticia; Piubelli, Orlando; Alves de Brito, Cyro; Fusaro, Ana Elisa; Eurico de Alencar, Liciana Xavier; August, Thomas; Torres Azevedo Marques, Ernesto; Silva Duarte, Alberto Jose da; Sato, Maria Notomi

    2010-01-01

    Successful T cell priming in early postnatal life that can generate effective long-lasting responses until adulthood is critical in HIV vaccination strategies because it prevents early sexual initiation and breastfeeding transmission of HIV. A chimeric DNA vaccine encoding p55 HIV gag associated with lysosome-associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP-1; which drives the antigen to the MIIC compartment), has been used to enhance cellular and humoral antigen-specific responses in adult mice and macaques. Herein, we investigated LAMP-1/gag vaccine immunogenicity in the neonatal period in mice and its ability to generate long-lasting effects. Neonatal vaccination with chimeric LAMP/gag generated stronger Gag-specific immune responses, as measured by the breadth of the Gag peptide-specific IFN-γ, proliferative responsiveness, cytokine production and antibody production, all of which revealed activation of CD4+ T cells as well as the generation of a more robust CTL response compared to gag vaccine alone. To induce long-lived T and B cell memory responses, it was necessary to immunize neonates with the chimeric LAMP/gag DNA vaccine. The LAMP/gag DNA vaccine strategy could be particularly useful for generating an anti-HIV immune response in the early postnatal period capable of inducing long-term immunological memory.

  15. Humoral immune responses of dengue fever patients using epitope-specific serotype-2 virus-like particle antigens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne D Crill

    Full Text Available Dengue virus (DENV is a serious mosquito-borne pathogen causing significant global disease burden, either as classic dengue fever (DF or in its most severe manifestation dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF. Nearly half of the world's population is at risk of dengue disease and there are estimated to be millions of infections annually; a situation which will continue to worsen with increasing expansion of the mosquito vectors and epidemic DF/DHF. Currently there are no available licensed vaccines or antivirals for dengue, although significant effort has been directed toward the development of safe and efficacious dengue vaccines for over 30 years. Promising vaccine candidates are in development and testing phases, but a better understanding of immune responses to DENV infection and vaccination is needed. Humoral immune responses to DENV infection are complex and may exacerbate pathogenicity, yet are essential for immune protection. In this report, we develop DENV-2 envelope (E protein epitope-specific antigens and measure immunoglobulin responses to three distinct epitopes in DENV-2 infected human serum samples. Immunoglobulin responses to DENV-2 infection exhibited significant levels of individual variation. Antibody populations targeting broadly cross-reactive epitopes centered on the fusion peptide in structural domain II were large, highly variable, and greater in primary than in secondary DENV-2 infected sera. E protein domain III cross-reactive immunoglobulin populations were similarly variable and much larger in IgM than in IgG. DENV-2 specific domain III IgG formed a very small proportion of the antibody response yet was significantly correlated with DENV-2 neutralization, suggesting that the highly protective IgG recognizing this epitope in murine studies plays a role in humans as well. This report begins to tease apart complex humoral immune responses to DENV infection and is thus important for improving our understanding of dengue disease

  16. Humoral Dysregulation Associated with Increased Systemic Inflammation among Injection Heroin Users.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S Piepenbrink

    Full Text Available Injection drug use is a growing major public health concern. Injection drug users (IDUs have a higher incidence of co-morbidities including HIV, Hepatitis, and other infections. An effective humoral response is critical for optimal homeostasis and protection from infection; however, the impact of injection heroin use on humoral immunity is poorly understood. We hypothesized that IDUs have altered B cell and antibody profiles.A comprehensive systems biology-based cross-sectional assessment of 130 peripheral blood B cell flow cytometry- and plasma- based features was performed on HIV-/Hepatitis C-, active heroin IDUs who participated in a syringe exchange program (n = 19 and healthy control subjects (n = 19. The IDU group had substantial polydrug use, with 89% reporting cocaine injection within the preceding month. IDUs exhibited a significant, 2-fold increase in total B cells compared to healthy subjects, which was associated with increased activated B cell subsets. Although plasma total IgG titers were similar between groups, IDUs had significantly higher IgG3 and IgG4, suggestive of chronic B cell activation. Total IgM was also increased in IDUs, as well as HIV Envelope-specific IgM, suggestive of increased HIV exposure. IDUs exhibited numerous features suggestive of systemic inflammation, including significantly increased plasma sCD40L, TNF-α, TGF-α, IL-8, and ceramide metabolites. Machine learning multivariate analysis distilled a set of 10 features that classified samples based on group with absolute accuracy.These results demonstrate broad alterations in the steady-state humoral profile of IDUs that are associated with increased systemic inflammation. Such dysregulation may impact the ability of IDUs to generate optimal responses to vaccination and infection, or lead to increased risk for inflammation-related co-morbidities, and should be considered when developing immune-based interventions for this growing population.

  17. Decreased HIV-specific T-regulatory responses are associated with effective DC-vaccine induced immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedran Brezar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The role of regulatory T cells (Tregs in vaccination has been poorly investigated. We have reported that vaccination with ex vivo-generated dendritic-cells (DC loaded with HIV-lipopeptides (LIPO-5-DC vaccine in HIV-infected patients was well tolerated and highly immunogenic. These responses and their relation to viral replication following analytical treatment interruption (ATI were variable. Here, we investigated whether the presence of HIV-specific Tregs might explain these differences. Co-expression of CD25, CD134, CD39 and FoxP3 was used to delineate both antigen-specific Tregs and effectors T cells (Teffs. Median LIPO-5 specific-CD25+CD134+ polyfunctional T cells increased from 0.1% (IQR 0-0.3 before vaccination (week -4 to 2.1% (IQR 1.1-3.9 at week 16 following 4 immunizations (p=0.001 and were inversely correlated with maximum viral load following ATI (r=-0.77, p=0.001. Vaccinees who displayed lower levels of HIV-specific CD4+CD134+CD25+CD39+FoxP3+ Tregs responded better to the LIPO-5-DC vaccine. After vaccination, the frequency of HIV-specific Tregs decreased (from 69.3 at week -4 to 31.7% at week 16 and inversely correlated with HIV-specific IFN-γ-producing cells (r=-0.64, p=0.002. We show that therapeutic immunization skewed the HIV-specific response from regulatory to effector phenotype which impacts on the magnitude of viral replication following ATI.

  18. Ageing and the humoral immune response in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blankwater, M.J.

    1978-01-01

    The study presented in this thesis is concerned with changes in the humoral immune system as a function of age in different inbred mouse strains. Their capacity to develop humoral immune responses to experimentally given thymus-dependent and thymus-independent antigens under various conditions is compared. Furthermore, experiments employing thymus transplantation and thymic humoral factors which are directed at the restoration of the diminished T cell functions in old age are reported. (Auth.)

  19. Forms, functions, and foibles of humor used in AIDS service organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosenko, Kami A; Rintamaki, Lance S

    2010-01-01

    Research has indicated that HIV service providers commonly use humor to cope with work-related stress; however, little is known about the forms and functions of humor used by these professionals. In this study, 25 HIV service providers from five AIDS service organizations were interviewed about their use of humor. Participants described five primary types of humor as prevalent within AIDS service organizations and noted that humor served a variety of functions, which were either adaptive or maladaptive. Adaptive functions included boosting morale and reducing tension, whereas maladaptive functions ranged from masking emotions to alienating certain groups. Results emphasized the importance of context in the study of humor use and the need for continued investigations of the stress and coping of HIV service providers.

  20. Lymphatic filariasis-specific immune responses in relation to lymphoedema grade and infection status. II. Humoral responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, N. O.; Bloch, P.; Simonsen, P. E.

    2002-01-01

    The filarial-specific humoral responses (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, IgG4 and IgE) to a Brugia pahangi antigen was assessed in 9 groups of adult individuals from a Wuchereria bancrofti-endemic area in north-east Tanzania. In 5 of the groups, individuals were negative for microfilariae (mf) and circulating...... filarial antigen (CFA) and had leg lymphoedema of varying severity ranging from early to more advanced grades. A 6th group had mixed grades of lymphoedema and were actively infected with mf and/or CFA. Three groups of asymptomatic individuals with different infection status (mf+CFA+; mf-CFA+; mf-CFA-) were...... also included. No differences in the antibody levels were observed between the 5 uninfected pathology groups. However, groups with advanced lymphoedema had a significantly higher level of IgG3 as compared to groups with early lymphoedema. A decline in the IgG4/IgE ratios were observed when moving from...

  1. Characterization of Gag and Nef-specific ELISpot-based CTL responses in HIV-1 infected Indian individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendiratta, Sanjay; Vajpayee, Madhu; Malhotra, Uma; Kaushik, Shweta; Dar, Lalit; Mojumdar, Kamalika; Chauhan, Neeraj Kumar; Sreenivas, Vishnubhatla

    2009-02-01

    Cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses to Gag have been most frequently linked to control of viremia whereas CTL responses to Nef have direct relationship with viral load. IFN-gamma ELISpot assay was used to screen CTL responses at single peptide level directed at HIV-1 subtype C Gag and Nef proteins in 30 antiretroviral therapy naive HIV-1 infected Indian individuals. PBMCs from 73.3% and 90% of the study population showed response to Gag and Nef antigens, respectively. The magnitude of Gag-specific CTL responses was inversely correlated with plasma viral load (r = -0.45, P = 0.001), whereas magnitude of Nef-specific responses was directly correlated (r = 0.115). Thirteen immunodominant regions (6 in Gag, 7 in Nef) were identified in the current study. The identification of Gag and Nef-specific responses across HIV-1 infected Indian population and targeting epitopes from multiple immunodominant regions may provide useful insight into the designing of new immunotherapy and vaccines.

  2. Mechanisms of humoral immune response against Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm infection in cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mauch, Renan Marrichi; Jensen, Peter Østrup; Moser, Claus

    2018-01-01

    P. aeruginosa chronic lung infection is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), and is characterized by a biofilm mode of growth, increased levels of specific IgG antibodies and immune complex formation. However, despite being designed to combat...... this infection, such elevated humoral response is not associated with clinical improvement, pointing to a lack of anti-pseudomonas effectiveness. The mode of action of specific antibodies, as well as their structural features, and even the background involving B-cell production, stimulation and differentiation...... into antibody-producing cells in the CF airways are poorly understood. Thus, the aim of this review is to discuss studies that have addressed the intrinsic features of the humoral immune response and provide new insights regarding its insufficiency in the CF context....

  3. Contribution of immunological and virological factors to extremely severe primary HIV-1 infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalmau, Judith; Puertas, Maria Carmen; Azuara, Marta; Mariño, Ana; Frahm, Nicole; Mothe, Beatriz; Izquierdo-Useros, Nuria; Buzón, Maria José; Paredes, Roger; Matas, Lourdes; Allen, Todd M.; Brander, Christian; Rodrigo, Carlos; Clotet, Bonaventura; Martinez-Picado, Javier

    2009-01-01

    Background During acute HIV infection, high viral loads and the induction of host immune responses typically coincide with the onset of clinical symptoms. However, clinically severe presentations during acute HIV-1 infection, including AIDS-defining symptoms, are unusual. Methods Virus isolates were tested for clade, drug susceptibility, coreceptor usage, and growth rate for two cases of clinically severe sexual transmission. HLA genotype was determined, and HIV-1-specific CTL responses to an overlapping peptide set spanning the entire HIV clade A and clade B proteome were assayed. Results The virus isolated from the two unrelated cases of severe primary HIV-1 infection showed R5/X4 dual/mixed tropism, belonged to clade B and CRF02-AG, and were highly replicative in peripheral blood mononuclear cell culture. Impaired humoral responses were paralleled by a profound absence of HIV-1-specific CTL responses to the entire viral proteome in the two study cases. One case for which the virus source was available, showed a remarkable HLA similarity between the transmission pair as all 4 HLA-A and -B alleles were HLA supertype-matched between the subjects involved in the transmission case. Conclusions The data suggest that concurrence of viral and host factors contribute to the clinical severity of primary HIV-1 infection and that subjects infected with highly replicative dual tropic viruses are more prone to develop AIDS-defining symptoms during acute infection if they are unable to mount humoral and cellular HIV-1-specific immune responses. Concordant HLA supertypes might facilitate the preferential transmission of HLA-adapted viral variants, further accelerating disease progression. PMID:19093810

  4. Abnormal humoral immune response to influenza vaccination in pediatric type-1 human immunodeficiency virus infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos J Montoya

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Given that highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART has been demonstrated useful to restore immune competence in type-1 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1-infected subjects, we evaluated the specific antibody response to influenza vaccine in a cohort of HIV-1-infected children on HAART so as to analyze the quality of this immune response in patients under antiretroviral therapy. Sixteen HIV-1-infected children and 10 HIV-1 seronegative controls were immunized with a commercially available trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine containing the strains A/H1N1, A/H3N2, and B. Serum hemagglutinin inhibition (HI antibody titers were determined for the three viral strains at the time of vaccination and 1 month later. Immunization induced a significantly increased humoral response against the three influenza virus strains in controls, and only against A/H3N2 in HIV-1-infected children. The comparison of post-vaccination HI titers between HIV-1+ patients and HIV-1 negative controls showed significantly higher HI titers against the three strains in controls. In addition, post vaccination protective HI titers (defined as equal to or higher than 1:40 against the strains A/H3N2 and B were observed in a lower proportion of HIV-1+ children than in controls, while a similar proportion of individuals from each group achieved protective HI titers against the A/H1N1 strain. The CD4+ T cell count, CD4/CD8 T cells ratio, and serum viral load were not affected by influenza virus vaccination when pre- vs post-vaccination values were compared. These findings suggest that despite the fact that HAART is efficient in controlling HIV-1 replication and in increasing CD4+ T cell count in HIV-1-infected children, restoration of immune competence and response to cognate antigens remain incomplete, indicating that additional therapeutic strategies are required to achieve a full reconstitution of immune functions.

  5. Sequential Dysfunction and Progressive Depletion of Candida albicans-Specific CD4 T Cell Response in HIV-1 Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fengliang; Fan, Xiuzhen; Auclair, Sarah; Ferguson, Monique; Sun, Jiaren; Soong, Lynn; Hou, Wei; Redfield, Robert R.; Birx, Deborah L.; Ratto-Kim, Silvia; Robb, Merlin L.; Kim, Jerome H.; Michael, Nelson L.; Hu, Haitao

    2016-01-01

    Loss of immune control over opportunistic infections can occur at different stages of HIV-1 (HIV) disease, among which mucosal candidiasis caused by the fungal pathogen Candida albicans (C. albicans) is one of the early and common manifestations in HIV-infected human subjects. The underlying immunological basis is not well defined. We have previously shown that compared to cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specific CD4 cells, C. albicans-specific CD4 T cells are highly permissive to HIV in vitro. Here, based on an antiretroviral treatment (ART) naïve HIV infection cohort (RV21), we investigated longitudinally the impact of HIV on C. albicans- and CMV-specific CD4 T-cell immunity in vivo. We found a sequential dysfunction and preferential depletion for C. albicans-specific CD4 T cell response during progressive HIV infection. Compared to Th1 (IFN-γ, MIP-1β) functional subsets, the Th17 functional subsets (IL-17, IL-22) of C. albicans-specific CD4 T cells were more permissive to HIV in vitro and impaired earlier in HIV-infected subjects. Infection history analysis showed that C. albicans-specific CD4 T cells were more susceptible to HIV in vivo, harboring modestly but significantly higher levels of HIV DNA, than CMV-specific CD4 T cells. Longitudinal analysis of HIV-infected individuals with ongoing CD4 depletion demonstrated that C. albicans-specific CD4 T-cell response was preferentially and progressively depleted. Taken together, these data suggest a potential mechanism for earlier loss of immune control over mucosal candidiasis in HIV-infected patients and provide new insights into pathogen-specific immune failure in AIDS pathogenesis. PMID:27280548

  6. HIV-Specific B Cell Frequency Correlates with Neutralization Breadth in Patients Naturally Controlling HIV-Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angeline Rouers

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available HIV-specific broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs have been isolated from patients with high viremia but also from HIV controllers that repress HIV-1 replication. In these elite controllers (ECs, multiple parameters contribute to viral suppression, including genetic factors and immune responses. Defining the immune correlates associated with the generation of bnAbs may help in designing efficient immunotherapies. In this study, in ECs either positive or negative for the HLA-B*57 protective allele, in treated HIV-infected and HIV-negative individuals, we characterized memory B cell compartments and HIV-specific memory B cells responses using flow cytometry and ELISPOT. ECs preserved their memory B cell compartments and in contrast to treated patients, maintained detectable HIV-specific memory B cell responses. All ECs presented IgG1+ HIV-specific memory B cells but some individuals also preserved IgG2+ or IgG3+ responses. Importantly, we also analyzed the capacity of sera from ECs to neutralize a panel of HIV strains including transmitted/founder virus. 29% and 21% of HLA-B*57+ and HLA-B*57− ECs, respectively, neutralized at least 40% of the viral strains tested. Remarkably, in HLA-B*57+ ECs the frequency of HIV-Env-specific memory B cells correlated positively with the neutralization breadth suggesting that preservation of HIV-specific memory B cells might contribute to the neutralizing responses in these patients.

  7. Nasal-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Is a Mucosal Inductive Site for Virus-Specific Humoral and Cellular Immune Responses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zuercher, A. W.; Coffin, S. E.; Thurnheer, M. CH.; Fundová, Petra; Cebra, J. J.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 168, - (2002), s. 1796-1803 ISSN 0022-1767 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : lymphoid tissue * virus-specific * humoral Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 7.014, year: 2002

  8. Results of investigations of non-specific humoral-type response in workers exposed to beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cianciara, M.; Loch, T.

    1989-12-01

    In the group of 30 workers exposed to beryllium a statistically significant increase in the level of immunoglobulins of class A was found in comparison with the control group (p<0.01). This may be an early indicator of a process taking place in the respiratory system. Results of measurement of immunoglobulins, as non-specific indicators, are of limited value in the evaluation of the influence of the occupational factor; at the same time they point to the usefulness of testing for the specific indicators of humoral reactivity in persons whose work involves contact with beryllium or its compounds. (author)

  9. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Zinc Metalloprotease-1 Elicits Tuberculosis-specific Humoral Immune Response Independent of Mycobacterial Load in Pulmonary and Extra-Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mani Harika eVemula

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Conventionally, facultative intracellular pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb, the tuberculosis (TB causing bacilli in human is cleared by cell-mediated immunity (CMI with CD4+ T cells playing instrumental role in protective immunity, while antibody-mediated immunity (AMI is considered non-protective. This longstanding convention has been challenged with recent evidences of increased susceptibility of hosts with compromised AMI and monoclonal antibodies conferring passive protection against TB and other intracellular pathogens. Therefore, novel approaches towards vaccine development include strategies aiming at induction of humoral response along with CMI. This necessitates the identification of mycobacterial proteins with properties of immunomodulation and strong immunogenicity. In this study, we determined the immunogenic potential of M.tb Zinc metalloprotease-1 (Zmp1, a secretory protein essential for intracellular survival and pathogenesis of M.tb. We observed that Zmp1 was secreted by in vitro grown M.tb under granuloma-like stress conditions (acidic, oxidative, iron deficiency and nutrient deprivation and generated Th2 cytokine microenvironment upon exogenous treatment of Peripheral Blood Mononulear Cells (PBMCs with recombinant Zmp1 (rZmp1. This was supported by recording specific and robust humoral response in TB patients in a cohort of 295. The anti-Zmp1 titers were significantly higher in TB patients (n=121 as against healthy control (n=62, household contacts (n=89 and non-specific infection controls (n=23. A significant observation of the study is the presence of equally high titers of anti-Zmp1 antibodies in a range of patients with high bacilli load (sputum bacilli load of 300+ per mL to paucibacillary smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB cases. This clearly indicated the potential of Zmp1 to evoke an effective humoral response independent of mycobacterial load. Such mycobacterial proteins can be explored as antigen

  10. Immune activation and HIV-specific T cell responses are modulated by a cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor in untreated HIV-infected individuals: An exploratory clinical trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Prebensen

    Full Text Available Pathologically elevated immune activation and inflammation contribute to HIV disease progression and immunodeficiency, potentially mediated by elevated levels of prostaglandin E2, which suppress HIV-specific T cell responses. We have previously shown that a high dose of the cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor celecoxib can reduce HIV-associated immune activation and improve IgG responses to T cell-dependent vaccines. In this follow-up study, we included 56 HIV-infected adults, 28 antiretroviral therapy (ART-naïve and 28 on ART with undetectable plasma viremia but CD4 counts below 500 cells/μL. Patients in each of the two study groups were randomized to receive 90 mg qd of the cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor etoricoxib for six months, two weeks or to a control arm, respectively. T cell activation status, HIV Gag-specific T cell responses and plasma inflammatory markers, tryptophan metabolism and thrombin generation were analyzed at baseline and after four months. In addition, patients received tetanus toxoid, conjugated pneumococcal and seasonal influenza vaccines, to which IgG responses were determined after four weeks. In ART-naïve patients, etoricoxib reduced the density of the activation marker CD38 in multiple CD8+ T cell subsets, improved Gag-specific T cell responses, and reduced in vitro plasma thrombin generation, while no effects were seen on plasma markers of inflammation or tryptophan metabolism. No significant immunological effects of etoricoxib were observed in ART-treated patients. Patients receiving long-term etoricoxib treatment had poorer tetanus toxoid and conjugated pneumococcal vaccine responses than those receiving short-course etoricoxib. Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors may attenuate harmful immune activation in HIV-infected patients without access to ART.

  11. Architectural Insight into Inovirus-Associated Vectors (IAVs and Development of IAV-Based Vaccines Inducing Humoral and Cellular Responses: Implications in HIV-1 Vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyriakos A. Hassapis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Inovirus-associated vectors (IAVs are engineered, non-lytic, filamentous bacteriophages that are assembled primarily from thousands of copies of the major coat protein gp8 and just five copies of each of the four minor coat proteins gp3, gp6, gp7 and gp9. Inovirus display studies have shown that the architecture of inoviruses makes all coat proteins of the inoviral particle accessible to the outside. This particular feature of IAVs allows foreign antigenic peptides to be displayed on the outer surface of the virion fused to its coat proteins and for more than two decades has been exploited in many applications including antibody or peptide display libraries, drug design, and vaccine development against infectious and non-infectious diseases. As vaccine carriers, IAVs have been shown to elicit both a cellular and humoral response against various pathogens through the display of antibody epitopes on their coat proteins. Despite their high immunogenicity, the goal of developing an effective vaccine against HIV-1 has not yet materialized. One possible limitation of previous efforts was the use of broadly neutralizing antibodies, which exhibited autoreactivity properties. In the past five years, however, new, more potent broadly neutralizing antibodies that do not exhibit autoreactivity properties have been isolated from HIV-1 infected individuals, suggesting that vaccination strategies aimed at producing such broadly neutralizing antibodies may confer protection against infection. The utilization of these new, broadly neutralizing antibodies in combination with the architectural traits of IAVs have driven the current developments in the design of an inovirus-based vaccine against HIV-1. This article reviews the applications of IAVs in vaccine development, with particular emphasis on the design of inoviral-based vaccines against HIV-1.

  12. Potential use of local and systemic humoral immune response parameters to forecast Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae associated lung lesions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Garcia-Morante

    Full Text Available Immunopathological events are key for the development of enzootic pneumonia (EP, which is macroscopically observed as cranioventral pulmonary consolidation (CVPC. This study aimed to investigate the putative association between the humoral immune response against Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyopneumoniae and prevalence and extension of CVPC in 1 experimentally infected pigs, 2 slaughtered pigs and 3 sequentially necropsied pigs in a longitudinal study. CVPC was scored by means of the European Pharmacopoeia recommended methodology. Specific IgG, IgG1 and IgG2 antibodies were assessed in serum. In addition, mucosal IgG and IgA antibodies were analyzed in broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BALF from experimentally challenged pigs. The systemic humoral immune response in experimentally infected pigs was delayed in onset whereas humoral respiratory mucosal immune response appeared more rapidly but declined earlier. Although low, BALF IgG antibodies showed the highest correlation with CVPC scores (r = 0.49, p<0.05. In slaughter-aged pigs, both percentage of lungs with CVPC and mean lung lesion score were significantly higher in M. hyopneumoniae seropositive farms compared to the seronegative ones (p<0.001. Similarly, seropositive sequentially necropsied pigs showed more severe CVPC than seronegative ones. Overall, mean serological values might help to forecast prevalence and severity of EP-like lung lesions using a population based approach. Remarkably, the specific systemic humoral immune response was found to be predominated by the IgG2 subclass, suggesting a dominant Th1-mediated immune response to M. hyopneumoniae.

  13. Newborn Mice Vaccination with BCG.HIVA222 + MVA.HIVA Enhances HIV-1-Specific Immune Responses: Influence of Age and Immunization Routes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narcís Saubi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We have evaluated the influence of age and immunization routes for induction of HIV-1- and M. tuberculosis-specific immune responses after neonatal (7 days old and adult (7 weeks old BALB/c mice immunization with BCG.HIVA222 prime and MVA.HIVA boost. The specific HIV-1 cellular immune responses were analyzed in spleen cells. The body weight of the newborn mice was weekly recorded. The frequencies of HIV-specific CD8+ T cells producing IFN-γ were higher in adult mice vaccinated intradermally and lower in adult and newborn mice vaccinated subcutaneously. In all cases the IFN-γ production was significantly higher when mice were primed with BCG.HIVA222 compared with BCGwt. When the HIV-specific CTL activity was assessed, the frequencies of specific killing were higher in newborn mice than in adults. The prime-boost vaccination regimen which includes BCG.HIVA222 and MVA.HIVA was safe when inoculated to newborn mice. The administration of BCG.HIVA222 to newborn mice is safe and immunogenic and increased the HIV-specific responses induced by MVA.HIVA vaccine. It might be a good model for infant HIV and Tuberculosis bivalent vaccine.

  14. Newborn Mice Vaccination with BCG.HIVA222 + MVA.HIVA Enhances HIV-1-Specific Immune Responses: Influence of Age and Immunization Routes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saubi, Narcís; Im, Eung-Jun; Fernández-Lloris, Raquel; Gil, Olga; Cardona, Pere-Joan; Gatell, Josep Maria; Hanke, Tomáš; Joseph, Joan

    2011-01-01

    We have evaluated the influence of age and immunization routes for induction of HIV-1- and M. tuberculosis-specific immune responses after neonatal (7 days old) and adult (7 weeks old) BALB/c mice immunization with BCG.HIVA222 prime and MVA.HIVA boost. The specific HIV-1 cellular immune responses were analyzed in spleen cells. The body weight of the newborn mice was weekly recorded. The frequencies of HIV-specific CD8+ T cells producing IFN-γ were higher in adult mice vaccinated intradermally and lower in adult and newborn mice vaccinated subcutaneously. In all cases the IFN-γ production was significantly higher when mice were primed with BCG.HIVA222 compared with BCGwt. When the HIV-specific CTL activity was assessed, the frequencies of specific killing were higher in newborn mice than in adults. The prime-boost vaccination regimen which includes BCG.HIVA222 and MVA.HIVA was safe when inoculated to newborn mice. The administration of BCG.HIVA222 to newborn mice is safe and immunogenic and increased the HIV-specific responses induced by MVA.HIVA vaccine. It might be a good model for infant HIV and Tuberculosis bivalent vaccine. PMID:21603216

  15. A recoding method to improve the humoral immune response to an HIV DNA vaccine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaoxing Huang

    Full Text Available This manuscript describes a novel strategy to improve HIV DNA vaccine design. Employing a new information theory based bioinformatic algorithm, we identify a set of nucleotide motifs which are common in the coding region of HIV, but are under-represented in genes that are highly expressed in the human genome. We hypothesize that these motifs contribute to the poor protein expression of gag, pol, and env genes from the c-DNAs of HIV clinical isolates. Using this approach and beginning with a codon optimized consensus gag gene, we recode the nucleotide sequence so as to remove these motifs without modifying the amino acid sequence. Transfecting the recoded DNA sequence into a human kidney cell line results in doubling the gag protein expression level compared to the codon optimized version. We then turn both sequences into DNA vaccines and compare induced antibody response in a murine model. Our sequence, which has the motifs removed, induces a five-fold increase in gag antibody response compared to the codon optimized vaccine.

  16. Development of Broadly Neutralizing Antibody Mimitopes for Characterization of CRF01_AE HIV-1 Antibody Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse V. Schoen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Mapping humoral immune responses to HIV-1 over the course of natural infection is important in understanding epitope exposure in relation to elicitation of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs, which is considered imperative for effective vaccine design. When analyzing HIV-specific immune responses, the antibody binding profiles may be a correlate for functional antibody activity. In this study, we utilized phage display technology to identify novel mimitopes that may represent Env epitope structures bound by bNAbs directed at V1V2 and V3 domains, CD4 binding site (CD4bs and the membrane proximal external region (MPER of Env. Mimitope sequence motifs were determined for each bNAb epitope. Given the ongoing vaccine development efforts in Thailand, these mimitopes that represent CD4bs and MPER epitopes were used to map immune responses of HIV-1 CRF01_AE-infected individuals with known neutralizing responses from two distinct time periods, 1996-98 and 2012-15. The more contemporary cohort showed an increase in binding breadth with binding observed for all MPER and CD4bs mimitopes, while the older cohort showed only 75% recognition of the CD4bs mimitopes and no MPER mimotope binding. Furthermore, mimitope binding profiles correlated significantly with magnitude (p=0.0036 and breadth (p=0.0358 of neutralization of a multi-subtype Tier 1 panel of pseudoviruses. These results highlight the utility of this mimitope mapping approach for detecting human plasma IgG-specificities that target known neutralizing antibody epitopes, and may also provide an indication of the plasticity of antibody binding within HIV-1 Env neutralization determinants.

  17. T cell-derived Lymphotoxin is Essential for anti-HSV-1 Humoral Immune Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kaiting; Liang, Yong; Sun, Zhichen; Xue, Diyuan; Xu, Hairong; Zhu, Mingzhao; Fu, Yang-Xin; Peng, Hua

    2018-05-09

    B cell-derived lymphotoxin (LT) is required for the development of follicular dendritic cell clusters for the formation of primary and secondary lymphoid follicles, but the role of T cell-derived LT in antibody response has not been well demonstrated. We observed that lymphotoxin-β-receptor (LTβR) signaling is essential for optimal humoral immune response and protection against an acute HSV-1 infection. Blocking the LTβR pathway caused poor maintenance of germinal center B (GC-B) cells and follicular helper T (Tfh) cells. Using bone marrow chimeric mice and adoptive transplantation, we determined that T cell-derived LT played an indispensable role in the humoral immune response to HSV-1. Up-regulation of IFNγ by the LTβR-Ig blockade impairs the sustainability of Tfh-like cells, thus leading to an impaired humoral immune response. Our findings have identified a novel role of T cell-derived LT in the humoral immune response against HSV-1 infection. IMPORTANCE Immunocompromised people are susceptible for HSV-1 infection and lethal recurrence, which could be inhibited by anti-HSV-1 humoral immune response in the host. This study sought to explore the role of T cell-derived LT in the anti-HSV-1 humoral immune response using LT-LTβR signaling deficient mice and the LTβR-Ig blockade. The data indicate that the T cell-derived LT may play an essential role in sustaining Tfh-like cells and ensure Tfh-like cells' migration into primary or secondary follicles for further maturation. This study provides insights for vaccine development against infectious diseases. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  18. Potential use of local and systemic humoral immune response parameters to forecast Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae associated lung lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Morante, Beatriz; Segalés, Joaquim; Fraile, Lorenzo; Llardén, Gemma; Coll, Teresa; Sibila, Marina

    2017-01-01

    Immunopathological events are key for the development of enzootic pneumonia (EP), which is macroscopically observed as cranioventral pulmonary consolidation (CVPC). This study aimed to investigate the putative association between the humoral immune response against Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyopneumoniae) and prevalence and extension of CVPC in 1) experimentally infected pigs, 2) slaughtered pigs and 3) sequentially necropsied pigs in a longitudinal study. CVPC was scored by means of the European Pharmacopoeia recommended methodology. Specific IgG, IgG1 and IgG2 antibodies were assessed in serum. In addition, mucosal IgG and IgA antibodies were analyzed in broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from experimentally challenged pigs. The systemic humoral immune response in experimentally infected pigs was delayed in onset whereas humoral respiratory mucosal immune response appeared more rapidly but declined earlier. Although low, BALF IgG antibodies showed the highest correlation with CVPC scores (r = 0.49, phyopneumoniae seropositive farms compared to the seronegative ones (phyopneumoniae.

  19. Strategically Funny: Romantic Motives Affect Humor Style in Relationship Initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiDonato, Theresa E; Jakubiak, Brittany K

    2016-08-01

    Not all humor is the same, yet little is known about the appeal of specific humor styles in romantic initiation. The current experimental study addresses this gap by investigating how romantic motives (short-term or long-term) affect individuals' anticipated use of, and response to, positive humor and negative humor. Heterosexual participants (n = 224) imagined the pursuit of either a desired short-term or long-term relationship, indicated the extent to which they would produce positive and negative humor, and reported how their own interest would change in response to the imaginary target's use of positive or negative humor. Results revealed that individuals are strategic in their humor production as a function of relational motives. Individuals produced positive humor in both contexts but limited their use of negative humor when pursuing a long-term relationship. The target's positive humor increased individuals' attraction, especially women's, and although negative humor boosted attraction, it did not boost attraction more for short-term than long-term relationships. Findings extend a trait-indicator model of humor and their implications are discussed in light of other theoretical perspectives.

  20. Humoral and Cellular Response of Pheasants Vaccinated against Newcastle Disease and Haemorrhagic Enteritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Graczyk

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the experiment was to define whether and to what extent can prophylactic vaccinations against Newcastle disease (ND and haemorrhagic enteritis (HE affect the humoral and cellular response in pheasants. The evaluation of humoral response was performed on a basis of agglutinin titre after administered antigen and the cellular immunity index was the delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH reaction. The pheasants were prophylactically vaccinated against Newcastle Disease (ND on the 1st, 28th and 56th day of life. Moreover, on the 49th day of life, part of the birds was given in the drinking water a vaccine containing the HEV (Haemorrhagic Enteritis Virus. Fourteen days after the HEV vaccination, the birds were intravenously given 0.5 ml of the 10% SRBC (sheep red blood cells suspension. Simultaneously with the SRBC administration the delayed hypersensitivity test was performed by intradermal administration of phytohaemagglutinin (PHA. It was shown that in pheasants vaccinated with NDV and additionally with HEV, the specific agglutinin anti-SRBC titre was significantly (p < 0.05 lower than in birds vaccinated against ND only. It also appeared that, the antibodies resistant to 2-mercaptoethanol were 43% of the total pool of specific anti-SRBC antibodies in the NDV vaccinated birds, whereas in birds vaccinated also with HEV they were 75%. No significant differences were found in the DTH test. Only in the HEV vaccinated pheasants the tendency to increase the wing index value was noted. The results confirm the observations concerning immunosuppressive effects of simultaneous vaccinations. They also indicate that overloading the pheasants with many antigens (ND and HEV vaccination may weaken the humoral response to administered SRBC.

  1. Polyfunctional analysis of Gag and Nef specific CD8+ T-cell responses in HIV-1 infected Indian individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendiratta, Sanjay; Vajpayee, Madhu; Mojumdar, Kamalika; Chauhan, Neeraj K; Sreenivas, Vishnubhatla

    2011-02-01

    Polyfunctional CD8+ T-cells have been described as most competent in controlling viral replication. We studied the impact of antigen persistence on the polyfunctional immune responses of CD8+ T-lymphocytes to HIV Gag and Nef peptides and polyclonal stimuli in 40 ART naïve HIV infected individuals and analyzed the alterations in T-cell functionality in early and late stages of infection. Significantly elevated level of global response and polyfunctional profile of CD8+ T-cells were observed to polyclonal stimulation, than HIV specific antigens in chronically infected individuals. However no key differences were observed in CD8+ T-cell functional profile in any of the 15 unique subsets for Gag and Nef specific antigens. The subjects in early stage of infection (defined as a gap of 6 months or less between seroconversion and enrolment and with no apparent clinical symptoms) had a higher degree of response functionality (4+ or 3+ different functions simultaneously) than in the late stage infection (defined as time duration since seroconversion greater than 6 months). The data suggest that persistence of antigen during chronic infection leads to functional impairment of HIV specific responses. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Characterization of broadly neutralizing antibody responses to HIV-1 in a cohort of long term non-progressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Nuria; McKee, Krisha; Lynch, Rebecca M; Georgiev, Ivelin S; Jimenez, Laura; Grau, Eulalia; Yuste, Eloísa; Kwong, Peter D; Mascola, John R; Alcamí, José

    2018-01-01

    Only a small fraction of HIV-1-infected patients develop broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs), a process generally associated to chronic antigen stimulation. It has been described that rare aviremic HIV-1-infected patients can generate bNAbs but this issue remains controversial. To address this matter we have assessed bNAb responses in a large cohort of long-term non-progressors (LTNPs) with low or undetectable viremia. Samples from the LTNP cohort of the Spanish AIDS Research Network (87 elite and 42 viremic controllers) and a control population of 176 viremic typical-progressors (TPs) were screened for bNAbs using Env-recombinant viruses. bNAb specificities were studied by ELISA using mutated gp120, neutralization assays with mutated viruses, and peptide competition. Epitope specificities were also elucidated from the serum pattern of neutralization against a panel of diverse HIV-1 isolates. Broadly neutralizing sera were found among 9.3% LTNPs, both elite (7%) and viremic controllers (14%). Within the broadly neutralizing sera, CD4 binding site antibodies were detected by ELISA in 4/12 LTNPs (33%), and 16/33 of TPs (48%). Anti-MPER antibodies were detected in 6/12 LTNPs (50%) and 14/33 TPs (42%) whereas glycan-dependent HIV-1 bNAbs were more frequent in LTNPs (11/12, 92%) as compared to TPs (12/33, 36%). A good concordance between standard serum mapping and neutralization-based mapping was observed. LTNPs, both viremic and elite controllers, showed broad humoral immune responses against HIV-1, including activity against many major epitopes involved in bNAbs-mediated protection.

  3. Dendritic cells exposed to MVA-based HIV-1 vaccine induce highly functional HIV-1-specific CD8(+ T cell responses in HIV-1-infected individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núria Climent

    Full Text Available Currently, MVA virus vectors carrying HIV-1 genes are being developed as HIV-1/AIDS prophylactic/therapeutic vaccines. Nevertheless, little is known about the impact of these vectors on human dendritic cells (DC and their capacity to present HIV-1 antigens to human HIV-specific T cells. This study aimed to characterize the interaction of MVA and MVA expressing the HIV-1 genes Env-Gag-Pol-Nef of clade B (referred to as MVA-B in human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDC and the subsequent processes of HIV-1 antigen presentation and activation of memory HIV-1-specific T lymphocytes. For these purposes, we performed ex vivo assays with MDDC and autologous lymphocytes from asymptomatic HIV-infected patients. Infection of MDDC with MVA-B or MVA, at the optimal dose of 0.3 PFU/MDDC, induced by itself a moderate degree of maturation of MDDC, involving secretion of cytokines and chemokines (IL1-ra, IL-7, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-12, IL-15, IL-8, MCP-1, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, RANTES, IP-10, MIG, and IFN-α. MDDC infected with MVA or MVA-B and following a period of 48 h or 72 h of maturation were able to migrate toward CCL19 or CCL21 chemokine gradients. MVA-B infection induced apoptosis of the infected cells and the resulting apoptotic bodies were engulfed by the uninfected MDDC, which cross-presented HIV-1 antigens to autologous CD8(+ T lymphocytes. MVA-B-infected MDDC co-cultured with autologous T lymphocytes induced a highly functional HIV-specific CD8(+ T cell response including proliferation, secretion of IFN-γ, IL-2, TNF-α, MIP-1β, MIP-1α, RANTES and IL-6, and strong cytotoxic activity against autologous HIV-1-infected CD4(+ T lymphocytes. These results evidence the adjuvant role of the vector itself (MVA and support the clinical development of prophylactic and therapeutic anti-HIV vaccines based on MVA-B.

  4. Transient nature of long-term nonprogression and broad virus-specific proliferative T-cell responses with sustained thymic output in HIV-1 controllers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha J Westrop

    Full Text Available HIV-1(+ individuals who, without therapy, conserve cellular anti-HIV-1 responses, present with high, stable CD4(+ T-cell numbers, and control viral replication, facilitate analysis of atypical viro-immunopathology. In the absence of universal definition, immune function in such HIV controllers remains an indication of non-progression.CD4 T-cell responses to a number of HIV-1 proteins and peptide pools were assessed by IFN-gamma ELISpot and lymphoproliferative assays in HIV controllers and chronic progressors. Thymic output was assessed by sjTRECs levels. Follow-up of 41 HIV-1(+ individuals originally identified as "Long-term non-progressors" in 1996 according to clinical criteria, and longitudinal analysis of two HIV controllers over 22 years, was also performed. HIV controllers exhibited substantial IFN-gamma producing and proliferative HIV-1-specific CD4 T-cell responses to both recombinant proteins and peptide pools of Tat, Rev, Nef, Gag and Env, demonstrating functional processing and presentation. Conversely, HIV-specific T-cell responses were limited to IFN-gamma production in chronic progressors. Additionally, thymic output was approximately 19 fold higher in HIV controllers than in age-matched chronic progressors. Follow-up of 41 HIV-1(+ patients identified as LTNP in 1996 revealed the transitory characteristics of this status. IFN-gamma production and proliferative T-cell function also declines in 2 HIV controllers over 22 years.Although increased thymic output and anti-HIV-1 T-cell responses are observed in HIV controllers compared to chronic progressors, the nature of nonprogressor/controller status appears to be transitory.

  5. Strategically Funny: Romantic Motives Affect Humor Style in Relationship Initiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa E. DiDonato

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Not all humor is the same, yet little is known about the appeal of specific humor styles in romantic initiation. The current experimental study addresses this gap by investigating how romantic motives (short-term or long-term affect individuals’ anticipated use of, and response to, positive humor and negative humor. Heterosexual participants (n = 224 imagined the pursuit of either a desired short-term or long-term relationship, indicated the extent to which they would produce positive and negative humor, and reported how their own interest would change in response to the imaginary target’s use of positive or negative humor. Results revealed that individuals are strategic in their humor production as a function of relational motives. Individuals produced positive humor in both contexts but limited their use of negative humor when pursuing a long-term relationship. The target’s positive humor increased individuals’ attraction, especially women’s, and although negative humor boosted attraction, it did not boost attraction more for short-term than long-term relationships. Findings extend a trait-indicator model of humor and their implications are discussed in light of other theoretical perspectives.

  6. HIV-specific CD8+ T cells: serial killers condemned to die?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovas, Constantinos; Mueller, Yvonne M; Katsikis, Peter D

    2004-04-01

    An increasing body of evidence supports a key role for cytotoxic CD8+ T cells (CTL) in controlling HIV infection. Although a vigorous HIV-specific CD8+ T cell response is raised during the primary infection, these cells ultimately fail to control virus and prevent disease progression. The failure of CTL to control HIV infection has been attributed to a number of strategies HIV employs to evade the immune system. Recently, intrinsic defects in the CTL themselves have been proposed to contribute to the failure of CTL to control HIV. HIV-specific CD8+ T cells differ in their effector/memory phenotype from other virus-specific CD8+ T cells indicating that their differentiation status differs. This altered differentiation may affect effector functions as well as homing properties of these cells. Other studies have indicated that activation of HIV-specific CTL may be impaired and this contributes to their dysfunction. The effector function of these CTL may also be affected. There are conflicting reports about their ability to kill, whereas IFNgamma production does not appear to be impaired in these cells. In this review we focus on recent work indicating that apoptosis may be an important mechanism through which HIV evades the CTL response. In particular, HIV-specific CD8+ T cells are highly susceptible to CD95/Fas-induced apoptosis. This leads to the hypothesis that virus-specific cytotoxic T cells can be eliminated upon binding CD95L/FasL on HIV-infected cells. Understanding the intrinsic defects of CTL in HIV infection could lead to new therapeutic strategies and optimized vaccination protocols that enhance the HIV-specific cytotoxic response.

  7. Making humor together: phenomenology and interracial humor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Barber

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explains humor through phenomenological concepts and methods. The three major theories of humor: Superiority, Relief, and Incongruity depend on the thwarting of intentional expectations. Since one experiences an incongruity between what is intended and what is actually experienced, the incongruity theory affords the best explanation, but intentionality remains fundamental for all theories. Theorists of humor rightly insist that the enjoyment of humorous incongruity completes the definition of humor, but such enjoyment also depends on a special epoché, usually elicited by the cues of an interlocutor who invites the listener to leap together into the humorous finite province of meaning. In this province, actions and statements, hurtful in everyday life, such as a pie thrown at someone who ducks as the pie hits another, produce laughter. This comic epoché resembles the phenomenological epoché in its distancing from everyday life, and, like the phenomenological epoché, it opens everyday experience to reflection. Although one often experiences and enjoys humor alone, humor is thoroughly intersubjective and more frequently occurs when two persons participate in the humorous epoché together. The opportunities for making humor together are enhanced to the extent the partners differ in their expectations and responses to situations. Those differences, including bodily differences, often result from the complex intersubjective networks, including culture. As in the case of a seemingly solitary activity like reflection, which one learns from others and exercises on one’s own autonomously, one internalizes others’ styles of humor and discovers such internalization through reflection on one’s «because motives». On the basis of these features – intentionality, epoché, and intersubjectivity, the paper concludes by briefly examining an example of interracial humor. Despite the racist character of much interracial humor, the example

  8. HIV-1 binding and neutralizing antibodies of injecting drug users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.P. Ouverney

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have demonstrated a stronger seroreactivity against some synthetic peptides responsible for inducing neutralizing antibodies in injecting drug users (IDU compared to that of individuals sexually infected with HIV-1 (S, but the effectiveness in terms of the neutralizing ability of these antibodies has not been evaluated. Our objective was to study the humoral immune response of IDU by determining the specificity of their antibodies and the presence of neutralizing antibodies. The neutralization capacity against the HIV-1 isolate MN (genotype B, the primary HIV-1 isolate 95BRRJ021 (genotype F, and the seroreactivity with peptides known to induce neutralizing antibodies, from the V2 and V3 loops of different HIV-1 subtypes, were analyzed. Seroreactivity indicates that IDU plasma are more likely to recognize a broader range of peptides than S plasma, with significantly higher titers, especially of V3 peptides. Similar neutralization frequencies of the MN isolate were observed in plasma of the IDU (16/47 and S (20/60 groups in the 1:10 dilution. The neutralization of the 95BRRJ021 isolate was more frequently observed for plasma from the S group (15/23 than from the IDU group (15/47, P = 0.0108. No correlation between neutralization and seroreactivity with the peptides tested was observed. These results suggest that an important factor responsible for the extensive and broad humoral immune response observed in IDU is their infection route. There was very little difference in neutralizing antibody response between the IDU and S groups despite their differences in seroreactivity and health status.

  9. HIV-1 p24(gag derived conserved element DNA vaccine increases the breadth of immune response in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viraj Kulkarni

    Full Text Available Viral diversity is considered a major impediment to the development of an effective HIV-1 vaccine. Despite this diversity, certain protein segments are nearly invariant across the known HIV-1 Group M sequences. We developed immunogens based on the highly conserved elements from the p24(gag region according to two principles: the immunogen must (i include strictly conserved elements of the virus that cannot mutate readily, and (ii exclude both HIV regions capable of mutating without limiting virus viability, and also immunodominant epitopes located in variable regions. We engineered two HIV-1 p24(gag DNA immunogens that express 7 highly Conserved Elements (CE of 12-24 amino acids in length and differ by only 1 amino acid in each CE ('toggle site', together covering >99% of the HIV-1 Group M sequences. Altering intracellular trafficking of the immunogens changed protein localization, stability, and also the nature of elicited immune responses. Immunization of C57BL/6 mice with p55(gag DNA induced poor, CD4(+ mediated cellular responses, to only 2 of the 7 CE; in contrast, vaccination with p24CE DNA induced cross-clade reactive, robust T cell responses to 4 of the 7 CE. The responses were multifunctional and composed of both CD4(+ and CD8(+ T cells with mature cytotoxic phenotype. These findings provide a method to increase immune response to universally conserved Gag epitopes, using the p24CE immunogen. p24CE DNA vaccination induced humoral immune responses similar in magnitude to those induced by p55(gag, which recognize the virus encoded p24(gag protein. The inclusion of DNA immunogens composed of conserved elements is a promising vaccine strategy to induce broader immunity by CD4(+ and CD8(+ T cells to additional regions of Gag compared to vaccination with p55(gag DNA, achieving maximal cross-clade reactive cellular and humoral responses.

  10. Humor in leader-follower relationships : Humor styles, similarity and relationship quality.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wisse, Barbara; Rietzschel, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The present study focuses on how humor may affect the quality of the relationship between leader and follower (LMX). More specifically, we examined the impact of follower self-reported humor style and leader self-reported humor style on the extent to which followers perceived their relationship with

  11. Novel engineered HIV-1 East African Clade-A gp160 plasmid construct induces strong humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muthumani, Karuppiah; Zhang Donghui; Dayes, Nathanael S.; Hwang, Daniel S.; Calarota, Sandra A.; Choo, Andrew Y.; Boyer, Jean D.; Weiner, David B.

    2003-01-01

    HIV-1 sequences are highly diverse due to the inaccuracy of the viral reverse transcriptase. This diversity has been studied and used to categorize HIV isolates into subtypes or clades, which are geographically distinct. To develop effective vaccines against HIV-1, immunogens representing different subtypes may be important for induction of cross-protective immunity, but little data exist describing and comparing the immunogenicity induced by different subtype-based vaccines. This issue is further complicated by poor expression of HIV structural antigens due to rev dependence. One costly approach is to codon optimize each subtype construct to be examined. Interestingly, cis-acting transcriptional elements (CTE) can also by pass rev restriction by a rev independent export pathway. We reasoned that rev+CTE constructs might have advantages for such expression studies. A subtype A envelope sequence from a viral isolate from east Africa was cloned into a eukaryotic expression vector under the control of the CMV-IE promoter. The utility of inclusion of the Mason-Pfizer monkey virus (MPV)-CTE with/without rev for driving envelope expression and immunogenicity was examined. Expression of envelope (gp120) was confirmed by immunoblot analysis and by pseudotype virus infectivity assays. The presence of rev and the CTE together increased envelope expression and viral infection. Furthermore the CTE+rev construct was significantly more immunogenic then CTE alone vector. Isotype analysis and cytokine profiles showed strong Th1 response in plasmid-immunized mice, which also demonstrated the superior nature of the rev+CTE construct. These responses were of similar or greater magnitude to a codon-optimized construct. The resulting cellular immune responses were highly cross-reactive with a HIV-1 envelope subtype B antigen. This study suggests a simple strategy for improving the expression and immunogenicity of HIV subtype-specific envelope antigens as plasmid or vector

  12. Immune response and histology of humoral rejection in kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Molina, Miguel; Ruiz-Esteban, Pedro; Caballero, Abelardo; Burgos, Dolores; Cabello, Mercedes; Leon, Miriam; Fuentes, Laura; Hernandez, Domingo

    2016-01-01

    The adaptive immune response forms the basis of allograft rejection. Its weapons are direct cellular cytotoxicity, identified from the beginning of organ transplantation, and/or antibodies, limited to hyperacute rejection by preformed antibodies and not as an allogenic response. This resulted in allogenic response being thought for decades to have just a cellular origin. But the experimental studies by Gorer demonstrating tissue damage in allografts due to antibodies secreted by B lymphocytes activated against polymorphic molecules were disregarded. The special coexistence of binding and unbinding between antibodies and antigens of the endothelial cell membranes has been the cause of the delay in demonstrating the humoral allogenic response. The endothelium, the target tissue of antibodies, has a high turnover, and antigen-antibody binding is non-covalent. If endothelial cells are attacked by the humoral response, immunoglobulins are rapidly removed from their surface by shedding and/or internalization, as well as degrading the components of the complement system by the action of MCP, DAF and CD59. Thus, the presence of complement proteins in the membrane of endothelial cells is transient. In fact, the acute form of antibody-mediated rejection was not demonstrated until C4d complement fragment deposition was identified, which is the only component that binds covalently to endothelial cells. This review examines the relationship between humoral immune response and the types of acute and chronic histological lesion shown on biopsy of the transplanted organ. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Caspase-1 inhibitor regulates humoral responses in experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis via IL-6- dependent inhibiton of STAT3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cong-Cong; Zhang, Min; Li, Heng; Li, Xiao-Li; Yue, Long-Tao; Zhang, Peng; Liu, Ru-Tao; Chen, Hui; Li, Yan-Bin; Duan, Rui-Sheng

    2017-08-24

    We have previously demonstrated that Cysteinyl aspartate-specific proteinase-1 (caspase-1) inhibitor ameliorates experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG) by inhibited cellular immune response, via suppressing DC IL-1 β, CD4 + T and γdT cells IL-17 pathways. In this study, we investigated the effect of caspase-1 inhibitor on humoral immune response of EAMG and further explore the underlying mechanisms. An animal model of MG was induced by region 97-116 of the rat AChR α subunit (R97-116 peptide) in Lewis rats. Rats were treated with caspase-1 inhibitor Ac-YVAD-cmk intraperitoneally (i.p.) every second day from day 13 after the first immunization. Flow cytometry, western blot, immunofluorescence, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were performed to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of caspase-1 inhibitor on humoral immune response of EAMG. The results showed that caspase-1 inhibitor reduced the relative affinity of anti-R97-116 IgG, suppressed germinal center response, decreased follicular helper T cells, and increased follicular regulatory T cells and regulatory B cells. In addition, we found that caspase-1 inhibitor inhibited humoral immunity response in EAMG rats via suppressing IL-6-STAT3-Bcl-6 pathways. These results suggest that caspase-1 inhibitor ameliorates EAMG by regulating humoral immune response, thus providing new insights into the development of myasthenia gravis and other autoimmune diseases therapies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Mosaic HIV envelope immunogenic polypeptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korber, Bette T. M.; Gnanakaran, S.; Perkins, Simon; Sodroski, Joseph; Haynes, Barton

    2018-01-02

    Disclosed herein are mosaic HIV envelope (Env) polypeptides that can elicit an immune response to HIV (such as cytotoxic T cell (CTL), helper T cell, and/or humoral responses). Also disclosed are sets of the disclosed mosaic Env polypeptides, which include two or more (for example, three) of the polypeptides. Also disclosed herein are methods for treating or inhibiting HIV in a subject including administering one or more of the disclosed immunogenic polypeptides or compositions to a subject infected with HIV or at risk of HIV infection. In some embodiments, the methods include inducing an immune response to HIV in a subject comprising administering to the subject at least one (such as two, three, or more) of the immunogenic polypeptides or at least one (such as two, three, or more) nucleic acids encoding at least one of the immunogenic polypeptides disclosed herein.

  15. The impact of immunosenescence on humoral immune response variation after influenza A/H1N1 vaccination in older subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iana H Haralambieva

    Full Text Available Although influenza causes significant morbidity and mortality in the elderly, the factors underlying the reduced vaccine immunogenicity and efficacy in this age group are not completely understood. Age and immunosenescence factors, and their impact on humoral immunity after influenza vaccination, are of growing interest for the development of better vaccines for the elderly.We assessed associations between age and immunosenescence markers (T cell receptor rearrangement excision circles - TREC content, peripheral white blood cell telomerase - TERT expression and CD28 expression on T cells and influenza A/H1N1 vaccine-induced measures of humoral immunity in 106 older subjects at baseline and three timepoints post-vaccination.TERT activity (TERT mRNA expression was significantly positively correlated with the observed increase in the influenza-specific memory B cell ELISPOT response at Day 28 compared to baseline (p-value=0.025. TREC levels were positively correlated with the baseline and early (Day 3 influenza A/H1N1-specific memory B cell ELISPOT response (p-value=0.042 and p-value=0.035, respectively. The expression and/or expression change of CD28 on CD4+ and/or CD8+ T cells at baseline and Day 3 was positively correlated with the influenza A/H1N1-specific memory B cell ELISPOT response at baseline, Day 28 and Day 75 post-vaccination. In a multivariable analysis, the peak antibody response (HAI and/or VNA at Day 28 was negatively associated with age, the percentage of CD8+CD28 low T cells, IgD+CD27- naïve B cells, and percentage overall CD20- B cells and plasmablasts, measured at Day 3 post-vaccination. The early change in influenza-specific memory B cell ELISPOT response was positively correlated with the observed increase in influenza A/H1N1-specific HAI antibodies at Day 28 and Day 75 relative to baseline (p-value=0.007 and p-value=0.005, respectively.Our data suggest that influenza-specific humoral immunity is significantly influenced by

  16. Reviewing independent access to HIV testing, counselling and treatment for adolescents in HIV-specific laws in sub-Saharan Africa: implications for the HIV response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eba, Patrick M.; Lim, HyeYoung

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: AIDS is a leading cause of death among adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa. Yet, legal, policy and social barriers continue to restrict their access to HIV services. In recent years, access to independent HIV testing and treatment for adolescents has gained increased attention. The 2013 WHO Guidance on HIV testing and counselling and care for adolescents living with HIV (WHO Guidance) calls for reviewing legal and regulatory frameworks to facilitate adolescents’ access to comprehensive HIV services. As of 31 March 2017, some 28 countries in sub-Saharan Africa have adopted HIV-specific legislation. But there is limited understanding of the provisions of these laws on access to HIV services for adolescents and their implication on efforts to scale up HIV prevention, testing, treatment and care among this population. Methods: A desk review of 28 HIV-specific laws in sub-Saharan Africa complemented with the review of HIV testing policies in four countries using human rights norms and key public health recommendations from the 2013 WHO Guidance. These recommendations call on countries to (i) lower the age of consent to HIV testing and counselling and allow mature adolescents who have not reached the age of consent to independently access HIV testing, (ii) ensure access to HIV counselling for adolescents, (iii) protect the confidentiality of adolescents living with HIV and (iv) facilitate access to HIV treatment for adolescents living with HIV. Results: Most HIV-specific laws fail to take into account human rights principles and public health recommendations for facilitating adolescents’ access to HIV services. None of the countries with HIV-specific laws has adopted all four recommendations for access to HIV services for adolescents. Discrepancies exist between HIV laws and national policy documents. Inadequate and conflicting provisions in HIV laws are likely to hinder access to HIV testing, counselling and treatment for adolescents

  17. Reviewing independent access to HIV testing, counselling and treatment for adolescents in HIV-specific laws in sub-Saharan Africa: implications for the HIV response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eba, Patrick M; Lim, HyeYoung

    2017-08-11

    AIDS is a leading cause of death among adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa. Yet, legal, policy and social barriers continue to restrict their access to HIV services. In recent years, access to independent HIV testing and treatment for adolescents has gained increased attention. The 2013 WHO Guidance on HIV testing and counselling and care for adolescents living with HIV (WHO Guidance) calls for reviewing legal and regulatory frameworks to facilitate adolescents' access to comprehensive HIV services. As of 31 March 2017, some 28 countries in sub-Saharan Africa have adopted HIV-specific legislation. But there is limited understanding of the provisions of these laws on access to HIV services for adolescents and their implication on efforts to scale up HIV prevention, testing, treatment and care among this population. A desk review of 28 HIV-specific laws in sub-Saharan Africa complemented with the review of HIV testing policies in four countries using human rights norms and key public health recommendations from the 2013 WHO Guidance. These recommendations call on countries to (i) lower the age of consent to HIV testing and counselling and allow mature adolescents who have not reached the age of consent to independently access HIV testing, (ii) ensure access to HIV counselling for adolescents, (iii) protect the confidentiality of adolescents living with HIV and (iv) facilitate access to HIV treatment for adolescents living with HIV. Most HIV-specific laws fail to take into account human rights principles and public health recommendations for facilitating adolescents' access to HIV services. None of the countries with HIV-specific laws has adopted all four recommendations for access to HIV services for adolescents. Discrepancies exist between HIV laws and national policy documents. Inadequate and conflicting provisions in HIV laws are likely to hinder access to HIV testing, counselling and treatment for adolescents. Efforts to end legal barriers to access to HIV services

  18. Characterization of HIV-Specific CD4+T Cell Responses against Peptides Selected with Broad Population and Pathogen Coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buggert, Marcus; Norstrom, Melissa M.; Czarnecki, Chris

    2012-01-01

    for the identification of HIV-specific CD4+ T cells targeting broadly reactive epitopes in populations with diverse ethnic background stems from the vast genomic variation of HIV and the diversity of the host cellular immune system. Here, we describe a novel epitope selection strategy, PopCover, that aims to resolve...... this challenge, and identify a set of potential HLA class II-restricted HIV epitopes that in concert will provide optimal viral and host coverage. Using this selection strategy, we identified 64 putative epitopes (peptides) located in the Gag, Nef, Env, Pol and Tat protein regions of HIV. In total, 73...... II-restricted epitopes. All together, selection strategies, such as PopCover, might with success be used for the evaluation of antigen-specific CD4+ T cell responses and design of future vaccines....

  19. Neuropsychology of humor: an introduction. Part II. Humor and the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derouesné, Christian

    2016-09-01

    Impairment of the perception or comprehension of humor is observed in patients with focal brain lesions in both hemispheres, but mainly in the right frontal lobe. Studies by functional magnetic resonance imaging in healthy subjects show that humor is associated with activation of two main neural systems in both hemispheres. The detection and resolution of incongruity, cognitive groundings of humor, are associated with activation of the medial prefrontal and temporoparietal cortex, and the humor appreciation with activation of the orbito-frontal and insular cortex, amygdala and the brain reward system. However, activation of these areas is not humor-specific and can be observed in various cognitive or emotional processes. Event-related potential studies confirm the involvement of both hemispheres in humor processing, and suggest that left prefrontal area is associated with joke comprehension and right prefrontal area with the resolution stage. Humor thus appears to be a complex and dynamic functional process involving, on one hand, two specialized but not specific neural systems linked to humor apprehension and appreciation, and, on the other hand, multiple interconnected functional brain networks including neural patterns underlying the moral framework and belief system, acquired by conditioning or imitation during the cognitive development and social interactions of the individual, and more distributed systems associated with the analysis of the current context of humor occurrence. Disturbances of the sense of humor could then result from focal brain alterations localized in one or two of the specialized areas underlying the comprehension or appreciation of humor, or from perturbations of the network interconnectivity in non-focal brain disorders such as Alzheimer's disease or schizophrenia.

