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Sample records for hiv-risk sexual behavior

  1. HIV risk sexual behaviors among teachers in Uganda

    Lillian Ayebale

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies reveal that teachers are more likely to engage in high-risk sexual behavior compared to the rest of the adult population. Yet the education sector could be a major vehicle for imparting knowledge and skills of avoiding and/or coping with the pandemic. This study set out to establish HIV risk behaviors among teachers in Uganda, to inform the design of a behavior change communication strategy for HIV prevention among teachers. It was a cross sectional rapid assessment conducted among primary and secondary school teachers in Kampala and Kalangala districts, in Uganda. A total of 183 teachers were interviewed. HIV risk behavior, in this study was measured as having multiple sexual partners and/or sex with a partner of unknown status without using a condom. We also considered transactional/sex for favors and alcohol use as exposures to HIV risk behavior. Odds ratios (OR and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated. All data analysis was performed using SPSS version 17.0 and EPI Info Version 3.5.1. Forty five per cent of teachers reported having multiple concurrent sexual partners in the last three months, of these, only 24% acknowledged having used a condom at their last sexual encounter yet only 9.8% knew their partners’ HIV status. Teachers below 30years of age were more likely to have two or more concurrent sexual partners (OR 2.6, CI 1.31-5.34 compared to those above 30 years. Primary school teachers were less likely to involve with partners of unknown HIV status compared to secondary school teachers (OR 0.43, CI 0.19-0.97. Teachers aged below 30 years were also more likely to engage with partners of unknown HIV status compared to those above 30 years (OR 2.47, CI 1.10-5.59. Primary teachers were also less likely to have given or received gifts, money or other favors in exchange for sex (OR 0.24, CI 0.09-0.58. Teachers engage in risky sexual behaviors, which lead to HIV infection. There is need to promote

  2. HIV Risk Perception, HIV Knowledge, and Sexual Risk Behaviors among Transgender Women in South Florida.

    De Santis, Joseph P; Hauglum, Shayne D; Deleon, Diego A; Provencio-Vasquez, Elias; Rodriguez, Allan E

    2017-05-01

    Transgender women experience a variety of factors that may contribute to HIV risk. The purpose of this study was to explore links among HIV risk perception, knowledge, and sexual risk behaviors of transgender women. A descriptive, correlational study design was used. Fifty transgender women from the South Florida area were enrolled in the study. Transgender women completed a demographic questionnaire and standardized instruments measuring HIV risk perception, knowledge, and sexual risk behaviors. Transgender women reported low levels of HIV risk perception, and had knowledge deficits regarding HIV risk/transmission. Some participants engaged in high-risk sexual behaviors. Predictors of sexual risk behaviors among transgender women were identified. More research is needed with a larger sample size to continue studying factors that contribute to sexual risk behaviors in the understudied population of transgender women. Evidence-based guidelines are available to assist public health nurses in providing care for transgender women. Nurses must assess HIV perception risk and HIV knowledge and provide relevant education to transgender women on ways to minimize sexual risk. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Sexual Orientation- and Race-Based Discrimination and Sexual HIV Risk Behavior Among Urban MSM

    Frye, Victoria; Nandi, Vijay; Egan, James; Cerda, Magdalena; Greene, Emily; Van Tieu, Hong; Ompad, Danielle C.; Hoover, Donald R.; Lucy, Debbie; Baez, Eduardo; Koblin, Beryl A.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding what social factors are associated with risk of HIV acquisition and transmission among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (MSM) is a critical public health goal. Experiencing discrimination may increase risk of HIV infection among MSM. This analysis assessed relations between experiences of sexual orientation- and race-based discrimination and sexual HIV risk behavior among MSM in New York City. 1,369 MSM completed a self-administered computerized assessment of past 3-month sexual behavior, experience of social discrimination and other covariates. Regression models assessed relations between recent experience of discrimination and sexual HIV risk behavior. Mean age was 32 years; 32 % were white; 32 % Latino/Hispanic; 25 % African American/Black. Of MSM who self-reported HIV-positive or unknown status (377), 7 % (N = 27) reported having unprotected insertive anal intercourse with an HIV-negative or unknown status partner (“HIV transmission risk”). Of MSM who self-reported HIV-negative status (992), 11 % (110) reported unprotected receptive anal intercourse with an HIV-positive or unknown status partner (“HIV acquisition risk”). HIV acquisition risk was positively associated with sexual orientation-based discrimination in home or social neighborhoods, but not race-based discrimination. We observed that sexual orientation-based discrimination was associated with sexual HIV risk behavior among urban-dwelling MSM. Addressing environmental sources of this form of discrimination, as well as the psychological distress that may result, should be prioritized in HIV prevention efforts. PMID:25381561

  4. Sexual orientation- and race-based discrimination and sexual HIV risk behavior among urban MSM.

    Frye, Victoria; Nandi, Vijay; Egan, James; Cerda, Magdalena; Greene, Emily; Van Tieu, Hong; Ompad, Danielle C; Hoover, Donald R; Lucy, Debbie; Baez, Eduardo; Koblin, Beryl A

    2015-02-01

    Understanding what social factors are associated with risk of HIV acquisition and transmission among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (MSM) is a critical public health goal. Experiencing discrimination may increase risk of HIV infection among MSM. This analysis assessed relations between experiences of sexual orientation- and race-based discrimination and sexual HIV risk behavior among MSM in New York City. 1,369 MSM completed a self-administered computerized assessment of past 3-month sexual behavior, experience of social discrimination and other covariates. Regression models assessed relations between recent experience of discrimination and sexual HIV risk behavior. Mean age was 32 years; 32 % were white; 32 % Latino/Hispanic; 25 % African American/Black. Of MSM who self-reported HIV-positive or unknown status (377), 7 % (N = 27) reported having unprotected insertive anal intercourse with an HIV-negative or unknown status partner ("HIV transmission risk"). Of MSM who self-reported HIV-negative status (992), 11 % (110) reported unprotected receptive anal intercourse with an HIV-positive or unknown status partner ("HIV acquisition risk"). HIV acquisition risk was positively associated with sexual orientation-based discrimination in home or social neighborhoods, but not race-based discrimination. We observed that sexual orientation-based discrimination was associated with sexual HIV risk behavior among urban-dwelling MSM. Addressing environmental sources of this form of discrimination, as well as the psychological distress that may result, should be prioritized in HIV prevention efforts.

  5. Child Sexual Abuse and Negative Affect as Shared Risk Factors for Sexual Aggression and Sexual HIV Risk Behavior in Heterosexual Men.

    Peterson, Zoё D; Janssen, Erick; Goodrich, David; Fortenberry, J Dennis; Hensel, Devon J; Heiman, Julia R

    2018-02-01

    Previous research has suggested that sexually aggressive behavior and sexual HIV risk behavior are associated. Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is a well-established risk factor for both types of problematic sexual behavior. Negative affect (i.e., anxiety, depression, and anger) is a less well-studied risk factor, but it has been theorized to relate to both sexual aggression and HIV risk behavior. Thus, this study sought to (1) confirm the relationship between sexual aggression and HIV risk behavior, (2) establish CSA and negative affect as shared risk factors for sexual aggression and HIV risk behavior, and (3) evaluate whether negative affect mediates the relationship between CSA and sexual aggression and between CSA and HIV sexual risk in a sample of heterosexual men. We recruited 18- to 30-year-old heterosexual men (N = 377) from urban sexually transmitted infection clinics. Men completed measures of sexual HIV risk history (number of partners and condom use), sexual aggression history, CSA history, and trait negative affect (anger, anxiety, and depression). Structural equation modeling was used to examine hypothesized direct and indirect relationships. In the final SEM model, sexual aggression history and sexual HIV risk behavior were correlated. CSA was associated with both types of problematic sexual behavior. Anxiety significantly mediated the relationship between CSA and sexual aggression and between CSA and sexual HIV risk behavior (χ 2 [1300] = 2121.79, p Sexual aggression appears to be part of a constellation of sexual risk behaviors; thus, it may be possible to develop prevention programs that target both sexual HIV risk and sexual aggression. CSA is a shared risk factor for sexual aggression and HIV risk behavior through the pathway of anxiety. Thus, anxiety might be one promising target for intervention.

  6. Psychiatric Severity and HIV-Risk Sexual Behaviors among Persons with Substance Use Disorders

    Majer, John M.; Komer, Anne C.; Jason, and Leonard A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The relationship between mental illness and human-immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-risk sexual behavior among persons with substance use disorders is not well established because of differences in assessing psychiatric factors (types, symptoms, severity), substance use (diagnosis, survey responses, past substance use) and HIV-risk sexual behaviors (individual measures, combination of sex/drug use risk behaviors) across studies. This study utilized a more global and dimensional aspect of psychiatric issues (problem severity), to examine the relationship with HIV-risk sexual behaviors and substance use among persons with substance use disorders. Methods Participants included 224 men and 46 women, with a mean age of 40.4 years (SD = 9.5). The most common substances were heroin/opiates, with 41.4% reporting use of these substances (n = 110, 110/266), while 27.8% reported using cocaine (n = 74, 74/266) and 12.8% reported using alcohol (n = 34, 34/266). Of all participants, 39 (14.4%) were identified as having high psychiatric severity (defined using the psychiatric severity score from the Addiction Severity Index), which was used as an indication of probable comorbid psychiatric and substance use disorders. Among these participants likely to have comorbid disorders, hierarchical linear regression was conducted to examine HIV-risk sexual behaviors (number of partners and unprotected sexual behaviors in the past 30 days) in relation to psychiatric severity, substance use, and gender. Results Gender (women) and psychiatric severity (higher) were significantly related to greater HIV-risk sexual behaviors. After entering gender and substance use into the regression model, psychiatric severity accounted for another 21.9% of the variance in number of partners and 14.1% of the variance in unprotected sexual behaviors. Overall, the models accounted for 55.5% and 15.6% of the variance, respectively. A significant interaction was found for number of partners (but not

  7. Determinants of Risky Sexual Behavior, Relation between HIV Risk ...

    Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal ... Partial correlation and linear regression was used to assess the applicability of Theory of Planned Behavior model in predicting intention to use condom and ... In this study, Theory of Planned Behavior explained 39.3% of variances in intention to consistent condom use.

  8. Predictors of HIV-risk sexual behavior: examining lifetime sexual and physical abuse histories in relation to substance use and psychiatric problem severity among ex-offenders.

    Majer, John M; Rodriguez, Jaclyn; Bloomer, Craig; Jason, Leonard A

    2014-01-01

    Lifetime histories of sexual and physical abuse have been associated with increased HIV-risk sexual behavior, and some studies have identified other variables associated with these relationships. However, there is a dearth of literature that has critically examined abuse histories and HIV-risk sexual behavior in relation to these other variables. Predictors of HIV-risk sexual behavior were analyzed among a sample of ex-offenders who were completing inpatient substance dependence treatment to identify factors related to increases in HIV-risk sexual behavior beyond that of abuse histories. Hierarchical linear regression was conducted to examine sociodemographic characteristics, recent substance use, and current psychiatric problem severity in addition to lifetime histories of sexual/physical abuse in a cross-sectional design. Gender, substance use, and psychiatric problem severity predicted increases in HIV-risk sexual behavior beyond what was predicted by abuse histories. Proportionately more women than men reported abuse histories. In addition, significantly more unprotected sexual than safer sexual practices were observed, but differences in these practices based on lifetime abuse histories and gender were not significant. Findings suggest recent substance use and current psychiatric problem severity are greater risk factors for HIV-risk sexual behavior than lifetime abuse histories among persons who have substance use disorders.

  9. Knowledge of AIDS and HIV risk-related sexual behavior among Nigerian naval personnel

    Nwokoji, Ugboga Adaji; Ajuwon, Ademola J

    2004-01-01

    Background The epidemic of HIV continues to grow in Nigeria. Personnel in the military are at increased risk of HIV infection. Although HIV-risk related sexual behavior of Nigerian police officers has been studied, little is known about the sexual behavior of their counterparts in the Navy. This study describes knowledge of AIDS, and HIV-risk sexual behavior of naval personnel in Lagos Nigeria. Methods Four hundred and eighty personnel of the Nigerian Navy completed a 70-item questionnaire in 2002. Group discussion and in-depth interviews of four key informants were also conducted to gain insights into the context of risky sexual behaviors and suggestions for feasible HIV primary prevention interventions. Results The mean age of the respondents was 34 years. Although the overall mean AIDS knowledge score was 7.1 of 10 points, 52.1% of respondents believed that a cure for AIDS was available in Nigeria and that one can get HIV by sharing personal items with an infected person (25.3%). The majority (88.1%) had had lifetime multiple partners ranging from 1–40 with a mean of 5.1; 32.5% of male respondents had had sexual contact with a female sex worker, 19.9% did so during the six months preceding the survey. Forty-one percent of those with sexual contact with a female sex worker did not use a condom during the most recent sexual encounter with these women. Naval personnel who have been transferred abroad reported significantly more risky sexual behaviors than others. Group discussants and key informants believed that sex with multiple partners is a tradition that has persisted in the navy even in the era of AIDS because of the belief that AIDS affects only foreigners, that use of traditional medicine provides protection against HIV infection, and influence of alcohol. Conclusion Many naval personnel report participating in high-risk sexual behavior which may increase their risk of acquiring and spreading HIV. Naval personnel live and interact freely with civilian

  10. Knowledge of AIDS and HIV risk-related sexual behavior among Nigerian naval personnel

    Ajuwon Ademola J

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The epidemic of HIV continues to grow in Nigeria. Personnel in the military are at increased risk of HIV infection. Although HIV-risk related sexual behavior of Nigerian police officers has been studied, little is known about the sexual behavior of their counterparts in the Navy. This study describes knowledge of AIDS, and HIV-risk sexual behavior of naval personnel in Lagos Nigeria. Methods Four hundred and eighty personnel of the Nigerian Navy completed a 70-item questionnaire in 2002. Group discussion and in-depth interviews of four key informants were also conducted to gain insights into the context of risky sexual behaviors and suggestions for feasible HIV primary prevention interventions. Results The mean age of the respondents was 34 years. Although the overall mean AIDS knowledge score was 7.1 of 10 points, 52.1% of respondents believed that a cure for AIDS was available in Nigeria and that one can get HIV by sharing personal items with an infected person (25.3%. The majority (88.1% had had lifetime multiple partners ranging from 1–40 with a mean of 5.1; 32.5% of male respondents had had sexual contact with a female sex worker, 19.9% did so during the six months preceding the survey. Forty-one percent of those with sexual contact with a female sex worker did not use a condom during the most recent sexual encounter with these women. Naval personnel who have been transferred abroad reported significantly more risky sexual behaviors than others. Group discussants and key informants believed that sex with multiple partners is a tradition that has persisted in the navy even in the era of AIDS because of the belief that AIDS affects only foreigners, that use of traditional medicine provides protection against HIV infection, and influence of alcohol. Conclusion Many naval personnel report participating in high-risk sexual behavior which may increase their risk of acquiring and spreading HIV. Naval personnel live and

  11. Trauma Symptoms, Sexual Behaviors, and Substance Abuse: Correlates of Childhood Sexual Abuse and HIV Risks among Men Who Have Sex with Men

    Kalichman, Seth C.; Gore-Felton, Cheryl; Benotsch, Eric; Cage, Marjorie; Rompa, David

    2004-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse is associated with high-risk sexual behavior in men who have sex with men. This study examined psychological and behavioral correlates of HIV risk behavior associated with childhood sexual abuse in a sample of men who have sex with men. Men attending a large gay pride event (N = 647) completed anonymous surveys that assessed…

  12. Differences in Sexual Practices, Sexual Behavior and HIV Risk Profile between Adolescents and Young Persons in Rural and Urban Nigeria.

    Folayan, Morenike Oluwatoyin; Adebajo, Sylvia; Adeyemi, Adedayo; Ogungbemi, Kayode Micheal

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to determine differences in sexual practices, HIV sexual risk behaviors, and HIV risk profile of adolescents and young persons' in rural and urban Nigeria. We recruited 772 participants 15 to 24 years old from urban and rural townships in Nigeria through a household survey. Information on participants' socio-demographic profile (age sex, residential area, number of meals taken per day), sexual practices (vagina, oral and anal sex; heterosexual and homosexual sex; sex with spouse, casual acquaintances, boy/girlfriend and commercial sex workers), sexual behavior (age of sexual debut, use of condom, multiple sex partners, transactional sex and age of sexual partner), and other HIV risk factors (use of alcohol and psychoactive substances, reason for sexual debut, knowledge of HIV prevention and HIV transmission, report of STI symptoms) were collected through an interviewer administered questionnaire. Differences in sexual behavior and sexual practices of adolescents and HIV risk profile of adolescents and young persons resident in urban and rural areas were determined. More than half (53.5%) of the respondents were sexually active, with more residing in the rural than urban areas (64.9% vs 44.1%; p<0.001) and more resident in the rural area reporting having more than one sexual partner (29.5% vs 20.4%; p = 0.04). Also, 97.3% of sexually active respondents reported having vaginal sex, 8.7% reported oral sex and 1.9% reported anal sex. More male than female respondents in the urban area used condoms during the last vaginal sexual intercourse (69.1% vs 51.9%; p = 0.02), and reported sex with casual partners (7.0% vs 15.3%; p = 0.007). More female than male respondents residing in the rural area engaged in transactional sex (1.0% vs 6.7%; p = 0.005). More females than males in both rural (3.6% vs 10.2%; p = 0.04) and urban (4.7% vs 26.6%; p<0.001) areas self-reported a history of discharge. More females than males in both rural (1.4% vs 17.0%; p = 0.04) and urban

  13. Differences in Sexual Practices, Sexual Behavior and HIV Risk Profile between Adolescents and Young Persons in Rural and Urban Nigeria.

    Morenike Oluwatoyin Folayan

    Full Text Available We aimed to determine differences in sexual practices, HIV sexual risk behaviors, and HIV risk profile of adolescents and young persons' in rural and urban Nigeria.We recruited 772 participants 15 to 24 years old from urban and rural townships in Nigeria through a household survey. Information on participants' socio-demographic profile (age sex, residential area, number of meals taken per day, sexual practices (vagina, oral and anal sex; heterosexual and homosexual sex; sex with spouse, casual acquaintances, boy/girlfriend and commercial sex workers, sexual behavior (age of sexual debut, use of condom, multiple sex partners, transactional sex and age of sexual partner, and other HIV risk factors (use of alcohol and psychoactive substances, reason for sexual debut, knowledge of HIV prevention and HIV transmission, report of STI symptoms were collected through an interviewer administered questionnaire. Differences in sexual behavior and sexual practices of adolescents and HIV risk profile of adolescents and young persons resident in urban and rural areas were determined.More than half (53.5% of the respondents were sexually active, with more residing in the rural than urban areas (64.9% vs 44.1%; p<0.001 and more resident in the rural area reporting having more than one sexual partner (29.5% vs 20.4%; p = 0.04. Also, 97.3% of sexually active respondents reported having vaginal sex, 8.7% reported oral sex and 1.9% reported anal sex. More male than female respondents in the urban area used condoms during the last vaginal sexual intercourse (69.1% vs 51.9%; p = 0.02, and reported sex with casual partners (7.0% vs 15.3%; p = 0.007. More female than male respondents residing in the rural area engaged in transactional sex (1.0% vs 6.7%; p = 0.005. More females than males in both rural (3.6% vs 10.2%; p = 0.04 and urban (4.7% vs 26.6%; p<0.001 areas self-reported a history of discharge. More females than males in both rural (1.4% vs 17.0%; p = 0.04 and

  14. Gender Power Control, Sexual Experiences, Safer Sex Practices, and Potential HIV Risk Behaviors Among Young Asian-American Women

    Lee, Jieha; Rough, Kathryn; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the prevalence of three domains of sexual behaviors among young Asian-American women: sexual experiences, safer sex practices, and potential HIV risk behaviors. We also investigated the impact of gender power control on these domains. Among sexually experienced women, 51% reported using condoms during their most recent sex act, 63% reported inconsistent condom use, and 18% reported ever having forced sex. Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed that women’s perceived lower relationship power control was not associated with vaginal sex or safer sex practices, but it was powerfully associated with forced sex and all three potential HIV risk behaviors. This study demonstrates that control within young Asian-American women’s intimate relationships exerts different associations depending on the type of sexual behavior. The application of the Theory of Gender and Power should be employed with prudence when designing HIV interventions for this population. PMID:21259042

  15. Gender power control, sexual experiences, safer sex practices, and potential HIV risk behaviors among young Asian-American women.

    Hahm, Hyeouk Chris; Lee, Jieha; Rough, Kathryn; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2012-01-01

    We examined the prevalence of three domains of sexual behaviors among young Asian-American women: sexual experiences, safer sex practices, and potential HIV risk behaviors. We also investigated the impact of gender power control on these domains. Among sexually experienced women, 51% reported using condoms during their most recent sex act, 63% reported inconsistent condom use, and 18% reported ever having forced sex. Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed that women's perceived lower relationship power control was not associated with vaginal sex or safer sex practices, but it was powerfully associated with forced sex and all three potential HIV risk behaviors. This study demonstrates that control within young Asian-American women's intimate relationships exerts different associations depending on the type of sexual behavior. The application of the Theory of Gender and Power should be employed with prudence when designing HIV interventions for this population.

  16. Current Age, Age at First Sex, Age at First Homelessness, and HIV Risk Perceptions Predict Sexual Risk Behaviors among Sexually Active Homeless Adults

    Diane Santa Maria

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available While HIV disproportionately impacts homeless individuals, little is known about the prevalence of HIV risk behaviors in the southwest and how age factors and HIV risk perceptions influence sexual risk behaviors. We conducted a secondary data analysis (n = 460 on sexually active homeless adults from a cross-sectional study of participants (n = 610 recruited from homeless service locations, such as shelters and drop-in centers, in an understudied region of the southwest. Covariate-adjusted logistic regressions were used to assess the impact of age at homelessness onset, current age, age at first sex, and HIV risk perceptions on having condomless sex, new sexual partner(s, and multiple sexual partners (≥4 sexual partners in the past 12 months. Individuals who first experienced homelessness by age 24 were significantly more likely to report condomless sex and multiple sexual partners in the past year than those who had a later onset of their first episode of homelessness. Individuals who were currently 24 years or younger were more likely to have had condomless sex, new sexual partners, and multiple sexual partners in the past 12 months than those who were 25 years or older. Those who had low perceived HIV risk had lower odds of all three sexual risk behaviors. Social service and healthcare providers should consider a younger age at homelessness onset when targeting HIV prevention services to youth experiencing homelessness.

  17. The Effects of Gay Sexually Explicit Media on the HIV Risk Behavior of Men Who Have Sex with Men

    Rosser, B R Simon; Smolenski, Derek J; Erickson, Darin

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to study consumption patterns of gay-oriented sexually explicit media (SEM) by men who have sex with men (MSM); and to investigate a hypothesized relationship between gay SEM consumption and HIV risk behavior. Participants were 1,391 MSM living in the US, recruited online...... to complete a SEM consumption and sexual risk survey. Almost all (98.5 %) reported some gay SEM exposure over the last 90 days. While 41 % reported a preference to watch actors perform anal sex without condoms (termed "bareback SEM"), 17 % preferred to actors perform anal sex with condoms (termed "safer sex...

  18. Racial discrimination and posttraumatic stress symptoms as pathways to sexual HIV risk behaviors among urban Black heterosexual men.

    Bowleg, Lisa; Fitz, Caroline C; Burkholder, Gary J; Massie, Jenne S; Wahome, Rahab; Teti, Michelle; Malebranche, David J; Tschann, Jeanne M

    2014-01-01

    In light of evidence that racial discrimination and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) are neither rare nor extraordinary for many Black urban men, we examined the relationship between everyday racial discrimination and sexual HIV risk behaviors in a predominantly low-income sample of 526 urban Black heterosexually identified men; 64% of whom were unemployed and 55% of whom reported a history of incarceration. We tested the hypothesis that PTSS would mediate the relationship between everyday racial discrimination and sexual risk. Participants in the predominantly low-income urban sample ranged in age from 18 to 45 (M = 28.80, SD = 7.57). Three multiple regression models were used to test the study's mediational model. As hypothesized, PTSS mediated the relationship between everyday racial discrimination and sexual risk behaviors. Most participants (97%) reported experiences with everyday racial discrimination. Results empirically support the notion of racial discrimination-based traumatic stress as a pathway to Black heterosexual men's increased sexual risk behaviors. Results also highlighted key demographic differences with older men reporting fewer PTSS and sexual risk behaviors compared with younger men. Incarceration was related to both PTSS and sexual risk, underscoring the role that incarceration may play in Black heterosexual men's adverse health outcomes. Our study highlights the need for more qualitative and quantitative research to understand the nature of PTSS in Black heterosexual men and mechanisms such as substance use that may link traumatic experiences and sexual risk. Future research could also assess experiences with childhood sexual abuse, violence, and incarceration to gain a more in-depth understanding of the sources of traumatic stress in Black heterosexual men's lives. We advocate for the development of community-based individual and structural-level interventions to help Black heterosexual men in urban areas develop effective strategies to

  19. The influence of religion on sexual HIV risk.

    Shaw, Stacey A; El-Bassel, Nabila

    2014-08-01

    This systematic review examines the relationship between religion and sexual HIV risk behavior. It focuses primarily on how studies have conceptualized and defined religion, methodologies, and sexual risk outcomes. We also describe regions where studies were conducted and mechanisms by which religion may be associated with sexual risk. We included 137 studies in this review, classifying them as measuring: (1) only religious affiliation (n = 57), (2) only religiosity (n = 48), and (3) both religious affiliation and religiosity (n = 32). A number of studies identified lower levels of sexual HIV risk among Muslims, although many of these examined HIV prevalence rather than specific behavioral risk outcomes. Most studies identified increased religiosity to be associated with lower levels of sexual HIV risk. This finding persists but is weaker when the outcome considered is condom use. The paper reviews ways in which religion may contribute to increase and reduction in sexual HIV risk, gaps in research, and implications for future research on religion and HIV.

  20. Sexual Behavior, Mental Health, Substance Use, and HIV Risk Among Agency-Based Male Escorts in a Small U.S. City.

    Smith, Michael D; Seal, D W

    2008-03-01

    Relatively little research has examined the personal sex lives of indoor male sex workers (MSWs) or possible connections in this group between sexual behavior and factors related to HIV risk. As part of a larger project, this study collected data from 30 agency-based indoor MSWs (mean = 22.4 years) about their sexual behavior, mental health, and substance use. Few HIV risk behaviors with clients occurred. Drug use and mental health problems were relatively frequent, but not related to increased risk behavior. Instead, MSWs appeared to employ rational decision-making and harm-reduction strategies. Conceptualization of MSW sexual behavior may be required where HIV risk is not attributed to sex work per se, but to other influences such as economic and relational factors.

  1. Social Desirability Bias and Prevalence of Sexual HIV Risk Behaviors Among People Who Use Drugs in Baltimore, Maryland: Implications for Identifying Individuals Prone to Underreporting Sexual Risk Behaviors.

    Rao, Amrita; Tobin, Karin; Davey-Rothwell, Melissa; Latkin, Carl A

    2017-07-01

    The role of social desirability bias (SDB) in self-reported HIV risk behaviors continues to be problematic. This study examined whether SDB was associated with self-reported, via audio computer assisted self-interviewing, sexual risk behaviors among people who use drugs. The present study was conducted among 559 participants who reported having a recent sexual partner at their 6-month visit of a longitudinal study. Robust Poisson regression was used to model the association between SDB and five risk behaviors. Analyses were stratified by gender and partner type. Higher scores of SDB were associated with decreased reporting of selling sex and having more than one sexual partner. Higher SDB scores were associated with increased reporting of always using condoms during oral, vaginal, and anal sex. Gender-specific differences were observed. The inclusion of a measure of SDB in data collection, along with other strategies, can be used to both identify and reduce self-report biases.

  2. Pathways from Childhood Abuse and Neglect to HIV-Risk Sexual Behavior in Middle Adulthood

    Wilson, Helen W.; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study examines the relationship between childhood abuse and neglect and sexual risk behavior in middle adulthood and whether psychosocial factors (risky romantic relationships, affective symptoms, drug and alcohol use, and delinquent and criminal behavior) mediate this relationship. Method: Children with documented cases of…

  3. Modeling ecodevelopmental context of sexually transmitted disease/HIV risk and protective behaviors among African-American adolescents

    Li Y

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Ya-Huei Li,1 Osaro Mgbere,1,2 Susan Abughosh,1 Hua Chen,1 Paula Cuccaro,3 Ekere James Essien1,3 1Department of Pharmaceutical Health Outcomes and Policy, College of Pharmacy, University of Houston, Texas Medical Center, Houston, TX, USA; 2Houston Health Department, Houston, TX, USA; 3Department of Health Promotion and Behavioral Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, TX, USA Abstract: Risk and protective processes are integrated developmental processes that directly or indirectly affect behavioral outcomes. A better understanding of these processes is needed, in order to gauge their contribution to sexual risk behaviors. This retrospective cross-sectional study modeled the ecodevelopmental chain of relationships to examine the social contexts of African-American (AA adolescents associated with sexually transmitted disease (STD- and HIV-risk behaviors. We used data from 1,619 AA adolescents with an average age of 16±1.8 years obtained from the first wave of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health for this study. Confirmatory factor analysis followed by structural equation modeling was conducted to identify the latent constructs that reflect the social–interactional components of the ecodevelopmental theory. Among contextual factors, findings indicated that a feeling of love from father, school, religion, and parent attitudes toward adolescent sexual behavior were all factors that played significant roles in the sexual behavior of AA adolescents. AA adolescents who reported feeling love from their father, feeling a strong negative attitude from their parents toward having sex at a very young age, and having a strong bond with school personnel were associated with better health statuses. The level of parents’ involvement in their children’s lives was reflected in the adolescents’ feeling of love from parents and moderated by their socioeconomic status. Being male, attaining

  4. Risky sexual behaviors: The role of ethnic identity in HIV risk in migrant workers.

    Shehadeh, Nancy; McCoy, H Virginia

    2014-01-01

    Migrant workers have been shown to be at a heightened level of risk for HIV, and ethnic identity has been posited to have an impact on engagement in risky sexual behaviors. Our longitudinal study examined associations between baseline and short-term changes in ethnic identity and high-risk sexual behaviors. Baseline (n = 431) and 6-month assessment (n = 270) data were obtained from a larger HIV prevention study conducted among African American and Hispanic migrant workers. Repeated-measures multivariate analysis of covariance and multiple linear regressions were used. Ethnic identity explore, a subscale of ethnic identity, was a significant predictor of overall sexual risk [F(8, 422) = 6.953, p AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Couple Relationship Functioning as a Source or Mitigator of HIV Risk: Associations Between Relationship Quality and Sexual Risk Behavior in Peri-urban Uganda.

    Ruark, Allison; Kajubi, Phoebe; Ruteikara, Sam; Green, Edward C; Hearst, Norman

    2018-04-01

    Despite evidence that a greater focus on couples could strengthen HIV prevention efforts, little health-related research has explored relationship functioning and relationship quality among couples in Africa. Using data from 162 couples (324 individuals) resident in a peri-urban Ugandan community, we assessed actor and partner effects of sexual risk behaviors on relationship quality, using psychometric measures of dyadic adjustment, sexual satisfaction, commitment, intimacy, and communication. For women and men, poor relationship quality was associated with having concurrent sexual partners and suspecting that one's partner had concurrent sexual partners (actor effects). Women's poor relationship quality was also associated with men's sexual risk behaviors (partner effects), although the inverse partner effect was not observed. These findings suggest that relationship quality is linked to HIV risk, particularly through the pathway of concurrent sexual partnerships, and that positive relationship attributes such as sexual satisfaction, intimacy, and constructive communication can help couples to avoid risk.

  6. Pre-migration trauma and HIV-risk behavior.

    Steel, Jennifer; Herlitz, Claes; Matthews, Jesse; Snyder, Wendy; Mazzaferro, Kathryn; Baum, Andy; Theorell, Töres

    2003-03-01

    This study examined the relationship between pre-migration trauma and HIV-risk behavior in refugees from sub-Saharan Africa. The sample comprised 122 persons who had emigrated from sub-Saharan Africa and were currently residing in Sweden. Qualitative methods including individual interviews, focus groups, and interviews with key informants addressed questions regarding trauma experience and HIV-risk behavior. A history of pre-migration trauma was found to be associated with HIV-risk behavior. According to the participants, symptoms associated with post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, adjustment disorder, and substance use mediated the relationship between pre-migration trauma and sexual risk behavior. In contrast, a minority of the participants who reported pre-migration trauma but not psychological sequelae, or experienced post-traumatic growth, reported safer sexual practices. It appears that for some individuals, pre-migration trauma resulted in psychiatric sequelae, which may increase an individual's risk to be infected with HIV. Interventions targeted at individuals at increased risk (i.e. pre-migration trauma with unresolved psychiatric symptomatology) may facilitate the prevention of HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases in this population. Integration of multiple psychosocial and health issues is recommended for comprehensive treatment and prevention programs.

  7. Impact of Sexual Violence Across the Lifespan on HIV Risk Behaviors Among Transgender Women and Cisgender People Living With HIV.

    Smith, Laramie R; Yore, Jennifer; Triplett, Daniel P; Urada, Lianne; Nemoto, Tooru; Raj, Anita

    2017-08-01

    To examine sexual violence across the lifespan among transgender and cisgender people living with HIV and its associations with recent risk behaviors. Seven community-based sites serving priority populations disproportionately affected by HIV in the United States, including major metropolitan areas in the West and East Coast, as well as the suburban Mid-Atlantic and rural Southeastern regions. From 2013 to 2016, baseline survey data were collected from participants (N = 583) of a multisite community-based HIV linkage to/retention in care study conducted at 7 sites across the United States. Adjusted mixed-effects logistic regression models with random effect for site-assessed associations of sexual violence and gender identity with risk outcomes including condomless sex, sex trade involvement, and substance use-related harms. One-third of participants reported a history of sexual violence; transgender [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 5.1, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.6 to 10.1] and cisgender women (AOR = 3.8, 95% CI: 2.3 to 6.4) were more likely than cisgender men to experience sexual violence. Sexual violence was associated with experiencing drug-related harms (AOR = 2.6, 95% CI: 1.2 to 5.5). Transgender women were more likely than cisgender men to have sold sex (AOR = 9.3, 95% CI: 1.7 to 50.0). A history of sexual violence is common among transgender and cisgender women PLWH, and it increases risk for drug-related harms. Transgender women are also more likely to report selling sex.

  8. Sexual HIV Risk Among Male Parolees and Their Female Partners: The Relate Project.

    Comfort, Megan; Reznick, Olga Grinstead; Dilworth, Samantha E; Binson, Diane; Darbes, Lynae A; Neilands, Torsten B

    The massively disproportionate impact of America's prison boom on communities of color has raised questions about how incarceration may affect health disparities, including disparities in HIV. Primary partners are an important source of influence on sexual health. In this paper, we investigate sexual HIV risk among male-female couples following a man's release from prison. We draw upon data from the Relate Project, a novel cross-sectional survey of recently released men and their female partners in Oakland and San Francisco, California (N=344). Inferential analyses use the actor-partner model to explore actor and partner effects on sexual HIV risk outcomes. Dyadic analyses of sexual HIV risk among male parolees and their female partners paint a complex portrait of couples affected by incarceration and of partners' influences on each other. Findings indicate that demographic factors such as education level and employment status, individual psycho-social factors such as perception of risk, and relationship factors such as commitment and power affect sexual HIV risk outcomes. The Relate Project provides a novel dataset for the dyadic analysis of sexual risk among male parolees and their female partners, and results highlight the importance of focusing on the couple as a unit when assessing HIV risk and protective behaviors. Results also indicate potentially fruitful avenues for population-specific interventions that may help to reduce sexual health disparities among couples affected by incarceration.

  9. Forced sexual initiation, sexual intimate partner violence and HIV risk in women: A global review of the literature

    Stockman, Jamila K.; Lucea, Marguerite B.; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.

    2012-01-01

    Coerced or forced sexual initiation and sexual intimate partner violence (sexual IPV) contribute significantly to a woman’s risk for HIV infection. This review systematically examines global research (n=21 studies) published since 2000 on the role of coerced/forced sexual initiation and sexual IPV on HIV risk in women. In predominantly low- and middle-income countries, coerced/forced sexual initiation was associated with HIV/STIs, multiple and high-risk sex partners, and no condom use. Most studies using behaviorally specific terms for sexual IPV found strong associations between sexual IPV and HIV risk behaviors. In contrast, studies using less specific definitions often failed to find these significant associations. To develop more comprehensive HIV prevention programs, future efforts should integrate behaviorally specific terms into assessing prevalence of sexual IPV and its association with HIV risk, consider cultural differences, and identify causal pathways between coerced or forced sexual initiation, HIV risk behaviors and HIV/STI infection. PMID:23143750

  10. The SEM Risk Behavior (SRB) Model: A New Conceptual Model of how Pornography Influences the Sexual Intentions and HIV Risk Behavior of MSM.

    Wilkerson, J Michael; Iantaffi, Alex; Smolenski, Derek J; Brady, Sonya S; Horvath, Keith J; Grey, Jeremy A; Rosser, B R Simon

    2012-01-01

    While the effects of sexually explicit media (SEM) on heterosexuals' sexual intentions and behaviors have been studied, little is known about the consumption and possible influence of SEM among men who have sex with men (MSM). Importantly, conceptual models of how Internet-based SEM influences behavior are lacking. Seventy-nine MSM participated in online focus groups about their SEM viewing preferences and sexual behavior. Twenty-three participants reported recent exposure to a new behavior via SEM. Whether participants modified their sexual intentions and/or engaged in the new behavior depended on three factors: arousal when imagining the behavior, pleasure when attempting the behavior, and trust between sex partners. Based on MSM's experience, we advance a model of how viewing a new sexual behavior in SEM influences sexual intentions and behaviors. The model includes five paths. Three paths result in the maintenance of sexual intentions and behaviors. One path results in a modification of sexual intentions while maintaining previous sexual behaviors, and one path results in a modification of both sexual intentions and behaviors. With this model, researchers have a framework to test associations between SEM consumption and sexual intentions and behavior, and public health programs have a framework to conceptualize SEM-based HIV/STI prevention programs.

  11. Sexual Abuse, Violence And Hiv Risk Among Adolescents In South ...

    The aim of the study is to investigate sexual abuse, violence and HIV risk among a sample of South African adolescents. The sample included 400 male and 400 female 16 or 17 year-olds; 400 were from rural and 400 from urban areas, and almost all from African descent. Participants were chosen by multi-stage cluster and ...

  12. HIV Risk Perception, Sexual Behavior, and HIV Prevalence among Men-Who-Have-Sex-with-Men at a Community-Based Voluntary Counseling and Testing Center in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    Koh, Kwee Choy; Yong, Lit Sin

    2014-01-01

    We describe the HIV risk perception, sexual behavior, and HIV prevalence among 423 men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM) clients who received voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) services at a community-based center in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The mean age was 29 years old. One hundred one (23.9%) clients rated themselves as low risk, 118 (27.9%) as medium risk, 36 (8.5%) as high risk, and 168 (39.7%) were unsure of their risk. Twenty-four (9.4%) clients tested HIV positive (4 (4%) low risk, 9 (7.6%) medium risk, 11 (30.6%) high risk, and 13 (7.7%) unsure risk). We found a positive correlation between risk perception and HIV infection in this study. Clients with high HIV risk perception have 17x the odds of testing HIV positive compared to low risk clients. High HIV risk perception was significantly associated with multiple sex partners, multiple types of sex partners, alcohol use before intercourse, unprotected sex beyond 6 months, and inconsistent condom use during anal sex compared to low risk clients. There were no statistically significant differences between medium risk and unsure risk clients compared to low risk clients. Strategies should be targeted towards change in sexual practices among those who are perceived to be at high risk.

  13. HIV Risk Perception, Sexual Behavior, and HIV Prevalence among Men-Who-Have-Sex-with-Men at a Community-Based Voluntary Counseling and Testing Center in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    Kwee Choy Koh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the HIV risk perception, sexual behavior, and HIV prevalence among 423 men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM clients who received voluntary counseling and testing (VCT services at a community-based center in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The mean age was 29 years old. One hundred one (23.9% clients rated themselves as low risk, 118 (27.9% as medium risk, 36 (8.5% as high risk, and 168 (39.7% were unsure of their risk. Twenty-four (9.4% clients tested HIV positive (4 (4% low risk, 9 (7.6% medium risk, 11 (30.6% high risk, and 13 (7.7% unsure risk. We found a positive correlation between risk perception and HIV infection in this study. Clients with high HIV risk perception have 17x the odds of testing HIV positive compared to low risk clients. High HIV risk perception was significantly associated with multiple sex partners, multiple types of sex partners, alcohol use before intercourse, unprotected sex beyond 6 months, and inconsistent condom use during anal sex compared to low risk clients. There were no statistically significant differences between medium risk and unsure risk clients compared to low risk clients. Strategies should be targeted towards change in sexual practices among those who are perceived to be at high risk.

  14. Elicitation of cognitions related to HIV risk behaviors in persons with mental illnesses: implications for prevention.

    Tennille, Julie; Solomon, Phyllis; Fishbein, Martin; Blank, Michael

    2009-01-01

    An important step in research using the Theory of Reasoned Action and Theory of Planned Behavior (TRA/TPB) is conducting an elicitation process to identify topic and population specific cognitions. This study explored HIV risk behaviors in persons with mental illnesses and introduces findings from focus groups conducted during the development phase of an HIV primary and secondary prevention intervention study. Researchers held four focus groups with persons with mental illnesses focused on HIV risks and condom use. Participants discussed sexual side effects of psychotropic medications as a potential cause of both medication non-adherence and HIV risk behaviors. The intersection of these two issues is specific to this population. We conclude with the recommendation that HIV primary and secondary prevention intervention for persons with mental illnesses must incorporate the promotion of healthy sexuality, including attention to sexual side effects of psychotropic medications.

  15. HIV Risk Perception, Sexual Behavior, and HIV Prevalence among Men-Who-Have-Sex-with-Men at a Community-Based Voluntary Counseling and Testing Center in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    Koh, Kwee Choy; Yong, Lit Sin

    2014-01-01

    We describe the HIV risk perception, sexual behavior, and HIV prevalence among 423 men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM) clients who received voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) services at a community-based center in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The mean age was 29 years old. One hundred one (23.9%) clients rated themselves as low risk, 118 (27.9%) as medium risk, 36 (8.5%) as high risk, and 168 (39.7%) were unsure of their risk. Twenty-four (9.4%) clients tested HIV positive (4 (4%) low risk, 9 (7....

  16. HIV Risk Perception and Risky Behavior Among People Who Inject Drugs in Kermanshah, Western Iran.

    Noroozi, Mehdi; Ahounbar, Elahe; Karimi, Salah Eddin; Ahmadi, Sina; Najafi, Mohammad; Bazrafshan, Ali; Shushtari, Zahra Jorjoran; Farhadi, Mohammad Hassan; Higgs, Peter; Rezaei, Fatemeh; Ghiasvand, Hesam; Sharhani, Asaad; Armoon, Bahram; Waye, Katherine

    2017-08-01

    Understanding and increasing awareness on individual risk for HIV infection as well as HIV risk perception's effects on different behavioral outcomes for people who inject drugs (PWID) is important for policymaking and planning purposes. The objectives of the present study were to determine whether HIV risk perception was associated with greater injection and sexual risk-taking behaviors among PWIDs. We surveyed 460 PWID in Kermanshah regarding their demographic characteristics, sexual risk behaviors, HIV risk perception, and drug-related risk behaviors in the month prior to the study. Three classes of HIV risk perception were identified using ordinal regression to determine factors associated with HIV risk perception. Study participants were categorized as follows: "low" (n = 100, 22%), "moderate" (n = 150, 32%), and "high" (n = 210, 46%) risk perception for becoming infected with HIV. The odds of categorizing as "high" risk for HIV was significantly greater in PWID that reported unprotected sex (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 2.4, p value 0.02), receptive syringe sharing (AOR 1.8, p value 0.01), and multiple sex partners (AOR 1.4, p value 0.03). PWID who reported unprotected sex had 2.7 times the odds of "high" risk perception when compared to PWID with "low" risk perception. Findings show that PWID could rate their HIV risk with acceptable accuracy. Additionally, perceived HIV risk was associated with many risk factors for transmission of HIV, emphasizing the importance of developing targeted prevention and harm reduction programs for all domains of risk behaviors, both sexual and drug-related use.

  17. The impact of parenting on gay male couples' relationships, sexuality, and HIV risk

    Huebner, David M.; Mandic, Carmen Gómez; Mackaronis, Julia E.; Beougher, Sean C.; Hoff, Colleen C.

    2014-01-01

    Parenthood changes couples' relationships across multiple domains, generally decreasing relationship quality, sexual satisfaction, and sexual frequency. Emerging research suggests that gay couples who are parenting might experience similar challenges. However, such changes might have even more profound implications for gay couples' health, and in particular their HIV risk, given the somewhat different ways in which they negotiate and tolerate sexual behaviors with outside partners. We aimed to examine these issues in a qualitative analysis of interviews from 48 gay male couples who were actively parenting children. Findings suggest that parenthood increases men's commitment to their primary relationship while simultaneously decreasing time and energy for relationship maintenance, and generally decreasing sexual satisfaction. These challenges alone did not generally result in greater infidelity or HIV risk, as most men reported successfully coping with such changes through a combination of acceptance and revaluing what is important in their relationships. Additionally, couples reported negotiating agreements regarding sex with outside partners that closely resemble those documented in studies of gay couples who are not parents. Men reported that parenthood typically decreased their opportunities to engage in sex with outside partners, but also posed barriers to talking about these behaviors with their partners and healthcare providers. HIV-related sexual risk behavior was relatively rare, but nevertheless present in some men. Providers should assess sexual function as a regular part of their work with gay couples who parent, and facilitate opportunities for men to discuss their sexual agreements both with their primary partners and with relevant healthcare providers. PMID:25674355

  18. Depression and HIV risk behavior practices among at risk women.

    Klein, Hugh; Elifson, Kirk W; Sterk, Claire E

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we examined the relationship between depression and HIV-related risk behavior practices in a sample of 250 at risk, predominantly African American women living in the Atlanta, Georgia metropolitan area. Interviews were conducted between August 1997 and August 2000. Street outreach efforts were used to identify potential study participants, with further expansion of the sample via targeted sampling and ethnographic mapping procedures. Our conceptual model hypothesized a relationship between depression and HIV risk in which depression and condom-related attitudes were construed as intervening (or mediating) variables. A multivariate analysis was used to determine the relationship between depression and women's risk behaviors. The results showed that depression was a key-mediating variable, having its primary influence on women's risky practices through its impact upon their attitudes toward using condoms. Factors associated with depression, included religiosity, closeness of family relationships, financial problems, childhood maltreatment experiences, and drug-related problems. The implications of these findings for prevention and intervention efforts are: (1) heightening faith community involvement and religious participation to decrease depression; (2) working with women whose familial bonds are in need of strengthening to combat depression; (3) providing mental health and counseling services to women who were emotionally and/or sexually abused during their formative years seems to help these women to recover from unresolved issues that may be fueling depression; (4) assisting at risk women who need training in money management issues to minimize their risk for depression; and (5) helping women drug abusers to receive treatment for their drug problems to combat their depression and lower their HIV risk.

  19. Homeless youths' HIV risk behaviors with strangers: Investigating the importance of social networks.

    Tyler, Kimberly A

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between homeless youths' HIV risk behaviors with strangers and risk and protective characteristics of their social networks. Data were from the Social Network and Homeless Youth Project. A total of 249 youth aged 14-21 years were interviewed over 15 months in three Midwestern cities in the United States using a systematic sampling strategy. Multivariate results revealed that homeless youth with a greater average number of network members who engaged in more drug risk behaviors and who pressured them into precarious behaviors at least once were more likely to have participated in a greater number of HIV risk behaviors with strangers compared to homeless youth without such network characteristics. Additionally, 19-21 year olds, gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgendered youth, and those who have run away from home more frequently, participated in more HIV risk behaviors with strangers than 14-18 year olds, heterosexual youth, and those who have run away less often. The final model explained 43 % of the variance in homeless youths' HIV risk behaviors with strangers. It is important to identify network characteristics that are harmful to homeless youth because continued exposure to such networks and participation in dangerous behaviors may result in detrimental outcomes, including contraction of sexually transmitted infections and potentially HIV.

  20. The Prevalence of HIV Risk Behaviors among Felony Drug Court Participants.

    Festinger, David S; Dugosh, Karen L; Metzger, David S; Marlowe, Douglas B

    2012-01-01

    A small percentage of participants in a large metropolitan felony Drug Court engaged in high-risk injection drug use, but a large percentage engaged in high-risk sexual behaviors. HIV risk behaviors were associated with being male, African-American, and younger. A large proportion of Drug Court participants resided in areas of the city with a high prevalence of persons living with HIV/AIDS, thus heightening the probability of exposure to the virus.

  1. Understanding HIV Risk Behavior among Tuberculosis Patients with Alcohol Use Disorders in Tomsk, Russian Federation.

    Ann C Miller

    Full Text Available Russian Federation's (RF HIV epidemic is the fastest growing of any country. This study explores factors associated with high HIV risk behavior in tuberculosis (TB patients with alcohol use disorders in Tomsk, RF. This analysis was nested within the Integrated Management of Physician-delivered Alcohol Care for TB Patients (IMPACT, trial number NCT00675961 randomized controlled study of integrating alcohol treatment into TB treatment in Tomsk. Demographics, HIV risk behavior (defined as participant report of high-risk intravenous drug use and/or multiple sexual partners with inconsistent condom use in the last six months, clinical data, alcohol use, depression and psychosocial factors were collected from 196 participants (161 male and 35 female at baseline. Forty-six participants (23.5% endorsed HIV risk behavior at baseline. Incarceration history(Odds Ratio (OR3.93, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.95, 7.95, age under 41 (OR:2.97, CI:1.46, 6.04, drug addiction(OR: 3.60 CI:1.10, 11.77, history of a sexually transmitted disease(STD(OR 2.00 CI:1.02, 3.90, low social capital (OR:2.81 CI:0.99, 8.03 and heavier alcohol use (OR:2.56 CI: 1.02, 6.46 were significantly more likely to be associated with HIV risk behavior at baseline. In adjusted analysis, age under 41(OR: 4.93, CI: 2.10, 11.58, incarceration history(OR: 3.56 CI:1.55, 8.17 and STD history (OR: 3.48, CI: 1.5, 8.10 continued to be significantly associated with HIV risk behavior. Understanding HIV transmission dynamics in Russia remains an urgent priority to inform strategies to address the epidemic. Larger studies addressing sex differences in risks and barriers to protective behavior are needed.

  2. Ethnic Differences in HIV Risk Behaviors Among Methadone-Maintained Women Receiving Contingency Management for Cocaine Use Disorders

    Barry, Danielle; Weinstock, Jeremiah; Petry, Nancy M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To identify ethnic differences in HIV risk behaviors among cocaine using women receiving methadone maintenance for opioid dependence, and to evaluate the efficacy of contingency management (CM) for cocaine use disorders in reducing HIV risk behaviors. Methods African American (N=47), Hispanic (N=47), and White women (N = 29) were randomized to standard methadone treatment or standard methadone treatment plus a CM intervention. They completed the HIV Risk Behavior Scale (HRBS) indicating frequency of drug use and sexual behaviors across the lifetime, in the month before baseline, and in the 3 months following clinical trial participation. Ethnic group differences and the effect of CM on change in HIV risk behaviors between baseline and follow-up were evaluated. Results White women reported significantly higher lifetime rates of risky drug use and sexual behaviors on the HRBS than African American women; neither group differed significantly from Hispanic women. No ethnic group differences in HIV risk behaviors were identified in the month prior to baseline. At follow-up, African American women reported fewer high-risk drug use behaviors than White or Hispanic women, and Hispanic women reported more high-risk sexual behaviors than White or African American women. CM was associated with reduction in high-risk drug use behaviors regardless of ethnicity, but did not affect high-risk sexual behaviors. Conclusions White women receiving methadone maintenance engage in more lifetime HIV risk behaviors than African American women. CM for cocaine use reduces risky drug use behaviors, but certain ethnic groups may benefit from additional targeted HIV prevention efforts. PMID:18684571

  3. The role of a microfinance program on HIV risk behavior among Haitian women.

    Rosenberg, Molly S; Seavey, Brian K; Jules, Reginal; Kershaw, Trace S

    2011-07-01

    Microfinance loans targeted at vulnerable female populations have the potential to foster female economic independence, possibly leading to the negotiation of safer sexual practices and reduced HIV risk. This study assessed the relationship between experience with microfinance loans and HIV risk behavior among 192 female clients of the Haitian microfinance organization Fonkoze. Clients with longer microfinance experience were generally found to have lower indicators of HIV risk behavior and higher indicators of relationship power compared to those with shorter experience. In particular, those with longer memberships were 72% less likely to report partner infidelity, were 3.95 times more likely to use condoms with an unfaithful partner, and had higher average general power index scores compared to those with shorter experience. This study provides evidence that long-term exposure to microfinance is associated with reduced HIV risk behavior in Haitian women and that this reduction may be partly regulated by influencing relationship power. These results suggest the need to further explore the use of microfinance as a tool to prevent the spread of HIV.

  4. Relation of borderline personality features to preincarceration HIV risk behaviors of jail inmates: Evidence for gender differences?

    Adams, Leah M; Stuewig, Jeffrey B; Tangney, June P

    2016-01-01

    The present study explored the relationship between borderline personality disorder (BPD) features and preincarceration HIV risk behaviors in a sample of 499 (70% male) jail inmates, as well as gender differences in these associations. Elevated levels of BPD symptomatology were present among male and female participants, though there was considerable variance observed in participants' BPD symptoms and HIV risk behaviors. In the full sample, BPD features were positively associated with a variety of HIV risk behaviors, including injection drug use and frequency of unprotected sex with high risk partners and under high risk circumstances. Gender moderated only 2 relationships between BPD features and HIV risk behaviors, with a stronger association between BPD features and number of sexual partners, and BPD features and frequency of unprotected sex while under the influence of alcohol or drugs for women, relative to men. Taken together, these findings suggest that programs targeting HIV risk within correctional populations may benefit from considering the role of BPD features, particularly emotion regulation difficulties and impulsivity, in influencing HIV risk behaviors among both women and men. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Conditional economic incentives for reducing HIV risk behaviors: integration of psychology and behavioral economics.

    Operario, Don; Kuo, Caroline; Sosa-Rubí, Sandra G; Gálarraga, Omar

    2013-09-01

    This article reviews psychology and behavioral economic approaches to HIV prevention, and examines the integration and application of these approaches in conditional economic incentive (CEI) programs for reducing HIV risk behavior. We discuss the history of HIV prevention approaches, highlighting the important insights and limitations of psychological theories. We provide an overview of the theoretical tenets of behavioral economics that are relevant to HIV prevention, and utilize CEIs as an illustrative example of how traditional psychological theories and behavioral economics can be combined into new approaches for HIV prevention. Behavioral economic interventions can complement psychological frameworks for reducing HIV risk by introducing unique theoretical understandings about the conditions under which risky decisions are amenable to intervention. Findings from illustrative CEI programs show mixed but generally promising effects of economic interventions on HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevalence, HIV testing, HIV medication adherence, and drug use. CEI programs can complement psychological interventions for HIV prevention and behavioral risk reduction. To maximize program effectiveness, CEI programs must be designed according to contextual and population-specific factors that may determine intervention applicability and success. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. Projecting Sexual and Injecting HIV Risks into Future Outcomes with Agent-Based Modeling

    Bobashev, Georgiy V.; Morris, Robert J.; Zule, William A.

    Longitudinal studies of health outcomes for HIV could be very costly cumbersome and not representative of the risk population. Conversely, cross-sectional approaches could be representative but rely on the retrospective information to estimate prevalence and incidence. We present an Agent-based Modeling (ABM) approach where we use behavioral data from a cross-sectional representative study and project the behavior into the future so that the risks of acquiring HIV could be studied in a dynamical/temporal sense. We show how the blend of behavior and contact network factors (sexual, injecting) play the role in the risk of future HIV acquisition and time till obtaining HIV. We show which subjects are the most likely persons to get HIV in the next year, and whom they are likely to infect. We examine how different behaviors are related to the increase or decrease of HIV risks and how to estimate the quantifiable risk measures such as survival HIV free.

  7. HIV risk and sexual health among female migrants in China.

    Huang, Wen; Dong, Yanyan; Chen, Lin; Song, Dandan; Wang, Jun; Tao, Haidong; Zaller, Nickolas; Zhang, Hongbo; Operario, Don

    2016-09-01

    Sexual behavior is the dominant mode of HIV transmission in China, and young female migrants are among the populations at highest risk. This article examines how HIV-related risk behaviors among female migrants might vary according to workplace settings. Participants were young female migrants recruited from three workplace settings-factories, restaurants and entertainment venues. In a cross-sectional survey, we assessed 457 participants' sociodemographic characteristics, HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, condom use knowledge, sexual behaviors, condom use behavior and reproductive health factors. Participants working in entertainment venues were significantly more likely than those working in factories and restaurants to report sexual behavior, unprotected sex, multiple pregnancy terminations and sexually transmitted infections (STI). However, participants working in factories and restaurants reported significantly lower levels of HIV/AIDS knowledge, condom use knowledge, condom use self-efficacy and history of HIV/AIDS counseling and testing. Independent correlates of unprotected sex included employment in an entertainment venue, abortion history and sexual self-efficacy. Independent correlates of STI or genitourinary tract infection included employment in an entertainment venue, abortion history, recent migration and recent unprotected sex. These findings indicate a need for sexual and reproductive health interventions prioritizing young female migrants, and call for programs that can be incorporated into different workplace settings. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Maternal HIV Serostatus, Mother–Daughter Sexual Risk Communication and Adolescent HIV Risk Beliefs and Intentions

    Hutchinson, M. Katherine; Duan, Lei; Jemmott, Loretta S.

    2012-01-01

    Daughters of HIV-positive women are often exposed to the same factors that placed their mothers at risk. This cross-sectional study (N = 176 dyads) examined HIV status, parent-teen sexual risk communication (PTSRC), and daughters’ abstinence and condom use beliefs and intentions. Maternal HIV status was not associated with PTSRC. Path analyses show that maternal depression was associated with PTSRC behavioral and normative beliefs; relationship satisfaction was associated with PTSRC normative and control beliefs. Control beliefs were solely predictive of maternal PTSRC intention. PTSRC was associated with adolescent behavioral and normative beliefs. Abstinence beliefs were associated with abstinence intentions; condom beliefs were associated with condom use intentions. Relationship satisfaction was associated with adolescent control beliefs about both abstinence and condom use. There is a need for interventions that help HIV-positive mothers recognize their daughter’s HIV risk and provide them with relationship building and parent process skills to help reduce these risks. PMID:22677973

  9. Maternal HIV serostatus, mother-daughter sexual risk communication and adolescent HIV risk beliefs and intentions.

    Cederbaum, Julie A; Hutchinson, M Katherine; Duan, Lei; Jemmott, Loretta S

    2013-09-01

    Daughters of HIV-positive women are often exposed to the same factors that placed their mothers at risk. This cross-sectional study (N = 176 dyads) examined HIV status, parent-teen sexual risk communication (PTSRC), and daughters' abstinence and condom use beliefs and intentions. Maternal HIV status was not associated with PTSRC. Path analyses show that maternal depression was associated with PTSRC behavioral and normative beliefs; relationship satisfaction was associated with PTSRC normative and control beliefs. Control beliefs were solely predictive of maternal PTSRC intention. PTSRC was associated with adolescent behavioral and normative beliefs. Abstinence beliefs were associated with abstinence intentions; condom beliefs were associated with condom use intentions. Relationship satisfaction was associated with adolescent control beliefs about both abstinence and condom use. There is a need for interventions that help HIV-positive mothers recognize their daughter's HIV risk and provide them with relationship building and parent process skills to help reduce these risks.

  10. The role of acculturation and family functioning in predicting HIV risk behaviors among Hispanic delinquent youth.

    Farrelly, Colleen; Cordova, David; Huang, Shi; Estrada, Yannine; Prado, Guillermo

    2013-06-01

    The present study examined the relationship between Berry's acculturation typology and HIV risk behaviors and whether family functioning mediated any such effects. A total of 235 high risk Hispanic adolescents were categorized into one of Berry's four acculturation typologies through the use of cut-off scores on measures of Hispanicism and Americanism. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the effects of acculturation typology on HIV risk behaviors and the indirect effects of acculturation typology on HIV risk behaviors through family functioning. Acculturation typology was related to HIV risk behaviors. Family functioning partially mediated the effects of acculturation typology on the HIV risk behavior outcomes. These findings suggest that both Americanism and Hispanicism play an important role in the etiology of HIV risk behaviors among Hispanic youth and that both, along with family functioning, are important to consider when designing preventive interventions for this population.

  11. HIV risk behaviors and alcohol intoxication among injection drug users in Puerto Rico.

    Matos, Tomás D; Robles, Rafaela R; Sahai, Hardeo; Colón, Hector M; Reyes, Juan C; Marrero, C Amalia; Calderón, José M; Shepard, Elizabeth W

    2004-12-07

    This paper reports results of an analysis of the association between alcohol intoxication and injection and sexual HIV risk behaviors among 557 Hispanic heroin and cocaine injectors, not in treatment, who were recruited in poor communities in Puerto Rico. Subjects were part of a longitudinal prevention-intervention study aimed at reducing drug use and HIV risk behaviors. Participants reported a high prevalence of co-occurring conditions, particularly symptoms of severe depression (52%) and severe anxiety (37%), measured by Beck's Depression Index and Beck's Anxiety Index, respectively. Alcohol intoxication during the last 30 days was reported by 18% of participants. Associations were found between alcohol intoxication and both injection and sexual risk behaviors. In the bivariate analysis, subjects reporting alcohol intoxication were more likely to inject three or more times per day, pool money to buy drugs, share needles, and share cotton. They were also significantly more likely to have a casual or paying sex partner and to have unprotected sex with these partners. After adjustment, sharing needles and cotton, having sex with a paying partner or casual partner, and exchanging sex for money or drugs were significantly related to alcohol intoxication. HIV prevention programs, to be effective, must address alcohol intoxication and its relation to injection and sexual risk behaviors as a central issue in HIV prevention among drug injectors.

  12. Social networks, sexual networks and HIV risk in men who have sex with men.

    Amirkhanian, Yuri A

    2014-03-01

    Worldwide, men who have sex with men (MSM) remain one of the most HIV-vulnerable community populations. A global public health priority is developing new methods of reaching MSM, understanding HIV transmission patterns, and intervening to reduce their risk. Increased attention is being given to the role that MSM networks play in HIV epidemiology. This review of MSM network research studies demonstrates that: (1) Members of the same social network often share similar norms, attitudes, and HIV risk behavior levels; (2) Network interventions are feasible and powerful for reducing unprotected sex and potentially for increasing HIV testing uptake; (3) HIV vulnerability among African American MSM increases when an individual enters a high-risk sexual network characterized by high density and racial homogeneity; and (4) Networks are primary sources of social support for MSM, particularly for those living with HIV, with greater support predicting higher care uptake and adherence.

  13. Relationship Power, Sexual Decision Making, and HIV Risk Among Midlife and Older Women.

    Altschuler, Joanne; Rhee, Siyon

    2015-01-01

    The number of midlife and older women with HIV/AIDS is high and increasing, especially among women of color. This article addresses these demographic realities by reporting on findings about self-esteem, relationship power, and HIV risk from a pilot study of midlife and older women. A purposive sample (N = 110) of ethnically, economically, and educationally diverse women 40 years and older from the Greater Los Angeles Area was surveyed to determine their levels of self-esteem, general relationship power, sexual decision-making power, safer sex behaviors, and HIV knowledge. Women with higher levels of self-esteem exercised greater power in their relationships with their partner. Women with higher levels of general relationship power and self-esteem tend to exercise greater power in sexual decision making, such as having sex and choosing sexual acts. Income and sexual decision-making power were statistically significant in predicting the use of condoms. Implications and recommendations for future HIV/AIDS research and intervention targeting midlife and older women are presented.

  14. Male Labor Migrants in Russia: HIV Risk Behavior Levels, Contextual Factors, and Prevention Needs

    Amirkhanian, Yuri A.; Kuznetsova, Anna V.; Kelly, Jeffrey A.; DiFranceisco, Wayne J; Musatov, Vladimir B.; Avsukevich, Natalya A.; Chaika, Nikolay A.; McAuliffe, Timothy L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Although the dire life circumstances of labor migrants working in Russia are well-known, their HIV risk vulnerability and prevention needs are understudied. Low socioeconomic status, lack of access to services, separation from family, and limited risk awareness all contribute to migrants’ HIV vulnerability. Methods Male labor migrants in St. Petersburg (n=499) were administered assessments of their sexual behavior practices, substance use, and psychosocial characteristics related to risk and well-being. Results Thirty percent of migrants reported multiple female partners in the past 3 months. Condom use was low, ranging from 35% with permanent to 52% with casual partners. Central Asian migrants had very low AIDS knowledge, low levels of substance use, moderate sexual risk, high depression, and poor social supports. Eastern European migrants had higher AIDS knowledge, alcohol and drug use, and sexual risk. Discussion Improved HIV prevention efforts are needed to reduce the risk vulnerability of migrants who relocate to high disease prevalence areas. PMID:20690041

  15. Mania Symptoms and HIV-Risk Behavior among Adolescents in Mental Health Treatment

    Stewart, Angela J.; Theodore-Oklota, Christina; Hadley, Wendy; Brown, Larry K.; Donenberg, Geri; DiClemente, Ralph

    2012-01-01

    This study explored whether adolescents with elevated symptoms of mania (ESM+) engage in more HIV risk behaviors than those with other psychiatric disorders and examined factors associated with HIV risk behavior among ESM+ adolescents. Eight hundred forty adolescents (56% female, 58% African American, "M" age = 14.9 years) who received mental…

  16. SOCIAL STABILITY AND HIV RISK BEHAVIOR: EVALUATING THE ROLE OF ACCUMULATED VULNERABILITY

    German, Danielle; Latkin, Carl A.

