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Sample records for hiv-infected persons continue

  1. INFLUENZA IMMUNISATION IN HIV-INFECTED PERSONS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Definitive, quantitative epidemiological data on the risk of influenza complications in HIV-infected persons are still not available. However, small-scale studies have shown more severe and prolonged influenza disease in. HIV-infected persons."'" Additional factors which would also need to be taken into account when ...

  2. Influenza immunisation in HIV-Infected person | Schoub | Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Southern African Journal of HIV Medicine. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 2, No 1 (2001) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Influenza immunisation in HIV-Infected person. BD Schoub ...

  3. [Trends in mortality and causes of death among persons with HIV infection, 1985-2004].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldaz, Pablo; Castilla, Jesús; Moreno-Iribas, Conchi; Irisarri, Fátima; Floristán, Yugo; Sola-Boneta, Julio; Martínez-Artola, Víctor; Fernández-Jaúregui, Carmen; Dorronsoro, Inés

    2007-01-01

    To describe the changes in causes of death among persons with HIV infection. An analysis of mortality according to cause was performed in persons diagnosed with HIV infection and residing in the province of Navarre (Spain) from 1985 to 2004. Among 1,649 persons diagnosed with HIV infection up to 2004, 709 (43.0%) had died. Mortality reached the maximum in 1993-1996 with 83.1 deaths per 1,000 person-years (PY). Since that time and up to 2001-2004, mortality due to AIDS decreased from 68.3 to 14.1 per 1,000 PY (p = 0.0001). From 1989-1992 period to the 2001-2004 period, mortality due to drug overdose dropped from 9.2 to 3.6 per 1,000 PY (p = 0.0035) and mortality due to hepatic disease rose from 1.6 to 6.6 per 1000 PY (p = 0.0061), with no significant changes in all other causes. In 2001-2004, AIDS continued to be the first cause of death (44.4%) in this population, followed by hepatic disease (20.9%) and drug overdose (11.3%). In the era of potent antiretroviral therapy (1997-2004), death caused by AIDS (rate ratio = 0.63; p = 0.0344) and by all other causes (RR = 0.59; p = 0.0232) was lower among women. In addition, mortality due to causes other than AIDS was higher in persons 40 years of age and older (RR = 1.77; P = 0.0050) and mortality was lower in homosexual men (RR = 0.22; p = 0.0360). A simultaneous diagnosis of HIV infection and AIDS was associated with higher mortality by AIDS (RR, 3.39; p cause of death in HIV-infected people, and mortality due to hepatic diseases and drug overdose is high. Early diagnosis of HIV-infection would reduce the incidence of deaths due to AIDS.

  4. Survival of persons with and without HIV infection in Denmark, 1995-2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohse, Nicolai; Hansen, Ann-Brit Eg; Pedersen, Gitte

    2007-01-01

    tables with age as the time scale to estimate survival from age 25 years. Patients with HIV infection and corresponding persons from the general population were observed from the date of the patient's HIV diagnosis until death, emigration, or 1 May 2005. RESULTS: 3990 HIV-infected patients and 379......BACKGROUND: The expected survival of HIV-infected patients is of major public health interest. OBJECTIVE: To estimate survival time and age-specific mortality rates of an HIV-infected population compared with that of the general population. DESIGN: Population-based cohort study. SETTING: All HIV......-infected persons receiving care in Denmark from 1995 to 2005. PATIENTS: Each member of the nationwide Danish HIV Cohort Study was matched with as many as 99 persons from the general population according to sex, date of birth, and municipality of residence. MEASUREMENTS: The authors computed Kaplan-Meier life...

  5. Survival of persons with and without HIV infection in Denmark, 1995-2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohse, Nicolai; Hansen, Ann-Brit Eg; Pedersen, Gitte

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The expected survival of HIV-infected patients is of major public health interest. OBJECTIVE: To estimate survival time and age-specific mortality rates of an HIV-infected population compared with that of the general population. DESIGN: Population-based cohort study. SETTING: All HIV......-infected persons receiving care in Denmark from 1995 to 2005. PATIENTS: Each member of the nationwide Danish HIV Cohort Study was matched with as many as 99 persons from the general population according to sex, date of birth, and municipality of residence. MEASUREMENTS: The authors computed Kaplan-Meier life...... tables with age as the time scale to estimate survival from age 25 years. Patients with HIV infection and corresponding persons from the general population were observed from the date of the patient's HIV diagnosis until death, emigration, or 1 May 2005. RESULTS: 3990 HIV-infected patients and 379...

  6. Survival of persons with and without HIV infection in Denmark, 1995-2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohse, Nicolai; Hansen, Ann-Brit Eg; Pedersen, Gitte

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The expected survival of HIV-infected patients is of major public health interest. OBJECTIVE: To estimate survival time and age-specific mortality rates of an HIV-infected population compared with that of the general population. DESIGN: Population-based cohort study. SETTING: All HIV-infected...... tables with age as the time scale to estimate survival from age 25 years. Patients with HIV infection and corresponding persons from the general population were observed from the date of the patient's HIV diagnosis until death, emigration, or 1 May 2005. RESULTS: 3990 HIV-infected patients and 379.......3) among patients with HIV infection and 51.1 years (CI, 50.9 to 51.5) among the general population. For HIV-infected patients, survival increased to 32.5 years (CI, 29.4 to 34.7) during the 2000 to 2005 period. In the subgroup that excluded persons with known hepatitis C coinfection (16%), median survival...

  7. Safety of licensed vaccines in HIV-infected persons: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagina, Benjamin M; Wiysonge, Charles S; Lesosky, Maia; Madhi, Shabir A; Hussey, Gregory D

    2014-09-11

    Safety of vaccines remains a cornerstone of building public trust on the use of these cost-effective and life-saving public health interventions. In some settings, particularly Sub-Saharan Africa, there is a high prevalence of HIV infection and a high burden of vaccine-preventable diseases. There is evidence suggesting that the immunity induced by some commonly used vaccines is not durable in HIV-infected persons, and therefore, repeated vaccination may be considered to ensure optimal vaccine-induced immunity in this population. However, some vaccines, particularly the live vaccines, may be unsafe in HIV-infected persons. There is lack of evidence on the safety profile of commonly used vaccines among HIV-infected persons. We are therefore conducting a systematic review to assess the safety profile of routine vaccines administered to HIV-infected persons. We will select studies conducted in any setting where licensed and effective vaccines were administered to HIV-infected persons. We will search for eligible studies in PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Scopus, Africa-Wide, PDQ-Evidence and CINAHL as well as reference lists of relevant publications. We will screen search outputs, select studies and extract data in duplicate, resolving discrepancies by discussion and consensus. Globally, immunisation is a major public health strategy to mitigate morbidity and mortality caused by various infectious disease-causing agents. In general, there are efforts to increase vaccination coverage worldwide, and for these efforts to be successful, safety of the vaccines is paramount, even among people living with HIV, who in some situations may require repeated vaccination. Results from this systematic review will be discussed in the context of the safety of routine vaccines among HIV-infected persons. From the safety perspective, we will also discuss whether repeat vaccination strategies may be feasible among HIV-infected persons

  8. Comorbidities as risk factors of chronic kidney disease in HIV-infected persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofia Marchewka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Significant survival prolongation in HIV-infected patients due to effective antiretroviral therapy is connected with increasing prevalence of chronic non-infective diseases in this population, among them chronic kidney disease. The pathogenesis of kidney disease in the setting of HIV includes conditions specific for HIV infection: direct effect of the virus, stage of immunodeficiency and drug toxicity. Chronic comorbidities, such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia, are additional significant risk factors of kidney disease. In HIV-infected individuals some distinct features of these conditions are observed, which are partly related to the virus and antiretroviral therapy. The article summarizes the effect of comorbidities on kidney function in HIV-infected persons.

  9. Early HIV infection among persons referred for malaria parasite testing in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olusola, Babatunde A; Olaleye, David O; Odaibo, Georgina N

    2018-02-01

    Persons in the early stages of HIV infection are the major drivers of new infections. These individuals may also develop renal dysfunctions at this time. Nigeria, as other African countries, has one of the highest prevalence of newly diagnosed HIV infections. Despite this, limited information exists on early HIV detection in the continent. This may be related to difficulties in providing early HIV diagnosis and treatment. Patients referred for malaria testing may provide a unique opportunity for early HIV detection. In this study, a method for identifying early HIV-infected individuals was assessed. HIV-1 subtype and renal function biomarkers were also analyzed in these persons. To identify early HIV infection, over a period of 18 months blood samples were collected from persons referred by clinicians for malaria parasite tests in Nigeria. A total of 671 samples were collected and analyzed for HIV antigen/antibody and subtypes. 101 of these samples were categorized into one of four groups: early HIV, chronic HIV, malaria infection and control groups for renal function analysis. 29% of HIV infected individuals were at the early stages of infection. The predominant subtype detected was CRF02_AG (57.14%). The early HIV group had the highest mean serum creatinine (95 µmol/L) and urea (5.7 mmol/L) values across all groups with the difference significant at P HIV infection. Our results show the feasibility of screening persons referred for malaria tests for early HIV. This can be used to control new HIV infections in sub-Saharan Africa.

  10. [Beyond depression: assessing personality disorders, alexithymia and socio-emotional alienation in patients with HIV infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiello, Addolorata; De Guglielmo, Carmen; Giglio, Sergio; Acone, Nicola

    2014-09-01

    HIV infection is commonly associated with emotional and cognitive disorders that recognize both causes of an organic nature (related to the virus itself) and non-organic factors (emotional stress resulting from HIV diagnosis, social stigma and continued risk behaviour such as alcohol or drug abuse). Most of the literature has focused attention on depressive disorder, the most common mental disorder in the HIV population. In our analysis we evaluated the presence of personality disorders and alexithymia in a group of patients seropositive for HIV through appropriate psychological tests. Our data revealed a close relationship between socio-emotional alienation, distorted body perception and the difficulty in relating with each other, which is perceived as threatening and judgmental; this concept takes us back to the social stigma that modifies the emotional communication of HIV patients. The illness is experienced as an outsider that modifies the body, imprisons the emotionalism and cannot be controlled. Such personality alterations stop the emotional communication, thereby developing alexithymia.

  11. Tobacco use and readiness to quit smoking in low-income HIV-infected persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhalter, Jack E; Springer, Carolyn M; Chhabra, Rosy; Ostroff, Jamie S; Rapkin, Bruce D

    2005-08-01

    The study aim was to identify covariates of smoking status and readiness to quit that encompassed key sociodemographic and health status variables, health-related quality of life, drug use and unprotected sex, and tobacco use variables in a cohort of low-income persons living with HIV. We also examined the impact of HIV diagnosis on smoking cessation. The sample (N = 428) was mostly male (59%) and Black (53%) or Hispanic (30%), and had a high school education or less (87%). Mean age was 40 years. Two-thirds of participants were current smokers, 19% former smokers, and 16% never smokers. Current smokers smoked a mean of 16 cigarettes/day for 22 years; 42% were in the precontemplation stage of readiness to quit smoking, 40% were contemplators, and 18% were in preparation. Most current smokers (81%) reported receiving medical advice to quit smoking. Multivariate logistic regression analyses indicated that current smokers, compared with former smokers, were more likely to use illicit drugs, perceive a lower health risk for continued smoking, and report less pain. Current smokers, compared with nonsmokers (former and never smokers), were more likely to report greater illicit drug use in their lifetime, current illicit drug use, and less pain. A multiple linear regression indicated that greater current illicit drug use, greater emotional distress, and a lower number of quit attempts were associated with lower stage of readiness to quit smoking. These findings confirm a high prevalence of smoking among HIV-infected persons and suggest a complex interplay among drug use, pain, and emotional distress that impact smoking status and, among smokers, readiness to quit. Tobacco control programs for HIV-infected persons should build motivation to quit smoking and address salient barriers to cessation--such as comorbid drug use, emotional distress, pain, and access to and coverage for treatment--and should educate smokers regarding the HIV-specific health benefits of cessation.

  12. Increasing rates of obesity among HIV-infected persons during the HIV epidemic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Crum-Cianflone

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence and factors associated with overweight/obesity among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-infected persons are unknown.We evaluated prospective data from a U.S. Military HIV Natural History Study (1985-2004 consisting of early diagnosed patients. Statistics included multivariate linear regression and longitudinal linear mixed effects models.Of 1682 patients, 2% were underweight, 37% were overweight, and 9% were obese at HIV diagnosis. Multivariate predictors of a higher body mass index (BMI at diagnosis included more recent year of HIV diagnosis, older age, African American race, and earlier HIV stage (all p<0.05. The majority of patients (62% gained weight during HIV infection. Multivariate factors associated with a greater increase in BMI during HIV infection included more recent year of diagnosis, lower BMI at diagnosis, higher CD4 count, lower HIV RNA level, lack of AIDS diagnosis, and longer HIV duration (all p<0.05. Nucleoside agents were associated with less weight gain; other drug classes had no significant impact on weight change in the HAART era.HIV-infected patients are increasingly overweight/obese at diagnosis and during HIV infection. Weight gain appears to reflect improved health status and mirror trends in the general population. Weight management programs may be important components of HIV care.

  13. Utilization of psychotropic drugs prescribed to persons with and without HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, L D; Obel, D; Kronborg, G

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objective was to estimate the utilization of psychotropic drugs in HIV-infected individuals compared with that in the background population. METHODS: Using data obtained from the Danish HIV Cohort Study and the Danish National Prescription Registry, we analysed aggregated data...... on redeemed prescription of psychotropic drugs during 1995-2009. We primarily focused our analyses on HIV-infected individuals with no history of injecting drug use (IDU) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Drug utilization was expressed as defined daily doses per 1000 person-days (DDD/1000PD......). The utilization rate ratio (URR) was calculated as utilization in the HIV-infected cohort compared with that in the comparison cohort. We estimated longitudinal trends in utilization and potential associations with HIV and exposure to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), especially efavirenz. RESULTS...

  14. Employment status in persons with and without HIV infection in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legarth, Rebecca; Omland, Lars Haukali; Kronborg, Gitte

    2014-01-01

    .v.) drug abuse as a route of HIV infection or diagnosed with hepatitis C infection (n = 2799) and 22,369 individually matched persons from the background population. Study inclusion was 1 January 1996 or HIV diagnosis, which ever came last. METHODS: Data on employment status and disability pension were......OBJECTIVE: To estimate annual employment rates and disability retirement rates (DRRs) among HIV-infected individuals and population controls during the period 1996-2011. DESIGN: A population-based cohort study including all HIV-infected individuals born in Denmark and not reporting intravenous (i...... extracted from Danish national registries. Employment rate and DRR were estimated in each calendar year after study inclusion for the cohorts included before 1996 (pre-1996), 1996-1999 and 2000-2011. RESULTS: Employment rate in the year of study inclusion increased from 54.8% [95% confidence interval (CI...

  15. A Randomized Clinical Trial of Alternative Stress Management Interventions in Persons with HIV Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCain, Nancy L.; Gray, D. Patricia; Elswick, R. K., Jr.; Robins, Jolynne W.; Tuck, Inez; Walter, Jeanne M.; Rausch, Sarah M.; Ketchum, Jessica McKinney

    2008-01-01

    Research in psychoneuroimmunology suggests that immunosuppression associated with perceived stress may contribute to disease progression in persons with HIV infection. While stress management interventions may enhance immune function, few alternative approaches have yet been tested. This randomized clinical trial was conducted to test effects of…

  16. [Discrimination of HIV infected persons in medical settings in Madagascar].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrianasolo, R L; Rakotoarivelo, R A; Randriarimanana, D; Angijiro, P G; Randria, M J D

    2011-01-01

    The objective of our study was to describe the discrimination profile of healthcare personnel towards people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in medical settings in Madagascar. A prospective, multicentric, descriptive, and analytic study was made with a questionnaire filled in anonymously, between February and August 2009, in 17 Madagascar hospitals (public and private). Thirty-six percent of PLWHA reported that they had been confronted with discrimination in the medical field. The age (30-40 years) and the level of education had an impact on discrimination in our study (pdiscrimination (n=8/13) (61.5 %). Discrimination in the medical field was listed as: refusal of the patient to be managed in the hospital (n=5/27) (18.5 %) because of the fear of discrimination (n=4/5) (80 %) and sharing serological status with healthcare providers. Discrimination by the medical staff was listed as the unjustified use of some tools (stethoscope, tensiometer, thermometer) and by the refusal to manage PLWHA (p>0.05). Fifty-three percent of healthcare providers answered the question on HIV transmission mode correctly. Fifteen percent replied that HIV was transmitted by saliva, and 20 % by physical contact. As elsewhere, discrimination of PLWHA in the medical field is present in Madagascar. Fighting discrimination should be included in the strategy against propagation of HIV infection. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. HIV-infected persons with type 2 diabetes show evidence of endothelial dysfunction and increased inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hove-Skovsgaard, Malene; Gaardbo, Julie Christine; Kolte, Lilian; Winding, Kamilla; Seljeflot, Ingebjørg; Svardal, Asbjørn; Berge, Rolf Kristian; Gerstoft, Jan; Ullum, Henrik; Trøseid, Marius; Nielsen, Susanne Dam

    2017-03-29

    Increased incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in both HIV infection and type 2 diabetes (T2D) compared to the general population has been described. Little is known about the combined effect of HIV infection and T2D on inflammation and endothelial function, both of which may contribute to elevated risk of CVD. Cross-sectional study including 50 HIV-infected persons on combination anti-retroviral therapy (cART), with HIV RNA inflammation (cut-off 3 mg/L). The marker of endothelial dysfunction asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) was measured using high performance liquid chromatography. Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), a microbiota-dependent, pro-atherogenic marker was measured using stable isotope dilution LC/MS/MS. The percentage of HIV + T2D+, HIV + T2D-, HIV-T2D+, and HIV-T2D- with hsCRP above cut-off was 50%, 19%, 47%, and 11%, respectively. HIV + T2D+ had elevated ADMA (0.67 μM (0.63-0.72) compared to HIV + T2D- (0.60 μM (0.57-0.64) p = 0.017), HIV-T2D+ (0.57 μM (0.51-63) p = 0.008), and HIV-T2D- (0.55 μM (0.52-0.58) p inflammation and evidence of endothelial dysfunction was found in HIV-infected persons with T2D. The effect on inflammation was mainly driven by T2D, while both HIV infection and T2D may contribute to endothelial dysfunction. Whether gut microbiota is a contributing factor to this remains to be determined.

  18. HIV-infected persons with type 2 diabetes show evidence of endothelial dysfunction and increased inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hove-Skovsgaard, Malene; Gaardbo, Julie Christine; Kolte, Lilian

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Increased incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in both HIV infection and type 2 diabetes (T2D) compared to the general population has been described. Little is known about the combined effect of HIV infection and T2D on inflammation and endothelial function, both of which may...... without T2D (HIV-T2D-)). Groups were matched on age and sex. High sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) was used to determine inflammation (cut-off 3 mg/L). The marker of endothelial dysfunction asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) was measured using high performance liquid chromatography. Trimethylamine.......001), which was mainly driven by a close correlation in HIV + T2D+ (rs = 0.63, p = 0.001). CONCLUSION: Elevated inflammation and evidence of endothelial dysfunction was found in HIV-infected persons with T2D. The effect on inflammation was mainly driven by T2D, while both HIV infection and T2D may contribute...

  19. Correlates of perceived risk of HIV infection among persons who inject drugs in Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armenta, Richard F; Abramovitz, Daniela; Lozada, Remedios; Vera, Alicia; Garfein, Richard S; Magis-Rodríguez, Carlos; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2015-01-01

    We identified correlates of perceived risk of HIV infection among persons who inject drugs (PWID) in Tijuana. PWID ≥18 years of age who injected drugs in the past month were recruited between 2006-2007 and completed risk assessment interviews and serologic testing for HIV, syphilis, and tuberculosis. Logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with high-perceived risk of HIV infection. Among 974 PWID, HIV prevalence was 4.4%; 45.0% of participants perceived themselves to be more likely to become HIV infected relative to other PWID in Tijuana. Participants who reported high-perceived risk of HIV infection participated in high-risk behaviors such as injecting with used syringes, transactional sex, and were less likely to have had an HIV test. Recognition of HIV infection risk was associated with high risk behaviors and markers of vulnerability. Findings support efforts to encourage HIV testing and access to health care for this vulnerable population.

  20. Unique Cryptosporidium Population in HIV-Infected Persons, Jamaica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatei, Wangeci; Barrett, Donnett; Lindo, John F.; Eldemire-Shearer, Denise; Cama, Vitaliano

    2008-01-01

    A cryptosporidiosis survey showed the presence of Cryptosporidium hominis, C. parvum, C. canis, and C. felis in 25, 7, 1, and 1 HIV-positive persons from Jamaica, respectively; 1 person had both C. hominis and C. felis. Multilocus sequence typing indicated the presence of a homogeneous but geographically distinct C. hominis population in Jamaica. PMID:18439378

  1. Risk factors associated with HIV infection among young persons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Joshua Kembo * Joshua Kembo (PhD) is a Senior Researcher in the Bureau of Market Research (BMR) at the University of South Africa (Unisa). He holds a PhD in Epidemiology obtained from the School of Health Systems and Public Health (SHSPH) at the University of Pretoria. kemboj@unisa.ac.za

    2012-05-30

    May 30, 2012 ... claims, proceedings, demand, or costs or damages whatsoever or howsoever caused arising directly or indirectly ... Keywords: HIV and AIDS, HIV sero-status, young persons aged 15–24, Zimbabwe, sub-Saharan Africa, multivariate binary logistic ...... in a study in Africa and Latin America also observed that.

  2. Risk factors associated with HIV infection among young persons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Joshua Kembo * Joshua Kembo (PhD) is a Senior Researcher in the Bureau of Market Research (BMR) at the University of South Africa (Unisa). He holds a PhD in Epidemiology obtained from the School of Health Systems and Public Health (SHSPH) at the University of Pretoria. kemboj@unisa.ac.za

    2012-05-30

    May 30, 2012 ... PLEASE SCROLL DOWN FOR ARTICLE. For full terms and conditions of use, see: http://www.tandfonline.com/page/terms-and-conditions esp. Part II. Intellectual property .... from this paper are expected to inform the design of appropriate .... The analysis in this paper is based on this sub-sample of persons.

  3. Improved survival in HIV-infected persons: consequences and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohse, Nicolai; Hansen, Ann-Brit Eg; Gerstoft, Jan

    2007-01-01

    . Further, they may expect to be treated equally with other members of society with respect to access to mortgage, health insurance and life insurance. As the infected population ages, more patients will contract age-related diseases, and the disease burden on some individuals may even come to be dominated......, with lifestyle factors potentially playing a pronounced role. Consequently, an effort to further increase survival must target risk factors for both HIV-related and -unrelated mortality. The continuation of the positive trend may be achieved by increased HIV testing, earlier initiation of antiretroviral therapy......, improved drug adherence, prevention and treatment of HIV-unrelated co-morbidity and collaboration with other medical specialists to treat an ageing co-morbidity-acquiring HIV population....

  4. Causes of Death in HIV-infected Persons Who Have Tuberculosis, Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Cain, Kevin P.; Anekthananon, Thanomsak; Burapat, Channawong; Akksilp, Somsak; Mankhatitham, Wiroj; Srinak, Chawin; Nateniyom, Sriprapa; Sattayawuthipong, Wanchai; Tasaneeyapan, Theerawit; Varma, Jay K.

    2009-01-01

    Up to 50% of persons with HIV and a diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) in Thailand die during TB treatment. In a prospective observational study, a team of physicians ascribed the cause of death after reviewing verbal autopsies (interviews of family members about events preceding death), laboratory data, and medical records. Of 849 HIV-infected TB patients enrolled, 142 (17%) died. The cause of death was TB for 38 (27%), including 6 with multidrug-resistant TB and 20 with disseminated TB; an HIV-...

  5. Profile of crofelemer for the symptomatic treatment of diarrhea in HIV-infected persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard C

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Christina Leonard,1 Poorvi Chordia,1 Rodger D MacArthur1,2 1Department of Infectious Diseases, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USA; 2Newland Immunology Center of Excellence, Southfield, MI, USAAbstract: Diarrhea due to noninfectious causes is a major problem in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-infected persons, and is frequently related to antiretroviral therapy and HIV-associated enteropathy. Crofelemer is a first-in-class antidiarrheal agent that is United States Food and Drug Administration approved for noninfectious diarrhea in persons with HIV on antiretroviral therapy. Crofelemer is derived from the blood-red sap of Croton lechleri, a South American plant whose latex is associated with various healing attributes. In fact, it has a unique effect on chloride channels in the gastrointestinal lumen, and leads to decreased efflux of sodium molecules and water, thereby decreasing the frequency of stools. Crofelemer – a plant-based compound, discovered and investigated as the result of the increased prevalence of ethnobotany – is a novel and effective agent with a good safety profile. It could potentially improve the quality of life for HIV-infected patients and hopefully, in turn, will improve antiretroviral therapy compliance.Keywords: chloride channels, secretory diarrhea, botanical, sangre de grado, intra-luminal

  6. Nutritional status of persons with HIV infection, persons with HIV infection and tuberculosis, and HIV-negative individuals from southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaminathan, Soumya; Padmapriyadarsini, C; Sukumar, B; Iliayas, Sheikh; Kumar, S Ramesh; Triveni, C; Gomathy, P; Thomas, Beena; Mathew, Minnie; Narayanan, P R

    2008-03-15

    We compared the nutritional status of individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection alone, individuals with HIV infection and tuberculosis (after completion of antituberculosis treatment), and HIV-negative individuals and found that malnutrition, anemia, and hypoalbuminemia were most pronounced among HIV-positive patients with tuberculosis. Weight loss was associated with loss of fat in female patients and with loss of body cell mass in male patients.

  7. Thoughts of suicide among HIV-infected rural persons enrolled in a telephone-delivered mental health intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, Timothy G; Miller, Jeffrey; Kochman, Arlene; Kalichman, Seth C; Carlson, Bruce; Silverthorn, Monica

    2002-01-01

    This study characterized rates and predictors of suicidal thoughts among HIV-infected persons living in rural communities of eight U.S. states. Self-administered surveys were completed by 201 HIV-infected persons living in communities of 50,000 or fewer that were located at least 20 miles from a city of 100,000 or more. All participants were clients of rural AIDS service organizations and had recently enrolled into a randomized clinical trial of a telephone-delivered, coping improvement-group intervention designed specifically for HIV-infected rural persons. At baseline, participants reported on thoughts of suicide, psychological symptomatology, life-stressor burden, ways of coping, coping self-efficacy, social support, and barriers to health care and social services. Thirty-eight percent of HIV-infected rural persons had engaged in thoughts of suicide during the past week. A logistic regression analysis revealed that participants who endorsed thoughts of suicide also reported more depressive symptoms (odds ratio [OR] = 2.19; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.32-3.63, p < .002), less coping self-efficacy (OR = 0.70; 95% CI = 0.56-0.88, p < .002), more frequently worried about transmitting their HIV infection to others (OR = 1.66, 95% CI = 1.14-2.40, p < .008), and experienced more stress associated with AIDS-related stigma (OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.07-2.35, p < .03). As AIDS prevalence rates increase in rural areas, interventions that successfully identify and treat geographically isolated HIV-infected persons who experience more frequent or serious thoughts of suicide are urgently needed.

  8. Correlates of perceived risk of HIV infection among persons who inject drugs in Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armenta, Richard F; Abramovitz, Daniela; Lozada, Remedios; Vera, Alicia; Garfein, Richard S; Magis-Rodríguez, Carlos; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2017-01-01

    Objective We identified correlates of perceived risk of HIV infection among persons who inject drugs (PWID) in Tijuana. Materials and methods PWID ≥18 years of age who injected drugs in the past month were recruited between 2006–2007 and completed risk assessment interviews and serologic testing for HIV, syphilis, and tuberculosis. Logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with high-perceived risk of HIV infection. Results Among 974 PWID, HIV prevalence was 4.4%; 45.0% of participants perceived themselves to be more likely to become HIV infected relative to other PWID in Tijuana. Participants who reported high-perceived risk of HIV infection participated in high-risk behaviors such as injecting with used syringes, transactional sex, and were less likely to have had an HIV test. Conclusions Recognition of HIV infection risk was associated with high risk behaviors and markers of vulnerability. Findings support efforts to encourage HIV testing and access to health care for this vulnerable population. PMID:26545125

  9. Perceived HIV stigma and life satisfaction among persons living with HIV infection in five African countries: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeff, Minrie; Uys, Leana R; Wantland, Dean; Makoae, Lucy; Chirwa, Maureen; Dlamini, Priscilla; Kohi, Thecla W; Mullan, Joseph; Naidoo, Joanne Rachel; Cuca, Yvette; Holzemer, William L

    2010-04-01

    Descriptive literature exists on the effects of HIV-related stigma on the lives of people living with HIV infection but few empirical studies have measured perceived HIV stigma nor explored its potential relationship to quality of life (QoL) over time in people living with HIV infection. A cohort study of a purposive convenient sample of 1457 HIV-positive persons was followed for one year in a longitudinal design that examined the effects of stigma and the life satisfaction dimension of the HIV/AIDS Targeted Quality of Life Instrument (HAT-QOL) over time, as well as the influence of other demographic and assessed social variables. Data were collected three times about six months apart from December 2005 to March 2007. The average age in this sample was 36.8 years (SD=8.78, n=1454) and 72.7% (n=1056) were female. The initial sample of participants was balanced among the five countries: Lesotho, Malawi, South Africa, Swaziland, and Tanzania. An attrition analysis demonstrated few demographic differences between those who remained in the study 12 months later compared with those at baseline. However, those who completed the study and who answered the QoL questions had significantly higher life satisfaction scores at baseline than those who left the study. There was a general increase in the report of life satisfaction QoL in all countries over the one-year period. However, as stigma scores increased over time there was a significant decrease in life satisfaction with differing rates of change by country. Certain factors had a positive influence on life satisfaction QoL: positive HIV media reports, taking antiretrovirals, reduced symptom intensity, and disclosure to a friend. This cohort study is the first to document empirically in a longitudinal sample, that perceived HIV stigma has a significantly negative and constant impact upon life satisfaction QoL for people with HIV infection. In the absence of any intervention to address and reduce stigmatization, individuals

  10. Tuberculosis Screening and Active Tuberculosis among HIV-Infected Persons in a Canadian Tertiary Care Centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Brassard

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available RATIONALE: HIV infection increases the risk of reactivation of latent tuberculosis (TB. The present study evaluates how latent TB is detected and treated to determine the effectiveness of screening in HIV-infected patients with diverse risk profiles.

  11. Reproductive health options among HIV-infected persons in the low-income Niger Delta of Nigeria

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    Erhabor O

    2012-02-01

    attended reproductive health counseling with HIV counselors. Reasons for not seeking advice were anticipated negative reactions and discrimination from counselors. A significant number of subjects were only aware of some of the reproductive health options available to reduce the risk of infecting their partners and/or baby, such as artificial vaginal insemination, intrauterine insemination, cesarean section, avoidance of breast feeding, and offering prenatal pre-exposure prophylaxis to the fetus. They were unaware of other options, such as sperm washing, in vitro fertilization, and intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Of the 43.1% not anticipating more children, 36.9% were anticipating adoption.Conclusion: Our study has shown that a significant number of HIV-infected persons in the Niger Delta of Nigeria desire to have children irrespective of their positive serostatus. There is the need to support the sexual and reproductive rights of HIV-infected individuals. Additional training needs to be offered to HIV counselors on evidence-based best and affordable practices regarding reproductive health issues among persons living with HIV. Policies that support availability and accessibility to relevant reproductive and sexual health services, including contraception and procreation, need to be developed. Public enlightenment programs on HIV are needed to reduce the stigmatization that HIV-infected persons face from family members and their communities.Keywords: reproductive health, human immunodeficiency virus, low income, Niger Delta, Nigeria

  12. Elevated alanine aminotransferase levels in HIV-infected persons without hepatitis B or C virus coinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghamdi, Saad; Alrbiaan, Abdullah; Alaraj, Ali; Alhuraiji, Ahmad; Alghamdi, Mohammad; Alrajhi, Abdulrahman

    2016-01-01

    Mortality related to human immunodeficiency (HIV) has improved with the use of antiretroviral therapy; however, liver disease-related mortality remains a major concern for the HIV population. Elevation of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) has been noted in HIV-infected persons even without viral hepatitis infection. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence and prevalence of chronic alanine ALT elevation among patients infected with HIV who are negative for hepatitis B or C infection. Retrospective chart review. We reviewed the medical records of all patients infected with HIV who had been treated from November 2002 to December 2010. Patients with an unknown or positive HBV or HCV infection status were excluded. We identified patient demographics, route of transmission, peak viral load, and nadir CD4 count. We followed 440 patients for up to 2265 person-years. A total of 123 patients developed chronically elevated ALT levels, with an incidence of 5.8 cases per 100 person-years. Chronically elevated ALT levels were associated with high HIV viral load, mean body mass index, and diabetes mellitus. We found exposure to lamivudine in 58% of the patients, efavirenz in 41%, and zidovudine in 38%. Abdominal ultrasounds revealed fatty liver in 20 of 39 (51%) of the patients. Among patients without viral hepatitis coinfection, the prevalence and incidence of chronic elevated ALT levels were high and accompanied by high HIV RNA levels and increased BMI. The limitations of this report are its retrospective nature and lack of a control group.

  13. Will "Combined Prevention" Eliminate Racial/Ethnic Disparities in HIV Infection among Persons Who Inject Drugs in New York City?

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    Don Des Jarlais

    Full Text Available It has not been determined whether implementation of combined prevention programming for persons who inject drugs reduce racial/ethnic disparities in HIV infection. We examine racial/ethnic disparities in New York City among persons who inject drugs after implementation of the New York City Condom Social Marketing Program in 2007. Quantitative interviews and HIV testing were conducted among persons who inject drugs entering Mount Sinai Beth Israel drug treatment (2007-2014. 703 persons who inject drugs who began injecting after implementation of large-scale syringe exchange were included in the analyses. Factors independently associated with being HIV seropositive were identified and a published model was used to estimate HIV infections due to sexual transmission. Overall HIV prevalence was 4%; Whites 1%, African-Americans 17%, and Hispanics 4%. Adjusted odds ratios were 21.0 (95% CI 5.7, 77.5 for African-Americans to Whites and 4.5 (95% CI 1.3, 16.3 for Hispanics to Whites. There was an overall significant trend towards reduced HIV prevalence over time (adjusted odd ratio = 0.7 per year, 95% confidence interval (0.6-0.8. An estimated 75% or more of the HIV infections were due to sexual transmission. Racial/ethnic disparities among persons who inject drugs were not significantly different from previous disparities. Reducing these persistent disparities may require new interventions (treatment as prevention, pre-exposure prophylaxis for all racial/ethnic groups.

  14. Neurocognitive impairment is associated with lower health literacy among persons living with HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Erin E; Iudicello, Jennifer E; Cattie, Jordan E; Blackstone, Kaitlin; Grant, Igor; Woods, Steven Paul

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to determine the effects of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) on health literacy, which encompasses the ability to access, understand, appraise, and apply health-related information. Participants included 56 HIV seropositive individuals, 24 of whom met Frascati criteria for HAND, and 24 seronegative subjects who were comparable on age, education, ethnicity, and oral word reading. Each participant was administered a brief battery of well-validated measures of health literacy, including the Expanded Numeracy Scale (ENS), Newest Vital Sign (NVS), Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM), and Brief Health Literacy Screen (BHLS). Results revealed significant omnibus differences on the ENS and NVS, which were driven by poorer performance in the HAND group. There were no significant differences on the REALM or the BHLS by HAND status. Among individuals with HAND, lower scores on the NVS were associated with greater severity of neurocognitive dysfunction (e.g., working memory and verbal fluency) and self-reported dependence in activities of daily living. These preliminary findings suggest that HAND hinders both fundamental (i.e., basic knowledge, such as numeracy) and critical (i.e., comprehension and application of healthcare information) health literacy capacities, and therefore may be an important factor in the prevalence of health illiteracy. Health literacy-focused intervention may play an important role in the treatment and health trajectories among persons living with HIV infection.

  15. A suicide risk screening scale for HIV-infected persons in the immediate post-diagnosis period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R D Govender

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. The risk of suicidal tendencies in HIV-infected persons appears high and may parallel the increasing prevalence of suicidal behaviour in South Africa.Objective. To construct a brief suicide risk screening scale (SRSS as a self-administered instrument to screen for suicidal ideation in recently diagnosed HIV-infected persons.Methods. An SRSS was developed, drawing 14 items from two established screening tests, and assessed using a sample of 150 HIV-infected consenting adults identified at a voluntary counselling and testing (VCT clinic at an academic district level hospital in Durban, South Africa. Participants returned three weeks after their initial assessment for a re-assessment.Results. The internal consistency of the SRSS was good (Cronbach’s alpha, 0.87, and its sensitivity (81% was higher than its specificity (47%. The findings suggest that, despite certain limitations, the SRSS may be a valuable screening tool for suicidal ideation at VCT clinics.Conclusion. Screening for suicide risk and possible suicidal behaviour in HIV-positive persons may form a routine aspect of comprehensive patient care at VCT clinics to assist with effective prevention and treatment.

  16. HIV Care and Viral Suppression During the Last Year of Life: A Comparison of HIV-Infected Persons Who Died of HIV-Attributable Causes With Persons Who Died of Other Causes in 2012 in 13 US Jurisdictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adih, William K; Hall, H Irene; Selik, Richard M; Guo, Xiuchan

    2017-01-24

    Little information is available about care before death among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons who die of HIV infection, compared with those who die of other causes. The objective of our study was to compare HIV care and outcome before death among persons with HIV who died of HIV-attributable versus other causes. We used National HIV Surveillance System data on CD4 T-lymphocyte counts and viral loads within 12 months before death in 2012, as well as on underlying cause of death. Deaths were classified as "HIV-attributable" if the reported underlying cause was HIV infection, an AIDS-defining disease, or immunodeficiency and as attributable to "other causes" if the cause was anything else. Persons were classified as "in continuous care" if they had ≥2 CD4 or viral load test results ≥3 months apart in those 12 months and as having "viral suppression" if their last viral load was HIV-attributable or other causes, respectively, 65.28% (2104/3223) and 30.88% (1041/3371) met AIDS criteria within 12 months before death, and 33.76% (1088/3223) and 50.96% (1718/3371) had viral suppression. The percentage of persons who received ≥2 tests ≥3 months apart did not differ by cause of death. Prevalence of viral suppression for persons who ever had AIDS was lower among those who died of HIV but did not differ by cause for those who never had AIDS. The lower prevalence of viral suppression among persons who died of HIV than among those who died of other causes implies a need to improve viral suppression strategies to reduce mortality due to HIV infection.

  17. Continuous increase of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and non-HIV related cancers as causes of death in HIV-infected individuals in Brazil: an analysis of nationwide data.

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    Adelzon A Paula

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: After antiretroviral therapy (ART became available, there was a decline in the number of deaths in persons infected with HIV. Thereafter, there was a decrease in the proportion of deaths attributed to opportunistic infections and an increase in the proportion of deaths attributed to chronic comorbidities. Herein we extend previous observations from a nationwide survey on temporal trends in causes of death in HIV-infected patients in Brazil. METHODS: We describe temporal trends in causes of death among adults who had HIV/AIDS listed in the death certificate to those who did not. All death certificates issued in Brazil from 1999 to 2011 and listed in the national mortality database were included. Generalized linear mixed-effects logistic models were used to study temporal trends in proportions. RESULTS: In the HIV-infected population, there was an annual adjusted average increase of 6.0%, 12.0%, 4.0% and 4.1% for cancer, external causes, cardiovascular diseases (CVD and diabetes mellitus (DM, respectively, compared to 3.0%, 4.0%, 1.0% and 3.9%, in the non-HIV group. For tuberculosis (TB, there was an adjusted average increase of 0.3%/year and a decrease of 3.0%/year in the HIV and the non-HIV groups, respectively. Compared to 1999, the odds ratio (OR for cancer, external causes, CVD, DM, or TB in the HIV group were, respectively, 2.31, 4.17, 1.76, 2.27 and 1.02, while for the non-HIV group, the corresponding OR were 1.31, 1.63, 1.14, 1.62 and 0.67. Interactions between year as a continuous or categorical variable and HIV were significant (p<0.001 for all conditions, except for DM when year was considered as a continuous variable (p = 0.76. CONCLUSIONS: Non HIV-related co-morbidities continue to increase more rapidly as causes of death among HIV-infected individuals than in those without HIV infection, highlighting the need for targeting prevention measures and surveillance for chronic diseases among those patients.

  18. Continuous increase of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and non-HIV related cancers as causes of death in HIV-infected individuals in Brazil: an analysis of nationwide data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula, Adelzon A; Schechter, Mauro; Tuboi, Suely H; Faulhaber, José Claudio; Luz, Paula M; Veloso, Valdiléa G; Moreira, Ronaldo I; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Harrison, Lee H; Pacheco, Antonio G

    2014-01-01

    After antiretroviral therapy (ART) became available, there was a decline in the number of deaths in persons infected with HIV. Thereafter, there was a decrease in the proportion of deaths attributed to opportunistic infections and an increase in the proportion of deaths attributed to chronic comorbidities. Herein we extend previous observations from a nationwide survey on temporal trends in causes of death in HIV-infected patients in Brazil. We describe temporal trends in causes of death among adults who had HIV/AIDS listed in the death certificate to those who did not. All death certificates issued in Brazil from 1999 to 2011 and listed in the national mortality database were included. Generalized linear mixed-effects logistic models were used to study temporal trends in proportions. In the HIV-infected population, there was an annual adjusted average increase of 6.0%, 12.0%, 4.0% and 4.1% for cancer, external causes, cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and diabetes mellitus (DM), respectively, compared to 3.0%, 4.0%, 1.0% and 3.9%, in the non-HIV group. For tuberculosis (TB), there was an adjusted average increase of 0.3%/year and a decrease of 3.0%/year in the HIV and the non-HIV groups, respectively. Compared to 1999, the odds ratio (OR) for cancer, external causes, CVD, DM, or TB in the HIV group were, respectively, 2.31, 4.17, 1.76, 2.27 and 1.02, while for the non-HIV group, the corresponding OR were 1.31, 1.63, 1.14, 1.62 and 0.67. Interactions between year as a continuous or categorical variable and HIV were significant (pHIV-related co-morbidities continue to increase more rapidly as causes of death among HIV-infected individuals than in those without HIV infection, highlighting the need for targeting prevention measures and surveillance for chronic diseases among those patients.

  19. Estimating the Number of Heterosexual Persons in the United States to Calculate National Rates of HIV Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Lansky

    Full Text Available This study estimated the proportions and numbers of heterosexuals in the United States (U.S. to calculate rates of heterosexually acquired human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection. Quantifying the burden of disease can inform effective prevention planning and resource allocation.Heterosexuals were defined as males and females who ever had sex with an opposite-sex partner and excluded those with other HIV risks: persons who ever injected drugs and males who ever had sex with another man. We conducted meta-analysis using data from 3 national probability surveys that measured lifetime (ever sexual activity and injection drug use among persons aged 15 years and older to estimate the proportion of heterosexuals in the United States population. We then applied the proportion of heterosexual persons to census data to produce population size estimates. National HIV infection rates among heterosexuals were calculated using surveillance data (cases attributable to heterosexual contact in the numerators and the heterosexual population size estimates in the denominators.Adult and adolescent heterosexuals comprised an estimated 86.7% (95% confidence interval: 84.1%-89.3% of the U.S. population. The estimate for males was 84.1% (CI: 81.2%-86.9% and for females was 89.4% (95% CI: 86.9%-91.8%. The HIV diagnosis rate for 2013 was 5.2 per 100,000 heterosexuals and the rate of persons living with diagnosed HIV infection in 2012 was 104 per 100,000 heterosexuals aged 13 years or older. Rates of HIV infection were >20 times as high among black heterosexuals compared to white heterosexuals, indicating considerable disparity. Rates among heterosexual men demonstrated higher disparities than overall population rates for men.The best available data must be used to guide decision-making for HIV prevention. HIV rates among heterosexuals in the U.S. are important additions to cost effectiveness and other data used to make critical decisions about resources for

  20. HIV-infected persons with bipolar disorder are less aware of memory deficits than HIV-infected persons without bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstone, Kaitlin; Tobin, Alexis; Posada, Carolina; Gouaux, Ben; Grant, Igor; Moore, David J; The Hiv Neurobehavioral Research Program Hnrp

    2012-01-01

    Episodic memory deficits are common in HIV infection and bipolar disorder, but patient insight into such deficits remains unclear. Thirty-four HIV-infected individuals without bipolar disorder (HIV+/BD-) and 47 HIV+ individuals with comorbid bipolar disorder (HIV+/BD+) were administered the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised and the Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised to examine objective learning/memory functioning. Subjective memory complaints were assessed via the memory subscale of the Patient's Assessment of Own Functioning Inventory. HIV+/BD+ individuals performed poorer on tests of visual learning and visual/verbal recall than did HIV+/BD- participants (ps Memory complaints only predicted verbal learning (at a trend level, p = .10) and recall (p = .03) among the HIV+/BD- individuals. Memory complaints were not associated with memory performance within the HIV+/BD+ group (ps > .10). Memory complaints were associated with depressive symptoms in both groups (ps memory abilities was particularly poor among HIV+/BD+ individuals (i.e., objective learning/memory did not correspond to reported complaints), which has important implications for the capacity of these individuals to engage in error-monitoring and compensatory strategies in daily life. Memory complaints are associated with depressed mood regardless of group membership. Among HIV+/BD+ individuals, these complaints may also signify worse HIV disease status and problems with everyday functioning. Clinicians and researchers should be cognizant of what these complaints indicate in order to lead treatment most effectively; use of objective neurocognitive assessments may still be warranted when working with these populations.

  1. HIV-infected persons with bipolar disorder are less aware of memory deficits as compared to HIV-infected persons without bipolar disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstone, Kaitlin; Tobin, Alexis; Posada, Carolina; Gouaux, Ben; Grant, Igor; Moore, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Episodic memory deficits are common in HIV infection and bipolar disorder, but patient insight into such deficits remains unclear. Thirty-four HIV-infected individuals without bipolar disorder l(HIV+/BD−) and 47 HIV+ individuals with comorbid bipolar disorder (HIV+/BD+) were administered the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised and the Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised to examine objective learning/memory functioning. Subjective memory complaints were assessed via the memory subscale of the Patient’s Assessment of Own Functioning Inventory. HIV+/BD+ individuals performed poorer on tests of visual learning and visual/verbal recall compared to HIV+/BD− participants (psHIV+/BD− individuals. Memory complaints were not associated with memory performance within the HIV+/BD+ group (ps>0.10). Memory complaints were associated with affective symptoms in both groups. These complaints were also predictive of immunosuppression, higher unemployment, and greater dependence on Activities of Daily Living among the HIV+/BD+ individuals (psAwareness of memory abilities was particularly poor among HIV+/BD+ individuals (i.e., objective learning/memory did not correspond to reported complaints), which has important implications for the capacity of these individuals to engage in error-monitoring and compensatory strategies in daily life. Memory complaints are associated with depressed mood regardless of group membership. Among HIV+/BD+ individuals, these complaints may also signify worse HIV disease status and problems with everyday functioning. Clinicians and researchers should be cognizant of what these complaints indicate in order to lead treatment most effectively; use of objective neurocognitive assessments may still be warranted when working with these populations. PMID:22571839

  2. Incidence of syphilis seroconversion among HIV-infected persons in Asia: results from the TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Jin Young; Boettiger, David; Kiertiburanakul, Sasisopin; Merati, Tuti Parwati; Huy, Bui Vu; Wong, Wing Wai; Ditangco, Rossana; Lee, Man Po; Oka, Shinichi; Durier, Nicolas; Choi, Jun Yong

    2016-01-01

    Outbreaks of syphilis have been described among HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) in Western communities, whereas reports in Asian countries are limited. We aimed to characterize the incidence and temporal trends of syphilis among HIV-infected MSM compared with HIV-infected non-MSM in Asian countries. Patients enrolled in the TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database cohort and with a negative non-treponemal test since enrolment were analyzed. Incidence of syphilis seroconversion, defined as a positive non-treponemal test after previously testing negative, was evaluated among patients at sites performing non-treponemal tests at least annually. Factors associated with syphilis seroconversion were investigated at sites doing non-treponemal testing in all new patients and subsequently testing routinely or when patients were suspected of having syphilis. We included 1010 patients from five sites that performed non-treponemal tests in all new patients; those included had negative non-treponemal test results during enrolment and subsequent follow-ups. Among them, 657 patients were from three sites conducting regular non-treponemal testing. The incidence of syphilis seroconversion was 5.38/100 person-years (PY). Incidence was higher in MSM than non-MSM (7.64/100 PY vs. 2.44/100 PY, psyphilis diagnosis (IRR 5.15, 95% CI 3.69-7.17) and younger age (IRR 0.84 for every additional 10 years, 95% CI 0.706-0.997) were significantly associated with syphilis seroconversion. We observed a higher incidence of syphilis seroconversion among HIV-infected MSM and a trend to increasing annual incidence. Regular screening for syphilis and targeted interventions to limit transmission are needed in this population.