  20. Saccharomyces boulardii improves humoral immune response to DNA vaccines against leptospirosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Marcelle Moura; Conceição, Fabricio Rochedo; Mendonça, Marcelo; Moreira, Gustavo Marçal Schmidt Garcia; Da Cunha, Carlos Eduardo Pouey; Conrad, Neida Lucia; Oliveira, Patrícia Diaz de; Hartwig, Daiane Drawanz; De Leon, Priscila Marques Moura; Moreira, Ângela Nunes

    2017-02-01

    Saccharomyces boulardii may improve the immune response by enhancing the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines, T-cell proliferation and dendritic cell activation. The immunomodulator effect of this probiotic has never been tested with DNA vaccines, which frequently induce low antibody titers. This study evaluated the capacity of Saccharomyces boulardii to improve the humoral and cellular immune responses using DNA vaccines coding for the leptospiral protein fragments LigAni and LigBrep. BALB/c mice were fed with rodent-specific feed containing 108 c.f.u. of Saccharomycesboulardii per gram. Animals were immunized three times intramuscularly with 100 µg of pTARGET plasmids containing the coding sequences for the above mentioned proteins. Antibody titers were measured by indirect ELISA. Expression levels of IL-4, IL-10, IL-12, IL-17, IFN-γ and TGF-β were determined by quantitative real-time PCR from RNA extracted from whole blood, after an intraperitoneal boost with 50 µg of the recombinant proteins.Results/Key findings. Antibody titers increased significantly after the second and third application when pTARGET/ligAni and pTARGET/ligBrep were used to vaccinate the animals in comparison with the control group (PSaccharomyces boulardii. The results suggested that Saccharomyces boulardii has an immunomodulator effect in DNA vaccines, mainly by stimulating the humoral response, which is often limited in this kind of vaccine. Therefore, the use of Saccharomyces boulardii as immunomodulator represents a new alternative strategy for more efficient DNA vaccination.

  1. Characterization of humoral and cellular immune responses in patients with human papilloma virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clares Pochet, Maria del Carmen; Ferrer Cosme, Belkis Maria; Dominguez Cardosa, Magda

    2012-01-01

    A descriptive and cross-sectional study was carried out in 30 females infected with the human papilloma virus, attended in the office of Immunology of the Specialty Polyclinic belonging to 'Saturnino Lora' Provincial Clinical Surgical Teaching Hospital in Santiago de Cuba, from June 2009 to June 2010, in order to characterize them according to immune response. To evaluate the humoral and cellular immune response rosetting assay and quantification of immunoglobulins were used respectively. Women between 25-36 years of age (40 %) infected with this virus, especially those coming from urban areas, prevailed in the series, and a significant decrease of the cellular response as compared to the humoral response was evidenced

  2. Mathematical modeling of escape of HIV from cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganusov, Vitaly V; Neher, Richard A; Perelson, Alan S

    2013-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 or simply HIV) induces a persistent infection, which in the absence of treatment leads to AIDS and death in almost all infected individuals. HIV infection elicits a vigorous immune response starting about 2–3 weeks postinfection that can lower the amount of virus in the body, but which cannot eradicate the virus. How HIV establishes a chronic infection in the face of a strong immune response remains poorly understood. It has been shown that HIV is able to rapidly change its proteins via mutation to evade recognition by virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). Typically, an HIV-infected patient will generate 4–12 CTL responses specific for parts of viral proteins called epitopes. Such CTL responses lead to strong selective pressure to change the viral sequences encoding these epitopes so as to avoid CTL recognition. Indeed, the viral population ‘escapes’ from about half of the CTL responses by mutation in the first year. Here we review experimental data on HIV evolution in response to CTL pressure, mathematical models developed to explain this evolution, and highlight problems associated with the data and previous modeling efforts. We show that estimates of the strength of the epitope-specific CTL response depend on the method used to fit models to experimental data and on the assumptions made regarding how mutants are generated during infection. We illustrate that allowing CTL responses to decay over time may improve the model fit to experimental data and provides higher estimates of the killing efficacy of HIV-specific CTLs. We also propose a novel method for simultaneously estimating the killing efficacy of multiple CTL populations specific for different epitopes of HIV using stochastic simulations. Lastly, we show that current estimates of the efficacy at which HIV-specific CTLs clear virus-infected cells can be improved by more frequent sampling of viral sequences and by combining data on sequence evolution with

  3. Immunoglobulin G1 Allotype Influences Antibody Subclass Distribution in Response to HIV gp140 Vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Kratochvil

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Antibody subclasses exhibit extensive polymorphisms (allotypes that could potentially impact the quality of HIV-vaccine induced B cell responses. Allotypes of immunoglobulin (Ig G1, the most abundant serum antibody, have been shown to display altered functional properties in regard to serum half-life, Fc-receptor binding and FcRn-mediated mucosal transcytosis. To investigate the potential link between allotypic IgG1-variants and vaccine-generated humoral responses in a cohort of 14 HIV vaccine recipients, we developed a novel protocol for rapid IgG1-allotyping. We combined PCR and ELISA assays in a dual approach to determine the IgG1 allotype identity (G1m3 and/or G1m1 of trial participants, using human plasma and RNA isolated from PBMC. The IgG1-allotype distribution of our participants mirrored previously reported results for caucasoid populations. We observed elevated levels of HIV gp140-specific IgG1 and decreased IgG2 levels associated with the G1m1-allele, in contrast to G1m3 carriers. These data suggest that vaccinees homozygous for G1m1 are predisposed to develop elevated Ag-specific IgG1:IgG2 ratios compared to G1m3-carriers. This elevated IgG1:IgG2 ratio was further associated with higher FcγR-dimer engagement, a surrogate for potential antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC and antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP function. Although preliminary, these results suggest that IgG1 allotype may have a significant impact on IgG subclass distribution in response to vaccination and associated Fc-mediated effector functions. These results have important implications for ongoing HIV vaccine efficacy studies predicated on engagement of FcγR-mediated cellular functions including ADCC and ADCP, and warrant further investigation. Our novel allotyping protocol provides new tools to determine the potential impact of IgG1 allotypes on vaccine efficacy.

  4. HIV Controllers Exhibit Enhanced Frequencies of Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II Tetramer+ Gag-Specific CD4+ T Cells in Chronic Clade C HIV-1 Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laher, Faatima; Ranasinghe, Srinika; Porichis, Filippos; Mewalal, Nikoshia; Pretorius, Karyn; Ismail, Nasreen; Buus, Søren; Stryhn, Anette; Carrington, Mary; Walker, Bruce D; Ndung'u, Thumbi; Ndhlovu, Zaza M

    2017-04-01

    Immune control of viral infections is heavily dependent on helper CD4 + T cell function. However, the understanding of the contribution of HIV-specific CD4 + T cell responses to immune protection against HIV-1, particularly in clade C infection, remains incomplete. Recently, major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II tetramers have emerged as a powerful tool for interrogating antigen-specific CD4 + T cells without relying on effector functions. Here, we defined the MHC class II alleles for immunodominant Gag CD4 + T cell epitopes in clade C virus infection, constructed MHC class II tetramers, and then used these to define the magnitude, function, and relation to the viral load of HIV-specific CD4 + T cell responses in a cohort of untreated HIV clade C-infected persons. We observed significantly higher frequencies of MHC class II tetramer-positive CD4 + T cells in HIV controllers than progressors ( P = 0.0001), and these expanded Gag-specific CD4 + T cells in HIV controllers showed higher levels of expression of the cytolytic proteins granzymes A and B. Importantly, targeting of the immunodominant Gag41 peptide in the context of HLA class II DRB1*1101 was associated with HIV control ( r = -0.5, P = 0.02). These data identify an association between HIV-specific CD4 + T cell targeting of immunodominant Gag epitopes and immune control, particularly the contribution of a single class II MHC-peptide complex to the immune response against HIV-1 infection. Furthermore, these results highlight the advantage of the use of class II tetramers in evaluating HIV-specific CD4 + T cell responses in natural infections. IMPORTANCE Increasing evidence suggests that virus-specific CD4 + T cells contribute to the immune-mediated control of clade B HIV-1 infection, yet there remains a relative paucity of data regarding the role of HIV-specific CD4 + T cells in shaping adaptive immune responses in individuals infected with clade C, which is responsible for the majority of HIV

  5. Humoral immune responses of pregnant Guinea pigs Immunized with live attenuated Rhodococcus equi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mawlood Abass Ali Al- Graibawi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The potential to increase passive transfer of specific Rhodococcus equi (R.equi humoral immunity to newborn by preparturient vaccination of their dams was investigated in Pregnant Guinea pigs as a pilot study. Attenuated autogenous vaccine was prepared from a Congo red negative (CR- R.equi local isolate mixed with adjuvant (potassium alum sulphate, tested for sterility, safety and potency prior to vaccination .Two groups of pregnant G. pigs were used, the first group was vaccinated twice subcutaneously (S.C with the prepared vaccine at five and three weeks prior parturition, the second group was inoculated with adjuvant plus phosphate buffer saline (PBS twice s.c and kept as control. Offspring from the vaccinated dams had revealed high titers of specific R. equi antibody as detected by tube agglutination (TA and passive haemagglutination (PH test and showed protection against challenge dose. The results revealed that vaccination of pregnant G. pigs with the prepared attenuated vaccine was safe and efficient method to protect their offspring against experimental challenge with virulent R.equi. Vaccination was associated with increased humoral immune response in vaccinated group.

  6. Heterologous prime-boost regimens with a recombinant chimpanzee adenoviral vector and adjuvanted F4 protein elicit polyfunctional HIV-1-specific T-Cell responses in macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorin, Clarisse; Vanloubbeeck, Yannick; Baudart, Sébastien; Ska, Michaël; Bayat, Babak; Brauers, Geoffroy; Clarinval, Géraldine; Donner, Marie-Noëlle; Marchand, Martine; Koutsoukos, Marguerite; Mettens, Pascal; Cohen, Joe; Voss, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    HIV-1-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes are important for HIV-1 replication control. F4/AS01 consists of F4 recombinant fusion protein (containing clade B Gag/p24, Pol/RT, Nef and Gag/p17) formulated in AS01 Adjuvant System, and was shown to induce F4-specific polyfunctional CD4+ T-cell responses in humans. While replication-incompetent recombinant HIV-1/SIV antigen-expressing human adenoviral vectors can elicit high-frequency antigen-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, their use is hampered by widespread pre-existing immunity to human serotypes. Non-human adenovirus serotypes associated with lower prevalence may offer an alternative strategy. We evaluated the immunogenicity of AdC7-GRN ('A'), a recombinant chimpanzee adenovirus type 7 vector expressing clade B Gag, RT and Nef, and F4/AS01 ('P'), when delivered intramuscularly in homologous (PP or AA) and heterologous (AAPP or PPAA) prime-boost regimens, in macaques and mice. Vaccine-induced HIV-1-antigen-specific T cells in peripheral blood (macaques), liver, spleen, and intestinal and genital mucosa (mice) were characterized by intracellular cytokine staining. Vaccine-specific IgG antibodies (macaques) were detected using ELISA. In macaques, only the heterologous prime-boost regimens induced polyfunctional, persistent and balanced CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses specific to each HIV-1 vaccine antigen. AdC7-GRN priming increased the polyfunctionality of F4/AS01-induced CD4+ T cells. Approximately 50% of AdC7-GRN-induced memory CD8+ T cells exhibited an effector-memory phenotype. HIV-1-specific antibodies were detected with each regimen. In mice, antigen-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses were detected in the mucosal and systemic anatomical compartments assessed. When administered in heterologous prime-boost regimens, AdC7-GRN and F4/AS01 candidate vaccines acted complementarily in inducing potent and persistent peripheral blood HIV-1-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses and antibodies in macaques. Besides

  7. Indirect detection of an epitope-specific response to HIV-1 gp120 immunization in human subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny Shmelkov

    Full Text Available A specific response of human serum neutralizing antibodies (nAb to a conformational epitope as a result of vaccination of human subjects with the surface envelope glycoprotein (gp120 of HIV-1 has not previously been documented. Here, we used computational analysis to assess the epitope-specific responses of human subjects, which were immunized with recombinant gp120 immunogens in the VAX003 and VAX004 clinical trials. Our computational methodology--a variation of sieve analysis--compares the occurrence of specific nAb targeted conformational 3D epitopes on viruses from infected individuals who received vaccination to the occurrence of matched epitopes in the viruses infecting placebo subjects. We specifically studied seven crystallographically defined nAb targeted conformational epitopes in the V3 loop, an immunogenic region of gp120. Of the six epitopes present in the immunogens and targeted by known monoclonal neutralizing antibodies, only the one targeted by the anti-V3 nAb 2219 exhibited a significant reduction in occurrence in vaccinated subjects compared to the placebo group. This difference occurred only in the VAX003 Thailand cohort. No difference was seen between vaccinated and placebo groups for the occurrence of an epitope that was not present in the immunogen. Thus, it can be theorized that a specific 2219-like human neutralizing antibody immune response to AIDSVAX immunization occurred in the VAX003 cohort, and that this response protected subjects from a narrow subset of HIV-1 viruses circulating in Thailand in the 1990s and bearing the conformational epitope targeted by the neutralizing antibody 2219.

  8. Adjuvant activity of peanut, cottonseed and rice oils on cellular and humoral response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Freitas

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The potentiality of the usage of vegetable oils such as soybean, corn, olive, sesame, murici seed, rapeseed, linseed, rice and cashew nuts as adjuvant of the humoral and cellular immune response has been recently shown. In the present work, besides of evaluating the adjuvant action of peanut, cottonseed and rice oils on humoral and cellular immune responses against ovalbumin (OVA we also evaluated the protective immune response induced by Leishmania antigens. The peanut oil significantly increased the synthesis of anti-ovalbumin antibodies in the primary response, but it did not favor cellular response. Concerning mice immunized with L. amazonensis antigens emulsified with peanut oil exacerbated skin lesions and lymph node parasite load what suggests stimulation of the Th2 immune response and down regulation of Th1 response. The cottonseed oil was shown to have adjuvant effect to the humoral response, stimulating a secondary response and also favored the delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH response to OVA. The rice oil stimulated a strong DTH reaction to OVA and enhanced the synthesis of antibodies after the third dose. Mice immunized with L. amazonensis antigens emulsified with rice oil or cotton seed oil were protected from developing skin lesions and lymph node parasite load. These results emphasize the interest and importance of the vegetable oils as tools in different procedures of immunization and their differential role in relation to the other adjuvant under usage.

  9. Vaccination with dengue virus-like particles induces humoral and cellular immune responses in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Quanfu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of dengue, an infectious disease caused by dengue virus (DENV, has dramatically increased around the world in recent decades and is becoming a severe public health threat. However, there is currently no specific treatment for dengue fever, and licensed vaccine against dengue is not available. Vaccination with virus-like particles (VLPs has shown considerable promise for many viral diseases, but the effect of DENV VLPs to induce specific immune responses has not been adequately investigated. Results By optimizing the expression plasmids, recombinant VLPs of four antigenically different DENV serotypes DENV1-4 were successfully produced in 293T cells. The vaccination effect of dengue VLPs in mice showed that monovalent VLPs of each serotype stimulated specific IgG responses and potent neutralizing antibodies against homotypic virus. Tetravalent VLPs efficiently enhanced specific IgG and neutralizing antibodies against all four serotypes of DENV. Moreover, vaccination with monovalent or tetravalent VLPs resulted in the induction of specific cytotoxic T cell responses. Conclusions Mammalian cell expressed dengue VLPs are capable to induce VLP-specific humoral and cellular immune responses in mice, and being a promising subunit vaccine candidate for prevention of dengue virus infection.

  10. Association of Neisseria gonorrhoeae Opa(CEA with dendritic cells suppresses their ability to elicit an HIV-1-specific T cell memory response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qigui Yu

    Full Text Available Infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae (N. gonorrhoeae can trigger an intense local inflammatory response at the site of infection, yet there is little specific immune response or development of immune memory. Gonococcal surface epitopes are known to undergo antigenic variation; however, this is unlikely to explain the weak immune response to infection since individuals can be re-infected by the same serotype. Previous studies have demonstrated that the colony opacity-associated (Opa proteins on the N. gonorrhoeae surface can bind human carcinoembryonic antigen-related cellular adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1 on CD4⁺ T cells to suppress T cell activation and proliferation. Interesting in this regard, N. gonorrhoeae infection is associated with impaired HIV-1 (human immunodeficiency virus type 1-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL responses and with transient increases in plasma viremia in HIV-1-infected patients, suggesting that N. gonorrhoeae may also subvert immune responses to co-pathogens. Since dendritic cells (DCs are professional antigen presenting cells (APCs that play a key role in the induction of an adaptive immune response, we investigated the effects of N. gonorrhoeae Opa proteins on human DC activation and function. While morphological changes reminiscent of DC maturation were evident upon N. gonorrhoeae infection, we observed a marked downregulation of DC maturation marker CD83 when the gonococci expressing CEACAM1-specific Opa(CEA, but not other Opa variants. Consistent with a gonococcal-induced defect in maturation, Opa(CEA binding to CEACAM1 reduced the DCs' capacity to stimulate an allogeneic T cell proliferative response. Moreover, Opa(CEA-expressing N. gonorrhoeae showed the potential to impair DC-dependent development of specific adaptive immunity, since infection with Opa(CEA-positive gonococci suppressed the ability of DCs to stimulate HIV-1-specific memory CTL responses. These results reveal a novel mechanism to explain

  11. Nanoparticle-based B-cell targeting vaccines: Tailoring of humoral immune responses by functionalization with different TLR-ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilker, Claudia; Kozlova, Diana; Sokolova, Viktoriya; Yan, Huimin; Epple, Matthias; Überla, Klaus; Temchura, Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Induction of an appropriate type of humoral immune response during vaccination is essential for protection against viral and bacterial infections. We recently observed that biodegradable calcium phosphate (CaP) nanoparticles coated with proteins efficiently targeted and activated naïve antigen-specific B-cells in vitro. We now compared different administration routes for CaP-nanoparticles and demonstrated that intramuscular immunization with such CaP-nanoparticles induced stronger immune responses than immunization with monovalent antigen. Additional functionalization of the CaP-nanoparticles with TRL-ligands allowed modulating the IgG subtype response and the level of mucosal IgA antibodies. CpG-containing CaP-nanoparticles were as immunogenic as a virus-like particle vaccine. Functionalization of CaP-nanoparticles with T-helper cell epitopes or CpG also allowed overcoming lack of T-cell help. Thus, our results indicate that CaP-nanoparticle-based B-cell targeting vaccines functionalized with TLR-ligands can serve as a versatile platform for efficient induction and modulation of humoral immune responses in vivo. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Sequential Immunization with gp140 Boosts Immune Responses Primed by Modified Vaccinia Ankara or DNA in HIV-Uninfected South African Participants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin Churchyard

    Full Text Available The safety and immunogenicity of SAAVI DNA-C2 (4 mg IM, SAAVI MVA-C (2.9 x 109 pfu IM and Novartis V2-deleted subtype C gp140 (100 mcg with MF59 adjuvant in various vaccination regimens was evaluated in HIV-uninfected adults in South Africa.Participants at three South African sites were randomized (1:1:1:1 to one of four vaccine regimens: MVA prime, sequential gp140 protein boost (M/M/P/P; concurrent MVA/gp140 (MP/MP; DNA prime, sequential MVA boost (D/D/M/M; DNA prime, concurrent MVA/gp140 boost (D/D/MP/MP or placebo. Peak HIV specific humoral and cellular responses were measured.184 participants were enrolled: 52% were female, all were Black/African, median age was 23 years (range, 18-42 years and 79% completed all vaccinations. 159 participants reported at least one adverse event, 92.5% were mild or moderate. Five, unrelated, serious adverse events were reported. The M/M/P/P and D/D/MP/MP regimens induced the strongest peak neutralizing and binding antibody responses and the greatest CD4+ T-cell responses to Env. All peak neutralizing and binding antibody responses decayed with time. The MVA, but not DNA, prime contributed to the humoral and cellular immune responses. The D/D/M/M regimen was poorly immunogenic overall but did induce modest CD4+ T-cell responses to Gag and Pol. CD8+ T-cell responses to any antigen were low for all regimens.The SAAVI DNA-C2, SAAVI MVA-C and Novartis gp140 with MF59 adjuvant in various combinations were safe and induced neutralizing and binding antibodies and cellular immune responses. Sequential immunization with gp140 boosted immune responses primed by MVA or DNA. The best overall immune responses were seen with the M/M/P/P regimen.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01418235.

  13. Cellular immune responses against CT7 (MAGE-C1) and humoral responses against other cancer-testis antigens in multiple myeloma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lendvai, Nikoletta; Gnjatic, Sacha; Ritter, Erika; Mangone, Michael; Austin, Wayne; Reyner, Karina; Jayabalan, David; Niesvizky, Ruben; Jagannath, Sundar; Bhardwaj, Nina; Chen-Kiang, Selina; Old, Lloyd J; Cho, Hearn Jay

    2010-01-29

    The type I melanoma antigen gene (MAGE) proteins CT7 (MAGE-C1) and MAGE-A3 are commonly expressed in multiple myeloma (MM), and their expression correlates with increased plasma cell proliferation and poor clinical outcome. They belong to the cancer-testis antigen (CTAg) group of tumor-associated proteins, some of which elicit spontaneous immune responses in cancer patients. CT7 and MAGE-A3 are promising antigenic targets for therapeutic tumor vaccines in myeloma; therefore, it is critical to determine if they are immunogenic in MM patients. We analyzed cellular and humoral immune responses against CTAgs in patients with plasma cell dyscrasias: MM, monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), and Waldenström's macroglobulinemia (WM). Bone marrow lymphocytes from two of four untreated MM patients exhibited CT7-specific cellular immune responses as measured by an autologous cellular immunity assay, the first such immune response to CT7 to be reported in cancer patients. Sera from 24 patients were screened by ELISA for humoral immune responses to CTAgs. Two patients with MM demonstrated positive titers, one for MAGE-A1 and the other for SSX1. These data demonstrate that CTAgs, particularly CT7, are immunogenic in MM patients and merit further exploration as targets of immunological therapy in MM.

  14. Natural and Induced Humoral Responses to MUC1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mensdorff-Pouilly, Silvia von; Moreno, Maria; Verheijen, René H. M.

    2011-01-01

    MUC1 is a membrane-tethered mucin expressed on the ductal cell surface of glandular epithelial cells. Loss of polarization, overexpression and aberrant glycosylation of MUC1 in mucosal inflammation and in adenocarcinomas induces humoral immune responses to the mucin. MUC1 IgG responses have been associated with a benefit in survival in patients with breast, lung, pancreatic, ovarian and gastric carcinomas. Antibodies bound to the mucin may curb tumor progression by restoring cell-cell interactions altered by tumor-associated MUC1, thus preventing metastatic dissemination, as well as counteracting the immune suppression exerted by the molecule. Furthermore, anti-MUC1 antibodies are capable of effecting tumor cell killing by antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Although cytotoxic T cells are indispensable to achieve anti-tumor responses in advanced disease, abs to tumor-associated antigens are ideally suited to address minimal residual disease and may be sufficient to exert adequate immune surveillance in an adjuvant setting, destroying tumor cells as they arise or maintaining occult disease in an equilibrium state. Initial evaluation of MUC1 peptide/glycopeptide mono and polyvalent vaccines has shown them to be immunogenic and safe; anti-tumor responses are scarce. Progress in carbohydrate synthesis has yielded a number of sophisticated substrates that include MUC1 glycopeptide epitopes that are at present in preclinical testing. Adjuvant vaccination with MUC1 glycopeptide polyvalent vaccines that induce strong humoral responses may prevent recurrence of disease in patients with early stage carcinomas. Furthermore, prophylactic immunotherapy targeting MUC1 may be a strategy to strengthen immune surveillance and prevent disease in subjects at hereditary high risk of breast, ovarian and colon cancer

  15. Natural and Induced Humoral Responses to MUC1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mensdorff-Pouilly, Silvia von, E-mail: s.vonmensdorff@vumc.nl; Moreno, Maria [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, VU University Medical Center, De Boelelaan 1117, Amsterdam 1081 HV (Netherlands); Verheijen, René H. M. [Department of Woman & Baby, Division of Surgical & Oncological Gynaecology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, Utrecht 3508 GA (Netherlands)

    2011-07-29

    MUC1 is a membrane-tethered mucin expressed on the ductal cell surface of glandular epithelial cells. Loss of polarization, overexpression and aberrant glycosylation of MUC1 in mucosal inflammation and in adenocarcinomas induces humoral immune responses to the mucin. MUC1 IgG responses have been associated with a benefit in survival in patients with breast, lung, pancreatic, ovarian and gastric carcinomas. Antibodies bound to the mucin may curb tumor progression by restoring cell-cell interactions altered by tumor-associated MUC1, thus preventing metastatic dissemination, as well as counteracting the immune suppression exerted by the molecule. Furthermore, anti-MUC1 antibodies are capable of effecting tumor cell killing by antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Although cytotoxic T cells are indispensable to achieve anti-tumor responses in advanced disease, abs to tumor-associated antigens are ideally suited to address minimal residual disease and may be sufficient to exert adequate immune surveillance in an adjuvant setting, destroying tumor cells as they arise or maintaining occult disease in an equilibrium state. Initial evaluation of MUC1 peptide/glycopeptide mono and polyvalent vaccines has shown them to be immunogenic and safe; anti-tumor responses are scarce. Progress in carbohydrate synthesis has yielded a number of sophisticated substrates that include MUC1 glycopeptide epitopes that are at present in preclinical testing. Adjuvant vaccination with MUC1 glycopeptide polyvalent vaccines that induce strong humoral responses may prevent recurrence of disease in patients with early stage carcinomas. Furthermore, prophylactic immunotherapy targeting MUC1 may be a strategy to strengthen immune surveillance and prevent disease in subjects at hereditary high risk of breast, ovarian and colon cancer.

  16. Humoral immune-response against human cytomegalovirus (hcmv)-specific proteins after hcmv infection in lung transplantation as detected with recombinant and naturally-occurring proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zanten, J; Harmsen, M. C.; van der Giessen, M.; van der Bij, W; Prop, J.; de Leij, L; The, T. Hauw

    The humoral immune response to four intracellularly located cytomegalovirus (CMV) proteins was studied in 15 lung transplant recipients experiencing active CMV infections. Five patients had primary infections, and 10 had secondary infections. Antibodies of the immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG classes

  17. Anomalous hypothalamic responses to humor in cataplexy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan L Reiss

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Cataplexy is observed in a subset of patients with narcolepsy and affects approximately 1 in 2,000 persons. Cataplexy is most often triggered by strong emotions such as laughter, which can result in transient, yet debilitating, muscle atonia. The objective of this study was to examine the neural systems underlying humor processing in individuals with cataplexy.While undergoing functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI, we showed ten narcolepsy-cataplexy patients and ten healthy controls humorous cartoons. In addition, we examined the brain activity of one subject while in a full-blown cataplectic attack. Behavioral results showed that participants with cataplexy rated significantly fewer humorous cartoons as funny compared to controls. Concurrent fMRI showed that patients, when compared to controls and in the absence of overt cataplexy symptoms, showed pronounced activity in the emotional network including the ventral striatum and hypothalamus while viewing humorous versus non-humorous cartoons. Increased activity was also observed in the right inferior frontal gyri--a core component of the inhibitory circuitry. In comparison, the one subject who experienced a cataplectic attack showed dramatic reductions in hypothalamic activity.These findings suggest an overdrive of the emotional circuitry and possible compensatory suppression by cortical inhibitory regions in cataplexy. Moreover, during cataplectic attacks, the hypothalamus is characterized by a marked decrease in activity similar to that observed during sleep. One possible explanation for these findings is an initial overdrive and compensatory shutdown of the hypothalamus resulting in full cataplectic symptoms.

  18. Superior control of HIV-1 replication by CD8+ T cells targeting conserved epitopes: implications for HIV vaccine design.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratima Kunwar

    Full Text Available A successful HIV vaccine will likely induce both humoral and cell-mediated immunity, however, the enormous diversity of HIV has hampered the development of a vaccine that effectively elicits both arms of the adaptive immune response. To tackle the problem of viral diversity, T cell-based vaccine approaches have focused on two main strategies (i increasing the breadth of vaccine-induced responses or (ii increasing vaccine-induced responses targeting only conserved regions of the virus. The relative extent to which set-point viremia is impacted by epitope-conservation of CD8(+ T cell responses elicited during early HIV-infection is unknown but has important implications for vaccine design. To address this question, we comprehensively mapped HIV-1 CD8(+ T cell epitope-specificities in 23 ART-naïve individuals during early infection and computed their conservation score (CS by three different methods (prevalence, entropy and conseq on clade-B and group-M sequence alignments. The majority of CD8(+ T cell responses were directed against variable epitopes (p<0.01. Interestingly, increasing breadth of CD8(+ T cell responses specifically recognizing conserved epitopes was associated with lower set-point viremia (r = - 0.65, p = 0.009. Moreover, subjects possessing CD8(+ T cells recognizing at least one conserved epitope had 1.4 log10 lower set-point viremia compared to those recognizing only variable epitopes (p = 0.021. The association between viral control and the breadth of conserved CD8(+ T cell responses may be influenced by the method of CS definition and sequences used to determine conservation levels. Strikingly, targeting variable versus conserved epitopes was independent of HLA type (p = 0.215. The associations with viral control were independent of functional avidity of CD8(+ T cell responses elicited during early infection. Taken together, these data suggest that the next-generation of T-cell based HIV-1 vaccines should focus

  19. Humor and laughter in patients with cerebellar degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, B; Propson, B; Göricke, S; Jacobi, H; Wild, B; Timmann, D

    2012-06-01

    Humor is a complex behavior which includes cognitive, affective and motor responses. Based on observations of affective changes in patients with cerebellar lesions, the cerebellum may support cerebral and brainstem areas involved in understanding and appreciation of humorous stimuli and expression of laughter. The aim of the present study was to examine if humor appreciation, perception of humorous stimuli, and the succeeding facial reaction differ between patients with cerebellar degeneration and healthy controls. Twenty-three adults with pure cerebellar degeneration were compared with 23 age-, gender-, and education-matched healthy control subjects. No significant difference in humor appreciation and perception of humorous stimuli could be found between groups using the 3 Witz-Dimensionen Test, a validated test asking for funniness and aversiveness of jokes and cartoons. Furthermore, while observing jokes, humorous cartoons, and video sketches, facial expressions of subjects were videotaped and afterwards analysed using the Facial Action Coding System. Using depression as a covariate, the number, and to a lesser degree, the duration of facial expressions during laughter were reduced in cerebellar patients compared to healthy controls. In sum, appreciation of humor appears to be largely preserved in patients with chronic cerebellar degeneration. Cerebellar circuits may contribute to the expression of laughter. Findings add to the literature that non-motor disorders in patients with chronic cerebellar disease are generally mild, but do not exclude that more marked disorders may show up in acute cerebellar disease and/or in more specific tests of humor appreciation.

  20. DNA-encapsulated magnesium phosphate nanoparticles elicit both humoral and cellular immune responses in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajadhar Bhakta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of pEGFP (plasmid expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein-encapsulated PEGylated (meaning polyethylene glycol coated magnesium phosphate nanoparticles (referred to as MgPi-pEGFP nanoparticles for the induction of immune responses was investigated in a mouse model. MgPi-pEGFP nanoparticles induced enhanced serum antibody and antigen-specific T-lymphocyte responses, as well as increased IFN-γ and IL-12 levels compared to naked pEGFP when administered via intravenous, intraperitoneal or intramuscular routes. A significant macrophage response, both in size and activity, was also observed when mice were immunized with the nanoparticle formulation. The response was highly specific for the antigen, as the increase in interaction between macrophages and lymphocytes as well as lymphocyte proliferation took place only when they were re-stimulated with recombinant green fluorescence protein (rGFP. Thus the nanoparticle formulation elicited both humoral as well as cellular responses. Cytokine profiling revealed the induction of Th-1 type responses. The results suggest DNA-encapsulated magnesium phosphate (MgPi nanoparticles may constitute a safer, more stable and cost-efficient DNA vaccine formulation.

  1. LMFAO! Humor as a Response to Fear: Decomposing Fear Control within the Extended Parallel Process Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abril, Eulàlia P.; Szczypka, Glen; Emery, Sherry L.

    2017-01-01

    This study seeks to analyze fear control responses to the 2012 Tips from Former Smokers campaign using the Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM). The goal is to examine the occurrence of ancillary fear control responses, like humor. In order to explore individuals’ responses in an organic setting, we use Twitter data—tweets—collected via the Firehose. Content analysis of relevant fear control tweets (N = 14,281) validated the existence of boomerang responses within the EPPM: denial, defensive avoidance, and reactance. More importantly, results showed that humor tweets were not only a significant occurrence but constituted the majority of fear control responses. PMID:29527092

  2. Humans with chimpanzee-like major histocompatibility complex-specificities control HIV-1 infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoof, Ilka; Kesmir, Can; Lund, Ole

    2008-01-01

    and the progression rate to AIDS. Chimpanzees control HIV-1 viral replication and develop a chronic infection without progressing to AIDS. A similar course of disease is observed in human long-term non-progressors. Objective: To investigate if long-term non-progressors and chimpanzees have functional similarities...... in their MHC class I repertoire. Methods: We compared the specificity of groups of human MHC molecules associated with different levels of viremia in HIV-1 infected individuals with those of chimpanzee. Results and conclusion: We demonstrate that human MHC with control of HIV-1 viral load share binding motifs...... with chimpanzee MHC. Moreover, we find that chimpanzee and human MHC associated with low viral load are predicted to elicit broader Gag-specific immune responses than human MHC associated with high viral load, thus supporting earlier findings that Gag-specific immune responses are essential for HIV-1 control....

  3. Dynamics of a Fractional Order HIV Infection Model with Specific Functional Response and Cure Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnane Boukhouima

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a fractional order model in this paper to describe the dynamics of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection. In the model, the infection transmission process is modeled by a specific functional response. First, we show that the model is mathematically and biologically well posed. Second, the local and global stabilities of the equilibria are investigated. Finally, some numerical simulations are presented in order to illustrate our theoretical results.

  4. Effect of a cephalic irradiation on humoral immunitary response in adult rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Servant, P.; Marquer, C.

    In connection with the origin and mechanisms of immunitary depression due to irradiation, it is tried to find if changes of humoral immunitary response could be caused by a limited irradiation of central nervous system [fr

  5. DNA/MVA Vaccines for HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smita S. Iyer

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the initial proof-of-concept studies examining the ability of antigen-encoded plasmid DNA to serve as an immunogen, DNA vaccines have evolved as a clinically safe and effective platform for priming HIV-specific cellular and humoral responses in heterologous “prime-boost” vaccination regimens. Direct injection of plasmid DNA into the muscle induces T- and B-cell responses against foreign antigens. However, the insufficient magnitude of this response has led to the development of approaches for enhancing the immunogenicity of DNA vaccines. The last two decades have seen significant progress in the DNA-based vaccine platform with optimized plasmid constructs, improved delivery methods, such as electroporation, the use of molecular adjuvants and novel strategies combining DNA with viral vectors and subunit proteins. These innovations are paving the way for the clinical application of DNA-based HIV vaccines. Here, we review preclinical studies on the DNA-prime/modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA-boost vaccine modality for HIV. There is a great deal of interest in enhancing the immunogenicity of DNA by engineering DNA vaccines to co-express immune modulatory adjuvants. Some of these adjuvants have demonstrated encouraging results in preclinical and clinical studies, and these data will be examined, as well.

  6. Humor drawings evoked temporal and spectral EEG processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Hsien-Chu; Chuang, Shang-Wen

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The study aimed to explore the humor processing elicited through the manipulation of artistic drawings. Using the Comprehension–Elaboration Theory of humor as the main research background, the experiment manipulated the head portraits of celebrities based on the independent variables of facial deformation (large/small) and addition of affective features (positive/negative). A 64-channel electroencephalography was recorded in 30 participants while viewing the incongruous drawings of celebrities. The electroencephalography temporal and spectral responses were measured during the three stages of humor which included incongruity detection, incongruity comprehension and elaboration of humor. Analysis of event-related potentials indicated that for humorous vs non-humorous drawings, facial deformation and the addition of affective features significantly affected the degree of humor elicited, specifically: large > small deformation; negative > positive affective features. The N170, N270, N400, N600-800 and N900-1200 components showed significant differences, particularly in the right prefrontal and frontal regions. Analysis of event-related spectral perturbation showed significant differences in the theta band evoked in the anterior cingulate cortex, parietal region and posterior cingulate cortex; and in the alpha and beta bands in the motor areas. These regions are involved in emotional processing, memory retrieval, and laughter and feelings of amusement induced by elaboration of the situation. PMID:28402573

  7. Humor drawings evoked temporal and spectral EEG processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Regina W Y; Kuo, Hsien-Chu; Chuang, Shang-Wen

    2017-08-01

    The study aimed to explore the humor processing elicited through the manipulation of artistic drawings. Using the Comprehension-Elaboration Theory of humor as the main research background, the experiment manipulated the head portraits of celebrities based on the independent variables of facial deformation (large/small) and addition of affective features (positive/negative). A 64-channel electroencephalography was recorded in 30 participants while viewing the incongruous drawings of celebrities. The electroencephalography temporal and spectral responses were measured during the three stages of humor which included incongruity detection, incongruity comprehension and elaboration of humor. Analysis of event-related potentials indicated that for humorous vs non-humorous drawings, facial deformation and the addition of affective features significantly affected the degree of humor elicited, specifically: large > small deformation; negative > positive affective features. The N170, N270, N400, N600-800 and N900-1200 components showed significant differences, particularly in the right prefrontal and frontal regions. Analysis of event-related spectral perturbation showed significant differences in the theta band evoked in the anterior cingulate cortex, parietal region and posterior cingulate cortex; and in the alpha and beta bands in the motor areas. These regions are involved in emotional processing, memory retrieval, and laughter and feelings of amusement induced by elaboration of the situation. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  8. Prime-Boost Vaccination Using Chemokine-Fused gp120 DNA and HIV Envelope Peptides Activates Both Immediate and Long-Term Memory Cellular Responses in Rhesus Macaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Qin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available HIV vaccine candidates with improved immunogenicity and induction of mucosal T-cell immunity are needed. A prime-boost strategy using a novel HIV glycoprotein 120 DNA vaccine was employed to immunize rhesus macaques. The DNA vaccine encoded a chimeric gp120 protein in fusion with monocyte chemoattractant protein-3, which was hypothesized to improve the ability of antigen-presenting cells to capture viral antigen through chemokine receptor-mediated endocytosis. DNA vaccination induced virus-reactive T cells in peripheral blood, detectable by T cell proliferation, INFγ ELISPOT and sustained IL-6 production, without humoral responses. With a peptide-cocktail vaccine containing a set of conserved polypeptides of HIV-1 envelope protein, given by nasogastric administration, primed T-cell immunity was significantly boosted. Surprisingly, long-term and peptide-specific mucosal memory T-cell immunity was detected in both vaccinated macaques after one year. Therefore, data from this investigation offer proof-of-principle for potential effectiveness of the prime-boost strategy with a chemokine-fused gp120 DNA and warrant further testing in the nonhuman primate models for developing as a potential HIV vaccine candidate in humans.

  9. Cellular Architecture of Spinal Granulomas and the Immunological Response in Tuberculosis Patients Coinfected with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Debapriya; Danaviah, Siva; Muema, Daniel M; Akilimali, Ngomu Akeem; Moodley, Prashini; Ndung'u, Thumbi; Das, Gobardhan

    2017-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( M.tb ) and HIV are individually responsible for the most deaths worldwide among all infectious agents, and coinfection with M.tb and HIV is a significant public health challenge in the developing world. Although the lung is the primary target organ for tuberculosis (TB), M.tb can also cause extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) such as in the bones and joints. Treatment of EPTB is much more challenging than treatment of pulmonary TB. The hallmark of the host immune response against TB is the formation of organized structures called granulomas that are infiltrated with immune cells and are rich in cytokines and chemokines. Inside granulomas, the host confines the M.tb bacteria to a particular region of the organ and avoids dispersion. In this study, we analyzed immune cells in bone granulomas of patients with EPTB that are also coinfected with HIV. We found that HIV-infected TB patients have dispersed bone granulomas, with reduced T cell numbers and a concomitant increase in plasma cells. Additionally, HIV-infected patients exhibited dramatically increased serum levels of IgM and IgG1 antibodies, which is indicative of T-cell-independent B-cell activation and mucosal T-cell activation, respectively. Interestingly, we also observed that CD29 + stem cells are increased in HIV-TB coinfection, suggesting a link with HIV infection. Therefore, our work provides new insights into the architecture of spinal TB granulomas and the role of B-cells and humoral immunity against a highly infectious intracellular pathogen. We propose that our findings will inform biomarker identification for EPTB and possibly the development of related therapeutics and/or vaccines to protect HIV-infected patients against disseminated TB.

  10. HIV-1 specific IgA detected in vaginal secretions of HIV uninfected women participating in a microbicide trial in Southern Africa are primarily directed toward gp120 and gp140 specificities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly E Seaton

    Full Text Available Many participants in microbicide trials remain uninfected despite ongoing exposure to HIV-1. Determining the emergence and nature of mucosal HIV-specific immune responses in such women is important, since these responses may contribute to protection and could provide insight for the rational design of HIV-1 vaccines.We first conducted a pilot study to compare three sampling devices (Dacron swabs, flocked nylon swabs and Merocel sponges for detection of HIV-1-specific IgG and IgA antibodies in vaginal secretions. IgG antibodies from HIV-1-positive women reacted broadly across the full panel of eight HIV-1 envelope (Env antigens tested, whereas IgA antibodies only reacted to the gp41 subunit. No Env-reactive antibodies were detected in the HIV-negative women. The three sampling devices yielded equal HIV-1-specific antibody titers, as well as total IgG and IgA concentrations. We then tested vaginal Dacron swabs archived from 57 HIV seronegative women who participated in a microbicide efficacy trial in Southern Africa (HPTN 035. We detected vaginal IgA antibodies directed at HIV-1 Env gp120/gp140 in six of these women, and at gp41 in another three women, but did not detect Env-specific IgG antibodies in any women.Vaginal secretions of HIV-1 infected women contained IgG reactivity to a broad range of Env antigens and IgA reactivity to gp41. In contrast, Env-binding antibodies in the vaginal secretions of HIV-1 uninfected women participating in the microbicide trial were restricted to the IgA subtype and were mostly directed at HIV-1 gp120/gp140.

  11. Pre-existing adenovirus immunity modifies a complex mixed Th1 and Th2 cytokine response to an Ad5/HIV-1 vaccine candidate in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel O Pine

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The results of the recent Step Study highlight a need to clarify the effects of pre-existing natural immunity to a vaccine vector on vaccine-induced T-cell responses. To investigate this interaction, we examined the relationship between pre-existing Ad5 immunity and T-cell cytokine response profiles in healthy, HIV-uninfected recipients of MRKAd5 HIV-1 gag vaccine (HVTN 050, ClinicalTrials.gov #NCT00849732. Participants were grouped by baseline Ad5 neutralizing antibody titer as either Ad5-seronegative (titer ≤18; n = 36 or Ad5-seropositive (titer >200; n = 34. Samples from vaccine recipients were analyzed for immune responses to either HIV-1 Gag peptide pools or Ad5 empty vector using an ex vivo assay that measures thirty cytokines in the absence of long-term culture. The overall profiles of cytokine responses to Gag and Ad5 had similar combinations of induced Th1- and Th2-type cytokines, including IFN-γ, IL-2, TNF-α, IP-10, IL-13, and IL-10, although the Ad5-specific responses were uniformly higher than the Gag-specific responses (p<0.0001 for 9 out of 11 significantly expressed analytes. At the peak response time point, PBMC from Ad5-seronegative vaccinees secreted significantly more IP-10 in response to Gag (p = 0.008, and significantly more IP-10 (p = 0.0009, IL-2 (p = 0.006 and IL-10 (p = 0.05 in response to Ad5 empty vector than PBMC from Ad5-seropositive vaccinees. Additionally, similar responses to the Ad5 vector prior to vaccination were observed in almost all subjects, regardless of Ad5 neutralizing antibody status, and the levels of secreted IFN-γ, IL-10, IL-1Ra and GM-CSF were blunted following vaccination. The cytokine response profile of Gag-specific T cells mirrored the Ad5-specific response present in all subjects before vaccination, and included a number of Th1- and Th2-associated cytokines not routinely assessed in current vaccine trials, such as IP-10, IL-10, IL-13, and GM-CSF. Together, these

  12. Advancing Toward HIV-1 Vaccine Efficacy through the Intersections of Immune Correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia D. Tomaras

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Interrogating immune correlates of infection risk for efficacious and non-efficacious HIV-1 vaccine clinical trials have provided hypotheses regarding the mechanisms of induction of protective immunity to HIV-1. To date, there have been six HIV-1 vaccine efficacy trials (VAX003, Vaxgen, Inc., San Francisco, CA, USA, VAX004 (Vaxgen, Inc., HIV-1 Vaccine Trials Network (HVTN 502 (Step, HVTN 503 (Phambili, RV144 (sponsored by the U.S. Military HIV Research Program, MHRP and HVTN 505. Cellular, humoral, host genetic and virus sieve analyses of these human clinical trials each can provide information that may point to potentially protective mechanisms for vaccine-induced immunity. Critical to staying on the path toward development of an efficacious vaccine is utilizing information from previous human and non-human primate studies in concert with new discoveries of basic HIV-1 host-virus interactions. One way that past discoveries from correlate analyses can lead to novel inventions or new pathways toward vaccine efficacy is to examine the intersections where different components of the correlate analyses overlap (e.g., virus sieve analysis combined with humoral correlates that can point to mechanistic hypotheses. Additionally, differences in durability among vaccine-induced T- and B-cell responses indicate that time post-vaccination is an important variable. Thus, understanding the nature of protective responses, the degree to which such responses have, or have not, as yet, been induced by previous vaccine trials and the design of strategies to induce durable T- and B-cell responses are critical to the development of a protective HIV-1 vaccine.

  13. Broad, Intense Anti-Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Ex Vivo CD8+ Responses in HIV Type 1-Infected Patients: Comparison with Anti-Epstein-Barr Virus Responses and Changes during Antiretroviral Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalod, Marc; Dupuis, Marion; Deschemin, Jean-Christophe; Sicard, Didier; Salmon, Dominique; Delfraissy, Jean-Francois; Venet, Alain; Sinet, Martine; Guillet, Jean-Gerard

    1999-01-01

    The ex vivo antiviral CD8+ repertoires of 34 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-seropositive patients with various CD4+ T-cell counts and virus loads were analyzed by gamma interferon enzyme-linked immunospot assay, using peptides derived from HIV type 1 and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Most patients recognized many HIV peptides, with markedly high frequencies, in association with all the HLA class I molecules tested. We found no correlation between the intensity of anti-HIV CD8+ responses and the CD4+ counts or virus load. In contrast, the polyclonality of anti-HIV CD8+ responses was positively correlated with the CD4+ counts. The anti-EBV responses were significantly less intense than the anti-HIV responses and were positively correlated with the CD4+ counts. Longitudinal follow-up of several patients revealed the remarkable stability of the anti-HIV and anti-EBV CD8+ responses in two patients with stable CD4+ counts, while both antiviral responses decreased in two patients with obvious progression toward disease. Last, highly active antiretroviral therapy induced marked decreases in the number of anti-HIV CD8+ T cells, while the anti-EBV responses increased. These findings emphasize the magnitude of the ex vivo HIV-specific CD8+ responses at all stages of HIV infection and suggest that the CD8+ hyperlymphocytosis commonly observed in HIV infection is driven mainly by virus replication, through intense, continuous activation of HIV-specific CD8+ T cells until ultimate progression toward disease. Nevertheless, highly polyclonal anti-HIV CD8+ responses may be associated with a better clinical status. Our data also suggest that a decrease of anti-EBV CD8+ responses may occur with depletion of CD4+ T cells, but this could be restored by highly active antiretroviral treatment. PMID:10438796

  14. Humorous Relations: Attentiveness, Pleasure and Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Cris

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on the structures of humor and joke telling that require particular kinds of attentiveness and particular relationships between speaker and audience, or more specifically, between classmates. First, I will analyze the pedagogical and relational preconditions that are necessary for humor to work. If humor is to work well, the…

  15. Adaptação e validação da Escala de Senso de Humor Situacional Adaptación y validez de la Escala de Sentido del Humor Situacional Adaptation and validation of the Situational Humor Response Questionaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Benevides Soares

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available O estudo visou desenvolver uma versão em português brasileiro do Situational Humor Response Questionaire (SHRQ, com adaptação transcultural e avaliação das medidas psicométricas em amostra brasileira. O instrumento em português de Portugal foi vertido para o português brasileiro passando pelas etapas de adaptação semântica, comparação das versões, validade de face e de conteúdo. O instrumento foi aplicado a 621 sujeitos. Foi feita extração de fatores com rotação oblíqua, análise das cargas fatoriais e consistência interna. Foram apontados três fatores: humor com amigos e colegas (α=0,70; influências sobre o humor (α=0,70; e humor em situações adversas (α =0,55. A consistência interna sugere que para o contexto brasileiro podem ser aperfeiçoados os itens de forma a aumentar o grau de precisão do fator. Contudo, o instrumento apresenta consistência interna aceitável.El estudio visó desarrollar una versión en portugués brasileño del Situational Humor Response Questionaire (SHRQ, con adaptación transcultural y evaluación de las medidas psicométricas en muestra brasileña. El instrumento en portugués de Portugal fue traducido para el portugués brasileño pasando por las etapas de adaptación semántica, comparación de las versiones, validez facial y de contenido. El instrumento fue aplicado en 621 sujetos. Fue hecha la extracción de factores con rotación oblicua, análisis de las cargas factoriales y consistencia interna. Fueron apuntados tres factores: humor con amigos y compañeros (α=0,70; influencias sobre el humor (α=0,70; y humor en situaciones adversas (α=0,55. La consistencia interna sugiere que para el contexto brasileño pueden ser perfeccionados los ítems para aumentar el grado de precisión del factor. Sin embargo, el instrumento presenta consistencia interna aceptable.This study aimed to develop a Brazilian Portuguese version of the Situational Humor Response Questionnaire (SHRQ, with

  16. Identification of a CD4-Binding-Site Antibody to HIV that Evolved Near-Pan Neutralization Breadth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Jinghe; Kang, Byong H.; Ishida, Elise; Zhou, Tongqing; Griesman, Trevor; Sheng, Zizhang; Wu, Fan; Doria-Rose, Nicole A.; Zhang, Baoshan; McKee, Krisha; O’Dell, Sijy; Chuang, Gwo-Yu; Druz, Aliaksandr; Georgiev, Ivelin S.; Schramm, Chaim A.; Zheng, Anqi; Joyce, M.  Gordon; Asokan, Mangaiarkarasi; Ransier, Amy; Darko, Sam; Migueles, Stephen A.; Bailer, Robert T.; Louder, Mark K.; Alam, S.  Munir; Parks, Robert; Kelsoe, Garnett; Von Holle, Tarra; Haynes, Barton F.; Douek, Daniel C.; Hirsch, Vanessa; Seaman, Michael S.; Shapiro, Lawrence; Mascola, John R.; Kwong, Peter D.; Connors, Mark

    2016-11-01

    Detailed studies of the broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) that underlie the best available examples of the humoral immune response to HIV are providing important information for the development of therapies and prophylaxis for HIV-1 infection. Here, we report a CD4-binding site (CD4bs) antibody, named N6, that potently neutralized 98% of HIV-1 isolates, including 16 of 20 that were resistant to other members of its class. N6 evolved a mode of recognition such that its binding was not impacted by the loss of individual contacts across the immunoglobulin heavy chain. In addition, structural analysis revealed that the orientation of N6 permitted it to avoid steric clashes with glycans, which is a common mechanism of resistance. Thus, an HIV-1-specific bNAb can achieve potent, near-pan neutralization of HIV-1, making it an attractive candidate for use in therapy and prophylaxis.

  17. The Immune System of HIV-Exposed Uninfected Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Raya, Bahaa; Kollmann, Tobias R; Marchant, Arnaud; MacGillivray, Duncan M

    2016-01-01

    Infants born to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected women are HIV-exposed but the majority remains uninfected [i.e., HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU)]. HEU infants suffer greater morbidity and mortality from infections compared to HIV-unexposed (HU) peers. The reason(s) for these worse outcomes are uncertain, but could be related to an altered immune system state. This review comprehensively summarizes the current literature investigating the adaptive and innate immune system of HEU infants. HEU infants have altered cell-mediated immunity, including impaired T-cell maturation with documented hypo- as well as hyper-responsiveness to T-cell activation. And although prevaccination vaccine-specific antibody levels are often lower in HEU than HU, most HEU infants mount adequate humoral immune response following primary vaccination with diphtheria toxoid, haemophilus influenzae type b, whole cell pertussis, measles, hepatitis B, tetanus toxoid, and pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. However, HEU infants are often found to have lower absolute neutrophil counts as compared to HU infants. On the other hand, an increase of innate immune cytokine production and expression of co-stimulatory markers has been noted in HEU infants, but this increase appears to be restricted to the first few weeks of life. The immune system of HEU children beyond infancy remains largely unexplored.

  18. How Does the Agent’s Perceived Intentions Change Consumers Response to the Humorous (Disparagement Humor) Advertisement in Morocco?

    OpenAIRE

    Nejjar, Ichraq

    2012-01-01

    Humorous advertisements are widely used in Morocco. Disparagement humour in particular is gaining popularity within Moroccan advertisers. However, little research has been done in order to assess consumer’s feelings and opinions towards these advertisements. This research will therefore examine female Moroccan’s sentiments and opinions towards disparagement advertisements by employing the persuasion knowledge model as a framework, and specifically focusing on the impact that the perceived adv...

  19. Incorporation of chimeric HIV-SIV-Env and modified HIV-Env proteins into HIV pseudovirions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devitt, Gerard; Emerson, Vanessa; Holtkotte, Denise; Pfeiffer, Tanya; Pisch, Thorsten; Bosch, Valerie

    2007-01-01

    Low level incorporation of the viral glycoprotein (Env) into human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) particles is a major drawback for vaccine strategies against HIV/AIDS in which HIV particles are used as immunogen. Within this study, we have examined two strategies aimed at achieving higher levels of Env incorporation into non-infectious pseudovirions (PVs). First, we have generated chimeric HIV/SIV Env proteins containing the truncated C-terminal tail region of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)mac239-Env767 stop , which mediates strongly increased incorporation of SIV-Env into SIV particles. In a second strategy, we have employed a truncated HIV-Env protein (Env-Tr752 N750K ) which we have previously demonstrated to be incorporated into HIV virions, generated in infected T-cells, to a higher level than that of Wt-HIV-Env. Although the chimeric HIV/SIV Env proteins were expressed at the cell surface and induced increased levels of cell-cell fusion in comparison to Wt-HIV-Env, they did not exhibit increased incorporation into either HIV-PVs or SIV-PVs. Only Env-Tr752 N750K exhibited significantly higher (threefold) levels of incorporation into HIV-PVs, an improvement, which, although not dramatic, is worthwhile for the large-scale preparation of non-infectious PVs for vaccine studies aimed at inducing Env humoral responses

  20. The effect of infectious dose on humoral and cellular immune responses in Chlamydophila caviae primary ocular infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Filipovic

    Full Text Available Following infection, the balance between protective immunity and immunopathology often depends on the initial infectious load. Several studies have investigated the effect of infectious dose; however, the mechanism by which infectious dose affects disease outcomes and the development of a protective immune response is not known. The aim of this study was to investigate how the infectious dose modulates the local and systemic humoral and the cellular immune responses during primary ocular chlamydial infection in the guinea pig animal model. Guinea pigs were infected by ocular instillation of a Chlamydophila caviae-containing eye solution in the conjunctival sac in three different doses: 1×102, 1×104, and 1×106 inclusion forming units (IFUs. Ocular pathology, chlamydial clearance, local and systemic C. caviae-specific humoral and cellular immune responses were assessed. All inocula of C. caviae significantly enhanced the local production of C. caviae-specific IgA in tears, but only guinea pigs infected with the higher doses showed significant changes in C. caviae-specific IgA levels in vaginal washes and serum. On complete resolution of infection, the low dose of C. caviae did not alter the ratio of CD4+ and CD8+ cells within guinea pigs' submandibular lymph node (SMLN lymphocytes while the higher doses increased the percentages of CD4+ and CD8+ cells within the SMLN lymphocytes. A significant negative correlation between pathology intensity and the percentage of CD4+ and CD8+ cells within SMLN lymphocyte pool at selected time points post-infection was recorded for both 1×104, and 1×106 IFU infected guinea pigs. The relevance of the observed dose-dependent differences on the immune response should be further investigated in repeated ocular chlamydial infections.

  1. Designed and Accidental Humor in the Smart Digital Wild

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Anton; Ruiz Miyares, L.

    Humor can be designed and canned, for example as it appears in videogames, sitcoms or amusement parks. We often have humor professionals that have responsibility for this inclusion of humor. Humor can be designed for a particular occasion, for example in an April prank. However, in real life we

  2. Comparison of humoral response in sheep to Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica experimental infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang W.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Humoral response of sheep to F. gigantica was compared with the well known humoral response to F. hepatica, in order to explain the difference of susceptibility of sheep to these two parasites. In this work, a lesser susceptibility of sheep to F. gigantica than to F. hepatica infection was confirmed. Humoral response to F. hepatica infection is similar to that previously described by several authors. IgG level of F. gigantica infected sheep increased from week 2 post-infection (2WPI and displayed a peak at 13WPI. F. gigantica excretory-secretory products (FgESP analyzed by SDS-PAGE showed at least 31 bands from 12.0 to 127.6 kDa in FgESP. Western blot indicated that F. gigantica infected sheep sera recognized, in FgESP, at least 30 antigens from 7.8 to 119.2 kDa of which 12 major bands recognized after OWPI. In FhESP and FgESP, F. hepatica infected sheep serum reacted only with the lower molecular mass antigens, while F. gigantica infected sheep serum reacted with the lower and the higher molecular mass antigens. These differences of antigenic recognition might be associated with the difference of susceptibility of sheep. Further investigation must be done to study the mechanism of resistance between the sheep infected with F. hepatica or F. gigantica.

  3. Caracterización de las respuestas inmunocelular y humoral en pacientes con virus del papiloma humano Characterization of humoral and cellular immune responses in patients with human papilloma virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Carmen Clares Pochet

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo y transversal de 30 féminas con infección por el virus del papiloma humano, atendidas en la consulta de Inmunología del Policlínico de Especialidades perteneciente al Hospital Provincial Docente Clinicoquirúrgico "Saturnino Lora Torres" de Santiago de Cuba, desde junio del 2009 hasta igual mes del 2010, a fin de caracterizarlas según la respuesta inmunitaria. Para evaluar la respuesta inmune celular y humoral se empleó el test de rosetas y la cuantificación de inmunoglobulinas, respectivamente. En la serie prevaleció la infección por el virus antes mencionado en las mujeres de 25-35 años (40,0 %, en especial las procedentes de la zona urbana y se evidenció una disminución de la respuesta celular significativa con relación a la humoral.A descriptive and cross-sectional study was carried out in 30 females infected with the human papilloma virus, attended in the office of Immunology of the Specialty Polyclinic belonging to "Saturnino Lora" Provincial Clinical Surgical Teaching Hospital in Santiago de Cuba, from June 2009 to June 2010, in order to characterize them according to immune response. To evaluate the humoral and cellular immune response rosetting assay and quantification of immunoglobulines were used respectively. Women between 25-36 years of age (40 % infected with this virus, especially those coming from urban areas, prevailed in the series, and a significant decrease of the cellular response as compared to the humoral response was evidenced.

  4. Analysis of the humoral immune response to Chlamydia outer membrane protein 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, P; Christiansen, Gunna; Persson, K

    1998-01-01

    The humoral immune response to Chlamydia outer membrane protein 2 (Omp2) was studied. Omp2 is a highly genus-conserved structural protein of all Chlamydia species, containing a variable N-terminal fragment. To analyze where the immunogenic parts were localized, seven highly purified truncated...... fusion proteins constituting different regions of the protein were produced (Chlamydia pneumoniae-Omp2aa23-aa93, Chlamydia psittaci-Omp2aa23-aa94, and Chlamydia trachomatis-Omp2aa23-aa84, aa87-aa547, aa23-aa182, aa167-aa434, aa420-aa547). By an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with serologically defined...... patient sera, Omp2 was found to be a major immunogen of both C. pneumoniae and C. trachomatis infections (P species-specific anti-Omp2 immunoglobulins were detected....

  5. Maturation and Mip-1β Production of Cytomegalovirus-Specific T Cell Responses in Tanzanian Children, Adolescents and Adults: Impact by HIV and Mycobacterium tuberculosis Co-Infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien Portevin

    Full Text Available It is well accepted that aging and HIV infection are associated with quantitative and functional changes of CMV-specific T cell responses. We studied here the expression of Mip-1β and the T cell maturation marker CD27 within CMVpp65-specific CD4(+ and CD8(+ T cells in relation to age, HIV and active Tuberculosis (TB co-infection in a cohort of Tanzanian volunteers (≤ 16 years of age, n = 108 and ≥ 18 years, n = 79. Independent of HIV co-infection, IFNγ(+ CMVpp65-specific CD4(+ T cell frequencies increased with age. In adults, HIV co-infection further increased the frequencies of these cells. A high capacity for Mip-1β production together with a CD27(low phenotype was characteristic for these cells in children and adults. Interestingly, in addition to HIV co-infection active TB disease was linked to further down regulation of CD27 and increased capacity of Mip-1β production in CMVpp65-specific CD4+ T cells. These phenotypic and functional changes of CMVpp65-specific CD4 T cells observed during HIV infection and active TB could be associated with increased CMV reactivation rates.

  6. HIV-1–Infected Individuals in Antiretroviral Therapy React Specifically With Polyfunctional T-Cell Responses to Gag p24

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Lea; Benfield, Thomas; Kronborg, Gitte

    2013-01-01

    Still no effective HIV-1 prophylactic or therapeutic vaccines are available. However, as the proportion of HIV-1-infected individuals on antiretroviral treatment is increasing, knowledge about the residual immune response is important for the possible development of an HIV-1 vaccine.......Still no effective HIV-1 prophylactic or therapeutic vaccines are available. However, as the proportion of HIV-1-infected individuals on antiretroviral treatment is increasing, knowledge about the residual immune response is important for the possible development of an HIV-1 vaccine....