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated a cumulative and syndromic relationship among commonly co-occurring vulnerabilites (homelessness, incarceration, low-income, residential transition) in association with HIV-related risk behaviors among 635 low-income women in Baltimore. Analysis included descriptive statistics, logistic regression, latent class analysis and latent class regression. Both methods of assessing multidimensional instability showed significant associations with risk indicators. Risk of multiple partners, sex exchange, and drug use decreased significantly with each additional domain. Higher stability class membership (77%) was associated with decreased likelihood of multiple partners, exchange partners, recent drug use, and recent STI. Multidimensional social vulnerabilities were cumulatively and synergistically linked to HIV risk behavior. Independent instability measures may miss important contextual determinants of risk. Social stability offers a useful framework to understand the synergy of social vulnerabilities that shape sexual risk behavior. Social policies and programs aiming to enhance housing and overall social stability are likely to be beneficial for HIV prevention. PMID:21259043

  17. Dual process interaction model of HIV-risk behaviors among drug offenders.

    Ames, Susan L; Grenard, Jerry L; Stacy, Alan W

    2013-03-01

    This study evaluated dual process interaction models of HIV-risk behavior among drug offenders. A dual process approach suggests that decisions to engage in appetitive behaviors result from a dynamic interplay between a relatively automatic associative system and an executive control system. One synergistic type of interplay suggests that executive functions may dampen or block effects of spontaneously activated associations. Consistent with this model, latent variable interaction analyses revealed that drug offenders scoring higher in affective decision making were relatively protected from predictive effects of spontaneous sex associations promoting risky sex. Among drug offenders with lower levels of affective decision making ability, spontaneous sexually-related associations more strongly predicted risky sex (lack of condom use and greater number of sex partners). These findings help elucidate associative and control process effects on appetitive behaviors and are important for explaining why some individuals engage in risky sex, while others are relatively protected.

  18. HIV Risk Behavior among Youth in the Dominican Republic: The Role of Alcohol and Other Drugs.

    Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Jaccard, James; Lushin, Viktor; Martinez, Roberto; Gonzalez, Bernardo; McCarthy, Katharine

    2011-01-01

    Existing literature related to HIV in the Dominican Republic has tended to neglect the unique role of tourism areas as distinct ecologies facilitative of sexual risk behavior, particularly HIV vulnerability and transmission. Furthermore, limited attention has focused on Dominican adolescents living in close proximity to tourism areas who have become increasingly exposed to alcohol due to the expanding tourism industry in the Dominican Republic. While most previous analyses of the effects of alcohol on adolescent sexual risk behavior have focused on the transient effects of alcohol on judgment and decision making, the effects of chronic alcohol use on sexual behavior has been a neglected area of research. Our study explores the relationship between chronic alcohol use, the parent-adolescent relationship, affective factors such as self-esteem, and intentions to engage in sex. We examine the above factors within the context of tourism areas which represent a unique ecology of alcohol availability and consumption and HIV risk. We discuss implications for developing applied family-based programs to target Dominican adolescent alcohol use and sexual risk behavior in tourism areas of high alcohol exposure.

  19. Social network correlates of HIV risk-related behaviors among male migrants in China

    Wenqing Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Significant domestic and global research has focused on HIV risk among China’s large internal migrant population. Much of this work takes an individual behavior approach while ignoring the critical role social networks play in shaping HIV risk. Methods Based on past studies among migrant men in China of yingchou activities (activities that build and reinforce social networks such as eating, drinking alcohol and patronizing commercial sex, we constructed ego-centric networks for a sample of 385 male migrants recruited from multiple worksites in Beijing. We used a nested-model approach to examine the contribution of social network characteristics to HIV risk at both the variable and model levels. Results As compared to an individual-level model, addition of social network variables significantly improved the fit of the models. Commercial sex norms and condom use norms of core yingchou networks were significantly associated with egos’ commercial sex and condom use respectively. The size of yingchou network was associated with egos’ commercial sex. The network models became more sensitive after network norm measures took into account the intimacy of network ties and allowed for egos’ uncertainty when reporting their alters’ sexual behaviors. Conclusion Results suggest the importance of social network factors and core network members in HIV transmission and risk-reduction interventions for male migrants. Future studies could explore other important social networks among male migrants, consider the intimacy of network ties and egos’ uncertainty about alters’ situations in constructing network norms, and refine the measurement of network size and density.

  20. Sexual behavior patterns and HIV risks in bisexual men compared to exclusively heterosexual and homosexual men Patrones de comportamiento sexual y de riesgo al VIH en hombres bisexuales comparados con hombres heterosexuales y homosexuales exclusivos

    José Antonio Izazola-Licea

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare patterns of sexual behavior among bisexual, heterosexual and homosexual men. MATERIAL AND METHODS:A household probability survey was carried out in Mexico City in 1992-1993 using the national health surveys sampling frame. Information from 8 068 men was obtained; however, the main analysis of this paper refers only to men sexually active in the previous 5 years. RESULTS: Bisexuals reported more prevalent anal intercourse with women (16% vs. 3%, p=0.01, and more sexual encounters with female sex workers than exclusive heterosexuals (10% vs. 4%; p=0.04. Bisexuals used condoms more often with sex workers than did heterosexuals (p=0.01. Most of the bisexuals (79% did not engage in anal receptive or insertive intercourse with males in the previous year, practicing instead oral insertive sex or only masturbation; 35% of homosexuals did not report practicing anal sex. Bisexuals who engaged in anal intercourse had less anal receptive behavior than homosexuals (13% vs. 60%, pOBJETIVO: Comparar los patrones de comportamiento sexual entre hombres bisexuales, heterosexuales y homosexuales. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se llevó a cabo una encuesta probabilística en hogares de la Ciudad de México en 1992-1993, utilizando el marco muestral de las Encuestas Nacionales de Salud; se obtuvo información de 8 068 hombres entre 15 y 60 años de edad. El análisis principal de este trabajo se centra en hombres sexualmente activos en los cinco años previos a la encuesta. RESULTADOS: Los hombres bisexuales notificaron con mayor frecuencia relaciones sexuales anales con mujeres (16% vs. 3%, p=0.01, y mayor frecuencia de relaciones sexuales con trabajadoras sexuales que los heterosexuales exclusivos (10% vs. 4%, p=0.04. Los bisexuales usaron condones más frecuentemente con trabajadoras sexuales que los heterosexuales (p=0.01. La mayoría de los bisexuales (79% no mantuvieron relaciones sexuales anales (receptivas o insertivas con otros hombres en el a

  1. Enacted Stigma and HIV Risk Behaviours among Sexual Minority Indigenous Youth in Canada, New Zealand, and the United States

    Saewyc, Elizabeth; Clark, Terryann; Barney, Lucy; Brunanski, Dana; Homma, Yuko

    2014-01-01

    Enacted stigma has been linked to increased HIV risk behaviours among sexual minority youth, but despite higher rates of HIV and other STIs, there is very little research with Indigenous youth. In this study, secondary analyses of three population-based, school surveys were conducted to explore the associations between HIV risk and enacted stigma among sexual minority Indigenous youth in Canada, the US, and New Zealand. Data were analyzed and interpreted with guidance from Indigenous and sexu...

  2. Hazardous drinking and HIV-risk-related behavior among male clients of female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Goodman-Meza, David; Pitpitan, Eileen V; Semple, Shirley J; Wagner, Karla D; Chavarin, Claudia V; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Patterson, Thomas L

    2014-01-01

    Male clients of female sex workers (FSWs) are at high risk for HIV. Whereas the HIV risks of alcohol use are well understood, less is known about hazardous alcohol use among male clients of FSWs, particularly in Mexico. We sought to identify risk factors for hazardous alcohol use and test associations between hazardous alcohol use and HIV risk behavior among male clients in Tijuana. Male clients of FSWs in Tijuana (n = 400) completed a quantitative interview in 2008. The AUDIT was used to characterize hazardous alcohol use. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine independent associations of demographic and HIV risk variables with hazardous alcohol use (vs. non-hazardous). Forty percent of our sample met criteria for hazardous alcohol use. Variables independently associated with hazardous drinking were reporting any sexually transmitted infection (STI), having sex with a FSW while under the influence of alcohol, being younger than 36 years of age, living in Tijuana, and ever having been jailed. Hazardous drinkers were less likely ever to have been deported or to have shared injection drugs. Hazardous alcohol use is associated with HIV risk, including engaging in sex with FSWs while intoxicated and having an STI among male clients of FSWs in Tijuana. We systematically described patterns and correlates of hazardous alcohol use among male clients of FSWs in Tijuana, Mexico. The results suggest that HIV/STI risk reduction interventions must target hazardous alcohol users, and be tailored to address alcohol use. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  3. Survey on HIV risk perception and sexual behaviours among seafarers.

    Grappasonni, I; Paci, P; Mazzucchi, F; Amenta, F

    2011-01-01

    Because the nature of their work seafarers spend long periods of time away from their families and therefore represent a group at risk for sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV infection. This paper reports the results of a survey to evaluate awareness and knowledge of the risk of HIV infection among seafarers. Risky behaviours for HIV transmission were also assessed. The survey was conducted using anonymous questionnaires on 197 workers of 9 vessels and 26 office employees of an Italian shipping company (FINAVAL S.p.A., Rome). The respondents considered HIV/AIDS as one of the diseases with a high risk of transmission. Most respondents had a good general knowledge of HIV/AIDS and on the ways of its transmission. However, there is still lack of knowledge on the basics of this disease. On the other hand, in spite of knowledge and awareness about the risks of the disease, only 56.35% of the interviewed crewmembers used protection in sexual intercourse with occasional partners. Compared to data available in literature, the percentage of self-protecting people is increasing, but the number of seafarers exposing themselves to risky behaviours is still high. As expected, condoms are used with regular partners with lower frequency compared to occasional intercourse. The results of this survey indicate that adequate prevention campaigns and major attention paid to seafarers health is useful for stimulating responsible conduct for the prevention of infectious diseases, including HIV infection. Nevertheless, it is still necessary to increase information about the risk of sexually transmitted diseases and how to reduce it.

  4. Sexual HIV risk among gay, bisexual and queer transgender men: findings from interviews in Vancouver, Canada.

    Rich, Ashleigh; Scott, Kai; Johnston, Caitlin; Blackwell, Everett; Lachowsky, Nathan; Cui, Zishan; Sereda, Paul; Moore, David; Hogg, Robert; Roth, Eric

    2017-11-01

    Gay, bisexual, queer and other men who have sex with men are disproportionately affected by HIV in Canada. While up to 63% of transgender men identify as gay, bisexual or queer and report a variety of HIV sexual risk behaviours, transgender men are often overlooked within epidemiological HIV surveillance and research. While a growing body of research has begun to examine sexual risk for transgender gay, bisexual and queer men, most studies have been conducted in the USA. This study explored sexual HIV risk for this population in the Canadian context, specifically in British Columbia, in an environment of publically funded universal access to healthcare, including HIV testing and treatment. We conducted interviews with 11 gay, bisexual and queer transgender men. Participants' narratives suggest that HIV risk for these transgender men is shaped by a diversity of sexual behaviours, including inconsistent condom use, seeking partners online for greater safety and accessing HIV/STI testing and other healthcare services despite facing transition-related barriers. Public health prevention and health education must recognise the presence of transgender men and ensure health services and broader population health promotion meet the unique sexual health needs of this sub-population of gay, bisexual and queer men.

  5. Borderline Personality Disorder Symptom Severity and Sexually Transmitted Infection and HIV Risk in African American Incarcerated Men.

    Scheidell, Joy D; Lejuez, Carl W; Golin, Carol E; Hobbs, Marcia M; Wohl, David A; Adimora, Adaora A; Khan, Maria R

    2016-05-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STI)/HIV rates are disproportionately high among men involved in the criminal justice system. Mental health disorders, including personality disorders, are also elevated among inmates. Borderline personality disorder (BPD) may be an important risk factor for STI/HIV, yet remains relatively understudied, particularly among inmates. We used baseline data from Project DISRUPT, a cohort study of African American men being released from prison in North Carolina who were in heterosexual relationships at prison entry (n=189), to assess their STI/HIV risk in the 6 months before incarceration and BPD symptoms focused on emotional lability and relationship dysfunction. We created a continuous BPD symptom severity score and a dichotomous BPD indicator split at the top quartile of the score (BPD-TQ) to examine associations between BPD and STI/HIV outcomes using logistic regression. We also examined associations between individual symptoms and outcomes. After adjustment for sociodemographics and antisocial personality disorder, BPD-TQ was associated with sexual risk behaviors including multiple partnerships (adjusted odds ratio, 2.58; 95% confidence interval, 1.24-5.36) and sex with nonmonogamous partners (adjusted odds ratio, 2.54; 95% confidence interval, 1.17-5.51). Prevalence of previous STI (47.5% vs. 29.6%) and prevalent chlamydial infection (6.9% vs. 3.1%) seemed higher in those in BPD-TQ, although the associations were not statistically significant. Associations were similar to those with the continuous score. Borderline personality disorder symptoms most associated with STI/HIV risk were abandonment worry, mood swings, and shifts in opinions. Borderline personality disorder is strongly associated with STI/HIV risk in this sample. Researchers should further evaluate the relationship between STI/HIV and BPD, in addition to mood disorders.

  6. Adverse childhood experiences, gender, and HIV risk behaviors: Results from a population-based sample

    Lin Fang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent HIV research suggested assessing adverse childhood experiences (ACEs as contributing factors of HIV risk behaviors. However, studies often focused on a single type of adverse experience and very few utilized population-based data. This population study examined the associations between ACE (individual and cumulative ACE score and HIV risk behaviors. We analyzed the 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey (BRFSS from 5 states. The sample consisted of 39,434 adults. Eight types of ACEs that included different types of child abuse and household dysfunctions before the age of 18 were measured. A cumulative score of ACEs was also computed. Logistic regression estimated of the association between ACEs and HIV risk behaviors using odds ratio (OR with 95% confidence intervals (CIs for males and females separately. We found that ACEs were positively associated with HIV risk behaviors overall, but the associations differed between males and females in a few instances. While the cumulative ACE score was associated with HIV risk behaviors in a stepwise manner, the pattern varied by gender. For males, the odds of HIV risk increased at a significant level as long as they experienced one ACE, whereas for females, the odds did not increase until they experienced three or more ACEs. Future research should further investigate the gender-specific associations between ACEs and HIV risk behaviors. As childhood adversities are prevalent among general population, and such experiences are associated with increased risk behaviors for HIV transmission, service providers can benefit from the principles of trauma-informed practice.

  7. Understanding gender, sexuality and HIV risk in HEIs: narratives of international post-graduate students

    Mathabo Khau

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Thirty years into the HIV&AIDS pandemic, the world is still striving to reduce new HIV infections and halve AIDS related deaths by 2015. However, sub-Saharan Africa still faces the burden of HIV infections as governments and private institutions try out different prevention strategies (UNAIDS 2011. Several scholars have argued that multiple concurrent sexual partnerships (MCSP pose the greatest risk for new HIV infections. Furthermore, research has also linked MCSPs to mobility and migration. This paper draws from the project ‘Sexual identities and HIV&AIDS: an exploration of international university students’ experiences” which employed memory work, photo-voice, drawings and focus group discussions with ten (5male and 5female Post Graduate international students at a South African university. Focussing on the data produced through memory work, I present university students’ lived-experience narratives of mobility and migration in relation to how they perceive MCSPs and HIV risk. The findings show how students construct their gendered and sexual identities in a foreign context and how these constructions intersect with their choices of sexual relationships and HIV risk. I argue from the findings that Higher Education Institutions should be treated as high risk ‘spaces of vulnerability’ and hence health support services and HIV intervention programming policies should be geared towards addressing such vulnerabilities in order to create sustainable teaching and learning environments that allow for all students to explore their full capabilities.

  8. Boredom, depressive symptoms, and HIV risk behaviors among urban injection drug users

    German, Danielle; Latkin, Carl A.

    2013-01-01

    Boredom is closely aligned with depression, but is understood to be conceptually distinct. Little is known about boredom among active drug users and the potential association with depression and HIV risk. Current IDUs (n=845) completed a baseline behavioral survey including socio-demographic characteristics, self-reported boredom, depressive symptoms (CESD score), and HIV risk behaviors. One-third of the sample reported high boredom in the past week. In multivariate analysis, those who reported boredom were less likely to be older, African-American, have a main partner, and to be employed at least part-time. Controlling for covariates, those with high boredom were almost five times as likely to report high depressive symptoms. Co-occurrence of boredom and depressive symptoms (28%) was strongly and independently associated with a range of injection risk behaviors and sex exchange. This study demonstrates the need for more thorough understanding of mental health and HIV risk among urban drug users. PMID:22760741

  9. HIV Risk Behavior in Persons with Severe Mental Disorders in a ...

    HIV risk behavior was significantly related to alcohol use (P = 0.03). Conclusion: Mental health services provide an important context for HIV/AIDS interventions in resource‑constrained countries like Nigeria. Keywords: Human immuno virus, Mental health, Psychiatric patients, Risk behavior, Severe mental disorders ...

  10. Primary source of income is associated with differences in HIV risk behaviors in street-recruited samples.

    Essien, E James; Ross, Michael W; Williams, Mark L; Meshack, Angela F; Fernández-Esquer, Maria E; Peters, Ronald J; Ogungbade, GO

    2004-06-17

    BACKGROUND: The relationship between primary source of income and HIV risk behaviors and the racial/ethnic differences in risk behavior profiles among disadvantaged populations have not been fully explored. This is unusual given that the phenomenon of higher risk in more disadvantaged populations is well-known but the mechanisms remain unclear. We examined the relationship between primary source of income and differences in HIV risk behaviors among four racial/ethnic groups in the southern United States. METHODS: Self-reported data on primary source of income and HIV risk behaviors were collected from 1494 African American, Hispanic, Asian, and White men and women in places of public congregation in Houston, Texas. Data were analyzed using calculation of percentages and by chi-square tests with Yates correction for discontinuity where appropriate. RESULTS: Data revealed that a higher proportion of whites were involved in sex for money exchanges compared to the other racial groups in this sample. The data suggest that similar street sampling approaches are likely to recruit different proportions of people by primary income source and by ethnicity. It may be that the study locations sampled are likely to preferentially attract those involved in illegal activities, specifically the white population involved in sex for drug or money exchanges. Research evidence has shown that people construct highly evolved sexual marketplaces that are localized and most unlikely to cross racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic or geographical boundaries. Thus, the areas that we sampled may have straddled a white sexual marketplace more than that of the other groups, leading to an over-representation of sex exchange in this group. Drug use was highest among those with illegal primary sources of income (sex exchange and drug dealing and theft), and they were also those most likely to have injected drugs rather than administered them by any other route (p primary source of income category. The

  11. HIV risk perception and behavior among medically and traditionally circumcised males in South Africa.

    Zungu, N P; Simbayi, L C; Mabaso, M; Evans, M; Zuma, K; Ncitakalo, N; Sifunda, S

    2016-04-26

    In South Africa, voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) has recently been implemented as a strategy for reducing the risk of heterosexual HIV acquisition among men. However, there is some concern that VMMC may lead to low risk perception and more risky sexual behavior. This study investigated HIV risk perception and risk behaviors among men who have undergone either VMMC or traditional male circumcision (TMC) compared to those that had not been circumcised. Data collected from the 2012 South African national population-based household survey for males aged 15 years and older were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate multinomial logistic regression, and relative risk ratios (RRRs) with 95 % confidence interval (CI) were used to assess factors associated with each type of circumcision relative no circumcision. Of the 11,086 males that indicated that they were circumcised or not, 19.5 % (95 % CI: 17.9-21.4) were medically circumcised, 27.2 % (95 % CI: 24.7-29.8) were traditionally circumcised and 53.3 % (95 % CI: 50.9-55.6) were not circumcised. In the final multivariate models, relative to uncircumcised males, males who reported VMMC were significantly more likely to have had more than two sexual partners (RRR = 1.67, p = 0.009), and males who reported TMC were significantly less likely to be low risk alcohol users (RRR = 0.72, p risk for HIV infection associated with multiple sexual partners and alcohol abuse following circumcision.

  12. HIV risk perception and behavior among medically and traditionally circumcised males in South Africa

    N. P. Zungu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In South Africa, voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC has recently been implemented as a strategy for reducing the risk of heterosexual HIV acquisition among men. However, there is some concern that VMMC may lead to low risk perception and more risky sexual behavior. This study investigated HIV risk perception and risk behaviors among men who have undergone either VMMC or traditional male circumcision (TMC compared to those that had not been circumcised. Methods Data collected from the 2012 South African national population-based household survey for males aged 15 years and older were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate multinomial logistic regression, and relative risk ratios (RRRs with 95 % confidence interval (CI were used to assess factors associated with each type of circumcision relative no circumcision. Results Of the 11,086 males that indicated that they were circumcised or not, 19.5 % (95 % CI: 17.9–21.4 were medically circumcised, 27.2 % (95 % CI: 24.7–29.8 were traditionally circumcised and 53.3 % (95 % CI: 50.9–55.6 were not circumcised. In the final multivariate models, relative to uncircumcised males, males who reported VMMC were significantly more likely to have had more than two sexual partners (RRR = 1.67, p = 0.009, and males who reported TMC were significantly less likely to be low risk alcohol users (RRR = 0.72, p < 0.001. Conclusion There is a need to strengthen and improve the quality of the counselling component of VMMC with the focus on education about the real and present risk for HIV infection associated with multiple sexual partners and alcohol abuse following circumcision.

  13. Recent partner violence and sexual and drug-related STI/HIV risk among adolescent and young adult women attending family planning clinics

    Decker, Michele R.; Miller, Elizabeth; McCauley, Heather L.; Tancredi, Daniel J.; Anderson, Heather; Levenson, Rebecca R.; Silverman, Jay G.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objectives Adolescent and young adult women are at high risk for both STI/HIV and intimate partner violence (IPV). We evaluate the prevalence of IPV in the past three months and its associations with STI/HIV risk, STI, and related care-seeking over the same time period. Methods Female family planning clinic patients ages 16–29 (n=3,504) participated in a cross-sectional survey in 2011–2012 as a baseline assessment for an intervention study. We examined associations of recent IPV with sexual and drug-related STI/HIV risk behavior, self-reported STI, and STI-related clinical care seeking via logistic regression. Results Recent physical or sexual IPV (prevalence 11%) was associated with recent sexual and drug-related STI/HIV risk, specifically unprotected vaginal sex (AOR 1.93, 95% CI 1.52, 2.44), unprotected anal sex (AOR 2.22, 95% CI 1.51, 3.27) and injection drug use, both their own (AOR 3.39, 95% CI 1.47, 7.79) and their partner’s (AOR 3.85, 1.91, 7.75). IPV was also linked with coercive sexual risk: involuntary condom non-use (AOR 1.87, 95% CI 1.51, 2.33), and fears of requesting condoms (AOR 4.15, 95% CI 2.73, 6.30) and refusing sex (AOR 11.84, 95% CI 7.59, 18.45). STI-related care-seeking was also more common among those abused (AOR 2.49, 95% CI 1.87, 3.31). Conclusions Recent IPV is concurrent with sexual and drug-related STI/HIV risk, including coercive sexual risk, thus compromising women’s agency in STI/HIV risk reduction. Clinical risk assessments should broaden to include unprotected heterosexual anal sex, coercive sexual risk, and IPV, and should promote safety and harm reduction. PMID:24234072

  14. Conditional Economic Incentives for Reducing HIV Risk Behaviors: Integration of Psychology and Behavioral Economics

    Operario, Don; Kuo, Caroline C.; Sosa-Rubí, Sandra G.; Gálarraga, Omar

    2014-01-01

    Objective This paper reviews psychology and behavioral economic approaches to HIV prevention, and examines the integration and application of these approaches in conditional economic incentive (CEI) programs for reducing HIV risk behavior. Methods We discuss the history of HIV prevention approaches, highlighting the important insights and limitations of psychological theories. We provide an overview of the theoretical tenets of behavioral economics that are relevant to HIV prevention, and utilize CEIs as an illustrative example of how traditional psychological theories end behavioral economics can be combined into new approaches for HIV prevention. Results Behavioral economic interventions can complement psychological frameworks for reducing HIV risk by introducing unique theoretical understandings about the conditions under which risky decisions are amenable to intervention. Findings from illustrative CEI programs show mixed but generally promising effects of economic interventions on HIV and STI prevalence, HIV testing, HIV medication adherence, and drug use. Conclusion CEI programs can complement psychological interventions for HIV prevention and behavioral risk reduction. To maximize program effectiveness, CEI programs must be designed according to contextual and population-specific factors that may determine intervention applicability and success. PMID:24001243

  15. HIV Risk Behavior among Amphetamine Injectors at U.S. Syringe Exchange Programs

    Braine, Naomi; Des Jarlais, Don C.; Goldblatt, Cullen; Zadoretzky, Cathy; Turner, Charles

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this study was to compare HIV risk behaviors of amphetamine and non-amphetamine injectors at syringe exchange programs (SEP) in the United States and to identify factors associated with injection risk. This analysis is based on data from a random cross-section of participants at 13 SEPs in different parts of the country. All interviews…

  16. Primary source of income is associated with differences in HIV risk behaviors in street-recruited samples

    Fernández-Esquer Maria E

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between primary source of income and HIV risk behaviors and the racial/ethnic differences in risk behavior profiles among disadvantaged populations have not been fully explored. This is unusual given that the phenomenon of higher risk in more disadvantaged populations is well-known but the mechanisms remain unclear. We examined the relationship between primary source of income and differences in HIV risk behaviors among four racial/ethnic groups in the southern United States. Methods Self-reported data on primary source of income and HIV risk behaviors were collected from 1494 African American, Hispanic, Asian, and White men and women in places of public congregation in Houston, Texas. Data were analyzed using calculation of percentages and by chi-square tests with Yates correction for discontinuity where appropriate. Results Data revealed that a higher proportion of whites were involved in sex for money exchanges compared to the other racial groups in this sample. The data suggest that similar street sampling approaches are likely to recruit different proportions of people by primary income source and by ethnicity. It may be that the study locations sampled are likely to preferentially attract those involved in illegal activities, specifically the white population involved in sex for drug or money exchanges. Research evidence has shown that people construct highly evolved sexual marketplaces that are localized and most unlikely to cross racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic or geographical boundaries. Thus, the areas that we sampled may have straddled a white sexual marketplace more than that of the other groups, leading to an over-representation of sex exchange in this group. Drug use was highest among those with illegal primary sources of income (sex exchange and drug dealing and theft, and they were also those most likely to have injected drugs rather than administered them by any other route (p Conclusions

  17. The dynamics of injection drug users' personal networks and HIV risk behaviors.

    Costenbader, Elizabeth C; Astone, Nan M; Latkin, Carl A

    2006-07-01

    While studies of the social networks of injection drug users (IDUs) have provided insight into how the structures of interpersonal relationships among IDUs affect HIV risk behaviors, the majority of these studies have been cross-sectional. The present study examined the dynamics of IDUs' social networks and HIV risk behaviors over time. Using data from a longitudinal HIV-intervention study conducted in Baltimore, MD, this study assessed changes in the composition of the personal networks of 409 IDUs. We used a multi-nomial logistic regression analysis to assess the association between changes in network composition and simultaneous changes in levels of injection HIV risk behaviors. Using the regression parameters generated by the multi-nomial model, we estimated the predicted probability of being in each of four HIV risk behavior change groups. Compared to the base case, individuals who reported an entirely new set of drug-using network contacts at follow-up were more than three times as likely to be in the increasing risk group. In contrast, reporting all new non-drug-using contacts at follow-up increased the likelihood of being in the stable low-risk group by almost 50% and decreased the probability of being in the consistently high-risk group by more than 70%. The findings from this study show that, over and above IDUs' baseline characteristics, changes in their personal networks are associated with changes in individuals' risky injection behaviors. They also suggest that interventions aimed at reducing HIV risk among IDUs might benefit from increasing IDUs' social contacts with individuals who are not drug users.

  18. The HIV Risk Profiles of Latino Sexual Minorities and Transgender Persons Who Use Websites or Apps Designed for Social and Sexual Networking

    Sun, Christina J.; Reboussin, Beth; Mann, Lilli; Garcia, Manuel; Rhodes, Scott D.

    2016-01-01

    The use of websites and GPS-based mobile applications ("apps") designed for social and sexual networking has been associated with increased HIV risk; however, little is known about Latino sexual minorities' and transgender persons' use of these websites and apps and the risk profiles of those who use them compared with those who do not.…

  19. Factors Affecting Behaviours that address HIV Risk among Nigerian ...

    Objective: The aim of this study was to identify factors affecting HIV risk reduction ... Main outcome measures: Sexual behavior and condom use, knowledge about ... attitudes, normative beliefs, and subjective norms about condoms, HIV/AIDS ...

  20. Depression and HIV Risk Behaviors among Female Sex Workers in Guangdong, China: A Multicenter Cross-Sectional Study

    Hongcheng Shen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Our study aimed to assess the burden of depression and evaluate factors associated with depression and status of HIV risk behaviors among female sex workers (FSWs in Guangdong, China. Method. We recruited FSWs from massage parlors, saunas, restaurants, hotels, hair salons, and streets in Guangdong, China, in 2014. Information on demographic characteristics, HIV testing history, and sexual behaviors was collected using a questionnaire. A blood sample was collected to test for HIV, syphilis, and HCV. A participant was defined as being depressed if she obtained 6 points or above using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. Results. Among the 653 participants, 41.7% were 21–30 years old and 43.6% married. Overall, 52.4% were found to be depressed. FSWs who had correct syphilis related knowledge [aOR = 1.45; 95% CI: 1.04–2.03] and had primary sex partner (1.63, 1.14–2.33 were more likely to be depressed. FSWs who did not use a condom during their last sex with the primary sex partner were less likely to be depressed (0.47, 0.31–0.71. Conclusion. Our study observed high level of depression and HIV risk behaviors among Chinese FSWs. Future interventions should integrate mental health services in comprehensive interventions to prevent depression among Chinese FSWs.

  1. Depression and HIV Risk Behaviors among Female Sex Workers in Guangdong, China: A Multicenter Cross-Sectional Study.

    Shen, Hongcheng; Zou, Huachun; Huang, Shujie; Liu, Fengying; Zhao, Peizhen; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Ye; Luo, Xiaomin; Tang, Weiming; Zheng, Heping; Yang, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Background. Our study aimed to assess the burden of depression and evaluate factors associated with depression and status of HIV risk behaviors among female sex workers (FSWs) in Guangdong, China. Method. We recruited FSWs from massage parlors, saunas, restaurants, hotels, hair salons, and streets in Guangdong, China, in 2014. Information on demographic characteristics, HIV testing history, and sexual behaviors was collected using a questionnaire. A blood sample was collected to test for HIV, syphilis, and HCV. A participant was defined as being depressed if she obtained 6 points or above using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. Results. Among the 653 participants, 41.7% were 21-30 years old and 43.6% married. Overall, 52.4% were found to be depressed. FSWs who had correct syphilis related knowledge [aOR = 1.45; 95% CI: 1.04-2.03] and had primary sex partner (1.63, 1.14-2.33) were more likely to be depressed. FSWs who did not use a condom during their last sex with the primary sex partner were less likely to be depressed (0.47, 0.31-0.71). Conclusion. Our study observed high level of depression and HIV risk behaviors among Chinese FSWs. Future interventions should integrate mental health services in comprehensive interventions to prevent depression among Chinese FSWs.

  2. A Systematic Review of HIV Risk Behaviors and Trauma Among Forced and Unforced Migrant Populations from Low and Middle-Income Countries: State of the Literature and Future Directions.

    Michalopoulos, Lynn Murphy; Aifah, Angela; El-Bassel, Nabila

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the current systematic review is to examine the relationship between trauma and HIV risk behaviors among both forced and unforced migrant populations from low and middle income countries (LMIC). We conducted a review of studies published from 1995 to 2014. Data were extracted related to (1) the relationship between trauma and HIV risk behaviors, (2) methodological approach, (3) assessment methods, and (4) differences noted between forced and unforced migrants. A total of 340 records were retrieved with 24 studies meeting inclusion criteria. Our review demonstrated an overall relationship between trauma and HIV risk behaviors among migrant populations in LMIC, specifically with sexual violence and sexual risk behavior. However, findings from 10 studies were not in full support of the relationship. Findings from the review suggest that additional research using more rigorous methods is critically needed to understand the nature of the relationship experienced by this key-affected population.

  3. Co-relationship between sexual dysfunction and high-risk sexual behavior in patients receiving buprenorphine and naltrexone maintenance therapy for opioid dependence.

    Ramdurg, Santosh; Ambekar, Atul; Lal, Rakesh

    2015-01-01

    People suffering from substance dependence suffer from various sexual dysfunctions and are at risk for indulging in various high-risk sexual behaviors and thus are vulnerable to acquire various infections such as HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections. The aim of the study was to evaluate the correlation between sexual dysfunction and high-risk sexual behavior in opioid-dependent men receiving buprenorphine and naltrexone maintenance therapy. Semi-structured questionnaire, brief male sexual functioning inventory and HIV-risk taking behavior scale was administered to a sample of 60 sexually active men, receiving buprenorphine (n = 30) and naltrexone (n = 30) maintenance therapy for opioid dependence. The main outcomes are correlation between severity of sexual dysfunction and HIV-risk taking behavior. The study results showed 83% of the men on buprenorphine and 90% on naltrexone reported at least one of the sexual dysfunction symptoms. There was a negative correlation between sexual dysfunction and HIV-risk taking behavior that suggest severe the dysfunction, higher the risk taking behavior. Significant correlation was present with overall sexual dysfunction and HIV-risk taking behavior (P = 0.028 and in naltrexone receiving group premature ejaculation versus HIV-risk taking behavior however, (P = 0.022, P sexual dysfunctions and HIV-risk taking behavior, which has clinical implication. Future research should explore this further using biochemical analyses.

  4. Evidence of social network influence on multiple HIV risk behaviors and normative beliefs among young Tanzanian men.

    Mulawa, Marta; Yamanis, Thespina J; Hill, Lauren M; Balvanz, Peter; Kajula, Lusajo J; Maman, Suzanne

    2016-03-01

    Research on network-level influences on HIV risk behaviors among young men in sub-Saharan Africa is severely lacking. One significant gap in the literature that may provide direction for future research with this population is understanding the degree to which various HIV risk behaviors and normative beliefs cluster within men's social networks. Such research may help us understand which HIV-related norms and behaviors have the greatest potential to be changed through social influence. Additionally, few network-based studies have described the structure of social networks of young men in sub-Saharan Africa. Understanding the structure of men's peer networks may motivate future research examining the ways in which network structures shape the spread of information, adoption of norms, and diffusion of behaviors. We contribute to filling these gaps by using social network analysis and multilevel modeling to describe a unique dataset of mostly young men (n = 1249 men and 242 women) nested within 59 urban social networks in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. We examine the means, ranges, and clustering of men's HIV-related normative beliefs and behaviors. Networks in this urban setting varied substantially in both composition and structure and a large proportion of men engaged in risky behaviors including inconsistent condom use, sexual partner concurrency, and intimate partner violence perpetration. We found significant clustering of normative beliefs and risk behaviors within these men's social networks. Specifically, network membership explained between 5.78 and 7.17% of variance in men's normative beliefs and between 1.93 and 15.79% of variance in risk behaviors. Our results suggest that social networks are important socialization sites for young men and may influence the adoption of norms and behaviors. We conclude by calling for more research on men's social networks in Sub-Saharan Africa and map out several areas of future inquiry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All

  5. Combination Social Protection for Reducing HIV-Risk Behavior Among Adolescents in South Africa.

    Cluver, Lucie D; Orkin, F Mark; Yakubovich, Alexa R; Sherr, Lorraine

    2016-05-01

    Social protection (ie, cash transfers, free schools, parental support) has potential for adolescent HIV prevention. We aimed to identify which social protection interventions are most effective and whether combined social protection has greater effects in South Africa. In this prospective longitudinal study, we interviewed 3516 adolescents aged 10-18 between 2009 and 2012. We sampled all homes with a resident adolescent in randomly selected census areas in 4 urban and rural sites in 2 South African provinces. We measured household receipt of 14 social protection interventions and incidence of HIV-risk behaviors. Using gender-disaggregated multivariate logistic regression and marginal effects analyses, we assessed respective contributions of interventions and potential combination effects. Child-focused grants, free schooling, school feeding, teacher support, and parental monitoring were independently associated with reduced HIV-risk behavior incidence (odds ratio: 0.10-0.69). Strong effects of combination social protection were shown, with cumulative reductions in HIV-risk behaviors. For example, girls' predicted past-year incidence of economically driven sex dropped from 11% with no interventions to 2% among those with a child grant, free school, and good parental monitoring. Similarly, girls' incidence of unprotected/casual sex or multiple partners dropped from 15% with no interventions to 10% with either parental monitoring or school feeding, and to 7% with both interventions. In real world, high-epidemic conditions, "combination social protection," shows strong HIV prevention effects for adolescents and may maximize prevention efforts.

  6. Latent Class Analysis of HIV Risk Behaviors Among Russian Women at Risk for Alcohol-Exposed Pregnancies.

    Bohora, Som; Chaffin, Mark; Shaboltas, Alla; Bonner, Barbara; Isurina, Galina; Batluk, Julia; Bard, David; Tsvetkova, Larissa; Skitnevskaya, Larissa; Volkova, Elena; Balachova, Tatiana

    2017-11-01

    The number of HIV cases attributed to heterosexual contact and the proportion of women among HIV positive individuals has increased worldwide. Russia is a country with the highest rates of newly diagnosed HIV infections in the region, and the infection spreads beyond traditional risk groups. While young women are affected disproportionately, knowledge of HIV risk behaviors in women in the general population remains limited. The objectives of this study were to identify patterns of behaviors that place women of childbearing age at high risk for HIV transmission and determine whether socio-demographic characteristics and alcohol use are predictive of the risk pattern. A total of 708 non-pregnant women, aged between 18 and 44 years, who were at risk for an alcohol-exposed pregnancy were enrolled in two regions in Russia. Participants completed a structured interview focused on HIV risk behaviors, including risky sexual behavior and alcohol and drug use. Latent class analysis was utilized to examine associations between HIV risk and other demographic and alcohol use characteristics and to identify patterns of risk among women. Three classes were identified. 34.93% of participants were at high risk, combining their risk behaviors, e.g., having multiple sexual partners, with high partner's risk associated with partner's drug use (class I). Despite reporting self-perceived risk for HIV/STI, this class of participants was unlikely to utilize adequate protection (i.e., condom use). The second high risk class included 13.19% of participants who combined their risky sexual behaviors, i.e., multiple sexual partners and having STDs, with partner's risk that included partner's imprisonment and partner's sex with other women (class II). Participants in this class were likely to utilize protection/condoms. Finally, 51.88% of participants were at lower risk, which was associated primarily with their partners' risk, and these participants utilized protection (class III). The odds

  7. Associations between depressive syndromes and HIV risk behaviors among San Francisco men who have sex with men.

    Chen, Yea-Hung; Raymond, Henry Fisher

    2017-12-01

    HIV prevention plans for men who have sex with men (MSM) are often multifaceted. They involve reduction of sexual risk behaviors, such as condomless intercourse, but also often include pharmaceutical approaches, such as early treatment of HIV-infected individuals with antiretroviral therapy (ART). Effectiveness is possibly threatened by individual-level factors, such as depression. In this study of 322 San Francisco MSM (240 HIV-uninfected individuals and 82 HIV-infected individuals, according to self-report), we examine associations between depressive syndromes and HIV risk behaviors (sexual risk behaviors and ART non-adherence). Our study failed to find evidence that depressive syndromes lead to increases in ART non-adherence (risk difference, RD: 27.9; 95% confidence interval, CI: -3.5, 59.3). However, the study does suggest an association between depressive syndromes and concurrence of non-adherence and potentially HIV-discordant condomless receptive anal intercourse (RD: 36.0; 95% CI: 5.2, 66.8). Among HIV-uninfected MSM, our study suggests negative associations between depressive syndromes and sexual risk behaviors. We recommend screening and treatment of depression among HIV-infected MSM.

  8. HIV-Risk Behavior Among the Male Migrant Factory Workers in a North Indian City

    Rizwan Suliankatchi Abdulkader

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Male migrants act as a bridge for transmitting infection from core risk groups to general population and hence this group becomes essential for the HIV control program. Migrant workers constitute a large proportion of workforce in India and HIV/AIDS epidemic in them would cause huge economic losses. Objectives: The aim of this study was to ascertain the HIV-risk behavior among male migrant factory workers. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional facility based survey conducted in 2011. Male migrant workers aged ≥18 years, who were born outside Haryana, who had moved to current location after 15 years of age, who had worked in the current factory for at least one year, who were willing to participate and able to give valid consent were eligible. A consecutive sampling was done. Descriptive, bivariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were done. Results: A total of 755 male subjects completed the interview. About 21.5% had experienced non-spousal sexual intercourse in last one year. Nearly 60% did not use a condom at the last non-spousal sex. Factors associated with recent non-spousal sex were being unmarried, younger age at migration, recent migration to Haryana, greater number of places migrated and lesser total duration of migration and those associated with non-use of condom at the last non-spousal sex were older age, lower education, lesser number of places migrated and lower level of HIV/AIDS knowledge. Conclusion: Unprotected, recent non-spousal sex was common among male migrants, which could increase their HIV/AIDS vulnerability.

  9. Sex workers perspectives on strategies to reduce sexual exploitation and HIV risk: a qualitative study in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Goldenberg, Shira M; Engstrom, David; Rolon, Maria Luisa; Silverman, Jay G; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2013-01-01

    Globally, female sex workers are a population at greatly elevated risk of HIV infection, and the reasons for and context of sex industry involvement have key implications for HIV risk and prevention. Evidence suggests that experiences of sexual exploitation (i.e., forced/coerced sex exchange) contribute to health-related harms. However, public health interventions that address HIV vulnerability and sexual exploitation are lacking. Therefore, the objective of this study was to elicit recommendations for interventions to prevent sexual exploitation and reduce HIV risk from current female sex workers with a history of sexual exploitation or youth sex work. From 2010-2011, we conducted in-depth interviews with sex workers (n = 31) in Tijuana, Mexico who reported having previously experienced sexual exploitation or youth sex work. Participants recommended that interventions aim to (1) reduce susceptibility to sexual exploitation by providing social support and peer-based education; (2) mitigate harms by improving access to HIV prevention resources and psychological support, and reducing gender-based violence; and (3) provide opportunities to exit the sex industry via vocational supports and improved access to effective drug treatment. Structural interventions incorporating these strategies are recommended to reduce susceptibility to sexual exploitation and enhance capacities to prevent HIV infection among marginalized women and girls in Mexico and across international settings.

  10. Sex workers perspectives on strategies to reduce sexual exploitation and HIV risk: a qualitative study in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Shira M Goldenberg

    Full Text Available Globally, female sex workers are a population at greatly elevated risk of HIV infection, and the reasons for and context of sex industry involvement have key implications for HIV risk and prevention. Evidence suggests that experiences of sexual exploitation (i.e., forced/coerced sex exchange contribute to health-related harms. However, public health interventions that address HIV vulnerability and sexual exploitation are lacking. Therefore, the objective of this study was to elicit recommendations for interventions to prevent sexual exploitation and reduce HIV risk from current female sex workers with a history of sexual exploitation or youth sex work. From 2010-2011, we conducted in-depth interviews with sex workers (n = 31 in Tijuana, Mexico who reported having previously experienced sexual exploitation or youth sex work. Participants recommended that interventions aim to (1 reduce susceptibility to sexual exploitation by providing social support and peer-based education; (2 mitigate harms by improving access to HIV prevention resources and psychological support, and reducing gender-based violence; and (3 provide opportunities to exit the sex industry via vocational supports and improved access to effective drug treatment. Structural interventions incorporating these strategies are recommended to reduce susceptibility to sexual exploitation and enhance capacities to prevent HIV infection among marginalized women and girls in Mexico and across international settings.

  11. A Qualitative Study of Migrant-related Stressors, Psychosocial Outcomes and HIV Risk Behavior among Truck Drivers in Zambia

    Ncube, Nomagugu; Simona, Simona J.; Kansankala, Brian; Sinkala, Emmanuel; Raidoo, Jasmin

    2017-01-01

    Truck drivers are part of mobile populations which have been noted as a key population at risk of HIV in Zambia. This study was aimed at 1) determining Potentially Traumatic Events (PTEs), labor migrant-related stressors, psychosocial problems and HIV risk behaviors among truck drivers in Zambia and 2) examining the relationship between PTEs, migrant-related stressors, psychosocial outcomes and HIV sexual risk behavior among truck drivers in Zambia. We conducted fifteen semi-structured interviews with purposively sampled male truck drivers at trucking companies in Lusaka, Zambia. Findings indicate that truck drivers experience multiple stressors and potentially traumatic incidences, including delays and long waiting hours at borders, exposure to crime and violence, poverty, stress related to resisting temptation of sexual interactions with sex workers or migrant women, and job-related safety concerns. Multiple psychosocial problems such as intimate partner violence, loneliness, anxiety and depression-like symptoms were noted. Transactional sex, coupled with inconsistent condom use were identified as HIV sexual risk behaviors. Findings suggest the critical need to develop HIV prevention interventions which account for mobility, potentially traumatic events, psychosocial problems, and the extreme fear of HIV testing among this key population. PMID:27681145

  12. Percepción del riesgo, comportamientos riesgosos y seroprevalencia del VIH en trabajadoras sexuales de Georgetown, Guyana HIV risk perception, risk behavior, and seroprevalence among female commercial sex workers in Georgetown, Guyana

    Keith H. Carter

    1997-10-01

    eran solo extranjeros. La seroprevalencia del VIH en mujeres que declararon tener más de cinco clientes a la semana fue estadísticamente mayor que en las que tenían menos clientes. La seropositividad al VIH fue relativamente frecuente entre las 12 trabajadoras que declararon haber usado cocaína. En general, los resultados confirman la necesidad de fortalecer las intervenciones dirigidas a las trabajadoras sexuales y a sus clientes y, particularmente, de hacer un esfuerzo concertado para intensificar la promoción, distribución y comercialización social de los condones; mejorar los servicios de atención de ETS que ofrezcan tratamiento y orientación a las trabajadoras sexuales, y ampliar las actividades educativas dirigidas a sus clientes guyaneses.A study of 108 female sex workers engaged in prostitution in Georgetown, Guyana, was made in April 1993. Based on interviews and procurement of blood samples, the study investigated relationships between HIV seroprevalences and AIDS knowledge, risk behaviors, client characteristics, and condom use. Street-walkers-as distinct from sex workers in bars, hotels, and Port Georgetown-tended to charge less, be worse off socioeconomically, and have clients who were similarly disadvantaged; they were therefore classified as belonging to a "lower" socioeconomic stratum, while the other workers were classified as belonging to a "higher" stratum. The overall HIV seroprevalence found among the sex workers was 25% (95%CI: 17%-33%. But the 50 subjects in the lower stratum had a relatively high seroprevalence (42%, as compared to 10% among those in the higher stratum, accounting for 21 of the 27 HIV-seropositive subjects. Reported patterns of client origins (Guyanese or foreign, worker willingness to have sex without a condom, and condom use by clients differed by stratum. Participants in the higher stratum were more disposed to having sex without a condom. The workers' knowledge of what causes AIDS and how HIV is transmitted was low

  13. HIV risk perception, risk behavior, and seroprevalence among female commercial sex workers in Georgetown, Guyana Percepción del riesgo, comportamiento de riesgo y seroprevalencia de VIH en trabajadoras sexuales de Georgetown, Guyana

    Keith H. Carter

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available A study of 108 female sex workers engaged in prostitution in Georgetown, Guyana, was made in April 1993. Based on interviews and procurement of blood samples, the study investigated relationships between HIV seroprevalences and AIDS knowledge, risk behaviors, client characteristics, and condom use. Street-walkers--as distinct from sex workers in bars, hotels, and Port Georgetown--tended to charge less, be worse off socioeconomically, and have clients who were similarly disadvantaged; they were therefore classified as belonging to a "lower" socioeconomic stratum, while the other workers were classified as belonging to a "higher" stratum. The overall HIV seroprevalence found among the sex workers was 25% (95%CI: 17%-33%. But the 50 subjects in the lower stratum had a relatively high seroprevalence (42%, as compared to 10% among those in the higher stratum, accounting for 21 of the 27 HIV-seropositive subjects. Reported patterns of client origins (Guyanese or foreign, worker willingness to have sex without a condom, and condom use by clients differed by stratum. Participants in the higher stratum were more disposed to having sex without a condom. The workers' knowledge of what causes AIDS and how HIV is transmitted was low in both strata; substantial numbers of workers said they had contracted a sexually transmitted disease within the past two years or were users of illicit drugs. Condom use is reportedly less common among Guyanese than foreign clients, suggesting a greater risk of contracting HIV from Guyanese clients or infecting Guyanese clients with it. The HIV seroprevalence among workers who said they had only Guyanese clients was statistically greater than the rate among those who said they had only foreign clients. The HIV seroprevalence among those reporting more than five clients per week was statistically greater than among those reporting fewer. HIV seropositivity was relatively high among the 12 workers who said they used cocaine

  14. HIV risk, health, and social characteristics of sexual minority female injection drug users in Baltimore

    German, Danielle; Latkin, Carl A.

    2015-01-01

    Female injection drug users {IDU} who report sex with women are at increased risk for HIV and social instability, but it is important to assess whether these disparities also exist according to sexual minority identity rather than behaviorally defined categories. Within a sample of current IDU in Baltimore, about 17% of female study participants (n=307) identified as gay/lesbian/bisexual. In controlled models, sexual minorities were three times as likely to report sex exchange behavior and fo...

  15. HIV Risk Behaviors in the U.S. Transgender Population: Prevalence and Predictors in a Large Internet Sample

    Feldman, Jamie; Romine, Rebecca Swinburne; Bockting, Walter O.

    2014-01-01

    To study the influence of gender on HIV risk, a sample of the U.S. transgender population (N = 1,229) was recruited via the Internet. HIV risk and prevalence were lower than reported in prior studies of localized, urban samples, but higher than the overall U.S. population. Findings suggest that gender nonconformity alone does not itself result in markedly higher HIV risk. Sex with nontransgender men emerged as the strongest independent predictor of unsafe sex for both male-to-female (MtF) and female-to-male (FtM) participants. These sexual relationships constitute a process that may either affirm or problematize gender identity and sexual orientation, with different emphases for MtFs and FtMs, respectively. PMID:25022491

  16. Sexual Behavior, Risk Beliefs, and Assertiveness among Adolescents.

    Lang, Michelle A.

    HIV risk behaviors were examined with 457 adolescents, ages 12 to 19, from four environments (community, high school, and two youth conferences). Over half reported being sexually experienced, with an average age of 13.6 for willingly engaging in first sexual intercourse. Boys reported engaging in intercourse at a significantly younger age than…

  17. Gender Differences in Factors Related to HIV Risk Behaviors among People Who Inject Drugs in North-East India.

    Bushra Sabri

    Full Text Available People who inject drugs (PWID in India are at high risk for HIV, with women being at elevated risk. Using a socio-ecological framework, this study assessed whether factors associated with HIV transmission risk behaviors differed across men and women PWID. Data for this cross-sectional study were collected from 6449 PWID in 7 cities in Northeast India. Men (n = 5653 and women (n = 796 PWID were recruited using respondent-driven sampling (RDS. We assessed sex differences in two recent HIV transmission risk behaviors: multiple sex partners and needle/syringe sharing. We used multi-level logistic regression models, which incorporated sampling weights and random intercepts for city, to assess factors associated with these HIV risks, separately among men and women. The prevalence of HIV was significantly higher among women than men (53% vs 18.4%, p<0.01. Nearly 13% of men and 8% of women (p = .30 had multiple partners. Employment in men and relationship status and stigma in women were significantly associated with multiple partners. Approximately 25% of men and 19% of women engaged in needle sharing (p = .16. Younger age in women and depression symptoms in men were significantly associated with increased risk for sharing needles. We found that sexual and drug related risk behaviors were common among PWID in Northeast India, and there were differences between men and women in the socio-ecologic correlates of these behaviors. Contextually-integrated and gender-specific HIV prevention and intervention efforts are needed that consider factors at individual, interpersonal- and community-levels that uniquely impact HIV risks among PWID.

  18. A computer-assisted motivational social network intervention to reduce alcohol, drug and HIV risk behaviors among Housing First residents.

    Kennedy, David P; Hunter, Sarah B; Chan Osilla, Karen; Maksabedian, Ervant; Golinelli, Daniela; Tucker, Joan S

    2016-03-15

    Individuals transitioning from homelessness to housing face challenges to reducing alcohol, drug and HIV risk behaviors. To aid in this transition, this study developed and will test a computer-assisted intervention that delivers personalized social network feedback by an intervention facilitator trained in motivational interviewing (MI). The intervention goal is to enhance motivation to reduce high risk alcohol and other drug (AOD) use and reduce HIV risk behaviors. In this Stage 1b pilot trial, 60 individuals that are transitioning from homelessness to housing will be randomly assigned to the intervention or control condition. The intervention condition consists of four biweekly social network sessions conducted using MI. AOD use and HIV risk behaviors will be monitored prior to and immediately following the intervention and compared to control participants' behaviors to explore whether the intervention was associated with any systematic changes in AOD use or HIV risk behaviors. Social network health interventions are an innovative approach for reducing future AOD use and HIV risk problems, but little is known about their feasibility, acceptability, and efficacy. The current study develops and pilot-tests a computer-assisted intervention that incorporates social network visualizations and MI techniques to reduce high risk AOD use and HIV behaviors among the formerly homeless. CLINICALTRIALS. NCT02140359.

  19. Understanding the Impact of Migration on HIV Risk: An Analysis of Mexican Migrants' Sexual Practices, Partners, and Contexts by Migration Phase.

    Zhang, Xiao; Rhoads, Natalie; Rangel, Maria Gudelia; Hovell, Melbourne F; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Sipan, Carol L; Gonzalez-Fagoaga, J Eduardo; Martínez-Donate, Ana P

    2017-03-01

    HIV risk among Mexican migrants varies across migration phases (pre-departure, transit, destination, interception, and return), but there is limited knowledge about specific sexual behaviors, characteristics of sexual partners, and sexual contexts at different migration stages. To fill the gap, we used data from a cross-sectional population-based survey conducted in Tijuana, Mexico. Information on migration phase and last sexual encounter was collected from 1219 male migrants. Our findings suggest that compared to pre-departure migrants, repeat migrants returning from communities of origin were more likely to have sex with male partners, use substances before sex, and not use condoms; migrants in the transit phase in the Mexican border were more likely to have sex with casual partners and sex workers; and migrants in the interception phase were more likely to engage in anal sex and use substances before sex. Sexual behaviors, partners, and contexts vary significantly among migrants at different migration phases. Tailored HIV prevention programs targeting Mexican migrants need to be developed and implemented at all migration phases.

  20. Understanding the Impact of Migration on HIV Risk: An Analysis of Mexican Migrants’ Sexual Practices, Partners, and Contexts by Migration Phase

    Zhang, Xiao; Rhoads, Natalie; Rangel, Maria Gudelia; Hovell, Melbourne F.; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Sipan, Carol L.; Gonzalez-Fagoaga, J. Eduardo; Martínez-Donate, Ana P.

    2018-01-01

    HIV risk among Mexican migrants varies across migration phases (pre-departure, transit, destination, interception, and return), but there is limited knowledge about specific sexual behaviors, characteristics of sexual partners, and sexual contexts at different migration stages. To fill the gap, we used data from a cross-sectional population-based survey conducted in Tijuana, Mexico. Information on migration phase and last sexual encounter was collected from 1,219 male migrants. Our findings suggested that compared to pre-departure migrants, repeat migrants returning from communities of origin were more likely to have sex with male partners, use substances before sex, and not use condoms; migrants with a recent stay in the Mexican border were more likely to have sex with casual partners and sex workers; and migrants in the interception phase were more likely to engage in anal sex and use substances before sex. Sexual behaviors, partners, and contexts vary significantly among migrants at different migration phases. Tailored HIV prevention programs targeting Mexican migrants need to be developed and implemented at all migration phases. PMID:27888370

  1. HIV risk, health, and social characteristics of sexual minority female injection drug users in Baltimore

    German, Danielle; Latkin, Carl A.

    2015-01-01

    Female injection drug users {IDU} who report sex with women are at increased risk for HIV and social instability, but it is important to assess whether these disparities also exist according to sexual minority identity rather than behaviorally defined categories. Within a sample of current IDU in Baltimore, about 17% of female study participants (n=307) identified as gay/lesbian/bisexual. In controlled models, sexual minorities were three times as likely to report sex exchange behavior and four times as likely to report a recent STI. Injection risk did not differ significantly, but sexual minority women reported higher prevalence of socio-economic instability, negative health indicators, and fewer network financial, material, and health support resources. There is a need to identify and address socio-economic marginalization, social support, and health issues among female IDUs who identify as lesbian or bisexual. PMID:25504312

  2. Patterns of Gender-Based Violence and Associations with Mental Health and HIV Risk Behavior Among Female Sex Workers in Mombasa, Kenya: A Latent Class Analysis.

    Roberts, Sarah T; Flaherty, Brian P; Deya, Ruth; Masese, Linnet; Ngina, Jacqueline; McClelland, R Scott; Simoni, Jane; Graham, Susan M

    2018-03-30

    Gender-based violence (GBV) is common among female sex workers (FSWs) and is associated with multiple HIV risk factors, including poor mental health, high-risk sexual behavior, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Prior studies have focused on GBV of one type (e.g. physical or sexual) or from one kind of perpetrator (e.g., clients or regular partners), but many FSWs experience overlapping types of violence from multiple perpetrators, with varying frequency and severity. We examined the association between lifetime patterns of GBV and HIV risk factors in 283 FSWs in Mombasa, Kenya. Patterns of GBV were identified with latent class analysis based on physical, sexual, or emotional violence from multiple perpetrators. Cross-sectional outcomes included depressive symptoms, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, disordered alcohol and other drug use, number of sex partners, self-reported unprotected sex, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in vaginal secretions, and a combined unprotected sex indicator based on self-report or PSA detection. We also measured HIV/STI incidence over 12 months following GBV assessment. Associations between GBV patterns and each outcome were modeled separately using linear regression for mental health outcomes and Poisson regression for sexual risk outcomes. Lifetime prevalence of GBV was 87%. We identified 4 GBV patterns, labeled Low (21% prevalence), Sexual (23%), Physical/Moderate Emotional (18%), and Severe (39%). Compared to women with Low GBV, those with Severe GBV had higher scores for depressive symptoms, PTSD symptoms, and disordered alcohol use, and had more sex partners. Women with Sexual GBV had higher scores for disordered alcohol use than women with Low GBV, but similar sexual risk behavior. Women with Physical/Moderate Emotional GBV had more sex partners and a higher prevalence of unprotected sex than women with Low GBV, but no differences in mental health. HIV/STI incidence did not differ significantly by GBV

  3. "Amar te Duele" ("love hurts"): sexual relationship power, intimate partner violence, depression symptoms and HIV risk among female sex workers who use drugs and their non-commercial, steady partners in Mexico.

    Ulibarri, Monica D; Roesch, Scott; Rangel, M Gudelia; Staines, Hugo; Amaro, Hortensia; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2015-01-01

    A significant body of research among female sex workers (FSWs) has focused on individual-level HIV risk factors. Comparatively little is known about their non-commercial, steady partners who may heavily influence their behavior and HIV risk. This cross-sectional study of 214 FSWs who use drugs and their male steady partners aged ≥18 in two Mexico-U.S. border cities utilized a path-analytic model for dyadic data based upon the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model to examine relationships between sexual relationship power, intimate partner violence (IPV), depression symptoms, and unprotected sex. FSWs' relationship power, IPV perpetration and victimization were significantly associated with unprotected sex within the relationship. Male partners' depression symptoms were significantly associated with unprotected sex within the relationship. Future HIV prevention interventions for FSWs and their male partners should address issues of sexual relationship power, IPV, and mental health both individually and in the context of their relationship.

  4. “Amar te Duele” (“Love Hurts”): Sexual relationship power, intimate partner violence, depression symptoms and HIV risk among female sex workers who use drugs and their non-commercial, steady partners in Mexico

    Ulibarri, Monica D.; Roesch, Scott; Rangel, M. Gudelia; Staines, Hugo; Amaro, Hortensia; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2014-01-01

    A significant body of research among female sex workers (FSWs) has focused on individual-level HIV risk factors. Comparatively little is known about their non-commercial, steady partners who may heavily influence their behavior and HIV risk. This cross-sectional study of 214 FSWs who use drugs and their male steady partners aged ≥18 in two Mexico-U.S. border cities utilized a path-analytic model for dyadic data based upon the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model to examine relationships between sexual relationship power, intimate partner violence (IPV), depression symptoms, and unprotected sex. FSWs’ relationship power, IPV perpetration and victimization were significantly associated with unprotected sex within the relationship. Male partners’ depression symptoms were significantly associated with unprotected sex within the relationship. Future HIV prevention interventions for FSWs and their male partners should address issues of sexual relationship power, IPV, and mental health both individually and in the context of their relationship. PMID:24743959

  5. Long-term recall of social relationships related to addiction and HIV risk behaviors.

    Stout, R L; Janssen, T; Braciszewski, J M; Vose-O'Neal, A

    2017-08-01

    Social relationships have been demonstrated as a key predictor of relapse among addicted persons and are likely to be important determinants of HIV risk behaviors also. However, the degree to which this population can reliably and consistently identify important people (IPs) in retrospect has been understudied. Using the modified Important People and Activities questionnaire, we investigated to what degree IPs were dropped, added, or retained, and whether data about individual IPs were reported accurately on 6- and 12-month follow up periods using a sample of 50 drug or alcohol abusing participants. We found that IPs were largely retained, and that those retained versus dropped/added differed by their reaction to participant alcohol/drug use, as well as frequency of contact. We further found that there were differences in reliability of data describing specific IPs. While both 6- and 12-month follow up periods led to reliabilities ranging from excellent to fair, we found poorer reliability on responses to recall of "frequency of contact" and "reactions to drinking", as well as "reactions to drug use". Future investigations of reliability of social relationships recalled retrospectively should attempt to examine possible systematic biases in addition to the reliability of specific IP data. More sophisticated studies are needed on factors associated with systematic variation in reporting of aspects of social relationships that are associated with addictions or HIV risk outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Targeted Expansion Project for Outreach and Treatment for Substance Abuse and HIV Risk Behaviors in Asian and Pacific Islander Communities

    Nemoto, Tooru; Iwamoto, Mariko; Kamitani, Emiko; Morris, Anne; Sakata, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Access to culturally competent HIV/AIDS and substance abuse treatment and prevention services is limited for Asian and Pacific Islanders (APIs). Based on the intake data for a community outreach project in the San Francisco Bay Area (N = 1,349), HIV risk behaviors were described among the targeted API risk groups. The self-reported HIV prevalence…

  7. Associations of Sexual Victimization, Depression, and Sexual Assertiveness with Unprotected Sex: A Test of the Multifaceted Model of HIV Risk Across Gender

    Morokoff, Patricia J.; Redding, Colleen A.; Harlow, Lisa L.; Cho, Sookhyun; Rossi, Joseph S.; Meier, Kathryn S.; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Koblin, Beryl; Brown-Peterside, Pamela

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether the Multifaceted Model of HIV Risk (MMOHR) would predict unprotected sex based on predictors including gender, childhood sexual abuse (CSA), sexual victimization (SV), depression, and sexual assertiveness for condom use. A community-based sample of 473 heterosexually active men and women, aged 18–46 years completed survey measures of model variables. Gender predicted several variables significantly. A separate model for women demonstrated excellent fit, while the model for men demonstrated reasonable fit. Multiple sample model testing supported the use of MMOHR in both men and women, while simultaneously highlighting areas of gender difference. Prevention interventions should focus on sexual assertiveness, especially for CSA and SV survivors, as well as targeting depression, especially among men. PMID:25018617

  8. Anal sexual experience and HIV risk awareness among female sex workers in Dire Dawa, eastern Ethiopia.

    Mazeingia, Yohannes Teka; Olijjira, Lemessa; Dessie, Yadeta

    2017-01-01

    Female sex workers have been disproportionately affected with HIV and anal sexual experience elevate their vulnerability. Anal intercourse has more risk of HIV transmission than vaginal intercourse for receptors that coupled with low condom and proper lubricant use behavior during anal sex. Besides majority of them did not understand HIV transmission risk of anal intercourse. In Ethiopia, studies on anal sexual experience is almost none existent, so the purpose of this study is to explored anal sexual experience and HIV transmission risk awareness among female sex worker in Dire Dawa, Eastern Ethiopia. Qualitative study with thematic analysis approach was conducted among 18 female sex workers and recruitment of study participants performed until saturation of information. The principal investigator conducted in-depth interviews using local language (Amharic) and it was recorded on audio recorder. Tape recorded data was transcribed and translated to English and entered into open code version 3.4 for coding and theme identification. Data collection conducted simultaneously with data analysis. Female sex workers practiced anal sex for different themes like financial influence, coercion, intentionally, peer pressure and as a sign of intimacy and love. Coercion, negative attitudes, poor awareness about HIV transmission risks of anal sex and protection capacity of condom and proper lubricants are the identified themes for not using condom and proper lubricants during anal sex by female sex workers. Inaccessibility and unavailability of health services for issues related to anal sex was the core reason for female sex workers' misperception and risk anal sexual experience. Female sex workers practiced anal sex without risk reduction approaches and they did not understand exacerbated risk of anal sex to HIV transmission. Stakeholders including ministry of health need to incorporate potential awareness raising tasks and programs about risk of anal sex and methods of risk

  9. Co-relationship between sexual dysfunction and high-risk sexual behavior in patients receiving buprenorphine and naltrexone maintenance therapy for opioid dependence

    Santosh Ramdurg

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: People suffering from substance dependence suffer from various sexual dysfunctions and are at risk for indulging in various high-risk sexual behaviors and thus are vulnerable to acquire various infections such as HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections. AIM: The aim of the study was to evaluate the correlation between sexual dysfunction and high-risk sexual behavior in opioid-dependent men receiving buprenorphine and naltrexone maintenance therapy. Materials and Methods: Semi-structured questionnaire, brief male sexual functioning inventory and HIV-risk taking behavior scale was administered to a sample of 60 sexually active men, receiving buprenorphine (n = 30 and naltrexone (n = 30 maintenance therapy for opioid dependence. Results: The main outcomes are correlation between severity of sexual dysfunction and HIV-risk taking behavior. The study results showed 83% of the men on buprenorphine and 90% on naltrexone reported at least one of the sexual dysfunction symptoms. There was a negative correlation between sexual dysfunction and HIV-risk taking behavior that suggest severe the dysfunction, higher the risk taking behavior. Significant correlation was present with overall sexual dysfunction and HIV-risk taking behavior (P = 0.028 and in naltrexone receiving group premature ejaculation versus HIV-risk taking behavior however, (P = 0.022, P < 0.05 there were no significant differences among both the groups except above findings. Conclusion: Conclusion was treatment is associated with sexual dysfunctions and HIV-risk taking behavior, which has clinical implication. Future research should explore this further using biochemical analyses.