  3. A suicide risk screening scale for HIV- infected persons in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An SRSS was developed, drawing 14 items from two established screening tests, and assessed using a sample of 150. HIV-infected consenting adults identified at a voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) clinic at an academic district level hospital in .... validated as a measure to predict suicide and is still being used ...

  4. Comparisons of causes of death and mortality rates among HIV-infected persons: analysis of the pre-, early, and late HAART (highly active antiretroviral therapy) eras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crum, Nancy F; Riffenburgh, Robert H; Wegner, Scott; Agan, Brian K; Tasker, Sybil A; Spooner, Katherine M; Armstrong, Adam W; Fraser, Susan; Wallace, Mark R

    2006-02-01

    Comparisons of death-related variables during the 3 eras were performed. The number of deaths declined over the study period, with 987 deaths in the pre-HAART era, 159 deaths in the early HAART era (1997-1999), and 78 deaths in the late HAART era (2000-2003) (P persons in the late HAART era (P infection decreased, but infection remained the leading cause of death in our cohort, followed by cancer. Of those who died, there was an increasing proportion of non-HIV-related deaths (32% vs. 9%; P liver disease, although the numbers are small. Despite increasing concerns regarding antiretroviral resistance, the death rate among HIV-infected persons in our cohort continues to decline. Our data show a lower death rate than that reported among many other US HIV-infected populations; this may be the result of open access to health care. A shift in the causes of death toward non-HIV-related causes suggests that a more comprehensive health care approach may be needed for optimal life expectancy; this may include enhanced screening for malignancy and heart disease as well as preventive measures for liver disease and accidents.

  5. Apathy is associated with white matter abnormalities in anterior, medial brain regions in persons with HIV infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamat, Rujvi; Brown, Gregory G.; Bolden, Khalima; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Archibald, Sarah; Marcotte, Thomas D.; Letendre, Scott L.; Ellis, Ronald J.; Woods, Steven Paul; Grant, Igor; Heaton, Robert K.

    2015-01-01

    Apathy is a relatively common psychiatric syndrome in HIV infection, but little is known about its neural correlates. In the present study, we examined the associations between apathy and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) indices in key frontal white matter regions in the thalamocorticostriatal circuit that has been implicated in the expression of apathy. Nineteen participants with HIV infection and 19 demographically comparable seronegative comparison subjects completed the Apathy subscale of the Frontal Systems Behavioral Scale as a part of a comprehensive neuropsychiatric research evaluation. When compared to the seronegative participants, the HIV+ group had significantly more frontal white matter abnormalities. Within HIV+ persons, and as predicted, higher ratings of apathy were associated with greater white matter alterations in the anterior corona radiata, genu, and orbital medial prefrontal cortex. The associations between white matter alterations and apathy were independent of depression and were stronger among participants with lower current CD4 counts. All told, these findings indicate that apathy is independently associated with white matter abnormalities in anterior, medial brain regions in persons infected with HIV, particularly in the setting of lower current immune functioning, which may have implications for antiretroviral therapy. PMID:25275424

  6. A network intervention that locates and intervenes with recently HIV-infected persons: The Transmission Reduction Intervention Project (TRIP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolopoulos, Georgios K.; Pavlitina, Eirini; Muth, Stephen Q.; Schneider, John; Psichogiou, Mina; Williams, Leslie D.; Paraskevis, Dimitrios; Sypsa, Vana; Magiorkinis, Gkikas; Smyrnov, Pavlo; Korobchuk, Anya; Vasylyeva, Tetyana I.; Skaathun, Britt; Malliori, Melpomeni; Kafetzopoulos, Evangelos; Hatzakis, Angelos; Friedman, Samuel R.

    2016-01-01

    Early treatment, soon after infection, reduces HIV transmissions and benefits patients. The Transmission Reduction Intervention Project (TRIP) evaluated a network intervention to detect individuals recently infected (in the past 6 months). TRIP was conducted in Greece (2013–2015) and focused on drug injector networks. Based on HIV status, testing history, and the results of an assay to detect recent infections, TRIP classified drug injector “Seeds” into groups: Recent Seeds (RS), and Control Seeds with Long-term HIV infection (LCS). The network members of RS and LCS were traced for two steps. The analysis included 23 RS, 171 network members of the RS, 19 LCS, and 65 network members of the LCS. The per-seed number of recents detected in the network of RS was 5 times the number in the network of LCS (Ratio RS vs. LCS: 5.23; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.54–27.61). The proportion of recents among HIV positives in the network of RS (27%) was approximately 3 times (Ratio RS vs. LCS: 3.30; 95% CI: 1.04–10.43) that in the network of LCS (8%). Strategic network tracing that starts with recently infected persons could support public health efforts to find and treat people early in their HIV infection. PMID:27917890

  7. Cost effectiveness of the National HIV/AIDS Strategy goal of increasing linkage to care for HIV-infected persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalappa, Chaitra; Farnham, Paul G; Hutchinson, Angela B; Sansom, Stephanie L

    2012-09-01

    One of the goals of the National HIV/AIDS Strategy (NHAS) is to increase the proportion of HIV-infected individuals linked to care within 3 months of diagnosis (early linkage) from 65% to 85%. Earlier access to care, and eventually, to treatment, increases life expectancy and quality of life for HIV-infected persons. However, longer treatment is also associated with higher costs, especially for antiretroviral drugs. We evaluated the cost effectiveness of achieving the NHAS goal and estimated the maximum cost that HIV programs could spend on linkage to care and remain cost effective. We used the Progression and Transmission of HIV/AIDS model to estimate the effects on life measures and costs associated with increasing early linkage to care from 65% to 85%. We estimated an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio as the additional cost required to reach the target divided by the quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained and assumed that programs costing $100,000 or less per QALY gained are cost effective. Achieving the NHAS linkage-to-care goal increased life expectancy by 0.4 years and delayed the onset of AIDS by 1.2 years on average for every HIV-diagnosed person. Increasing early linkage to care cost an extra $62,200 per QALY gained, considering only benefits to index persons. The maximum that could be cost effectively spent on early linkage-to-care interventions was approximately $5100 per HIV-diagnosed person. Considerable investment can be cost effectively made to achieve the NHAS goal on early linkage to care.

  8. High prevalence of persistent parasitic infections in foreign-born, HIV-infected persons in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha S Hochberg

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Foreign-born, HIV-infected persons are at risk for sub-clinical parasitic infections acquired in their countries of origin. The long-term consequences of co-infections can be severe, yet few data exist on parasitic infection prevalence in this population.This cross-sectional study evaluated 128 foreign-born persons at one HIV clinic. We performed stool studies and serologic testing for strongyloidiasis, schistosomiasis, filarial infection, and Chagas disease based on the patient's country of birth. Eosinophilia and symptoms were examined as predictors of helminthic infection. Of the 128 participants, 86 (67% were male, and the median age was 40 years; 70 were Mexican/Latin American, 40 African, and 18 from other countries or regions. Strongyloides stercoralis antibodies were detected in 33/128 (26% individuals. Of the 52 persons from schistosomiasis-endemic countries, 15 (29% had antibodies to schistosome antigens; 7 (47% had antibodies to S. haematobium, 5 (33% to S. mansoni, and 3 (20% to both species. Stool ova and parasite studies detected helminths in 5/85 (6% persons. None of the patients tested had evidence of Chagas disease (n = 77 or filarial infection (n = 52. Eosinophilia >400 cells/mm(3 was associated with a positive schistosome antibody test (OR 4.5, 95% CI 1.1-19.0. The only symptom significantly associated with strongyloidiasis was weight loss (OR 3.1, 95% CI 1.4-7.2.Given the high prevalence of certain helminths and the potential lack of suggestive symptoms and signs, selected screening for strongyloidiasis and schistosomiasis or use of empiric antiparasitic therapy may be appropriate among foreign-born, HIV-infected patients. Identifying and treating helminth infections could prevent long-term complications.

  9. When to initiate combined antiretroviral therapy to reduce mortality and AIDS-defining illness in HIV-infected persons in developed countries: an observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cain, Lauren E.; Logan, Roger; Robins, James M.; Sterne, Jonathan A. C.; Sabin, Caroline; Bansi, Loveleen; Justice, Amy; Goulet, Joseph; van Sighem, Ard; de Wolf, Frank; Bucher, Heiner C.; von Wyl, Viktor; Esteve, Anna; Casabona, Jordi; del Amo, Julia; Moreno, Santiago; Seng, Remonie; Meyer, Laurence; Perez-Hoyos, Santiago; Muga, Roberto; Lodi, Sara; Lanoy, Emilie; Costagliola, Dominique; Hernan, Miguel A.; Ainsworth, J.; Anderson, J.; Babiker, A.; Delpech, V.; Dunn, D.; Easterbrook, P.; Fisher, M.; Gazzard, B.; Gilson, R.; Gompels, M.; Hill, T.; Johnson, M.; Leen, C.; Orkin, C.; Phillips, A.; Pillay, D.; Porter, K.; Sabin, C.; Schwenk, A.; Walsh, J.; Bansi, L.; Glabay, A.; Thomas, R.; Jones, K.; Perry, N.; Pullin, A.; Churchill, D.; Nelson, M.; Asboe, D.; Bulbeck, S.; Mandalia, S.; Clarke, J.; Munshi, S.; Post, F.; Khan, Y.; Patel, P.; Karim, F.; Duffell, S.; Man, S. L.; Williams, I.; Dooley, D.; Youle, M.; Lampe, F.; Smith, C.; Grabowska, H.; Chaloner, C.; Ismajani Puradiredja, D.; Weber, J.; Kemble, C.; Mackie, N.; Winston, A.; Wilson, A.; Bezemer, D. O.; Gras, L. A. J.; Kesselring, A. M.; van Sighem, A. I.; Smit, C.; Zhang, S.; Zaheri, S.; Prins, J. M.; Boer, K.; Bos, J. C.; Geerlings, S. E.; Godfried, M. H.; Haverkort, M. E.; Kuijpers, T. W.; Lange, J. M. A.; van der Meer, J. T. M.; Nellen, F. J. B.; Pajkrt, D.; van der Poll, T.; Reiss, P.; Scherpbier, H. J.; van der Valk, M.; Vrouenraets, S. M. E.; van Vugt, M.; Wit, F. W. M. N.; Schreij, G.; Lowe, S.; Oude Lashof, A.; Bravenboer, B.; Pronk, M. J. H.; van der Ende, M. E.; van der Feltz, M.; Gelinck, L. B. S.; Nouwen, J. L.; Rijnders, B. J. A.; de Ruiter, E. D.; Slobbe, L.; Schurink, C. A. M.; Verbon, A.; de Vries-Sluijs, T. E. M. S.; Driessen, G.; Hartwig, N. G.; Branger, J.; Kauffmann, R. H.; Schippers, E. F.; Groeneveld, P. H. P.; Alleman, M. A.; Bouwhuis, J. W.; ten Kate, R. W.; Soetekouw, R.; Kroon, F. P.; Arend, S. M.; de Boer, M. G. J.; van den Broek, P. J.; van Dissel, J. T.; Jolink, H.; van Nieuwkoop, C.; den Hollander, J. G.; Pogany, K.; Bronsveld, W.; Kortmann, W.; van Twillert, G.; Vriesendorp, R.; Leyten, E. M. S.; van Houte, D.; Polee, M. B.; van Vonderen, M. G. A.; ten Napel, C. H. H.; Kootstra, G. J.; Brinkman, K.; van den Berk, G. E. L.; Blok, W. L.; Frissen, P. H. J.; Schouten, W. E. M.; van Eeden, A.; Verhagen, D. W. M.; Mulder, J. W.; van Gorp, E. C. M.; Smit, P. M.; Weijer, S.; Juttmann, J. R.; Brouwer, A. E.; van Kasteren, M. E. E.; Veenstra, J.; Lettinga, K. D.; Koopmans, P. P.; Brouwer, A. M.; Dofferhoff, A. S. M.; van der Flier, M.; de Groot, R.; ter Hofstede, H. J. M.; Keuter, M.; van der Ven, A. J. A. M.; Sprenger, H. G.; van Assen, S.; Doedens, R.; Scholvinck, E. H.; Stek, C. J.; Hoepelman, A. I. M.; Arends, J. E.; Ellerbroek, P. M.; van der Hilst, J. C. H.; Jaspers, C. A. J. J.; Maarschalk-Ellerbroek, L. J.; Oosterheert, J. J.; Peters, E. J. G.; Mudrikova, T.; Schneider, M. M. E.; Wassenberg, M. W. M.; Geelen, S. P. M.; Wolfs, T. F. W.; Danner, S. A.; van Agtmael, M. A.; Bierman, W. F. W.; Claessen, F. A. P.; de Jong, E. V.; Perenboom, R. M.; bij de Vaate, E. A.; Richter, C.; van der Berg, J.; Gisolf, E. H.; van den Berge, M.; Stegeman, A.; Duits, A. J.; Winkel, K.; Abgrall, S.; Barin, F.; Bentata, M.; Billaud, E.; Boue, F.; Burty, C.; Cabie, A.; Costagliola, D.; Cotte, L.; de Truchis, P.; Duval, X.; Duvivier, C.; Enel, P.; Fredouille-Heripret, L.; Gasnault, J.; Gaud, C.; Gilquin, J.; Grabar, S.; Katlama, C.; Khuong, M. A.; Lang, J. M.; Lascaux, A. S.; Launay, O.; Mahamat, A.; Mary-Krause, M.; Matheron, S.; Meynard, J. L.; Pavie, J.; Pialoux, G.; Pilorge, F.; Poizot-Martin, I.; Pradier, C.; Reynes, J.; Rouveix, E.; Simon, A.; Tattevin, P.; Tissot-Dupont, H.; Viard, J. P.; Viget, N.; Salomon, V.; Jacquemet, N.; Guiguet, M.; Lanoy, E.; Lievre, L.; Selinger-Leneman, H.; Lacombe, J. M.; Potard, V.; Bricaire, F.; Herson, S.; Desplanque, N.; Girard, P. M.; Meyohas, M. C.; Picard, O.; Cadranel, J.; Mayaud, C.; Clauvel, J. P.; Decazes, J. M.; Gerard, L.; Molina, J. M.; Diemer, M.; Sellier, P.; Honore, P.; Jeantils, V.; Tassi, S.; Mechali, D.; Taverne, B.; Bouvet, E.; Crickx, B.; Ecobichon, J. L.; Picard-Dahan, C.; Yeni, P.; Berthe, H.; Dupont, C.; Chandemerle, C.; Mortier, E.; Tisne-Dessus, D.; Weiss, L.; Salmon, D.; Auperin, I.; Roudiere, L.; Fior, R.; Delfraissy, J. F.; Goujard, C.; Jung, C.; Lesprit, P.; Vittecoq, D.; Fraisse, P.; Rey, D.; Beck-Wirth, G.; Stahl, J. P.; Lecercq, P.; Gourdon, F.; Laurichesse, H.; Fresard, A.; Lucht, F.; Bazin, C.; Verdon, R.; Chavanet, P.; Arvieux, C.; Michelet, C.; Choutet, P.; Goudeau, A.; Maiotre, M. F.; Hoen, B.; Eglinger, P.; Faller, J. P.; Borsa-Lebas, F.; Caron, F.; Daures, J. P.; May, T.; Rabaud, C.; Berger, J. L.; Remy, G.; Arlet-Suau, E.; Cuzin, L.; Massip, P.; Thiercelin Legrand, M. F.; Pontonnier, G.; Yasdanpanah, Y.; Dellamonica, P.; Pugliese, P.; Aleksandrowicz, K.; Quinsat, D.; Ravaux, I.; Delmont, J. P.; Moreau, J.; Gastaut, J. A.; Retornaz, F.; Soubeyrand, J.; Galinier, A.; Ruiz, J. M.; Allegre, T.; Blanc, P. A.; Bonnet-Montchardon, D.; Lepeu, G.; Granet-Brunello, P.; Esterni, J. P.; Pelissier, L.; Cohen-Valensi, R.; Nezri, M.; Chadapaud, S.; Laffeuillade, A.; Raffi, F.; Boibieux, A.; Peyramond, D.; Livrozet, J. M.; Touraine, J. L.; Trepo, C.; Strobel, M.; Bissuel, F.; Pradinaud, R.; Sobesky, M.; Contant, M.; Aebi, C.; Battegay, M.; Bernasconi, E.; Boni, J.; Brazzola, P.; Bucher, H. C.; Burgisser, P.; Calmy, A.; Cattacin, S.; Cavassini, M.; Cheseaux, J. J.; Drack, G.; Dubs, R.; Egger, M.; Elzi, L.; Fischer, M.; Flepp, M.; Fontana, A.; Francioli, P.; Furrer, H. J.; Fux, C.; Gayet-Ageron, A.; Gerber, S.; Gorgievski, M.; Gunthard, H.; Gyr, T.; Hirsch, H.; Hirschel, B.; Hosli, I.; Husler, M.; Kaiser, L.; Kahlert, C.; Karrer, U.; Kind, C.; Klimkait, T.; Ledergerber, B.; Martinetti, G.; Martinez, B.; Muller, N.; Nadal, D.; Paccaud, F.; Pantaleo, G.; Raio, L.; Rauch, A.; Regenass, S.; Rickenbach, M.; Rudin, C.; Schmid, P.; Schultze, D.; Schupbach, J.; Speck, R.; Taffe, P.; Telenti, A.; Trkola, A.; Vernazza, P.; Weber, R.; Wyler, C. A.; Yerly, S.; Casabona, J.; Miro, J. M.; Alquezar, A.; Isern, V.; Esteve, A.; Podzamczer, D.; Murillas, J.; Gatell, J. M.; Aguero, F.; Tural, C.; Clotet, B.; Ferrer, E.; Riera, M.; Segura, F.; Navarro, G.; Force, L.; Vilaro, J.; Masabeu, A.; Garcia, I.; Guadarrama, M.; Romero, A.; Agusti, C.; Montoliu, A.; Ortega, N.; Lazzari, E.; Puchol, E.; Sanchez, M.; Blanco, J. L.; Garcia-Alcaide, F.; Martinez, E.; Mallolas, J.; Lopez-Dieguez, M.; Garcia-Goez, J. F.; Sirera, G.; Romeu, J.; Jou, A.; Negredo, E.; Miranda, C.; Capitan, M. C.; Olmo, M.; Barragan, P.; Saumoy, M.; Bolao, F.; Cabellos, C.; Pena, C.; Sala, M.; Cervantes, M.; Jose Amengual, M.; Navarro, M.; Penelo, E.; Barrufet, P.; Berenguer, J.; del Amo, J.; Garcia, F.; Gutierrez, F.; Labarga, P.; Moreno, S.; Munoz, M. A.; Caro-Murillo, A. M.; Sobrino, P.; Jarrin, I.; Gomez Sirvent, J. L.; Rodriguez, P.; Aleman, M. R.; Alonso, M. M.; Lopez, A. M.; Hernandez, M. I.; Soriano, V.; Barreiro, P.; Medrano, J.; Rivas, P.; Herrero, D.; Blanco, F.; Vispo, M. E.; Martin, L.; Ramirez, G.; de Diego, M.; Rubio, R.; Pulido, F.; Moreno, V.; Cepeda, C.; Hervas, R. L.; Iribarren, J. A.; Arrizabalaga, J.; Aramburu, M. J.; Camino, X.; Rodriguez-Arrondo, F.; von Wichmann, M. A.; Pascual, L.; Goenaga, M. A.; Masia, M.; Ramos, J. M.; Padilla, S.; Sanchez-Hellin, V.; Bernal, E.; Escolano, C.; Montolio, F.; Peral, Y.; Lopez, J. C.; Miralles, P.; Cosin, J.; Gutierrez, I.; Ramirez, M.; Padilla, B.; Vidal, F.; Sanjuan, M.; Peraire, J.; Veloso, S.; Vilades, C.; Lopez-Dupla, M.; Olona, M.; Vargas, M.; Aldeguer, J. L.; Blanes, M.; Lacruz, J.; Salavert, M.; Montero, M.; Cuellar, S.; de los Santos, I.; Sanz, J.; Oteo, J. A.; Blanco, J. R.; Ibarra, V.; Metola, L.; Sanz, M.; Perez-Martinez, L.; Sola, J.; Uriz, J.; Castiello, J.; Reparaz, J.; Arriaza, M. J.; Irigoyen, C.; Antela, A.; Casado, J. L.; Dronda, F.; Moreno, A.; Perez, M. J.; Lopez, D.; Gutierrez, C.; Hernandez, B.; Pumares, M.; Marti, P.; Garcia, L.; Page, C.; Hernandez, J.; Pena, A.; Munoz, L.; Parra, J.; Viciana, P.; Leal, M.; Lopez-Cortes, L. F.; Trastoy, M.; Mata, R.; Justice, A. C.; Fiellin, D. A.; Mattocks, K.; Braithwaite, S.; Brandt, C.; Bryant, K.; Cook, R.; Conigliaro, J.; Crothers, K.; Chang, J.; Crystal, S.; Day, N.; Erdos, J.; Freiberg, M.; Kozal, M.; Gandhi, N.; Gaziano, M.; Gerschenson, M.; Good, B.; Gordon, A.; Goulet, J. L.; Hernan, M. A.; Kraemer, K.; Lim, J.; Maisto, S.; Miller, P.; Mole, L.; O'Connor, P.; Papas, R.; Robins, J. M.; Rinaldo, C.; Roberts, M.; Samet, J.; Tierney, B.; Whittle, J.; Rimland, D.; Jones-Taylor, C.; Oursler, K. A.; Titanji, R.; Brown, S.; Garrison, S.; Rodriguez-Barradas, M.; Masozera, N.; Goetz, M.; Leaf, D.; Simberkoff, M.; Blumenthal, D.; Leung, J.; Butt, A.; Hoffman, E.; Gibert, C.; Peck, R.; Brettle, R.; Darbyshire, J.; Fidler, S.; Goldberg, D.; Hawkins, D.; Jaffe, H.; Johnson, A.; McLean, K.; Cursley, A.; Ewings, F.; Fairbrother, K.; Gnatiuc, L.; Lodi, S.; Murphy, B.; Smit, E.; Ward, F.; Douglas, G.; Kennedy, N.; Pritchard, J.; Andrady, U.; Rajda, N.; Maw, R.; McKernan, S.; Drake, S.; Gilleran, G.; White, D.; Ross, J.; Toomer, S.; Hewart, R.; Wilding, H.; Woodward, R.; Dean, G.; Heald, L.; Horner, P.; Glover, S.; Bansaal, D.; Eduards, S.; Carne, C.; Browing, M.; Das, R.; Stanley, B.; Estreich, S.; Magdy, A.; O'Mahony, C.; Fraser, P.; Hayman, B.; Jebakumar, S. P. R.; Joshi, U.; Ralph, S.; Wade, A.; Mette, R.; Lalik, J.; Summerfield, H.; El-Dalil, A.; France, A. J.; White, C.; Robertson, R.; Gordon, S.; McMillan, S.; Morris, S.; Lean, C.; Vithayathil, K.; McLean, L.; Winter, A.; Gale, D.; Jacobs, S.; Goorney, B.; Howard, L.; Tayal, S.; Short, L.; Green, S.; Williams, G.; Sivakumar, K.; Bhattacharyya, D. N.; Monteiro, E.; Minton, J.; Dhar, J.; Nye, F.; DeSouza, C. B.; Isaksen, A.; McDonald, L.; Franca, A.; William, L.; Jendrulek, I.; Peters, B.; Shaunak, S.; El-Gadi, S.; Easterbrook, P. J.; Mazhude, C.; Johnstone, R.; Fakoya, A.; Mchale, J.; Waters, A.; Kegg, S.; Mitchell, S.; Byrne, P.; Rice, P.; Mullaney, S. A.; McCormack, S.; David, D.; Melville, R.; Phillip, K.; Balachandran, T.; Mabey, S.; Sukthankar, A.; Murphy, C.; Wilkins, E.; Ahmad, S.; Haynes, J.; Evans, E.; Ong, E.; Grey, R.; Meaden, J.; Bignell, C.; Loay, D.; Peacock, K.; Girgis, M. R.; Morgan, B.; Palfreeman, A.; Wilcox, J.; Tobin, J.; Tucker, L.; Saeed, A. M.; Chen, F.; Deheragada, A.; Williams, O.; Lacey, H.; Herman, S.; Kinghorn, D.; Devendra, S. V.; Wither, J.; Dawson, S.; Rowen, D.; Harvey, J.; Bridgwood, A.; Singh, G.; Chauhan, M.; Kellock, D.; Young, S.; Dannino, S.; Kathir, Y.; Rooney, G.; Currie, J.; Fitzgerald, M.; Devendra, S.; Keane, F.; Booth, G.; Green, T.; Arumainayyagam, J.; Chandramani, S.; Rajamanoharan, S.; Robinson, T.; Curless, E.; Gokhale, R.; Tariq, A.; Luzzi, G.; Fairley, I.; Wallis, F.; Loze, B.; Sereni, D.; Lascoux, C.; Prevoteau, F.; Morel, P.; Timsit, J.; Oksenhendeler, E.; Morlat, P.; Bonarek, M.; Bonnet, F.; Nouts, C.; Louis, I.; Reliquet, V.; Sauser, F.; Biron, C.; Mounoury, O.; Hue, H.; Brosseau, D.; Ghosn, J.; Rannou, M. T.; Bergmann, J. F.; Badsi, E.; Rami, A.; Parrinello, M.; Samanon-Bollens, D.; Campa, P.; Tourneur, M.; Desplanques, N.; Cabane, J.; Tredup, J.; Herriot, E.; Jeanblanc, F.; Chiarello, P.; Makhloufi, D.; Blanc, A. P.; Baillat, V.; Lemoing, V.; Merle de Boever, C.; Tramoni, C.; Sobesky, G.; Abel, S.; Beaujolais, V.; Slama, L.; Chakvetadze, C.; Berrebi, V.; Fournier, I.; Gerbe, J.; Leport, C.; Jadand, C.; Jestin, C.; Longuet, P.; Boucherit, S.; Koffi, K.; Augustin-Normand, C.; Miailhes, P.; Thoirain, V.; Brochier, C.; Souala, F.; Ratajczak, M.; Montpied, G.; Beytoux, J.; Jacomet, C.; Pare, A.; Morelon, S.; Olivier, C.; Lortholary, O.; Dupont, B.; Maignan, A.; Ragnaud, J. M.; Raymond, I.; Mondor, H.; Sobel, A.; Levy, Y.; Lelievre, J. D.; Dominguez, S.; Dumont, C.; Aumaitre, H.; Delmas, B.; Saada, M.; Medus, M.; Guillevin, L.; Tahi, T.; Yazdanpanah, Y.; Pavel, S.; Marien, M. C.; Muller, E.; Drenou, B.; Beck, C.; Benomar, M.; Tubiana, R.; Ait Mohand, H.; Chermak, A.; Ben Abdallah, S.; Amirat, N.; Brancion, C.; Touam, F.; Drobacheff, C.; Folzer, A.; Obadia, M.; Prudhomme, L.; Bonnet, E.; Balzarin, F.; Pichard, E.; Chennebault, J. M.; Fialaire, P.; Loison, J.; Galanaud, P.; Bornarel, D.; Six, M.; Ferret, P.; Batisse, D.; Gonzales-Canali, G.; Devidas, A.; Chevojon, P.; Turpault, I.; Lafeuillade, A.; Cheret, A.; Philip, G.; Stein, A.; Ravault, I.; Chavanet, C.; Buisson, M.; Treuvetot, S.; Nau, P.; Bastides, F.; Boyer, L.; Wassoumbou, S.; Bernard, L.; Domart, Y.; Merrien, D.; Mignot, A.; Greder Belan, A.; Gayraud, M.; Bodard, L.; Meudec, A.; Beuscart, C.; Daniel, C.; Pape, E.; Mourier, L.; Vinceneux, P.; Simonpoli, A. M.; Zeng, A.; Jacquet, M.; Fournier, L.; Fuzibet, J. G.; Sohn, C.; Rosenthal, E.; Quaranta, M.; Chaillou, S.; Sabah, M.; Pasteur, L.; Audhuy, B.; Schieber, A.; Moreau, P.; Niault, M.; Vaillant, O.; Huchon, G.; Compagnucci, A.; de Lacroix Szmania, I.; Richier, L.; Lamaury, I.; Saint-Dizier, F.; Garipuy, D.; Drogoul, M. P.; Poizot Martin, I.; Fabre, G.; Lambert de Cursay, G.; Abraham, B.; Perino, C.; Lagarde, P.; David, F.; Veil, S.; Roche-Sicot, J.; Saraux, J. L.; Lepretre, A.; Fampin, B.; Uludag, A.; Morin, A. S.; Bletry, O.; Zucman, D.; Regnier, A.; Girard, J. J.; Quinsat, D. T.; Heripret, L.; Grihon, F.; Houlbert, D.; Ruel, M.; Chemlal, K.; Nicolle, C.; Debab, Y.; Tremollieres, F.; Perronne, V.; Duffaut, H.; Slama, B.; Perre, P.; Miodovski, C.; Guermonprez, G.; Dulioust, A.; Ballanger, R.; Boudon, P.; Malbec, D.; Patey, O.; Semaille, C.; Deville, J.; Beguinot, I.; Chambrin, V.; Pignon, C.; Estocq, G. A.; Levy, A.; Duracinsky, M.; Le Bras, P.; Ngussan, M. S.; Peretti, D.; Medintzeff, N.; Lambert, T.; Segeral, O.; Lezeau, P.; Laurian, Y.; Piketty, C.; Karmochkine, M.; Eliaszewitch, M.; Jayle, D.; Kazatchkine, M.; Colasante, U.; Nouaouia, W.; Vilde, J. L.; Bollens, D.; Binet, D.; Diallo, B.; Fonquernie, L.; Lagneau, J. L.; Pietrie, M. P.; Sicard, D.; Stieltjes, N.; Michot, J.; Bourdillon, F.; Obenga, G.; Escaut, L.; Bolliot, C.; Schneider, L.; Iguertsira, M.; Tomei, C.

    2011-01-01

    Most clinical guidelines recommend that AIDS-free, HIV-infected persons with CD4 cell counts below 0.350 × 10(9) cells/L initiate combined antiretroviral therapy (cART), but the optimal CD4 cell count at which cART should be initiated remains a matter of debate. To identify the optimal CD4 cell

  10. Incidence of low- and high-energy fractures in persons with and without HIV-infection: a Danish population-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ann-Brit E; Gerstoft, Jan; Kronborg, Gitte

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:: To compare fracture risk in persons with and without HIV-infection and to examine the influence of HAART initiation on risk of fracture. DESIGN:: Population-based nationwide cohort study using Danish registries. METHODS:: Outcome measures were time to first fracture at any site, time...

  11. Updates of Lifetime Costs of Care and Quality-of-Life Estimates for HIV-Infected Persons in the United States: Late Versus Early Diagnosis and Entry Into Care

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Farnham, Paul G; Gopalappa, Chaitra; Sansom, Stephanie L; Hutchinson, Angela B; Brooks, John T; Weidle, Paul J; Marconi, Vincent C; Rimland, David

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Lifetime costs of care and quality-of-life estimates for HIV-infected persons depend on the disease stage at which these persons are diagnosed, enter care, and start antiretroviral therapy...

  12. High Prevalence of Echocardiographic Abnormalities among HIV-infected Persons in the Era of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondy, Kristin E; Gottdiener, John; Overton, E Turner; Henry, Keith; Bush, Tim; Conley, Lois; Hammer, John; Carpenter, Charles C; Kojic, Erna; Patel, Pragna; Brooks, John T

    2011-02-01

    in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons have higher cardiovascular disease risk. Little is known about asymptomatic abnormalities in cardiac structure and function in this population. the Study to Understand the Natural History of HIV/AIDS in the Era of Effective Therapy (SUN Study) is a prospective, observational, multi-site cohort of 656 HIV-infected participants who underwent baseline echocardiography during 2004-2006. We examined prevalence of and factors associated with left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD), diastolic dysfunction (DD), pulmonary hypertension (PHTN), left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), and left atrial enlargement (LAE). participant characteristics were as follows: median age, 41 years; 24% women; 29% non-Hispanic black; 73% receiving HAART; and median CD4+ cell count, 462 cells/μL. Among evaluable participants, 18% had LVSD, 26% had DD, 57% had PHTN (right ventricular pressure >30 mm Hg), 6.5% had LVH, and 40% had LAE. In multivariate analyses, significant factors (P highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) level, and current tobacco smoking; for DD, elevated hsCRP level and hypertension; for PHTN, current use of ritonavir; for LVH, hypertension, diabetes, non-white race, female sex with elevated body mass index, calculated as the weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters, of ≥ 25, elevated hsCRP level, and current use of abacavir; for LAE, hypertension and recent marijuana use. in this large contemporary HIV cohort, the prevalence of subclinical functional and structural cardiac abnormalities was greater than expected for age. Abnormalities were mostly associated with expected and often modifiable risks. Lifestyle modification should become a greater priority in the management of chronic HIV disease.

  13. Continuous Increase of Cardiovascular Diseases, Diabetes, and Non-HIV Related Cancers as Causes of Death in HIV-Infected Individuals in Brazil: An Analysis of Nationwide Data

    OpenAIRE

    Paula, Adelzon A.; Mauro Schechter; Tuboi, Suely H.; José Claudio Faulhaber; Luz, Paula M.; Valdiléa G Veloso; Ronaldo I Moreira; Beatriz Grinsztejn; Harrison, Lee H.; Pacheco, Antonio G.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: After antiretroviral therapy (ART) became available, there was a decline in the number of deaths in persons infected with HIV. Thereafter, there was a decrease in the proportion of deaths attributed to opportunistic infections and an increase in the proportion of deaths attributed to chronic comorbidities. Herein we extend previous observations from a nationwide survey on temporal trends in causes of death in HIV-infected patients in Brazil. METHODS: We describe temporal trends ...

  14. Personalized Risk Index for Neurocognitive Decline Among People With Well-Controlled HIV Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Tracy; Brouillette, Marie-Josée; Fellows, Lesley K; Ellis, Ronald J; Letendre, Scott; Heaton, Robert; Mayo, Nancy

    2017-09-01

    Little is known about the predictors of neurocognitive decline in HIV+ individuals with good virological control. Identification of modifiable risk factors would allow targeted interventions to reduce the risk of decline in higher risk individuals. The objective of this study was to develop a risk index to predict neurocognitive decline over 3 years in aviremic HIV+ individuals. As part of the CNS HIV Anti-Retroviral Therapy Effects Research (CHARTER) study, HIV+ adults completed clinical evaluation and neuropsychological tests every 6 months. Group-based trajectory analysis was used to detect patterns of neurocognitive change; individuals who deteriorated ≥ 0.5 SD on at least one neuropsychological test were considered decliners. Multiple logistic regression was used to identify baseline sociodemographic, clinical, biological, and lifestyle factors associated with decline in the subgroup that was consistently aviremic during the first 3 years. A risk index was developed using the beta-coefficients from the final regression model. Neurocognitive decline occurred in 23 of 191 (12%) participants followed longitudinally. The baseline factors that predicted decline were glomerular filtration rate ≤50 mL/min, known duration of HIV infection ≥15 years, education ≤12 years, and cerebrospinal fluid protein >45 mg/dL. Using this analytic approach, neurocognitive decline was uncommon in this sample of aviremic HIV+ individuals. The 3-year risk of decline ranged from 2% in those with no risk factors to 95% in those with all 4. The strongest predictor was glomerular filtration rate, also a predictor of cardiovascular disease. This raises the possibility that controlling vascular risk factors could reduce the risk of neurocognitive decline.

  15. Predictors of adherence to antiretroviral therapy among HIV-infected persons: a prospective study in Southwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girma Belaineh

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The devastating impact of AIDS in the world especially in sub-Saharan Africa has led to an unprecedented global effort to ensure access to antiretroviral (ARV drugs. Given that medication-taking behavior can immensely affect an individual's response; ART adherence is now widely recognized as an 'Achilles heel' for the successful outcome. The present study was undertaken to investigate the rate and predictors of adherence to antiretroviral therapy among HIV-infected persons in southwest Ethiopia. Methods The study was conducted in the antiretroviral therapy unit of Jimma University Specialized Hospital. A prospective study was undertaken on a total of 400 HIV infected person. Data were collected using a pre-tested interviewer-administered structured questionnaire at first month (M0 and third month (M3 follow up visits. Results A total of 400 and 383 patients at baseline (M0 and at follow up visit (M3 respectively were interviewed. Self-reported dose adherence in the study area was 94.3%. The rate considering the combined indicator (dose, time and food was 75.7%. Within a three month follow up period, dose adherence decreased by 2% and overall adherence rate decreased by more than 3%. Adherence was common in those patients who have a social support (OR, 1.82, 95%CI, 1.04, 3.21. Patients who were not depressed were two times more likely to be adherent than those who were depressed (OR, 2.13, 95%CI, 1.18, 3.81. However, at the follow up visit, social support (OR, 2.42, 95%CI, 1.29, 4.55 and the use of memory aids (OR, 3.29, 95%CI, 1.44, 7.51 were found to be independent predictors of adherence. The principal reasons reported for skipping doses in this study were simply forgetting, feeling sick or ill, being busy and running out of medication in more than 75% of the cases. Conclusion The self reported adherence rate was high in the study area. The study showed that adherence is a dynamic process which changes overtime and cannot

  16. Self-reported health-related quality of life in persons with HIV infection: results from a multi-site interview project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakashima Allyn K

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To examine demographic and behavioral associations with self-reported health-related quality of life (HRQOL among persons with HIV infection or AIDS. Methods Analysis of interviews with persons ≥ 18 years of age reported through routine disease surveillance with HIV infection or AIDS to nine state and local health departments from January 1995 through December 1996. Scales were constructed from validated measures of HRQOL, and mean scores were calculated (lower scores signified poorer HRQOL. Measures of HRQOL included Overall Health, Pain, Physical Functioning, Role Functioning, Social Functioning, Mental Health, Energy/Fatigue, and Cognitive Functioning. Differences in HRQOL were examined by various demographic and behavioral factors, including taking antiretroviral medication. Results HRQOL data were available for 3778 persons. Factors associated with lower HRQOL scores included older age, female sex, black or Hispanic race/ethnicity, injection drug use, lower education and income, no private health insurance, and lower CD4 count. In multivariate analysis, lower CD4 count was the factor most consistently associated with lower HRQOL. Taking antiretroviral medication was not associated with differences in HRQOL regardless of CD4 count. Conclusions Perception of HRQOL varied in a population with HIV infection or AIDS. On most HRQOL measures, lower CD4 count was associated with lower HRQOL. Measurement of HRQOL can assist in understanding the long-term effects of disease and treatment on persons with HIV.

  17. HIV infections in otolaryngology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzewnicki, Ireneusz; Olszewska, Ewa; Rogowska-Szadkowska, Dorota

    2012-01-01

    Summary HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) infection may produce no clinical symptoms for 10 years on average. However, after many years of infection most people develop symptoms that indicate progression of the disease. There are no regular characteristic symptoms or early stage, and no logical sequence of AIDS indicator disorders has been observed. People who are not aware of the infection are referred to physicians of various specializations, including otolaryngologists. It is on their knowledge about HIV infections, among other factors, that early diagnosis of the disease depends. Appropriate and quick introduction of anti-retroviral drugs may let a person with HIV live decades longer. PMID:22367140

  18. Leishmaniasis in HIV infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paredes R

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Herein we review the particular aspects of leishmaniasis associated with HIV infection. The data in this review are mainly from papers identified from PubMed searches and from papers in reference lists of reviewed articles and from the authors′ personal archives. Epidemiological data of HIV/Leishmania co-infection is discussed, with special focus on the influence of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART on incidence of leishmaniasis and transmission modalities. Microbiological characteristics, pathogenesis, clinical presentation and specific treatment of the co-infection are also presented.

  19. Asymptomatic HIV infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000682.htm Asymptomatic HIV infection To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Asymptomatic HIV infection is a phase of HIV/AIDS during which ...

  20. Travelers' Health: HIV Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share Compartir Chapter 3 - Histoplasmosis Chapter 3 - Influenza HIV Infection Philip J. Peters, John T. Brooks INFECTIOUS AGENT ... skin (see Chapter 8, Health Care Workers ). EPIDEMIOLOGY HIV infection occurs worldwide. As of the end of 2014, ...

  1. Brief Report: Prevalence of Posttreatment Controller Phenotype Is Rare in HIV-Infected Persons After Stopping Antiretroviral Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Matthew J; Bradley, William P; Lalani, Tahaniyat; Agan, Brian K; Whitman, Timothy J; Ferguson, Tomas M; Okulicz, Jason F; Ganesan, Anuradha

    2017-07-01

    Posttreatment control of HIV infection is a rare phenomenon primarily described among those initiating treatment with antiretroviral therapy (ART) during early/acute HIV infection. We examined a large, well-characterized cohort of HIV-infected Department of Defense beneficiaries for the presence of posttreatment controllers (PTCs) whom we defined as individuals with sustained viral suppression for ≥6 months after discontinuation of ART. We defined those who became viremic within 6 months of discontinuing ART as rapid viremics (RVs) and compared demographic and clinical characteristics, CD4 counts, and viral loads prior, during, and after ART discontinuation between the 2 groups. From a cohort of 6070 patients, we identified 95 who had been treated with ART for 2 years or more who subsequently discontinued ART and had viral load assessments available after discontinuation. Four (4.2%) of these 95 met our definition of PTC. The duration of viral suppression off of ART ranged from 267 to 1058 days with 1 of the 4 restarting ART without having redeveloped a significant viremia. All 4 patients initiated ART during chronic HIV infection. Demographic and clinical characteristics of PTCs were similar to RVs. While posttreatment control has predominantly been described among individuals who initiated ART in early/acute HIV infection, we identified 4 PTCs who started ART during chronic infection suggesting that posttreatment control also occurs among such patients. The rarity of PTCs identified in our cohort is consistent with reports from previous studies.

  2. In vivo mitochondrial function in HIV-infected persons treated with contemporary anti-retroviral therapy: a magnetic resonance spectroscopy study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan A I Payne

    Full Text Available Modern anti-retroviral therapy is highly effective at suppressing viral replication and restoring immune function in HIV-infected persons. However, such individuals show reduced physiological performance and increased frailty compared with age-matched uninfected persons. Contemporary anti-retroviral therapy is thought to be largely free from neuromuscular complications, whereas several anti-retroviral drugs previously in common usage have been associated with mitochondrial toxicity. It has recently been established that patients with prior exposure to such drugs exhibit irreversible cellular and molecular mitochondrial defects. However the functional significance of such damage remains unknown. Here we use phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((31P-MRS to measure in vivo muscle mitochondrial oxidative function, in patients treated with contemporary anti-retroviral therapy, and compare with biopsy findings (cytochrome c oxidase (COX histochemistry. We show that dynamic oxidative function (post-exertional ATP (adenosine triphosphate resynthesis was largely maintained in the face of mild to moderate COX defects (affecting up to ∼10% of fibers: τ½ ADP (half-life of adenosine diphosphate clearance, HIV-infected 22.1±9.9 s, HIV-uninfected 18.8±4.4 s, p = 0.09. In contrast, HIV-infected patients had a significant derangement of resting state ATP metabolism compared with controls: ADP/ATP ratio, HIV-infected 1.24±0.08×10(-3, HIV-uninfected 1.16±0.05×10(-3, p = 0.001. These observations are broadly reassuring in that they suggest that in vivo mitochondrial function in patients on contemporary anti-retroviral therapy is largely maintained at the whole organ level, despite histochemical (COX defects within individual cells. Basal energy requirements may nevertheless be increased.

  3. Associations and Trends in Cause-Specific Rates of Death Among Persons Reported with HIV Infection, 23 U.S. Jurisdictions, Through 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adih, William K; Selik, Richard M; Hall, H Irene; Babu, Aruna Surendera; Song, Ruiguang

    2016-01-01

    Published death rates for persons with HIV have not distinguished deaths due to HIV from deaths due to other causes. Cause-specific death rates would allow better assessment of care needs. Using data reported to the US national HIV surveillance system, we examined a) associations between selected decedent characteristics and causes of death during 2007-2011, b) trends in rates of death due to underlying causes among persons with AIDS during 1990-2011, and among all persons with diagnosed HIV infection (with or without AIDS) during 2000-2011. During 2007-2011, non-HIV-attributable causes of death with the highest rates per 1,000 person-years were heart disease (2.0), non-AIDS cancers other than lung cancer (1.4), and accidents (0.8). During 1990-2011, among persons with AIDS, the annual rate of death due to HIV-attributable causes decreased by 89% (from 122.0 to 13.2), and the rate due to non-HIV-attributable-causes decreased by 57% (from 20.0 to 8.6), while the percentage of deaths caused by non-HIV-attributable causes increased from 11% to 43%. During 2000-2011, among persons with HIV infection, the rate of death due to HIV-attributable causes decreased by 69% (from 26.4 to 8.3), and the rate due to non-HIV-attributable causes decreased by 28% (from 10.5 to 7.6), while the percentage of deaths caused by non-HIV-attributable causes increased from 25% to 48%. Among HIV-infected persons, as rates of death due to HIV-attributable causes decreased, rates due to non-HIV-attributable causes also decreased, but the percentages of deaths due to non-HIV-attributable causes, such as heart disease and non-AIDS cancers increased.

  4. Prevalence of Hepatitis C virus in HIV infected persons in a tertiary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To assess the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among HIV/AIDS patients in a tertiary hospital inNigeria. All infected persons confirmed by Elisa and aged 15 years and above seen at theUniversity of Benin Teaching Hospital were included in the study. The subjects were recruited over a period of one year.

  5. Hospitalization Rates and Reasons Among HIV Elite Controllers and Persons With Medically Controlled HIV Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowell, Trevor A; Gebo, Kelly A; Blankson, Joel N; Korthuis, P Todd; Yehia, Baligh R; Rutstein, Richard M; Moore, Richard D; Sharp, Victoria; Nijhawan, Ank E; Mathews, W Christopher; Hanau, Lawrence H; Corales, Roberto B; Beil, Robert; Somboonwit, Charurut; Edelstein, Howard; Allen, Sara L; Berry, Stephen A

    2015-06-01

    Elite controllers spontaneously suppress human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) viremia but also demonstrate chronic inflammation that may increase risk of comorbid conditions. We compared hospitalization rates and causes among elite controllers to those of immunologically intact persons with medically controlled HIV. For adults in care at 11 sites from 2005 to 2011, person-years with CD4 T-cell counts ≥350 cells/mm(2) were categorized as medical control, elite control, low viremia, or high viremia. All-cause and diagnostic category-specific hospitalization rates were compared between groups using negative binomial regression. We identified 149 elite controllers (0.4%) among 34 354 persons in care. Unadjusted hospitalization rates among the medical control, elite control, low-viremia, and high-viremia groups were 10.5, 23.3, 12.6, and 16.9 per 100 person-years, respectively. After adjustment for demographic and clinical factors, elite control was associated with higher rates of all-cause (adjusted incidence rate ratio, 1.77 [95% confidence interval, 1.21-2.60]), cardiovascular (3.19 [1.50-6.79]) and psychiatric (3.98 [1.54-10.28]) hospitalization than was medical control. Non-AIDS-defining infections were the most common reason for admission overall (24.1% of hospitalizations) but were rare among elite controllers (2.7%), in whom cardiovascular hospitalizations were most common (31.1%). Elite controllers are hospitalized more frequently than persons with medically controlled HIV and cardiovascular hospitalizations are an important contributor. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Chronic kidney disease at presentation is not an independent risk factor for AIDS-defining events or death in HIV-infected persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Tahira P; Wu, Pingsheng; Ikizler, T Alp; Sterling, Timothy R; Stinnette, Samuel E; Rebeiro, Peter F; Ghosh, Suvro; Hulgan, Todd

    2013-02-01

    Studies have documented an association between chronic kidney disease (CKD) and increased risk of end stage renal disease, death and comorbidities, including cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome, in the general population. However, there is little data on the relationship between CKD and ADE (AIDS defining event), and to our knowledge, no studies have analyzed death as a competing risk for ADE among HIV-infected persons. An observational cohort study was performed to determine the incidence and risks for developing an ADE or death among HIV-infected persons with and without CKD from 1998 - 2005. CKD was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) less than 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 using the CKDEpidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation. Log rank test and Cox regression which determined time to development of ADE and/or death as combined and separate outcomes, and competing risk models for ADE versus mortality, were performed. Among the 2,127 persons that contributed to the 5,824 person years of follow-up: 22% were female, 34% African American, 38% on HAART, and 3% had CKD at baseline. ADE occurred in 227 (11%) persons and there were 80 (4%) deaths. CKD was not significantly associated with ADE/death (HR 1.3, 95% CIs: 0.5, 3.2), ADE (HR 1.0, 95% CIs: 0.4, 3.1), or death (HR 1.6, 95% CIs: 0.4, 3.1). Competing risk analyses confirmed no statistically significant associations between CKD and these outcomes. CKD was uncommon in HIV-infected persons presenting for care in this racially diverse cohort, and was not independently associated with risk of developing an ADE or dying during follow-up.