  7. Chicken lines divergently selected for antibody responses to sheep red blood cells show line-specific differences in sensitivity to immunomodulation by diet. Part I: Humoral parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriaansen-Tennekes, R; de Vries Reilingh, G; Nieuwland, M G B; Parmentier, H K; Savelkoul, H F J

    2009-09-01

    Individual differences in nutrient sensitivity have been suggested to be related with differences in stress sensitivity. Here we used layer hens divergently selected for high and low specific antibody responses to SRBC (i.e., low line hens and high line hens), reflecting a genetically based differential immune competence. The parental line of these hens was randomly bred as the control line and was used as well. Recently, we showed that these selection lines differ in their stress reactivity; the low line birds show a higher hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity. To examine maternal effects and neonatal nutritional exposure on nutrient sensitivity, we studied 2 subsequent generations. This also created the opportunity to examine egg production in these birds. The 3 lines were fed 2 different nutritionally complete layer feeds for a period of 22 wk in the first generation. The second generation was fed from hatch with the experimental diets. At several time intervals, parameters reflecting humoral immunity were determined such as specific antibody to Newcastle disease and infectious bursal disease vaccines; levels of natural antibodies binding lipopolysaccharide, lipoteichoic acid, and keyhole limpet hemocyanin; and classical and alternative complement activity. The most pronounced dietary-induced effects were found in the low line birds of the first generation: specific antibody titers to Newcastle disease vaccine were significantly elevated by 1 of the 2 diets. In the second generation, significant differences were found in lipoteichoic acid natural antibodies of the control and low line hens. At the end of the observation period of egg parameters, a significant difference in egg weight was found in birds of the high line. Our results suggest that nutritional differences have immunomodulatory effects on innate and adaptive humoral immune parameters in birds with high HPA axis reactivity and affect egg production in birds with low HPA axis reactivity.

  8. Evaluation of Influenza-Specific Humoral Response by Microbead Array Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoav Keynan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available RATIONALE: Quantitation and determination of antigen specificity of systemic and mucosal immune responses to influenza vaccination is beneficial for future vaccine development. Previous methods to acquire this information were costly, time consuming and sample exhaustive. The benefits of suspension microbead array (MBA analysis are numerous. The multiplex capabilities of the system conserve time, money and sample, while generating statistically powerful data.

  9. Cellular specificity of HIV-1 replication can be controlled by LTR sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed-Inderbitzin, Edward; Maury, Wendy

    2003-01-01

    Two well-established determinants of retroviral tropism are envelope sequences that regulate entry and LTR sequences that can regulate viral expression in a cell-specific manner. Studies with human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) have demonstrated that tropism of this virus maps primarily to variable envelope sequences. Studies have demonstrated that T cell and macrophage-specific transcription factor binding motifs exist in the upstream region of the LTR U3; however, the ability of the core enhancer/promoter proximal elements (two NF-κB and three Sp1 sites) to function well in macrophages and T cells have led many to conclude that HIV LTR sequences are not primary determinants of HIV tropism. To determine if cellular specificity could be imparted to HIV by the core enhancer elements, the enhancer/promoter proximal region of the HIV LTR was substituted with motifs that control gene expression in a myeloid-specific manner. The enhancer region from equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) when substituted for the HIV enhancer/promoter proximal region was found to drive expression in a macrophage-specific manner and was responsive to HIV Tat. The addition of a 5' methylation-dependent binding site (MDBP) and a promoter proximal Sp1 motif increased expression without altering cellular specificity. Spacing between the promoter proximal region and the TATA box was also found to influence LTR activity. Infectivity studies using chimeric LTRs within the context of a dual-tropic infectious molecular clone established that these LTRs directed HIV replication and production of infectious virions in macrophages but not primary T cells or T cell lines. This investigation demonstrates that cellular specificity can be imparted onto HIV-1 replication at the level of viral transcription and not entry

  10. An improved protocol for efficient engraftment in NOD/LTSZ-SCIDIL-2Rγnull mice allows HIV replication and development of anti-HIV immune responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maneesh Singh

    Full Text Available Cord blood hematopoietic progenitor cells (CB-HPCs transplanted immunodeficient NOD/LtsZ-scidIL2Rγ(null (NSG and NOD/SCID/IL2Rγ(null (NOG mice need efficient human cell engraftment for long-term HIV-1 replication studies. Total body irradiation (TBI is a classical myeloablation regimen used to improve engraftment levels of human cells in these humanized mice. Some recent reports suggest the use of busulfan as a myeloablation regimen to transplant HPCs in neonatal and adult NSG mice. In the present study, we further ameliorated the busulfan myeloablation regimen with fresh CB-CD34+cell transplantation in 3-4 week old NSG mice. In this CB-CD34+transplanted NSG mice engraftment efficiency of human CD45+cell is over 90% in peripheral blood. Optimal engraftment promoted early and increased CD3+T cell levels, with better lymphoid tissue development and prolonged human cell chimerism over 300 days. These humanized NSG mice have shown long-lasting viremia after HIV-1JRCSF and HIV-1Bal inoculation through intravenous and rectal routes. We also saw a gradual decline of the CD4+T cell count, widespread immune activation, up-regulation of inflammation marker and microbial translocation after HIV-1 infection. Humanized NSG mice reconstituted according to our new protocol produced, moderate cellular and humoral immune responses to HIV-1 postinfection. We believe that NSG mice reconstituted according to our easy to use protocol will provide a better in vivo model for HIV-1 replication and anti-HIV-1 therapy trials.

  11. Genetic control of the humoral immune response to avian egg white lysozymes in the chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flanagan, M.P.

    1987-01-01

    Chickens from two closely related sublines, GHs-B6 and GHs-B13, differing serologically at the major histocompatibility complex, were significantly different in their humoral response to three avian egg white lysozymes. Specific antisera levels were measured by radioimmunoassay using 125 I-labeled lysozymes. Antibodies elicited in response to these lysozymes are assumed to be directed against sites on these lysozymes where their amino acid sequence differs from that of the recipient G. domesticus egg white lysozyme (HEL). GHs-B6 birds produced a high level of antibody in response to immunization of turkey (TEL), pheasant (PhL) and guinea hen (GHL) lysozymes. GHs-B13 birds produced no detectable antibody to TEL, were intermediate in their response to PhL and equaled the antibody production of GHs-B6 birds in response to GHL. Antisera to each lysozyme were examined for crossreactivity with all other lysozymes by use of a competitive binding assay

  12. Humor and Competence in School-aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masten, Ann S.

    1986-01-01

    Measures humor appreciation (including mirth, subjective ratings, and response sets), comprehension, and production in children between the ages of 10 and 14. Relates humor to several areas of competence manifested at school. (HOD)

  13. The Hepatitis C Virus Glycan Shield and Evasion of the Humoral Immune Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Dubuisson

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite the induction of effective immune responses, 80% of hepatitis C virus (HCV-infected individuals progress from acute to chronic hepatitis. In contrast to the cellular immune response, the role of the humoral immune response in HCV clearance is still subject to debate. Indeed, HCV escapes neutralizing antibodies in chronically infected patients and reinfection has been described in human and chimpanzee. Studies of antibody-mediated HCV neutralization have long been hampered by the lack of cell-culture-derived virus and the absence of a small animal model. However, the development of surrogate models and recent progress in HCV propagation in vitro now enable robust neutralization assays to be performed. These advances are beginning to shed some light on the mechanisms of HCV neutralization. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge of the viral targets of anti-HCV-neutralizing antibodies and the mechanisms that enable HCV to evade the humoral immune response. The recent description of the HCV glycan shield that reduces the immunogenicity of envelope proteins and masks conserved neutralizing epitopes at their surface constitutes the major focus of this review.

  14. A Pragmatic Study of Humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibraheem, Sura Dhiaa; Abbas, Nawal Fadhil

    2016-01-01

    Linguistically speaking, the concept of humor, which seems to be vast for people, has specific dimensions by which it is generated including: puns, irony, sarcasm, wittiness, and contrastive utterances in relation to the speakers of those utterances. It is about how the extra linguistics elements dominate the situation and the delivery of humor.…

  15. cGAS-mediated control of blood-stage malaria promotes Plasmodium-specific germinal center responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, William O; Butler, Noah S; Lindner, Scott E; Akilesh, Holly M; Sather, D Noah; Kappe, Stefan Hi; Hamerman, Jessica A; Gale, Michael; Liles, W Conrad; Pepper, Marion

    2018-01-25

    Sensing of pathogens by host pattern recognition receptors is essential for activating the immune response during infection. We used a nonlethal murine model of malaria (Plasmodium yoelii 17XNL) to assess the contribution of the pattern recognition receptor cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) to the development of humoral immunity. Despite previous reports suggesting a critical, intrinsic role for cGAS in early B cell responses, cGAS-deficient (cGAS-/-) mice had no defect in the early expansion or differentiation of Plasmodium-specific B cells. As the infection proceeded, however, cGAS-/- mice exhibited higher parasite burdens and aberrant germinal center and memory B cell formation when compared with littermate controls. Antimalarial drugs were used to further demonstrate that the disrupted humoral response was not B cell intrinsic but instead was a secondary effect of a loss of parasite control. These findings therefore demonstrate that cGAS-mediated innate-sensing contributes to parasite control but is not intrinsically required for the development of humoral immunity. Our findings highlight the need to consider the indirect effects of pathogen burden in investigations examining how the innate immune system affects the adaptive immune response.

  16. Positive regulation of humoral and innate immune responses induced by inactivated Avian Influenza Virus vaccine in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, Fatma; Hassanin, Ola

    2015-12-01

    Avian Influenza (AI) vaccines are widely used for mammals and birds in a trial to eliminate the Avian Influenza virus (AIV) infection from the world. However and up till now the virus is still existed via modulation of its antigenic structure to evade the pressure of host immune responses. For a complete understanding of the immune responses following AI vaccination in chickens, the modulations of the chickens humoral immune responses and interferon-alpha signaling pathway, as a fundamental part of the innate immune responses, were investigated. In our study, we measured the humoral immune response using hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) tests. In addition, chicken interferon-alpha pathway components was measured at RNA levels using Quantitative Real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) following one dose of inactivated H5N1 influenza vaccine at 14 days of age. In this study, the protective levels of humoral antibody responses were observed at 14, 21 and 28 days following immunization with inactivated (Re-1/H5N1) AI vaccine. In the chicken spleen cells, up regulation in the chicken interferon-alpha pathway components (MX1 & IRF7) was existed as early as 48 h post vaccination and remained until 28 days post vaccination at the endogenous state. However, after the recall with ex-vivo stimulation, the up regulation was more pronounced in the transcriptional factor (IRF7) compared to the antiviral gene (MX1) at 28 days post vaccination. So far, from our results it appears that the inactivated H5N1 vaccine can trigger the chicken interferon-alpha signaling pathway as well as it can elicit protective humoral antibody responses.

  17. Carbohydrate fatty acid monosulphate esters are safe and effective adjuvants for humoral responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilgers, L.A.T.; Platenburg, P.; Bajramovic, J.; Veth, J.; Sauerwein, R.; Roeffen, W.; Pohl, M.; Amerongen, G. van; Stittelaar, K.J.; Bosch, J.F. van den

    2017-01-01

    Carbohydrate fatty acid sulphate esters (CFASEs) formulated in a squalane-in-water emulsion are effective adjuvants for humoral responses to a wide range of antigens in various animal species but rise in body temperature and local reactions albeit mild or minimal hampers application in humans. In

  18. Differential miRNA expression in B cells is associated with inter-individual differences in humoral immune response to measles vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haralambieva, Iana H; Kennedy, Richard B; Simon, Whitney L; Goergen, Krista M; Grill, Diane E; Ovsyannikova, Inna G; Poland, Gregory A

    2018-01-01

    MicroRNAs are important mediators of post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression through RNA degradation and translational repression, and are emerging biomarkers of immune system activation/response after vaccination. We performed Next Generation Sequencing (mRNA-Seq) of intracellular miRNAs in measles virus-stimulated B and CD4+ T cells from high and low antibody responders to measles vaccine. Negative binomial generalized estimating equation (GEE) models were used for miRNA assessment and the DIANA tool was used for gene/target prediction and pathway enrichment analysis. We identified a set of B cell-specific miRNAs (e.g., miR-151a-5p, miR-223, miR-29, miR-15a-5p, miR-199a-3p, miR-103a, and miR-15a/16 cluster) and biological processes/pathways, including regulation of adherens junction proteins, Fc-receptor signaling pathway, phosphatidylinositol-mediated signaling pathway, growth factor signaling pathway/pathways, transcriptional regulation, apoptosis and virus-related processes, significantly associated with neutralizing antibody titers after measles vaccination. No CD4+ T cell-specific miRNA expression differences between high and low antibody responders were found. Our study demonstrates that miRNA expression directly or indirectly influences humoral immunity to measles vaccination and suggests that B cell-specific miRNAs may serve as useful predictive biomarkers of vaccine humoral immune response.

  19. Humor in Context: Fire Service and Joking Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Larry; Roth, Gene

    2013-01-01

    Although theorizing about humor has occurred for several decades, scant research exists that examines humor in the broad context of human resource development. Humor exists in workplaces and it is historicized in the professional and organizational contexts of workers. This paper explores aspects of a joking culture within the specific work…

  20. Med humor som våben – sproglig humor som bindeled mellem kognition og emotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Raab

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The attempt to establish a coherence between the cognitive description of language and thought and the neurobiological description of the human brain is often limited by lacking knowledge concerning the interplay between cognition and emotion – both necessary elements in understanding the way the brain works. Verbal humor is a convenient research object in this regard, as it consists (primarily in cognitive mechanisms, eliciting an emotional response – laughter. In this article, a review of the history of humor research is compared to a selection of studies (lesion-studies, ERP and fMRI on the relationship between humor, language and the brain, as an attempt to show how a broadly based theory of humor can help us to understand the relationship between cognition and emotion.

  1. Med humor som våben – sproglig humor som bindeled mellem kognition og emotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Raab

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The attempt to establish a coherence between the cognitive description of language and thought and the neurobiological description of the human brain is often limited by lacking knowledge concerning the interplay between cognition and emotion – both necessary elements in understanding the way the brain works. Verbal humor is a convenient research object in this regard, as it consists (primarily in cognitive mechanisms, eliciting an emotional response – laughter. In this article, a review of the history of humor research is compared to a selection of studies (lesion-studies, ERP and fMRI on the relationship between humor, language and the brain, as an attempt to show how a broadly based theory of humor can help us to understand the relationship between cognition and emotion.

  2. Psychometric Comparisons of Benevolent and Corrective Humor across 22 Countries: The Virtue Gap in Humor Goes International.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heintz, Sonja; Ruch, Willibald; Platt, Tracey; Pang, Dandan; Carretero-Dios, Hugo; Dionigi, Alberto; Argüello Gutiérrez, Catalina; Brdar, Ingrid; Brzozowska, Dorota; Chen, Hsueh-Chih; Chłopicki, Władysław; Collins, Matthew; Ďurka, Róbert; Yahfoufi, Najwa Y El; Quiroga-Garza, Angélica; Isler, Robert B; Mendiburo-Seguel, Andrés; Ramis, TamilSelvan; Saglam, Betül; Shcherbakova, Olga V; Singh, Kamlesh; Stokenberga, Ieva; Wong, Peter S O; Torres-Marín, Jorge

    2018-01-01

    Recently, two forms of virtue-related humor, benevolent and corrective, have been introduced. Benevolent humor treats human weaknesses and wrongdoings benevolently, while corrective humor aims at correcting and bettering them. Twelve marker items for benevolent and corrective humor (the BenCor) were developed, and it was demonstrated that they fill the gap between humor as temperament and virtue. The present study investigates responses to the BenCor from 25 samples in 22 countries (overall N = 7,226). The psychometric properties of the BenCor were found to be sufficient in most of the samples, including internal consistency, unidimensionality, and factorial validity. Importantly, benevolent and corrective humor were clearly established as two positively related, yet distinct dimensions of virtue-related humor. Metric measurement invariance was supported across the 25 samples, and scalar invariance was supported across six age groups (from 18 to 50+ years) and across gender. Comparisons of samples within and between four countries (Malaysia, Switzerland, Turkey, and the UK) showed that the item profiles were more similar within than between countries, though some evidence for regional differences was also found. This study thus supported, for the first time, the suitability of the 12 marker items of benevolent and corrective humor in different countries, enabling a cumulative cross-cultural research and eventually applications of humor aiming at the good.

  3. Psychometric Comparisons of Benevolent and Corrective Humor across 22 Countries: The Virtue Gap in Humor Goes International

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Heintz

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Recently, two forms of virtue-related humor, benevolent and corrective, have been introduced. Benevolent humor treats human weaknesses and wrongdoings benevolently, while corrective humor aims at correcting and bettering them. Twelve marker items for benevolent and corrective humor (the BenCor were developed, and it was demonstrated that they fill the gap between humor as temperament and virtue. The present study investigates responses to the BenCor from 25 samples in 22 countries (overall N = 7,226. The psychometric properties of the BenCor were found to be sufficient in most of the samples, including internal consistency, unidimensionality, and factorial validity. Importantly, benevolent and corrective humor were clearly established as two positively related, yet distinct dimensions of virtue-related humor. Metric measurement invariance was supported across the 25 samples, and scalar invariance was supported across six age groups (from 18 to 50+ years and across gender. Comparisons of samples within and between four countries (Malaysia, Switzerland, Turkey, and the UK showed that the item profiles were more similar within than between countries, though some evidence for regional differences was also found. This study thus supported, for the first time, the suitability of the 12 marker items of benevolent and corrective humor in different countries, enabling a cumulative cross-cultural research and eventually applications of humor aiming at the good.

  4. The impact of pregnancy on the HIV-1-specific T cell function in infected pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hygino, Joana; Vieira, Morgana M; Kasahara, Taissa M; Xavier, Luciana F; Blanco, Bernardo; Guillermo, Landi V C; Filho, Renato G S; Saramago, Carmen S M; Lima-Silva, Agostinho A; Oliveira, Ariane L; Guimarães, Vander; Andrade, Arnaldo F B; Bento, Cleonice A M

    2012-12-01

    Evidences indicate that pregnancy can alter the Ag-specific T-cell responses. This work aims to evaluate the impact of pregnancy on the in vitro HIV-1-specific immune response. As compared with non-pregnant patients, lower T-cell proliferation and higher IL-10 production were observed in T-cell cultures from pregnant patients following addition of either mitogens or HIV-1 antigens. In our system, the main T lymphocyte subset involved in producing IL-10 was CD4(+)FoxP3(-). Depletion of CD4(+) cells elevated TNF-α and IFN-γ production. Interestingly, the in vitro HIV-1 replication was lower in cell cultures from pregnant patients, and it was inversely related to IL-10 production. In these cultures, the neutralization of IL-10 by anti-IL-10 mAb elevated TNF-α release and HIV-1 replication. In conclusion, our results reveal that pregnancy-related events should favor the expansion of HIV-1-specific IL-10-secreting CD4(+) T-cells in HIV-1-infected women, which should, in the scenario of pregnancy, help to reduce the risk of vertical HIV-1 transmission. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. 77 FR 70788 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-27

    ...) within the HIV Gag protein and elicit strong, cross-clade cellular and humoral responses. The DNA vaccine... sequences elicited strong, cellular T-cell and humoral antibody immune responses. The Gag-specific antibody..., the ability to inhibit this process can be used to limit growth of solid tumors and as a therapy for...

  6. Differential effects of self-esteem and interpersonal competence on humor styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCosker, Bernadette; Moran, Carmen C

    2012-01-01

    Background In contrast with an early implicit “facilitative hypothesis” of humor, a revised specificity hypothesis predicts that the benefits of humor depend on the specific style of humor used. Information on predictors of these humor styles in turn enhances the ability to predict the effect on well-being. Methods We examined the relationships between interpersonal competence, self-esteem, and different styles of humor, while also examining the contributions of age and gender. Participants (n = 201) aged 18–63 years completed the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory, the Interpersonal Competence Questionnaire, and the Humor Styles Questionnaire, and gave demographic information. Results High self-esteem was associated with higher use of affiliative, aggressive, and self-enhancing humor styles, but lower use of self-defeating humor. High interpersonal competence predicted greater use of affiliative humor, whereas low interpersonal competence predicted greater use of aggressive humor. Further analyses showed that initiation competence predicted affiliative humor (positively) but both initiation competence (positively) and conflict management competence (negatively) predicted aggressive humor. Conclusion The findings that both self-esteem and initiation competence contribute to use of aggressive humor add to knowledge of who is likely to use this potentially harmful humor style. We conclude that a readiness to initiate humorous interactions is not on its own a general and positive attribute contributing to “good” humor. PMID:23180973

  7. Augmentation of cellular and humoral immune responses to HPV16 and HPV18 E6 and E7 antigens by VGX-3100

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew P Morrow

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We have previously demonstrated the immunogenicity of VGX-3100, a multicomponent DNA immunotherapy for the treatment of Human Papillomavirus (HPV16/18-positive CIN2/3 in a phase 1 clinical trial. Here, we report on the ability to boost immune responses with an additional dose of VGX-3100. Patients completing our initial phase 1 trial were offered enrollment into a follow on trial consisting of a single boost dose of VGX-3100. Data show both cellular and humoral immune responses could be augmented above pre-boost levels, including the induction of interferon (IFNγ production, tumor necrosis factor (TNFα production, CD8+ T cell activation and the synthesis of lytic proteins. Moreover, observation of antigen-specific regulation of immune-related gene transcripts suggests the induction of a proinflammatory response following the boost. Analysis of T cell receptor (TCR sequencing suggests the localization of putative HPV-specific T cell clones to the cervical mucosa, which underscores the putative mechanism of action of lesion regression and HPV16/18 elimination noted in our double-blind placebo-controlled phase 2B trial. Taken together, these data indicate that VGX-3100 drives the induction of robust cellular and humoral immune responses that can be augmented by a fourth “booster” dose. These data could be important in the scope of increasing the clinical efficacy rate of VGX-3100.

  8. Paradoxical aging in HIV: immune senescence of B Cells is most prominent in young age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Stefano; Pallikkuth, Suresh; George, Varghese K; de Armas, Lesley R; Pahwa, Rajendra; Sanchez, Celeste M; Pallin, Maria Fernanda; Pan, Li; Cotugno, Nicola; Dickinson, Gordon; Rodriguez, Allan; Fischl, Margaret; Alcaide, Maria; Gonzalez, Louis; Palma, Paolo; Pahwa, Savita

    2017-04-01

    Combination antiretroviral therapies (cART)can lead to normal life expectancy in HIV-infected persons, and people aged >50 yrs represent the fastest growing HIV group. Although HIV and aging are independently associated with impaired humoral immunity, immune status in people aging with HIV is relatively unexplored. In this study influenza vaccination was used to probe age associated perturbations in the B cell compartment of HIV-negative "healthy controls" (HC) and virologically controlled HIV-infected participants on cART (HIV) (n=124), grouped by age as young (aged (40-59yrs) or old ( > 60 yrs). H1N1 antibody response at d21 post-vaccination correlated inversely with age in both HC and HIV. Immunophenotyping of cryopreserved PBMC demonstrated increased frequencies of double negative B cells and decreased plasmablasts in old compared to young HC. Remarkably, young HIV were different from young HC but similar to old HC in B cell phenotype, influenza specific spontaneous (d7) or memory (d21) antibody secreting cells. We conclude that B cell immune senescence is a prominent phenomenon in young HIV in comparison to young HC, but distinctions between old HIV and old HC are less evident though both groups manifest age-associated B cell dysfunction.

  9. Paradoxical aging in HIV: immune senescence of B Cells is most prominent in young age

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Varghese K.; de Armas, Lesley R.; Pahwa, Rajendra; Sanchez, Celeste M.; Pallin, Maria Fernanda; Pan, Li; Cotugno, Nicola; Dickinson, Gordon; Rodriguez, Allan; Fischl, Margaret; Alcaide, Maria; Gonzalez, Louis; Palma, Paolo; Pahwa, Savita

    2017-01-01

    Combination antiretroviral therapies (cART) can lead to normal life expectancy in HIV-infected persons, and people aged >50 yrs represent the fastest growing HIV group. Although HIV and aging are independently associated with impaired humoral immunity, immune status in people aging with HIV is relatively unexplored. In this study influenza vaccination was used to probe age associated perturbations in the B cell compartment of HIV-negative “healthy controls” (HC) and virologically controlled HIV-infected participants on cART (HIV) (n=124), grouped by age as young (<40 yrs), middle-aged (40-59yrs) or old (≥60 yrs). H1N1 antibody response at d21 post-vaccination correlated inversely with age in both HC and HIV. Immunophenotyping of cryopreserved PBMC demonstrated increased frequencies of double negative B cells and decreased plasmablasts in old compared to young HC. Remarkably, young HIV were different from young HC but similar to old HC in B cell phenotype, influenza specific spontaneous (d7) or memory (d21) antibody secreting cells. We conclude that B cell immune senescence is a prominent phenomenon in young HIV in comparison to young HC, but distinctions between old HIV and old HC are less evident though both groups manifest age-associated B cell dysfunction. PMID:28448963

  10. Long-term exposure to arsenic affects head kidney and impairs humoral immune responses of Clarias batrachus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Debabrata [Immunobiology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Visva-Bharati University, Santiniketan 731235 (India); Datta, Soma [Immunobiology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Visva-Bharati University, Santiniketan 731235 (India); Bhattacharya, Shelley [Environmental Toxicology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Visva-Bharati University, Santiniketan 731235 (India); Mazumder, Shibnath [Immunobiology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Visva-Bharati University, Santiniketan 731235 (India)]. E-mail: shibnath1@yahoo.co.in

    2007-02-15

    The present study was aimed at determining the effects of long-term arsenic exposure on the head kidney (HK) and ensuing humoral immune responses in Clarias batrachus L. Long-term exposure (150 days) to non-lethal concentrations of arsenic (42.42 {mu}M) resulted in significant time-dependent alterations in HK cell number eventually affecting the HK somatic index. Prolonged exposure to arsenic also suppressed HK-B cell proliferation and led to significant reduction in serum immunoglobulin levels and antigen-specific serum bacterial agglutinin titers. A decline in the number of antigen-specific plaque-forming cells with duration of arsenic exposure was noted in the HK. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assays further revealed that arsenic exposure inhibited the release of 'IL-4 like factors' from HK-T cells. Histological studies documented time-dependent changes in the structure and cellular composition of HK characterized by extensive lymphocytopenia, decrease in melano-macrophage population and hemosiderin accumulation. From exposure-challenge studies with Aeromonas hydrophila it was evident that pathogens could efficiently disseminate and colonize distant host tissues in the exposed fish. Moreover, the ability to decrease the pathogen load was also significantly reduced in the arsenic-exposed fish. Thus long-term exposure to non-lethal concentrations of arsenic affects HK and interferes with the humoral immune system of C. batrachus rendering them immunocompromised and susceptible to pathogenic challenge.

  11. Long-term exposure to arsenic affects head kidney and impairs humoral immune responses of Clarias batrachus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Debabrata; Datta, Soma; Bhattacharya, Shelley; Mazumder, Shibnath

    2007-01-01

    The present study was aimed at determining the effects of long-term arsenic exposure on the head kidney (HK) and ensuing humoral immune responses in Clarias batrachus L. Long-term exposure (150 days) to non-lethal concentrations of arsenic (42.42 μM) resulted in significant time-dependent alterations in HK cell number eventually affecting the HK somatic index. Prolonged exposure to arsenic also suppressed HK-B cell proliferation and led to significant reduction in serum immunoglobulin levels and antigen-specific serum bacterial agglutinin titers. A decline in the number of antigen-specific plaque-forming cells with duration of arsenic exposure was noted in the HK. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assays further revealed that arsenic exposure inhibited the release of 'IL-4 like factors' from HK-T cells. Histological studies documented time-dependent changes in the structure and cellular composition of HK characterized by extensive lymphocytopenia, decrease in melano-macrophage population and hemosiderin accumulation. From exposure-challenge studies with Aeromonas hydrophila it was evident that pathogens could efficiently disseminate and colonize distant host tissues in the exposed fish. Moreover, the ability to decrease the pathogen load was also significantly reduced in the arsenic-exposed fish. Thus long-term exposure to non-lethal concentrations of arsenic affects HK and interferes with the humoral immune system of C. batrachus rendering them immunocompromised and susceptible to pathogenic challenge

  12. Fear versus humor: the impact of sensation seeking on physiological, cognitive, and emotional responses to antialcohol abuse messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Moon J; Shin, Mija

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the differences in physiological, cognitive, and emotional responses to existing emotional antialcohol abuse advertisements (fear vs. humor appeal) between high and low sensation seekers. A 2 (Message Type) x 2 (Sensation-Seeking Tendency) x 4 (Message Repetition) mixed-model experiment with repeated measures was conducted with 71 college students. The results, based on self-reports, indicated that fear messages generated more interest and perceived danger of excessive drinking regardless of sensation-seeking tendency, whereas humorous messages were rated as more likeable than fear messages, and the difference was bigger among low sensation seekers than among high sensation seekers. One interesting finding was that for both fear and humor appeals, low sensation seekers showed greater emotional responses (greater corrugators activities and greater zygomatic activities) than high sensation seekers overall. The implications of the current study as well as suggestions for future study were discussed.

  13. Exploratory Theoretical Tests of the Instructor Humor-Student Learning Link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolkan, San; Goodboy, Alan K.

    2015-01-01

    Instructors' use of humor is generally a positive influence on student outcomes. However, examinations of humor have found that specific types of messages may not impact, or may even reverse, its positive effect. Instructional humor processing theory (IHPT) has been used to explain how humor impacts student learning. The current study sought to…

  14. Autocrine production of beta-chemokines protects CMV-Specific CD4 T cells from HIV infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph P Casazza

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Induction of a functional subset of HIV-specific CD4+ T cells that is resistant to HIV infection could enhance immune protection and decrease the rate of HIV disease progression. CMV-specific CD4+ T cells, which are less frequently infected than HIV-specific CD4+ T cells, are a model for such an effect. To determine the mechanism of this protection, we compared the functional response of HIV gag-specific and CMV pp65-specific CD4+ T cells in individuals co-infected with CMV and HIV. We found that CMV-specific CD4+ T cells rapidly up-regulated production of MIP-1alpha and MIP-1beta mRNA, resulting in a rapid increase in production of MIP-1alpha and MIP-1beta after cognate antigen stimulation. Production of beta-chemokines was associated with maturational phenotype and was rarely seen in HIV-specific CD4+ T cells. To test whether production of beta-chemokines by CD4+ T cells lowers their susceptibility to HIV infection, we measured cell-associated Gag DNA to assess the in vivo infection history of CMV-specific CD4+ T cells. We found that CMV-specific CD4+ T cells which produced MIP-1beta contained 10 times less Gag DNA than did those which failed to produce MIP-1beta. These data suggest that CD4+ T cells which produce MIP-1alpha and MIP-1beta bind these chemokines in an autocrine fashion which decreases the risk of in vivo HIV infection.

  15. Humor styles moderate borderline personality traits and suicide ideation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Neil A; Helle, Ashley C; Tucker, Raymond P; Lengel, Gregory J; DeShong, Hilary L; Wingate, LaRicka R; Mullins-Sweatt, Stephanie N

    2017-03-01

    The way individuals use humor to interact interpersonally has been associated with general personality, depression, and suicidality. Certain humor styles may moderate the risk for suicide ideation (SI) in individuals who are high in specific risk factors (e.g., thwarted belongingness, perceived burdensomeness). Previous research suggests a relationship between humor styles and borderline personality disorder (BPD) and an increased risk of suicidality and suicide completion in individuals with BPD. Participants (n =176) completed measures of BPD traits, SI, and humor styles. It was hypothesized that BPD traits would be positively correlated with negative humor styles and negatively correlated with positive humor styles, and that humor styles would significantly moderate BPD traits and SI. Results showed that BPD traits were negatively correlated with self-enhancing humor styles and positively correlated with self-defeating humor styles, but that they were not significantly correlated with affiliative or aggressive humor styles. Bootstrapping analyses demonstrated that the affiliative, self-enhancing, and self-defeating humor styles significantly moderated BPD traits and SI, while the aggressive humor style did not. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A Randomized, Controlled Safety, and Immunogenicity Trial of the M72/AS01 Candidate Tuberculosis Vaccine in HIV-Positive Indian Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumarasamy, Nagalingeswaran; Poongulali, Selvamuthu; Bollaerts, Anne; Moris, Philippe; Beulah, Faith Esther; Ayuk, Leo Njock; Demoitié, Marie-Ange; Jongert, Erik; Ofori-Anyinam, Opokua

    2016-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated tuberculosis is a major public health threat. We evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of the candidate tuberculosis vaccine M72/AS01 in HIV-positive and HIV-negative Indian adults.Randomized, controlled observer-blind trial (NCT01262976).We assigned 240 adults (1:1:1) to antiretroviral therapy (ART)-stable, ART-naive, or HIV-negative cohorts. Cohorts were randomized 1:1 to receive M72/AS01 or placebo following a 0, 1-month schedule and followed for 12 months (time-point M13). HIV-specific and laboratory safety parameters, adverse events (AEs), and M72-specific T-cell-mediated and humoral responses were evaluated.Subjects were predominantly QuantiFERON-negative (60%) and Bacille Calmette-Guérin-vaccinated (73%). Seventy ART-stable, 73 ART-naive, and 60 HIV-negative subjects completed year 1. No vaccine-related serious AEs or ART-regimen adjustments, or clinically relevant effects on laboratory parameters, HIV-1 viral loads or CD4 counts were recorded. Two ART-naive vaccinees died of vaccine-unrelated diseases. M72/AS01 induced polyfunctional M72-specific CD4 T-cell responses (median [interquartile range] at 7 days postdose 2: ART-stable, 0.9% [0.7-1.5]; ART-naive, 0.5% [0.2-1.0]; and HIV-negative, 0.6% [0.4-1.1]), persisting at M13 (0.4% [0.2-0.5], 0.09% [0.04-0.2], and 0.1% [0.09-0.2], respectively). Median responses were higher in the ART-stable cohort versus ART-naive cohort from day 30 onwards (P ≤ 0.015). Among HIV-positive subjects (irrespective of ART-status), median responses were higher in QuantiFERON-positive versus QuantiFERON-negative subjects up to day 30 (P ≤ 0.040), but comparable thereafter. Cytokine-expression profiles were comparable between cohorts after dose 2. At M13, M72-specific IgG responses were higher in ART-stable and HIV-negative vaccinees versus ART-naive vaccinees (P ≤ 0.001).M72/AS01 was well-tolerated and immunogenic in this population of ART-stable and ART-naive HIV

  17. Sex differences in humor processing: An event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yi-Tzu; Ku, Li-Chuan; Chen, Hsueh-Chih

    2018-02-01

    Numerous behavioral studies and a handful of functional neuroimaging studies have reported sex differences in humor. However, no study to date has examined differences in the time-course of brain activity during multistage humor processing between the sexes. The purpose of this study was to compare real-time dynamics related to humor processing between women and men, with reference to a proposed three-stage model (involving incongruity detection, incongruity resolution, and elaboration stages). Forty undergraduate students (20 women) underwent event-related potential recording while subjectively rating 30 question-answer-type jokes and 30 question-answer-type statements in a random order. Sex differences were revealed by analyses of the mean amplitudes of difference waves during a specific time window between 1000 and 1300 ms poststimulus onset (P1000-1300). This indicates that women recruited more mental resources to integrate cognitive and emotional components at this late stage. In contrast, men recruited more automated processes during the transition from the cognitive operations of the incongruity resolution stage to the emotional response of the humor elaboration stage. Our results suggest that sex differences in humor processing lie in differences in the integration of cognitive and emotional components, which are closely linked and interact reciprocally, particularly in women. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Differential effects of self-esteem and interpersonal competence on humor styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCosker B

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Bernadette McCosker, Carmen C MoranSchool of Psychology, Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, NSW, AustraliaBackground: In contrast with an early implicit “facilitative hypothesis” of humor, a revised specificity hypothesis predicts that the benefits of humor depend on the specific style of humor used. Information on predictors of these humor styles in turn enhances the ability to predict the effect on well-being.Methods: We examined the relationships between interpersonal competence, self-esteem, and different styles of humor, while also examining the contributions of age and gender. Participants (n = 201 aged 18–63 years completed the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory, the Interpersonal Competence Questionnaire, and the Humor Styles Questionnaire, and gave demographic information.Results: High self-esteem was associated with higher use of affiliative, aggressive, and self-enhancing humor styles, but lower use of self-defeating humor. High interpersonal competence predicted greater use of affiliative humor, whereas low interpersonal competence predicted greater use of aggressive humor. Further analyses showed that initiation competence predicted affiliative humor (positively but both initiation competence (positively and conflict management competence (negatively predicted aggressive humor.Conclusion: The findings that both self-esteem and initiation competence contribute to use of aggressive humor add to knowledge of who is likely to use this potentially harmful humor style. We conclude that a readiness to initiate humorous interactions is not on its own a general and positive attribute contributing to “good” humor.Keywords: self-esteem, interpersonal competence, humor styles, differential effects

  19. T-cell responses targeting HIV Nef uniquely correlate with infected cell frequencies after long-term antiretroviral therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison S Thomas

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses limit viral replication in untreated infection. After the initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART, these responses decay and the infected cell population that remains is commonly considered to be invisible to T-cells. We hypothesized that HIV antigen recognition may persist in ART-treated individuals due to low-level or episodic protein expression. We posited that if persistent recognition were occurring it would be preferentially directed against the early HIV gene products Nef, Tat, and Rev as compared to late gene products, such as Gag, Pol, and Env, which have higher barriers to expression. Using a primary cell model of latency, we observed that a Nef-specific CD8+ T-cell clone exhibited low-level recognition of infected cells prior to reactivation and robust recognition shortly thereafter. A Gag-specific CD8+ T-cell clone failed to recognized infected cells under these conditions, corresponding with a lack of detectable Gag expression. We measured HIV-specific T-cell responses in 96 individuals who had been suppressed on ART for a median of 7 years, and observed a significant, direct correlation between cell-associated HIV DNA levels and magnitudes of IFN-γ-producing Nef/Tat/Rev-specific T-cell responses. This correlation was confirmed in an independent cohort (n = 18. Correlations were not detected between measures of HIV persistence and T-cell responses to other HIV antigens. The correlation with Nef/Tat/Rev-specific T-cells was attributable to Nef-specific responses, the breadth of which also correlated with HIV DNA levels. These results suggest that ongoing Nef expression in ART-treated individuals drives preferential maintenance and/or expansion of T-cells reactive to this protein, implying sensing of infected cells by the immune system. The direct correlation, however, suggests that recognition does not result in efficient elimination of infected cells. These results raise the possibility that

  20. Those Who Laugh Are Defenseless: How Humor Breaks Resistance to Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strick, Madelijn; Holland, Rob W.; van Baaren, Rick B.; van Knippenberg, Ad

    2012-01-01

    Three experiments illustrate that humor in advertisements prevents the development of negative brand associations due to resistance. Previous research on humor in advertising suggested that humor can counter negative responses during ad processing, but less is known about the effect of humor on the development of negative brand associations in…

  1. Hepatitis B virus (HBV)-specific T-cell responses to recombinant HBV core protein in patients with normal liver function and co-infected with chronic HBV and human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Little is known about HBV-specific T-cell responses in chronic Hepatitis B patients (HBV) that are co-infected with Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), especially those with normal alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels. Methods Twenty-five patients with chronic HBV (11 hepatitis B e antigen [HBeAg]-positive, 14 HBeAg-negative) were enrolled in a cross-sectional study. A longitudinal study as also conducted in which follow-up was done at 3, 12, and 24 months, after acute HIV-1 infection, in 11 individuals who also had chronic HBV. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were stimulated with recombinant HBV surface protein (S protein), core protein (C protein) or gag peptide. IFN-γ-secreting T cells were identified by ELISPOT assay. Results In the cross-sectional study, co-infected chronic HBV patients had lower C protein-specific T-cell responses compared with mono-infected individuals, though the difference was not significant. In co-infected, chronic HBV patients, the magnitude of C protein-specific T-cell responses was significantly greater in HBeAg-positive subjects compared to HBeAg-negative subjects (p = 0.011). C protein-specific T-cell responses were positively correlated with HBV viral load (rs = 0.40, p = 0.046). However, gag-specific T-cell responses were negatively correlated with HIV viral load (rs = −0.44, p = 0.026) and positively correlated with CD4+ count (rs = 0.46, p = 0.021). The results were different in mono-infected individuals. PBMCs from co-infected HBeAg-positive patients secreted more specific-IFN-γ in cultured supernatants compared with PBMCs from co-infected HBeAg-negative patients (p = 0.019). In the longitudinal study, S protein- and C protein-specific T-cell responses were decreased as the length of follow-up increased (p = 0.034, for S protein; p = 0.105, for C protein). Additionally, the S protein- and C protein-specific T-cell responses were significantly higher in HBe

  2. Humoral and cell-mediated immune response against human retinal antigens in relation to ocular onchocerciasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Lelij, A.; Rothova, A.; Stilma, J. S.; Vetter, J. C.; Hoekzema, R.; Kijlstra, A.

    1990-01-01

    Autoimmune mechanisms are thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of the chorioretinal changes in ocular onchocerciasis. The humoral autoimmune response was determined by measuring serum levels of autoantibodies, directed against human S-antigen and interphotoreceptor retinoid binding protein

  3. Natural controlled HIV infection: Preserved HIV-specific immunity despite undetectable replication competent virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloosterboer, Nico; Groeneveld, Paul H.P.; Jansen, Christine A.; Vorst, Teun J.K. van der; Koning, Fransje; Winkel, Carel N.; Duits, Ashley J.; Miedema, Frank; Baarle, Debbie van; Rij, Ronald P. van; Brinkman, Kees; Schuitemaker, Hanneke

    2005-01-01

    Long-term non-progressive HIV infection, characterized by low but detectable viral load and stable CD4 counts in the absence of antiviral therapy, is observed in about 5% of HIV-infected patients. Here we identified four therapy naive individuals who are strongly seropositive for HIV-1 but who lack evidence of detectable HIV p24 antigen, plasma RNA, and proviral DNA in routine diagnostic testing. With an ultrasensitive PCR, we established that frequencies of pol proviral DNA sequences were as low as 0.2-0.5 copies/10 6 PBMC. HIV could not be isolated using up to 30 x 10 6 patient PBMC. One individual was heterozygous for CCR5 Δ32, but CCR5 expression on CD4 + T cells was normal to high in all four individuals. In vitro R5 and X4 HIV-1 susceptibility of CD8-depleted PBMC of all study subjects was significantly lower than the susceptibility of CD8-depleted PBMC of healthy blood donors. All individuals expressed protective HLA-B*58s alleles and showed evidence of HIV-specific cellular immunity either by staining with HLA-B*57 tetramers folded with an HIV RT or gag peptide or after stimulation with HIV-1 p24 gag, RT, or nef peptides in ELIspot analysis. HIV-specific CD4 + T helper cells were demonstrated by proliferation of CD4 + T cells and intracellular staining for IL-2 and IFNγ after stimulation with an HIV-gag peptide pool. Sera of all individuals showed antibody-mediated neutralization of both R5 and X4 HIV-1 variants. These data implicate that very low-level antigen exposure is sufficient for sustained HIV-specific immunity and suggest the possibility of a multi-factorial control of HIV infection

  4. The role of salivary cortisol and DHEA-S in response to sexual, humorous, and anxiety-inducing stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Lisa Dawn; Meston, Cindy M

    2011-05-01

    Stress and anxiety are commonly thought to be detrimental to sexual function. Several studies in both the human and animal literature, however, have found that inducing anxiety can enhance sexual function in women. The mechanisms that explain a negative relationship between physical and psychological stress and sexual functioning are well documented, but little is known about how stress or anxiety might have a facilitatory effect on sexual arousal. As an initial step in exploring the relationship between anxiety and sexual arousal, the present study examined the role of the autonomic nervous system, and the adrenal hormones cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S) in response to a sexual film, an anxiety-inducing film, and a humorous film. Nineteen premenopausal women (mean age 24.4 years) who were free from sexual difficulties came into the lab on three separate days. At each session they were shown an anxiety-inducing, sexually arousing, or humorous (control) film while their physiological arousal was measured. They also provided saliva samples before and after each film. Cortisol significantly decreased, while DHEA-S increased in the sexual and humorous conditions. Neither hormone changed significantly in the anxiety-inducing condition. Autonomic nervous system activity measured by heart rate and heart rate variability did not change in response to the sexual or anxiety-inducing films, but heart rate variability increased significantly in response to the humorous film. The cortisol/DHEA-S ratio at the post-sexual film time point was significantly negatively correlated with genital arousal (measured by vaginal pulse amplitude). Anxiety-inducing films did not result in a physiological stress response, which can explain why they do not impair sexual function. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Phase I safety and immunogenicity evaluation of MVA-CMDR, a multigenic, recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara-HIV-1 vaccine candidate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currier, Jeffrey R; Ngauy, Viseth; de Souza, Mark S; Ratto-Kim, Silvia; Cox, Josephine H; Polonis, Victoria R; Earl, Patricia; Moss, Bernard; Peel, Sheila; Slike, Bonnie; Sriplienchan, Somchai; Thongcharoen, Prasert; Paris, Robert M; Robb, Merlin L; Kim, Jerome; Michael, Nelson L; Marovich, Mary A

    2010-11-15

    We conducted a Phase I randomized, dose-escalation, route-comparison trial of MVA-CMDR, a candidate HIV-1 vaccine based on a recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara viral vector expressing HIV-1 genes env/gag/pol. The HIV sequences were derived from circulating recombinant form CRF01_AE, which predominates in Thailand. The objective was to evaluate safety and immunogenicity of MVA-CMDR in human volunteers in the US and Thailand. MVA-CMDR or placebo was administered intra-muscularly (IM; 10(7) or 10(8) pfu) or intradermally (ID; 10(6) or 10(7) pfu) at months 0, 1 and 3, to 48 healthy volunteers at low risk for HIV-1 infection. Twelve volunteers in each dosage group were randomized to receive MVA-CMDR or placebo (10∶2). Volunteers were actively monitored for local and systemic reactogenicity and adverse events post vaccination. Cellular immunogenicity was assessed by a validated IFNγ Elispot assay, an intracellular cytokine staining assay, lymphocyte proliferation and a (51)Cr-release assay. Humoral immunogenicity was assessed by ADCC for gp120 and binding antibody ELISAs for gp120 and p24. MVA-CMDR was safe and well tolerated with no vaccine related serious adverse events. Cell-mediated immune responses were: (i) moderate in magnitude (median IFNγ Elispot of 78 SFC/10(6) PBMC at 10(8) pfu IM), but high in response rate (70% (51)Cr-release positive; 90% Elispot positive; 100% ICS positive, at 10(8) pfu IM); (ii) predominantly HIV Env-specific CD4(+) T cells, with a high proliferative capacity and durable for at least 6 months (100% LPA response rate by the IM route); (iv) dose- and route-dependent with 10(8) pfu IM being the most immunogenic treatment. Binding antibodies against gp120 and p24 were detectable in all vaccination groups with ADCC capacity detectable at the highest dose (40% positive at 10(8) pfu IM). MVA-CMDR delivered both intramuscularly and intradermally was safe, well-tolerated and elicited durable cell-mediated and humoral immune responses

  6. Phase I safety and immunogenicity evaluation of MVA-CMDR, a multigenic, recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara-HIV-1 vaccine candidate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey R Currier

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a Phase I randomized, dose-escalation, route-comparison trial of MVA-CMDR, a candidate HIV-1 vaccine based on a recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara viral vector expressing HIV-1 genes env/gag/pol. The HIV sequences were derived from circulating recombinant form CRF01_AE, which predominates in Thailand. The objective was to evaluate safety and immunogenicity of MVA-CMDR in human volunteers in the US and Thailand.MVA-CMDR or placebo was administered intra-muscularly (IM; 10(7 or 10(8 pfu or intradermally (ID; 10(6 or 10(7 pfu at months 0, 1 and 3, to 48 healthy volunteers at low risk for HIV-1 infection. Twelve volunteers in each dosage group were randomized to receive MVA-CMDR or placebo (10∶2. Volunteers were actively monitored for local and systemic reactogenicity and adverse events post vaccination. Cellular immunogenicity was assessed by a validated IFNγ Elispot assay, an intracellular cytokine staining assay, lymphocyte proliferation and a (51Cr-release assay. Humoral immunogenicity was assessed by ADCC for gp120 and binding antibody ELISAs for gp120 and p24. MVA-CMDR was safe and well tolerated with no vaccine related serious adverse events. Cell-mediated immune responses were: (i moderate in magnitude (median IFNγ Elispot of 78 SFC/10(6 PBMC at 10(8 pfu IM, but high in response rate (70% (51Cr-release positive; 90% Elispot positive; 100% ICS positive, at 10(8 pfu IM; (ii predominantly HIV Env-specific CD4(+ T cells, with a high proliferative capacity and durable for at least 6 months (100% LPA response rate by the IM route; (iv dose- and route-dependent with 10(8 pfu IM being the most immunogenic treatment. Binding antibodies against gp120 and p24 were detectable in all vaccination groups with ADCC capacity detectable at the highest dose (40% positive at 10(8 pfu IM.MVA-CMDR delivered both intramuscularly and intradermally was safe, well-tolerated and elicited durable cell-mediated and humoral immune responses

  7. Mangifera indica L. extract (Vimang) and mangiferin modulate mouse humoral immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, D; Leiro, J; Delgado, R; Sanmartín, M L; Ubeira, F M

    2003-12-01

    The present study investigated the effects of orally administered Vimang (an aqueous extract of Mangifera indica) and mangiferin (the major polyphenol present in Vimang) on mouse antibody responses induced by inoculation with spores of microsporidian parasites. Inoculation induced specific antibody production with an exponential timecourse, peaking after about one month. Vimang significantly inhibited this antibody production from about three weeks post-inoculation, and most markedly by four weeks post-inoculation; by contrast, mangiferin had no significant effect. Determination of Ig isotypes showed that the IgM to IgG switch began about four weeks post-inoculation, with IgG2a predominating. Vimang significantly inhibited IgG production, but had no effect on IgM. Mangiferin did no affect either IgM or IgG2a, but significantly enhanced production of IgG1 and IgG2b. Neither Vimang nor mangiferin enhanced specific antibody secretion by splenic plasma cells from mice inoculated with microsporidian spores, whether administered in vivo before serum extraction or in vitro to the culture medium. Inoculation with spores induced splenomegaly, which was significantly reduced by Vimang and significantly enhanced by mangiferin. These results suggest that components of Mangifera indica extracts may be of potential value for modulating the humoral response in different immunopathological disorders. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. HIV-Specific CD8+ T Cell-Mediated Viral Suppression Correlates With the Expression of CD57

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Sanne S; Tingstedt, Jeanette Linnea; Larsen, Tine Kochendorf

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Virus-specific CD8(+) T-cell responses are believed to play an important role in the control of HIV-1 infection; however, what constitutes an effective HIV-1 CD8(+) T-cell response remains a topic of debate. The ex vivo viral suppressive capacity was measured of CD8(+) T cells from 44...

  9. Safety and Immunogenicity of a Recombinant Adenovirus Serotype 35-Vectored HIV-1 Vaccine in Adenovirus Serotype 5 Seronegative and Seropositive Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Jonathan D; Bart, Pierre-Alexandre; Frahm, Nicole; Morgan, Cecilia; Gilbert, Peter B; Kochar, Nidhi; DeRosa, Stephen C; Tomaras, Georgia D; Wagner, Theresa M; Baden, Lindsey R; Koblin, Beryl A; Rouphael, Nadine G; Kalams, Spyros A; Keefer, Michael C; Goepfert, Paul A; Sobieszczyk, Magdalena E; Mayer, Kenneth H; Swann, Edith; Liao, Hua-Xin; Haynes, Barton F; Graham, Barney S; McElrath, M Juliana

    2015-05-01

    Recombinant adenovirus serotype 5 (rAd5)-vectored HIV-1 vaccines have not prevented HIV-1 infection or disease and pre-existing Ad5 neutralizing antibodies may limit the clinical utility of Ad5 vectors globally. Using a rare Ad serotype vector, such as Ad35, may circumvent these issues, but there are few data on the safety and immunogenicity of rAd35 directly compared to rAd5 following human vaccination. HVTN 077 randomized 192 healthy, HIV-uninfected participants into one of four HIV-1 vaccine/placebo groups: rAd35/rAd5, DNA/rAd5, and DNA/rAd35 in Ad5-seronegative persons; and DNA/rAd35 in Ad5-seropositive persons. All vaccines encoded the HIV-1 EnvA antigen. Antibody and T-cell responses were measured 4 weeks post boost immunization. All vaccines were generally well tolerated and similarly immunogenic. As compared to rAd5, rAd35 was equally potent in boosting HIV-1-specific humoral and cellular immunity and responses were not significantly attenuated in those with baseline Ad5 seropositivity. Like DNA, rAd35 efficiently primed rAd5 boosting. All vaccine regimens tested elicited cross-clade antibody responses, including Env V1/V2-specific IgG responses. Vaccine antigen delivery by rAd35 is well-tolerated and immunogenic as a prime to rAd5 immunization and as a boost to prior DNA immunization with the homologous insert. Further development of rAd35-vectored prime-boost vaccine regimens is warranted.

  10. Changes to the Aqueous Humor Proteome during Glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaeslin, Martha Andrea; Killer, Hanspeter Ezriel; Fuhrer, Cyril Adrian; Zeleny, Nauke; Huber, Andreas Robert; Neutzner, Albert

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the aqueous humor proteome in patients with glaucoma and a control group. Aqueous humor was obtained from five human donors diagnosed with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) and five age- and sex-matched controls undergoing cataract surgery. Quantitative proteome analysis of the aqueous humor by hyper reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (HRM-MS) based on SWATH technology was performed. Expression levels of 87 proteins were found to be different between glaucomatous and control aqueous humor. Of the 87 proteins, 34 were significantly upregulated, whereas 53 proteins were downregulated in the aqueous humor from glaucoma patients compared to controls. Differentially expressed proteins were found to be involved in cholesterol-related, inflammatory, metabolic, antioxidant as well as proteolysis-related processes. Glaucoma leads to profound changes to the aqueous humor proteome consistent with an altered metabolic state, an inflammatory response and impaired antioxidant defense.

  11. African Trypanosomes Undermine Humoral Responses and Vaccine Development: Link with Inflammatory Responses?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit Stijlemans

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available African trypanosomosis is a debilitating disease of great medical and socioeconomical importance. It is caused by strictly extracellular protozoan parasites capable of infecting all vertebrate classes including human, livestock, and game animals. To survive within their mammalian host, trypanosomes have evolved efficient immune escape mechanisms and manipulate the entire host immune response, including the humoral response. This report provides an overview of how trypanosomes initially trigger and subsequently undermine the development of an effective host antibody response. Indeed, results available to date obtained in both natural and experimental infection models show that trypanosomes impair homeostatic B-cell lymphopoiesis, B-cell maturation and survival and B-cell memory development. Data on B-cell dysfunctioning in correlation with parasite virulence and trypanosome-mediated inflammation will be discussed, as well as the impact of trypanosomosis on heterologous vaccine efficacy and diagnosis. Therefore, new strategies aiming at enhancing vaccination efficacy could benefit from a combination of (i early parasite diagnosis, (ii anti-trypanosome (drugs treatment, and (iii anti-inflammatory treatment that collectively might allow B-cell recovery and improve vaccination.

  12. Benefits of humor in reduction of threat-induced anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yovetich, N A; Dale, J A; Hudak, M A

    1990-02-01

    The benefits of humor in reducing anxiety were investigated in a laboratory study, in which subjects were falsely led to believe that they would receive a shock in 12 min. Participants were 53 undergraduate students with either high or low sense of humor as measured by the Situational Humor Response Questionnaire of Martin and Lefcourt (1984). During the anticipatory period, subjects listened to either a humorous tape, a nonhumorous tape, or no tape. Dependent variables were repeated measures of self-reported anxiety, heart rate, and zygomatic facial activity. Anxiety increased over the anticipatory period, as predicted. A significant interaction between condition and time indicated that subjects from the humor condition consistently rated themselves as less anxious and reported less increase in stress as the shock approached. A three-way interaction concentrating on the final 3 min. indicated a tendency for subjects with low sense of humor to have higher heart rates in the no-tape condition than in the humorous or nonhumorous tape conditions. Analysis for zygomatic activity indicated more smiling by subjects with high sense of humor and by subjects in the humor condition. Also, the humorous tape elicited more smiling by subjects with high sense of humor.

  13. Humoral immune responses to a single allele PfAMA1 vaccine in healthy malaria-naïve adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmond J Remarque

    Full Text Available Plasmodium falciparum: apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1 is a candidate malaria vaccine antigen expressed on merozoites and sporozoites. The polymorphic nature of AMA1 may compromise vaccine induced protection. The humoral response induced by two dosages (10 and 50 µg of a single allele AMA1 antigen (FVO formulated with Alhydrogel, Montanide ISA 720 or AS02 was investigated in 47 malaria-naïve adult volunteers. Volunteers were vaccinated 3 times at 4 weekly intervals and serum samples obtained four weeks after the third immunization were analysed for (i Antibody responses to various allelic variants, (ii Domain specificity, (iii Avidity, (iv IgG subclass levels, by ELISA and (v functionality of antibody responses by Growth Inhibition Assay (GIA. About half of the antibodies induced by vaccination cross reacted with heterologous AMA1 alleles. The choice of adjuvant determined the magnitude of the antibody response, but had only a marginal influence on specificity, avidity, domain recognition or subclass responses. The highest antibody responses were observed for AMA1 formulated with AS02. The Growth Inhibition Assay activity of the antibodies was proportional to the amount of antigen specific IgG and the functional capacity of the antibodies was similar for heterologous AMA1-expressing laboratory strains.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00730782.

  14. Humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodbury-Fariña, Michel A; Antongiorgi, Joalex L

    2014-12-01

    Humor has not been taken as seriously as it should be. Humor has many positive effects in the daily lives of patients and clinicians need to take advantage of these. Many indices of stress are attenuated and this serves to improve the therapeutic alliance. Freudian, rational emotive therapy, and kleinian views are presented, as well as examples of how to use playful therapy. In addition, advice on how to develop humor is given. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Estimation of humoral immune response in rabbits fed with Cucurbita maxima seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ranganathan

    Full Text Available Aim : The objective of the study was to estimate the humoral immune response in rabbits treated with Cucurbita maxima seeds. Materials and Methods: Thirty six male Newzealand White rabbits were divided into six groups (I, II, III, IV, V, VI of six in each. Group I was the untreated control. Group II was treated with dexamethasone sodium (2 mg/Kg, i.m for 7 days. Group III was treated with levamisole hydrochloride at 2.5 mg/kg (s.c thrice a week. Group IV was treated with Cucurbita maxima seeds. Group V was treated with levamisole and dexamethasone and Group VI was treated with dexamethasone and Cucurbita maxima seeds. The seed was given @ 1000 mg/kg orally for 10 days. Antibody titre and serum immunoglobulin concentration were estimated along with haematology. Results: Dexamethasone caused significant decreases in the antibody titre, immunoglobulin concentration where as Curcurbita maxima, Dexamethasone + Curcurbita maxima and dexamethasone + levamisole groups showed significant increase in these entities. There were no significant differences in RBC count, Haemoglobin contents among all the groups studied. Conclusion: Results suggest that Cucurbita maxima seeds has the ability to stimulate humoral immune response in rabbits. [Vet World 2013; 6(7.000: 396-399

  16. To Be or Not To Be Humorous? Cross Cultural Perspectives on Humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xiaodong; Jiang, Feng; Lu, Su; Hiranandani, Neelam

    2016-01-01

    Humor seems to manifest differently in Western and Eastern cultures, although little is known about how culture shapes humor perceptions. The authors suggest that Westerners regard humor as a common and positive disposition; the Chinese regard humor as a special disposition particular to humorists, with controversial aspects. In Study 1, Hong Kong participants primed with Western culture evaluate humor more positively than they do when primed with Chinese culture. In Study 2a, Canadians evaluate humor as being more important in comparison with Chinese participants. In Study 2b, Canadians expect ordinary people to possess humor, while Chinese expect specialized comedians to be humorous. The implications and limitations are discussed.

  17. Anti-HIV Antibody Responses and the HIV Reservoir Size during Antiretroviral Therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulggi A Lee

    Full Text Available A major challenge to HIV eradication strategies is the lack of an accurate measurement of the total burden of replication-competent HIV (the "reservoir". We assessed the association of anti-HIV antibody responses and the estimated size of the reservoir during antiretroviral therapy (ART.We evaluated anti-HIV antibody profiles using luciferase immunoprecipitation systems (LIPS assay in relation to several blood-based HIV reservoir measures: total and 2-LTR DNA (rtPCR or droplet digital PCR; integrated DNA (Alu PCR; unspliced RNA (rtPCR, multiply-spliced RNA (TILDA, residual plasma HIV RNA (single copy PCR, and replication-competent virus (outgrowth assay. We also assessed total HIV DNA and RNA in gut-associated lymphoid tissue (rtPCR. Spearman correlations and linear regressions were performed using log-transformed blood- or tissue-based reservoir measurements as predictors and log-transformed antibody levels as outcome variables.Among 51 chronically HIV-infected ART-suppressed participants (median age = 57, nadir CD4+ count = 196 cells/mm3, ART duration = 9 years, the most statistically significant associations were between antibody responses to integrase and HIV RNA in gut-associated lymphoid tissue (1.17 fold-increase per two-fold RNA increase, P = 0.004 and between antibody responses to matrix and integrated HIV DNA in resting CD4+ T cells (0.35 fold-decrease per two-fold DNA increase, P = 0.003. However, these associations were not statistically significant after a stringent Bonferroni-adjustment of P<0.00045. Multivariate models including age and duration of ART did not markedly alter results.Our findings suggest that anti-HIV antibody responses may reflect the size of the HIV reservoir during chronic treated HIV disease, possibly via antigen recognition in reservoir sites. Larger, prospective studies are needed to validate the utility of antibody levels as a measure of the total body burden of HIV during treatment.

  18. Changes to the Aqueous Humor Proteome during Glaucoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Andrea Kaeslin

    Full Text Available To investigate the aqueous humor proteome in patients with glaucoma and a control group.Aqueous humor was obtained from five human donors diagnosed with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG and five age- and sex-matched controls undergoing cataract surgery. Quantitative proteome analysis of the aqueous humor by hyper reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (HRM-MS based on SWATH technology was performed.Expression levels of 87 proteins were found to be different between glaucomatous and control aqueous humor. Of the 87 proteins, 34 were significantly upregulated, whereas 53 proteins were downregulated in the aqueous humor from glaucoma patients compared to controls. Differentially expressed proteins were found to be involved in cholesterol-related, inflammatory, metabolic, antioxidant as well as proteolysis-related processes.Glaucoma leads to profound changes to the aqueous humor proteome consistent with an altered metabolic state, an inflammatory response and impaired antioxidant defense.