  10. An exploratory study of mental health and HIV risk behavior among drug-using rural women in jail.

    Staton-Tindall, Michele; Harp, Kathi L H; Minieri, Alexandra; Oser, Carrie; Webster, J Matthew; Havens, Jennifer; Leukefeld, Carl

    2015-03-01

    Rural women, particularly those in the criminal justice system, are at risk for HIV related to the increasing prevalence of injection drug use as well as limited services. Research on HIV risk correlates, including drug use and mental health, has primarily focused on urban women incarcerated in prisons. The purpose of this exploratory study is to examine dual HIV risk by 3 different mental health problems (depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD]) among drug-using women in rural jails. This study involved random selection, screening, and face-to-face interviews with 136 women in 1 Appalachian state. Analyses focused on the relationship between mental health and HIV risk. Nearly 80% of women self-reported symptoms of depression, and more than 60% endorsed symptoms consistent with anxiety and PTSD symptoms. Mental health significantly correlated with severity of certain types of drug use, as well as risky sexual activity. In addition, for women experiencing anxiety and PTSD, injection drug use moderated the relationship between mental health and risky sexual activity. Based on these rates of drug use, mental health problems, and the emergence of injection drug use in rural Appalachia, the need to explore the relationships between these issues among vulnerable and understudied populations, such as rural women, is critical. Because of service limitations in rural communities, criminal justice venues such as jails provide opportune settings for screening, assessment, and intervention for drug use, mental health, and HIV education and prevention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. HIV Risk Behavior in Persons with Severe Mental Disorders in a ...

    increased risk of sexual victimization may occur in the context ... sexually transmitted disease, 5.9% (6/102) reported sex trading and no reports of intravenous drug use ... Keywords: Human immuno virus, Mental health, Psychiatric patients, Risk behavior, .... Difference ..... persistent mental illness: Patterns and psychological.

  12. Sexual Networks and HIV Risk among Black Men Who Have Sex with Men in 6 U.S. Cities.

    Hong-Van Tieu

    Full Text Available Sexual networks may place U.S. Black men who have sex with men (MSM at increased HIV risk.Self-reported egocentric sexual network data from the prior six months were collected from 1,349 community-recruited Black MSM in HPTN 061, a multi-component HIV prevention intervention feasibility study. Sexual network composition, size, and density (extent to which members are having sex with one another were compared by self-reported HIV serostatus and age of the men. GEE models assessed network and other factors associated with having a Black sex partner, having a partner with at least two age category difference (age difference between participant and partner of at least two age group categories, and having serodiscordant/serostatus unknown unprotected anal/vaginal intercourse (SDUI in the last six months.Over half had exclusively Black partners in the last six months, 46% had a partner of at least two age category difference, 87% had ≤5 partners. Nearly 90% had sex partners who were also part of their social networks. Among HIV-negative men, not having anonymous/exchange/ trade partners and lower density were associated with having a Black partner; larger sexual network size and having non-primary partners were associated with having a partner with at least two age category difference; and having anonymous/exchange/ trade partners was associated with SDUI. Among HIV-positive men, not having non-primary partners was associated with having a Black partner; no sexual network characteristics were associated with having a partner with at least two age category difference and SDUI.Black MSM sexual networks were relatively small and often overlapped with the social networks. Sexual risk was associated with having non-primary partners and larger network size. Network interventions that engage the social networks of Black MSM, such as interventions utilizing peer influence, should be developed to address stable partnerships, number of partners, and

  13. The efficacy of methadone maintenance interventions in reducing illicit opiate use, HIV risk behavior and criminality: a meta-analysis.

    Marsch, L A

    1998-04-01

    To provide empirically based evaluation data regarding the efficacy of psychopharmacological interventions in opiate substance abuse, the present study employed meta-analytic statistical procedures to determine the effectiveness of methadone hydrochloride as a pharmacotherapeutic agent. Empirical research findings from 11 studies investigating the effect of methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) on illicit opiate use, and eight and 24 studies investigating the effect of MMT on HIV risk behaviors and criminal activities, respectively, by individuals in such treatment were addressed. Results demonstrate a consistent, statistically significant relationship between MMT and the reduction of illicit opiate use, HIV risk behaviors and drug and property-related criminal behaviors. The effectiveness of MMT is most apparent in its ability to reduce drug-related criminal behaviors. MMT had a moderate effect in reducing illicit opiate use and drug and property-related criminal behaviors, and a small to moderate effect in reducing HIV risk behaviors. Results clarify discrepancies in the literature and are useful in predicting the outcomes of individuals in treatment. The treatment's effectiveness is evident among opiate-dependent individuals across a variety of contexts, cultural and ethnic groups, and study designs.

  14. Liaisons dangereuses: HIV risk behavior and prevention in steady gay relationships

    Davidovich, E.

    2006-01-01

    This dissertation studied sexual risk-taking behavior among gay men in steady relationships. The main targets of this study were to establish: (a) whether steady relationships form a risk environment for HIV-infection; (b) some of the determinants of risky and protective behavior between steady

  15. Alcohol Use and HIV Risk Behaviors among Rural Adolescents in Khanh Hoa Province Viet Nam

    Kaljee, L. M.; Genberg, B. L.; Minh, T. T.; Tho, L. H.; Thoa, L. T. K.; Stanton, B.

    2005-01-01

    Research suggests that youth are consuming more alcohol and at younger ages than in the past. Data also indicate that alcohol consumption is associated with participation in other risk behaviors including aggression and sexual behaviors. As part of a randomized control effectiveness trial for an HIV prevention program, 480 Vietnamese youth (15-20…

  16. HIV-Risk Behaviors and Social Support Among Men and Women Attending Alcohol-Serving Venues in South Africa: Implications for HIV Prevention.

    Velloza, Jennifer; Watt, Melissa H; Abler, Laurie; Skinner, Donald; Kalichman, Seth C; Dennis, Alexis C; Sikkema, Kathleen J

    2017-11-01

    Alcohol use is associated with increased HIV-risk behaviors, including unprotected sex and number of sex partners. Alcohol-serving venues can be places to engage in HIV-related sexual risk behaviors, but are also important sites of social support for patrons, which may mitigate risks. We sought to examine the relationship between alcohol-serving venue attendance, social support, and HIV-related sexual risk behavior, by gender, in South Africa. Adult patrons (n = 496) were recruited from six alcohol-serving venues and completed surveys assessing frequency of venue attendance, venue-based social support, and recent sexual behaviors. Generalized estimating equations tested associations between daily venue attendance, social support, and sexual behaviors, separately by gender. Interaction effects between daily attendance and social support were assessed. Models were adjusted for venue, age, education, and ethnicity. Daily attendance at venues was similar across genders and was associated with HIV-related risk behaviors, but the strength and direction of associations differed by gender. Among women, daily attendance was associated with greater number of partners and higher proportion of unprotected sex. Social support was a significant moderator, with more support decreasing the strength of the relationship between attendance and risk. Among men, daily attendance was associated with a lower proportion of unprotected sex; no interaction effects were found for attendance and social support. Frequent venue attendance is associated with additional HIV-related risks for women, but this risk is mitigated by social support in venues. These results were not seen for men. Successful HIV interventions in alcohol-serving venues should address the gendered context of social support and sexual risk behavior.

  17. The HIV Risk Profiles of Latino Sexual Minorities and Transgender Persons Who Use Websites or Apps Designed for Social and Sexual Networking.

    Sun, Christina J; Reboussin, Beth; Mann, Lilli; Garcia, Manuel; Rhodes, Scott D

    2016-02-01

    The use of websites and GPS-based mobile applications ("apps") designed for social and sexual networking has been associated with increased HIV risk; however, little is known about Latino sexual minorities' and transgender persons' use of these websites and apps and the risk profiles of those who use them compared with those who do not. Data from 167 participants who completed the baseline survey of a community-level HIV prevention intervention, which harnesses the social networks of Latino sexual minorities and transgender persons, were analyzed. One quarter of participants (28.74%, n = 48) reported using websites or apps designed for social and sexual networking, and 119 (71.26%) reported not using websites or apps designed for social and sexual networking. Those who used websites or apps were younger and reported more male sex partners, a sexually transmitted disease diagnosis, and illicit drug use other than marijuana. HIV prevention interventions for those who use websites or apps should consider addressing these risks for HIV. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.

  18. A Longitudinal Test of the Parent–Adolescent Family Functioning Discrepancy Hypothesis: A Trend toward Increased HIV Risk Behaviors among Immigrant Hispanic Adolescents

    Cordova, David; Schwartz, Seth J.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Villamar, Juan A.; Soto, Daniel W.; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E.; Lee, Tae Kyoung; Meca, Alan; Cano, Miguel Ángel; Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I.; Oshri, Assaf; Salas-Wright, Christopher P.; Piña-Watson, Brandy M.; Romero, Andrea J.

    2016-01-01

    Parent-adolescent discrepancies in family functioning play an important role in HIV risk behaviors among adolescents, yet longitudinal research with recent immigrant Hispanic families remains limited. This study tested the effects of trajectories of parent–adolescent family functioning discrepancies on HIV risk behaviors among recent-immigrant Hispanic adolescents. Additionally, we examined whether and to what extent trajectories of parent-adolescent family functioning discrepancies vary as a function of gender. We assessed family functioning of 302 Hispanic adolescents (47% female) and their parent (70% female) at six time points over a three-year period and computed latent discrepancy scores between parent and adolescent reports at each timepoint. Additionally, adolescents completed measures of sexual risk behaviors and alcohol use. We conducted a confirmatory factor analysis to determine the feasibility of collapsing parent and adolescent reported family functioning indicators onto a single latent discrepancy variable, tested model invariance over time, and conducted growth mixture modeling (GMM). GMM yielded a three-class solution for discrepancies: High-Increasing, High-Stable, and Low-Stable. Relative to the Low-Stable class, parent–adolescent dyads in the High-Increasing and High-Stable classes were at greater risk for adolescents reporting sexual debut at time 6. Additionally, the High-Stable class was at greater risk, relative to the Low-Stable class, in terms of adolescent lifetime alcohol use at 30 months post-baseline. Multiple group GMM indicated that trajectories of parent-adolescent family functioning trajectories did not vary by gender. Implications for future research and practice are discussed. PMID:27216199

  19. Bullying and HIV Risk Among High School Teenagers: The Mediating Role of Teen Dating Violence.

    Okumu, Moses; Mengo, Cecilia; Ombayo, Bernadette; Small, Eusebius

    2017-10-01

    Teen dating violence (TDV), bullying, and HIV risk behaviors are public health concerns that impact adolescents in the United States. National estimates reveal high rates of these risk behaviors among high school students. Based on theoretical and empirical evidence, we hypothesized that experiencing teen dating violence (sexual and physical) would mediate the impact of bullying on HIV risk. Data were from the 2013 National Youth Behavior Risk Surveillance Survey (YRBSS) among students who answered questions on bullying, TDV, and HIV risk (N = 13,571). The YRBSS is conducted biennially among 9th- to 12th-grade students nationally. We used multiple regression analysis and Hayes' SPSS process macro to examine the 2 study hypotheses. Findings from bivariate analysis suggest an association between bullying and HIV risk. The study also found associations between physical, sexual teen dating violence and HIV risk. Results also indicate that both physical and sexual teen dating violence mediate the association between bullying and HIV risk. Our findings suggest that multidimensional interventions should be developed to reduce the rate of teen dating violence and combat bullying as a preventative method for HIV risk among high school students. © 2017, American School Health Association.

  20. Toddlers and Sexual Behavior

    ... that seems sexual to an adult is not sexual to children. They think about it as play. Sex education should start at home at an early age. References Bushnell P and Lucas L. Questions and Answers About Sex. KidsHealth. ... Sexual Behavior in Children: What's Normal? http://www.mayoclinic. ...

  1. Who accepts a rapid HIV antibody test? The role of race/ethnicity and HIV risk behavior among community adolescents.

    Swenson, Rebecca R; Hadley, Wendy S; Houck, Christopher D; Dance, S Kwame; Brown, Larry K

    2011-05-01

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines recommend routine human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) screening in health care settings for all individuals aged 13-64 years; however, overall testing rates among adolescents still continue to remain low. This study examined factors related to the acceptance of HIV testing among an at-risk sample of ethnically/racially diverse community adolescents. Adolescents aged 15-21 (N = 81) years were recruited from community-based youth organizations to complete HIV risk assessment surveys. After the completion of the survey, participants were offered a free OraQuick rapid HIV antibody test. More than half (53.1%) of the participants accepted the test, with the black population being more likely to accept testing as compared to Latinos (75% vs. 39%). After controlling for race/ethnicity, significant predictors of test acceptance included history of sexual intercourse (OR = 5.43), having only one sexual partner in the past 3 months (OR = 4.88), not always using a condom with a serious partner (OR = 3.94), and not using a condom during last sexual encounter (OR = 4.75). Given that many adolescents are willing to know their HIV status, policies that support free or low-cost routine testing may lead to higher rates of case identification among youth. However, approaches must be developed to increase test acceptance among Latino adolescents and teenagers with multiple sexual partners. Copyright © 2011 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The Influence of Constructed Family Membership on HIV Risk Behaviors among Gay, Bisexual, and Other Men Who Have Sex with Men in New Orleans.

    Zarwell, Meagan C; Robinson, William T

    2018-04-01

    Gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) represent more new HIV infections than all other at-risk populations. Many young black MSM belong to constructed families (i.e., the house ball community, gay families, and pageant families) which are often organized in a family structure with members referred to as parents and children. Many constructed families are associated with a family surname which is informally adopted by members. In some cases, however, constructed families do not identify with a collective family name. In 2014, 553 MSM were recruited through venue-based time-space sampling during the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance (NHBS) in New Orleans to complete a structured survey and HIV test. Black, Latino, and other race MSM were more likely to belong to constructed families in comparison to white MSM. In addition, participants who belonged to constructed families with a family name were more likely to engage in protective behaviors including wearing condoms at last sexual intercourse. Overall, younger, white MSM who did not belong to any social groups were more likely to engage in at least one risk behavior. These findings significantly contribute to understanding variations in HIV risk behavior among members of constructed families.

  3. Investigating Sociodemographic Factors and HIV Risk Behaviors Associated With Social Networking Among Adolescents in Soweto, South Africa: A Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Dietrich, Janan Janine; Laher, Fatima; Hornschuh, Stefanie; Nkala, Busisiwe; Chimoyi, Lucy; Otwombe, Kennedy; Kaida, Angela; Gray, Glenda Elisabeth; Miller, Cari

    2016-09-28

    Internet access via mobile phones and computers facilitates interaction and potential health communication among individuals through social networking. Many South African adolescents own mobile phones and can access social networks via apps. We investigated sociodemographic factors and HIV risk behaviors of adolescent social networking users in Soweto, South Africa. We conducted an interviewer-administered, cross-sectional survey of adolescents aged 14-19 years. Independent covariates of social networking were assessed by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Of 830 adolescents, 57% (475/830) were females and the median age was found to be 18 years (interquartile range 17-18). Social networking was used by 60% of adolescents (494/830); more than half, that is, 87% (396/494) accessed social networks through mobile phones and 56% (275/494) spent more than 4 hours per day using their mobile phones. Social networking was independently associated with mobile usage 2-4 hours (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 3.06, CI: 1.69-5.51) and more than 4 hours per day (AOR: 6.16, CI: 3.46-10.9) and one (AOR: 3.35, CI: 1.79-6.27) or more sexual partner(s) (AOR: 2.58, CI: 1.05-6.36). Mobile phone-based social networking is prevalent among sexually active adolescents living in Soweto and may be used as an entry point for health promotion and initiation of low-cost adolescent health interventions.

  4. Sex, drugs, and HIV: rapid assessment of HIV risk behaviors among street-based drug using sex workers in Durban, South Africa.

    Needle, Richard; Kroeger, Karen; Belani, Hrishikesh; Achrekar, Angeli; Parry, Charles D; Dewing, Sarah

    2008-11-01

    South Africa is experiencing significant changes in patterns of illicit drug use, including increasing injection and non-injection drug use, and the use of drugs by persons engaged in sex work, both of which could further expand the HIV/AIDS epidemic. In 2005, a rapid ethnographic assessment was conducted in Durban, South Africa, to learn more about patterns of drug use and HIV risk behaviors among drug-using, street-based sex workers. Field teams recruited 52 current injection and non-injection drug users for key informant interviews and focus groups, and they conducted mapping and observation in identified high-risk neighborhoods. Key informants were offered free, voluntary counseling and HIV rapid testing. The results of the assessment indicate that in this population, drugs play an organizing role in patterns of daily activities, with sex work closely linked to the buying, selling, and using of drugs. Participants reported using multiple drugs including crack cocaine, heroin, Ecstasy and Mandrax, and their choices were based on their expectations about the functional role and behavioral and pharmacological properties of the drugs. The organization of sex work and patterns of drug use differ by gender, with males exercising more control over daily routines and drug and sexual transactions than females. Activities of female sex workers are subject to considerable control by individual pimps, many of whom also function as landlords and drug dealers. A strong hold over the overlapping economies of drugs and sex work by a few individuals extends to control of the physical and social settings in which sex is exchanged and drugs are sold and used as well as the terms under which sex work is carried out. The potential for accelerated HIV spread is considerable given the evidence of overlapping drug-using and sexual risk behaviors and the mixing patterns across drug and sexual risk networks.

  5. Change over Time in Police Interactions and HIV Risk Behavior Among Female Sex Workers in Andhra Pradesh, India

    Reed, Elizabeth; Blankenship, Kim M.

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the effectiveness of intervening to change interactions between female sex workers (FSWs) and police in order to reduce HIV risk. Using data collected in the context of a HIV prevention intervention that included components to change policing practices (n = 1,680), we examine the association of FSWs’ reports of negative police interactions and HIV risk behaviors and whether these associations varied over time. Results show negative police interactions declined significantly over time. FSWs who had more than one negative police interaction were more likely to experience STI symptoms (AOR 2.97 [95 % CI 2.27–3.89]), inconsistently use condoms with their clients (AOR 1.36 [95 % CI 1.03–1.79]), and accept more money for condomless sex (AOR 2.37 [95 % CI 1.76–3.21]). Over time, these associations were stable or increased. Even where interventions have reduced the number of police incidents experienced by FSWs, stakeholders in HIV prevention must remain vigilant in challenging these incidents. PMID:25354735

  6. Beyond anal sex: sexual practices associated with HIV risk reduction among men who have sex with men in Boston, Massachusetts.

    Reisner, Sari L; Mimiaga, Matthew J; Skeer, Margie; Mayer, Kenneth H

    2009-07-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) continue to bear a disproportionate HIV and sexually transmitted disease (STD) burden. The current study examined the frequency and associations of sexual risk reduction behaviors among a sample of MSM in the greater Boston, Massachusetts area. One hundred eighty-nine MSM completed a one-time behavioral and psychosocial assessment between March 2006 and May 2007. Logistic regression procedures examined the association of demographic, psychosocial, and behavioral factors with risk reduction practices. Twenty percent of the sample reported rimming, mutual masturbation, digital penetration, using sex toys, or 100% condom use as a means to reduce their risk of acquiring or transmitting HIV in the prior 12 months. In bivariate analyses, risk reducers were more likely to disclose their MSM status (i.e., be "out"; odds ratio [OR] = 3.64; p < 0.05), and report oral sex with a condom in the prior 12 months (OR = 4.85; p < 0.01). They were less likely to report: depression (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale [CES-D] score 16+; OR = 0.48; p < 0.05), a history of one or more sexually transmitted diseases (STDs; OR = 0.40; p < 0.05), and meeting sexual partners at public cruising areas (OR = 0.32; p < 0.01). In a multivariable model, risk reducers were less likely to report: alcohol use during sex (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.33; p < 0.05), depression (CESD score 16+; AOR = 0.32; p < 0.05), or meeting sexual partners at public cruising areas (AOR = 0.30; p < 0.05), or via the Internet (AOR = 0.12; p < 0.05) in the previous 12 months. Identifying and understanding such factors associated with risk reduction behaviors may be important to consider in designing effective prevention interventions to promote sexual health for MSM.

  7. Vulnerabilities faced by the children of sex workers in two Mexico-US border cities: a retrospective study on sexual violence, substance use and HIV risk.

    Servin, Argentina E; Strathdee, Steffanie; Muñoz, Fatima A; Vera, Alicia; Rangel, Gudelia; Silverman, Jay G

    2015-01-01

    Most studies of female sex workers (FSWs) conducted in the Mexico-US border region have focused on individual HIV risk, centered on sexual behaviors and substance abuse patterns. Little attention has been drawn to the reality that sex workers are often parents whose children potentially face vulnerabilities unique to their family situation. The objective of the present study was to identify the vulnerabilities faced by the children of FSWs in two Mexican-US border cities. From 2008 to 2010, 628 FSW-injection drug users underwent interviewer-administered surveys and HIV/STI testing. Approximately one in five participants (20%) reported having a parent involved in sex work and majority referred it was their mother (88%). Close to one-third of participants (31%) reported first injecting drugs prostitute <18 years of age. First drinking alcohol <18 years old (AOR = 1.87, 95%CI: 1.13-3.08), lifetime cocaine use (AOR = 1.76, 95%CI: 1.09-2.84), ever being forced or coerced into non-consensual sex as a minor (<18 years of age; AOR = 1.54, 95%CI: 1.01-2.35), and injecting drugs with used syringes in the prior month (AOR = 1.63, 95%CI: 1.07-2.49) were the factors associated with having had a parent involved in sex work. These findings begin to lay the groundwork for understanding the potential vulnerabilities faced by the children of sex workers. Understanding these potential needs is necessary for creating relevant, evidence-based interventions focused on supporting these women.

  8. Acculturative Stress and Risky Sexual Behavior: The Roles of Sexual Compulsivity and Negative Affect.

    Jardin, Charles; Garey, Lorra; Sharp, Carla; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Recent syndemic models of sexual health disparities affecting racial/ethnic minorities have highlighted the role of discrimination. Yet no previous work has examined how acculturative stress (distress at the transition from one's original culture toward a new culture) associates with sexual HIV-risk behavior (SHRB). Work among other minority populations suggests sexual compulsivity (SC) may contribute to syndemic sexual health disparities as a means of coping with distress. With this in mind, the present study examined whether SC explained the relation between acculturative stress and SHRB. Separate analyses were conducted for males and females within a sample of 758 sexually initiated racial/ethnic minority college students. Among males and females, acculturative stress had an indirect effect on SHRB via SC. As the first study to examine SHRB in relation to acculturative stress, findings provide preliminary evidence that targeting SC among racial/ethnic minorities may help reduce sexual health disparities. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Applying Ecodevelopmental Theory and the Theory of Reasoned Action to Understand HIV Risk Behaviors Among Hispanic Adolescents.

    Ortega, Johis; Huang, Shi; Prado, Guillermo

    2012-01-03

    HIV/AIDS is listed as one of the top 10 reasons for the death of Hispanics between the ages of 15 and 54 in the United States. This cross sectional, descriptive secondary study proposed that using both the systemic (ecodevelopmental) and the individually focused (theory of reasoned action) theories together would lead to an increased understanding of the risk and protective factors that influence HIV risk behaviors in this population. The sample consisted of 493 Hispanic adolescent 7th and 8th graders and their immigrant parents living in Miami, Florida. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was used for the data analysis. Family functioning emerged as the heart of the model, embedded within a web of direct and mediated relationships. The data support the idea that family can play a central role in the prevention of Hispanic adolescents' risk behaviors.

  10. New York inmates' HIV risk behaviors: the implications for prevention policy and programs.

    Mahon, N

    1996-09-01

    The median incidence rate of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) among prisoners is 7 times higher than for the general population. Yet high-risk sexual activity and drug use in US correctional facilities remain unexamined. This study explores inmate perceptions of high-risk behavior in New York state prisons and New York City jails and seeks to generate hypotheses to inform policies and future research. Participants were 22 former New York state prisoners and 28 current New York City inmates. Participants attended one of six focus groups and completed an anonymous questionnaire. Audiotapes of the groups were transcribed and evaluated. A range of consensual and nonconsensual sexual activity occurs among inmates and between inmates and staff. Without official access to latex barriers, prisoners use ineffective makeshift devices, like rubber gloves and used plastic wrap, in attempts to practice safer sex. Prisoners also shoot drugs intravenously with used syringes and pieces of pens and light bulbs. The absence of harm-reduction devices behind bars may create a greater risk of HIV transmission there than in the community. Officials should consider distributing risk-reduction devices to prisoners through anonymous methods.

  11. High Substance Use and HIV Risk Behavior Among Young Argentine Men Who Have Sex with Men.

    Balán, Iván C; Frasca, Timothy; Pando, María A; Marone, Rubén O; Barreda, Victoria; Dolezal, Curtis; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Ávila, María M

    2018-04-01

    In the United States young men who have sex with men have higher rates of substance use, higher HIV incidence, and less frequent HIV testing than their heterosexual counterparts and older MSM. Less is known about comparable populations in Latin America. As part of an epidemiological study, MSM were recruited through Respondent Driven Sampling in the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires, Argentina and answered a computerized behavioral survey. From the total of 500 MSM enrolled, a sub-sample of 233 aged 18-25 was analyzed. The sample was concentrated among lower socioeconomic strata, and only 16% identified as gay. Nearly half reported male, female, and transvestite sexual partners. Reported substance use was widespread ranging from 61% for marijuana to 20% for pasta base (cocaine sulfate). Seventy percent of the sample had never been tested for HIV infection; 3% tested positive for HIV and 8% for syphilis during the study.

  12. Methamphetamine Use and Sexual Risk Behavior among High School Students in Cape Town, South Africa

    Pluddemann, Andreas; Flisher, Alan J.; McKetin, Rebecca; Parry, Charles D.; Lombard, Carl J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether methamphetamine use is associated with sexual risk behavior among adolescents. Method: A cross-sectional survey of 1,561 male and female high school students in Cape Town (mean age 14.9 years) was conducted using items from the Problem Oriented Screening Instrument for Teenagers (POSIT) HIV Risk Scale. Results:…

  13. Compulsive Sexual Behavior

    ... to hurt yourself or someone else, you report sexual abuse of a child, or you report abuse or neglect of someone in a vulnerable population. Seek treatment right away Seek immediate ... uncontrolled sexual behavior You have other problems with impulse control, ...

  14. Modeling a Theory-Based Approach to Examine the Influence of Neurocognitive Impairment on HIV Risk Reduction Behaviors Among Drug Users in Treatment.

    Huedo-Medina, Tania B; Shrestha, Roman; Copenhaver, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Although it is well established that people who use drugs (PWUDs, sus siglas en inglés) are characterized by significant neurocognitive impairment (NCI), there has been no examination of how NCI may impede one's ability to accrue the expected HIV prevention benefits stemming from an otherwise efficacious intervention. This paper incorporated a theoretical Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills model of health behavior change (IMB) to examine the potential influence of NCI on HIV prevention outcomes as significantly moderating the mediation defined in the original model. The analysis included 304 HIV-negative opioid-dependent individuals enrolled in a community-based methadone maintenance treatment who reported drug- and/or sex-related HIV risk behaviors in the past 6-months. Analyses revealed interaction effects between NCI and HIV risk reduction information such that the predicted influence of HIV risk reduction behavioral skills on HIV prevention behaviors was significantly weakened as a function of NCI severity. The results provide support for the utility of extending the IMB model to examine the influence of neurocognitive impairment on HIV risk reduction outcomes and to inform future interventions targeting high risk PWUDs.

  15. Church ladies, good girls, and locas: stigma and the intersection of gender, ethnicity, mental illness, and sexuality in relation to HIV risk.

    Collins, Pamela Y; von Unger, Hella; Armbrister, Adria

    2008-08-01

    Inner city women with severe mental illness may carry multiple stigmatized statuses. In some contexts these include having a mental illness, being a member of an ethnic minority group, being an immigrant, being poor, and being a woman who does not live up to gendered expectations. These potentially stigmatizing identities influence both the way women's sexuality is viewed and their risk for HIV infection. This qualitative study applies the concept of intersectionality to facilitate understanding of how these multiple identities intersect to influence women's sexuality and HIV risk. We report the firsthand accounts of 24 Latina women living with severe mental illness in New York City. In examining the interlocking domains of these women's sexual lives, we find that the women seek identities that define them in opposition to the stigmatizing label of "loca" (Spanish for crazy) and bestow respect and dignity. These identities have unfolded through the additional themes of "good girls" and "church ladies". Therefore, in spite of their association with the "loca", the women also identify with faith and religion ("church ladies") and uphold more traditional gender norms ("good girls") that are often undermined by the realities of life with a severe mental illness and the stigma attached to it. However, the participants fall short of their gender ideals and engage in sexual relationships that they experience as disempowering and unsatisfying. The effects of their multiple identities as poor Latina women living with severe mental illness in an urban ethnic minority community are not always additive, but the interlocking effects can facilitate increased HIV risks. Interventions should acknowledge women's multiple layers of vulnerability, both individual and structural, and stress women's empowerment in and beyond the sexual realm.

  16. Sexual violence from police and HIV risk behaviours among HIV-positive women who inject drugs in St. Petersburg, Russia – a mixed methods study

    Lunze, Karsten; Raj, Anita; Cheng, Debbie M; Quinn, Emily K; Lunze, Fatima I; Liebschutz, Jane M; Bridden, Carly; Walley, Alexander Y; Blokhina, Elena; Krupitsky, Evgeny; Samet, Jeffrey H

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Police violence against people who inject drugs (PWID) is common in Russia and associated with HIV risk behaviours. Sexual violence from police against women who use drugs has been reported anecdotally in Russia. This mixed-methods study aimed to evaluate sexual violence from police against women who inject drugs via quantitative assessment of its prevalence and HIV risk correlates, and through qualitative interviews with police, substance users and their providers in St. Petersburg, Russia. Methods Cross-sectional analyses with HIV-positive women who inject drugs (N=228) assessed the associations between sexual violence from police (i.e. having been forced to have sex with a police officer) and the following behaviours: current drug use, needle sharing and injection frequency using multiple regression models. We also conducted in-depth interviews with 23 key informants, including PWID, police, civil society organization workers, and other stakeholders, to explore qualitatively the phenomenon of sexual violence from police in Russia and strategies to address it. We analyzed qualitative data using content analysis. Results Approximately one in four women in our quantitative study (24.1%; 95% CI, 18.6%, 29.7%) reported sexual violence perpetrated by police. Affected women reported more transactional sex for drugs or money than those who were not; however, the majority of those reporting sexual violence from police were not involved in these forms of transactional sex. Sexual violence from police was not significantly associated with current drug use or needle sharing but with more frequent drug injections (adjusted incidence rate ratio 1.43, 95% CI 1.04, 1.95). Qualitative data suggested that sexual violence and coercion by police appear to be entrenched as a norm and are perceived insurmountable because of the seemingly absolute power of police. They systematically add to the risk environment of women who use drugs in Russia. Conclusions Sexual violence

  17. Sexual violence from police and HIV risk behaviours among HIV-positive women who inject drugs in St. Petersburg, Russia - a mixed methods study.

    Lunze, Karsten; Raj, Anita; Cheng, Debbie M; Quinn, Emily K; Lunze, Fatima I; Liebschutz, Jane M; Bridden, Carly; Walley, Alexander Y; Blokhina, Elena; Krupitsky, Evgeny; Samet, Jeffrey H

    2016-01-01

    Police violence against people who inject drugs (PWID) is common in Russia and associated with HIV risk behaviours. Sexual violence from police against women who use drugs has been reported anecdotally in Russia. This mixed-methods study aimed to evaluate sexual violence from police against women who inject drugs via quantitative assessment of its prevalence and HIV risk correlates, and through qualitative interviews with police, substance users and their providers in St. Petersburg, Russia. Cross-sectional analyses with HIV-positive women who inject drugs (N=228) assessed the associations between sexual violence from police (i.e. having been forced to have sex with a police officer) and the following behaviours: current drug use, needle sharing and injection frequency using multiple regression models. We also conducted in-depth interviews with 23 key informants, including PWID, police, civil society organization workers, and other stakeholders, to explore qualitatively the phenomenon of sexual violence from police in Russia and strategies to address it. We analyzed qualitative data using content analysis. Approximately one in four women in our quantitative study (24.1%; 95% CI, 18.6%, 29.7%) reported sexual violence perpetrated by police. Affected women reported more transactional sex for drugs or money than those who were not; however, the majority of those reporting sexual violence from police were not involved in these forms of transactional sex. Sexual violence from police was not significantly associated with current drug use or needle sharing but with more frequent drug injections (adjusted incidence rate ratio 1.43, 95% CI 1.04, 1.95). Qualitative data suggested that sexual violence and coercion by police appear to be entrenched as a norm and are perceived insurmountable because of the seemingly absolute power of police. They systematically add to the risk environment of women who use drugs in Russia. Sexual violence from police was common in this cohort of

  18. Bullying and HIV Risk among High School Teenagers: The Mediating Role of Teen Dating Violence

    Okumu, Moses; Mengo, Cecilia; Ombayo, Bernadette; Small, Eusebius

    2017-01-01

    Background: Teen dating violence (TDV), bullying, and HIV risk behaviors are public health concerns that impact adolescents in the United States. National estimates reveal high rates of these risk behaviors among high school students. Based on theoretical and empirical evidence, we hypothesized that experiencing teen dating violence (sexual and…

  19. A view from the field: phone help line in India helps indentify HIV risk behaviors.

    Chandiramani, R

    1998-01-01

    TARSHI, a confidential phone help line in India, provides sexuality information, counseling, and referrals in English and Hindi. About 80% of callers are men and 70% are in the 15-30 year age group. An analysis of the subject matter of these calls indicates widespread ignorance about HIV transmission, a cultural belief that masturbation is an unacceptable way to satisfy sexual desires, lack of awareness of the connection between sexually transmitted diseases and HIV, exposure to misleading Westernized images of sexuality through the mass media, clandestine premarital sexual activity engineered to protect the hymen, lack of knowledge about conception, the belief that women who appear respectable and healthy could not be HIV-infected, societal dismissal of the reality of homosexual relationships in India, unprotected intercourse with commercial sex workers, women's fears of insisting on protected sex, child sexual abuse, the widespread practice of sexual relations between young men and older women, and the emergence of advertisements for sexual services. It is essential that HIV/AIDS prevention programs in India recognize these factors and address people's needs in a clear, nonjudgmental manner.

  20. HIV risk associated with gay bathhouses and sex clubs: findings from 2 seattle surveys of factors related to HIV and sexually transmitted infections.

    Reidy, William J; Spielberg, Freya; Wood, Robert; Binson, Diane; Woods, William J; Goldbaum, Gary M

    2009-04-01

    We studied the HIV risk behaviors of patrons of the 3 commercial sex venues for men in Seattle, Washington. We conducted cross-sectional, observational surveys in 2004 and 2006 by use of time-venue cluster sampling with probability proportional to size. Surveys were anonymous and self-reported. We analyzed the 2004 data to identify patron characteristics and predictors of risk behaviors and compared the 2 survey populations. Fourteen percent of respondents reported a previous HIV-positive test, 14% reported unprotected anal intercourse, and 9% reported unprotected anal intercourse with a partner of unknown or discordant HIV status during the current commercial sex venue visit. By logistic regression, recent unprotected anal intercourse outside of a commercial sex venue was independently associated with unprotected anal intercourse. Sex venue site and patron drug use were strongly associated with unprotected anal intercourse at the crude level. The 2004 and 2006 survey populations did not differ significantly in demographics or behaviors. Patron and venue-specific characteristics factors may each influence the frequency of HIV risk behaviors in commercial sex venues. Future research should evaluate the effect of structural and individual-level interventions on HIV transmission.

  1. HIV Risk Associated With Gay Bathhouses and Sex Clubs: Findings From 2 Seattle Surveys of Factors Related to HIV and Sexually Transmitted Infections

    Spielberg, Freya; Wood, Robert; Binson, Diane; Woods, William J.; Goldbaum, Gary M.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We studied the HIV risk behaviors of patrons of the 3 commercial sex venues for men in Seattle, Washington. Methods. We conducted cross-sectional, observational surveys in 2004 and 2006 by use of time–venue cluster sampling with probability proportional to size. Surveys were anonymous and self-reported. We analyzed the 2004 data to identify patron characteristics and predictors of risk behaviors and compared the 2 survey populations. Results. Fourteen percent of respondents reported a previous HIV-positive test, 14% reported unprotected anal intercourse, and 9% reported unprotected anal intercourse with a partner of unknown or discordant HIV status during the current commercial sex venue visit. By logistic regression, recent unprotected anal intercourse outside of a commercial sex venue was independently associated with unprotected anal intercourse. Sex venue site and patron drug use were strongly associated with unprotected anal intercourse at the crude level. The 2004 and 2006 survey populations did not differ significantly in demographics or behaviors. Conclusions. Patron and venue-specific characteristics factors may each influence the frequency of HIV risk behaviors in commercial sex venues. Future research should evaluate the effect of structural and individual-level interventions on HIV transmission. PMID:19218174

  2. HIV risk perception, risk behavior, and seroprevalence among female commercial sex workers in Georgetown, Guyana

    Keith H. Carter

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available A study of 108 female sex workers engaged in prostitution in Georgetown, Guyana, was made in April 1993. Based on interviews and procurement of blood samples, the study investigated relationships between HIV seroprevalences and AIDS knowledge, risk behaviors, client characteristics, and condom use. Street-walkers--as distinct from sex workers in bars, hotels, and Port Georgetown--tended to charge less, be worse off socioeconomically, and have clients who were similarly disadvantaged; they were therefore classified as belonging to a "lower" socioeconomic stratum, while the other workers were classified as belonging to a "higher" stratum. The overall HIV seroprevalence found among the sex workers was 25% (95%CI: 17%-33%. But the 50 subjects in the lower stratum had a relatively high seroprevalence (42%, as compared to 10% among those in the higher stratum, accounting for 21 of the 27 HIV-seropositive subjects. Reported patterns of client origins (Guyanese or foreign, worker willingness to have sex without a condom, and condom use by clients differed by stratum. Participants in the higher stratum were more disposed to having sex without a condom. The workers' knowledge of what causes AIDS and how HIV is transmitted was low in both strata; substantial numbers of workers said they had contracted a sexually transmitted disease within the past two years or were users of illicit drugs. Condom use is reportedly less common among Guyanese than foreign clients, suggesting a greater risk of contracting HIV from Guyanese clients or infecting Guyanese clients with it. The HIV seroprevalence among workers who said they had only Guyanese clients was statistically greater than the rate among those who said they had only foreign clients. The HIV seroprevalence among those reporting more than five clients per week was statistically greater than among those reporting fewer. HIV seropositivity was relatively high among the 12 workers who said they used cocaine

  3. Computer-enhanced interventions for drug use and HIV risk in the emergency room: preliminary results on psychological precursors of behavior change.

    Bonar, Erin E; Walton, Maureen A; Cunningham, Rebecca M; Chermack, Stephen T; Bohnert, Amy S B; Barry, Kristen L; Booth, Brenda M; Blow, Frederic C

    2014-01-01

    This article describes process data from a randomized controlled trial among 781 adults recruited in the emergency department who reported recent drug use and were randomized to: intervener-delivered brief intervention (IBI) assisted by computer, computerized BI (CBI), or enhanced usual care (EUC). Analyses examined differences between baseline and post-intervention on psychological constructs theoretically related to changes in drug use and HIV risk: importance, readiness, intention, help-seeking, and confidence. Compared to EUC, participants receiving the IBI significantly increased in confidence and intentions; CBI patients increased importance, readiness, confidence, and help-seeking. Both groups increased relative to the EUC in likelihood of condom use with regular partners. Examining BI components suggested that benefits of change and tools for change were associated with changes in psychological constructs. Delivering BIs targeting drug use and HIV risk using computers appears promising for implementation in healthcare settings. This trial is ongoing and future work will report behavioral outcomes. © 2013.

  4. Sexual Migration and HIV Risk in a Sample of Brazilian, Colombian and Dominican Immigrant MSM Living in New York City.

    Nieves-Lugo, Karen; Barnett, Andrew; Pinho, Veronica; Reisen, Carol; Poppen, Paul; Zea, Maria Cecilia

    2018-03-01

    We examined motivations for migration to the United States (US) among 482 Brazilian, Colombian, and Dominican men who have sex with men (MSM). Participants' most common reason for migration was to improve their financial situation (49%), followed by sexual migration in order to affirm their sexual orientation (40%). Fewer endorsed sexual migration motivated by avoiding persecution due to being gay (13%). We conducted further analyses among 276 participants who migrated after age 15 and were HIV-negative at the time of migration. We hypothesized that sexual migration would be associated with greater likelihood of HIV acquisition post-migration. Hierarchical logistic regression analysis indicated that sexual migration motivated by avoiding persecution due to being gay was associated with increased odds of contracting HIV after arrival in the US whereas sexual migration to lead a gay life was not. Our findings highlight the importance of addressing the negative impact of anti-gay discrimination in countries of origin.

  5. HIV sexual risk behavior among black men who meet other men on the internet for sex.

    White, Jaclyn M; Mimiaga, Matthew J; Reisner, Sari L; Mayer, Kenneth H

    2013-06-01

    Using the Internet to meet sexual partners is associated with increased HIV risk behavior, including substance use, sex with multiple or anonymous partners, and unprotected anal sex (UAS), among diverse samples of MSM, yet little is known about Internet use and HIV risk among Black MSM specifically. In 2008, a sample of 197 Black MSM completed an interviewer-administered assessment and voluntary HIV counseling and testing. One fifth of the sample (20 %) reported meeting a sexual partner via the Internet in the past 12 months. Men who met sexual partners over the Internet had significantly more male sex partners (M = 13.44, SD = 20.01) than men who did not meet partners in this manner (M = 4.11, SD = 4.14, p Internet, identifying as gay, and lower knowledge about HIV transmission. These findings highlight the unique HIV risk behaviors among Black MSM meeting sexual partners via the Internet and warrant tailoring of prevention activities to address the specific behaviors and social influences that may contribute to increased HIV spread among this population.

  6. Experiences of Black MSM at an HBCU Regarding Stigma and HIV Risk Behavior

    Jeter, Natasha Harden

    2016-01-01

    Black men who have sex with men (MSM) on Historically Black College/University (HBCU) campuses face a unique set of challenges. In addition to being disproportionately affected by HIV, Black MSM are impacted by risk behavior, stigma, and environmental policies and practices that adversely influence their experiences. The purpose of this study was…

  7. Factors influencing HIV-risk behaviors among HIV-positive urban African Americans.

    Plowden, Keith O; Fletcher, Audwin; Miller, J Lawrence

    2005-01-01

    Urban African Americans are disproportionately affected by HIV, the virus associated with AIDS. Although incidence and mortality appear to be decreasing in some populations, they continue to remain steady among inner-city African Americans. A major concern is the number of HIV-positive individuals who continue to practice high-risk behaviors. Understanding factors that increase risks is essential for the development and implementation of effective prevention initiatives. Following a constructionist epistemology, this study used ethnography to explore social and cultural factors that influence high-risk behaviors among inner-city HIV-positive African Americans. Leininger's culture care diversity and universality theory guided the study. Individual qualitative interviews were conducted with HIV-positive African Americans in the community to explore social and cultural factors that increase HIV-risky behaviors. For this study, family/kinship, economic, and education factors played a significant role in risky behaviors. Reducing HIV disparity among African Americans is dependent on designing appropriate interventions that enhance protective factors. Clinicians providing care to HIV-positive individuals can play a key role in reducing transmission by recognizing and incorporating these factors when designing effective prevention interventions.

  8. Mediators of the Relation Between Community Violence and Sexual Risk Behavior Among Adults Attending a Public Sexually Transmitted Infection Clinic.

    Senn, Theresa E; Walsh, Jennifer L; Carey, Michael P

    2016-07-01

    Prior research shows that violence is associated with sexual risk behavior, but little is known about the relation between community violence (i.e., violence that is witnessed or experienced in one's neighborhood) and sexual risk behavior. To better understand contextual influences on HIV risk behavior, we asked 508 adult patients attending a publicly funded STI clinic in the U.S. (54 % male, M age = 27.93, 68 % African American) who were participating in a larger trial to complete a survey assessing exposure to community violence, sexual risk behavior, and potential mediators of the community violence-sexual risk behavior relation (i.e., mental health, substance use, and experiencing intimate partner violence). A separate sample of participants from the same trial completed measures of sexual behavior norms, which were aggregated to create measures of census tract sexual behavior norms. Data analyses controlling for socioeconomic status revealed that higher levels of community violence were associated with more sexual partners for men and with more episodes of unprotected sex with non-steady partners for women. For both men and women, substance use and mental health mediated the community violence-sexual risk behavior relation; in addition, for men only, experiencing intimate partner violence also mediated this relation. These results confirm that, for individuals living in communities with high levels of violence, sexual risk reduction interventions need to address intimate partner violence, substance use, and mental health to be optimally effective.

  9. Exploring Contextual Factors of Youth Homelessness And Sexual Risk Behaviors: A Qualitative Study.

    Santa Maria, Diane; Narendorf, Sarah C; Ha, Yoonsook; Bezette-Flores, Noel

    2015-12-01

    HIV disproportionately affects homeless youth, and interventions to date have had minimal success in reducing sexual risk behaviors in this population. Few qualitative studies have been conducted to provide insight into the influence of homelessness-related factors on sexual risk behaviors. A qualitative study with a quantitative component was conducted with a nonprobability sample of 64 homeless youth aged 14-24; participants were recruited from a variety of venues in Houston between October 2013 and March 2014. Thirteen focus group discussions were conducted; thematic analysis was used to identify themes related to HIV risk. Participants were predominantly black (75%), sheltered (67%) and aged 18 or older (77%). Youth discussed how the circumstances of their homelessness and the struggle to meet their immediate needs led to behaviors and experiences that put them at risk for HIV. Three themes emerged: Homeless youth frequently engage in risky sexual behavior, sometimes as a way to cope with stress; they often trade sex, either voluntarily or involuntarily, for such necessities as money or a place to sleep; and many experienced childhood sexual victimization or have been victimized since becoming homeless. Youth also described how stress, stigma and self-reliance contributed to their involvement in HIV risk behaviors. HIV prevention methods that target stress and stigma while respecting youths' self-reliance may help reduce sexual risk behaviors. Further research is needed to determine suitable behavioral change techniques to address these potentially modifiable factors. Copyright © 2015 by the Guttmacher Institute.

  10. Risky sexual behaviors of adolescents in rural Malawi: evidence from focus groups.

    Dancy, Barbara L; Kaponda, Chrissie P N; Kachingwe, Sitingawawo I; Norr, Kathleen F

    2006-07-01

    Little is known about rural Malawian adolescents' perceptions of their sexual behavior and what would constitute an effective HIV risk-reduction program. This study explored the perceptions of Malawain adolescents using qualitative description research with focus groups. A purposive sample of 144 adolescents, ranging from 10 to 19 years of age was obtained. Subjects were then placed in focus groups separated by gender Qualitative content analysis revealed that adolescents were at risk for HIV based on the select behaviors These included early sexual debut, multiple partners, non-use of condoms and among girls older partners These adolescents acknowledged peer pressure and lack of parental supervision as factors that perpetuated these behaviors and identified two components of HIV prevention programs. For example, parental involvement and support for sexual abstinence were among the issues discussed. It is essential that HIV risk-reduction programs create ways of involving parents and of enhancing adolescents' HIV risk-reduction skills by helping them to change peer norms and to develop negotiation and assertiveness skills to in order to resist peer pressure.

  11. Substance abuse and HIV risk behaviours amongst primary health ...

    Substance abuse and HIV risk behaviours amongst primary health care service users in Cape Town. ... African Journal of Psychiatry ... We assessed substance use with the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test, and HIV risk with items addressing injection drug use, blood-sharing rituals, and sexual ...

  12. Psychological Violence and Sexual Risk Behavior Among Predominantly African American Women.

    Ali, Bina; Mittal, Mona; Schroder, Allison; Ishman, Najah; Quinton, Sylvia; Boekeloo, Bradley

    2017-07-01

    Physical and sexual violence are commonly researched as risk factors for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, psychological violence and its relationship with HIV risk behaviors have received limited attention among African American/Black (Black) women. This study examined (a) the frequency of recent (past 3 months) psychological violence, physical violence, and sexual violence and (b) the association of HIV risk behaviors, including unprotected sex, sex under the influence of alcohol/drugs, and sex exchange for money/drugs/shelter, with psychological violence. Participants included 191 women (89.2% Black), who were recruited through information sessions held at community centers, Parent Teacher Association meetings, substance use and HIV counseling centers, radio public service announcements, and word of mouth. Interested women participated in a multisession HIV and substance use prevention program and completed a self-reported assessment at program baseline. The current study utilized baseline data collected for a longitudinal study. Results from descriptive analysis indicated that the rate of psychological violence was higher than physical violence or sexual violence, and it was strongly associated with physical and sexual violence. Furthermore, hierarchical logistic regression analysis showed that unprotected sex was significantly associated with recent psychological violence after controlling for covariates. Findings suggest that recent psychological violence is more common than physical or sexual violence and it relates to sexual risk behaviors among Black women. Recent psychological violence may indicate psychosocial and sexual vulnerability for HIV and warrants particular attention among Black women.

  13. Islamic Influence on HIV Risk and Protection Among Central Asian Male Migrant Workers in Kazakhstan.

    Shaw, Stacey A; McCrimmon, Tara; Mergenova, Gaukhar; Sultangaliyeva, Alma; El-Bassel, Nabila

    2017-08-01

    HIV incidence is increasing in Central Asia, where migrant workers experience risks for acquiring sexually transmitted HIV. As a social and structural factor that may influence perceptions and behavior, we examine how Islam shapes HIV risk and protection. Phenomenological qualitative interviews examine religion and contexts of HIV risk among 48 male Central Asian migrant workers residing in Almaty, Kazakhstan. Men described nonvaginal sex, alcohol use, premarital sex, and extramarital sex as forbidden or frowned upon. Religious networks were unlikely to discuss HIV risks, and some men viewed religious affiliation or practices as protective. Marital practices including neke (religious marriage), polygyny, and bride kidnapping may be linked to risk. Findings suggest adhering to Islamic ideals may be protective for some men, but for others, assumptions of protection may enhance risk. HIV prevention strategies among Central Asian migrants may be strengthened by attention to religious and cultural understandings of risk and protection.

  14. "Gay Boy Talk" Meets "Girl Talk": HIV Risk Assessment Assumptions in Young Gay Men's Sexual Health Communication with Best Friends

    Mutchler, Matt G.; McDavitt, Bryce

    2011-01-01

    Young adults, particularly young gay men (YGM), are vulnerable to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Yet, little is known about how YGM discuss sexual health issues with their friends ("gay boy talk"). We conducted semi-structured interviews with YGM and their best friends (11 YGM/YGM dyads and 13 YGM/heterosexual female dyads). In this paper, we…

  15. HIV sexual risk behavior in older black women: a systematic review.

    Smith, Tanyka K; Larson, Elaine L

    2015-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a major public health concern in the United States, particularly among older Black women who comprise approximately 40% of the newly diagnosed cases among women. This systematic review sought to answer the research question: What are the sexual practices in older Black women associated with HIV risk? CINAHL, PubMed, MEDLINE, and Web of Knowledge electronic databases were searched for English-language research studies published between 2003 and 2013 that focused on the HIV sexual risk practices of Black women over the age of 50. Using PRISMA guidelines, two reviewers independently reviewed and appraised the quality of relevant articles; agreement of select studies was achieved by consensus. Among the 3,167 articles surveyed, 9 met inclusion criteria. The majority (88%) were quantitative, observational studies. All nine articles addressed at least one of three factors that contribute to HIV sexual risk: Behavioral (inconsistent condom use and multiple sexual partners), psychological (risk perception, depression/stress, trauma, and self-esteem issues), and social factors (economics, education, and drugs/alcohol use). Outcome measures varied across studies. Although this systematic review appraised few studies, findings suggest that many older Black women are engaged in HIV risk-taking practices. Clinicians and researchers need to be aware of the HIV risk practices of older Black women to improve health outcomes through education, effective communication and risk appraisal. Copyright © 2015 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Gender and sexuality: emerging perspectives from the heterosexual epidemic in South Africa and implications for HIV risk and prevention

    2010-01-01

    Research shows that gender power inequity in relationships and intimate partner violence places women at enhanced risk of HIV infection. Men who have been violent towards their partners are more likely to have HIV. Men's behaviours show a clustering of violent and risky sexual practices, suggesting important connections. This paper draws on Raewyn Connell's notion of hegemonic masculinity and reflections on emphasized femininities to argue that these sexual, and male violent, practices are rooted in and flow from cultural ideals of gender identities. The latter enables us to understand why men and women behave as they do, and the emotional and material context within which sexual behaviours are enacted. In South Africa, while gender identities show diversity, the dominant ideal of black African manhood emphasizes toughness, strength and expression of prodigious sexual success. It is a masculinity women desire; yet it is sexually risky and a barrier to men engaging with HIV treatment. Hegemonically masculine men are expected to be in control of women, and violence may be used to establish this control. Instead of resisting this, the dominant ideal of femininity embraces compliance and tolerance of violent and hurtful behaviour, including infidelity. The women partners of hegemonically masculine men are at risk of HIV because they lack control of the circumstances of sex during particularly risky encounters. They often present their acquiescence to their partners' behaviour as a trade off made to secure social or material rewards, for this ideal of femininity is upheld, not by violence per se, by a cultural system of sanctions and rewards. Thus, men and women who adopt these gender identities are following ideals with deep roots in social and cultural processes, and thus, they are models of behaviour that may be hard for individuals to critique and in which to exercise choice. Women who are materially and emotionally vulnerable are least able to risk experiencing

  17. HIV Risk Behaviors and Correlates of Inconsistent Condom Use Among Substance Using Migrants at the Mexico/Guatemala Border.

    Conners, Erin E; Swanson, Kate; Morales-Miranda, Sonia; Fernández Casanueva, Carmen; Mercer, Valerie J; Brouwer, Kimberly C

    2017-07-01

    This study assessed correlates of inconsistent condom use with casual partners and the prevalence of sexual risk behaviors and STIs in the Mexico/Guatemala border region using a sample of 392 migrants (303 men, 85 women) who reported current substance use or problem drinking. We ran separate univariate logistic regression models for men and women, and multivariate logistic regression models for men only. Prevalence of syphilis was 1.2% among women and 2.3% among men; HIV prevalence was 2.4% among women and 1.3% among men. Inconsistent condom use with casual partners was higher in women with greater education and lower among women who sold sex. In men, less access to free condoms, drug use with sexual partners, and drug use before sex were independently associated with inconsistent condom use with casual partners. Sexual and substance use risk behaviors were common, and HIV/STI prevention efforts should target both genders and expand beyond most-at risk populations.

  18. Feasibility of a computer-assisted social network motivational interviewing intervention for substance use and HIV risk behaviors for housing first residents.

    Osilla, Karen Chan; Kennedy, David P; Hunter, Sarah B; Maksabedian, Ervant

    2016-09-07

    Social networks play positive and negative roles in the lives of homeless people influencing their alcohol and/or other drug (AOD) and HIV risk behaviors. We developed a four-session computer-assisted social network motivational interviewing intervention for homeless adults transitioning into housing. We examined the acceptability of the intervention among staff and residents at an organization that provides permanent supportive housing through iterative rounds of beta testing. Staff were 3 men and 3 women who were residential support staff (i.e., case managers and administrators). Residents were 8 men (7 African American, 1 Hispanic) and 3 women (2 African American, 1 Hispanic) who had histories of AOD and HIV risk behaviors. We conducted a focus group with staff who gave input on how to improve the delivery of the intervention to enhance understanding and receptivity among new residents. We conducted semi-structured qualitative interviews and collected self-report satisfaction data from residents. Three themes emerged over the course of the resident interviews. Residents reported that the intervention was helpful in discussing their social network, that seeing the visualizations was more impactful than just talking about their network, and that the intervention prompted thoughts about changing their AOD use and HIV risk networks. This study is the first of its kind that has developed, with input from Housing First staff and residents, a motivational interviewing intervention that targets both the structure and composition of one's social network. These results suggest that providing visual network feedback with a guided motivational interviewing discussion is a promising approach to supporting network change. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT02140359.

  19. Gendered socioeconomic conditions and HIV risk behaviours ...

    Despite this possibility, there are surprisingly few definitive studies that examine the effects of socioeconomic status on HIV risk and prevention behaviours among youth in South Africa. Using household survey data collected in 2001, this study investigates how socioeconomic disadvantage has influenced the sexual ...

  20. Gender context of sexual violence and HIV sexual risk behaviors among married women in Iringa Region, Tanzania.

    Nyamhanga, Tumaini M; Frumence, Gasto

    2014-01-01

    There is a dearth of empirical research illuminating possible connections between gender imbalances and sexual violence among married women in Tanzania. There is a need to generate in-depth information on the connectivity between gender imbalances (asymmetrical resource ownership, sexual decision making, roles, and norms) and sexual violence plus associated HIV risky sexual behavior among married women. This paper is based on a qualitative case study that involved use of focus group discussions (FGDs). A thematic analysis approach was used in analyzing the study findings. The study findings are presented under the three structures of gender and power theory. On sexual division of labor, our study found that economic powerlessness exposes women to sexual violence. This study suggests that married women experience a sexual risk of acquiring HIV that results from non-consensual sex. That non-consensual sex is a function of gender imbalances - ranging from women's economic dependence on their husbands or partners to socioculturally rooted norms and expectations regarding women's sexual behavior. The HIV risk is especially heightened because masculine sexual norms encourage men [husbands/partners] to engage in unprotected intra- and extramarital sex. It is recommended that the Tanzania Commission for AIDS (TACAIDS) should address the gender dimensions of sexual violence in marriage.

  1. Assessing the relationship between child sexual abuse and marginal living conditions on HIV/AIDS-related risk behavior among women prisoners.

    Mullings, J L; Marquart, J W; Brewer, V E

    2000-05-01

    There were two aims in this research. First, to examine the relationships between childhood sexual abuse and HIV drug and sexual risk taking behaviors among female prisoners, and second, to examine the relationship between a marginal adult living context and HIV drug and sexual risk taking behavior among female prisoners. The data were collected through face-to-face interviews with a random sample of 500 women at admission to prison in 1994. Differences between women who were sexually abused while growing up (n = 130) were compared to women who reported no sexual abuse (n = 370) along various demographic, and HIV drug and sexual risk taking dimensions. A history of sexual abuse while growing up was associated with increased sexual risk taking behaviors in adulthood. A marginal adult living situation also emerged as an important factor increasing the risk for HIV infection. Examining the co-occurrence of both childhood sexual abuse and adult marginal living context revealed a strong relationship between these two factors and HIV risk taking activities. The findings indicate that childhood sexual abuse may be a predictor for HIV sexual risk taking behaviors among incarcerated women. The marginal and chaotic adult living style of these women was also associated the extent of their HIV drug and sexual risk taking behaviors. Our research suggests that the co-occurrence of sexual victimization and marginality is a stronger predictor of HIV risk than each variable alone.

  2. Freshman Sexual Attitudes and Behavior.

    Nutt, Roberta L.; Sedlacek, William E.

    At the University of Maryland, 758 randomly selected incoming freshman students were administered an anonymous poll regarding their sexual attitudes and behavior. Results showed that the Maryland freshman generally resembled other U.S. college students in their sexual experience. Approximately half (52% of males, 46% of females) reported that they…

  3. Implications of Mobility Patterns and HIV Risks for HIV Prevention Among Migrant Market Vendors in Kazakhstan

    Gilbert, Louisa; Terlikbayeva, Assel; West, Brooke; Bearman, Peter; Wu, Elwin; Zhussupov, Baurzhan; Platais, Ingrida; Brisson, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the relationships between mobility characteristics and sexual risk behaviors among male and female migrant market vendors in Almaty, Kazakhstan. Methods. Participants completed a structured interview covering sociodemographics, mobility characteristics, sexual behaviors, and biomarkers for HIV, HCV, and syphilis. We used multivariate analyses to examine associations between mobility patterns and HIV risks after adjusting for sociodemographics. Results. Longer duration of a participant's last trip outside Almaty increased the odds of reporting multiple sexual partners. More frequent travel to visit family or friends was associated with multiple sexual partners and unprotected sex with steady partners. More frequent travel to buy goods in the past year was associated with multiple sexual partners. Men who traveled more often to buy goods were more likely to have purchased sex within the previous 90 days. Conclusions. Relationships between mobility patterns and sexual risk behaviors underscore the need for HIV-prevention strategies targeting the specific transmission dynamics that migrant vendors are likely to present. PMID:21493929

  4. Gender-based violence against female sex workers in Cameroon: prevalence and associations with sexual HIV risk and access to health services and justice.

    Decker, Michele R; Lyons, Carrie; Billong, Serge Clotaire; Njindam, Iliassou Mfochive; Grosso, Ashley; Nunez, Gnilane Turpin; Tumasang, Florence; LeBreton, Matthew; Tamoufe, Ubald; Baral, Stefan

    2016-12-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) are at risk for HIV and physical and sexual gender-based violence (GBV). We describe the prevalence of lifetime GBV and its associations with HIV risk behaviour, access to health services and barriers in accessing justice among FSWs in Cameroon. FSWs (n=1817) were recruited for a cross-sectional study through snowball sampling in seven cities in Cameroon. We examined associations of lifetime GBV with key outcomes via adjusted logistic regression models. Overall, 60% (1098/1817) had experienced physical or sexual violence in their lifetime. GBV was associated with inconsistent condom use with clients (adjusted OR (AOR) 1.49, 95% CI 1.18 to 1.87), being offered more money for condomless sex (AOR 2.09, 95% CI 1.56 to 2.79), having had a condom slip or break (AOR 1.53, 95% CI 1.25 to 1.87) and difficulty suggesting condoms with non-paying partners (AOR 1.47, 95% CI 1.16 to 1.87). Violence was also associated with fear of health services (AOR 2.25, 95% CI 1.61 to 3.16) and mistreatment in a health centre (AOR 1.66, 95% CI 1.01 to 2.73). Access to justice was constrained for FSWs with a GBV history, specifically feeling that police did not protect them (AOR 1.41, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.78). Among FSWs in Cameroon, violence is prevalent and undermines HIV prevention and access to healthcare and justice. Violence is highly relevant to FSWs' ability to successfully negotiate condom use and engage in healthcare. In this setting of criminalised sex work, an integrated, multisectoral GBV-HIV strategy that attends to structural risk is needed to enhance safety, HIV prevention and access to care and justice. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  5. Gender context of sexual violence and HIV sexual risk behaviors among married women in Iringa Region, Tanzania

    Tumaini M. Nyamhanga

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a dearth of empirical research illuminating possible connections between gender imbalances and sexual violence among married women in Tanzania. There is a need to generate in-depth information on the connectivity between gender imbalances (asymmetrical resource ownership, sexual decision making, roles, and norms and sexual violence plus associated HIV risky sexual behavior among married women. Design: This paper is based on a qualitative case study that involved use of focus group discussions (FGDs. A thematic analysis approach was used in analyzing the study findings. Results: The study findings are presented under the three structures of gender and power theory. On sexual division of labor, our study found that economic powerlessness exposes women to sexual violence. On sexual division of power, our study found that perception of the man as a more powerful partner in marriage is enhanced by the biased marriage arrangement and alcohol consumption. On cathexis, this study has revealed that because of societal norms and expectations regarding women's sexual behavior characterized by their sexual and emotional attachments to men, women find it hard to leave sexually abusive marriages. That is, because of societal expectations of obedience and compelled tolerance many married women do suffer in silence. They find themselves trapped in marriages that increase their risk of acquiring HIV. Conclusions: This study suggests that married women experience a sexual risk of acquiring HIV that results from non-consensual sex. That non-consensual sex is a function of gender imbalances – ranging from women's economic dependence on their husbands or partners to socioculturally rooted norms and expectations regarding women's sexual behavior. The HIV risk is especially heightened because masculine sexual norms encourage men [husbands/partners] to engage in unprotected intra- and extramarital sex. It is recommended that the Tanzania

  6. Sexual Behavior in Adults with Autism.

    Van Bourgondien, Mary E.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    A survey of the sexual behavior of 89 adults with autism living in group homes found that the majority of individuals were engaging in some form of sexual behavior. Masturbation was the most common sexual behavior; however, person-oriented sexual behaviors with obvious signs of arousal were also found. Information regarding group home sexuality…

  7. Adapting the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills Model: Predicting HIV-Related Sexual Risk among Sexual Minority Youth

    Fisher, Colleen M.

    2012-01-01

    Young sexual minority males are among those at highest risk for HIV infection, yet we know relatively little about the impact of sexual identity development on HIV risk. This study used cross-sectional data to investigate factors associated with HIV-related sexual risk among a sample of sexual minority males (n = 156), ages 14 to 21 years, using…

  8. Unwanted online sexual solicitation and online sexual risk behavior

    Baumgartner, S.E.; Valkenburg, P.M.; Peter, J.; Yan, Z.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, there have been growing concerns about online sexual solicitations and online sexual risk behaviors. Recent studies suggest that only a minority of adolescents is confronted with online sexual solicitations or engages in online sexual risk behavior. Whereas more girls encounter

  9. Outcomes of Sexual Behaviors among Sexual Minority Youth

    Morgan, Elizabeth M.

    2014-01-01

    Very little is known about outcomes of sexual behavior for sexual minority youth. In this chapter, I review relevant literature and draw on findings from my own research to initiate an inquiry into this important topic. I begin with a brief overview of the range of sexual behaviors of sexual minority adolescents and young adults. Next, I describe…

  10. The Role of Sexual Health Professionals in Developing a Shared Concept of Risky Sexual Behavior as it Relates to HIV Transmission.

    Brawner, Bridgette M; Alexander, Kamila A; Fannin, Ehriel F; Baker, Jillian L; Davis, Zupenda M

    2016-01-01

    "Risky sexual behavior" accounts for the majority of new HIV infections regardless of gender, age, geographic location, or ethnicity. The phrase, however, refers to a relatively nebulous concept that hampers development of effective sexual health communication strategies. The purpose of this paper was to propose development of a shared conceptual understanding of "risky sexual behavior." We reviewed multidisciplinary HIV/AIDS literature to identify definitions of risky sexual behavior. Both the linguistic components and the social mechanisms that contribute to the concept of risky sexual behaviors were noted. Risky sexual behavior was often defined in a subjective manner in the literature, even in the scientific research. We urge a paradigm shift to focus on explicit behaviors and the social context of those behaviors in determining HIV risk. We also propose a new definition that reduces individual biases and promotes a broader discussion of the degree of sexual risk across a diversity of behavioral contexts. Sexual health professionals can strengthen practice and research initiatives by operating from a concise working definition of risky sexual behavior that is broadly transferable and expands beyond a traditional focus on identity-based groups. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Atypical sexual behavior during sleep.