  7. Pneumonia in HIV-infected persons: increased risk with cigarette smoking and treatment interruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gordin, Fred M; Roediger, Mollie P; Girard, Pierre-Marie

    2008-01-01

    patients randomized to receive continuous antiretroviral therapy (hazard ratio, 1.55; 95% confidence interval, 1.07-2.25; P = 0.02). Cigarette smoking was a major risk factor: Current-smokers had more than an 80% higher risk of pneumonia compared with never-smokers (hazard ratio, 1.82; 95% confidence...

  8. Organization of care for persons with HIV-infection: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handford, Curtis D; Tynan, Anne-Marie; Agha, Ayda; Rzeznikiewiz, Damian; Glazier, Richard H

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this systematic review was to examine the effectiveness of the organization of care: case management, multidisciplinary care, multi-faceted treatment, hours of service, outreach programs and health information systems on medical, immunological, virological, psychosocial and economic outcomes for persons living with HIV/AIDS. We searched PubMed (MEDLINE) and 10 other electronic databases from 1 January 1980 to April, 2012 for both experimental and controlled observational studies. Thirty-three studies met the inclusion criteria. Eleven studies were randomized controlled trials (RCTs), three of which were conducted in low-middle income settings. Patient characteristics, study design, organization measures and outcomes data were abstracted independently by two reviewers from all studies. A risk of bias tool was applied to RCTs and a separate tool was used to assess the quality of observational studies. This review concludes that case management interventions were most consistently associated with improvements in immunological outcomes but case management demonstrates no clear association with other outcome measures. The same mixed results were also identified for multidisciplinary and multi-faceted care interventions. Eight studies with an outreach intervention were identified and demonstrated improvements or non-inferiority with respect to mortality, receipt of antiretroviral medications, immunological outcomes, improvements in healthcare utilization and lower reported healthcare costs when compared to usual care. Of the interventions examined in this review, sustained in-person case management and outreach interventions were most consistently associated with improved medical and economic outcomes, in particular antiretroviral prescribing, immunological outcomes and healthcare utilization. No firm conclusions can be reached about the impact of any one intervention on patient mortality.

  9. Emerging from the database shadows: characterizing undocumented immigrants in a large cohort of HIV-infected persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Jonathan; Hanna, David B; Felsen, Uriel R; Cunningham, Chinazo O; Patel, Viraj V

    2017-12-01

    Little is known about how HIV affects undocumented immigrants despite social and structural factors that may place them at risk of poor HIV outcomes. Our understanding of the clinical epidemiology of HIV-infected undocumented immigrants is limited by the challenges of determining undocumented immigration status in large data sets. We developed an algorithm to predict undocumented status using social security number (SSN) and insurance data. We retrospectively applied this algorithm to a cohort of HIV-infected adults receiving care at a large urban healthcare system who attended at least one HIV-related outpatient visit from 1997 to 2013, classifying patients as "screened undocumented" or "documented". We then reviewed the medical records of screened undocumented patients, classifying those whose records contained evidence of undocumented status as "undocumented per medical chart" (charted undocumented). Bivariate measures of association were used to identify demographic and clinical characteristics associated with undocumented immigrant status. Of 7593 patients, 205 (2.7%) were classified as undocumented by the algorithm. Compared to documented patients, undocumented patients were younger at entry to care (mean 38.5 years vs. 40.6 years, p undocumented immigrants within an HIV-infected population, though it overestimated the prevalence of patients who were undocumented.

  10. Predicting dentists' perceived occupational risk for HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunzel, C; Sadowsky, D

    1993-06-01

    This study posed two questions: what is the level of perceived occupational risk among American general practice dentists (GPDs)? What factors influence perception of occupational risk for HIV infection among GPDs? In data obtained from a national mail survey of 1351 GPDs (response rate, 88%) 31% of American GPDs expressed disagreement with the statement that HIV+ individuals can be safely treated in their office settings. Of the 16 variables entered into a multiple regression equation, 9 variables had a statistically significant influence on dentists' assessment of occupational risk. In order of their influence they were (1) concern re the economic viability of the practice, (2) ethical obligation to treat patients at risk, (3) certainty of having treated patients with HIV infection, (4) risk attributed to four accidental occupational exposures, (5) concern re treatment of homosexuals, (6) relevant continuing education exposure, (7) personal worry re transmission of HIV infection from patients, (8) implementation of infection control behaviors, (9) number of patients seen per week. Statistically nonsignificant predictors of interest included age, knowledge level re HIV transmission routes, practice location in a high prevalence area, and perceived effectiveness of infection control behaviors. Results argue for intervention programs with less focus on delivery of factual information regarding the transmission of the disease and the effectiveness of infection control techniques, and more emphasis on the themes of practice economic viability, professional ethics, and structured educational encounters involving dentists' knowing exposure to HIV-infected patients.

  11. Gender differences in the risk of HIV infection among persons reporting abstinence, monogamy, and multiple sexual partners in northern Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keren Z Landman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Monogamy, together with abstinence, partner reduction, and condom use, is widely advocated as a key behavioral strategy to prevent HIV infection in sub-Saharan Africa. We examined the association between the number of sexual partners and the risk of HIV seropositivity among men and women presenting for HIV voluntary counseling and testing (VCT in northern Tanzania. METHODOLOGY/ PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Clients presenting for HIV VCT at a community-based AIDS service organization in Moshi, Tanzania were surveyed between November 2003 and December 2007. Data on sociodemographic characteristics, reasons for testing, sexual behaviors, and symptoms were collected. Men and women were categorized by number of lifetime sexual partners, and rates of seropositivity were reported by category. Factors associated with HIV seropositivity among monogamous males and females were identified by a multivariate logistic regression model. Of 6,549 clients, 3,607 (55% were female, and the median age was 30 years (IQR 24-40. 939 (25% females and 293 (10% males (p<0.0001 were HIV seropositive. Among 1,244 (34% monogamous females and 423 (14% monogamous males, the risk of HIV infection was 19% and 4%, respectively (p<0.0001. The risk increased monotonically with additional partners up to 45% (p<0.001 and 15% (p<0.001 for women and men, respectively with 5 or more partners. In multivariate analysis, HIV seropositivity among monogamous women was most strongly associated with age (p<0.0001, lower education (p<0.004, and reporting a partner with other partners (p = 0.015. Only age was a significant risk factor for monogamous men (p = 0.0004. INTERPRETATION: Among women presenting for VCT, the number of partners is strongly associated with rates of seropositivity; however, even women reporting lifetime monogamy have a high risk for HIV infection. Partner reduction should be coupled with efforts to place tools in the hands of sexually active women to reduce their risk

  12. Guideline for the prevention, diagnosis and management of cryptococcal meningitis among HIV-infected persons: 2013 update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    The Southern African HIV Clinicians Society

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Six years after the first Society guidelines were published, cryptococcal meningitis (CM remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality among HIV-infected adults in South Africa. Several important developments have spurred the  publication of updated guidelines to manage this common fungal opportunistic infection. Recommendations described here include: (1 screening and pre-emptive treatment; (2 laboratory diagnosis and monitoring; (3 management of a first episode of CM; (4 amphotericin B deoxycholate toxicity prevention, monitoring and management; (5 timing of antiretroviral therapy among patients with CM; (6 management of raised intracranial pressure; (7 management of relapse episodes of CM.

  13. Plasma Levels of Bacterial DNA Correlate with Immune Activation and the Magnitude of Immune Restoration in Persons with Antiretroviral-Treated HIV Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei; Lederman, Michael M.; Hunt, Peter; Sieg, Scott F.; Haley, Kathryn; Rodriguez, Benigno; Landay, Alan; Martin, Jeffrey; Sinclair, Elizabeth; Asher, Ava I.; Deeks, Steven G.; Douek, Daniel C.; Brenchley, Jason M.

    2009-01-01

    The significance of elevated plasma levels of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in persons with chronic HIV infection remains undefined. We measured LPS levels by use of limulus lysate assay, and DNA sequences encoding bacterial ribosomal 16S RNA (16S rDNA) were assessed by quantitative polymerase chain reactions in plasma samples obtained from 242 donors. Plasma levels of 16S rDNA were significantly higher in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected subjects than in uninfected subjects, and they correlated with LPS levels. Higher levels of 16S rDNA were associated with higher levels of T cell activation and with lower levels of CD4 T cell restoration during antiretroviral therapy. Antiretroviral therapy reduces but does not fully normalize plasma levels of bacterial 16S rDNA, an index of microbial translocation from the gastrointestinal tract. High levels of 16S rDNA during therapy are strongly associated with reduced increases in the CD4+ T lymphocyte count, irrespective of plasma HIV RNA levels. These findings are consistent with the importance of microbial translocation in immunodeficiency and T cell homeostasis in chronic HIV infection. PMID:19265479

  14. Genotypic characterisation of human papillomavirus infections among persons living with HIV infection; a case-control study in Kumasi, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yar, Denis Dekugmen; Salifu, Samson Pandam; Darko, Samuel Nkansah; Annan, Augustina Angelina; Gyimah, Akosua Adumea; Buabeng, Kwame Ohene; Owusu-Dabo, Ellis

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study is to describe the burden of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection among women living with HIV and non-infected women in Ghana. A case-control study was conducted involving 107 women living with HIV aged between 18 and 59 years (cases) and 100 non-HIV-infected apparently healthy women (controls) who were recruited from the Kumasi South Hospital, from July to December, 2014. Cervicovaginal swabs were taken from study participants to characterise 28 high- and low-risk HPV genotypes using a multiplex real-time PCR. The overall mean age for the participants was 40.10 ± 9.76 years. The prevalence of high-risk (hr)-HPV genotypes was significantly higher among the cases than the controls (77.4% vs. 41.6%, P < 0.0001). Overall, HPV 58 and 54 were the most predominant high-risk (18.8%) and low-risk (15.0%) genotypes detected. The two most common hr-HPV genotype isolates were 58 (18.8%) and 35 (15.9%) with 58 being the most prevalent among age group 35-44 years compared with hr-HPV 16, 18, 35 and 45, found predominantly among 18-34 age group. Significant variations exist in HPV genotypes among HIV-infected and uninfected women. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Comorbidity Acquired before HIV Diagnosis and Mortality in HIV-infected and Uninfected Persons: A Danish population-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohse, Nicolai; Gerstoft, Jan; Kronborg, Gitte

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND:: We aimed to estimate the impact of comorbidity acquired before HIV diagnosis on mortality in HIV-infected individuals METHODS:: This cohort study compared two different cohorts. The prospective population-based nationwide observational Danish HIV Cohort Study was used to compare all...... adults diagnosed with HIV in Denmark from 1997 with a matched general population cohort. Comorbidity history was ascertained from the Danish National Patient Registry and vital statistics obtained from Denmark's Civil Registration System. Cox regression was used to estimate impact of Charlson Comorbidity...... Index (CCI) and hepatitis C virus coinfection (HCV) on mortality, and Population Attributable Risk to assess the proportional impact of comorbidity on mortality. RESULTS:: CCI comorbidity was present before HIV diagnosis in 11.3% of 1,638 persons with HIV, and in 8.0% of 156,506 persons in the general...

  16. HIV infection and Cushing's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalić Tijana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: People with AIDS can have a dysfunction of the hypothalamic - pituitary-adrenal axis. With regard to HIV infection, most often mentioned is iatrogenic Cushing's syndrome or Pseudo-Cushing's Syndrome. So far there are described only two cases of Cushing disease in HIV -infected persons. Case report: A 48-year-old patient, after eleven years of HIV infection and a year since the introduction of HAART, was diagnosed with Cushing's disease based on cushingoid habitus, lack of suppression of cortisol in screening, elevated ACTH and pituitary tumor. She had transfenoidal surgery and histopathologic findings corresponded to basophilic adenoma. After the operation, short time on hydrocortisone substitution, she generally felt well with regular ART. Four years later, again easily bruising, facial redness, oily skin with acne, weight gain, uneven distribution of stomach adipose tissue, sweating, oligomenorrhea and high blood pressure. There was no rest/relapse of tumor on control pituitary MRI. Initially, elevated ACTH, valid cortisol in daily profiles, later the absence of the suppression of cortisol after 4 mg (LDST and 8 mg (HDST of dexamethasone along with maintenance of higher ACTH, indicate recurrence of clinical and laboratory relapse wherefore ketoconazole was introduced. Despite increasing doses of ketoconazole, she held slightly higher morning cortisol, ACTH and with persisting Cushing's syndrome. Conclusion: The coexistence of the two entities could lead to overlapping metabolic and phenotypic characteristics and the interaction between and/or synergism.

  17. Increased Hepatitis E Virus Seroprevalence Correlates with Lower CD4+ Cell Counts in HIV-Infected Persons in Argentina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José D Debes

    Full Text Available Hepatitis E virus (HEV is a single-stranded RNA virus that can cause hepatitis in an epidemic fashion. HEV usually causes asymptomatic or limited acute infections in immunocompetent individuals, whereas in immunosuppressed individuals such as transplant recipients, HEV can cause chronic infections. The risks and outcomes of HEV co-infection in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV are poorly characterized. We used a third generation immunoassay to measure serum IgG antibodies specific for HEV in 204 HIV-infected individuals from Argentina and a control group of 433 HIV-negative individuals. We found 15 of 204 (7.3%, 95%CI 3.74-10.96% individuals in the HIV-positive group to have positive HEV IgG levels suggestive of previous infection, compared to 19 of 433 (4.4%, 95% CI 2.5-6.3% individuals in the HIV-negative control group (p = 0.12. Among HIV-positive individuals, those with HEV seropositivity had lower CD4 counts compared to those that were HEV seronegative (average CD4 count of 234 vs 422 mm3, p = 0.01, indicating that patients with lower CD4 counts were more likely to be HEV IgG positive. Moreover, HEV seropositivity in patients with CD4 counts 200 mm3 (p = 0.012. We found a positive PCR result for HEV in one individual. Our study found that increased seroprevalence of HEV IgG correlated with lower CD4 counts in HIV-infected patients in Argentina.

  18. Hypertension and HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balt, Christine A

    2013-01-01

    As persons living with HIV infection (PLWH) live longer, primary health care and comorbidity issues have come to the forefront. The diagnosis and treatment of hypertension can affect a number of other comorbid conditions, including metabolic syndrome, lipid abnormalities, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. Literature specific to hypertension and HIV is limited and most often presented in theory-based, rather than empirically based, articles, with hypertension-specific information presented in small sections of articles on cardiovascular disease. A systematic literature review was conducted to evaluate current research evidence to determine prevalence of hypertension in PLWH and its association with antiretroviral therapy (ART) and HIV-related and traditional risk factors. Evidence surrounding the cause and effect of HIV and ART on hypertension is conflicting and inconclusive; however, the importance of hypertension diagnosis and treatment is clear. Evidence supports use of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of Hypertension Guidelines when treating PLWH. Copyright © 2013 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Vitamin D levels and influenza vaccine immunogenicity among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crum-Cianflone, Nancy F; Won, Seunghyun; Lee, Rachel; Lalani, Tahaniyat; Ganesan, Anuradha; Burgess, Timothy; Agan, Brian K

    2016-09-22

    Vaccination is the most important preventive strategy against influenza, however post-vaccination antibody responses are often inadequate especially among HIV-infected persons. Vitamin D deficiency has been suggested to adversely influence immune responses and is highly prevalent among HIV-infected adults. Therefore, we evaluated the association between 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels and post-influenza vaccination responses. We conducted a prospective cohort study evaluating the immunogenicity of monovalent influenza A (H1N1) vaccination among both HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected adults (18-50years of age) during the 2009-2010 influenza season. Antibody titers were evaluated at baseline, day 28, and 6months post-vaccination using hemagluttination inhibition assays. Serum 25(OH)D levels were measured at day 28. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses examined the association between 25(OH)D levels [categorized as <20ng/ml (deficiency) vs. ⩾20ng/ml] with the primary outcome of seroconversion. Secondary outcomes included seroprotection; a ⩾4-fold increase in titers; and geometric mean titers post-vaccination. Analyses were repeated using 25(OH)D levels as a continuous variable. A total of 128 adults [64 HIV-infected (median CD4 count 580cells/mm(3)) and 64 HIV-uninfected] were included. Seroconversion at day 28 post-vaccination was achieved in fewer HIV-infected participants compared with HIV-uninfected participants (56% vs. 74%, p=0.03). Vitamin D deficiency was more prevalent among HIV-infected persons vs. HIV-uninfected persons (25% vs. 17%), although not significantly different (p=0.39). There were no associations found between lower 25(OH)D levels and poorer antibody responses at day 28 or 6months for any of the study outcomes among either HIV-infected or HIV-uninfected adults. Vitamin D deficiency was common among both HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected adults, but lower levels did not predict antibody responses after H1N1 (2009) influenza

  20. The impact of combined antiretroviral therapy on biologic false-positive rapid plasma reagin serologies in a longitudinal cohort of HIV-infected persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oboho, Ikwo K; Gebo, Kelly A; Moore, Richard D; Ghanem, Khalil G

    2013-10-01

    Our objective was to determine the impact of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) and the degree of immunosuppression on biologic false-positive (BFP) rapid plasma reagin (RPR) tests among persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This was a nested retrospective study of HIV-infected patients enrolled in the Johns Hopkins HIV Clinical Cohort. BFP RPR was defined as a reactive RPR and a nonreactive fluorescent treponemal antibody-absorption (FTA-ABS) test. Patients with BFP tests were compared to 2 control groups: HIV-infected patients (1) with active syphilis (reactive RPR and FTA-ABS) and (2) without current syphilis (nonreactive RPR). A persistent BFP test was defined by having at least 2 visits with consistent BFP at all visits. Of 711 patients with HIV, 96 (13.5%) had BFP tests and 342 (48.1%) had syphilis. Twenty-two of 96 (23%) had persistent BFP tests. cART use was associated with decreased odds of BFP tests compared to having syphilis (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 0.31; 95% CI, .15-.63) and those with nonreactive RPR (AOR, 0.42; 95% CI, .22-.81). cART use was also associated with decreased odds of BFP persistence (AOR, 0.07; 95% CI, .01-.33). Neither CD4 count nor HIV RNA was significantly associated with BFP test results. Lower RPR titers, younger age, and injection drug use were associated with increased odds of BFP. The use of cART appears to decrease the odds of BFP RPR tests. This finding suggests that nontreponemal titer fluctuations in persons with HIV may reflect the influence of factors unrelated to syphilis disease activity.

  1. Efficacy of a six-month versus a 36-month regimen for prevention of tuberculosis in HIV-infected persons in India: a randomized clinical trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumya Swaminathan

    Full Text Available The optimal duration of preventive therapy for tuberculosis (TB among HIV-infected persons in TB-endemic countries is unknown.An open-label randomized clinical trial was performed and analyzed for equivalence. Seven hundred and twelve HIV-infected, ART-naïve patients without active TB were randomized to receive either ethambutol 800 mg and isoniazid 300 mg daily for six-months (6EH or isoniazid 300 mg daily for 36-months (36H. Drugs were dispensed fortnightly and adherence checked by home visits. Patients had chest radiograph, sputum smear and culture performed every six months, in addition to investigations if they developed symptoms. The primary endpoint was incident TB while secondary endpoints were all-cause mortality and adverse events. Survival analysis was performed on the modified intent to treat population (m-ITT and rates compared.Tuberculosis developed in 22 (6.4% of 344 subjects in the 6EH arm and 13 (3.8% of 339 subjects in the 36H arm with incidence rates of 2.4/100 py (95%CI- 1.4-3.5 and 1.6/100 py (95% CI-0.8-3.0 with an adjusted rate ratio (aIRR of 1.6 (0.8-3.2. Among TST-positive subjects, the aIRR of 6EH was 1.7 (0.6-4.3 compared to 36H, p = 0.8. All-cause mortality and toxicity were similar in the two arms. Among 15 patients with confirmed TB, 4 isolates were resistant to isoniazid and 2 were multidrug-resistant.Both regimens were similarly effective in preventing TB, when compared to historical incidence rates. However, there was a trend to lower TB incidence with 36H. There was no increase in isoniazid resistance compared to the expected rate in HIV-infected patients. The trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00351702.

  2. Incidence and impact on mortality of severe neurocognitive disorders in persons with and without HIV infection: a Danish nationwide cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lescure, François-Xavier; Omland, Lars Haukali Hvass; Engsig, Frederik Neess

    2011-01-01

    The risk of neurocognitive disorders in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is controversial. We aimed to compare the incidence and impact on mortality of severe neurocognitive disorders (SNCDs) in HIV-infected patients w...

  3. Cardiovascular Risk Assessment: A Comparison of the Framingham, PROCAM, and DAD Equations in HIV-Infected Persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Weyler Nery

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to estimate the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD and to assess the agreement between the Framingham, Framingham with aggravating factors, PROCAM, and DAD equations in HIV-infected patients. A cross-sectional study was conducted in an outpatient centre in Brazil. 294 patients older than 19 years were enrolled. Estimates of 10-year cardiovascular risk were calculated. The agreement between the CVD risk equations was assessed using Cohen's kappa coefficient. The participants' mean age was 36.8 years (SD = 10.3, 76.9% were men, and 66.3% were on antiretroviral therapy. 47.8% of the participants had abdominal obesity, 23.1% were current smokers, 20.0% had hypertension, and 2.0% had diabetes. At least one lipid abnormality was detected in 72.8%, and a low HDL-C level was the most common. The majority were classified as having low risk for CV events. The percentage of patients at high risk ranged from 0.4 to 5.7. The PROCAM score placed the lowest proportion of the patients into a high-risk group, and the Framingham equation with aggravating factors placed the highest proportion of patients into the high-risk group. Data concerning the comparability of different tools are informative for estimating the risk of CVD, but accuracy of the outcome predictions should also be considered.

  4. HIV Infection and Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Genetics Services Directory Cancer Prevention Overview Research HIV Infection and Cancer Risk On This Page Do people ... being linked to an increased risk of cancer, HIV infection is associated with an increased risk of dying ...

  5. Comparison of Rates of Death Having any Death-Certificate Mention of Heart, Kidney, or Liver Disease Among Persons Diagnosed with HIV Infection with those in the General US Population, 2009-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteside, Y Omar; Selik, Richard; An, Qian; Huang, Taoying; Karch, Debra; Hernandez, Angela L; Hall, H Irene

    2015-01-01

    Compare age-adjusted rates of death due to liver, kidney, and heart diseases during 2009-2011 among US residents diagnosed with HIV infection with those in the general population. Numerators were numbers of records of multiple-cause mortality data from the national vital statistics system with an ICD-10 code for the disease of interest (any mention, not necessarily the underlying cause), divided into those 1) with and 2) without an additional code for HIV infection. Denominators were 1) estimates of persons living with diagnosed HIV infection from national HIV surveillance system data and 2) general population estimates from the US Census Bureau. We compared age-adjusted rates overall (unstratified by sex, race/ethnicity, or region of residence) and stratified by demographic group. Overall, compared with the general population, persons diagnosed with HIV infection had higher age-adjusted rates of death reported with hepatitis B (rate ratio [RR]=42.6; 95% CI: 34.7-50.7), hepatitis C (RR=19.4; 95% CI: 18.1-20.8), liver disease excluding hepatitis B or C (RR=2.1; 95% CI: 1.8-2.3), kidney disease (RR=2.4; 95% CI: 2.2-2.6), and cardiomyopathy (RR=1.9; 95% CI: 1.6-2.3), but lower rates of death reported with ischemic heart disease (RR=0.6; 95% CI: 0.6-0.7) and heart failure (RR=0.8; 95% CI: 0.6-0.9). However, the differences in rates of death reported with the heart diseases were insignificant in some demographic groups. Persons with HIV infection have a higher risk of death with liver and kidney diseases reported as causes than the general population.

  6. Mortality in perinatally HIV-infected young people in England following transition to adult care: an HIV Young Persons Network (HYPNet) audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, R; Judd, A; Jungmann, E; O'Leary, C; Foster, C

    2014-04-01

    Mortality in young people with perinatally acquired HIV infection (PHIV) following transfer to adult care has not been characterized in the UK. We conducted a multicentre audit to establish the number of deaths and associated factors. Fourteen adult clinics caring for infected young people reported deaths to 30 September 2011 on a proforma. Deaths were matched to the Collaborative HIV Paediatric Study, a clinical database of HIV-infected children in the UK/Ireland, to describe clinical characteristics in paediatric care of those who died post-transition. Eleven deaths were reported from 14 clinics which cared for 248 adults with PHIV. For the 11 deaths, the median age at transfer to adult care was 17 years (range 15-21 years), and at death was 21 years (range 17-24 years). Causes of death were suicide (two patients), advanced HIV disease (seven patients) and bronchiectasis (one patient), with one cause missing. At death, the median CD4 count was 27 cells/μL (range 0-630 cells/μL); five patients were on antiretroviral therapy (ART) but only two had a viral load < 50 HIV-1 RNA copies/mL. Nine had poor adherence when in paediatric care, continuing into adult care despite multidisciplinary support. Eight had ART resistance, although all had potentially suppressive regimens available. Nine had mental health diagnoses. Our findings highlight the complex medical and psychosocial issues faced by some adults with PHIV, with nine of the 11 deaths in our study being associated with poor adherence and advanced HIV disease. Novel adherence interventions and mental health support are required for this vulnerable cohort. © 2013 British HIV Association.

  7. Mortality by causes in HIV-infected adults: comparison with the general population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floristan Yugo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We compared mortality by cause of death in HIV-infected adults in the era of combined antiretroviral therapy with mortality in the general population in the same age and sex groups. Methods Mortality by cause of death was analyzed for the period 1999-2006 in the cohort of persons aged 20-59 years diagnosed with HIV infection and residing in Navarre (Spain. This was compared with mortality from the same causes in the general population of the same age and sex using standardized mortality ratios (SMR. Results There were 210 deaths among 1145 persons diagnosed with HIV (29.5 per 1000 person-years. About 50% of these deaths were from AIDS. Persons diagnosed with HIV infection had exceeded all-cause mortality (SMR 14.0, 95% CI 12.2 to 16.1 and non-AIDS mortality (SMR 6.9, 5.7 to 8.5. The analysis showed excess mortality from hepatic disease (SMR 69.0, 48.1 to 78.6, drug overdose or addiction (SMR 46.0, 29.2 to 69.0, suicide (SMR 9.6, 3.8 to 19.7, cancer (SMR 3.2, 1.8 to 5.1 and cardiovascular disease (SMR 3.1, 1.3 to 6.1. Mortality in HIV-infected intravenous drug users did not change significantly between the periods 1999-2002 and 2003-2006, but it declined by 56% in non-injecting drug users (P = 0.007. Conclusions Persons with HIV infection continue to have considerable excess mortality despite the availability of effective antiretroviral treatments. However, excess mortality in the HIV patients has declined since these treatments were introduced, especially in persons without a history of intravenous drug use.

  8. Drug use and receipt of highly active antiretroviral therapy among HIV-infected persons in two U.S. clinic cohorts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine C McGowan

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Drug use and receipt of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART were assessed in HIV-infected persons from the Comprehensive Care Center (CCC; Nashville, TN and Johns Hopkins University HIV Clinic (JHU; Baltimore, MD between 1999 and 2005.Participants with and without injection drug use (IDU history in the CCC and JHU cohorts were evaluated. Additional analysis of persons with history of IDU, non-injection drug use (NIDU, and no drug use from CCC were performed. Activity of IDU and NIDU also was assessed for the CCC cohort. HAART use and time on HAART were analyzed according to drug use category and site of care.1745 persons were included from CCC: 268 (15% with IDU history and 796 (46% with NIDU history. 1977 persons were included from JHU: 731 (35% with IDU history. Overall, the cohorts differed in IDU risk factor rates, age, race, sex, and time in follow-up. In multivariate analyses, IDU was associated with decreased HAART receipt overall (OR = 0.61, 95% CI: [0.45-0.84] and OR = 0.58, 95% CI: [0.46-0.73], respectively for CCC and JHU and less time on HAART at JHU (0.70, [0.55-0.88], but not statistically associated with time on HAART at CCC (0.78, [0.56-1.09]. NIDU was independently associated with decreased HAART receipt (0.62, [0.47-0.81] and less time on HAART (0.66, [0.52-0.85] at CCC. These associations were not altered significantly whether patients at CCC were categorized according to historical drug use or drug use during the study period.Persons with IDU history from both clinic populations were less likely to receive HAART and tended to have less cumulative time on HAART. Effects of NIDU were similar to IDU at CCC. NIDU without IDU is an important contributor to HAART utilization.

  9. Can Point-of-Care Urine LAM Strip Testing for Tuberculosis Add Value to Clinical Decision Making in Hospitalised HIV-Infected Persons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Jonathan G.; Theron, Grant; Dheda, Keertan

    2013-01-01

    Background The urine lipoarabinomannan (LAM) strip-test (Determine®-TB) can rapidly rule-in TB in HIV-infected persons with advanced immunosuppression. However, given high rates of empiric treatment amongst hospitalised patients in high-burden settings (∼50%) it is unclear whether LAM can add any value to clinical decision making, or identify a subset of patients with unfavourable outcomes that would otherwise have been missed by empiric treatment. Methods 281 HIV-infected hospitalised patients with suspected TB received urine LAM strip testing, and were categorised as definite (culture-positive), probable-, or non-TB. Both the proportion and morbidity of TB cases identified by LAM testing, early empiric treatment (initiated prior to test result availability) and a set of clinical predictors were compared across groups. Results 187/281 patients had either definite- (n = 116) or probable-TB (n = 71). As a rule-in test for definite and probable-TB, LAM identified a similar proportion of TB cases compared to early empiric treatment (85/187 vs. 93/187, p = 0.4), but a greater proportion than classified by a set of clinical predictors alone (19/187; pLAM-positive patients who had either definite- or probable-TB were missed by early empiric treatment, and of these 25/39 (64%) would also have been missed by smear microscopy. Thus, 25/187 (8%) of definite- or probable-TB patients with otherwise delayed initiation of TB treatment could be detected by the LAM strip test. LAM-positive patients missed by early empiric treatment had a lower median CD4 count (p = 0.008), a higher median illness severity score (p = 0.001) and increased urea levels (p = 0.002) compared to LAM-negative patients given early empiric treatment. Conclusions LAM strip testing outperformed TB diagnosis based on clinical criteria but in day-to-day practice identified a similar proportion of patients compared to early empiric treatment. However, compared to empiric treatment, LAM

  10. A pilot study to evaluate the magnitude of association of the use of electronic personal health records with patient activation and empowerment in HIV-infected veterans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Cédric B. Crouch

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The HITECH Act signed into law in 2009 requires hospitals to provide patients with electronic access to their health information through an electronic personal health record (ePHR in order to receive Medicare/Medicaid incentive payments. Little is known about who uses these systems or the impact these systems will have on patient outcomes in HIV care. The health care empowerment model provides rationale for the hypothesis that knowledge from an electronic personal health record can lead to greater patient empowerment resulting in improved outcomes. The objective was to determine the patient characteristics and patient activation, empowerment, satisfaction, knowledge of their CD4, Viral Loads, and antiretroviral medication, and medication adherence outcomes associated with electronic personal health record use in Veterans living with HIV at the San Francisco VA Medical Center. The participants included HIV-Infected Veterans receiving care in a low volume HIV-clinic at the San Francisco VA Medical Center, divided into two groups of users and non-users of electronic personal health records. The research was conducted using in-person surveys either online or on paper and data abstraction from medical records for current anti-retroviral therapy (ART, CD4 count, and plasma HIV-1 viral load. The measures included the Patient Activation Measure, Health Care Empowerment Inventory, ART adherence, provider satisfaction, current CD4 count, current plasma viral load, knowledge of current ART, knowledge of CD4 counts, and knowledge of viral load. In all, 40 participants were recruited. The use of electronic personal health records was associated with significantly higher levels of patient activation and levels of patient satisfaction for getting timely appointments, care, and information. ePHR was also associated with greater proportions of undetectable plasma HIV-1 viral loads, of knowledge of current CD4 count, and of knowledge of current viral load. The

  11. [Problems of early detection of HIV infection, medical and psychological support of HIV-infected soldiers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uliukin, I M; Bolekhan, V N; Iusupov, V V; Bulan'kov, Iu I; Orlova, E S

    2015-01-01

    The article contains the analysis of materials about HIV infection and the status of work on its early detection among soldiers. Currently, the figures have a tendency to stabilization, but there is an increase in the persantage of HIV-infected persons performing military service under the contract, as well as the actualization sexual way of infection. The insufficient effectiveness of the barrier screening during the laboratory examination of recruits may contribute the increase in the incidence of HIV infection. Have been reviewed the questions medical-diagnostic and medical-psychological support of HIV-infected soldiers. Been analyzed the social consequences of delays in seeking medical help of patients in this group, the opportunities and challenges of their dispensary observation. It was noted that early detection of HIV infection and proper medical and psychological support in the dynamics of pathological process helps to reduce the number of new cases and improve their outcomes and to reduce the period of efficiency recovery of military personnel.

  12. Towards targeted screening for acute HIV infections in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Malcolm; Cook, Darrel A; Gilbert, Mark; Krajden, Mel; Haag, Devon; Tsang, Peggy; Wong, Elsie; Brooks, James I; Merks, Harriet; Rekart, Michael L

    2011-08-09

    Our objective was to describe the characteristics of acute and established HIV infections diagnosed in the Canadian province of British Columbia. Province-wide HIV testing and surveillance data were analyzed to inform recommendations for targeted use of screening algorithms to detect acute HIV infections. Acute HIV infection was defined as a confirmed reactive HIV p24 antigen test (or HIV nucleic acid test), a non-reactive or reactive HIV EIA screening test and a non-reactive or indeterminate Western Blot. Characteristics of unique individuals were identified from the British Columbia HIV/AIDS Surveillance System. Primary drug resistance and HIV subtypes were identified by analyzing HIV pol sequences from residual sera from newly infected individuals. From February 2006 to October 2008, 61 individuals met the acute HIV infection case definition, representing 6.2% of the 987 newly diagnosed HIV infections during the analysis period. Acute HIV infection cases were more likely to be men who have sex with men (crude OR 1.71; 95% CI 1.01-2.89], to have had a documented previous negative HIV test result (crude OR 2.89; 95% CI 1.52-5.51), and to have reported a reason for testing due to suspected seroconversion symptoms (crude OR 5.16; 95% CI 2.88-9.23). HIV subtypes and rates of transmitted drug resistance across all classes of drugs were similar in persons with both acute and established HIV infections. Targeted screening to detect acute HIV infection is a logical public health response to the HIV epidemic. Our findings suggest that acute HIV infection screening strategies, in our setting, are helpful for early diagnosis in men who have sex with men, in persons with seroconversion symptoms and in previously negative repeat testers.

  13. Cognitive coping, goal self-efficacy and personal growth in HIV-infected men who have sex with men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaij, Vivian; Garnefski, Nadia; Schroevers, Maya J.; van der Veek, Shelley M. C.; Witlox, Robert; Maes, Stan

    2008-01-01

    The relationships between cognitive coping strategies, goal self-efficacy and personal growth were studied in HIV-positive men who have sex with men. All members of a national organization for people living with HIV received a call for participation. The Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire,

  14. Cognitive coping, goal self-efficacy and personal growth in HIV-infected men who have sex with men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaij, Vivian; Garnefski, Nadia; Schroevers, Maya J.; der Veek, Shelley M.C.; Witlox, Robert; Maes, Stan

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The relationships between cognitive coping strategies, goal self-efficacy and personal growth were studied in HIV-positive men who have sex with men. METHODS: All members of a national organization for people living with HIV received a call for participation. The Cognitive Emotion

  15. A randomized factorial trial comparing 4 treatment regimens in treatment-naive HIV-infected persons with AIDS and/or a CD4 cell count Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratsela, Andrew; Polis, Michael; Dhlomo, Sibongiseni; Emery, Sean; Grandits, Greg; Khabo, Paul; Khanyile, Thandeka; Komati, Stephanus; Neaton, James D; Naidoo, Lionel Chris David; Magongoa, Daphne; Qolohle, Duma

    2010-11-15

    Few randomized trials comparing antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens have been conducted in resource-limited settings. In the Republic of South Africa, antiretroviral-naive human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals >14 years old with a CD4 cell count AIDS diagnosis were randomized to receive efavirenz (EFV) or lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) with either zidovudine (ZDV) plus didanosine (ddI) or stavudine (d4T) plus lamivudine (3TC) in an open-label, 2-by-2 factorial study and followed up for the primary outcome of AIDS or death and prespecified secondary outcomes, including CD4 cell count and viral load changes, treatment discontinuation, and grade 4 events. In total, 1771 persons were randomized and followed up for a median of 24.7 months. AIDS or death occurred in (1) 163 participants assigned EFV and 157 assigned LPV/r (hazard ratio [HR], 1.04 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 0.84-1.30]) and in (2) 170 participants assigned ZDV+ddI and 150 assigned d4T+3TC (HR, 1.15 [95% CI, 0.93-1.44]). HIV RNA levels were lower (P < .001) and CD4 cell counts were greater (P < .01) over follow-up for d4T+3TC versus ZDV+ddI. Rates of potentially life-threatening adverse events and overall treatment discontinuation were similar for d4T+3TC and ZDV+ddI; however, more participants discontinued d4T because of toxicity (12.6%) than other treatments (<5%). EFV and LPV/r are effective components of first-line ART. The poorer viral and immune responses with ZDV+ddI and the greater toxicity-associated discontinuation rate with d4T+3TC suggest that these treatments be used cautiously as initial therapy. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00342355.

  16. Recidivism in HIV-infected incarcerated adults: influence of the lack of a high school education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlow, Elizabeth; White, Mary C; Tulsky, Jacqueline P; Estes, Milton; Menendez, Enrique

    2008-07-01

    Recidivism is a pervasive problem facing the incarcerated. Incarcerated persons who are human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected often have multiple risk factors associated with initial incarceration and recidivism, in particular, injection drug use. Yet, some jails provide case management for HIV-infected inmates to provide continuity of health care, which might have positive effects on reentry into the community. We sought to measure recidivism and factors related to recidivism in an HIV-infected cohort in an urban county jail with an active case management program. Fifty-two inmates surveyed in 1999 at the San Francisco County Jail were followed for rearrests through 2006. In follow-up, 73% were re-incarcerated on an average of 6.8 times for 552 days. Risk factors included nonwhite ethnicity, history of homelessness and crack use, common risk factors for incarceration. Less than high school education was associated with recidivism, shorter time to reincarceration, and more incarcerations. HIV-infected inmates spend a high proportion of time in multiple incarcerations, a reflection of the cyclical nature of incarceration despite comprehensive case management. Well-known risk factors for incarceration were associated with recidivism; in addition, lack of high school education played a prominent role. Education should be explored as a way to make further progress on breaking the cycle of incarceration.

  17. Recidivism in HIV-Infected Incarcerated Adults: Influence of the Lack of a High School Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlow, Elizabeth; Tulsky, Jacqueline P.; Estes, Milton; Menendez, Enrique

    2008-01-01

    Recidivism is a pervasive problem facing the incarcerated. Incarcerated persons who are human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected often have multiple risk factors associated with initial incarceration and recidivism, in particular, injection drug use. Yet, some jails provide case management for HIV-infected inmates to provide continuity of health care, which might have positive effects on reentry into the community. We sought to measure recidivism and factors related to recidivism in an HIV-infected cohort in an urban county jail with an active case management program. Fifty-two inmates surveyed in 1999 at the San Francisco County Jail were followed for rearrests through 2006. In follow-up, 73% were re-incarcerated on an average of 6.8 times for 552 days. Risk factors included nonwhite ethnicity, history of homelessness and crack use, common risk factors for incarceration. Less than high school education was associated with recidivism, shorter time to reincarceration, and more incarcerations. HIV-infected inmates spend a high proportion of time in multiple incarcerations, a reflection of the cyclical nature of incarceration despite comprehensive case management. Well-known risk factors for incarceration were associated with recidivism; in addition, lack of high school education played a prominent role. Education should be explored as a way to make further progress on breaking the cycle of incarceration. PMID:18418714

  18. HIV-Infected Adolescent, Young Adult and Pregnant Smokers: Important Targets for Effective Tobacco Control Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerome Escota

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco use is inextricably linked to a number of health risks both in the general and HIV-infected populations. There is, however, a dearth of research on effective tobacco control programs among people living with HIV, and especially among adolescents, young adults and pregnant women, groups with heightened or increased vulnerability secondary to tobacco use. Adolescents and young adults constitute a growing population of persons living with HIV infection. Early and continued tobacco use in this population living with a disease characterized by premature onset multimorbidity and chronic inflammation is of concern. Additionally, there is an increased acuity for tobacco control among HIV-infected pregnant women to reduce pregnancy morbidity and improve fetal outcome. This review will provide an important summary of current knowledge of tobacco use among HIV-infected adolescents, young adults and pregnant women. The effects of tobacco use in these specific populations will be presented and the current state of tobacco control within these populations, assessed.

  19. Ethical issues and HIV infection

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    his job if he is found to be HIV-infected. He also refuses to share the diagnosis of pneumocystis or the possibility of HIV infection with his wife. What are the doctor's responsibilities to the patient's wife and employer? Comment. The dilemma arises because of a conflict of duties which the medical practitioner experiences.

  20. [Multiple myeloma in HIV infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbanera, M; Menicagli, V

    1990-10-01

    The Authors describe a case of multiple myeloma in a patient with HIV infection: this is an exceptional observation in young people and in HIV seropositive patients. The marked proliferation of lymphocyte B polyclones, typically found in the advanced stages of HIV infection, could be a determining factor in the appearance of a malignant clone, causing the onset of multiple myeloma.

  1. Cardiac diseases and metabolic syndrome in HIV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olusegun Adesola Busari

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available HIV infection remains a pandemic and a leading cause of morbidity and mortality particularly in sub Sahara Africa. Although highly active antiretroviral therapy has brought about a marked reduction in morbidity and mortality, there are growing concerns on increasing non-communicable complications particularly cardiovascular and metabolic diseases in HIV disease. The objective was to do a systematic review of the clinical entities and pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases and metabolic syndrome in HIV disease. The result shows that HIV infection and the resultant chronic immune activation; HAAR; opportunistic infections and some of the drugs use for them; and traditional cardiovascular risk factors are some of the conditions associated with cardiovascular diseases and metabolic syndrome in HIV infection. Standard cardiovascular disease screening and risk-reducing interventions should be routinely undertaken for HIV-infected persons. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(3.000: 377-392

  2. Causes of death and factors associated with early death among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons in Singapore: pre-highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and Peri-HAART.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Angela; Tey, Jeannie; Win, Mar Kyaw; Leo, Yee Sin

    2012-12-01

    Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has greatly changed the epidemiology of human immunodefi ciency virus (HIV) mortality. The aim of this study is to compare the causes of death and factors associated with early death in HIV-infected persons in the pre- and peri-highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) periods. We conducted a retrospective review of 483 HIV-infected persons who were diagnosed with HIV from 1985 to 2000, and had died within 5 years of the diagnosis. We examined the temporal change in the primary causes of death between those who were diagnosed in the pre-HAART (1985 to 1995) and peri-HAART (1996 to 2000) periods, and compared the demographic and clinical characteristics of the 2 groups. During the peri-HAART period, HIV encephalopathy, cryptococcal meningitis, and lymphoma were no longer the leading causes of death. Opportunistic infections remained important causes of death. Early deaths from the peri-HAART period were older (60 years and above) at diagnosis (Adj OR 7.50; 95% CI, 1.78 to 31.58), more likely to be divorced (Adj OR 5.05, 95% CI, 1.96 to 13.02) and tended to have a low baseline CD4 cell count of deaths from the pre-HAART period. In the peri-HAART era, HIV-infected persons who died within 5 years of diagnosis were those who were older (≥60 years), divorced, or who presented with very late-stage disease (CD4 HIV testing and treatment should be developed for these subpopulations.

  3. Highly sensitive C-reactive protein, body mass index, and serum lipids in HIV-infected persons receiving antiretroviral therapy: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boger, Michael S; Shintani, Ayumi; Redhage, Leigh Anne; Mitchell, Valerie; Haas, David W; Morrow, Jason D; Hulgan, Todd

    2009-12-01

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) affects cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. In the general population, highly sensitive creactive protein (hsCRP) is an established predictor of future coronary events. Little is known about its utility in chronic inflammatory conditions such as HIV infection. We assessed relationships between hsCRP and metabolic parameters over time in HIV-infected patients on ART. Data are from a prospective cohort of HIV-infected adults enrolled June 2005 to July 2007. Participants were receiving ART, had HIV-1 RNA,10,000 copies per milliliter, and no diabetes or CVD. Nonlinear mixed-effect regression models assessed relationships between body mass index (BMI), lipids, and hsCRP over time adjusting for covariates. Ninety-four individuals had data from $1 study visit. Median age was 44 years, 27% were female, 57% white, and 54% were on protease inhibitors. Median CD4+ T cells, HIV-1 RNA, and hsCRP were 502 cells per cubic millimeter, 50 copies per milliliter, and 2.94 mg/dL, respectively. Median Framingham score was 3. Multivariate analysis identified associations between increased hsCRP and greater BMI (P = 0.001), higher non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P = 0.013) and triglycerides (P = 0.017), and lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P = 0.015). Among HIV-infected adults with low estimated CVD risk and virologic suppression on ART, hsCRP was elevated and independently associated with BMI and lipid changes. Future studies should assess associations between hsCRP and clinical outcomes.

  4. Effect of Text Message, Phone Call, and In-Person Appointment Reminders on Uptake of Repeat HIV Testing among Outpatients Screened for Acute HIV Infection in Kenya: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter M Mugo

    Full Text Available Following HIV-1 acquisition, many individuals develop an acute retroviral syndrome and a majority seek care. Available antibody testing cannot detect an acute HIV infection, but repeat testing after 2-4 weeks may detect seroconversion. We assessed the effect of appointment reminders on attendance for repeat HIV testing.We enrolled, in a randomized controlled trial, 18-29 year old patients evaluated for acute HIV infection at five sites in Coastal Kenya (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01876199. Participants were allocated 1:1 to either standard appointment (a dated appointment card or enhanced appointment (a dated appointment card plus SMS and phone call reminders, or in-person reminders for participants without a phone. The primary outcome was visit attendance, i.e., the proportion of participants attending the repeat test visit. Factors associated with attendance were examined by bivariable and multivariable logistic regression.Between April and July 2013, 410 participants were randomized. Attendance was 41% (85/207 for the standard group and 59% (117/199 for the enhanced group, for a relative risk of 1.4 [95% Confidence Interval, CI, 1.2-1.7].Higher attendance was independently associated with older age, study site, and report of transactional sex in past month. Lower attendance was associated with reporting multiple partners in the past two months.Appointment reminders through SMS, phone calls and in-person reminders increased the uptake of repeat HIV test by forty percent. This low-cost intervention could facilitate detection of acute HIV infections and uptake of recommended repeat testing.Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01876199.