  19. Early and late humoral rejection: a clinicopathologic entity in two times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péfaur, J; Díaz, P; Panace, R; Salinas, P; Fiabane, A; Quinteros, N; Chea, R; Naranjo, E; Wurgaft, A; Beltran, E; Elgueta, S; Wegmann, M E; Gajardo, J G; Contreras, L

    2008-11-01

    Humoral rejection is an important cause of early and late graft loss. The late variant is difficult to diagnose and treat. There is a close correlation between sclerosing nephropathy and anti-HLA antibodies. We analyzed 113 renal allograft recipients between August 2004 and April 2007. Acute humoral rejection was defined as acute graft dysfunction in presence of donor-specific antibodies (DSA) detected by flow panel reactive antibodies (PRA) and/or C4d positive pericapilary tubules (PTC) detected histopathologically by immunofluorescent or immunoperoxidase at less than 3 months postransplantation. Late humoral rejection was defined as dysfunction occurring after 3 months postransplantation with histopathologic glomerulopathy or vasculopathy and positive C4d PTC. We included all patients who were diagnosed with early or late graft dysfunction and underwent biopsy, all of which were examined for C4d. Four patients had acute humoral rejection treated with IVIG or plasmapheresis. The patient and graft survivals were 100% and serum creatinine averaged 1.7 mg/dL. Three recipients experienced late humoral rejection at 3 to 10 years posttransplantation All received high-dose IVIG; one also was treated with thymoglobulin. Immunosuppression was switched to tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and steroids. Only one patient recovered renal function; the others returned to dialysis. Among seven patients only one had an actual PRA (>20%) and three showed 10% to 20%. However, six had a positive historical PRA of 10% to 50%. In conclusion, Recognition of acute humoral rejection has contributed to graft rescue by controlling alloantibody production through new specific immunosuppressive therapies in contrast with the clinical response to acute therapy, treatment of a chronic entity has shown poor outcomes, probably because antibody mediated chronic graft damage is already present when the late diagnosis is established by biopsy.

  20. Sperm associated antigen 9 (SPAG9) expression and humoral response in benign and malignant salivary gland tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Sumit; Parashar, Deepak; Gupta, Namita; Jagadish, Nirmala; Thakar, Alok; Suri, Vaishali; Kumar, Rajive; Gupta, Anju; Ansari, Abdul S; Lohiya, Nirmal Kumar; Suri, Anil

    2015-01-01

    Salivary gland cancers are highly aggressive epithelial tumor associated with metastatic potential and high mortality. The tumors are biologically diverse and are of various histotypes. Besides, the detection and diagnosis is a major problem of salivary gland cancer for available treatment modalities. In the present study, we have investigated the association of sperm associated antigen 9 (SPAG9) expression with salivary gland tumor (SGT). Clinical specimens of benign (n = 16) and malignant tumors (n = 86) were examined for the SPAG9 expression. In addition, the sera and adjacent non-cancerous tissues (n = 72) from available patients were obtained. Our in situ RNA hybridization and immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis revealed significant difference (p = 0.0001) in SPAG9 gene and protein expression in benign (63%) and malignant tumor (84%) specimens. Further, significant association was also observed between SPAG9 expression and malignant tumors (P = 0.05). A cut-off value of >10% cells expressing SPAG9 protein designated as positive in IHC, predicted presence of malignant SGT with 83.72% sensitivity, 100% specificity, 100% PPV and 83.72% NPV. Humoral response against SPAG9 protein was generated in 68% of SGT patients. A cut-off value of 0.212 OD for anti-SPAG9 antibodies in ELISA predicted presence of malignant SGT with 69.23% sensitivity, 100% specificity, 100% PPV and 78.94% NPV. Collectively, our data suggests that the majority of SGT show significant difference and association among benign and malignant tumors for SPAG9 gene and protein expression and also exhibit humoral response against SPAG9 protein. Hence, SPAG9 may be developed as a biomarker for detection and diagnosis of salivary gland tumors. PMID:25941602

  1. Systematic investigation of the role of surfactant composition and choice of oil: Design of a nanoemulsion-based adjuvant inducing concomitant humoral and CD4+ T-cell responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Signe Tandrup; Neustrup, Malene Aaby; Harloff-Helleberg, Stine

    2017-01-01

    humoral immune responses. Therefore, there is an unmet medical need for new adjuvants, which potentiate humoral and CMI responses. The purpose was to design an oil-in-water nanoemulsion adjuvant containing a synthetic CMI-inducing mycobacterial monomycoloyl glycerol (MMG) analogue to concomitantly induce...... humoral and CMI responses. METHODS: The influence of emulsion composition was analyzed using a systematic approach. Three factors were varied: i) saturation of the oil phase, ii) type and saturation of the applied surfactant mixture, and iii) surfactant mixture net charge. RESULTS: The emulsions were...... colloidally stable with a droplet diameter of 150-250 nm, and the zeta-potential correlated closely with the net charge of the surfactant mixture. Only cationic emulsions containing the unsaturated surfactant mixture induced concomitant humoral and CMI responses upon immunization of mice with a Ct antigen...

  2. Humoral and cell-mediated immune responses to influenza vaccination in equine metabolic syndrome (EMS) horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzinga, Sarah; Reedy, Stephanie; Barker, Virginia D; Chambers, Thomas M; Adams, Amanda A

    2018-05-01

    Obesity is an increasing problem in the equine population with recent reports indicating that the percentage of overweight horses may range anywhere from 20.6-51%. Obesity in horses has been linked to more serious health concerns such as equine metabolic syndrome (EMS). EMS is a serious problem in the equine industry given its defining characteristics of insulin dysregualtion and obesity, as well as the involvement of laminitis. Little research however has been conducted to determine the effects of EMS on routine healthcare of these horses, in particular how they respond to vaccination. It has been shown that obese humans and mice have decreased immune responses to vaccination. EMS may have similar effects on vaccine responses in horses. If this is the case, these animals may be more susceptible to disease, acting as unknown disease reservoirs. Therefore, we investigated the effects of EMS on immune responses to routine influenza vaccination. Twenty-five adult horses of mixed-sex and mixed-breed (8-21 years old) horses; 13 EMS and 12 non-EMS were selected. Within each group, 4 horses served as non-vaccinate saline controls and the remaining horses were vaccinated with a commercially available equine influenza vaccine. Vaccination (influenza or saline) was administered on weeks 0 and 3, and peripheral blood samples taken on week 0 prior to vaccination and on weeks 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 post vaccination. Blood samples were used to measure hemagglutination inhibition (HI) titers and equine influenza specific IgGa, IgGb, and IgGT levels. Blood samples were also used to isolate peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) for analysis of cell mediated immune (CMI) responses via real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). All horses receiving influenza vaccination responded with significant increases (P equine influenza specific antibodies following vaccination compared to saline controls. EMS did not significantly affect (P > 0.05) humoral immune responses as measured

  3. Effect of partial and complete variable loop deletions of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoprotein on the breadth of gp160-specific immune responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gzyl, Jaroslaw; Bolesta, Elizabeth; Wierzbicki, Andrew; Kmieciak, Dariusz; Naito, Toshio; Honda, Mitsuo; Komuro, Katsutoshi; Kaneko, Yutaro; Kozbor, Danuta

    2004-01-01

    Induction of cross-reactive cellular and humoral responses to the HIV-1 envelope (env) glycoprotein was examined after DNA immunization of BALB/c mice with gp140 89.6 -derived constructs exhibiting partial or complete deletions of the V1, V2, and V3 domains. It was demonstrated that specific modification of the V3 loop (mV3) in combination with the V2-modified (mV2) or V1/V2-deleted (ΔV1/V2) region elicited increased levels of cross-reactive CD8 + T cell responses. Mice immunized with the mV2/mV3 or ΔV1/V2/mV3 gp140 89.6 plasmid DNA were greater than 50-fold more resistant to challenge with recombinant vaccinia virus (rVV) expressing heterologous env gene products than animals immunized with the wild-type (WT) counterpart. Sera from mV2/mV3- and ΔV1/V2/mV3-immunized mice exhibited the highest cross-neutralizing activity and displayed intermediate antibody avidity values which were further enhanced by challenge with rVV expressing the homologous gp160 glycoprotein. In contrast, complete deletion of the variable regions had little or no effect on the cross-reactive antibody responses. The results of these experiments indicate that the breadth of antibody responses to the HIV-1 env glycoprotein may not be increased by removal of the variable domains. Instead, partial deletions within these regions may redirect specific responses toward conserved epitopes and facilitate approaches for boosting cross-reactive cellular and antibody responses to the env glycoprotein

  4. Effective CD4+ T-cell restoration in gut-associated lymphoid tissue of HIV-infected patients is associated with enhanced Th17 cells and polyfunctional HIV-specific T-cell responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macal, M; Sankaran, S; Chun, T-W; Reay, E; Flamm, J; Prindiville, T J; Dandekar, S

    2008-11-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection leads to severe CD4+ T-cell depletion in gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) that persists despite the initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). It is not known whether restoration of gut mucosal CD4+ T cells and their functions is feasible during therapy and how that relates to immune correlates and viral reservoirs. Intestinal biopsies and peripheral blood samples from HIV-infected patients who were either HAART naive or on long-term HAART were evaluated. Our data demonstrated that gut CD4+ T-cell restoration ranged from modest (50%), compared with uninfected controls. Despite persistent CD4+ T-cell proviral burden and residual immune activation in GALT during HAART, effective CD4+ T-cell restoration (>50%) was achieved, which was associated with enhanced Th17 CD4+ T-cell accumulation and polyfunctional anti-HIV cellular responses. Our findings suggest that a threshold of>50% CD4+ T-cell restoration may be sufficient for polyfunctional HIV-specific T cells with implications in the evaluation of vaccines and therapeutics.

  5. Humor in psychiatric healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saper, B

    1988-01-01

    The oft-quoted aphorism that "laughter is the best medicine" is examined. Specifically, three big drops in the shower of claims regarding the benefits of humor in treating physical and mental disorders are evaluated. First, studies of the effects of mirth and laughter on the physiology of the body reveal both good and bad news. The meager evidence of the salutary effects of positive emotions on the cardiovascular, respiratory, immune and neuroendocrine systems, though apparently supportable on more or less scientific, rational and subjective grounds, needs much better verification from more extensive, replicable, and empirical research. Second, despite numerous claims, in the context of behavioral or psychosomatic medicine, that a joyful, optimistic, or humorous attitude can render a salubrious effect, almost to the extent of preventing illness and curing physical disease, the jury is still out and issuing dire warnings regarding too ready acceptance of this largely anecdotal evidence. Much careful "clinical trial" research needs to be mounted to determine the conditions under which humor works best, if at all. The type of patient, the kind of humor, the type and severity of illness, the psychosocial contexts-all of these factors should be considered. Third, the infusion of humor into psychotherapy is great news for some therapists and awful news for others. A number of more balanced approaches point up the probability that when mirth is incorporated into therapy judiciously, appropriately, and meaningfully it can be of value.

  6. Novel chimeric virus-like particles vaccine displaying MERS-CoV receptor-binding domain induce specific humoral and cellular immune response in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chong; Zheng, Xuexing; Gai, Weiwei; Wong, Gary; Wang, Hualei; Jin, Hongli; Feng, Na; Zhao, Yongkun; Zhang, Weijiao; Li, Nan; Zhao, Guoxing; Li, Junfu; Yan, Jinghua; Gao, Yuwei; Hu, Guixue; Yang, Songtao; Xia, Xianzhu

    2017-04-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) has continued spreading since its emergence in 2012 with a mortality rate of 35.6%, and is a potential pandemic threat. Prophylactics and therapies are urgently needed to address this public health problem. We report here the efficacy of a vaccine consisting of chimeric virus-like particles (VLP) expressing the receptor binding domain (RBD) of MERS-CoV. In this study, a fusion of the canine parvovirus (CPV) VP2 structural protein gene with the RBD of MERS-CoV can self-assemble into chimeric, spherical VLP (sVLP). sVLP retained certain parvovirus characteristics, such as the ability to agglutinate pig erythrocytes, and structural morphology similar to CPV virions. Immunization with sVLP induced RBD-specific humoral and cellular immune responses in mice. sVLP-specific antisera from these animals were able to prevent pseudotyped MERS-CoV entry into susceptible cells, with neutralizing antibody titers reaching 1: 320. IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-2 secreting cells induced by the RBD were detected in the splenocytes of vaccinated mice by ELISpot. Furthermore, mice inoculated with sVLP or an adjuvanted sVLP vaccine elicited T-helper 1 (Th1) and T-helper 2 (Th2) cell-mediated immunity. Our study demonstrates that sVLP displaying the RBD of MERS-CoV are promising prophylactic candidates against MERS-CoV in a potential outbreak situation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Personality, Humor Styles and Happiness: Happy People Have Positive Humor Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Thomas E.; Lappi, Shaun K.; Holden, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the relationships between four personality traits, humor styles, and happiness. Replicating previous research, happiness was positively correlated with four personality traits: extraversion, locus of control, self-esteem, and optimism. Further, happiness positively related to self-enhancing and affiliative humor styles; it related negatively to self-defeating and aggressive humor styles. Thus, happy people habitually engage in positive uses of humor and avoid engaging in negative uses of humor in daily life. We also found support for our hypothesis. People high in extraversion, locus of control, self-esteem, and optimism are happier because they engage in positive humor in daily life. PMID:27547251

  8. Personality, Humor Styles and Happiness: Happy People Have Positive Humor Styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E. Ford

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the relationships between four personality traits, humor styles, and happiness. Replicating previous research, happiness was positively correlated with four personality traits: extraversion, locus of control, self-esteem, and optimism. Further, happiness positively related to self-enhancing and affiliative humor styles; it related negatively to self-defeating and aggressive humor styles. Thus, happy people habitually engage in positive uses of humor and avoid engaging in negative uses of humor in daily life. We also found support for our hypothesis. People high in extraversion, locus of control, self-esteem, and optimism are happier because they engage in positive humor in daily life.

  9. Personality, Humor Styles and Happiness: Happy People Have Positive Humor Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Thomas E; Lappi, Shaun K; Holden, Christopher J

    2016-08-01

    The present study examined the relationships between four personality traits, humor styles, and happiness. Replicating previous research, happiness was positively correlated with four personality traits: extraversion, locus of control, self-esteem, and optimism. Further, happiness positively related to self-enhancing and affiliative humor styles; it related negatively to self-defeating and aggressive humor styles. Thus, happy people habitually engage in positive uses of humor and avoid engaging in negative uses of humor in daily life. We also found support for our hypothesis. People high in extraversion, locus of control, self-esteem, and optimism are happier because they engage in positive humor in daily life.

  10. Laughter, Humor and Pain Perception in Children: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Stuber

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Although there are many clinical programs designed to bring humor into pediatric hospitals, there has been very little research with children or adolescents concerning the specific utility of humor for children undergoing stressful or painful procedures. Rx Laughter™, a non-profit organization interested in the use of humor for healing, collaborated with UCLA to collect preliminary data on a sample of 18 children aged 7–16 years. Participants watched humorous video-tapes before, during and after a standardized pain task that involved placing a hand in cold water. Pain appraisal (ratings of pain severity and pain tolerance (submersion time were recorded and examined in relation to humor indicators (number of laughs/smiles during each video and child ratings of how funny the video was. Whereas humor indicators were not significantly associated with pain appraisal or tolerance, the group demonstrated significantly greater pain tolerance while viewing funny videos than when viewing the videos immediately before or after the cold-water task. The results suggest that humorous distraction is useful to help children and adolescents tolerate painful procedures. Further study is indicated to explore the specific mechanism of this benefit.

  11. Transgene vaccination using Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA-1) for targeted mucosal immunization against HIV-1 envelope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinhai; Kochetkova, Irina; Haddad, Asmahan; Hoyt, Teri; Hone, David M; Pascual, David W

    2005-05-31

    Receptor-mediated gene transfer using an M cell ligand has been shown to be an efficient method for mucosal DNA immunization. To investigate further into alternative M cell ligands, the plant lectin, Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA-1), was tested. UEA-1 binds to human intestinal Caco-2 cells, and these cells can be transfected with poly-l-lysine (PL)-conjugated UEA-1 for expression of reporter cDNAs. When tested in vivo, mice nasally immunized with UEA-1-PL complexed to plasmid encoding HIV-1 envelope showed elevated systemic and mucosal antibody responses, and these were supported by tissue antibody-forming cells. Likewise, elevated envelope-specific CTLs were induced. Thus, UEA-1 mediated DNA delivery represents an alternative mucosal formulation for inducing humoral and cellular immunity against HIV-1.

  12. The evolution of humor from male aggression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuster S

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Sam ShusterNewcastle University, Newcastle Upon Type, NE1 7RU, UKAbstract: The response to seeing a man riding a unicycle was reported to be consistently related to the viewer's sex and stage of physical development. To see if this observation was universal, observations of responses were collected from 23 male and 9 female unicyclists aged 15–69 years, with 2–40 years cycling experience across four continents. With two exceptions among men, the findings were the same as those originally reported: children showed interest and curiosity, young girls showed little interest, while adult women showed a kindly, concerned, praising response. By contrast, boys showed physical aggression, which became more verbal, merging in the later teens to the snide, aggressive, stereotyped humorous response shown by adult males, which became less frequent in elderly men. The universality of the response across different individuals, environments, and dates of observation suggests an endogenous mechanism, and the association with masculine development relates this to androgen. The theoretical consequences are discussed. It is concluded that humor develops from aggression in males and is evolutionarily related to sexual selection.Keywords: humor evolution, male aggressive behavior

  13. Posintro™-HBsAg, a modified ISCOM including HBsAg, induces strong cellular and humoral responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiött, Asa; Larsson, Kristina; Manniche, Søren

    2011-01-01

    HBsAg vaccine formulation, Posintro™-HBsAg, was compared to two commercial hepatitis B vaccines including aluminium or monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) and the two adjuvant systems MF59 and QS21 in their efficiency to prime both cellular and humoral immune responses. The Posintro™-HBsAg induced...

  14. Using Psychophysiological Measures to Examine the Temporal Profile of Verbal Humor Elicitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris M Fiacconi

    Full Text Available Despite its pervasiveness in popular culture, there remains much to be learned about the psychological and physiological processes that underlie our experience of humor. In the present study, we examined the temporal profile of verbal humor elicitation using psychophysiological measures of heart rate (HR and facial electromyography (EMG. Consistent with recent prior research on cardiovascular changes to perceived humor, we found that HR acceleration was greater for jokes relative to non-jokes, and was positively related to the level of perceived humor elicited by these jokes. In addition, activity recorded from the zygomaticus major muscle that controls smiling was found to be greater for jokes relative to non-jokes. To link these physiological changes to the psychological processes that govern humor comprehension, we took the initial inflection point of the zygomatic EMG response as a marker for the onset of humor comprehension, and used this marker to probe the pattern of cardiovascular activity at this time-point. We estimated the onset of the humor response to occur during the initial HR deceleration phase, and found that jokes relative to non-jokes elicited a decreased HR response at this time-point. This result questions the previously forwarded notion that the psychological "moment of insight" that signals the start of the humor response is always associated with heightened cardiovascular activity. This discrepancy is discussed in relation to possible differences in the cognitive processes required to comprehend different forms of humor. At a broader level, our results also demonstrate the advantages of combining different psychophysiological measures to examine psychological phenomena, and illustrate how one such measure can constrain the interpretation of others.

  15. Using Psychophysiological Measures to Examine the Temporal Profile of Verbal Humor Elicitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiacconi, Chris M; Owen, Adrian M

    2015-01-01

    Despite its pervasiveness in popular culture, there remains much to be learned about the psychological and physiological processes that underlie our experience of humor. In the present study, we examined the temporal profile of verbal humor elicitation using psychophysiological measures of heart rate (HR) and facial electromyography (EMG). Consistent with recent prior research on cardiovascular changes to perceived humor, we found that HR acceleration was greater for jokes relative to non-jokes, and was positively related to the level of perceived humor elicited by these jokes. In addition, activity recorded from the zygomaticus major muscle that controls smiling was found to be greater for jokes relative to non-jokes. To link these physiological changes to the psychological processes that govern humor comprehension, we took the initial inflection point of the zygomatic EMG response as a marker for the onset of humor comprehension, and used this marker to probe the pattern of cardiovascular activity at this time-point. We estimated the onset of the humor response to occur during the initial HR deceleration phase, and found that jokes relative to non-jokes elicited a decreased HR response at this time-point. This result questions the previously forwarded notion that the psychological "moment of insight" that signals the start of the humor response is always associated with heightened cardiovascular activity. This discrepancy is discussed in relation to possible differences in the cognitive processes required to comprehend different forms of humor. At a broader level, our results also demonstrate the advantages of combining different psychophysiological measures to examine psychological phenomena, and illustrate how one such measure can constrain the interpretation of others.

  16. Effects of amoxicillin, ceftiofur, doxycycline, tiamulin and tulathromycin on pig humoral immune responses induced by erysipelas vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomorska-Mól, M; Kwit, K; Wierzchosławski, K; Dors, A; Pejsak, Z

    2016-05-28

    It addition to their antimicrobial properties, antibiotics can influence the host immune system (modulation of cytokine secretion, antibody production and T-cell proliferation). In the present study, the authors studied the effects of therapeutic doses of amoxicillin (AMX), ceftiofur (CEF), doxycycline (DOXY), tiamulin (TIAM) and tulathromycin (TUL) on the postvaccinal immune response after pigs had been vaccinated against erysipelas. Because humoral immunity is considered as the most important in the protection against swine erysipelas, the present study focused on the interactions between antibiotics and postvaccinal humoral immunity. One hundred and five, eight-week-old pigs of both sexes were used. Specific antibodies to the Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae antigen were determined using a commercial ELISA test. In pigs treated with DOXY or CEF or TIAM, a significant reduction in the number of positive pigs was observed four and six weeks after the second dose of vaccine, compared with the remaining vaccinated groups. In pigs treated with CEF, the ELISA score was significantly lower than in non-treated vaccinated pigs. While in vaccinated pigs treated with AMX or TUL, the ELISA score was significantly higher than in pigs treated with the remaining antibiotics and than in non-treated vaccinated controls. The results of the present study indicate that vaccination of pigs against erysipelas in the presence of antibiotics may result in a decrease (CEF, DOXY, TIAM) or enhancement (AMX, TUL) in the production of specific antibodies. British Veterinary Association.

  17. Optimizing HIV-1-specific CD8+ T-cell induction by recombinant BCG in prime-boost regimens with heterologous viral vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Richard; Bridgeman, Anne; Bourne, Charles; Mbewe-Mvula, Alice; Sadoff, Jerald C; Both, Gerald W; Joseph, Joan; Fulkerson, John; Hanke, Tomáš

    2011-12-01

    The desire to induce HIV-1-specific responses soon after birth to prevent breast milk transmission of HIV-1 led us to propose a vaccine regimen which primes HIV-1-specific T cells using a recombinant Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (rBCG) vaccine. Because attenuated live bacterial vaccines are typically not sufficiently immunogenic as stand-alone vaccines, rBCG-primed T cells will likely require boost immunization(s). Here, we compared modified Danish (AERAS-401) and Pasteur lysine auxotroph (222) strains of BCG expressing the immunogen HIVA for their potency to prime HIV-1-specific responses in adult BALB/c mice and examined four heterologous boosting HIVA vaccines for their immunogenic synergy. We found that both BCG.HIVA(401) and BCG.HIVA(222) primed HIV-1-specific CD8(+) T-cell-mediated responses. The strongest boosts were delivered by human adenovirus-vectored HAdV5.HIVA and sheep atadenovirus-vectored OAdV7.HIVA vaccines, followed by poxvirus MVA.HIVA; the weakest was plasmid pTH.HIVA DNA. The prime-boost regimens induced T cells capable of efficient in vivo killing of sensitized target cells. We also observed that the BCG.HIVA(401) and BCG.HIVA(222) vaccines have broadly similar immunologic properties, but display a number of differences mainly detected through distinct profiles of soluble intercellular signaling molecules produced by immune splenocytes in response to both HIV-1- and BCG-specific stimuli. These results encourage further development of the rBCG prime-boost regimen. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Somatic populations of PGT135-137 HIV-1-neutralizing antibodies identified by 454 pyrosequencing and bioinformatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang eZhu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Select HIV-1-infected individuals develop sera capable of neutralizing diverse viral strains. The molecular basis of this neutralization is currently being deciphered by the isolation of HIV-1-neutralizing antibodies. In one infected donor, three neutralizing antibodies, PGT135-137, were identified by assessment of neutralization from individually sorted B cells and found to recognize an epitope containing an N-linked glycan at residue 332 on HIV-1 gp120. Here we use deep sequencing and bioinformatics methods to interrogate the B cell record of this donor to gain a more complete understanding of the humoral immune response. PGT135-137-gene family-specific primers were used to amplify heavy and light chain-variable domain sequences. 454 pyrosequencing produced 141,298 heavy-chain sequences of IGHV4-39 origin and 87,229 light-chain sequences of IGKV3-15 origin. A number of heavy and light chain sequences of ~90% identity to PGT137, several to PGT136, and none of high identity to PGT135 were identified. After expansion of these sequences to include close phylogenetic relatives, a total of 202 heavy-chain sequences and 72 light-chain sequences were identified. These sequences were clustered into populations of 95% identity comprising 15 for heavy chain and 10 for light chain, and a select sequence from each population was synthesized and reconstituted with a PGT137-partner chain. Reconstituted antibodies showed varied neutralization phenotypes for HIV-1 clade A and D isolates. Sequence diversity of the antibody population represented by these tested sequences was notably higher than observed with a 454 pyrosequencing-control analysis on 10 antibodies of defined sequence, suggesting that this diversity results primarily from somatic maturation. Our results thus provide an example of how pathogens like HIV-1 are opposed by a varied humoral immune response, derived from intrinsic mechanisms of antibody development, and embodied by somatic populations

  19. Relative roles of the cellular and humoral responses in the Drosophila host defense against three gram-positive bacterial infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine T Nehme

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Two NF-kappaB signaling pathways, Toll and immune deficiency (imd, are required for survival to bacterial infections in Drosophila. In response to septic injury, these pathways mediate rapid transcriptional activation of distinct sets of effector molecules, including antimicrobial peptides, which are important components of a humoral defense response. However, it is less clear to what extent macrophage-like hemocytes contribute to host defense.In order to dissect the relative importance of humoral and cellular defenses after septic injury with three different gram-positive bacteria (Micrococcus luteus, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, we used latex bead pre-injection to ablate macrophage function in flies wildtype or mutant for various Toll and imd pathway components. We found that in all three infection models a compromised phagocytic system impaired fly survival--independently of concomitant Toll or imd pathway activation. Our data failed to confirm a role of the PGRP-SA and GNBP1 Pattern Recognition Receptors for phagocytosis of S. aureus. The Drosophila scavenger receptor Eater mediates the phagocytosis by hemocytes or S2 cells of E. faecalis and S. aureus, but not of M. luteus. In the case of M. luteus and E. faecalis, but not S. aureus, decreased survival due to defective phagocytosis could be compensated for by genetically enhancing the humoral immune response.Our results underscore the fundamental importance of both cellular and humoral mechanisms in Drosophila immunity and shed light on the balance between these two arms of host defense depending on the invading pathogen.

  20. Immune Modulation of NYVAC-Based HIV Vaccines by Combined Deletion of Viral Genes that Act on Several Signalling Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Elena Gómez

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available An HIV-1 vaccine continues to be a major target to halt the AIDS pandemic. The limited efficacy of the RV144 phase III clinical trial with the canarypox virus-based vector ALVAC and a gp120 protein component led to the conclusion that improved immune responses to HIV antigens are needed for a more effective vaccine. In non-human primates, the New York vaccinia virus (NYVAC poxvirus vector has a broader immunogenicity profile than ALVAC and has been tested in clinical trials. We therefore analysed the HIV immune advantage of NYVAC after removing viral genes that act on several signalling pathways (Toll-like receptors—TLR—interferon, cytokines/chemokines, as well as genes of unknown immune function. We generated a series of NYVAC deletion mutants and studied immune behaviour (T and B cell to HIV antigens and to the NYVAC vector in mice. Our results showed that combined deletion of selected vaccinia virus (VACV genes is a valuable strategy for improving the immunogenicity of NYVAC-based vaccine candidates. These immune responses were differentially modulated, positive or negative, depending on the combination of gene deletions. The deletions also led to enhanced antigen- or vector-specific cellular and humoral responses. These findings will facilitate the development of optimal NYVAC-based vaccines for HIV and other diseases.

  1. Broad and potent immune responses to a low dose intradermal HIV-1 DNA boosted with HIV-1 recombinant MVA among healthy adults in Tanzania☆,☆☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakari, Muhammad; Aboud, Said; Nilsson, Charlotta; Francis, Joel; Buma, Deus; Moshiro, Candida; Aris, Eric A.; Lyamuya, Eligius F.; Janabi, Mohamed; Godoy-Ramirez, Karina; Joachim, Agricola; Polonis, Victoria R.; Bråve, Andreas; Earl, Patricia; Robb, Merlin; Marovich, Mary; Wahren, Britta; Pallangyo, Kisali; Biberfeld, Gunnel; Mhalu, Fred; Sandström, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Background We conducted a phase I/II randomized placebo-controlled trial with the aim of exploring whether priming with a low intradermal dose of a multiclade, multigene HIV-1 DNA vaccine could improve the immunogenicity of the same vaccine given intramuscularly prior to boosting with a heterologous HIV-1 MVA among healthy adults in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methods Sixty HIV-uninfected volunteers were randomized to receive DNA plasmid vaccine 1 mg intradermally (id), n = 20, or 3.8 mg intramuscularly (im), n = 20, or placebo, n = 20, using a needle-free injection device. DNA plasmids encoding HIV-1 genes gp160 subtype A, B, C; rev B; p17/p24 gag A, B and Rtmut B were given at weeks 0, 4 and 12. Recombinant MVA (108 pfu) expressing HIV-1 Env, Gag, Pol of CRF01_AE or placebo was administered im at month 9 and 21. Results The vaccines were well tolerated. Two weeks after the third HIV-DNA injection, 22/38 (58%) vaccinees had IFN-γ ELISpot responses to Gag. Two weeks after the first HIV-MVA boost all 35 (100%) vaccinees responded to Gag and 31 (89%) to Env. Two to four weeks after the second HIV-MVA boost, 28/29 (97%) vaccinees had IFN-γ ELISpot responses, 27 (93%) to Gag and 23 (79%) to Env. The id-primed recipients had significantly higher responses to Env than im recipients. Intracellular cytokine staining for Gag-specific IFN-γ/IL-2 production showed both CD8+ and CD4+ T cell responses. All vaccinees had HIV-specific lymphoproliferative responses. All vaccinees reacted in diagnostic HIV serological tests and 26/29 (90%) had antibodies against gp160 after the second HIV-MVA boost. Furthermore, while all of 29 vaccinee sera were negative for neutralizing antibodies against clade B, C and CRF01 AE pseudoviruses in the TZM-bl neutralization assay, in a PBMC assay, the response rate ranged from 31% to 83% positives, depending upon the clade B or CRF01_AE virus tested. This vaccine approach is safe and highly immunogenic. Low dose, id HIV-DNA priming elicited higher

  2. Humor styles and personality: A meta-analysis of the relation between humor styles and the Big Five personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendiburo-Seguel, Andrés; Páez, Darío; Martínez-Sánchez, Francisco

    2015-06-01

    This research summarizes the knowledge generated in social psychology and positive psychology about the relationship between humor styles, personality and wellbeing. Specifically, a meta-analysis was performed with the results of 15 studies on humor styles measured by the Humor Styles Questionnaire (Martin, Puhlik-Doris, Larsen, Gray & Weir, 2003) in correlation with the personality traits measured by the Big Five Personality model (measured with different scales). Following the steps presented by Rosenthal (1991) for meta-analysis in the case of correlational research, we calculated the total mean r as an indicator of effect size. Results show that affiliative humor has a strong and homogeneous relation to neuroticism and extraversion. The homogeneity and heterogeneity found between variables and possible explanations are discussed in the conclusion. © 2015 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Enrichment of intersubtype HIV-1 recombinants in a dual infection system using HIV-1 strain-specific siRNAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Intersubtype HIV-1 recombinants in the form of unique or stable circulating recombinants forms (CRFs) are responsible for over 20% of infections in the worldwide epidemic. Mechanisms controlling the generation, selection, and transmission of these intersubtype HIV-1 recombinants still require further investigation. All intersubtype HIV-1 recombinants are generated and evolve from initial dual infections, but are difficult to identify in the human population. In vitro studies provide the most practical system to study mechanisms, but the recombination rates are usually very low in dual infections with primary HIV-1 isolates. This study describes the use of HIV-1 isolate-specific siRNAs to enrich intersubtype HIV-1 recombinants and inhibit the parental HIV-1 isolates from a dual infection. Results Following a dual infection with subtype A and D primary HIV-1 isolates and two rounds of siRNA treatment, nearly 100% of replicative virus was resistant to a siRNA specific for an upstream target sequence in the subtype A envelope (env) gene as well as a siRNA specific for a downstream target sequence in the subtype D env gene. Only 20% (10/50) of the replicating virus had nucleotide substitutions in the siRNA-target sequence whereas the remaining 78% (39/50) harbored a recombination breakpoint that removed both siRNA target sequences, and rendered the intersubtype D/A recombinant virus resistant to the dual siRNA treatment. Since siRNAs target the newly transcribed HIV-1 mRNA, the siRNAs only enrich intersubtype env recombinants and do not influence the recombination process during reverse transcription. Using this system, a strong bias is selected for recombination breakpoints in the C2 region, whereas other HIV-1 env regions, most notably the hypervariable regions, were nearly devoid of intersubtype recombination breakpoints. Sequence conservation plays an important role in selecting for recombination breakpoints, but the lack of breakpoints in many conserved

  4. Humoral immune response to measles and varicella vaccination in former very low birth weight preterm infants

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina Schlindwein Mariano Ferreira; Maria Cristina Abrão Aued Perin; Maria Isabel de Moraes-Pinto; Raquel Maria Simão-Gurge; Ana Lucia Goulart; Lily Yin Weckx; Amélia Miyashiro Nunes dos Santos

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: Immune response to vaccination in infants born prematurely may be lower than in infants born at full-term. Some clinical factors might be associated with humoral immune response. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to compare the immune response to measles and varicella vaccination in infants born prematurely with those born at full-term and to analyze factors associated with measles and varicella antibody levels. Methods: Prospective study including two groups o...

  5. The Dark Side of Humor: DSM-5 Pathological Personality Traits and Humor Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; McCabe, Gillian A; Vrabel, Jennifer K

    2016-08-01

    Basic personality traits (e.g., extraversion) have been found to be associated with the humor styles that individuals employ. In the present study, we were interested in determining whether pathological personality traits were also associated with humor styles. We examined the associations between the pathological personality traits captured by the Personality Inventory for the DSM-5 (PID-5) and humor styles in a sample of college students (N = 594). Negative affectivity and detachment were negatively associated with the affiliative and self-enhancing humor styles. Antagonism was positively associated with the aggressive humor style but negatively associated with the affiliative humor style. Disinhibition was positively associated with the aggressive humor style, whereas disinhibition and psychoticism were both positively associated with the self-defeating humor style. Discussion focuses on the implications of these findings and how they can expand our understanding of the connections between the darker aspects of personality and humor.

  6. Humoral and cellular immune responses to synthetic peptides of the Leishmania donovani kinetoplastid membrane protein-11

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, A T; Gasim, S; Ismail, A

    1998-01-01

    as solid-phase ligands in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and as stimulating antigens in lymphoproliferative assays in order to evaluate humoral and cellular immune responses to well-defined sequences of the protein. Antibody reactivity against the three peptides was measured in plasma from 63...

  7. The impact of inflammation and immune activation on B cell differentiation during HIV-1 infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas eRuffin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available HIV-1 infection is characterized by continuous antigenic stimulation, chronic immune activation and impaired survival of T and B cells. A decline of resting memory B cells has previously been reported to occur in both children and adults infected with HIV-1; these cells are responsible for mounting and maintaining an adequate serological response to antigens previously encountered in life through natural infection or vaccination. Further understanding of the mechanisms leading to impaired B cell differentiation and germinal center reaction might be essential to design new HIV vaccines and therapies that could improve humoral immune responses in HIV-1 infected individuals. In the present article we summarize the literature and present our view on critical mechanisms of B cell development which are impaired during HIV-1 infection. We also discuss the impact of microbial translocation, a driving force for persistent inflammation during HIV-1 infection, on survival of terminally differentiated B cells and how the altered expression of cytokines/chemokines pivotal for communication between T and B cells in lymphoid tissues may impair formation of memory B cells.

  8. Are Clade Specific HIV Vaccines a Necessity? An Analysis Based on Mathematical Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobromir Dimitrov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available As HIV-1 envelope immune responses are critical to vaccine related protection, most candidate HIV vaccines entering efficacy trials are based upon a clade specific design. This need for clade specific vaccine prototypes markedly reduces the implementation of potentially effective HIV vaccines. We utilized a mathematical model to determine the effectiveness of immediate roll-out of a non-clade matched vaccine with reduced efficacy compared to constructing clade specific vaccines, which would take considerable time to manufacture and test in safety and efficacy trials. We simulated the HIV epidemic in San Francisco (SF and South Africa (SA and projected effectiveness of three vaccination strategies: i immediate intervention with a 20–40% vaccine efficacy (VE non-matched vaccine, ii delayed intervention by developing a 50% VE clade-specific vaccine, and iii immediate intervention with a non-matched vaccine replaced by a clade-specific vaccine when developed. Immediate vaccination with a non-clade matched vaccine, even with reduced efficacy, would prevent thousands of new infections in SF and millions in SA over 30 years. Vaccination with 50% VE delayed for five years needs six and 12 years in SA to break-even with immediate 20 and 30% VE vaccination, respectively, while not able to surpass the impact of immediate 40% VE vaccination over 30 years. Replacing a 30% VE with a 50% VE vaccine after 5 years reduces the HIV acquisition by 5% compared to delayed vaccination. The immediate use of an HIV vaccine with reduced VE in high risk communities appears desirable over a short time line but higher VE should be the pursued to achieve strong long-term impact. Our analysis illustrates the importance of developing surrogate markers (correlates of protection to allow bridging types of immunogenicity studies to support more rapid assessment of clade specific vaccines.

  9. Evolution of Neutralization Response in HIV-1 Subtype C-Infected Individuals Exhibiting Broad Cross-Clade Neutralization of HIV-1 Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayanaiah Cheedarla

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Strain-specific neutralizing antibodies develop in all human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1-infected individuals. However, only 10–30% of infected individuals produce broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs. Identification and characterization of these bNAbs and understanding their evolution dynamics are critical for obtaining useful clues for the development of an effective HIV vaccine. Very recently, we published a study in which we identified 12 HIV-1 subtype C-infected individuals from India whose plasma showed potent and broad cross-clade neutralization (BCN ability (1. In the present study, we report our findings on the evolution of host bNAb response over a period of 4 years in a subset of these individuals. Three of the five individuals (NAB033, NAB059, and NAB065 demonstrated a significant increase (p < 0.05 in potency. Interestingly, two of the three samples also showed a significant increase in CD4 binding site-specific antibody response, maintained stable CD4+ T cell counts (>350 cells/mm3 and continued to remain ART-naïve for more than 10 years after initial diagnosis, implying a strong clinical correlation with the development and evolution of broadly neutralizing antibody response against HIV-1.

  10. The Dark Side of Humor: DSM-5 Pathological Personality Traits and Humor Styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgil Zeigler-Hill

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Basic personality traits (e.g., extraversion have been found to be associated with the humor styles that individuals employ. In the present study, we were interested in determining whether pathological personality traits were also associated with humor styles. We examined the associations between the pathological personality traits captured by the Personality Inventory for the DSM-5 (PID-5 and humor styles in a sample of college students (N = 594. Negative affectivity and detachment were negatively associated with the affiliative and self-enhancing humor styles. Antagonism was positively associated with the aggressive humor style but negatively associated with the affiliative humor style. Disinhibition was positively associated with the aggressive humor style, whereas disinhibition and psychoticism were both positively associated with the self-defeating humor style. Discussion focuses on the implications of these findings and how they can expand our understanding of the connections between the darker aspects of personality and humor.

  11. Appreciation of humor is decreased among patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaler, Avner; Posen, Jennie; Giladi, Nir; Manor, Yael; Mayanz, Connie; Mirelman, Anat; Gurevich, Tanya

    2012-02-01

    To test whether appreciation of humor might be a non-motor function affected by Parkinson's disease (PD). Thirty-nine PD patients and 38 healthy controls participated in this study. Appreciation of humor and effect of the presentation method utilized were assessed. Sense of humor was evaluated by the sense of humor questionnaire (SHQ-6). Humor appreciation was tested using three methods of presentation: videos, audio sketches and pictorial cartoons, each portraying both obvious and non-obvious humor content. Depression, anxiety, cognition, disease severity and quality of life were measured by standardized questionnaires and correlated with humor outcomes. Patients with PD rated humor content lower than controls on every method of presentation as well as on the SHQ-6 (p = 0.004). The greatest between-group difference was noted when the material was presented visually via pictorial cartoons (p < 0.0001). In addition, obvious humor content was rated higher than non-obvious content by the PD group in all three presentation methods (p < 0.05). The degree of depression and anxiety did not influence these results. Patients with PD have a decreased sense of humor compared to healthy controls. Utilizing audio methods of presentation and humor in an obvious mode appears to be the preferred approach for eliciting responses to humor in a PD population. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. HIV-1 Gag-specific exosome-targeted T cell-based vaccine stimulates effector CTL responses leading to therapeutic and long-term immunity against Gag/HLA-A2-expressing B16 melanoma in transgenic HLA-A2 mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1-specific dendritic cell (DC vaccines have been applied to clinical trials that show only induction of some degree of immune responses, warranting the search of other more efficient vaccine strategies. Since HIV-1-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs have been found to recognize some HIV-1 structural protein Gag conserved and cross-strain epitopes, Gag has become one of the most attractive target candidates for HIV-1 vaccine development. In this study, we generated HIV-1 Gag-specific Gag-Texo vaccine by using ConA-stimulated polyclonal CD8+ T-cells with uptake of Gag-expressing adenoviral vector AdVGag-transfected DC (DCGag-released exosomes (EXOs, and assessed its stimulation of Gag-specific CD8+ CTL responses and antitumor immunity. We demonstrate that Gag-Texo and DCGag vaccines comparably stimulate Gag-specific effector CD8+ CTL responses. Gag-Texo-stimulated CTL responses result in protective immunity against Gag-expressing BL6-10Gag melanoma in 8/8 wild-type C57BL/6 mice. In addition, we show that Gag-Texo vaccine also induces CTL responses leading to protective and long-term immunity against Gag/HLA-A2-expressing BL6-10Gag/A2 melanoma in 8/8 and 2/8 transgenic HLA-A2 mice, respectively. The average number of lung tumor colonies in mice with 30-days post-immunization is only 23, which is significantly less than that (>300 in control ConA-T-immunized HLA-A2 mice. Furthermore, Gag-Texo vaccine also induces some degree of therapeutic immunity. The average number (50 and size (0.23 mm in diameter of lung tumor colonies in Gag-Texo-immunized HLA-A2 mice bearing 6-day-established lung BL6-10Gag/A2 melanoma metastasis are significantly less than the average number (>300 and size (1.02 mm in diameter in control ConA-T-immunized HLA-A2 mice. Taken together, HIV-1 Gag-Texo vaccine capable of stimulating Gag-specific CTL responses and therapeutic immunity may be useful as a new immunotherapeutic

  13. A novel mode of induction of the humoral innate immune response in Drosophila larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Kenmoku

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Drosophila adults have been utilized as a genetically tractable model organism to decipher the molecular mechanisms of humoral innate immune responses. In an effort to promote the utility of Drosophila larvae as an additional model system, in this study, we describe a novel aspect of an induction mechanism for innate immunity in these larvae. By using a fine tungsten needle created for manipulating semi-conductor devices, larvae were subjected to septic injury. However, although Toll pathway mutants were susceptible to infection with Gram-positive bacteria as had been shown for Drosophila adults, microbe clearance was not affected in the mutants. In addition, Drosophila larvae were found to be sensitive to mechanical stimuli with respect to the activation of a sterile humoral response. In particular, pinching with forceps to a degree that might cause minor damage to larval tissues could induce the expression of the antifungal peptide gene Drosomycin; notably, this induction was partially independent of the Toll and immune deficiency pathways. We therefore propose that Drosophila larvae might serve as a useful model to analyze the infectious and non-infectious inflammation that underlies various inflammatory diseases such as ischemia, atherosclerosis and cancer.

  14. HIV Molecular Immunology 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yusim, Karina [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Korber, Bette Tina [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Brander, Christian [Institucio Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats (ICREA), Barcelona (Spain); Barouch, Dan [Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States). Division of Vaccine Research; de Boer, Rob [Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands). Faculty of Biology; Haynes, Barton F. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States). Duke Human Vaccine Institute and Departments of Medicine, Surgery and Immunology; Koup, Richard [National Inst. of Health (NIH), Bethesda, MD (United States). Vaccine Research Center; Moore, John P. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). Weill Medical College; Walker, Bruce D. [Ragon Institute, Cambridge, MA (United States); Watkins, David [Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center, Madison, WI (United States)

    2016-04-05

    The scope and purpose of the HIV molecular immunology database: HIV Molecular Immunology is a companion volume to HIV Sequence Compendium. This publication, the 2015 edition, is the PDF version of the web-based HIV Immunology Database (http://www.hiv.lanl.gov/ content/immunology/). The web interface for this relational database has many search options, as well as interactive tools to help immunologists design reagents and interpret their results. In the HIV Immunology Database, HIV-specific B-cell and T-cell responses are summarized and annotated. Immunological responses are divided into three parts, CTL, T helper, and antibody. Within these parts, defined epitopes are organized by protein and binding sites within each protein, moving from left to right through the coding regions spanning the HIV genome. We include human responses to natural HIV infections, as well as vaccine studies in a range of animal models and human trials. Responses that are not specifically defined, such as responses to whole proteins or monoclonal antibody responses to discontinuous epitopes, are summarized at the end of each protein section. Studies describing general HIV responses to the virus, but not to any specific protein, are included at the end of each part. The annotation includes information such as cross-reactivity, escape mutations, antibody sequence, TCR usage, functional domains that overlap with an epitope, immune response associations with rates of progression and therapy, and how specific epitopes were experimentally defined. Basic information such as HLA specificities for T-cell epitopes, isotypes of monoclonal antibodies, and epitope sequences are included whenever possible. All studies that we can find that incorporate the use of a specific monoclonal antibody are included in the entry for that antibody. A single T-cell epitope can have multiple entries, generally one entry per study. Finally, maps of all defined linear epitopes relative to the HXB2 reference proteins

  15. HIV Molecular Immunology 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yusim, Karina [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Korber, Bette Tina Marie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Barouch, Dan [Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States); Koup, Richard [Vaccine Research Center National Institutes of Health (United States); de Boer, Rob [Utrecht Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Biology; Moore, John P. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). Weill Medical College; Brander, Christian [Institucioi Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats (ICREA), Barcelona (Spain); Haynes, Barton F. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States). Duke Human Vaccine Institute and Departments of Medicine, Surgery and Immunology; Walker, Bruce D. [Ragon Institute of Massachusetts General Hospital, Cambridge, MA (United States); Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States); Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2015-02-03

    HIV Molecular Immunology is a companion volume to HIV Sequence Compendium. This publication, the 2014 edition, is the PDF version of the web-based HIV Immunology Database (http://www.hiv.lanl.gov/content/immunology/). The web interface for this relational database has many search options, as well as interactive tools to help immunologists design reagents and interpret their results. In the HIV Immunology Database, HIV-specific B-cell and T-cell responses are summarized and annotated. Immunological responses are divided into three parts, CTL, T helper, and antibody. Within these parts, defined epitopes are organized by protein and binding sites within each protein, moving from left to right through the coding regions spanning the HIV genome. We include human responses to natural HIV infections, as well as vaccine studies in a range of animal models and human trials. Responses that are not specifically defined, such as responses to whole proteins or monoclonal antibody responses to discontinuous epitopes, are summarized at the end of each protein section. Studies describing general HIV responses to the virus, but not to any specific protein, are included at the end of each part. The annotation includes information such as crossreactivity, escape mutations, antibody sequence, TCR usage, functional domains that overlap with an epitope, immune response associations with rates of progression and therapy, and how specific epitopes were experimentally defined. Basic information such as HLA specificities for T-cell epitopes, isotypes of monoclonal antibodies, and epitope sequences are included whenever possible. All studies that we can find that incorporate the use of a specific monoclonal antibody are included in the entry for that antibody. A single T-cell epitope can have multiple entries, generally one entry per study. Finally, maps of all defined linear epitopes relative to the HXB2 reference proteins are provided.

  16. The Relational Humor Inventory: Functions of Humor in Close Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeKoning, E.; Weiss, R. L.

    2002-01-01

    This study describes the development of a self-report measure of functional humor in relationships. People were asked to report on their own and their partner's use of humor in the marriage. The Relational Humor Inventory proved to be a useful instrument for tapping important positive and negative relationship behaviors. (Contains 30 references, 4…

  17. Antibody Response is More Likely to Pneumococcal Proteins Than to Polysaccharide After HIV-associated Invasive Pneumococcal Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kantsø, Bjørn; Green, Nicola; Goldblatt, David

    2015-01-01

    to at least 1 protein compared to 51% of non-IPD controls. HIV IPD cases responded to more proteins than non-IPD controls (8.6 ± 8.4 vs 4.2 ± 7.6 proteins; P = .01), and had a significantly higher probability of yielding an antibody response to the proteins PiaA, PsaA, and PcpA. Twenty-two percent of HIV......-infected individuals with IPD had a serotype-specific antibody response. Younger age at the time of IPD was the only predictor of a serotype-specific pneumococcal antibody response, whereas we did not identify predictors of a protein-specific antibody response. CONCLUSIONS: Antibody responses occurred more frequently...

  18. Apoptosis of antigen-specific CTLs contributes to low immune response in gut-associated lymphoid tissue post vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Masaru; Yoshizaki, Shinji; Ichino, Motohide; Klinman, Dennis M; Okuda, Kenji

    2014-09-08

    The gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) represents a major reservoir of HIV in infected individuals. Vaccines can induce strong systemic immune responses but these have less impact on CD4 T cells activity and numbers in GALT. In this study, we vaccinated mice with an adenovirus vector that expressed the envelope gene from HIV and observed immune responses in the peripheral blood, spleen, liver, mesenteric lymph nodes, and Peyer's patches. We found that (1) the number of HIV-specific CD8 T cells was dramatically lower in GALT than in other tissues; (2) the programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1) was expressed at high levels in HIV-specific CD8 T cells including memory T cells in GALT; and (3) high levels of HIV-specific CD8 T cell apoptosis were occurring in GALT. These results suggest that contributing to GALT becoming an HIV reservoir during infection is a combination of exhaustion and/or dysfunction of HIV-specific CTLs at that site. These results emphasize the importance of developing of an effective mucosal vaccine against HIV. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Specific Antibody Production by Blood B Cells is Retained in Late Stage Drug-naïve HIV-infected Africans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydie Béniguel

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Unseparated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs obtained from drug-naïve African individuals living in a context of multi-infections and presenting with high viral load (VL, were cultured in vitro and tested for their ability to produce antibodies (Abs reacting with HIV-1 antigens. Within these PBMCs, circulating B cells were differentiated in vitro and produced IgG Abs against not only ENV, but also GAG and POL proteins. Under similar experimental conditions, HAART treated patients produced Abs to ENV proteins only. The in vitro antibody production by drug-naïve individuals' PBMCs depended on exogenous cytokines (IL-2 and IL-10 but neither on the re-stimulation of reactive cells in cultures by purified HIV-1-gp 160 antigen nor on the re-engagement of CD40 surface molecules. Further, it was not abrogated by the addition of various monoclonal Abs (mAbs to co-stimulatory molecules. This suggests that the in vitro antibody production by drug-naïve individuals' PBMCs resulted from the maturation of already envelope and core antigen-primed, differentiated B cells, presumably pre-plasma cells, which are not known to circulate at homeostasy. As in vitro produced Abs retained the capacity of binding antigen and forming complexes, this study provides pre-clinical support for functional humoral responses despite major HIV- and other tropical pathogen-induced B cell perturbations.

  20. Uma tipologia do discurso de humor (o politico do humor e o humor politico)

    OpenAIRE

    Perotti, Ivane Laurete

    1995-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Comunicação e Expressão Propõe-se uma leitura de textos humorísticos sob a ótica da Análise do Discurso, recortando-se "tipos" de humor e propondo uma leitura das características do humor político. Tematizam-se questões basilares da Análise do Discurso que estruturam teoricamente o trabalho, expondo reflexões sobre o riso e o risível, e os diferentes processos possivelmente causadores do riso. Discute-se a possibili...

  1. Educational attainment and risk of HIV infection, response to antiretroviral treatment, and mortality in HIV-infected patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legarth, Rebecca; Omland, Lars H; Kronborg, Gitte

    2014-01-01

    .0 (95% CI 1.2-3.4) for population controls with low educational attainment compared with medium and high educational attainment. CONCLUSION: With free and equal access to healthcare, low educational attainment might increase risk of HIV infection among heterosexual individuals, but was not associated......OBJECTIVE: To estimate association between educational attainment and risk of HIV diagnosis, response to HAART, all-cause, and cause-specific mortality in Denmark in 1998-2009. DESIGN: Prospective, population-based cohort study including 1277 incident HIV-infected patients without hepatitis C virus...... or intravenous drug abuse identified in the Danish HIV Cohort Study and 5108 individually matched population controls. METHODS: Data on educational attainment, categorized as low, medium, or high, were identified in The Danish Attainment Register. Logistic and Poisson regression were used to estimate odds ratios...

  2. Linking susceptibility to infectious diseases to immune system abnormalities among HIV Exposed Uninfected Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candice Ruck

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available HIV exposed, uninfected (HEU infants have been shown to have an increase in overall mortality from infectious causes when compared to HIV unexposed, uninfected (HU infants. This is the case in both resource-rich and resource-limited settings. We explore here the concept that specific types of infectious diseases that are more common among HEU infants could provide clues as to the potential underlying immunological abnormalities. The most commonly reported infections in HEU vs. HU are caused by encapsulated bacteria; this suggests the existence of a less effective humoral (antibody, complement immune response. Decreased transplacental transfer of protective maternal antibodies has been seen consistently among HEU newborns, suggesting that this may indeed be one of the key drivers of their susceptibility to infections with encapsulated bacteria. Reassuringly, HEU humoral response to vaccination appears to be well conserved. While there appears to be an increase in overall incidence of acute viral infections, no specific pattern of acute viral infections has emerged; and while there is evidence of increased chronic viral infection from perinatal transmission of hepatitis C and CMV, no data exist to suggest an increase in adverse outcomes. Thus, no firm conclusions about anti-viral effector mechanisms can be drawn. However, the most unusual of reported infections among the HEU have been opportunistic infections, suggesting the possibility of underlying defects in CD4 helper and overall immune regulatory function. This may relate to the observation that the immunological profile of HEUs indicate more activated T cell profile as well as a more inflammatory innate immune response. However, both of these observations appear temporary, marked in early infancy, but no longer evident later in life. The causes of these changes in early life immune profile are likely multifactorial and may be related to in utero exposure to HIV, but also to increased

  3. Effects of Humor Production, Humor Receptivity, and Physical Attractiveness on Partner Desirability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Tornquist

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examined women’s and men’s preferences for humor production and humor receptivity in long-term and short-term relationships, and how these factors interact with physical attractiveness to influence desirability. Undergraduates viewed photographs of the opposite sex individuals who were high or low in physical attractiveness, along with vignettes varying in humor production and receptivity. Participants rated physical attractiveness and desirability for long-term and short-term relationships. The main findings were that individuals desired partners who were high in humor production and receptivity, though the effects were particularly pronounced for women judging long-term relationships. Moreover, humor production was more important than receptivity for women’s ratings of male desirability. Notably, we also found that ratings of physical attractiveness were influenced by the humor conditions. These results are discussed in terms of the fitness indicator, interest indicator, and encryption hypotheses of the evolutionary functions of humor.

  4. Rumination, Suicidal Ideation, and the Mediating Effect of Self-Defeating Humor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond P. Tucker

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Research has demonstrated that a self-defeating humor style is related to indicators of psychopathology and interpersonal dysfunction, including depression, anxiety, loneliness, thwarted belongingness, and perceived burdensomeness. The current study continued this investigation by examining how self-defeating humor is related to suicidal ideation and a ruminative response style. Analyses indicated that a self-defeating humor style was positively associated to rumination, brooding, reflection, and suicidal ideation. Results of bootstrapping analyses indicated that self-defeating humor mediated the relationship between rumination and suicidal ideation. This same effect was seen for both brooding and reflection individually. Results indicate that self-defeating humor may serve as an interpersonal means of ruminating as this humor style involves consistent focus on perceived flaws and weaknesses. The assessment of this humor style may provide additional information about the maintenance of suicidal thinking.

  5. Pulmonary Immune-Compartment-Specific Interferon Gamma Responses in HIV-Infected Individuals with Active Tuberculosis (TB in an Area of High TB Prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Buldeo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a paucity of data on the pulmonary immune-compartment interferon gamma (IFNγ response to M. tuberculosis, particularly in settings of high tuberculosis (TB prevalence and in HIV-coinfected individuals. This data is necessary to understand the diagnostic potential of commercially available interferon gamma release assays (IGRAs in both the pulmonary immune-compartment and peripheral blood. We used intracellular cytokine staining by flow cytometry to assess the IFNγ response to purified protein derivative (PPD and early secretory antigen 6 (ESAT6 in induced sputa (ISp and blood samples from HIV-infected, smear-negative, TB suspects. We found that individuals with active TB disease produced significantly less IFNγ in response to PPD in their induced sputa samples than individuals with non-active TB (control group. This difference was not reflected in the peripheral blood, even within the CD27− CD4+ memory T lymphocyte population. These findings suggest that progression to active TB disease may be associated with the loss of IFNγ secretion at the site of primary infection. Our findings highlight the importance of studying pulmonary immune-compartment M. tuberculosis specific responses to elucidate IFNγ secretion across the spectrum of TB disease.

  6. Clinical factors associated with the humoral immune response to influenza vaccination in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nath KD

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Karthik D Nath,1,2 Julie G Burel,1 Viswanathan Shankar,3 Antonia L Pritchard,1 Michelle Towers,2 David Looke,1,2 Janet M Davies,1 John W Upham1,2 1The University of Queensland (School of Medicine, Brisbane, QLD, Australia; 2Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane, QLD, Australia; 3Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York, NY, USA Background and objective: Individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD are at a high risk of developing significant complications from infection with the influenza virus. It is therefore vital to ensure that prophylaxis with the influenza vaccine is effective in COPD. The aim of this study was to assess the immunogenicity of the 2010 trivalent influenza vaccine in persons with COPD compared to healthy subjects without lung disease, and to examine clinical factors associated with the serological response to the vaccine. Methods: In this observational study, 34 subjects (20 COPD, 14 healthy received the 2010 influenza vaccine. Antibody titers at baseline and 28 days post-vaccination were measured using the hemagglutination inhibition assay (HAI assay. Primary endpoints included seroconversion (≥4-fold increase in antibody titers from baseline and the fold increase in antibody titer after vaccination. Results: Persons with COPD mounted a significantly lower humoral immune response to the influenza vaccine compared to healthy participants. Seroconversion occurred in 90% of healthy participants, but only in 43% of COPD patients (P=0.036. Increasing age and previous influenza vaccination were associated with lower antibody responses. Antibody titers did not vary significantly with cigarette smoking, presence of other comorbid diseases, or COPD severity. Conclusion: The humoral immune response to the 2010 influenza vaccine was lower in persons with COPD compared to non-COPD controls. The antibody response also declined with increasing age and in those with

  7. Investigating vision in schizophrenia through responses to humorous stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Tschacher

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The visual environment of humans contains abundant ambiguity and fragmentary information. Therefore, an early step of vision must disambiguate the incessant stream of information. Humorous stimuli produce a situation that is strikingly analogous to this process: Funniness is associated with the incongruity contained in a joke, pun, or cartoon. Like in vision in general, appreciating a visual pun as funny necessitates disambiguation of incongruous information. Therefore, perceived funniness of visual puns was implemented to study visual perception in a sample of 36 schizophrenia patients and 56 healthy control participants. We found that both visual incongruity and Theory of Mind (ToM content of the puns were associated with increased experienced funniness. This was significantly less so in participants with schizophrenia, consistent with the gestalt hypothesis of schizophrenia, which would predict compromised perceptual organization in patients. The association of incongruity with funniness was not mediated by known predictors of humor appreciation, such as affective state, depression, or extraversion. Patients with higher excitement symptoms and, at a trend level, reduced cognitive symptoms, reported lower funniness experiences. An open question remained whether patients showed this deficiency of visual incongruity detection independent of their ToM deficiency. Humorous stimuli may be viewed as a convenient method to study perceptual processes, but also fundamental questions of higher-level cognition.

  8. Replicating rather than nonreplicating adenovirus-human immunodeficiency virus recombinant vaccines are better at eliciting potent cellular immunity and priming high-titer antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Bo; Wang, Liqun Rejean; Gómez-Román, Victor Raúl; Davis-Warren, Alberta; Montefiori, David C; Kalyanaraman, V S; Venzon, David; Zhao, Jun; Kan, Elaine; Rowell, Thomas J; Murthy, Krishna K; Srivastava, Indresh; Barnett, Susan W; Robert-Guroff, Marjorie

    2005-08-01

    A major challenge in combating the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic is the development of vaccines capable of inducing potent, persistent cellular immunity and broadly reactive neutralizing antibody responses to HIV type 1 (HIV-1). We report here the results of a preclinical trial using the chimpanzee model to investigate a combination vaccine strategy involving sequential priming immunizations with different serotypes of adenovirus (Ad)/HIV-1(MN)env/rev recombinants and boosting with an HIV envelope subunit protein, oligomeric HIV(SF162) gp140deltaV2. The immunogenicities of replicating and nonreplicating Ad/HIV-1(MN)env/rev recombinants were compared. Replicating Ad/HIV recombinants were better at eliciting HIV-specific cellular immune responses and better at priming humoral immunity against HIV than nonreplicating Ad-HIV recombinants carrying the same gene insert. Enhanced cellular immunity was manifested by a greater frequency of HIV envelope-specific gamma interferon-secreting peripheral blood lymphocytes and better priming of T-cell proliferative responses. Enhanced humoral immunity was seen in higher anti-envelope binding and neutralizing antibody titers and better induction of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. More animals primed with replicating Ad recombinants mounted neutralizing antibodies against heterologous R5 viruses after one or two booster immunizations with the mismatched oligomeric HIV-1(SF162) gp140deltaV2 protein. These results support continued development of the replicating Ad-HIV recombinant vaccine approach and suggest that the use of replicating vectors for other vaccines may prove fruitful.

  9. Humor, helt seriøst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundquist, Lita Sander

    2012-01-01

    Adfærd. Har humor grænser? Dansk humor har i hvert fald. Hvor humor typisk bruges til at glatte ud med, har det ofte den stik modsatte virkning, viser studie.......Adfærd. Har humor grænser? Dansk humor har i hvert fald. Hvor humor typisk bruges til at glatte ud med, har det ofte den stik modsatte virkning, viser studie....