    Guilleminault, Christian; Moscovitch, Adam; Yuen, Kin; Poyares, Dalva

    2002-01-01

    This article reports a case series of atypical sexual behavior during sleep, which is often harmful to patients or bed partners. Eleven subjects underwent clinical evaluation of complaints of sleep-related atypical sexual behavior. Complaints included violent masturbation, sexual assaults, and continuous (and loud) sexual vocalizations during sleep. One case was a medical-legal case. Sleep logs, clinical evaluations, sleep questionnaires, structured psychiatric interviews, polysomnography, actigraphy, home electroencephalographic monitoring during sleep, and clinical electroencephalographic monitoring while awake and asleep were used to determine clinical diagnoses. Atypical sexual behaviors during sleep were associated with feelings of guilt, shame, and depression. Because of these feelings, patients and bed partners often tolerated the abnormal behavior for long periods of time without seeking medical attention. The following pathologic sleep disorders were demonstrated on polysomnography: partial complex seizures, sleep-disordered breathing, stage 3 to 4 non-rapid eye movement (REM) sleep parasomnias, and REM sleep behavior disorder. These findings were concurrent with morning amnesia. The atypical behaviors were related to different syndromes despite the similarity of complaints from bed partners. In most cases the disturbing and often harmful symptoms were controlled when counseling was instituted and sleep disorders were treated. In some cases treatment of seizures or psychiatric disorders was also needed. Clonazepam with simultaneous psychotherapy was the most common successful treatment combination. The addition of antidepressant or antiepileptic medications was required in specific cases.

  12. HIV Risk and Prevention

    ... Prevention VIH En Español Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Email Updates on HIV Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV Risk and Prevention Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ...

  13. Gender, Work, and HIV Risk: Determinants of Risky Sexual Behavior among Female Entertainment Workers in China

    Yang, Xiushi; Xia, Guomei

    2006-01-01

    We proposed to integrate cognitive and social factors in the study of unprotected commercial sex. Data from 159 female entertainment workers from 15 establishments in Shanghai who reported commercial sex in the month prior to interview were used to test the approach. Two-sample t tests and multivariate logistic regression were conducted to examine…

  14. Psychosocial, behavioral, and cultural predictors of sexual risk for HIV infection among Latino men who have sex with men.

    Jarama, S Lisbeth; Kennamer, J David; Poppen, Paul J; Hendricks, Michael; Bradford, Judith

    2005-12-01

    This study sought to replicate and extend an investigation by Diaz et al. (1999) on determinants of HIV risk among Latino gay and bisexual men living in San Francisco who were predominantly English-speaking. Compared to the Diaz et al. study, the current study sample consisted of predominantly Spanish-speaking MSM, who resided outside of HIV/AIDS epicenters and whose countries of origin were primarily Central & South American. The relationships of unprotected anal sex and multiple sexual partners with demographic, developmental, behavioral, cultural and psychosocial variables were examined. Data were collected in a convenience sample of 250 participants (primarily immigrants from El Salvador) residing in Virginia. Most men in the sample had more than one sexual partner in the last 3 months (62%) and more than a third had unprotected anal sex with a casual partner in the same time period. Communication about HIV, sexual attraction, machismo, and experiences of discrimination based on homosexual behavior were predictive of HIV risk behaviors. The findings support an integrative approach to investigating HIV risk among Latino MSM. Implications for prevention programs are discussed.

  15. HIV risk behaviors among African American men in Los Angeles County who self-identify as heterosexual.

    Wohl, Amy Rock; Johnson, Denise F; Lu, Sharon; Jordan, Wilbert; Beall, Gildon; Currier, Judith; Simon, Paul A

    2002-11-01

    There are limited data on high-risk behaviors among heterosexual African American men with HIV infection. Risk behaviors were examined in a case-control study of HIV-infected (n = 90) and uninfected (n = 272) African American men who self-identified as heterosexual. Of men who self-identified as heterosexual, 31% (n = 28) of the infected men and 16% (n = 43) of the uninfected men reported having had anal sex with men. Among the heterosexual men reporting anal sex with men, 100% of the infected and 67% of the uninfected men reported inconsistent condom use during anal sex with men. Few of the infected (12%) and uninfected (2%) men reported oral sex with other men. Of the men who self-identified as heterosexual, 46% of those who were HIV-positive and 37% of those who were HIV-negative reported anal sex with women with infrequent condom use. An increasing risk for HIV was associated with decreasing age at first sexual experience (chi2, 9.3; p = .002). A history of injecting drugs (odds ratio [OR], 3.1; 95% confidence intervals [CIs], 1.8, 5.4) and amphetamine (OR, 4.3; 95% CIs, 1.1, 16.7) and methamphetamine (OR, 2.9; 95% CIs, 1.4, 6.3) use were associated with HIV. Innovative HIV prevention strategies are needed that move beyond the traditional gay versus straight model to effectively access hard-to-reach African American men who self-identify as heterosexual.

  16. Male labor migration, patriarchy, and the awareness-behavior gap: HIV risks and prevention among migrants' wives in Armenia.

    Agadjanian, Victor; Markosyan, Karine

    2017-06-01

    Unlike in most of the world, HIV incidence in the former Soviet Union continues to rise. While international labor migration has been identified as a potentially important contributor to this trend, most attention has been focused on risks of male migrants themselves. This study uses recent household survey data to examine HIV-related perceptions and actions of migrants' left-behind wives in Armenia. Multivariate logistic regression analyses show that migrants' wives are significantly more likely to suspect their husbands of extramarital sex than are non-migrants' wives. The analyses detect greater worries about HIV infection and a higher likelihood of spousal communication on HIV matters among migrants' wives, compared to non-migrants' wives, but these differences are largely explained by the suspicion of husband's extramarital sex. Finally, no difference between the two categories of women in the probability of consistent condom use with husbands is found. These findings are interpreted within the context of patriarchal culture and unequal gender relations in Armenian society as they are further reinforced by male migration. Implications of these findings for policies to increase women's awareness of HIV risks associated with migration and their ability to reduce those risks are discussed.

  17. Development and validation of an HIV risk scorecard model

    Wilbert Sibanda; Philip Pretorius

    2013-01-01

    This research paper covers the development of an HIV risk scorecard using SAS Enterprise MinerTM. The HIV risk scorecard was developed using the 2007 South African annual antenatal HIV and syphilis seroprevalence data. Antenatal data contains various demographic characteristics for each pregnant woman, such as pregnant woman's age, male sexual partner's age, race, level of education, gravidity, parity, HIV and syphilis status. The purpose of this research was to use a scorecard to rank the ef...

  18. Response inhibition moderates the association between drug use and risky sexual behavior.

    Nydegger, Liesl A; Ames, Susan L; Stacy, Alan W; Grenard, Jerry L

    2014-09-01

    HIV infection is problematic among all drug users, not only injection drug users. Drug users are at risk for contracting HIV by engaging in risky sexual behaviors. The present study sought to determine whether inhibitory processes moderate the relationship between problematic drug use and HIV-risk behaviors (unprotected sex and multiple sex partners). One hundred ninety-six drug offenders enrolled in drug education programs were administered a battery of computer-based assessments. Measures included a cued go/no-go assessment of inhibitory processes, the Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST) assessment of problematic drug use, and self-report assessment of condom use and multiple sex partners. Findings revealed that response inhibition assessed by the proportion of false alarms on the cued go/no-go moderated the relationship between problematic drug use and an important measure of HIV risk (condom nonuse) among drug offenders. However, response inhibition did not moderate the relationship between problematic drug use and another measure of HIV risk: multiple sex partners. Among this sample of drug offenders, we have found a relationship between problematic drug use and condom nonuse, which is exacerbated by poor control of inhibition. These findings have implications for the development of HIV intervention components among high-risk populations.

  19. Sexual Orientation, Drug Use Preference during Sex, and HIV Risk Practices and Preferences among Men Who Specifically Seek Unprotected Sex Partners via the Internet

    Hugh Klein

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study entailed conducting a content analysis of 1,434 ads/profiles posted on one of the most popular “Men who have Sex with Men” (MSM websites that specifically fosters unprotected sex. Ads/profiles were selected randomly based on the American ZIP code of residence (n = 1,316, with a randomly-drawn oversampling of profiles of men who self-identified as heterosexual or ���curious” rather than gay or bisexual (n = 118. Data were collected between September 2006 and September 2007. The purpose of the present paper is to examine the conjoint effects of self-identified sexual orientation and preference for having/not having sex while high, on men’s sought-after sexual risk. Analytical comparisons of the four groups showed that, on most measures, the combination of sexual orientation and drug use preference during sex differentiated the men. Generally speaking, gay/bisexual men who advertised online for partners with whom they could have sex while high expressed the greatest interest in risky sexual behaviors (e.g., felching, unprotected oral sex, unprotected anal sex and various risk-related preferences (e.g., multiple partner sex, anonymous sex, eroticizing ejaculatory fluids. This is especially true when they are compared to their heterosexual/“curious” counterparts whose online profiles were not as likely to indicate a desire for having sex while high.

  20. A combined microfinance and training intervention can reduce HIV risk behaviour in young female participants.

    Pronyk, Paul M; Kim, Julia C; Abramsky, Tanya; Phetla, Godfrey; Hargreaves, James R; Morison, Linda A; Watts, Charlotte; Busza, Joanna; Porter, John Dh

    2008-08-20

    To assess effects of a combined microfinance and training intervention on HIV risk behavior among young female participants in rural South Africa. : Secondary analysis of quantitative and qualitative data from a cluster randomized trial, the Intervention with Microfinance for AIDS and Gender Equity study. Eight villages were pair-matched and randomly allocated to receive the intervention. At baseline and after 2 years, HIV risk behavior was assessed among female participants aged 14-35 years. Their responses were compared with women of the same age and poverty group from control villages. Intervention effects were calculated using adjusted risk ratios employing village level summaries. Qualitative data collected during the study explored participants' responses to the intervention including HIV risk behavior. After 2 years of follow-up, when compared with controls, young participants had higher levels of HIV-related communication (adjusted risk ratio 1.46, 95% confidence interval 1.01-2.12), were more likely to have accessed voluntary counseling and testing (adjusted risk ratio 1.64, 95% confidence interval 1.06-2.56), and less likely to have had unprotected sex at last intercourse with a nonspousal partner (adjusted risk ratio 0.76, 95% confidence interval 0.60-0.96). Qualitative data suggest a greater acceptance of intrahousehold communication about HIV and sexuality. Although women noted challenges associated with acceptance of condoms by men, increased confidence and skills associated with participation in the intervention supported their introduction in sexual relationships. In addition to impacts on economic well being, women's empowerment and intimate partner violence, interventions addressing the economic and social vulnerability of women may contribute to reductions in HIV risk behavior.

  1. Sexual sensation seeking, co-occurring sex and alcohol use, and sexual risk behavior among adolescents in treatment for substance use problems.

    Oshri, Assaf; Tubman, Jonathan G; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A; Saavedra, Lissette M; Csizmadia, Annamaria

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated relations between sexual sensation seeking, co-occurring sex and alcohol use, and sexual risk behaviors (eg, unprotected intercourse and multiple sex partners) among adolescents receiving treatment for substance abuse problems. The ethnically diverse sample included 394 adolescents recruited from outpatient treatment (280 males; Mage  = 16.33 years, SDage  = 1.15). Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test direct and indirect paths between sexual sensation seeking and sexual risk behaviors via the frequency of co-occurring sex and alcohol use. Conditional indirect effects by gender were also tested. Analyses identified significant effects of sexual sensation seeking on co-occurring sex and alcohol use and sexual risk behaviors. The path from co-occurring sex and alcohol use to unprotected intercourse was significantly stronger among adolescent girls, suggesting a mediation effect moderated by gender. No gender difference was found for the indirect path from sexual sensation seeking and number of past year sexual partners via co-occurring sex and alcohol use. Selected prevention efforts are needed to promote HIV risk reduction among adolescents in substance abuse treatment. The documented conditional indirect effect for unprotected intercourse suggests that HIV prevention programs should pay special attention to gender-specific patterns of alcohol use and sexual risk behavior when tailoring program content. (Am J Addict 2013; 22:197-205). Copyright © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  2. Sexual Fears and Avoidant Sexual Behavior in Medical Students.

    Popov, Stefan P; Mateva, Nonka G; Iliev, Yanko T; Dechev, Ivan D; Karalilova, Rositsa V

    2015-01-01

    Sexual fears, sometimes in the form of phobias, lead to aversive or sexually avoidant behavior blocking sexual closeness and resulting in deep personal and interpersonal distress. To determine the types of sexual fears and aversive behavior in young people of reproductive age (students) and their degree of markedness as to encourage a further implementation of prevention programs and interventions. The study included 116 fifth-year medical students in Plovdiv Medical University. Of these, 55 men and 61 women were assessed with the Sexual Aversion Scale, a 30-item self-rating questionnaire. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria of sexual aversion were used. The statistical analyses used were descriptive statistics and independent samples t-test. Sexual fears and aversive or blocking behavior are mild to moderate, mean score of 1.54 ± 0.04, without statistically significant gender differences. Both sexes have established fear-related sexual aversive motives of sexual behavior related to the risk of unwanted pregnancy and HIV infection. Women have significantly higher average scores for the following statements: fear of sexual intercourse (1.61 vs 1.25), avoidance of situations in which they may be involved sexually (1.95 vs 1.51), avoidance of genital sexual contact (1.44 vs 1.16), fear of catching a sexually transmitted disease (2.46 vs 2.09 ), fear of pregnancy (2.61 vs 2.15) and concerns what other people think of them (2.34 vs 1.93 ). Sexual fears and aversive or blocking behavior were mild to moderate. In both sexes similar fears--aversive or blocking patterns of sexual behavior were found, mainly associated with the fear of unwanted pregnancy and the risk of HIV infection, more expressed in women.

  3. Sexual Behaviors of US Women at Risk of HIV Acquisition: A Longitudinal Analysis of Findings from HPTN 064.

    Justman, J; Befus, M; Hughes, J; Wang, J; Golin, C E; Adimora, A A; Kuo, I; Haley, D F; Del Rio, C; El-Sadr, W M; Rompalo, A; Mannheimer, S; Soto-Torres, L; Hodder, S

    2015-07-01

    We describe the sexual behaviors of women at elevated risk of HIV acquisition who reside in areas of high HIV prevalence and poverty in the US. Participants in HPTN 064, a prospective HIV incidence study, provided information about individual sexual behaviors and male sexual partners in the past 6 months at baseline, 6- and 12-months. Independent predictors of consistent or increased temporal patterns for three high-risk sexual behaviors were assessed separately: exchange sex, unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) and concurrent partnerships. The baseline prevalence of each behavior was >30 % among the 2,099 participants, 88 % reported partner(s) with >1 HIV risk characteristic and both individual and partner risk characteristics decreased over time. Less than high school education and food insecurity predicted consistent/increased engagement in exchange sex and UAI, and partner's concurrency predicted participant concurrency. Our results demonstrate how interpersonal and social factors may influence sustained high-risk behavior by individuals and suggest that further study of the economic issues related to HIV risk could inform future prevention interventions.

  4. Sexual orientation disparities in sexually transmitted infections: examining the intersection between sexual identity and sexual behavior.

    Everett, Bethany G

    2013-02-01

    The terms MSM (men who have sex with men) and WSW (women who have sex with women) have been used with increasing frequency in the public health literature to examine sexual orientation disparities in sexual health. These categories, however, do not allow researchers to examine potential differences in sexually transmitted infection (STI) risk by sexual orientation identity. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health, this study investigated the relationship between self-reported STIs and both sexual orientation identity and sexual behaviors. Additionally, this study examined the mediating role of victimization and STI risk behaviors on the relationship between sexual orientation and self-reported STIs. STI risk was found to be elevated among heterosexual-WSW and bisexual women, whether they reported same-sex partners or not, whereas gay-identified WSW were less likely to report an STI compared to heterosexual women with opposite sex relationships only. Among males, heterosexual-identified MSM did not have a greater likelihood of reporting an STI diagnosis; rather, STI risk was concentrated among gay and bisexual identified men who reported both male and female sexual partners. STI risk behaviors mediated the STI disparities among both males and females, and victimization partially mediated STI disparities among female participants. These results suggest that relying solely on behavior-based categories, such as MSM and WSW, may mischaracterize STI disparities by sexual orientation.

  5. Love, Trust, and HIV Risk Among Female Sex Workers and Their Intimate Male Partners.

    Syvertsen, Jennifer L; Bazzi, Angela Robertson; Martinez, Gustavo; Rangel, M Gudelia; Ulibarri, Monica D; Fergus, Kirkpatrick B; Amaro, Hortensia; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2015-08-01

    We examined correlates of love and trust among female sex workers and their noncommercial male partners along the Mexico-US border. From 2011 to 2012, 322 partners in Tijuana and Ciudad Juárez, Mexico, completed assessments of love and trust. Cross-sectional dyadic regression analyses identified associations of relationship characteristics and HIV risk behaviors with love and trust. Within 161 couples, love and trust scores were moderately high (median 70/95 and 29/40 points, respectively) and correlated with relationship satisfaction. In regression analyses of HIV risk factors, men and women who used methamphetamine reported lower love scores, whereas women who used heroin reported slightly higher love. In an alternate model, men with concurrent sexual partners had lower love scores. For both partners, relationship conflict was associated with lower trust. Love and trust are associated with relationship quality, sexual risk, and drug use patterns that shape intimate partners' HIV risk. HIV interventions should consider the emotional quality of sex workers' intimate relationships.

  6. Depression and HIV risk among men who have sex with men in Tanzania.

    Ahaneku, Hycienth; Ross, Michael W; Nyoni, Joyce E; Selwyn, Beatrice; Troisi, Catherine; Mbwambo, Jessie; Adeboye, Adeniyi; McCurdy, Sheryl

    2016-01-01

    Studies have shown high rates of depression among men who have sex with men (MSM) in developed countries. Studies have also shown association between depression and HIV risk among MSM. However, very little research has been done on depression among African MSM. We assessed depression and HIV risk among a sample of MSM in Tanzania. We reviewed data on 205 MSM who were recruited from two Tanzanian cities using the respondent driven sampling method. Demographic and behavioral data were collected using a structured questionnaire. HIV and sexually transmitted infections data were determined from biological tests. Depression scores were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). For the analysis, depression scores were dichotomized as depressed (PHQ > 4) and not depressed (PHQ ≤ 4). Bivariate and multivariable Poisson regression analyses were conducted to assess factors associated with depression. The prevalence of depression in the sample was 46.3%. The mean (±SD) age of the sample was 25 (±5) years. In bivariate analysis, depression was associated with self-identifying as gay (p = .001), being HIV positive (p Depression was also associated with sexual (p = .007), physical (p = .003) and verbal (p depression was associated with verbal abuse (APR = 1.91, CI = 1.30-2.81). Depression rates were high among MSM in Tanzania. It is also associated with abuse, HIV and HIV risk behaviors. Thus, reducing the risk of depression may be helpful in reducing the risk of HIV among MSM in Africa. We recommend the colocation of mental health and HIV preventive services as a cost-effective means of addressing both depression and HIV risk among MSM in Africa.

  7. Hookup App Use, Sexual Behavior, and Sexual Health Among Adolescent Men Who Have Sex With Men in the United States.

    Macapagal, Kathryn; Moskowitz, David A; Li, Dennis H; Carrión, Andrés; Bettin, Emily; Fisher, Celia B; Mustanski, Brian

    2018-06-01

    Geosocial networking applications (e.g., "hookup apps") are widely used among adult men who have sex with men (MSM). Little is known about adolescent MSM's (AMSM) use of these apps. Exploratory research is needed as AMSM's app use poses various ethical, legal, and sexual health concerns. This article examined AMSM's app use patterns and its associations with their sexual health and behavior. Two hundred sexually experienced AMSM in the United States (M age = 16.6, 49% racial/ethnic minority) completed online survey questions assessing their use of apps specific to MSM and not specific to MSM to meet partners for dating and sex, as well as their sexual behavior and HIV risk. Overall, 52.5% of participants (n = 105) reported using MSM-specific apps to meet partners for sex. Of these, most participants reported having oral (75.7%, n = 78) and anal sex (62.1%, n = 64) with those partners. Of those who reported having anal sex, 78.1% (n = 50) had sex with those partners more than once, and only 25.0% (n = 16) always used condoms with those partners. Relative to those who used only non-MSM-specific apps, MSM-specific app users reported more sex partners and condomless anal sex partners, greater perceived risk of HIV, more engagement in sexual health services, and greater odds of HIV testing. Use of MSM-specific apps was not uncommon among this sample of AMSM. Patterns of risk behavior and HIV testing were similar to samples of adult MSM app users. Further research should investigate AMSM's app-related sexual and HIV/sexually transmitted infection prevention decision-making to guide sexual health education efforts for AMSM. Copyright © 2018 The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. [Deviant sexual behaviors, paraphilias, perversions].

    Blachère, P; Cour, F

    2013-07-01

    To know the new concept of paraphilias, their clinical presentation and their link with a personality disorder as perversion, the French legislation concerning them and the different therapeutic options. Review of guidelines published on this subject in the Medline database and a reflexion from our own clinical experience, especially in the judicial expertise. Deviant sexual behavior is, in current classifications, known as paraphilia. This clinical entity corresponds to any sexual behavior considered "abnormal" compared with sexual acts in the society where the person lives. It means precisely, firstly, suffering caused by this disorder or deterioration of social, professional, or family life. Paraphilia such as pedophilia have strict age limits. The victim must be aged below 16 years, with an age difference of at least 5 years with the author of the act. Sexual acts which are illegal are crimes or offences according to the degree, and are sanctioned by the law. In ordinary terms, they are known as perverts, committing perversions. This concept is different from that of paraphilia, a pervert can have, or not have, paraphiliac behavior. In order to diagnose a personality disorder such as perversion, all the criteria must be included: narcissism, use of a person as an object for pleasure, with, primarily, mechanisms of denial and a split personality which removes any feeling of guilt from the perpetrator. Medical treatment of paraphilia alone is not satisfactory for the denial mechanism is such that only the sex drive is affected with a high risk of recurrence. Only psychotherapy can modify the pathological element of a perverted personality. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. HIV-related sexual risk behavior among African American adolescent girls.

    Danielson, Carla Kmett; Walsh, Kate; McCauley, Jenna; Ruggiero, Kenneth J; Brown, Jennifer L; Sales, Jessica M; Rose, Eve; Wingood, Gina M; Diclemente, Ralph J

    2014-05-01

    Latent class analysis (LCA) is a useful statistical tool that can be used to enhance understanding of how various patterns of combined sexual behavior risk factors may confer differential levels of HIV infection risk and to identify subtypes among African American adolescent girls. Data for this analysis is derived from baseline assessments completed prior to randomization in an HIV prevention trial. Participants were African American girls (n=701) aged 14-20 years presenting to sexual health clinics. Girls completed an audio computer-assisted self-interview, which assessed a range of variables regarding sexual history and current and past sexual behavior. Two latent classes were identified with the probability statistics for the two groups in this model being 0.89 and 0.88, respectively. In the final multivariate model, class 1 (the "higher risk" group; n=331) was distinguished by a higher likelihood of >5 lifetime sexual partners, having sex while high on alcohol/drugs, less frequent condom use, and history of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), when compared with class 2 (the "lower risk" group; n=370). The derived model correctly classified 85.3% of participants into the two groups and accounted for 71% of the variance in the latent HIV-related sexual behavior risk variable. The higher risk class also had worse scores on all hypothesized correlates (e.g., self-esteem, history of sexual assault or physical abuse) relative to the lower risk class. Sexual health clinics represent a unique point of access for HIV-related sexual risk behavior intervention delivery by capitalizing on contact with adolescent girls when they present for services. Four empirically supported risk factors differentiated higher versus lower HIV risk. Replication of these findings is warranted and may offer an empirical basis for parsimonious screening recommendations for girls presenting for sexual healthcare services.

  10. “Outness” as a moderator of the association between syndemic conditions and HIV risk-taking behavior among men who have sex with men in Tijuana, Mexico

    Pitpitan, Eileen V.; Smith, Laramie R.; Goodman-Meza, David; Torres, Karla; Semple, Shirley J.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Patterson, Thomas L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Multiple psychosocial conditions tend to co-occur and contribute to higher risk for HIV among men who have sex with men (MSM), a phenomenon known as syndemics. Less is known about moderating factors that may attenuate the relation between syndemic conditions and sexual risk-taking. Purpose We examined disclosure of same-sex sexual behavior or “outness” as a moderating factor of the syndemic effect. Method We recruited a sample of MSM (n=191) using respondent-driven sampling in Tijuana, Mexico. Participants completed a survey of syndemic conditions (i.e., substance use, depression, violence, internalized homophobia, and sexual compulsivity), sexual risk-taking (i.e., condom unprotected anal sex with a stranger in the past two months), and the degree to which they are “out” about sex with men. Results Consistent with previous research, we found that men who report more syndemic conditions show a greater prevalence of sexual risk-taking. As predicted, men who were out to more people showed a weaker association between syndemic conditions and sexual risk-taking, whereas men who were out to fewer people showed the strongest association. Conclusions This study is the first to provide evidence of “outness” as a moderating factor that attenuates syndemic effects on sexual risk-taking. Building upon previous research, the data suggest that “outness” may be a resilience factor for MSM in Tijuana. HIV prevention intervention implications are discussed. PMID:26324079

  11. "Outness" as a Moderator of the Association Between Syndemic Conditions and HIV Risk-Taking Behavior Among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Pitpitan, Eileen V; Smith, Laramie R; Goodman-Meza, David; Torres, Karla; Semple, Shirley J; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Patterson, Thomas L

    2016-02-01

    Multiple psychosocial conditions tend to co-occur and contribute to higher risk for HIV among men who have sex with men (MSM), a phenomenon known as syndemics. Less is known about moderating factors that may attenuate the relation between syndemic conditions and sexual risk-taking. We examined disclosure of same-sex sexual behavior or "outness" as a moderating factor of the syndemic effect. We recruited a sample of MSM (n = 191) using respondent-driven sampling in Tijuana, Mexico. Participants completed a survey of syndemic conditions (i.e., substance use, depression, violence, internalized homophobia, and sexual compulsivity), sexual risk-taking (i.e., condom unprotected anal sex with a stranger in the past 2 months), and the degree to which they are "out" about sex with men. Consistent with previous research, we found that men who report more syndemic conditions show a greater prevalence of sexual risk-taking. As predicted, men who were out to more people showed a weaker association between syndemic conditions and sexual risk-taking, whereas men who were out to fewer people showed the strongest association. This study is the first to provide evidence of "outness" as a moderating factor that attenuates syndemic effects on sexual risk-taking. Building upon previous research, the data suggest that "outness" may be a resilience factor for MSM in Tijuana. HIV prevention intervention implications are discussed.

  12. A profile of U.S.-based trials of behavioral and social interventions for HIV risk reduction.

    Semaan, Salaam; Kay, Linda; Strouse, Darcy; Sogolow, Ellen; Mullen, Patricia Dolan; Neumann, Mary Spink; Flores, Stephen A; Peersman, Greet; Johnson, Wayne D; Lipman, Paula Darby; Eke, Agatha; Des Jarlais, Don C

    2002-07-01

    We describe 99 (experimental and certain quasi-experimental) U.S.-based trials, reported or published since 1988, of behavioral and social interventions that measured prespecified behavioral and biologic outcomes and aimed to reduce risk for HIV infection. Studies identified through June 1998 by the HIV/AIDS Prevention Research Synthesis project were grouped into 4 risk behavior areas: drug-related (k [number of studies] = 48), heterosexual youth (k = 24), heterosexual adult (k = 17), and same-sex (k = 10). We compared the studies in the 4 areas by variables key to the development, evaluation, and transfer of interventions. Participants comprised injection drug users (43% of studies), drug users out of treatment (29%), African Americans (18%), clinic patients (18%), youth in schools (10%), and drug users in treatment (10%). Most studies were randomized (85%), provided another intervention to the control or comparison groups (71%), and evaluated behavioral interventions (92%). On average, interventions were conducted in 5 sessions (total, 8 hours) during 3 months. The theoretical basis of the intervention was not noted in 57% of the reports. At least one variable from each of the 3 outcome classifications was measured in 8% of the studies: behavioral, biologic, and psychosocial. Distinct profiles exist for the 4 risk areas. Addressing gaps in research and reporting would be helpful for analytical and program activities. This sizable portfolio of evaluated interventions contributes to effectiveness reviews and to considerations of transfer to program practice.

  13. Risky Sexual Behavior in HIV/AIDS

    Levent Kiylioglu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sexual relations hold an important place in the life and development of the individual. However, it can cause health risks such as HIV infection without done the necessary protective measures. The purpose of this study is to review sexual behaviors which increase HIV infection and AIDS risk. This sexual behavior expressed as: anal sex, one-night stand, sex without condoms, sex with older persons, concurrent sexual relationships, using alcohol and illegal drugs before or during intercourse, and starting sex at an early age. Because HIV is likely to rise in accordance with the increase in the number of people the person had sexual intercourse, especially concurrent sexual behavior and one-night stand, the most effective way to stay away from HIV/AIDS risk is to have sexual intercourse only with stable partners who know each other's sexual history and use condoms regularly. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2017; 9(2.000: 147-162

  14. Tip of the Iceberg: young men who have sex with men, the Internet, and HIV risk.

    Garofalo, Robert; Herrick, Amy; Mustanski, Brian S; Donenberg, Geri Rachel

    2007-06-01

    We examined the prevalence of Internet use for meeting sexual partners (Internet partners) and HIV risk behaviors associated with this use among young men who have sex with men (aged 16-24 years). A sample of 270 young men who have sex with men completed a computer-assisted survey. We used bivariate chi(2) analyses and hierarchical logistic regression to assess factors associated with Internet-facilitated sexual encounters. Using the Internet to meet sexual partners was common; 48% of our sample had sexual relations with a partner they met online. Of these, only 53% used condoms consistently, and 47% reported having sexual partners older (>4 years) than themselves. Regression analyses showed increased age, White race/ethnicity, history of unprotected anal intercourse, multiple anal intercourse partners, and engaging in sexual activity at a sex club or a bathhouse were associated with meeting sexual partners through the Internet. Only history of unprotected anal intercourse was associated with risky sexual behaviors with Internet partners (Ppartners online also engage in other behaviors that place them at risk for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections.

  15. Pharmacology of sexually compulsive behavior.

    Codispoti, Victoria L

    2008-12-01

    In a meta-analysis on controlled outcomes evaluations of 22,000 sex offenders, Losel and Schmucker found 80 comparisons between treatment and control groups. The recidivism rate averaged 19% in treated groups, and 27% in controls. Most other reviews reported a lower rate of sexual recidivism in treated sexual offenders. Of 2039 citations in this study (including literature in five languages), 60 studies held independent comparisons. Problematic issues included the control groups; various hormonal, surgical, cognitive behavioral, and psychotherapeutic treatments; and sample sizes. In the 80 studies compared after the year 2000, 32% were reported after 2000, 45% originated in the United States, 45% were reported in journals, and 36% were unpublished. Treatment characteristics showed a significant lack of pharmacologic treatment (7.5%), whereas use cognitive and classical behavioral therapy was 64%. In 68% of the studies, no information was available on the integrity of the treatment implementation; 36% of the treatment settings were outpatient only, 31% were prison settings, and 12% were mixed settings (prison, hospital, and outpatient). Integrating research interpretations is complicated by the heterogeneity of sex offenders, with only 56% being adult men and 17.5% adolescents. Offense types reported included 74% child molestation, 48% incest, and 30% exhibitionism. Pedophilia was not singled out. Follow-up periods varied from 12 months to greater than 84 months. The definition of recidivism ran the gamut from arrest (24%), conviction (30%), charges (19%), and no indication (16%). Results were difficult to interpret because of the methodological problems with this type of study. Overall, a positive outcome was noted with sex offender treatment. Cognitive-behavioral and hormonal treatment were the most promising. Voluntary treatment led to a slightly better outcome than mandatory participation. When accounting for a low base rate of sexual recidivism, the reduction

  16. HIV diagnosis, linkage to HIV care, and HIV risk behaviors among newly diagnosed HIV-positive female sex workers in Kigali, Rwanda

    Braunstein, Sarah L.; Umulisa, Marie-Michèle; Veldhuijzen, Nienke J.; Kestelyn, Evelyne; Ingabire, Chantal M.; Nyinawabega, Jeanine; van de Wijgert, Janneke H. H. M.; Nash, Denis

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate linkage-to-care, sexual behavior change, and psychosocial experiences among newly HIV-diagnosed female sex workers (FSWs) in Rwanda. FSWs (n = 800) with unknown serostatus were screened for HIV during 2007/2008. Women testing HIV positive (n = 192) were referred to care and asked to

  17. An exploratory study of HIV risk behaviours and testing among male sex workers in Beirut, Lebanon

    Aunon, Frances M.; Wagner, Glenn J.; Maher, Rabih; Khouri, Danielle; Kaplan, Rachel L.; Mokhbat, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Male sex workers (MSW) are a particularly high-risk subset of men who have sex with men in Lebanon and report higher numbers of sex partners and lower rates of condom use. The purpose was to explore the factors influencing sexual risk behaviors and HIV testing among MSW. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 16 MSW living in Beirut and working in bathhouses (hammam) or as escorts; content analysis identified emergent themes. Escorts reported more consistent condom use with clients and HIV testing than hammam MSW, with influential factors including HIV risk knowledge and perceived risk susceptibility, job security, and internalized stigma and related feelings of self-worth and fatalism regarding health and HIV risk. In contrast, both groups of MSW typically opted not to condoms with nonclient sex partners, in an effort to differentiate sex for work versus pleasure. The uptake of HIV testing was limited by concerns about the confidentiality of the test results and fear of repercussions of a positive test result for their health and employment. The respondents described an insular existence within the sex work culture, in part to limit exposure to stigma, which has implications for access to support as well as the influence of peer norms regarding sexual risk behavior and health seeking behaviors such as HIV testing. Further research is needed to tailor prevention and HIV testing efforts to reflect the distinct sexual health “cultures” that distinguish these two populations of MSW in Lebanon. PMID:25950906

  18. Sexual behavior in women with bipolar disorder.

    Mazza, Marianna; Harnic, Desiree; Catalano, Valeria; Di Nicola, Marco; Bruschi, Angelo; Bria, Pietro; Daniele, Antonio; Mazza, Salvatore

    2011-06-01

    There is a lack of studies regarding sexuality and sexual behavior in women with bipolar disorder. The aim of this study is to investigate sexual behavior in women affected by bipolar disorder in order to stimulate interest and debate in this area of care. Sixty women (30 BD I and 30 BD II) consent to participate in the study and were included in the sample. Moreover, sixty female healthy subjects without histories of psychiatric disorders were recruited as normal controls. Patients and healthy subjects were given the Sexual Interest and Sexual Performance Questionnaire, a questionnaire devised to explore various aspects of sexual behavior. The results of the present study suggest an increase of sexual interest in patients with BD I as compared both with BD II patients and healthy controls. In women with BD I such increase of interest was detected on some items of section I of the Sexual Interest and Sexual Performance Questionnaire, in particular "Actual Value of Sexuality" and "Implicit Sexual Interest", which implicitly explore sexual interest without overtly focusing upon sexual problems. Moreover, we observed a higher desired frequency of intercourse in women with BD I than BD II and a higher occurrence of repeated sexual intercourse in women with BD I than BD II. The main finding of the present study was an increase of sexual interest in BD I as compared with BD II female patients and normal controls. This result was detected when sexual interest was explored implicitly. Our study is limited by the small size of our subject groups. Further investigations on larger subject samples are needed to better clarify particular aspects of sexual behavior of BD patients. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Play Therapy Behaviors of Sexually Abused Children.

    Homeyer, Linda E.; Landreth, Garry L.

    The purpose of this study was to identify play therapy behaviors of sexually abused children. Surveys were sent to members of the Association for Play Therapy, of which 249 respondents, who worked with 16 or more sexually abused children, were used. Results indicate that there are identifiable and highly interrelated PTBs of sexually abused…

  20. Social and psychological context for HIV risk in non-gay-identified African American men who have sex with men.

    Operario, Don; Smith, Carla Dillard; Kegeles, Susan

    2008-08-01

    This study used qualitative methods to explore the social and psychological context of sexual behavior and HIV risk among African American non-gay-identified men who have sex with men. Analysis of men's narratives on their sexual behaviors revealed four social and psychological factors contributing to risk for HIV infection: (a) a tendency to compartmentalize and personally disengage from same-sex behavior, (b) traditional gender roles that reinforce men's adherence to masculine images and ambivalent attitudes toward women, (c) cultural norms that favor secrecy and privacy about any personal matters, and (d) spontaneous and unplanned sexual episodes with other men. Findings indicate that innovative HIV prevention and risk reduction strategies are necessary to reach this group and question the legitimacy of conventional sexual orientation categories for these men. Interventions must address social contextual determinants of risk, reinforce men's public identifications as straight/heterosexual, and maintain men's need for privacy about same-sex behaviors.

  1. The role of religiosity, social support, and stress-related growth in protecting against HIV risk among transgender women.

    Golub, Sarit A; Walker, Ja'nina J; Longmire-Avital, Buffie; Bimbi, David S; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2010-11-01

    Transgender women completed questionnaires of religiosity, social support, stigma, stress-related growth, and sexual risk behavior. In a multivariate model, both social support and religious stress-related growth were significant negative predictors of unprotected anal sex, but religious behaviors and beliefs emerged as a significant positive predictor. The interaction between religious behaviors and beliefs and social support was also significant, and post-hoc analyses indicated that high-risk sex was least likely among individuals with high-levels of social support but low levels of religious behaviors and beliefs. These data have important implications for understanding factors that might protect against HIV risk for transgender women.

  2. Dual Protection, Contraceptive Use And Hiv Risk Among A Sample ...

    Gender and Behaviour ... In multivariate analysis, higher education of the father, being married or in a steady relationship, multiple (casual and steady) sex partnership, having had a sexually transmitted infection, pregnancy ... Keywords: Dual protection, contraceptive use, HIV risk, university students, gender, South Africa

  3. HIV risk behaviour among public primary healthcare patients with ...

    This study revealed high HIV risk behaviour (e.g. unprotected last sexual intercourse and alcohol and drug .... The 10-item alcohol use disorders identification test (AUDIT)[11] .... were entered into the multivariate model if significant at p<0.05.

  4. Men at risk; a qualitative study on HIV risk, gender identity and violence among men who have sex with men who report high risk behavior in Kampala, Uganda.

    King, Rachel; Barker, Joseph; Nakayiwa, Sylvia; Katuntu, David; Lubwama, George; Bagenda, Danstan; Lane, Tim; Opio, Alex; Hladik, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    In Uganda, men who have sex with men (MSM) are at high risk for HIV. Between May 2008 and February 2009 in Kampala, Uganda, we used respondent driven sampling (RDS) to recruit 295 MSM≥18 years who reported having had sex with another man in the preceding three months. The parent study conducted HIV and STI testing and collected demographic and HIV-related behavioral data through audio computer-assisted self-administered interviews. We conducted a nested qualitative sub-study with 16 men purposively sampled from among the survey participants based on responses to behavioral variables indicating higher risk for HIV infection. Sub-study participants were interviewed face-to-face. Domains of inquiry included sexual orientation, gender identity, condom use, stigma, discrimination, violence and health seeking behavior. Emergent themes included a description of sexual orientation/gender identity categories. All groups of men described conflicting feelings related to their sexual orientation and contextual issues that do not accept same-sex identities or behaviors and non-normative gender presentation. The emerging domains for facilitating condom use included: lack of trust in partner and fear of HIV infection. We discuss themes in the context of social and policy issues surrounding homosexuality and HIV prevention in Uganda that directly affect men's lives, risk and health-promoting behaviors.

  5. Men at risk; a qualitative study on HIV risk, gender identity and violence among men who have sex with men who report high risk behavior in Kampala, Uganda.

    Rachel King

    Full Text Available In Uganda, men who have sex with men (MSM are at high risk for HIV. Between May 2008 and February 2009 in Kampala, Uganda, we used respondent driven sampling (RDS to recruit 295 MSM≥18 years who reported having had sex with another man in the preceding three months. The parent study conducted HIV and STI testing and collected demographic and HIV-related behavioral data through audio computer-assisted self-administered interviews. We conducted a nested qualitative sub-study with 16 men purposively sampled from among the survey participants based on responses to behavioral variables indicating higher risk for HIV infection. Sub-study participants were interviewed face-to-face. Domains of inquiry included sexual orientation, gender identity, condom use, stigma, discrimination, violence and health seeking behavior. Emergent themes included a description of sexual orientation/gender identity categories. All groups of men described conflicting feelings related to their sexual orientation and contextual issues that do not accept same-sex identities or behaviors and non-normative gender presentation. The emerging domains for facilitating condom use included: lack of trust in partner and fear of HIV infection. We discuss themes in the context of social and policy issues surrounding homosexuality and HIV prevention in Uganda that directly affect men's lives, risk and health-promoting behaviors.

  6. Learning that circumcision is protective against HIV: risk compensation among men and women in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Maughan-Brown, Brendan; Venkataramani, Atheendar S

    2012-01-01

    We examined whether knowledge of the HIV-protective benefits of male circumcision (MC) led to risk compensating behavior in a traditionally circumcising population in South Africa. We extend the current literature by examining risk compensation among women, which has hitherto been unexplored. We used data on Xhosa men and women from the 2009 Cape Area Panel Study. Respondents were asked if they had heard that MC reduces a man's risk of contracting HIV, about their perceived risk of contracting HIV, and condom use. For each gender group we assessed whether risk perception and condom use differed by knowledge of the protective benefits of MC using bivariate and then multivariate models controlling for demographic characteristics, HIV knowledge/beliefs, and previous sexual behaviors. In a further check for confounding, we used data from the 2005 wave to assess whether individuals who would eventually become informed about the protective benefits of circumcision were already different in terms of HIV risk perception and condom use. 34% of men (n=453) and 27% of women (n=690) had heard that circumcision reduces a man's risk of HIV infection. Informed men perceived slightly higher risk of contracting HIV and were more likely to use condoms at last sex (pwomen perceived lower HIV risk (pwomen but not men. Further attention should be paid to the role of new information regarding MC, and drivers of HIV risk more broadly, in modulating sexual behavior among women.

  7. Reducing HIV risk among Hispanic/Latino men who have sex with men: Qualitative analysis of behavior change intentions by participants in a small-group intervention

    Alonzo, Jorge; Mann, Lilli; Tanner, Amanda E.; Sun, Christina J.; Painter, Thomas M.; Freeman, Arin; Reboussin, Beth A.; Song, Eunyoung; Rhodes, Scott D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The southeastern United States has the fastest-growing Hispanic/Latino population in the country and carries a disproportionate HIV burden. Among Hispanics/Latinos, men, and men who have sex with men (MSM) in particular, are at elevated risk of HIV infection; however, very few efficacious behavioral HIV prevention interventions are available for use with this vulnerable population. To address this shortage of prevention resources, our community-based participatory research (CBPR) partnership developed and is currently evaluating the efficacy of the HOLA en Grupos intervention to increase condom use and HIV testing among Hispanic/Latino MSM. Methods We recruited 304 Hispanic/Latino MSM who were randomized to receive the small group HOLA en Grupos intervention that was implemented during four 4-hour long sessions over four consecutive Sundays, or a 4-session small group general health education comparison intervention. At the end of the fourth session of the HOLA en Grupos intervention, the intervention facilitators asked participants to write down the sexual health-related behaviors they intended to change as a result of their participation. Results Qualitative analysis of the participants’ responses identified six types of intended behavior changes: increasing and maintaining condom use; identifying strategies to support correct and consistent condom use; increasing communication and negotiation with sexual partners about condom use; getting tested for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections; applying other sexual health promotion strategies; and sharing newly learned sexual health information with their peers. Conclusion Most risk-reduction intentions aligned with the intervention’s key messages of using condoms consistently and getting tested for HIV. However, participants’ stated intentions may have also depended on which behavior changes they perceived as most salient after participating in the intervention. Participants’ intentions to

  8. Reducing HIV risk among Hispanic/Latino men who have sex with men: Qualitative analysis of behavior change intentions by participants in a small-group intervention.

    Alonzo, Jorge; Mann, Lilli; Tanner, Amanda E; Sun, Christina J; Painter, Thomas M; Freeman, Arin; Reboussin, Beth A; Song, Eunyoung; Rhodes, Scott D

    2016-05-01

    The southeastern United States has the fastest-growing Hispanic/Latino population in the country and carries a disproportionate HIV burden. Among Hispanics/Latinos, men, and men who have sex with men (MSM) in particular, are at elevated risk of HIV infection; however, very few efficacious behavioral HIV prevention interventions are available for use with this vulnerable population. To address this shortage of prevention resources, our community-based participatory research (CBPR) partnership developed and is currently evaluating the efficacy of the HOLA en Grupos intervention to increase condom use and HIV testing among Hispanic/Latino MSM. We recruited 304 Hispanic/Latino MSM who were randomized to receive the small group HOLA en Grupo s intervention that was implemented during four 4-hour long sessions over four consecutive Sundays, or a 4-session small group general health education comparison intervention. At the end of the fourth session of the HOLA en Grupo s intervention, the intervention facilitators asked participants to write down the sexual health-related behaviors they intended to change as a result of their participation. Qualitative analysis of the participants' responses identified six types of intended behavior changes: increasing and maintaining condom use; identifying strategies to support correct and consistent condom use; increasing communication and negotiation with sexual partners about condom use; getting tested for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections; applying other sexual health promotion strategies; and sharing newly learned sexual health information with their peers. Most risk-reduction intentions aligned with the intervention's key messages of using condoms consistently and getting tested for HIV. However, participants' stated intentions may have also depended on which behavior changes they perceived as most salient after participating in the intervention. Participants' intentions to share information with their peers may

  9. Explaining HIV Risk Multiplexity: A Social Network Analysis.

    Felsher, Marisa; Koku, Emmanuel

    2018-04-21

    Risk multiplexity (i.e., overlap in drug-use, needle exchange and sexual relations) is a known risk factor for HIV. However, little is known about predictors of multiplexity. This study uses egocentric data from the Colorado Springs study to examine how individual, behavioral and social network factors influence engagement in multiplex risk behavior. Analyses revealed that compared to Whites, Hispanics were significantly more likely to engage in risk multiplexity and Blacks less so. Respondents who were similar to each other (e.g., in terms of race) had significantly higher odds of being in risk multiplex relationships, and respondents' risk perceptions and network size were significantly associated with engaging in multiplex risk behaviors. Findings from interaction analysis showed the effect of knowing someone with HIV on the odds of multiplexity depends partly on whether respondents' know their HIV status. Findings suggest that demographics, HIV behaviors and network factors impact engagement in multiplex risk behaviors, highlighting the need for multi-level interventions aimed at reducing HIV risk behavior.

  10. An intervention to reduce HIV risk behavior of substance-using men who have sex with men: a two-group randomized trial with a nonrandomized third group.

    Gordon Mansergh

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Substance use during sex is associated with sexual risk behavior among men who have sex with men (MSM, and MSM continue to be the group at highest risk for incident HIV in the United States. The objective of this study is to test the efficacy of a group-based, cognitive-behavioral intervention to reduce risk behavior of substance-using MSM, compared to a randomized attention-control group and a nonrandomized standard HIV-testing group.Participants (n = 1,686 were enrolled in Chicago, Los Angeles, New York City, and San Francisco and randomized to a cognitive-behavioral intervention or attention-control comparison. The nonrandomized group received standard HIV counseling and testing. Intervention group participants received six 2-h group sessions focused on reducing substance use and sexual risk behavior. Attention-control group participants received six 2-h group sessions of videos and discussion of MSM community issues unrelated to substance use, sexual risk, and HIV/AIDS. All three groups received HIV counseling and testing at baseline. The sample reported high-risk behavior during the past 3 mo prior to their baseline visit: 67% reported unprotected anal sex, and 77% reported substance use during their most recent anal sex encounter with a nonprimary partner. The three groups significantly (p0.05 from each other at 3-, 6-, and 12-mo follow-up. Outcomes for the 2-arm comparisons were not significantly different at 12-mo follow-up (e.g., unprotected anal sex, odds ratio = 1.14, confidence interval = 0.86-1.51, nor at earlier time points. Similar results were found for each outcome variable in both 2- and 3-arm comparisons.These results for reducing sexual risk behavior of substance-using MSM are consistent with results of intervention trials for other populations, which collectively suggest critical challenges for the field of HIV behavioral interventions. Several mechanisms may contribute to statistically indistinguishable reductions in risk

  11. The Cedar Project: Historical trauma, sexual abuse and HIV risk among young Aboriginal people who use injection and non-injection drugs in two Canadian cities☆

    For the Cedar Project Partnership; Pearce, Margo E.; Christian, Wayne M.; Patterson, Katharina; Norris, Kat; Moniruzzaman, Akm; Craib, Kevin J.P.; Schechter, Martin T.; Spittal, Patricia M.

    2016-01-01

    Recent Indigenist scholarship has situated high rates of traumatic life experiences, including sexual abuse, among Indigenous peoples of North America within the larger context of their status as colonized peoples. Sexual abuse has been linked to many negative health outcomes including mental, sexual and drug-related vulnerabilities. There is a paucity of research in Canada addressing the relationship between antecedent sexual abuse and negative health outcomes among Aboriginal people including elevated risk of HIV infection. The primary objectives of this study were to determine factors associated with sexual abuse among participants of the Cedar Project, a cohort of young Aboriginal people between the ages of 14 and 30 years who use injection and non-injection drugs in two urban centres in British Columbia, Canada; and to locate findings through a lens of historical and intergenerational trauma. We utilized post-colonial perspectives in research design, problem formulation and the interpretation of results. Multivariate modeling was used to determine the extent to which a history of sexual abuse was predictive of negative health outcomes and vulnerability to HIV infection. Of the 543 eligible participants, 48% reported ever having experienced sexual abuse; 69% of sexually abused participants were female. The median age of first sexual abuse was 6 years for both female and male participants. After adjusting for sociodemographic variables and factors of historical trauma, sexually abused participants were more likely to have ever been on the streets for more than three nights, to have ever self-harmed, to have suicide ideation, to have attempted suicide, to have a diagnosis of mental illness, to have been in the emergency department within the previous 6 months, to have had over 20 lifetime sexual partners, to have ever been paid for sex and to have ever overdosed. The prevalence and consequences of sexual abuse among Cedar Project participants are of grave concern

  12. Physical attractiveness and women's HIV risk in rural Malawi.

    Frye, Margaret; Chae, Sophia

    2017-01-01

    Qualitative evidence from sub-Saharan Africa, where a generalized AIDS epidemic exists, suggests that attractiveness may play a role in shaping individual-level HIV risk. Attractive women, who are often blamed for the epidemic and stigmatized, are believed to pose a higher HIV risk because they are viewed as having more and riskier partners. We examine the association between perceived attractiveness and HIV infection and risk in rural Malawi in the midst of the country's severe AIDS epidemic. We use interviewers' ratings of respondents' attractiveness, along with HIV test results and women's assessments of their own likelihood of infection, to estimate the association between perceived attractiveness and HIV infection and risk for a random sample of 961 women aged 15-35. Results show that women who are rated by interviewers as 'much less' or 'less' attractive than other women their age are 9% more likely to test positive for HIV. We also find that attractiveness is associated with women's own assessments of their HIV risk: Among women who tested negative, those perceived as 'much less' or 'less' attractive than average report themselves to be at greater risk of HIV infection. These results suggest that attractiveness is negatively associated with HIV risk in Malawi, countering local beliefs that hold attractive women responsible for perpetuating the epidemic. This study highlights the need to consider perceived physical attractiveness, and sexual desirability more broadly, as an under-examined axis of inequality in HIV risk in high-prevalence settings.

  13. Sexual behavior among truck drivers.

    Singh, Rajiv Kumar; Joshi, Hari Shankar

    2012-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted on Lucknow highway in Bareilly district of Uttar Pradesh to study the knowledge of truck drivers about HIV transmission and prevention and to study the sexual behaviour of these drivers with reference to HIV/AIDS. Age, marital status, education, income, drinking alcohol, length of stay away from home, knowledge about transmission and prevention of HIV, and HIV-prone behavior of truck drivers were studied. Chi-square, mean, and SD were calculated. In all, 289 (97.6%) drivers had heard about HIV/AIDS. Only 242 (81.8%) were aware of HIV transmission by heterosexual route. Misconceptions such as HIV transmission by mosquito bites, living in same room, shaking hands, and sharing food were found. Out of 174 (58.8%) who visited Commercial Sex Workers (CSW), 146 (83.9%) used a condom. 38 (12.8%) visited more than 5 CSW in the last 3 months. Time away from home on the road, marital status, alcohol use, and income class were associated with visiting CSW. High-risk behavior was established in the study population. Safe sex and use of condoms need to be promoted among the truck drivers and better condom availability needs to be assured on highways.

  14. HIV risks and needs related to the Sustainable Development Goals among female sex workers who were commercially sexually exploited as children in Lesotho.

    Grosso, Ashley; Busch, Shianne; Mothopeng, Tampose; Sweitzer, Stephanie; Nkonyana, John; Mpooa, Nkomile; Taruberekera, Noah; Baral, Stefan

    2018-02-01

    Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) about gender equality; decent work; and peace, justice, and strong institutions include a focus on eradicating trafficking and sexual exploitation of and violence against women and children. In Lesotho, 86% of women have experienced gender-based violence. In addition, overall HIV prevalence is among the highest globally, and higher among adolescent girls than boys. Moreover, nearly three quarters of female sex workers (FSW) are estimated to be living with HIV in Lesotho. In this context, sexually exploited children may be particularly vulnerable to violence and HIV acquisition risks. This study's objective is to examine the prevalence and correlates of experiencing sexual exploitation as a child among FSW in Lesotho. FSW (≥18 years) recruited through respondent-driven sampling in Maseru and Maputsoe from February to September 2014 completed HIV and syphilis testing and an interviewer-administered survey, including a question about the age at which they started providing sex for money. This study examined correlates of experiencing sexual exploitation as a child (trouble with police (aOR: 3.18, 95% CI: 1.50 to 6.75, p = 0.003). Risk determinants for HIV and violence among sexually exploited children can be studied retrospectively through research with adult FSW. Further research working directly with sexually exploited children will improve understanding of their needs. Preventing commercial sexual exploitation of children and addressing the social and healthcare needs of those who are exploited are necessary to fully achieve SDGs 5, 8 and 16 and an AIDS-Free Generation. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of the International AIDS Society published by John Wiley & sons Ltd on behalf of the International AIDS Society.

  15. Mental health and HIV sexual risk behavior among patrons of alcohol serving venues in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Sikkema, Kathleen J; Watt, Melissa H; Meade, Christina S; Ranby, Krista W; Kalichman, Seth C; Skinner, Donald; Pieterse, Desiree

    2011-07-01

    Alcohol-serving venues in South Africa provide a location for HIV prevention interventions due to risk factors of patrons in these establishments. Understanding the association between mental health and risk behaviors in these settings may inform interventions that address alcohol use and HIV prevention. Participants (n = 738) were surveyed in 6 alcohol-serving venues in Cape Town to assess post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression symptoms, traumatic experiences, sexual behavior, and substance use. Logistic regression models examined whether traumatic experiences predicted PTSD and depression. Generalized linear models examined whether substance use, PTSD, and depressive symptoms predicted unprotected sexual intercourse. Men and women were analyzed separately. Participants exhibited high rates of traumatic experiences, PTSD, depression, alcohol consumption, and HIV risk behaviors. For men, PTSD was associated with being hit by a sex partner, physical child abuse, sexual child abuse and HIV diagnosis; depression was associated with being hit by a sex partner, forced sex and physical child abuse. For women, both PTSD and depression were associated with being hit by a sex partner, forced sex, and physical child abuse. Unprotected sexual intercourse was associated with age, frequency and quantity of alcohol use, drug use, and PTSD for men and frequency and quantity of alcohol use, depression, and PTSD for women. Mental health in this setting was poor and was associated with sexual risk behavior. Treating mental health and substance-use problems may aid in reducing HIV infection. Sexual assault prevention and treatment after sexual assault may strengthen HIV prevention efforts.

  16. Individual-Based Compulsive Sexual Behavior Scale: Its Development and Importance in Examining Compulsive Sexual Behavior.

    Efrati, Yaniv; Mikulincer, Mario

    2018-04-03

    Compulsive sexual behavior comprises individual-based (e.g., sexual fantasies, compulsive sexual thoughts, masturbation) and partnered (e.g., interpersonal sexual conquests, repeated infidelity) facets. Most instruments for assessing compulsive sexual behavior, however, focus less on the individual-based facet and specifically on fantasies and compulsive thoughts. In the current research, we developed and validated an individual-based compulsive sexual behavior scale (I-CSB). In Study 1 (N = 492), the factorial structure of the I-CSB was examined. In Study 2 (N = 406), we assessed I-CSB's convergent validity. In Study 3 (N = 112), we examined whether the I-CSB differentiates between individuals who suffer from compulsive sexual behavior and those who do not. Results revealed a four-factor structure for individual-based compulsive sexual behavior that is associated with an intense inner conflict regarding sexuality (high arousal contrasting with high sexual anxiety), and that accounts for approximately 75% of the differences between people with compulsive sexual behavior and controls. Results are discussed in light of the need for a broader understanding of compulsive sexual behavior.

  17. Sexual self-schemas of female child sexual abuse survivors: relationships with risky sexual behavior and sexual assault in adolescence.

    Niehaus, Ashley F; Jackson, Joan; Davies, Stephanie

    2010-12-01

    Childhood sexual trauma has been demonstrated to increase survivors' risk for engaging in unrestricted sexual behaviors and experiencing adolescent sexual assault. The current study used the sexual self-schema construct to examine cognitive representations of sexuality that might drive these behavioral patterns. In Study 1 (N = 774), we attempted to improve the content validity of the Sexual Self Schema Scale for child sexual abuse (CSA) survivors, introducing a fourth sexual self-schema factor titled the "immoral/irresponsible" factor. In Study 2 (N = 1150), the potential differences in sexual self-views, as assessed by the four sexual self-schema factors, between CSA survivors and non-victims were explored. In addition, Study 2 evaluated how these sexual self-schema differences may contribute to participation in unrestricted sexual behaviors and risk for sexual assault in adolescence. Results indicated that a history of CSA impacted the way women viewed themselves as a sexual person on each of the four factors. CSA survivors were found to view themselves as more open and possessing more immoral/irresponsible cognitions about sexuality as compared to women who did not have a CSA history. In addition, the CSA survivors endorsed less embarrassment and passionate/romantic views of their sexual selves. The interaction of CSA severity and the sexual self-schemas explained variance in adolescent sexual assault experiences above and beyond the severity of CSA history and participation in risky sexual behaviors. The findings suggest that sexual self-views may serve to moderate the relationship between CSA and adolescent sexual assault. Implications of these findings and directions for future research are discussed.

  18. Subjective adult identity and casual sexual behavior.

    Lyons, Heidi Ann

    2015-12-01

    A majority of Americans have a casual sexual experience before transitioning to adulthood. Little research has yet to examine how identity influences causal sexual behavior. The current study fills this gap in the literature by examining if subjective adult identity predicts casual sexual behavior net of life course transitions in a national sample of Americans. To answer this research question, the Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health is utilized. Structural equation modeling results show the older and more adult-like individuals feel the less likely they are to report a recent casual sexual partner. Once life course factors are included in the model, subjective identity is no longer associated with casual sex. Practitioners who work with adult populations need to consider how life course transitions influence casual sexual behavior.

  19. Child Sexual Behaviors in School Context: Age and Gender Differences.

    Miragoli, Sarah; Camisasca, Elena; Di Blasio, Paola

    2017-01-01

    The main purpose of the study was to explore the child sexual behaviors that Italian teachers have observed in the school context. A representative sample of 227 children, from 5 to 10 years old, was rated by their teachers through the Child Sexual Behavior Inventory. Frequencies of sexual behaviors among children aged 5 to 6, 7 to 8, and 9 to 10 are presented. Younger children showed a broader range of sexual behaviors that decrease with the growing age, such as males in comparison to females. Moreover, findings showed that child sexual behavior is not only related to age and gender but also to family characteristics. These results suggested that child sexual behaviors reported by teachers through the Child Sexual Behavior Inventory may provide useful information about the development of children's sexuality. The knowledge of age appropriate sexual behaviors can help teachers discern normal sexual behaviors from problematic sexual behaviors.

  20. Sexual behavior of single adult American women.

    Duberstein Lindberg, Laura; Singh, Susheela

    2008-03-01

    Public policies promoting abstinence until marriage attempt to influence the sexual behavior of the more than 18 million American women who are currently single. An analysis of these women's behavior is needed to inform policies that are responsive to their sexual and reproductive health needs. Sexual behaviors, risk factors and reproductive health needs were examined among a nationally representative sample of 6,493 women aged 20-44 from the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth. Paired t tests were used to assess differences among single, married and cohabiting women by selected demographic, behavioral and risk measures. Thirty-six percent of women aged 20-44 are single, and nine in 10 single women are sexually experienced. Seventy percent of the latter women are currently sexually active; on average, they had intercourse in seven of the last 12 months. A higher proportion of single women (22%) than of cohabiting (9%) or married women (2%) have had two or more partners in the past year, and half of single women are at risk of unintended pregnancy. Furthermore, single women and cohabiting women are more likely to lack health insurance than are married women (21-25% vs. 12%). Because of the high level of sexual activity among single adult women, providers must address their reproductive health care needs and offer appropriate counseling and services. Government policies aimed at encouraging adult women to have sex only within marriage appear out of touch with the reality of the sexual behavior of single women.

  1. Developmental Trajectories of Religiosity, Sexual Conservatism and Sexual Behavior among Female Adolescents

    Aalsma, Matthew C.; Woodrome, Stacy E.; Downs, Sarah M.; Hensel, Devon; Zimet, Gregory D.; Orr, Don P.; Fortenberry, J. Dennis

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the role of socio-sexual cognitions and religiosity on adolescent sexual behavior could guide adolescent sexual health efforts. The present study utilized longitudinal data from 328 young women to assess the role of religion and socio-sexual cognitions on sexual behavior accrual (measuring both coital and non-coital sexual behavior). In the final triple conditional trajectory structural equation model, religiosity declined over time and then increased to baseline levels. Additionally, religiosity predicted decreased sexual conservatism and decreased sexual conservatism predicted increased sexual behavior. The final models are indicative of young women's increasing accrual of sexual experience, decreasing sexual conservatism and initial decreasing religiosity. The results of this study suggest that decreased religiosity affects the accrual of sexual experience through decreased sexual conservatism. Effective strategies of sexual health promotion should include an understanding of the complex role of socio-sexual attitudes with religiosity. PMID:24215966

  2. Sexual function and behavior in social phobia.

    Bodinger, Liron; Hermesh, Haggai; Aizenberg, Dov; Valevski, Avi; Marom, Sofi; Shiloh, Roni; Gothelf, Doron; Zemishlany, Zvi; Weizman, Abraham

    2002-10-01

    Social phobia is a type of performance and interpersonal anxiety disorder and as such may be associated with sexual dysfunction and avoidance. The aim of the present study was to evaluate sexual function and behavior in patients with social phobia compared with mentally healthy subjects. Eighty subjects participated in the study: 40 consecutive, drug-free outpatients with social phobia (DSM-IV) attending an anxiety disorders clinic between November 1997 and April 1999 and 40 mentally normal controls. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders and the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale were used to quantitatively and qualitatively assess sexual function and behavior. Men with social phobia reported mainly moderate impairment in arousal, orgasm, sexual enjoyment, and subjective satisfaction domains. Women with social phobia reported severe impairment in desire, arousal, sexual activity, and subjective satisfaction. In addition, compared with controls, men with social phobia reported significantly more frequent paid sex (p social phobia reported a significant paucity of sexual partners (p social phobia exhibit a wide range of sexual dysfunctions. Men have mainly performance problems, and women have a more pervasive disorder. Patients of both genders show difficulties in sexual interaction. It is important that clinicians be aware of this aspect of social phobia and initiate open discussions of sexual problems with patients.

  3. 32 CFR 147.6 - Guidance D-Sexual behavior.

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Guidance D-Sexual behavior. 147.6 Section 147.6... Guidance D—Sexual behavior. (a) The concern. Sexual behavior is a security concern if it involves a... security concerns raised by sexual behavior. (b) Conditions that could raise a security concern and may be...

  4. Female migrant sex workers in Moscow: gender and power factors and HIV risk.

    Weine, Stevan; Golobof, Alexandra; Bahromov, Mahbat; Kashuba, Adrianna; Kalandarov, Tohir; Jonbekov, Jonbek; Loue, Sana

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to build formative knowledge regarding HIV risks in female migrant sex workers in Moscow, focusing on gender and power. This was a collaborative ethnographic study, informed by the theory of gender and power, in which researchers conducted minimally structured interviews with 24 female sex workers who were migrants to Moscow and who provided sexual services to male migrant laborers. Overall, the female migrant sex workers engaged in HIV risk behaviors and practiced inadequate HIV protection with their clients. These behaviors were shaped by gender and power factors in the realms of labor, behavior, and cathexis. In the labor realm, because some female migrants were unable to earn enough money to support their families, they were pushed or pulled into sex work providing service to male migrants. In the behavior realm, many female migrant sex workers were intimidated by their male clients, feared violence, and lacked access to women's health care and prevention. In the cathexis realm, many had a sense of shame, social isolation, emotional distress, and lacked basic HIV knowledge and prevention skills. To prevent HIV transmission requires addressing the gender and power factors that shape HIV/AIDS risks among female migrant sex workers through multilevel intervention strategies.

  5. Sexuality Education among Latinas: Experiences, Preferences, Attitudes and Risk Behavior

    Rojas-Guyler, Liliana; King, Keith A.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated sexuality topics discussed by parents, sources of sexuality education, sexual risk behaviors, and attitudes about who should educate children about sexuality among a sample of 204 adult Latinas. Nearly half of sexually active women (having ever had sex) reported condom use and 36.7% reported discussing sexual history with…

  6. "Sexual" behavior in parthenogenetic lizards (Cnemidophorus).