  5. Potential health impacts of heavy metals on HIV-infected population in USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaohui; Hu, Hui; Dailey, Amy B; Kearney, Greg; Talbott, Evelyn O; Cook, Robert L

    2013-01-01

    Noninfectious comorbidities such as cardiovascular diseases have become increasingly prevalent and occur earlier in life in persons with HIV infection. Despite the emerging body of literature linking environmental exposures to chronic disease outcomes in the general population, the impacts of environmental exposures have received little attention in HIV-infected population. The aim of this study is to investigate whether individuals living with HIV have elevated prevalence of heavy metals compared to non-HIV infected individuals in United States. We used the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2010 to compare exposures to heavy metals including cadmium, lead, and total mercury in HIV infected and non-HIV infected subjects. In this cross-sectional study, we found that HIV-infected individuals had higher concentrations of all heavy metals than the non-HIV infected group. In a multivariate linear regression model, HIV status was significantly associated with increased blood cadmium (p=0.03) after adjusting for age, sex, race, education, poverty income ratio, and smoking. However, HIV status was not statistically associated with lead or mercury levels after adjusting for the same covariates. Our findings suggest that HIV-infected patients might be significantly more exposed to cadmium compared to non-HIV infected individuals which could contribute to higher prevalence of chronic diseases among HIV-infected subjects. Further research is warranted to identify sources of exposure and to understand more about specific health outcomes.

  6. Immunology of Pediatric HIV Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Nicole H.; Aldrovandi, Grace M.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Most infants born to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women escape HIV infection. Infants evade infection despite an immature immune system and, in the case of breastfeeding, prolonged repetitive, exposure. If infants become infected, the course of their infection and response to treatment differs dramatically depending upon the timing (in utero, intrapartum, or during breastfeeding) and potentially the route of their infection. Perinatally acquired HIV infection occurs during a critical window of immune development. HIV’s perturbation of this dynamic process may account for the striking age-dependent differences in HIV disease progression. HIV infection also profoundly disrupts the maternal immune system upon which infants rely for protection and immune instruction. Therefore, it is not surprising that infants who escape HIV infection still suffer adverse effects. In this review, we highlight the unique aspects of pediatric HIV transmission and pathogenesis with a focus on mechanisms by which HIV infection during immune ontogeny may allow discovery of key elements for protection and control from HIV. PMID:23772619

  7. Immunology of pediatric HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Nicole H; Aldrovandi, Grace M

    2013-07-01

    Most infants born to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women escape HIV infection. Infants evade infection despite an immature immune system and, in the case of breastfeeding, prolonged repetitive exposure. If infants become infected, the course of their infection and response to treatment differs dramatically depending upon the timing (in utero, intrapartum, or during breastfeeding) and potentially the route of their infection. Perinatally acquired HIV infection occurs during a critical window of immune development. HIV's perturbation of this dynamic process may account for the striking age-dependent differences in HIV disease progression. HIV infection also profoundly disrupts the maternal immune system upon which infants rely for protection and immune instruction. Therefore, it is not surprising that infants who escape HIV infection still suffer adverse effects. In this review, we highlight the unique aspects of pediatric HIV transmission and pathogenesis with a focus on mechanisms by which HIV infection during immune ontogeny may allow discovery of key elements for protection and control from HIV. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Incidence of benign prostate hypertrophy in Danish men with and without HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlström, Magnus Glindvad; Kronborg, Gitte; Larsen, Carsten S

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Information on risk of benign prostate hypertrophy (BPH) in HIV-infected men is sparse. We aimed to estimate the incidence of being diagnosed with BPH among HIV-infected men compared with an age and sex-matched comparison cohort from the background population. To exclude that family......-associated risk factors influence risk of BPH diagnoses in families of HIV-infected individuals, we estimated risk of BPH in fathers of HIV-infected men and fathers of the comparison cohort. METHODS: In a nationwide, population-based, matched cohort study, we calculated incidence rates and used Poisson regression...... procedure for BPH in DNHR. RESULTS: We identified 4633 HIV-infected men, 46 330 comparison cohort individuals, 1585 fathers of HIV-infected men and 20 449 fathers of the comparison cohort. Incidence rate of being diagnosed with BPH was 37.0 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 31.5-43.1] per 10 000 person...

  9. [The specific features of the detection, clinical manifestations, and treatment of tuberculosis in the HIV-infected].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erokhin, V V; Kornilova, Z Kh; Alekseeva, L P

    2005-01-01

    The present study has explored the specific features of the detection, clinical manifestations, and treatment of tuberculosis (TB) in 425 patients with TB and HIV infection. According to the time of joining the infections, the patients with TB and HIV infection are divided into 2 basic groups: 1) HIV infection is primary, TB develops at any stage of HIV infection and 2) TB is primary, HIV injections joins different forms of TB at its any stage. The social makeup of patients with TB/HIV infection is unfavorable: the unemployed, 50%; homeless persons, 26.5%; employees, 5%; workers, 9%; pensioners, 1.5%; the disabled, 5%; pupils, 3%. As compared with Group 2, Group 1 shows more employees and pupils and fewer homeless persons, which is associated with the younger age of patients in this group and their greater social security. In the pattern of clinical forms of tuberculosis in Group 1, there are prevalent forms of primary tuberculosis with lesion of intrathoracic and peripheral lymph nodes (12.8%), acutely progressive disseminated and miliary tuberculosis of the lung and extrapulmonary systems and organs (49%), among them, meningitis accounts for 4%, lesions of the liver, spleen, kidney, and other organs form 17%. In patients with tuberculosis and HIV infection, bacterial isolation has been established in 58% of cases; primary and multidrug resistances have been found in 53 and 8.9%, respectively. Multidrug resistance tends to increase: 2% in 2001, 3.4% in 2002, 4.6% in 2003, and 8.9% in 2004. Bacteria have been more frequently isolated in Group 2 than in Group 1 (81% vs 19%), which is accounted for by the magnitude of destructive changes in them in the presence of infiltrative TB and by the high incidence of fibrocavernous tuberculosis. The patients with TB/HIV infection have a concomitance of 3 infectious diseases: HIV infection, TB, and, in 74% of the patients, sexually transmitted infections (syphilis, chlamydiosis, gonorrhea) that, in accordance with Resolution

  10. HIV infection and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arseniou, Stylianos; Arvaniti, Aikaterini; Samakouri, Maria

    2014-02-01

    Major depression is highly prevalent among HIV-positive patients (HIVpp). The prevalence of depression ranges between 18% and 81%, depending on the population studied and the methodology of the study. The etiology of depression in HIVpp is likely determined by: (i) biological factors (alterations in the white matter structure, hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid dysfunction, Tat-protein-induced depressive behavior); (ii) psychosocial factors (HIV stigma, occupational disability, body image changes, isolation and debilitation); (iii) history or comorbidity of psychiatric illness; and (iv) the perinatal period in HIVpp women. Symptomatology of depression differs between HIVpp and HIV-negative patients (HIVnp). Depression may also alter the function of lymphocytes in HIVpp and decrease natural killer cell activity, contributing to the increased mortality in these patients. Selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors are considered the first-line treatment. Treatment of depression can improve quality of life and lead to a better prognosis of HIV infection. © 2013 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2013 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  11. Causes of death and risk factors among HIV-infected persons in the HAART era: analysis of a large urban cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, S; Gregis, G; Quinzan, G; Velenti, D; Cologni, G; Soavi, L; Ravasio, V; Ripamonti, D; Suter, F; Maggiolo, F

    2011-02-01

    We aimed to examine the clinical outcome in HIV-1-infected patients after more than 10 years of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). We analyzed data from 1,236 treatment-naïve adults who had started HAART. The primary endpoint was the yearly prevalence of death for AIDS-related causes (ARC) or for non-AIDS related causes (non-ARC). The data from our cohort were compared with that of the general population (GP) of our region. We observed that 116 patients died, and 58.6% of deaths were non-ARC. The death incidence decreased from 18.8% in 1998-1999 to 1.2% in 2008-2009. The leading causes of death were malignancies (35.3%), infections (21.6%), end-stage liver diseases (18.1%), and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) (6.9%). Yearly death rates were similar in the HIV-infected cohort and in the crude GP (odds ratio [OR] 1.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.5-2.5), but when adjusted for age, HIV-infected patients showed a greater risk (OR 7.4, 95% CI 4.1-13.4). The difference was still highly significant when the analysis was restricted to non-ARCs (OR 4.3, 95% CI 2.07-9.2). Overall, malignancies (OR 5.7, 95% CI 2.6-12.8) and end-stage liver diseases (OR 35.0, 95% CI 15.5-78.8) were significantly more frequent than in the age-adjusted GP. Despite HAART, HIV-infected patients are at greater risk of death compared to a reference uninfected population.

  12. HIV infection in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Nguyen

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Nancy Nguyen1, Mark Holodniy21University of the Pacific School of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Stockton, CA, USA; 2VA Palo Alto Health Care System, Palo Alto, CA, USAAbstract: In the US, an estimated 1 million people are infected with HIV, although one-third of this population are unaware of their diagnosis. While HIV infection is commonly thought to affect younger adults, there are an increasing number of patients over 50 years of age living with the condition. UNAIDS and WHO estimate that of the 40 million people living with HIV/AIDS in the world, approximately 2.8 million are 50 years and older. With the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART in the mid-1990s, survival following HIV diagnosis has risen dramatically and HIV infection has evolved from an acute disease process to being managed as a chronic medical condition. As treated HIV-infected patients live longer and the number of new HIV diagnoses in older patients rise, clinicians need to be aware of these trends and become familiar with the management of HIV infection in the older patient. This article is intended for the general clinician, including geriatricians, and will review epidemiologic data and HIV treatment as well as provide a discussion on medical management issues affecting the older HIV-infected patient.Keywords: HIV, epidemiology, treatment, aging, review

  13. [Microbiological diagnosis of HIV infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Bernaldo de Quirós, Juan Carlos; Delgado, Rafael; García, Federico; Eiros, José M; Ortiz de Lejarazu, Raúl

    2007-12-01

    Currently, there are around 150,000 HIV-infected patients in Spain. This number, together with the fact that this disease is now a chronic condition since the introduction of antiretroviral therapy, has generated an increasing demand on the clinical microbiology laboratories in our hospitals. This increase has occurred not only in the diagnosis and treatment of opportunistic diseases, but also in tests related to the diagnosis and therapeutic management of HIV infection. To meet this demand, the Sociedad de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clinica (Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology) has updated its standard Procedure for the microbiological diagnosis of HIV infection. The main advances related to serological diagnosis, plasma viral load, and detection of resistance to antiretroviral drugs are reviewed in this version of the Procedure.

  14. Vaccinations for Adults with HIV Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccinations for Adults with HIV Infection The table below shows which vaccinations you should have to protect your health if you have HIV infection. Make sure you and your healthcare provider keep ...

  15. Gender violence, poverty and HIV infection risk among persons engaged in the sex industry: cross-national analysis of the political economy of sex markets in 30 European and Central Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, A; Steele, S; Stuckler, D; McKee, M; Amato-Gauci, A; Semenza, J C

    2017-11-01

    Persons engaged in the sex industry are at greater risk of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections than the general population. One major factor is exposure to higher levels of risky sexual activity. Expanding condom use is a critical prevention strategy, but this requires negotiation with those buying sex, which takes place in the context of cultural and economic constraints. Impoverished individuals who fear violence are more likely to forego condoms. Here we tested the hypotheses that poverty and fear of violence are two structural drivers of HIV infection risk in the sex industry. Using data from the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control and the World Bank for 30 countries, we evaluated poverty, measured using the average income per day per person in the bottom 40% of the income distribution, and gender violence, measured using homicide rates in women and the proportion of women exposed to violence in the last 12 months and/or since age 16 years. We found that HIV prevalence among those in the sex industry was higher in countries where there were greater female homicide rates (β = 0.86; P = 0.018) and there was some evidence that self-reported exposure to violence was also associated with higher HIV prevalence (β = 1.37; P = 0.043). Conversely, HIV prevalence was lower in countries where average incomes among the poorest were greater (β = -1.05; P = 0.046). Our results are consistent with the theory that reducing poverty and exposure to violence may help reduce HIV infection risk among persons engaged in the sex industry. © 2017 British HIV Association.

  16. U.S. Trends in Antiretroviral Therapy Use, HIV RNA Plasma Viral Loads, and CD4 T-Lymphocyte Cell Counts Among HIV-Infected Persons, 2000 to 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althoff, Keri N.; Buchacz, Kate; Hall, H. Irene; Zhang, Jinbing; Hanna, David B.; Rebeiro, Peter; Gange, Stephen J.; Moore, Richard D.; Kitahata, Mari; Gebo, Kelly A.; Martin, Jeffrey; Justice, Amy C.; Horberg, Michael; Hogg, Robert S.; Sterling, Timothy R.; Cescon, Angela; Klein, Marina B.; Thorne, Jennifer; Crane, Heidi; Mugavero, Michael J.; Napravnik, Sonia; Kirk, Gregory D.; Jacobson, Lisa P.; Brooks, John T.

    2012-01-01

    Background The U.S. National HIV/AIDS Strategy targets for 2015 include increasing access to care and improving health outcomes for persons living with HIV in the United States (PLWH-US). Objective To demonstrate the utility of the NA-ACCORD (North American AIDS Cohort Collaboration on Research and Design) for monitoring trends in the HIV epidemic in the United States and to present trends in HIV treatment and related health outcomes. Design Trends from annual cross-sectional analyses comparing patients from pooled, multicenter, prospective, clinical HIV cohort studies with PLWH-US, as reported to national surveillance systems in 40 states. Setting U.S. HIV outpatient clinics. Patients HIV-infected adults with 1 or more HIV RNA plasma viral load (HIV VL) or CD4 T-lymphocyte (CD4) cell count measured in any calendar year from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2008. Measurements Annual rates of antiretroviral therapy use, HIV VL, and CD4 cell count at death. Results 45 529 HIV-infected persons received care in an NA-ACCORD–participating U.S. clinical cohort from 2000 to 2008. In 2008, the 26 030 NA-ACCORD participants in care and the 655 966 PLWH-US had qualitatively similar demographic characteristics. From 2000 to 2008, the proportion of participants prescribed highly active antiretroviral therapy increased by 9 percentage points to 83% (P < 0.001), whereas the proportion with suppressed HIV VL (≤2.7 log10 copies/mL) increased by 26 percentage points to 72% (P < 0.001). Median CD4 cell count at death more than tripled to 0.209 × 109 cells/L (P < 0.001). Limitation The usual limitations of observational data apply. Conclusion The NA-ACCORD is the largest cohort of HIV-infected adults in clinical care in the United States that is demographically similar to PLWH-US in 2008. From 2000 to 2008, increases were observed in the percentage of prescribed HAART, the percentage who achieved a suppressed HIV VL, and the median CD4 cell count at death. Primary Funding Source

  17. THE HAEMATOLOGY OF HIV INFECTION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBVl-associated. However, in HIV, approximately half the patients are EBV-negative, indicating other mechanisms of lymphoma genesis.' This may be related to cytokine deregulation and infection of stromal cellslMVECs by HIV. Infected MVECs sustain lymphoma cells in culture better than uninfected ...

  18. Serological markers in HIV infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, J. M.; Goudsmit, J.; de Wolf, F.; Coutinho, R. A.; van der Noordaa, J.

    1988-01-01

    HIV antigenaemia can be detected at or possibly before the onset of clinical symptoms of primary HIV infection. Approximately one week after the onset of HIV antigenaemia, a primary anti-HIV IgM response may occur. A week later, generally within 3 to 6 weeks after infection, anti-HIV IgG can be

  19. Identifying Recent HIV Infections: From Serological Assays to Genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyo, Sikhulile; Wilkinson, Eduan; Novitsky, Vladimir; Vandormael, Alain; Gaseitsiwe, Simani; Essex, Max; Engelbrecht, Susan; de Oliveira, Tulio

    2015-10-23

    In this paper, we review serological and molecular based methods to identify HIV infection recency. The accurate identification of recent HIV infection continues to be an important research area and has implications for HIV prevention and treatment interventions. Longitudinal cohorts that follow HIV negative individuals over time are the current gold standard approach, but they are logistically challenging, time consuming and an expensive enterprise. Methods that utilize cross-sectional testing and biomarker information have become an affordable alternative to the longitudinal approach. These methods use well-characterized biological makers to differentiate between recent and established HIV infections. However, recent results have identified a number of limitations in serological based assays that are sensitive to the variability in immune responses modulated by HIV subtypes, viral load and antiretroviral therapy. Molecular methods that explore the dynamics between the timing of infection and viral evolution are now emerging as a promising approach. The combination of serological and molecular methods may provide a good solution to identify recent HIV infection in cross-sectional data. As part of this review, we present the advantages and limitations of serological and molecular based methods and their potential complementary role for the identification of HIV infection recency.

  20. The oral health of HIV-infected Brazilian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Aguiar Ribeiro, Apoena; Portela, Maristela Barbosa; de Souza, Ivete Pomarico Ribeiro

    2013-09-01

    The number of HIV-infected people has increased almost continuously. Paediatric dentists should be concerned about the oral findings in HIV-infected children and their aetiologic factors, to promote adequate treatment. To present the oral health aspects of Brazilian HIV-infected children and to verify the aetiological factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted with HIV-infected children. During the medical appointments, children were submitted to visual-tactile exams of oral soft tissues and teeth. All parents answered questions in a structured interview. Data were analysed using the SPSS, release 10.0 (Chicago, IL, USA). Of the 57 children examined, 39 (69.6%) presented one or more oral soft tissue manifestations. More than a half suffered from gingivitis and only 12.5% had no visible dental biofilm. A high prevalence of dental surfaces with active carious lesions was observed; mean DMFS-m and dmfs-m scores were 5.41 ± 5.61 and 16.77 ± 19.52, respectively. Caries activity and gingivitis were correlated with the presence of mature dental biofilm. Prevalence of soft tissue lesions, dental caries and gingivitis in HIV-infected children was high and correlated to lack of satisfactory oral hygiene habits, suggesting the need of therapeutic programmes that allow these children to recover their oral health. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd, BSPD and IAPD 359.

  1. 13 Research Article ABSTRACT Liver diseases in HIV infected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-11-10

    Nov 10, 2016 ... ABSTRACT. Liver diseases in HIV infected persons can occur due to hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus. (HCV) co-infections, chronic alcoholism, and hepatic tuberculosis as well as antiretroviral drugs. Co- infection by HIV and HBV is frequently encountered with negative impact on HIV ...

  2. Human Papillomavirus Vaccination in HIV-infected Women: Need for Increased Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojic, Erna Milunka; Rana, Aadia I.; Cu-Uvin, Susan

    2016-01-01

    HIV-infected women carry a significant burden on HPV infection and associated diseases. As HIV-infected individuals are living longer, the prevalence of HPV infection is rising and HPV-associated cytologic abnormalities remain high despite successful treatments of HIV infection. Several HPV vaccines are currently available and recommended for adolescents and adults up to age 26. The vaccine is safe, immunogenic and effective in preventing diseases due to HPV types included in the vaccines, particularly among persons without prior HPV exposure. This review summarizes available data on the use of the HPV vaccines among HIV infected women. The immunogenicity and safety of the vaccine is highlighted and in particular, barriers to vaccination among HIV infected women are discussed. PMID:26599305

  3. Partners in Crime: The Role of CMV in Immune Dysregulation and Clinical Outcome During HIV Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Michael L; Lederman, Michael M; Gianella, Sara

    2016-02-01

    In the current era of combination antiretroviral therapy (ART), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals are living longer and healthier lives. Nevertheless, HIV-infected persons are at greater risk for age-related disorders, which have been linked to residual immune dysfunction and inflammation. HIV-infected individuals are almost universally co-infected with cytomegalovirus (CMV) and both viruses are associated with inflammation-related morbidities. Therefore, a detailed investigation of the relationship between CMV and aging-related morbidities emerging during chronic HIV infection is warranted. Here, we review the literature on how CMV co-infection affects HIV infection and host immunity and we discuss the gaps in our knowledge that need elucidation.

  4. A review of economic evaluations of darunavir boosted by low-dose ritonavir in treatment-experienced persons living with HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauskopf, Josephine; Annemans, Lieven; Hill, Andrew M; Smets, Erik

    2010-01-01

    Darunavir boosted by low-dose ritonavir (DRV/r), at a daily dose of 600/100 mg twice a day (bid), has been shown to be superior to alternative highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimens for the management of treatment-experienced, HIV-infected adults in the phase IIb POWER trials and the phase III TITAN trial. Economic analyses of different types that have been performed for several countries to investigate the cost effectiveness and budgetary impact of DRV/r 600/100 mg bid for treatment-experienced people living with HIV (PLHIV) based on the clinical data gathered in the POWER and TITAN trials are reviewed for consistency and their value to different decision-makers is assessed. Cost-utility analyses for the USA and several European countries indicate that DRV/r-based HAART is cost effective compared with other standard of care protease inhibitor (PI)-based regimens in PLHIV with evidence of PI resistance. For all of these countries, the estimated cost-utility ratio is well below typical benchmark values and these ratios are robust, as demonstrated by one-way sensitivity and variability analyses and multi-way probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Studies using other metrics including the average 1-year drug cost per patient with a plasma HIV-RNA level less than 50 copies/mL at 48 weeks, the incremental drug cost per additional patient with a plasma HIV-RNA level less than 50 copies/mL at 48 weeks, the total (antiretroviral and non-antiretroviral) costs during the first year of treatment, and the total healthcare budget impact during the first 5 years of treatment provided further evidence of the positive economic outcomes with the use of DRV/r in treatment-experienced PLHIV. Different measures of economic outcomes are useful for different types of decision-makers and different types of decisions. In general, the results of these different types of analyses will be consistent with each other. For darunavir, the economic analyses reviewed in this paper

  5. Periodontal disease associated with HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, J R; Robertson, P B

    1992-02-01

    Patients with severe immunosuppression as a consequence of infection by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are at risk for a number of severe periodontal diseases. HIV-associated gingivitis and HIV-associated periodontitis (HIV-P) are seen exclusively in HIV-infected persons. In some cases HIV-P may extend into adjacent soft tissue and bone, resulting in necrotizing stomatitis of periodontal origin. In addition, acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis has also been reported to have an increased prevalence in HIV-infected patients. The clinical and microbiologic features of HIV-associated gingivitis and HIV-P suggest that these diseases are early and later stages of the same lesion, that results in severe gingival erythema, extensive soft tissue necrosis, and destruction of alveolar bone. Although acute necrotizing gingivitis and the initial stages of HIV-P share a number of clinical signs current evidence indicates that they are distinct pathologic processes. Treatment of these lesions requires debridement, local antimicrobial therapy, immediate follow-up care, and long-term maintenance. In addition, patients with systemic involvement or extensive and rapidly progressing lesions may require systemic antibiotics appropriate to the organisms that dominate the lesion.

  6. A Discrete Model for HIV Infection with Distributed Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brahim EL Boukari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We give a consistent discretization of a continuous model of HIV infection, with distributed time delays to express the lag between the times when the virus enters a cell and when the cell becomes infected. The global stability of the steady states of the model is determined and numerical simulations are presented to illustrate our theoretical results.

  7. seroprevalence of hiv infection among orthopaedic and plastic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bioline

    Summary: As the HIV pandemic continues to ravage every aspect of humanity, there is a need to document its incidence and prevalence in various medical subdivisions. This six-month study reports on the sero- prevalence of HIV infection among orthopaedic and plastic surgery in- patients. Out of a total of 121 patients ...

  8. Seroprevalence Of HIV Infection Among Orthopaedic And Plastic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As the HIV pandemic continues to ravage every aspect of humanity, there is a need to document its incidence and prevalence in various medical subdivisions. This six-month study reports on the sero- prevalence of HIV infection among orthopaedic and plastic surgery in- patients. Out of a total of 121 patients screened using ...

  9. Integrated prevention services for HIV infection, viral hepatitis, sexually transmitted diseases, and tuberculosis for persons who use drugs illicitly: summary guidance from CDC and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-09

    This report summarizes current (as of 2011) guidelines or recommendations published by multiple agencies of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) for prevention and control of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, viral hepatitis, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and tuberculosis (TB) for persons who use drugs illicitly. It also summarizes existing evidence of effectiveness for practices to support delivery of integrated prevention services. Implementing integrated services for prevention of HIV infection, viral hepatitis, STDs, and TB is intended to provide persons who use drugs illicitly with increased access to services, to improve timeliness of service delivery, and to increase effectiveness of efforts to prevent infectious diseases that share common risk factors, behaviors, and social determinants. This guidance is intended for use by decision makers (e.g., local and federal agencies and leaders and managers of prevention and treatment services), health-care providers, social service providers, and prevention and treatment support groups. Consolidated guidance can strengthen efforts of health-care providers and public health providers to prevent and treat infectious diseases and substance use and mental disorders, use resources efficiently, and improve health-care services and outcomes in persons who use drugs illicitly. An integrated approach to service delivery for persons who use drugs incorporates recommended science-based public health strategies, including 1) prevention and treatment of substance use and mental disorders; 2) outreach programs; 3) risk assessment for illicit use of drugs; 4) risk assessment for infectious diseases; 5) screening, diagnosis, and counseling for infectious diseases; 6) vaccination; 7) prevention of mother-to-child transmission of infectious diseases; 8) interventions for reduction of risk behaviors; 9) partner services and contact follow-up; 10) referrals and linkage to care; 11) medical

  10. Primary care guidelines for the management of persons infected with HIV: 2013 update by the HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberg, Judith A; Gallant, Joel E; Ghanem, Khalil G; Emmanuel, Patricia; Zingman, Barry S; Horberg, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    Evidence-based guidelines for the management of persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were prepared by an expert panel of the HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. These updated guidelines replace those published in 2009. The guidelines are intended for use by healthcare providers who care for HIV-infected patients. Since 2009, new antiretroviral drugs and classes have become available, and the prognosis of persons with HIV infection continues to improve. However, with fewer complications and increased survival, HIV-infected persons are increasingly developing common health problems that also affect the general population. Some of these conditions may be related to HIV infection itself or its treatment. HIV-infected persons should be managed and monitored for all relevant age- and sex-specific health problems. New information based on publications from the period 2009-2013 has been incorporated into this document.

  11. Incidence and causes of death in HIV-infected persons receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy compared with estimates for the general population of similar age and from the same geographical area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, E; Milinkovic, A; Buira, E; de Lazzari, E; León, A; Larrousse, M; Loncá, M; Laguno, M; Blanco, J L; Mallolas, J; García, F; Miró, J M; Gatell, J M

    2007-05-01

    Since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), the incidence of death in HIV-infected patients has dramatically decreased, and causes of death other than those related to HIV infection have increased, although it is unclear how these parameters compare with those in the age-matched general population living in the same geographical region. Consecutive HIV-infected adults who were prescribed HAART in our hospital were prospectively followed from January 1997 to December 2004 or until death, loss to follow-up or discontinuation of HAART. Estimations of the annual incidence and causes of death in the general population of similar age in Catalonia per calendar year in the study period were obtained and compared with those in the HIV-infected cohort. There were 235 deaths among the 4471 patients on HAART (5%). The incidence of mortality decreased over time in HIV-infected patients (Pdeath (n=95; 40%), although they significantly decreased over time (Pdiseases (Pdiseases (11 times higher) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (5 times higher) were overrepresented as causes of death in the HIV-infected cohort compared with the age-matched general population. Non-AIDS-defining infectious diseases, liver diseases, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma represent specific targets for efforts to further decrease mortality in HIV-infected patients receiving HAART.

  12. Coagulation and morbidity in treated HIV infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funderburg, Nicholas T.; Lederman, Michael M.

    2014-01-01

    HIV infected patients are at increased risk for venous and arterial thromboembolic events. Multiple markers related to inflammation (IL-6, TNFrI, C-reative protein) and coagulation (tissue factor expression, FVIII, thrombin, fibrinogen and D-dimer levels) are increased in HIV infection, and several are predictive of thrombotic risk and mortality in HIV disease. The mechanisms behind the risk for abnormal coagulation in HIV infection have not been fully elucidated, but may be related to a chronic immune activation and inflammatory state in both untreated and treated HIV infection. The contribution of traditional risk factors, including smoking and dyslipidemia, overly represented in HIV infected patients, must also be considered when assessing thrombotic risk in this setting. Currently, several interventional studies are aimed at reducing inflammation and cardiovascular risk in HIV disease and may provide insights into the determinants of clotting events in HIV infected patients. PMID:24759134

  13. Low Prevalence of Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) but High Prevalence of Pneumocystis dihydropteroate synthase (dhps) Gene Mutations in HIV-Infected Persons in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Steve M.; Meshnick, Steven R.; Worodria, William; Andama, Alfred; Cattamanchi, Adithya; Davis, J. Lucian; Yoo, Samuel D.; Byanyima, Patrick; Kaswabuli, Sylvia; Goodman, Carol D.; Huang, Laurence

    2012-01-01

    Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) is an important opportunistic infection in patients infected with HIV, but its burden is incompletely characterized in those areas of sub-Saharan Africa where HIV is prevalent. We explored the prevalence of both PCP in HIV-infected adults admitted with pneumonia to a tertiary-care hospital in Uganda and of putative P. jirovecii drug resistance by mutations in fungal dihydropteroate synthase (dhps) and dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr). In 129 consecutive patients with sputum smears negative for mycobacteria, 5 (3.9%) were diagnosed with PCP by microscopic examination of Giemsa-stained bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Concordance was 100% between Giemsa stain and PCR (dhps and dhfr). PCP was more prevalent in patients newly-diagnosed with HIV (11.4%) than in patients with known HIV (1.1%; p = 0.007). Mortality at 2 months after discharge was 29% overall: 28% among PCP-negative patients, and 60% (3 of 5) among PCP-positive patients. In these 5 fungal isolates and an additional 8 from consecutive cases of PCP, all strains harbored mutant dhps haplotypes; all 13 isolates harbored the P57S mutation in dhps, and 3 (23%) also harbored the T55A mutation. No non-synonymous dhfr mutations were detected. PCP is an important cause of pneumonia in patients newly-diagnosed with HIV in Uganda, is associated with high mortality, and putative molecular evidence of drug resistance is prevalent. Given the reliability of field diagnosis in our cohort, future studies in sub-Saharan Africa can investigate the clinical impact of these genotypes. PMID:23166805

  14. CD8 T cell persistence in treated HIV infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudd, J. C.; Lederman, Michael M

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review Many treated HIV infected persons maintain persistently high circulating CD8 T cell numbers, even after many years of therapy. Recent reports suggest that persistent CD8 T cell expansion is associated with higher risk of morbid non-AIDS events. Thus, assessing the mechanisms of CD8 T cell expansion and persistence may give insights into a feature of HIV disease that is clinically important. Recent findings Acute HIV infection is associated with activation and expansion of the CD8 T cell compartment. Expanded CD8 T cells persist throughout disease course and, in contrast to the plasticity that typically characterizes immune responses to most other pathogens, circulating CD8 T cell numbers do not normalize in many patients despite pharmacological suppression of HIV replication. We suspect that residual inflammation in treated HIV infection contributes to antigen-independent CD8 T cell expansion and persistence as most of these cells are not HIV-reactive. Summary Circulating CD8 T cell numbers remain abnormally elevated in many treated HIV-infected patients and this elevation is associated with adverse clinical events. Future studies will need to assess the mechanisms of CD8 T cell expansion and to define the role of CD8 lymphocytosis in the clinical course of treated HIV disease. PMID:25010897

  15. Prevalence of HIV infection in seronegative high-risk individuals examined by virus isolation and PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, C; Teglbjærg, Lars Stubbe; Pedersen, C

    1991-01-01

    HIV seronegative individuals with high-risk behavior were tested for HIV infection by sensitive virus isolation techniques using T4 lymphocytes and monocyte/macrophages, and by detection of proviral DNA using PCR with three different sets of nested primers. No evidence of HIV infection was found...... among the 31 seronegative high-risk subjects, either by virus isolation of by PCR (97.5% confidence limits, 0-11). Our results indicate that ongoing HIV infection in seronegative persons at high risk of infection is a rare event....

  16. A mathematical approach to HIV infection dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ida, A.; Oharu, S.; Oharu, Y.

    2007-07-01

    In order to obtain a comprehensive form of mathematical models describing nonlinear phenomena such as HIV infection process and AIDS disease progression, it is efficient to introduce a general class of time-dependent evolution equations in such a way that the associated nonlinear operator is decomposed into the sum of a differential operator and a perturbation which is nonlinear in general and also satisfies no global continuity condition. An attempt is then made to combine the implicit approach (usually adapted for convective diffusion operators) and explicit approach (more suited to treat continuous-type operators representing various physiological interactions), resulting in a semi-implicit product formula. Decomposing the operators in this way and considering their individual properties, it is seen that approximation-solvability of the original model is verified under suitable conditions. Once appropriate terms are formulated to describe treatment by antiretroviral therapy, the time-dependence of the reaction terms appears, and such product formula is useful for generating approximate numerical solutions to the governing equations. With this knowledge, a continuous model for HIV disease progression is formulated and physiological interpretations are provided. The abstract theory is then applied to show existence of unique solutions to the continuous model describing the behavior of the HIV virus in the human body and its reaction to treatment by antiretroviral therapy. The product formula suggests appropriate discrete models describing the dynamics of host pathogen interactions with HIV1 and is applied to perform numerical simulations based on the model of the HIV infection process and disease progression. Finally, the results of our numerical simulations are visualized and it is observed that our results agree with medical and physiological aspects.

  17. The immunomodulatory nutritional intervention NR100157 reduced CD4+ T-Cell decline and immune activation: a 1-year multicenter randomized controlled double-blind trial in HIV-infected persons not receiving antiretroviral therapy (The BITE Study)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cahn, P.; Ruxrungtham, K.; Gazzard, B.; Norren, van K.; Diaz, R.S.; Gori, A.; Kotler, D.P.; Vriesema, A.; Georgiou, N.A.; Garssen, J.; Clerici, M.; Lange, J.M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Background The immunomodulatory nutritional product NR100157 was developed for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected individuals. We hypothesized that targeting the compromised gastrointestinal tract of HIV-infected individuals would result in systemic immunological benefits. Methods In a

  18. HIV infection and aortic stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Luisa Helena Maia; Cohen, Ariel; Boccara, Franck

    People living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and receiving antiretroviral therapy now have the same life expectancy as the general population. However, they have a higher risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular events because of a complex and polyfactorial vasculopathy, combining the effects of antiretroviral therapy, the HIV virus itself, immune activation, chronic inflammation and metabolic disturbances. Whether people living with HIV infection experience increased vascular aging compared with the general population remains controversial. To summarize current knowledge of the association between HIV infection and aortic stiffness as a marker of vascular aging. This review included 18 clinical studies in adult populations, published between 2009 and 2016, and identified on PubMed/MEDLINE or other databases. Search terms were aortic stiffness, arterial stiffness, vascular aging, pulse wave velocity and HIV. All 18 studies were observational, and compared groups infected (HIV+) and not infected (HIV-) with HIV. Ten studies (55%) reported no significant differences in aortic stiffness between HIV+ groups and age-matched HIV- control groups. The main reported determinants of aortic stiffness were age, blood pressure, smoking, metabolic syndrome and HIV-related variables, including CD4/CD8 ratio, current T-CD4 count < 200/mm 3 and nadir T-CD4+ count < 200/mm 3 . We found discordant results regarding whether HIV+ patients had increased aortic stiffness compared with HIV- controls. However, HIV-related conditions were associated with vascular health. This association has been confirmed in recent prospective studies. There is emerging evidence that HIV itself and immune activity affect vascular health and the large arteries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Mycobacterium tuberculosis and non-tuberculous mycobacteria isolates from HIV-infected patients in Guangxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, R; Yang, C; Lan, L; Ou, J; Qiao, K; Liu, F; Gao, Q

    2011-12-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains the leading cause of death among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected persons. The prevalence of infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in HIV-infected patients in China is unknown. To estimate the prevalence of M. tuberculosis and NTM in HIV-infected patients in Guangxi Province, determine their drug resistance profiles, and evaluate the genotype patterns of M. tuberculosis strains. Samples were collected from two HIV designated hospitals in Guangxi Province between 2005 and 2008. HIV-infected patients who were culture-positive for mycobacteria were included. Drug susceptibility testing was performed for mycobacterial isolates. NTM species was identified by sequencing, and M. tuberculosis isolates were genotyped using the variable number of tandem repeats method. M. tuberculosis and NTM were identified in respectively 117 (53%) and 102 (47%) HIV-infected patients. Drug resistance was found in 27% and multi-drug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) in 11% of the patients with TB. Previous treatment for TB was significantly associated with MDR-TB. Twenty (17%) TB patients belonged to eight VNTR-defined clusters. The high frequency of NTM among HIV-infected patients raises concerns about accurate species identification before the determination of appropriate treatment. The potential for TB transmission exists among HIV-infected patients. Intensified screening and effective treatment of TB-HIV co-infected patients is urgently needed.

  20. Thrombocytosis in pediatric HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellaurie, Maadhava

    2004-09-01

    Thrombocytopenia has been extensively reported in association with HIV infection. Twenty-four children (6%) from a cohort of 400 children with platelet counts >500,000/mm(3) were reviewed. All had symptomatic disease and 10 (42%) patients died. In 4 children the platelet count exceeded 700,000/mm(3) and in 1 patient the platelet count was 1.5 million/mm(3). There were no thrombotic complications, and no specific therapy was required for the thrombocytosis. Thus HIV-1 infection, a chronic viral infection, is another etiologic agent for thrombocytosis and is associated with severe disease.

  1. SOCIAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL FEATURES OF HIV-INFECTED INDIVIDUALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliya Anatolyevna Kudrich

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available By 2020 the prevalence of HIV in the Russian Federation may increase by 250%, unless we provide appropriate treatment to as many HIV-infected people as possible (V.I. Skvortsova, 2015. Previous research in this field shows that the psychotraumatic character of the disease lowers the psychological resource of HIV-infected individuals. In most cases, they are not psychologically prepared for the negative life events, unable to find an optimal behavioral pattern when their life stereotypes are being destroyed. In fact, being HIV-infected is an example of an acute event (V.V. Pokrovsky, 1993. The ability to overcome the life crisis and effectiveness of using adaptation and compensatory mechanisms to fight the disease depend on the level of adaptation to the fact of being infected and resistance to stress. The aim of the current study was to determine social and psychological features of HIV-infected individuals and assess their influence on the stress resistance and adaptation abilities of HIV+ patients. We observed men and women aged 21-30 who had been HIV+ for 1-5 years. Investigation methods included the following diagnostic tools: The Cattel Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (Form C, The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (conducted by Spielberger, adapted for use in Russia by Hanin, The Social Readjustment Rating Scale (The Holmes-Rahe Stress Inventory, The Social and Psychological Adaptation Questionnaire (by C. Rogers and R. Diamond, methods of mathematical statistics. As a result of the study, we have developed comparative factor profiles of individual psychological features of HIV-infected individuals that show their dependence on the social environment and form certain behavioral patterns. We have revealed significant difference in state and trait anxiety between HIV-infected and non-HIV-infected individuals. Self-blame, inadequate self-esteem and level of aspiration indicate low cognitive assessment of the condition by the patients

  2. Copenhagen comorbidity in HIV infection (COCOMO) study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronit, Andreas; Haissman, Judith Melchior; Kirkegaard-Klitbo, Ditte Marie

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Modern combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has improved survival for people living with HIV (PLWHIV). Non-AIDS comorbidities have replaced opportunistic infections as leading causes of mortality and morbidity, and are becoming a key health concern as this population continues....../DESIGN: The Copenhagen comorbidity in HIV-infection (COCOMO) study is an observational, longitudinal cohort study. The study was initiated in 2015 and recruitment is ongoing with the aim of including 1500 PLWHIV from the Copenhagen area. Follow-up examinations after 2 and 10 years are planned. Uninfected controls...... (PBMC), urine, and stool samples are collected in a biobank for future studies. Data will be updated through periodical linking to national databases. DISCUSSION: As life expectancy for PLWHIV improves, it is essential to study long-term impact of HIV and cART. We anticipate that findings from...

  3. COURSE FEATURES EPIDEMIC PROCESS HIV INFECTION IN KHARKIV REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaeva LG

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In the context of the transformation of the spheres of human living epidemic HIV-infection continues. According to the intensity of the epidemic process of HIV-infection, Ukraine takes one of the first places among the European countries. The epidemic process of the infection is concentrated mainly on the high-risk groups, and there is uneven prevalence. Besides in most cases this distribution can not be explained by the social and economic characteristics of certain territories. Kharkiv region belongs to the territory of Ukraine with the lowest prevalence level of HIV-infection. Though in terms of the social and economic crisis due to hostilities in the east of the country, which the region borders, the epidemic situation may significantly become worse. Work objective: to study the peculiarities of the course of the epidemic process of HIV-infection for the period from 1987 till 2015 in Kharkiv region that will improve the epidemiological surveillance of the infection and develop appropriate preventive measures in modern conditions. Material & methods. The studies were conducted in Kharkiv region, which is a big industrial and administrative center. The city of Kharkiv is located at the crossroads of drug trafficking from Asia and Russia. The reportings and analytics of the Kharkiv regional center for prevention and control of AIDS and the Ministry of Health of Ukraine for the period of 1987 – 2015 were used in the research. The analysis of incidence of HIV prevalence, structure of transmission routes and sex-age groups were carried out using descriptive and evaluative and analytical ways of epidemiological research method. Results & discussion. During 1987 – 2015 in Kharkiv region there were officially registered 7868 cases of HIV-infection what was equal to 4.0 % of the registered cases in Ukraine. Since 1996 a marked upward tendency of the incidence of HIV infection in Kharkiv region (growth rate – +7.0 %, and on the

  4. Nursing staff and nursing students' attitudes towards HIV-infected and homosexual HIV-infected patients in Sweden and the wish to refrain from nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röndahl, Gerd; Innala, Sune; Carlsson, Marianne

    2003-03-01

    Two decades after the emergence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), the infection remains enigmatic and shameful. In Sweden, many HIV-infected persons still encounter attitudes of avoidance. The aims were to investigate differences between attitudes of nurses, assistant nurses, nursing students and assistant nursing students towards HIV-infected and homosexual HIV-infected patients; to measure their fear of contracting HIV; and to investigate whether nurses, assistant nurses, nursing students and assistant nursing students wanted to refrain from caring for HIV-infected patients. The participants were informed of the study orally and in writing. Completing and returning the anonymous questionnaires indicated the participants' tacit consent. The study had a descriptive, comparative quantitative design. The AIDS Attitude Scale was used, along with a questionnaire specially designed for the study. The participants were nurses and assistant nurses from one infectious disease clinic in central Sweden [response rate was 67% (n = 57)]. Students enrolled in a university nursing programme and students of upper secondary assistant nurses' training [response rate was 62% (n = 165)] were also included. In general, both the nursing staff and the nursing students expressed empathic attitudes towards HIV-infected and homosexual HIV-infected patients, as well as a low degree of fear of HIV contagion. The findings also showed, in the professional groups, that 36% would refrain from caring for HIV-infected patients if that possibility existed. The corresponding figure for the student groups was 26%. The chosen sample was small and not randomly selected therefore precludes a generalization in a wider context. Furthermore, the questionnaire was untested for reliability and validity, and may have influenced the findings with respect to the wish to refrain from nursing HIV-infected patients. Suggested guidelines for nursing, mentor-ship by

  5. Perinatal HIV-infection in Sankt Petersburg and Modern Therapy Concomitant Viral Infections

    OpenAIRE

    V. N. Timchenko; E. B. Yastrebova; O. V. Bulina

    2016-01-01

    The study included 338 HIV-infected children (B-23) and 350 children with perinatal contact HIV infection (R-75), consisting on the dispensary in the department of maternal and child the St. Petersburg City AIDS Center. In 32 persons (9.5%) diagnosed with secondary infections. In the structure of viral opportunistic infections (herpesvirus, SARS) amounted to 39.8%, bacterial (bronchitis, tonsillitis, pyoderma, tuberculosis) — 34.8%, fungal and parasitic (candidiasis of the oral mucosa, PCP) —...

  6. Discrepant coagulation profile in HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Anna Karen; Lund, Tamara T.; Birch, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    In HIV infection, cardiovascular disease (CVD) has emerged as a clinical problem, and elevated D-dimer has been reported. The pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying this remain unclear. We aimed to investigate whether untreated HIV-infected individuals display evidence of functional coagulopathy...

  7. Predicting risk of cancer during HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borges, Álvaro H; Silverberg, Michael J; Wentworth, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between inflammatory [interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP)] and coagulation (D-dimer) biomarkers and cancer risk during HIV infection.......To investigate the relationship between inflammatory [interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP)] and coagulation (D-dimer) biomarkers and cancer risk during HIV infection....

  8. Surveillance of recent HIV infections among newly diagnosed HIV cases in Germany between 2008 and 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Alexandra; Hauser, Andrea; Zimmermann, Ruth; Santos-Hövener, Claudia; Bätzing-Feigenbaum, Jörg; Wildner, Stephan; Kücherer, Claudia; Bannert, Norbert; Hamouda, Osamah; Bremer, Viviane; Bartmeyer, Barbara

    2017-07-11

    The HIV surveillance system in Germany is based on mandatory, anonymous notification of newly diagnosed HIV cases by laboratories. Because the time between HIV infection and the diagnosis of HIV varies widely between persons, it is difficult to determine the number of cases of recent HIV infection among newly diagnosed cases of HIV. In Germany, the BED-capture-enzyme immunoassay (BED-CEIA) has been used to distinguish between recent and long-standing HIV infection. The aim of this analysis is to report the proportion of cases of recent HIV infection among newly diagnosed cases in Germany between 2008 and 2014 and to identify factors associated with recent infections. A sample of voluntary laboratories among all HIV diagnostic laboratories was recruited. Residual blood from HIV diagnostic tests was spotted on filter paper as dried serum or dried plasma spots and was sent along with the notification form of the HIV cases. The BED-CEIA test was performed. A case was defined as recent HIV infection with a BED-CEIA test result of less than 0.8 normalized optical density, with the exclusion of CDC stage C. The proportion of recent newly diagnosed HIV infections among different groups (such as transmission groups, gender or age groups) was calculated. We used logistic regression to identify factors associated with recent HIV infection and to identify subpopulations with high proportions of recent HIV infections. Approximately 10,257 newly diagnosed cases were tested for recency using the BED-CEIA. In total, 3084 (30.4%) of those were recently infected with HIV. The highest proportion of recent HIV infections was found among men who had sex with men (MSM) (35%) and persons between 18 and 25 years of age (43.0%). Logistic regression revealed that female German intravenous drug users with a recent HIV infection had a higher chance of being detected than German MSM (OR 2.27). Surveillance of recent HIV infection is a useful additional tool to monitor the HIV epidemic in

  9. Incidence of benign prostate hypertrophy in Danish men with and without HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlström, Magnus Glindvad; Kronborg, Gitte; Larsen, Carsten S; Pedersen, Court; Pedersen, Gitte; Gerstoft, Jan; Obel, Niels

    2015-11-01

    Information on risk of benign prostate hypertrophy (BPH) in HIV-infected men is sparse. We aimed to estimate the incidence of being diagnosed with BPH among HIV-infected men compared with an age and sex-matched comparison cohort from the background population. To exclude that family-associated risk factors influence risk of BPH diagnoses in families of HIV-infected individuals, we estimated risk of BPH in fathers of HIV-infected men and fathers of the comparison cohort. In a nationwide, population-based, matched cohort study, we calculated incidence rates and used Poisson regression models to calculate incidence rate ratios (IRRs) of being diagnosed with BPH, defined as the earliest of date of the second redeemed prescription of a drug used to treat BPH, the first registration of a BPH diagnosis in the Danish National Hospital Registry (DNHR) or the first registration of a surgical procedure for BPH in DNHR. We identified 4633 HIV-infected men, 46 330 comparison cohort individuals, 1585 fathers of HIV-infected men and 20 449 fathers of the comparison cohort. Incidence rate of being diagnosed with BPH was 37.0 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 31.5-43.1] per 10 000 person-years of follow-up among HIV-infected men and was not increased compared with the comparison cohort (IRR 1.04, 95% CI 0.88-1.22). Risk was not increased for fathers of HIV-infected men vs. fathers of the comparison cohort (IRR 0.99, 95% CI 0.87-1.12). Stratified analyses did not change the above results markedly. HIV-infected individuals do not have an increased risk of being diagnosed with BPH.