  10. Interdisciplinary Evaluation of Broadly-Reactive HLA Class II Restricted Epitopes Eliciting HIV-Specific CD4+T Cell Responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buggert, M.; Norström, M.; Lundegaard, Claus

    2011-01-01

    , the functional and immunodominant discrepancies of CD4+ T cell responses targeting promiscuous MHC II restricted HIV epitopes remains poorly defined. Thus, utilization of interdisciplinary approaches might aid revealing broadly- reactive peptides eliciting CD4 + T cell responses. Methods: We utilized the novel...... bioinformatic prediction program NetMHCIIpan to select 64 optimized MHC II restricted epitopes located in the HIV Gag, Pol, Env, Nef and Tat regions. The epitopes were selected to cover the global diversity of the virus (multiple subtypes) and the human immune system(diverse MHC II types). Optimized...

  11. Modeling age-specific mortality for countries with generalized HIV epidemics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Sharrow

    Full Text Available In a given population the age pattern of mortality is an important determinant of total number of deaths, age structure, and through effects on age structure, the number of births and thereby growth. Good mortality models exist for most populations except those experiencing generalized HIV epidemics and some developing country populations. The large number of deaths concentrated at very young and adult ages in HIV-affected populations produce a unique 'humped' age pattern of mortality that is not reproduced by any existing mortality models. Both burden of disease reporting and population projection methods require age-specific mortality rates to estimate numbers of deaths and produce plausible age structures. For countries with generalized HIV epidemics these estimates should take into account the future trajectory of HIV prevalence and its effects on age-specific mortality. In this paper we present a parsimonious model of age-specific mortality for countries with generalized HIV/AIDS epidemics.The model represents a vector of age-specific mortality rates as the weighted sum of three independent age-varying components. We derive the age-varying components from a Singular Value Decomposition of the matrix of age-specific mortality rate schedules. The weights are modeled as a function of HIV prevalence and one of three possible sets of inputs: life expectancy at birth, a measure of child mortality, or child mortality with a measure of adult mortality. We calibrate the model with 320 five-year life tables for each sex from the World Population Prospects 2010 revision that come from the 40 countries of the world that have and are experiencing a generalized HIV epidemic. Cross validation shows that the model is able to outperform several existing model life table systems.We present a flexible, parsimonious model of age-specific mortality for countries with generalized HIV epidemics. Combined with the outputs of existing epidemiological and

  12. Characterization of humoral responses to soluble trimeric HIV gp140 from a clade A Ugandan field isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visciano, Maria Luisa; Tagliamonte, Maria; Stewart-Jones, Guillaume; Heyndrickx, Leo; Vanham, Guido; Jansson, Marianne; Fomsgaard, Anders; Grevstad, Berit; Ramaswamy, Meghna; Buonaguro, Franco M; Tornesello, Maria Lina; Biswas, Priscilla; Scarlatti, Gabriella; Buonaguro, Luigi

    2013-07-08

    Trimeric soluble forms of HIV gp140 envelope glycoproteins represent one of the closest molecular structures compared to native spikes present on intact virus particles. Trimeric soluble gp140 have been generated by several groups and such molecules have been shown to induce antibodies with neutralizing activity against homologous and heterologous viruses. In the present study, we generated a recombinant trimeric soluble gp140, derived from a previously identified Ugandan A-clade HIV field isolate (gp14094UG018). Antibodies elicited in immunized rabbits show a broad binding pattern to HIV envelopes of different clades. An epitope mapping analysis reveals that, on average, the binding is mostly focused on the C1, C2, V3, V5 and C5 regions. Immune sera show neutralization activity to Tier 1 isolates of different clades, demonstrating cross clade neutralizing activity which needs to be further broadened by possible structural modifications of the clade A gp14094UG018. Our results provide a rationale for the design and evaluation of immunogens and the clade A gp14094UG018 shows promising characteristics for potential involvement in an effective HIV vaccine with broad activity.

  13. Self-Deprecating Humor Versus Other-Deprecating Humor in Health Messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    LEE, JI YOUNG; SLATER, MICHAEL D.; TCHERNEV, JOHN

    2016-01-01

    Humor is sometimes employed in health messages. However, little is known about contingencies under which different types of humor may or may not be effective. This experiment crossed humorous vs. non-humorous and self- vs. other-deprecating messages about binge drinking, and tested how differences in personal investment in alcohol use moderates the effects of such messages on college binge drinkers. Results showed significant three-way interaction effects on subjective norms and behavioral intentions largely consistent with hypotheses. Assessment of significant differences in the interactions indicated that for binge drinkers who weren’t high in personal investment in alcohol use, other-deprecating humor tended to reduce their perceived subjective norms about the acceptability of binge drinking behavior and their behavioral intentions. The effect of the experimental manipulation on subjective norms among these binge drinkers was shown to mediate the effect on intentions to binge drink in the future. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:26020507

  14. Investigating the effect of ionizing radiations on humoral immune system in industrial radiographers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakeri, Fariedeh.

    1993-01-01

    A general review of radiobiology, immunology system,mechanism of biological effect of radiation and their biological damaging on cells and organs and specifically radiation effects on humoral immune system are given. The purpose is investigating the side effects of occupational exposures caused by ionizing radiation, and reviewing the decreasing probability of humoral immune responses in industrial radiographers. Generally, it measures the following humoral factors of industrial radiographers by value of different exposures: 1-Measuring immunoglobulins serum which consist of IgM, IgG, IgA, IgE. 2-Electrophoresis of serum proteins to investigate gamma globulins changes and also the changes occur in serum globulins after exposure. 3-Investigating the titration of isohem glutins serum (or natural immunoglobulins) that is mostly from IgM. 4-Measuring the above experiments on health control personnel who have not exposed to occupational or biological radiation effects. 5-Comparing the results of the two groups by statistical analysis. 6-Trying to relate the exposure to the information obtained from the above experiments. 7-Finally, to obtain this response whether mutation as low dose of radiation as investigated in this project is a threatening factor to the health and immunity of industrial radiographers

  15. Maternal Cytomegalovirus-Specific Immune Responses and Symptomatic Postnatal Cytomegalovirus Transmission in Very Low-Birth-Weight Preterm Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlinger, Elizabeth P.; Webster, Emily M.; Kang, Helen H.; Cangialose, Aislyn; Simmons, Adam C.; Barbas, Kimberly H.; Burchett, Sandra K.; Gregory, Mary L.; Puopolo, Karen P.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. Transmission of cytomegalovirus (CMV) via breast milk can lead to severe acute illness in very low-birth-weight (VLBW) preterm infants. Although the majority of CMV-seropositive women shed CMV in milk, symptomatic postnatal infection of VLBW infants occurs infrequently, suggesting that virologic or immunologic factors in milk may be associated with the risk and severity of postnatal CMV infection. Methods. We investigated the magnitude of CMV-specific cellular and humoral immune responses in milk of 30 seropositive mothers of VLWB preterm infants and assessed their relationship to milk CMV load and symptomatic CMV transmission. Results. Milk immunoglobulin G (IgG) avidity was inversely correlated to milk CMV load (r = −0.47; P = .009). However, milk CMV load and CMV-specific cellular and humoral immune responses were similar in mothers of VLBW infants with and those without symptomatic postnatal CMV infection. Conclusions. Similar immunologic parameters in milk of CMV-seropositive mothers of VLBW infants with and without symptomatic postnatal CMV infection indicate that screening milk by these parameters may not predict disease risk. However, the inverse correlation between milk CMV IgG avidity and CMV load may suggest that enhancement of maternal CMV-specific IgG responses could aid in reduction of CMV shedding into breast milk. PMID:21984738

  16. Virtuous laughter: we should teach medical learners the art of humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oczkowski, Simon

    2015-05-11

    There is increasing recognition of the stress and burnout suffered by critical care workers. Physicians have a responsibility to teach learners the skills required not only to treat patients, but to cope with the demands of a stressful profession. Humor has been neglected as a strategy to help learners develop into virtuous and resilient physicians. Humor can be used to reduce stress, address fears, and to create effective health care teams. However, there are forms of humor which can be hurtful or discriminatory. In order to maximize the benefits of humor and to reduce its harms, we need to teach and model the effective and virtuous use of humor in the intensive care unit.

  17. Effects of Mushroom and Herb Polysaccharides on Cellular and Humoral Immune Responses of Eimeria tenella-Infected Chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, F.C.; Kwakkel, R.P.; Williams, B.A.; Parmentier, H.K.; Li, W.K.; Yang, Z.Q.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the effects of polysaccharide extracts from 2 mushrooms, Lentinus edodes (LenE) and Tremella fuciformis (TreE), and an herb, Astragalus membranaceus (AstE), on cellular and humoral immune responses of Eimeria tenella-infected chickens. A total of 150 broiler chicks were assigned to 5

  18. Laughing at the Looking Glass: Does Humor Style Serve as an Interpersonal Signal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgil Zeigler-Hill

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The provision of information appears to be an important feature of humor. The present studies examined whether humor serves as an interpersonal signal such that an individual's style of humor is associated with how the individual is perceived by others. Method: We examined this issue across two studies. In Study 1, undergraduate participants (257 targets were rated more positively by their friends and family members (1194 perceivers when they possessed more benign humor styles. In Study 2, 1190 community participants rated the romantic desirability of targets ostensibly possessing different humor styles. Results: Across both studies, our results were consistent with the possibility that humor serves as a signal. More specifically, individuals with benign humor styles (affiliative and self-enhancing humor styles were evaluated more positively than those targets with injurious humor styles (aggressive and self-defeating humor styles. Conclusion: These findings are discussed in terms of the role that humor may play in interpersonal perception and relationships.

  19. Playing with Expectations: A Contextual View of Humor Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airenti, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    In the developmental literature, the idea has been proposed that young children do not understand the specificity of non-literal communicative acts. In this article, I focus on young children’s ability to produce and understand different forms of humor. I explore the acquisition of the communicative contexts that enable children to engage in humorous interactions before they possess the capacity to analyze them in the terms afforded by a full-fledged theory of mind. I suggest that different forms of humor share several basic features and that we can construct a continuum from simple to sophisticated forms. In particular, I focus on teasing, a form of humor already present in preverbal infants that is also considered a typical feature of irony. I argue that all forms of humor can be regarded as a type of interaction that I propose to call “playing with expectations.” PMID:27703438

  20. Flow of Aqueous Humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Flow of Aqueous Humor Flow of Aqueous Humor Most, but not all, forms of glaucoma are ... remains normal when some of the fluid (aqueous humor) produced by the eye's ciliary body flows out ...

  1. High-throughput profiling of anti-glycan humoral responses to SIV vaccination and challenge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher T Campbell

    Full Text Available Recent progress toward an HIV vaccine highlights both the potential of vaccines to end the AIDS pandemic and the need to boost efficacy by incorporating additional vaccine strategies. Although many aspects of the immune response can contribute to vaccine efficacy, the key factors have not been defined fully yet. A particular area that may yield new insights is anti-glycan immune responses, such as those against the glycan shield that HIV uses to evade the immune system. In this study, we used glycan microarray technology to evaluate anti-glycan antibody responses induced by SIV vaccination and infection in a non-human primate model of HIV infection. This comprehensive profiling of circulating anti-glycan antibodies found changes in anti-glycan antibody levels after both vaccination with the Ad5hr-SIV vaccine and SIV infection. Notably, SIV infection produced generalized declines in anti-glycan IgM antibodies in a number of animals. Additionally, some infected animals generated antibodies to the Tn antigen, which is a cryptic tumor-associated antigen exposed by premature termination of O-linked glycans; however, the Ad5hr-SIV vaccine did not induce anti-Tn IgG antibodies. Overall, this study demonstrates the potential contributions that glycan microarrays can make for HIV vaccine development.

  2. Weak anti-HIV CD8+ T-cell effector activity in HIV primary infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalod, Marc; Dupuis, Marion; Deschemin, Jean-Christophe; Goujard, Cécile; Deveau, Christiane; Meyer, Laurence; Ngo, Nicole; Rouzioux, Christine; Guillet, Jean-Gérard; Delfraissy, Jean-François; Sinet, Martine; Venet, Alain

    1999-01-01

    HIV-specific CD8+ T cells play a major role in the control of virus during HIV primary infection (PI) but do not completely prevent viral replication. We used IFN-γ enzyme-linked immunospot assay and intracellular staining to characterize the ex vivo CD8+ T-cell responses to a large variety of HIV epitopic peptides in 24 subjects with early HIV PI. We observed HIV-specific responses in 71% of subjects. Gag and Nef peptides were more frequently recognized than Env and Pol peptides. The number of peptides recognized was low (median 2, range 0–6). In contrast, a much broader response was observed in 30 asymptomatic subjects with chronic infection: all were responders with a median of 5 peptides recognized (range 1–13). The frequency of HIV-specific CD8+ T cells among PBMC for a given peptide was of the same order of magnitude in both groups. The proportion of HIV-specific CD8+CD28– terminally differentiated T cells was much lower in PI than at the chronic stage of infection. The weakness of the immune response during HIV PI could partially account for the failure to control HIV. These findings have potential importance for defining immunotherapeutic strategies and establishing the goals for effective vaccination. J. Clin. Invest. 104:1431–1439 (1999). PMID:10562305

  3. Humoral and cellular immune responses in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice immunized with cytoplasmic (CRA) and flagellar (FRA) recombinant repetitive antigens, in acute experimental Trypanosoma cruzi infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Valéria R A; Lorena, Virginia M B; Nakazawa, Mineo; Luna, Carlos F; Silva, Edimilson D; Ferreira, Antonio G P; Krieger, Marco Aurélio; Goldenberg, Samuel; Soares, Milena B P; Coutinho, Eridan M; Correa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Gomes, Yara M

    2005-06-01

    In previous studies, cytoplasmic repetitive antigen (CRA) and flagellar repetitive antigen (FRA) proteins induced specific humoral and cellular immune responses in susceptible and resistant mice in the absence of Trypanosoma cruzi infection with a significant induction of the Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) production in those animals. In this follow-up paper, the immunostimulatory and protective effects of these proteins were evaluated by immunizing with CRA or FRA antigens, BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice and challenging with a T. cruzi (Y strain). Both proteins induced humoral response with high levels of IgG isotypes as well as cellular immunity with high levels of IFN-gamma when compared to controls. However, the lymphocyte proliferative response was minimal. The survival rate at 30 days post-infection was significant in CRA (60%) or FRA (50%)--immunized BALB/c mice and CRA (83.3%)--immunized C57BL/6 mice. Taken as a whole these findings indicate that CRA and FRA are immunogenic and potentially important for protective immunity.

  4. Effects of Classroom Humor Climate and Acceptance of Humor Messages on Adolescents' Expressions of Humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Yi-Chen; Lee, Chun-Yang; Wang, Hong-Huei

    2016-01-01

    Background: To adapt to dramatic changes from physical growth, physical development and the increasing demand of significant others, humor has been found to be an effective coping strategy. However, previous studies have found that adolescents start to express their humor styles with aggressive components which causes negative consequences, such…

  5. Cooperativity of HIV-Specific Cytolytic CD4 T Cells and CD8 T Cells in Control of HIV Viremia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Susan; Eller, Michael; Teigler, Jeffrey E.; Maloveste, Sebastien M.; Schultz, Bruce T.; Soghoian, Damien Z.; Lu, Richard; Oster, Alexander F.; Chenine, Agnès-Laurence; Alter, Galit; Dittmer, Ulf; Marovich, Mary; Robb, Merlin L.; Michael, Nelson L.; Bolton, Diane

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT CD4+ T cells play a pivotal role in the control of chronic viral infections. Recently, nontraditional CD4+ T cell functions beyond helper effects have been described, and a role for cytolytic CD4+ T cells in the control of HIV infection has been suggested. We define here the transcriptional, phenotypic, and functional profiles of HIV-specific cytolytic CD4+ T cells. Fluidigm BioMark and multiparameter flow cytometric analysis of HIV-specific cytolytic CD4+ T cells revealed a distinct transcriptional signature compared to Th1 CD4+ cells but shared similar features with HIV-specific cytolytic CD8+ T cells. Furthermore, HIV-specific cytolytic CD4+ T cells showed comparable killing activity relative to HIV-specific CD8+ T cells and worked cooperatively in the elimination of virally infected cells. Interestingly, we found that cytolytic CD4+ T cells emerge early during acute HIV infection and tightly follow acute viral load trajectory. This emergence was associated to the early viral set point, suggesting an involvement in early control, in spite of CD4 T cell susceptibility to HIV infection. Our data suggest cytolytic CD4+ T cells as an independent subset distinct from Th1 cells that show combined activity with CD8+ T cells in the long-term control of HIV infection. IMPORTANCE The ability of the immune system to control chronic HIV infection is of critical interest to both vaccine design and therapeutic approaches. Much research has focused on the effect of the ability of CD8+ T cells to control the virus, while CD4+ T cells have been overlooked as effectors in HIV control due to the fact that they are preferentially infected. We show here that a subset of HIV-specific CD4+ T cells cooperate in the cytolytic control of HIV replication. Moreover, these cells represent a distinct subset of CD4+ T cells showing significant transcriptional and phenotypic differences compared to HIV-specific Th1 cells but with similarities to CD8+ T cells. These findings are

  6. HIV controllers exhibit enhanced frequencies of major histocompatibility complex class II tetramer+ Gag-specific CD4+ T cells in chronic clade C HIV-1 infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laher, Faatima; Ranasinghe, Srinika; Porichis, Filippos

    2017-01-01

    Immune control of viral infections is heavily dependent on helper CD4+ T cell function. However, the understanding of the contribution of HIV-specific CD4+ T cell responses to immune protection against HIV-1, particularly in clade C infection, remains incomplete. Recently, major histocompatibilit...

  7. Aqueous humor ferritin in hereditary hyperferritinemia cataract syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzhofer, Markus; Schroedl, Falk; Trost, Andrea; Kaser-Eichberger, Alexandra; Wiedemann, Helmut; Strohmaier, Clemens; Hohensinn, Melchior; Strasser, Michael; Muckenthaler, Martina U; Grabner, Guenther; Aigner, Elmar; Reitsamer, Herbert A

    2015-04-01

    Hereditary hyperferritinemia cataract syndrome (HHCS) is a rare autosomal dominant hereditary disease, characterized by hyperferritinemia but with absence of body iron excess and early onset of bilateral cataracts. Although 5- to 20-fold increased serum ferritin concentrations have been reported in HHCS patients, data of ferritin levels in aqueous humor have not been obtained. We therefore aimed to investigate the ferritin levels in aqueous humor and serum and further present histological and ultrastructural data of the lens. During cataract extraction and intraocular lens implantation, aqueous humor and lens aspirate of a 37-year-old HHCS patient were obtained from both eyes. Ferritin levels in serum and aqueous humor were quantitatively analyzed via immunoassays in the HHCS patient and healthy control subjects (n = 6). Lens aspirate in HHCS was analyzed histologically and at the ultrastructural level. Further, genetic mutation screening by polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing in blood was performed. Serum ferritin levels in the control group were 142.2 ± 38.7 μg/L, whereas in the HHCS patient, this parameter was excessively increased (1086 μg/L). Analysis of ferritin in aqueous humor revealed 6.4 ± 3.8 μg/L in normal control subjects and 146.3 μg/L (OD) and 160.4 μg/L (OS) in the HHCS patient. DNA analysis detected a C>A mutation on position +18, a T>G mutation on position +22, a T>C mutation on position +24, and a T>G polymorphism on position +26 in the iron-responsive element of the light-chain ferritin (L-ferritin) gene. In the HHCS patient, a 23-fold (OD) to 25-fold (OS) increased aqueous humor ferritin level was detected. Therefore, the formation of bilateral cataract in HHCS is most likely a result of elevated aqueous humor ferritin. In addition, a novel mutation in this rare disease in the iron-responsive element of L-ferritin gene is reported.

  8. Research on the Role of Humor in Well-Being and Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnie Cann

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this interview, Dr. Arnie Cann discusses his research and views on the ubiquitous role of humor in psychological health and well-being. The interview begins with Professor Cann recounting how he originally became interested in studying humor. He then reflects on the main findings associated with the wide variety of humor-related studies he has conducted over the years. In doing so, Dr. Cann provides suggestions and ideas for further research investigating the role of humor in health and well-being. Specific topic areas discussed include the use of humor in the workplace and other social domains, personality approaches to humor, humor and interpersonal processes, humor and psychopathology, and humor’s role in dealing with stress and well-being. One of the prominent themes in this interview is the clear recognition of sense of humor as a multi-dimensional construct that includes various components that may either be beneficial or detrimental to well-being. A further important theme is the major distinction between humor as an inherent personality construct versus humor that results from exposure to stimuli (e.g., a comedy film. Comments are also provided by Dr. Cann on how the positive affect stemming from humor may be of particular benefit to the individual. Also discussed is the recent move to more fully integrate contemporary humor research with positive psychology approaches. The interview concludes with Dr. Cann providing several recommendations regarding future theorizing and research on the role of humor in psychological well-being.

  9. Effects of subclinical inflammation on C-reactive protein and haptoglobin levels as well as specific humoral immunity in dogs vaccinated against canine distemper and parvovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romiszewski, Przemysław; Kostro, Krzysztof; Lisiecka, Urszula

    2018-03-05

    The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of subclinical inflammation on specific humoral immunity in dogs vaccinated with Nobivac® DHP based on serum levels of CRP and Hp. Dogs from the group I were administered Nobivac® DHP, the vaccine against distemper, infectious hepatitis and parvovirus whereas group II animals received subcutaneous turpentine oil to induce subclinical inflammation, followed by Nobivac® DHP after 24 h. Animals in group III received only turpentine oil in the way and amount identical to that as in group II. Nobivac DHP relatively poorly induced the immune inflammatory response showing good immunogenic properties, which was evidenced by only a double increase in mean CRP and Hp levels associated with antigenic stimulation in group I. In group II, serum neutralization (SN) and haemagglutination inhibition (HI) results were quite closely correlated with serum levels of CPR and Hp. Our findings suggest that the efficacy of vaccinations in dogs can be significantly affected by subclinical inflammations, which is indicated by a correlation between serum CRP and Hp levels versus antibody titres for canine distemper and parvovirus in both experimental groups of dogs (group I and II). The correlation of mean CRP and Hp values in dogs with subclinical inflammation and after vaccination with the kinetics of increasing antibody titres against distemper and parvovirus in group II dogs reflects the severity of inflammatory response and the extent of specific humoral immunity. Routine determinations of serum CRP and Hp levels as the indices of inflammation severity can be the essential biochemical markers for assessment of dogs' health in the period preceding specific immunoprophylaxis and efficacy of the vaccine.

  10. Green propolis phenolic compounds act as vaccine adjuvants, improving humoral and cellular responses in mice inoculated with inactivated vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geferson Fischer

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Adjuvants play an important role in vaccine formulations by increasing their immunogenicity. In this study, the phenolic compound-rich J fraction (JFR of a Brazilian green propolis methanolic extract stimulated cellular and humoral immune responses when co-administered with an inactivated vaccine against swine herpesvirus type 1 (SuHV-1. When compared to control vaccines that used aluminium hydroxide as an adjuvant, the use of 10 mg/dose of JFR significantly increased (p < 0.05 neutralizing antibody titres against SuHV-1, as well as the percentage of protected animals following SuHV-1 challenge (p < 0.01. Furthermore, addition of phenolic compounds potentiated the performance of the control vaccine, leading to increased cellular and humoral immune responses and enhanced protection of animals after SuHV-1 challenge (p < 0.05. Prenylated compounds such as Artepillin C that are found in large quantities in JFR are likely to be the substances that are responsible for the adjuvant activity.

  11. Playing with expectations: a contextual view of humor development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Airenti

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the developmental literature it has been advanced that young children would not understand the specificity of nonliteral communicative acts. In this article I shall focus on young children’s ability to produce and understand different forms of humor. I shall explore children’s acquisition of the communicative contexts that constitute the background enabling them to perform humorous interactions before being able to analyze them in the terms allowed by a full fledged ToM. I consider that different forms of humor share a number of basic features and that we can draw a continuum from simple forms to sophisticated ones. In particular I shall focus on teasing, a form of humor already present in preverbal infants but also considered as a typical feature of irony. I shall argue that all forms of humor can be described in the terms of a kind of interaction that I propose to call playing with expectations.

  12. Local and systemic humoral immune response in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) under a natural amoebic gill disease outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos-López, Mar; Espinosa Ruiz, Cristóbal; Rodger, Hamish D; O'Connor, Ian; MacCarthy, Eugene; Esteban, M Ángeles

    2017-07-01

    Amoebic gill disease (AGD), caused by the protozoan parasite Neoparamoeba perurans, is one of the most significant infectious diseases for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) mariculture. The present study investigated the humoral immune response (both local in gill mucus and systemic in serum) of farmed Atlantic salmon naturally infected with N. perurans in commercial sea pens, at two different stages of the disease and after freshwater treatment. Parameters analysed included activity of immune related enzymes (i.e. lysozyme, peroxidase, protease, anti-protease, esterase, alkaline phosphatase), IgM levels, and the terminal carbohydrate profile in the gill mucus. Overall, greater variations between groups were noted in the immune parameters determined in gill mucus than the equivalent in the serum. In gill mucus, IgM levels and peroxidase, lysozyme, esterase and protease activities were decreased in fish showing longer exposure time to the infection and higher disease severity, then showed a sequential increase after treatment. Results obtained highlight the capacity of gills to elicit a local response to the infection, indicate an impaired immune response at the later stages of the disease, and show partial reestablishment of the host immune status after freshwater treatment. In addition to providing data on the humoral response to AGD, this study increases knowledge on gill mucosal humoral immunity, since some of the parameters were analysed for the first time in gill mucus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Humoral Immune Response Kinetics in Philander opossum and Didelphis marsupialis Infected and Immunized by Trypanosoma cruzi Employing an Immunofluorescence Antibody Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Legey

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available Philander opossum and Didelphis marsupialis considered the most ancient mammals and an evolutionary success, maintain parasitism by Trypanosoma cruzi without developing any apparent disease or important tissue lesion. In order to elucidate this well-balanced interaction, we decided to compare the humoral immune response kinetics of the two didelphids naturally and experimentally infected with T. cruzi and immunized by different schedules of parasite antigens, employing an indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT. Both didelphids responded with high serological titers to different immunization routes, while the earliest response occurred with the intradermic route. Serological titers of naturally infected P. opossum showed a significant individual variation, while those of D. marsupialis remained stable during the entire follow-up period. The serological titers of the experimentally infected animals varied according to the inoculated strain. Our data suggest that (1 IFAT was sensitive for follow-up of P. opossum in natural and experimental T. cruzi infections; (2 both P. opossum and D. marsupialis are able to mount an efficient humoral immune response as compared to placental mammals; (3 experimentally infected P. opossum and D. marsupialis present distinct patterns of infection, depending on the subpopulation of T. cruzi, (4 the differences observed in the humoral immune responses between P. opossum and D. marsupialis, probably, reflect distinct strategies selected by these animals during their coevolution with T. cruzi.

  14. Humor modeling in the interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus; Cockton, G.; Stock, O.; Korhonen, P.; Dix, A.; Bergman, E.; Bjork, S.; Morkes, J.; Collings, P.; Dey, A.; Draper, S.; Guliksen, J.; Keinonen, T.; Lazar, J.; Lund, A.; Malich, R.; Nakakoji, K.; Nigay, L.; Prates Oliveira, R.; Rieman, J.; Snyder, C.

    2003-01-01

    Humor is a multi-disciplinary field of research. People have been working on humor in many fields of research, such as psychology, philosophy and linguistics, sociology and literature. Especially in the context of computer science (or Artificial Intelligence) humor research aims at modeling humor in

  15. Is an Ideal Sense of Humor Gendered? A Cross-National Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosun, Sümeyra; Faghihi, Nafiseh; Vaid, Jyotsna

    2018-01-01

    To explore lay conceptions of characteristics of an ideal sense of humor as embodied in a known individual, our study examined elicited written narratives by male and female participants from three different countries of origin: United States, Iran, and Turkey. As reported in an earlier previous study with United States-based participants (Crawford and Gressley, 1991), our study also found that the embodiment of an ideal sense of humor was predominantly a male figure. This effect was more pronounced for male than for female participants but did not differ by country. Relative mention of specific humor characteristics differed by participant gender and by country of origin. Whereas all groups mentioned creativity most often as a component of an ideal sense of humor, this attribute was mentioned significantly more often by Americans than by the other two groups; hostility/sarcasm was also mentioned significantly more often by Americans than Turkish participants who mentioned it more often than Iranian participants. Caring was mentioned significantly more often by Americans and Iranians than by Turkish participants. These findings show a shared pattern of humor characteristics by gender but group differences in the relative prominence given to specific humor characteristics. Further work is needed to corroborate the group differences observed and to pinpoint their source.

  16. Virus-Like-Vaccines against HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Anne-Marie C; Schwerdtfeger, Melanie; Holst, Peter J

    2018-02-11

    Protection against chronic infections has necessitated the development of ever-more potent vaccination tools. HIV seems to be the most challenging foe, with a remarkable, poorly immunogenic and fragile surface glycoprotein and the ability to overpower the cell immune system. Virus-like-particle (VLP) vaccines have emerged as potent inducers of antibody and helper T cell responses, while replication-deficient viral vectors have yielded potent cytotoxic T cell responses. Here, we review the emerging concept of merging these two technologies into virus-like-vaccines (VLVs) for the targeting of HIV. Such vaccines are immunologically perceived as viruses, as they infect cells and produce VLPs in situ, but they only resemble viruses, as the replication defective vectors and VLPs cannot propagate an infection. The inherent safety of such a platform, despite robust particle production, is a distinct advantage over live-attenuated vaccines that must balance safety and immunogenicity. Previous studies have delivered VLVs encoded in modified Vaccinia Ankara vectors and we have developed the concept into a single-reading adenovirus-based technology capable of eliciting robust CD8⁺ and CD4⁺ T cells responses and trimer binding antibody responses. Such vaccines offer the potential to display the naturally produced immunogen directly and induce an integrated humoral and cellular immune response.

  17. Decoding Humor Experiences from Brain Activity of People Viewing Comedy Movies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawahata, Yasuhito; Komine, Kazuteru; Morita, Toshiya; Hiruma, Nobuyuki

    2013-01-01

    Humans naturally have a sense of humor. Experiencing humor not only encourages social interactions, but also produces positive physiological effects on the human body, such as lowering blood pressure. Recent neuro-imaging studies have shown evidence for distinct mental state changes at work in people experiencing humor. However, the temporal characteristics of these changes remain elusive. In this paper, we objectively measured humor-related mental states from single-trial functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data obtained while subjects viewed comedy TV programs. Measured fMRI data were labeled on the basis of the lag before or after the viewer’s perception of humor (humor onset) determined by the viewer-reported humor experiences during the fMRI scans. We trained multiple binary classifiers, or decoders, to distinguish between fMRI data obtained at each lag from ones obtained during a neutral state in which subjects were not experiencing humor. As a result, in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the right temporal area, the decoders showed significant classification accuracies even at two seconds ahead of the humor onsets. Furthermore, given a time series of fMRI data obtained during movie viewing, we found that the decoders with significant performance were also able to predict the upcoming humor events on a volume-by-volume basis. Taking into account the hemodynamic delay, our results suggest that the upcoming humor events are encoded in specific brain areas up to about five seconds before the awareness of experiencing humor. Our results provide evidence that there exists a mental state lasting for a few seconds before actual humor perception, as if a viewer is expecting the future humorous events. PMID:24324656

  18. Differences in serum IgA responses to HIV-1 gp41 in elite controllers compared to viral suppressors on highly active antiretroviral therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafiq Nabi

    Full Text Available Mechanisms responsible for natural control of human immunodeficiency type 1 (HIV replication in elite controllers (EC remain incompletely defined. To determine if EC generate high quality HIV-specific IgA responses, we used Western blotting to compare the specificities and frequencies of IgA to HIV antigens in serum of gender-, age- and race-matched EC and aviremic controllers (HC and viremic noncontrollers (HN on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART. Concentrations and avidity of IgA to HIV antigens were measured using ELISA or multiplex assays. Measurements for IgG were performed in parallel. EC were found to have stronger p24- and V1V2-specific IgG responses than HN, but there were no IgG differences for EC and HC. In contrast, IgA in EC serum bound more frequently to gp160 and gag proteins than IgA in HC or HN. The avidity of anti-gp41 IgA was also greater in EC, and these subjects had stronger IgA responses to the gp41 heptad repeat region 1 (HR1, a reported target of anti-bacterial RNA polymerase antibodies that cross react with gp41. However, EC did not demonstrate greater IgA responses to E. coli RNA polymerase or to peptides containing the shared LRAI sequence, suggesting that most of their HR1-specific IgA antibodies were not induced by intestinal microbiota. In both EC and HAART recipients, the concentrations of HIV-specific IgG were greater than HIV-specific IgA, but their avidities were comparable, implying that they could compete for antigen. Exceptions were C1 peptides and V1V2 loops. IgG and IgA responses to these antigens were discordant, with IgG reacting to V1V2, and IgA reacting to C1, especially in EC. Interestingly, EC with IgG hypergammaglobulinemia had greater HIV-specific IgA and IgG responses than EC with normal total IgG levels. Heterogeneity in EC antibody responses may therefore be due to a more focused HIV-specific B cell response in some of these individuals. Overall, these data suggest that development of

  19. Focus on the therapeutic efficacy of 3BNC117 against HIV-1: In vitro studies, in vivo studies, clinical trials and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi-Jun; Bai, Jing; Liu, Feng-Li; Zhang, Xiang-Yang; Wang, Jing-Zhang

    2017-11-01

    3BNC117, which was discovered in 2011, is a broadly neutralizing antibody (bNAb) and specifically neutralizes the human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) by targeting the CD4-binding site. This is the first comprehensive review that focuses on the role of 3BNC117 in the prevention of HIV-1 and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Briefly, 3BNC117 neutralizes many HIV/SHIV strains in vitro, blocks HIV-1 acquisition in animal models via a pre-exposure prophylaxis, alleviates HIV-1-associated viremia via a post-exposure therapeutic effect, prevents the establishment of latent HIV-1 reservoirs, and induces both humoral and cellular anti-HIV immune responses in vivo. The outcomes of Phase I and Phase IIa clinical trials in 2015 and 2016 showed the safety, tolerability, and therapeutic efficacy of 3BNC117 in HIV-1-infected human individuals. Nevertheless, anti-3BNC117 antibodies and HIV-1 strains resistant to 3BNC117 pose clinical challenges to immunotherapy with 3BNC117, so potential strategies for optimizing the potency of 3BNC117 are suggested here. Predictably, HIV-1 prevention and AIDS treatment will benefit from combinational immunotherapies with 3BNC117 and other pharmaceuticals (bNAbs, antiretroviral medicines, viral inducers, etc.) in the near future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Understanding the response of large South African companies to HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, D; Stevens, M

    2005-07-01

    This paper provides a framework analysing the response of South African companies to HIV/AIDS. Drawing on three case studies of companies, each with over 20,000 South African-based employees, we identify six 'drivers' that influence corporate behaviour regarding HIV/AIDS: legal requirements, voluntary regulation, business costs, social pressures, visibility of the disease, and individuals within companies. We suggest that costs calculations, while possibly underestimating indirect and macro-implications, are not key in driving company responses to HIV/AIDS. The law and voluntary regulation have influenced, but not determined, the response of companies to HIV/AIDS. Social pressures on companies are of importance, but the scale and complexity of need in South Africa has seen the deflecting of this driver. Of greater reference in determining responses has been the social pressure of other companies' responses. The general visibility of the AIDS epidemic is also a significant factor in explaining companies' responses to HIV/AIDS. Moreover, the visibility of HIV/AIDS within companies has influenced the responses of often relatively weak, internal agents who have been attempting to drive companies' HIV/AIDS programmes. We conclude that external drivers--legal requirements, economic performance, and social pressures--have framed corporate responses to HIV/AIDS to a degree, but have generally been weak. Moreover, there has been relatively little synergy between these external drivers and the internal drivers--voluntary regulation, visibility, and company HIV/AIDS 'champions'--that could propel companies into pro-active, bold responses to HIV/AIDS.

  1. MHC Class II and Non-MHC Class II Genes Differentially Influence Humoral Immunity to Bacillus anthracis Lethal Factor and Protective Antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith A. James

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Anthrax Lethal Toxin consists of Protective Antigen (PA and Lethal Factor (LF, and current vaccination strategies focus on eliciting antibodies to PA. In human vaccination, the response to PA can vary greatly, and the response is often directed toward non-neutralizing epitopes. Variable vaccine responses have been shown to be due in part to genetic differences in individuals, with both MHC class II and other genes playing roles. Here, we investigated the relative contribution of MHC class II versus non-MHC class II genes in the humoral response to PA and LF immunization using three immunized strains of inbred mice: A/J (H-2k at the MHC class II locus, B6 (H-2b, and B6.H2k (H-2k. IgG antibody titers to LF were controlled primarily by the MHC class II locus, whereas IgG titers to PA were strongly influenced by the non-MHC class II genetic background. Conversely, the humoral fine specificity of reactivity to LF appeared to be controlled primarily through non-MHC class II genes, while the specificity of reactivity to PA was more dependent on MHC class II. Common epitopes, reactive in all strains, occurred in both LF and PA responses. These results demonstrate that MHC class II differentially influences humoral immune responses to LF and PA.

  2. Isocitrate dehydrogenase of Helicobacter pylori potentially induces humoral immune response in subjects with peptic ulcer disease and gastritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Abid Hussain

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: H. pylori causes gastritis and peptic ulcers and is a risk factor for the development of gastric carcinoma. Many of the proteins such as urease, porins, flagellins and toxins such as lipo-polysaccharides have been identified as potential virulence factors which induce proinflammatory reaction. We report immunogenic potentials of isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICD, an important house keeping protein of H. pylori. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Amino acid sequences of H. pylori ICD were subjected to in silico analysis for regions with predictably high antigenic indexes. Also, computational modelling of the H. pylori ICD as juxtaposed to the E. coli ICD was carried out to determine levels of structure similarity and the availability of surface exposed motifs, if any. The icd gene was cloned, expressed and purified to a very high homogeneity. Humoral response directed against H. pylori ICD was detected through an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA in 82 human subjects comprising of 58 patients with H. pylori associated gastritis or ulcer disease and 24 asymptomatic healthy controls. The H. pylori ICD elicited potentially high humoral immune response and revealed high antibody titers in sera corresponding to endoscopically-confirmed gastritis and ulcer disease subjects. However, urea-breath-test negative healthy control samples and asymptomatic control samples did not reveal any detectable immune responses. The ELISA for proinflammatory cytokine IL-8 did not exhibit any significant proinflammatory activity of ICD. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: ICD of H. pylori is an immunogen which interacts with the host immune system subsequent to a possible autolytic-release and thereby significantly elicits humoral responses in individuals with invasive H. pylori infection. However, ICD could not significantly stimulate IL8 induction in a cultured macrophage cell line (THP1 and therefore, may not be a notable proinflammatory agent.

  3. Humor in the eye tracker: attention capture and distraction from context cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strick, Madelijn; Holland, Rob W; Van Baaren, Rick; Van Knippenberg, Ad

    2010-01-01

    The humor effect refers to a robust finding in memory research that humorous information is easily recalled, at the expense of recall of nonhumorous information that was encoded in close temporal proximity. Previous research suggests that memory retrieval processes underlie this effect. That is, free recall is biased toward humorous information, which interferes with the retrieval of nonhumorous information. The present research tested an additional explanation that has not been specifically addressed before: Humor receives enhanced attention during information encoding, which decreases attention for context information. Participants observed humorous, nonhumorous positive, and nonhumorous neutral texts paired with novel consumer brands, while their eye movements were recorded using eye-tracker technology. The results confirmed that humor receives prolonged attention relative to both positive and neutral nonhumorous information. This enhanced attention correlated with impaired brand recognition.

  4. Proviral HIV-genome-wide and pol-gene specific Zinc Finger Nucleases: Usability for targeted HIV gene therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayengera Misaki

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infection with HIV, which culminates in the establishment of a latent proviral reservoir, presents formidable challenges for ultimate cure. Building on the hypothesis that ex-vivo or even in-vivo abolition or disruption of HIV-gene/genome-action by target mutagenesis or excision can irreversibly abrogate HIV's innate fitness to replicate and survive, we previously identified the isoschizomeric bacteria restriction enzymes (REases AcsI and ApoI as potent cleavers of the HIV-pol gene (11 and 9 times in HIV-1 and 2, respectively. However, both enzymes, along with others found to cleave across the entire HIV-1 genome, slice (SX at palindromic sequences that are prevalent within the human genome and thereby pose the risk of host genome toxicity. A long-term goal in the field of R-M enzymatic therapeutics has thus been to generate synthetic restriction endonucleases with longer recognition sites limited in specificity to HIV. We aimed (i to assemble and construct zinc finger arrays and nucleases (ZFN with either proviral-HIV-pol gene or proviral-HIV-1 whole-genome specificity respectively, and (ii to advance a model for pre-clinically testing lentiviral vectors (LV that deliver and transduce either ZFN genotype. Methods and Results First, we computationally generated the consensus sequences of (a 114 dsDNA-binding zinc finger (Zif arrays (ZFAs or ZifHIV-pol and (b two zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs which, unlike the AcsI and ApoI homeodomains, possess specificity to >18 base-pair sequences uniquely present within the HIV-pol gene (ZifHIV-polFN. Another 15 ZFNs targeting >18 bp sequences within the complete HIV-1 proviral genome were constructed (ZifHIV-1FN. Second, a model for constructing lentiviral vectors (LVs that deliver and transduce a diploid copy of either ZifHIV-polFN or ZifHIV-1FN chimeric genes (termed LV- 2xZifHIV-polFN and LV- 2xZifHIV-1FN, respectively is proposed. Third, two preclinical models for controlled testing of

  5. Proviral HIV-genome-wide and pol-gene specific zinc finger nucleases: usability for targeted HIV gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayengera, Misaki

    2011-07-22

    Infection with HIV, which culminates in the establishment of a latent proviral reservoir, presents formidable challenges for ultimate cure. Building on the hypothesis that ex-vivo or even in-vivo abolition or disruption of HIV-gene/genome-action by target mutagenesis or excision can irreversibly abrogate HIV's innate fitness to replicate and survive, we previously identified the isoschizomeric bacteria restriction enzymes (REases) AcsI and ApoI as potent cleavers of the HIV-pol gene (11 and 9 times in HIV-1 and 2, respectively). However, both enzymes, along with others found to cleave across the entire HIV-1 genome, slice (SX) at palindromic sequences that are prevalent within the human genome and thereby pose the risk of host genome toxicity. A long-term goal in the field of R-M enzymatic therapeutics has thus been to generate synthetic restriction endonucleases with longer recognition sites limited in specificity to HIV. We aimed (i) to assemble and construct zinc finger arrays and nucleases (ZFN) with either proviral-HIV-pol gene or proviral-HIV-1 whole-genome specificity respectively, and (ii) to advance a model for pre-clinically testing lentiviral vectors (LV) that deliver and transduce either ZFN genotype. First, we computationally generated the consensus sequences of (a) 114 dsDNA-binding zinc finger (Zif) arrays (ZFAs or ZifHIV-pol) and (b) two zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) which, unlike the AcsI and ApoI homeodomains, possess specificity to >18 base-pair sequences uniquely present within the HIV-pol gene (ZifHIV-polFN). Another 15 ZFNs targeting >18 bp sequences within the complete HIV-1 proviral genome were constructed (ZifHIV-1FN). Second, a model for constructing lentiviral vectors (LVs) that deliver and transduce a diploid copy of either ZifHIV-polFN or ZifHIV-1FN chimeric genes (termed LV- 2xZifHIV-polFN and LV- 2xZifHIV-1FN, respectively) is proposed. Third, two preclinical models for controlled testing of the safety and efficacy of either of these

  6. Distinct susceptibility of HIV vaccine vector-induced CD4 T cells to HIV infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Qingli; Hou, Wei; Churchyard, Gavin; Nitayaphan, Sorachai; Pitisuthithum, Punnee; Rerks-Ngarm, Supachai; Franchini, Genoveffa

    2018-01-01

    The concerns raised from adenovirus 5 (Ad5)-based HIV vaccine clinical trials, where excess HIV infections were observed in some vaccine recipients, have highlighted the importance of understanding host responses to vaccine vectors and the HIV susceptibility of vector-specific CD4 T cells in HIV vaccination. Our recent study reported that human Ad5-specific CD4 T cells induced by Ad5 vaccination (RV156A trial) are susceptible to HIV. Here we further investigated the HIV susceptibility of vector-specific CD4 T cells induced by ALVAC, a canarypox viral vector tested in the Thai trial RV144, as compared to Ad5 vector-specific CD4 T cells in the HVTN204 trial. We showed that while Ad5 vector-specific CD4 T cells were readily susceptible to HIV, ALVAC-specific CD4 T cells in RV144 PBMC were substantially less susceptible to both R5 and X4 HIV in vitro. The lower HIV susceptibility of ALVAC-specific CD4 T cells was associated with the reduced surface expression of HIV entry co-receptors CCR5 and CXCR4 on these cells. Phenotypic analyses identified that ALVAC-specific CD4 T cells displayed a strong Th1 phenotype, producing higher levels of IFN-γ and CCL4 (MIP-1β) but little IL-17. Of interest, ALVAC and Ad5 vectors induced distinct profiles of vector-specific CD8 vs. CD4 T-cell proliferative responses in PBMC, with ALVAC preferentially inducing CD8 T-cell proliferation, while Ad5 vector induced CD4 T-cell proliferation. Depletion of ALVAC-, but not Ad5-, induced CD8 T cells in PBMC led to a modest increase in HIV infection of vector-specific CD4 T cells, suggesting a role of ALVAC-specific CD8 T cells in protecting ALVAC-specific CD4 T cells from HIV. Taken together, our data provide strong evidence for distinct HIV susceptibility of CD4 T cells induced by different vaccine vectors and highlight the importance of better evaluating anti-vector responses in HIV vaccination. PMID:29474461

  7. Humor, laughter, learning, and health! A brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Brandon M; Lujan, Heidi L; Thipparthi, Raghavendar R; DiCarlo, Stephen E

    2017-09-01

    Human emotions, such as anxiety, depression, fear, joy, and laughter, profoundly affect psychological and physiological processes. These emotions form a set of basic, evolved functions that are shared by all humans. Laughter is part of a universal language of basic emotions that all humans recognize. Health care providers and educators may utilize the power of laughter to improve health and enhance teaching and learning. This is an important consideration because teaching is not just about content: it is also about forming relationships and strengthening human connections. In this context, when used effectively, humor is documented to build relationships and enhance performance. Specifically, humor improves student performance by attracting and sustaining attention, reducing anxiety, enhancing participation, and increasing motivation. Moreover, humor stimulates multiple physiological systems that decrease levels of stress hormones, such as cortisol and epinephrine, and increase the activation of the mesolimbic dopaminergic reward system. To achieve these benefits, it is important to use humor that is relevant to the course content and not disparaging toward others. Self-effacing humor illustrates to students that the teacher is comfortable making mistakes and sharing these experiences with the classroom. In this brief review, we discuss the history and relationship between humor, laughing, learning, and health with an emphasis on the powerful, universal language of laughter. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  8. Aligning faith-based and national HIV/AIDS prevention responses? Factors influencing the HIV/AIDS prevention policy process and response of faith-based NGOs in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Rosemary; Green, Andrew; Boesten, Jelke

    2014-05-01

    Faith-based organizations (FBOs) have a long tradition of providing HIV/AIDS prevention and mitigation services in Africa. The overall response of FBOs, however, has been controversial, particularly in regard to HIV/AIDS prevention and FBO's rejection of condom use and promotion, which can conflict with and negatively influence national HIV/AIDS prevention response efforts. This article reports the findings from a study that explored the factors influencing the HIV/AIDS prevention policy process within faith-based non-governmental organizations (NGOs) of different faiths. These factors were examined within three faith-based NGOs in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania-a Catholic, Anglican and Muslim organization. The research used an exploratory, qualitative case-study approach, and employed a health policy analysis framework, examining the context, actor and process factors and how they interact to form content in terms of policy and its implementation within each organization. Three key factors were found to influence faith-based NGOs' HIV/AIDS prevention response in terms of both policy and its implementation: (1) the faith structure in which the organizations are a part, (2) the presence or absence of organizational policy and (3) the professional nature of the organizations and its actors. The interaction between these factors, and how actors negotiate between them, was found to shape the organizations' HIV/AIDS prevention response. This article reports on these factors and analyses the different HIV/AIDS prevention responses found within each organization. By understanding the factors that influence faith-based NGOs' HIV/AIDS prevention policy process, the overall faith-based response to HIV/AIDS, and how it corresponds to national response efforts, is better understood. It is hoped that by doing so the government will be better able to identify how to best work with FBOs to meet national HIV/AIDS prevention targets, improving the overall role of FBOs in the fight against

  9. Elevated Cancer-Specific Mortality Among HIV-Infected Patients in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coghill, Anna E; Shiels, Meredith S; Suneja, Gita; Engels, Eric A

    2015-07-20

    Despite advances in the treatment of HIV, HIV-infected people remain at increased risk for many cancers, and the number of non-AIDS-defining cancers is increasing with the aging of the HIV-infected population. No prior study has comprehensively evaluated the effect of HIV on cancer-specific mortality. We identified cases of 14 common cancers occurring from 1996 to 2010 in six US states participating in a linkage of cancer and HIV/AIDS registries. We used Cox regression to examine the association between patient HIV status and death resulting from the presenting cancer (ascertained from death certificates), adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, year of cancer diagnosis, and cancer stage. We included 1,816,461 patients with cancer, 6,459 (0.36%) of whom were HIV infected. Cancer-specific mortality was significantly elevated in HIV-infected compared with HIV-uninfected patients for many cancers: colorectum (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.49; 95% CI, 1.21 to 1.84), pancreas (HR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.35 to 2.18), larynx (HR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.06 to 2.47), lung (HR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.17 to 1.39), melanoma (HR, 1.72; 95% CI, 1.09 to 2.70), breast (HR, 2.61; 95% CI, 2.06 to 3.31), and prostate (HR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.02 to 2.41). HIV was not associated with increased cancer-specific mortality for anal cancer, Hodgkin lymphoma, or diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. After further adjustment for cancer treatment, HIV remained associated with elevated cancer-specific mortality for common non-AIDS-defining cancers: colorectum (HR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.09 to 1.80), lung (HR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.14 to 1.44), melanoma (HR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.14 to 3.27), and breast (HR, 2.64; 95% CI, 1.86 to 3.73). HIV-infected patients with cancer experienced higher cancer-specific mortality than HIV-uninfected patients, independent of cancer stage or receipt of cancer treatment. The elevation in cancer-specific mortality among HIV-infected patients may be attributable to unmeasured stage or treatment differences as well

  10. Building Resilience through Humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Debra Vande; Van Brockern, Steve

    1995-01-01

    Research on resilience suggests that a sense of humor helps to stress-proof children in conflict. Reports on a workshop for educators and youth workers convened to explore ways humor is being used to foster positive development and resilience with troubled youth. Describes applications of humor front-line professionals report as useful in their…

  11. The mechanism of humoral immune response to allogeneic organ transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Berkos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of antibody-mediated rejection of donor organ remains extremely relevant. The main targets of the antibodies are mainly donor HLA-antigens (Human Leucocyte Antigens, expressed, in particular, by the cells of graft vascular endothelium. This review describes the mechanisms of the development of humoral alloimmunity which are based on B-cell recognition of epitopes of donor HLA-molecules and affinity maturation of B-cell receptors in the germinal centers of peripheral lymphatic system. Monitoring of epitope load and cross-reactivity indicators to evaluate HLA-compatibility of donor and recipient plays an important role in the prevention of allograft humoral rejection.

  12. Humor en línea. Línea del humor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dra. Mirta Clara Echevarría

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available La autora indaga el humor propuesto por el diario ‘InterVoz’ (Córdoba, Argentina. El medio publica el "típico humor cordobés". Historietas, chistes y relatos representan la vida urbana cotidiana, confluencia de lo popular y lo masivo, a través de la inclusión de usos lingüísticos, costumbres, personajes típicos y personajes públicos, sobre todo políticos. Estos textos, en algunos casos, reproducen lo publicado en papel; sin embargo, son manifestaciones diferentes. En este discurso emergente, estudia las condiciones de producción, circulación y consumo desde varias vertientes. Subraya la autora la relación del humor con el resto del diario por: la fuerte relación intertextual con la información y el diseño hipertextual. Destaca tópicas y retórica del humor como parte de una política discursiva centrada en lo regional, con el objeto de construir un discurso identitario de clara apelación a "los cordobeses en el mundo". El humor de ‘InterVoz’ (el diario en su totalidad, en el marco de la globalización, se manifiesta como una otra voz, sin llegar a establecerse como contradiscurso. Este periódico –como tantos en la red– subraya las marcas de lo local para permanecer en lo global.

  13. The relationship between negative responses to HIV status disclosure and psychosocial outcomes among people living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cama, Elena; Brener, Loren; Slavin, Sean; de Wit, John

    2017-07-01

    This report examines rates of HIV status disclosure and negative responses to disclosure among people living with HIV in Australia. Among 697 people living with HIV, most (>90%) had disclosed their status to friends, sexual partners and health providers. Almost a third had not disclosed to family, and half had not told any work colleagues. Negative responses to disclosure (e.g. blame, rejection) by all groups were associated with increased HIV-related stigma, psychological distress and diminished social support and health satisfaction. These results shed light on rates of disclosure among people living with HIV in Australia and the adverse health impacts of negative responses to disclosure.

  14. Exposure to Sexist Humor and Rape Proclivity: The Moderator Effect of Aversiveness Ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Sanchez, Monica; Duran, Mercedes; Carretero-Dios, Hugo; Megias, Jesus L.; Moya, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the effect of exposure to sexist humor about women on men's self-reported rape proclivity. Earlier studies have shown that exposure to this type of humor increases rape proclivity and that funniness responses to jokes are a key element to consider. However, the role of aversiveness responses has not been…

  15. Effects of Humor Production, Humor Receptivity, and Physical Attractiveness on Partner Desirability

    OpenAIRE

    Michelle Tornquist; Dan Chiappe

    2015-01-01

    This study examined women’s and men’s preferences for humor production and humor receptivity in long-term and short-term relationships, and how these factors interact with physical attractiveness to influence desirability. Undergraduates viewed photographs of the opposite sex individuals who were high or low in physical attractiveness, along with vignettes varying in humor production and receptivity. Participants rated physical attractiveness and desirability for long-term and short-term rela...

  16. The evolution of humor from male aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuster, Sam

    2012-01-01

    The response to seeing a man riding a unicycle was reported to be consistently related to the viewer's sex and stage of physical development. To see if this observation was universal, observations of responses were collected from 23 male and 9 female unicyclists aged 15-69 years, with 2-40 years cycling experience across four continents. With two exceptions among men, the findings were the same as those originally reported: children showed interest and curiosity, young girls showed little interest, while adult women showed a kindly, concerned, praising response. By contrast, boys showed physical aggression, which became more verbal, merging in the later teens to the snide, aggressive, stereotyped humorous response shown by adult males, which became less frequent in elderly men. The universality of the response across different individuals, environments, and dates of observation suggests an endogenous mechanism, and the association with masculine development relates this to androgen. The theoretical consequences are discussed. It is concluded that humor develops from aggression in males and is evolutionarily related to sexual selection.

  17. Optimization of a multi-gene HIV-1 recombinant subtype CRF02AG DNA vaccine for expression of multiple immunogenic forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellenberger, Dennis; Li Bin; Smith, James; Yi Hong; Folks, Thomas; Robinson, Harriet; Butera, Salvatore

    2004-01-01

    We developed an AIDS vaccine for Western and West-Central Africa based on a DNA plasmid vector expressing HIV-1 recombinant subtype CRF02 A G gag, pol, and env genes. To optimize the production of noninfectious HIV-like particles (VLPs) and potentially improve the effectiveness of the vaccine, we generated four potential vaccine constructs: the parental (IC2) and three modifications (IC25, IC48, and IC90) containing mutations within the HIV protease. While the parental construct IC2 expressed aggregates of Gag proteins, the IC25 construct resulted in the production of immature VLPs (the core comprises unprocessed Pr 55Gag ). The remaining two constructs (IC48 and IC90) produced mature VLPs (the core comprises processed capsid p24) in addition to immature VLPs and aggregates of Gag proteins. VLPs incorporated significant levels of mature gp120 envelope glycoprotein. Importantly, the mature VLPs were fusion competent and entered coreceptor-specific target cells. The production of multiple antigenic forms, including fusion-competent VLPs, by candidate DNA vaccine constructs may provide immunologic advantages for induction of protective cellular and humoral responses against HIV-1 proteins

  18. The Use of Humor in Palliative Care: A Systematic Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinna, Miguel Ángel Cuervo; Mahtani-Chugani, Vinita; Sánchez Correas, Miguel Ángel; Sanz Rubiales, Alvaro

    2018-01-01

    Humor has its own place in the context of medicine. Nevertheless, its acceptance by terminal stage patients and health-care professionals has not been studied in depth and is not free from controversy. To understand the significance, appropriateness, and pertinence of the use of humor in palliative care and to analyze its applicability. A narrative systematic review was undertaken and included in PROSPERO. Online searches were carried out on PUBMED, PSYCINFO, EBSCO (CINHAL), EMBASE, SCIELO, SCOPUS, TESEO, WEB of SCIENCE, and COCHRANE between their launch date and December 31, 2015, complemented with manual searches with queries to experts. A total of 156 studies were identified, which were then filtered in pairs by means of an established hierarchy, selecting studies that discussed the use of humor specifically in palliative care from all perspectives and designs, and finally published in Spanish, English, French, or Portuguese. Critical reading of all the selected studies took place, with no exclusions due to quality evaluation. Thirty-four studies were included. Five main topics were identified: (1) definition of humor, (2) use and functions of humor in palliative care, (3) how to use humor, (4) when not to use humor, and (5) humor before and after the diagnosis of terminal illness. Humor plays an unquestionable role in palliative care, but its use needs training and appropriate use.

  19. Learning to Laugh at Ourselves: Humor, Self-Transcendence, and the Cultivation of Moral Virtues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Mordechai

    2010-01-01

    In this essay Mordechai Gordon begins to address the neglect of humor among philosophers of education by focusing on some interesting connections between humor, self-transcendence, and the development of moral virtues. More specifically, he explores the kind of humor that makes fun of oneself and how it can affect educational encounters. Gordon…

  20. Cellular and humoral immune responses in a population from the Baringo District, Kenya to Leishmania promastigote lipophosphoglycan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurtzhals, J A; Hey, A S; Theander, T G

    1992-01-01

    In a cross-sectional house-to-house study in a leishmaniasis-endemic area in Kenya, the cellular and humoral immune response to Leishmania lipophosphoglycan (LPG) was determined. Clinical data, peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and plasma were obtained from 50 individuals over the age of eight...

  1. Merck Ad5/HIV induces broad innate immune activation that predicts CD8⁺ T-cell responses but is attenuated by preexisting Ad5 immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, Daniel E; Andersen-Nissen, Erica; Peterson, Eric R; Sato, Alicia; Hamilton, M Kristina; Borgerding, Joleen; Krishnamurty, Akshay T; Chang, Joanne T; Adams, Devin J; Hensley, Tiffany R; Salter, Alexander I; Morgan, Cecilia A; Duerr, Ann C; De Rosa, Stephen C; Aderem, Alan; McElrath, M Juliana

    2012-12-11

    To better understand how innate immune responses to vaccination can lead to lasting protective immunity, we used a systems approach to define immune signatures in humans over 1 wk following MRKAd5/HIV vaccination that predicted subsequent HIV-specific T-cell responses. Within 24 h, striking increases in peripheral blood mononuclear cell gene expression associated with inflammation, IFN response, and myeloid cell trafficking occurred, and lymphocyte-specific transcripts decreased. These alterations were corroborated by marked serum inflammatory cytokine elevations and egress of circulating lymphocytes. Responses of vaccinees with preexisting adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) neutralizing antibodies were strongly attenuated, suggesting that enhanced HIV acquisition in Ad5-seropositive subgroups in the Step Study may relate to the lack of appropriate innate activation rather than to increased systemic immune activation. Importantly, patterns of chemoattractant cytokine responses at 24 h and alterations in 209 peripheral blood mononuclear cell transcripts at 72 h were predictive of subsequent induction and magnitude of HIV-specific CD8(+) T-cell responses. This systems approach provides a framework to compare innate responses induced by vectors, as shown here by contrasting the more rapid, robust response to MRKAd5/HIV with that to yellow fever vaccine. When applied iteratively, the findings may permit selection of HIV vaccine candidates eliciting innate immune response profiles more likely to drive HIV protective immunity.

  2. A heterologous prime-boosting strategy with replicating Vaccinia virus vectors and plant-produced HIV-1 Gag/dgp41 virus-like particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meador, Lydia R. [Ira A. Fulton School of Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ (United States); Center for Infectious Diseases and Vaccinology, The Biodesign Institute, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ (United States); Kessans, Sarah A. [Center for Infectious Diseases and Vaccinology, The Biodesign Institute, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ (United States); School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ (United States); Kilbourne, Jacquelyn; Kibler, Karen V. [Center for Infectious Diseases and Vaccinology, The Biodesign Institute, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ (United States); Pantaleo, Giuseppe [Division of Immunology and Allergy, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, University of Lausanne, Lausanne (Switzerland); Swiss Vaccine Research Institute, Lausanne (Switzerland); Roderiguez, Mariano Esteban [Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Centro Nacional de Biotecnologia – CSIC, Madrid (Spain); Blattman, Joseph N. [Center for Infectious Diseases and Vaccinology, The Biodesign Institute, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ (United States); School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ (United States); Jacobs, Bertram L., E-mail: bjacobs@asu.edu [Center for Infectious Diseases and Vaccinology, The Biodesign Institute, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ (United States); School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ (United States); Mor, Tsafrir S., E-mail: tsafrir.mor@asu.edu [Center for Infectious Diseases and Vaccinology, The Biodesign Institute, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ (United States); School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ (United States)

    2017-07-15

    Showing modest efficacy, the RV144 HIV-1 vaccine clinical trial utilized a non-replicating canarypox viral vector and a soluble gp120 protein boost. Here we built upon the RV144 strategy by developing a novel combination of a replicating, but highly-attenuated Vaccinia virus vector, NYVAC-KC, and plant-produced HIV-1 virus-like particles (VLPs). Both components contained the full-length Gag and a membrane anchored truncated gp41 presenting the membrane proximal external region with its conserved broadly neutralizing epitopes in the pre-fusion conformation. We tested different prime/boost combinations of these components in mice and showed that the group primed with NYVAC-KC and boosted with both the viral vectors and plant-produced VLPs have the most robust Gag-specific CD8 T cell responses, at 12.7% of CD8 T cells expressing IFN-γ in response to stimulation with five Gag epitopes. The same immunization group elicited the best systemic and mucosal antibody responses to Gag and dgp41 with a bias towards IgG1. - Highlights: • We devised a prime/boost anti HIV-1 vaccination strategy modeled after RV144. • We used plant-derived virus-like particles (VLPs) consisting of Gag and dgp41. • We used attenuated, replicating vaccinia virus vectors expressing the same antigens. • The immunogens elicited strong cellular and humoral immune responses.