    Crews, D; Fitzgerald, K T

    1980-01-01

    All-female, parthenogenetic species afford a unique test of hypotheses regarding the nature and evolution of sexuality. Basic data on the behavior of parthenogens are lacking, however. We have discovered, from observations of captive Cnemidophorus uniparens, C. velox, and C. tesselatus, behavior patterns remarkably similar to the courtship and copulatory behavior of closely related sexual species. Briefly, in separately housed pairs, one lizard was repeatedly seen to mount and ride its cagemate and appose the cloacal regions. Dissection or palpation revealed that, in each instance, the courted animal was reproductively active, having ovaries containing large, preovulatory follicles, while the courting animal was either reproductively inactive or postovulatory, having ovaries containing only small, undeveloped follicles. These observations are significant for the questions they raise. For example, is this behavior a nonfunctional vestige of the species' ancestry, or is this behavior necessary for successful reproduction in the species (e.g., by priming reproductive neuroendocrine mechanisms as has been demonstrated in sexual species)?

  7. Social Support and HIV Risks Among Migrant and Non-Migrant Market Workers in Almaty, Kazakhstan.

    Mergenova, Gaukhar; Shaw, Stacey A; Terlikbayeva, Assel; Gilbert, Louisa; Gensburg, Lenore; Primbetova, Sholpan; El-Bassel, Nabila

    2017-08-01

    Migration processes are listed within the primary factors facilitating the heterosexual spread of HIV. The study examines the relationship between social support, sexual HIV risk behaviors and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among 1342 male migrant and non-migrant market workers from Barakholka Market in Almaty, Kazakhstan. (1) higher level of perceived social support [Enhancing Recovery in Coronary Heart Disease (ENRICHD) Social Support Instrument (ESSI score)] was associated with a lower likelihood of having sex with a female sex worker (FSW) [OR = 0.952 (0.927, 0.978) p social support factors should be considered as a component of HIV and STI prevention programs for male migrant workers from Central Asia in Kazakhstan.

  8. Rejection Sensitivity, Perceived Power, and HIV Risk in the Relationships of Low-Income Urban Women.

    Berenson, Kathy R; Paprocki, Christine; Thomas Fishman, Marget; Bhushan, Devika; El-Bassel, Nabila; Downey, Geraldine

    2015-01-01

    The psychological processes associated with HIV infection in long-term relationships differ from those operative in casual sexual encounters, and relatively little research has considered the aspects of personality applicable in the ongoing heterosexual relationships in which women are at greatest risk. Sensitivity to rejection has been linked with efforts to prevent rejection at a cost to the self and, therefore, may be relevant to the health risks that many women incur in relationships. We examined the association of rejection sensitivity with women's sexual risk behavior in a sample of women at heightened risk for HIV exposure. Women in long-term heterosexual relationships (N = 159) were recruited for study participation in the hospital emergency room serving a low-income neighborhood in New York City, in 2001-2003. Rejection sensitivity and known HIV risk factors were assessed using verbally administered questionnaires. Rejection sensitivity was associated with lower perceived relationship power and, in turn, more frequent unprotected sex with a partner perceived to be at risk for HIV. These results held when controlling for other HIV risk factors including partner violence, economic dependence, and substance use. Understanding the association of rejection concerns with lower perceived personal power in relationships may be important for HIV prevention.

  9. Factors affecting behaviours that address HIV risk among Black and White South Africans

    K. Peltzer

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify factors affecting HIV risk reduction among 150 Black and 150 White South Africans chosen by systematic random sampling. Main outcome measures included sexual behaviour and condom use, knowledge about correct condom use, intention of condom use, behavioural norms, attitudes, normative beliefs, and subjective norms about condoms, HIV/AIDS health beliefs, and HIV risk behaviour. Bivariate analysis gave positive significant relations among being single, age, ...

  10. Depression, alcohol use, and intimate partner violence among outpatients in rural Uganda: vulnerabilities for HIV, STIs and high risk sexual behavior.

    Kiene, Susan M; Lule, Haruna; Sileo, Katelyn M; Silmi, Kazi Priyanka; Wanyenze, Rhoda K

    2017-01-19

    Intimate partner violence (IPV), alcohol use, and depression are key vulnerabilities for HIV in Uganda, and taken together may have a synergistic effect on risk. Our objective was to investigate the associations between depression, IPV, and alcohol use and HIV-risk indicators among a sample of outpatients in rural Uganda, and the effect of co-occurrence of these factors on HIV-risk indicators. In a structured interview we collected data on high-risk sexual behavior, depression symptoms, emotional and physical IPV, and alcohol use, as well as a blood sample for HIV and syphilis tests and a urine sample for chlamydia and gonorrhea tests from 325 male and female outpatients receiving provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling (PITC) at a public hospital outpatient clinic in rural Uganda. We used logistic regression and generalized linear modeling to test independent associations between depression, IPV, and alcohol use and HIV-risk indicators, as well as the effect of co-occurrence on HIV-risk indicators. Twelve percent of men and 15% of women had two or more of the following conditions: depression, IPV, and alcohol use; another 29% of men and 33% of women had 1 condition. Each condition was independently associated with HIV risk behavior for men and women, and for women, depression was associated with testing positive for HIV or a sexually transmitted infection (STI). Men with one condition (AOR 2.32, 95% CI 1.95-2.77) and two or more conditions (AOR 12.77, 95% CI 7.97-20.47) reported more high risk sex acts compared to those with no potential co-occurring conditions. For men, experiencing two or more conditions increased risky sex more than one alone (χ 2 24.68, p risk for risky sex (AOR 2.18, 95% CI 1.64-2.91). We also found preliminary evidence suggesting synergistic effects between depression and emotional IPV and between alcohol use and depression. This study demonstrates the co-occurrence of depression, IPV, and alcohol use in men and women in an

  11. Sexual behavior and intention to engage in sexual behavior in junior secondary school students in Hong Kong.

    Shek, D T L

    2013-06-01

    The present study examined the prevalence, changes, and demographic as well as psychosocial correlates of sexual behavior and intention to engage in sexual behavior in early adolescents in Hong Kong, with sexual behavior indexed by sexual intercourse. Three waves of longitudinal data on sexual intercourse, intention to engage in sexual intercourse, family functioning, and positive youth development were collected from 28 secondary schools in Hong Kong. There were significant influences of grade and gender on adolescent sexual behavior or intention to engage in sexual behavior. Significant main effects of immigration status on sexual behavior were also found. While no effect of family economic background was found, effect of family intactness existed for sexual behavior. Family functioning and positive youth development at Grade 7 were negatively associated with students' sexual behavior and intention to engage in sexual behavior at Grade 9. Grade, gender, immigration status, and family intactness were related to sexual behavior and/or intention to engage in sexual behavior in junior secondary school students. Promoting positive youth development and family functioning could serve as protective factors to reduce sexual behavior and intention to engage in sexual behavior in Chinese early adolescents in Hong Kong. Copyright © 2013 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of Sexuality Information on Sexual Behavior and Control of ...

    There was significant correlation between knowledge of sexuality and sexual ... Conclusion: It is recommended that instructors on sexuality education be ... youths facts of sexuality, contraception and sexually transmitted diseases to reduce the ...

  13. The Effects of Divorced Mothers' Dating Behaviors and Sexual Attitudes on the Sexual Attitudes and Behaviors of Their Adolescent Children.

    Whitbeck, Les B.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Describes investigation of effects of mothers' dating behaviors on adolescents' sexuality using reports from a sample of adolescents and their divorced mothers. Suggests mothers' dating behaviors directly influenced sexual behavior of males and indirectly influenced sexuality of females. Mothers' sexual permissiveness influenced daughters' sexual…

  14. HIV risk and prevention among men who have sex with men in rural South Africa.

    Maleke, Kabelo; Makhakhe, Nosipho; Peters, Remco Ph; Jobson, Geoffrey; De Swardt, Glenn; Daniels, Joseph; Lane, Timothy; McIntyre, James A; Imrie, John; Struthers, Helen

    2017-03-01

    Rural South African men who have sex with men (MSM) are likely to be underserved in terms of access to relevant healthcare and HIV prevention services. While research in urban and peri-urban MSM populations has identified a range of factors affecting HIV risk in South African MSM, very little research is available that examines HIV risk and prevention in rural MSM populations. This exploratory study begins to address this lack by assessing perceptions of HIV risk among MSM in rural Limpopo province. Using thematic analysis of interview and discussion data, two overarching global themes that encapsulated participants' understandings of HIV risk and the HIV risk environment in their communities were developed. In the first theme, "community experience and the rural social environment", factors affecting HIV risk within the broad risk environment were discussed. These included perceptions of traditional value systems and communities as homophobic; jealousy and competition between MSM; and the role of social media as a means of meeting other MSM. The second global theme, "HIV/AIDS knowledge, risk and experience", focused on factors more immediately affecting HIV transmission risk. These included: high levels of knowledge of heterosexual HIV risk, but limited knowledge of MSM-specific risk; inconsistent condom and lubricant use; difficulties in negotiating condom and lubricant use due to uneven power dynamics in relationships; competition for sexual partners; multiple concurrent sexual partnerships; and transactional sex. These exploratory results suggest that rural South African MSM, like their urban and peri-urban counterparts, are at high risk of contracting HIV, and that there is a need for more in-depth research into the interactions between the rural context and the specific HIV risk knowledge and behaviours that affect HIV risk in this population.

  15. Examining the relationship between use of sexually explicit media and sexual risk behavior in a sample of men who have sex with men in Norway

    Traeen, Bente; Noor, Syed W; Hald, Gert Martin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate consumption patterns of gay-oriented sexually explicit media (SEM) among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Norway, with a particular emphasis on a possible relationship between gay SEM consumption and HIV risk behavior. Participants included 529 MSM...... living in Norway recruited online to complete a SEM consumption and sexual risk survey. Of the 507 participants who responded to the all items measuring exposure to SEM, 19% reported unprotected anal intercourse with a casual partner (UAI) in last 90 days, and 14% reported having had sero-discordant UAI....... Among those with UAI experience, 23% reported receptive anal intercourse (R-UAI) and 37% reported insertive anal intercourse (I-UAI). SEM consumption was found to be significantly associated with sexual risk behaviors. Participants with increased consumption of bareback SEM reported higher odds of UAI...

  16. Sexual Preoccupation Behavior in Parkinson's Disease.

    Bronner, Gila; Hassin-Baer, Sharon; Gurevich, Tanya

    2017-01-01

    People with Parkinson's disease (PD) present with problematic sexual behaviors that are often misunderstood or ignored. Sexual problems in PD are part of a non-motor syndrome, and they play a  prominent role in the life of affected individuals and their partners. Based on our considerable clinical experience, we describe four common types of sexual preoccupation behaviors in people with PD: (1) sexual behavior with underlying sexual dysfunction, (2) sexual desire discrepancy with partner after restored desire, (3) hypersexuality and compulsive sexual behavior, and (4) sexual behavior with underlying restless genital syndrome. We also suggest methods of assessing and diagnosing these sexual behaviors, and propose alternative possible treatments for people with PD and their partners/caregivers. Understanding these four behavioral types will assist healthcare professionals in explaining and educating people with PD and their partners, contribute to decreased stress and tension between them, and help them manage these sexual issues.

  17. Childhood and adolescent sexual behaviors predict adult sexual orientations

    Keith W. Beard

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Anonymous retrospective data were provided by 3,443 adult participants via computer-assisted self-interview. This was the first study focused on determinants of adult sexual orientation to adjust for the effects of same-sex sibling incest. Five measures of adult sexual orientations (ASOs provided evidence consistent with the theory that ASOs result from early sex-specific romantic attachment, conditioning caused by early sexual experiences with partners, and other experiences, such as early masturbation using human images, acting synergistically with critical period learning, and sexual imprinting. Early same-sex crushes were the most powerful predictor of ASOs, and they also increased the likelihood of engaging in early same-sex partnered and masturbation behaviors. Incestuous experiences with same-sex siblings affected the ASOs of the incest participants. And, lesbian, gay, and bisexual participants tended to have an earlier onset of puberty than heterosexual controls within sexes. However, statistical analyses showed that the incest and puberty effects were mathematically explained by the participant’s early sexual experiences with partners and other experiences such as masturbation using human images. Early same-sex crushes were predicted by nuclear family variables implying that same-sex crushes were more likely when the opposite-sex parent modeled an unsatisfactory heterosexual romantic partner.

  18. Sexual media exposure, sexual behavior, and sexual violence victimization in adolescence.

    Ybarra, Michele L; Strasburger, Victor C; Mitchell, Kimberly J

    2014-11-01

    Emerging research suggests sexual media affects sexual behavior, but most studies are based on regional samples and few include measures of newer mediums. Furthermore, little is known about how sexual media relates to sexual violence victimization. Data are from 1058 youth 14 to 21 years of age in the national, online Growing up with Media study. Forty-seven percent reported that many or almost all/all of at least one type of media they consumed depicted sexual situations. Exposure to sexual media in television and movies, and music was greater than online and in games. All other things equal, more frequent exposure to sexual media was related to ever having had sex, coercive sex victimization, and attempted/completed rape but not risky sexual behavior. Longer standing mediums such as television and movies appear to be associated with greater amounts of sexual media consumption than newer ones, such as the Internet. A nuanced view of how sexual media content may and may not be affecting today's youth is needed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Childhood Sexual Abuse in Adolescents Adjudicated for Sexual Offenses: Mental Health Consequences and Sexual Offending Behaviors.

    Morais, Hugo B; Alexander, Apryl A; Fix, Rebecca L; Burkhart, Barry R

    2018-02-01

    Most studies on the mental health consequences of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) focus predominantly on CSA survivors who do not commit sexual offenses. The current study examined the effects of CSA on 498 male adolescents adjudicated for sexual offenses who represent the small portion of CSA survivors who engage in sexual offenses. The prevalence of internalizing symptoms, parental attachment difficulties, specific sexual offending behaviors, and risk for sexually offending were compared among participants with and without a history of CSA. Results indicated that participants with a history of CSA were more likely to be diagnosed with major depression and posttraumatic stress disorder than those who did not report a history of CSA. A history of CSA was also positively correlated with risk for sexually offending and with specific offense patterns and consensual sexual behaviors. No significant differences emerged on parental attachment difficulties. These results highlight that adolescents adjudicated for sexual offenses with a history of CSA present with differences in sexual and psychological functioning as well as markedly different offending patterns when compared with those without a CSA history. Clinical implications and future directions are discussed.

  20. Integrating Neural Circuits Controlling Female Sexual Behavior.

    Micevych, Paul E; Meisel, Robert L

    2017-01-01

    The hypothalamus is most often associated with innate behaviors such as is hunger, thirst and sex. While the expression of these behaviors important for survival of the individual or the species is nested within the hypothalamus, the desire (i.e., motivation) for them is centered within the mesolimbic reward circuitry. In this review, we will use female sexual behavior as a model to examine the interaction of these circuits. We will examine the evidence for a hypothalamic circuit that regulates consummatory aspects of reproductive behavior, i.e., lordosis behavior, a measure of sexual receptivity that involves estradiol membrane-initiated signaling in the arcuate nucleus (ARH), activating β-endorphin projections to the medial preoptic nucleus (MPN), which in turn modulate ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH) activity-the common output from the hypothalamus. Estradiol modulates not only a series of neuropeptides, transmitters and receptors but induces dendritic spines that are for estrogenic induction of lordosis behavior. Simultaneously, in the nucleus accumbens of the mesolimbic system, the mating experience produces long term changes in dopamine signaling and structure. Sexual experience sensitizes the response of nucleus accumbens neurons to dopamine signaling through the induction of a long lasting early immediate gene. While estrogen alone increases spines in the ARH, sexual experience increases dendritic spine density in the nucleus accumbens. These two circuits appear to converge onto the medial preoptic area where there is a reciprocal influence of motivational circuits on consummatory behavior and vice versa . While it has not been formally demonstrated in the human, such circuitry is generally highly conserved and thus, understanding the anatomy, neurochemistry and physiology can provide useful insight into the motivation for sexual behavior and other innate behaviors in humans.

  1. Integrating Neural Circuits Controlling Female Sexual Behavior

    Paul E. Micevych

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The hypothalamus is most often associated with innate behaviors such as is hunger, thirst and sex. While the expression of these behaviors important for survival of the individual or the species is nested within the hypothalamus, the desire (i.e., motivation for them is centered within the mesolimbic reward circuitry. In this review, we will use female sexual behavior as a model to examine the interaction of these circuits. We will examine the evidence for a hypothalamic circuit that regulates consummatory aspects of reproductive behavior, i.e., lordosis behavior, a measure of sexual receptivity that involves estradiol membrane-initiated signaling in the arcuate nucleus (ARH, activating β-endorphin projections to the medial preoptic nucleus (MPN, which in turn modulate ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH activity—the common output from the hypothalamus. Estradiol modulates not only a series of neuropeptides, transmitters and receptors but induces dendritic spines that are for estrogenic induction of lordosis behavior. Simultaneously, in the nucleus accumbens of the mesolimbic system, the mating experience produces long term changes in dopamine signaling and structure. Sexual experience sensitizes the response of nucleus accumbens neurons to dopamine signaling through the induction of a long lasting early immediate gene. While estrogen alone increases spines in the ARH, sexual experience increases dendritic spine density in the nucleus accumbens. These two circuits appear to converge onto the medial preoptic area where there is a reciprocal influence of motivational circuits on consummatory behavior and vice versa. While it has not been formally demonstrated in the human, such circuitry is generally highly conserved and thus, understanding the anatomy, neurochemistry and physiology can provide useful insight into the motivation for sexual behavior and other innate behaviors in humans.

  2. Persistent Complications of Child Sexual Abuse: Sexually Compulsive Behaviors, Attachment, and Emotions.

    Meyer, Dixie; Cohn, Aaron; Robinson, Brittany; Muse, Fatima; Hughes, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    Child sexual abuse has the potential to cause distress for the victim across the lifespan. Romantic relationships may be particularly difficult for victims of child sexual abuse. This retrospective study examined differences in adult romantic attachment, sexually compulsive behaviors, and emotion regulation by history of child sexual abuse in a large, nonclinical sample. Those with a history of child sexual abuse reported more attachment anxiety in romantic relationships and engaged in more sexually compulsive behaviors. Overall, males displayed more sexually compulsive behaviors than females regardless of history of sexual abuse. Males with a history of sexual abuse displayed the greatest number of sexually compulsive behaviors. Surprisingly, no differences were observed in emotion regulation or attachment avoidant behaviors by history of child sexual abuse. Future research should seek to replicate current findings and examine emotion regulation difficulties experienced as a result of trauma.

  3. Quantitative, Qualitative and Geospatial Methods to Characterize HIV Risk Environments.

    Erin E Conners

    Full Text Available Increasingly, 'place', including physical and geographical characteristics as well as social meanings, is recognized as an important factor driving individual and community health risks. This is especially true among marginalized populations in low and middle income countries (LMIC, whose environments may also be more difficult to study using traditional methods. In the NIH-funded longitudinal study Mapa de Salud, we employed a novel approach to exploring the risk environment of female sex workers (FSWs in two Mexico/U.S. border cities, Tijuana and Ciudad Juárez. In this paper we describe the development, implementation, and feasibility of a mix of quantitative and qualitative tools used to capture the HIV risk environments of FSWs in an LMIC setting. The methods were: 1 Participatory mapping; 2 Quantitative interviews; 3 Sex work venue field observation; 4 Time-location-activity diaries; 5 In-depth interviews about daily activity spaces. We found that the mixed-methodology outlined was both feasible to implement and acceptable to participants. These methods can generate geospatial data to assess the role of the environment on drug and sexual risk behaviors among high risk populations. Additionally, the adaptation of existing methods for marginalized populations in resource constrained contexts provides new opportunities for informing public health interventions.

  4. Differences in Risky Sexual Behavior According to Sexual Orientation in Korean Adolescents.

    Kim, Ji-Su; Kim, Kyunghee; Kwak, Yeunhee

    2017-10-13

    Adolescents in sexual minority groups are known to be at risk of contracting sexually transmitted diseases through risky sexual behavior. However, few studies have examined associations between sexual orientation and risky sexual behavior and sexually transmitted diseases in Korean adolescents. Therefore, this cross-sectional study used raw data from the Tenth Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey to explore these relationships. Logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the associations between risky sexual behavior and sexual orientation in adolescents. The participants were 6,884 adolescents who provided data regarding demographic characteristics, sexual orientation, and risky sexual behavior. The proportions of homosexual and bisexual subjects who used condoms, engaged in sexual intercourse after drinking alcohol, and experienced sexually transmitted diseases were higher relative to those of heterosexual subjects. Associations between homosexuality and bisexuality and sexually transmitted diseases and engagement in sexual intercourse after drinking remained after multivariate adjustment. Interventions to prevent risky sexual behavior should target sexual orientation, to improve sexual health and prevent sexually transmitted disease in homosexual and bisexual adolescents.

  5. Physical attractiveness and women's HIV risk in rural Malawi

    Margaret Frye

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Qualitative evidence from sub-Saharan Africa, where a generalized AIDS epidemic exists, suggests that attractiveness may play a role in shaping individual-level HIV risk. Attractive women, who are often blamed for the epidemic and stigmatized, are believed to pose a higher HIV risk because they are viewed as having more and riskier partners. Objective: We examine the association between perceived attractiveness and HIV infection and risk in rural Malawi in the midst of the country's severe AIDS epidemic. Methods: We use interviewers' ratings of respondents' attractiveness, along with HIV test results and women's assessments of their own likelihood of infection, to estimate the association between perceived attractiveness and HIV infection and risk for a random sample of 961 women aged 15‒35. Results: Results show that women who are rated by interviewers as 'much less' or 'less' attractive than other women their age are 9Š more likely to test positive for HIV. We also find that attractiveness is associated with women's own assessments of their HIV risk: Among women who tested negative, those perceived as 'much less' or 'less' attractive than average report themselves to be at greater risk of HIV infection. Conclusions: These results suggest that attractiveness is negatively associated with HIV risk in Malawi, countering local beliefs that hold attractive women responsible for perpetuating the epidemic. Contribution: This study highlights the need to consider perceived physical attractiveness, and sexual desirability more broadly, as an under-examined axis of inequality in HIV risk in high-prevalence settings.

  6. Gender and the organization of sexual behavior.

    Tiefer, L; Kring, B

    1995-03-01

    Gender socialization seems important in every culture although the precise nature of gender categories and the specifics of gender roles differ across societies. Gender socialization produces in most people a compulsion to behave according to appropriate rules and expectations, and a grave anxiety about not being considered by others, or by themselves, truly male or female. Sexual performance is tightly tied to appropriate gender role behavior, and the need to conform to conventional scripts probably inhibits most people from expressing individual desires and interests. The gratification obtained from gender affirmation, however, may compensate for any lost erotic or intimate rewards. Our society is in the throes of major changes in gender roles, and many of the frequent public debates about sexual issues (e.g., impact of pornography, prevalence of sexual abuse and harassment, advisability of public sex education, propriety of homosexuals in the military) reflect insecurities about the effect of these new roles on sexual behavior. Present knowledge suggests that any change in gender roles is bound to have a major effect on sexual behavior, both within the life of an individual and within a society. Insecurities and adjustment difficulties are likely to remain normative, and to be part of the problems brought to every mental health clinician.

  7. Drug use and HIV risks among migrant workers on the DelMarVa Peninsula.

    Inciardi, J A; Surratt, H L; Colón, H M; Chitwood, D D; Rivers, J E

    1999-01-01

    Because high rates of drug use have been documented in the migrant farm worker population, the National Institute on Drug Abuse funded the Migrant Health Study to examine HIV risk behaviors among drug-using farm workers and their sexual partners. Many of these individuals were home-based in South Florida and migrated during the work season to various points along the Eastern Migratory Stream. The focus of this paper is a description of the characteristics and behaviors of the 151 respondents contacted on the DelMarVa Peninsula during 1994 and 1995. The data indicate that drug use was widespread in this population, a significant proportion were at risk for HIV infection, and 6% were HIV positive. As a result of these findings, public health agencies on the peninsula have instituted HIV education programs in those clinics utilized by both local and transient agricultural workers.

  8. Determinants of Self-Perceived HIV Risk in Young South Africans ...

    Determinants of Self-Perceived HIV Risk in Young South Africans Engaged in Concurrent Sexual Relationships. C Kenyon, S Zondo, M Badri. Abstract. Concurrent sexual partnerships are increasingly believed to be a key factor explaining the size of the HIV pandemic in Southern and Eastern Africa. Little, however, is ...

  9. Subjective sexual well-being and sexual behavior in young women with breast cancer

    Kedde, H.; van de Wiel, H. B. M.; Schultz, W. C. M. Weijmar; Wijsen, C.

    The aim of this study was to systematically describe the nature and context of subjective sexual well-being and sexual behavior in young women with breast cancer. Data on sexual behavior and subjective sexual well-being were collected through an internet questionnaire. Respondents were included if

  10. Preventing High-Risk Sexual Behavior, Sexually Transmitted Diseases, and Pregnancy among Adolescents.

    Sagrestano, Lynda M.; Paikoff, Roberta L.

    Adolescent sexual activity and the resulting pregnancy and transmission of sexually transmitted diseases have been on the rise during the past several decades. This chapter addresses each of the three objectives regarding sexual behavior outlined in the Healthy People 2000 initiative. Background data and trends in adolescent sexual behavior are…

  11. "Booze is the main factor that got me where I am today": alcohol use and HIV risk for MSM in rural South Africa.

    Daniels, Joseph; Struthers, Helen; Lane, Tim; Maleke, Kabelo; McIntyre, James; Coates, Tom

    2018-05-28

    Excessive alcohol consumption has been shown to increase HIV risk for men who have sex with men (MSM) and compromise HIV prevention behaviors. However, there is limited contextual understanding of alcohol use for MSM in rural sub-Saharan African settings, which can inform and direct HIV interventions. Applying an adaptation of PhotoVoice, we worked with 35 HIV-positive MSM who created photo-essays about alcohol and HIV in Mpumalanga. A semi-structured protocol was used in focus group discussions that were audio-recorded, translated and transcribed. Transcript data and visual data of 24 photo-essays were analyzed using a constant comparison approach. We found that participants used alcohol to build and sustain social networks, meet sexual partners, and enhance sexual experience. Excessive alcohol use was common, which was associated with increased HIV risk behaviors within a community of MSM who maintained multiple partnerships. Our study suggests that HIV interventions need to address excessive alcohol use to mitigate the associated HIV risk at both the individual and community levels.

  12. Relating sexual sadism and psychopathy to one another, non-sexual violence, and sexual crime behaviors.

    Robertson, Carrie A; Knight, Raymond A

    2014-01-01

    Sexual sadism and psychopathy have been theoretically, clinically, and empirically linked to violence. Although both constructs are linked to predatory violence, few studies have sought to explore the covariation of the two constructs, and even fewer have sought to conceptualize the similarities of violence prediction in each. The current study considered all four Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) facets and employed well-defined, validated measures of sadism to elucidate the relation between sadism and psychopathy, as well as to determine the role of each in the prediction of non-sexual violence and sexual crime behaviors. Study 1 assessed 314 adult, male sex offenders using archival ratings, as well as the self-report Multidimensional Inventory of Development, Sex, and Aggression (the MIDSA). Study 2 used archival ratings to assess 599 adult, male sex offenders. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of crime scene descriptions yielded four sexual crime behavior factors: Violence, Physical Control, Sexual Behavior, and Paraphilic. Sadism and psychopathy covaried, but were not coextensive; sadism correlated with Total PCL-R, Facet 1, and Facet 4 scores. The constructs predicted all non-sexual violence measures, but predicted different sexual crime behavior factors. The PCL-R facets collectively predicted the Violence and Paraphilic factors, whereas sadism only predicted the Violence factor. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. The Relationship Between Sexual Abuse and Risky Sexual Behavior Among Adolescent Boys: A Meta-Analysis

    Homma, Yuko; Wang, Naren; Saewyc, Elizabeth; Kishor, Nand

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Childhood and adolescent sexual abuse has been shown to lead to increased odds of sexual behaviors that lead to sexually transmitted infections and early pregnancy involvement. Research, meta-analyses, and interventions, however, have focused primarily on girls and young women who have experienced abuse, yet some adolescent boys are also sexually abused. We performed a meta-analysis of the existing studies to assess the magnitudes of the link between a history of sexual abuse and each of three risky sexual behaviors among adolescent boys in North America. Methods The three outcomes were a) unprotected sexual intercourse, b) multiple sexual partners, and c) pregnancy involvement. Weighted mean effect sizes were computed from 10 independent samples, from nine studies published between 1990 and 2011. Results Sexually abused boys were significantly more likely than non-abused boys to report all three risky sexual behaviors. Weighted mean odds ratios were 1.91 for unprotected intercourse, 2.91 for multiple sexual partners, and 4.81 for pregnancy involvement. Conclusions Our results indicate that childhood and adolescent sexual abuse can substantially Influence sexual behavior in adolescence among male survivors. To improve sexual health for all adolescents, even young men, we should strengthen sexual abuse prevention initiatives, raise awareness about male sexual abuse survivors’ existence and sexual health issues, improve sexual health promotion for abused young men, and screen all people, regardless of gender, for a history of sexual abuse. PMID:22727072

  14. Self-Perceived Viral Load and Sexual Risk Behavior Among Known HIV-Positive MSM in San Francisco, 2014.

    Guigayoma, John; Chen, Yea-Hung; Snowden, Jonathan M; Santos, Glenn-Milo; Hecht, Jennifer; Raymond, H Fisher

    2017-07-01

    Self-perceived viral suppression status among men who have sex with men (MSM) may impact HIV risk transmission behaviors. We conducted a 2014 cross-sectional survey of MSM in San Francisco and assessed differences in sexual risk behavior among known HIV-positive MSM based on viral suppression of HIV. We collected demographics, self-perceived viral load status, and sexual risk behavior and tested for viral load levels through laboratory assays. Men were categorized in a hierarchical schema of sexual risk behavior categories based on responses to questions regarding recent partners' HIV status, condom use, and sexual positioning. We used Fisher exact tests to assess for differences based on self-perceived viral load status. Out of a sample of 96 known HIV-positive men, 59 men self-reported an undetectable HIV viral load and 9 men self-reported a detectable viral load consented to confirmatory laboratory testing. The sample of self-reported undetectable men had gradually larger proportions of higher-risk sexual practices, whereas the sample of detectable men was evenly distributed across sexual practices. This association was not statistically significant (P = 0.91). Self-perceived viral suppression may influence sexual practices of known HIV-positive MSM, but small sample size, especially within the detectable category, hinders our ability to determine statistical significance. More research is necessary to assess how HIV-positive men account for viral load in sexual decision-making practices, and this research may inform resource allocation and clinical recommendations to maintain the health of MSM populations.

  15. Ethnic, Gender, and Acculturation Influences on Sexual Behaviors

    Ahrold, Tierney

    2015-01-01

    Much research has been conducted on ethnic differences in sexuality, but few studies have systematically assessed the importance of acculturation in sexual behavior. The present study assessed general differences in normative sexual practices in healthy Euro-American, Asian, and Hispanic populations, using measures of acculturation to analyze the relative effects of heritage and mainstream cultures within each group. A total of 1,419 undergraduates (67% Euro-American, 17% Hispanic, 16% Asian; 33% men, 67% women) completed questionnaires which assessed sexual experience and causal sexual behaviors. In concordance with previous studies, Asians reported more conservative levels of sexual experience and frequency of sexual behaviors, fewer lifetime partners, and later ages of sexual debut than Euro-American or Hispanic counterparts. Hispanic reported sexual experiences similar to that of Euro-Americans. There was a significant interaction between mainstream and heritage acculturation in predicting number of lifetime sexual partners in Asian women such that the relationship between heritage acculturation and casual sexual behavior was stronger at lower levels of mainstream acculturation. On the other hand, in Hispanic men, higher levels of mainstream acculturation predicted more casual sexual behavior (one-time sexual encounters and number of lifetime sexual partners) when heritage acculturation was low but less casual sexual behavior when heritage acculturation was high. These results suggest that, for sexual behavior, Hispanic men follow an “ethnogenesis” model of acculturation while Asian women follow an “assimilation” model of acculturation. PMID:18931901

  16. Sexual behavior reduces hypothalamic androgen receptor immunoreactivity

    Fernandez-Guasti, Alonso; Swaab, Dick; Rodríguez-Manzo, Gabriela

    2003-01-01

    Male sexual behavior is regulated by limbic areas like the medial preoptic nucleus (MPN), the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST), the nucleus accumbens (nAcc) and the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMN). Neurons in these brain areas are rich in androgen receptors (AR) and express

  17. Psychosocial health problems associated with increased HIV risk behavior among men who have sex with men in Nepal: a cross-sectional survey.

    Keshab Deuba

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Men who have sex with men (MSM are marginalized, hidden, underserved and at high risk for HIV in Nepal. We examined the association between MSM sub-populations, psychosocial health problems and support, access to prevention and non-use of condoms. METHODS: Between September-November of 2010, a cross-sectional survey on HIV-related risk behavior was performed across Nepal through snowball sampling facilitated by non-governmental organizations, recruiting 339 MSM, age 15 or older. The primary outcomes were: (a non-use of condoms at least once in last three anal sex encounters with men and (b non-use of condoms with women in the last encounter. The secondary outcome was participation in HIV prevention interventions in the past year. RESULTS: Among the 339 MSM interviewed, 78% did not use condoms at their last anal sex with another man, 35% did not use condoms in their last sex with a woman, 70% had experienced violence in the last 12 months, 61% were experiencing depression and 47% had thought of committing suicide. After adjustment for age, religion, marital status, and MSM subpopulations (bisexual, ta, meti, gay, non-use of condoms at last anal sex with a man was significantly associated with non-participation in HIV interventions, experience of physical and sexual violence, depression, repeated suicidal thoughts, small social support network and being dissatisfied with social support. Depression was marginally associated with non-use of condoms with women. The findings suggest that among MSM who reported non-use of condoms at last anal sex, the ta subgroup and those lacking family acceptance were the least likely to have participated in any preventive interventions. CONCLUSIONS: MSM in Nepal have a prevalence of psychosocial health problems in turn associated with high risk behavior for HIV. Future HIV prevention efforts targeting MSM in Nepal should cover all MSM subpopulations and prioritize psychosocial health interventions.

  18. Learning that circumcision is protective against HIV: risk compensation among men and women in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Brendan Maughan-Brown

    Full Text Available We examined whether knowledge of the HIV-protective benefits of male circumcision (MC led to risk compensating behavior in a traditionally circumcising population in South Africa. We extend the current literature by examining risk compensation among women, which has hitherto been unexplored.We used data on Xhosa men and women from the 2009 Cape Area Panel Study. Respondents were asked if they had heard that MC reduces a man's risk of contracting HIV, about their perceived risk of contracting HIV, and condom use. For each gender group we assessed whether risk perception and condom use differed by knowledge of the protective benefits of MC using bivariate and then multivariate models controlling for demographic characteristics, HIV knowledge/beliefs, and previous sexual behaviors. In a further check for confounding, we used data from the 2005 wave to assess whether individuals who would eventually become informed about the protective benefits of circumcision were already different in terms of HIV risk perception and condom use.34% of men (n=453 and 27% of women (n=690 had heard that circumcision reduces a man's risk of HIV infection. Informed men perceived slightly higher risk of contracting HIV and were more likely to use condoms at last sex (p<0.10. Informed women perceived lower HIV risk (p<0.05, were less likely to use condoms both at last sex (p<0.10 and more generally (p<0.01, and more likely to forego condoms with partners of positive or unknown serostatus (p<0.01. The results were robust to covariate adjustment, excluding people living with HIV, and accounting for risk perceptions and condom use in 2005.We find evidence consistent with risk compensation among women but not men. Further attention should be paid to the role of new information regarding MC, and drivers of HIV risk more broadly, in modulating sexual behavior among women.

  19. HIV risk perception among pregnant women in western India: need for reducing vulnerabilities rather than improving knowledge!

    Darak, Shrinivas; Gadgil, Mukta; Balestre, Eric; Kulkarni, Maitreyee; Kulkarni, Vinay; Kulkarni, Sanjeevani; Orne-Gliemann, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Since the beginning of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in India, pregnant women attending antenatal clinics (ANC) have been considered as a low HIV risk population. Yet, a substantial proportion of new HIV infections are occurring among stable heterosexual couples. This paper sought to investigate the proportion and profile of women who, within the low-risk population, are potentially at higher risk of HIV infection. HIV risk perception of pregnant women enrolled within the ANRS 12127 Prenahtest trial was described and associated socio-behavioral characteristics, husband's characteristics, and HIV-related characteristics were analyzed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression models. Among 484 women enrolled, baseline data were collected for 479 women and 460 women with completed data were considered for the present analysis (96%). Eighty-nine (19.4%) women perceived themselves at risk of HIV. Women with educational level Women who had heard about sexually transmitted infections were also more likely to report HIV risk perception (AOR = 3.36 [CI = 1.83-6.18]). Substantial proportion of women (one out of five) perceived themselves at risk of HIV and most of these have reported some form of vulnerability in their couple relationship such as intimate partner violence, alcoholic partner, lack of communication, and spaces for communication with partner. Though awareness and knowledge is the first step for prevention, considering the vulnerabilities associated with HIV risk perception, HIV prevention interventions in India should target overall sources of vulnerability to HIV. Targeted risk reduction for women in ANC should be considered for primary HIV prevention among couples.

  20. Earlier anal sexarche and co-occurring sexual risk are associated with current HIV-related risk behaviors among an online sample of men who have sex with men in Asia

    Cheung, Doug H.; Suharlim, Christian; Guadamuz, Thomas E.; Lim, Sin How; Koe, Stuart; Wei, Chongyi

    2014-01-01

    Studies of heterosexual populations across the globe and men who have sex with men (MSM) in a few developed countries showed that earlier sexual debut (sexarche) was associated with higher levels of co-occurring and subsequent HIV risk behaviors. We examined the relationships between earlier anal sexarche, unprotected earlier anal sexarche and current HIV risks among MSM from Asia. A cross-sectional online survey was conducted among MSM (N = 10,826) in Asia in 2010. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regressions were used to identify co-occurring (i.e., sexual experiences during sexarche) and current HIV-related risk factors (i.e., past six months) associated with earlier anal sexarche (before the age of 18) and unprotected earlier anal sexarche, respectively. Earlier anal sexarche was significantly associated with lack of condom use, being anal receptive or both receptive and insertive, and having a partner who were older during sexarche. It was also associated with current HIV-related risk behaviors including having multiple male sexual partners, having been paid for sex, and increased frequencies of recreational drug use. Unprotected earlier anal sexarche was significantly associated with inconsistent condom use in the past the six months. Improved and culturally sensitive sex education at schools should be included in national and regional HIV/AIDS prevention programming and policies in Asia. Such sex education programs should incorporate curriculum that address sexuality, sexual orientation, and sexual behaviors beyond those related to reproductive health. PMID:24920344

  1. Beliefs and Perception About HIV/AIDS, Self-Efficacy, and HIV Sexual Risk Behaviors Among Young Thai Men Who Have Sex With Men.

    Khumsaen, Natawan; Stephenson, Rob

    2017-04-01

    This study examined the relationships of HIV/AIDS beliefs, self-efficacy for AIDS preventive behaviors, perception of HIV as a chronic disease, and HIV risk behaviors among young Thai men who have sex with men. Participants were recruited for a self-administered anonymous survey through Facebook. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with each of four HIV risk behavior outcomes. Factors associated with sexual risk behaviors included age (18 and 21 years), having a current regular male partner, self-efficacy for AIDS preventive behaviors (self-efficacy in refusing sexual intercourse, self-efficacy in questioning potential sex partners, and self-efficacy in condom use), AIDS health belief (perceived susceptibility to HIV/AIDS, perceived severity of HIV/AIDS, perceived barriers to condom use, and cues to action for HIV/AIDS prevention), and perception of HIV/AIDS as a chronic disease (perceived HIV sero-status disclosure). Knowledge generated from this study has the potential to inform prevention messages for young Thai MSM.

  2. Understanding Sociocultural Factors Contributing to HIV Risk Among Ayoreo Bolivian Sex Workers.

    López Entrambasaguas, Olga María; Granero-Molina, José; Hernández-Padilla, Jose; Fernández-Sola, Cayetano

    2015-01-01

    The Bolivian indigenous Ayoreo ethnic people are vulnerable to sexually transmitted infections and HIV. Ayoreo women who also work in sex trades belong to an extremely high-risk group, and prevention programs are not delivering effective outcomes for them. The aim of our study was to explore, describe, and understand behavioral and cultural patterns related to sexual and reproductive health in Ayoreo sex workers. A qualitative-ethnographic study was designed; data were collected through participant observation and in-depth interviews with sex workers and key informants. Two fundamental themes contributing to HIV risk for female Ayoreo sex workers in Bolivia emerged: reproductive/sexual freedom and sociocultural risk determinants. We concluded that the in-depth examination of the sexual-reproductive culture amongst the Ayoreo has provided useful information, which might contribute to the cultural adaptation and design of future policies and prevention programs for sexually transmitted infections and HIV in this group. Copyright © 2015 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. HIV sexual risk behaviors and perception of risk among college students: implications for planning interventions

    Balogun Joseph A

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The college environment offers great opportunity for HIV high-risk behaviors, including unsafe sex and multiple partnerships. While the overall incidence of HIV infection has seen some decline in recent years, rates of HIV infection among young adults have not seen a proportionate decline. As in the general population, African American young adults have been disproportionately affected by the HIV/AIDS epidemic. This study examined the sexual risk behaviors and perception of HIV risk of students in a predominantly African American commuter urban university in the Midwest. Methods Students enrolled in randomly selected general education courses completed a paper and pencil survey. Data were collected in Fall 2007, and univariate, bivariate, and multivariate analyses were conducted using SPSS for Windows v.16. Results The sample included 390 students, the majority (83% of whom were never married and 87% were sexually experienced. Among males reporting male partnerships those who used marijuana (OR = 17.5, p = 0.01 and those who used alcohol along with illegal drugs (OR = 8.8, p = 0.03 were significantly more likely to report multiple partnerships. Among females reporting male partnerships, those 30 years and older were significantly less likely (OR = 0.09, p = 0.03 to report having multiple male partners. There were significant differences in condom use last sex (p = 0.01 and consistent condom use (p = 0.002 among the different age groups. Older students were less likely to report condom use. Females age 30 years and older (OR = 3.74, p = 0.05 and respondents age 20–29 years (OR = 2.41, p = 0.03 were more likely to report inconsistent condom use than those below 20 years. Marijuana use was correlated with inconsistent condom use (p = 0.02 and alcohol with not using condom last sex among females. Perception of HIV risk was generally poor with 54% of those age 30 years and older, 48.1% of 20–29 year olds, and 57.9% of those

  4. Review: neuroestrogen regulation of socio-sexual behavior of males.

    Ubuka, Takayoshi; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi

    2014-01-01

    It is thought that estrogen (neuroestrogen) synthesized by the action of aromatase in the brain from testosterone activates male socio-sexual behaviors, such as aggression and sexual behavior in birds. We recently found that gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH), a hypothalamic neuropeptide, inhibits socio-sexual behaviors of male quail by directly activating aromatase and increasing neuroestrogen synthesis in the preoptic area (POA). The POA is thought to be the most critical site of aromatization and neuroestrogen action for the regulation of socio-sexual behavior of male birds. We concluded that GnIH inhibits socio-sexual behaviors of male quail by increasing neuroestrogen concentration beyond its optimal concentration in the brain for expression of socio-sexual behavior. On the other hand, it has been reported that dopamine and glutamate, which stimulate male socio-sexual behavior in birds and mammals, inhibit the activity of aromatase in the POA. Multiple studies also report that the activity of aromatase or neuroestrogen is negatively correlated with changes in male socio-sexual behavior in fish, birds, and mammals including humans. Here, we review previous studies that investigated the role of neuroestrogen in the regulation of male socio-sexual behavior and reconsider the hypothesis that neuroestrogen activates male socio-sexual behavior in vertebrates. It is considered that basal concentration of neuroestrogen is required for the maintenance of male socio-sexual behavior but higher concentration of neuroestrogen may inhibit male socio-sexual behavior.

  5. 20 CFR 638.512 - Sexual behavior and harassment.

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sexual behavior and harassment. 638.512... establish rules concerning sexual behavior and harassment. See also §§ 638.539(g) and 638.813(a) of this... PROGRAM UNDER TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Center Operations § 638.512 Sexual behavior...

  6. Living with parents and risky sexual behaviors among preparatory ...

    Background: Risky sexual behavior is any behavior that increases the probability of negative consequences associated with sexual contact. Family environment, peer influence, community factors and school attachment seem an important factor affecting sexual risk behavior and decision of in-school youths. Objective: To ...

  7. Tattoos, piercing, and sexual behaviors in young adults.

    Nowosielski, Krzysztof; Sipiński, Adam; Kuczerawy, Ilona; Kozłowska-Rup, Danuta; Skrzypulec-Plinta, Violetta

    2012-09-01

    Body piercing and tattooing are accepted by a growing number of teenagers and young adults as a way of self-expressing. Some authors suggest association between body piercings/tattoos and early sexual initiation, higher number of sexual partners, or risky sexual behaviors. The aim of the study was to evaluate sexual behaviors among young adults with body modifications (BMs)--tattoos and piercings. One hundred twenty young healthy adults, ages between 20 and 35, were included in the population study. The study group was divided into three subgroups: controls (N = 60), adults with tattoos (N = 28), and adults with piercings (N = 32). The research instrument was a self-prepared questionnaire containing 59 questions assessing socioepidemiological parameters, sexual behaviors, incidents of sexual harassment in the past, and self-attractiveness evaluation, as well as questions concerning tattoos and piercings. Socioepidemiological variables and sexual behaviors were compared between subgroups. To assess and describe the correlation between having BM--tattoos and piercing--and sexual behaviors in the population of young adults by using the logistic regression model. Adults with BMs have had their first intercourse statistically earlier and were more sexually active compared with controls. There were no statically significant differences in sexual orientation, sexual preferences, engaging in risky sexual behaviors, frequency of masturbation, and history of sexual abuse between the groups. In contrast, the frequency of sexual intercourses was statistically higher and oral sex was more likely to be a dominant sexual activity in adults with BM compared with controls. The multivariate logistic model revealed that adults with BM were four times less likely to participate in religious practices and twice more likely to have early sexual initiation. Having BM is associated with early sexual initiation and more liberal attitudes toward sexual behaviors but not with engaging in

  8. "Over here, it's just drugs, women and all the madness": The HIV risk environment of clients of female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Goldenberg, Shira M; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Gallardo, Manuel; Rhodes, Tim; Wagner, Karla D; Patterson, Thomas L

    2011-04-01

    HIV vulnerability depends upon social context. Based on broader debates in social epidemiology, political economy, and sociology of health, Rhodes' (2002) "risk environment" framework provides one heuristic for understanding how contextual features influence HIV risk, through different types of environmental factors (social, economic, policy, and physical) which interact at different levels of influence (micro, macro). Few data are available on the "risk environment" of male clients of female sex workers (FSWs); such men represent a potential "bridge" for transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections from high- to low-prevalence populations. Using in-depth interviews (n = 30), we describe the HIV risk environment of male clients in Tijuana, Mexico, where disproportionately high HIV prevalence has been reported among FSWs and their clients. A number of environmental themes influence risky sex with FSWs and the interplay between individual agency and structural forces: social isolation and the search for intimacy; meanings and identities ascribed to Tijuana's Zona Roja (red light district) as a risky place; social relationships in the Zona Roja; and economic roles. Our findings suggest that clients' behaviors are deeply embedded in the local context. Using the HIV "risk environment" as our analytic lens, we illustrate how clients' HIV risks are shaped by physical, social, economic, and political factors. The linkages between these and the interplay between structural- and individual-level experiences support theories that view structure as both enabling as well as constraining. We discuss how the "embeddedness" of clients' experiences warrants the use of environmental interventions that address the circumstances contributing to HIV risk at multiple levels. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Developmental Association of Sexual Self-Concept with Sexual Behavior among Adolescent Women

    Hensel, Devon J.; Fortenberry, J. Dennis; O’Sullivan, Lucia F.; Orr, Donald P.

    2010-01-01

    Developing a sexual self-concept is an important developmental task of adolescence; however, little empirical evidence describes this development, nor how these changes are related to development in sexual behavior. Using longitudinal cohort data from adolescent women, we invoked latent growth curve analysis to: (1) examine reciprocal development in sexual self-concept (sexual openness, sexual esteem and sexual anxiety) over a four year time frame; (2) describe the relationship of these traje...

  10. The Dual Role of Media Internalization in Adolescent Sexual Behavior.

    Rousseau, Ann; Beyens, Ine; Eggermont, Steven; Vandenbosch, Laura

    2017-08-01

    Sexualizing media content is prevalent in various media types. Sexualizing media messages and portrayals emphasize unattainable body and appearance ideals as the primary components of sexual desirability. The internalization of these ideals is positively related to self-objectification and sexual body consciousness. In turn, self-objectification and sexual body consciousness affect adolescents' sexual behavior, albeit in opposing directions. While objectifying self-perceptions are linked to higher levels of sexual behavior, body consciousness during physical intimacy is linked to lower levels of sexual behavior. Based on this knowledge, the present three-wave panel study of 824 Belgian, predominant heterosexual adolescents (M age  = 15.33; SD = 1.45) proposes a dual-pathway model that investigates two different pathways through which the internalization of media ideals may impact adolescents' sexual behavior. An inhibitory pathway links media internalization to lower levels of sexual behavior through sexual body consciousness, and a supportive pathway links media internalization to higher levels of sexual behavior through self-objectification. Structural equation analyses supported the proposed dual-pathway, showing that the impact of media internalization on adolescents' sexual behavior proceeds through an inhibitory pathway and a supportive pathway. Regarding the supportive pathway, media internalization (W1) positively predicted sexual behavior (W3), through valuing appearance over competence (W2). Regarding the inhibitory pathway, media internalization (W1) positively predicted body surveillance, which, in turn, positively predicted sexual body consciousness (all W2). Sexual body consciousness (W2) is negatively related to sexual behavior (W3). From a sexual developmental perspective, these findings emphasize the importance of guiding adolescents in interpreting and processing sexualizing media messages.

  11. Sexual health behaviors and sexual orientation in a U.S. national sample of college students.

    Oswalt, Sara B; Wyatt, Tammy J

    2013-11-01

    Many studies have examined differences in sexual behavior based on sexual orientation with results often indicating that those with same-sex partners engage in higher risk sexual behavior than people with opposite sex partners. However, few of these studies were large, national sample studies that also include those identifying as unsure. To address that gap, this study examined the relationship of sexual orientation and sexual health outcomes in a national sample of U.S. college students. The Fall 2009 American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment was used to examine sexual health related responses from heterosexual, gay, lesbian, bisexual, and unsure students (N = 25,553). Responses related to sexual behavior, safer sex behaviors, prevention and screening behaviors, and diagnosis of sexual health related conditions were examined. The findings indicated that sexual orientation was significantly associated with engaging in sexual behavior in the last 30 days. Sexual orientation was also significantly associated with the number of sexual partners in the previous 12 months, with unsure men having significantly more partners than gay, bisexual and heterosexual men and heterosexual men having significantly less partners than gay, bisexual and unsure men. Bisexual women had significantly more partners than females reporting other sexual orientations. Results examining the associations between sexual orientation and safer sex, prevention behaviors, and screening behaviors were mixed. Implications for practice, including specific programmatic ideas, were discussed.

  12. RCT of an integrated CBT-HIV intervention on depressive symptoms and HIV risk.

    Tobin, Karin; Davey-Rothwell, Melissa A; Nonyane, Bareng A S; Knowlton, Amy; Wissow, Lawrence; Latkin, Carl A

    2017-01-01

    Depression and depressive symptoms mediate the association between drug use and HIV risk. Yet, there are few interventions that target depressive symptoms and HIV risk for people who use drugs (PWUD). This study was a randomized controlled trial of an integrated cognitive behavioral therapy and HIV prevention intervention to reduce depressive symptoms, injection risk behaviors and increase condom use in a sample of urban people who used heroin or cocaine in the prior 6 months. A total of 315 individuals aged 18-55, who self-reported at least one HIV drug and sex risk behavior and scored ≥16 and symptoms, but weak impact on HIV risk. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov under the title "Neighborhoods, Networks, Depression, and HIV Risk" number NCT01380613.

  13. Sexual self-concept and intended sexual behavior of young adolescent Taiwanese girls.

    Pai, Hsiang-Chu; Lee, Sheuan; Chang, Ting

    2010-01-01

    People begin to become aware of their sexual drive and erotic feelings as young adolescents. Such activity often has been overlooked in Taiwan, a traditional society, because sexuality is viewed as a private issue. The purpose of this study was to explore the sexual self-concept and intended sexual behavior of young adolescent girls in Taiwan. Participants included 372 girls, 12 to 14 years old, from junior high schools in Taiwan who completed two questionnaires on sexual experience and sexually related items: the Sexual Self-Concept Inventory, the Parental Approval of Sexual Behavior Scale, and the Friends' Approval of Sexual Behavior Scale, which were combined into one scale, with separate scores. Girls' self-reports showed low (negative) sexual self-concept, high perceived parental disapproval, and somewhat high perceived friends' disapproval of sexual activities. Sexual self-concept is associated with perceived parental and peer approval of sexual activities, and it is associated with sexual experience and intended sexual activities as well. A young adolescent girl who has a high score on the perceived sexual arousability factor of the Sexual Self-Concept Inventory is more likely to report the strongest intention toward sexual behavior. Sexual self-concept may play a key role in girls' intended sexual activities, including engaging in low-level sexual activities (e.g., kissing and breast fondling) that occur before intercourse, even when associated with intercourse intention. The research suggests that addressing sexual self-concept needs to be a priority to prevent young girls from engaging in sexual intercourse.

  14. Risky sexual behavior among married alcoholic men.

    Hall, Julie H; Fals-Stewart, William; Fincham, Frank D

    2008-04-01

    The current study explored whether the wives of men entering alcoholism treatment are at risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) exposure as a result of their husbands' sexual risk behaviors. The extramarital relationships of married alcoholic men entering outpatient treatment (n = 125) were compared with those of a demographically matched community sample of nonalcoholic married men (n = 125). The proportion of alcoholic men who reported 1 or more extramarital affairs in the previous year (14%) was significantly higher than that of the community sample (4%). Additionally, only 2 alcoholic husbands and 1 nonalcoholic husband reported that his wife was aware of the extramarital relationship. For both groups, none of the men who engaged in extramarital relationships reported consistent use of condoms when having sexual intercourse with their wives or with their extramarital partners. These results suggest that wives of alcoholic men are unknowingly placed at risk for indirect exposure to STIs as a result of their husbands' sexual risk behaviors. Thus, infidelity in treatment-seeking alcohol-abusing men represents a significant public health issue. (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Gender-typical olfactory regulation of sexual behavior in goldfish

    Makito eKobayashi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available It is known that olfaction is essential for the occurrence of sexual behavior in male goldfish. Sex pheromones from ovulatory females elicit male sexual behavior, chasing and sperm releasing act. In female goldfish, ovarian prostaglandin F2α (PGF elicits female sexual behavior, egg releasing act. It has been considered that olfaction does not affect sexual behavior in female goldfish. In the present study, we reexamined the involvement of olfaction in sexual behavior of female goldfish. Olfaction was blocked in male and female goldfish by two methods: nasal occlusion (NO which blocks the reception of olfactants, and olfactory tract section (OTX which blocks transmission of olfactory information from the olfactory bulb to the telencephalon. Sexual behavior of goldfish was induced by administration of PGF to females, an established method for inducing goldfish sexual behavior in both sexes. Sexual behavior in males was suppressed by NO and OTX as previously reported because of lack of pheromone stimulation. In females, NO suppressed sexual behavior but OTX did not affect the occurrence of sexual behavior. Females treated with both NO and OTX performed sexual behavior normally. These results indicate that olfaction is essential in female goldfish to perform sexual behavior as in males but in a different manner. The lack of olfaction in males causes lack of pheromonal stimulation, resulting in no behavior elicited. Whereas the results of female experiments suggest that lack of olfaction in females causes strong inhibition of sexual behavior mediated by the olfactory pathway. Olfactory tract section is considered to block the pathway and remove this inhibition, resulting in the resumption of the behavior. By subtract sectioning of the olfactory tract, it was found that this inhibition was mediated by the medial olfactory tracts, not the lateral olfactory tracts. Thus, it is concluded that goldfish has gender-typical olfactory regulation for sexual

  16. Mental health and HIV sexual risk behaviour among University of ...

    To determine the association between mental health, substance use and HIV sexual risk behaviour among a sample of university ... analysis, HIV risk behaviour was associated with, among men, hazardous or harmful alcohol use and having screened positive for PTSD, and ..... risk behaviors among U.S. adolescents.

  17. Sexual Risk among African American Girls: Psychopathology and Mother-Daughter Relationships

    Donenberg, Geri R.; Emerson, Erin; Mackesy-Amiti, Mary Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the associations among mental health problems, maternal monitoring and permissiveness, mother-daughter communication and attachment, and sexual behaviors among African American girls receiving outpatient psychiatric care. Youths with mental health problems report higher rates of HIV-risk behavior than do their peers, and…

  18. Psychiatric Disorders and Sexual Risk among Adolescents in Mental Health Treatment

    Brown, Larry K.; Hadley, Wendy; Stewart, Angela; Lescano, Celia; Whiteley, Laura; Donenberg, Geri; DiClemente, Ralph

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relationship between psychiatric disorders and sexual behaviors among adolescents receiving mental health treatment. Adolescents in mental health treatment have been found to have higher rates of HIV risk behavior than their peers, but data concerning the relationship between psychopathology and risk are inconsistent and…

  19. Transactional sex and the challenges to safer sexual behaviors: a study among male sex workers in Chennai, India.

    Biello, Katie B; Thomas, Beena E; Johnson, Blake E; Closson, Elizabeth F; Navakodi, Pandiaraja; Dhanalakshmi, A; Menon, Sunil; Mayer, Kenneth H; Safren, Steven A; Mimiaga, Matthew J

    2017-02-01

    Male sex workers (MSW) are a significant but invisible population in India who are at risk for HIV/sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Few studies from India have documented HIV risk factors and motivations for sex work in this population. Between 2013 and 2014, a community-based convenience sample of 100 MSW in Chennai (south India) completed a baseline risk assessment as part of a behavioral intervention. Participants were ≥18 years, and reported current sex work. We report medians and proportions, and Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney and chi-square tests are used to examine differences between sex work and sexual behavior measures by income source. Participants were engaged in sex work for 5.0 years (IQR = 2.3-10.0), and earned 3000 (IQR = 2000-8000) Rupees (India engage in high levels of sexual risk for HIV/STIs. Money appears to be a driving factor for engaging in sex work and condomless sex with clients. HIV prevention interventions with MSW should focus on facilitating skills that will support their ability to negotiate sexual safety in the context of monetary disincentives.

  20. Networking activities and perceptions of HIV risk among male migrant market vendors in China.

    Wang, Wenqing; Muessig, Kathryn E; Li, Mingqiang; Zhang, Ying-Xia; Zhang, Yingxia

    2014-02-01

    HIV research among internal migrants in China has not fully explored the contexts and perceptions of "risk". In 2011, urban markets in Liuzhou, China were mapped, and sixty male vendors, age 22-56, were selected for in-depth interviews on migration, social and family life, and perceptions and practices of sexual risk behavior. Participants were evenly divided among higher income shop and small stall vendors. All men were sexually active. Only the shop vendors reported non-marital sexual partners, including concurrent partners (n = 15), commercial partners (n = 10), and other sexual relationships (n = 11). Shop vendors engaged in networking activities that facilitated commercial and non-commercial high-risk sex. Perceptions of HIV risk from commercial sex led some men to doubt the protective ability of condoms and rely on local (unproven) self-protection techniques. Networking activities played a role in high-risk sex and shaping migrants' risk perceptions and health practices. The networks created through these processes could also be used to facilitate health promotion activities.

  1. Adolescent Sexual Behaviors at Varying Levels of Substance Use Frequency

    Floyd, Leah J.; Latimer, William

    2010-01-01

    Combining substance use and sex compounds the risk of contracting sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV. However, the association between substance use and sexual behaviors may vary by substance and sexual behavior. The current study sought to examine the relationship between alcohol and marijuana use frequency and specific sexual…

  2. Description of Sexual Orientation and Sexual Behaviors among High School Girls in New York City.

    Coble, Chanelle A; Silver, Ellen J; Chhabra, Rosy

    2017-08-01

    Examination of the association of sexual orientation to the sexual practices and health behaviors of high school girls in New York City (NYC). Data were drawn from the 2013 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System survey of public high school students in grades 9-12 in NYC. None. Independent variables included sexual orientation and gender of sexual partners. Dependent variables include sexual/health risk behaviors. We used t tests to compare mean ages and χ 2 tests to compare distributions according to sexual orientation, gender of sexual partners, and differences in risk behaviors. The survey was completed by 4643 girls; mean age, 15.5 years; (1103 + 1842)/4254 (69%) black or Latina; 1101/4000 (27.5%) sexually active; 3574/4412 (81%) heterosexual; and (92 + 526)/4412 (14%) sexual minorities; 24.1% were heterosexual, 52.1% lesbian, and 49.4% were bisexual girls and were sexually active; 247 were classified as women who have sex with women (WSW) or WSW and men (WSWM). Of the sexually active girls, (65 + 182)/1081 (23%) were WSW/WSWM. The WSW/WSWM reported earlier sexual debut, more sexual partners, higher pregnancy rate, use of alcohol at last sex, history of intimate partner violence, and less likelihood of having an HIV test. Almost one in four of sexually active high school girls in NYC can be classified as WSW, who are vulnerable to increased sexual and health risk-taking behaviors leading to adverse health outcomes. The discordance between sexual behavior and sexual orientation emphasizes the importance of the provider sharing protective strategies in the sexual health counseling session for their patients who engage in sex with female partners regardless of sexual orientation. Copyright © 2017 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Developmental trajectories of religiosity, sexual conservatism and sexual behavior among female adolescents.

    Aalsma, Matthew C; Woodrome, Stacy E; Downs, Sarah M; Hensel, Devon J; Zimet, Gregory D; Orr, Don P; Fortenberry, J Dennis

    2013-12-01

    Understanding the role of socio-sexual cognitions and religiosity on adolescent sexual behavior could guide adolescent sexual health efforts. The present study utilized longitudinal data from 328 young women to assess the role of religion and socio-sexual cognitions on sexual behavior accrual (measuring both coital and non-coital sexual behavior). In the final triple conditional trajectory structural equation model, religiosity declined over time and then increased to baseline levels. Additionally, religiosity predicted decreased sexual conservatism and decreased sexual conservatism predicted increased sexual behavior. The final models are indicative of young women's increasing accrual of sexual experience, decreasing sexual conservatism and initial decreasing religiosity. The results of this study suggest that decreased religiosity affects the accrual of sexual experience through decreased sexual conservatism. Effective strategies of sexual health promotion should include an understanding of the complex role of socio-sexual attitudes with religiosity. Copyright © 2013 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The developmental progression of age 14 behavioral disinhibition, early age of sexual initiation, and subsequent sexual risk-taking behavior.

    Samek, Diana R; Iacono, William G; Keyes, Margaret A; Epstein, Marina; Bornovalova, Marina A; McGue, Matt

    2014-07-01

    Research has demonstrated a consistent relationship between early sexual experience and subsequent sexual risk-taking behaviors. We hypothesized that this relationship is due to a general predisposition toward behavioral disinhibition (BD), and that relationships among BD, early sex, and subsequent risky sexual behavior may be influenced by common genetic influences for males and common environmental influences for females. A prospective sample of 1,512 same-sex adolescent twins (50.2% female) was used. Adolescent BD was measured by clinical symptom counts of conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and self-reported delinquent behavior (age 14). Age of sexual initiation was defined as first age of consensual oral or penetrative sex (mean age ~17). Adult risky sexual behavior was defined by sexual behaviors under the influence of drugs and alcohol and number of casual sexual partners in the past year (age 24). Multivariate analyses showed evidence for substantial common genetic variance among age 14 BD, age at sexual initiation, and adult risky sexual behavior for males, but not females. There was no significant difference in the degree of common environmental influence on these variables for females compared to males. Notably, age of sexual initiation was not significantly correlated with age 24 risky sexual behavior for females. The relationship between early sex and later risky sex can be better understood through a general liability toward BD, which is influenced primarily by genetic factors for males. The association between age 14 BD and age of sexual initiation was influenced through a combination of genetic and environmental factors for females; however, age of sexual initiation does not appear to be a salient predictor of adult women’s sexual risk-taking behavior. Findings suggest that prevention programs aimed at reducing sexual risk behavior might target youth exhibiting BD by age 14, particularly males. More research is needed on what predicts

  5. Sexual behavior in pregnancy: comparing between sexual education group and nonsexual education group.

    Wannakosit, Salakjit; Phupong, Vorapong

    2010-10-01

    Sexuality usually decreases during pregnancy. To evaluate sexual behavior during pregnancy, comparing two groups. One had sexual education and the other had none. After randomizing two groups of pregnant women, they completed self-administered questionnaires regarding attitudes and sexual behavior before and during pregnancy. Sexual education was provided in one group and a second self-administered questionnaire was completed 12 weeks later. Responses were summarized using descriptive statistics. Comparison of change of sexual behavior between two groups was analyzed using chi-square and student t-tests. The change in frequency of coitus during pregnancy was compared between the sexual education group and the noneducation group. There was no statistically difference in changes of sexual behavior between the two groups. There was a reduction in frequency of coitus (90.6% vs. 94.9%, P>0.05) between the nonsexual education group and the sexual education group and no statistically significant change in mean reduction of sexual desire (8.9 vs. 4.4, P>0.05), sexual arousal (14.3 vs. 13.1, P>0.05), satisfaction from coitus (15.4 vs. 7.2, P>0.05), and orgasm from coitus (12.3 vs. 12.3, P>0.05). The change of sexual behavior during pregnancy in the sexual education group was not different from that in the nonsexual education group. © 2010 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  6. Do Family Structure and Poverty Affect Sexual Risk Behaviors of ...

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Family Structure, Poverty and Sexual Risk Behaviors ... Johannesburg, South Africa; 2Demography and Social Statistics Department, .... to high rate of adolescent sexual promiscuity as a ..... birth control and consequences of premarital sex.

  7. Sexual risk behavior among HIV-positive persons in Jamaica ...

    positive status potentially place their partners at risk for HIV transmission and other sexually transmitted infections. The study findings highlight the need to promote safe sexual behaviors and a positive social environment for people living with ...