  10. Associations and Trends in Cause-Specific Rates of Death Among Persons Reported with HIV Infection, 23 U.S. Jurisdictions, Through 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Adih, William K.; Selik, Richard M.; Hall, H. Irene; Babu, Aruna Surendera; Song, Ruiguang

    2016-01-01

    Background: Published death rates for persons with HIV have not distinguished deaths due to HIV from deaths due to other causes. Cause-specific death rates would allow better assessment of care needs. Methods: Using data reported to the US national HIV surveillance system, we examined a) associations between selected decedent characteristics and causes of death during 2007-2011, b) trends in rates of death due to underlying causes among persons with AIDS during 1990-2011, and among all person...

  11. Impact of HIV infection and smoking on lung immunity and related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossouw, Theresa M; Anderson, Ronald; Feldman, Charles

    2015-12-01

    HIV-infected persons not only have higher rates of smoking than the general population, but are also unusually vulnerable to the associated adverse health effects, both infective and noninfective in origin. Indeed, in the setting of well-organised care and availability of highly active antiretroviral therapy, HIV-infected smokers lose more life-years to smoking than to HIV infection per se, presenting a major challenge to healthcare providers. Not surprisingly, the respiratory system is particularly susceptible to the damaging interactive chronic inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects of HIV and smoking, intensifying the risk of the development of opportunistic infections, as well as lung cancer and obstructive lung disorders. The impact of smoking on the immunopathogenesis and frequencies of these respiratory conditions in the setting of HIV infection, as well as on the efficacy of antiretroviral therapy, represent the primary focus of this review. Copyright ©ERS 2015.

  12. Inflammation, coagulation and cardiovascular disease in HIV-infected individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duprez, Daniel A; Neuhaus, Jacqueline; Kuller, Lewis H

    2012-01-01

    The SMART study was a trial of intermittent use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) (drug conservation [DC]) versus continuous use of ART (viral suppression [VS]) as a strategy to reduce toxicities, including cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. We studied the predictive value of high sensitivity C-rea......-reactive protein (hsCRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and D-dimer with CVD morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected patients who were enrolled in SMART beyond other measured CVD risk factors....

  13. Incomplete immune recovery in HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaardbo, Julie C; Hartling, Hans J; Gerstoft, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Treatment of HIV-infected patients with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) usually results in diminished viral replication, increasing CD4⁺ cell counts, a reversal of most immunological disturbances, and a reduction in risk of morbidity and mortality. However, approximately 20% of all HIV...... tissue, perturbed frequencies of immune regulators such as regulatory T cells and Th17 cells, and increased immune activation, immunosenescence, and apoptosis. Importantly, INRs have an increased risk of morbidity and mortality compared to HIV-infected patients with an optimal immune reconstitution...... in HIV infection, including mechanisms, relevance for clinical care, and possible solutions....

  14. Preexposure prophylaxis for HIV infection among African women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Damme, Lut; Corneli, Amy; Ahmed, Khatija; Agot, Kawango; Lombaard, Johan; Kapiga, Saidi; Malahleha, Mookho; Owino, Fredrick; Manongi, Rachel; Onyango, Jacob; Temu, Lucky; Monedi, Modie Constance; Mak'Oketch, Paul; Makanda, Mankalimeng; Reblin, Ilse; Makatu, Shumani Elsie; Saylor, Lisa; Kiernan, Haddie; Kirkendale, Stella; Wong, Christina; Grant, Robert; Kashuba, Angela; Nanda, Kavita; Mandala, Justin; Fransen, Katrien; Deese, Jennifer; Crucitti, Tania; Mastro, Timothy D; Taylor, Douglas

    2012-08-02

    Preexposure prophylaxis with antiretroviral drugs has been effective in the prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in some trials but not in others. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we assigned 2120 HIV-negative women in Kenya, South Africa, and Tanzania to receive either a combination of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and emtricitabine (TDF-FTC) or placebo once daily. The primary objective was to assess the effectiveness of TDF-FTC in preventing HIV acquisition and to evaluate safety. HIV infections occurred in 33 women in the TDF-FTC group (incidence rate, 4.7 per 100 person-years) and in 35 in the placebo group (incidence rate, 5.0 per 100 person-years), for an estimated hazard ratio in the TDF-FTC group of 0.94 (95% confidence interval, 0.59 to 1.52; P=0.81). The proportions of women with nausea, vomiting, or elevated alanine aminotransferase levels were significantly higher in the TDF-FTC group (P=0.04, P<0.001, and P=0.03, respectively). Rates of drug discontinuation because of hepatic or renal abnormalities were higher in the TDF-FTC group (4.7%) than in the placebo group (3.0%, P=0.051). Less than 40% of the HIV-uninfected women in the TDF-FTC group had evidence of recent pill use at visits that were matched to the HIV-infection window for women with seroconversion. The study was stopped early, on April 18, 2011, because of lack of efficacy. Prophylaxis with TDF-FTC did not significantly reduce the rate of HIV infection and was associated with increased rates of side effects, as compared with placebo. Despite substantial counseling efforts, drug adherence appeared to be low. (Supported by the U.S. Agency for International Development and others; FEM-PrEP ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00625404.).

  15. Increase in Non-AIDS Related Conditions as Causes of Death among HIV-Infected Individuals in the HAART Era in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Pacheco, Antonio G.; Tuboi, Suely H.; Faulhaber, José C; Harrison, Lee H.; Mauro Schechter

    2008-01-01

    Background In 1996, Brazil became the first developing country to provide free and universal access to HAART. Although a decrease in overall mortality has been documented, there are no published data on the impact of HAART on causes of death among HIV-infected individuals in Brazil. We assessed temporal trends of mortality due to cardiovascular diseases (CVD), diabetes mellitus (DM) and other conditions generally not associated with HIV-infection among persons with and without HIV infection i...

  16. Substance use and HIV infection awareness among HIV-infected female sex workers in Lilongwe, Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, Kathryn E; Go, Vivian F; Lungu, Thandie; Mmodzi, Pearson; Hosseinipour, Mina C; Chadwick, Katy; Powers, Kimberly A; Pence, Brian W; Hoffman, Irving F; Miller, William C

    2016-04-01

    HIV diagnosis, the first step in HIV care and treatment engagement, may be inhibited by substance use among female sex workers (FSW). We assessed the relationship between alcohol and cannabis use and lack of HIV infection awareness among HIV-infected FSW in Lilongwe, Malawi. From July to September, 2014, 200 FSW aged ≥18 years were enrolled using venue-based sampling to examine substance use, HIV testing history, and serostatus ascertained by HIV rapid test. We used Poisson regression with robust variance estimates to estimate the associations of alcohol and cannabis use and lack of HIV infection awareness. Of the 138 HIV-infected FSW, 20% were unaware of their HIV infection, with 70% not testing within 6 months prior. According to the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Tests (AUDIT), 55% of FSW unaware of their HIV infection reported hazardous, harmful, or dependent alcohol consumption. We observed a dose-response relationship between alcohol use and lack of HIV infection awareness, with alcohol dependency significantly associated with lack of HIV infection awareness (adjusted prevalence ratio: 3.0, 95% CI: 1.3, 6.8). Current cannabis use was uncommon (26%) among unaware HIV-infected FSW and weakly associated with lack of HIV infection awareness adjusted prevalence ratio: 1.1, 95% CI: 0.5, 2.5). Increased levels of alcohol use is associated with lack of HIV infection awareness among HIV-infected FSW in Malawi. Frequent, consistent HIV testing integrated with alcohol reduction strategies could improve the health and infection awareness of substance-using FSW. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Prognostic value of vitamin D level for all-cause mortality, and association with inflammatory markers, in HIV-infected persons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shepherd, Leah; Souberbielle, Jean-Claude; Bastard, Jean-Philippe

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) has been associated with inflammation, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease progression, and death. We aimed to identify the prognostic value of 25(OH)D for AIDS, non-AIDS-defining events and death, and its association with immunological...... > .05). In patients with current 25(OH)D Vitamin D predicts short term mortality in HIV......-positive persons. Effectiveness of vitamin D supplementation on inflammation and patient outcomes should be investigated....

  18. Lipoprotein particle subclasses, cardiovascular disease and HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duprez, Daniel A; Kuller, Lewis H; Tracy, Russell

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the association of lipoprotein particles with CVD in a subgroup of HIV-infected patients who were enrolled in the Strategies for Management of Anti-Retroviral Therapy (SMART) study. SMART was a trial of intermittent use of ART (drug conservation [DC]) versus continuous of ART......-reactive protein (hsCRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and D-dimer. Latest levels of total HDL-p were also significantly inversely associated with CVD; treatment interruption led to decrease of total HDL-p; adjusting for latest HDL-p did not explain the greater risk of CVD that was observed in the DC versus VS group....... CONCLUSIONS: Lipoprotein particles, especially lower levels of small and large HDL-p identify HIV-infected patients at increased risk of CVD independent of other CVD risk factors....

  19. [Update on the epidemiology, diagnosis and therapy of tuberculosis in HIV-infected patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleeb, P G; Buchwald, U K

    2014-10-01

    Globally, the diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis (TB) in HIV-co-infection has improved dramatically over the last 10 years. Nonetheless, the mortality of co-infected patients remains elevated. In European countries, the proportion of HIV-infected patients amongst all TB cases varies greatly; in Germany it is about 4 - 5%. HIV-infection changes the molecular epidemiology of TB and the drug resistance situation. In endemic areas, HIV-infected patients are often re-infected after completion of treatment for active TB. HIV has a profound influence on the anti-TB-immune response and antiretroviral therapy (ART) cannot completely restore normal immune function. The clinical presentation in advanced HIV-infection is atypical and disseminated disease is common. New "Point-of-Care" test methods are poised to improve the diagnoses of TB in HIV-infection; however, further research is required. The treatment of co-infection is complicated by drug interactions and the immune reconstitution syndrome (IRIS). New concepts and treatment regimens for chemoprevention of TB are necessary, especially for HIV-infected persons. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Inflammation in HIV-Infected Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkilde, Anne; Petersen, Janne; Klausen, Henrik Hedegaard

    2012-01-01

    To examine mechanisms underlying the increased inflammatory state of HIV-infected patients, by investigating the association of HIV-related factors, demography, lifestyle, and body composition with the inflammatory marker soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR)....

  1. HIV INFECTION AND THE KIDNEY CLINICAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-04-04

    Apr 4, 2008 ... Numerous electrolyte and acid-base abnormalities have ... Membranous. 3. Various glomerulonephropathies: This is a heterogeneous group with ... Very few data exist on screening asymptomatic HIV- infected patients for ...

  2. Psychopathological and Behaviour Dimensions in HIV Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Margalho, R.; Velez, J.; Guzman, D.; Oliveira, J.; Saraiva da Cunha, A.; Meliço Silvestre, A.

    2008-01-01

    HIV infection has been studied by various sciences, since it articulates biological, clinical and social realities. Since the time of its appearance to the present, advances in the treatment of HIV infection have been notorious and fascinating. Antiretroviral therapy promotes an improved quality of life for patients and increases life expectancy but has had difficulties with treatment associated behaviour, i.e., adherence to treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of ps...

  3. Novel use of surveillance data to detect HIV-infected persons with sustained high viral load and durable virologic suppression in New York City.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpi S Terzian

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Monitoring of the uptake and efficacy of ART in a population often relies on cross-sectional data, providing limited information that could be used to design specific targeted intervention programs. Using repeated measures of viral load (VL surveillance data, we aimed to estimate and characterize the proportion of persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA in New York City (NYC with sustained high VL (SHVL and durably suppressed VL (DSVL. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Retrospective cohort study of all persons reported to the NYC HIV Surveillance Registry who were alive and ≥12 years old by the end of 2005 and who had ≥2 VL tests in 2006 and 2007. SHVL and DSVL were defined as PLWHA with 2 consecutive VLs ≥100,000 copies/mL and PLWHA with all VLs ≤400 copies/mL, respectively. Logistic regression models using generalized estimating equations were used to model the association between SHVL and covariates. There were 56,836 PLWHA, of whom 7% had SHVL and 38% had DSVL. Compared to those without SHVL, persons with SHVL were more likely to be younger, black and have injection drug use (IDU risk. PLWHA with SHVL were more likely to die by 2007 and be younger by nearly ten years, on average. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Nearly 60% of PLWHA in 2005 had multiple VLs, of whom almost 40% had DSVL, suggesting successful ART uptake. A small proportion had SHVL, representing groups known to have suboptimal engagement in care. This group should be targeted for additional outreach to reduce morbidity and secondary transmission. Measures based on longitudinal analyses of surveillance data in conjunction with cross-sectional measures such as community viral load represent more precise and powerful tools for monitoring ART effectiveness and potential impact on disease transmission than cross-sectional measures alone.

  4. Understanding of the risk of HIV infection among the elderly in Ga-Rankuwa, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekalakala-Mokgele, Eucebious

    2014-01-01

    The literature pertaining to the elderly shows that HIV infection among this population is on the increase, suggesting that the elderly population engages in activities risky for HIV infection. Reports on such behaviour include frequent sexual relations with much younger people and having multiple partners. A study was carried out in Ga-Rankuwa, a black township in Gauteng Province, South Africa to explore and describe the understanding of these elderly people regarding their risks of HIV infection and AIDS. Using a qualitative, exploratory design, three focus-group interviews were conducted with 32 women aged over 50 years. Findings revealed that older persons have knowledge about transmission of HIV infection and AIDS. However, a few had misconceptions as to how HIV infection is transmitted, as they believed that poor nutrition and sharing facilities play a role. Knowledge of mechanisms of protecting themselves against infection, such as use of a condom during coitus and wearing gloves when caring for infected family members, was also evident. The elderly indicated that they would prefer an older person, who they could identify with, to educate them more about HIV infection and AIDS. Although majority of participants had knowledge of how HIV is transmitted, and issues that put them at risk of transmission, a few the older persons had misconceptions about how HIV is transmitted due to lack of knowledge, as they believed that poor nutrition and sharing facilities can transmit infection. The lack of knowledge underscores the importance of addressing sexual risk with older people. It was very clear that more needs to be done in terms of education campaigns to dispel the myths of HIV infection and to empower the elderly.

  5. Correlates of retention on extended-release naltrexone among persons living with HIV infection transitioning to the community from the criminal justice system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Sandra A; Brown, Shan-Estelle; Di Paola, Angela; Altice, Frederick L

    2015-12-01

    The acceptability of and retention on extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX), an FDA-approved medication for the treatment of alcohol and opioid use disorders, among persons living with HIV disease (PLH) under criminal justice setting (CJS) supervision has not been evaluated to date. Two double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trials of XR-NTX for inmates with HIV disease transitioning to the community with (1) alcohol use disorders (AUDs) or (2) opioid use disorders, are underway. Reasons for not accepting XR-NTX and an evaluation of differences in demographic features between those who were retained on study drug and those who did not return for their second injection post-release are discussed. 70% of eligible persons consented to participate; almost 90% received their first injection; and almost 60% returned for their first injection after release. Variables found to be associated (p<0.10) with returning for the second injection included: not meeting criteria for hazardous drinking (p=0.035; OR 0.424 (CI 0.191-0.941)); being prescribed antiretroviral therapy (p=0.068; OR 2.170 (CI 0.943-4.992)); expressing experiencing serious depression 30 days prior to incarceration (p=0.068; OR 1.889 (CI 0.955-3.737)); not having a positive cocaine urine screen on the day of release (DOR) (p=0.011; OR 0.258 (CI 0.091-0.729)); and not meeting criteria for an AUD plus any substance use disorder (p=0.068; OR 0.521 (CI 0.259-1.048)). Only positive cocaine urine test on DOR was statistically significant after multivariate regression analyses (p=0.005; OR 0.207 (CI 0.068-0.623)). CJS based XR-NTX programs are highly acceptable among PLH, however retention on XR-NTX after release is negatively impacted by relapse to cocaine use. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  6. Development of internalized and personal stigma among patients with and without HIV infection and occupational stigma among health care providers in Southern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li J

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Jing Li,1,2,* Sawitri Assanangkornchai,1,* Lin Lu,3 Manhong Jia,3,* Edward B McNeil,1,* Jing You,4,* Virasakdi Chongsuvivatwong1,* 1Epidemiology Unit, Faculty of Medicine, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla, Thailand; 2School of Public Health, Kunming Medical University, 3Yunnan Center for Disease Prevention and Control, 4Infectious Diseases Department, The First Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University, Kunming, Yunnan Province, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: HIV/AIDS-related stigma is a major barrier of access to care for those infected with HIV. The aim of this study was to examine, validate, and adapt measuring scales of internalized, personal, and occupational stigma developed in Africa into a Chinese context. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from January to September 2015 in Kunming, People’s Republic of China. Various scales were constructed on the basis of the previous studies with modifications by experts using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses (EFA + CFA. Validation of the new scales was done using multiple linear regression models and hypothesis testing of the factorial structure invariance. Results: The numbers of subjects recruited for the development/validation samples were 696/667 HIV-positive patients, 699/667 non-HIV patients, and 157/155 health care providers. EFA revealed a two-factor solution for internalized and personal stigma scales (guilt/blaming and being refused/refusing service, which were confirmed by CFA with reliability coefficients (r of 0.869 and 0.853, respectively. The occupational stigma scale was found to have a three-factor structure (blaming, professionalism, and egalitarianism with a reliability coefficient (r of 0.839. Higher correlations of factors in the HIV patients (r=0.537 and non-HIV patients (r=0.703 were observed in contrast to low-level correlations (r=0.231, 0.286, and 0.266 among factors

  7. Hospitalization for pneumonia among individuals with and without HIV infection, 1995-2007: a Danish population-based, nationwide cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sogaard, O.S.; Lohse, N.; Gerstoft, J.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals with high CD4(+) cell counts may have increased susceptibility to other infections. We compared incidence rates of pneumonia among individuals with and without HIV infection and explored risk factors for pneumonia in the HIV...... diagnoses from 1977 onward were obtained from nationwide administrative databases. Individuals without previous hospitalization for pneumonia were observed from the date of HIV diagnosis until the first hospitalization to treat pneumonia (excluding pneumonia attributable to Pneumocystis jiroveci). Risk...... factors were assessed by Poisson regression. RESULTS: The study included 3516 persons with HIV infection and 328,738 persons without HIV infection, which provided 23,677 person-years and 2,944,760 person-years of observation, respectively. Incidence rates of pneumonia in HIV-infected individuals decreased...

  8. Alcohol Consumption among HIV-Infected Persons in a Large Urban HIV Clinic in Kampala Uganda: A Constellation of Harmful Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandera, Bonnie; Tumwesigye, Nazarius Mbona; Nankabirwa, Joaniter Immaculate; Kambugu, Andrew Ddungu; Parkes-Ratanshi, Rosalind; Mafigiri, David Kaawa; Kapiga, Saidi; Sethi, Ajay K

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol use by persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) negatively impacts the public health benefits of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Using a standardized alcohol assessment tool, we estimate the prevalence of alcohol use, identify associated factors, and test the association of alcohol misuse with sexual risk behaviors among PLWHA in Uganda. A cross-section of PLWHA in Kampala were interviewed regarding their sexual behavior and self-reported alcohol consumption in the previous 6 months. Alcohol use was assessed using the alcohol use disorders identification test (AUDIT). Gender-stratified log binomial regression analyses were used to identify independent factors associated with alcohol misuse and to test whether alcohol misuse was associated with risky sexual behaviors. Of the 725 subjects enrolled, 235 (33%) reported any alcohol use and 135 (18.6%) reported alcohol misuse, while 38 (5.2%) drank hazardous levels of alcohol. Alcohol misuse was more likely among subjects not yet on ART (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR] was 1.65 p=0.043 for males and 1.79, p=0.019 for females) and those with self-reported poor adherence (aPR for males=1.56, p=0.052, and for females=1.93, p=0.0189). Belonging to Pentecostal or Muslim religious denominations was protective against alcohol misuse compared to belonging to Anglican and Catholic denominations in both sexes (aPR=0.11 for men, p<0.001, and aPR=0.32 for women, p=0.003). Alcohol misuse was independently associated with reporting risky sexual behaviors (aPR=1.67; 95% CI: 1.07-2.60, p=0.023) among males, but not significant among females (aPR=1.29; 95% CI: 0.95-1.74, p=0.098). Non-disclosure of HIV positive status to sexual partner was significantly associated with risky sex in both males (aPR=1.69; p=0.014) and females (aPR 2.45; p<0.001). Alcohol use among PLWHA was high, and was associated with self-reported medication non-adherence, non-disclosure of HIV positive status to sexual partner(s), and risky sexual behaviors among

  9. Clinical characteristics of HIV-infected patients with adjudicated heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steverson, Alexandra B; Pawlowski, Anna E; Schneider, Daniel; Nannapaneni, Prasanth; Sanders, Jes M; Achenbach, Chad J; Shah, Sanjiv J; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M; Feinstein, Matthew J

    2017-11-01

    Aims HIV-infected persons may have elevated risks for heart failure, but factors associated with heart failure in the modern era of HIV therapy are insufficiently understood. Despite substantial disagreement between physician-adjudicated heart failure and heart failure diagnosis codes, few studies of HIV cohorts have evaluated adjudicated heart failure. We evaluated associations of HIV viremia, immunosuppression, and cardiovascular risk factors with physician-adjudicated heart failure. Methods and results We analyzed clinical characteristics associated with heart failure in a cohort of 5041 HIV-infected patients receiving care at an urban hospital system between 2000 and 2016. We also evaluated characteristics of HIV-infected patients who screened negative for heart failure, screened positive for possible heart failure but did not have heart failure after adjudication, and had adjudicated heart failure. HIV-infected patients with heart failure ( N = 216) were older and more likely to be black, hypertensive, and have diabetes than HIV-infected patients without heart failure; heart failure with reduced ejection fraction was more common than heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. In our primary analyses restricted to HIV-infected patients whose heart failure diagnoses did not precede their HIV diagnoses ( N = 149), peak HIV viral load ≥100,000 copies/mL (odds ratio (OR) 2.12, 1.28-3.52) and nadir CD4 T-cell count failure. Overall, 30.6% of patients with any diagnosis code of heart failure had adjudicated heart failure. Conclusion Higher peak HIV viremia and lower CD4 cell nadir are associated with significantly elevated odds of heart failure for HIV-infected persons. Physician adjudication of heart failure may be helpful in HIV cohorts.

  10. HIV infection and intervention: the first decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, E J

    1991-01-01

    Integrated intervention strategies, appropriate to the specific socioeconomic context, are required to address the needs of the 18 million adults projected to be infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) by the year 2000. Such interventions must operate on two levels. The first is aimed at minimizing the devastating effects of HIV and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) on individuals, while the second is geared toward halting HIV transmission in populations. The median two-year survival time for people with AIDS had doubled from 10 months before 1987 to 20 months in 1990, primarily because of treatments such as zidovudine that slow down the rate of virus replication, but AIDS patients who survive longer develop more intractable opportunistic infections than in the past. Viral transmission throughout populations can be halted only through a comprehensive strategy that addresses agent, host, and environmental factors in a complementary manner. For example, whether or not high-risk individuals will be willing and able to adopt safer sex practices depends, in large part, on the social, economic, and psychological forces acting on and within those individuals. Finally, public attitudes toward sexuality, drug use, and racial discrimination comprise the moral context in which AIDS prevention strategies must be implemented. The mass media, which have already created public awareness of the problem and corrected many misconceptions, must continue to motivate individuals to adopt behavioral changes that reduce the risk of HIV infection.

  11. INFLUENZA IMMUNISATION IN HIV-INFECTED PERSONS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    as amantadine (Symmetrel). REFERENC,S. 1. (enters for Disease Control and Prevention. De ayed supply of influenza vaccine and aajuncr ACI? influenza vaccine recomrrendations for the. 2000-01 infh.eoza 5(:'=50n. MMWR 2000; 49: 619-622. 2 (enters for D-s~ase Conuol and Prevention. Pre\\ention ard control of.

  12. Immunodeficiency, AIDS-related pneumonia, and risk of lung cancer among HIV-infected individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Julia L; Leyden, Wendy A; Chao, Chun R; Horberg, Michael A; Klein, Daniel B; Quesenberry, Charles P; Towner, William J; Silverberg, Michael J

    2017-04-24

    The objective is to clarify the role of immunodeficiency and pneumonia in elevated lung cancer risk among HIV-infected individuals. Cohort study of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected adults in a large integrated healthcare system in California during 1996-2011. We used Poisson models to obtain rate ratios for lung cancer associated with HIV infection, overall and stratified by recent CD4 cells/μl (HIV-uninfected as reference group), with χ tests for trends across CD4 strata. Fully adjusted models included demographics, cancer risk factors (smoking, drug/alcohol abuse, overweight/obesity), and prior pneumonia. Among 24 768 HIV-infected and 257 600 HIV-uninfected individuals, the lung cancer rate per 100 000 person-years was 66 (n = 80 events) for HIV-infected and 33 (n = 506 events) for HIV-uninfected individuals [rate ratio 2.0, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.7-2.2]. Overall, HIV-infected individuals were at increased risk of lung cancer after adjustment for demographics and cancer risk factors (rate ratio 1.4, 95% CI: 1.1-1.7), but not after additional adjustment for pneumonia (rate ratio 1.2, 95% CI: 0.9-1.6). Lower CD4 cell counts were associated with higher risk of lung cancer in unadjusted and demographics-adjusted models (P HIV-uninfected individuals, HIV-infected individuals with CD4 less than 200 cells/μl were not at increased risk of lung cancer in fully adjusted models. The increased lung cancer risk among HIV patients is attributable to differences in demographics, risk factors such as smoking, and history of pneumonia. Immunodeficiency does not appear to have an independent effect on lung cancer risk.

  13. Psychopathologic features among drug addicts and homosexuals with HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazzullo, C L; Gala, C; Martini, S; Pergami, A; Rossini, M; Russo, R

    1990-01-01

    Personal and familial psychopathological histories and information about early losses were collected and the results of the locus of control test and tests for psychological responses were determined for a series of ninety-two HIV-infected subjects (58 drug addicts; 26 homosexuals; 8 heterosexuals, partners of drug addicts). A higher percentage of drug addicts reported past histories of attempted suicide than the homosexuals. Early loss events were more frequent for homosexuals than for drug addicts. There was a higher psychopathological risk for asymptomatic HIV seropositivity in homosexuals, drug addicts who had attempted suicide, subjects that acknowledged that they have serious illness and subjects with external coping mechanisms rather than internal.

  14. Factors Associated With Plasma IL-6 Levels During HIV Infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borges, Álvaro H; O'Connor, Jemma L; Phillips, Andrew N

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Elevated interleukin 6 (IL-6) levels have been linked to cardiovascular disease, cancer and death. Persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection receiving treatment have higher IL-6 levels, but few data are available on factors associated with circulating IL-6. METHODS...... education, whereas black race was associated with lower IL-6. Higher HIV RNA levels were associated with higher IL-6 levels, and higher nadir CD4(+) cell counts with lower IL-6 levels. Compared with efavirenz, protease inhibitors were associated with higher and nevirapine with lower IL-6 levels. Smoking...

  15. HIV Infection and Older Americans: The Public Health Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchacz, Kate; Gebo, Kelly A.; Mermin, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    HIV disease is often perceived as a condition affecting young adults. However, approximately 11% of new infections occur in adults aged 50 years or older. Among persons living with HIV disease, it is estimated that more than half will be aged 50 years or older in the near future. In this review, we highlight issues related to HIV prevention and treatment for HIV-uninfected and HIV-infected older Americans, and outline unique considerations and emerging challenges for public health and patient management in these 2 populations. PMID:22698038

  16. Misclassification of men with reported HIV infection in Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čakalo, Jurja-Ivana; Božičević, Ivana; Vitek, Charles; Mandel, Jeffrey S; Salyuk, Tetyana; Rutherford, George W

    2015-10-01

    We analyzed data on reported mode of transmission in case reports of HIV-infections among men in Ukraine. The number of men who were reported to have acquired HIV through heterosexual transmission increased substantially in 2006-2011. However, we estimate that up to 40 % of reported cases of heterosexual transmission among men may actually represent misclassified men who have sex with men or persons who inject drugs. These findings indicate a need to improve the quality of data on reported mode of HIV transmission. Accurate information has important public health implications in planning prevention and treatment services.

  17. Proteinuria in HIV-infected Indian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Gopila; Hemal, Alok; Saha, Abhijeet; Kapoor, Kanika; Goyal, Parul; Upadhyay, Ashish Datt

    2017-07-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among individuals with HIV infection. Screening for proteinuria in HIV-infected children will help in early detection and treatment, and thus prevention and progression to CKD to end-stage kidney disease (ESRD). We screened 139 HIV-infected children aged 18 months to 18 years for proteinuria by urinary dipstick and confirmed by spot urine protein-to-creatinine ratio. If proteinuria was absent by the above methods, patients were screened for microalbuminuria by urinary albumin to creatinine ratio. We found proteinuria in 11.5% and microalbuminuria in 10.6% of our study population. The prevalence of proteinuria was higher in the advanced stages; 8.05% in stage 1, 12.12% in stage 2 and 26.32% in stages 3 + 4.

  18. Psychopathological and Behaviour Dimensions in HIV Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Margalho

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available HIV infection has been studied by various sciences, since it articulates biological, clinical and social realities. Since the time of its appearance to the present, advances in the treatment of HIV infection have been notorious and fascinating. Antiretroviral therapy promotes an improved quality of life for patients and increases life expectancy but has had difficulties with treatment associated behaviour, i.e., adherence to treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of psychopathological and behavioral determinants of HIV-positive patients. We have found that behavioral risk pattern exists in both genders and predominantely sexual in nature. Men are more compliant than women regarding treatment, but exhibit high levels in the hostility dimension. Indeed, in HIV infection, there's a limited perception of control over disease, which contributes to an adaptation guided by feelings of inadequacy. We underline the vulnerability in the female gender, since women had a behavioral pattern of significant risk.

  19. The natural history of HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabin, C.A.; Lundgren, J.D.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review recent published literature around three areas: long-term nonprogression/viral control; predictors of viral load set point/disease progression; and the potential impact of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in early HIV infection. RECENT FINDINGS: The natural course...... of untreated HIV infection varies widely with some HIV-positive individuals able to maintain high CD4 cell counts and/or suppressed viral load in the absence of ART. Although similar, the underlying mechanistic processes leading to long-term nonprogression and viral control are likely to differ. Concerted...... the immunological deterioration which would otherwise be seen in untreated HIV infection, recent studies do not address the longer term clinical benefits of ART at this very early stage. SUMMARY: A better understanding of the relative influences of viral, host, and environmental factors on the natural course of HIV...

  20. Prevalence of insulin resistance and risk of diabetes mellitus in HIV-infected patients receiving current antiretroviral drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Susana; Bañón, Sara; Machuca, Isabel; Moreno, Ana; Pérez-Elías, María J; Casado, José L

    2014-11-01

    HIV-infected patients had a higher prevalence of insulin resistance (IR) and risk of diabetes mellitus (DM) than that observed in healthy controls, but there are no data about the current prevalence considering the changes in HIV presentation and the use of newer antiretroviral drugs. Longitudinal study which involved 265 HIV patients without DM, receiving first (n=71) and advanced lines of antiretroviral therapy (n=194). Prevalence of IR according to clinical and anthropometric variables, including dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan evaluation. IR was defined as homeostasis model assessment of IR≥3.8. Incident DM was assessed during the follow-up. First-line patients had a short time of HIV infection, less hepatitis C virus coinfection, and received mainly an efavirenz-based regimen. Overall, the prevalence of IR was 21% (55 patients, 6% in first-line, 27% in pretreated). In a logistic regression analysis, significant associations were found between the waist/hip circumference ratio (RR 10; 95% CI 1.66-16; P<0.01, per unit), and central fat in percentage (RR 1.08; 95% CI 1.01-1.17; P=0.04, per unit) as evaluated by DXA, and IR. During 770.8 patient-years, DM was diagnosed in 8% (22 patients), mostly in pretreated patients (10 vs 4%; P=0.1). Thus, the overall rate of incident DM was 2.85 per 100 person-years, mostly in previous IR (10.39 vs 0.82/100 person-years; P=0.01). A lower prevalence of IR is observed in the current HIV-infected patients with fewer risk factors and receiving newer antiretroviral drugs. IR continues to identify patients at high risk for developing DM in the short term. © 2014 European Society of Endocrinology.

  1. Antiretroviral Drugs Used in the Treatment of HIV Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Antiretroviral drugs used in the treatment of HIV infection Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... Email Print Drugs Used in the Treatment of HIV Infection All FDA-approved medicines used in the treatment ...

  2. The nutritional status of asymptomatic HIV-infected Africans: directions for dietary intervention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorster, Hester H; Kruger, Annamarie; Margetts, Barrie M; Venter, Christina S; Kruger, H Salomé; Veldman, Frederick J; Macintyre, Una E

    2004-12-01

    To compare the relationships between food (nutrient) intakes and biochemical markers of nutritional status of asymptomatic HIV-infected with HIV-uninfected subjects, to gain more information on the appropriate diet for HIV-infected persons at an early stage of infection. Cross-sectional population-based survey. North West Province, South Africa. Two hundred and sixteen asymptomatic HIV-infected and 1550 HIV-uninfected men and women volunteers aged 15 years and older, recruited as 'apparently healthy' subjects from 37 randomly selected sites. Food and nutrient intakes, measured with a validated food-frequency questionnaire, and nutritional status indicated by anthropometric and biochemical variables, measured by a standardised methodology. The prevalence of HIV infection in the study population was 11.9%. The anthropometric indices and nutrient intakes of HIV-infected and uninfected subjects did not differ significantly, indicating that these 216 HIV-infected subjects were at an early stage of infection. Of the biochemical nutritional status variables, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and total cholesterol, haemoglobin, albumin and triglycerides were significantly lower in infected subjects. They also had higher globulin and liver enzyme levels than uninfected subjects. In infected subjects, serum albumin correlated significantly with serum lipids, serum vitamin A, serum vitamin E, serum iron, total iron-binding capacity and haemoglobin. The significant positive correlations of the liver enzymes with serum lipids, albumin, vitamin A and iron, observed in HIV-uninfected subjects, disappeared in the infected subjects. Polyunsaturated fat intake showed significant positive correlations with the increased liver enzymes in infected subjects. A principal components analysis indicated that, in infected subjects, increased liver enzymes correlated with higher consumption of maize meal and lower consumption of meat and vegetables. This survey indicated that asymptomatic

  3. Hearing Loss in HIV-Infected Children in Lilongwe, Malawi.

    OpenAIRE

    Hrapcak, S; Kuper, H; Bartlett, P.; Devendra, A; Makawa, A; Kim, M; Kazembe, P.; Ahmed, S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction With improved access to antiretroviral therapy (ART), HIV infection is becoming a chronic illness. Preliminary data suggest that HIV-infected children have a higher risk of disabilities, including hearing impairment, although data are sparse. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and types of hearing loss in HIV-infected children in Lilongwe, Malawi. Methods This was a cross-sectional survey of 380 HIV-infected children aged 4?14 years attending ART clinic in Lilongwe betwe...

  4. High risk human papillomavirus persistence among HIV-infected young women in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, David; Wallace, Melissa; Bennie, Thola; Abar, Beau; Sadeghi, Rokhsanna; Meiring, Tracy; Williamson, Anna-Lise; Bekker, Linda-Gail

    2015-04-01

    Persistence of infection with high-risk Human papillomaviruses (HR-HPV) increases the risk of incident and progressive precancerous lesions of the cervix. Rates of HR-HPV persistence have been shown to be increased among HIV-infected adult women, however there is a paucity of literature addressing HPV persistence in the young HIV-infected population. We compared rates of HR-HPV persistence between HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected young women. We obtained self-collected vaginal swabs at six-month intervals from 50 HIV-uninfected and 33 HIV-infected young women recruited through a community youth center (age 17-21 years) and compared rates of HR-HPV persistence. HR-HPV testing was conducted using the Roche's Linear Array® HPV Test. Eighty-three prevalent (upon baseline testing) and incident (upon subsequent testing) individual HR-HPV infections were identified among 43 members of the cohort (23 HIV-uninfected and 20 HIV-infected). At twelve months, 19% of baseline HR-HPV infections continued to be present with a statistically significant difference between HIV-uninfected and HIV-infected participants (4% versus 31%; p=0.01). HIV-infected young women in our cohort had a seven-fold increased rate of persistence of HR-HPV overall at 12 months, indicating an increased risk for incident and progressive precancerous lesions. Identification of persistent infection with HR-HPV may complement cytological findings in determining the need for colposcopy. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Syphilis in HIV-Infected Mothers and Infants: Results from the NICHD/HPTN 040 Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeganeh, Nava; Watts, Heather D.; Camarca, Margaret; Soares, Gabriel; Joao, Esau; Pilotto, Jose Henrique; Gray, Glenda; Theron, Gerhard; Santos, Breno; Fonseca, Rosana; Kreitchmann, Regis; Pinto, Jorge; Mussi-Pinhata, Marisa; Ceriotto, Mariana; Machado, Daisy Maria; Veloso, Valdilea G.; Grinzstejn, Beatriz; Morgado, Mariza G; Bryson, Yvonne; Mofenson, Lynne M.; Nielsen-Saines, Karin

    2014-01-01

    Background Untreated syphilis during pregnancy is associated with spontaneous abortion, stillbirth, prematurity and infant mortality. Syphilis may facilitate HIV transmission, which is especially concerning in low and middle income countries where both diseases are common. Methods We performed an analysis of data available from NICHD/HPTN 040 (P1043), a study focused on the prevention of intrapartum HIV transmission to 1684 infants born to 1664 untreated HIV-infected women. The present analysis evaluates risk factors and outcomes associated with a syphilis diagnosis in this cohort of HIV-infected women and their infants. Results Approximately 10% (n=171) of women enrolled had serological evidence of syphilis without adequate treatment documented and 1.4% (n=24) infants were dually HIV and syphilis infected. Multivariate logistic analysis showed that compared to HIV-infected women, co-infected women were significantly more likely to self-identify as non-white (AOR 2.5, 95% CI 1.5-4.2), to consume alcohol during pregnancy (AOR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1-2.1) and to transmit HIV to their infants (AOR 2.1, 95% CI 1.3-3.4), with 88% of HIV infections being acquired in-utero. As compared to HIV infected or HIV exposed infants, co-infected infants were significantly more likely to be born to mothers with VDRL titers ≥1:16 (AOR 3, 95% CI 1.1-8.2) and higher viral loads (AOR 1.5 95% CI 1.1-1.9). Of 6 newborns with symptomatic syphilis, 2 expired shortly after birth, and 2 were HIV-infected. Conclusion Syphilis continues to be a common co-infection in HIV-infected women and can facilitate in utero transmission of HIV to infants. Most infants are asymptomatic at birth, but those with symptoms have high mortality rates. PMID:25742089

  6. Ipsilateral Synchronous Manifestation of an HIV-Infection Associated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plunging ranula is a rare lesion and even more in HIV-infected patients. There has been only one case documented in a 15-year old that had the vertical form HIV-infection. We report a plunging ranula occurring simultaneously with a sublingual salivary gland sialocoele as two separate lesions in an HIV-infected female ...

  7. Supporting the sexual and reproductive rights of HIV-infected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rights in South Africa are extended to HIV-infected individuals. In some settings health care providers may have a negative attitude towards sexual activity and childbearing by HIV-infected women.3,4 These attitudes are also reflected in popular opinions regarding the sexual and reproductive rights of HIV-infected.

  8. Anaemia among HIV infected children attending care and treatment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Anaemia is common among HIV infected patients; causes of anaemia in these patients are multifactorial. Anemia is noted as one of important predictors of outcome in HIV infected patients. Tis study was carried out to determine the prevalence of anaemia among HIV infected children attending HIV clinic at ...

  9. Treatment of Retinal Separation in HIV-infected Patients with Cytomegalovirus Retinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Onischenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available HIV infection — is a socially significant problem for many countries, as the infected die in an average of 10-11 years due to the immunodeficiency virus. Up to 20% of patients with AIDS lose their sight because of cytomegalovirus retinitis (CMV retinitis, which occurs in 70% of HIV-infected people. In some patients with HIV infection blindness occurs because of acute retinal necrosis of CMV etiology. The algorithm of CMV retinitis treatment in HIV-infected patients is described in modern manuals (ganciclovir, valganciclovir, foscarnet and others on the background of antiretroviral therapy, but the tactics of treatment of retinal separation in these patients is not clearly defined. It may be “wait and see”, providing conservative treatment with antiviral drugs, and the active tactics — vitreoretinal surgery. In this article the authors present their personal clinical observations of three HIV-infected patients with CMV retinitis at the age of 8 to 36 years with a detailed analysis of the clinical data and the results of the laboratory tests. In particular, the authors give their own results of intravitreal introduction of ganciclovir in patients with CMV retinitis. Given the poor prognosis for the life of these patients, the authors put a deontological question of justification of active treatment of retinal separation in AIDS patients with CMV retinitis.

  10. Aging in HIV-Infected Subjects: A New Scenario and a New View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Negredo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of HIV-infected people aged 50 years or older is increasing rapidly; the proportion will increase from 28% to 73% in 2030. In addition, HIV-infected individuals may be more vulnerable to age-related condition. There is growing evidence that the prevalence of comorbidities and other age-related conditions (geriatric syndromes, functional or neurocognitive/mental problems, polypharmacy, and social difficulties is higher in the HIV-infected population than in their uninfected counterparts. However, despite the potential impact of this situation on health care, little information exists about the optimal clinical management of older HIV-infected people. Here we examine the age-related conditions in older HIV-infected persons and address clinical management according to author expertise and published literature. Our aim is to advance the debate about the most appropriate management of this population, including less well-studied aspects, such as frequency of screening for psychological/mental and social and functional capabilities.

  11. Country of residence is associated with distinct inflammatory biomarker signatures in HIV-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manion, Maura; Andrade, Bruno B; DerSimonian, Rebecca; Gu, Wenjuan; Rupert, Adam; Musselwhite, Laura W; Sierra-Madero, Juan G; Belaunzaran-Zamudio, Pablo F; Sanne, Ian; Lederman, Michael M; Sereti, Irini

    2017-01-01

    Inflammation and coagulation biomarkers are independent predictors of morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected patients. The impact of country of residence on these biomarkers is unknown and was investigated in persons at similar stages of HIV infection. Cryopreserved plasma specimens were analysed from 267 ART-naive patients with CD4 cell counts country on the profile of biomarker expression was stronger than gender differences and tuberculosis co-infection. Inflammation and coagulation biomarkers vary significantly by country. Further studies are needed to evaluate how these differences may contribute to HIV pathogenesis and prognosis in diverse populations and how they can be accounted for in studies using biomarkers as surrogate end points.

  12. Aerobic exercise training for depressive symptom management in adults living with HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neidig, Judith L; Smith, Barbara A; Brashers, Dale E

    2003-01-01

    Aerobic exercise training may help prevent or reduce depressive symptoms experienced by persons living with HIV infection. However, the psychological effects of aerobic exercise have not been studied extensively. This study evaluated the effects of an aerobic exercise training program on self-reported symptoms of depression in HIV-infected adults and examined the convergent validity of two widely used depressive symptom scales. Sixty HIV-infected adults participated in a randomized, controlled trial of a supervised 12-week aerobic exercise training program. As compared to study controls, exercise participants showed reductions in depressive symptoms on all indices, and total depressive symptoms scores were highly correlated. Additional study of the psychological effects of aerobic exercise programs in the target population is recommended.

  13. Time trends for risk of severe age-related diseases in individuals with and without HIV infection in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Line D; May, Margaret T; Kronborg, Gitte

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Whether the reported high risk of age-related diseases in HIV-infected people is caused by biological ageing or HIV-associated risk factors such as chronic immune activation and low-grade inflammation is unknown. We assessed time trends in age-standardised and relative risks of nine...... serious age-related diseases in a nationwide cohort study of HIV-infected individuals and population controls. METHODS: We identified all HIV-infected individuals in the Danish HIV Cohort Study who had received HIV care in Denmark between Jan 1, 1995, and June 1, 2014. Population controls were identified...... from the Danish Civil Registration System and individually matched in a ratio of nine to one to the HIV-infected individuals for year of birth, sex, and date of study inclusion. Individuals were included in the study if they had a Danish personal identification number, were aged 16 years or older...

  14. CANDIDURIA AMONG HIV- INFECTED PATIENTS ATTENDING A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    colonization and infection or between upper or lower urinary tract infections. Objective: This study focused on determining the spectrum of Candida species implicated in candiduria among HIV-infected individuals and their susceptibility to .... found in urine of neonates and is usually associated with systemic infection in this ...

  15. Brucella Infection in HIV Infected Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SeyedAhmad SeyedAlinaghi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the possible correlation between Brucella and HIV infections. Iran is a country where HIV infection is expanding and Brucellosis is prevalent. In the present study, 184 HIV infected patients were assigned and for all of them HIV infection was confirmed by western blot test. In order to identify the prevalence rate of Brucella infection and systemic brucellosis in these subjects, sera samples were obtained and Brucella specific serological tests were performed to reveal antibody titers. Detailed history was taken and physical examination was carried out for all of patients. 11 (6% subjects had high titers but only 3 of them were symptomatic. Most of these subjects were injection drug user (IDU men and one was a rural woman. Considering both prevalence rates of Brucella infection (3% and symptomatic brucellosis (0.1% in Iran, our HIV positive patients show higher rates of Brucella infection and systemic brucellosis. Preserved cellular immunity of participants and retention of granulocytes activity may explain this poor association; whereas other explanations such as immunological state difference and non-overlapping geographical distribution of the 2 pathogens have been mentioned by various authors.

  16. cal lymphadenopathy among HIV-infected

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mulago Palliative Care Unit, Kampala, Uganda. 6. Department of Pathology, Makerere University College of Health Sciences, Kampala, Uganda. Abstract. Background: Opportunistic infections and malignancies cause lymphadenopathy in HIV-infected patients. The use and accuracy of fine needle aspiration cytology in ...

  17. Cardiovascular manifestations of HIV infection in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Idris, Nikmah S; Grobbee, Diederick E; Burgner, David; Cheung, Michael M H; Kurniati, Nia; Sastroasmoro, Sudigdo; Uiterwaal, Cuno SPM

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: HIV infection in children is now considered as a chronic condition, in which various non-infectious complications may occur, including those affecting the developing cardiovascular system. As children are expected to survive well into adulthood, understanding childhood as well as

  18. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in tuberculosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: In a country with a rapidly spreading HIV epidemic information regarding HIV and TB Co-infection are lacking. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of HIV infection in a representative sample of sputum-positive tuberculosis patients. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey whereby blood sample was ...

  19. Articular syndromes in association with HIV infection

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-08-03

    Aug 3, 2011 ... HIV-related vasculitis, protein S deficiency, antiphospholipid antibodies, antiretroviral therapy, especially protease inhibitors and hyperlipidaemia, which may also be related to antiretroviral therapy. These factors, together with alcohol abuse and severe immunosuppression associated with HIV infection, ...

  20. CANDIDURIA AMONG HIV- INFECTED PATIENTS ATTENDING A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Candiduria is a common finding. However, in immunocompromised patients like HIV-infected individuals, it has high risk of ... highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Female gender was a significant risk factor for acquiring candiduria. ..... Biofilm formation by and antifungal susceptibility of Candida isolates.

  1. Kaleidoscope of autoimmune diseases in HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roszkiewicz, Justyna; Smolewska, Elzbieta

    2016-11-01

    Within the last 30 years, the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has changed its status from inevitably fatal to chronic disorder with limited impact on life span. However, this breakthrough was mainly the effect of introduction of the aggressive antiviral treatment, which has led to the clinically significant increase in CD4+ cell count, resulting in fewer cases of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and improved management of opportunistic infections occurring in the course of the disease. The occurrence of a particular autoimmune disease depends on degree of immunosuppression of the HIV-positive patient. In 2002, four stages of autoimmunity were proposed in patients infected by HIV, based on the absolute CD4+ cell count, feature of AIDS as well as on the presence of autoimmune diseases. Spectrum of autoimmune diseases associated with HIV infection seems to be unexpectedly wide, involving several organs, such as lungs (sarcoidosis), thyroid gland (Graves' disease), liver (autoimmune hepatitis), connective tissue (systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, polyarteritis nodosa and other types of vasculitis, antiphospholipid syndrome) or hematopoietic system (autoimmune cytopenias). This paper contains the state of art on possible coincidences between HIV infection and a differential types of autoimmune diseases, including the potential mechanisms of this phenomenon. As the clinical manifestations of autoimmunization often mimic those inscribed in the course of HIV infection, health care providers should be aware of this rare but potentially deadly association and actively seek for its symptoms in their patients.