  3. Innovative financing for HIV response in sub–Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rifat Atun

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In 2015 around 15 million people living with HIV were receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART in sub–Saharan Africa. Sustained provision of ART, though both prudent and necessary, creates substantial long–term fiscal obligations for countries affected by HIV/AIDS. As donor assistance for health remains constrained, novel financing mechanisms are needed to augment funding domestic sources. We explore how Innovative Financing has been used to co–finance domestic HIV/AIDS responses. Based on analysis of non–health sectors, we identify innovative financing instruments that could be used in the HIV response.

  4. Experimental sepsis impairs humoral memory in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Pötschke

    Full Text Available Patients with sepsis are often immune suppressed, and experimental mouse models of sepsis also display this feature. However, acute sepsis in mice is also characterized by a generalized B cell activation and plasma cell differentiation, resulting in a marked increase in serum antibody concentration. Its effects on humoral memory are not clearly defined. We measured the effects of experimental sepsis on long-term immunological memory for a defined antigen: we induced colon ascendens stent peritonitis (CASP 8 weeks after 2 rounds of immunization with ovalbumin. Four weeks later, the antigen-specific bone marrow plasma cell count had doubled in immunized non-septic animals, but remained unchanged in immunized septic animals. Sepsis also caused a decrease in antigen-specific serum antibody concentration. We conclude that sepsis weakens humoral memory by impeding the antigen-specific plasma cell pool's development, which is not complete 8 weeks after secondary immunization.

  5. Cocoa-enriched diets modulate intestinal and systemic humoral immune response in young adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Berezo, Teresa; Franch, Angels; Ramos-Romero, Sara; Castellote, Cristina; Pérez-Cano, Francisco J; Castell, Margarida

    2011-05-01

    Previous studies have shown that a highly enriched cocoa diet affects both intestinal and systemic immune function in young rats. The aim of this study was to elucidate whether diets containing lower amounts of cocoa could also influence the systemic and intestinal humoral immune response. Fecal and serum samples were collected during the study and, at the end, intestinal washes were obtained and mesenteric lymph nodes and small-intestine walls were excised for gene expression assessment. IgA, IgM, IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b and IgG2c concentrations were quantified in serum whereas S-IgA and S-IgM were determined in feces and intestinal washes. Animals receiving 5 and 10% cocoa for 3 wk showed no age-related increase in serum IgG1 and IgG2a concentrations, and IgG2a values were significantly lower than those in reference animals. Serum IgM was also decreased by the 10% cocoa diet. The 5 and 10% cocoa diets dramatically reduced intestinal S-IgA concentration and modified the expression of several genes involved in IgA synthesis. A diet containing 2% cocoa had no effect on most of the studied variables. The results demonstrate the downregulatory effect of a 5% or higher cocoa diet on the systemic and intestinal humoral immune response in adult rats. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Immune defence against HIV-1 infection in HIV-1-exposed seronegative persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmechel, S C; Russell, N; Hladik, F; Lang, J; Wilson, A; Ha, R; Desbien, A; McElrath, M J

    2001-11-01

    Rare individuals who are repeatedly exposed to HIV-1 through unprotected sexual contact fail to acquire HIV-1 infection. These persons represent a unique study population to evaluate mechanisms by which HIV-1 replication is either prevented or controlled. We followed longitudinally a group of healthy HIV-1 seronegative persons each reporting repeated high-risk sexual activities with their HIV-1-infected partner at enrollment. The volunteers were primarily (90%) male homosexuals, maintaining high risk activities with their known infected partner (45%) or multiple other partners (61%). We evaluated the quantity and specificity of HIV-1-specific T cells in 31 exposed seronegatives (ES) using a IFN-gamma ELISPOT assay to enumerate T cells recognizing epitopes within HIV-1 Env, Gag, Pol and Nef. PBMC from only three of the 31 volunteers demonstrated ex vivo HIV-1-specific IFN-gamma secretion, in contrast to nearly 30% exhibiting cytolytic responses in previous studies. These findings suggest that if T cell responses in ES are induced by HIV-1 exposure, the frequency is at low levels in most of them, and below the level of detection using the ELISPOT assay. Alternative approaches to improve the sensitivity of detection may include use of dendritic cells as antigen-presenting cells in the ex vivo assay and more careful definition of the risk behavior and extent of HIV-1 exposure in conjunction with the evaluation of T cell responses.

  7. Clinical Control of HIV-1 by Cytotoxic T Cells Specific for Multiple Conserved Epitopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakoshi, Hayato; Akahoshi, Tomohiro; Koyanagi, Madoka; Chikata, Takayuki; Naruto, Takuya; Maruyama, Rie; Tamura, Yoshiko; Ishizuka, Naoki; Gatanaga, Hiroyuki; Oka, Shinichi; Takiguchi, Masafumi

    2015-05-01

    Identification and characterization of CD8(+) T cells effectively controlling HIV-1 variants are necessary for the development of AIDS vaccines and for studies of AIDS pathogenesis, although such CD8(+) T cells have been only partially identified. In this study, we sought to identify CD8(+) T cells controlling HIV-1 variants in 401 Japanese individuals chronically infected with HIV-1 subtype B, in which protective alleles HLA-B*57 and HLA-B*27 are very rare, by using comprehensive and exhaustive methods. We identified 13 epitope-specific CD8(+) T cells controlling HIV-1 in Japanese individuals, though 9 of these epitopes were not previously reported. The breadths of the T cell responses to the 13 epitopes were inversely associated with plasma viral load (P = 2.2 × 10(-11)) and positively associated with CD4 count (P = 1.2 × 10(-11)), indicating strong synergistic effects of these T cells on HIV-1 control in vivo. Nine of these epitopes were conserved among HIV-1 subtype B-infected individuals, whereas three out of four nonconserved epitopes were cross-recognized by the specific T cells. These findings indicate that these 12 epitopes are strong candidates for antigens for an AIDS vaccine. The present study highlighted a strategy to identify CD8(+) T cells controlling HIV-1 and demonstrated effective control of HIV-1 by those specific for 12 conserved or cross-reactive epitopes. HLA-B*27-restricted and HLA-B*57-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) play a key role in controlling HIV-1 in Caucasians and Africans, whereas it is unclear which CTLs control HIV-1 in Asian countries, where HLA-B*57 and HLA-B*27 are very rare. A recent study showed that HLA-B*67:01 and HLA-B*52:01-C*12:02 haplotypes were protective alleles in Japanese individuals, but it is unknown whether CTLs restricted by these alleles control HIV-1. In this study, we identified 13 CTLs controlling HIV-1 in Japan by using comprehensive and exhaustive methods. They included 5 HLA-B*52:01-restricted

  8. The Serious Business of Humor : A qualitative study of humor as a management tool

    OpenAIRE

    N Schönfeldt, Sara; Miznikova, Jelena

    2010-01-01

    This research was initiated due to the novelty of the topic. Humor is a common phenomenon in the daily interaction of many people; however this study is particularly interested in humor as used by managers. As a preconception to the study it was assumed that appropriately used humor results in benefits for a leader, thus we wish to explore how managers in Swedish organizations reason about if and how humor can be used as a management tool. For this purpose we employed qualitative research wit...

  9. Humor as a Mental Fitness Indicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P. Howrigan

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available To explain the pervasive role of humor in human social interaction and among mating partner preferences, Miller (2000a proposed that intentional humor evolved as an indicator of intelligence. To test this, we looked at the relationships among rater-judged humor, general intelligence, and the Big Five personality traits in a sample of 185 college-age students (115 women, 70 men. General intelligence positively predicted rater-judged humor, independent of the Big Five personality traits. Extraversion also predicted rater-judged humor, although to a lesser extent than general intelligence. General intelligence did not interact with the sex of the participant in predicting rating scores on the humor production tasks. The current study lends support to the prediction that effective humor production acts as an honest indicator of intelligence in humans. In addition, extraversion, and to a lesser extent, openness, may reflect motivational traits that encourage humor production.

  10. The influence of different helminth infection phenotypes on immune responses against HIV in co-infected adults in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mabaso Musawenkosi LH

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The convergent distribution of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV and helminth infections has led to the suggestion that infection with helminths exacerbates the HIV epidemic in developing countries. In South Africa, it is estimated that 57% of the population lives in poverty and carries the highest burden of both HIV and helmith infections, however, the disease interactions are under-researched. Methods We employed both coproscopy and Ascaris lumbricoides-specific serum IgE to increase diagnostic sensitivity and to distinguish between different helminth infection phenotypes and their effects on immune responses in HIV co-infected individuals. Coproscopy was done by formol ether and Kato Katz methods. HIV positive and negative adults were stratified according to the presence or absence of A. lumbricoides and/or Trichuris trichuria eggs with or without elevated Ascaris IgE. Lymphocyte subsets were phenotyped by flow cytometry. Viral loads, serum total IgE and eosinophils were also analysed. Lymphocyte activation markers (CCR5, HLA-DR, CD25, CD38 and CD71 were determined. Non parametric statistics were used to describe differences in the variables between the subgroups. Results Helminth prevalence ranged between 40%-60%. Four distinct subgroups of were identified, and this included egg positive/high Ascaris-specific IgE (egg+IgEhi, egg positive/low IgE (egg+IgElo, egg negative/high IgE (egg-IgEhi and egg negative/low IgE (egg-IgElo individuals. The egg+IgEhi subgroup displayed lymphocytopenia, eosinophilia, (low CD4+ counts in HIV- group, high viral load (in HIV+ group, and an activated lymphocyte profile. High Ascaris IgE subgroups (egg+IgEhi and egg-IgEhi had eosinophilia, highest viral loads, and lower CD4+ counts in the HIV- group. Egg excretion and low IgE (egg+IgElo status demonstrated a modified Th2 immune profile with a relatively competent response to HIV. Conclusions People with both helminth egg excretion and high

  11. HIV-1 specific antibody titers and neutralization among chronically infected patients on long-term suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes S Gach

    Full Text Available The majority of potent and broadly neutralizing antibodies against HIV-1 have been isolated from untreated patients with acute or chronic infection. To assess the extent of HIV-1 specific antibody response and neutralization after many years of virologic suppression from potent combination ART, we examined antibody binding titers and neutralization of 51 patients with chronic HIV-1 infection on suppressive ART for at least three years. In this cross-sectional analysis, we found high antibody titers against gp120, gp41, and the membrane proximal external region (MPER in 59%, 43%, and 27% of patients, respectively. We observed significantly higher endpoint binding titers for gp120 and gp41 for patients with >10 compared to ≤ 10 years of detectable HIV RNA. Additionally, we observed higher median gp120 and gp41 antibody titers in patients with HIV RNA 10 years of detectable HIV RNA (8/20 [40.0%] versus 3/31 [9.7%] for ≤ 10 years, p = 0.02 and a trend toward greater neutralization in patients with ≤ 5 years of HIV RNA 5 years, p = 0.08. All patients with neutralizing activity mediated successful phagocytosis of VLPs by THP-1 cells after antibody opsonization. Our findings of highly specific antibodies to several structural epitopes of HIV-1 with antibody effector functions and neutralizing activity after long-term suppressive ART, suggest continuous antigenic stimulation and evolution of HIV-specific antibody response occurs before and after suppression with ART. These patients, particularly those with slower HIV progression and more time with detectable viremia prior to initiation of suppressive ART, are a promising population to identify and further study functional antibodies against HIV-1.

  12. Abia State HIV epidemic and response: challenges and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyeonoro, Ugochukwu Uchenna; Emelumadu, Obiageli Fidelia; Nwamoh, Uche Ngozi; Ukegbu, Andrew Ugwunna; Okafor, Godwin Oc

    2014-11-13

    Since the first seroprevalence survey in 1999, the HIV prevalence in Abia State has increased from 1.8% to 7.3% in 2010. The state is currently experiencing a generalized epidemic, with most transmission occurring through heterosexual low-risk sex. Drivers of the epidemic include low knowledge of HIV prevention, low risk perception, predominantly male factor-driven risky sexual behavior, and low condom use. This study reviewed the state HIV epidemic trend in relation to response, sought to identify the gaps between the epidemic and response, and recommended measures to strengthen the state response.

  13. All Kidding Aside: Humor Increases Learning at Knowledge and Comprehension Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackathorn, Jana; Garczynski, Amy M.; Blankmeyer, Katheryn; Tennial, Rachel D.; Solomon, Erin D.

    2011-01-01

    It has been argued that humor is beneficial in the classroom because it increases social bonding between instructor and student, salience of information, and ultimately recall and retention. The current study sought to add to the literature by empirically testing some assumptions about humor as a pedagogical tool. Specifically, we predicted that…

  14. CCL28 induces mucosal homing of HIV-1-specific IgA-secreting plasma cells in mice immunized with HIV-1 virus-like particles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Rainone

    Full Text Available Mucosae-associated epithelial chemokine (MEC or CCL28 binds to CCR3 and CCR10 and recruits IgA-secreting plasma cells (IgA-ASCs in the mucosal lamina propria. The ability of this chemokine to enhance migration of IgA-ASCs to mucosal sites was assessed in a mouse immunization model using HIV-1(IIIB Virus-like particles (VLPs. Mice receiving either HIV-1(IIIB VLPs alone, CCL28 alone, or the irrelevant CCL19 chemokine were used as controls. Results showed a significantly increased CCR3 and CCR10 expression on CD19(+ splenocytes of HIV-1(IIIB VPL-CCL28-treated mice. HIV-1 Env-specific IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-5 production, total IgA, anti-Env IgA as well as gastro-intestinal mucosal IgA-secreting plasma cells were also significantly augmented in these mice. Notably, sera and vaginal secretions from HIV-1(IIIB VLP-CCL28-treated mice exhibited an enhanced neutralizing activity against both a HIV-1/B-subtype laboratory strain and a heterologous HIV-1/C-subtype primary isolate. These data suggest that CCL28 could be useful in enhancing the IgA immune response that will likely play a pivotal role in prophylactic HIV vaccines.

  15. Humoral Immune Response Induced by PLGA Micro Particle Coupled Newcastle Disease Virus Vaccine in Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanganagouda K

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted for evaluating the humoral immune responses induced by Poly Lactide-co-Glycolide Acid (PLGA microspheres coupled inactivated Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV vaccine in comparison to an ‘in-house’ prepared inactivated and a live commercial vaccine. PLG microparticles containing inactivated NDV were prepared by a double emulsion technique based on solvent evaporation method. The size of the NDV coupled PLG microparticles was determined by Electron Microscopy. NDV coupled PLG microparticles were spherical having smooth surface, hollow core inside with no pores on the surface. The experiment was conducted in four groups of chickens (n=15. The encapsulation efficiency of NDV coupled PLG microparticles was determined by protein estimation and HA activity in elute. The mean (± SE size of PLG microspheres was found to be 2.409 ± 0.65 µm. The mean percent of encapsulation efficiency of PLG microspheres coupled to NDV was assessed based on the total protein content and HA activity in elute was found to be 8.03 ± 0.50 and 12.5 ± 0.00, respectively. In conclusion, the results of the experiment showed that PLGA coupled NDV vaccine elicited stronger and prolonged humoral immune response in chickens, in comparison to the other tested vaccines, as assessed by haemagglutination inhibition and enzyme linked immuno sorbent asaay titers.

  16. Human cellular and humoral immune responses to Phlebotomus papatasi salivary gland antigens in endemic areas differing in prevalence of Leishmania major infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wafa Kammoun-Rebai

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Sand fly saliva compounds are able to elicit specific immune responses that have a significant role in Leishmania parasite establishment and disease outcome. Characterizing anti-saliva immune responses in individuals living in well defined leishmaniasis endemic areas would provide valuable insights regarding their effect on parasite transmission and establishment in humans.We explored the cellular and humoral immune responses to Phlebotomus (P. papatasi salivary gland extracts (SGE in individuals living in cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL old or emerging foci (OF, EF. OF was characterized by a higher infection prevalence as assessed by higher proportions of leishmanin skin test (LST positive individuals compared to EF. Subjects were further subdivided into healed, asymptomatic or naïve groups. We showed anti-SGE proliferation in less than 30% of the individuals, regardless of the immune status, in both foci. IFN-γ production was higher in OF and only observed in immune individuals from OF and naïve subjects from EF. Although IL-10 was not detected, addition of anti-human IL-10 antibodies revealed an increase in proliferation and IFN-γ production only in individuals from OF. The percentage of seropositive individuals was similar in immune and naïves groups but was significantly higher in OF. No correlation was observed between anti-saliva immune responses and LST response. High anti-SGE-IgG responses were associated with an increased risk of developing ZCL. No differences were observed for anti-SGE humoral or cellular responses among naïve individuals who converted or not their LST response or developed or not ZCL after the transmission season.These data suggest that individuals living in an old focus characterized by a frequent exposure to sand fly bites and a high prevalence of infection, develop higher anti-saliva IgG responses and IFN-γ levels and a skew towards a Th2-type cellular response, probably in favor of parasite establishment

  17. Expanded breadth of the T-cell response to mosaic HIV-1 envelope DNA vaccination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korber, Bette [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fischer, William [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wallstrom, Timothy [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    An effective AIDS vaccine must control highly diverse circulating strains of HIV-1. Among HIV -I gene products, the envelope (Env) protein contains variable as well as conserved regions. In this report, an informatic approach to the design of T-cell vaccines directed to HIV -I Env M group global sequences was tested. Synthetic Env antigens were designed to express mosaics that maximize the inclusion of common potential Tcell epitope (PTE) 9-mers and minimize the inclusion of rare epitopes likely to elicit strain-specific responses. DNA vaccines were evaluated using intracellular cytokine staining (ICS) in inbred mice with a standardized panel of highly conserved 15-mer PTE peptides. I, 2 and 3 mosaic sets were developed that increased theoretical epitope coverage. The breadth and magnitude ofT-cell immunity stimulated by these vaccines were compared to natural strain Env's; additional comparisons were performed on mutant Env's, including gpl60 or gpl45 with or without V regions and gp41 deletions. Among them, the 2 or 3 mosaic Env sets elicited the optimal CD4 and CD8 responses. These responses were most evident in CD8 T cells; the 3 mosaic set elicited responses to an average of 8 peptide pools compared to 2 pools for a set of3 natural Env's. Synthetic mosaic HIV -I antigens can therefore induce T-cell responses with expanded breadth and may facilitate the development of effective T -cell-based HIV -1 vaccines.

  18. Who Benefits From Humor-Based Positive Psychology Interventions? The Moderating Effects of Personality Traits and Sense of Humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellenzohn, Sara; Proyer, René T; Ruch, Willibald

    2018-01-01

    The evidence for the effectiveness of humor-based positive psychology interventions (PPIs; i.e., interventions aimed at enhancing happiness and lowering depressive symptoms) is steadily increasing. However, little is known about who benefits most from them. We aim at narrowing this gap by examining whether personality traits and sense of humor moderate the long-term effects of humor-based interventions on happiness and depressive symptoms. We conducted two placebo-controlled online-intervention studies testing for moderation effects. In Study 1 ( N = 104) we tested for moderation effects of basic personality traits (i.e., psychoticism, extraversion, and neuroticism) in the three funny things intervention, a humor-based PPI. In Study 2 ( N = 632) we tested for moderation effects of the sense of humor in five different humor-based interventions. Happiness and depressive symptoms were assessed before and after the intervention, as well as after 1, 3, and 6 months. In Study 2, we assessed sense of humor before and 1 month after the intervention to investigate if changes in sense of humor go along with changes in happiness and depressive symptoms. We found moderating effects only for extraversion. Extraverts benefitted more from the three funny things intervention than introverts. For neuroticism and psychoticism no moderation effects were found. For sense of humor, no moderating effects were found for the effectiveness of the five humor-based interventions tested in Study 2. However, changes in sense of humor from pretest to the 1-month follow-up predicted changes in happiness and depressive symptoms. Taking a closer look, the playful attitude- and sense of humor-subscales predicted changes in happiness and depression for up to 6 months. Overall, moderating effects for personality (i.e., extraversion) were found, but none for sense of humor at baseline. However, increases in sense of humor during and after the intervention were associated with the interventions

  19. CODING LOGICAL MECHANISM AND STEREOTYPING IN GENDER CYBER HUMORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Truly Almendo Pasaribu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Gender-related humors have their own way of being funny; and this research aims to find out how and why they are funny. For this purpose, both researchers have collected 50 gender cyber humors and analyzed them, first, to decode how their logical mechanism relates to specific linguistic features, and secondly, to uncover how gender stereotyping contributes to the comical effects. The twisting of logic and linguistic ambiguity is analyzed formally using Attardos (2001 General Theory of Verbal Humor (GTVH and supported by gender studies. The findings reveal that the logical mechanism consists of elements of incongruities, and gender stereotyping presents negative stereotypical images. The analysis further shows that some gender stereotypical images ridicule traditional roles of man and woman while others make fun of non-traditional representations. This shift from women only to both men and women as targets of gender humors has been an impact of effective feminist movements.

  20. Between two worlds medical student perceptions of humor and slang in the hospital setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, G N; Kinsman, S B; Bosk, C L; Sankar, P; Ubel, P A

    2001-08-01

    Residents frequently use humor and slang at the expense of patients on the clinical wards. We studied how medical students react to and interpret the "appropriateness" of derogatory and cynical humor and slang in a clinical setting. Semistructured, in-depth interviews. Informal meeting spaces. Thirty-three medical students. Qualitative content analysis of interview transcriptions. Students' descriptions of the humorous stories and their responses reveal that students are able to take the perspective of both outsiders and insiders in the medical culture. Students' responses to these stories show that they can identify the outsider's perspective both by seeing themselves in the outsider's role and by identifying with patients. Students can also see the insider's perspective, in that they identify with residents' frustrations and disappointments and therefore try to explain why residents use this kind of humor. Their participation in the humor and slang--often with reservations--further reveals their ability to identify with the perspective of an insider. Medical students describe a number of conflicting reactions to hospital humor that may enhance and exacerbate tensions that are already an inevitable part of training for many students. This phenomenon requires greater attention by medical educators.

  1. Characterization of the effect of Cr(VI) on humoral innate immunity using Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pragya, P; Shukla, A K; Murthy, R C; Abdin, M Z; Kar Chowdhuri, D

    2015-11-01

    With the advancement of human race, different anthropogenic activities have heaped the environment with chemicals that can cause alteration in the immune system of exposed organism. As a first line of barrier, the evolutionary conserved innate immunity is crucial for the health of an organism. However, there is paucity of information regarding in vivo assessment of the effect of environmental chemicals on innate immunity. Therefore, we examined the effect of a widely used environmental chemical, Cr(VI), on humoral innate immune response using Drosophila melanogaster. The adverse effect of Cr(VI) on host humoral response was characterized by decreased gene expression of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in the exposed organism. Concurrently, a significantly decreased transcription of humoral pathway receptors (Toll and PGRP) and triglyceride level along with inhibition of antioxidant enzyme activities were observed in exposed organism. This in turn weakened the immune response of exposed organism that was manifested by their reduced resistance against bacterial infection. In addition, overexpression of the components of humoral immunity particularly Diptericin benefits Drosophila from Cr(VI)-induced humoral immune-suppressive effect. To our knowledge, this is the first report regarding negative impact of an environmental chemical on humoral innate immune response of Drosophila along with subsequent protection by AMPs, which may provide novel insight into host-chemical interactions. Also, our data validate the utility and sensitivity of Drosophila as a model that could be used for screening the possible risk of environmental chemicals on innate immunity with minimum ethical concern that can be further extrapolated to higher organisms. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Affective Style, Humor Styles and Happiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E. Ford

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the relationships between dispositional approach and avoidance motives, humor styles, and happiness. In keeping with previous research, approach motives and the two positive humor styles (self-enhancing and affiliative positively correlated with happiness, whereas avoidance motives and the two negative humor styles (self-defeating and aggressive negatively correlated with happiness. Also, we found support for three new hypotheses. First, approach motives correlated positively with self-enhancing and affiliative humor styles. Second, avoidance motives correlated positively with self-defeating humor style, and third, the positive relationship between approach motives and happiness was mediated by self-enhancing humor style.

  3. Humor and Healing in College Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Barbara J.; Roehrig, James P.; Yang, Peggy H.

    2015-01-01

    Humor is an often neglected but potentially powerful tool in college counseling center interventions. In this article we review potential benefits and hazards of using humor in a college mental health setting along with perspectives on humor's mechanism of action and distinctions between types of humor. Therapist and client-specific…

  4. Humor and Embodied Conversational Agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus

    This report surveys the role of humor in human-to-human interaction and the possible role of humor in human-computer interaction. The aim is to see whether it is useful for embodied conversational agents to integrate humor capabilities in their internal model of intelligence, emotions and

  5. THE USES OF HUMOR IN SOCIAL WORK PRACTICE: ANALYSIS OF SOCIAL WORKERS’ EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrielė Vaitulionytė

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses how humor could enrich social work practice and guideline social workers. Social work field is not that traditionally relates with humor. While social work scholars argue that social work field is full of contradictions and humor is relevant tool to express those contradictions and paradoxes. In micro level practice Gitterman (2003 suggests humor could be a creative tool that “must be used differently based on client background, level of functioning, and specific situation”. Article presents results of qualitative study. The analysis of social workers’ professional experiences is based on social constructionism perspective with the aim to explain how humor is used in everyday practice and how use of purposive humor could be helpful in social work intervention. Episodic interviews with six social workers working in intercultural social work field were conducted. Transcripts of interviews were analyzed through conceptualization, developing story and maximizing aims of the study. Anonymity and confidentiality was considered. The results of analysis demonstrate that humor is unique experience in the sociocultural context. Discursive categories explain the purpose of humor for practice, circumstances and conditions for using that determine how the use of humor could contribute to the success of a social worker-client interaction. Using humor is considered as professional competence, which suggests that “having a good sense of humor” and appropriate use of humor with ability to demonstrate empathy and honesty in social worker-client interaction is an important part of social worker competence. Humor as a professional competence contained understanding of the humorous taboo. During analysis were explored how using humor and cultural stories of clients create mezzo level strategies for professional social work practice. Keywords: humor in social work practice, social work process, humor taboo.

  6. Increasing a Robust Antigen-Specific Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Response by FMDV DNA Vaccination with IL-9 Expressing Construct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Zou

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Various chemokines and cytokines as adjuvants can be used to improve efficacy of DNA vaccination. In this study, we sought to investigate if a DNA construct expressing IL-9 (designed as proV-IL9 as a molecular adjuvant enhance antigen specific immune responses elicited by the pcD-VP1 DNA vaccination. Mice immunized with pcD-VP1 combined with proV-IL9 developed a strong humoral response. In addition, the coinoculation induced significant higher level of antigen-specific cell proliferation and cytotoxic response. This agreed well with higher expression level of IFN-γ and perforin in CD8+ T cells, but not with IL-17 in these T cells. The results indicate that IL-9 induces the development of IFN-γ-producing CD8+ T cells (Tc1, but not the IL-17-producing CD8+ T cells (Tc17. Up-regulated expressions of BCL-2 and BCL-XL were exhibited in these Tc1 cells, suggesting that IL-9 may trigger antiapoptosis mechanism in these cells. Together, these results demonstrated that IL-9 used as molecular adjuvant could enhance the immunogenicity of DNA vaccination, in augmenting humoral and cellular responses and particularly promoting Tc1 activations. Thus, the IL-9 may be utilized as a potent Tc1 adjuvant for DNA vaccines.

  7. Interaction between HIV-1 Tat and DNA-PKcs modulates HIV transcription and class switch recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shi-Meng; Zhang, He; Yang, Tian-Yi; Ying, Tian-Yi; Yang, Pei-Xiang; Liu, Xiao-Dan; Tang, Sheng-Jian; Zhou, Ping-Kun

    2014-01-01

    HIV-1 tat targets a variety of host cell proteins to facilitate viral transcription and disrupts host cellular immunity by inducing lymphocyte apoptosis, but whether it influences humoral immunity remains unclear. Previously, our group demonstrated that tat depresses expression of DNA-PKcs, a critical component of the non-homologous end joining pathway (NHEJ) of DNA double-strand breaks repair, immunoglobulin class switch recombination (CSR) and V(D)J recombination, and sensitizes cells to ionizing radiation. In this study, we demonstrated that HIV-1 Tat down-regulates DNA-PKcs expression by directly binding to the core promoter sequence. In addition, Tat interacts with and activates the kinase activity of DNA-PKcs in a dose-dependent and DNA independent manner. Furthermore, Tat inhibits class switch recombination (CSR) at low concentrations (≤ 4 µg/ml) and stimulates CSR at high concentrations (≥ 8 µg/ml). On the other hand, low protein level and high kinase activity of DNA-PKcs promotes HIV-1 transcription, while high protein level and low kinase activity inhibit HIV-1 transcription. Co-immunoprecipitation results revealed that DNA-PKcs forms a large complex comprised of Cyclin T1, CDK9 and Tat via direct interacting with CDK9 and Tat but not Cyclin T1. Taken together, our results provide new clues that Tat regulates host humoral immunity via both transcriptional depression and kinase activation of DNA-PKcs. We also raise the possibility that inhibitors and interventions directed towards DNA-PKcs may inhibit HIV-1 transcription in AIDS patients.

  8. Investigating the Effect of Humor Communication Skills Training on Pro-Social and Anti-Social Humor Styles, Cognitive Learning, Self-Efficacy, Motivation, and Humor Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela, Lori E.

    2013-01-01

    Humor is an important aspect of interpersonal interactions as it is linked to the development and maintenance of relationships (Merolla, 2006). The purpose of this dissertation was to test the effect of a humor communication skills training program on the ability to minimize anti-social humor (i.e., aggressive, self-defeating) and enhance…

  9. Women-specific HIV/AIDS services: identifying and defining the components of holistic service delivery for women living with HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Allison J; Bourgeois, Sonya; O'Brien, Nadia; Abelsohn, Kira; Tharao, Wangari; Greene, Saara; Margolese, Shari; Kaida, Angela; Sanchez, Margarite; Palmer, Alexis K; Cescon, Angela; de Pokomandy, Alexandra; Loutfy, Mona R

    2013-01-11

    The increasing proportion of women living with HIV has evoked calls for tailored services that respond to women's specific needs. The objective of this investigation was to explore the concept of women-specific HIV/AIDS services to identify and define what key elements underlie this approach to care. A comprehensive review was conducted using online databases (CSA Social Service Abstracts, OvidSP, Proquest, Psycinfo, PubMed, CINAHL), augmented with a search for grey literature. In total, 84 articles were retrieved and 30 were included for a full review. Of these 30, 15 were specific to HIV/AIDS, 11 for mental health and addictions and four stemmed from other disciplines. The review demonstrated the absence of a consensual definition of women-specific HIV/AIDS services in the literature. We distilled this concept into its defining features and 12 additional dimensions (1) creating an atmosphere of safety, respect and acceptance; (2) facilitating communication and interaction among peers; (3) involving women in the planning, delivery and evaluation of services; (4) providing self-determination opportunities; (5) providing tailored programming for women; (6) facilitating meaningful access to care through the provision of social and supportive services; (7) facilitating access to women-specific and culturally sensitive information; (8) considering family as the unit of intervention; (9) providing multidisciplinary integration and coordination of a comprehensive array of services; (10) meeting women "where they are"; (11) providing gender-, culture- and HIV-sensitive training to health and social care providers; and (12) conducting gendered HIV/AIDS research. This review highlights that the concept of women-specific HIV/AIDS services is a complex and multidimensional one that has been shaped by diverse theoretical perspectives. Further research is needed to better understand this emerging concept and ultimately assess the effectiveness of women-specific services on HIV

  10. Women-specific HIV/AIDS services: identifying and defining the components of holistic service delivery for women living with HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Allison J; Bourgeois, Sonya; O'Brien, Nadia; Abelsohn, Kira; Tharao, Wangari; Greene, Saara; Margolese, Shari; Kaida, Angela; Sanchez, Margarite; Palmer, Alexis K; Cescon, Angela; de Pokomandy, Alexandra; Loutfy, Mona R

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The increasing proportion of women living with HIV has evoked calls for tailored services that respond to women's specific needs. The objective of this investigation was to explore the concept of women-specific HIV/AIDS services to identify and define what key elements underlie this approach to care. Methods A comprehensive review was conducted using online databases (CSA Social Service Abstracts, OvidSP, Proquest, Psycinfo, PubMed, CINAHL), augmented with a search for grey literature. In total, 84 articles were retrieved and 30 were included for a full review. Of these 30, 15 were specific to HIV/AIDS, 11 for mental health and addictions and four stemmed from other disciplines. Results and discussion The review demonstrated the absence of a consensual definition of women-specific HIV/AIDS services in the literature. We distilled this concept into its defining features and 12 additional dimensions (1) creating an atmosphere of safety, respect and acceptance; (2) facilitating communication and interaction among peers; (3) involving women in the planning, delivery and evaluation of services; (4) providing self-determination opportunities; (5) providing tailored programming for women; (6) facilitating meaningful access to care through the provision of social and supportive services; (7) facilitating access to women-specific and culturally sensitive information; (8) considering family as the unit of intervention; (9) providing multidisciplinary integration and coordination of a comprehensive array of services; (10) meeting women “where they are”; (11) providing gender-, culture- and HIV-sensitive training to health and social care providers; and (12) conducting gendered HIV/AIDS research. Conclusions This review highlights that the concept of women-specific HIV/AIDS services is a complex and multidimensional one that has been shaped by diverse theoretical perspectives. Further research is needed to better understand this emerging concept and ultimately

  11. Linguistic Features of Humor in Academic Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Skalicky

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A corpus of 313 freshman college essays was analyzed in order to better understand the forms and functions of humor in academic writing. Human ratings of humor and wordplay were statistically aggregated using Factor Analysis to provide an overall Humor component score for each essay in the corpus. In addition, the essays were also scored for overall writing quality by human raters, which correlated (r = .195 with the humor component score. Correlations between the humor component scores and linguistic features were examined. To investigate the potential for linguistic features to predict the Humor component scores, regression analysis identified four linguistic indices that accounted for approximately 17.5% of the variance in humor scores. These indices were related to text descriptiveness (i.e., more adjective and adverb use, lower cohesion (i.e., less paragraph-to-paragraph similarity, and lexical sophistication (lower word frequency. The findings suggest that humor can be partially predicted by linguistic features in the text. Furthermore, there was a small but significant correlation between the humor and essay quality scores, suggesting a positive relation between humor and writing quality. Keywords: humor, academic writing, text analysis, essay score, human rating

  12. Immunoglobulin GM and KM genes and measles vaccine-induced humoral immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovsyannikova, Inna G; Larrabee, Beth R; Schaid, Daniel J; Poland, Gregory A

    2017-10-04

    Identifying genetic polymorphisms that explain variations in humoral immunity to live measles virus vaccine is of great interest. Immunoglobulin GM (heavy chain) and KM (light chain) allotypes are genetic markers known to be associated with susceptibility to several infectious diseases. We assessed associations between GM and KM genotypes and measles vaccine humoral immunity (neutralizing antibody titers) in a combined cohort (n=1796) of racially diverse healthy individuals (age 18-41years). We did not discover any significant associations between GM and/or KM genotypes and measles vaccine-induced neutralizing antibody titers. African-American subjects had higher neutralizing antibody titers than Caucasians (1260mIU/mL vs. 740mIU/mL, p=7.10×10 -13 ), and those titers remained statistically significant (p=1.68×10 -09 ) after adjusting for age at enrollment and time since last vaccination. There were no statistically significant sex-specific differences in measles-induced neutralizing antibody titers in our study (p=0.375). Our data indicate a surprising lack of evidence for an association between GM and KM genotypes and measles-specific neutralizing antibody titers, despite the importance of these immune response genes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The effects of national and international HIV/AIDS funding and governance mechanisms on the development of civil-society responses to HIV/AIDS in East and Southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Kevin J; Birdsall, Karen

    2010-01-01

    The study takes stock of the exponential growth in the number of new civil-society organisations (CSOs) working in the HIV/AIDS field in East and Southern Africa during the period 1996-2004. We researched this development through a survey of 439 CSOs in six countries and case studies focused on the evolution of community responses to HIV/AIDS in specific communities in eight countries. We describe the types of CSOs that emerged, their relationships with governments and donors, and their activities, organisational characteristics and funding requirements. The data presented show that the vision of social mobilisation of HIV/AIDS responses through community-level organisations has faced strong external challenges. Evidence from survey data, national HIV/AIDS spending assessments and case studies shows that in some respects the changing international aid environment undermines the prospects for development of the civil-society sector's contributions in HIV/AIDS responses. Of particular interest is to understand how the "Three Ones" and the Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness have reshaped international funding for HIV/AIDS responses. There has been relatively little attention paid to the impact of the new management and funding modalities--including national performance frameworks, general budget support, joint funding arrangements and basket funds--on civil-society agencies at the forefront of community HIV/AIDS responses. Evidence is presented to show that in important respects the new modalities limit the unique contribution that CSOs can make to national HIV/AIDS responses. It is also shown that the drive to rapidly intensify the scale of HIV/AIDS responses has involved using community organisations as service providers for externally formulated programmes. We discuss this as a strong threat to the development of sustainable civil-society economies as well as to CSOs' diversity and responsiveness. The ways in which CSOs are responding to these challenges are

  14. Humor in Children's Picture Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, Frank; Coles, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Humorous literature for children has been around since Randolph Caldecott first started writing and illustrating picturebooks. In the article, the authors try to understand what makes picturebooks funny and discuss ways to use humor in the classroom. Many examples of humorous picturebooks are cited to provide teachers with resources for their…

  15. Relationship between Humoral Immune Responses against HPV16, HPV18, HPV31 and HPV45 in 12-15 Year Old Girls Receiving Cervarix® or Gardasil® Vaccine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Godi

    Full Text Available Human papillomavirus (HPV vaccines confer protection against the oncogenic genotypes HPV16 and HPV18 through the generation of type-specific neutralizing antibodies raised against virus-like particles (VLP representing these genotypes. The vaccines also confer a degree of cross-protection against HPV31 and HPV45, which are genetically-related to the vaccine types HPV16 and HPV18, respectively, although the mechanism is less certain. There are a number of humoral immune measures that have been examined in relation to the HPV vaccines, including VLP binding, pseudovirus neutralization and the enumeration of memory B cells. While the specificity of responses generated against the vaccine genotypes are fairly well studied, the relationship between these measures in relation to non-vaccine genotypes is less certain.We carried out a comparative study of these immune measures against vaccine and non-vaccine genotypes using samples collected from 12-15 year old girls following immunization with three doses of either Cervarix® or Gardasil® HPV vaccine.The relationship between neutralizing and binding antibody titers and HPV-specific memory B cell levels for the vaccine genotypes, HPV16 and HPV18, were very good. The proportion of responders approached 100% for both vaccines while the magnitude of these responses induced by Cervarix® were generally higher than those following Gardasil® immunization. A similar pattern was found for the non-vaccine genotype HPV31, albeit at a lower magnitude compared to its genetically-related vaccine genotype, HPV16. However, both the enumeration of memory B cells and VLP binding responses against HPV45 were poorly related to its neutralizing antibody responses. Purified IgG derived from memory B cells demonstrated specificities similar to those found in the serum, including the capacity to neutralize HPV pseudoviruses.These data suggest that pseudovirus neutralization should be used as the preferred humoral immune

  16. Antibody Responses with Fc-Mediated Functions after Vaccination of HIV-Infected Subjects with Trivalent Influenza Vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Anne B; Lay, William N; Ana-Sosa-Batiz, Fernanda

    2016-01-01

    to immunize this at-risk group. IMPORTANCE: Infection with HIV is associated with increasing disease severity following influenza infections, and annual influenza vaccinations are recommended for this target group. However, HIV-infected individuals respond relatively poorly to vaccination compared to healthy......This study seeks to assess the ability of seasonal trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) to induce nonneutralizing antibodies (Abs) with Fc-mediated functions in HIV-uninfected and HIV-infected subjects. Functional influenza-specific Ab responses were studied in 30 HIV-negative and 27 HIV......-positive subjects immunized against seasonal influenza. All 57 subjects received the 2015 TIV. Fc-mediated antihemagglutinin (anti-HA) Ab activity was measured in plasma before and 4 weeks after vaccination using Fc-receptor-binding assays, NK cell activation assays, and phagocytosis assays. At baseline, the HIV...

  17. Humoral and cellular immune response in mice induced by the classical swine fever virus E2 protein fused to the porcine CD154 antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sordo, Yusmel; Suárez, Marisela; Caraballo, Rosalina; Sardina, Talía; Brown, Emma; Duarte, Carlos; Lugo, Joanna; Gil, Lázaro; Perez, Danny; Oliva, Ayme; Vargas, Milagros; Santana, Elaine; Valdés, Rodolfo; Rodríguez, María Pilar

    2018-03-01

    The development of subunit vaccines against classical swine fever is a desirable goal, because it allows discrimination between vaccinated and infected animals. In this study, humoral and cellular immune response elicited in inbred BALB/c mice by immunization with a recombinant classical swine fever virus (CSFV) E2 protein fused to porcine CD154 antigen (E2CD154) was assessed. This model was used as a predictor of immune response in swine. Mice were immunized with E2CD154 emulsified in Montanide ISA50V2 or dissolved in saline on days 1 and 21. Another group received E2His antigen, without CD154, in the same adjuvant. Montanide ISA50V2 or saline served as negative controls for each experimental group. Animals immunized with 12.5 and 2.5 μg/dose of E2CD154 developed the highest titers (>1:2000) of CSFV neutralizing antibodies. Moreover, CSFV specific splenocyte gamma-interferon production, measured after seven and twenty-eight days of immunization, was significantly higher in mice immunized with 12.5 μg of E2CD154. As a conclusion, E2CD154 emulsified in Montanide ISA50 V2 was able to induce a potent humoral and an early cellular immune response in inbred BALB/c mice. Therefore, this immunogen might be an appropriate candidate to elicit immune response in swine, control CSF disease and to eliminate CSFV in swine. Copyright © 2018 International Alliance for Biological Standardization. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Perforin expression directly ex vivo by HIV-specific CD8 T-cells is a correlate of HIV elite control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam R Hersperger

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Many immune correlates of CD8(+ T-cell-mediated control of HIV replication, including polyfunctionality, proliferative ability, and inhibitory receptor expression, have been discovered. However, no functional correlates using ex vivo cells have been identified with the known ability to cause the direct elimination of HIV-infected cells. We have recently discovered the ability of human CD8(+ T-cells to rapidly upregulate perforin--an essential molecule for cell-mediated cytotoxicity--following antigen-specific stimulation. Here, we examined perforin expression capability in a large cross-sectional cohort of chronically HIV-infected individuals with varying levels of viral load: elite controllers (n = 35, viremic controllers (n = 29, chronic progressors (n = 27, and viremic nonprogressors (n = 6. Using polychromatic flow cytometry and standard intracellular cytokine staining assays, we measured perforin upregulation, cytokine production, and degranulation following stimulation with overlapping peptide pools encompassing all proteins of HIV. We observed that HIV-specific CD8(+ T-cells from elite controllers consistently display an enhanced ability to express perforin directly ex vivo compared to all other groups. This ability is not restricted to protective HLA-B haplotypes, does not require proliferation or the addition of exogenous factors, is not restored by HAART, and primarily originates from effector CD8(+ T-cells with otherwise limited functional capability. Notably, we found an inverse relationship between HIV-specific perforin expression and viral load. Thus, the capability of HIV-specific CD8(+ T-cells to rapidly express perforin defines a novel correlate of control in HIV infection.

  19. The brain-specific factor FEZ1 is a determinant of neuronal susceptibility to HIV-1 infection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Haedicke, Juliane

    2009-08-18

    Neurons are one of the few cell types in the human body that do not support HIV type-1 (HIV-1) replication. Although the lack of key receptors is a major obstacle to infection, studies suggest that additional functions inhibit virus replication to explain the exquisite resistance of neurons to HIV-1. However, specific neuronal factors that may explain this resistance remain to be discovered. In a screen for antiviral factors using a fibroblast line chemically mutagenized and selected for resistance to retroviral infection, we recently identified induction of rat FEZ1 (fasciculation and elongation protein zeta-1), a brain-specific protein, as the cause of this resistance. When exogenously expressed in nonneuronal cell lines rat FEZ1 blocked nuclear entry of retroviral DNA. Here, we demonstrate that among human brain cells, neurons naturally express high levels of FEZ1 compared to astrocytes or microglia cells and are correspondingly less susceptible to infection with pseudotyped HIV-1 that bypasses receptor-mediated viral entry. Demonstrating that endogenous FEZ1 was functionally important in the resistance of neurons to HIV-1 infection, siRNA-mediated knockdown of endogenous FEZ1 increased the infectivity of neurons while sensitive brain cell types like microglia became more resistant upon FEZ1 overexpression. In addition, FEZ1 expression was not induced in response to IFN treatment. As such, in contrast to other widely expressed, IFN-inducible antiviral factors, FEZ1 appears to represent a unique neuron-specific determinant of cellular susceptibility to infection in a cell type that is naturally resistant to HIV-1.

  20. The Effect of Context (Humorous vs. Non-humorous on Vocabulary Acquisition and Retention of Iranian EFL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Ghaffari

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available For almost four decades, ESL/EFL scholars have been trying to find which learning type, contextualized vs. decontextualized, leads to better vocabulary acquisition and retention. In an attempt to solve this problem, this study tried to examine the possible effectiveness of using humorous context on vocabulary acquisition and retention. Another issue that was undertaken in the present study was comparing the efficiency of contextualized and decontextualized vocabulary learning and retention. For this purpose, 58 Iranian EFL learners were categorized into 3 groups: a humorous, b non-humorous, and c decontextualized. The findings were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey post hoc test. As the results revealed, the participants in decontextualized group outperformed the participants in both humorous and non-humorous groups. However, it should be noted that the performance of humorous group was significantly better than the performance of non-humorous group.

  1. The Relationship Between Humor Styles and Forgiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampes, William

    2016-08-01

    Research has shown that a factor in a victim's forgiveness of an offender is the victim's ability to make more positive, or at least less negative, attributions of the offender's behavior and that perspective-taking can be a factor in facilitating that process. Self-enhancing humor has been found to be positively correlated with perspective-taking empathy and aggressive humor found to be negatively correlated with perspective-taking empathy. Therefore it was predicted that self-enhancing humor would be positively correlated with forgiveness and aggressive humor negatively correlated with forgiveness. The Humor Styles Questionnaire, the Absence of Negative and Presence of Positive subscales of the Forgiveness Scale, and the Forgiveness Likelihood Scale were administered to 112 college undergraduates. Self-enhancing humor was significantly and positively correlated with all of the forgiveness measures, aggressive humor and self-defeating humor were significantly and negatively correlated with some of the forgiveness measures and affiliative humor was not significantly correlated with any of the forgiveness measures. The results were interpreted in terms of previous findings for humor styles, perspective-taking empathy, depression, self-esteem and anxiety. Future research involving the extent to which other personality variables, such as perspective-taking empathy, mediate the relationship between self-enhancing humor and forgiveness was suggested.

  2. The Relationship Between Humor Styles and Forgiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Hampes

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Research has shown that a factor in a victim’s forgiveness of an offender is the victim’s ability to make more positive, or at least less negative, attributions of the offender’s behavior and that perspective-taking can be a factor in facilitating that process. Self-enhancing humor has been found to be positively correlated with perspective-taking empathy and aggressive humor found to be negatively correlated with perspective-taking empathy. Therefore it was predicted that self-enhancing humor would be positively correlated with forgiveness and aggressive humor negatively correlated with forgiveness. The Humor Styles Questionnaire, the Absence of Negative and Presence of Positive subscales of the Forgiveness Scale, and the Forgiveness Likelihood Scale were administered to 112 college undergraduates. Self-enhancing humor was significantly and positively correlated with all of the forgiveness measures, aggressive humor and self-defeating humor were significantly and negatively correlated with some of the forgiveness measures and affiliative humor was not significantly correlated with any of the forgiveness measures. The results were interpreted in terms of previous findings for humor styles, perspective-taking empathy, depression, self-esteem and anxiety. Future research involving the extent to which other personality variables, such as perspective-taking empathy, mediate the relationship between self-enhancing humor and forgiveness was suggested.

  3. Failure of orally administered attenuated goose parvovirus strain B to induce a humoral immune response in adult geese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisary, J; Kelemen, M

    1981-01-01

    Two-month-old geese responded with the production of virus neutralising antibodies against virulent goose parvovirus strain B administered either per os or intramuscularly. They were shedding the virus within a short period after exposure. Humoral immune response in geese of the same age was induced by the attenuated goose parvovirus strain B only by intramuscular injection but not with per os administration.

  4. Comparative evaluation of aqueous humor viscosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kyshia; Carter, Renee; Tully, Thomas; Negulescu, Ioan; Storey, Eric

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate aqueous humor viscosity in the raptor, dog, cat, and horse, with a primary focus on the barred owl (Strix varia). Twenty-six raptors, ten dogs, three cats, and one horse. Animals were euthanized for reasons unrelated to this study. Immediately, after horizontal and vertical corneal dimensions were measured, and anterior chamber paracentesis was performed to quantify anterior chamber volume and obtain aqueous humor samples for viscosity analysis. Dynamic aqueous humor viscosity was measured using a dynamic shear rheometer (AR 1000 TA Instruments, New Castle, DE, USA) at 20 °C. Statistical analysis included descriptive statistics, unpaired t-tests, and Tukey's test to evaluate the mean ± standard deviation for corneal diameter, anterior chamber volume, and aqueous humor viscosity amongst groups and calculation of Spearman's coefficient for correlation analyses. The mean aqueous humor viscosity in the barred owl was 14.1 centipoise (cP) ± 9, cat 4.4 cP ± 0.2, and dog 2.9 cP ± 1.3. The aqueous humor viscosity for the horse was 1 cP. Of the animals evaluated in this study, the raptor aqueous humor was the most viscous. The aqueous humor of the barred owl is significantly more viscous than the dog (P humor viscosity of the raptor, dog, cat, and horse can be successfully determined using a dynamic shear rheometer. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  5. Cognitive Distortions, Humor Styles, and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rnic, Katerina; Dozois, David J A; Martin, Rod A

    2016-08-01

    Cognitive distortions are negative biases in thinking that are theorized to represent vulnerability factors for depression and dysphoria. Despite the emphasis placed on cognitive distortions in the context of cognitive behavioural theory and practice, a paucity of research has examined the mechanisms through which they impact depressive symptomatology. Both adaptive and maladaptive styles of humor represent coping strategies that may mediate the relation between cognitive distortions and depressive symptoms. The current study examined the correlations between the frequency and impact of cognitive distortions across both social and achievement-related contexts and types of humor. Cognitive distortions were associated with reduced use of adaptive Affiliative and Self-Enhancing humor styles and increased use of maladaptive Aggressive and Self-Defeating humor. Reduced use of Self-Enhancing humor mediated the relationship between most types of cognitive distortions and depressed mood, indicating that distorted negative thinking may interfere with an individual's ability to adopt a humorous and cheerful outlook on life (i.e., use Self-Enhancing humor) as a way of regulating emotions and coping with stress, thereby resulting in elevated depressive symptoms. Similarly, Self-Defeating humor mediated the association of the social impact of cognitive distortions with depression, such that this humor style may be used as a coping strategy for dealing with distorted thinking that ultimately backfires and results in increased dysphoria.

  6. Using Humor in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barney, David; Christenson, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Humor can be extremely beneficial in everyday life, whether giving or receiving it. It can be used to lighten the mood, give encouragement, or make corrections. Humor in physical education is no exception. Physical educators can use humor as a teaching tool and to create an environment for students to acquire the knowledge to practice a lifetime…

  7. The Attitudes of University Faculty toward Humor as a Pedagogical Tool: Can We Take a Joke?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huss, John; Eastep, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    Faculty members in a College of Education responded to a mixed methods questionnaire regarding their attitudes toward the use of humor as a pedagogical tool. Quantitative data and coding of open response questions revealed that instructors overall considered humor to be an integral part of their teaching plan and that humor relaxes students,…

  8. Epitope-based vaccines with the Anaplasma marginale MSP1a functional motif induce a balanced humoral and cellular immune response in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula S Santos

    Full Text Available Bovine anaplasmosis is a hemoparasitic disease that causes considerable economic loss to the dairy and beef industries. Cattle immunized with the Anaplasma marginale MSP1 outer membrane protein complex presents a protective humoral immune response; however, its efficacy is variable. Immunodominant epitopes seem to be a key-limiting factor for the adaptive immunity. We have successfully demonstrated that critical motifs of the MSP1a functional epitope are essential for antibody recognition of infected animal sera, but its protective immunity is yet to be tested. We have evaluated two synthetic vaccine formulations against A. marginale, using epitope-based approach in mice. Mice infection with bovine anaplasmosis was demonstrated by qPCR analysis of erythrocytes after 15-day exposure. A proof-of-concept was obtained in this murine model, in which peptides conjugated to bovine serum albumin were used for immunization in three 15-day intervals by intraperitoneal injections before challenging with live bacteria. Blood samples were analyzed for the presence of specific IgG2a and IgG1 antibodies, as well as for the rickettsemia analysis. A panel containing the cytokines' transcriptional profile for innate and adaptive immune responses was carried out through qPCR. Immunized BALB/c mice challenged with A. marginale presented stable body weight, reduced number of infected erythrocytes, and no mortality; and among control groups mortality rates ranged from 15% to 29%. Additionally, vaccines have significantly induced higher IgG2a than IgG1 response, followed by increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. This is a successful demonstration of epitope-based vaccines, and protection against anaplasmosis may be associated with elicitation of effector functions of humoral and cellular immune responses in murine model.

  9. Neutralizing antibody response during human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection: type and group specificity and viral escape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendrup, M; Sönnerborg, A; Svennerholm, B

    1993-01-01

    The paradox that group-specific neutralizing antibodies (NA) exist in the majority of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected patients, whereas the NA response against autologous HIV-1 virus isolates is highly type-specific, motivated us to study the type- and group-specific NA...... demonstrated, suggesting that the majority of the change in neutralization sensitivity is driven by the selective pressure of type-specific NA. Furthermore, no differences were observed in sensitivity to neutralization by anti-carbohydrate neutralizing monoclonal antibodies or the lectin concanavalin A...

  10. Por un humor ético

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Paramo Valero

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Ética del humor es una obra original, abundantemente documentada, de contenido científico y filosófico, que aborda un problema de gran importancia en los actuales estudios de éticas aplicadas. La ética del humor es una nueva ética aplicada que pretende comprender el fenómeno del humor a la luz de sus implicaciones éticas. Como señala el autor, Juan Carlos Siurana, reputado experto en el ámbito de la filosofía práctica, el interés por el humor es un interés por la ética. En la obra no presenta una nueva teoría filosófica del humor –las cuales se han venido sucediendo, al menos, desde los Diálogos de Platón–, sino una nueva teoría ética, que toma al humor como objeto principal de análisis. Por tanto, la finalidad es realizar una aportación dentro del ámbito de la ética. Para ello se nutre de distintos estudios psicológicos, biológicos, fisiológicos y neurológicos sobre el humor, así como de clásicas obras de filosofía que han abordado esta cuestión.

  11. Reconsidering language teaching through a focus on humor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Bell

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Formal language education is often predicated on a series of modernist fictions that greatly simplify the nature of language and the process of communication. Acts of linguistic creativity involving humor and language play are frequently either ignored or considered deviant. In this paper, we contribute to ongoing efforts to re-conceptualize language education in ways that make use of more robust (and less modernist theories of language and communication. We revisit calls for more pedagogical focus on humor and language play and illustrate how more attention to these types of language might help us to move away from some of the classroom fictions that currently constrain teachers and learners alike. Specifically, we present recent conceptions of language and of communication, and discuss how, in light of these, humor and language play can be used to increase learners’ metalinguistic awareness and expand their communicative/interpretive repertoires.

  12. Addressing gender inequality and intimate partner violence as critical barriers to an effective HIV response in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Charlotte; Seeley, Janet

    2014-01-01

    In Africa, women and girls represent 57% of people living with HIV, with gender inequality and violence being an important structural determinant of their vulnerability. This commentary draws out lessons for a more effective combination response to the HIV epidemic from three papers recently published in JIAS. Hatcher and colleagues present qualitative data from women attending ante-natal clinics in Johannesburg, describing how HIV diagnosis during pregnancy and subsequent partner disclosure are common triggers for violence within relationships. The authors describe the challenges women face in adhering to medication or using services. Kyegombe and colleagues present a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial in Uganda of SASA! - a community violence prevention programme. Along with promising community impacts on physical partner violence, significantly lower levels of sexual concurrency, condom use and HIV testing were reported by men in intervention communities. Remme and her colleagues present a systematic review of evidence on the costs and cost-effectiveness of gender-responsive HIV interventions. The review identified an ever-growing evidence base, but a paucity of accompanying economic analyses, making it difficult to assess the costs or value for money of gender-focused programmes. There is a need to continue to accumulate evidence on the effectiveness and costs of different approaches to addressing gender inequality and violence as part of a combination HIV response. A clearer HIV-specific and broader synergistic vision of financing and programming needs to be developed, to ensure that the potential synergies between HIV-specific and broader gender-focused development investments can be used to best effect to address vulnerability of women and girls to both violence and HIV.

  13. Instructional scientific humor in the secondary classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wizner, Francine

    This study is an examination of the manner in which educators employ scientific content humor and how that humor is perceived by their students. Content humor is a useful strategy in drawing the attention of students and improving their receptivity toward scientific information. It is also a useful tool in combating the growing distractions of the electronic classroom. Previous studies have found that humor has a positive effect on knowledge, memory, and understanding. However, few studies have been conducted below the undergraduate level and mainly quantitative measures of student recall have been used to measure learning. This study employed multiple data sources to determine how two secondary biology teachers used humor in order to explain scientific concepts and how their students perceived their teachers' use of scientific instructional humor. Evidence of student humor reception was collected from four students in each of the two classes. All of the scientific instructional humor used in the studied classrooms was cognitive in nature, varying among factual, procedural, conceptual, and metacognitive knowledge. Teachers tended to use dialogic forms of humor. Their scientific humor reflected everyday experiences, presented queries, poked fun at authority, and asked students to search out new perspectives and perform thought experiments. Teachers were the primary actors in performing the humorous events. The events were sometimes physical exaggerations of words or drawings, and they occurred for the purpose of establishing rapport or having students make connections between scientific concepts and prior knowledge. Student perceptions were that teachers did employ humor toward instructional objectives that helped their learning. Helping students become critical thinkers is a trademark of science teachers. Science teachers who take the risk of adopting some attributes of comedians may earn the reward of imparting behaviors on their students like critical thinking

  14. HCV Specific IL-21 Producing T Cells but Not IL-17A Producing T Cells Are Associated with HCV Viral Control in HIV/HCV Coinfection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonya A MacParland

    Full Text Available Decreased hepatitis C virus (HCV clearance, faster cirrhosis progression and higher HCV RNA levels are associated with Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV coinfection. The CD4+ T helper cytokines interleukin (IL-21 and IL-17A are associated with virus control and inflammation, respectively, both important in HCV and HIV disease progression. Here, we examined how antigen-specific production of these cytokines during HCV mono and HIV/HCV coinfection was associated with HCV virus control.We measured HCV-specific IL-21 and IL-17A production by transwell cytokine secretion assay in PBMCs from monoinfected and coinfected individuals. Viral control was determined by plasma HCV RNA levels.In acutely infected individuals, those able to establish transient/complete HCV viral control tended to have stronger HCV-specific IL-21-production than non-controllers. HCV-specific IL-21 production also correlated with HCV viral decline in acute infection. Significantly stronger HCV-specific IL-21 production was detected in HAART-treated coinfected individuals. HCV-specific IL-17A production was not associated with lower plasma HCV RNA levels in acute or chronic HCV infection and responses were stronger in HIV coinfection. HCV-specific IL-21/ IL-17A responses did not correlate with microbial translocation or fibrosis. Exogenous IL-21 treatment of HCV-specific CD8+ T cells from monoinfected individuals enhanced their function although CD8+ T cells from coinfected individuals were somewhat refractory to the effects of IL-21.These data show that HCV-specific IL-21 and IL-17A-producing T cells are induced in HIV/HCV coinfection. In early HIV/HCV coinfection, IL-21 may contribute to viral control, and may represent a novel tool to enhance acute HCV clearance in HIV/HCV coinfected individuals.

  15. LAUGHTER AFTER TEARS: SITTING FOR AMERICAN HUMORS IN INDONESIAN SOFAS (Subtitling Humors of a Tv Serial Friends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusti Nyoman Ayu Sukerti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The study reported in this paper aims to analyze the possible strategies used in the subtitling of the first five episodes (season 1 of Friends to render the episodes’ humorous dialogues. It examines the subtitler’s strategies in preserving both the semantic and humorous genes of laughter intended by the original humor. The analysis takes into account the internal and external structures of humors both in the target and source language. Choosing a subtitling strategy involves a decisionmaking process where the internal and external factors come into play and, therefore, rendering humors in a contextually bound medium, such as subtitling, does not necessarily work in the TL environment in a consistent manner. The inconsistency highlights the fact that humors, even those considered universal, are not digested in the same manner across cultures.

  16. Oral administration of Eclipta alba leaf aqueous extract enhances the non-specific immune responses and disease resistance of Oreochromis mossambicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christybapita, D; Divyagnaneswari, M; Michael, R Dinakaran

    2007-10-01

    Immunostimulatory effects of the oral administration of the medicinal plant, Eclipta alba leaf extracts was studied in tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus. For this purpose, fish were fed for 1, 2 or 3 weeks with diets containing E. alba leaf aqueous extract at 0, 0.01, 0.1 or 1% levels. After each week, non-specific humoral (lysozyme, antiprotease and complement) and cellular (myeloperoxidase content, production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species) responses and disease resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila were determined. The results indicated that E. alba aqueous extract administered as feed supplement significantly enhanced most of the non-specific immune parameters tested. Among the humoral responses, lysozyme activity significantly increased after feeding with aqueous extract for 1, 2 or 3 weeks. No significant modulation was noticed in all the cellular responses tested after 3 weeks of feeding, while reactive oxygen species production and myeloperoxidase content showed significant enhancement after 1 week of feeding with aqueous extract. When challenged with A. hydrophila after 1, 2 or 3 weeks of feeding, the percentage mortality was significantly reduced in the treated fish. The highest dose of 1% gave better protection than the other doses with the relative percentage survival (RPS) values of 64, 75 and 32 after feeding for 1, 2 and 3 weeks respectively. The results indicate that dietary intake of E. alba aqueous leaf extract enhances the non-specific immune responses and disease resistance of O. mossambicus against A. hydrophila.