  8. Alcohol Use and HIV Risk Within Social Networks of MSM Sex Workers in the Dominican Republic.

    Tan, Diane; Holloway, Ian W; Gildner, Jennifer; Jauregui, Juan C; Garcia Alvarez, Rafael; Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent

    2017-11-01

    To examine how alcohol-related HIV risk behaviors within MSM sex workers' social networks (SN) may be associated with individual risk behaviors, respondent-driven and venue-based sampling were used to collect demographic, behavioral and SN characteristics among MSM sex workers in Santo Domingo and Boca Chica (N = 220). The majority of participants reported problem drinking (71.0%) or alcohol use at their last sexual encounter (71.4%). Self-reported problem drinking was associated with SN characteristics (at least one member who recently got drunk aOR = 7.5, no religious/spiritual adviser aOR = 3.0, non-sexual network density aOR = 0.9), while self-reported alcohol use at last sex was associated with individual (drug use at last sex aOR = 4.4) and SN characteristics (at least one member with previous HIV/STI testing aOR = 4.7). Dominican MSM sex workers reported high alcohol use, which may increase their risk for HIV. A better understanding of SN factors associated with individual risk behaviors can help guide appropriate intervention development.

  9. Are Drinkers Prone to Engage in Risky Sexual Behaviors?

    Ana I. Gil Lacruz; Marta Gil Lacruz; Juan Oliva

    2009-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases pose an important public health problem around the world. Although many studies have explored the link between alcohol use and risky sexual practices, the unobserved differences among individuals make it difficult to assess whether the associations are casual in nature. In order to overcome these difficulties, we have obtained data from the Spanish Health and Sexual Behavior Survey (2003) in order to analyze risky sexual behaviors using four alternative methodolo...

  10. Relationship between HIV risk perception and condom use: Evidence from a population-based survey in Mozambique.

    Prata, Ndola; Morris, Leo; Mazive, Elizio; Vahidnia, Farnaz; Stehr, Mark

    2006-12-01

    The relationship between individuals' perception of their risk for acquiring HIV and their use of condoms is poorly understood. Understanding this relationship is crucial to the development of effective strategies to fight HIV and AIDS. Data from the Mozambique 2001 Adolescent and Young Adult Reproductive Health and Behavior Risk Survey are used to compare 15-24-year-olds' assessments of their HIV risk with assessments based on current and past sexual behavior. In bivariate and probit regression analyses, the relationship between correct risk assessment and the likelihood of condom use at last intercourse is examined. Twenty-seven percent of women and 80% of men who considered themselves to have no risk or a small risk of contracting HIV were actually at moderate or high risk. For both men and women, the prevalence of condom use at last sex was more than twice as high among those who assessed their risk correctly (30% and 16%, respectively) as among those who did not (14% and 6%). Multivariate analysis showed that correct assessment was positively associated with condom use; the association was driven by use among never-married individuals. Never-married males who assessed their risk correctly were 18% more likely than other males to report condom use; never-married females, 17% more likely than other females. Educational messages should aim at enabling individuals to correctly assess their own HIV risk and encouraging behavior change based on self-assessment of risk.

  11. Food insufficiency is associated with high-risk sexual behavior among women in Botswana and Swaziland.

    Sheri D Weiser

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Both food insufficiency and HIV infection are major public health problems in sub-Saharan Africa, yet the impact of food insufficiency on HIV risk behavior has not been systematically investigated. We tested the hypothesis that food insufficiency is associated with HIV transmission behavior.We studied the association between food insufficiency (not having enough food to eat over the previous 12 months and inconsistent condom use, sex exchange, and other measures of risky sex in a cross-sectional population-based study of 1,255 adults in Botswana and 796 adults in Swaziland using a stratified two-stage probability design. Associations were examined using multivariable logistic regression analyses, clustered by country and stratified by gender. Food insufficiency was reported by 32% of women and 22% of men over the previous 12 months. Among 1,050 women in both countries, after controlling for respondent characteristics including income and education, HIV knowledge, and alcohol use, food insufficiency was associated with inconsistent condom use with a nonprimary partner (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.73, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.27-2.36, sex exchange (AOR 1.84, 95% CI 1.74-1.93, intergenerational sexual relationships (AOR 1.46, 95% CI 1.03-2.08, and lack of control in sexual relationships (AOR 1.68, 95% CI 1.24-2.28. Associations between food insufficiency and risky sex were much attenuated among men.Food insufficiency is an important risk factor for increased sexual risk-taking among women in Botswana and Swaziland. Targeted food assistance and income generation programs in conjunction with efforts to enhance women's legal and social rights may play an important role in decreasing HIV transmission risk for women.

  12. Sexual risk behaviors among women with bipolar disorder.

    Marengo, Eliana; Martino, Diego J; Igoa, Ana; Fassi, Guillermo; Scápola, María; Urtueta Baamonde, Mariana; Strejilevich, Sergio A

    2015-12-30

    The aim of this study was to investigate sexual health and sexual risk behaviors for sexually transmitted infections (STI) among women with bipolar disorder (BDW). Sixty-three euthymic women diagnosed with bipolar disorder type I, II or not otherwise specified were included and matched with a control group of 63 healthy women. Demographic and clinical data, structured sexual health measures and extensive assessment of sexual risk behavior were obtained and compared between groups. BDW had casual partners, were in non-monogamous sexual partnerships and had sex with partners with unknown HIV condition more frequently than healthy control women. History of two or more STI was more frequent among BDW. Inclusion of sexual behavior risk assessment among BDW in treatment is necessary to better identify those women with higher risk for STI and to take measures to improve their sexual health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Sexual behavior and sexual dysfunctions after age 40: the global study of sexual attitudes and behaviors.

    Nicolosi, Alfredo; Laumann, Edward O; Glasser, Dale B; Moreira, Edson D; Paik, Anthony; Gingell, Clive

    2004-11-01

    To assess the importance of sex and the prevalence of sexual dysfunction among middle-aged and older adults throughout the world. Increasing life expectancy has been accompanied by improvements in the health of the middle-aged and elderly, but little is known about how this has affected their sexual experience. Data were collected in 29 countries from 27,500 men and women aged 40 to 80 years using a standardized questionnaire (self-completed or by interview). Sexual dysfunction was defined as frequent and persistent problems. They included early ejaculation and erectile difficulties in men, lubrication difficulties and pain during intercourse in women, and a lack of sexual interest, an inability to achieve orgasm, and a feeling of unpleasurable sex in both. More than 80% of the men and 65% of the women had had sexual intercourse during the past year. Of these subjects, the most common dysfunctions were early ejaculation (14%) and erectile difficulties (10%) among the men and a lack of sexual interest (21%), inability to reach orgasm (16%), and lubrication difficulties (16%) among the women. Overall, 28% of the men and 39% of the women said that they were affected by at least one sexual dysfunction. The results of our study indicate that sexual desire and activity are widespread among middle-aged and elderly men and women worldwide and persist into old age. The prevalence of sexual dysfunctions was quite high and tended to increase with age, especially in men. Although major between-country differences were noted, this global study revealed some clear and consistent patterns.

  14. Behavioral aggressiveness in boys with sexual precocity

    Bindu Kulshreshtha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Some boys with sexual precocity are known to have behavioral problems like increased physical and verbal aggression and school and social maladjustments. It is believed to be due to premature androgen exposure. However, it is not clear why only some develop this problem, difference in etiology could be one explanation. Aim: The aim of the study is to assess behavioral aggression in boys with sexual precocity due to different disorders. Materials and Methods: Seven children, ages three to seven years, were enrolled for this study. Two were diagnosed to have congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH, three had testotoxicosis, while two had central precocious puberty. Parents of children with precocious puberty underwent the (CASP questionnaire (children′s aggression scale-parent version. Results: Testosterone levels were high in all patients. Parents denied any history of physical or verbal aggression in the two boys with CAH. Their CASP rating was 0. In contrast, the CASP ratings in the two boys with testotoxicosis and the two with precocious puberty for five domains ranged from 3.1 - 24.2, 2.6 - 8.3,1-5.6,0 - 7.1, and 0 - 1, respectively. In the present study, increased aggression was seen among all the patients with testotoxicosis and both with precocious puberty. In contrast, there were no symptoms of either increased verbal or physical aggression in either of the two patients with CAH. Conclusions: The hormonal milieu in the boys with CAH versus those with sexual precocity due to other causes differed in terms of cortisol and androgen precursors. The androgen excess in CAH children was a consequence of cortisol deficiency. It is possible that cortisol sufficiency is required for androgen-mediated behavioral effects.

  15. Amyloid beta precursor protein regulates male sexual behavior.

    Park, Jin Ho; Bonthius, Paul J; Tsai, Houng-Wei; Bekiranov, Stefan; Rissman, Emilie F

    2010-07-28

    Sexual behavior is variable between individuals, ranging from celibacy to sexual addictions. Within normal populations of individual men, ranging from young to middle aged, testosterone levels do not correlate with libido. To study the genetic mechanisms that contribute to individual differences in male sexual behavior, we used hybrid B6D2F1 male mice, which are a cross between two common inbred strains (C57BL/6J and DBA/2J). Unlike most laboratory rodent species in which male sexual behavior is highly dependent upon gonadal steroids, sexual behavior in a large proportion of these hybrid male mice after castration is independent of gonadal steroid hormones and their receptors; thus, we have the ability to discover novel genes involved in this behavior. Gene expression arrays, validation of gene candidates, and transgenic mice that overexpress one of the genes of interest were used to reveal genes involved in maintenance of male sexual behavior. Several genes related to neuroprotection and neurodegeneration were differentially expressed in the hypothalamus of males that continued to mate after castration. Male mice overexpressing the human form of one of these candidate genes, amyloid beta precursor protein (APP), displayed enhanced sexual behavior before castration and maintained sexual activity for a longer duration after castration compared with controls. Our results reveal a novel and unexpected relationship between APP and male sexual behavior. We speculate that declining APP during normal aging in males may contribute to the loss of sexual function.

  16. Sexual Behaviors and HIV Status: A Population-Based Study Among Older Adults in Rural South Africa

    Gómez-Olivé, Francesc X.; Rohr, Julia K.; Houle, Brian C.; Kabudula, Chodziwadziwa W.; Wagner, Ryan G.; Salomon, Joshua A.; Kahn, Kathleen; Berkman, Lisa F.; Tollman, Stephen M.; Bärnighausen, Till

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To identify the unmet needs for HIV prevention among older adults in rural South Africa. Methods: We analyzed data from a population-based sample of 5059 men and women aged 40 years and older from the study Health and Aging in Africa: Longitudinal Studies of INDEPTH Communities (HAALSI), which was carried out in the Agincourt health and sociodemographic surveillance system in the Mpumalanga province of South Africa. We estimated the prevalence of HIV (laboratory-confirmed and self-reported) and key sexual behaviors by age and sex. We compared sexual behavior profiles across HIV status categories with and without age–sex standardization. Results: HIV prevalence was very high among HAALSI participants (23%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 21 to 24), with no sex differences. Recent sexual activity was common (56%, 95% CI: 55 to 58) across all HIV status categories. Condom use was low among HIV-negative adults (15%, 95% CI: 14 to 17), higher among HIV-positive adults who were unaware of their HIV status (27%, 95% CI: 22 to 33), and dramatically higher among HIV-positive adults who were aware of their status (75%, 95% CI: 70 to 80). Casual sex and multiple partnerships were reported at moderate levels, with slightly higher estimates among HIV-positive compared to HIV-negative adults. Differences by HIV status remained after age–sex standardization. Conclusions: Older HIV-positive adults in an HIV hyperendemic community of rural South Africa report sexual behaviors consistent with high HIV transmission risk. Older HIV-negative adults report sexual behaviors consistent with high HIV acquisition risk. Prevention initiatives tailored to the particular prevention needs of older adults are urgently needed to reduce HIV risk in this and similar communities in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:27926667

  17. Sexual Behaviors and HIV Status: A Population-Based Study Among Older Adults in Rural South Africa.

    Rosenberg, Molly S; Gómez-Olivé, Francesc X; Rohr, Julia K; Houle, Brian C; Kabudula, Chodziwadziwa W; Wagner, Ryan G; Salomon, Joshua A; Kahn, Kathleen; Berkman, Lisa F; Tollman, Stephen M; Bärnighausen, Till

    2017-01-01

    To identify the unmet needs for HIV prevention among older adults in rural South Africa. We analyzed data from a population-based sample of 5059 men and women aged 40 years and older from the study Health and Aging in Africa: Longitudinal Studies of INDEPTH Communities (HAALSI), which was carried out in the Agincourt health and sociodemographic surveillance system in the Mpumalanga province of South Africa. We estimated the prevalence of HIV (laboratory-confirmed and self-reported) and key sexual behaviors by age and sex. We compared sexual behavior profiles across HIV status categories with and without age-sex standardization. HIV prevalence was very high among HAALSI participants (23%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 21 to 24), with no sex differences. Recent sexual activity was common (56%, 95% CI: 55 to 58) across all HIV status categories. Condom use was low among HIV-negative adults (15%, 95% CI: 14 to 17), higher among HIV-positive adults who were unaware of their HIV status (27%, 95% CI: 22 to 33), and dramatically higher among HIV-positive adults who were aware of their status (75%, 95% CI: 70 to 80). Casual sex and multiple partnerships were reported at moderate levels, with slightly higher estimates among HIV-positive compared to HIV-negative adults. Differences by HIV status remained after age-sex standardization. Older HIV-positive adults in an HIV hyperendemic community of rural South Africa report sexual behaviors consistent with high HIV transmission risk. Older HIV-negative adults report sexual behaviors consistent with high HIV acquisition risk. Prevention initiatives tailored to the particular prevention needs of older adults are urgently needed to reduce HIV risk in this and similar communities in sub-Saharan Africa.

  18. Self Esteem and Adolescent Sexual Attitudes and Behavior

    Christensen, Roger B.

    1985-01-01

    This study was designed to determine; (1) if adolescent self esteem is related to premarital sexual attitudes and intercourse behavior; (2) if religious affiliation and church attendance affect the relationship between adolescent self esteem and premarital sexual attitudes and behavior. Approximately 2400 adolescents residing in California, New Mexico, and Utah comprised the sample. Adolescents who attended church services more often reported less sexually permissive attitudes and behavior...

  19. A comparison of HIV-risk behaviors between young black cisgender men who have sex with men and young black transgender women who have sex with men.

    Crosby, Richard A; Salazar, Laura F; Hill, Brandon; Mena, Leandro

    2018-06-01

    This study compared sexually transmitted infection (STI)-associated risks between young Black cisgender men who have sex with men (YBMSM) and young Black transwomen who have sex with men (YBTWSM). Comparisons pertained to: (1) prevalence of infections; (2) sexual risk; (3) partner-related risks; and (4) socioeconomic marginalization. YBMSM (n = 577) and YBTWSM (n = 32) were recruited from an STI clinic in the USA. Volunteers completed a computer-assisted self-interview and medical records were abstracted for STI/HIV information. Significantly greater prevalence of pharyngeal Chlamydia ( P < .001) and pharyngeal gonorrhea ( P = .04) occurred among YBTWSM; however, both associations were moderated and only significant for HIV-uninfected volunteers. YBTWSM had more oral sex partners and more frequent engagement in oral sex. The number of new sex partners for anal receptive sex was greater in YBTWSM. YBTWSM were more likely to exchange sex for money/drugs ( P < .001), have sex with men recently in prison ( P < .001), who were "anonymous" ( P = .004), or who were "one night stands" ( P < .001). YBTWSM were more likely to depend on sex partners for money food, etc. ( P < .001), to miss meals due to lack of money ( P = .01), and to report having ever being incarcerated ( P = .009). Compared to cisgender YBMSM, YBTWSM experience multiple risk factors relative to the acquisition/transmission of STIs and HIV.

  20. The association between stress, coping, and sexual risk behaviors over 24 months among African-American female adolescents.

    Hulland, Erin N; Brown, Jennifer L; Swartzendruber, Andrea L; Sales, Jessica M; Rose, Eve S; DiClemente, Ralph J

    2015-01-01

    Heightened psychosocial stress coupled with maladaptive coping may be associated with greater sexual risk engagement. This study examined the association between stress levels and coping strategy use as predictors of sexual risk behavior engagement over 24 months among African-American adolescent females (N = 701; M = 17.6 years) enrolled in an STI/HIV risk-reduction intervention program. Participants completed audio computer assisted self-interview (ACASI) measures of global stress, interpersonal stress, coping strategy use, and sexual behaviors prior to intervention participation. Follow-up ACASI assessments were conducted at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months post-intervention. Generalized estimated equation models examined associations between baseline stress levels and coping strategy use as predictors of condom use (past 90 days, last sex) and multiple partners during follow-up. Global stress and individual coping strategy usage were not associated with differences in condom use. Higher interpersonal stress was associated with lower proportion condom use (p = .018), inconsistent condom use (p = .011), and not using a condom at last sex (p = .002). There were no significant associations between stress levels, coping strategy use, and multiple partners. Future research should explore mechanisms that may underlie the association between elevated interpersonal stress and decreased condom use among this population.

  1. Exploring risk behaviors and vulnerability for HIV among men who have sex with men in Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire: poor knowledge, homophobia and sexual violence.

    Aho, Josephine; Hakim, Avi; Vuylsteke, Bea; Semde, Gisèle; Gbais, Honorat G; Diarrassouba, Mamadou; Thiam, Marguerite; Laga, Marie

    2014-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) are at high risk of HIV. Few data are available on MSM and HIV-related risk behaviors in West Africa. We aimed to describe risk behaviors and vulnerability among MSM in Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire. We conducted a cross-sectional respondent-driven sampling survey with 601 MSM in 2011-2012. Sociodemographic and behavioural data as well as data related to emotional state and stigma were collected. Population estimates with 95% confidence intervals were produced. Survey weighted logistic regression was used to assess factors associated with inconsistent condom use in the prior 12 months. Most MSM were 24 years of age or younger (63.9%) and had attained at least primary education (84.4%). HIV risk behaviors such as low condom and water-based lubricant use, high numbers of male and female sex partners, and sex work were frequently reported as well as verbal, physical and sexual abuse. Inconsistent condom use during anal sex with a male partner in the prior 12 months was reported by 66.0% of the MSM and was positively associated with history of forced sex, alcohol consumption, having a regular partner and a casual partner, having bought sex, and self-perception of low HIV risk. MSM in Abidjan exhibit multiple and frequent HIV-related risk behaviors. To address those behaviours, a combination of individual but also structural interventions will be needed given the context of stigma, homophobia and violence.

  2. Exploring Risk Behaviors and Vulnerability for HIV among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Abidjan, Cote d′Ivoire: Poor Knowledge, Homophobia and Sexual Violence

    Aho, Josephine; Hakim, Avi; Vuylsteke, Bea; Semde, Gisèle; Gbais, Honorat G.; Diarrassouba, Mamadou; Thiam, Marguerite; Laga, Marie

    2014-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) are at high risk of HIV. Few data are available on MSM and HIV-related risk behaviors in West Africa. We aimed to describe risk behaviors and vulnerability among MSM in Abidjan, Cote d′Ivoire. We conducted a cross-sectional respondent-driven sampling survey with 601 MSM in 2011–2012. Sociodemographic and behavioural data as well as data related to emotional state and stigma were collected. Population estimates with 95% confidence intervals were produced. Survey weighted logistic regression was used to assess factors associated with inconsistent condom use in the prior 12 months. Most MSM were 24 years of age or younger (63.9%) and had attained at least primary education (84.4%). HIV risk behaviors such as low condom and water-based lubricant use, high numbers of male and female sex partners, and sex work were frequently reported as well as verbal, physical and sexual abuse. Inconsistent condom use during anal sex with a male partner in the prior 12 months was reported by 66.0% of the MSM and was positively associated with history of forced sex, alcohol consumption, having a regular partner and a casual partner, having bought sex, and self-perception of low HIV risk. MSM in Abidjan exhibit multiple and frequent HIV-related risk behaviors. To address those behaviours, a combination of individual but also structural interventions will be needed given the context of stigma, homophobia and violence. PMID:24959923

  3. Sexual Health Attitudes, Knowledge, and Clinical Behaviors: Implications for Counseling

    Russell, Elizabeth B.

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the impact of practitioners' attitudes and knowledge of sexual health on clinical behaviors. Sexual health topics are often areas of concern for clients of any age in counseling. Thus, counselors must be trained and equipped to address sexual health across the life span. This study explored whether child and adolescent…

  4. Gender-based violence and HIV sexual risk behavior: alcohol use and mental health problems as mediators among women in drinking venues, Cape Town.

    Pitpitan, Eileen V; Kalichman, Seth C; Eaton, Lisa A; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Watt, Melissa H; Skinner, Donald

    2012-10-01

    Gender-based violence is a key determinant of HIV infection among women in South Africa as elsewhere. However, research has not examined potential mediating processes to explain the link between experiencing abuse and engaging in HIV sexual risk behavior. Previous studies suggest that alcohol use and mental health problems may explain how gender-based violence predicts sexual risk. In a prospective study, we examined whether lifetime history of gender-based violence indirectly affects future sexual risk behavior through alcohol use, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a high-risk socio-environmental context. We recruited a cohort of 560 women from alcohol drinking venues in a Cape Town, South African township. Participants completed computerized interviews at baseline and 4 months later. We tested prospective mediating associations between gender-based violence, alcohol use, depression, PTSD, and sexual risk behavior. There was a significant indirect effect of gender-based violence on sexual risk behavior through alcohol use, but not mental health problems. Women who were physically and sexually abused drank more, which in turn predicted more unprotected sex. We did not find a mediated relationship between alcohol use and sexual risk behavior through the experience of recent abuse or mental health problems. Alcohol use explains the link between gender-based violence and sexual risk behavior among women attending drinking venues in Cape Town, South Africa. Efforts to reduce HIV risk in South Africa by addressing gender-based violence must also address alcohol use. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Intimate Partner Violence among Female Sex Workers in Two Mexico-U.S. Border Cities: Partner Characteristics and HIV Risk-behaviors as Correlates of Abuse.

    Ulibarri, Monica D; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Lozada, Remedios; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Amaro, Hortensia; O'Campo, Patricia; Patterson, Thomas L

    2010-12-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been associated with greater vulnerability to HIV infection among women. We examined prevalence and correlates of IPV among female sex workers (FSWs) in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, two large Mexico-U.S. border cities where HIV prevalence is rising. Participants were 300 FSWs with a current spouse or a steady partner. Participants' mean age was 33 years, and mean number of years as a sex worker was 6 years. The prevalence of IPV in the past 6 months among participants was 35%. Using multivariate logistic regression, factors independently associated with IPV included having experienced abuse as a child, a partner who had sex with someone else, and lower sexual relationship power. Our findings suggest the need for previous abuse screening and violence prevention services for FSWs in the Mexico-U.S. border region. Careful consideration of relationship dynamics such as infidelity and relationship power is warranted when assessing for IPV risk.

  6. Sexual behavior and autism spectrum disorders: an update and discussion.

    Kellaher, Denise C

    2015-04-01

    In the last few years, we have gained a deeper understanding about sexuality among individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Greater interest in this subject and improvements in the empirical study of ASD populations are driving this enlightenment. The data is dispelling antiquated notions that ASD individuals are asexual, sexually unknowledgeable and inexperienced, and/or disinterested in relationships. We still have a ways to go in examining paraphilic or deviant arousal sexual behaviors among ASD individuals. This manuscript provides an update on sexuality research in ASD in the last few years. This is accompanied by a discussion of the paraphilic type sexual behaviors observed among some ASD individuals.

  7. Drug use, travel and HIV risk.

    Lee, D; Bell, D C; Hinojosa, M

    2002-08-01

    A study was conducted to examine the travel experiences of a community sample of 160 drug users and 44 non-users recruited as part of a study of HIV risk. Of the sample, 47% (96/204) reported intercity travel in the previous ten years. Results showed that men were more likely to travel than women, Anglos more than minorities, and young persons more than old. When travellers testing HIV-seropositive (n = 13) were compared with seronegative travellers, HIV-positive travellers reported more sex while travelling than HIV-negative persons, but virtually all of the difference reported involved sex with condoms. There were no significant differences in sex risk behaviours while travelling between drug users and non-drug users, or in sex risk behaviors between drug injectors and non-injectors. Travellers had fewer injection partners while travelling than they had while at home. There was also a significant difference in number of sex partners with whom a condom was not used, with fewer sex partners while travelling.

  8. Older lesbian sexuality: identity, sexual behavior, and the impact of aging.

    Averett, Paige; Yoon, Intae; Jenkins, Carol L

    2012-01-01

    In response to the very limited and mostly outdated literature on older lesbian sexuality, this exploratory study examined older lesbian sexual identity, romantic relationships, the impact of aging, and experiences of discrimination within these contexts. Utilizing an online survey that recruited via numerous online lesbian communities and snowball sampling, 456 lesbians over the age of 50 responded to closed, Likert scale, and open-ended questions that provided a preliminary understanding of older lesbian sexuality. The results indicated that older lesbians have experienced fluidity in past romantic and sexual relationships, as well as in erotic fantasies, despite strong identification with being lesbian. The findings also indicate a decreased focus on sexuality in the context of relationships, with more focus on stability and continuity. Future research is needed that provides greater specificity and detail about older lesbian conceptions of sexual behavior and sexual identity labels, as well as specific sexual behaviors.

  9. Childhood and adolescent sexual behaviors predict adult sexual orientations

    Keith W. Beard; Sandra S. Stroebel; Stephen L. O’Keefe; Karen V. Harper-Dorton; Karen Griffee; Debra H. Young; Sam Swindell; Kerri Steele; Thomas D. Linz; Karla Beth Moore; Megan Lawhon; Natalie M. Campbell

    2015-01-01

    Anonymous retrospective data were provided by 3,443 adult participants via computer-assisted self-interview. This was the first study focused on determinants of adult sexual orientation to adjust for the effects of same-sex sibling incest. Five measures of adult sexual orientations (ASOs) provided evidence consistent with the theory that ASOs result from early sex-specific romantic attachment, conditioning caused by early sexual experiences with partners, and other experiences, such as early ...

  10. The Relationship Between Hypersexual Behavior, Sexual Excitation, Sexual Inhibition, and Personality Traits.

    Rettenberger, Martin; Klein, Verena; Briken, Peer

    2016-01-01

    The term hypersexuality was introduced to describe excessive sexual behavior associated with a person's inability to control his or her sexual behavior. The main aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of different personality traits on the degree of hypersexual behavior as measured by the Hypersexual Behavior Inventory (HBI). A further aim was to evaluate the association between sexual inhibition and excitation [as described in the Dual Control Model (DCM)] and hypersexual behavior. A sample of 1,749 participants completed an internet-based survey comprised the HBI, the short form of the Sexual Inhibition/Sexual Excitation Scales (SIS/SES-SF) as well as more general personality measures: the Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System-scales (BIS/BAS-scales) and a short version of the Big Five Inventory (BFI-10). Using the recommended HBI cut-off, 6.0 % (n = 105) of the present sample could be categorized as hypersexual, which is comparable to the results of previous studies about the prevalence of hypersexual behavior in the general population. The results provided strong support for the components of the DCM-sexual excitation and inhibition-to explain hypersexual behavior, irrespective of gender and sexual orientation. Some of the general personality traits also showed significant relationships with hypersexual behavior. Taken together, the results of the present study provide further support for the relevance of research about the relationships between sexual problems and disorders, the DCM, and personality variables.

  11. Measurement and Design Issues in the Study of Adolescent Sexual Behavior and the Evaluation of Adolescent Sexual Health Behavior Interventions

    Young, Michael; Palacios, Rebecca; Penhollow, Tina M.

    2012-01-01

    To improve the quality of research and commentary concerning adolescent sexuality and evaluation of both comprehensive sexuality education and abstinence education programs, this article aims to help readers (1) select appropriate measures to study adolescent sexual behavior, (2) develop appropriate study designs to evaluate adolescent sexual…

  12. Examining links between sexual risk behaviors and dating violence involvement as a function of sexual orientation.

    Hipwell, A E; Stepp, S D; Keenan, K; Allen, A; Hoffmann, A; Rottingen, L; McAloon, R

    2013-08-01

    To examine the association between dating violence perpetration and victimization and sexually risky behaviors among sexual minority and heterosexual adolescent girls. Adolescent girls reported on sexual orientation, sexual behaviors, and risk-taking, and their use of, and experience with, dating violence in the past year. Data were analyzed using multinomial regression adjusted for race, poverty, living in a single parent household, and gender of current partner to examine (1) whether sexual minority status was associated with sexual risk behaviors after sociodemographic correlates of sexual risk were controlled; and (2) whether dating violence context accounted for elevated risk. Urban, population-based sample of girls interviewed in the home. 1,647 adolescent girls (38% European American, 57% African American, and 5% other) aged 17 years. Over one-third of the sample lived in poverty. None. Sexual risk-taking. Sexual minority status differentiated girls engaging in high sexual risk-taking from those reporting none, after controlling for sociodemographic and relationship characteristics. Dating violence perpetration and victimization made unique additional contributions to this model and did not account for the elevated risk conferred by sexual minority status. Sexual minority girls (SMGs) were more likely than heterosexual girls to report high sexual risk-taking and teen dating violence victimization. As with heterosexual girls, sexual risk-taking among SMGs was compounded by dating violence, which was not explained by partner gender. Adolescent girls' risky sexual behavior may be reduced by interventions for teen dating violence regardless of sexual minority status. Copyright © 2013 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. INSTRUMENTS OF HIGH RISK SEXUAL BEHAVIOR ASSESSMENT: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW.

    Mirzaei, Mojtaba; Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh; Saadat, Seyed-Hassan; Ramezani, Mohammad Arash

    2016-02-01

    Sexual behavior is a complex activity affecting all aspects of human's life. Risky sexual behaviors impose negative outcomes on family, relationships and health. Unsafe sex is the second most leading cause of disability adjusted life years worldwide. Valid and reliable tools for assessment of risky sexual behaviors are necessary for implementing preventive measures. we searched Medline and the Cochrane Library of Systematic Reviews, with the keywords of "risky sexual behavior assessment", "sexual risk assessment", "high risk sexual behavior", "sexual risk taking". By reviewing references of the articles, some complementary studies were added. Assessment can be performed by questionnaire or non-questionnaire instruments. Questionnaires vary depending on their target population, evaluation of risky sexual behavior as a whole or focusing on an associated risk factor. In order to avoid usual biases in self reports, objective biomarker assessment of unprotected sex are employed. These markers include prostate specific antigen, chromosome Y DNA and Seminogelin. Risky sexual behavior can be assessed by various subjective and objective methods. While self-reports are more feasible, objective methods offer a higher degree of reliability. Further studies for finding more feasible methods of using biomarkers are recommended.

  14. Transactional sex and HIV risks – evidence from a cross-sectional national survey among young people in Uganda

    Vikas Choudhry

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Transactional sex is associated with the HIV epidemic among young people in Uganda. Few quantitative studies based on nationally representative survey data explored the relationship between sexual behaviors, HIV infection, and transactional sex. Objective: This study aimed to determine the associations between risky sexual behaviors, participation in transactional sex, and HIV sero-status among men and women aged 15–24 in Uganda. Design: The study uses data from the Uganda AIDS Indicator Survey, a cross-sectional national HIV serological study conducted in 2011. We analyzed data on 1,516 men and 2,824 women aged 15–24 who had been sexually active in the 12 months preceding the survey. Private, face-to-face interviews were also conducted to record the sociodemographics, sexual history, and experiences of sexual coercion. Logistic regression analysis was performed to measure associations between sexual behaviors and transactional sex, and associations between HIV sero-status and transactional sex. Results: Among young people who had been sexually active in the 12 months prior to the survey, 5.2% of young men reported paying for sex while 3.7% of young women reported receiving gifts, favors, or money for sex. Lower educational attainment (ORadjusted 3.25, CI 1.10–9.60 and experience of sexual coercion (ORadjusted 2.83, CI 1.07–7.47 were significantly associated with paying for sex among men. Multiple concurrent sexual relationships were significantly associated with paying for sex among young men (ORadjusted 5.60, CI 2.08–14.95 and receiving something for sex among young women (ORadjusted 8.04, CI 2.55–25.37. Paying for sex among young men and having three to five lifetime sexual partners among young women were associated with increased odds of testing positive for HIV. Conclusions: Transactional sex is associated with sexual coercion and HIV risk behaviors such as multiple concurrent sexual partnerships among young people

  15. Social responsibility, substance use, and sexual risk behavior in men who have sex with men.

    Martin, Aaron M; Benotsch, Eric G; Cejka, Anna; Luckman, Diana

    2014-01-01

    Considerable public health literature focuses on relationships between problematic human characteristics (e.g., psychopathology) and unhealthy behaviors. A recent movement termed positive psychology emphasizes the advantages of assessing relationships between human strengths (e.g., altruism) and beneficial health behaviors. The present study assessed social responsibility, an orientation to help or protect others even when there is nothing to be gained as an individual, and its relationship to HIV-relevant behaviors. In our sample of 350 men who have sex with men (MSM), social responsibility was negatively correlated with substance use and HIV risk behaviors. Men who had been tested for HIV and knew their HIV status-a behavior that helps men protect their partners but does not protect themselves from the virus-also scored higher in social responsibility. Interventions designed to reduce HIV risk behavior in MSM may benefit from efforts to promote human strengths.

  16. Relationship Between Methamphetamine Use and Risky Sexual Behavior in Adolescents

    Cheng-Fang Yen

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Substance abuse and risky sexual behavior have been identified as behaviors that can endanger adolescent psychosocial development. This study examined the relationship between methamphetamine (MAMP use and risky sexual behavior in adolescents. Risky sexual behavior was compared not only between MAMP users and non-users, but also between high-frequency and low-frequency MAMP users. We compared the sexual intercourse histories of 85 adolescents formally charged as MAMP users with those of 170 gender-matched adolescents with no record of MAMP use. MAMP usage characteristics were compared between users who had and those who had not experienced sexual intercourse. Previous sexual experience was more likely in MAMP users than in non-users. MAMP users were also more likely to have had a greater total number of sexual partners and were more likely to have had unplanned sex under the influence of alcohol. High-frequency MAMP use was associated with increased tendencies to engage in unprotected sex and to use MAMP before sexual intercourse. In general, the chance of sexual intercourse increased in proportion to frequency of MAMP use. Given the clear link between MAMP use and risky sexual behavior, risk-reduction programs directed at teen MAMP users are urgently needed.

  17. Sexual behavior of infertile women: a qualitative study.

    Bokaie, Mahshid; Simbar, Masoumeh; Yassini Ardekani, Seyed Mojtaba

    2015-10-01

    Infertility makes an essential challenge to the sexual life of couples, especially infertile women. When pregnancy does not happen, infertile women think that sexual intercourse is not fruitful and sexual desire became reduce gradually. Infertile women progressively forget that their sexual relationship is also a response to their natural need. This qualitative study was conducted to explore the infertility consequences in the sexual behavior of infertile women. This was a qualitative content analysis study; and it was part of a widespread study, used a sequential mixed-method and conducted from August 2014 until February 2015. A purposeful sampling was used to recruit infertile women who had referred to Yazd Research and Clinical Center for Infertility. Data gathering techniques employed in this research included in-depth semi structured open face-to-face interviews and field notes. Credibility, transferability, confirm ability, and dependability were assessed for the rigor of the data collection. Totally, 15 infertile women and 8 key informants were interviewed. Data analysis showed four themes about impact of infertility on female sexual behavior: 1/ Impact of infertility drugs on couple sexual behavior, 2/ Impact of assisted reproductive technologies on female sexual behavior, 3/ Timed intercourse during infertility and 4/ The psychological impact of infertility on sexual behavior. Some of Iranian infertile women could cope with their problems, but some of them were very affected by infertility drugs and assisted reproductive technologies procedures. Psychosexual counseling before medical treatment could help them to have a better sexual life.

  18. General characteristics of adolescent sexual behavior: National survey

    Stanković Miodrag

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Investigation of adolescent sexual behavior carried out on a large sample is primarily motivated by health and social problems which can occur when young people practice sex without protection and necessary information. There is no data that the national study on adolescent sexual behavior has been conducted in the Serbian speaking area. Objective. Monitoring and follow-up of trends in adolescent sexual behavior. Methods. The investigation sample comprised 1101 adolescents (472 male and 629 female, aged 13-25 years. As an instrument of polling, the questionnaire 'Sexual Behavior' was used specifically designed for the purpose of this investigation. Results. Eighty-four percent of males and 65% of females reported having sexual experience. The age of the first sexual experience, total number of partners, number of sexual partners in the last year and the last month were investigated, and the number of loved and sexual partner compared. In addition, the length of foreplay, frequency of sexual activity, masturbation, sexual dreams and sexual daydreams and engagement into alternative sexual activities (oral sex, anal sex, group sex, exchange of partners were estimated, as well as the reasons for their practicing. Sexual desire and its correlation with personality dimensions, the frequency of sexual disorders (erectile and ejaculation problems, anorgasmia, abortion, rape and identification of the rapist, the use of condoms and other methods of contraception were assessed. Conclusion. It could be postulated that biological influence on sexual behavior is powerful and resistant to the influence of time and place, as well as socio-cultural religious influences. A high rate of premarital sexual activity with a number of sexual partners, a relatively low rate of condom use and the fact that 4% of the female adolescents in this sample had an induced abortion suggest that there are gaps in the education provided to adolescents about sexual and

  19. The Double Standard at Sexual Debut: Gender, Sexual Behavior and Adolescent Peer Acceptance

    Kreager, Derek A.; Staff, Jeremy; Gauthier, Robin; Lefkowitz, Eva S.; Feinberg, Mark E.

    2016-01-01

    A sexual double standard in adolescence has important implications for sexual development and gender inequality. The present study uses longitudinal social network data (N = 914; 11–16 years of age) to test if gender moderates associations between adolescents’ sexual behaviors and peer acceptance. Consistent with a traditional sexual double standard, female adolescents who reported having sex had significant decreases in peer acceptance over time, whereas male adolescents reporting the same behavior had significant increases in peer acceptance. This pattern was observed net of respondents’ own perceived friendships, further suggesting that the social responses to sex vary by gender of the sexual actor. However, findings for “making out” showed a reverse double standard, such that female adolescents reporting this behavior had increases in peer acceptance and male adolescents reporting the same behavior had decreases in peer acceptance over time. Results thus suggest that peers enforce traditional sexual scripts for both “heavy” and “light” sexual behaviors during adolescence. These findings have important implications for sexual health education, encouraging educators to develop curricula that emphasize the gendered social construction of sexuality and to combat inequitable and stigmatizing peer responses to real or perceived deviations from traditional sexual scripts. PMID:27833252

  20. Perceived Sexual Control, Sex-Related Alcohol Expectancies and Behavior Predict Substance-Related Sexual Revictimization

    Walsh, Kate; Messman-Moore, Terri; Zerubavel, Noga; Chandley, Rachel B.; DeNardi, Kathleen A.; Walker, Dave P.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Although numerous studies have documented linkages between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and later sexual revictimization, mechanisms underlying revictimization, particularly assaults occurring in the context of substance use, are not well-understood. Consistent with Traumagenic Dynamics theory, the present study tested a path model positing that lowered perceptions of sexual control resulting from CSA may be associated with increased sex-related alcohol expectancies and heightened likelihood of risky sexual behavior, which in turn, may predict adult substance-related rape. Methods Participants were 546 female college students who completed anonymous surveys regarding CSA and adult rape, perceptions of sexual control, sex-related alcohol expectancies, and likelihood of engaging in risky sexual behavior. Results The data fit the hypothesized model well and all hypothesized path coefficients were significant and in the expected directions. As expected, sex-related alcohol expectancies and likelihood of risky sexual behavior only predicted substance-related rape, not forcible rape. Conclusions Findings suggested that low perceived sexual control stemming from CSA is associated with increased sex-related alcohol expectancies and a higher likelihood of engaging in sexual behavior in the context of alcohol use. In turn these proximal risk factors heighten vulnerability to substance-related rape. Programs which aim to reduce risk for substance-related rape could be improved by addressing expectancies and motivations for risky sexual behavior in the context of substance use. Implications and future directions are discussed. PMID:23312991

  1. Effective Resources Supporting Healthy Sexual Behavior in Formerly Incarcerated Persons

    Senteio, Charles; Collins, Summer Wright; Jackson, Rachael; Welk, Stacy; Zhang, Shun

    2010-01-01

    The sexual health behavior of formerly incarcerated persons (FIPs) not only affects the FIP, their sex partners, and their significant others, but also affects their families and the communities in which they live. Certain health conditions, which are overrepresented in incarcerated populations, are directly impacted by sexual health behavior.…

  2. The Development of Female Sexual Behavior Requires Prepubertal Estradiol

    Brock, O.; Baum, M.J.; Bakker, J.

    2011-01-01

    The classic view of brain and behavioral sexual differentiation holds that the neural mechanisms controlling sexual behavior in female rodents develop in the absence ofovarian sex hormone actions. However,inaprevious study, female aromatase knock-out (ArKO) mice, which cannot convert testosterone to

  3. On sexual behavior and sex-role reversal

    Schuiling, GA

    Sex is not about reproduction; sex is about (re-) combination of DNA. Sex, not reproduction, always involves physical contact between two individuals; to achieve this, strategies of sexual behavior evolved. Sexual behavior, therefore, did not evolve as part of a reproductive strategy, but evolved to

  4. “Over here, it’s just drugs, women and all the madness”: The HIV risk environment of clients of female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico

    Goldenberg, Shira; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Gallardo, Manuel; Rhodes, Tim; Wagner, Karla D.; Patterson, Thomas L.

    2011-01-01

    HIV vulnerability depends upon social context. Based in broader debates in social epidemiology, political economy, and sociology of health, Rhodes’ (2002) “risk environment” framework provides one heuristic for understanding how contextual features influence HIV risk, through different types of environmental factors (social, economic, policy, and physical) which interact at different levels of influence (micro, macro). Few data are available on the “risk environment” of male clients of female sex workers (FSWs); such men represent a potential “bridge” for transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections from high- to low-prevalence populations. Using in-depth interviews (n=30), we describe the HIV risk environment of male clients in Tijuana, Mexico, where disproportionately high HIV prevalence has been reported among FSWs and their clients. A number of environmental themes influence risky sex with FSWs and the interplay between individual agency and structural forces: social isolation and the search for intimacy; meanings and identities ascribed to Tijuana’s Zona Roja (red light district) as a risky place; social relationships in the Zona Roja; and economic roles. Our findings suggest that clients’ behaviors are deeply embedded in the local context. Using the HIV “risk environment” as our analytic lens, we illustrate how clients’ HIV risks are shaped by physical, social, economic, and political factors. The linkages between these and the interplay between structural- and individual-level experiences support theories that view structure as both enabling as well as constraining. We discuss how the “embeddedness” of clients’ experiences warrants the use of environmental interventions that address the circumstances contributing to HIV risk at multiple levels. PMID:21414702

  5. Neural correlates of HIV risk feelings.

    Häcker, Frank E K; Schmälzle, Ralf; Renner, Britta; Schupp, Harald T

    2015-04-01

    Field studies on HIV risk perception suggest that people rely on impressions they have about the safety of their partner. The present fMRI study investigated the neural correlates of the intuitive perception of risk. First, during an implicit condition, participants viewed a series of unacquainted persons and performed a task unrelated to HIV risk. In the following explicit condition, participants evaluated the HIV risk for each presented person. Contrasting responses for high and low HIV risk revealed that risky stimuli evoked enhanced activity in the anterior insula and medial prefrontal regions, which are involved in salience processing and frequently activated by threatening and negative affect-related stimuli. Importantly, neural regions responding to explicit HIV risk judgments were also enhanced in the implicit condition, suggesting a neural mechanism for intuitive impressions of riskiness. Overall, these findings suggest the saliency network as neural correlate for the intuitive sensing of risk. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Sexting and sexual behavior in at-risk adolescents.

    Houck, Christopher D; Barker, David; Rizzo, Christie; Hancock, Evan; Norton, Alicia; Brown, Larry K

    2014-02-01

    This study aimed to examine the prevalence of sexting behaviors (sexually explicit messages and/or pictures) among an at-risk sample of early adolescents as well as the associations between sexting behaviors and sexual behaviors, risk-related cognitions, and emotional regulation skills. It also aimed to determine whether differences in risk were associated with text-based versus photo-based sexts. Seventh-grade adolescents participating in a sexual risk prevention trial for at-risk early adolescents completed a computer-based survey at baseline regarding sexting behavior (having sent sexually explicit messages and/or pictures), sexual activities, intentions to have sex, perceived approval of sexual activity, and emotional regulation skills. Twenty-two percent of the sample reported having sexted in the past 6 months; sexual messages were endorsed by 17% (n = 71), sexual messages and photos by 5% (n = 21). Pictures were endorsed significantly more often by females (χ(2)[2] = 7.33, P = .03) and Latinos (χ(2)[2] = 7.27, P = .03). Sexting of any kind was associated with higher rates of engaging in a variety of sexual behaviors, and sending photos was associated with higher rates of sexual activity than sending text messages only. This was true for a range of behaviors from touching genitals over clothes (odds ratio [OR] = 1.98, P = .03) to oral sex (OR = 2.66, P Sexting behavior (both photo and text messages) was not uncommon among middle school youth and co-occurred with sexual behavior. These data suggest that phone behaviors, even flirtatious messages, may be an indicator of risk. Clinicians, parents, and health programs should discuss sexting with early adolescents.

  7. Sexting and Sexual Behavior in At-Risk Adolescents

    Barker, David; Rizzo, Christie; Hancock, Evan; Norton, Alicia; Brown, Larry K.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to examine the prevalence of sexting behaviors (sexually explicit messages and/or pictures) among an at-risk sample of early adolescents as well as the associations between sexting behaviors and sexual behaviors, risk-related cognitions, and emotional regulation skills. It also aimed to determine whether differences in risk were associated with text-based versus photo-based sexts. METHODS: Seventh-grade adolescents participating in a sexual risk prevention trial for at-risk early adolescents completed a computer-based survey at baseline regarding sexting behavior (having sent sexually explicit messages and/or pictures), sexual activities, intentions to have sex, perceived approval of sexual activity, and emotional regulation skills. RESULTS: Twenty-two percent of the sample reported having sexted in the past 6 months; sexual messages were endorsed by 17% (n = 71), sexual messages and photos by 5% (n = 21). Pictures were endorsed significantly more often by females (χ2[2] = 7.33, P = .03) and Latinos (χ2[2] = 7.27, P = .03). Sexting of any kind was associated with higher rates of engaging in a variety of sexual behaviors, and sending photos was associated with higher rates of sexual activity than sending text messages only. This was true for a range of behaviors from touching genitals over clothes (odds ratio [OR] = 1.98, P = .03) to oral sex (OR = 2.66, P Sexting behavior (both photo and text messages) was not uncommon among middle school youth and co-occurred with sexual behavior. These data suggest that phone behaviors, even flirtatious messages, may be an indicator of risk. Clinicians, parents, and health programs should discuss sexting with early adolescents. PMID:24394678

  8. Relationships between attitudes toward sexuality, sexual behaviors, and contraceptive practices among Chinese medical and nursing undergraduates.

    Zeng, Yingchun; Luo, Taizhen; Zhou, Ying

    2015-09-01

    In this study, we investigated attitudes toward sexuality, the prevalence of sexual behaviors and contraceptive use among Chinese medical and nursing undergraduates, and relationships between attitudes toward sexuality and sexual and contraceptive practices among these participants. This was a descriptive, cross-sectional study carried out by using a Personal Attitude toward Sexuality Scale and Sexual and Contraceptive Questionnaire. The participants were recruited in the researcher's lectures. A total of 158 participants joined this study. Overall, Chinese medical and nursing undergraduates in this study held relatively conservative attitudes toward sexuality. The prevalence of sexually-active students was relatively low, and the percentage of contraceptive use among those sexually-active students was also low. Participants' attitudes toward sexuality had statistically-significant effects on their sexual and contraceptive practices. Nearly half of the sexually-active participants reported never using any contraceptive method during sexual intercourse. This finding has important public health implications, as young people represent the group with the largest rate of new infections of HIV/AIDS in China. A more comprehensive sexual education program that extends to college undergraduates and promotes the social acceptability of using contraception, specifically condoms, is needed. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  9. Using the Integrative Model to Explain How Exposure to Sexual Media Content Influences Adolescent Sexual Behavior

    Bleakley, Amy; Hennessy, Michael; Fishbein, Martin; Jordan, Amy

    2011-01-01

    Published research demonstrates an association between exposure to media sexual content and a variety of sex-related outcomes for adolescents. What is not known is the mechanism through which sexual content produces this "media effect" on adolescent beliefs, attitudes, and behavior. Using the Integrative Model of Behavioral Prediction, this…

  10. The Neuropsychology of Risky Sexual Behavior.

    Ross, J Megan; Duperrouzel, Jacqueline; Vega, Melanie; Gonzalez, Raul

    2016-07-01

    Engagement in risky sexual behavior (RSB) is a significant public health concern. A growing body of literature is elucidating the role of brain systems and neuropsychological constructs implicated in RSB, which may pave the way for novel insights and prevention efforts. In this article, we review studies incorporating neuropsychology into the study of RSB across the lifespan. The review of the literature on the neuropsychology of RSB is separated into three different sections by age of participants. Background is presented on research associating RSB with neurocognitive processes and the brain systems involved. Given the overlap between RSBs and substance use, studies addressing these problems in tandem are also discussed. Neurocognitive constructs are implicated in RSB, including impulsivity, decision-making, and working memory. Thus far, evidence suggest that neuropsychological factors are associated with engagement in RSB. More research on the influence of neuropsychological factors on engagement in RSB is necessary and may help inform future prevention efforts. (JINS, 2016, 22, 586-594).

  11. An exploratory study of sexual assertiveness and characteristics of African American women in negotiating condom use at an HBCU.

    Jenkins, Chalice C; Kennedy, Bernice Roberts

    2013-01-01

    The transmission of HIV/AIDS among African American women through heterosexual sex is an epidemic. Critical themes extracted from the HIV/AIDS sexual assertiveness literature revealed that: (a) sexual assertiveness is related to HIV risk, (b) sexual assertiveness is related to communication, and (c) women with low sexual assertiveness are at risk for HIV. This descriptive study sought to answer the following research question: What do young adult college attending African American women self-report about asking information about their partner's sexual history? The multifaceted model of HIV risk is the theoretical framework which guided this descriptive study. A basic tenet of the multifaceted model of HIV risk is that there is no single predictor of women's HIV risk behavior. Results revealed that 104 young adult college attending African American women who volunteered to attend a one day HIV prevention training overall scored high on a Sexual Assertive Scale on subscales of Information Communication, Refusal, and Pregnancy/STD Prevention Subscale, and scored in the medium range on the Initiation Subscales. The Information Communication and Pregnancy/ STD Prevention Subscale received the highest scores. More research is needed targeting diverse African American females with different socioeconomic status, various locations, and educated to determine their sexual assertiveness with partners which are essential in developing specific programs for diverse groups of African American females.

  12. Sexual Esteem in Emerging Adulthood: Associations with Sexual Behavior, Contraception Use, and Romantic Relationships

    Maas, Megan; Lefkowitz, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Sexual esteem is an integral psychological aspect of sexual health (Snell & Papini, 1989), yet it is unclear if sexual esteem is associated with sexual health behavior among heterosexual men and women. The current analysis uses a normative framework for sexual development (Lefkowitz & Gillen, 2006; Tolman & McClelland, 2011) by examining the association of sexual esteem with sexual behavior, contraception use, and romantic relationship characteristics. Participants (N = 518; 56.0% female; mean age = 18.43 years; 26.8% identified as Hispanic/Latino; among non-Hispanic/Latinos, 27.2% of the full sample identified as European American, 22.4% Asian American, 14.9% African American, and 8.7% multiracial) completed web-based surveys at a large northeastern university. Participants who had oral sex more frequently, recently had more oral and penetrative sex partners (particularly for male participants), and spent more college semesters in romantic relationships, tended to have higher sexual esteem than those who had sex less frequently, with fewer partners, or spent more semesters without romantic partners. Sexually active male emerging adults who never used contraception during recent penetrative sex tended to have higher sexual esteem than those who did use it, whereas female emerging adults who never used contraception tended to have lower sexual esteem than those who did use it. Implications of these results for the development of a healthy sexual self-concept in emerging adulthood are discussed. PMID:25210789

  13. Rurality and criminal history as predictors of HIV risk among drug-involved offenders.

    Webster, J Matthew; Mateyoke-Scrivner, Allison; Staton, Michele; Leukefeld, Carl

    2007-01-01

    The current study examined rurality and criminality as predictors of the lifetime HIV risk behaviors of 661 male, drug-abusing state prisoners. HIV risk behaviors included the number of lifetime sex partners, the number of lifetime drug injections, the number of times had sex with an injection drug user, and the frequency with which a condom was used. Regression analyses showed that criminality was related to the number of lifetime injections, whereas rurality was related to fewer lifetime sex partners and less frequent condom use. A rurality by criminality interaction for sex with an injection drug user was found. Specifically, those from rural areas who had more extensive criminal histories reported relatively high numbers of sex partners who were IDUs. Results are discussed in the context of rural and criminal justice interventions for HIV risk behavior.

  14. Body appreciation, sexual relationship status, and protective sexual behaviors in women.

    Winter, Virginia Ramseyer; Satinsky, Sonya

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between body appreciation and sexual risk reduction behavior in women is under-explored. This cross-sectional study examined the relationships between body appreciation, male condom use, and sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing among a community-based sample of women (n=285). Logistic regression results revealed that after controlling for age, BMI, and sexual orientation, having more than one sexual partner moderated body appreciation and current male condom use (OR=4.21, p<.01, CI=1.510-11.726). Body appreciation was not a significant predictor of STI testing in the previous 12 months. This suggests that women with higher body appreciation may be more likely to engage in some protective sexual health behaviors. Interventions that seek to improve body appreciation instead of body size change such as weight loss or gain may encourage certain protective sexual behaviors in women. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Impact of psychiatric and social characteristics on HIV sexual risk behavior in Puerto Rican women with severe mental illness.

    Heaphy, Emily Lenore Goldman; Loue, Sana; Sajatovic, Martha; Tisch, Daniel J

    2010-11-01

    Latinos in the United States have been identified as a high-risk group for depression, anxiety, and substance abuse. HIV/AIDS has disproportionately impacted Latinos. Review findings suggest that HIV-risk behaviors among persons with severe mental illness (SMI) are influenced by a multitude of factors including psychiatric illness, cognitive-behavioral factors, substance use, childhood abuse, and social relationships. To examine the impact of psychiatric and social correlates of HIV sexual risk behavior in Puerto Rican women with SMI. Data collected longitudinally (from 2002 to 2005) in semi-structured interviews and from non-continuous participant observation was analyzed using a cross-sectional design. Bivariate associations between predictor variables and sexual risk behaviors were examined using binary and ordinal logistic regression. Linear regression was used to examine the association between significant predictor variables and the total number of risk behaviors the women engaged in during the 6 months prior to baseline. Just over one-third (35.9%) of the study population (N = 53) was diagnosed with bipolar disorder and GAF scores ranged from 30 to 80 with a median score of 60. Participants ranged in age from 18 to 50 years (M = 32.6 ± 8.7), three-fourths reported a history of either sexual or physical abuse or of both in childhood, and one-fourth had abused substances in their lifetimes. Bivariate analyses indicated that psychiatric and social factors were differentially associated with sexual risk behaviors. Multivariate linear regression models showed that suffering from increased severity of psychiatric symptoms and factors and living below the poverty line are predictive of engagement in a greater number of HIV sexual risk behaviors. Puerto Rican women with SMI are at high risk for HIV infection and are in need of targeted sexual risk reduction interventions that simultaneously address substance abuse prevention and treatment, childhood abuse, and the

  16. Psychological features and teenage sexual behavior

    Kurbatova T.N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of an empirical study on the personality traits of sexually active teenagers. The research identified the personality traits of teenagers who are inclined to look for sexual relations. The research focused on the following: motivation and values, implicit representations about sexual contacts, parent-child relations, and self-concept. The study comprised 465 individuals including 405 school students aged 14-16 and 60 mothers of the teenagers examined. The results demonstrate that teenagers' refusal to begin sexual life, provided they have this opportunity (i.e. a partner, is linked to their subjective perception of the basic values reflected in their consciousness. The research also focused on the features of teenagers' implicit representations with regard to sexual intercourse. This allowed to identify the role of sexual intercourse in teenagers' life. The factors regulating sexual relations in the age under study have been revealed. The research shows that teenage sexual intercourse is mainly driven by cognitive motives combined with the hedonistic (boys and communicational/social ones (girls. Emotionally distant parents are another factor triggering sexual relations. The negatively critical attitude to sexual partners was also displayed, especially by girls. The attitude was expressed by teenagers even where they initiated sexual intercourse themselves, without been pressured into it by their partners. The study has an applied character and enables effective preventive and corrective work with sexually active teenagers.

  17. Longitudinal Association Between Teen Sexting and Sexual Behavior

    Choi, HyeJeong

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study examines the temporal sequencing of sexting and sexual intercourse and the role of active sexting (sending a nude picture) in mediating the relationship between passive sexting (asking or being asked for a nude picture) and sexual behaviors. METHODS: Data are from Wave 2 (spring 2011) and Wave 3 (spring 2012) of an ongoing 6-year longitudinal study of high school students in southeast Texas. Participants included 964 ethnically diverse adolescents with a mean age of 16.09 years (56% female; 31% African American, 29% Caucasian, 28% Hispanic, 12% other). Retention rate for 1-year follow-up was 93%. Participants self-reported history of sexual activity (intercourse, risky sex) and sexting (sent, asked, been asked). Using path analysis, we examined whether teen sexting at baseline predicted sexual behavior at 1-year follow-up and whether active sexting mediated the relationship between passive sexting and sexual behavior. RESULTS: The odds of being sexually active at Wave 3 were 1.32 times larger for youth who sent a sext at Wave 2, relative to counterparts. However, sexting was not temporally associated with risky sexual behaviors. Consistent with our hypothesis, active sexting at Wave 2 mediated the relationship between asking or being asked for a sext and having sex over the next year. CONCLUSIONS: This study extends cross-sectional literature and supports the notion that sexting fits within the context of adolescent sexual development and may be a viable indicator of adolescent sexual activity. PMID:25287459

  18. Longitudinal association between teen sexting and sexual behavior.

    Temple, Jeff R; Choi, HyeJeong

    2014-11-01

    This study examines the temporal sequencing of sexting and sexual intercourse and the role of active sexting (sending a nude picture) in mediating the relationship between passive sexting (asking or being asked for a nude picture) and sexual behaviors. Data are from Wave 2 (spring 2011) and Wave 3 (spring 2012) of an ongoing 6-year longitudinal study of high school students in southeast Texas. Participants included 964 ethnically diverse adolescents with a mean age of 16.09 years (56% female; 31% African American, 29% Caucasian, 28% Hispanic, 12% other). Retention rate for 1-year follow-up was 93%. Participants self-reported history of sexual activity (intercourse, risky sex) and sexting (sent, asked, been asked). Using path analysis, we examined whether teen sexting at baseline predicted sexual behavior at 1-year follow-up and whether active sexting mediated the relationship between passive sexting and sexual behavior. The odds of being sexually active at Wave 3 were 1.32 times larger for youth who sent a sext at Wave 2, relative to counterparts. However, sexting was not temporally associated with risky sexual behaviors. Consistent with our hypothesis, active sexting at Wave 2 mediated the relationship between asking or being asked for a sext and having sex over the next year. This study extends cross-sectional literature and supports the notion that sexting fits within the context of adolescent sexual development and may be a viable indicator of adolescent sexual activity. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  19. The Relationship Between Use of Sexually Explicit Media and Sexual Risk Behavior in Men Who Have Sex with Men

    Træen, B.; Hald, Gert Martin; Noor, S. W.

    2014-01-01

    -related sexual risk behavior is mediated by men's sexual self-esteem, and 3) the relationship between SEM consumption and sexual risk behavior is mediated by condom use self-efficacy. A cross-sectional, Internet-based survey on exposure to SEM and sexual behavior of 1,391 MSM in the USA was conducted in 2011...... was mediated by condom use self-efficacy in an indirect path. However, SEM did not influence sexual risk behavior via sexual self-esteem. To promote STI prevention, the actors in SEM may be used as role models in managing condom use in sexual contexts....

  20. Sexual Behaviors of U.S. Men by Self-Identified Sexual Orientation: Results From the 2012 National Survey of Sexual Health and Behavior.

    Dodge, Brian; Herbenick, Debby; Fu, Tsung-Chieh Jane; Schick, Vanessa; Reece, Michael; Sanders, Stephanie; Fortenberry, J Dennis

    2016-04-01

    Although a large body of previous research has examined sexual behavior and its relation to risk in men of diverse sexual identities, most studies have relied on convenience sampling. As such, the vast majority of research on the sexual behaviors of gay and bisexual men, in particular, might not be generalizable to the general population of these men in the United States. This is of particular concern because many studies are based on samples of men recruited from relatively "high-risk" venues and environments. To provide nationally representative baseline rates for sexual behavior in heterosexual, gay, and bisexual men in the United States and compare findings on sexual behaviors, relationships, and other variables across subgroups. Data were obtained from the 2012 National Survey of Sexual Health and Behavior, which involved the administration of an online questionnaire to a nationally representative probability sample of women and men at least 18 years old in the United States, with oversampling of self-identified gay and bisexual men and women. Results from the male participants are included in this article. Measurements include demographic characteristics, particularly sexual identity, and their relations to diverse sexual behaviors, including masturbation, mutual masturbation, oral sex, vaginal sex, and anal sex. Behaviors with male and female partners were examined. Men of all self-identified sexual identities reported engaging in a range of sexual behaviors (solo and partnered). As in previous studies, sexual identity was not always congruent for gender of lifetime and recent sexual partners. Patterns of sexual behaviors and relationships vary among heterosexual, gay, and bisexual men. Several demographic characteristics, including age, were related to men's sexual behaviors. The results from this probability study highlight the diversity in men's sexual behaviors across sexual identities, and these data allow generalizability to the broader population of

  1. The Effects of Prostate Cancer Treatment on the Sexual Behavior of Gay and Bisexual Men: Key Results from the "Restore" Study

    B. R. Simon Rosser, Ph.D., M.P.H., L.P., is professor and director of the HIV/STI Intervention and Prevention Studies (HIPS) Program, in the Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, School of Public Health at the University of Minnesota. He has advanced degrees in psychology, epidemiology, and behavioral medicine, with postdoctoral training in clinical/research sexology. An NIH-funded behavioral science researcher, and current chair of the Behavioral and Social Sciences Prevention Studies Section at NIH, Dr. Rosser conducted the first NIH-funded studies of Internet-based HIV prevention for men who use the Internet to seek sex with men, the effects of gay pornography on HIV risk, and most recently, an NCI-funded study of the effects of treatment on gay and bisexual prostate cancer survivors. Dr. Rosser has published around 100 papers and has been featured in U.S. News & World Report and the Washington Blade. Currently, he is conducting the first NCI-funded randomized controlled trial assessing the effects of a comprehensive approach to treating sexual and urinary dysfunction in gay and bisexual prostate cancer survivors. At the University of Minnesota, Dr. Rosser directs the graduate program for a minor in Sexual Health and teaches two courses: “Public Health Approaches to HIV/AIDS”, and “Sex, Sexuality, and Sexual Health.”

  2. Sexual Dysfunction and Sexual Behaviors in a Sample of Brazilian Male Substance Misusers.

    Diehl, Alessandra; Pillon, Sandra Cristina; Dos Santos, Manoel Antônio; Rassool, G Hussein; Laranjeira, Ronaldo

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential relationship between self-reported sexual dysfunction, sexual behavior, and severity of addiction of drug users. A cross-sectional design study was conducted at an inpatient addiction treatment unit in Sao Paulo, Brazil, with a sample of 508 male drug users. Sociodemographic data, sexual behavior, and severity of dependence were evaluated.The prevalence of sexual dysfunction was 37.2% and premature ejaculation was 63.8%. Men with sexual dysfunction presented from moderate to severe level of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs of dependence. The findings from this study are particularly relevant identifying those sociodemographic factors, severity of drug use, and sexual behavior are related to men who experience sexual dysfunction. Health promotion and motivational interventions on sexual health targeted to male drug users can contribute in reducing these at-risk behaviors. More interdisciplinary research is desirable in future in considering men's sexual health. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Endocrinology of human female sexuality, mating, and reproductive behavior.

    Motta-Mena, Natalie V; Puts, David A

    2017-05-01

    Hormones orchestrate and coordinate human female sexual development, sexuality, and reproduction in relation to three types of phenotypic changes: life history transitions such as puberty and childbirth, responses to contextual factors such as caloric intake and stress, and cyclical patterns such as the ovulatory cycle. Here, we review the endocrinology underlying women's reproductive phenotypes, including sexual orientation and gender identity, mate preferences, competition for mates, sex drive, and maternal behavior. We highlight distinctive aspects of women's sexuality such as the possession of sexual ornaments, relatively cryptic fertile windows, extended sexual behavior across the ovulatory cycle, and a period of midlife reproductive senescence-and we focus on how hormonal mechanisms were shaped by selection to produce adaptive outcomes. We conclude with suggestions for future research to elucidate how hormonal mechanisms subserve women's reproductive phenotypes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Sexual Health Risk Behavior Disparities Among Male and Female Adolescents Using Identity and Behavior Indicators of Sexual Orientation.

    Paul Poteat, V; Russell, Stephen T; Dewaele, Alexis

    2017-12-04

    Sexual minority adolescent sexual risk behavior studies often overlook young women, do not consider behavior- and identity-based sexual orientation indicators in combination, and focus mainly on condomless sex. We examined multiple risk behaviors in a large sample of adolescent young men and women using combined behavior- and identity-based indices. The 2015 Dane County Youth Assessment data included 4734 students in 22 high schools who had ever voluntarily engaged in sexual contact (51.7% male; 76.0% White, non-Hispanic). Items assessed having sex with unfamiliar partners, sex while using substances, using protection, and STI testing. Logistic regressions tested for disparities based on combined identity- and behavior-based sexual orientation indicators. For both young men and women, youth who reported heterosexual or questioning identities-but who had sex with same-sex partners-were at consistently greater risk than heterosexual youth with only different-sex partners. Also, for both young men and women, bisexuals with partners of both sexes more consistently reported higher risk than heterosexual youth than did bisexuals with only different-sex partners. Risk behavior for gay young men who had sex only with men mirrored those in extant literature. Risk levels differed for specific groups of sexual minority young women, thus deserving further attention. Findings underscore the need for sexual health research to consider sexual orientation in a more multidimensional manner.