  2. Overestimating HIV infection: The construction and accuracy of subjective probabilities of HIV infection in rural Malawi

    OpenAIRE

    Anglewicz, Philip; Kohler, Hans-Peter

    2009-01-01

    In the absence of HIV testing, how do rural Malawians assess their HIV status? In this paper, we use a unique dataset that includes respondents' HIV status as well as their subjective likelihood of HIV infection. These data show that many rural Malawians overestimate their likelihood of current HIV infection. The discrepancy between actual and perceived status raises an important question: Why are so many wrong? We begin by identifying determinants of self-assessed HIV status, and then compar...

  3. The influence of HIV infection on the age dependence of squamous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the population groups were due to behaviour and lifestyle factors. One lifestyle factor of particular interest in the context of SA is the high incidence of HIV infection. In 2012, it was estimated[6] that 12.2% of the SA population. (6.4 million persons) were HIV-positive, with the prevalence being highest among females aged 30 ...

  4. [Insurance legislation aspects and peculiarities of occupational legislation in AIDS and HIV infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exner-Freisfeld, H; Stille, W

    1989-11-01

    Major aspects of the German insurance legislation regarding AIDS are being discussed. I. The structure of the statutory health and social security scheme is described; problems of coverage of persons with HIV Infection/AIDS in case of accident or unemployment are discussed (medical treatment, social security, pension). II. Private health insurance schemes are scrutinised as to the conditions for persons with HIV infection/AIDS. The aspect of coverage for children in private health schemes is also taken into account, and the differences between statutory and private health insurance schemes are considered. III. Criteria for life insurance contracts are described: it depends on the amount of money insured whether or not life insurance companies demand medical examination and HIV test from the policy holder. IV. Criteria for acknowledgement of AIDS as an occupational disease are pointed out. In particular, injuries at the place of work in connection with HIV-infected material, as well as methods of prevention, are discussed. V. Finally, labour legislation is investigated as to its consequences for persons with HIV infection/AIDS; the different aspects for employer and employee are considered, and problems like employment of persons with full-blown AIDS and termination of employment are explained.

  5. Oral ulcer as primary manifestation of HIV infection in an 80-year-old man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ludvigsen, Lene Ugilt Pagter; Søgaard, Ole Schmeltz

    2014-01-01

    Oral lesions such as candidiasis, Kaposi's sarcoma, hairy leukoplakia, herpes simplex infection, and ulcerative periodontitis are associated with HIV infection and may be the primary presentation in persons with undiagnosed HIV. We report a clinical case in which an 80-year-old man presented...

  6. Understanding of the risk of HIV infection among the elderly in Ga ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eucebious Lekalakala-Mokgele

    2014-06-24

    Jun 24, 2014 ... South Africa to explore and describe the understanding of these elderly people regarding their risks of HIV infection and AIDS. Using a ... The lack of knowledge underscores the importance of addressing sexual risk with older people. ..... the managers of the luncheon clubs and the older persons so.

  7. [Gastrointestinal diseases associated with HIV infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, M; Adachi, T; Sagara, H; Yoshikawa, K

    2000-01-01

    A clinical studies were carried out on gastrointestinal diseases associated with HIV infection. During the 6 years between January 1993 and December 1998, 71 HIV infected cases visited to Yokohama Municipal Citizen's hospital, and 26 of them developed gastrointestinal complications during the course of their illness. They consisted of 24 males and 2 females, with the mean age of 44.7 years and the medial value of 42.5 years. Of the 26 patients, 21 were Japanese, and the remaining 5 were Southeast Asian. The mean CD4 count was 143/microliter and the medial value was 32/microliter at the time of development of complications. Gastrointestinal complications were esophageal candidiasis in 6 patients, cytomegalovirus (CMV) gastritis and gastric Kaposi's sarcoma in 1 patient each, amebiasis in 8 patients, infectious colitis in 11 patients, and asymptomatic pathogen carriers in 3 patients. Esophageal and gastric complications were common in patients with low count of CD4, and endoscopy was useful for diagnosis. Amebiasis developed even in patients with normal CD4 and was common in males with experience in homosexual contact. It seems that homosexual contact acquire not only HIV infection but also Entamoeba histolytica through sexual contact. Protozoan and acid-fast bacteria were detected at high rate in patients with infectious colitis and asymptomatic pathogen carriers. Besides food-born infections, imported infections were seen in foreign and Japanese patients who had traveled abroad. The gastrointestinal diseases associated with HIV infections for the most part were opportunistic infections or tumors but imported, food-born, and sexually transmitted infections were also observed. It seems necessary to take into consideration of varying background of patients in the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases associated with HIV infections.

  8. Prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections and other coinfections in HIV-infected patients: May 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iribarren, José Antonio; Rubio, Rafael; Aguirrebengoa, Koldo; Arribas, Jose Ramón; Baraia-Etxaburu, Josu; Gutiérrez, Félix; Lopez Bernaldo de Quirós, Juan Carlos; Losa, Juan Emilio; Miró, José Ma; Moreno, Santiago; Pérez Molina, José; Podzamczer, Daniel; Pulido, Federico; Riera, Melchor; Rivero, Antonio; Sanz Moreno, José; Amador, Concha; Antela, Antonio; Arazo, Piedad; Arrizabalaga, Julio; Bachiller, Pablo; Barros, Carlos; Berenguer, Juan; Caylá, Joan; Domingo, Pere; Estrada, Vicente; Knobel, Hernando; Locutura, Jaime; López Aldeguer, José; Llibre, Josep Ma; Lozano, Fernando; Mallolas, Josep; Malmierca, Eduardo; Miralles, Celia; Miralles, Pilar; Muñoz, Agustín; Ocampo, Agustín; Olalla, Julián; Pérez, Inés; Pérez Elías, Ma Jesús; Pérez Arellano, José Luis; Portilla, Joaquín; Ribera, Esteban; Rodríguez, Francisco; Santín, Miguel; Sanz Sanz, Jesús; Téllez, Ma Jesús; Torralba, Miguel; Valencia, Eulalia; Von Wichmann, Miguel Angel

    2016-10-01

    Despite the huge advance that antiretroviral therapy represents for the prognosis of infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), opportunistic infections (OIs) continue to be a cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected patients. OIs often arise because of severe immunosuppression resulting from poor adherence to antiretroviral therapy, failure of antiretroviral therapy, or unawareness of HIV infection by patients whose first clinical manifestation of AIDS is an OI. The present article updates our previous guidelines on the prevention and treatment of various OIs in HIV-infected patients, namely, infections by parasites, fungi, viruses, mycobacteria, and bacteria, as well as imported infections. The article also addresses immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  9. Executive summary: Prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections and other coinfections in HIV-infected patients: May 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iribarren, José Antonio; Rubio, Rafael; Aguirrebengoa, Koldo; Arribas, Jose Ramón; Baraia-Etxaburu, Josu; Gutiérrez, Félix; Lopez Bernaldo de Quirós, Juan Carlos; Losa, Juan Emilio; Miró, José Ma; Moreno, Santiago; Pérez Molina, José; Podzamczer, Daniel; Pulido, Federico; Riera, Melchor; Rivero, Antonio; Sanz Moreno, José; Amador, Concha; Antela, Antonio; Arazo, Piedad; Arrizabalaga, Julio; Bachiller, Pablo; Barros, Carlos; Berenguer, Juan; Caylá, Joan; Domingo, Pere; Estrada, Vicente; Knobel, Hernando; Locutura, Jaime; López Aldeguer, José; Llibre, Josep Ma; Lozano, Fernando; Mallolas, Josep; Malmierca, Eduardo; Miralles, Celia; Miralles, Pilar; Muñoz, Agustín; Ocampo, Agustín; Olalla, Julián; Pérez, Inés; Pérez Elías, Ma Jesús; Pérez Arellano, José Luis; Portilla, Joaquín; Ribera, Esteban; Rodríguez, Francisco; Santín, Miguel; Sanz Sanz, Jesús; Téllez, Ma Jesús; Torralba, Miguel; Valencia, Eulalia; Von Wichmann, Miguel Angel

    2016-10-01

    Opportunistic infections continue to be a cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected patients. They often arise because of severe immunosuppression resulting from poor adherence to antiretroviral therapy, failure of antiretroviral therapy, or unawareness of HIV infection by patients whose first clinical manifestation of AIDS is an opportunistic infection. The present article is an executive summary of the document that updates the previous recommendations on the prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections in HIV-infected patients, namely, infections by parasites, fungi, viruses, mycobacteria, and bacteria, as well as imported infections. The article also addresses immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. This document is intended for all professionals who work in clinical practice in the field of HIV infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  10. Current and future assays for identifying recent HIV infections at the population level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoleń-Dzirba, Joanna; Wąsik, Tomasz J

    2011-05-01

    The precise diagnosis of recent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is crucial for estimating HIV incidence, defined as the number of new infections in a population, per person at risk, during a specified time period. Incidence assessment is considered to be a tool for surveillance, public health and research. Differentiating recent from long-term HIV infections is possible thanks to the evaluation of HIV-specific immune response development or viral markers measurement. Several methods that enable the recognition of recent HIV-1 infection with the use of a single blood specimen have been developed, and their value for use in population level studies has been demonstrated. However, they are still inadequate due to a variable window period and false recent rates among HIV clades and across populations. Application of these assays at an individual level is far more questionable because of person-to-person variability in the antibody response and the course of HIV infection, and because of the prospective regulatory approval requirements. In this article we review the principles and the limitations of the currently available major laboratory techniques that allow detection of recent HIV infection. The assays based on the alteration of serological parameters, as well as the newest method based on an increase of HIV genetic diversity with the progress of infection, are described.

  11. Resurgence of HIV infection among men who have sex with men in Switzerland: mathematical modelling study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ard van Sighem

    Full Text Available New HIV infections in men who have sex with men (MSM have increased in Switzerland since 2000 despite combination antiretroviral therapy (cART. The objectives of this mathematical modelling study were: to describe the dynamics of the HIV epidemic in MSM in Switzerland using national data; to explore the effects of hypothetical prevention scenarios; and to conduct a multivariate sensitivity analysis.The model describes HIV transmission, progression and the effects of cART using differential equations. The model was fitted to Swiss HIV and AIDS surveillance data and twelve unknown parameters were estimated. Predicted numbers of diagnosed HIV infections and AIDS cases fitted the observed data well. By the end of 2010, an estimated 13.5% (95% CI 12.5, 14.6% of all HIV-infected MSM were undiagnosed and accounted for 81.8% (95% CI 81.1, 82.4% of new HIV infections. The transmission rate was at its lowest from 1995-1999, with a nadir of 46 incident HIV infections in 1999, but increased from 2000. The estimated number of new infections continued to increase to more than 250 in 2010, although the reproduction number was still below the epidemic threshold. Prevention scenarios included temporary reductions in risk behaviour, annual test and treat, and reduction in risk behaviour to levels observed earlier in the epidemic. These led to predicted reductions in new infections from 2 to 26% by 2020. Parameters related to disease progression and relative infectiousness at different HIV stages had the greatest influence on estimates of the net transmission rate.The model outputs suggest that the increase in HIV transmission amongst MSM in Switzerland is the result of continuing risky sexual behaviour, particularly by those unaware of their infection status. Long term reductions in the incidence of HIV infection in MSM in Switzerland will require increased and sustained uptake of effective interventions.

  12. Spectrums of opportunistic infections and malignancies in HIV-infected patients in tertiary care hospital, China.

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    Jiang Xiao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HIV-related opportunistic infections (OIs and malignancies continued to cause morbidity and mortality in Chinese HIV-infected individuals. The objective for this study is to elucidate the prevalence and spectrums of OIs and malignancies in HIV-infected patients in the Beijing Ditan Hospital. METHODS: The evaluation of the prevalence and spectrums of OIs and malignancies was conducted by using the clinical data of 834 HIV-infected patients admitted in the Beijing Ditan hospital from January 1, 2009, to November 30, 2012. RESULTS: The prevalence and spectrums of OIs and malignancies varied contingent on geographic region, transmission routes, and CD4 levels. We found that tuberculosis was most common OI and prevalence was 32.5%, followed by candidiasis(29.3%, Pneumocystis pneumonia(PCP(22.4%, cytomegalovirus(CMV infection(21.7%, other fungal infections(16.2%, mycobacterium avium complex(MAC(11.3%, cryptococcosis(8.0%, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy(PML(4.4%, Cerebral Toxoplasmosis(3.5% and Penicillium marneffei infection(1.4%; while Lymphoma(2.9%, Kaposi's sarcoma(0.8% and cervix carcinoma(0.3% were emerged as common AIDS-defining malignancies. Pulmonary OI infections were the most prevalent morbidity and mortality in patients in the AIDS stage including pulmonary tuberculosis (26.6% and PCP (22.4%. CMV infection(21.7% was most common viral infection; Fungal OIs were one of most prevalent morbidity in patients in the AIDS stage, including oral candidiasis (29.3%, other fungal infection (16.2%, Cryptococcosis (8.0% and Penicillium marneffei infection (1.4%. We found the low prevalence of AIDS-defining illnesses in central neural system in this study, including progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (4.4%, cerebral toxoplasmosis (3.5%, tuberculosis meningitis (3.2%, cryptococcal meningitis (2.4% and CMV encephalitis (1.1%. In-hospital mortality rate was 4.3 per 100 person-years due to severe OIs, malignancies, and medical

  13. The effect of aging, nutrition, and exercise during HIV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Somarriba

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Gabriel Somarriba, Daniela Neri, Natasha Schaefer, Tracie L MillerDivision of Pediatric Clinical Research, Department of Pediatrics, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, Florida, USAAbstract: Medical advances continue to change the face of human immunodeficiency virus–acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS. As life expectancy increases, the number of people living with HIV rises, presenting new challenges for the management of a chronic condition. Aging, nutrition, and physical activity can influence outcomes in other chronic conditions, and emerging data show that each of these factors can impact viral replication and the immune system in HIV. HIV infection results in a decline of the immune system through the depletion of CD4+ T cells. From initial infection, viral replication is a continuous phenomenon. Immunosenescence, a hallmark of aging, results in an increased susceptibility to infections secondary to a delayed immune response, and this phenomenon may be increased in HIV-infected patients. Optimal nutrition is an important adjunct in the clinical care of patients with HIV. Nutritional interventions may improve the quality and span of life and symptom management, support the effectiveness of medications, and improve the patient’s resistance to infections and other disease complications by altering immunity. Moderate physical activity can improve many immune parameters, reduce the risk of acute infection, and combat metabolic abnormalities. As people with HIV age, alternative therapies such as nutrition and physical activity may complement medical management.Keywords: HIV replication, aging, diet, nutrition, exercise, immunity

  14. Micronutrient supplementation in adults with HIV infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Marianne E; Durao, Solange; Sinclair, David; Irlam, James H; Siegfried, Nandi

    2017-01-01

    data, we tabulated it for each comparison. We assessed the certainty of the evidence using the GRADE approach. Main results We included 33 trials with 10,325 participants, of which 17 trials were new trials. Ten trials compared a daily multiple micronutrient supplement to placebo in doses up to 20 times the dietary reference intake, and one trial compared a daily standard dose with a high daily dose of multivitamins. Nineteen trials compared supplementation with single or dual micronutrients (such as vitamins A and D, zinc, and selenium) to placebo, and three trials compared different dosages or combinations of micronutrients. Multiple micronutrients We conducted analyses across antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naive adults (3 trials, 1448 participants), adults on antiretroviral therapy (ART) (1 trial, 400 participants), and ART-naive adults with concurrent active tuberculosis (3 trials, 1429 participants). Routine multiple micronutrient supplementation may have little or no effect on mortality in adults living with HIV (RR 0.91, 95% CI 0.72 to 1.15; 7 trials, 2897 participants, low certainty evidence). Routine supplementation for up to two years may have little or no effect on the average of mean CD4+ cell count (MD 26.40 cells/mm³, 95% CI −22.91 to 75.70; 6 trials, 1581 participants, low certainty evidence), or the average of mean viral load (MD −0.1 log10viral copies, 95% CI −0.26 to 0.06; 4 trials, 840 participants, moderate certainty evidence). One additional trial in ART-naïve adults did report an increase in the time to reach a CD4+ cell count HIV. Larger trials might reveal small but important effects. These findings should not be interpreted as a reason to deny micronutrient supplements for people living with HIV where specific deficiencies are found or where the person's diet is insufficient to meet the recommended daily allowance of vitamins and minerals. Micronutrient supplements for non-pregnant adults with HIV infection Cochrane researchers conducted

  15. [The epidemiological characteristics of HIV infection in Turkmenistan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illiev, S Kh; Gaipova, M B; Karmanova, G A

    1999-01-01

    In the presence of the low spread of HIV infection a sharp increase in sexually transmitted diseases is noted. Nevertheless, taking into account a rise in STD, the reality of the potential risk of the spread of HIV is emphasized. Thus, in 1996 morbidity is syphilis was found to grow 7.2 times in comparison with 1992, amounting to 37.5 cases per 100,000 of the population; morbidity in gonorrhea amounted to 32.4 cases per 100,000 of the population with the proportion coming to medical institutions not exceeding 30%. A high proportion of hepatitis B virus carriers was also established (from 15% to 30% of healthy persons), while morbidity in virus hepatitides rose twofold for the period of 1994-1995. During recent years the service for the prophylaxis of AIDS was noted to considerably decrease measures on mass screening. At the same time the article attracts attention to the necessity of increasing the work on the dissemination of information and education on HIV/AIDS drug among addicts, prostitutes and homosexuals. The Draft National Program of the Prophylaxis of HIV infection and STD for 1998-2002 has been worked out. Great importance of methodological and financial assistance rendered since 1994 by international organizations, including WHO, UNFPA, etc., have been emphasized.

  16. Counselling challenges in haemophilia and HIV infection/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittadaki, J

    1996-01-01

    The advent of AIDS has had such a deep-reaching effect on the international haemophilia community that one can make a reasonable distinction between a pre-AIDS and a post-AIDS era in haemophilia management. In the context of counselling, however, talking about a 'before' and an 'after' in haemophilia does not (and, in our opinion, should not) necessarily imply a separation of the past from the present. Dealing with the psycho-social implications of haemophilia and HIV infection does not mean focusing exclusively on HIV-generated problems at the expense of haemophilia-related issues. Since the HIV crisis, counselling has posed the multiple challenge of: (a) assessing and alleviating the more immediate emotional effects of HIV infection; (b) paying due attention to the underlying influence of haemophilia on reaction, defence and coping; (c) formulating a flexible approach that is based on close cooperation with the medical staff and effective interpersonal communication with the counsellees.* In practice, the flexibility and effectiveness of the counselling model are promoted by means of: (a) ongoing counselling, (b) multiple counselling sites (i.e. the Haemophilia Centre and other appropriate locations), (c) interdisciplinary team-work, (d) respect for individual/ ethnic values, (e) maintenance of exo-empathy (i.e. neutrality), and (f) transfer of coping skills. The above framework can help maximize the effectiveness of counselling sessions through a personalized rapport of mutual trust and confidence between the counselling team and the counsellees.

  17. Potential impact of infant feeding recommendations on mortality and HIV-infection in children born to HIV-infected mothers in Africa: a simulation

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    Seksaria Vidyunmala

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although breast-feeding accounts for 15–20% of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT of HIV, it is not prohibited in some developing countries because of the higher mortality associated with not breast-feeding. We assessed the potential impact, on HIV infection and infant mortality, of a recommendation for shorter durations of exclusive breast-feeding (EBF and poor compliance to these recommendations. Methods We developed a deterministic mathematical model using primarily parameters from published studies conducted in Uganda or Kenya and took into account non-compliance resulting in mixed-feeding practices. Outcomes included the number of children HIV-infected and/or dead (cumulative mortality at 2 years following each of 6 scenarios of infant-feeding recommendations in children born to HIV-infected women: Exclusive replacement-feeding (ERF with 100% compliance, EBF for 6 months with 100% compliance, EBF for 4 months with 100% compliance, ERF with 70% compliance, EBF for 6 months with 85% compliance, EBF for 4 months with 85% compliance Results In the base model, reducing the duration of EBF from 6 to 4 months reduced HIV infection by 11.8% while increasing mortality by 0.4%. Mixed-feeding in 15% of the infants increased HIV infection and mortality respectively by 2.1% and 0.5% when EBF for 6 months was recommended; and by 1.7% and 0.3% when EBF for 4 months was recommended. In sensitivity analysis, recommending EBF resulted in the least cumulative mortality when the a mortality in replacement-fed infants was greater than 50 per 1000 person-years, b rate of infection in exclusively breast-fed infants was less than 2 per 1000 breast-fed infants per week, c rate of progression from HIV to AIDS was less than 15 per 1000 infected infants per week, or d mortality due to HIV/AIDS was less than 200 per 1000 infants with HIV/AIDS per year. Conclusion Recommending shorter durations of breast-feeding in infants born to HIV-infected

  18. Levamisole-Contaminated Cocaine Use in HIV-Infected and Uninfected Unstably Housed Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Elise D; Kral, Alex H; Cohen, Jennifer; Dilworth, Samantha E; Shumway, Martha; Lynch, Kara L

    2016-09-01

    A growing number of case reports cite serious health complications linked to the cocaine adulterant, levamisole and women are disproportionately affected; however, the clinical effects are not well established. Between April and October of 2010, we conducted a cross-sectional study among 222 homeless and unstably housed women (116 human immunodeficiency virus [HIV]-infected and 106 HIV-uninfected). Immune markers and behavioral factors were compared in separate models by cocaine and levamisole exposure. Overall, 63% of participants were toxicology positive for cocaine/benzoylecgonine, 85% of whom also tested positive for levamisole. Differences in immune markers did not reach levels of significance among HIV-uninfected persons. Compared to HIV-infected persons who were negative for both cocaine and levamisole, the adjusted odds of low white blood cell count were significantly higher among HIV-infected persons positive for both (p = 0.03), but not for those positive for cocaine only. Neutrophil count and HIV viral load did not differ by cocaine and levamisole status among HIV-infected persons. In a separate model, the adjusted odds of testing positive for levamisole were higher among African American women compared to Caucasian and Asian women (p = 0.02). In the context of high levamisole prevalence, results suggest that decreased immune function as a result of levamisole exposure occurs mainly in individuals who are already immune compromised (e.g., HIV-positive), and race/ethnicity appears to be an important factor in understanding levamisole exposure among cocaine-using women. While larger and geographically diverse studies are needed to elucidate these initial findings, results suggest that levamisole may be one mechanism of immune dysfunction in HIV-infected cocaine-using women.

  19. HIV Infection and Osteoarticular Tuberculosis: Strange Bedfellows

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    B. Hodkinson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 47-year-old female patient with rheumatoid arthritis and HIV infection presenting with a 3-week history of a painful swollen knee, increased serum inflammatory markers, and a low CD4 lymphocyte count. The diagnosis of TB arthritis was made by synovial fluid culture, GeneXpert/PCR, and confirmed by histopathology of a synovial biopsy. A mini literature review suggests that although HIV infection is associated with extrapulmonary TB, osteoarticular TB is a relatively unusual presentation in an HIV positive patient. The diagnostic utility of the GeneXpert test is explored. We also describe the patient’s good response to an intra-articular corticosteroid injection in combination with standard anti-TB therapy.

  20. Impact of HIV infection on cardiac deformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Lígia; Silva, Daniela; Miranda, Carla; Sá, Joana; Duque, Luís; Duarte, Nelson; Brito, Paula; Bernardino, Leonel; Poças, José

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to detect abnormalities in left ventricular myocardial function due to HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) infection without established cardiovascular disease. An echocardiogram was performed in 50 asymptomatic HIV-infected patients (age 41 ± 6 years, 64% male) and in 20 healthy individuals. Conventional echocardiography and pulsed tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) were performed according to the guidelines. The strain rate of the basal segments was obtained with color tissue Doppler and used to evaluate systolic strain rate (SRS), early diastolic strain rate (SRE) and late diastolic strain rate (SRA). Longitudinal, radial and circumferential strain were assessed by 2D speckle tracking. The mean duration of HIV infection was 10 ± 5 years, CD4 count was 579 ± 286 cells/mm³, 32% had detectable viral load, and 86% were under treatment. Of the HIV-infected patients, one had grade 1 diastolic dysfunction. The groups were not different except for E wave (HIV 0.72 ± 0.17 m/s vs. control 0.84 ± 0.16 m/s, p=0.01), longitudinal strain (-19.5 ± 1.9% vs. -21 ± 2%, p=0.005), SRS (-1.1 ± 0.28 s⁻¹ vs. -1.3 ± 0.28 s⁻¹, p=0.02) and SRE (1.8 ± 0.4 s⁻¹ vs. 2.2 ± 0.4 s⁻¹, p<0.001), but only SRS (p=0.03, 95% CI 0.036; 0.67) and SRE (p=0.001, 95% CI -0.599; -0.168) had independent value. In an HIV-infected population without established cardiovascular disease, myocardial deformation abnormalities can be detected with strain and strain rate, revealing markers of myocardial injury. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  1. B-cell responses to HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moir, Susan; Fauci, Anthony S

    2017-01-01

    The induction of neutralizing antibodies directed against the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has received considerable attention in recent years, in part driven by renewed interest and opportunities for antibody-based strategies for prevention such as passive transfer of antibodies and the development of preventive vaccines, as well as immune-based therapeutic interventions. Advances in the ability to screen, isolate, and characterize HIV-specific antibodies have led to the identification of a new generation of potent broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs). The majority of these antibodies have been isolated from B cells of chronically HIV-infected individuals with detectable viremia. In this review, we provide insight into the phenotypic and functional attributes of human B cells, with a focus on HIV-specific memory B cells and plasmablasts/cells that are responsible for sustaining humoral immune responses against HIV. We discuss the abnormalities in B cells that occur in HIV infection both in the peripheral blood and lymphoid tissues, especially in the setting of persisting viremia. Finally, we consider the opportunities and drawbacks of intensively interrogating antibodies isolated from HIV-infected individuals to guide strategies aimed at developing effective antibody-based vaccine and therapeutic interventions for HIV. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  2. New ways of preventing HIV infection: thinking simply, simply thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, R V

    2006-05-29

    HIV infection is the greatest health crisis in human history. It continues to spread unchecked among the poor in the developing world because we have failed to design simple preventative methods that are available and affordable to those living on under Dollars 2 a day. Five new methods are discussed. (i) A natural microbicide. Intravaginal lime or lemon juice has been used for centuries as a traditional contraceptive. The juice can also kill HIV in the laboratory, but clinical trials are needed to see if vaginal application is acceptable, safe and effective. (ii) Intravaginal oestrogen. Monkeys can be protected from Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection by keratinizing the vagina with topical oestrogen. If women take the oral contraceptive pill vaginally it retains its contraceptive efficacy, and the oestrogen it contains should thicken the vagina and protect against HIV infection. Clinical trials are needed. (iii) Male circumcision. Removal of the inner foreskin removes the main site of HIV entry into the penis, resulting in a sevenfold reduction in susceptibility to infection. The practice needs to be promoted. (iv) Post-coital penile hygiene. Wiping the penis immediately after intercourse with lime or lemon juice or vinegar should kill the virus before it has had a chance to infect. A clinical trial of efficacy is needed. (v) PhotoVoice. Asking schoolchildren in developing countries to photograph their impressions of HIV/AIDS is a powerful way of getting them to discuss the subject openly, and develop their own preventative strategies.

  3. Risco cardiovascular: marcadores antropométricos, clínicos e dietéticos em indivíduos infectados pelo vírus HIV Cardiovascular risk: anthropometric, clinical and dietary markers in HIV-infected persons

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    Luísa Helena Maia Leite

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever marcadores antropométricos, clínicos e dietéticos associados ao risco cardiovascular em indivíduos infectados pelo vírus HIV. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se um estudo transversal com 100 indivíduos, adultos, com HIV/Aids, da cidade do Rio de Janeiro. O risco cardiovascular foi estimado pelo escore de risco de Framingham. O consumo alimentar foi avaliado por meio de um recordatório de 24 horas e de uma lista de frequência de consumo de alimentos. Para comparar variáveis, foram utilizados o teste t de Student e o teste Qui-quadrado. RESULTADOS: Dentre os indivíduos avaliados, 63% eram homens, com idade média de 41,8, DP=9,6 anos, 77% faziam uso de antirretrovirais. Escore de risco de Framingham >10% foi identificado em 53% dos indivíduos. Os principais fatores de risco cardiovascular potencialmente modificáveis identificados foram: lipoproteína de alta densidade baixo (70%, hipercolesterolemia (35%, hipertensão arterial (35%, seguidos de tabagismo (23% e glicose alta (21%. Indivíduos com escore de risco de Framingham >10% apresentavam uma tendência para consumir dietas mais ricas em colesterol (p=0,720, em sódio (p=0,898, em açúcares/doces (p=0,032 e pobres em fibras (p=0,273, associadas a um maior consumo de bebidas alcoólicas (p=0,053. A avaliação dos hábitos de vida revelou maior prevalência de tabagismo e maior nível de sedentarismo no grupo com escore de risco de Framingham >10, porém não significativos. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados deste estudo mostram que pacientes com HIV/Aids sob terapia Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy e com mais altos escore de risco de Framingham não seguem as medidas preventivas contra doenças cardiovasculares e devem ser permanentemente encorajados a fazer escolhas alimentares saudáveis, parar de fumar e aumentar a atividade física.OBJECTIVE: This study described the anthropometric, clinical and dietary markers associated with cardiovascular risk in HIV-infected persons

  4. Dynamics and structure of mortality of patients with HIV infection in the Siberian federal district in 2006–2015

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    O. A. Pasechnik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: studying of dynamics, level, structure, features of territorial distribution of a mortality of patients with HIVinfection in the Siberian Federal District in 2015.Materials and methods: observation descriptive and estimated epidemiological research of these forms of federal statistical observation of subjects of the Siberian Federal District (SFD.Results: in the Siberian Federal district for the period of 2006–2015 dynamics of mortality of HIV-infected individuals was characterized by a high rate of growth (9,21%. For the entire period of study HIV infection in the region died 31772 patients, of whom 19,3 percent in 2015. The mortality rate of HIV-infected persons died from various causes in 2015 was 31.9 per 100 thousand population (6153. Male mortality is 2.6 times higher than the mortality of women (47,8 and 17,9 per 100 thousand population, respectively. More than 80% of persons died from HIV- infection were urban residents, 99,6 percent were over the age of 18 years. 43.9% of the deceased persons had the HIV-infection as a direct cause of death, they were under medical observation in 2015 (11,2 on 100 thousand population, of which 98.4% of the dead had late stage of HIV-infection. 47,4% of HIV-infected persons, who died from various causes, had coinfection of tuberculosis, mortality from tuberculosis in the later stages of HIVinfection was 12,9 per 100 thousand population. The distribution of mortality of HIV-infected persons in the territory of the Siberian Federal district was characterized by unevenness in the range from 1,3 in the Republic of Tuva to 52,2 in the Kemerovo region.Conclusion. The presence of a clear trend of increasing mortality of people living with HIV on the territory of the Siberian Federal district on the background of high prevalence of infection indicates the need of optimization of preventive measures and epidemiological surveillance system of HIV infection

  5. Expression of the activation antigen CD69 predicts functionality of in vitro expanded peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from healthy donors and HIV-infected patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S D; Afzelius, P; Ersbøll, A K

    1998-01-01

    Gene therapy for AIDS necessitates harvest and expansion of PBMC from HIV-infected patients. We expanded PBMC from healthy blood donors and HIV-infected patients for up to 14 days using four expansion protocols: 3 days of phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) stimulation, continuous PHA stimulation, 3 days...... cytometry. PBMC from healthy donors and HIV-infected patients were readily expanded. The best expansion was obtained using stimulation for 3 days. After expansion, functionality of PBMC measured as proliferative response was partly conserved. PBMC expanded with stimulation for 3 days exhibited more...... preserved functionality than PBMC stimulated continuously (P healthy donors expanded with PHA stimulation for 3 days...

  6. Efficacy trials of biomedical strategies to prevent HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaldor, John M; Guy, Rebecca J; Wilson, David

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this article is to outline key challenges facing the conduct of efficacy trials for biomedical strategies to prevent HIV infection. The past 2-3 years have seen tumultuous development in this field. There have been disappointing findings in efficacy trials of vaginal microbicides, vaccines, the diaphragm and suppressive therapy for herpes, but a major breakthrough with the evidence that male circumcision prevents acquisition of infection. Meanwhile, clarity has started to emerge on a number of issues regarding trial conduct, including provision of standard of care, involvement of communities, and preparation for implementing effective interventions. HIV prevention practice must continue to rely on condom promotion and other established strategies while biomedical approaches continue to be assessed and their implementation strategies evolve.

  7. Treatment outcomes in undocumented Hispanic immigrants with HIV infection.

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    Kenneth K Poon

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Little is known about the treatment outcomes of undocumented Hispanic immigrants with HIV infection. We sought to compare the treatment outcomes of undocumented and documented patients 12-months after entering HIV care. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of antiretroviral-naive patients 18 years and older attending their first visit at Thomas Street Health Center in Houston, Texas, between 1/1/2003 and 6/30/2008. The study population of 1,620 HIV-infected adults included 186 undocumented Hispanic, 278 documented Hispanic, 986 Black, and 170 White patients. The main outcome measures were retention in care (quarter years with at least one completed HIV primary care provider visit and HIV suppression (HIV RNA <400 copies/mL, both measured 12-months after entering HIV care. RESULTS: Undocumented Hispanic patients had lower median initial CD4 cell count (132 cells/mm(3 than documented Hispanic patients (166 cells/mm(3; P = 0.186, Black patients (226 cells/mm(3; P<0.001, and White patients (264 cells/mm(3; P = 0.001. However, once in care, undocumented Hispanic patients did as well or better than their documented counterparts. One year after entering HIV care, undocumented Hispanics achieved similar rates of retention in care and HIV suppression as documented Hispanic and White patients. Of note, black patients were significantly less likely to have optimal retention in care (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.65, CI = 0.45-0.94 or achieve HIV suppression (aOR 0.32, CI = 0.17-0.61 than undocumented Hispanics. CONCLUSIONS: Undocumented Hispanic persons with HIV infection enter care with more advanced disease than documented persons, suggesting testing and/or linkage to care efforts for this difficult-to-reach population need intensification. Once diagnosed, however, undocumented Hispanics have outcomes as good as or better than other racial/ethnic groups. Safety net providers for undocumented immigrants are vital for maintaining

  8. Linking HIV-infected TB patients to cotrimoxazole prophylaxis and antiretroviral treatment in India.

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    Neeraj Raizada

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HIV-infected persons suffering from tuberculosis experience high mortality. No programmatic studies from India have documented the delivery of mortality-reducing interventions, such as cotrimoxazole prophylactic treatment (CPT and antiretroviral treatment (ART. To guide TB-HIV policy in India we studied the effectiveness of delivering CPT and ART to HIV-infected persons treated for tuberculosis in three districts in Andhra Pradesh, India, and evaluated factors associated with death. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We retrospectively abstracted data for all HIV-infected tuberculosis patients diagnosed from March 2007 through August 2007 using standard treatment outcome definitions. 734 HIV-infected tuberculosis patients were identified; 493 (67% were males and 569 (80% were between the ages of 24-44 years. 710 (97% initiated CPT, and 351 (50% collected >60% of their monthly cotrimoxazole pouches provided throughout TB treatment. Access to ART was documented in 380 (51% patients. Overall 130 (17% patients died during TB treatment. Patients receiving ART were less likely to die (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 0.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.3-0.6, while males and those with pulmonary TB were more likely to die (HR 1.7, 95% CI 1.1-2.7, and HR 1.9, 95% CI 1.1-3.2 respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Among HIV-infected TB patients in India death was common despite the availability of free cotrimoxazole locally and ART from referral centres. Death was strongly associated with the absence of ART during TB treatment. To minimize death, programmes should promote high levels of ART uptake and closely monitor progress in implementation.

  9. HIV Infection Linked to Injection Use of Oxymorphone in Indiana, 2014-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Philip J; Pontones, Pamela; Hoover, Karen W; Patel, Monita R; Galang, Romeo R; Shields, Jessica; Blosser, Sara J; Spiller, Michael W; Combs, Brittany; Switzer, William M; Conrad, Caitlin; Gentry, Jessica; Khudyakov, Yury; Waterhouse, Dorothy; Owen, S Michele; Chapman, Erika; Roseberry, Jeremy C; McCants, Veronica; Weidle, Paul J; Broz, Dita; Samandari, Taraz; Mermin, Jonathan; Walthall, Jennifer; Brooks, John T; Duwve, Joan M

    2016-07-21

    In January 2015, a total of 11 new diagnoses of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection were reported in a small community in Indiana. We investigated the extent and cause of the outbreak and implemented control measures. We identified an outbreak-related case as laboratory-confirmed HIV infection newly diagnosed after October 1, 2014, in a person who either resided in Scott County, Indiana, or was named by another case patient as a syringe-sharing or sexual partner. HIV polymerase (pol) sequences from case patients were phylogenetically analyzed, and potential risk factors associated with HIV infection were ascertained. From November 18, 2014, to November 1, 2015, HIV infection was diagnosed in 181 case patients. Most of these patients (87.8%) reported having injected the extended-release formulation of the prescription opioid oxymorphone, and 92.3% were coinfected with hepatitis C virus. Among 159 case patients who had an HIV type 1 pol gene sequence, 157 (98.7%) had sequences that were highly related, as determined by phylogenetic analyses. Contact tracing investigations led to the identification of 536 persons who were named as contacts of case patients; 468 of these contacts (87.3%) were located, assessed for risk, tested for HIV, and, if infected, linked to care. The number of times a contact was named as a syringe-sharing partner by a case patient was significantly associated with the risk of HIV infection (adjusted risk ratio for each time named, 1.9; PHIV. (Funded by the state government of Indiana and others.).

  10. THE CHANGES OF LARGE INTESTINE CAVITY’S MICROBIOTA IN PATIENTS WITH HIV INFECTION

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    Savinova O.M.

    2015-12-01

    features of obligate microfloras’ functions (bifidus bacteria, lactobacillus, E.coli, its lack has a negative impact on microecological system of the human body and reduces immunomodulatory effect on humoral and cellular immunity. So one of the issues which will have a positive impact on the health of patients with HIV infection is a normalization of obligate microflora deficit and reducing of opportunistic microflora. The conducted researches point to the need of microbiological analysis of fecal on dysbiosis for the patients with HIV infection and depending on the revealed dysbiotic changes making correction of microflora by biological agents. To correct the number of anaerobic bacteria (bifidus bacteria, lactobacillus use of bacterial preparations is not enough for only one month. It is necessary to continue taking of medicine for at least one month under the control of microbiological studies. The positive dynamics of the microflora of the large intestine points to changes that may be found in the immune system of the person that takes biological preparations. The close interaction between the microbiota of intestinal canal and the immune system leads to the formation of non–specific resistance of the organism. In this regard, the big importance has a modulating effect of intestinal microflora on products of cytokines, which are characterized by a wide range of biological effects. Conclusion. 1. Patients with HIV infection irrespective of the clinical stage of the disease have deficit both anaerobic (bifidobacteria and lactobacilli and facultative anaerobic microorganisms. 2. E.coli is the leading microorganism among the facultative anaerobic intestinal microflora, its amount of has been reduced to levels <106 CFU / mL at 56% at the patients. 3. Correction of patients' microflora by bacterial agents showed that the number of E.coli already in a month have reached the normal level in 100% of cases.

  11. Insulin resistance, HIV infection, and anti-HIV therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taiwo, Babafeni O

    2005-04-01

    Insulin resistance, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, is increasingly seen in persons infected with HIV. In those affected, it is unclear whether insulin resistance is a direct result of HIV infection alone; however, the development of insulin resistance has been established as a complication of antiretroviral therapies. Some protease inhibitors (PIs) are culpable, and there are significant differences in the impact of different PIs on glucose metabolism, with current evidence suggesting that atazanavir does not cause insulin resistance. The paucity of standardized laboratory tests makes early diagnosis of insulin resistance relatively elusive. Still, there are some clinically useful methods for assessing its presence. For prevention and/or treatment, exercise and optimal diet are useful, and metformin and rosiglitazone have been shown to improve insulin resistance. Changing an effective antiretroviral regimen to counter insulin resistance must be approached thoughtfully in carefully selected patients.

  12. Determinants of IL-6 levels during HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borges, Alvaro H; O'Connor, Jemma L; Phillips, Andrew N

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Elevated IL-6 levels have been linked to increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer and death. Compared to the general population, treated HIV+ persons have 50-100% higher IL-6 levels, but few data on the determinants of IL-6 levels during HIV infection currently exist....... MATERIAL AND METHODS: Participants in three international HIV trials (SMART, ESPRIT and SILCAAT) with IL-6 plasma levels measured at baseline were included (N=9864). Factors independently associated with log2-transformed IL-6 level were identified by multivariate linear regression; exponentiated estimates...... corresponding to fold differences (FDs) in IL-6 were calculated. Demographics (age, gender, race, BMI) and HIV-specific variables (nadir and entry CD4 counts, HIV-RNA, use of different ART regimens) were investigated in all three trials. In SMART (N=4498), smoking, comorbidities (CVD, diabetes, hepatitis B...

  13. Late presentation of HIV infection: a consensus definition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antinori, A; Coenen, T; Costagiola, D

    2010-01-01

    clinical definition of late presentation. The objective of this article is to present a consensus definition of late presentation of HIV infection. Methods Over the past year, two initiatives have moved towards a harmonized definition. In spring 2009, they joined efforts to identify a common definition......Objectives Across Europe, almost a third of individuals infected with HIV do not enter health care until late in the course of their infection. Surveillance to identify the extent to which late presentation occurs remains inadequate across Europe and is further complicated by the lack of a common...... of what is meant by a 'late-presenting' patient. Results Two definitions were agreed upon, as follows. Late presentation: persons presenting for care with a CD4 count below 350 cells/muL or presenting with an AIDS-defining event, regardless of the CD4 cell count. Presentation with advanced HIV disease...

  14. [The migratory activity of HIV-infected people in the northwestern region and the routes of the possible spread of the infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savin, E A; Vlasov, N N; Smol'skaia, T T; Tikhomirova, L A; Davydova, A A; Makarenko, G A

    1992-02-01

    The epidemic situation in HIV infection in the northwestern region of this country has been analyzed. The ways of the spread of HIV infection among the infected persons, residents of the St. Petersburg region, Kaliningrad, Novgorod and Murmansk, have been studied. The infection is transmitted mainly through sexual contacts, both homosexual and heterosexual. High migration activity of HIV-infected persons, homo- and heterosexuals, has been established, and a great number of unknown (casual) sexual contacts among them was noted. The results of these observations may be useful in the prognostication of the epidemic situation in HIV infection not only in the northwestern region, but also beyond its boundaries, and later in the optimization of screening.

  15. Legionellosis in patients with HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsborg, Jette Marie; Jensen, B N; Friis-Møller, A

    1990-01-01

    During the five-year period 1984-1988 we received 192 specimens from 180 patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) for investigation of Legionella infection. The majority of specimens were bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids (84%), but tracheal suctions and lung tissue from...... specimens additionally for Pneumocystis carinii and mycobacteria. Legionellosis was not found to be common among HIV-infected patients, as only six specimens (3%) from six patients were found positive by DFA, and no specimens were culture-positive for Legionella species. Dual infection with Legionella and P...

  16. Antiretroviral Drugs for Treatment and Prevention of HIV Infection in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günthard, Huldrych F.; Saag, Michael S.; Benson, Constance A.; del Rio, Carlos; Eron, Joseph J.; Gallant, Joel E.; Hoy, Jennifer F.; Mugavero, Michael J.; Sax, Paul E.; Thompson, Melanie A.; Gandhi, Rajesh T.; Landovitz, Raphael J.; Smith, Davey M.; Jacobsen, Donna M.; Volberding, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    assessments are recommended before treatment, and monitoring during treatment is recommended to assess response, adverse effects, and adherence. Approaches are recommended to improve linkage to and retention in care are provided. Daily tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine is recommended for use as preexposure prophylaxis to prevent HIV infection in persons at high risk. When indicated, postexposure prophylaxis should be started as soon as possible after exposure. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Antiretroviral agents remain the cornerstone of HIV treatment and prevention. All HIV-infected individuals with detectable plasma virus should receive treatment with recommended initial regimens consisting of an InSTI plus 2 NRTIs. Preexposure prophylaxis should be considered as part of an HIV prevention strategy for at-risk individuals. When used effectively, currently available ARVs can sustain HIV suppression and can prevent new HIV infection. With these treatment regimens, survival rates among HIV-infected adults who are retained in care can approach those of uninfected adults. PMID:27404187

  17. Diminished physical function in older HIV-infected adults in the Southeastern U.S. despite successful antiretroviral therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey L Khoury

    Full Text Available As antiretroviral therapy efficacy improves, HIV is gradually being recognized more as a chronic disease within the aging HIV-infected population. While these individuals are surviving into old age, they may, however, be experiencing "accelerated aging" with greater declines in physical function than that observed among comparably matched individuals free of HIV. This decline is not well understood and it remains unclear if physical decline correlates with the degree of immunosuppression based on CD4 lymphocyte nadir.In a cross-sectional study of accelerated aging in the older HIV-infected population on antiretroviral therapy (ART, physical performance evaluations were completed on a cohort of 107 HIV-infected subjects, age 50 years or older (with no HIV-1 RNA >200 copies/mL in the prior 12 months, and compared to reference ranges for age- and gender-matched HIV-uninfected persons. Physical performance testing consisted of four validated assessments: the 2.4-meter walk, 30-second chair stand, grip strength and 6-minute walk test.When compared to age- and gender-matched HIV-uninfected reference controls, older HIV-infected persons had diminished physical function. No correlation was found between physical function and degree of immunosuppression as determined by pre-ART CD4 nadir.Despite improved survival, HIV-infected adults on suppressive ART have diminished physical function compared to HIV-uninfected persons. The degree of HIV-associated immunosuppression does not correlate with the observed degree of physical function decline in older HIV-infected persons, suggesting the decline is mediated by other mechanisms.

  18. Projected Lifetime Healthcare Costs Associated with HIV Infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakagawa, Fumiyo; Miners, Alec; Smith, Colette J

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Estimates of healthcare costs associated with HIV infection would provide valuable insight for evaluating the cost-effectiveness of possible prevention interventions. We evaluate the additional lifetime healthcare cost incurred due to living with HIV. METHODS: We used a stochastic...... computer simulation model to project the distribution of lifetime outcomes and costs of men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM) infected with HIV in 2013 aged 30, over 10,000 simulations. We assumed a resource-rich setting with no loss to follow-up, and that standards and costs of healthcare management remain...... had been infected in 2013, then future lifetime costs relating to HIV care is likely to be in excess of £ 1 billion. It is imperative for investment into prevention programmes to be continued or scaled-up in settings with good access to HIV care services. Costs would be reduced considerably with use...

  19. Comparative parameters of fertility regulation as related to STD / HIV infections. An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, G; Bailon, R; Correu, S

    1991-01-01

    The sexually transmitted disease (STD), chancroid, is the greatest factor for HIV infections in Africa like syphilis is in the US. 3 physicians suggest that reducing the incidence of STDs may reduce the spread of HIV. Risk factors for HIV include current or history of STD in women and bisexual men, pelvic inflammatory disease, semen, copper releasing IUDs, contraceptive dermatitis, malnutrition/food allergy, environmental pollutants, genetic make up, and prostitutes. HIV infected persons should use condoms to not only protect partners but to prevent repeated contact with HIV which influences the clinical outcome. Condom use for contraception is not widely practiced in some areas, however, including Central Africa and Haiti. Condom use has increased in the US because IUDs have been removed from the market, fear of HIV infection, and discontinued use of oral contraceptives in older women. Urticarial reactions secondary to a copper IUD often occur in adolescent women, but clears when the IUD is removed. Traces of nickel in the copper wire used in IUDs often induce an allergic reaction. Allergic reactions are cofactors of HIV which can be made worse if coupled with excessive menstrual bleeding and HIV infected semen cells entering the uterus via the IUD tail. Many countries have integrated family planning services with other public health services, such as STD clinics that address AIDS. Integrated services should provide STD services and contraception and involve males and be accessible to them. Comprehensive school based clinical model should be implemented into schools and colleges. Counselors should advice HIV infected women not to have any more children. These women should get top priority to family planning services. HIV antibody testing for women should be done at any center where women may be including family planning centers and prisons.