  17. [Humoral response markers in GCK MODY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skała-Zamorowska, Eliza; Deja, Grażyna; Borowiec, Maciej; Fendler, Wojciech; Małachowska, Beata; Kamińska, Halla; Wyka, Krystyna; Młynarski, Wojciech; Jarosz-Chobot, Przemysława

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of antibodies to pancreatic islets in monogenic diabetes remains unknown and the incidence estimation is difficult as the occurrence of autoantibodies in patient is one of the well-known exclusion criteria for further genetic diagnostics. They has been found not only among patients with type 1 diabetes, but also in other types of diabetes: Type 2 diabetes, Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults (LADA) (16) and monogenic diabetes (MD). Immunological characteristic of GCK MODY patients. The study group included families of 27 adolescent patients with GCK MODY (39 parents and 19 siblings) monitored in the Department of Pediatrics, Endocrinology and Diabetes and in the Diabetes Clinic of John Paul II Upper Silesian Child Health Centre in Katowice in the years 2007-2012. All patients and family members with GCK MODY underwent a blood sample drawing for immunological (classic humoral response markers: ICA, GAD, IA-2, IAA) and biochemical diagnostics. Pediatric, diabetes and family medical history was collected from the subjects and parents. Immunological diagnostics was performed in all patients except 1 (96.3%). Immunological diagnostics included 17 (89.5%) parents and 7 (87.5%) siblings with diagnosed GCK MODY. 8 (30.8%) adolescent patients with GCK MODY, 3 subjects (17.64%) among parents (with GCK MODY), as well as 2 subjects (28.57%) among siblings (with GCK MODY) showed a positive antibodies screen. The results of our study in children with GCK MODY and their family members suggest that the occurrence of classic antibodies directed against pancreatic islets antigens is fairly common in patients with GCK MODY. Despite various observations and many legitimate discussions, it is difficult to clarify the pathogenesis of the occurrence of autoantibodies in monogenic diabetes. © Polish Society for Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetology.

  18. Intranasal administration of a therapeutic HIV vaccine (Vacc-4x induces dose-dependent systemic and mucosal immune responses in a randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Brekke

    Full Text Available Vacc-4x, a Gag p24-based therapeutic HIV vaccine, has been shown to reduce viral load set-points after intradermal administration. In this randomized controlled pilot study we investigate intranasal administration of Vacc-4x with Endocine as adjuvant.Safety and immunogenicity were tested in patients on effective ART. They were randomized to low, medium or high dose Vacc-4x or adjuvant alone, administered four times at weekly intervals with no booster. Vacc-4x-specific T cell responses were measured in vitro by proliferation and in vivo by a single DTH skin test at the end of study. Nasal and rectal mucosal secretions were analyzed for Vacc-4x-specific antibodies by ELISA. Immune regulation induced by Vacc-4x was assessed by functional blockade of the regulatory cytokines IL-10 and TGF-β.Vacc-4x proliferative T cell responses increased only among the vaccinated (p ≤ 0.031. The low dose group showed the greatest increase in Vacc-4x CD8+T cell responses (p = 0.037 and developed larger DTH (p = 0.005 than the adjuvant group. Rectal (distal Vacc-4x IgA and IgG antibodies also increased (p = 0.043 in this group. In contrast, the high dose generated higher nasal (local Vacc-4x IgA (p = 0.028 and serum IgG (p = 0.030 antibodies than the adjuvant. Irrespective of dose, increased Vacc-4x CD4+T cell responses were associated with low proliferation (r = -0.82, p < 0.001 and high regulation (r = 0.61, p = 0.010 at baseline.Intranasal administration of Vacc-4x with Endocine was safe and induced dose-dependent vaccine-specific T cell responses and both mucosal and systemic humoral responses. The clinical significance of dose, immune regulation and mucosal immunity warrants further investigation.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01473810.

  19.  Evaluation of the humoral and cellular immune responses after implantation of a PTFE vascular prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skóra, Jan; Pupka, Artur; Dorobisz, Andrzej; Barć, Piotr; Korta, Krzysztof; Dawiskiba, Tomasz

    2012-07-02

    The experiment was designed in order to determine the immunological processes that occur during the healing in synthetic vascular grafts, especially to establish the differences in the location of the complement system proteins between the proximal and distal anastomosis and the differences in the arrangement of inflammatory cells in those anastomoses. The understanding of those processes will provide a true basis for determining risk factors for complications after arterial repair procedures. The experiment was carried out on 16 dogs that underwent implantation of unilateral aorto-femoral bypass with expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE). After 6 months all animals were euthanized to dissect the vascular grafts. Immunohistochemical assays and electron microscopic examinations were performed. Immunohistochemical findings in the structure of neointima between anastomoses of vascular prostheses demonstrated significant differences between humoral and cellular responses. The area of proximal anastomosis revealed the presence of fibroblasts, but no macrophages were detected. The histological structure of the proximal anastomosis indicates that inflammatory processes were ended during the prosthesis healing. The immunological response obtained in the distal anastomosis corresponded to the chronic inflammatory reaction with the presence of macrophages, myofibroblasts and deposits of complement C3. The identification of differences in the presence of macrophages and myofibroblasts and the presence of the C3 component between the anastomoses is the original achievement of the present study. In the available literature, no such significant differences have been shown so far in the humoral and cellular immune response caused by the presence of an artificial vessel in the arterial system.

  20. Computational Humor 2012 : extended abstacts of the (3rd international) Workshop on computational Humor

    OpenAIRE

    Nijholt, Antinus; Unknown, [Unknown

    2012-01-01

    Like its predecessors in 1996 (University of Twente, the Netherlands) and 2002 (ITC-irst, Trento, Italy), this Third International Workshop on Computational Humor (IWCH 2012) focusses on the possibility to find algorithms that allow understanding and generation of humor. There is the general aim of modeling humor, and if we can do that, it will provide us with lots of information about our cognitive abilities in general, such as reasoning, remembering, understanding situations, and understand...

  1. A novel therapeutic hepatitis B vaccine induces cellular and humoral immune responses and breaks tolerance in hepatitis B virus (HBV) transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchmann, Pascale; Dembek, Claudia; Kuklick, Larissa; Jäger, Clemens; Tedjokusumo, Raindy; von Freyend, Miriam John; Drebber, Uta; Janowicz, Zbigniew; Melber, Karl; Protzer, Ulrike

    2013-02-06

    Therapeutic vaccines are currently being developed for chronic hepatitis B and C. As an alternative to long-term antiviral treatment or to support only partially effective therapy, they should activate the patient's immune system effectively to fight and finally control the virus. A paradigm of therapeutic vaccination is the potent induction of T-cell responses against key viral antigens - besides activation of a humoral immune response. We have evaluated the potential of a novel vaccine formulation comprising particulate hepatitis B surface (HBsAg) and core antigen (HBcAg), and the saponin-based ISCOMATRIX™ adjuvant for its ability to stimulate T and B cell responses in C57BL/6 mice and its ability to break tolerance in syngeneic HBV transgenic (HBVtg) mice. In C57BL/6 mice, the vaccine induced multifunctional HBsAg- and HBcAg-specific CD8+ T cells detected by staining for IFNγ, TNFα and IL-2, as well as high antibody titers against both antigens. Vaccination of HBVtg animals induced potent HBsAg- and HBcAg-specific CD8+ T-cell responses in spleens and HBcAg-specific CD8+ T-cell responses in livers as well as anti-HBs seroconversion two weeks post injection. Vaccination further reduced HBcAg expression in livers of HBVtg mice without causing liver damage. In summary, this study demonstrates therapeutic efficacy of a novel vaccine formulation in a mouse model of immunotolerant, chronic HBV infection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Detection of leptospira by culture of vitreous humor and detection of antibodies against leptospira in vitreous humor and serum of 225 horses with equine recurrent uveitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorrego-Keiter, Elisa; Tóth, József; Dikker, Lieke; Sielhorst, Jutta; Schusser, Gerald Fritz

    2016-01-01

    In the ongoing discussion regarding the aetiopathogenesis of equine recurrent uveitis (ERU) it was the aim of the present study to elucidate the relationship of leptospira infection and ERU. In a population of 225 horses leptospira were examined in vitreous humor by culture and leptospira antibody were detected in vitreous humor and serum samples. Preoperative serum samples were collected from 221/225 ERU patients of different age, gender and breed. Undiluted vitreous humor was aseptically taken from 198/225 patients that underwent pars plana vitrectomy at the beginning of surgery and from 27/225 patients' eyeball after enucleation: Serum and vitreous humor were tested for specific leptospiral antibodies by microscopic agglutination test (MAT). Furthermore, vitreous humor was examined by culture. 20 patients which were euthanized due to a live-threatening disease other than ERU served as a control group. A total of 127/221 (57.5%) horses had serum antibodies (≥ 1:100). Most frequently antibodies against L. interrogans serovar Grippotyphosa were detected (79/127), followed by L. interrogans serovar lcterohaemorrhagiae (34/127) and L. interrogans serovar Bratislava (29/127). Only 79/225 horses (35.1%) had leptospiral antibodies in vitreous humor, in which L. interrogans serovar Grippotyphosa (67/79) was identified most frequently followed by L. interrogans serovar Pomona (18/79) and L. interrogans serovar lcterohaemorrhagiae (8/79) which was identified as single or multiple reaction. Isolation of leptospira from vitreous humor was positive in 34/212 horses (16%). 10/20 control horses had a positive antibody titer against leptospira in serum and 2/20 horses in vitreous humor, whereas there was no leptospira detected in culture. The result of 84% negative cultures from vitreous humor of 212 ERU patients is decisive for the diagnosis and therapy of ERU.

  3. Impaired quality of the hepatitis B virus (HBV)-specific T-cell response in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-HBV coinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, J Judy; Sirivichayakul, Sunee; Avihingsanon, Anchalee; Thompson, Alex J V; Revill, Peter; Iser, David; Slavin, John; Buranapraditkun, Supranee; Marks, Pip; Matthews, Gail; Cooper, David A; Kent, Stephen J; Cameron, Paul U; Sasadeusz, Joe; Desmond, Paul; Locarnini, Stephen; Dore, Gregory J; Ruxrungtham, Kiat; Lewin, Sharon R

    2009-08-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV)-specific T cells play a key role both in the control of HBV replication and in the pathogenesis of liver disease. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) coinfection and the presence or absence of HBV e (precore) antigen (HBeAg) significantly alter the natural history of chronic HBV infection. We examined the HBV-specific T-cell responses in treatment-naïve HBeAg-positive and HBeAg-negative HIV-1-HBV-coinfected (n = 24) and HBV-monoinfected (n = 39) Asian patients. Peripheral blood was stimulated with an overlapping peptide library for the whole HBV genome, and tumor necrosis factor alpha and gamma interferon cytokine expression in CD8+ T cells was measured by intracellular cytokine staining and flow cytometry. There was no difference in the overall magnitude of the HBV-specific T-cell responses, but the quality of the response was significantly impaired in HIV-1-HBV-coinfected patients compared with monoinfected patients. In coinfected patients, HBV-specific T cells rarely produced more than one cytokine and responded to fewer HBV proteins than in monoinfected patients. Overall, the frequency and quality of the HBV-specific T-cell responses increased with a higher CD4+ T-cell count (P = 0.018 and 0.032, respectively). There was no relationship between circulating HBV-specific T cells and liver damage as measured by activity and fibrosis scores, and the HBV-specific T-cell responses were not significantly different in patients with either HBeAg-positive or HBeAg-negative disease. The quality of the HBV-specific T-cell response is impaired in the setting of HIV-1-HBV coinfection and is related to the CD4+ T-cell count.

  4. Lipoprotein(a) and HIV: Allele-Specific Apolipoprotein(a) Levels Predict Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in HIV-Infected Young Women in the Women's Interagency HIV Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enkhmaa, Byambaa; Anuurad, Erdembileg; Zhang, Wei; Li, Chin-Shang; Kaplan, Robert; Lazar, Jason; Merenstein, Dan; Karim, Roksana; Aouizerat, Brad; Cohen, Mardge; Butler, Kenneth; Pahwa, Savita; Ofotokun, Igho; Adimora, Adaora A; Golub, Elizabeth; Berglund, Lars

    2017-05-01

    In the general population, lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] has been established as an independent causal risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Lp(a) levels are to a major extent regulated by a size polymorphism in the apolipoprotein(a) [apo(a)] gene. The roles of Lp(a)/apo(a) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related elevated cardiovascular disease risk remain unclear. The associations between total plasma Lp(a) level, allele-specific apo(a) level, an Lp(a) level carried by individual apo(a) alleles, and common carotid artery intima-media thickness were assessed in 150 HIV-infected and 100 HIV-uninfected women in the WIHS (Women's Interagency HIV Study). Linear regression analyses with and without adjustments were used. The cohort was young (mean age, ≈31 years), with the majority being Blacks (≈70%). The prevalence of a small size apo(a) (≤22 Kringle repeats) or a high Lp(a) level (≥30 mg/dL) was similar by HIV status. Total plasma Lp(a) level ( P =0.029) and allele-specific apo(a) level carried by the smaller apo(a) sizes ( P =0.022) were significantly associated with carotid artery intima-media thickness in the HIV-infected women only. After accounting for confounders (age, race, smoking, body mass index, blood pressure, hepatitis C virus coinfection, menopause, plasma lipids, treatment status, CD4 + T cell count, and HIV/RNA viral load), the association remained significant for both Lp(a) ( P =0.035) and allele-specific apo(a) level carried by the smaller apo(a) sizes ( P =0.010) in the HIV-infected women. Notably, none of the other lipids/lipoproteins was associated with carotid artery intima-media thickness. Lp(a) and allele-specific apo(a) levels predict carotid artery intima-media thickness in HIV-infected young women. Further research is needed to identify underlying mechanisms of an increased Lp(a) atherogenicity in HIV infection. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. Sepsis in HIV-infected patients; epidemiology and host response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huson, M.A.M.

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis, we examined the impact of HIV infection on the epidemiology (Part I) of sepsis, and host response (Part II) to sepsis. We studied sepsis patients in Gabon, a setting with a high prevalence of HIV, and in Dutch intensive care units (ICUs). In Part I, we found that HIV positive

  6. Lifelong memory responses perpetuate humoral TH2 immunity and anaphylaxis in food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Saiz, Rodrigo; Chu, Derek K; Mandur, Talveer S; Walker, Tina D; Gordon, Melissa E; Chaudhary, Roopali; Koenig, Joshua; Saliba, Sarah; Galipeau, Heather J; Utley, Adam; King, Irah L; Lee, Kelvin; Ettinger, Rachel; Waserman, Susan; Kolbeck, Roland; Jordana, Manel

    2017-12-01

    A number of food allergies (eg, fish, shellfish, and nuts) are lifelong, without any disease-transforming therapies, and unclear in their underlying immunology. Clinical manifestations of food allergy are largely mediated by IgE. Although persistent IgE titers have been attributed conventionally to long-lived IgE + plasma cells (PCs), this has not been directly and comprehensively tested. We sought to evaluate mechanisms underlying persistent IgE and allergic responses to food allergens. We used a model of peanut allergy and anaphylaxis, various knockout mice, adoptive transfer experiments, and in vitro assays to identify mechanisms underlying persistent IgE humoral immunity over almost the entire lifespan of the mouse (18-20 months). Contrary to conventional paradigms, our data show that clinically relevant lifelong IgE titers are not sustained by long-lived IgE + PCs. Instead, lifelong reactivity is conferred by allergen-specific long-lived memory B cells that replenish the IgE + PC compartment. B-cell reactivation requires allergen re-exposure and IL-4 production by CD4 T cells. We define the half-lives of antigen-specific germinal centers (23.3 days), IgE + and IgG 1 + PCs (60 and 234.4 days, respectively), and clinically relevant cell-bound IgE (67.3 days). These findings can explain lifelong food allergies observed in human subjects as the consequence of allergen exposures that recurrently activate memory B cells and identify these as a therapeutic target with disease-transforming potential. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in DNA immunized mink challenged with wild-type canine distemper virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Line; Søgaard, Mette; Karlskov-Mortensen, Peter; Jensen, Trine Hammer; Jensen, Tove Dannemann; Aasted, Bent; Blixenkrone-Møller, Merete

    2009-07-30

    The aim of the study was to investigate the different phases of the immune response after DNA immunization with the hemagglutinin and nucleoprotein genes from canine distemper virus (CDV). Although attenuated live CDV vaccines have effectively reduced the incidence of disease, canine distemper is still a problem worldwide. The broad host range of CDV creates a constant viral reservoir among wildlife animals. Our results demonstrated early humoral and cell-mediated immune responses (IFN-gamma) in DNA vaccinated mink compared to mock-vaccinated mink after challenge with a Danish wild-type CDV. The DNA vaccine-induced immunity protected the natural host against disease development.

  8. Rapid selection of escape mutants by the first CD8 T cell responses in acute HIV-1 infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korber, Bette Tina Marie [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    The recent failure of a vaccine that primes T cell responses to control primary HIV-1 infection has raised doubts about the role of CD8+ T cells in early HIV-1 infection. We studied four patients who were identified shortly after HIV-1 infection and before seroconversion. In each patient there was very rapid selection of multiple HIV-1 escape mutants in the transmitted virus by CD8 T cells, including examples of complete fixation of non-synonymous substitutions within 2 weeks. Sequencing by single genome amplification suggested that the high rate of virus replication in acute infection gave a selective advantage to virus molecules that contained simultaneous and gained sequential T cell escape mutations. These observations show that whilst early HIV-1 specific CD8 T cells can act against virus, rapid escape means that these T cell responses are unlikely to benefit the patient and may in part explain why current HIV-1 T cell vaccines may not be protective.

  9. Don't Tease Me, I'm Working: Examining Humor in a Midwestern Organization Using Ethnography of Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojha, Ajay K.; Holmes, Tammy L.

    2010-01-01

    Within organizations, the communicative phenomenon of humor is commonplace. Humorous talk is just as important and frequent to regular discourse that takes place between organizational members. In this inquiry we examine humor as a particular way of communicating between members of a small Midwestern United States organization. Specifically, we…

  10. Replication-deficient mutant Herpes Simplex Virus-1 targets professional antigen presenting cells and induces efficient CD4+ T helper responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorentini, Simona; Marconi, Peggy; Avolio, Manuela; Marini, Elena; Garrafa, Emirena; Caracciolo, Sonia; Rossi, Daniele; Bozac, Alexandra; Becker, Pablo D; Gentili, Francesca; Facchetti, Fabio; Guzman, Carlos A; Manservigi, Roberto; Caruso, Arnaldo

    2007-07-01

    Both neutralizing antibodies and cytotoxic T-cells are necessary to control a viral infection. However, vigorous T helper responses are essential for their elicitation and maintenance. Here we show that a recombinant replication-deficient Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV)-1 vector encoding the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-1 matrix protein p17 (T0-p17) was capable of infecting professional antigen presenting cells (APCs) in vitro and in vivo. The injection of T0-p17 in the mouse dermis generated a strong p17-specific CD4+ T helper response preceding both p17-specific humoral and effector T cell responses. Moreover, we show that T0-p17 infection did not interfere with the endogenous processing of the transgene encoded antigen, since infected APCs were able to evoke a strong recall response in vitro. Our results demonstrate that replication-deficient HSV vectors can be appealing candidates for the development of vaccines able to trigger T helper responses.

  11. Discordance of epstein-barr virus (ebv) specific humoral and cellular immunity in patients with malignant lymphomas : Elevated antibody titers and lowered invitro lymphocyte-reactivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Napel, C. H. H.; The, T. Hauw; van Egten-Bijker, J; de Gast, G. C.; Halie, M. R.; Langenhuysen, M. M. A. C.

    1978-01-01

    The relationship between specific viral cellular and humoral immunity to the Epstein–Barr Virus (EBV) was investigated in thirty-one untreated patients with malignant lymphoma (ML) and sex- and age-matched controls. In vitro reactivity of peripheral blood lymphocytes to heatinactivated purified EBV,

  12. Danish Humor in Cross-Cultural Professional Settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundquist, Lita Sander

    2014-01-01

    , with no limits or taboos. These characteristics of Danish humor are analyzed here using two different theoretical frameworks: linguistics – where an explanation is found in certain type-specific features of the Danish language, namely the dialogical particles typical of the Nordic languages in general...

  13. Humor style similarity and difference in friendship dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Simon C; Fox, Claire L; Jones, Siân E

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the concurrent and prospective (fall to spring) associations between four different humor styles to assess the degree to which stable friendships are characterized by similarity, and to assess whether best friends' humor styles influence each other's later use of humor. Participants were aged 11-13 years, with 87 stable, reciprocal best friend dyads. Self-report assessments of humor styles were completed on both occasions. Results indicated that there was no initial similarity in dyads' levels of humor. However, dyads' use of humor that enhances interpersonal relationships (Affiliative humor) became positively correlated by spring. Additionally, young people's use of this humor style was positively associated with their best friend's later use of the same. No such effects were present for humor which was aggressive, denigrating toward the self, or used to enhance the self. These results have clear implications for theories of humor style development, highlighting an important role for Affiliative humor within stable friendship dyads. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Humor-A Rehabilitative Tool in the Post-Intensive Care of Young Adults With Acquired Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Kate

    The aim of the study was to describe how paid carers use humor in providing compassionate post-intensive rehabilitation care to young adults with acquired brain injury (ABI) who are unable to perform or direct their own care. This is a qualitative study underpinned by symbolic interactionism. Paid carers in a residential aged care facility were interviewed. Interview data were analyzed using grounded theory methods of coding, comparative analysis, memoing, and theoretical sampling. With young adult's assent, paid carers appropriately used humor, at times even crude humor, as a rehabilitative tool to activate and elicit responses from young people with ABI who could not perform or direct their own care. The use of humor while caring for this population demonstrated that compassion still exists within nursing; however, it may not always be reverent. Humor may be an effective way to provide compassionate care and can be used as a rehabilitative tool to elicit responses from young people with ABI who have no means of verbal communication.

  15. Humorous Names in the Light of Incongruity Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Rutkowski

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article addresses the humorous function of proper names in the light of incongruity theory. It aims at proving that, although names are often defined as pragmatically “transparent,” they may possess some humorous value due to semantic and pragmatic shifts resulting from the disturbance of ordinary patterns of proper names identification and interpretation. After a brief introduction, the author discusses different variants of incongruity theory as resented in the works by Victor Raskin and Thomas C. Veatch as well as their possible application to the study of humorous names. The second part of the paper provides an analysis of the humorous effects of proper names which includes anthroponyms, toponyms, trade names, football team names and names in literature. The first section of this part concentrates on names in which humour is unintentional and seems to be induced by the context, while the second section focuses on names which are intentionally humourous, i.e. supposed to amuse from the moment of their creation. The author argues that the incongruity theory can provide a useful framework for the study of the different mechanisms responsible of the semantic shifts which determine the variation of pragmatic values of proper names.

  16. The role of the amygdala in incongruity resolution: the case of humor comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Tagiru; Matsui, Tomoko; Utsumi, Akira; Yamazaki, Mika; Makita, Kai; Harada, Tokiko; Tanabe, Hiroki C; Sadato, Norihiro

    2017-08-21

    A dominant theory of humor comprehension suggests that people understand humor by first perceiving some incongruity in an expression and then resolving it. This is called "the incongruity-resolution theory." Experimental studies have investigated the neural basis of humor comprehension, and multiple neural substrates have been proposed; however, the specific substrate for incongruity resolution is still unknown. The reason may be that the resolution phase, despite its importance in humor comprehension, has not been successfully distinguished from the perception phase because both phases occur almost simultaneously. To reveal the substrate, we conducted a functional magnetic resonance study using 51 healthy participants. We used a humor-producing frame of "Given A, I'd say B, because C" so as to focus on the resolution phase independently by suspending humor processing just after the perception phase. This frame allowed us to separate the two phases. Based on our results, incongruity resolution evoked positive emotion and activated the left amygdala, which is known to be related to positive emotion. On the basis of these findings, we argue that the amygdala plays an important role in humor comprehension, considering its functional role in emotional evaluation, particularly the relevance detection for incoming stimuli.

  17. Humor in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Cristiano S; Li, Rui; Lawrie, Sarah; Bar-Or, Amit; Clarke, Ann E; Da Costa, Deborah; Banerjee, Devi; Bernatsky, Sasha; Lee, Jennifer L; Pineau, Christian A

    2015-03-01

    Humor has neurophysiological effects influencing the release of cortisol, which may have a direct impact on the immune system. Laughter is associated with a decreased production of inflammatory cytokines both in the general population and in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Our objective was to explore the effects of humor on serum cytokines [particularly interleukin-6 (IL-6)] and cortisol levels in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), after a standard intervention (120 min of visual comedy). We enrolled 58 females with SLE from consecutive patients assessed in the Montreal General Hospital lupus clinic. The subjects who consented to participate were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to the intervention (watching 120 min of comedy) or control group (watching a 120 min documentary). Measurements of cytokine and serum cortisol levels as well as 24-h urine cortisol were taken before, during, and after the interventions. We compared serum cytokine levels and serum and 24-h urine cortisol levels in the humor and control groups and performed regression analyses of these outcomes, adjusting for demographics and the current use of prednisone. There were no significant differences between the control and humor groups in demographics or clinical variables. Baseline serum levels of IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and B-cell activating factor were also similar in both groups. There was no evidence of a humor effect in terms of decreasing cytokine levels, although there was some suggestion of lowered cortisol secretion in the humor group based the 24-h urinary cortisol levels in a subgroup. In contrast to what has been published for RA, we saw no clear effects of humor in altering cytokine levels in SLE, although interesting trends were seen for lower cortisol levels after humor intervention compared with the control group.

  18. Humor in the Classroom: The Effects of Integrated Humor on Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolkan, San; Griffin, Darrin J.; Goodboy, Alan K.

    2018-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the impact of integrated humor on direct measures of students' ability to retain and transfer information from educational lessons. In two experiments, participants were randomly exposed to either a lesson with humorous examples or standard examples and were subsequently asked to take tests on the material. Data…

  19. VIOLENCE DRESSED IN HUMOR: COMEDIC VIOLENCE IN ADVERTISING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia Gradinaru

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the concepts of humor and violence and their complex relationships contextualised in the advertising domain. Thus, the main theories of humor and the most important elements from media violence paradigms are critically pointed out. The effects of comedic violence in advertising may be positive (great involvement with the ad message, retention of brand information, higher pass-along probability, and also negative (offending the audience, desensitization, damaging the reputation and the brand equity. A lot of factors change the perception of comedic violent ads (gender, social norm beliefs etc., so that a multidimensional analysis of consumer perceptions is needed if we want to draw a more accurate picture of this phenomenon. The analysis of the specific ad that I developed in the second part of this paper showed clearly the interplay between perceived humor and perceived violence and also the relevance of the cultural background in its interpretation.

  20. Three-Year Durability of Immune Responses Induced by HIV-DNA and HIV-Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara and Effect of a Late HIV-Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara Boost in Tanzanian Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joachim, Agricola; Munseri, Patricia J; Nilsson, Charlotta; Bakari, Muhammad; Aboud, Said; Lyamuya, Eligius F; Tecleab, Teghesti; Liakina, Valentina; Scarlatti, Gabriella; Robb, Merlin L; Earl, Patricia L; Moss, Bernard; Wahren, Britta; Mhalu, Fred; Ferrari, Guido; Sandstrom, Eric; Biberfeld, Gunnel

    2017-08-01

    We explored the duration of immune responses and the effect of a late third HIV-modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) boost in HIV-DNA primed and HIV-MVA boosted Tanzanian volunteers. Twenty volunteers who had previously received three HIV-DNA and two HIV-MVA immunizations were given a third HIV-MVA immunization 3 years after the second HIV-MVA boost. At the time of the third HIV-MVA, 90% of the vaccinees had antibodies to HIV-1 subtype C gp140 (median titer 200) and 85% to subtype B gp160 (median titer 100). The majority of vaccinees had detectable antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC)-mediating antibodies, 70% against CRF01_AE virus-infected cells (median titer 239) and 84% against CRF01_AE gp120-coated cells (median titer 499). A high proportion (74%) of vaccinees had IFN-γ ELISpot responses, 63% to Gag and 42% to Env, 3 years after the second HIV-MVA boost. After the third HIV-MVA, there was an increase in Env-binding antibodies and ADCC-mediating antibodies relative to the response seen at the time of the third HIV-MVA vaccination, p < .0001 and p < .05, respectively. The frequency of IFN-γ ELISpot responses increased to 95% against Gag or Env and 90% to both Gag and Env, p = .064 and p = .002, respectively. In conclusion, the HIV-DNA prime/HIV-MVA boost regimen elicited potent antibody and cellular immune responses with remarkable durability, and a third HIV-MVA immunization significantly boosted both antibody and cellular immune responses relative to the levels detected at the time of the third HIV-MVA, but not to higher levels than after the second HIV-MVA.

  1. The First Joke: Exploring the Evolutionary Origins of Humor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Polimeni

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Humor is a complex cognitive function which often leads to laughter. Contemporary humor theorists have begun to formulate hypotheses outlining the possible innate cognitive structures underlying humor. Humor's conspicuous presence in the behavioral repertoire of humankind invites adaptive explanations. This article explores the possible adaptive features of humor and ponders its evolutionary path through hominid history. Current humor theories and previous evolutionary ideas on humor are reviewed. In addition, scientific fields germane to the evolutionary study of humor are examined: animal models, genetics, children's humor, humor in pathological conditions, neurobiology, humor in traditional societies and cognitive archeology. Candidate selection pressures and associated evolutionary mechanisms are considered. The authors conclude that several evolutionary-related topics such as the origins of language, cognition underlying spiritual feelings, hominid group size, and primate teasing could have special relevance to the origins of humor.

  2. [Specific humoral immunity after single immunization with mumps vaccine: data of a 3-year follow-up].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otrashevskaia, A V; Bukin, E K; Krasil'nikov, I V; Ignat'ev, G M

    2011-01-01

    The level and spectrum of humoral specific immunity were studied in 60 volunteers immunized with Russian mumps vaccine. Specific IgG levels were measured by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and neutralization test using the Leningrad-3 (L-3) mumps virus (MV) vaccine strain and 5 heterologous MV strains of various genotypes (A, B, C, D, and H). The maximum functional activity of antibodies was recorded at an average of 18 months postvaccination. Within 3 years after vaccination, starting at 6 months, specific IgG neutralized all 6 MV strains having varying activity in relation to the genotype. Neutralizing titers (NT) against the L-3 strain were 1.3-1.7-fold higher than those against heterologous MV strains throughout the follow-up. Despite a tendency towards lower specific IgG levels, within 3 years postvaccination, EIA IgG titers remained to be 2.5 -log, L-3 strain HT were -log, or more, and the titers against 5 heterologous MV strains were 2 -log2 or more in all the volunteers.

  3. Specific and Non-Specific Factors of Humoral Immunity as Markers for Pregnancy Loss in Women with Cytomegalovirus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina A. Andrievskaya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate the changes in humoral immunity and their association with complications of pregnancy (spontaneous abortions, threatened miscarriage, premature birth depending on the gestational age and recurrence of cytomegalovirus infection (CMVI. A direct relationship between the frequency of detection of an anti-CMV IgG antibody titer of 1:1600 and the prevalence of acute respiratory disease during pregnancy has been identified. We found an imbalance in the production of the non-specific antibodies (an increase in the blood levels of total IgM and a decrease in IgA and IgG levels in the subgroup of women with relapsed CMVI at 6 to 8 weeks of gestation and spontaneous abortion, as well as in the subgroup of women with relapsed CMVI at 15 to 21 weeks of gestation and the risk of the late miscarriage, compared to those with relapsed CMVI at 9 to 14 weeks and 22 to 32 weeks of gestation. An increase in blood levels of total IgM and IgG and a decrease in IgA level was identified in the subgroup of women with relapsed CMVI at 9 to14 weeks of gestation and a threatened abortion, as well as in the subgroup of women with relapsed CMVI at 22 to 32 weeks of gestation and preterm birth. The obtained data of the imbalance in the primary and secondary immune response in CMV- seropositive pregnant women during relapsed CMVI indicate disturbances in the systemic and local intercellular interactions of immunocompetent cells, which lead to an imbalance in the production of antibodies involved in the elimination of viral agents and to the development of a systemic inflammatory response that complicates the course of pregnancy. CMVI relapse at 7 to 8 weeks of gestation is associated with reproductive losses; a risk for threatened miscarriage, threatened premature labor, and retrochorial hematoma increases significantly with CMVI relapse in the more remote gestational age.

  4. Characterization of humoral responses to soluble trimeric HIV gp140 from a clade A Ugandan field isolate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visciano, Maria Luisa; Tagliamonte, Maria; Stewart-Jones, Guillaume

    2013-01-01

    Trimeric soluble forms of HIV gp140 envelope glycoproteins represent one of the closest molecular structures compared to native spikes present on intact virus particles. Trimeric soluble gp140 have been generated by several groups and such molecules have been shown to induce antibodies with neutr...

  5. Innovative financing for HIV response in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atun, Rifat; Silva, Sachin; Ncube, Mthuli; Vassall, Anna

    2016-06-01

    In 2015 around 15 million people living with HIV were receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa. Sustained provision of ART, though both prudent and necessary, creates substantial long-term fiscal obligations for countries affected by HIV/AIDS. As donor assistance for health remains constrained, novel financing mechanisms are needed to augment funding domestic sources. We explore how Innovative Financing has been used to co-finance domestic HIV/AIDS responses. Based on analysis of non-health sectors, we identify innovative financing instruments that could be used in the HIV response. We undertook a systematic review to identify innovative financing instruments used for (1) domestic HIV/AIDS financing in sub-Saharan Africa (2) international health financing and (3) financing in non-health sectors. We analyzed peer-reviewed and grey literature published between 2002 and 2014. We examined the nature and volume of funds mobilized with innovative financing, then in consultation with leading experts, identified instruments that held potential for financing the HIV response. Our analysis revealed three innovative financing instruments in use: Zimbabwe's AIDS Trust Fund (a tax/levy-based instrument), Botswana's National HIV/AIDS Prevention Support (BNAPS) International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) Buy-Down (a debt conversion instrument), and Côte d'Ivoire's Debt2Health Debt Swap Agreement (a debt conversion instrument). Zimbabwe's AIDS Trust Fund generated US$ 52.7 million between 2008 and 2011, Botswana's IBRD Buy-Down generated US$ 20 million, and Côte d'Ivoire's Debt2Health Debt Swap Agreement generated US$ 27 million, at least half of which was to be invested in HIV/AIDS programs. Four additional categories of innovative financing instruments met our criteria for future use: (1) remittances and diaspora bonds (2) social and development impact bonds (3) sovereign wealth funds (4) risk and credit guarantees. A limited number of

  6. [The Use of Humor in Psychotherapy: a View].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaloult, Guillaume; Blondeau, Claude

    The goal of this article is to expose different aspects of the use of humor in therapy. We hope that it will stimulate reflection and guide the clinician toward appropriate use of humorous interventions. Historical highlights of the topic will be presented. Then a practical definition of therapeutic humor and the main theories about humor will be reviewed. We will also discuss the probable mechanisms of action explaining the efficacy of humor in psychotherapy, as well as potential risks and benefits of its use. We will try to determine different factors influencing the patient's receptivity to humor. Subsequently, a classification of humor will be proposed, followed by a description of selected types of humor often used in therapy, with clinical cases as examples.

  7. Preface to Computational Humor 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Unknown, [Unknown; Nijholt, Antinus; Nijholt, A.

    2012-01-01

    Like its predecessors in 1996 (University of Twente, the Netherlands) and 2002 (ITC-irst, Trento, Italy), this Third International Workshop on Computational Humor (IWCH 2012) focusses on the possibility to find algorithms that allow understanding and generation of humor. There is the general aim of modeling humor, and if we can do that, it will provide us with lots of information about our cognitive abilities in general, such as reasoning, remembering, understanding situations, and understand...

  8. Humor in Autism and Asperger Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Viktoria; Fitzgerald, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Research has shown that individuals with autism and Asperger syndrome are impaired in humor appreciation, although anecdotal and parental reports provide some evidence to the contrary. This paper reviews the cognitive and affective processes involved in humor and recent neurological findings. It examines humor expression and understanding in…

  9. Broad antibody mediated cross-neutralization and preclinical immunogenicity of new codon-optimized HIV-1 clade CRF02_AG and G primary isolates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon M Agwale

    Full Text Available Creation of an effective vaccine for HIV has been an elusive goal of the scientific community for almost 30 years. Neutralizing antibodies are assumed to be pivotal to the success of a prophylactic vaccine but previous attempts to make an immunogen capable of generating neutralizing antibodies to primary "street strain" isolates have resulted in responses of very limited breadth and potency. The objective of the study was to determine the breadth and strength of neutralizing antibodies against autologous and heterologous primary isolates in a cohort of HIV-1 infected Nigerians and to characterize envelopes from subjects with particularly broad or strong immune responses for possible use as vaccine candidates in regions predominated by HIV-1 CRF02_AG and G subtypes. Envelope vectors from a panel of primary Nigerian isolates were constructed and tested with plasma/sera from the same cohort using the PhenoSense HIV neutralizing antibody assay (Monogram Biosciences Inc, USA to assess the breadth and potency of neutralizing antibodies. The immediate goal of this study was realized by the recognition of three broadly cross-neutralizing sera: (NG2-clade CRF02_AG, NG3-clade CRF02_AG and NG9- clade G. Based on these findings, envelope gp140 sequences from NG2 and NG9, complemented with a gag sequence (Clade G and consensus tat (CRF02_AG and G antigens have been codon-optimized, synthesized, cloned and evaluated in BALB/c mice. The intramuscular administration of these plasmid DNA constructs, followed by two booster DNA immunizations, induced substantial specific humoral response against all constructs and strong cellular responses against the gag and tat constructs. These preclinical findings provide a framework for the design of candidate vaccine for use in regions where the HIV-1 epidemic is driven by clades CRF02_AG and G.

  10. Broad antibody mediated cross-neutralization and preclinical immunogenicity of new codon-optimized HIV-1 clade CRF02_AG and G primary isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agwale, Simon M; Forbi, Joseph C; Notka, Frank; Wrin, Terri; Wild, Jens; Wagner, Ralf; Wolf, Hans

    2011-01-01

    Creation of an effective vaccine for HIV has been an elusive goal of the scientific community for almost 30 years. Neutralizing antibodies are assumed to be pivotal to the success of a prophylactic vaccine but previous attempts to make an immunogen capable of generating neutralizing antibodies to primary "street strain" isolates have resulted in responses of very limited breadth and potency. The objective of the study was to determine the breadth and strength of neutralizing antibodies against autologous and heterologous primary isolates in a cohort of HIV-1 infected Nigerians and to characterize envelopes from subjects with particularly broad or strong immune responses for possible use as vaccine candidates in regions predominated by HIV-1 CRF02_AG and G subtypes. Envelope vectors from a panel of primary Nigerian isolates were constructed and tested with plasma/sera from the same cohort using the PhenoSense HIV neutralizing antibody assay (Monogram Biosciences Inc, USA) to assess the breadth and potency of neutralizing antibodies. The immediate goal of this study was realized by the recognition of three broadly cross-neutralizing sera: (NG2-clade CRF02_AG, NG3-clade CRF02_AG and NG9- clade G). Based on these findings, envelope gp140 sequences from NG2 and NG9, complemented with a gag sequence (Clade G) and consensus tat (CRF02_AG and G) antigens have been codon-optimized, synthesized, cloned and evaluated in BALB/c mice. The intramuscular administration of these plasmid DNA constructs, followed by two booster DNA immunizations, induced substantial specific humoral response against all constructs and strong cellular responses against the gag and tat constructs. These preclinical findings provide a framework for the design of candidate vaccine for use in regions where the HIV-1 epidemic is driven by clades CRF02_AG and G.

  11. A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Hippocampus: The Effects of Humor on Student Achievement and Memory Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartney Matthews, Melissa Lee

    2011-01-01

    Research literature relating to the use of humor as a teaching method or curricula specifically designed to include humor was reviewed to investigate the effects of humor on student learning in various environments from elementary schools to post-secondary classrooms. In this multi-method study, four instruments and a humor treatment were selected…

  12. From HIV infection to therapeutic response: a population-based longitudinal HIV cascade-of-care study in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, Noah; Tanser, Frank; Bor, Jacob; Naidu, Kevindra; Mutevedzi, Tinofa; Herbst, Kobus; Porter, Kholoud; Pillay, Deenan; Bärnighausen, Till

    2017-05-01

    Standard approaches to estimation of losses in the HIV cascade of care are typically cross-sectional and do not include the population stages before linkage to clinical care. We used indiviual-level longitudinal cascade data, transition by transition, including population stages, both to identify the health-system losses in the cascade and to show the differences in inference between standard methods and the longitudinal approach. We used non-parametric survival analysis to estimate a longitudinal HIV care cascade for a large population of people with HIV residing in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. We linked data from a longitudinal population health surveillance (which is maintained by the Africa Health Research Institute) with patient records from the local public-sector HIV treatment programme (contained in an electronic clinical HIV treatment and care database, ARTemis). We followed up all people who had been newly detected as having HIV between Jan 1, 2006, and Dec 31, 2011, across six cascade stages: three population stages (first positive HIV test, HIV status knowledge, and linkage to care) and three clinical stages (eligibility for antiretroviral therapy [ART], initiation of ART, and therapeutic response). We compared our estimates to cross-sectional cascades in the same population. We estimated the cumulative incidence of reaching a particular cascade stage at a specific time with Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Our population consisted of 5205 individuals with HIV who were followed up for 24 031 person-years. We recorded 598 deaths. 4539 individuals gained knowledge of their positive HIV status, 2818 were linked to care, 2151 became eligible for ART, 1839 began ART, and 1456 had successful responses to therapy. We used Kaplan-Meier survival analysis to adjust for censorship due to the end of data collection, and found that 8 years after testing positive in the population health surveillance, 16% had died. Among living patients, 82% knew their HIV

  13. HIV-1 transgenic rat CD4+ T cells develop decreased CD28 responsiveness and suboptimal Lck tyrosine dephosphorylation following activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, Anjana; Pati, Shibani; Nyugen, Anhthu; Barabitskaja, Oxana; Mondal, Prosanta; Anderson, Michael; Gallo, Robert C.; Huso, David L.; Reid, William

    2006-01-01

    Impaired CD4+ T cell responses, resulting in dysregulated T-helper 1 (Th1) effector and memory responses, are a common result of HIV-1 infection. These defects are often preceded by decreased expression and function of the α/β T cell receptor (TCR)-CD3 complex and of co-stimulatory molecules including CD28, resulting in altered T cell proliferation, cytokine secretion and cell survival. We have previously shown that HIV Tg rats have defective development of T cell effector function and generation of specific effector/memory T cell subsets. Here we identify abnormalities in activated HIV-1 Tg rat CD4+ T cells that include decreased pY505 dephosphorylation of Lck (required for Lck activation), decreased CD28 function, reduced expression of the anti-apoptotic molecule Bcl-xL, decreased secretion of the mitogenic lympokine interleukin-2 (IL-2) and increased activation induced apoptosis. These events likely lead to defects in antigen-specific signaling and may help explain the disruption of Th1 responses and the generation of specific effector/memory subsets in transgenic CD4+ T cells

  14. Comparative Glycoprofiling of HIV gp120 Immunogens by Capillary Electrophoresis and MALDI Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttman, Miklós; Váradi, Csaba; Lee, Kelly K.; Guttman, András

    2015-01-01

    The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) envelope glycoprotein (Env) is the primary antigenic feature on the surface of the virus and is of key importance in HIV vaccinology. Vaccine trials with the gp120 subunit of Env are ongoing with the recent RV144 trial showing moderate efficacy. gp120 is densely covered with N-linked glycans that are thought to help evade the host's humoral immune response. To assess how the global glycosylation patterns vary between gp120 constructs, the glycan profiles of several gp120s were examined by capillary electrophoresis with laser induced fluorescence detection and MALDI-MS. The glycosylation profiles were found to be similar for chronic vs. transmitter/founder isolates and only varied moderately between gp120s from different clades. This study revealed that the addition of specific tags, such as the gD tag used in the RV144 trial, had significant effects on the overall glycosylation patterns. Such effects are likely to influence the immunogenicity of various Env immunogens and should be considered for future vaccine strategies, emphasizing the importance of the glycosylation analysis approach described in this paper. PMID:25809283

  15. [Positive aspects of old ages - humor of seniors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mareš, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    This survey study has five parts. In the first part two conceptual approaches to humor are characterized. One considers "the comic" to be an umbrella concept, and humor is only one of its rather positive forms. The other comes out from the umbrella concept "humor", and distinguishes between various forms of humor including the negative ones. Three main theories of humor are presented: theory of superiority, theory of incongruity, and a relief theory. The second part introduces humor in the elderly and draws the attention to the fact that we know relatively little about humor in old age because most research has been carried out in children, adolescents or adults in productive age. The third part of the study describes the process of diagnostics of humor in the elderly. For example, within the qualitative methods, in-depth interviews with seniors or analyses of their diary entries are used. Within quantitative methods, questionnaires are used, and this study presents the survey of seven most frequent ones applied in the studies of humor in the elderly. In the context of mixed methods, understanding of humor in young and seniors, or understanding of humor in relatively healthy seniors and seniors after stroke are compared. The fourth part of the study presents the Gelkopfs model on relationship between humor, treatment and cure of patients. The fifth part of the study demonstrates the options how to use humor to improve the mental state of the elderly (by means of individual or group interventions).

  16. Impact of aging and HIV infection on serologic response to seasonal influenza vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallikkuth, Suresh; De Armas, Lesley R; Pahwa, Rajendra; Rinaldi, Stefano; George, Varghese K; Sanchez, Celeste M; Pan, Li; Dickinson, Gordon; Rodriguez, Allan; Fischl, Margaret; Alcaide, Maria; Pahwa, Savita

    2018-02-08

    To determine influence of age and HIV infection on influenza vaccine responses. Evaluate serologic response to seasonal trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) as the immunologic outcome in HIV-infected (HIV) and age-matched HIV negative (HIV) adults. During 2013-2016, 151 virologically controlled HIV individuals on antiretroviral therapy and 164 HIV volunteers grouped by age as young (<40 years), middle aged (40-59 years) and old (≥60 years) were administered TIV and investigated for serum antibody response to vaccine antigens. At prevaccination (T0) titers were in seroprotective range in more than 90% of participants. Antibody titers increased in all participants postvaccination but frequency of classified vaccine responders to individual or all three vaccine antigens at 3-4 weeks was higher in HIV than HIV adults with the greatest differences manifesting in the young age group. Of the three vaccine strains in TIV, antibody responses at T2 were weakest against H3N2 with those to H1N1 and B antigens dominating. Among the age groups, the titers for H1N1 and B were lowest in old age, with evidence of an age-associated interaction in HIV persons with antibody to B antigen. Greater frequencies of vaccine nonresponders are seen in HIV young compared with HIV adults and the observed age-associated interaction for B antigen in HIV persons are supportive of the concept of premature immune senescence in controlled HIV infection. High-potency influenza vaccination recommended for healthy aging could be considered for HIV adults of all ages.

  17. The Roles of Politeness and Humor in the Asymmetry of Affect in Verbal Irony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Jacqueline K.; Hancock, Jeffrey T.; Dunham, Phillip J.

    2006-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted to assess the roles of politeness and humor in the asymmetry of affect observed in verbal irony production. In Experiments 1 and 2, participants rated different replies (ironic, literal, or "no response") made to hypothetical scenarios for their politeness and humor, respectively. Participants in Experiment 3 were…

  18. Children's Understanding of Self-Focused Humor Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Lucy Amelia; Fox, Claire Louise

    2016-08-01

    It has been proposed that four main styles of humor exist, two which are thought to be adaptive (affiliative, self-enhancing) and two which are thought to be maladaptive (aggressive, self-defeating). Whilst the existence of these four humor styles has been supported in older children, it is suggested that for younger children, self-enhancing and self-defeating humor may develop at a later point. To investigate this further, the current research involved five semi-structured paired interviews with children aged eight to eleven years to explore the use and understanding of self-enhancing and self-defeating humor in this age group. Findings indicated that use of both self-enhancing and self-defeating humor were apparent in some children, but not all. It therefore seems appropriate that attempts to investigate humor in this age group should aim to include all four styles of humor. The current research also demonstrated the value of paired interviews when carrying out this sort of research with children.

  19. Cationic liposomes formulated with synthetic mycobacterial cordfactor (CAF01: a versatile adjuvant for vaccines with different immunological requirements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Else Marie Agger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is now emerging that for vaccines against a range of diseases including influenza, malaria and HIV, the induction of a humoral response is insufficient and a substantial complementary cell-mediated immune response is necessary for adequate protection. Furthermore, for some diseases such as tuberculosis, a cellular response seems to be the sole effector mechanism required for protection. The development of new adjuvants capable of inducing highly complex immune responses with strong antigen-specific T-cell responses in addition to antibodies is therefore urgently needed. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Herein, we describe a cationic adjuvant formulation (CAF01 consisting of DDA as a delivery vehicle and synthetic mycobacterial cordfactor as immunomodulator. CAF01 primes strong and complex immune responses and using ovalbumin as a model vaccine antigen in mice, antigen specific cell-mediated- and humoral responses were obtained at a level clearly above a range of currently used adjuvants (Aluminium, monophosphoryl lipid A, CFA/IFA, Montanide. This response occurs through Toll-like receptor 2, 3, 4 and 7-independent pathways whereas the response is partly reduced in MyD88-deficient mice. In three animal models of diseases with markedly different immunological requirement; Mycobacterium tuberculosis (cell-mediated, Chlamydia trachomatis (cell-mediated/humoral and malaria (humoral immunization with CAF01-based vaccines elicited significant protective immunity against challenge. CONCLUSION: CAF01 is potentially a suitable adjuvant for a wide range of diseases including targets requiring both CMI and humoral immune responses for protection.

  20. Differential Antibody Responses to Conserved HIV-1 Neutralizing Epitopes in the Context of Multivalent Scaffolds and Native-Like gp140 Trimers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles D. Morris

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs have provided valuable insights into the humoral immune response to HIV-1. While rationally designed epitope scaffolds and well-folded gp140 trimers have been proposed as vaccine antigens, a comparative understanding of their antibody responses has not yet been established. In this study, we probed antibody responses to the N332 supersite and the membrane-proximal external region (MPER in the context of heterologous protein scaffolds and native-like gp140 trimers. Ferritin nanoparticles and fragment crystallizable (Fc regions were utilized as multivalent carriers to display scaffold antigens with grafted N332 and MPER epitopes, respectively. Trimeric scaffolds were also identified to stabilize the MPER-containing BG505 gp140.681 trimer in a native-like conformation. Following structural and antigenic evaluation, a subset of scaffold and trimer antigens was selected for immunization in BALB/c mice. Serum binding revealed distinct patterns of antibody responses to these two bNAb targets presented in different structural contexts. For example, the N332 nanoparticles elicited glycan epitope-specific antibody responses that could also recognize the native trimer, while a scaffolded BG505 gp140.681 trimer generated a stronger and more rapid antibody response to the trimer apex than its parent gp140.664 trimer. Furthermore, next-generation sequencing (NGS of mouse splenic B cells revealed expansion of antibody lineages with long heavy-chain complementarity-determining region 3 (HCDR3 loops upon activation by MPER scaffolds, in contrast to the steady repertoires primed by N332 nanoparticles and a soluble gp140.664 trimer. These findings will facilitate the future development of a coherent vaccination strategy that combines both epitope-focused and trimer-based approaches.

  1. Broad CTL response is required to clear latent HIV-1 due to dominance of escape mutations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Kai; Pertea, Mihaela; Rongvaux, Anthony; Wang, Leyao; Durand, Christine M.; Ghiaur, Gabriel; Lai, Jun; McHugh, Holly L.; Hao, Haiping; Zhang, Hao; Margolick, Joseph B.; Gurer, Cagan; Murphy, Andrew J.; Valenzuela, David M.; Yancopoulos, George D.; Deeks, Steven G.; Strowig, Till; Kumar, Priti; Siliciano, Janet D.; Salzberg, Steven L.; Flavell, Richard A.; Shan, Liang; Siliciano, Robert F.

    2015-01-01

    Despite antiretroviral therapy (ART), HIV-1 persists in a stable latent reservoir1, 2, primarily in resting memory CD4+ T cells3, 4. This reservoir presents a major barrier to the cure of HIV-1 infection. To purge the reservoir, pharmacological reactivation of latent HIV-1 has been proposed5 and tested both in vitro and in vivo6–8. A key remaining question is whether virus-specific immune mechanisms including cytolytic T lymphocytes (CTL) can clear infected cells in ART-treated patients after latency is reversed. Here we show that there is a striking all or none pattern for CTL escape mutations in HIV-1 Gag epitopes. Unless ART is started early, the vast majority (>98%) of latent viruses carry CTL escape mutations that render infected cells insensitive to CTLs directed at common epitopes. To solve this problem, we identified CTLs that could recognize epitopes from latent HIV-1 that were unmutated in every chronically infected patient tested. Upon stimulation, these CTLs eliminated target cells infected with autologous virus derived from the latent reservoir, both in vitro and in patient-derived humanized mice. The predominance of CTL-resistant viruses in the latent reservoir poses a major challenge to viral eradication. Our results demonstrate that chronically infected patients retain a broad spectrum viral-specific CTL response and that appropriate boosting of this response may be required for the elimination of the latent reservoir. PMID:25561180

  2. Personality modulates amygdala and insula connectivity during humor appreciation: An event-related fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Philipp; Bitsch, Florian; Nagels, Arne; Straube, Benjamin; Falkenberg, Irina

    2017-11-12

    Previous research and theory implicate that personality traits, such as extraversion and neuroticism, influence the processing of humor, as indicated by alterations in the activation of fronto-temporal and mesocorticolimbic brain regions during humor processing. In the current study, we sought to complement these findings by testing whether inter-individual differences in functional connectivity of humor-related brain regions are modulated by stable personality characteristics during humor processing. Using fMRI techniques, we studied 19 healthy subjects during the processing of standardized humorous and neutral cartoons. In order to isolate the specific effects of humor appreciation, subjective funniness ratings, collected during the scanning procedure, were implemented in the analysis as parametric modulation. Two distinct clusters in the right amygdala and the left insula were identified. Seed-to-voxel connectivity analysis investigating the effects of personality on inter-individual differences in functional connectivity revealed that amygdala and insula connectivity with brain areas previously related to humor comprehension (e.g. middle temporal gyrus) and appreciation (e.g. caudate nucleus) were significantly modulated by personality dimensions. These results underscore the sensitivity of humor processing to moderating influences, such as personality, and call attention to the importance of brain connectivity measures for the investigation of inter-individual differences in the processing of humor.

  3. Humor, Philosophy and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morreall, John

    2014-01-01

    This article begins by examining the bad reputation humor traditionally had in philosophy and education. Two of the main charges against humor--that it is hostile and irresponsible--are linked to the Superiority Theory. That theory is critiqued and two other theories of laughter are presented--the Relief Theory and the Incongruity Theory. In the…

  4. Determining a cost effective intervention response to HIV/AIDS in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldridge, Robert W; Iglesias, David; Cáceres, Carlos F; Miranda, J Jaime

    2009-01-01

    Background The HIV epidemic in Peru is still regarded as concentrated - sentinel surveillance data shows greatest rates of infection in men who have sex with men, while much lower rates are found in female sex workers and still lower in the general population. Without an appropriate set of preventive interventions, continuing infections could present a challenge to the sustainability of the present programme of universal access to treatment. Determining how specific prevention and care strategies would impact on the health of Peruvians should be key in reshaping the national response. Methods HIV/AIDS prevalence levels for risk groups with sufficient sentinel survey data were estimated. Unit costs were calculated for a series of interventions against HIV/AIDS which were subsequently inputted into a model to assess their ability to reduce infection transmission rates. Interventions included: mass media, voluntary counselling and testing; peer counselling for female sex workers; peer counselling for men who have sex with men; peer education of youth in-school; condom provision; STI treatment; prevention of mother to child transmission; and highly active antiretroviral therapy. Impact was assessed by the ability to reduce rates of transmission and quantified in terms of cost per DALY averted. Results Results of the analysis show that in Peru, the highest levels of HIV prevalence are found in men who have sex with men. Cost effectiveness varied greatly between interventions ranging from peer education of female commercial sex workers at $US 55 up to $US 5,928 (per DALY averted) for prevention of mother to child transmission. Conclusion The results of this work add evidence-based clarity as to which interventions warrant greatest consideration when planning an intervention response to HIV in Peru. Cost effectiveness analysis provides a necessary element of transparency when facing choices about priority setting, particularly when the country plans to amplify its

  5. Determining a cost effective intervention response to HIV/AIDS in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cáceres Carlos F

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The HIV epidemic in Peru is still regarded as concentrated - sentinel surveillance data shows greatest rates of infection in men who have sex with men, while much lower rates are found in female sex workers and still lower in the general population. Without an appropriate set of preventive interventions, continuing infections could present a challenge to the sustainability of the present programme of universal access to treatment. Determining how specific prevention and care strategies would impact on the health of Peruvians should be key in reshaping the national response. Methods HIV/AIDS prevalence levels for risk groups with sufficient sentinel survey data were estimated. Unit costs were calculated for a series of interventions against HIV/AIDS which were subsequently inputted into a model to assess their ability to reduce infection transmission rates. Interventions included: mass media, voluntary counselling and testing; peer counselling for female sex workers; peer counselling for men who have sex with men; peer education of youth in-school; condom provision; STI treatment; prevention of mother to child transmission; and highly active antiretroviral therapy. Impact was assessed by the ability to reduce rates of transmission and quantified in terms of cost per DALY averted. Results Results of the analysis show that in Peru, the highest levels of HIV prevalence are found in men who have sex with men. Cost effectiveness varied greatly between interventions ranging from peer education of female commercial sex workers at $US 55 up to $US 5,928 (per DALY averted for prevention of mother to child transmission. Conclusion The results of this work add evidence-based clarity as to which interventions warrant greatest consideration when planning an intervention response to HIV in Peru. Cost effectiveness analysis provides a necessary element of transparency when facing choices about priority setting, particularly when the country

  6. Effectiveness of humor training among adolescents with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ching-Lin; Liu, Ya-Ru; Kuo, Ching-Chih; Chen, Hsueh-Chih; Chang, Yu-Lin

    2016-12-30

    Humor training has been applied to educational and clinical cases and has been found to be effective, but humor training for individuals with autism is relatively rare. The present study proposed a humor-knowledge and humor-skill training workshop to enhance the humor comprehension and appreciation of individuals with autism and examined the effects of the training. Participants were 20 adolescents with autism and average intelligence (above 70 in WAIS-III). They were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. Both questionnaire of joke comprehension and appreciation and a humor style questionnaire were used as instruments. The results supported the effectiveness of the 15-h training. The comprehension and appreciation of nonsense humor were significantly increased in the experimental group in comparison with the control group, although the incongruity-resolution jokes remained difficult to comprehend. The tendency to use affiliative humor was greater among individuals with autism in the experimental group, suggesting that the appreciation of humor can be learned. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Cell-mediated and humoral immune responses induced by scarification vaccination of human volunteers with a new lot of the live vaccine strain of Francisella tularensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waag, D M; Galloway, A; Sandstrom, G; Bolt, C R; England, M J; Nelson, G O; Williams, J C

    1992-01-01

    Tularemia is a disease caused by the facultative intracellular bacterium Francisella tularensis. We evaluated a new lot of live F. tularensis vaccine for its immunogenicity in human volunteers. Scarification vaccination induced humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. Indications of a positive immune response after vaccination included an increase in specific antibody levels, which were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent and immunoblot assays, and the ability of peripheral blood lymphocytes to respond to whole F. tularensis bacteria as recall antigens. Vaccination caused a significant rise (P less than 0.05) in immunoglobulin A (IgA), IgG, and IgM titers. Lymphocyte stimulation indices were significantly increased (P less than 0.01) in vaccinees 14 days after vaccination. These data verify that this new lot of live F. tularensis vaccine is immunogenic. Images PMID:1400988

  8. Towards Humor Modelling and Facilitation in Smart Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus; Gu Ji, Y.; Choi, S.

    We know about word play, verbal jokes, and about humor that appears spontaneously in conversations. This humor is studied in computational linguistics, together with issues such as verbal incongruities, ambiguities, irony and sarcasm. These appearances of humor are also part of computational humor

  9. Humor, laughter, and the cerebellum: insights from patients with acute cerebellar stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, B; Andrzejewski, K; Göricke, S; Wondzinski, E; Siebler, M; Wild, B; Timmann, D

    2013-12-01

    Extent of cerebellar involvement in cognition and emotion is still a topic of ongoing research. In particular, the cerebellar role in humor processing and control of laughter is not well known. A hypermetric dysregulation of affective behavior has been assumed in cerebellar damage. Thus, we aimed at investigating humor comprehension and appreciation as well as the expression of laughter in 21 patients in the acute or subacute state after stroke restricted to the cerebellum, and in the same number of matched healthy control subjects. Patients with acute and subacute cerebellar damage showed preserved comprehension and appreciation of humor using a validated humor test evaluating comprehension, funniness and aversiveness of cartoons ("3WD Humor Test"). Additionally, there was no difference when compared to healthy controls in the number and intensity of facial reactions and laughter while observing jokes, humorous cartoons, or video sketches measured by the Facial Action Coding System. However, as depression scores were significantly increased in patients with cerebellar stroke, a concealing effect of accompanying depression cannot be excluded. Current findings add to descriptions in the literature that cognitive or affective disorders in patients with lesions restricted to the cerebellum, even in the acute state after damage, are frequently mild and might only be present in more sensitive or specific tests.