  5. Base Rates, Multiple Indicators, and Comprehensive Forensic Evaluations: Why Sexualized Behavior Still Counts in Assessments of Child Sexual Abuse Allegations

    Everson, Mark D.; Faller, Kathleen Coulborn

    2012-01-01

    Developmentally inappropriate sexual behavior has long been viewed as a possible indicator of child sexual abuse. In recent years, however, the utility of sexualized behavior in forensic assessments of alleged child sexual abuse has been seriously challenged. This article addresses a number of the concerns that have been raised about the…

  6. Sexual Minority Stressors, Internalizing Symptoms, and Unhealthy Eating Behaviors in Sexual Minority Youth

    Katz-Wise, Sabra L.; Calzo, Jerel P.; Scherer, Emily A.; Sarda, Vishnudas; Jackson, Benita; Haines, Jess; Austin, S. Bryn

    2015-01-01

    Background Sexual minorities are more likely than heterosexuals to engage in unhealthy eating behaviors. Purpose To examine sexual minority stressors and internalizing symptoms as predictors of unhealthy eating behaviors among sexual minority youth. Methods We used longitudinal data from 1461 sexual minority youth in the Growing Up Today Study, across ages 14-28 years. We hypothesized that sexual minority stressors would predict unhealthy eating behaviors, in part due to internalizing symptoms. Linear regression models fit via generalized estimating equations were stratified by gender and sexual orientation. Results Significant positive and inverse associations between stressors and eating behaviors were detected among females and males, with more significant associations among females. Associations were attenuated by up to 71% for females and 12% for males when internalizing symptoms were added to the models. Conclusions Sexual minority stressors predicted unhealthy eating behaviors overall and more so for some sexual orientation and gender groups; associations were partially explained by internalizing symptoms. The conceptual model appears to best describe the experiences of bisexual females. Findings have clinical implications for adolescent health. PMID:26156678

  7. Ethnicity and HIV risk behaviour, testing and knowledge in Guatemala.

    Taylor, Tory M; Hembling, John; Bertrand, Jane T

    2015-01-01

    To describe levels of risky sexual behaviour, HIV testing and HIV knowledge among men and women in Guatemala by ethnic group and to identify adjusted associations between ethnicity and these outcomes. Data on 16,205 women aged 15-49 and 6822 men aged 15-59 from the 2008-2009 Encuesta Nacional de Salud Materno Infantil were used to describe ethnic group differences in sexual behaviour, HIV knowledge and testing. We then controlled for age, education, wealth and other socio-demographic factors in a multivariate logistic regression model to examine the effects of ethnicity on outcomes related to age at sexual debut, number of lifetime sex partners, comprehensive HIV knowledge, HIV testing and lifetime sex worker patronage (men only). The data show low levels of risky sexual behaviour and low levels of HIV knowledge among indigenous women and men, compared to other respondents. Controlling for demographic factors, indigenous women were more likely than other women never to have been tested for HIV and to lack comprehensive HIV knowledge. They were less likely to report early sexual debut and three or more lifetime sexual partners. Indigenous men were more likely than other men to lack comprehensive HIV knowledge and demonstrated lower odds of early sexual debut, 10 or more lifetime sexual partners and sex worker patronage. The Mayan indigenous population in Guatemala, while broadly socially vulnerable, does not appear to be at elevated risk for HIV based on this analysis of selected risk factors. Nonetheless, low rates of HIV knowledge and testing may be cause for concern. Programmes working in indigenous communities should focus on HIV education and reducing barriers to testing. Further research into the factors that underlie ethnic self-identity and perceived ethnicity could help clarify the relative significance of these measures for HIV risk and other health outcomes.

  8. The relationships among perceived peer acceptance of sexual aggression, punishment certainty, and sexually aggressive behavior.

    Strang, Emily; Peterson, Zoë D

    2013-12-01

    Researching the correlates of men's sexually aggressive behavior (i.e., verbal coercion and rape) is critical to both understanding and preventing sexual aggression. This study examined 120 men who completed an anonymous online questionnaire. The study aimed to determine the relative importance of two potential correlates of men's self-reported use of sexual aggression: (a) perceptions that male peers use and support sexual aggression and (b) perceptions of punishment likelihood associated with sexual aggression. Results revealed that perceptions of male friends' acceptance of sexual aggression were strongly associated with individual men's reports of using verbal coercion and rape. Perceptions of punishment likelihood were negatively correlated with verbal coercion but not with rape through intoxication and force. Implications for sexual aggression prevention are discussed.

  9. Identifying Resilience Resources for HIV Prevention Among Sexual Minority Men: A Systematic Review.

    Woodward, Eva N; Banks, Regina J; Marks, Amy K; Pantalone, David W

    2017-10-01

    Most HIV prevention for sexual minority men and men who have sex with men targets risk behaviors (e.g., condom use) and helps sexual minority men. We reviewed PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES, MEDLINE, references, and Listservs for studies including sexual minority men with 1+ HIV risk factor (syndemics): childhood sexual abuse, partner abuse, substance abuse, or mental health symptoms. From 1356 articles screened, 20 articles met inclusion criteria. Across the articles, we identified and codified 31 resilience resources: socioeconomic (e.g., employment), behavioral coping strategies (e.g., mental health treatment), cognitions/emotions (e.g., acceptance), and relationships. Resilience resources were generally associated with lower HIV risk; there were 18 low-risk associations, 4 high-risk associations, 8 non-significant associations). We generated a set of empirically based resilience variables and a hypothesis to be evaluated further to improve HIV prevention.

  10. Alcohol-induced sexual behavior on campus.

    Meilman, P W

    1993-07-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of alcohol-related sexual activity on campus. Since coming to college, 35% of the students had engaged in some form of sexual activity that was influenced by drinking. Because they had been drinking, 18% had engaged in sexual intercourse, and 15% had abandoned safe-sex techniques. For the categories any form of sexual activity and abandonment of safe-sex techniques, a significantly greater percentage of women were affected by alcohol use, but this was not true for sexual intercourse. The survey showed no significant differences between undergraduate and graduate students. All three variables showed a relationship with heavier alcohol use and with binge drinking. Academic excellence was negatively correlated with alcohol-induced sexual intercourse.

  11. Self-Identified Sexual Orientation and Sexual Risk Behavior Among HIV-Infected Latino Males.

    Champion, Jane Dimmitt; Szlachta, Alaina

    2016-01-01

    The HIV testing, disclosure, and sexual practices of ethnic minority men suggest that addressing sexual risk behavior and the underlying reasons for not receiving HIV testing or disclosing HIV-infection status-unique to differing populations-would improve public health interventions. Descriptive behaviors and underlying perspectives reported in our study suggest that public health interventions for HIV-infected Latino men who self-identify as heterosexual should explicitly identify substance use, needle sharing, and unprotected sex to current partners as behaviors placing both oneself and one's partners at high risk for contracting HIV. However, diversity of sexual behavior among gay, straight, and bisexual HIV-infected Latino men in our study ultimately suggested that clinicians should not rely on simplistic conceptions of sexuality in assessment of self-care needs. Care in presentation and discussion of self-identified sexual preference and sexual behavior is indicated, as these do not determine actual sexual orientation or behavior and vice versa. Copyright © 2016 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Condom utilization and sexual behavior of female sex workers in ...

    People who indulge in unsafe sex, such as female sex workers are the most at risk population groups due to multiple sexual partners and inconsistent condom use. The aim of this study was to assess condom utilization and sexual behavior of female sex workers in Gondar town, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods: A quantitative ...

  13. Sexual Behavior of Older Adults Living with HIV in Uganda.

    Negin, Joel; Geddes, Louise; Brennan-Ing, Mark; Kuteesa, Monica; Karpiak, Stephen; Seeley, Janet

    2016-02-01

    Sexual behavior among older adults with HIV in Sub-Saharan Africa has been understudied despite the burgeoning of this population. We examined sexual behavior among older adults living with HIV in Uganda. Participants were eligible for the study if they were 50 years of age or older and living with HIV. Quantitative data were collected through face-to-face interviews, including demographic characteristics, health, sexual behavior and function, and mental health. Of respondents, 42 were men and 59 women. More than one-quarter of these HIV-positive older adults were sexually active. A greater proportion of older HIV-positive men reported being sexually active compared to women (54 vs. 15%). Among those who are sexually active, a majority never use condoms. Sixty-one percent of men regarded sex as at least somewhat important (42%), while few women shared this opinion (20%). Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that odds of sexual activity in the past year were significantly increased by the availability of a partner (married/cohabitating), better physical functioning, and male gender. As more adults live longer with HIV, it is critical to understand their sexual behavior and related psychosocial variables in order to improve prevention efforts.

  14. Sexual Risk Behavior: HIV, STD, & Teen Pregnancy Prevention

    ... A-Glance Project Connect Sexual Health STD Teen Pregnancy Sexual Risk Behaviors: HIV, STD, & Teen Pregnancy Prevention Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... their risk for HIV , other STDs , and unintended pregnancy . The National HIV/AIDS Strategy calls for all Americans to be ...

  15. Training Peer Sexual Health Educators: Changes in Knowledge, Counseling Self-Efficacy, and Sexual Risk Behavior

    Ehrhardt, Britt L.; Krumboltz, John D.; Koopman, Cheryl

    2007-01-01

    Peer sexual health education programs are widespread on college campuses, but little research has assessed the effect of these programs on the peer educators. This study employed a repeated measures design to examine changes over the academic quarter in the knowledge, counseling self-efficacy, and sexual behavior of 70 college students enrolled in…

  16. The Developmental Association of Sexual Self-Concept with Sexual Behavior among Adolescent Women

    Hensel, Devon J.; Fortenberry, J. Dennis; O'Sullivan, Lucia F.; Orr, Donald P.

    2011-01-01

    Developing a sexual self-concept is an important developmental task of adolescence; however, little empirical evidence describes this development, nor how these changes are related to development in sexual behavior. Using longitudinal cohort data from adolescent women, we invoked latent growth curve analysis to: (1) examine reciprocal development…

  17. Developmental pathways from maltreatment to risk behavior: Sexual behavior as a catalyst.

    Negriff, Sonya

    2018-05-01

    Although delinquency, substance use, and sexual activity are established to be highly intercorrelated, the extant research provides minimal evidence in support of one particular sequence of risk behavior or on the cascade effects from maltreatment. The present study tested a longitudinal model incorporating maltreatment, deviant peers, sexual behavior, delinquency, and substance use to elucidate the sequential pathway(s) from maltreatment to each specific risk behavior throughout adolescence. Data came from a longitudinal study on the effects of maltreatment on adolescent development (N = 454) with four study assessments from early (Time 1 M age = 10.98) to late adolescence (Time 4 M age = 18.22). Results from the cross-lagged model showed a sequence from maltreatment to sexual behavior (Time 1), to delinquency (Time 2), to sexual behavior (Time 3), to substance use and delinquency (Time 4). These findings support sexual behavior as the initial risk behavior that is the catalyst for engagement in more advanced risk behaviors across adolescence.

  18. Programming effects of antenatal corticosteroids exposure in male sexual behavior.

    Oliveira, Mário; Leão, Pedro; Rodrigues, Ana-João; Pêgo, José-Miguel; Cerqueira, João-José; Sousa, Nuno

    2011-07-01

    Brain regions implicated in sexual behavior begin to differentiate in the last trimester of gestation. Antenatal therapy with corticosteroids is often used in clinical practice during this period to accelerate lung maturation in preterm-risk pregnancies. Clinical and animal studies highlighted major behavioral impairments induced later in life by these treatments, especially when synthetic corticosteroids are used. To evaluate the implications of acute prenatal treatment with natural vs. synthetic corticosteroids on adult male rat sexual behavior and its neurochemical correlates. Twelve pregnant Wistar rats were injected with dexamethasone (DEX-1 mg/kg), corticosterone (CORT-25 mg/kg), or saline on late gestation (pregnancy days 18 and 19). Following this brief exposure to corticosteroids, we assessed the sexual behavior of the adult male progeny and subsequently associated these behaviors with the levels of catecholamines and mRNA of dopamine and androgen receptors (AR) in brain regions relevant for sexual behavior. Sexual behavior of adult male offspring was assessed by exposure to receptive females. This was associated with serum testosterone levels and levels of catecholamines (determined by high-performance liquid chromatography) and dopamine and AR mRNA expression (real-time polymerase chain reaction [PCR]) in brain regions implicated in sexual behavior. Prenatal DEX exposure resulted in a decreased number and increased mounts and intromissions latencies in adulthood. These findings were associated with decreased levels of serum testosterone and increased hypothalamic expression of AR mRNA. DEX animals also displayed lower dopamine levels and higher dopamine receptor mRNA expression both in hypothalamus and nucleus accumbens (NAcc). The milder phenotype of CORT animals was associated only with decreased dopamine levels in NAcc. Antenatal corticotherapy programs adult male sexual behavior through changes in specific neuronal and endocrine mediators

  19. ‘It’s really a hard life’: Love, gender and HIV risk among male-to-female transgender persons

    MELENDEZ, RITA M.; PINTO, ROGÉRIO

    2012-01-01

    Scientific studies demonstrate high rates of HIV infection among male-to-female (MTF) transgender individuals and that stigma and discrimination place MTFs at increased risk for infection. However, there is little research examining how gender roles contribute to HIV risk. This paper reports on in-depth interviews with 20 MTFs attending a community clinic. Data reveal that stigma and discrimination create a heightened need for MTFs to feel safe and loved by a male companion and that in turn places them at a higher risk for acquiring HIV. Male-to-female transgender individuals appear to turn to men to feel loved and affirmed as women; their main HIV risk stems from their willingness to engage with sexual partners who provide a sense of love and acceptance but who also may also request unsafe sexual behaviours. A model illustrating how HIV risk is generated from stigma and discrimination is presented. PMID:17457728

  20. Sexual behavior of infertile women: a qualitative study

    Mahshid Bokaie

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infertility makes an essential challenge to the sexual life of couples, especially infertile women. When pregnancy does not happen, infertile women think that sexual intercourse is not fruitful and sexual desire became reduce gradually. Infertile women progressively forget that their sexual relationship is also a response to their natural need. Objective: This qualitative study was conducted to explore the infertility consequences in the sexual behavior of infertile women. Materials and Methods: This was a qualitative content analysis study; and it was part of a widespread study, used a sequential mixed-method and conducted from August 2014 until February 2015. A purposeful sampling was used to recruit infertile women who had referred to Yazd Research and Clinical Center for Infertility. Data gathering techniques employed in this research included in-depth semi structured open face-to-face interviews and field notes. Credibility, transferability, confirm ability, and dependability were assessed for the rigor of the data collection. Results: Totally, 15 infertile women and 8 key informants were interviewed. Data analysis showed four themes about impact of infertility on female sexual behavior: 1/ Impact of infertility drugs on couple sexual behavior, 2/ Impact of assisted reproductive technologies on female sexual behavior, 3/ Timed intercourse during infertility and 4/ The psychological impact of infertility on sexual behavior. Conclusion: Some of Iranian infertile women could cope with their problems, but some of them were very affected by infertility drugs and assisted reproductive technologies procedures. Psychosexual counseling before medical treatment could help them to have a better sexual life.

  1. Premarital sexual behavior among male college students of Kathmandu, Nepal.

    Adhikari, Ramesh; Tamang, Jyotsna

    2009-07-15

    In Nepal, as in other Asian countries, the issue of sexuality still remains a taboo. Despite this fact, an increasing number of sexual activities is being reported by Nepalese students. This trend warrants serious and timely attention. Due to the sensitivity of the topic of premarital sexuality, youth receive inadequate education, guidance and services on reproductive health. The main objectives of this paper are to explore the sexual behavior especially focusing on prevalence of premarital sex among college men and to investigate the factors surrounding premarital sexual behavior. A cross-sectional survey of college students was conducted in April-May 2006. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by 573 male students. Association between premarital sex and the explanatory variables was assessed in bivariate analysis using Chi-square tests. The associations were further explored using multivariate logistic analysis. Despite the religious and cultural restrictions, about two-fifths of survey respondents (39%) reported that they have had premarital sex. The study has also shown that substantial proportions of students indulge in sexual activities as well as risky sexual behavior. Sex with commercial sex workers, multiple sex partners, and inconsistence use of condom with non-regular partner was common among the students. Less than two in five male students (57%) had used condom at the first sexual intercourse.The prevalence of premarital sex varied on different settings. Older students aged 20 and above were more likely to have premarital sex compared with younger students aged 15-19. Men who had liberal attitude towards male virginity at marriage were almost two times more likely to have engaged in premarital sex compared to their counterparts who have conservative attitude towards male virginity at marriage. Moreover, those students who believe in Hindu religion were more than two times (OR = 2.5) more likely to have premarital sex compared with those who

  2. Youth Sexual Health: Sexual Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior Among Students at a University in Turkey.

    Saraçoğlu, Gamze Varol; Erdem, İlknur; Doğan, Sultan; Tokuç, Burcu

    2014-09-01

    To determine sexual attitudes, behavior, and knowledge of Namik Kemal University (NKU) students about sexual health and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). A sample representing 10% of the undergraduate population of NKU in 2009-2010, was studied. Of 1,500 questionnaires distributed, 1,314 (87.6%) were filled out. The mean age of the respondents (52.9% male) was 20.07±1.75 years. The rate of students who had received sexual health education was 32.0%, and 15.3% had previously used a sexual health service. Eleven percent of the female students and 50.3% of the male students had had sexual intercourse. The average age of initial sexual intercourse was 16.83±2.07 years. Of the students who had had sexual intercourse, 46.6% reported that they did not use any contraception method. The most preferred method was condoms (37.6%). The rate of contraceptive use was 58.7% in sexually educated students and 43.9% in those not educated (p=.004). The most well-known STI was AIDS (96.5%), with sexually educated students giving higher rates of correct answers about STIs (psexual health education were more knowledgeable about vital consequences of STI's, even though it is not sufficient, than sexually active students. Awareness of safe sexual practices and changes in behavior, in particular, promoting condom use should be established in higher risk youths. Deficiencies in knowledge could be addressed by adding a sexual healthtraining component to the university curriculum, and unmet requirements could be met by reorganizing medico-social centers in universities.

  3. Teen sexting and its association with sexual behaviors.

    Temple, Jeff R; Paul, Jonathan A; van den Berg, Patricia; Le, Vi Donna; McElhany, Amy; Temple, Brian W

    2012-09-01

    To examine the prevalence of sexting behaviors as well as their relation to dating, sex, and risky sexual behaviors using a large school-based sample of adolescents. Data are from time 2 of a 3-year longitudinal study. Participants self-reported their history of dating, sexual behaviors, and sexting (sent, asked, been asked, and/or bothered by being asked to send nude photographs of themselves). Seven public high schools in southeast Texas. A total of 948 public high school students (55.9% female) participated. The sample consisted of African American (26.6%), white (30.3%), Hispanic (31.7%), Asian (3.4%), and mixed/other (8.0%) teens. Having ever engaged in sexting behaviors. Twenty-eight percent of the sample reported having sent a naked picture of themselves through text or e-mail (sext), and 31% reported having asked someone for a sext. More than half (57%) had been asked to send a sext, with most being bothered by having been asked. Adolescents who engaged in sexting behaviors were more likely to have begun dating and to have had sex than those who did not sext (all P sexting was also associated with risky sexual behaviors. The results suggest that teen sexting is prevalent and potentially indicative of teens' sexual behaviors. Teen-focused health care providers should consider screening for sexting behaviors to provide age-specific education about the potential consequences of sexting and as a mechanism for discussing sexual behaviors.

  4. Sexual Behaviors in Autism: Problems of Definition and Management.

    Realmuto, George M.; Ruble, Lisa A.

    1999-01-01

    Explores the problems of definition of sexual behaviors in individuals with autism and describes a case that highlights the difficulties of management. After failure of behavioral and educational programs, a testosterone-suppressing medication was used resulting in suppression of public masturbation behaviors and retention of the participant's…

  5. Partner-level substance use associated with increased sexual risk behaviors among men who have sex with men in San Francisco, CA.

    Brown, Robert E; Turner, Caitlin; Hern, Jaclyn; Santos, Glenn-Milo

    2017-07-01

    Substance use is highly prevalent among men who have sex with men (MSM) and is associated with individual-level sexual risk behaviors. However, few studies have explored the relationship between substance use and HIV risk behaviors within partnerships. We examined partner-level data between MSM participants (n=23) and their sexual partners (n=52). We used multivariable generalized estimating equations (GEE) logistic regression to assess the relationship between partner-level substance use during their last sexual encounter with each partner, and engaging in condomless anal intercourse (CAI) and serodiscordant CAI. In multivariable analyses, participants had significantly higher adjusted odds ratio (AOR) of CAI when the participant (AOR=22.2, 95%CI=2.5-199.5) or their partners used any drugs (AOR=21.8, 95%CI=3.3-144.3); their partners (AOR=5.7, 95%CI=1.7-19.3) or both participant and partner had concordant use of methamphetamine (AOR=10.5, 95%CI=2.2-50.6); or when both used poppers (AOR=11.4, 95%CI=1.5-87). There were higher odds of SDCAI if the participant binge drank (AOR=4, 95%CI=1.01-15.8), used more than one substance (AOR=15.8, 95%CI=1.9-133), or used other drugs (AOR=4.8, 95%CI=1.3-18.4); if their partner used poppers (AOR=7.6, 95%CI=1.5-37.6), or used more than one substance (AOR=7.9, 95%CI=1.9-34.1); and when both participant and partner had concordant use of poppers (AOR=4.4, 95%CI=1.2-16.8). This study observed significant relationship between substance use and HIV risk behaviors within partnerships. Specifically, when either the participant, the partner, or both used any drugs there was an increased odds of sexual risk behaviors. Findings suggest that partner-level substance use behaviors should be taken in account when developing sexual risk reduction interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Sexting, substance use, and sexual risk behavior in young adults.

    Benotsch, Eric G; Snipes, Daniel J; Martin, Aaron M; Bull, Sheana S

    2013-03-01

    Cell phone use has become more widespread over the past decade. Young adults are frequently early adopters of new technologies, including cell phones. Most previous research examining sexting, the act of sending sexually explicit or suggestive images via text message, has focused on the legal or social consequences of this behavior. The current study focused on the public health implications of sexting by examining associations between sexting, substance use, and sexual risk behavior in youth. Young adults (N = 763) completed online questionnaires assessing demographics, cell phone use (e.g., texting, sexting), substance use, and sexual risk behaviors. Sexting was reported by a substantial minority of participants (44%). Compared with their nonsexting counterparts, participants who engaged in sexting were more likely to report recent substance use and high-risk sexual behaviors, including unprotected sex and sex with multiple partners. Of those who engaged in sexting, a considerable percentage (31.8%) reported having sex with a new partner for the first time after sexting with that person. In multivariate analyses, sexting was associated with high-risk sexual behavior, after accounting for demographic factors, total texting behaviors, and substance use. Results suggest that sexting is robustly associated with high-risk sexual behavior. Many individuals exchange explicit or provocative photos with long-term sexual partners, but at least some participants in this study were incurring new sexual risks after sexting. Additional research is needed to understand the contexts in which sexting occurs, motivations for sexting, and relationship of sexting to risk behavior. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Sexting, substance use, and sexual risk behavior in young adults

    Benotsch, Eric G.; Snipes, Daniel J.; Martin, Aaron M.; Bull, Sheana S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Cell phone use has become more widespread over the past decade. Young adults are frequently early adopters of new technologies, including cell phones. Most prior research examining sexting, the act of sending sexually explicit or suggestive images via text message, has focused on the legal or social consequences of this behavior. The current study focused on the public health implications of sexting by examining associations between sexting, substance use, and sexual risk behavior in youth. Methods Young adults (N=763) completed online questionnaires assessing demographics, cell phone use (e.g., texting, sexting), substance use, and sexual risk behaviors. Results Sexting was reported by a substantial minority of participants (44%). Compared to their non-sexting counterparts, participants who engaged in sexting were more likely to report recent substance use and high-risk sexual behaviors, including unprotected sex and sex with multiple partners. Of those who engaged in sexting, a considerable percentage (31.8%) reported having sex with a new partner for the first time after sexting with that person. In multivariate analyses, sexting was associated with high-risk sexual behavior after accounting for demographic factors, total texting behaviors, and substance use. Conclusions Results suggest that sexting is robustly associated with high-risk sexual behavior. Many individuals exchange explicit or provocative photos with long-term sexual partners, but at least some participants in this study were incurring new sexual risks subsequent to sexting. Additional research is needed to understand the contexts in which sexting occurs, motivations for sexting, and relationship of sexting to risk behavior. PMID:23299017

  8. "Talking about child sexual abuse would have helped me": Young people who sexually abused reflect on preventing harmful sexual behavior.

    McKibbin, Gemma; Humphreys, Cathy; Hamilton, Bridget

    2017-08-01

    Harmful sexual behavior carried out by children and young people accounts for about half of all child sexual abuse perpetration. The aim of this study was to draw on the insights of young people who had been sexually abusive to enhance the current prevention agenda. The study involved semi-structured interviews with 14 young people and six treatment-providing workers. Sampling was purposive and the young people had previously completed a treatment program for harmful sexual behaviour in Victoria, Australia. The young people were approached as experts based on their previous experience of engaging in harmful sexual behavior. At the same time, their past abusive behavior was not condoned or minimised. Constructivist Grounded Theory was used to analyse the qualitative data. Opportunities for preventing harmful sexual behavior were the focus of the interviews with young people and workers. The research identified three opportunities for prevention, which involved acting on behalf of children and young people to: reform their sexuality education; redress their victimization experiences; and help their management of pornography. These opportunities could inform the design of initiatives to enhance the prevention agenda. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Understanding Engagement in HIV Risk and Prevention Research Among Black Young Men Who Have Sex with Men and Transgender Women in the District of Columbia.

    Glick, Sara Nelson; Houston, Ebony; Peterson, James; Kuo, Irene; Magnus, Manya

    2016-08-01

    To develop optimal methods to study sexual health among black young men who have sex with men and transgender women (BYMSM/TW). We conducted a mixed-methods prospective study to identify recruitment and retention strategies for BYMSM/TW (age 16-21) in Washington D.C., and describe HIV risk behaviors and context. Incentivized peer referral was highly productive, and 60% of BYMSM/TW were retained for 3 months. Participants reported high levels of sexual risk, homophobia, racism, and maternal support. BYMSM/TW studies should utilize a combination of peer-based, in-person, and technology-based recruiting strategies. Additional research is needed to leverage mobile technology and social media to enhance retention.

  10. Childhood Exposure to Religions With High Prevalence of Members Who Discourage Homosexuality Is Associated With Adult HIV Risk Behaviors and HIV Infection in Black Men Who Have Sex With Men

    Nelson, LaRon E.; Wilton, Leo; Zhang, Nanhua; Regan, Rotrease; Thach, Chia T.; Dyer, Typhanye V.; Kushwaha, Sameer; Sanders, Rev. Edwin C.; Ndoye, Omar; Mayer, Kenneth H.

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to childhood religious affiliations where the majority of members discourage homosexuality may have negative psychological impacts for Black men who have sex with men. This study tested the hypothesis that exposures to these environments during childhood were associated with adulthood human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted infection (STI) behavioral risk and HIV infection, because these exposures influenced HIV/STI risk by undermining race/sexual identity congruence and increasing internalized homophobia and interpersonal anxiety. Structural equation modeling as well as logistic and Poisson regressions were performed using baseline data from HIV Prevention Trials Network 061 (N = 1,553). Childhood religion affiliations that were more discouraging of homosexuality were associated with increased likelihood of HIV infection; however, the association was no longer significant after adjusting for age, income, and education. Having a childhood religion affiliation with high prevalence of beliefs discouraging homosexuality was associated with increased numbers of sexual partners (adjusted odds ratio = 4.31; 95% confidence interval [3.76, 4.94], p < .01). The hypothesized path model was largely supported and accounted for 37% of the variance in HIV infection; however, interpersonal anxiety was not associated with HIV/STI risk behaviors. Structural interventions are needed that focus on developing affirming theologies in religious institutions with Black men who have sex with men congregants. PMID:26758708

  11. Childhood Exposure to Religions With High Prevalence of Members Who Discourage Homosexuality Is Associated With Adult HIV Risk Behaviors and HIV Infection in Black Men Who Have Sex With Men.

    Nelson, LaRon E; Wilton, Leo; Zhang, Nanhua; Regan, Rotrease; Thach, Chia T; Dyer, Typhanye V; Kushwaha, Sameer; Sanders, Rev Edwin C; Ndoye, Omar; Mayer, Kenneth H

    2017-09-01

    Exposure to childhood religious affiliations where the majority of members discourage homosexuality may have negative psychological impacts for Black men who have sex with men. This study tested the hypothesis that exposures to these environments during childhood were associated with adulthood human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted infection (STI) behavioral risk and HIV infection, because these exposures influenced HIV/STI risk by undermining race/sexual identity congruence and increasing internalized homophobia and interpersonal anxiety. Structural equation modeling as well as logistic and Poisson regressions were performed using baseline data from HIV Prevention Trials Network 061 ( N = 1,553). Childhood religion affiliations that were more discouraging of homosexuality were associated with increased likelihood of HIV infection; however, the association was no longer significant after adjusting for age, income, and education. Having a childhood religion affiliation with high prevalence of beliefs discouraging homosexuality was associated with increased numbers of sexual partners (adjusted odds ratio = 4.31; 95% confidence interval [3.76, 4.94], p < .01). The hypothesized path model was largely supported and accounted for 37% of the variance in HIV infection; however, interpersonal anxiety was not associated with HIV/STI risk behaviors. Structural interventions are needed that focus on developing affirming theologies in religious institutions with Black men who have sex with men congregants.

  12. Social support, psychological vulnerability, and HIV risk among African American men who have sex with men.

    Saleh, Lena D; van den Berg, Jacob J; Chambers, Christopher S; Operario, Don

    2016-05-01

    Previous research has suggested a need to understand the social-psychological factors contributing to HIV risk among African American men who have sex with men (MSM). We conducted individual in-depth interviews with 34 adult African American MSM to examine their personal experiences about: (i) sources of social support, (ii) psychological responses to the presence or absence of social support and (iii) influences of social support on sexual behaviours. The majority of participants described limited positive encouragement and lack of emotional support from family, as well as few meaningful personal relationships. Feelings of isolation and mistrust about personal relationships led many participants to avoid emotional intimacy and seek physical intimacy through sexual encounters. Findings highlight a need for multilevel interventions that enhance social support networks and address the social-psychological, emotional and interpersonal factors that contribute to HIV risk among African American MSM.

  13. Technological advancements and Internet sexuality: does private access to the Internet influence online sexual behavior?

    Daneback, Kristian; Månsson, Sven-Axel; Ross, Michael W

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether demographic characteristics and sexual behavior online and offline were associated with private, respectively, nonprivate access to the Internet in a Web sample of people who use the Internet for sexual purposes. A total of 1,913 respondents completed an online questionnaire about Internet sexuality, and 1,614 reported using the Internet for sexual purposes. The majority of these respondents reported having access to an Internet-connected computer no one else had access to (62 percent women and 70 percent men). The results showed that it is possible to differentiate between those who have access to an Internet-connected computer no one else has access to and those who have shared access to an Internet-connected computer. Not only did they differ in demographic characteristics, but also in the sexual activities they engaged in on the Internet. Different patterns were found for women and men. For example, men who had private access to Internet-connected computers were more likely than those who had shared access to seek information about sexual issues. Thus, having access to Internet computers no one else has access to may promote sexual knowledge and health for men. The results of this study along with the technological development implies that in future research, attention should be paid to where and how people access the Internet in relation to online behavior in general and online sexual behavior in particular.

  14. Which behavioral, emotional and school problems in middle-childhood predict early sexual behavior?

    Parkes, Alison; Waylen, Andrea; Sayal, Kapil; Heron, Jon; Henderson, Marion; Wight, Daniel; Macleod, John

    2014-04-01

    Mental health and school adjustment problems are thought to distinguish early sexual behavior from normative timing (16-18 years), but little is known about how early sexual behavior originates from these problems in middle-childhood. Existing studies do not allow for co-occurring problems, differences in onset and persistence, and there is no information on middle-childhood school adjustment in relationship to early sexual activity. This study examined associations between several middle-childhood problems and early sexual behavior, using a subsample (N = 4,739, 53 % female, 98 % white, mean age 15 years 6 months) from a birth cohort study, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Adolescents provided information at age 15 on early sexual behavior (oral sex and/or intercourse) and sexual risk-taking, and at age 13 on prior risk involvement (sexual behavior, antisocial behavior and substance use). Information on hyperactivity/inattention, conduct problems, depressive symptoms, peer relationship problems, school dislike and school performance was collected in middle-childhood at Time 1 (6-8 years) and Time 2 (10-11 years). In agreement with previous research, conduct problems predicted early sexual behavior, although this was found only for persistent early problems. In addition, Time 2 school dislike predicted early sexual behavior, while peer relationship problems were protective. Persistent early school dislike further characterized higher-risk groups (early sexual behavior preceded by age 13 risk, or accompanied by higher sexual risk-taking). The study establishes middle-childhood school dislike as a novel risk factor for early sexual behavior and higher-risk groups, and the importance of persistent conduct problems. Implications for the identification of children at risk and targeted intervention are discussed, as well as suggestions for further research.

  15. Sexting and sexual behavior among middle school students.

    Rice, Eric; Gibbs, Jeremy; Winetrobe, Hailey; Rhoades, Harmony; Plant, Aaron; Montoya, Jorge; Kordic, Timothy

    2014-07-01

    It is unknown if "sexting" (i.e., sending/receiving sexually explicit cell phone text or picture messages) is associated with sexual activity and sexual risk behavior among early adolescents, as has been found for high school students. To date, no published data have examined these relationships exclusively among a probability sample of middle school students. A probability sample of 1285 students was collected alongside the 2012 Youth Risk Behavior Survey in Los Angeles middle schools. Logistic regressions assessed the correlates of sexting behavior and associations between sexting and sexual activity and risk behavior (ie, unprotected sex). Twenty percent of students with text-capable cell phone access reported receiving a sext and 5% reported sending a sext. Students who text at least 100 times per day were more likely to report both receiving (odds ratio [OR]: 2.4) and sending (OR: 4.5) sexts and to be sexually active (OR: 4.1). Students who sent sexts (OR: 3.2) and students who received sexts (OR: 7.0) were more likely to report sexual activity. Compared with not being sexually active, excessive texting and receiving sexts were associated with both unprotected sex (ORs: 4.7 and 12.1, respectively) and with condom use (ORs: 3.7 and 5.5, respectively). Because early sexual debut is correlated with higher rates of sexually transmitted infections and teen pregnancies, pediatricians should discuss sexting with young adolescents because this may facilitate conversations about sexually transmitted infection and pregnancy prevention. Sexting and associated risks should be considered for inclusion in middle school sex education curricula. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  16. Experience of sexual coercion and risky sexual behavior among Ugandan university students

    Östergren Per-Olof

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Growing worldwide evidence shows that the experience of sexual coercion is fairly prevalent among young people and is associated with risky sexual behavior thereafter. The causal mechanisms behind this are unclear but may be dependent on specific contextual determinants. Little is known about factors that could buffer the negative effects of coercion. The aim of this study was to assess the association between the experience of sexual coercion and risky sexual behavior among university students of both sexes in Uganda. Methods In 2005, 980 (80% out of a total of 1,220 students enrolled in Mbarara University of Science and Technology in Uganda participated in a self-administered questionnaire covering socio-demographic and religious factors, social capital, mental health, alcohol use, and sexual behavior. A validated scale of six items was used to assess the experience of sexual coercion. Logistic regression analyses were applied to control for confounders. Potential buffering factors were analyzed by testing for effect modification. Results Fifty-nine percent of those who responded had previously had sexual intercourse. Among the male students 29.0%, and among the female students 33.1% reported having had some experience of sexual coercion. After controlling for age, gender, and educational level of household of origin, role of religion and trust in others sexual coercion was found to be statistically significantly associated with previously had sex (OR 1.6, 95% CI; 1.1-2.3, early sexual debut (OR 2.4, 95% CI; 1.5-3.7, as well as with having had a great number of sexual partners (OR 1.9, 95% CI; 1.2-3.0, but not with inconsistent condom use. Scoring low on an assessment of mental health problems, reporting high trust in others, or stating that religion played a major role in one's family of origin seemed to buffer the negative effect that the experience of sexual coercion had on the likelihood of having many sexual partners

  17. Experience of sexual coercion and risky sexual behavior among Ugandan university students

    2011-01-01

    Background Growing worldwide evidence shows that the experience of sexual coercion is fairly prevalent among young people and is associated with risky sexual behavior thereafter. The causal mechanisms behind this are unclear but may be dependent on specific contextual determinants. Little is known about factors that could buffer the negative effects of coercion. The aim of this study was to assess the association between the experience of sexual coercion and risky sexual behavior among university students of both sexes in Uganda. Methods In 2005, 980 (80%) out of a total of 1,220 students enrolled in Mbarara University of Science and Technology in Uganda participated in a self-administered questionnaire covering socio-demographic and religious factors, social capital, mental health, alcohol use, and sexual behavior. A validated scale of six items was used to assess the experience of sexual coercion. Logistic regression analyses were applied to control for confounders. Potential buffering factors were analyzed by testing for effect modification. Results Fifty-nine percent of those who responded had previously had sexual intercourse. Among the male students 29.0%, and among the female students 33.1% reported having had some experience of sexual coercion. After controlling for age, gender, and educational level of household of origin, role of religion and trust in others sexual coercion was found to be statistically significantly associated with previously had sex (OR 1.6, 95% CI; 1.1-2.3), early sexual debut (OR 2.4, 95% CI; 1.5-3.7), as well as with having had a great number of sexual partners (OR 1.9, 95% CI; 1.2-3.0), but not with inconsistent condom use. Scoring low on an assessment of mental health problems, reporting high trust in others, or stating that religion played a major role in one's family of origin seemed to buffer the negative effect that the experience of sexual coercion had on the likelihood of having many sexual partners. Conclusion The findings

  18. Experience of sexual coercion and risky sexual behavior among Ugandan university students.

    Agardh, Anette; Odberg-Pettersson, Karen; Ostergren, Per-Olof

    2011-07-04

    Growing worldwide evidence shows that the experience of sexual coercion is fairly prevalent among young people and is associated with risky sexual behavior thereafter. The causal mechanisms behind this are unclear but may be dependent on specific contextual determinants. Little is known about factors that could buffer the negative effects of coercion. The aim of this study was to assess the association between the experience of sexual coercion and risky sexual behavior among university students of both sexes in Uganda. In 2005, 980 (80%) out of a total of 1,220 students enrolled in Mbarara University of Science and Technology in Uganda participated in a self-administered questionnaire covering socio-demographic and religious factors, social capital, mental health, alcohol use, and sexual behavior. A validated scale of six items was used to assess the experience of sexual coercion. Logistic regression analyses were applied to control for confounders. Potential buffering factors were analyzed by testing for effect modification. Fifty-nine percent of those who responded had previously had sexual intercourse. Among the male students 29.0%, and among the female students 33.1% reported having had some experience of sexual coercion. After controlling for age, gender, and educational level of household of origin, role of religion and trust in others sexual coercion was found to be statistically significantly associated with previously had sex (OR 1.6, 95% CI; 1.1-2.3), early sexual debut (OR 2.4, 95% CI; 1.5-3.7), as well as with having had a great number of sexual partners (OR 1.9, 95% CI; 1.2-3.0), but not with inconsistent condom use.Scoring low on an assessment of mental health problems, reporting high trust in others, or stating that religion played a major role in one's family of origin seemed to buffer the negative effect that the experience of sexual coercion had on the likelihood of having many sexual partners. The findings of this study suggest that the

  19. Psychosocial predictors of sexual initiation and high-risk sexual behaviors in early adolescence

    Schwab-Stone Mary

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This longitudinal study examined psychosocial factors associated with risky sexual behavior in early adolescence. Methods Data were collected through a self-report survey, the Social and Health Assessment (SAHA, which was administered in three waves between 2001 and 2003 to a cohort of incoming sixth grade students in the public school system (149 classes at 17 middle and high schools, N = 1,175 of a small northeastern city in the United States. We first examined whether internalizing and externalizing problems in sixth grade, and the rate of change in these factors during middle school, were predictive of sexual initiation two years later, when most of the sample was in eighth grade. We then assessed whether internalizing and externalizing problems in sixth grade, and the rate of change in these factors during middle school, were predictive of engaging in high risk sexual behavior over the subsequent two years. Results Externalizing factors are more predictive of sexual risk in early adolescence than are internalizing factors. Specifically, substance use and violent delinquency over the course of middle school were associated with higher, while anxiety with lower, sexual initiation rates during middle school. Additionally, increased substance use over the course of middle school was associated with greater likelihood of engaging in high risk sexual behavior. Conclusion By identifying particular psychosocial risk factors among young adolescents, the findings of this study have implications for designing multi-dimensional programs aimed at preventing health-compromising sexual behavior among young teens.

  20. Sexual orientation disparities in cancer-related risk behaviors of tobacco, alcohol, sexual behaviors, and diet and physical activity: pooled Youth Risk Behavior Surveys.

    Rosario, Margaret; Corliss, Heather L; Everett, Bethany G; Reisner, Sari L; Austin, S Bryn; Buchting, Francisco O; Birkett, Michelle

    2014-02-01

    We examined sexual orientation disparities in cancer-related risk behaviors among adolescents. We pooled data from the 2005 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys. We classified youths with any same-sex orientation as sexual minority and the remainder as heterosexual. We compared the groups on risk behaviors and stratified by gender, age ( 14 years), and race/ethnicity. Sexual minorities (7.6% of the sample) reported more risk behaviors than heterosexuals for all 12 behaviors (mean = 5.3 vs 3.8; P sexual orientation disparities in analyses by gender, followed by age, and then race/ethnicity; they persisted in analyses by gender, age, and race/ethnicity, although findings were nuanced. Data on cancer risk, morbidity, and mortality by sexual orientation are needed to track the potential but unknown burden of cancer among sexual minorities.

  1. Dopamine receptors play distinct roles in sexual behavior expression of rats with a different sexual motivational tone.

    Guadarrama-Bazante, Irma L; Canseco-Alba, Ana; Rodríguez-Manzo, Gabriela

    2014-10-01

    Dopamine (DA) plays a central role in the expression of male sexual behavior. The effects of DA-enhancing drugs on copulation seem to vary depending on the dose of the agonist used, the type of DA receptor activated, and the sexual condition of the animals. The aim of the present study was to carry out a systematic analysis of the effects of dopaminergic agonists on the expression of male sexual behavior by sexually competent rats in different sexual motivational states, that is when sexually active (sexually experienced) and when temporarily inhibited (sexually exhausted). To this end, the same doses of the nonselective DA receptor agonist apomorphine, the selective D2-like DA receptor agonist quinpirole, and the selective D1-like DA receptor agonist SKF38393 were injected intraperitoneally to sexually experienced or sexually exhausted male rats and their sexual behavior was recorded. Low apomorphine doses induced expression of sexual behavior in sexually satiated rats, but only reduced the intromission latency of sexually experienced rats. SKF38393 facilitated the expression of sexual behavior by sexually exhausted rats, but not that of sexually experienced males and quinpirole did not exert an effect in both types of animal. In line with these results, the apomorphine-induced reversal of sexual exhaustion was blocked by the D1-like receptor antagonist SCH23390. The data suggest that DA receptors play distinct roles in the expression of sexual behavior by male rats depending on their motivational state and that activation of D1-like receptors promotes the expression of sexual behavior in satiated rats.

  2. Comparative study of an HIV risk scorecard and regression models to rank effects of demographic characteristics on risk of aquiring an HIV infection

    Wilbert Sibanda; Philip Pretorius

    2013-01-01

    This research paper covers the development of an HIV risk scorecard using SAS Enterprise MinerTM. The HIV risk scorecard was developed using the 2007 South African annual antenatal HIV and syphilis seroprevalence data. Limited comparisons are made with a more recent 2010 antenatal database. Antenatal data contains various demographic characteristics for each pregnant woman, such as pregnant woman’s age, male sexual partner’s age, population group, level of education, gravidity, parity, HIV an...

  3. Factors affecting behaviours that address HIV risk among Black and White South Africans

    K. Peltzer

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify factors affecting HIV risk reduction among 150 Black and 150 White South Africans chosen by systematic random sampling. Main outcome measures included sexual behaviour and condom use, knowledge about correct condom use, intention of condom use, behavioural norms, attitudes, normative beliefs, and subjective norms about condoms, HIV/AIDS health beliefs, and HIV risk behaviour. Bivariate analysis gave positive significant relations among being single, age, HIV/ AIDS perceived severity, HIV/AIDS prevention barriers and HIV risk behaviour. Further, bivariate analysis gave negative significant relations among age at onset of puberty, age at first vaginal intercourse, correct condom use knowledge, subjective norms, intention to use condoms and HIV risk behaviour. Regression analysis indicated that for subjective norm to use condoms, less intention for condom use, less condom use knowledge and younger age of first vaginal intercourse were predictive for HIV/AIDS risk behaviour. HIV prevention intervention programmes should include the identified factors and cultural diversity.

  4. Food Insecurity Increases HIV Risk Among Young Sex Workers in Metro Vancouver, Canada.

    Barreto, Daniella; Shannon, Kate; Taylor, Chrissy; Dobrer, Sabina; Jean, Jessica St; Goldenberg, Shira M; Duff, Putu; Deering, Kathleen N

    2017-03-01

    This research aimed to determine the effect of food insecurity on sexual HIV risk with clients among youth sex workers (YSWs) sex workers (2010-2013). We examined the independent relationship between YSWs' food insecurity and being pressured into sex without a condom by clients ("client condom refusal"). Of 220 YSWs, 34.5 % (n = 76) reported client condom refusal over the 3.5-year study period and 76.4 % (n = 168) reported any food insecurity. Adjusting for other HIV risk pathways, food insecurity retained an independent effect on client condom refusal (AOR 2.08, 95 % CI 1.23-3.51), suggesting that food insecurity is significantly associated with HIV risk among YSWs. This study indicates a critical relationship between food insecurity and HIV risk, and demonstrates YSWs' particular vulnerability. Public policies for food assistance as a harm reduction measure may be key to addressing this disparity.

  5. SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES: KNOWLEDGE AND SEXUAL BEHAVIOR OF ADOLESCENTS

    Niviane Genz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: evaluar el conocimiento y comportamiento sexual de los adolescentes acerca de Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual. Metodo: estudio descriptivo, observacional, cuantitativo, con muestra de conveniencia con 532 adolescentes entre 10 y 19 años. El cuestionario fue administrado sobre ETS. Para el análisis de los datos se utilizó el programa STATA11.1. El proyecto fue aprobado por el. Resultados: 89,2% de las chicas y el 90,3% de los chicos supieron definir adecuadamente el concepto de ETS; 98,5% de las chicas y 98,9% de los chicos el uso del preservativo es el método más eficaz para la prevención. Sin embargo, el 37,1% de las chicas y el 30,5% de los chicos reportaron el uso de anticonceptivos como método preventivo. Conclusion: es saludable la realización de acciones educativas junto a la escuela sobre temas tales como la sexualidad y la salud reproductiva.

  6. Evaluation of HIV Risk Reduction and Intervention Programs via Latent Growth Model.

    Wang, Jichuan; Siegal, Harvey A.; Falck, Russel S.; Carlson, Robert G.; Rahman, Ahmmed

    1999-01-01

    Demonstrates how the latent growth model can be applied to the evaluation of programs targeting HIV risk behavior among drug users. Multigroup piecewise latent growth models were fit to longitudinal data with three repeated response measures. Participants were 430 drug users and their sex partners. (SLD)

  7. Dopamine, the medial preoptic area, and male sexual behavior.

    Dominguez, Juan M; Hull, Elaine M

    2005-10-15

    The medial preoptic area (MPOA), at the rostral end of the hypothalamus, is important for the regulation of male sexual behavior. Results showing that male sexual behavior is impaired following MPOA lesions and enhanced with MPOA stimulation support this conclusion. The neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) facilitates male sexual behavior in all studied species, including rodents and humans. Here, we review data indicating that the MPOA is one site where DA may act to regulate male sexual behavior. DA agonists microinjected into the MPOA facilitate sexual behavior, whereas DA antagonists impair copulation, genital reflexes, and sexual motivation. Moreover, microdialysis experiments showed increased release of DA in the MPOA as a result of precopulatory exposure to an estrous female and during copulation. DA may remove tonic inhibition in the MPOA, thereby enhancing sensorimotor integration, and also coordinate autonomic influences on genital reflexes. In addition to sensory stimulation, other factors influence the release of DA in the MPOA, including testosterone, nitric oxide, and glutamate. Here we summarize and interpret these data.

  8. HPV vaccination and sexual behavior in a community college sample.

    Marchand, Erica; Glenn, Beth A; Bastani, Roshan

    2013-12-01

    Many US parents are concerned that vaccinating daughters against human papillomavirus (HPV) will communicate implicit approval for sexual activity and be associated with early or risky sexual behavior (Scarinci et al. in J Womens Health 16(8):1224-1233, 2007; Schuler et al. in Sex Transm Infect 87:349-353, 2011). The aims of this study were to understand (a) whether the HPV vaccine was associated with risky sexual behavior among a diverse sample of female adolescents and young adults, and (b) to better understand the chronology of HPV vaccination and sexual behavior. An anonymous web-based survey was used to collect data from 114 female community college students. T test and Chi square analyses were used to compare vaccinated and unvaccinated groups on age at first intercourse and proportion who had ever had sexual intercourse. Linear multiple regression was used to predict frequency of condom use and number of sexual partners in the past year, using vaccination status and demographic factors as predictors. About 38% reported receiving at least one dose of the HPV vaccine. Many of those vaccinated (45%) received the vaccine after having initiated sexual activity. The proportion of women who were sexually experienced did not differ by HPV vaccine status, nor did age at first intercourse, number of partners in the past year, or frequency of condom use. Current findings suggest that HPV vaccination is not associated with riskier sexual activity for the young women in this sample. Adolescents and their parents may benefit from education about the need to receive the HPV vaccine before onset of sexual activity.

  9. Sexual behaviors among older adults in Spain: results from a population-based national sexual health survey.

    Palacios-Ceña, Domingo; Carrasco-Garrido, Pilar; Hernández-Barrera, Valentín; Alonso-Blanco, Cristina; Jiménez-García, Rodrigo; Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César

    2012-01-01

    The Spanish National Sexual Health Survey (SNSHS) is designed to examine sexual activity, sexual behaviors, and sexual health among the Spanish population. To describe sexual activity and behaviors of Spaniards aged ≥ 65 years old focusing on gender differences. A population-based descriptive study was conducted using individual data from the SNSHS. The number of subjects aged ≥ 65 years included was 1,939 (1,118 women, 821 men). Sexual activity, frequency, sexual behaviors, sexual practices, and reasons for lack of sexual activity were assessed from questions included in the survey. Subjects who reported having any sexual practice including giving or receiving kissing and hugging, vaginal intercourse, oral sex, or masturbation, with at least one partner in the previous 12 months were considered as sexually active. We analyzed sociodemographic characteristics, self-rated physical and sexual health, comorbid conditions, and medications using multivariate logistic regression models. Overall, 62.3% of men and 37.4% of elderly women were sexually active (P practices were kissing, hugging, and vaginal intercourse. The most common reasons for sexual inactivity were: partner was physically ill (23%), lack of interest (21%), and the man was a widower (23%). This study provided data on sexual activity in older Spanish adults and has identified potential factors that appear to influence sexuality in the elderly with some gender differences. Current results can have implications for healthcare providers for addressing these concerns in an effective manner. © 2011 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  10. What leads some people to think they are HIV-positive before knowing their diagnosis? A systematic review of psychological and behavioural correlates of HIV-risk perception.

    Evangeli, Michael; Baker, Laura L E; Pady, Kirsten; Jones, Bethanie; Wroe, Abigail L

    2016-08-01

    Current HIV-risk perception refers to the extent to which individuals think they might be HIV-positive. This belief, distinct from the perceived risk about being infected with HIV in the future, is likely to have a range of important consequences. These consequences may include both psychological effects (e.g., impacts on well-being) and behavioural effects (e.g., HIV testing uptake). Given these possible outcomes, and the suggested importance of risk perception in health behaviour models, understanding the behavioural and psychological antecedents of current HIV-risk perception is crucial. This systematic review investigates the relationship between behavioural and psychological factors and current HIV-risk perception (in individuals who are unaware of their actual HIV status). Eight studies were eligible for inclusion in the review (five quantitative and three qualitative studies). Drug risk behaviour and sexual risk behaviour (both self and partner) were often associated with current HIV-risk perception, although other studies failed to show a relationship between one's own sexual risk behaviour and risk perception. Psychological factors were only rarely assessed in relation to current HIV-risk perception. Where these variables were included, there was evidence that experiencing symptoms perceived to be consistent with HIV and prompts to test were associated with increased current HIV-risk perception. These findings are consistent with the Common-Sense Model (CSM) of illness representation and self-regulation. Methodological quality criteria were rarely met for the included studies. In addition, it was often difficult to ascertain whether potentially includable studies were eligible due to imprecise definitions of HIV-risk perception. Research and practice implications are discussed, with particular emphasis on the role of risk appraisals as a potential mediator of the relationship between HIV-risk behaviour, symptoms and current HIV-risk perception.

  11. [Sexual behavior and contraceptive practices among university students].

    Repossi, A; Araneda, J M; Bustos, L; Puente, C; Rojas, C

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the knowledge, opinions and sexual behaviour of a sample of 464 students from the Universidad Austral de Chile. Results show that 78% of male and 41% of female students have had a sexual intercourse and that 78% of males and 72% of females with an active sexual life use contraceptive methods. The principal reasons to avoid the use of these methods are the irregularity of sexual intercourse and the reduction in pleasure. Most students think that these methods are harmful for their health but they should be used. The use of contraceptive methods increase with the frequency of sexual relations and university experience, but first year students use them more frequently than second year students. Most students know several contraceptive methods, but their knowledge about mechanisms of action is inadequate or distorted. Likewise, more than 50% think that it is possible to prevent pregnancy after a sexual intercourse. It is concluded that most sexually active students use contraceptive methods, but inappropriately. Stereotypes, myths and lack of information are influencing their sexual and contraceptive practices, showing incoherence between their knowledge and behavior. A possible explanation could be a scarce influence of high school and religion on their sexual formation.

  12. Economic, Legal, and Social Hardships Associated with HIV Risk among Black Men who have Sex with Men in Six US Cities.

    Nelson, LaRon E; Wilton, Leo; Moineddin, Rahim; Zhang, Nanhua; Siddiqi, Arjumand; Sa, Ting; Harawa, Nina; Regan, Rotrease; Dyer, Typhanye Penniman; Watson, Christopher C; Koblin, Beryl; Del Rio, Carlos; Buchbinder, Susan; Wheeler, Darrell P; Mayer, Kenneth H

    2016-02-01

    We assessed whether economic, legal, and social hardships were associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk among a sample of Black men who have sex with men (MSM) and whether associations were moderated by city of residence. The study analyzed baseline and follow-up data from HIV Prevention Trials Network 061 (N = 1553). Binary logistic regression assessed associations between hardships and HIV risk indicators. Multivariate regressions were used to test if city of residence had a moderating effect for hardships and HIV risks. Adjusted analyses showed that Black MSM with recent job loss were more likely to engage in condomless insertive anal intercourse (adjusted odds ratios (AOR) = 1.37, 95% CI 1.01-1.87) and that those with recent financial crisis were more likely to have had two or more male sexual partners in the past 6 months (AOR = 1.65; 95% CI 1.18-2.29). Black MSM with recent convictions were more likely to have a sexually transmitted infection at 6 months (AOR = 3.97; 95% CI 1.58-9.94), while those who were unstably housed were more likely to have a sexually transmitted infection at 12 months (AOR = 1.71; 95%CI 1.02 = 2.86). There were no city of residence and hardship interaction effects on HIV risks. Hardships are important factors that influence HIV risk for Black MSM. Integrating strategies that address structural factors that influence HIV risk may enhance HIV prevention interventions implementation efforts.

  13. Cell phone internet access, online sexual solicitation, partner seeking, and sexual risk behavior among adolescents.

    Rice, Eric; Winetrobe, Hailey; Holloway, Ian W; Montoya, Jorge; Plant, Aaron; Kordic, Timothy

    2015-04-01

    Online partner seeking is associated with sexual risk behavior among young adults (specifically men who have sex with men), but this association has yet to be explored among a probability sample of adolescents. Moreover, cell phone internet access and sexual risk taking online and offline have not been explored. A probability sample (N = 1,831) of Los Angeles Unified School District high school students was collected in 2011. Logistic regression models assessed relationships between specific sexual risk behaviors (online sexual solicitation, seeking partners online, sex with internet-met partners, condom use) and frequency of internet use, internet access points, and demographics. Students with cell phone internet access were more likely to report being solicited online for sex, being sexually active, and having sex with an internet-met partner. Bisexual-identifying students reported higher rates of being approached online for sex, being sexually active, and not using condoms at last sex. Gay, lesbian, and questioning (GLQ) students were more likely to report online partner seeking and unprotected sex at last sex with an internet-met partner. Additionally, having sex with an internet-met partner was associated with being male, online sexual solicitation, and online partner seeking. Internet- and school-based sexual health programs should incorporate safety messages regarding online sexual solicitation, seeking sex partners online, and engaging in safer sex practices with all partners. Programs must target adolescents of all sexual identities, as adolescents may not yet be "out," and bisexual and GLQ adolescents are more likely to engage in risky sex behaviors.

  14. Determinants of risky sexual behavior among women in Ukraine: condom use at first sexual intercourse

    Barska, Julia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sexually transmitted infections (STI create a great hazard to public health. STIs occur mostly as a result of different types of risky sexual behavior, such as early sexual debut, unprotected sexual intercourses, alcohol use during sex, multiple partnership etc. Condoms are known to provide the best protection against negative consequences of risky sexual behavior. In this study we aimed to determine factors associated with condom use at first sexual intercourses by women in Ukraine.METHODS: Secondary analysis of data of the 2007 Ukraine Demographic and Health Survey was conducted. Responses of 883 sexually experienced women aged 15–24 were included in the analysis. Associations between condom use at first sex and independent variables were assessed using multivariate binary logistic regression.RESULTS: Light (less than 3,5 drinks per week and heavy (3,5 drinks per week or more drinkers were more likely to use condoms at first sexual intercourse compared to abstainers or occasional drinkers (OR 1,83 (CI 1,32-2,53 and 2,21 (CI 1,43-3,42, respectively. Besides that, women from households with above average income had 1,65 (CI 1,17-2,33 higher odds to use condoms at sexual debut in comparison to women from households with lower income. Women who read printed media at least once a week had twice (CI 1,36-2,94 as high odds of using condoms at first intercourse as women who read newspapers or magazines rare. Non-Western region of residence and sexual partner of about the same age were positively associated with condom use as well.CONCLUSIONS: Wealthy young adults from industrially developed regions are active users of condoms during sexual debut, which is to be accounted for in determining target groups for social policy in Ukraine.

  15. Transitions in body and behavior: a meta-analytic study on the relationship between pubertal development and adolescent sexual behavior.

    Baams, Laura; Dubas, Judith Semon; Overbeek, Geertjan; van Aken, Marcel A G

    2015-06-01

    The present meta-analysis studies the relations of pubertal timing and status with sexual behavior and sexual risk behavior among youth aged 10.5-22.4 years. We included biological sex, age, and ethnicity as potential moderators. Four databases were searched for studies (published between 1980 and 2012) on the relation between pubertal timing or status and sexual behavior. The outcomes were (1) sexual intercourse; (2) combined sexual behavior; and (3) risky sexual behavior. Earlier pubertal timing or more advanced pubertal status was related to earlier and more sexual behavior, and earlier pubertal timing was related to more risky sexual behavior. Further, the links between (1) pubertal status and combined sexual behavior and (2) pubertal timing and sexual intercourse status, combined sexual behavior, and risky sexual behavior were stronger for girls than boys. Most links between pubertal status, timing, and sexual behavior and sexual risk behavior were stronger for younger adolescents. Moderation by ethnicity did not yield consistent results. There was significant variation in results among studies that was not fully explained by differences in biological sex, age, and ethnicity. Future research is needed to identify moderators that explain the variation in effects and to design sexual health interventions for young adolescents. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Sadness, suicide, and sexual behavior in Arkansas: results from the youth risk behavior survey 2011.

    Kindrick, Clint; Gathright, Molly; Cisler, Josh M; Messias, Erick

    2013-12-01

    We used the 2011 Arkansas Youth Risk Behavior Survey to estimate the prevalence of risky sexual behavior and sexual assault and to measure its association with teen suicidality. In Arkansas, 50.3% of students reported ever having sexual intercourse, 26% onset at 14 or younger, 36 % having had more than one partner, and 10.2% having been physically forced to have sex. "Being forced to have sex" was a risk factor for depression and all components of the suicide continuum. Additionally, early onset of sexual activity and having more than one partner increased the risk for depression, suicidal ideation, plan, and attempt. Suicide is a grievous and preventable tragedy, sadly standing among the leading causes of death for teens.' In this series, we examine risk factors for suicidality among Arkansas high school students; in this installment, we examine sexual behavior. A previous study utilizing the Rhode Island Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) found an association between having forced sexual intercourse and suicide. Furthermore, an association between psychiatric disorders and risky sexual behaviors, including both early onset and number of partners was found in a birth cohort study revealed. We hypothesize that Arkansas' teens reporting risky sexual behavior and sexual assault are at higher risk of depression and suicidality as well.

  17. Gender roles and sexual behavior among young women.

    Lucke, J C

    1998-08-01

    The associations between gender role orientation and high-risk sex behaviors were explored in a study of 400 sexually active women 16-24 years of age (mean, 20.4 years) recruited from two metropolitan family planning clinics in Queensland, Australia. Three dimensions of gender role orientation were examined: gender role personality traits, gender role attitudes, and gender role dating behavior. It was hypothesized that women with more nontraditional or "masculine" characteristics are more likely than those with traditional or "feminine" characteristics to engage in unsafe sexual behaviors. Only partial support was found for this hypothesis. Although a number of univariate relationships emerged, very few associations between sexual behavior and gender roles remained significant in the multivariate analysis. Logistic regression analysis indicated that women with two or more sexual partners in the year preceding the study were significantly more likely than those with 0-1 sex partners to have masculine personality traits and to be more liberal in their attitudes toward women in society. Nonuse of condoms with the most recent sexual partner was not significantly associated with the gender role variables; however, women who reported masculine dating behaviors were more likely to have used a condom with their most recent nonsteady sexual partner. Similarly, substance use before or during last sexual intercourse was associated with masculine traits when the partner was nonsteady but was not related to gender role orientation when the partner was steady. The association of "masculine" personality traits with multiple partners and substance use indicates that caution should be exercised in assuming that masculine gender role characteristics are beneficial for women in sexual situations.

  18. Exploring the potential of a conditional cash transfer intervention to reduce HIV risk among young women in Iringa, Tanzania.

    Kennedy, Caitlin E; Brahmbhatt, Heena; Likindikoki, Samuel; Beckham, Sarah W; Mbwambo, Jessie K; Kerrigan, Deanna

    2014-01-01

    Cash transfer programs seek to alter structural determinants of HIV risk such as poverty and gender inequality. We sought to explore the feasibility and potential effectiveness of a cash transfer intervention for young women as part of combination HIV prevention in Iringa, Tanzania. Qualitative, in-depth interviews were conducted with 116 stakeholders and residents from the region, including key informants, service delivery users, and members of key populations. Most respondents felt a cash transfer program would assist young women in Iringa to have more control over sexual decision-making and reduce poverty-driven transactional sex. Respondents were divided on who should receive funds: young women themselves, their parents/guardians, or community leaders. Cash amounts and suggested target groups varied, and several respondents suggested providing microcredit or small business capital instead of cash. Potential concerns included jealousy, dependency, and corruption. However, most respondents felt that some intervention was needed to address underlying poverty driving some sexual risk behavior. A cash transfer program could fill this role, ultimately reducing HIV, sexually transmitted infections, and unintended pregnancies. As increased attention is given to economic and structural interventions for HIV prevention, local input and knowledge should be considered in a program design.

  19. The relationship of reported HIV risk and history of HIV testing among emergency department patients.

    Merchant, Roland C; Freelove, Sarah M; Langan, Thomas J; Clark, Melissa A; Mayer, Kenneth H; Seage, George R; DeGruttola, Victor G

    2010-01-01

    Among a random sample of emergency department (ED) patients, we sought to determine the extent to which reported risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is related to ever having been tested for HIV. A random sample of patients (aged 18-64 years) from an adult, urban, northeastern United States, academic ED were surveyed about their history of ever having been tested for HIV and their reported HIV risk behaviors. A reported HIV risk score was calculated from the survey responses and divided into 4 levels, based on quartiles of the risk scores. Pearson's X(2) testing was used to compare HIV testing history and level of reported HIV risk. Logistic regression models were created to investigate the association between level of reported HIV risk and the outcome of ever having been tested for HIV. Of the 557 participants, 62.1% were female. A larger proportion of females than males (71.4% vs 60.6%; P history of injection-drug use, were associated with prior HIV testing for both genders. In the logistic regression analyses, there was no relationship between increasing level of reported HIV risk and a history of ever having been tested for HIV for males. For females, a history of ever having been tested was related to increasing level of reported risk, but not in a linear fashion. The relationship between reported HIV risk and history of testing among these ED patients was complex and differed by gender. Among these patients, having greater risk did not necessarily mean a higher likelihood of ever having been tested for HIV.

  20. [Development of sexuality and motivational aspects of sexual behavior in men with obsessive-compulsive disorders].

    2014-09-01

    Sexual behavior and formation of sexuality in men with obsessive-compulsive disorder is one of the pressing issues in contemporary medicine. Obsessive-compulsive disorder is characterized by the development of intrusive thoughts, memories, movements and actions, as well as a variety of pathological fears (phobias). Increase in the number of patients with this pathology in modern clinical practice of neurotic disorders, the young age of the patients and as a result violation of interpersonal, communicational and sexual nature is quite apparent. The study involved 35 men aged 23 to 47 years with clinical signs of OCD. We determined the severity of obsessive-compulsive symptoms using the Yale-Brown scale. We established the presence of a mild degree of disorder in 34,3% of cases; in 48,6% of cases disorder of moderate severity was diagnosed; remaining 17.1% were assessed subclinical condition of OCD at the applicable scale. The system of motivational maintenance of sexual behavior in men with obsessive-compulsive disorders is investigated. Motives of sexual behavior of the investigated men with the pathology are determined. The presented research in men with OCD have established multidimensionality and complexity of motivational ensuring of sexual behavior.