  20. To use or not to use a condom: A prospective cohort study comparing contraceptive practices among HIV-infected and HIV-negative youth in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neema Stella

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unwanted pregnancy and HIV infection are issues of significant concern to young people. Limited data exists on contraceptive decision-making and practices among HIV-infected and HIV-negative young people in low resource settings with generalized HIV epidemics. Methods From July 2007 until April 2009, we recruited, and followed up over a one year period, a cohort of 501 HIV-negative and 276 HIV-infected young women and men aged 15-24 years residing in Kampala and Wakiso districts. We compared contraceptive use among HIV-infected and HIV-negative young people and assessed factors associated with contraceptive decision-making and use, using multivariate logistic regression modelling to estimate odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI. Results Contraceptive use among sexually active HIV-infected young people was 34% while it was 59% among the HIV-negative group. The condom was the most frequently used method of contraception. Only 24% of the HIV-infected used condoms consistently compared to 38% among the negative group OR 0.56 (95% CI 0.38, 0.82. HIV-infected young people were more likely to discuss safe sex behaviour with health workers OR 1.70 (95% CI 1.13, 2.57, though its effect on fertility decision-making was not significant. Throughout the year's follow-up, only 24% among the HIV-negative and 18% among the HIV-infected continued to use contraception while 12% and 28% among the HIV-negative and infected respectively did not use contraception at all. At multivariate analysis, the HIV-infected young people were less likely to maintain contraceptive use. Other factors independently associated with sustained contraceptive use were age of the respondent, marital status and being a male. Conversely, HIV-infected young people were less likely to initiate use of contraception. Being married or in a relationship was associated with higher odds of initiating contraceptive use. Conclusion Compared to the HIV-negative group

  1. Vitamin D and clinical disease progression in HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viard, Jean-Paul; Souberbielle, Jean-Claude; Kirk, Ole

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND:: We examined the association between vitamin D [25(OH)D] level and disease progression in HIV infection. METHODS:: Within the EuroSIDA study, 2000 persons were randomly selected for 25(OH)D measurement in stored plasma samples closest to study entry. 25(OH)D results were stratified...... into tertiles. Factors associated with 25(OH)D levels and associations of 25(OH) levels with subsequent risk of all-cause mortality, AIDS and non-AIDS events were analyzed. RESULTS:: Of 1985 persons with 25(OH)D levels available, 23.7% had 25(OH)D 30 ng/ml. At the time of 25(OH)D measurement, older persons......, persons of black ethnic origin, living outside Southern Europe/Argentina, sampled during winter, and infected with HIV through non-homosexual exposure were at higher odds of having low 25(OH)D levels, while persons receiving protease inhibitors were at lower odds. Compared to those in the lowest 25(OH)D...

  2. Moderate endurance training (marathon-training) ? effects on immunologic and metabolic parameters in HIV-infected patients: the 42 KM cologne project

    OpenAIRE

    Schlabe, Stefan; Vogel, Martin; Boesecke, Christoph; Schwarze-Zander, Carolynne; Rockstroh, J?rgen K; K?rner, Christian; Brixius, Klara; Wasmuth, Jan-Christian

    2017-01-01

    Background Improved treatment options of HIV have resulted in regular physical activities of many HIV-infected patients. However, data on effects of sports in HIV-patients are scarce. Methods 21 HIV-infected persons were monitored prospectively while preparing for a marathon run. Multiple parameters with regard to immunology, quality of life and metabolism were measured at 4 time points (at baseline 1?year before the marathon run, 3 and 6?months after beginning of training, and immediately be...

  3. Osteopaenia and Osteonecrosis in HIV Infection: Report of Two Cases

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has significantly changed the course, manifestation of HIV disease and improved the life expectancy of HIV infected patients. The consequence of longer survival has manifested increasing rates of co-morbid diseases and aroused interest in the interaction of HIV and aging ...

  4. Renal disease in HIV infected patients at University of Benin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: HIV related renal disease is a common occurrence in patients with HIV infection. It is the third leading cause of end stage renal disease among African-American males between the ages of 20 and 64 years in USA. Renal function impairment has been reported at all stages of HIV infection. The aim of this study ...

  5. Uropathogens isolated from HIV-infected patients from Limpopo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Uropathogens isolated from HIV-infected patients from Limpopo Province, South Africa. BC Iweriebor, CL Obi, O Akinyemi, NJ Ramalivhana, T Hattori, AI Okoh. Abstract. The primary aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility profiles of uropathogens isolated from HIV-infected patients in ...

  6. Haemorheologic and fibrinolytic activity in Nigerian HIV infected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients, especially those on antiretrovirals are at risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The haemorheologic and fibrinolgtic activity of treatment naïve Nigerian HIV-infected patients were investigated. Methods: Blood was collected from 50 newly diagnosed treatment ...

  7. Diverticulitis in HIV-infected patients within the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronley, K; Wenzke, J; Hussan, H; Vasquez, A M; Hinton, A; El-Dika, S; Conwell, D L; Krishna, S G; Stanich, P P

    2016-03-01

    Diverticulitis in patients on immunosuppressant therapy has been associated with increased mortality, but there are no data for HIV-infected patients. Our aim was to compare the outcomes of hospitalizations for diverticulitis in patients with and without HIV infection. Cross-sectional study of hospitalizations in the United States accessed through the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project. Patients hospitalized for diverticulitis in 2007-2011 were included in the analysis. The primary outcomes of interest were mortality and surgical therapy rates. Patients from 2003 to 2011 were utilized to analyse trends in prevalence. There were 2375 patients with HIV infection hospitalized for diverticulitis and 1 160 391 patients without HIV infection hospitalized for diverticulitis from 2007 to 2011. The patients with HIV infection were younger and more likely to be male and nonwhite (P diverticulitis and HIV infection had a significantly increased in-hospital mortality rate [odds ratio (OR) 3.94 (95% confidence interval, CI, 1.52-10.20)] and a lower rate of surgical intervention [OR 0.74 (95% CI 0.57-0.95)]. From 2003 to 2011, there was a linear increasing trend in the prevalence of HIV infection among patients hospitalized for diverticulitis (P diverticulitis had increased mortality and received less surgical treatment in comparison to the general population. Diverticulitis in HIV-infected patients increased in prevalence over the study period. © 2016 British HIV Association.

  8. Depressive scores in newly diagnosed HIV-infected and HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Prevalence rates of HIV infection in KwaZulu-Natal are high, with a significant amount of those infected being women of reproductive age. A diagnosis of HIV infection has been associated with an increased risk for the development of depression. Antenatal depression is a serious health concern, having the ...

  9. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Anemia among HIV Infected Individuals Taking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-01-01

    Jan 1, 2018 ... DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ejhs.v28i1.9. 73. ORIGINAL ARTICLE. Anemia among HIV Infected Individuals ... Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and its treatment (1, 2). Depending on the study setting, ... information system computer records at baseline. (before ART initiation), after six months and 12.

  10. Gender and Oral Manifestations of HIV Infection Among Adult ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oral manifestations were studied in 305 adult Nigerians with HIV infection. Data collected were demographic (age, sex, marital status, educational status and occupation) and clinical (mode of transmission, general manifestations and oral manifestations of HIV infection). The chi- square test was used in test for significance ...

  11. Sexual risk behavior and HIV infection among adolescents in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: In adolescents sexual risk behaviours are believed to enhance the transmission of HIV infection. This study, therefore aims to examine prevalent sexual risk behaviours of adolescents in secondary schools in a town in northern Nigeria and its relation to HIV infection. Method: A total of 883 subjects drawn from ...

  12. Prevalence of anaemia in paediatric patients with HIV infection in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: HIV infection affects virtually all systems of the body including the haematological system. Objective: To determine the prevalence of anaemia in HIV infected children and compare with apparently healthy HIV negative age-sex matched controls. Design: Case control hospitalbased study. Methods: A total of 60 ...

  13. Treating HIV Infection like a Sexually Transmitted Disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DENTAL JOURNAL. Treating HIV Infection like a Sexually. Transmitted Disease. Dr. K. J. Pallangyo,. Consultant Physician and Senior Lecturer,. Muhimbili Meciol Centre. How can the spread of HIV infection and AIDS be most effectively prevented at the primary health care level? Dr Pollongyo from Tanzania argues that ...

  14. HIV infection and psychiatric illness | Owe-Larsson | African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Patients with HIV infection are at an increased risk of psychiatric illness. Major depressive disorder and subsyndromal depressive symptoms, as well as anxiety disorder and substance abuse are more prevalent among HIV infected individuals than among the general population. HIV-associated neurocognitive ...

  15. Effect of antiretroviral drugs on prolactin in HIV infected pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We investigated the effect of anti-retroviral drugs and human immune deficiency virus (HIV) infection on prolactin production and stimulation in HIV-infected pregnant women. A total of 120 subjects participated in the study. Sixty (group 1) of these subjects were HIV seropositive pregnant women who commenced treatment ...

  16. Dialysis and renal transplantation in HIV-infected patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trullas, Joan Carles; Mocroft, Amanda; Cofan, Federico

    2010-01-01

    To determine prevalence and characteristics of end-stage renal diseases (ESRD) [dialysis and renal transplantation (RT)] among European HIV-infected patients.......To determine prevalence and characteristics of end-stage renal diseases (ESRD) [dialysis and renal transplantation (RT)] among European HIV-infected patients....

  17. Antiretroviral drug adherence by HIV infected children attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was recommended that caregivers of the HIV infected children should be educated on importance of strict adherence to prescribed doses of ARVs to the children. Future research should explore using multiple measures of adherence and reasons for non-adherence among HIV infecting children. Conclusion: The drug ...

  18. Incorrectly diagnosing children as HIV-infected: Experiences from a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Urgency in ART initiation in HIV-infected children is life-saving, especially in infants. However, HIV tests may produce false-positive results leading to misdiagnosis of children as HIV-infected, which has serious consequences. Meticulous checking of HIVpositive status is of utmost importance before committing any child to ...

  19. HIV infection and the way forward for South Sudan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EDITorIAL. HIV infection and the way forward for South Sudan. 75. In the last thirty-three years HIV infection has spread to all corners of the world, but the largest concentration of the epidemic is in ... is a critical aspect of HIV prevention, which in South Sudan leaves much to be desired. The prevention strategy has advanced ...

  20. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Atopy in HIV-infected children in Pretoria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tat protein may also act as a chemo-attractant for FcεR1+ cells and also upregulate chemokine receptor 3 (CCR3) expression.12. We aimed to study the association between atopy (sensitivity to environmental factors, i.e. allergy and clinical disease states) and HIV infection in children and the role of HIV infection on.

  1. Changes in Serum Proteins and Creatinine levels in HIV Infected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This results in either raised level of total plasma/serum protein or low level of plasma/serum protein depending on which component of immune dysregulation predominates. This study examined the level of total serum proteins and globulins in HIV infected Nigerians. 64 patients with HIV infection and 10 apparently healthy ...

  2. Symptomatic HIV infection in infancy - clinical and laboratory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Symptomatic HIV infection in infancy - clinical and laboratory markers of infection. M.P. Meyer, Z Latief, C Haworth, S Salie, A van Dyk. Abstract. Objective. To investigate the usefulness of immunological tests in the diagnosis of HIV infection in young symptomatic children < 15 months of age). Design. Tests were evaluated in ...

  3. Risk factors for anaemia among HIV infected children attending care ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is paucity of data describing the risk factors for anaemia among HIV infected children in Tanzania. This cross sectional study was carried out to determine the contributing factors for anaemia among HIV-infected children attending Muhimbili National Hospital in Dar es Salaam. Both univariate and multivariate logistic ...

  4. Anaemia in HIV infected Nigerian children on HAART | Sadoh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Most studies evaluating anaemia and associated factors in HIV infected children have been done on those that are HAART naïve. This study evaluated anaemia among Nigerian children on HAART. Methodology: This cross-sectional study estimated Packed Cell Volume (PCV) in 155 HIV infected children ...

  5. HIV infection and risk, prevention, and testing behaviors among injecting drug users -- National HIV Behavioral Surveillance System, 20 U.S. cities, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broz, Dita; Wejnert, Cyprian; Pham, Huong T; DiNenno, Elizabeth; Heffelfinger, James D; Cribbin, Melissa; Krishna, Nevin; Teshale, Eyasu H; Paz-Bailey, Gabriela

    2014-07-04

    participants received free HIV prevention materials during the past 12 months, including condoms (50%) and sterile syringes (44%) and other injection equipment (41%). One third of participants had been in an alcohol or a drug treatment program, and 21% had participated in an individual- or a group-level HIV behavioral intervention. IDUs in the United States continue to engage in sexual and drug-use behaviors that increase their risk for HIV infection. The large percentage of participants in this study who reported engaging in both unprotected sex and receptive sharing of syringes supports the need for HIV prevention programs to address both injection and sex-related risk behaviors among IDUs. Although most participants had been tested for HIV infection previously, less than half had been tested in the past year as recommended by CDC. In addition, many participants had not been vaccinated against hepatitis A and B as recommended by CDC. Although all participants had injected drugs during the past year, only a small percentage had recently participated in an alcohol or a drug treatment program or in a behavioral intervention, suggesting an unmet need for drug treatment and HIV prevention services. To reduce the number of HIV infections among IDUs, additional efforts are needed to decrease the number of persons who engage in behaviors that increase their risk for HIV infection and to increase their access to HIV testing, alcohol and drug treatment, and other HIV prevention programs. The National HIV/AIDS Strategy for the United States delineates a coordinated response to reduce HIV incidence and HIV-related health disparities among IDUs and other disproportionately affected groups. CDC's high-impact HIV prevention approach provides an essential step toward achieving these goals by using combinations of scientifically proven, cost-effective, and scalable interventions among populations at greatest risk. NHBS data can be used to monitor progress toward the national strategy goals

  6. HIV antibodies for treatment of HIV infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, David M.; Koup, Richard A.; Ferrari, Guido

    2016-01-01

    Summary The bar is high to improve on current combination antiretroviral therapy (ART), now highly effective, safe, and simple. However antibodies that bind the HIV envelope are able to uniquely target the virus as it seeks to enter new target cells, or as it is expressed from previously infected cells. Further, the use of antibodies against HIV as a therapeutic may offer advantages. Antibodies can have long half-lives, and are being considered as partners for long-acting antiretrovirals for use in therapy or prevention of HIV infection. Early studies in animal models and in clinical trials suggest that such antibodies can have antiviral activity but, as with small molecule antiretrovirals, the issues of viral escape and resistance will have to be addressed. Most promising, however, are the unique properties of anti-HIV antibodies: the potential ability to opsonize viral particles, to direct antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) against actively infected cells, and ultimately the ability to direct the clearance of HIV-infected cells by effector cells of the immune system. These distinctive activities suggest that HIV antibodies and their derivatives may play an important role in the next frontier of HIV therapeutics, the effort to develop treatments that could lead to an HIV cure. PMID:28133794

  7. CCD Camera Detection of HIV Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, John R

    2017-01-01

    Rapid and precise quantification of the infectivity of HIV is important for molecular virologic studies, as well as for measuring the activities of antiviral drugs and neutralizing antibodies. An indicator cell line, a CCD camera, and image-analysis software are used to quantify HIV infectivity. The cells of the P4R5 line, which express the receptors for HIV infection as well as β-galactosidase under the control of the HIV-1 long terminal repeat, are infected with HIV and then incubated 2 days later with X-gal to stain the infected cells blue. Digital images of monolayers of the infected cells are captured using a high resolution CCD video camera and a macro video zoom lens. A software program is developed to process the images and to count the blue-stained foci of infection. The described method allows for the rapid quantification of the infected cells over a wide range of viral inocula with reproducibility, accuracy and at relatively low cost.

  8. Injection drug use and HIV infection among the seriously mentally ill: a report from Vancouver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, S

    1998-01-01

    A recently reported outbreak of HIV among injection drug users in Vancouver determined that, in early 1997, 23% of this population was HIV-positive, and that HIV-negative injection drug users were becoming positive at the rate of 18.6% per year, the highest rate reported in North America. One significant factor behind the outbreak is the high prevalence of injection cocaine use among drug addicts in Vancouver. Cocaine, because it has a short "high," creates a need for more frequent injections and therefore increases the likelihood of needle sharing and HIV transmission. The mentally ill in Vancouver are particularly at risk for HIV infection because of their vulnerability to substance misuse and because large numbers of them reside in the main drug-using neighborhood. The provincial and federal governments have made $4,700,000 available to respond to this public health emergency, to be spent on the expansion of community services, including a number of needle-exchange sites. Accessing these and other health care services continues to be a challenge for injection drug users who also suffer from serious mental illnesses; for these persons an assertive case management model may be the most effective way of maintaining continuity of care.

  9. Blood T-cell receptor diversity decreases during the course of HIV infection, but the potential for a diverse repertoire persists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jennifer J.; Schmidt, Diane; Zhang, Qianjun; Hoh, Rebecca; Busch, Michael; Martin, Jeffrey; Deeks, Steven; McCune, Joseph M.

    2012-01-01

    HIV infection results in a decrease in circulating CD4+ T-cell and naive T-cell numbers. If such losses were associated with an erosion of T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoire diversity in the peripheral T-cell pool, this might exacerbate the state of persistent immunodeficiency. Existing methods for the analysis of the TCR repertoire have demonstrated skewed distributions of TCR genes in HIV-infected subjects but cannot directly measure TCR diversity. Here we used AmpliCot, a quantitative assay based on DNA hybridization kinetics, to measure TCR diversity in a cross-sectional comparison of 19 HIV-infected persons to 18 HIV-uninfected controls. HIV-infected persons had a 10-fold decrease in total TCR repertoire diversity in 1.5 mL of blood compared with uninfected controls, with decreased diversity correlating most closely with a lower CD4+ T-cell percentage. Nonetheless, the TCR repertoire diversity of sort-purified T-cell subpopulations in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected subjects was comparable. These observations suggest that the TCR repertoire diversity changes in whole blood during HIV disease progression are primarily the result of changes in the number and proportion of T-cell subpopulations and that most HIV-infected persons may retain a sufficiently diverse TCR repertoire to permit immune reconstitution with antiretroviral therapy alone, without thymopoiesis. PMID:22371879

  10. Risk factors for HIV infection in Males who have Sex with Males (MSM) in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Philip A.; Khan, Omar A

    2007-01-01

    Background Recent surveillance data from Bangladesh indicate rising HIV infection among intravenous drug users (IDU) in the country. We suggest a likely association between HIV risk factors in this group and other groups, such as males who have sex with males (MSM). Methods Data on MSM in Bangladesh was collected and analyzed from numerous primary and secondary sources, including government ministries, non-profit health organizations, and personal communications. Results The overall prevalenc...

  11. Risk factors for HIV infection in Males who have Sex with Males (MSM) in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Khan Omar A; Chan Philip A

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Recent surveillance data from Bangladesh indicate rising HIV infection among intravenous drug users (IDU) in the country. We suggest a likely association between HIV risk factors in this group and other groups, such as males who have sex with males (MSM). Methods Data on MSM in Bangladesh was collected and analyzed from numerous primary and secondary sources, including government ministries, non-profit health organizations, and personal communications. Results The overall ...

  12. Prevalence of HIV infection and high-risk characteristics among leprosy patients of south India; a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekar, B; Jayasheela, M; Chattopadhya, D; Anandan, D; Rathinavel, L; Vasanthi, B; Subramanian, M; Rao, P S

    1994-12-01

    With the observation of the occurrence of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among leprosy patients in our pilot study carried out in Tamil Nadu, South India, a case-control study was planned to explore whether HIV infection is a risk factor for leprosy and to understand the characteristics of HIV infection and high-risk behaviors among leprosy patients. We screened 556 patients and 1004 nonleprosy controls (matching 502 cases for age, sex and area of residence) for HIV-1 and HIV-2 antibodies. They also were interviewed for personal information on history of blood transfusion, intravenous drug abuse, high-risk sexual behavior, and sexually transmitted diseases. Of the 1019 total cases screened (of both pilot and extended studies), 5 were found to be position for HIV antibodies (HIV-1 = 4, HIV-2 = 1); of the 1019 nonleprosy controls, 6 were positive for HIV-1 antibodies. An analysis by odds ratio revealed no association between leprosy and HIV infection (OR = 0.824, 95% CI = 0.201-3.593). A strong association was found only between high-risk behavior and HIV infection (OR = 5.186, 95% CI = 1.717-15.667). However, unmarried, unmarried after 30 years of age, exposure to spouses of the leprosy patients, and a history of surgery were all observed to be significantly more common among leprosy patients than the controls.

  13. HIV Infection and the Epidemiology of Invasive Pneumococcal Disease (IPD in South African Adults and Older Children Prior to the Introduction of a Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (PCV.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Meiring

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae is the commonest cause of bacteremic pneumonia among HIV-infected persons. As more countries with high HIV prevalence are implementing infant pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV programs, we aimed to describe the baseline clinical characteristics of adult invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD in the pre-PCV era in South Africa in order to interpret potential indirect effects following vaccine use.National, active, laboratory-based surveillance for IPD was conducted in South Africa from 1 January 2003 through 31 December 2008. At 25 enhanced surveillance (ES hospital sites, clinical data, including HIV serostatus, were collected from IPD patients ≥ 5 years of age. We compared the clinical characteristics of individuals with IPD in those HIV-infected and -uninfected using multivariable analysis. PCV was introduced into the routine South African Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI in 2009.In South Africa, from 2003-2008, 17 604 cases of IPD occurred amongst persons ≥ 5 years of age, with an average incidence of 7 cases per 100 000 person-years. Against a national HIV-prevalence of 18%, 89% (4190/4734 of IPD patients from ES sites were HIV-infected. IPD incidence in HIV-infected individuals is 43 times higher than in HIV-uninfected persons (52 per 100 000 vs. 1.2 per 100 000, with a peak in the HIV-infected elderly population of 237 per 100 000 persons. Most HIV-infected individuals presented with bacteremia (74%, 3 091/4 190. HIV-uninfected individuals were older; and had more chronic conditions (excluding HIV than HIV-infected persons (39% (210/544 vs. 19% (790/4190, p<0.001. During the pre-PCV immunization era in South Africa, 71% of serotypes amongst HIV-infected persons were covered by PCV13 vs. 73% amongst HIV-uninfected persons, p = 0.4, OR 0.9 (CI 0.7-1.1.Seventy to eighty-five percent of adult IPD in the pre-PCV era were vaccine serotypes and 93% of cases had recognized risk factors (including HIV-infection for

  14. Body composition and lipodystrophy in prepubertal HIV-infected children

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    Cecilia Zanin Palchetti

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify lipodystrophy in prepubertal HIV-infected children using anthropometric parameters and body composition assessment. METHODS: Cross-sectional study including 40 prepubertal HIV-infected children of both genders seen at the Care Center of the Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases - Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo city, Brazil, was carried out from August to December 2008. Age, clinical and immunological status, prophylaxis, transmission and highly active antiretroviral therapy were recorded. Body mass index z-score and height-for-age z-score were calculated to characterize the nutritional status. Circumferences were measured with flexible tape and skinfolds were assessed by an adipometry. Fat mass and lean mass were determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Presence of clinical signs of lipodystrophy was assessed by a trained clinician. Data were analyzed using SPSS 12.0 software. RESULTS: The mean age and standard deviation were 9.8 (1.2 years, 50% were girls and 82.5% children from B and C categories. Clinical lipodystrophy and dislypidemia were present in 27.5% and 70%, respectively. The trunk to arm ratio and the limb to trunk ratio had positive association with lipodystrophy. Patients with lipodystrophy had short stature, higher triglycerides values and lower HDL-cholesterol. CONCLUSION: The ratios obtained by skinfolds and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measurements can be considered as indicators of preclinical lipodystrophy. The cutoff points have not been determined yet; however, continuous assessment may be useful to identify early body composition changes.

  15. Time trends for risk of severe age-related diseases in individuals with and without HIV infection in Denmark: a nationwide population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Line D; May, Margaret T; Kronborg, Gitte; Larsen, Carsten S; Pedersen, Court; Gerstoft, Jan; Obel, Niels

    2015-07-01

    Whether the reported high risk of age-related diseases in HIV-infected people is caused by biological ageing or HIV-associated risk factors such as chronic immune activation and low-grade inflammation is unknown. We assessed time trends in age-standardised and relative risks of nine serious age-related diseases in a nationwide cohort study of HIV-infected individuals and population controls. We identified all HIV-infected individuals in the Danish HIV Cohort Study who had received HIV care in Denmark between Jan 1, 1995, and June 1, 2014. Population controls were identified from the Danish Civil Registration System and individually matched in a ratio of nine to one to the HIV-infected individuals for year of birth, sex, and date of study inclusion. Individuals were included in the study if they had a Danish personal identification number, were aged 16 years or older, and were living in Denmark at the time of study inclusion. Data for study outcomes were obtained from the Danish National Hospital Registry and the Danish National Registry of Causes of Death and were cardiovascular diseases (myocardial infarction and stroke), cancers (virus associated, smoking related, and other), severe neurocognitive disease, chronic kidney disease, chronic liver disease, and osteoporotic fractures. We calculated excess and age-standardised incidence rates and adjusted incidence rate ratios of outcomes for time after HIV diagnosis, highly active antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation, and calendar time. The regression analyses were adjusted for age, sex, calendar time, and origin. We identified 5897 HIV-infected individuals and 53,073 population controls; median age was 36·8 years (IQR 30·6-44·4), and 76% were men in both cohorts. Dependent on disease, the HIV cohort had 55,050-57,631 person-years of follow-up and the population controls had 638,204-659,237 person-years of follow-up. Compared with the population controls, people with HIV had high excess and relative risk of all

  16. Acceptability and feasibility of infant-feeding options: experiences of HIV-infected mothers in the World Health Organization Kesho Bora mother-to-child transmission prevention (PMTCT) trial in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cames, Cécile; Saher, Aisha; Ayassou, Kossiwavi A; Cournil, Amandine; Meda, Nicolas; Simondon, Kirsten Bork

    2010-07-01

    In Burkina Faso, prolonged breastfeeding with introduction of ritual fluids from birth is a deep-seated norm. We explored HIV-infected mothers' views and experiences of the acceptability and feasibility of the World Health Organization's recommended infant-feeding options within a mother-to-child-transmission prevention trial. A qualitative study was conducted on 17 formula-feeding and 19 breastfeeding mothers, from a larger cohort of 51 eligible HIV-infected women, consenting to participate in separate focus group discussions in early post-partum. Mothers opted for breastfeeding essentially out of fear of family rejection. Most of them were afraid of denigration for disrespecting tradition if they formula-fed or being suspected of HIV infection. Achieving exclusive breastfeeding remained a difficult challenge as they engaged in a continuous struggle with close elders to avoid fluid feeding. Additional stress and fatigue were fed by their perception of a high transmission risk through breast milk. Exclusive formula-feeding seemed easier to implement, especially as formula was provided free of charge. Formula-feeding mothers more frequently had a supportive partner, a strong personality and lived in better socio-economic conditions than breastfeeding mothers (76% had education and electricity supply vs. 42%, respectively). Exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months remains the most appropriate option for many HIV-infected mothers in sub-Saharan Africa. Its acceptability and feasibility urgently need to be improved by promoting it as the best feeding option for all infants. Other crucial interventions are the promotion of voluntary counselling and testing for couples, and greater partner involvement in infant-feeding counselling.

  17. Viral hepatitis B, C and HIV infection in Croatian prisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burek, V; Horvat, J; Butorac, K; Mikulić, R

    2010-11-01

    Incarcerated persons comprise about 0.4% of the Croatian population, of whom 25-30% misuse drugs. We attempted to determine the structure of the prison population, prevalence of HBV, HCV, HIV markers, co-infections with HBV, HCV and HIV and acute HBV, HCV and HIV infection. In total, 25.9% of prisoners were positive for some markers for viral hepatitis (HBV 11.3%, HCV 8.3%, HBV/HCV 6.3%). Prevalence of HBV infection in intravenous drug users (IDUs) was 26.2% (highly promiscuous group 20.4%, individuals with psychiatric diseases and personality disorders 16.0%). HCV infection in IDUs was 52.0% and 4.9% in the highly promiscuous group. HBV/HCV co-infection was registered in 34.9% of prisoners positive for HBV markers (203/582). Acute HBV infection was detected in 0.5%, and HCV in 1.2%. Only 0.15% (5/3348) of prisoners were anti-HIV positive. It appears that individuals with psychiatric diseases and personality disorders could be an additional risk population for these viral infections.

  18. Dynamics of HIV infection in lymphoid tissue network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaoka, Shinji; Iwami, Shingo; Sato, Kei

    2016-03-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a fast replicating ribonucleic acid virus, which can easily mutate in order to escape the effects of drug administration. Hence, understanding the basic mechanisms underlying HIV persistence in the body is essential in the development of new therapies that could eradicate HIV infection. Lymphoid tissues are the primary sites of HIV infection. Despite the recent progress in real-time monitoring technology, HIV infection dynamics in a whole body is unknown. Mathematical modeling and simulations provide speculations on global behavior of HIV infection in the lymphatic system. We propose a new mathematical model that describes the spread of HIV infection throughout the lymphoid tissue network. In order to represent the volume difference between lymphoid tissues, we propose the proportionality of several kinetic parameters to the lymphoid tissues' volume distribution. Under this assumption, we perform extensive numerical computations in order to simulate the spread of HIV infection in the lymphoid tissue network. Numerical computations simulate single drug treatments of an HIV infection. One of the important biological speculations derived from this study is a drug saturation effect generated by lymphoid network connection. This implies that a portion of reservoir lymphoid tissues to which drug is not sufficiently delivered would inhibit HIV eradication despite of extensive drug injection.

  19. Characterizing trends in HIV infection among men who have sex with men in Australia by birth cohorts: results from a modified back-projection method

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    Wand Handan

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We set out to estimate historical trends in HIV incidence in Australian men who have sex with men with respect to age at infection and birth cohort. Methods A modified back-projection technique is applied to data from the HIV/AIDS Surveillance System in Australia, including "newly diagnosed HIV infections", "newly acquired HIV infections" and "AIDS diagnoses", to estimate trends in HIV incidence over both calendar time and age at infection. Results Our results demonstrate that since 2000, there has been an increase in new HIV infections in Australian men who have sex with men across all age groups. The estimated mean age at infection increased from ~35 years in 2000 to ~37 years in 2007. When the epidemic peaked in the mid 1980s, the majority of the infections (56% occurred among men aged 30 years and younger; 30% occurred in ages 31 to 40 years; and only ~14% of them were attributed to the group who were older than 40 years of age. In 2007, the proportion of infections occurring in persons 40 years or older doubled to 31% compared to the mid 1980s, while the proportion of infections attributed to the group younger than 30 years of age decreased to 36%. Conclusion The distribution of HIV incidence for birth cohorts by infection year suggests that the HIV epidemic continues to affect older homosexual men as much as, if not more than, younger men. The results are useful for evaluating the impact of the epidemic across successive birth cohorts and study trends among the age groups most at risk.

  20. HIV infection, aging and cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petoumenos, Kathy; Worm, Signe W

    2011-01-01

    In the developed world, HIV infection is now well managed with very effective and less toxic antiretroviral treatment. HIV-positive patients therefore are living longer, but are now faced by challenges associated with aging. Several non-AIDS associated morbidities are increased in this population......, including cardiovascular disease (CVD). It is suggested that CVD occurs earlier among HIV-positive patients compared with HIV-negative patients, and at a higher rate. Several factors have been proposed to contribute to this. First, the traditional CVD risk factors are highly prevalent in this population....... High rates of smoking, dyslipidaemia and a family history of CVD have been reported. This population is also aging, with estimates of more than 25% of HIV-positive patients in the developed world being over the age of 50. Antiretroviral treatment, both through its effect on lipids and through other...

  1. HIV infection, bone metabolism, and fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güerri-Fernández, Robert; Villar-García, Judit; Díez-Pérez, Adolfo; Prieto-Alhambra, Daniel

    2014-07-01

    With the advent of high active antiretroviral therapy there was a significant improvement on HIV subjects survival. Thus, bone changes related to HIV became an important aspect of these individuals. HIV affects bone remodeling causing bone fragility. In addition, antiretroviral therapy may also negatively affect bone metabolism. Several studies describe an increased incidence of fractures in these patients when compared with controls without the disease. The European Society of AIDS (EACS), and other societies, have included guidance on management of osteoporosis in HIV-infected patients emphasizing the identification of patients with low bone mass. Supplementation of calcium and vitamin D and the use of alendronate in these individuals should be recommended on a case base.

  2. Bladder cancer in HIV-infected adults: an emerging concern?

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    Sylvain Chawki

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: As HIV-infected patients get older more non-AIDS-related malignancies are to be seen. Cancer now represents almost one third of all causes of deaths among HIV-infected patients (1. Albeit bladder cancer is one of the most common malignancy worldwide (2, only 13 cases of bladder cancer in HIV-infected patients have been reported in the literature so far (3. Materials and Methods: We conducted a monocentric study in our hospital. We selected all patients who were previously admitted (from 1998 to 2013 in our hospital with diagnoses of HIV and bladder cancer. The objective was to assess the prevalence and characteristics of bladder cancers in HIV-infected patients in our hospital. Results: Based on our administrative HIV database (6353 patients, we found 15 patients (0.2% with a bladder cancer. Patients’ characteristics are presented in Table 1. Patients were mostly men and heavy smokers. Their median nadir CD4 cell count was below 200 and most had a diagnosis of AIDS. A median time of 14 years was observed in those patients, between the diagnosis of HIV-infection and the occurrence of bladder cancer, although in patients much younger (median age 56 than those developing bladder cancer without HIV infection (71.1 years (4. Haematuria was the most frequent diagnosis circumstance in HIV-infected patients who had relatively preserved immune function on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART. Histopathology showed relatively advanced cancers at diagnosis with a high percentage of non transitional cell carcinoma (TCC tumor and of TCC with squamous differentiation, suggesting a potential role for human papilloma virus (HPV co-infection. Death rate was high in this population. Conclusions: Bladder cancers in HIV-infected patients remain rare but occur in relatively young HIV-infected patients with a low CD4 nadir, presenting with haematuria, most of them being smokers, and have aggressive pathological features that are associated with

  3. Early syphilis affects markers of HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsafti, Ourania; Paparizos, Vassilios; Kourkounti, Sofia; Chatziioannou, Argiro; Nicolaidou, Electra; Kapsimali, Violetta; Antoniou, Christina

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate if early syphilis infection affects markers of HIV infection; CD4 T cells and viral load (VL). A retrospective study was performed on 160 HIV-positive patients (111 receiving antiretroviral therapy [ART] and 49 without ART). Early syphilis diagnosis was made in HIV patients during their follow-up at the HIV/AIDS Unit at a Greek Dermatology and Venereology Unit. The patients' blood tests were available at the time of diagnosis, as well as before and 12 weeks after early syphilis diagnosis. CD4 T cell counts and VL levels were measured. It was found that syphilis infection had a negative impact on the CD4 T cell counts in both groups, with reduced CD4 T cell counts observed in 84.6% (99/111) and 79.5% (39/49) of patients receiving and not receiving ART, respectively. After treatment for syphilis, CD4 T cell counts returned to pre-treatment levels in most patients, especially those receiving ART. There was a slight and transient VL increase. Patients receiving ART had a 27% increase in VL, compared to 71.4% among patients not receiving ART. Although the VL increase was slight (41-14,000 copies/ml) in the group under treatment, 4-5% (5/111) patients did not return to pre-treatment levels. Moreover, viral mutations associated with treatment resistance were identified in these patients. Early syphilis accelerates and complicates the progression of HIV infection. Early diagnosis and treatment of syphilis may prevent infection-associated complications in most instances. Consequently, prevention of syphilis and other sexually transmitted infections is of great importance for patients infected with HIV. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. Risk factors for HIV infection in males who have sex with males (MSM) in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Philip A; Khan, Omar A

    2007-07-12

    Recent surveillance data from Bangladesh indicate rising HIV infection among intravenous drug users (IDU) in the country. We suggest a likely association between HIV risk factors in this group and other groups, such as males who have sex with males (MSM). Data on MSM in Bangladesh was collected and analyzed from numerous primary and secondary sources, including government ministries, non-profit health organizations, and personal communications. The overall prevalence of HIV in Bangladesh is relatively low, but surveillance data indicate that infection has reached significant proportions in certain high-risk groups and may soon spread to other groups, specifically MSM. The epidemiology of HIV infection in other countries suggests that increasing rates of HIV in higher-risk populations can precede an epidemic in the general population. We review the data concerning MSM, IDU and HIV in Bangladesh from a variety of sources and propose ways to prevent HIV transmission.

  5. Risk factors for HIV infection in Males who have Sex with Males (MSM in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Omar A

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent surveillance data from Bangladesh indicate rising HIV infection among intravenous drug users (IDU in the country. We suggest a likely association between HIV risk factors in this group and other groups, such as males who have sex with males (MSM. Methods Data on MSM in Bangladesh was collected and analyzed from numerous primary and secondary sources, including government ministries, non-profit health organizations, and personal communications. Results The overall prevalence of HIV in Bangladesh is relatively low, but surveillance data indicate that infection has reached significant proportions in certain high-risk groups and may soon spread to other groups, specifically MSM. Conclusion The epidemiology of HIV infection in other countries suggests that increasing rates of HIV in higher-risk populations can precede an epidemic in the general population. We review the data concerning MSM, IDU and HIV in Bangladesh from a variety of sources and propose ways to prevent HIV transmission.

  6. Role of biomarkers in predicting CVD risk in the setting of HIV infection?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worm, Signe W; Hsue, Priscilla

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to present recent results on biomarkers and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the general population and to review studies of biomarkers among individuals with HIV infection. RECENT FINDINGS: Several inflammatory as well as lipid biomarkers are associated...... with risk of CVD. Biomarkers associated with inflammation such as C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 have been suggested to improve risk stratification among intermediate-risk persons; however, their routine use is not recommended in the general population. Both biomarkers have recently been reported...... elevated in patients with HIV. Additionally, interleukin-6 and D-dimer have been reported to predict overall mortality among individuals with HIV. However, the utility of other biomarkers to predict CVD among individuals with HIV infection is not clear. SUMMARY: The risk of CVD is increasing in the HIV...

  7. Determinants of developing widened spatial QRS-T angle in HIV-infected individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dawood, Farah Z; Roediger, Mollie P; Grandits, Greg

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A widened electrocardiographic spatial QRS-T angle has been shown to be predictive of cardiovascular disease in HIV-infected individuals. However, determinants and risk factors of developing widened QRS-T angle over time in this population remain unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: Spatial...... QRS-T angle was automatically measured from standard electrocardiogram of 1444 HIV-infected individuals without baseline widened spatial QRS-T angle from the Strategies for Management of Antiretroviral Therapy [SMART], a clinical trial comparing two antiretroviral treatment strategies [Drug...... widened angle at a rate of 7.8 per 100 person-years. In unadjusted models, female sex, black race (vs. white), DC treatment strategy, current and past smokers (vs. never), history of alcohol abuse, greater body mass index, history of diabetes and higher levels of hs-C-reactive protein were associated...

  8. Adherence to infant-feeding choices by HIV-infected mothers at a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HIV-infected women. HIV-infected mothers in developing countries often face complex challenges which influence their choice of infant-feeding practice.1 .... of HIV infection in women of childbearing age, globally, is accounted ..... Prevention and Treatment of HIV Infection in Pregnant Women, Mothers and Children.

  9. Disseminated tuberculosis in an AIDS/HIV-infected patient.

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    Zahra Abdi-Liae

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Disseminated tuberculosis (TB is commonly seen in HIV-infected patients and is major cause of death in these patients. In HIV-infected patients disseminated tuberculosis is frequently undiagnosed or misdiagnosed. In this article we report a case of disseminated TB in a HIV-infected patient with a relatively long history of fever and other complaints without definite diagnosis. Diagnosis of disseminated TB was confirmed by bone marrow biopsy and polymerase chain reaction analysis (PCR of the ascitic fluid. With anti-TB treatment signs and symptoms improved.

  10. Immune response after one or two doses of pandemic influenza A (H1N1) monovalent, AS03-adjuvanted vaccine in HIV infected adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bybeck Nielsen, Allan; Nielsen, Henriette Schjønning; Nielsen, Lars

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Continued research is needed to evaluate and improve the immunogenicity of influenza vaccines in HIV infected patients. We aimed to determine the antibody responses after one or two doses of the AS03-adjuvanted pandemic influenza A (H1N1) vaccine in HIV infected patients. METHOD......: Following the influenza season 2009/2010, 219 HIV infected patients were included and divided into three groups depending on whether they received none (n=60), one (n=31) or two (n=128) doses of pandemic influenza A (H1N1) vaccine. At inclusion, antibody titers for all patients were analyzed and compared.......7% and seroconversion rate of 86.7%. CONCLUSION: A single dose of AS03-adjuvanted pandemic influenza A (H1N1) vaccine created an adequate immune response in HIV infected patients lasting as long as 4-9 months. Two doses improved the immunogenicity further....

  11. Immunity to Diphtheria and Tetanus in HIV-Infected Children

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    A.P. Volokha

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Backgrоund. HIV infected patients are at risk for vaccine-preventable infections such as tetanus and diphtheria. It is important to know about the protection of HIV-infected children from these infections, as there is a risk even after complete immunization. The protective immunity after vaccination against diphtheria and tetanus is measured by the antibodies level against these pathogens. The aim of this study was to evaluate the persistence of immunity to tetanus and diphtheria toxoid in HIV-infected children. Materials and methods. The protective immunity against diphtheria and tetanus was studied in children with HIV infection in the Kyiv City AIDS Center. Immunization rate was evaluated in 142 HIV-infected children. Serum samples were obtained in 59 HIV-infected children (study group vaccinated against diphtheria and tetanus toxoid during routine check-ups. The results of anti-tetanus and anti-diphtheria antibodies were compared with the data of 17 children without HIV (the control group. The mean age of HIV-infected patients was 9.2 years old (range from 1.6 to 15.5 years old. Most children (38/59, 64.4 % had mild clinical manifestations of HIV infection (I and II clinical stage of the disease. 89.8 % (53/59 of children of the group received antiretroviral therapy. The level of CD4+ T-lymphocytes within age norms was in 88.2 % of children receiving ART. Results. The research revealed lower vaccination coverage of HIV-infected children against diphtheria and tetanus (63.3 % than in the general population. Only 19.7 % (28/142 of HIV-infected children were fully vaccinated according to the National schedule against these bacterial infections. A large proportion of children with HIV infection (79.3 % vaccinated against these pathogens does not have protective levels of antibodies against diphtheria. The protective level of antibodies against tetanus was absent in 28.8 % of vaccinated HIV-positive children. Mean level of tetanus

  12. Effect of HIV infection on time to recovery from an acute manic episode

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    E Nakimuli-Mpungu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available E Nakimuli-Mpungu1,2,3, B Mutamba2,3, S Nshemerirwe2,3, MS Kiwuwa4, S Musisi21Mental Health Department, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, USA; 2Department of Psychiatry, Makerere College of Health Sciences, School of Medicine, Kampala; 3Butabika National Referral Mental Hospital, Ministry of Health, Kampala; 4Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Makerere College of Health Sciences, School of Medicine, Kampala, UgandaIntroduction: Understanding factors affecting the time to recovery from acute mania is critical in the management of manic syndromes. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of HIV infection on time to recovery from acute mania.Methods: We performed a retrospective study in which medical charts of individuals who were treated for acute mania were reviewed. Survival analysis with Cox regression models were used to compare time to recovery from an acute manic episode between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-positive individuals and HIV-negative individuals.Results: Median survival time was one week for HIV-positive individuals and more than four weeks for HIV-negative individuals (Χ2 = 18.4, P value = 0.000. HIV infection was the only marginally significant independent predictor of survival probability on the acute admission ward (hazards ratio 2.87, P = 0.06.Conclusion: Acute mania in HIV-infected persons responds faster to psychotropic drugs compared with that in HIV-negative persons.Keywords: HIV-related mania, bipolar disorder, HIV infection, Uganda, immunodeficiency virus

  13. Physical fitness characteristics of active duty US Air Force members with HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, Asha; Xu, Xiaohe; White, James; Sunil, Thankam S; Okulicz, Jason F

    2016-11-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is associated with reduced muscle mass and adverse metabolic effects. We evaluated the impact of HIV infection on longitudinal exercise performance in US Air Force (USAF) members with HIV infection.USAF members perform standardized fitness assessments every 6 to 12 months with a composite score comprised of abdominal circumference, push-ups, sit-ups, and 1.5-mile run. Fitness tests between 2004 and 2014 for male USAF members with HIV infection (n = 172) were compared with male HIV-negative controls (∼10 per case; n = 1636) matched by age and rank category at service entry.Fitness tests for cases (n = 1821) were divided into 2 groups, before (pre-HIV) and after (post-HIV) diagnosis, and compared with control fitness assessments (n = 30,443) by paired t tests. Random-effects regression analyses were also performed to compare fitness components.Mean composite scores for cases were higher post-HIV (87.06 ± 9.10) compared with pre-HIV (84.92 ± 8.36; P = 0.004) and did not differ from respective controls. Compared with pre-HIV, mean push-up (51.50 ± 9.67 vs 50.35 ± 11.18; P = 0.018) and sit-up (51.66 ± 7.81 vs 50.57 ± 9.19; P < 0.001) counts improved post-HIV, whereas run times were similar (11:53 ± 1:42 vs 11:51 ± 2:05; P = 0.056). Regression analyses demonstrated that cases had significantly lower predicted abdominal circumference and push-up counts over time compared with controls, regardless of pre-HIV or post-HIV status (P < 0.05 for all).Although functional limitations may occur in the setting of HIV infection, vigorous exercise performance can be both preserved and improved in HIV-infected individuals at a level comparable with HIV-uninfected persons.

  14. Causal Co-personality: In defence of the psychological continuity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The view that an account of personal identity can be provided in terms of psychological continuity has come under fire from an interesting new angle in recent years. Critics from a variety of rival positions have argued that it cannot adequately explain what makes psychological states co-personal (i.e. the states of a single ...

  15. DRUG PROVISION OF HIV INFECTED CRIMINALS IN INSTITUTIONS OF CRIMINAL-EXECUTIVE SYSTEM OF KRASNODAR REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Kalinin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV leads not only to loss of health in persons held in penitentiary institutions, but also to an increase in material costs for drug coverage of the infected, causing the deficit in the budget of the Russian Federation.The aim of the study is the investigation of the problems in drug supply of HIV-infected people and to search for their solutions.Materials and methods. The investigation was conducted on the basis of statistic data, medical statements and accounting to reports of the penitentiary medical organization using methods of analysis, documentary observation, grouping and comparison of data.Results and discussion. It has been established that in institutions of the penal system the number of HIV-infected criminals continues to grow rapidly. It has been determined that currently in the criminal-executive system (CES of Kuban’ only 5 classes of antiretroviral drugs out of the 10 classes represented on the Russian pharmacy market are used. Hereby the greatest number of drugs used in prison medical organization for conducting antiretroviral therapy (ARVT, are classified as “Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors” and “Protease Inhibitors”, and other classes of art drugs are represented by only one international nonproprietary name (raltegravir, enfuvirtide, etravirine. Drug treatment of socially significant infectious diseases is supplied centrally and completely satisfies regional needs. The structure of suppliers has been identified and determined. In 2016 the main suppliers were Joint-stock companies (JSC “National Immunobiological Company” and “R-PHARM”. An acute shortage of drugs for opportunistic infections due to insufficient funding has also been determined. The necessity for urgent replacement of material-technical base in prison pharmacies for compliance with the rules of storage of medicines which can ensure their safety was identified. The imperfection of

  16. HIV Infection Is Associated with Increased Fatty Infiltration of the Thigh Muscle with Aging Independent of Fat Distribution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javzandulam Natsag

    Full Text Available Lower muscle density on computed tomography (CT provides a measure of fatty infiltration of muscle, an aspect of muscle quality that has been associated with metabolic abnormalities, weakness, decreased mobility, and increased fracture risk in older adults. We assessed the cross-sectional relationship between HIV serostatus, age, thigh muscle attenuation, and thigh muscle cross-sectional area (CSA.Mean CT-quantified Hounsfield units (HU of the thigh muscle bundle and CSA were evaluated in 368 HIV-infected and 145 HIV-uninfected men enrolled in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS Cardiovascular Substudy using multivariable linear regression. Models all were adjusted for HIV serostatus, age, race, and body mass index (BMI; each model was further adjusted for covariates that differed by HIV serostatus, including insulin resistance, hepatitis C, malignancy, smoking, alcohol use, and self-reported limitation in physical activity.HIV-infected men had greater thigh muscle CSA (p<0.001 but lower muscle density (p<0.001 compared to HIV-uninfected men. Muscle density remained lower in HIV-infected men (p = 0.001 when abdominal visceral adiposity, and thigh subcutaneous adipose tissue area were substituted for BMI in a multivariable model. Muscle density decreased by 0.16 HU per year (p<0.001 of increasing age among the HIV-infected men, but not in the HIV-uninfected men (HIV x age interaction -0.20 HU; p = 0.002.HIV-infected men had lower thigh muscle density compared to HIV-uninfected men, and a more pronounced decline with increasing age, indicative of greater fatty infiltration. These findings suggest that lower muscle quality among HIV-infected persons may be a risk factor for impairments in physical function with aging.