  10. IMMUNOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTIC OF SYNTHETIC PEPTIDES SIMILAR TO ACTUAL HIV ANTIGEN DETERMINANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Korobova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of HIV vaccine remains an important goal in prophylaxis and therapy of HIV/ AIDS epidemics. There are various approaches for development of а candidate vaccine based on induction of neutralizing antibodies and cell-mediated immunity. Synthetic peptides are considered promising vaccine antigens since they are capable of activating both humoral and cellular immune response. HIV-1 envelope gp120 is the target for neutralizing antiviral antibodies. The V3 region of the HIV-1 gp120 is highly immunogenic and important for the virus-coreceptor interaction. In a RV144 vaccine trial, the levels of vaccine-induced IgG antibodies recognizing V1V2 regions from multiple HIV-1 subtypes show inverse correlations with a risk for HIV-1 infection. Meanwhile, HIV is characterized by high diversity. The consensus and mosaic immunogens are complete but artificial proteins, which are computationally designed to elicit immune responses with improved cross-reactive broadness. We have been studied immunogenic properties of synthetic peptides derived from V1, V2, V3 loop regions of the consensus M HIV1 (CON-S sequence group of the gp 120 envelope protein and V3 loop derived from a Russian RUA022a2 isolate. These peptides specifically reacted to HIV-positive sera in ELISA, thus indicating their similarity to appropriate HIV proteins. The peptides proved to be weakly immunogenic. Therefore, Freund complete adjuvant was used to enhance peptide immunogenicity. To assess the immunogenicity, the mice were immunized with a peptide mixture. Antibodies have been developed to every peptide from the mixture, being, predominantly, of IgG isotype. The antibody titers depended on the length of peptide sequences. However, the sera from immunized mice did not have a HIV neutralizing activity. The serum neutralization was assessed by pseudovirus-based assay, using a molecular clone of virus isolates CAP 45.2.00.G3 and QH.209.14.M.EnvA2. The virus neutralization is a

  11. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Epitope-Specific CD4+ T Cells Are Inflated in HIV+ CMV+ Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abana, Chike O; Pilkinton, Mark A; Gaudieri, Silvana; Chopra, Abha; McDonnell, Wyatt J; Wanjalla, Celestine; Barnett, Louise; Gangula, Rama; Hager, Cindy; Jung, Dae K; Engelhardt, Brian G; Jagasia, Madan H; Klenerman, Paul; Phillips, Elizabeth J; Koelle, David M; Kalams, Spyros A; Mallal, Simon A

    2017-11-01

    Select CMV epitopes drive life-long CD8 + T cell memory inflation, but the extent of CD4 memory inflation is poorly studied. CD4 + T cells specific for human CMV (HCMV) are elevated in HIV + HCMV + subjects. To determine whether HCMV epitope-specific CD4 + T cell memory inflation occurs during HIV infection, we used HLA-DR7 (DRB1*07:01) tetramers loaded with the glycoprotein B DYSNTHSTRYV (DYS) epitope to characterize circulating CD4 + T cells in coinfected HLA-DR7 + long-term nonprogressor HIV subjects with undetectable HCMV plasma viremia. DYS-specific CD4 + T cells were inflated among these HIV + subjects compared with those from an HIV - HCMV + HLA-DR7 + cohort or with HLA-DR7-restricted CD4 + T cells from the HIV-coinfected cohort that were specific for epitopes of HCMV phosphoprotein-65, tetanus toxoid precursor, EBV nuclear Ag 2, or HIV gag protein. Inflated DYS-specific CD4 + T cells consisted of effector memory or effector memory-RA + subsets with restricted TCRβ usage and nearly monoclonal CDR3 containing novel conserved amino acids. Expression of this near-monoclonal TCR in a Jurkat cell-transfection system validated fine DYS specificity. Inflated cells were polyfunctional, not senescent, and displayed high ex vivo levels of granzyme B, CX 3 CR1, CD38, or HLA-DR but less often coexpressed CD38 + and HLA-DR + The inflation mechanism did not involve apoptosis suppression, increased proliferation, or HIV gag cross-reactivity. Instead, the findings suggest that intermittent or chronic expression of epitopes, such as DYS, drive inflation of activated CD4 + T cells that home to endothelial cells and have the potential to mediate cytotoxicity and vascular disease. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  12. Recombinant proteins of Zaire ebolavirus induce potent humoral and cellular immune responses and protect against live virus infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrer, Axel T; Wong, Teri-Ann S; Lieberman, Michael M; Humphreys, Tom; Clements, David E; Bakken, Russell R; Hart, Mary Kate; Pratt, William D; Dye, John M

    2018-05-24

    Infections with filoviruses in humans are highly virulent, causing hemorrhagic fevers which result in up to 90% mortality. In addition to natural infections, the ability to use these viruses as bioterrorist weapons is of significant concern. Currently, there are no licensed vaccines or therapeutics available to combat these infections. The pathogenesis of disease involves the dysregulation of the host's immune system, which results in impairment of the innate and adaptive immune responses, with subsequent development of lymphopenia, thrombocytopenia, hemorrhage, and death. Questions remain with regard to the few survivors of infection, who manage to mount an effective adaptive immune response. These questions concern the humoral and cellular components of this response, and whether such a response can be elicited by an appropriate prophylactic vaccine. The data reported herein describe the production and evaluation of a recombinant subunit Ebola virus vaccine candidate consisting of insect cell expressed Zaire ebolavirus (EBOV) surface glycoprotein (GP) and the matrix proteins VP24 and VP40. The recombinant subunit proteins are shown to be highly immunogenic in mice, yielding both humoral and cellular responses, as well as highly efficacious, providing up to 100% protection against a lethal challenge with live virus. These results demonstrate proof of concept for such a recombinant non-replicating vaccine candidate in the mouse model of EBOV which helps to elucidate immune correlates of protection and warrants further development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The German Version of the Humor Styles Questionnaire: Psychometric Properties and Overlap With Other Styles of Humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruch, Willibald; Heintz, Sonja

    2016-08-01

    The Humor Styles Questionnaire (HSQ; Martin et al., 2003) is one of the most frequently used questionnaires in humor research and has been adapted to several languages. The HSQ measures four humor styles (affiliative, self-enhancing, aggressive, and self-defeating), which should be adaptive or potentially maladaptive to psychosocial well-being. The present study analyzes the internal consistency, factorial validity, and factorial invariance of the HSQ on the basis of several German-speaking samples combined (total N = 1,101). Separate analyses were conducted for gender (male/female), age groups (16-24, 25-35, >36 years old), and countries (Germany/Switzerland). Internal consistencies were good for the overall sample and the demographic subgroups (.80-.89), with lower values obtained for the aggressive scale (.66-.73). Principal components and confirmatory factor analyses mostly supported the four-factor structure of the HSQ. Weak factorial invariance was found across gender and age groups, while strong factorial invariance was supported across countries. Two subsamples also provided self-ratings on ten styles of humorous conduct (n = 344) and of eight comic styles (n = 285). The four HSQ scales showed small to large correlations to the styles of humorous conduct (-.54 to .65) and small to medium correlations to the comic styles (-.27 to .42). The HSQ shared on average 27.5-35.0% of the variance with the styles of humorous conduct and 13.0-15.0% of the variance with the comic styles. Thus-despite similar labels-these styles of humorous conduct and comic styles differed from the HSQ humor styles.

  14. Cellular and humoral immune responses in sheep vaccinated with candidate antigens MAP2698c and MAP3567 from Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurung, Ratna B.; Purdie, Auriol C.; Whittington, Richard J.; Begg, Douglas J.

    2014-01-01

    Control of Johne's disease, caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) in ruminants using commercially available vaccine reduces production losses, mortality, fecal shedding and histopathological lesions but does not provide complete protection from infection and interferes with serological diagnosis of Johne's disease and bovine tuberculosis. At this time no recombinant antigens have been found to provide superior protection compared to whole killed or live-attenuated MAP vaccines. Therefore, there is a need to evaluate more candidate MAP antigens. In this study recombinant MAP antigens MAP2698c and MAP3567 were formulated with four different MONTANIDE™ (ISA 50V2, 61VG, 71VG, and 201VG) adjuvants and evaluated for their ability to produce specific immune responses in vaccinated sheep. The cellular immune response was measured with an interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) release assay and the humoral immune response was measured by antibody detection enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Recombinant vaccine formulation with the antigen MAP2698c and MONTANIDE™ ISA 201VG adjuvant produced strong whole-MAP as well as MAP2698c-specific IFN-γ responses in a high proportion of the vaccinated sheep. The formulation caused less severe injection site lesions in comparison to other formulations. The findings from this study suggest that the MAP2698c + 201VG should be evaluated in a challenge trial to determine the efficacy of this vaccine candidate. PMID:25077074

  15. Live attenuated measles vaccine expressing HIV-1 Gag virus like particles covered with gp160ΔV1V2 is strongly immunogenic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerbois, Mathilde; Moris, Arnaud; Combredet, Chantal; Najburg, Valerie; Ruffie, Claude; Fevrier, Michele; Cayet, Nadege; Brandler, Samantha; Schwartz, Olivier; Tangy, Frederic

    2009-01-01

    Although a live attenuated HIV vaccine is not currently considered for safety reasons, a strategy inducing both T cells and neutralizing antibodies to native assembled HIV-1 particles expressed by a replicating virus might mimic the advantageous characteristics of live attenuated vaccine. To this aim, we generated a live attenuated recombinant measles vaccine expressing HIV-1 Gag virus-like particles (VLPs) covered with gp160ΔV1V2 Env protein. The measles-HIV virus replicated efficiently in cell culture and induced the intense budding of HIV particles covered with Env. In mice sensitive to MV infection, this recombinant vaccine stimulated high levels of cellular and humoral immunity to both MV and HIV with neutralizing activity. The measles-HIV virus infected human professional antigen-presenting cells, such as dendritic cells and B cells, and induced efficient presentation of HIV-1 epitopes and subsequent activation of human HIV-1 Gag-specific T cell clones. This candidate vaccine will be next tested in non-human primates. As a pediatric vaccine, it might protect children and adolescents simultaneously from measles and HIV.

  16. Innovative financing for HIV response in sub–Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atun, Rifat; Silva, Sachin; Ncube, Mthuli; Vassall, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Background In 2015 around 15 million people living with HIV were receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART) in sub–Saharan Africa. Sustained provision of ART, though both prudent and necessary, creates substantial long–term fiscal obligations for countries affected by HIV/AIDS. As donor assistance for health remains constrained, novel financing mechanisms are needed to augment funding domestic sources. We explore how Innovative Financing has been used to co–finance domestic HIV/AIDS responses. Based on analysis of non–health sectors, we identify innovative financing instruments that could be used in the HIV response. Methods We undertook a systematic review to identify innovative financing instruments used for (1) domestic HIV/AIDS financing in sub–Saharan Africa (2) international health financing and (3) financing in non–health sectors. We analyzed peer–reviewed and grey literature published between 2002 and 2014. We examined the nature and volume of funds mobilized with innovative financing, then in consultation with leading experts, identified instruments that held potential for financing the HIV response. Results Our analysis revealed three innovative financing instruments in use: Zimbabwe’s AIDS Trust Fund (a tax/levy–based instrument), Botswana’s National HIV/AIDS Prevention Support (BNAPS) International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) Buy–Down (a debt conversion instrument), and Côte d'Ivoire's Debt2Health Debt Swap Agreement (a debt conversion instrument). Zimbabwe’s AIDS Trust Fund generated US$ 52.7 million between 2008 and 2011, Botswana’s IBRD Buy–Down generated US$ 20 million, and Côte d’Ivoire’s Debt2Health Debt Swap Agreement generated US$ 27 million, at least half of which was to be invested in HIV/AIDS programs. Four additional categories of innovative financing instruments met our criteria for future use: (1) remittances and diaspora bonds (2) social and development impact bonds (3) sovereign wealth

  17. Particle-based vaccines for HIV-1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Kelly R; Ross, Ted M

    2003-06-01

    The use of live-attenuated viruses as vaccines has been successful for the control of viral infections. However, the development of an effective vaccine against the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has proven to be a challenge. HIV infects cells of the immune system and results in a severe immunodeficiency. In addition, the ability of the virus to adapt to immune pressure and the ability to reside in an integrated form in host cells present hurdles for vaccinologists to overcome. A particle-based vaccine strategy has promise for eliciting high titer, long-lived, immune responses to a diverse number of viral epitopes from different HIV antigens. Live-attenuated viruses are effective at generating both cellular and humoral immunity, however, a live-attenuated vaccine for HIV is problematic. The possibility of a live-attenuated vaccine to revert to a pathogenic form or recombine with a wild-type or defective virus in an infected individual is a drawback to this approach. Therefore, these vaccines are currently only being tested in non-human primate models. Live-attenuated vaccines are effective in stimulating immunity, however challenged animals rarely clear viral infection and the degree of attenuation directly correlates with the protection of animals from disease. Another particle-based vaccine approach for HIV involves the use of virus-like particles (VLPs). VLPs mimic the viral particle without causing an immunodeficiency disease. HIV-like particles (HIV-LP) are defined as self-assembling, non-replicating, nonpathogenic, genomeless particles that are similar in size and conformation to intact virions. A variety of VLPs for both HIV and SIV are currently in pre-clinical and clinical trials. This review focuses on the current knowledge regarding the immunogenicity and safety of particle-based vaccine strategies for HIV-1.

  18. Targeting the humoral immune system of patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teng, Yoe Kie Onno

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to unravel the role of the humoral immune system in rheumatoid arthritis patients by employing new immunosuppressive strategies, i.e. specific B-cell depletion with Rituximab and non-specific lymfoablative treatment with high dose chemotherapy and hematopoeietic stem cell

  19. Computational Humor 2012 : extended abstacts of the (3rd international) Workshop on computational Humor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus; Unknown, [Unknown

    2012-01-01

    Like its predecessors in 1996 (University of Twente, the Netherlands) and 2002 (ITC-irst, Trento, Italy), this Third International Workshop on Computational Humor (IWCH 2012) focusses on the possibility to find algorithms that allow understanding and generation of humor. There is the general aim of

  20. Characterizing Class-Specific Exposure-Viral Load Suppression Response of HIV Antiretrovirals Using A Model-Based Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y; Li, Y F; Zhang, D; Dockendorf, M; Tetteh, E; Rizk, M L; Grobler, J A; Lai, M-T; Gobburu, J; Ankrom, W

    2016-08-01

    We applied model-based meta-analysis of viral suppression as a function of drug exposure and in vitro potency for short-term monotherapy in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected treatment-naïve patients to set pharmacokinetic targets for development of nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) and integrase strand transfer inhibitors (InSTIs). We developed class-specific models relating viral load kinetics from monotherapy studies to potency normalized steady-state trough plasma concentrations. These models were integrated with a literature assessment of doses which demonstrated to have long-term efficacy in combination therapy, in order to set steady-state trough concentration targets of 6.17- and 2.15-fold above potency for NNRTIs and InSTIs, respectively. Both the models developed and the pharmacokinetic targets derived can be used to guide compound selection during preclinical development and to predict the dose-response of new antiretrovirals to inform early clinical trial design. © 2016 The Authors. Clinical and Translational Science published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  1. Risky business: When humor increases and decreases status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitterly, T Bradford; Brooks, Alison Wood; Schweitzer, Maurice E

    2017-03-01

    Across 8 experiments, we demonstrate that humor can influence status, but attempting to use humor is risky. The successful use of humor can increase status in both new and existing relationships, but unsuccessful humor attempts (e.g., inappropriate jokes) can harm status. The relationship between the successful use of humor and status is mediated by perceptions of confidence and competence. The successful use of humor signals confidence and competence, which in turn increases the joke teller's status. Interestingly, telling both appropriate and inappropriate jokes, regardless of the outcome, signals confidence. Although signaling confidence typically increases status and power, telling inappropriate jokes signals low competence and the combined effect of high confidence and low competence harms status. Rather than conceptualizing humor as a frivolous or ancillary behavior, we argue that humor plays a fundamental role in shaping interpersonal perceptions and hierarchies within groups. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Sense of Humor, Stable Affect, and Psychological Well-Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnie Cann

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A good sense of humor has been implicated as a quality that could contribute to psychological well-being. The mechanisms through which sense of humor might operate include helping to reappraise threats, serving as a character strength, or facilitating happiness. The current research attempts to integrate these possibilities by examining whether a good sense of humor might operate globally by helping to maintain a more stable positive affect. Stable positive affect has been shown to facilitate more effective problem solving and to build resilience. However, not all humor is adaptive humor, so we also examine the roles that different styles of humor use might play. Individual differences in humor styles were used to predict stable levels of affect. Then, in a longitudinal design, humor styles and stable affect were used to predict subsequent resilience and psychological health. The results indicated that stable affect was related to resilience and psychological well-being, and that a sense of humor that involves self-enhancing humor, humor based on maintaining a humorous perspective about one’s experiences, was positively related to stable positive affect, negatively related to stable negative affect, and was mediated through stable affect in influencing resilience, well-being and distress. Thus, while a good sense of humor can lead to greater resilience and better psychological health, the current results, focusing on stable affect, find only self-enhancing humor provides reliable benefits.

  3. Experimentally Manipulating Items Informs on the (Limited Construct and Criterion Validity of the Humor Styles Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willibald Ruch

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available How strongly does humor (i.e., the construct-relevant content in the Humor Styles Questionnaire (HSQ; Martin et al., 2003 determine the responses to this measure (i.e., construct validity? Also, how much does humor influence the relationships of the four HSQ scales, namely affiliative, self-enhancing, aggressive, and self-defeating, with personality traits and subjective well-being (i.e., criterion validity? The present paper answers these two questions by experimentally manipulating the 32 items of the HSQ to only (or mostly contain humor (i.e., construct-relevant content or to substitute the humor content with non-humorous alternatives (i.e., only assessing construct-irrelevant context. Study 1 (N = 187 showed that the HSQ affiliative scale was mainly determined by humor, self-enhancing and aggressive were determined by both humor and non-humorous context, and self-defeating was primarily determined by the context. This suggests that humor is not the primary source of the variance in three of the HQS scales, thereby limiting their construct validity. Study 2 (N = 261 showed that the relationships of the HSQ scales to the Big Five personality traits and subjective well-being (positive affect, negative affect, and life satisfaction were consistently reduced (personality or vanished (subjective well-being when the non-humorous contexts in the HSQ items were controlled for. For the HSQ self-defeating scale, the pattern of relationships to personality was also altered, supporting an positive rather than a negative view of the humor in this humor style. The present findings thus call for a reevaluation of the role that humor plays in the HSQ (construct validity and in the relationships to personality and well-being (criterion validity.

  4. Experimentally Manipulating Items Informs on the (Limited) Construct and Criterion Validity of the Humor Styles Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruch, Willibald; Heintz, Sonja

    2017-01-01

    How strongly does humor (i.e., the construct-relevant content) in the Humor Styles Questionnaire (HSQ; Martin et al., 2003) determine the responses to this measure (i.e., construct validity)? Also, how much does humor influence the relationships of the four HSQ scales, namely affiliative, self-enhancing, aggressive, and self-defeating, with personality traits and subjective well-being (i.e., criterion validity)? The present paper answers these two questions by experimentally manipulating the 32 items of the HSQ to only (or mostly) contain humor (i.e., construct-relevant content) or to substitute the humor content with non-humorous alternatives (i.e., only assessing construct-irrelevant context). Study 1 ( N = 187) showed that the HSQ affiliative scale was mainly determined by humor, self-enhancing and aggressive were determined by both humor and non-humorous context, and self-defeating was primarily determined by the context. This suggests that humor is not the primary source of the variance in three of the HQS scales, thereby limiting their construct validity. Study 2 ( N = 261) showed that the relationships of the HSQ scales to the Big Five personality traits and subjective well-being (positive affect, negative affect, and life satisfaction) were consistently reduced (personality) or vanished (subjective well-being) when the non-humorous contexts in the HSQ items were controlled for. For the HSQ self-defeating scale, the pattern of relationships to personality was also altered, supporting an positive rather than a negative view of the humor in this humor style. The present findings thus call for a reevaluation of the role that humor plays in the HSQ (construct validity) and in the relationships to personality and well-being (criterion validity).

  5. Separate and combined effect of low doses of ionizing radiation and hydroquinone on humoral immune response in regional lymph nodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharetskij, A.N.; Surinov, B.P.; Abramova, M.R.

    1994-01-01

    The whole-body exposure of mice to 0.1 Gy γ-radiation resulted in stimulation of T-cell dependent humoral immune response in lymph nodes. At the same enhansement of succeptability of immunocompetent cells to damaging effect of hydroquinone was observed. Under irradiation with doses of 0.5 or 1 Gy which cause dose-dependent immunosupression, hydroquinone induced stimulation of antigene production

  6. The Role of Humoral Alloreactivity in Liver Transplantation: Lessons Learned and New Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Y. Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available More than ten years after the initial description of the humoral theory of transplantation by Dr. Paul I. Terasaki, the significance of humoral alloimmunity in liver transplantation has yet to be clearly defined. The liver allograft has an inherent tolerogenic capacity which confers its resistance to cell-mediated as well as antibody-mediated rejection. Nevertheless, the protection against alloimmunity is not complete, and antibody-mediated tissue injury can occur in the liver graft under specific circumstances. In this article the evidence on the clinicopathologic effects of donor-specific alloantibodies in liver transplantation will be examined and interpreted in parallel with lessons learned from renal transplantation. The unique anatomic and immunologic features of the liver will be reviewed to gain new insights into the complex interactions between humoral immune system and the liver allograft.

  7. Humor and creativity in psychotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Martín Camacho

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the current article principal theories on humor are analyzed, relating them to different conceptions of creativity. Finally, some indications for the use of humor in psychotherapy are introduced, highlighting their positive and negative aspects. 

  8. Chronic low-level tritium contamination effects on humoral immune response in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petcu, I.; Bejan, A.; Stinga, A.

    1993-01-01

    Using an adaptation of the radioimmunoassay technique, the present study reports on immunochemical parameters of the antibodies synthesized in vivo against bovine serum albumin by rats previously exposed to long-term internal contamination with tritiated water. The corresponding dose range of the irradiation was between 0.6 and 6.2 mGy. A slight increase of a affinity constant of the antibodies produced by the irradiated organisms was found. This experimental fact might sustain the hypothesis of a humoral immune response associated to adaptation increase in cell renewal mechanisms, rather than to selective cell deletion. We also observed a total dissimilarity between the modifications induced by chronic low-dose irradiation and those induced by physiological aging. For old rats the concentration of antibodies is higher by almost an order of magnitude, but they are much less efficient as the decreased value of the affinity constant indicates. (Author)

  9. Scaling-up HIV responses with key populations in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Tisha; Wolf, R Cameron; Kapesa, Laurent; Cheng Surdo, Alison; Dallabetta, Gina

    2015-03-01

    Despite decades of HIV responses in pockets of West and Central Africa (WCA), the HIV response with key populations remains an understudied area. Recently, there has been a proliferation of studies highlighting epidemiologic and behavioral data that challenge attitudes of complacency among donors and country governments uncomfortable in addressing key populations. The articles in this series highlight new studies that provide a better understanding of the epidemiologic and structural burden facing key populations in the WCA region and how to improve responses through more effective targeting. Key populations face pervasive structural barriers including institutional and sexual violence and an intersection of stigma, criminalization, and marginalization as sexual minorities. Despite decades of smaller interventions that have shown the importance of integrated services for key populations, there remains incongruent provision of outreach or testing or family planning pointing to sustained risk. There remains an incongruent resource provision for key populations where they shoulder the burden of HIV and their access to services alone could turn around HIV epidemics within the region. These proximal and distal determinants must be addressed in regional efforts, led by the community, and resourced for scale, targeting those most at risk for the acquisition and transmission of HIV. This special issue builds the knowledge base for the region focusing on interventions that remove barriers to service access including treatment uptake for those living with HIV. Better analysis and use of data for strategic planning are shown to lead to more effective targeting of prevention, care, and HIV treatment programs with key populations. These articles further demonstrate the immediate need for comprehensive action to address HIV among key populations throughout the WCA region.

  10. Mirth and Murder: Crime Scene Investigation as a Work Context for Examining Humor Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Gene L.; Vivona, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Within work settings, humor is used by workers for a wide variety of purposes. This study examines humor applications of a specific type of worker in a unique work context: crime scene investigation. Crime scene investigators examine death and its details. Members of crime scene units observe death much more frequently than other police officers…

  11. The Muhammad cartoon controversy and the globalization of humor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, G.

    2008-01-01

    At the 2006 conference of the International Society for Humor Studies (Danish University of Education, Copenhagen), several panels addressed issues raised by the Muhammad cartoon story. Among these, a colloquium organized by Paul Lewis and decorously titled "Transnational Ridicule and Response"

  12. Humoral immune response to hypervariable region 1 of the putative envelope glycoprotein (gp70) of hepatitis C virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Kato, N; Sekiya, H; Ootsuyama, Y; Nakazawa, T; Hijikata, M; Ohkoshi, S; Shimotohno, K

    1993-01-01

    We recently found that alterations of amino acids in hypervariable region 1 (HVR1) of the putative envelope glycoprotein (gp70) of hepatitis C virus (HCV) occurred sequentially in the chronic phase of hepatitis at intervals of several months. This finding suggests that mutations in HVR1 are involved in the mechanism of persistent chronic HCV infection involving escape from the immunosurveillance system. To explore this possibility, we examined the humoral immune response to HVR1 with our assa...

  13. Exploring the Relationship between Humor and Aesthetic Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Mordechai

    2012-01-01

    The connection between humor and aesthetic experience has already been recognized by several thinkers and aesthetic educators. For instance, humor theorist John Morreall writes that "humor is best understood as itself a kind of aesthetic experience, equal in value at least to any other kind of aesthetic experience." For Morreall, both humor and…

  14. Humoral and cellular responses to casein in patients with food protein-induced enterocolitis to cow's milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caubet, Jean Christoph; Bencharitiwong, Ramon; Ross, Andrew; Sampson, Hugh A; Berin, M Cecilia; Nowak-Węgrzyn, Anna

    2017-02-01

    Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) is a non-IgE-mediated food allergy manifesting within 1 to 4 hours of food ingestion with repetitive emesis and lethargy. We sought to characterize immune responses to casein in children with FPIES caused by cow's milk (CM). Total IgE and IgM, CM-specific IgG, and casein-specific IgE, IgG, IgG 4 , and IgM levels, as well as immunoglobulin free light chains, were measured in both patients with active and those with resolved CM-FPIES. Proliferating casein/T-effector cell counts were measured in children with CM-FPIES, children with IgE-mediated CM allergy, and those tolerating CM. Cytokine concentrations in the supernatants were quantified. Serum cytokine and tryptase levels were measured before and after a positive oral food challenge (OFC) result and compared with levels in those with a negative OFC result. We found low levels of CM and casein-specific IgG and casein-specific IgG 4 in patients with CM-FPIES versus those tolerating CM (P casein stimulation in children with CM-FPIES, results were similar to those in control subjects. Significantly lower secretion of IL-10 and higher secretion of IL-9 by casein-stimulated T cells were found in patients with CM-FPIES versus those with IgE-mediated CM allergy. Lower baseline serum levels of IL-10 and higher tryptase levels were found in active CM-FPIES versus resolved CM-FPIES. We found a significant increase in serum IL-10 and IL-8 levels after a positive OFC result. We confirm the paucity of humoral response in patients with CM-FPIES. IL-10 might play a key role in acquisition of tolerance in patients with CM-FPIES. Increased serum IL-8 levels in patients with active FPIES suggest neutrophil involvement. Elevated baseline serum tryptase levels in patients with active FPIES suggest low-grade intestinal mast cell activation or increased mast cell load. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Neural Correlates of Contrast and Humor: Processing Common Features of Verbal Irony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obert, Alexandre; Gierski, Fabien; Calmus, Arnaud; Flucher, Aurélie; Portefaix, Christophe; Pierot, Laurent; Kaladjian, Arthur; Caillies, Stéphanie

    2016-01-01

    Irony is a kind of figurative language used by a speaker to say something that contrasts with the context and, to some extent, lends humor to a situation. However, little is known about the brain regions that specifically support the processing of these two common features of irony. The present study had two main aims: (i) investigate the neural basis of irony processing, by delivering short ironic spoken sentences (and their literal counterparts) to participants undergoing fMRI; and (ii) assess the neural effect of two irony parameters, obtained from normative studies: degree of contrast and humor appreciation. Results revealed activation of the bilateral inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), posterior part of the left superior temporal gyrus, medial frontal cortex, and left caudate during irony processing, suggesting the involvement of both semantic and theory-of-mind networks. Parametric models showed that contrast was specifically associated with the activation of bilateral frontal and subcortical areas, and that these regions were also sensitive to humor, as shown by a conjunction analysis. Activation of the bilateral IFG is consistent with the literature on humor processing, and reflects incongruity detection/resolution processes. Moreover, the activation of subcortical structures can be related to the reward processing of social events. PMID:27851821

  16. Europe?s Shifting Response to HIV/AIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Despite a history of championing HIV/AIDS as a human rights issue, and a rhetorical commitment to health as a human right, European states and institutions have shifted from a rights-based response to a risk management approach to HIV/AIDS since the economic recession of 2008. An interdisciplinary perspective is applied to analyze health policy changes at the national, regional, and global levels by drawing on data from key informant interviews, and institutional and civil society do...

  17. The effectiveness of humor in persuasion: the case of business ethics training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyttle, J

    2001-04-01

    In this study, persuasion theory was used to develop the following predictions about use of humor in persuasive messages for business ethics training: (a) cartoon drawings will enhance persuasion by creating liking for the source, (b) ironic wisecracks will enhance persuasion by serving as a distraction from counterarguments, and (c) self-effacing humor will enhance persuasion by improving source credibility. Canadian business students (N = 148) participated in 1 of 4 versions of "The Ethics Challenge," a training exercise used by the Lockheed Martin Corporation. Three versions were modified by adding or removing cartoon drawings (of cartoon characters Dilbert and Dogbert) and humorous responses (Dogbert's wisecracks). Removing the cartoon drawings had little effect on persuasiveness. Removing ironic wisecracks had more effect, and interfering with the self-effacing combination of cartoons and wisecracks had the strongest effect. The results suggest that researchers should ground their predictions in existing theory and that practitioners should differentiate among humor types.

  18. Ocular surface squamous neoplasia in HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients and response to 5-fluorouracil in Angola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nutt RJ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Robert J Nutt,1 John L Clements,2 William H Dean3 1Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK; 2Boa Vista Eye Clinic, Benguela, Angola; 3Bristol Eye Hospital, Bristol, UK Background: Ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN is becoming increasingly prevalent and aggressive in Sub-Saharan Africa. It is a phenomenon linked with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection, although association rates in Angola are currently unknown. A topical treatment that is effective in HIV-positive and HIV-negative individuals may be preferable to surgery in some contexts. We aimed to estimate the proportion of OSSN associated with HIV in Angola and to report on the success of topical 5-fluorouracil as a primary treatment in HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients.Methods: Photographs of OSSNs taken at presentation and following treatment with 5-fluorouracil in patients presenting to Boa Vista Eye Clinic, Angola, between October 2011 and July 2013 were grouped into HIV-positive and HIV-negative groups and analyzed to compare presenting features and treatment response. Eighty-one OSSNs were analyzed for clinical features and 24 met the inclusion criteria for analysis of treatment response.Results: Eighty-two patients presented with OSSN between October 2011 and July 2013. Twenty-one (26% were HIV-positive and typically had OSSNs that exhibited more pathological features than those in HIV-negative patients. Twenty-four (29% patients met the inclusion criteria for analysis of treatment response; of these, 26 (91% OSSNs in both groups displayed at least partial resolution after one treatment course. In the HIV-positive group, five of eight patients displayed complete resolution, two showed partial resolution, and one failed. In the HIV-negative group, five of 16 showed complete resolution, ten of 16 had partial resolution, and one failed.Conclusion: Individuals presenting with OSSN in Angola are more likely to have HIV infection compared

  19. Effectiveness of humor advertising on advertising success

    OpenAIRE

    S, venkatesh; N, senthilkumar

    2015-01-01

    In global advertising ‘humor’ is the most effective emotion used in advertising compared to other emotional appeals. Advertisers and researchers more interested in Humor in advertising for more than 100 years. But there is no review paper for Impact of humor in advertising till twenty two years of time, in between period there was lot of research outcomes published about humor in advertising. The purpose of this paper to get detailed review about Impact of humor in advertising for 40 years an...

  20. LOL Teacher! Using Humor to Enhance Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrell, Shelly

    2015-01-01

    Laughing with students can help them connect on a deeper level with the teacher and the learning. This article offers the following four strategies to incorporate humor into teaching: (1) Integrate humorous bits to boost engagement; (2) Choose humorous materials; (3) Create interest with humorous web tools and apps; and (4) Teach with silly…

  1. Humor as Wisdom for Reframing Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Uk

    2018-04-01

    Human beings inevitably experience anxiety but attempt to avoid facing it through various forms of self-deception. This avoidance can lead to pathological symptoms. Young and middle-aged adults may be especially susceptible to suffering from anxiety because they are often single-mindedly pursuing means of achieving security. For these and others who fail to embrace life with warm enthusiasm, humor can serve to alleviate stress. This article views humor as a characteristic disposition of older adults-their humor signifying a sense of integrity and wisdom that often accompanies the aging process. Humor binds together feelings of despair and joy and contributes to a faithful reframing of faith and life. This article proposes that individuals acquire humor by perceiving the world as if on a journey to an exotic new place, seeing with new eyes even the most mundane of everyday objects and events. This capacity to perceive beauty in the ordinary world reflects a wisdom of older adults potentially available even to the young.

  2. Phleum pratense pollen starch granules induce humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in a rat model of allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, A; Peltre, G; Dormans, J A M A; Withagen, C E T; Lacroix, G; Bois, F; Steerenberg, P A

    2004-02-01

    Timothy grass (Phleum pratense) pollen allergens are an important cause of allergic symptoms. However, pollen grains are too large to penetrate the deeper airways. Grass pollen is known to release allergen-bearing starch granules (SG) upon contact with water. These granules can create an inhalable allergenic aerosol capable of triggering an early asthmatic response and are implicated in thunderstorm-associated asthma. We studied the humoral (IgE) and bronchial lymph node cells reactivities to SG from timothy grass pollen in pollen-sensitized rats. Brown-Norway rats were sensitized (day 0) and challenged (day 21) intratracheally with intact pollen and kept immunized by pollen intranasal instillation by 4 weeks intervals during 3 months. Blood and bronchial lymph nodes were collected 7 days after the last intranasal challenge. SG were purified from fresh timothy grass pollen using 5 microm mesh filters. To determine the humoral response (IgE) to SG, we developed an original ELISA inhibition test, based on competition between pollen allergens and purified SG. The cell-mediated response to SG in the bronchial lymph node cells was determined by measuring the uptake of [3H]thymidine in a proliferation assay. An antibody response to SG was induced, and purified SG were able to inhibit the IgE ELISA absorbance by 45%. Pollen extract and intact pollen gave inhibitions of 55% and 52%, respectively. A cell-mediated response was also found, as pollen extract, intact pollen and SG triggered proliferation of bronchial lymph node cells. It was confirmed that timothy grass pollen contains allergen-loaded SG, which are released upon contact with water. These granules were shown to be recognized by pollen-sensitized rats sera and to trigger lymph node cell proliferation in these rats. These data provide new arguments supporting the implication of grass pollen SG in allergic asthma.

  3. Preface to Computational Humor 2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Unknown, [Unknown; Nijholt, Antinus; Nijholt, A.

    2012-01-01

    Like its predecessors in 1996 (University of Twente, the Netherlands) and 2002 (ITC-irst, Trento, Italy), this Third International Workshop on Computational Humor (IWCH 2012) focusses on the possibility to find algorithms that allow understanding and generation of humor. There is the general aim of

  4. Cytomegalovirus-specific T-cells are associated with immune senescence, but not with systemic inflammation, in people living with HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ballegaard, Vibe; Brændstrup, Peter; Pedersen, Karin Kaereby

    2018-01-01

    In people living with HIV (PLWHIV), coinfection with cytomegalovirus (CMV) has been associated with inflammation, immunological ageing, and increased risk of severe non-AIDS related comorbidity. The effect of CMV-specific immune responses on systemic inflammation, immune activation and T-cell sen...

  5. [Neuropsychology of humor: an introduction Part 1. Psychological data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derouesné, Christian

    2016-03-01

    Humor is, from a psychological point of view, a complex process involving cognitive, affective, interspersonal and social elements in a interpersonal context. Its cognitive core is based on the perception of incongruity between two related inconsistent or contradictory mental representations. The total or partial resolution of incongruity in a playful frame is associated with a specific positive emotion, which characteristics and intensity are determined by the structure of the humoristic stimulus more than its content, and the personal and social contexts. Main theories of humor are reviewed as well as its development, its cognitive and affective correlates, and the influence of genre, age and personality.

  6. Epstein-Barr virus and human immunodeficiency virus serological responses and viral burdens in HIV-infected patients treated with HAART

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Cathal E.; Peng, RongSheng; Cole, Kelly Stefano; Montelaro, Ronald C.; Sturgeon, Timothy; Jenson, Hal B.; Ling, Paul D.; Butel, J. S. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) associated non-Hodgkin lymphoma is recognized as a complication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Little is known regarding the influence of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on the biology of EBV in this population. To characterize the EBV- and HIV-specific serological responses together with EBV DNA levels in a cohort of HIV-infected adults treated with HAART, a study was conducted to compare EBV and HIV serologies and EBV DNA copy number (DNAemia) over a 12-month period after the commencement of HAART. All patients were seropositive for EBV at baseline. Approximately 50% of patients had detectable EBV DNA at baseline, and 27/30 had detectable EBV DNA at some point over the follow-up period of 1 year. Changes in EBV DNA copy number over time for any individual were unpredictable. Significant increases in the levels of Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen (EBNA) and Epstein-Barr early antigen (EA) antibodies were demonstrated in the 17 patients who had a good response to HAART. Of 29 patients with paired samples tested, four-fold or greater increases in titers were detected for EA in 12/29 (41%), for EBNA in 7/29 (24%), for VCA-IgG in 4/29 (14%); four-fold decreases in titers were detected in 2/29 (7%) for EA and 12/29 (41%) for EBNA. A significant decline in the titer of anti-HIV antibodies was also demonstrated. It was concluded that patients with advanced HIV infection who respond to HAART have an increase in their EBV specific antibodies and a decrease in their HIV-specific antibodies. For the cohort overall, there was a transient increase in EBV DNA levels that had declined by 12 months. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. HIV-1 Vif's Capacity To Manipulate the Cell Cycle Is Species Specific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Edward L; Becker, Jordan T; Fricke, Stephanie L; Patel, Kishan; Sherer, Nathan M

    2018-04-01

    Cells derived from mice and other rodents exhibit profound blocks to HIV-1 virion production, reflecting species-specific incompatibilities between viral Tat and Rev proteins and essential host factors cyclin T1 (CCNT1) and exportin-1 (XPO1, also known as CRM1), respectively. To determine if mouse cell blocks other than CCNT1 and XPO1 affect HIV's postintegration stages, we studied HIV-1 NL4-3 gene expression in mouse NIH 3T3 cells modified to constitutively express HIV-1-compatible versions of CCNT1 and XPO1 (3T3.CX cells). 3T3.CX cells supported both Rev-independent and Rev-dependent viral gene expression and produced relatively robust levels of virus particles, confirming that CCNT1 and XPO1 represent the predominant blocks to these stages. Unexpectedly, however, 3T3.CX cells were remarkably resistant to virus-induced cytopathic effects observed in human cell lines, which we mapped to the viral protein Vif and its apparent species-specific capacity to induce G 2 /M cell cycle arrest. Vif was able to mediate rapid degradation of human APOBEC3G and the PPP2R5D regulatory B56 subunit of the PP2A phosphatase holoenzyme in mouse cells, thus demonstrating that Vif NL4-3 's modulation of the cell cycle can be functionally uncoupled from some of its other defined roles in CUL5-dependent protein degradation. Vif was also unable to induce G 2 /M cell cycle arrest in other nonhuman cell types, including cells derived from nonhuman primates, leading us to propose that one or more human-specific cofactors underpin Vif's ability to modulate the cell cycle. IMPORTANCE Cells derived from mice and other rodents exhibit profound blocks to HIV-1 replication, thus hindering the development of a low-cost small-animal model for studying HIV/AIDS. Here, we engineered otherwise-nonpermissive mouse cells to express HIV-1-compatible versions of two species-specific host dependency factors, cyclin T1 (CCNT1) and exportin-1 (XPO1) (3T3.CX cells). We show that 3T3.CX cells rescue HIV-1

  8. Women Gossip and Men Brag: Perceived Gender Differences in the Use of Humor by Romanian Older Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Schiau

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates perceived gender differences in the producion and social use of humor in the interpersonal communication of Romanian older women, aged 60 and above. The study is a qualitative investigation, based on semi-structured interviews. The aim was to understand the perceptions and motivations that women have when using humor in social interactions, and to explore the functions that humor serves in their day-to-day communication. A previous quantitative investigation found statistically significant gender differences between Romanian older men and women on a sense of humor scale, and suggested that the use of humor in interpersonal communication had stronger social benefits for women (Schiau, 2016a. Drawing on these findings, and keeping in mind other studies that discuss the different use of humor by men and women, this study aims to investigate specific gender differences in the production of humor, as perceived by the participants.

  9. Immunological Response of Hiv-Infected Children to Highly Active ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in children has not been well studied specially in developing countries where the burden of HIV is high. This study was aimed to assess the immunologic response of HIV-infected children to HAART at Pediatric ART Clinic Gondar University ...

  10. It's in the way that you use it: attachment and the dyadic nature of humor during conflict negotiation in romantic couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterheld, Heike A; Simpson, Jeffry A; Oriña, M Minda

    2013-04-01

    In a behavioral observation study with dating couples, we examined (a) how attachment orientations predict humor use and (b) how people respond to their partners' use of humor. Couples were videotaped while trying to resolve a relationship conflict. Each discussion was rated on several theoretically relevant dimensions. Highly avoidant individuals used more aggressive humor and less affiliative humor during their discussions, whereas highly anxious individuals used more self-defeating humor. Individuals also tailored their humor use to partners who were highly anxious and distressed. Aggressive humor was received more negatively by partners who sought more care. Affiliative humor was favorably received, especially when partners were more distressed, whereas self-defeating humor elicited negative responses from highly distressed partners. Both highly anxious and avoidant individuals reacted unfavorably when they were the recipients of the humor styles they used most often. The implications of these results for our understanding of relationships and humor are discussed.

  11. The Neural Correlates of Humor Creativity

    OpenAIRE

    Amir, Ori; Biederman, Irving

    2016-01-01

    Unlike passive humor appreciation, the neural correlates of real-time humor creation have been unexplored. As a case study for creativity, humor generation uniquely affords a reliable assessment of a creative product’s quality with a clear and relatively rapid beginning and end, rendering it amenable to neuroimaging that has the potential for reflecting individual differences in expertise. Professional and amateur “improv” comedians and controls viewed New Yorker cartoon drawings while being ...

  12. Phase 1 safety and immunogenicity evaluation of ADMVA, a multigenic, modified vaccinia Ankara-HIV-1 B'/C candidate vaccine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhya Vasan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We conducted a Phase I dose-escalation trial of ADMVA, a Clade-B'/C-based HIV-1 candidate vaccine expressing env, gag, pol, nef, and tat in a modified vaccinia Ankara viral vector. Sequences were derived from a prevalent circulating HIV-1 recombinant form in Yunnan, China, an area of high HIV incidence. The objective was to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of ADMVA in human volunteers. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: ADMVA or placebo was administered intramuscularly at months 0, 1 and 6 to 50 healthy adult volunteers not at high risk for HIV-1. In each dosage group [1x10(7 (low, 5x10(7 (mid, or 2.5x10(8 pfu (high] volunteers were randomized in a 3:1 ratio to receive ADMVA or placebo in a double-blinded design. Subjects were followed for local and systemic reactogenicity, adverse events including cardiac adverse events, and clinical laboratory parameters. Study follow up was 18 months. Humoral immunogenicity was evaluated by anti-gp120 binding ELISA, immunoflourescent staining, and HIV-1 neutralization. Cellular immunogenicity was assessed by a validated IFNgamma ELISpot assay and intracellular cytokine staining. Anti-vaccinia binding titers were measured by ELISA. ADMVA was generally well-tolerated, with no vaccine-related serious adverse events or cardiac adverse events. Local or systemic reactogenicity events were reported by 77% and 78% of volunteers, respectively. The majority of events were of mild intensity. The IFNgamma ELISpot response rate to any HIV antigen was 0/12 (0% in the placebo group, 3/12 (25% in the low dosage group, 6/12 (50% in the mid dosage group, and 8/13 (62% in the high dosage group. Responses were often multigenic and occasionally persisted up to one year post vaccination. Antibodies to gp120 were detected in 0/12 (0%, 8/13 (62%, 6/12 (50% and 10/13 (77% in the placebo, low, mid, and high dosage groups, respectively. Antibodies persisted up to 12 months after vaccination, with a trend toward agreement

  13. Information and communication: a library's local response to HIV/AIDS in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanyengo, Christine Wamunyima

    2010-03-01

    To document and describe the University of Zambia Medical library's responses to the fight against HIV/AIDS in Zambia. The methodology adopted was a case study approach combined with an analysis of the literature such as annual reports and official documents. This was augmented by personal reflections of the author having worked at the Medical Library. The University of Zambia Medical library has over the years instituted and implemented HIV/AIDS information provision programmes that include the provision of information in various formats -- print or electronic and, in addition, capacity building in HIV/AIDS information literacy skills. A library's social responsibility calls for it to be part of national responses to crises that arise in society. As HIV/AIDS has affected every aspect of Zambian society prevention, treatment, care and support there is an understanding that the library's role should be using the critical and strategic resource at its disposal - information -- as part of their contribution to the fight against HIV/AIDS. In this context, libraries should source, collect, organize and disseminate information on HIV/AIDS in a way that is easily accessible to researchers, HIV/AIDS programme implementation agencies and the ordinary public.

  14. Humor styles and symbolic boundaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, G.

    2009-01-01

    Humor is strongly related to group boundaries. Jokes and other humorous utterances often draw on implicit references and inside knowledge; they tend to refer to sensitive topics which may offend people; and they ideally incite laughter, one of the strongest markers of social solidarity and emotional

  15. Can the use of humor in psychotherapy be taught?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Lisa; Gabbard, Glen O

    2014-02-01

    Despite an abundance of literature detailing the potential benefits of the use of humor in therapy, humor is rarely taught to psychiatric residents as a method of therapeutic intervention. This communication attempts to explain how current understanding of attachment theory and neuroscience may assist psychiatric faculty and supervisors in their teaching of humorous therapeutic interventions. This article reviews and synthesizes the extant literature on the use of humor, as well as recent work in neuroscience, attachment theory, and mentalization. Humor can be conceptualized as an instance of implicit relational knowing and may thus contribute significantly to the therapeutic action of psychotherapy as a subcategory of "moments of meeting" between therapist and patient. However, training residents to use humor in psychotherapy requires more individualized attention in supervision and classroom seminars. Factors such as individual proclivities for humorous repartee, mentalizing capacity, and an authentic interest in adding humor to the session may be necessary to incorporate spontaneous humor into one's technique. New findings from the areas of attachment theory, neuroscience, and right-hemisphere learning are providing potential opportunities for sophisticated teaching of the use of humor in psychotherapy.

  16. Humor During Clinical Practice: Analysis of Recorded Clinical Encounters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Kari A; Singh Ospina, Naykky; Rodriguez-Gutierrez, Rene; Castaneda-Guarderas, Ana; Gionfriddo, Michael R; Branda, Megan; Montori, Victor

    2018-01-01

    Little is known about humor's use in clinical encounters, despite its many potential benefits. We aimed to describe humor during clinical encounters. We analyzed 112 recorded clinical encounters. Two reviewers working independently identified instances of humor, as well as information surrounding the logistics of its use. Of the 112 encounters, 66 (59%) contained 131 instances of humor. Humor was similarly frequent in primary care (36/61, 59%) and in specialty care (30/51, 59%), was more common in gender-concordant interactions (43/63, 68%), and was most common during counseling (81/112, 62%). Patients and clinicians introduced humor similarly (63 vs 66 instances). Typically, humor was about the patient's medical condition (40/131, 31%). Humor is used commonly during counseling to discuss the patient's medical condition and to relate to general life events bringing warmth to the medical encounter. The timing and topic of humor and its use by all parties suggests humor plays a role in the social connection between patients and physicians and allows easier discussion of difficult topics. Further research is necessary to establish its impact on clinicians, patients, and outcomes. © Copyright 2018 by the American Board of Family Medicine.

  17. Children’s Understanding of Self-Focused Humor Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Lucy Amelia; Fox, Claire Louise

    2016-01-01

    It has been proposed that four main styles of humor exist, two which are thought to be adaptive (affiliative, self-enhancing) and two which are thought to be maladaptive (aggressive, self-defeating). Whilst the existence of these four humor styles has been supported in older children, it is suggested that for younger children, self-enhancing and self-defeating humor may develop at a later point. To investigate this further, the current research involved five semi-structured paired interviews with children aged eight to eleven years to explore the use and understanding of self-enhancing and self-defeating humor in this age group. Findings indicated that use of both self-enhancing and self-defeating humor were apparent in some children, but not all. It therefore seems appropriate that attempts to investigate humor in this age group should aim to include all four styles of humor. The current research also demonstrated the value of paired interviews when carrying out this sort of research with children. PMID:27547258

  18. Inclusion of disability within national strategic responses to HIV and AIDS in Eastern and Southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanass-Hancock, Jill; Strode, Ann; Grant, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    National strategic plans (NSPs) provide a framework for a comprehensive response to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) including strategies such as prevention, treatment, care and support for all affected. Research indicates limited recognition of the interrelationship between disability and HIV in the Eastern and Southern Africa (ESA). This paper analyses the extent to which NSPs in ESA address disability, and identify good practice. Using a tool based on relevant rights in the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and the UNAIDS International Guidelines on HIV and Human Rights, a review of 18 NSPs in ESA was conducted to determine the extent to which they included disability. Although many NSPs fail to integrate disability issues, there are examples of good practice from which much can be learned, particularly with respect to disability and HIV-prevention efforts. There is limited provision for treatment, care and support for disability in the context of HIV and AIDS. Many NSPs in ESA are due for review, providing ample opportunities for the development of disability-inclusive responses. Future NSPs need to integrate the needs of people with disabilities within structures, programmes and monitoring and evaluation, and make provision for increased rehabilitation needs caused by HIV. A rights-based approach and specific financial allocation of resources are crucial for this process.

  19. Pathogen-mimicking vaccine delivery system designed with a bioactive polymer (inulin acetate) for robust humoral and cellular immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sunny; Kesharwani, Siddharth S; Kuppast, Bhimanna; Bakkari, Mohammed Ali; Tummala, Hemachand

    2017-09-10

    New and improved vaccines are needed against challenging diseases such as malaria, tuberculosis, Ebola, influenza, AIDS, and cancer. The majority of existing vaccine adjuvants lack the ability to significantly stimulate the cellular immune response, which is required to prevent the aforementioned diseases. This study designed a novel particulate based pathogen-mimicking vaccine delivery system (PMVDS) to target antigen-presenting-cells (APCs) such as dendritic cells. The uniqueness of PMVDS is that the polymer used to prepare the delivery system, Inulin Acetate (InAc), activates the innate immune system. InAc was synthesized from the plant polysaccharide, inulin. PMVDS provided improved and persistent antigen delivery to APCs as an efficient vaccine delivery system, and simultaneously, activated Toll-Like Receptor-4 (TLR-4) on APCs to release chemokine's/cytokines as an immune-adjuvant. Through this dual mechanism, PMVDS robustly stimulated both the humoral (>32 times of IgG1 levels vs alum) and the cell-mediated immune responses against the encapsulated antigen (ovalbumin) in mice. More importantly, PMVDS stimulated both cytotoxic T cells and natural killer cells of cell-mediated immunity to provide tumor (B16-ova-Melanoma) protection in around 40% of vaccinated mice and significantly delayed tumor progression in rest of the mice. PMVDS is a unique bio-active vaccine delivery technology with broader applications for vaccines against cancer and several intracellular pathogens, where both humoral and cellular immune responses are desired. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The role of complement in the acquired immune response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, C H; Fischer, E M; Leslie, R G

    2000-01-01

    Studies over the past three decades have clearly established a central role for complement in the promotion of a humoral immune response. The primary function of complement, in this regard, is to opsonize antigen or immune complexes for uptake by complement receptor type 2 (CR2, CD21) expressed...... on B cells, follicular dendritic cells (FDC) and some T cells. A variety of mechanisms appear to be involved in complement-mediated promotion of the humoral response. These include: enhancement of antigen (Ag) uptake and processing by both Ag-specific and non-specific B cells for presentation...

  1. Efficient evaluation of humoral immune responses by the use of serum pools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sternbæk, Louise; Draborg, Anette H.; Nielsen, Christoffer T.

    2017-01-01

    has considered using serum pools as a quick and efficient screening method to confirm or deny hypotheses. Methods We created serum pools from four different patient groups (systemic lupus erythematosus n = 85, rheumatoid arthritis n = 77, Sjögren's syndrome n = 91, systemic sclerosis n = 66) and one......Background Collection and testing of individual serum samples are often used in research to gain knowledge about e.g. the humoral response against bacteria or virus. This is a valid but time-consuming method and might be a waste of valuable serum samples for inefficient research. So far, no study...... healthy control group (n = 67). Each serum pool was analyzed using three well-known immunoassays: enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), line blot, and immunofluorescence microscopy (anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) screening). The presence of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) EA/D-, EBNA-1-, VCA p23-, and gp350...

  2. Suppression of Long-Lived Humoral Immunity Following Borrelia burgdorferi Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca A Elsner

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Lyme Disease caused by infection with Borrelia burgdorferi is an emerging infectious disease and already by far the most common vector-borne disease in the U.S. Similar to many other infections, infection with B. burgdorferi results in strong antibody response induction, which can be used clinically as a diagnostic measure of prior exposure. However, clinical studies have shown a sometimes-precipitous decline of such antibodies shortly following antibiotic treatment, revealing a potential deficit in the host's ability to induce and/or maintain long-term protective antibodies. This is further supported by reports of frequent repeat infections with B. burgdorferi in endemic areas. The mechanisms underlying such a lack of long-term humoral immunity, however, remain unknown. We show here that B. burgdorferi infected mice show a similar rapid disappearance of Borrelia-specific antibodies after infection and subsequent antibiotic treatment. This failure was associated with development of only short-lived germinal centers, micro-anatomical locations from which long-lived immunity originates. These showed structural abnormalities and failed to induce memory B cells and long-lived plasma cells for months after the infection, rendering the mice susceptible to reinfection with the same strain of B. burgdorferi. The inability to induce long-lived immune responses was not due to the particular nature of the immunogenic antigens of B. burgdorferi, as antibodies to both T-dependent and T-independent Borrelia antigens lacked longevity and B cell memory induction. Furthermore, influenza immunization administered at the time of Borrelia infection also failed to induce robust antibody responses, dramatically reducing the protective antiviral capacity of the humoral response. Collectively, these studies show that B. burgdorferi-infection results in targeted and temporary immunosuppression of the host and bring new insight into the mechanisms underlying the failure

  3. Canada's international response to HIV during times of global transition: a qualitative inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Stephanie

    2011-04-01

    Canada's international response to HIV may be under threat given CIDA's new aid priorities that appear to exclude health. Drivers of this recent priority shift have been the influence of global aid trends among public sector donors and changes within the global HIV milieu itself. However, this is not the first time Canada has shifted in response to these two global trends. The era from 2000-2004 also witnessed dramatic changes in both the HIV field and in global thinking around international aid. As such, this article presents an evaluation of the Government of Canada's international response to HIV during the first era of transition (2000-2004) in order to derive lessons for decision-making around HIV in the current climate of change. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 23 key informants with expertise regarding Canada's international response to HIV over time. Analysis involved multiple readings of transcripts to identify descriptive codes and establish intimacy with the data. Descriptive codes were then collapsed into thematic categories using a process of inductive reasoning. Canada's international response to HIV was perceived to be exemplary at times (e.g. seminal funding to WHO's "3-by-5" strategy), but also inconsistent (e.g., underutilized technical assistance capacity) and non-strategic (e.g., contradiction between investing in training health providers while poaching professionals to bolster Canada's workforce). Lessons from the 2000-2004 era of transition focus on strategic investments, the inextricable connection between HIV and development and strategy coherence. These results highlight that it is more constructive to ensure that Canadian development responses in all areas engage with both the upstream drivers of HIV as well as the impacts of the epidemic itself in order to achieve the greatest results from international investment and the most effective contributions to the lives of the people that these endeavours seek to

  4. Linguistic Features of Humor in Academic Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalicky, Stephen; Berger, Cynthia M.; Crossley, Scott A.; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2016-01-01

    A corpus of 313 freshman college essays was analyzed in order to better understand the forms and functions of humor in academic writing. Human ratings of humor and wordplay were statistically aggregated using Factor Analysis to provide an overall "Humor" component score for each essay in the corpus. In addition, the essays were also…

  5. Persistence of memory B-cell and T-cell responses to the quadrivalent HPV vaccine in HIV-infected children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Adriana; Huang, Sharon; Moscicki, Anna-Barbara; Saah, Afred; Levin, Myron J

    2018-04-24

    To determine the magnitude and persistence of quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV)16 and HPV18 B-cell and T-cell memory after three or four doses of quadrivalent HPV vaccine (QHPV) in HIV-infected children. Seventy-four HIV-infected children immunized with four doses and 23 with three doses of QHPV had HPV16 and HPV18 IgG B-cell and IFNγ and IL2 T-cell ELISPOT performed at 2, 3.5 and 4-5 years after the last dose. HPV16 and HPV18 T-cell responses were similar in both treatment groups, with higher responses to HPV16 vs. HPV18. These HPV T-cell responses correlated with HIV disease characteristics at the study visits. Global T-cell function declined over time as measured by nonspecific mitogenic stimulation. B-cell memory was similar across treatment groups and HPV genotypes. There was a decline in HPV-specific B-cell memory over time that reached statistical significance for HPV16 in the four-dose group. B-cell and T-cell memory did not significantly differ after either three or four doses of QHPV in HIV-infected children. The clinical consequences of decreasing global T-cell function and HPV B-cell memory over time in HIV-infected children requires further investigation.

  6. Human cryptosporidiosis: detection of specific antibodies in the serum by an indirect immunofluorescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braz Lúcia M.A.

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidium sp., a coccidian parasite usually found in the faeces of cattle, has been recently implicated as an agent of human intestinal disease, mainly in immunocompromised patients. In the study realized, by an indirect immunofluorescence technique, specific immunoglobulins (IgG and IgM have been demonstrated in human serum against Cryptosporidium oocysts. Purified oocysts were used as antigens in the indirect immunofluorecence assay. After analyzing this test in sera from selected groups of patients, the frequency of both specific IgG and IgM of immunocompetent children who were excreting oocysts in their faeces was 62% and in children with negative excretion of oocysts was 20% and 40%, respectively. In adults infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and who were excreting Cryptosporidium in their stools, the frequency was 57% for IgG but only 2% for IgM. Twenty three percent of immunocompromised adults with not determined excretion of oocysts in their stools had anti-Cryptosporidium IgG in their sera. Children infected with human immunodeficiency virus had no IgM and only 14% had IgG detectable in their sera. The indirect immunoflorescence assay, when used with other parasitological techniques appears to be useful for retrospective population studies and for diagnosis of acute infection. The humoral immune response of HIV positive patients to this protozoan agent needs clarification.

  7. Utility of an immunocytochemical assay using aqueous humor in the diagnosis of feline infectious peritonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felten, Sandra; Matiasek, Kaspar; Gruendl, Stefanie; Sangl, Laura; Hartmann, Katrin

    2018-01-01

    In cats suffering from feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) without effusion, antemortem diagnosis is challenging. Uveitis is common in these cats. It was the aim of this study to evaluate sensitivity and specificity of an immunocytochemical assay (ICC) in aqueous humor of cats suspected of having FIP. The study included 26 cats with immunohistochemically confirmed FIP and 12 control cats for which FIP was suspected due to similar clinical or laboratory changes, but which suffered from other diseases confirmed via histopathology. All aqueous humor samples were collected postmortem by paracentesis. ICC was carried out as avidin-biotin complex method. Sensitivity, specificity, and the overall accuracy including 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated. Immunocytochemistry was positive in 16 of 25 cats with FIP and 2 of 11 control cats (one cat with lymphoma, one with pulmonary adenocarcinoma). Aqueous humor samples of one cat with FIP and of one control cat were excluded from statistical analysis. Sensitivity was 64.0% (95% CI: 42.5-82.0); specificity 81.8% (95% CI: 48.2-97.7); and overall accuracy 69.4% (95% CI: 51.9-83.7). As false-positive results occurred and specificity is most important in the diagnosis of FIP, the diagnostic utility of ICC in aqueous humor is limited. Further studies are required to clarify the origin of false-positive ICC results. © 2017 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  8. An Explanation of the Relationship between Instructor Humor and Student Learning: Instructional Humor Processing Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanzer, Melissa B.; Frymier, Ann B.; Irwin, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes the Instructional Humor Processing Theory (IHPT), a theory that incorporates elements of incongruity-resolution theory, disposition theory, and the elaboration likelihood model (ELM) of persuasion. IHPT is proposed and offered as an explanation for why some types of instructor-generated humor result in increased student…

  9. HIV and AIDS in South Africa: a social and moral responsibility in shaping organisational action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renitha Rampersad

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the interest in corporate social responsibility issues has shown an increase. Worldwide problems, especially those related to HIV/AIDS, caught public attention towards Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR themes. In a country with more people living with HIV/AIDS than in any other nation (UNAIDS 2007, prevention and treatment is critical. HIV/AIDS is seen to be threatening the communities in which businesses are functioning and is further threatening the business itself. This article examines the moral and social responsibility of the corporate sector in its effort to deal with the issue of HIV/AIDS. Big business leaders have recognized the threat of HIV/AIDS to the workplace and have positioned responses towards the disease from an ethical, legal and cost-effective business perspective; however the response from small to medium businesses is relatively weak. This article conveys a descriptive critique, based on bibliographic research on Corporate Social Responsibility, HIV/AIDS and related concepts.

  10. [Humor in Medicine - The Art of Leaping Over the Shadows].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Barbara

    2017-12-01

    Humor and laughter are integral parts of human life and communication - and so of course they occur in medical contacts.Humor is defined as a personality based cognitive emotional style of processing situations, characterized by the ability to find positive aspects even in negative situations, and the ability to communicate this point of view to others and to cheer them up. Humor can support healing processes and coping with illness. Humor and jokes reduce anxiety and stress (for patients and doctors). Humorous people have a more realistic, flexible and less fearful behaviour. Humor helps to overcome negative experience. Humor can help the patient to gain new views towards the disease and a healthy distance towards occurring symptoms. Humor improves the relationship between patient and doctor. But beware: jokes can also be used to express fears, aggression or shame. Therefore it is worthwhile to listen carefully to what patients want to express. Humor reduces the risk of burnout. In contact with patients, it is important to give their humor room, to use it and respond to it, more than making jokes. Humor can be trained. Humor training and creation of a humorous atmosphere in health care facilities should also be supported by health insurance funds, institutions' sponsors and public authorities. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Differential Antibody Responses to Conserved HIV-1 Neutralizing Epitopes in the Context of Multivalent Scaffolds and Native-Like gp140 Trimers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Charles D; Azadnia, Parisa; de Val, Natalia; Vora, Nemil; Honda, Andrew; Giang, Erick; Saye-Francisco, Karen; Cheng, Yushao; Lin, Xiaohe; Mann, Colin J; Tang, Jeffrey; Sok, Devin; Burton, Dennis R; Law, Mansun; Ward, Andrew B; He, Linling; Zhu, Jiang

    2017-02-28

    Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) have provided valuable insights into the humoral immune response to HIV-1. While rationally designed epitope scaffolds and well-folded gp140 trimers have been proposed as vaccine antigens, a comparative understanding of their antibody responses has not yet been established. In this study, we probed