  1. Prenatal undernutrition disrupted the sexual maturation, but not the sexual behavior, in male rats.

    Matsuzaki, Toshiya; Munkhzaya, Munkhsaikhan; Tungalagsuvd, Altankhuu; Mayila, Yiliyasi; Iwasa, Takeshi; Yano, Kiyohito; Yanagihara, Rie; Tokui, Takako; Kato, Takeshi; Kuwahara, Akira; Matsui, Sumika; Irahara, Minoru

    2017-10-01

    Exposure to various stressors, including psychological, metabolic, and immune, in the perinatal period induces long-lasting effects in physiological function and increase the risk of metabolic disorders in later life. In the present study, sexual maturation and sexual behavior were assessed in prenatally undernourished mature male rats. All the pregnant rats were divided into the maternal normal nutrition (mNN) group and the maternal undernutrition (mUN) group. The mUN mothers received 50% of the amount of the daily food intake of the mNN mothers. Preputial separation and sexual behavior were observed in randomly selected pups of the mNN and mUN groups. The body weight of the mothers was significantly lighter in the mUN group than in the mNN group. Similarly, the pups in the mUN group showed a significantly lower body weight than those in the mNN group from postnatal day (PND) 1 to PND 15. The preputial separation day was significantly delayed in the mUN group, compared to the mNN group. Sexual behavior did not show any significant difference between the two groups. These findings indicated that prenatal undernutrition delayed sexual maturation, but did not suppress sexual behavior, in mature male rats.

  2. Risky sexual behavior and predisposing factors among students of ...

    BACKGROUND: Students of higher institutions are assumed to be exposed to many risky sexual behaviors. However, little has been explored about the magnitude of risky behavior and predisposing factors in the context of higher education institutions in Ethiopia. Thus, the objective of this study was to assess the pattern of ...

  3. HIV sexual risk behavior and family dynamics in a Dominican tourism town.

    Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Padilla, Mark; Cedar, Anna Lindberg; Lee, Jane; Robles, Gabriel

    2013-10-01

    Expansion of the tourism industry in the Dominican Republic has had far-reaching health consequences for the local population. Research suggests families with one or more members living in tourism areas experience heightened vulnerability to HIV/STIs due to exposure to tourism environments, which can promote behaviors such as commercial and transactional sex and elevated alcohol use. Nevertheless, little is known about how tourism contexts influence family dynamics, which, in turn, shape HIV risk. This qualitative study examined family relationships through in-depth interviews with 32 adults residing in Sosúa, an internationally known destination for sex tourism. Interviewees situated HIV risk within a context of limited employment opportunities, high rates of migration, heavy alcohol use, and separation from family. This study has implications for effective design of health interventions that make use of the role of the family to prevent HIV transmission in tourism environments.

  4. HIV Sexual Risk Behavior and Family Dynamics in a Dominican Tourism Town

    Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Padilla, Mark; Cedar, Anna Lindberg; Lee, Jane; Robles, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    Expansion of the tourism industry in the Dominican Republic has had far-reaching health consequences for the local population. Research suggests families with one or more members living in tourism areas experience heightened vulnerability to HIV/STIs due to exposure to tourism environments, which can promote behaviors such as commercial and transactional sex and elevated alcohol use. Nevertheless, little is known about how tourism contexts influence family dynamics, which, in turn, shape HIV risk. This qualitative study examined family relationships through in-depth interviews with 32 adults residing in Sosúa, an internationally known destination for sex tourism. Interviewees situated HIV risk within a context of limited employment opportunities, high rates of migration, heavy alcohol use, and separation from family. This study has implications for effective design of health interventions that make use of the role of the family to prevent HIV transmission in tourism environments. PMID:23436038

  5. Sexual Behavior of the Elderly in Urban Areas

    Jeong, Hyun Cheol; Kim, Sin Uk; Lee, Wan Chul; Kim, Ma Tae; Lee, Won Ki; Kim, Ha Young; Kim, Sung Yong

    2012-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed at investigating sexual behavior patterns of elderly residents of urban areas in South Korea and their correlation with lower urinary tract symptoms. Materials and Methods From May, 2009 to October, 2009, 154 males and 299 females over 60 years old who visited senior welfare centers of Seoul were administered a questionnaire on sex life patterns and voiding symptoms. Results Among the 154 males, 59 (38.3%) had sexual intercourse at least one time per month. The remaining 95 males (61.7%) did not have sexual intercourse, because of impotence for 52 males (52.6%), no sexual desire for 28 males (29.4%), and sex partner's problems for 15 males (15.7%). The higher International Prostate Symptom Score was, the lower International Index of Erectile Dysfunction-5 was (p=0.035). Among 299 females, 37 (12.4%) had sexual intercourse at least one time per month. The remaining 262 females (87.6%) did not have sexual intercourse, because of no spouse for 163 females (63.2%), no sexual desire for 48 females (18.6%), the spouse's impotence for 34 females (13.2%), and the spouse's bad health for 10 females (3.9%). It was found that self-diagnosis of overactive bladder affects sex life negatively. Conclusions The sexual behaviors of the elderly included varying activity. Sexual intercourse were significantly associated with lower urinary tract symptoms. Our results suggest that the counseling with the elderly about sexual health is as important as it is with non-elderly individuals. PMID:23596607

  6. Digital and divergent: sexual behaviors on the Internet.

    Klein, Carolina A

    2014-01-01

    A variety of sexual behaviors occur online, including those that are highly unusual or even plainly illicit. There is a growing body of literature pertaining to sexual abuse of minors that occurs or may be promoted online, but there is a paucity of information regarding other Internet-based sexual interactions, such as manufacturing, dissemination, and online viewing of other atypical sexual material. In this article, I explore and analyze these different practices, which include, but are not limited to, videos of rape, sadomasochism with bodily disfigurement, zoophilia, and necrophilia, with the intention of diminishing the gap in information about this industry. The impact that these behaviors may have on clinical or forensic psychiatric evaluations is discussed, along with pertinent legal regulations and ethics-related considerations. © 2014 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  7. Exploring hypersexual behavior in men with Parkinson's disease: is it compulsive sexual behavior?

    Bronner, Gila; Hassin-Baer, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    A range of impulse control disorders has been described in Parkinson's disease, including compulsive sexual behavior. Excessive sexual demands of parkinsonian men can lead to considerable tension within the couple. Thorough sexual interviews reveal that these cases may reflect various types of sexual dysfunctions that present as hypersexuality. This study aims to analyze cases of presumed and true compulsive male sexual behavior, and to propose a practical tool for clinicians, assisting them with the diagnosis and management of compulsive sexual behavior and other sexual dysfunctions in parkinsonian patients. We describe four male patients with Parkinson's disease from the movement disorders clinic, which were referred to the sex therapist as suspected hypersexuality. The sexual assessment revealed that only one of the cases involved true hypersexuality due to compulsive sexual behavior. The other three presented with erectile dysfunction, difficulties reaching orgasm (delayed ejaculation), and a gap in desire within the couple. Complaints about hypersexual behavior in patients with Parkinson's disease must be carefully evaluated, involving a multidisciplinary team. A comprehensive diagnostic and therapeutic algorithm is suggested.

  8. SEXUAL HEALTH BEHAVIORS OF ADOLESCENTS IN POKHARA, NEPAL

    Shrestha Niranjan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adolescent (10–19 years is a transition of age during which hazardous sexual health behaviors may be adopted; increasing vulnerability to several kinds of behavioral disorders like drug use, unsafe sexual act leading to reproductive ill health. Objective of the study was to assess sexual health behaviors of adolescents in Pokhara, Nepal. METHODS: An institution based cross-sectional study was conducted among 15–19 years adolescents studying in grades 11 and 12. Probability sampling techniques were applied. A structured, pretested, envelope sealed self administered questionnaire was distributed among all (1584 adolescents of the 11 and 12 grades of selected institutions. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (16 versions. Descriptive and inferential statistics were applied. RESULTS: About 19.37% adolescents had sexual contact and male participation was higher than females (P<0.05. Nearly one fifth of unmarried were found to be involved in sexual activities and most of them had first sex between 15-19 years age (median age 15.26 years. Of those who had sex, 6.91% had adopted all the three: vaginal, oral and anal sexes and majority had single followed by 2-5 sex partners in their sexual intercourse in the last one year and last month. About 13.93% adolescents were found to be indulged in group sex. Most of them had sex with regular partners and commercial sex workers. More than eight out of every ten who had sex had used contraceptive methods and condom was method of choice (94.77%. CONCLUSIONS: Premarital sexual involvement was prevalent among adolescents; sex with commercial sex workers and non commercial sex partners was perceived to be risk. Behavior change intervention strategies need to be formulated and implemented to promote adolescent reproductive and sexual health.

  9. Coping behaviors among sexual minority female youth.

    Pendragon, Diane K

    2010-01-01

    This article summarizes data from a qualitative study investigating the ways in which female youth perceive and respond to challenges related to the interplay of late adolescence and a minority sexual orientation. Fifteen sexual minority females in late adolescence were interviewed individually and in focus groups. The interviews focused on participants' perceptions of challenges, the impact those stressors have in their lives, and methods they utilize to cope with them. The most common negative experiences reported were isolation, lack of acceptance, harassment, and violence. Sub-themes include: hearing negative messages about gender and sexual orientation, pressures to conform to a variety of cultural norms including gender norms, fears of future violence, and pressure to identify sexual orientation. Collectively, the participants described these negative consequences of experiences of heterosexism, sexism, and racism as their most difficult experiences. The most common responses to these stressors reported by participants were finding support in relationships, engaging in coping responses, pursuing education and activism, rebellion and resistance, and avoidance and deferment.

  10. Sexual Behavior and Correlates among College Students.

    Murstein, Bernard I.; Holden, Cynthia Caravatt

    1979-01-01

    A representative sample of 347 college men and women were queried on their experience with premarital sex. Responses were correlated to subjects' self-reported philosophy of sex, relationship with parents, physical attractiveness, religious feelings, drug use, commitment to last sexual partner, and attitudes toward marriage and women's liberation.…

  11. Guest editorial: Pharmacology of male sexual behavior

    Waldinger, Marcel D; Olivier, Berend

    The introduction of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in the mid 1980s has led not only to an increased attention to antidepressant-induced sexual side effects, but also to a paradigm shift in the theory of premature ejaculation (PE). Because of their ejaculation delaying effects,

  12. Physical attractiveness and women’s HIV risk in rural Malawi

    Frye, Margaret; Chae, Sophia

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Qualitative evidence from sub-Saharan Africa, where a generalized AIDS epidemic exists, suggests that attractiveness may play a role in shaping individual-level HIV risk. Attractive women, who are often blamed for the epidemic and stigmatized, are believed to pose a higher HIV risk because they are viewed as having more and riskier partners. OBJECTIVE We examine the association between perceived attractiveness and HIV infection and risk in rural Malawi in the midst of the country’s severe AIDS epidemic. METHODS We use interviewers’ ratings of respondents’ attractiveness, along with HIV test results and women’s assessments of their own likelihood of infection, to estimate the association between perceived attractiveness and HIV infection and risk for a random sample of 961 women aged 15–35. RESULTS Results show that women who are rated by interviewers as ‘much less’ or ‘less’ attractive than other women their age are 9% more likely to test positive for HIV. We also find that attractiveness is associated with women’s own assessments of their HIV risk: Among women who tested negative, those perceived as ‘much less’ or ‘less’ attractive than average report themselves to be at greater risk of HIV infection. CONCLUSIONS These results suggest that attractiveness is negatively associated with HIV risk in Malawi, countering local beliefs that hold attractive women responsible for perpetuating the epidemic. CONTRIBUTION This study highlights the need to consider perceived physical attractiveness, and sexual desirability more broadly, as an under-examined axis of inequality in HIV risk in high-prevalence settings. PMID:29242708

  13. [Adolescence, sexual behavior and risk factors to health].

    Assis, Simone Gonçalves de; Gomes, Romeu; Pires, Thiago de Oliveira

    2014-02-01

    To analyze the relationships between sexual behavior and risk factors to physical and mental health in adolescents. Study of 3,195 pupils aged 15 to 19 in secondary education, in public and private schools in 10 state capitals in Brazil between 2007 and 2008. Multi-stage (schools and pupils) cluster sampling was used in each city and public and private educational network. All of the students selected completed a questionnaire on the following items: socioeconomic and demographic data; sexual behavior; having sex with those of the same sex, the opposite sex, or both; alcohol and cannabis use; using condoms; traumatic sexual experiences as a child or adolescent; suicidal thoughts. The analysis included describing frequencies, Chi-square test, analysis of multiple and cluster correspondence. Responses to an open ended question in which the adolescent expressed general comments about themselves and their lives were qualitatively analyzed using content analysis. Around 3.0% of adolescents reported homosexual or bisexual behavior, with no difference according to sex, age, skin color, social status family structure or educational network. Adolescents with homosexual/bisexual sexual behavior, compared to their heterosexual peers, reported: (p sexual violence (11.7% and 1.5%; respectively). Adolescents with homosexual/bisexual sexual behavior reported that they used condoms less frequently (74.2%) than their heterosexual peers (48.6%, p sexual violence, never using a condom, suicidal thoughts, frequent cannabis use; another composed of occasional cannabis and condom users, who got drunk frequently, and adolescents with heterosexual behavior and none of the risk factors investigated. More of the risk factors were found in adolescents with homosexual/bisexual behavior compared with those with heterosexual behavior. Adolescents with homosexual/bisexual sexual behavior were more likely to talk about their positive personal experiences and negative relationship experiences that

  14. Sexual Assault and Sexual Risk Behaviors Among Lower-Income Rural Women: The Mediating Role of Self-Worth.

    Dodd, Julia; Littleton, Heather

    2017-02-01

    Sexual victimization is associated with risky sexual behaviors. Limited research has examined mechanisms via which victimization affects risk behaviors, particularly following different types of sexual victimization. This study examined self-worth as a mediator of the relationship between sexual victimization history: contact childhood sexual abuse (CSA), completed rape in adolescence/adulthood (adolescent/adulthood sexual assault [ASA]), and combined CSA/ASA, and two sexual risk behaviors: past year partners and one-time encounters. Participants were diverse (57.9% African American), low-income women recruited from an OB-GYN waiting room (n = 646). Women with a history of sexual victimization, 29.8% (n = 186) reported lower self-worth, t(586) = 5.26, p < .001, and more partners, t(612) = 2.45, p < .01, than nonvictims. Self-worth was a significant mediator only among women with combined CSA/ASA histories in both risk behavior models.

  15. Accuracy and determinants of perceived HIV risk among young women in South Africa

    Brendan Maughan-Brown

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV risk perceptions are a key determinant of HIV testing. The success of efforts to achieve an AIDS-free generation – including reaching the UNAIDS 90–90-90 target – thus depends critically on the content of these perceptions. We examined the accuracy of HIV-risk perceptions and their correlates among young black women in South Africa, a group with one of the highest HIV incidence rates worldwide. Methods We used individual-level longitudinal data from the Cape Area Panel Study (CAPS from 2005 to 2009 on black African women (20–30 years old in 2009 to assess the association between perceived HIV-risk in 2005 and the probability of testing HIV-positive four years later. We then estimated multivariable logistic regressions using cross-sectional data from the 2009 CAPS wave to assess the relationship between risk perceptions and a wide range of demographic, sexual behaviour and psychosocial covariates of perceived HIV-risk. Results We found that the proportion testing HIV-positive in 2009 was almost identical across perceived risk categories in 2005 (no, small, moderate, great (χ 2  = 1.43, p = 0.85. Consistent with epidemiologic risk factors, the likelihood of reporting moderate or great HIV-risk perceptions was associated with condom-use (aOR: 0.57; 95% CI: 0.36, 0.89; p < 0.01; having ≥3 lifetime partners (aOR: 2.38, 95% CI: 1.53, 3.73; p < 0.01; knowledge of one’s partner’s HIV status (aOR: 0.67; 95% CI: 0.43, 1.07; p = 0.09; and being in an age-disparate partnerships (aOR: 1.73; 95% CI: 1.09, 2.76; p = 0.02. However, the likelihood of reporting moderate or great self-perceived risk did not vary with sexually transmitted disease history and respondent age, both strong predictors of HIV risk in the study setting. Risk perceptions were associated with stigmatising attitudes (aOR: 0.53; 95% CI: 0.26, 1.09; p = 0.09; prior HIV testing (aOR: 0.21; 95% CI: 0.13, 0.35; p < 0.01; and having heard

  16. Teen sexting and its association with sexual behaviors

    Temple, Jeff R.; Paul, Jonathan A.; van den Berg, Patricia; Le, Vi Donna; McElhany, Amy; Temple, Brian W.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Despite recent media attention and potential public health importance, little is known about the prevalence and nature of sexting. Using a large school-based sample of adolescents, we examined the prevalence of sexting behaviors, as well as its relation to dating, sex, and risky sexual behaviors. DESIGN Data are from Time 2 of a three-year longitudinal study. Participants self-reported their history of dating, sexual behaviors, and sexting (sent, asked, been asked, bothered by being asked). SETTING Seven public high schools in southeast Texas. PARTICIPANTS A total of 948 public high school students (55.9% female) participated. The sample consisted of African American (26.6%), Caucasian (30.3%), Hispanic (31.7%), Asian (3.4%), and mixed/other (8.0%) teens. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Having ever engaged in sexting behaviors. RESULTS 28% of the sample reported having sent a naked picture of themselves through text or email (sext), and 31% reported having asked someone for a sext. Over half (57%) had been asked to send a sext, with a vast majority bothered by having been asked. Adolescents who engaged in sexting behaviors were more likely to have begun dating and to have had sex than those who did not sext (all psexting was also associated with risky sexual behaviors. CONCLUSIONS The results suggest that teen sexting is prevalent, and potentially indicative of teens’ sexual behaviors. Teen-focused health care providers should consider screening for sexting behaviors, so as to provide age-specific education about the potential consequences of sexting, and as a mechanism for discussing sexual behaviors. PMID:22751805

  17. The Silk Road Health Project: How Mobility and Migration Status Influence HIV Risks among Male Migrant Workers in Central Asia.

    Nabila El-Bassel

    Full Text Available We examined whether mobility, migrant status, and risk environments are associated with sexually transmitted infections (STIs and HIV risk behaviors (e.g. sex trading, multiple partners, and unprotected sex.We used Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS to recruit external male migrant market vendors from Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan as well internal migrant and non-migrant market vendors from Kazakhstan. We conducted multivariate logistic regressions to examine the effects of mobility combined with the interaction between mobility and migration status on STIs and sexual risk behaviors, when controlling for risk environment characteristics.Mobility was associated with increased risk for biologically-confirmed STIs, sex trading, and unprotected sex among non-migrants, but not among internal or external migrants. Condom use rates were low among all three groups, particularly external migrants. Risk environment factors of low-income status, debt, homelessness, and limited access to medical care were associated with unprotected sex among external migrants.Study findings underscore the role mobility and risk environments play in shaping HIV/STI risks. They highlight the need to consider mobility in the context of migration status and other risk environment factors in developing effective prevention strategies for this population.

  18. The Silk Road Health Project: How Mobility and Migration Status Influence HIV Risks among Male Migrant Workers in Central Asia.

    El-Bassel, Nabila; Gilbert, Louisa; Shaw, Stacey A; Mergenova, Gaukhar; Terlikbayeva, Assel; Primbetova, Sholpan; Ma, Xin; Chang, Mingway; Ismayilova, Leyla; Hunt, Tim; West, Brooke; Wu, Elwin; Beyrer, Chris

    2016-01-01

    We examined whether mobility, migrant status, and risk environments are associated with sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV risk behaviors (e.g. sex trading, multiple partners, and unprotected sex). We used Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS) to recruit external male migrant market vendors from Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan as well internal migrant and non-migrant market vendors from Kazakhstan. We conducted multivariate logistic regressions to examine the effects of mobility combined with the interaction between mobility and migration status on STIs and sexual risk behaviors, when controlling for risk environment characteristics. Mobility was associated with increased risk for biologically-confirmed STIs, sex trading, and unprotected sex among non-migrants, but not among internal or external migrants. Condom use rates were low among all three groups, particularly external migrants. Risk environment factors of low-income status, debt, homelessness, and limited access to medical care were associated with unprotected sex among external migrants. Study findings underscore the role mobility and risk environments play in shaping HIV/STI risks. They highlight the need to consider mobility in the context of migration status and other risk environment factors in developing effective prevention strategies for this population.

  19. Female methamphetamine users: social characteristics and sexual risk behavior.

    Semple, Shirley J; Grant, Igor; Patterson, Thomas L

    2004-01-01

    The primary objective of this research was to expand our knowledge regarding the personal and social characteristics of female methamphetamine (meth) users, their motivations for using meth, patterns of meth use, medical and social problems associated with meth use, and the relationship between meth use and sexual risk behaviors. The sample consisted of 98 HIV-negative, heterosexually-identified, meth-using females residing in San Diego, California. Female meth users were characterized by personal and social disadvantage, high rates of psychiatric symptomatology, and high levels of sexual risk behavior, including multiple partners, risky partner types (e.g., anonymous sex partners), and high rates of unprotected vaginal and oral sex. Meth use was also associated with the subjective positive experience of sex. These finding suggest that behavioral interventions should be tailored to the social characteristics of female meth users, and program content should reflect the intertwining of women's sexual experience and meth use.

  20. Social capital and sexual behavior among Ugandan university students

    Anette Agardh

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Uganda has reduced its prevalence of HIV/AIDS from 18 to 6.5% within a decade. An important factor behind this might have been the response from faith-based voluntary organizations, which developed social capital for achieving this. Three behaviors have been targeted: Abstinence, Being faithful, and Condom use (the ABC strategy. The aim of this study was to explore the association between social capital and the ABC behaviors, especially with reference to religious factors. Methods: In 2005, 980 Ugandan university students responded to a self-administered questionnaire (response rate 80%. It assessed sociodemographic factors, social capital, importance of religion, sexual debut, number of lifetime sexual partners, and condom use. Logistic regression analysis was applied as the main analytical tool. Results: Thirty-seven percent of the male and 49% of the female students had not had sexual intercourse. Of those with sexual experience, 46% of the males and 23% of the females had had three or more lifetime sexual partners, and 32% of those males and 38% of the females stated they did not always use condoms with a new partner. Low trust in others was associated with a higher risk for not always using condoms with a new partner among male students (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.1–2.8, and with a lower risk for sexual debut among female students (OR 0.5, 95% CI 0.3–0.9. Non-dominant bridging trust among male students was associated with a higher risk for having had many sexual partners (OR1.8, 95% CI 1.2–2.9. However, low trust in others was associated with a greater likelihood of sexual debut in men, while the opposite was true in women, and a similar pattern was also seen regarding a high number of lifetime sexual partners in individuals who were raised in families where religion played a major role. Conclusions: In general, social capital was associated with less risky sexual behavior in our sample. However, gender and role of religion modified

  1. Behavioral facilitation of reproduction in sexual and unisexual whiptail lizards.

    Crews, D; Grassman, M; Lindzey, J

    1986-12-01

    All-female, parthenogenetic species afford a unique test of hypotheses regarding the nature and evolution of sexuality. Mating behavior accomplishes the transfer of gametes and stimulates the coordination of reproductive activity of the male and female. Cnemidophorus uniparens, a parthenogenetic species, is believed to have resulted from the hybridization of two extant gonochoristic species, Cnemidophorus inornatus and Cnemidophorus gularis. C. uniparens regularly and reliably perform behaviors identical in form to those performed during mating by male C. inornatus. We have determined experimentally that individuals of the parthenogenetic species demonstrating male-like pseudosexual behavior also share a similarity in function with males of the sexually reproducing species. The number of female C. inornatus ovulating increases, and the latency to ovulation decreases, if a sexually active conspecific male is present. A similar facilitatory effect on ovarian recrudescence occurs in the all-female C. uniparens in the presence of a male-like individual. These results show that behavioral facilitation of ovarian recrudescence is important in sexual and unisexual species. This may represent a potent selection pressure favoring the maintenance of male-typical behaviors, thus accounting for the display of behavioral traits usually associated with males in unisexual species of hybrid origin.

  2. Correlates of HIV Risk Reduction Self-Efficacy among Youth in South Africa

    Julia Louw

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Even though a decline in HIV prevalence has been reported among South African youth 15–24 from 10.3% in 2005 to 8.6% in 2008, the prevalence remains disproportionately high for females overall in comparison to males. This study examines factors associated by HIV risk reduction self-efficacy of South African youth as part of an evaluation of the impact of loveLife, a youth focused HIV prevention programme. A cross-sectional population-based household survey was conducted with persons of ages 18 to 24 years in four selected provinces in South Africa. Among female respondents (, factors associated with high self-efficacy in the adjusted model were having a low HIV risk perception, HIV/AIDS stigma, ever using drugs, and having life goals. Male respondents ( with high self-efficacy were more likely to have been tested for HIV, have concurrent sexual partners, have had a transactional sex partner in lifetime, a low HIV risk perception, difficulty in having condoms, agreed with coercive sex, high relationship control, and had loveLife face-to-face programme participation. The factors identified with high self-efficacy and HIV-sexual risk behaviour may be considered to strengthen youth HIV prevention programmes in South Africa.

  3. Status epilepticus during early development disrupts sexual behavior in adult female rats: recovery with sexual experience.

    Coria-Avila, Genaro Alfonso; Paredes-Ramos, Pedro; Galán, Ricardo; Herrera-Covarrubias, Deissy; López-Meraz, Maria-Leonor

    2014-05-01

    Female sexual behavior is sensitive to stress and diseases. Some studies have shown that status epilepticus (SE) can affect sexual proceptivity and receptivity in female rats and also increases reject responses towards males. However, epidemiologic studies indicate that SE is more frequent in young individuals. Herein, we assessed the effects of SE in infant females on their sexual behavior during adulthood. Thirteen-day-old (P13) rat pups received intraperitoneal injections of lithium chloride (3 mEq/kg). Twenty hours later, at P14, SE was induced by subcutaneous injection of pilocarpine hydrochloride (100 mg/kg s.c.). Control animals were given an equal volume of saline subcutaneously. The animals were weaned at P21 and, later in adulthood, were ovariectomized and hormone-primed with estradiol+progesterone, and their sexual behavior assessed during 4 separate trials of 30 min each with a stud male. Our results indicate that proceptive behaviors (solicitations and hops and darts) were impaired during the first trial, but no alterations were observed for receptivity and attractivity. By trial 3, all SE females displayed normal proceptivity. These results indicate that SE in infancy readily affects proceptivity in a reversible manner. We discuss the role of sexual experience in recovery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Predicting risky sexual behavior in emerging adulthood: examination of a moderated mediation model among child sexual abuse and adult sexual assault victims.

    Littleton, Heather L; Grills, Amie E; Drum, Katherine B

    2014-01-01

    Although having a sexual victimization history is associated with engaging in sexual risk behavior, the mechanisms whereby sexual victimization increases risk behavior are unclear. This study examined use of sex as an affect regulation strategy as a mediator of the relationship between depressive symptoms and sexual risk behavior among 1,616 sexually active college women as well as examined having a history of child sexual abuse (CSA), adolescent/adult sexual assault (ASA), or both (CSA/ASA) as moderators. Results supported the mediated model as well as moderated mediation, where depressive symptoms were more strongly associated with use of sex as an affect regulation strategy among ASA victims, and sex as an affect regulation strategy was more strongly related to sexual risk behavior for CSA/ASA victims.

  5. Association of Alcohol Misuse With Sexual Identity and Sexual Behavior in Women Veterans.

    Lehavot, Keren; Williams, Emily C; Millard, Steven P; Bradley, Katharine A; Simpson, Tracy L

    2016-01-28

    Sexual minority women report greater alcohol misuse than heterosexual women in the general population, with more pronounced differences found among younger age groups. It is unknown whether these differences exist among women veterans. We evaluated differences in alcohol misuse across two dimensions of sexual orientation (identity and behavior) among women veterans, and examined whether these differences were modified by age. Women veterans were recruited via the internet to participate in an online survey. Participants provided information on their self-reported sexual identity and behavior and responded to the validated 3-item Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Consumption questionnaire (AUDIT-C). Regression models were used to compare the prevalence of alcohol misuse (AUDIT-C ≥ 3) and severity (AUDIT-C scores) across sexual identity and behavior and to test effect modification by age. Among the 702 participants (36% lesbian/bisexual), prevalence and severity of alcohol misuse varied by both sexual identity and behavior, but there were significant interactions with age. Prevalence and severity of alcohol misuse were higher among relatively younger self-identified lesbians compared to heterosexual women. Similarly, both prevalence and severity of alcohol misuse were generally higher among younger women who had any sex with women compared to those who had sex only with men. In this online study of women veterans, younger sexual minority women were more likely to screen positive for alcohol misuse, and they had more severe alcohol misuse, than their heterosexual counterparts. Prevention and treatment efforts focused specifically on sexual minority women veterans may be needed.

  6. But I'm Married: Understanding Relationship Status and College Students' Sexual Behaviors

    Oswalt, Sara B.; Wyatt, Tammy J.

    2014-01-01

    Sexual health programs on college campuses are often directed toward single individuals with a focus on sexual risk. Using a sample of college students, this study examines how relationship status relates to sexual behaviors and may be a factor for sexual risk. Based on the study's results, expansion of sexual health programming on college…

  7. A gender discrepancy analysis of heterosexual sexual behaviors in two university samples.

    Jozkowski, Kristen N; Satinsky, Sonya A

    2013-12-01

    The current study aimed to (1) offer a large-scale enumeration of college students' lifetime sexual behaviors and sexual behaviors at last event, and (2) apply a gender discrepancy lens to college students' sexual behaviors in order to examine potential gender differences in heterosexual college students' experiences. Nine-hundred and seventy college students between the ages of 18 and 27 from two large universities in the United States participated in the current study. Participants filled out a paper-pencil questionnaire during the last 30 min of class. Measures of lifetime sexual behaviors and engagement in behaviors at last sexual event were replicated from the National Survey of Sexual Health Behavior. Most college students engaged in some form of sexual behavior (manual, oral, vaginal-penile, anal). Men more frequently reported engaging in receptive sexual behaviors (e.g., receiving oral sex) where as women were more likely to engage in performative sexual behaviors (e.g., performing oral sex). At most recent sexual event, men were more likely than women to report being the sexual initiator. Findings highlight gender differences in sexual behavior and provide a foundation for social norms interventions. Holistic sexual health promotion for young adults includes acknowledging and discouraging sites of disparity in equity and pleasure. Therefore, college-level sexual health educators should pay attention to the potential pleasure gap between men and women in heterosexual encounters, and to see pleasure as an important part of sexual health that should be included in social norms campaigns.

  8. Sexual Health Care, Sexual Behaviors and Functioning, and Female Genital Cutting: Perspectives From Somali Women Living in the United States.

    Connor, Jennifer Jo; Hunt, Shanda; Finsaas, Megan; Ciesinski, Amanda; Ahmed, Amira; Robinson, Beatrice Bean E

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the sexual values, attitudes, and behaviors of 30 Somali female refugees living in a large metropolitan area of Minnesota by collecting exploratory sexual health information based on the components of the sexual health model-components posited to be essential aspects of healthy human sexuality. A Somali-born bilingual interviewer conducted the semistructured interviews in English or Somali; 22 participants chose to be interviewed in Somali. Interviews were translated, transcribed, and analyzed using descriptive statistics and thematic analyses. Our study findings highlighted a sexually conservative culture that values sexual intimacy, female and male sexual pleasure, and privacy in marriage; vaginal sexual intercourse as the only sanctioned sexual behavior; and the importance of Islamic religion in guiding sexual practices. Findings related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) revealed HIV testing at immigration, mixed attitudes toward condom use, and moderate knowledge about HIV transmission modes. Female genital cutting (FGC) was a pervasive factor affecting sexual functioning in Somali women, with attitudes about the controversial practice in transition. We recommend that health professionals take the initiative to discuss sexual health care and safer sex, sexual behaviors/functioning, and likely challenges to sexual health with Somali women--as they may be unlikely to broach these subjects without permission and considerable encouragement.

  9. ATTITUDES OF FEMALE SEXUAL BEHAVIOR AND ITS PECULIARITIES

    R. S. Brito

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to characterize the attitudes of female sexual behavior. This is a descriptive and quantitative. The sample consisted of 100 women attending the Family Health Strategy Sinop - MT. Data were collected through a semistructured interview containing questions regarding sexual health. The study complied with the ethical standards of research with humans. It is noteworthy that the age of participants ranged from 18 to 85 years and 3% said to be sex workers. Note that 40% of respondents cannot be sexual excited before penetration and 14% have dyspareunia. As to orgasm, 4% reported never having reached, 1% do not have an orgasm at the moment and 95% have made it clear that orgasm. Thus, sexual function may be affected, facts that can be avoided and / or minimized with comprehensive care in nursing consultation.

  10. Guppy sexual behavior as an effect biomarker of estrogen mimics

    Bayley, M; Nielsen, J R; Baatrup, E

    1999-01-01

    There is widespread concern that some environmental chemicals can reduce the reproductive capability of humans and wildlife by mimicking natural estrogens and disrupting endocrine function. This potential threat to animal populations posed by xenoestrogens has, hardly surprisingly, been met...... strongly on the ability to perform the appropriate sexual behavior. The sexual display of the male guppy is strongly linked to reproductive success and is readily quantified under laboratory conditions. This preliminary study demonstrates that exposure of adult male guppies to water weakly contaminated...... with either natural estrogen (17beta-estradiol) or the xenoestrogen (4-tert-octylphenol) causes a dramatic decrease in the rate and intensity of sexual display. It is concluded that quantitative analysis of the sexual display of male guppies holds great promise as a biomarker at the organismal level...

  11. Is Sexual Behavior Healthy for Adolescents? A Conceptual Framework for Research on Adolescent Sexual Behavior and Physical, Mental, and Social Health

    Vasilenko, Sara A.; Lefkowitz, Eva S.; Welsh, Deborah P.

    2014-01-01

    Although research has increasingly emphasized how adolescent sexual behavior may be associated with aspects of health beyond unwanted pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections, no current theoretical or conceptual model fully explains associations between sexual behavior and multiple facets of health. We provide a conceptual model that…

  12. Domain-Specific Relationships in Sexual Measures of Impulsive Behavior.

    Mahoney, Colin T; Lawyer, Steven R

    2018-04-25

    Impulsivity is an important construct for understanding sexual behaviors, but behavioral and self-report measures of impulsivity often are not correlated. One possible explanation for this is that there is little shared variance in the measures because behavioral measures index impulsivity by asking questions about monetary preferences, while self-report measures index impulsivity by asking about a broad range of real-world outcomes (including those of a sexual nature) largely unrelated to money-related preferences. Undergraduate students (total N = 105; female n = 77, male n = 28) completed laboratory measures-delay discounting (DD) and probability discounting (PD)-for two different outcomes-money and sexual activity. Participants also completed the Delaying Gratification Inventory (DGI), which measures difficulty with delaying gratification (i.e., impulsivity) across different domains, including money and physical pleasures. Findings indicated that DD and PD for money were not related to any of the DGI subscales. However, DD for sexual activity was significantly related to the DGI Physical Pleasures subscale, but not other subscales. These findings suggest that the relationship between behavioral and self-report measures of impulsive choice may be stronger when both are measuring domain-specific rather than domain-general behavioral patterns, but further research is warranted.

  13. Predictors of Intrusive Sexual Behaviors in Preschool-Aged Children.

    Smith, Tyler J; Lindsey, Rebecca A; Bohora, Som; Silovsky, Jane F

    2018-04-10

    Intrusive sexual behaviors (ISBs) are a specific type of problematic sexual behavior characterized by the invasive nature of the acts (e.g., touching others' private parts, attempting intercourse; Friedrich, 1997). The limited amount of research on ISBs has focused on sexual abuse history as the primary predictor. However, Friedrich, Davies, Feher, and Wright (2003) found that ISBs in children up to age 12 were related to four broad conceptual factors: (a) exposure to sexual content, (b) exposure to violent behavior, (c) family adversity, and (d) child vulnerabilities. The current study sought to replicate Friedrich's study using a clinical sample of 217 preschool-aged children (ages two to six). Results supported variables from within the child vulnerabilities construct (externalizing behaviors, β EXT  = 0.032, p = 0.001), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) criteria met (β PTSD  = 0.177, p = 0.02), and an inverse relationship with age (β AGE  = -0.206, p = 0.024). These results highlight the importance of considering childhood behavioral patterns and reactivity to traumatic events as correlates of ISBs in young children.

  14. “The pleasure is better as I’ve gotten older”: Sexual Health, Sexuality, and Sexual Risk Behaviors among Older Women Living with HIV

    Taylor, Tonya N.; Munoz-Plaza, Corrine E.; Goparaju, Lakshmi; Martinez, Omar; Holman, Susan; Minkoff, Howard L.; Karpiak, Stephen E.; Gandhi, Monica; Cohen, Mardge H.; Golub, Elizabeth T.; Levine, Alexandra M.; Adedimeji, Adebola A.; Gonsalves, Rebecca; Bryan, Tiffany; Connors, Nina; Schechter, Gabrielle; Wilson, Tracey E.

    2016-01-01

    There is limited research examining the sexual health and wellbeing of older women living with HIV (OWLH). Most studies focus on sexual dysfunction, leaving aside the richer context of sexuality and sexual health, including the effect of age-related psychosocial and interpersonal changes on sexual health behaviors. Guided by the integrative biopsychosocial model and the sexual health model, this study explored the importance of sex and sexuality among OWLH to identify their sexual health and HIV prevention needs for program planning. A purposive sample (n=50) of OWLH was selected from a parent study (n=2,052). We conducted 8 focus groups and 41 in-depth interviews with 50 African American and Latina OWLH aged 50–69 years old in three U.S. cities. The triangulation approach was used to synthesize the data. Six salient themes emerged: sexual pleasure changes due to age, sexual freedom as women age, the role of relationships in sexual pleasure, changes in sexual ability and sexual health needs, sexual risk behaviors, and ageist assumptions about older women’s sexuality. We found that sexual pleasure and the need for intimacy continue to be important for OWLH, but that changing sexual abilities and sexual health needs, such as the reduction of sexual desire, as well as increased painful intercourse due to menopause-associated vaginal drying, were persistent barriers to sexual fulfillment and satisfaction. Particular interpersonal dynamics, including low perceptions of the risk of HIV transmission as related to gender, viral suppression and habitual condomless sex with long term partners without HIV transmission have resulted in abandoning safer sex practices with serodiscordant partners. These findings suggest that HIV prevention for OWLH should focus on how sexual function and satisfaction intersect with sexual risk. HIV prevention for OWLH should promote ways to maintain satisfying and safe sex lives among aging women. PMID:27220311

  15. "The Pleasure Is Better as I've Gotten Older": Sexual Health, Sexuality, and Sexual Risk Behaviors Among Older Women Living With HIV.

    Taylor, Tonya N; Munoz-Plaza, Corrine E; Goparaju, Lakshmi; Martinez, Omar; Holman, Susan; Minkoff, Howard L; Karpiak, Stephen E; Gandhi, Monica; Cohen, Mardge H; Golub, Elizabeth T; Levine, Alexandra M; Adedimeji, Adebola A; Gonsalves, Rebecca; Bryan, Tiffany; Connors, Nina; Schechter, Gabrielle; Wilson, Tracey E

    2017-05-01

    There is limited research examining the sexual health and well-being of older women living with HIV (OWLH). Most studies focus on sexual dysfunction, leaving aside the richer context of sexuality and sexual health, including the effect of age-related psychosocial and interpersonal changes on sexual health behaviors. Guided by the integrative biopsychosocial model and the sexual health model, this study explored the importance of sex and sexuality among OWLH to identify their sexual health and HIV prevention needs for program planning. A purposive sample (n = 50) of OWLH was selected from a parent study (n = 2052). We conducted 8 focus groups and 41 in-depth interviews with 50 African American and Latina OWLH aged 50-69 years old in three U.S. cities. The triangulation approach was used to synthesize the data. Six salient themes emerged: sexual pleasure changes due to age, sexual freedom as women age, the role of relationships in sexual pleasure, changes in sexual ability and sexual health needs, sexual risk behaviors, and ageist assumptions about older women's sexuality. We found that sexual pleasure and the need for intimacy continue to be important for OWLH, but that changing sexual abilities and sexual health needs, such as the reduction of sexual desire, as well as increased painful intercourse due to menopause-associated vaginal drying, were persistent barriers to sexual fulfillment and satisfaction. Particular interpersonal dynamics, including low perceptions of the risk of HIV transmission as related to gender, viral suppression, and habitual condomless sex with long-term partners without HIV transmission have resulted in abandoning safer sex practices with serodiscordant partners. These findings suggest that HIV prevention for OWLH should focus on how sexual function and satisfaction intersect with sexual risk. HIV prevention for OWLH should promote ways to maintain satisfying and safe sex lives among aging women.

  16. Broad Autism Phenotypic Traits and the Relationship to Sexual Orientation and Sexual Behavior.

    Qualls, Lydia R; Hartmann, Kathrin; Paulson, James F

    2018-04-03

    Individuals with higher levels of the broad autism phenotype (BAP) have some symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Like individuals with ASD, people with higher-BAP may have fewer sexual experiences and may experience more same-sex attraction. This study measured BAP traits, sexual experiences, and sexual orientation in typically developing (TD) individuals to see if patterns of sexual behavior and sexual orientation in higher-BAP resemble those in ASD. Although BAP characteristics did not predict sexual experiences, one BAP measure significantly predicted sexual orientation, β = 0.22, t = 2.72, p = .007, controlling for demographic variables (R 2 change = .04, F = 7.41, p = .007), showing individuals with higher-BAP also reported increased same-sex attraction. This finding supports the hypothesis that individuals with higher-BAP resemble ASD individuals in being more likely than TD individuals to experience same-sex attraction.

  17. HIV and alcohol knowledge, self-perceived risk for HIV, and risky sexual behavior among young HIV-negative men identified as harmful or hazardous drinkers in Katutura, Namibia.

    Schwitters, Amee; Sabatier, Jennifer; Seth, Puja; Glenshaw, Mary; Remmert, Dietrich; Pathak, Sonal; Bock, Naomi

    2015-11-26

    Namibia's HIV prevalence is 13.3%. Alcohol is associated with sexual risk-taking, leading to increased HIV risk. Baseline sexual behaviors, HIV and alcohol knowledge, and self-perceived HIV risk were examined among men reporting high-risk drinking in Katutura, Namibia. HIV negative men, ≥ 18 years, were screened for harmful or hazardous levels of drinking and >1 recent sex partner prior to randomization into control or intervention arm. SAS 9.3 and R 3.01 were used for descriptive baseline cohort analyses. A total of 501 participants who met criteria were included in analysis (mean Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test [AUDIT] =12.4). HIV and alcohol knowledge were high with the majority (>85 and 89.8-98%, respectively) of respondents correctly answering assessment questions. Despite high knowledge levels, 66.7% of men felt they were at some or high risk of HIV acquisition. Among those respondents, 56.5% stated often wanting to have sex after drinking and 40.3% stated sex was better when drunk. Among respondents with non-steady partners [n = 188], 44.1% of last sexual encounters occurred while the participant was drunk and condoms were not used 32.5% of those times. Among persons who were not drunk condoms were not used 13.3% of those times. Sex with casual partners was high. Inconsistent condom use and alcohol use before sex were frequently reported. Increased emphasis on alcohol risk-reduction strategies, including drinking due to peer pressure and unsafe sexual behaviors, is needed.

  18. Pubertal timing and adolescent sexual behavior in girls.

    Moore, Sarah R; Harden, K Paige; Mendle, Jane

    2014-06-01

    Girls who experience earlier pubertal timing relative to peers also exhibit earlier timing of sexual intercourse and more unstable sexual relationships. Although pubertal development initiates feelings of physical desire, the transition into romantic and sexual relationships involves complex biological and social processes contributing both to physical maturation and to individual interpretations of pubertal experiences. Using a sample of female sibling pairs (n = 923 pairs) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, the present study investigated associations among menarche and perceived pubertal timing, age of first sexual intercourse (AFI), and adolescent dating and sexual behavior using a behavioral genetic approach. Genetic factors influencing age at menarche and perceived pubertal timing predicted AFI through shared genetic pathways, whereas genetic factors related only to perceived pubertal timing predicted engagement in dating, romantic sex, and nonromantic sex in the previous 18 months. These results suggest that a girl's interpretation of her pubertal timing beyond objective timing is important to consider for the timing and the contexts of romantic and reproductive behavior. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. A new role for GABAergic transmission in the control of male rat sexual behavior expression.

    Rodríguez-Manzo, Gabriela; Canseco-Alba, Ana

    2017-03-01

    GABAergic transmission in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) exerts a tonic inhibitory influence on mesolimbic dopaminergic neurons' activity. Blockade of VTA GABA A receptors increases dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). Increases in NAcc dopamine levels typically accompany sexual behavior display. Copulation to satiety is characterized by the instatement of a long lasting (72h) sexual behavior inhibition and the mesolimbic system appears to be involved in this phenomenon. GABAergic transmission in the VTA might play a role in the maintenance of this long lasting sexual inhibitory state. To test this hypothesis, in the present work we investigated the effect of GABA A receptor blockade in sexually exhausted males 24h after copulation to satiety, once the sexual inhibitory state is established, and compared it with its effect in sexually experienced rats. Results showed that low doses of systemically administered bicuculline induced sexual behavior expression in sexually exhausted rats, but lacked an effect on copulation of sexually experienced animals. Intra-VTA bilateral infusion of bicuculline did not modify sexual behavior of sexually experienced rats, but induced sexual behavior expression in all the sexually exhausted males. Hence, GABA plays a role in the control of sexual behavior expression at the VTA. The role played by GABAergic transmission in male sexual behavior expression of animals with distinct sexual behavior conditions is discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Sexual behavior and condom use among seasonal Dalit migrant laborers to India from Far West, Nepal: a qualitative study.

    Kiran Bam

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Around 41% of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV cases in Nepal occur in seasonal migrant laborers. Dalit migrant laborers represent the largest proportion of reported HIV cases in the Far Western Region (Sudur Pashchimanchal, or Far West, Nepal. The study's objectives were to assess sexual behavior, condom use status and HIV risk perception among Dalit migrant laborers to India from Far West Region, Nepal. METHODS: The study was conducted among Dalit male migrant laborers aged 15 years and above who had migrated for at least six months of the last two years to India. For the sampling the village development committees (VDCs from Achham, Doti and Kanchanpur districts of Nepal were purposively selected. The data were collected in March and April 2011 via ten in-depth interviews and four focus group discussions and analyzed using content analysis. RESULTS: Poor socio-economic status, caste-related discrimination, and lack of employment opportunities push large groups of young Dalits to migrate to India for employment, where they engage in sex with female sex workers (FSWs. The participants described unmarried status, peer influence, alcohol use, low-priced sex with FSWs and unwillingness to use condoms as common factors of their migration experience. Lack of awareness on HIV/AIDS was common among study participants. Awareness of HIV/AIDS and faithful, monogamous partnerships are reported as factors influencing safer sexual behavior. CONCLUSIONS: Dalits are an especially vulnerable population among migrant laborers and may be over-represented in new HIV infections in Nepal. Comprehensive surveying and health promotion programs targeted to this population are urgently needed and potent methods of stopping HIV spread.

  1. Sexual behavior and condom use among seasonal Dalit migrant laborers to India from Far West, Nepal: a qualitative study.

    Bam, Kiran; Thapa, Rajshree; Newman, Marielle Sophia; Bhatt, Lokesh Prasad; Bhatta, Shree Krishna

    2013-01-01

    Around 41% of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) cases in Nepal occur in seasonal migrant laborers. Dalit migrant laborers represent the largest proportion of reported HIV cases in the Far Western Region (Sudur Pashchimanchal, or Far West), Nepal. The study's objectives were to assess sexual behavior, condom use status and HIV risk perception among Dalit migrant laborers to India from Far West Region, Nepal. The study was conducted among Dalit male migrant laborers aged 15 years and above who had migrated for at least six months of the last two years to India. For the sampling the village development committees (VDCs) from Achham, Doti and Kanchanpur districts of Nepal were purposively selected. The data were collected in March and April 2011 via ten in-depth interviews and four focus group discussions and analyzed using content analysis. Poor socio-economic status, caste-related discrimination, and lack of employment opportunities push large groups of young Dalits to migrate to India for employment, where they engage in sex with female sex workers (FSWs). The participants described unmarried status, peer influence, alcohol use, low-priced sex with FSWs and unwillingness to use condoms as common factors of their migration experience. Lack of awareness on HIV/AIDS was common among study participants. Awareness of HIV/AIDS and faithful, monogamous partnerships are reported as factors influencing safer sexual behavior. Dalits are an especially vulnerable population among migrant laborers and may be over-represented in new HIV infections in Nepal. Comprehensive surveying and health promotion programs targeted to this population are urgently needed and potent methods of stopping HIV spread.

  2. Unsafe sexual behaviors among HIV-positive men and women in Honduras: the role of discrimination, condom access, and gender.

    Paz-Bailey, Gabriela; Isern Fernandez, Virginia; Morales Miranda, Sonia; Jacobson, Jerry O; Mendoza, Suyapa; Paredes, Mayte A; Danaval, Damien C; Mabey, David; Monterroso, Edgar

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a study among HIV-positive men and women in Honduras to describe demographics, HIV risk behaviors and sexually transmitted infection prevalence, and identify correlates of unsafe sex. Participants were recruited from HIV clinics and nongovernmental organizations in Tegucigalpa and San Pedro Sula, Honduras in a cross-sectional study in 2006. We used audio-assisted computer interviews on demographics; behaviors in the past 12 months, 6 months, and 30 days; and access to care. Assays performed included herpes (HSV-2 Herpes Select), syphilis (rapid plasma reagin [RPR] and Treponema pallidum particle agglutination assay [TPPA]) serology, and other sexually transmitted infections by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to assess variables associated with unprotected sex across all partner types in the past 12 months. Of 810 participants, 400 were from Tegucigalpa and 410 from San Pedro Sula; 367 (45%) were men. Mean age was 37 years (interquartile range: 31-43). Consistent condom use for men and women was below 60% for all partner types. In multivariate analysis, unprotected sex was more likely among women (odds ratio [OR]: 1.9, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.2-3.1, P = 0.007), those with HIV diagnoses within the past year (OR: 2.0, 95% CI: 1.1-3.7, P = 0.016), those reporting difficulty accessing condoms (OR: 2.6, 95% CI: 1.4-4.7, P = 0.003), and those reporting discrimination (OR: 1.8, 95% CI: 1.1-3.0, P = 0.016). Programs targeting HIV-positive patients need to address gender-based disparities, improve condom access and use, and help establish a protective legal and policy environment free of stigma and discrimination.

  3. Sexual Behavior and Condom Use among Seasonal Dalit Migrant Laborers to India from Far West, Nepal: A Qualitative Study

    Bam, Kiran; Thapa, Rajshree; Newman, Marielle Sophia; Bhatt, Lokesh Prasad; Bhatta, Shree Krishna

    2013-01-01

    Background Around 41% of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) cases in Nepal occur in seasonal migrant laborers. Dalit migrant laborers represent the largest proportion of reported HIV cases in the Far Western Region (Sudur Pashchimanchal, or Far West), Nepal. The study’s objectives were to assess sexual behavior, condom use status and HIV risk perception among Dalit migrant laborers to India from Far West Region, Nepal. Methods The study was conducted among Dalit male migrant laborers aged 15 years and above who had migrated for at least six months of the last two years to India. For the sampling the village development committees (VDCs) from Achham, Doti and Kanchanpur districts of Nepal were purposively selected. The data were collected in March and April 2011 via ten in-depth interviews and four focus group discussions and analyzed using content analysis. Results Poor socio-economic status, caste-related discrimination, and lack of employment opportunities push large groups of young Dalits to migrate to India for employment, where they engage in sex with female sex workers (FSWs). The participants described unmarried status, peer influence, alcohol use, low-priced sex with FSWs and unwillingness to use condoms as common factors of their migration experience. Lack of awareness on HIV/AIDS was common among study participants. Awareness of HIV/AIDS and faithful, monogamous partnerships are reported as factors influencing safer sexual behavior. Conclusions Dalits are an especially vulnerable population among migrant laborers and may be over-represented in new HIV infections in Nepal. Comprehensive surveying and health promotion programs targeted to this population are urgently needed and potent methods of stopping HIV spread. PMID:24040359

  4. The intersection of gender and ethnicity in HIV risk, interventions, and prevention: new frontiers for psychology.

    Wyatt, Gail E; Gómez, Cynthia A; Hamilton, Alison B; Valencia-Garcia, Dellanira; Gant, Larry M; Graham, Charles E

    2013-01-01

    This article articulates a contextualized understanding of gender and ethnicity as interacting social determinants of HIV risk and acquisition, with special focus on African Americans and Hispanics/Latinos--2 ethnic groups currently at most risk for HIV/AIDS acquisition in the United States. First, sex and gender are defined. Second, a conceptual model of gender, ethnicity, and HIV risk and resilience is presented. Third, a historical backdrop of gender and ethnic disparities is provided, with attention to key moments in history when notions of the intersections between gender, ethnicity, and HIV have taken important shifts. Finally, new frontiers in psychology are presented, with recommendations as to how psychology as a discipline can better incorporate considerations of gender and ethnicity as not only HIV risk factors but also as potential avenues of resilience in ethnic families and communities. Throughout the article, we promulgate the notion of a syndemic intersectional approach, which provides a critical framework for understanding and building the conditions that create and sustain overall community health by locating gendered lived experiences and expectations within the layered conceptual model ranging from the biological self to broader societal structures that define and constrain personal decisions, behaviors, actions, resources, and consequences. For ethnic individuals and populations, health disparities, stress and depression, substance abuse, and violence and trauma are of considerable concern, especially with regard to HIV risk, infection, and treatment. The conceptual model poses new frontiers for psychology in HIV policy, research, interventions, and training.

  5. The social context of gender-based violence, alcohol use and HIV risk among women involved in high-risk sexual behaviour and their intimate partners in Kampala, Uganda.

    Schulkind, Jasmine; Mbonye, Martin; Watts, Charlotte; Seeley, Janet

    2016-07-01

    This paper explores the interaction between gender-based violence and alcohol use and their links to vulnerability to HIV-infection in a population of women and their regular male partners in Kampala, Uganda. Data derive from 20 life history interviews (10 women and 10 men). Participants were drawn from a cohort of women at high risk of sexually transmitted infection (including HIV). Six of the women were current or former sex workers. Findings reveal that life histories are characterised by recurrent patterns of gender inequity related to violence, limited livelihood options and socioeconomic disadvantage. Overall, findings suggest women are able to negotiate safer sex and protect themselves better against abuse and violence from clients than from their intimate partners, although the status of men as 'client' or 'partner' is transitory and fluid. Among male respondents, alcohol led to intimate partner violence and high levels of sexual-risk taking, such as engagement with sex workers and reduced condom use. However, male partners are a heterogeneous group, with distinct and contrasting attitudes towards alcohol, condom use and violence. Actions to address gender-based violence need to be multi-pronged in order to respond to different needs and circumstances, of both women and men.

  6. Moral and Sexual Disgust Suppress Sexual Risk Behaviors among Men Who Have Sex with Men in China

    Zhang, Jing; Zheng, Lijun; Zheng, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Increasingly more men who have sex with men (MSM) are engaging in sexual risk taking in China in recent years. Given the high rates of HIV infection among MSM in China, it is urgent that we understand the factors that influence MSM's practice of sexual risk taking. Disgust sensitivity, which elicits a behavioral avoidance response, has the potential to influence risky sexual behavior. The present study examined the relationship between disgust sensitivity and sexual risk behavior among MSM in China. Men (n = 584) who reported having anal intercourse in the previous 6 months were recruited from the Internet. Two indicators of sexual risk behaviors were measured: condom use and the number of sex partners. The results indicated that moral disgust was positively associated with condom use, with MSM who had higher moral disgust being more likely to use condoms than others did. Sexual disgust was positively associated with the number of sex partners, with MSM who had higher sexual disgust having fewer male sex partners than others did. Sexual and moral disgust sensitivity significantly predicted HIV testing. Our study verified that sexual and moral disgust suppressed sexual risk behaviors and promoted HIV testing. Moral and sexual education should be incorporated in future strategies for HIV prevention and encouragement of safe sex behaviors among MSM in China. PMID:28119646

  7. Social isolation during puberty affects female sexual behavior in mice

    Jasmina eKercmar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to stress during puberty can lead to long-term behavioral alterations in adult rodents coincident with sex steroid hormone-dependent brain remodeling and reorganization. Social isolation is a stress for social animals like mice, but little is known about the effects of such stress during adolescence on later reproductive behaviors. The present study examined sexual behavior of ovariectomized, estradiol and progesterone primed female mice that were individually housed from 25 days of age until testing at approximately 95 days, or individually housed from day 25 until day 60 (during puberty, followed by housing in social groups. Mice in these isolated groups were compared to females that were group housed throughout the experiment. Receptive sexual behaviors of females and behaviors of stimulus males were recorded. Females housed in social groups displayed greater levels of receptive behaviors in comparison to both socially isolated groups. Namely, social females had higher lordosis quotients and more often displayed stronger lordosis postures in comparison to isolated females. No differences between female groups were observed in stimulus male sexual behavior suggesting that female ’attractiveness’ was not affected by their social isolation. Females housed in social groups had fewer cells containing immunoreactive estrogen receptor (ER α in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV and in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH than both isolated groups. These results suggest that isolation during adolescence affects female sexual behavior and re-socialization for one month in adulthood is insufficient to rescue lordosis behavior from the effects of social isolation during the pubertal period.

  8. Sexually compulsive/addictive behaviors in women: a women's healthcare issue.

    Roller, Cyndi Gale

    2007-01-01

    Sexually compulsive/addictive behavior is a pattern of sexual behaviors that cause distress and/or impairment of social functioning. It is marked by obsessive thoughts, compulsive behaviors, and the individual's inability to stop the behaviors despite negative consequences. Women experiencing sexually compulsive/addictive behavior are preoccupied with sex not as a response to desire but rather as a behavior that serves the purpose of anxiety reduction. Sexually compulsive/addictive behavior is associated with a number of health consequences, including sexually transmitted infections, unwanted pregnancies, abortions, and violence. It is important for providers to have an understanding of the addiction process, assessment, diagnosis, and interventions for these women.

  9. On sexual behavior and sex-role reversal.

    Schuiling, Gerard A

    2005-09-01

    Sex is not about reproduction; sex is about (re-)combination of DNA. Sex, not reproduction, always involves physical contact between two individuals; to achieve this, strategies of sexual behavior evolved. Sexual behavior, therefore, did not evolve as part of a reproductive strategy, but evolved to enable exchange of genetic material. In multicellular organisms the situation is more complicated than in unicellular organisms, as it is impossible for each cell within a multicellular body to have sex with another cell. Hence, evolution selected a system in which the possibility to have sex was limited to only one cell-line: the germ cells. As a result, sex adopted the character of fertilization, and sex and reproduction became inseparably linked. Still, in some species, including humans, sexual behavior still exhibits features of its evolutionary past: in humans (like in bonobo's) most sexual activity and many sexual behavioral patterns have nothing to do with reproduction (masturbation, homosexual behavior, for example); in humans, sexual behavior also became associated with other strategic objectives, such as intensifying the pair bond, expression of love or power. Different genders - male and female - evolved, and each gender evolved typical gender-related sexual and reproductive strategies as well. In most multicellular species, these strategies became inextricably mixed, and sexual behavior increasingly more - and in most species even exclusively - 'served' the interests of reproduction: sexual behavior became more or less synonymous with reproductive behavior. In most species, the 'mix' of sexual and reproductive strategies evolved into typical gender-related patterns of behavior, that is, in typical 'sex-roles'. Often, males are bigger and more 'beautiful' (= more intensely ornamented) than females; males compete with each other for access to females; males court females, while females choose males ('female choice'). However, ecological circumstances may cause

  10. Factors Associated with Sexual Behavior among Adolescents: A Multivariate Analysis.

    Harvey, S. Marie; Spigner, Clarence

    1995-01-01

    A self-administered survey examining multiple factors associated with engaging in sexual intercourse was completed by 1,026 high school students in a classroom setting. Findings suggest that effective interventions to address teenage pregnancy need to utilize a multifaceted approach to the prevention of high-risk behaviors. (JPS)

  11. Measurement of Motivations for and against Sexual Behavior

    Patrick, Megan E.; Maggs, Jennifer L.; Cooper, M. Lynne; Lee, Christine M.

    2011-01-01

    A multidimensional measure assessing distinct motivations for and against sex was shown to be reliable, valid, and configurally invariant among incoming first-year college students. Three Motivations Against Sex Questionnaire subscales were developed to measure motivations "against" sexual behavior (Values, Health, Not Ready) to complement and…

  12. Living with parents and risky sexual behaviors among preparatory ...

    EB

    Keywords: Risky sexual behavior, living with parents, family environment. African Halth ... increases the probability of negative consequences ... greater the gender imbalance in rates of HIV infection, with ... communication and family support) (22 Items with. 5-point ... students relationship and school-students relationship).

  13. HIV knowledge and sexual risk behavior among street adolescents ...

    HIV knowledge and sexual risk behavior among street adolescents in rehabilitation centres in Kinshasa; DRC: gender differences. ... Background: Street children, common in Africa, are increasingly vulnerable to alcohol and drugs of abuse and lack access to both healthcare and knowledge about HIV and AIDS. Hence, this ...

  14. Characteristics and allowed behaviors of gay male couples' sexual agreements.

    Mitchell, Jason W

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown that gay male couples' sexual agreements may affect their risk for HIV. Few U.S. studies have collected dyadic data nationally from gay male couples to assess what sexual behaviors they allow to occur by agreement type and the sequence of when certain behaviors occur within their relationships. In our cross-sectional study, dyadic data from a convenience sample of 361 male couples were collected electronically throughout the United States by using paid Facebook ads. Findings revealed that couples discussed their HIV status before having unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) but established their agreement some time after having UAI. About half of the couples (N = 207) concurred about having an agreement. Among these couples, 58% concurred about explicitly discussing their agreement, 84% concurred about having the same type of agreement, and 54% had both men adhering to it. A variety of sexual behaviors were endorsed and varied by agreement type. Concordance about aspects of couples' agreements varied, suggesting the need to engage couples to be more explicit and detailed when establishing and communicating about their agreements. The allowed behaviors and primary reasons for establishing and breaking sexual agreements further highlight the need to bolster HIV prevention for gay male couples.

  15. Adolescents of the U.S. National Longitudinal Lesbian Family Study: sexual orientation, sexual behavior, and sexual risk exposure.

    Gartrell, Nanette K; Bos, Henny M W; Goldberg, Naomi G

    2011-12-01

    This study assessed Kinsey self-ratings and lifetime sexual experiences of 17-year-olds whose lesbian mothers enrolled before these offspring were born in the longest-running, prospective study of same-sex parented families, with a 93% retention rate to date. Data for the current report were gathered through online questionnaires completed by 78 adolescent offspring (39 girls and 39 boys). The adolescents were asked if they had ever been abused and, if so, to specify by whom and the type of abuse (verbal, emotional, physical, or sexual). They were also asked to specify their sexual identity on the Kinsey scale, between exclusively heterosexual and exclusively homosexual. Lifetime sexual behavior was assessed through questions about heterosexual and same-sex contact, age of first sexual experience, contraception use, and pregnancy. The results revealed that there were no reports of physical or sexual victimization by a parent or other caregiver. Regarding sexual orientation, 18.9% of the adolescent girls and 2.7% of the adolescent boys self-rated in the bisexual spectrum, and 0% of girls and 5.4% of boys self-rated as predominantly-to-exclusively homosexual. When compared with age- and gender-matched adolescents of the National Survey of Family Growth, the study offspring were significantly older at the time of their first heterosexual contact, and the daughters of lesbian mothers were significantly more likely to have had same-sex contact. These findings suggest that adolescents reared in lesbian families are less likely than their peers to be victimized by a parent or other caregiver, and that daughters of lesbian mothers are more likely to engage in same-sex behavior and to identify as bisexual.

  16. Sexual behaviors and partner-specific correlates of heterosexual anal intercourse among truck drivers and their wives in South India.

    Bhatnagar, Tarun; Sakthivel Saravanamurthy, P; Detels, Roger

    2015-02-01

    It is important to know about patterns of sexual behaviors among married couples in order to develop effective HIV prevention strategies for them. Herein we describe the sexual behaviors, estimate prevalence of anal intercourse (AI) among truck drivers ("truckers") and their wives, and determine partner-specific demographic and behavioral correlates of AI. We carried out a cluster-sampled cross-sectional survey among 18-49 year-old wives and their trucker husbands in a south Indian district. Data were collected by same-gender research team members with color-coded computer-assisted interviews. We used random intercept logistic regression to identify the independent correlates of AI. Thirteen percent of 475 wives and 467 truckers reported ever having AI with their spouse. Of those who responded, 55 % of 40 wives and 47 % of 36 truckers never used condoms during AI. Of those who responded, 22 of 32 wives and 24 of 32 husbands felt that condoms were unnecessary during AI. Reporting ever having AI was associated with younger age and higher education of both husband and wife. AI reported by wives was associated with having sexual partner(s) other than husband (adjusted OR 8.8 [95 % CI 3.2-24.0]), correctly answering all HIV knowledge items (adjusted OR 4.9 [95 % CI 1.9-12.5]), husband's sexual debut occurring before marriage (adjusted OR 1.9 [95 % CI 1.0-3.5]), and husband's high HIV risk perception (adjusted OR 2.5 [95 % CI 1.2-5.4]). AI reported by truckers was associated with having sex with a male or transgender (adjusted OR 4.0 [95 % CI 1.2-13.3]). Reported prevalence of AI was high considering that in India anal sex is non-normative, heavily stigmatized and, criminal. Indian heterosexual mobile populations need to be informed about the greater risk of HIV infection consequent to unprotected AI.

  17. “Sexting” and its relation to sexual activity and sexual risk behavior in a national survey of adolescents

    Ybarra, Michele L.; Mitchell, Kimberly J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the relation between “sexting,” (sending and sharing sexual photos online via text messaging and in-person) with sexual risk behaviors and psychosocial challenge in adolescence. Methods Data were collected online between 2010 and 2011 with 3,715 randomly selected 13- to 18-year-old youth across the United States. Results Seven percent of youth reported sending or showing someone sexual pictures of themselves, where they were nude or nearly nude, online, via text messaging, or in-person, during the past year. Although females and older youth were more likely to share sexual photos than males and younger youth, the profile of psychosocial challenge and sexual behavior was similar for all youth. After adjusting for demographic characteristics, sharing sexual photos was associated with all types of sexual behaviors assessed (e.g., oral sex, vaginal sex) as well as some of the risky sexual