  17. Topical application of entry inhibitors as "virustats" to prevent sexual transmission of HIV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Root Michael

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract With the continuing march of the AIDS epidemic and little hope for an effective vaccine in the near future, work to develop a topical strategy to prevent HIV infection is increasingly important. This stated, the track record of large scale "microbicide" trials has been disappointing with nonspecific inhibitors either failing to protect women from infection or even increasing HIV acquisition. Newer strategies that target directly the elements needed for viral entry into cells have shown promise in non-human primate models of HIV transmission and as these agents have not yet been broadly introduced in regions of highest HIV prevalence, they are particularly attractive for prophylaxis. We review here the agents that can block HIV cellular entry and that show promise as topical strategies or "virustats" to prevent mucosal transmission of HIV infection

  18. ERUPTIVE PIGMENTED PATCHES IN A PATIENT WITH HIV INFECTION UNDER HAART

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taeko Nakamura-Wakatsuki

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART is a standard treatment for HIV-infected patients. It has been reported that emtricitabine rarely induces skin pigmentation in the palms and soles. We herein report a Japanese case which presented a number of small pigmented patches on the acral sites. Main observation: A 58-year-old Japanese man complained about multiple brownish skin pigmentations on his both palms and soles after 2 months of HAART therapy. Dermatoscopic observation showed a homogeneous light brown pattern. In spite of continuance of HAART, these lesions spontaneously regressed within 11 months. Conclusion: We should know about the eruptive pigmented patches as an adverse effect under HAART with HIV infected patients.

  19. Nonprogressing HIV-infected children share fundamental immunological features of nonpathogenic SIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muenchhoff, Maximilian; Adland, Emily; Karimanzira, Owen

    2016-01-01

    preventing HIV disease, we investigated pediatric infection, where AIDS typically develops more rapidly than in adults. Among 170 nonprogressing antiretroviral therapy-naïve children aged >5 years maintaining normal-for-Age CD4 T cell counts, immune activation levels were low despite high viremia (median, 26......Disease-free infection in HIV-infected adults is associated with human leukocyte antigen-mediated suppression of viremia, whereas in the sooty mangabey and other healthy natural hosts of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), viral replication continues unabated. To better understand factors......,000 copies/ml). Potent, broadly neutralizing antibody responses in most of the subjects and strong virus-specific T cell activity were present but did not drive pediatric nonprogression. However, reduced CCR5 expression and low HIV infection in long-lived central memory CD4 T cells were observed in pediatric...

  20. Comparison of Risk and Age at Diagnosis of Myocardial Infarction, End-Stage Renal Disease, and Non-AIDS-Defining Cancer in HIV-Infected Versus Uninfected Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althoff, Keri N.; McGinnis, Kathleen A.; Wyatt, Christina M.; Freiberg, Matthew S.; Gilbert, Cynthia; Oursler, Krisann K.; Rimland, David; Rodriguez-Barradas, Maria C.; Dubrow, Robert; Park, Lesley S.; Skanderson, Melissa; Shiels, Meredith S.; Gange, Stephen J.; Gebo, Kelly A.; Justice, Amy C.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Although it has been shown that human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults are at greater risk for aging-associated events, it remains unclear as to whether these events happen at similar, or younger ages, in HIV-infected compared with uninfected adults. The objective of this study was to compare the median age at, and risk of, incident diagnosis of 3 age-associated diseases in HIV-infected and demographically similar uninfected adults. Methods. The study was nested in the clinical prospective Veterans Aging Cohort Study of HIV-infected and demographically matched uninfected veterans, from 1 April 2003 to 31 December 2010. The outcomes were validated diagnoses of myocardial infarction (MI), end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and non-AIDS-defining cancer (NADC). Differences in mean age at, and risk of, diagnosis by HIV status were estimated using multivariate linear regression models and Cox proportional hazards models, respectively. Results. A total of 98 687 (31% HIV-infected and 69% uninfected) adults contributed >450 000 person-years and 689 MI, 1135 ESRD, and 4179 NADC incident diagnoses. Mean age at MI (adjusted mean difference, −0.11; 95% confidence interval [CI], −.59 to .37 years) and NADC (adjusted mean difference, −0.10 [95% CI, −.30 to .10] years) did not differ by HIV status. HIV-infected adults were diagnosed with ESRD at an average age of 5.5 months younger than uninfected adults (adjusted mean difference, −0.46 [95% CI, −.86 to −.07] years). HIV-infected adults had a greater risk of all 3 outcomes compared with uninfected adults after accounting for important confounders. Conclusions. HIV-infected adults had a higher risk of these age-associated events, but they occurred at similar ages than those without HIV. PMID:25362204

  1. Intimate partner violence among HIV infected and uninfected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intimate partner violence among HIV infected and uninfected pregnant women delivering at a National Hospital in Tanzania: using a modified screening tool. Hussein L. Kidanto, Andrew H. Mgaya, Birgitta Essen ...

  2. Nonconsensual sexual relationship and prevalence of HIV infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NCS) and HIV infection in adolescents. Materials and Methods: Eight hundred and eighty three adolescents from 10 secondary schools were randomly selected and given a questionnaire to fill. All had group pre‑test counseling had HIV screening.

  3. FEATURES OF PNEUMONIA IN HIV-INFECTED PATIENTS

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    M. T. Vatutin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the clinical, diagnostic and treatment features of pneumocystis pneumonia in HIV-infected patients. The clinical case of diagnosis verification in a patient 58 years old with severe respiratory failure is described.

  4. Knowledge and attitudes about HIV infection and prevention of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge and attitudes about HIV infection and prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV in an urban, low income community in Durban, South Africa: Perspectives of residents and health care volunteers.

  5. Effects of methamphetamine dependence and HIV infection on cerebral morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jernigan, Terry Lynne; Gamst, Abthony C; Archibald, Sarah L.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors examined the separate and combined effects of methamphetamine dependence and HIV infection on brain morphology. METHOD: Morphometric measures obtained from magnetic resonance imaging of methamphetamine-dependent and/or HIV-positive participants and their appropriate age......- and education-matched comparison groups were analyzed. Main effects of age, HIV infection, methamphetamine dependence, and the interactions of these factors were examined in analyses of cerebral gray matter structure volumes. RESULTS: Independent of the effect of age, HIV infection was associated with reduced...... volumes of cortical, limbic, and striatal structures. There was also some evidence of an interaction between age and HIV infection such that older HIV-positive participants suffered disproportionate loss. Methamphetamine dependence was surprisingly associated with basal ganglia and parietal cortex volume...

  6. Neutropenia during HIV Infection: Adverse Consequences and Remedies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xin; Sims, Matthew D; Hanna, Michel M; Xie, Ming; Gulick, Peter G; Zheng, Yong-Hui; Basson, Marc D; Zhang, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Neutropenia frequently occurs in patients with Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Causes for neutropenia during HIV infection are multifactoral, including the viral toxicity to hematopoietic tissue, the use of myelotoxic agents for treatment, complication with secondary infections and malignancies, as well as the patient’s association with confounding factors which impair myelopoiesis. An increased prevalence and severity of neutropenia is commonly seen in advanced stages of HIV disease. Decline of neutrophil phagocytic defense in combination with the failure of adaptive immunity renders the host highly susceptible to developing fatal secondary infections. Neutropenia and myelosuppression also restrict the use of many antimicrobial agents for treatment of infections caused by HIV and opportunistic pathogens. In recent years, HIV infection has increasingly become a chronic disease because of progress in antiretroviral therapy (ART). Prevention and treatment of severe neutropenia becomes critical for improving the survival of HIV-infected patients. PMID:24654626

  7. Neutropenia during HIV infection: adverse consequences and remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xin; Sims, Matthew D; Hanna, Michel M; Xie, Ming; Gulick, Peter G; Zheng, Yong-Hui; Basson, Marc D; Zhang, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Neutropenia frequently occurs in patients with Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Causes for neutropenia during HIV infection are multifactoral, including the viral toxicity to hematopoietic tissue, the use of myelotoxic agents for treatment, complication with secondary infections and malignancies, as well as the patient's association with confounding factors which impair myelopoiesis. An increased prevalence and severity of neutropenia is commonly seen in advanced stages of HIV disease. Decline of neutrophil phagocytic defense in combination with the failure of adaptive immunity renders the host highly susceptible to developing fatal secondary infections. Neutropenia and myelosuppression also restrict the use of many antimicrobial agents for treatment of infections caused by HIV and opportunistic pathogens. In recent years, HIV infection has increasingly become a chronic disease because of progress in antiretroviral therapy (ART). Prevention and treatment of severe neutropenia becomes critical for improving the survival of HIV-infected patients.

  8. Emmonsia helica Infection in HIV-Infected Man, California, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rofael, Martin; Schwartz, Ilan S; Sigler, Lynne; Kong, Li K; Nelson, Nicholas

    2018-01-01

    Emmonsia-like fungi have rarely been reported from North America. We report a fatal case of E. helica infection in a man with advanced HIV infection from California, USA, who had progressive respiratory failure and a brain abscess.

  9. Hearing impairment and deafness among HIV infected children and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hearing impairment and deafness among HIV infected children and adolescents in Harare, Zimbabwe. C Chidziva, J Matsekete, T Bandason, S Shamu, T Dzongodza, N Matinhira, HA Mujuru, C Kunzekwenyika, M Wellington, R Luthy, C Prescott, RA Ferrand ...

  10. Postpartum Sterilization Choices Made by HIV-Infected Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gretchen S. Stuart

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess if HIV-infected women made different choices for postpartum sterilization after implementation of the Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group protocol 076 (November 1, 1994 compared to before implementation.

  11. Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in HIV Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macías, Juan; Pineda, Juan A; Real, Luis M

    2017-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is one of the most frequent chronic hepatic conditions worldwide. The spectrum of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease goes from hepatic steatosis to steatohepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Risk factors for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease are metabolic, mainly obesity and the accompanying consequences. Treatment and prevention of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease should target those metabolic abnormalities. The frequency of and the factors associated with hepatic steatosis in HIV infection seem to be similar to those reported in the general population, though direct comparisons are lacking. Hepatic steatosis in HIV infection may also be secondary to antiretroviral drugs or HCV-related factors in HCV-coinfected subjects. However, more recent data suggest that hepatic steatosis in HIV infection represents true non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. As such, management of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in HIV infection should follow the same principles as in the general population.

  12. Psychiatric Morbidity in HIV-infected Male Prisoners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Yu-Chang Peng

    2010-03-01

    Conclusion: Psychiatric morbidity is prevalent among HIV-infected male prisoners. Tailored HIV/AIDS education related to mental health is therefore suggested for inclusion as part of a comprehensive HIV/AIDS training program among incarcerated populations.

  13. Prevalence and risk factors of HIV infections among drug users and drug-using prostitutes in Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Hoek, J. A.; Coutinho, R. A.; van Haastrecht, H. J.; van Zadelhoff, A. W.; Goudsmit, J.

    1988-01-01

    In December 1985 we started a study to determine the prevalence and risk factors of HIV infection among drug users and drug-using prostitutes in Amsterdam. Recruitment took place at methadone posts (not drug-free; i.e. a low-threshold programme on which some drug users continue to use hard drugs,

  14. Yellow fever vaccine for patients with HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barte, Hilary; Horvath, Tara H; Rutherford, George W

    2014-01-23

    Yellow fever (YF) is an acute viral haemorrhagic disease prevalent in tropical Africa and Latin America. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that there are 200,000 cases of YF and 30,000 deaths worldwide annually. Treatment for YF is supportive, but a live attenuated virus vaccine is effective for preventing infection. WHO recommends immunisation for all individuals > 9 months living in countries or areas at risk. However, the United States Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) advises that YF vaccine is contraindicated in individuals with HIV. Given the large populations of HIV-infected individuals living in tropical areas where YF is endemic, YF vaccine may be an important intervention for preventing YF in immunocompromised populations. To assess the risk and benefits of YF immunisation for people infected with HIV. We used standard Cochrane methods to search electronic databases and conference proceedings with relevant search terms without limits to language. Randomised controlled trials and cohort studies of individuals with HIV infection who received YF vaccine (17DD or 17D-204). Two authors screened abstracts of references identified by electronic or bibliographic searches according to inclusion and exclusion criteria as detailed in the protocol. We identified 199 references and examined 19 in detail for study eligibility. Data were abstracted independently using a standardised abstraction form. Three cohort studies were included in the review. They examined 484 patients with HIV infection who received YF immunisation. Patients with HIV infection developed significantly lower concentrations of neutralising antibodies in the first year post immunisation compared to uninfected patients, though decay patterns were similar for recipients regardless of HIV infection. No study patient with HIV infection suffered serious adverse events as a result of YF vaccination. YF vaccination can produce protective levels of neutralising antibodies in

  15. Lipid Profile of Anti Retroviral Treatment Naive HIV Infected Patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hypercholesterolemia [22.4% (22/98) vs. 10.4% (11/106), P = 0.02]. Lower HDL.C was associated with CD4+ cell count < 200 cells/ƒÊL (P = 0.02). Conclusion: Lipid abnormalities are common in treatment.naive HIV.infected patients even in the absence of major host.related risk factors for dyslipidemia. HIV.infected patients ...

  16. Central nervous system manifestations of HIV infection in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, Reena; Andronikou, Savvas; Plessis, Jaco du; Plessis, Anne-Marie du; Maydell, Arthur [University of Stellenbosch, Department of Radiology, Tygerberg Academic Hospital, Cape Town (South Africa); Toorn, Ronald van [University of Stellenbosch, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Tygerberg Academic Hospital, Cape Town (South Africa)

    2009-06-15

    Vertically transmitted HIV infection is a major problem in the developing world due to the poor availability of antiretroviral agents to pregnant women. HIV is a neurotrophic virus and causes devastating neurological insults to the immature brain. The effects of the virus are further compounded by the opportunistic infections and neoplasms that occur as a result of the associated immune suppression. This review focuses on the imaging features of HIV infection and its complications in the central nervous system. (orig.)

  17. Within-prison drug injection among HIV-infected Ukrainian prisoners: prevalence and correlates of an extremely high-risk behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izenberg, Jacob M; Bachireddy, Chethan; Wickersham, Jeffrey A; Soule, Michael; Kiriazova, Tetiana; Dvoriak, Sergii; Altice, Frederick L

    2014-09-01

    In Ukraine, HIV-infection, injection drug use, and incarceration are syndemic; however, few services are available to incarcerated people who inject drugs (PWIDs). While data are limited internationally, within-prison drug injection (WP-DI) appears widespread and may pose significant challenges in countries like Ukraine, where PWIDs contribute heavily to HIV incidence. To date, WP-DI has not been specifically examined among HIV-infected prisoners, the only persons that can transmit HIV. A convenience sample of 97 HIV-infected adults recently released from prison within 1-12 months was recruited in two major Ukrainian cities. Post-release surveys inquired about WP-DI and injection equipment sharing, as well as current and prior drug use and injection, mental health, and access to within-prison treatment for HIV and other comorbidities. Logistic regression identified independent correlates of WP-DI. Complete data for WP-DI were available for 95 (97.9%) respondents. Overall, 54 (56.8%) reported WP-DI, among whom 40 (74.1%) shared injecting equipment with a mean of 4.4 (range 0-30) other injectors per needle/syringe. Independent correlates of WP-DI were recruitment in Kyiv (AOR 7.46, p=0.003), male gender (AOR 22.07, p=0.006), and active pre-incarceration opioid use (AOR 8.66, p=0.005). Among these recently released HIV-infected prisoners, WP-DI and injection equipment sharing were frequent and involved many injecting partners per needle/syringe. The overwhelming majority of respondents reporting WP-DI used opioids both before and after incarceration, suggesting that implementation of evidence-based harm reduction practices, such as opioid substitution therapy and/or needle/syringe exchange programmes within prison, is crucial to addressing continuing HIV transmission among PWIDs within prison settings. The positive correlation between Kyiv site and WP-DI suggests that additional structural interventions may be useful. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  18. Personality as continuous stochastic process: what Western personality theory can learn from classical confucianism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Peter J

    2014-06-01

    An important objective of personality psychology is to provide compelling descriptions and explanations of intraindividual personality dynamics that capture the unique qualities of persons. Among contemporary Western personality theories, the Five-Factor Model enjoys prominence in describing individual differences in personality traits. It falls short, however, in its ability to work with intraindividual personality function. This article argues that classical Confucianism, originating 2500 years ago in mainland China, offers Western personality psychologists important theoretical resources for capturing the complex and dynamic processes inherent in human personality. The Confucian perspective emphasizes a behaviorally anchored, continuous, stochastic, process-oriented understanding of the self as relationally constructed and proposes an elegant description of the relational virtuosity of exemplary persons. The article concludes with five characteristics of a Confucian inspired model of personality and questions the viability of a universal theory of personality.

  19. Natural history of anal vs oral HPV infection in HIV-infected men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beachler, Daniel C; D'Souza, Gypsyamber; Sugar, Elizabeth A; Xiao, Wiehong; Gillison, Maura L

    2013-07-15

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals are at greater risk for human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated anal than oropharyngeal cancers. The prevalence of anal vs oral HPV infections is higher in this population, but whether this is explained by higher incidence or persistence is unknown. Oral rinse and anal swab samples were collected semiannually from 404 HIV-infected adults in Baltimore, Maryland. Samples were tested for 37 HPV types using PGMY09/11 primers and reverse line-blot hybridization. Risk factors for HPV persistence were explored using adjusted Wei-Lin-Weissfeld models. The prevalence (84% vs 28%), incidence (145 vs 31 per 1000 person-months), and 12-month persistence (54% vs 29%) were higher for anal vs oral HPV infections, respectively (each P anal HPV than men who have sex with men and women, but a higher incidence of oral HPV infection (test of interaction P anal vs oral HPV infections (aHR = 1.5; 95% CI, 1.2-1.9). The higher incidence and persistence of anal vs oral HPV infections likely contributes to the higher burden of anal as compared to oral HPV-associated cancers in HIV-infected individuals.

  20. An evaluation of an education programme on HIV infection using puppetry and street theatre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, D; Metcalf, C A; Seager, J R; de Swardt, J S; Laubscher, J A

    1991-01-01

    'Puppets Against AIDS' is a novel educational medium being used to try to reduce the spread of HIV infection in South Africa. It involves the use of street theatre employing two-metre-high puppets who act out a story of how one person, who is infected with HIV, passes it onto a series of other people until he eventually dies. The puppet show was evaluated in two phases. The first involved a content analysis of a video recording of the show by a multidisciplinary group, according to a set of criteria for appropriate education on HIV infection. This show was found to be professional and comprehensive in terms of the educational messages provided. Some suggestions were made for improvements. The second phase was a before and after study of the impact on the audience at a series of live shows. The show made a significant contribution to knowledge and intended behaviour in the short term. Overall it was felt that the show does make a valuable contribution, but could be made more effective if incorporated into existing community-based education programmes on HIV infection.

  1. Evaluation of Olfactory and Gustatory Function of HIV Infected Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayotunde James Fasunla

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Compliance with medication requires good sense of smell and taste. Objective. To evaluate the olfactory and gustatory function of HIV infected women in Ibadan, Nigeria. Methods. A case control study of women comprising 83 HIV infected women and 79 HIV uninfected women. Subjective self-rating of taste and smell function was by visual analogue scale. Olfactory function was measured via olfactory threshold (OT, olfactory discrimination (OD, olfactory identification (OI, and TDI using “Sniffin’ sticks” kits and taste function (Total Taste Strips (TTS score measurement was by taste strips. Results. The mean age of the HIV infected women was 43.67 years ± 10.72 and control was 41.48 years ± 10.99. There was no significant difference in the self-reported assessment of smell (p=0.67 and taste (p=0.84 of HIV infected and uninfected women. Although the mean OT, OD, OI, TDI, and TTS scores of HIV infected and uninfected women were within the normosmic and normogeusic values, the values were significantly higher in the controls (p<0.05. Hyposmia was in 39.7% of subjects and 12.6% of controls while hypogeusia was in 15.7% of subjects and 1.3% of controls. Conclusions. Hyposmia and hypogeusia are commoner among the HIV infected women than the HIV uninfected women and the risk increases with an increased duration of highly active antiretroviral therapy.

  2. Lung cancer in HIV-infected patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Palacios

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Several studies have shown that HIV patients are at higher risk of lung cancer. Our aim is to analyse the prevalence and features of lung cancer in HIV-infected patients. Methods: The clinical charts of 4,721 HIV-infected patients seen in three hospitals of southeast Spain (study period 1992–2012 were reviewed, and all patients with a lung cancer were analysed. Results: There were 61 lung cancers, giving a prevalence of 1.2%. There was a predominance of men (82.0%, and smokers (96.6%; mean pack-years 35.2, with a median age of 48.0 (41.7–52.9 years, and their distribution according to risk group for HIV was: intravenous drug use 58.3%, homosexual 20.0%, and heterosexual 16.7%. Thirty-four (56.7% patients were Aids cases, and 29 (47.5% had prior pulmonar events: tuberculosis 16, bacterial pneumonia 9, and P. jiroveci pneumonia 4. The median nadir CD4 count was 149/mm3 (42–232, the median CD4 count at the time of diagnosis of the lung cancer was 237/mm3 (85–397, and 66.1%<350/mm3. 66.7% were on ART, and 70% of them had undetectable HIV viral load. The most common histological types of lung cancer were adenocarcinoma and epidermoid, with 24 (40.0% and 23 (38.3% cases, respectively. There were 49 (80.3% cases with advanced stages (III and IV at diagnosis. The distribution of treatments was: only palliative 23 (39.7%, chemotherapy 14 (24.1%, surgery and chemotherapy 8 (13.8%, radiotherapy 7 (12.1%, surgery 4 (6.9%, and other combined treatments 2 (3.4%. Forty-six (76.7% patients died, with a median survival time of 3 months. The Kaplan-Meier survival rate at 6 months was 42.7% (at 12 months 28.5%. Conclusions: The prevalence of lung cancer in this cohort of HIV-patients is high. People affected are mainly men, smokers, with transmission of HIV by intravenous drug use, and around half of them with prior opportunistic pulmonary events. Most patients had low nadir CD4 count, and were immunosuppressed at the time of diagnosis

  3. Interferon-alpha administration enhances CD8+ T cell activation in HIV infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura Manion

    Full Text Available Type I interferons play important roles in innate immune defense. In HIV infection, type I interferons may delay disease progression by inhibiting viral replication while at the same time accelerating disease progression by contributing to chronic immune activation.To investigate the effects of type I interferons in HIV-infection, we obtained cryopreserved peripheral blood mononuclear cell samples from 10 subjects who participated in AIDS Clinical Trials Group Study 5192, a trial investigating the activity of systemic administration of IFNα for twelve weeks to patients with untreated HIV infection. Using flow cytometry, we examined changes in cell cycle status and expression of activation antigens by circulating T cells and their maturation subsets before, during and after IFNα treatment.The proportion of CD38+HLA-DR+CD8+ T cells increased from a mean of 11.7% at baseline to 24.1% after twelve weeks of interferon treatment (p = 0.006. These frequencies dropped to an average of 20.1% six weeks after the end of treatment. In contrast to CD8+ T cells, the frequencies of activated CD4+ T cells did not change with administration of type I interferon (mean percentage of CD38+DR+ cells = 2.62% at baseline and 2.17% after 12 weeks of interferon therapy. As plasma HIV levels fell with interferon therapy, this was correlated with a "paradoxical" increase in CD8+ T cell activation (p<0.001.Administration of type I interferon increased expression of the activation markers CD38 and HLA DR on CD8+ T cells but not on CD4+ T cells of HIV+ persons. These observations suggest that type I interferons may contribute to the high levels of CD8+ T cell activation that occur during HIV infection.

  4. Identification of recent HIV infections and of factors associated with virus acquisition among pregnant women in 2004 and 2006 in Swaziland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernasconi, Daniela; Tavoschi, Lara; Regine, Vincenza; Raimondo, Mariangela; Gama, Dan; Sulgencio, Leonides; Almaviva, Mauro; Galli, Claudio; Ensoli, Barbara; Suligoi, Barbara; Sukati, Hosea; Buttò, Stefano

    2010-07-01

    HIV continues to spread at high rates in sub-Saharan Africa. In particular, Swaziland is one of the countries most affected by the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Monitoring of HIV infection in Swaziland is being made by periodical investigations on HIV prevalence in pregnant women. However, knowledge of proportion of recent HIV infections is important for epidemiologic purposes to assess HIV transmission patterns. To evaluate the proportion of recent HIV infections among pregnant women and its change overtime and to analyze factors associated with recent HIV infection in Swaziland. HIV-positive sera from pregnant women were collected during the 2004 and 2006 National HIV Serosurveys conducted in Swaziland and tested for the HIV antibody avidity, in order to identify recent HIV infections. Socio-demographic and clinical information was also collected. A multivariate analysis was conducted to assess the association between recent HIV infection and socio-demographic and clinical factors. A total of 1636 serum samples were tested for HIV antibody avidity. The overall proportion of recent infections was 13.8%, with no significant difference between 2004 and 2006 (14.6% vs. 13.1%, P>0.05, respectively). At the multivariate analysis, the younger age [14-19 vs. >or=20 years; adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 2.17, 95% CI: 1.45-3.24], as well as being at first pregnancy (1 vs. >or=2; aOR 1.61, 95% CI: 1.10-2.35) was independently associated with recent HIV infection. This study shows no significant difference in the proportion of recent infections between 2004 and 2006 and suggests that young women and women at their first pregnancy are currently high-risk groups for HIV acquisition, highlighting the importance of developing targeted youth programmes to reduce the spread of HIV infection in the country. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. HIV-infected mental health patients: characteristics and comparison with HIV-infected patients from the general population and non-infected mental health patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schade, A.; Grootheest, G.; Smit, J.H.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: HIV-infected patients are at increased risk of developing mental health symptoms, which negatively influence the treatment of the HIV-infection. Mental health problems in HIV-infected patients may affect public health. Psychopathology, including depression and substance abuse, can

  6. [An epidemiological study on HIV infection in Ruili county Yunnan Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J P

    1991-02-01

    The study of 2530 persons in Ruili county for HIV infection showed that the high-risk population were drug users and the wives of infected persons. The introvanous drug users (IVDUs) have been seriously infected by the highest rate of 67.98%. The sexual transmission male to female have occurred, and 2 out of 64 wives of infected husbands (3.13%) were affected. Seventy-five Burmese were examined and 10 (13.3%) were positives. No positive was found in other population including prostitutes, waiters and waitress of hotel, doctors, clinic patients and blood donors etc.

  7. Autophagy in Mycobacterium tuberculosis and HIV infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucile eEspert

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb are among the most lethal human pathogens worldwide, each being responsible for around 1.5 million deaths annually. Moreover, synergy between acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS and tuberculosis (TB has turned HIV/M.tb co-infection into a major public health threat in developing countries. In the past decade, autophagy, a lysosomal catabolic process, has emerged as a major host immune defense mechanism against infectious agents like M.tb and HIV. Nevertheless, in some instances, autophagy machinery appears to be instrumental for HIV infection. Finally, there is mounting evidence that both pathogens deploy various countermeasures to thwart autophagy. This mini-review proposes an overview of the roles and regulations of autophagy in HIV and M.tb infections with an emphasis on microbial factors. We also discuss the role of autophagy manipulation in the context of HIV/M.tb co-infection. In future, a comprehensive understanding of autophagy interaction with these pathogens will be critical for development of autophagy-based prophylactic and therapeutic interventions for AIDS and TB.

  8. Nanotechnology and the Treatment of HIV Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raveen Parboosing

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Suboptimal adherence, toxicity, drug resistance and viral reservoirs make the lifelong treatment of HIV infection challenging. The emerging field of nanotechnology may play an important role in addressing these challenges by creating drugs that possess pharmacological advantages arising out of unique phenomena that occur at the “nano” scale. At these dimensions, particles have physicochemical properties that are distinct from those of bulk materials or single molecules or atoms. In this review, basic concepts and terms in nanotechnology are defined, and examples are provided of how nanopharmaceuticals such as nanocrystals, nanocapsules, nanoparticles, solid lipid nanoparticles, nanocarriers, micelles, liposomes and dendrimers have been investigated as potential anti-HIV therapies. Such drugs may, for example, be used to optimize the pharmacological characteristics of known antiretrovirals, deliver anti-HIV nucleic acids into infected cells or achieve targeted delivery of antivirals to the immune system, brain or latent reservoirs. Also, nanopharmaceuticals themselves may possess anti-HIV activity. However several hurdles remain, including toxicity, unwanted biological interactions and the difficulty and cost of large-scale synthesis of nanopharmaceuticals.

  9. Inflammation and pharmacokinetics: potential implications for HIV-infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Sharon M; Castillo-Mancilla, Jose R; Erlandson, Kristine M; Anderson, Peter L

    2017-06-01

    The physiological changes accompanying inflammation may alter the pharmacokinetics (PK) of certain medications. Individuals infected with HIV have chronically elevated inflammatory markers despite viral suppression following effective antiretroviral therapy (ART), as well as age-related inflammation. Understanding the potential clinical implications of inflammation on the PK of medications is important for understanding dose-response relationships and necessitates future research. Areas covered: An extensive literature search was carried out using PubMed and associated bibliographies to summarize the current state of knowledge regarding altered PK in response to inflammation and its application to the field of HIV. Expert opinion: Preclinical and clinical studies show that inflammation leads to a downregulation of certain drug metabolizing enzymes and both up and down regulation of transporters depending on the transporter and cell type. Decreased gastric acidity, fluid shifts, and plasma protein alterations also occur with inflammation, leading to potential absorption, distribution, and clearance changes. More research is needed including controlled PK studies to address the clinical relevance of these observations, especially in the aging HIV-infected population. Results from future studies will enable us to better predict drug concentrations in individuals with inflammation, in line with efforts to provide personalized pharmacotherapy in our healthcare system.

  10. Changes in macronutrient intake among HIV-infected children between 1995 and 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Tanvi S; Kinnamon, Daniel D; Duggan, Christopher; Weinberg, Geoffrey A; Furuta, Lauren; Bechard, Lori; Nicchitta, Jeanne; Gorbach, Sherwood L; Miller, Tracie L

    2008-08-01

    Nutritional concerns in HIV-infected children have evolved, from wasting to obesity and insulin resistance. However, little is known about the diet of these children during this evolution. We analyzed dietary macronutrient intake in HIV-infected children over nearly 10 y. HIV-infected children underwent periodic longitudinal nutritional assessments between 1995 and 2004. Sex-specific initial and final means or proportions and time trends in macronutrient intakes were estimated with regression analyses. Three hundred thirty nutritional records from 49 males and 411 from 67 females were analyzed. Caloric intake exceeded the estimated energy requirement (EER) for ideal body weight in 1995 by 62% for males and 39% for females and decreased by 3% of the EER per year in males (P = 0.02) and by 2% in females (P = 0.004). In 2004, caloric intake still remained >19% above the EER in both groups. Protein intake was nearly 400% of the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for ideal body weight in 1995 among both males and females and decreased by 13% of the RDA per year for males (P = 0.001) and by 21% per year for females (P 60% in both groups in 2004. Females consumed more energy from carbohydrates (P = 0.05) and sugar (P = 0.10) and less from monounsaturated (P = 0.04), polyunsaturated (P = 0.05), saturated (P = 0.03), and total (P = 0.10) fat in 2004 than in 1995. Excessive caloric intake and a shift in dietary composition toward carbohydrates in females suggest that continued monitoring of diet in HIV-infected children is important to avoid increased nutritional risk.

  11. Motivation, management, and mastery: a theory of resilience in the context of HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Santis, Joseph P; Florom-Smith, Aubrey; Vermeesch, Amber; Barroso, Susana; DeLeon, Diego A

    2013-01-01

    Clients with HIV infection have been conceptualized as a resilient population. Although a few researchers have documented resilience among clients with HIV infection, a theory of resilience in the context of HIV infection has not been developed. The purpose of this study was to describe the process by which resilience occurs for clients in the context of HIV infection. Grounded theory methodology was used to sample and analyze data from 15 qualitative interviews with adults with HIV infection. Data were collected until saturation was reached. A theory, motivation, management, and mastery, a description of the process by which resilience occurs in the context of HIV infection, emerged from the data. Many clients living with HIV infection are resilient, despite the physical, psychological, and social challenges of this chronic illness. Nursing interventions to promote resilience among clients with HIV infection should be directed toward identification of client motivation factors and disease management strategies that may influence health outcomes of people living with HIV infection.

  12. Factors associated with abnormal spirometry among HIV-infected individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, M Bradley; Huang, Laurence; Diaz, Philip T; Kirk, Gregory D; Kleerup, Eric C; Morris, Alison; Rom, William; Weiden, Michael D; Zhao, Enxu; Thompson, Bruce; Crothers, Kristina

    2015-08-24

    HIV-infected individuals are susceptible to development of chronic lung diseases, but little is known regarding the prevalence and risk factors associated with different spirometric abnormalities in this population. We sought to determine the prevalence, risk factors and performance characteristics of risk factors for spirometric abnormalities among HIV-infected individuals. Cross-sectional cohort study. We analyzed cross-sectional US data from the NHLBI-funded Lung-HIV consortium - a multicenter observational study of heterogeneous groups of HIV-infected participants in diverse geographic sites. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine factors statistically significantly associated with spirometry patterns. A total of 908 HIV-infected individuals were included. The median age of the cohort was 50 years, 78% were men and 68% current smokers. An abnormal spirometry pattern was present in 37% of the cohort: 27% had obstructed and 10% had restricted spirometry patterns. Overall, age, smoking status and intensity, history of Pneumocystis infection, asthma diagnosis and presence of respiratory symptoms were independently associated with an abnormal spirometry pattern. Regardless of the presence of respiratory symptoms, five HIV-infected participants would need to be screened with spirometry to diagnose two individuals with any abnormal spirometry pattern. Nearly 40% of a diverse US cohort of HIV-infected individuals had an abnormal spirometry pattern. Specific characteristics including age, smoking status, respiratory infection history and respiratory symptoms can identify those at risk for abnormal spirometry. The high prevalence of abnormal spirometry and the poor predictive capability of respiratory symptoms to identify abnormal spirometry should prompt clinicians to consider screening spirometry in HIV-infected populations.

  13. Continued smoking and continued alcohol consumption during early pregnancy distinctively associated with personality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijers, Chantal; Burger, Huibert; Verbeek, Tjitte; Bockting, Claudi L H; Ormel, Johan

    Pregnancy is a unique period to quit smoking and alcohol consumption and although motivated, not all women succeed at this. We investigated the associations of personality with continued smoking and continued alcohol consumption during early pregnancy. In addition, we studied whether antenatal

  14. Immunogenicity of Licensed Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 Monovalent Vaccines in HIV-Infected Children and Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pass, Robert F; Nachman, Sharon; Flynn, Patricia M; Muresan, Petronella; Fenton, Terence; Cunningham, Coleen K; Borkowsky, William; McAuley, James B; Spector, Stephen A; Petzold, Elizabeth; Levy, Wende; Siberry, George K; Handelsman, Ed; Utech, L Jill; Weinberg, Adriana

    2013-12-01

    With the emergence of pandemic influenza A (pH1N1) in 2009, children and youth infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were vulnerable because of immunologic impairment and the greater virulence of this infection in young persons. A multicenter study of the immunogenicity of 3 licensed influenza A (H1N1) monovalent vaccines (1 live attenuated and 2 inactivated) was conducted in children and youth with perinatal HIV infection, most of whom were receiving ≥3 antiretroviral drugs, had CD4% ≥15, and plasma HIV RNA levels Puerto Rico. Over 40% had baseline HAI titers ≥40. For subjects aged 6 months to vaccine. Three weeks after a single immunization with an inactivated vaccine, similar immunogenicity results were achieved in youth aged 10-24 years. With multivariable analysis, only Hispanic ethnicity and CD4% ≥15 were associated with achieving both HAI titer ≥40- and ≥4-fold rise in titer. Although licensed pH1N1 vaccines produced HAI titers that were considered to be protective in the majority of HIV-infected children and youth, the proportion with titers ≥40- and ≥4-fold rise in titer was lower than expected for children without HIV infection. Vaccine immunogenicity was lower in HIV-infected children and youth with evidence of immune suppression. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Superior Glucose Tolerance and Metabolomic Profiles, Independent of Adiposity, in HIV-Infected Women Compared With Men on Antiretroviral Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koethe, John R; Jenkins, Cathy A; Petucci, Christopher; Culver, Jeffrey; Shepherd, Bryan E; Sterling, Timothy R

    2016-05-01

    In epidemiologic studies, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected men on antiretroviral therapy (ART) are at higher risk of incident diabetes mellitus compared with women with similar treatment histories. We used metabolomics to determine whether a sex difference in plasma amino acids, acylcarnitines, and organic acids predictive of diabetes and impaired energy metabolism is present in HIV-infected persons on long-term ART.We enrolled 70 HIV-infected adults (43% women) on efavirenz, tenofovir, and emtricitabine (Atripla) with HIV-1 RNA women had more baseline risk factors for insulin resistance: women were older (46 vs 44 years) and had a longer ART duration (8.4 vs 5.1 years, P women had higher insulin sensitivity compared with men (P women on non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based ART had superior glucose tolerance and lower plasma metabolites associated with the development of diabetes compared with men with similar metabolic disease risk profiles. The relationship between sex and plasma metabolite levels did not significantly differ according to HIV-status among obese subjects, suggesting the observed sex-differences may not be specific to HIV infection.

  16. Microbiota-Dependent Marker TMAO Is Elevated in Silent Ischemia but Is Not Associated With First-Time Myocardial Infarction in HIV Infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haissman, Judith M; Knudsen, Andreas; Hoel, Hedda

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: HIV infection is associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease beyond that explained by traditional risk factors, and altered gut microbiota has been proposed as a potential trigger. Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) is a proatherogenic substance formed in the liver from......-infected persons without MI, assessed at 4 time points from before initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) to last sample before the case's MI (median: 51, range: 0-239 days). RESULTS: There was no difference in plasma TMAO when comparing HIV-infected persons and uninfected controls. TMAO was elevated in HIV...

  17. Features of severe community acquired pneumonia in hiv-infected patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bielosludtseva K.O.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Questions of management of patients with severe community acquired pneumonia (CAP in HIV-infected are particularly acute. Pneumonia etiology, identification and treatment on the background of immune deficiency, its clinical and diagnostic features and tactics are still not clearly described, this significantly increases mortality from CAP in general clinical practice. That is why the aim of the work was to determine clinical features, etiology, severity of systemic inflammation and cellular immunity status of severe pneumonia in HIV-infected individuals. For this, 62 patients with verified severe CAP were observed, after express testing the main group included 11 (17.7% persons with severe CAP and identified HIV-infection who underwent identification of respiratory pathogens, determination of serum levels of markers of systemic inflammation (procalcitonin (PCT and C-reactive protein (CRP, count of CD4, CD8, CD4/CD8 lymphocyte subpopulations. According to the results of causative agent identification in the study group pneumonia caused by Pneumocystis jirivecii (in 9 (81.8% of cases dominated, whereas in 2 other patients (18.2% Streptococcus pneumonia was identified. According to the results of objective examination it turned out that the peculiarities of severe CAP in HIV infected patients is non-manifestal atypical clinical set of symptoms with predominance of respiratory distress syndrome over general intoxication, due to Pneumocystis pathogenetic mechanisms of lung injury (BR in the study group was at 37,5±0,1 per 1 min. of oxygen saturation 79,2±3,0%, and with following minimal inflammatory processes (maximum level of PCT in patients with pneumocystis pneumonia corresponded 0.555 ng/ml. According to the study of cellular immunitit it was found that of study group patients had CD4 count 65% less than in the control group. It turned out that in cases of suspected severe CAP in HIV-infectsd patients sputum PCR method allows to quickly detect

  18. [Intestinal parasitic diseases in HIV-infected patients in Uzbekistan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurtaev, Kh S; Badalova, N S; Zalialieva, M V; Osipova, S O

    2005-01-01

    Intestinal parasitic diseases were diagnosed in 100 HIV-infected patients at different stages of disease (its asymptomatic form, persistent generalized lymphoadenopathy, pre-AIDS, and AIDS) (Group 1), 100 Tashkent residents (Group 2), and 349 patients with gastrointestinal diseases, allergic dermatoses, and skin depigmentation foci (Group 3). The HIV-infected patients were found to have virtually all parasites, such as Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium parvum, Chilomastix mesnili, Entamoeba coli, Iodamoeba butschlii, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Endolimax nana, Blastocystis hominis, Enlerobius vermicularis, Ascaris lumbricoides, Hymenolepis nana, detectable in the population of Tashkent. The highest infestation with intestinal protozoa, including nonpathogenic amoebas and helmninths, was found in Groups 1 and 3. However, in all the forms of HIV infection, the infestation with E. histolytical/dispar was 10 times greater than that in Groups 2 and 3 (1% and 0.8%, respectively). G. lamblia was detected in 16, 21, and 45.2% in Groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. In all the HIV-infected patients, the content of CD8 lymphocytes was increased, but that of CD20 lymphocytes was normal. Parasites were detectable with different levels of CD4 lymphocytes, but C. parvum was found only if its count was > 200/ml. In the HIV-infected patients, the hyperproduction of IgE was caused mainly by helminths rather than protozoa. In these patients, the increased level of IgE was also noted in the absence of parasites.

  19. Faces of Frailty in Aging with HIV Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurn, Marion; Gustafson, Deborah R

    2017-02-01

    The number of adults who are aging successfully and have HIV infection is increasing. More effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens are preventing individuals infected with HIV from reaching end stages of the HIV infection and developing AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome). However, even at lower viral loads, chronic HIV infection appears to have consequences on aging processes, including the development of frailty. Frailty is a term used to describe vulnerability in aging. Frailty indices such as the Fried Frailty Index (FFI), the Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS) Index, and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (CES-D), an index of emotional frailty, associate with or predict clinical outcomes and death. However, even among existing frailty definitions, components require rigorous and consistent standardization. In the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS), we have shown that frailty does not exist in isolation, even in midlife, and we use frailty to predict death. Frailty indices should be systematically used by health professionals to evaluate health and future risks for adverse events. Frailty prevention efforts, especially among those with HIV infection, appear to be essential for "successful aging" or aging without disability or loss of independence and may prevent HIV transmission. Taking care of elderly people is one of the major challenges of this century, and we must expect and be prepared for an increase in the number of aging adults, some of whom are patients with many co-morbidities and HIV infection.

  20. Shifts and continuities in Zulu personal naming practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sihawukele Ngubane

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available It is widely accepted that, in all societies, personal naming practices and culture are intertwined. Given that culture is not static, but dynamic and ever changing, personal names have undergone a major transformation due to socio-cultural and political factors. This article reflects on shifts and continuities in the practice of personal naming amongst the Zulu people. Emerging data demonstrate the evolution from pre-colonial Africa to the post-1994 period in South Africa. It is further illustrated that the reclaiming of indigenous names in the new democratic dispensation is perceived as a way for Africans to re-define and re-affirm their identities, thus de-stigmatising their culture. Ultimately, this article makes a strong argument that personal naming, in any society, is not detached from the socio-cultural environment. Rather, personal naming and culture are inextricably linked to socio-political conditions at any historical moment. This is demonstrated in the shift from personal naming practices greatly inspired by communal values to those steeped in contradictions within the epoch of neo-liberal capitalism. It is, therefore, concluded that shifts in people’s consciousness lead to fundamental shifts in personal naming practices.

  1. Early detection of HIV infection and of asymptomatic sexually transmitted infections among men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coll, J; Videla, S; Leon, A; Ornelas, A; García, F; Fernández, E; Blanco, J L; Carrillo, A; Bravo, I; Meulbroek, M; García-Cuyas, F; González, V; Casabona, J; Leal, L; Clotet, B; Brander, C

    2017-08-24

    To provide data on incidence of early diagnosis of HIV infections and define prevalence and incidence of asymptomatic sexually transmitted infections (STI) in men who have sex with men (MSM). We assessed a prospective cohort study of HIV-uninfected MSM at high risk for HIV infection. Participants were selected through a risk-assessment questionnaire, and they were screened for HIV infection (quarterly) and for other STI (yearly): syphilis, and hepatitis A, B and C (serology); Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in penis and rectum; and human papillomavirus in anus and mouth (PCR). Between November 2009 and October 2012, a total of 258 HIV-uninfected MSM at high risk for HIV infection were included and followed up for a median of 2 years (interquartile range 1.4, 2.5). Nineteen acute HIV infections were diagnosed (incidence, 3.9 per 100 person-years). Prevalence of STI at baseline was follows: syphilis 8.4% (95% confidence interval (CI) 5.4-12.7); hepatitis C virus (HCV) 2.0% (95% CI 0.7-4.8); C. trachomatis in penis 3.2% (95% CI 1.5-6.5) and in rectum 6.5% (95% CI 3.9-10.5); N. gonorrhoeae in penis 2.0% (95% CI 0.8-5.0) and in rectum 6.1% (95% CI 3.6-10.1); human papillomavirus in anal canal 75.7% (95% CI 68.8-81.5) and in mouth 3.8% (95% CI 1.8-7.7). The implementation of the Check-Ear Project in a MSM community centre allowed for the identification of early HIV infections and asymptomatic STI among MSM. The high incidence of HIV infections and the high prevalence of STI strongly support the recommendation of periodic screenings among sexually active MSM. Copyright © 2017 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Trends of mortality and causes of death among HIV-infected patients in Taiwan, 1984-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C-H; Huang, Y-F; Hsiao, C-F; Yeh, Y-L; Liou, H-R; Hung, C-C; Yang, S-Y

    2008-08-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the trends of mortality and causes of death among HIV-infected patients in Taiwan from 1984 to 2005. Registered data and death certificates for HIV-infected patients from Taiwan Centers for Disease Control were reviewed. Mortality rate and causes of deaths were compared among patients whose HIV diagnosis was made in three different study periods: before the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) (pre-HAART: from 1 January 1984 to 31 March 1997), in the early HAART period (from 1 April 1997 to 31 December 2001), and in the late HAART period (from 1 January 2002 to 31 December 2005). A subgroup of 1161 HIV-infected patients (11.4%) followed at a university hospital were analysed to investigate the trends of and risk factors for mortality. For 10 162 HIV-infected patients with a mean follow-up of 1.97 years, the mortality rate of HIV-infected patients declined from 10.2 deaths per 100 person-years (PY) in the pre-HAART period to 6.5 deaths and 3.7 deaths per 100 PY in the early and late HAART periods, respectively (Pdeath was 0.28 (95% confidence interval 0.24, 0.33) in patients enrolled in the late HAART period compared with those in the pre-HAART period. Seventy-six per cent of the deaths in the pre-HAART period were attributable to AIDS-defining conditions, compared with 36% in the late HAART period (Pcauses of non-AIDS-related deaths were sepsis (14.7%) and accidental death (8.3%), both of which increased significantly throughout the three study periods. Compared with patients acquiring HIV infection through sexual contact, injecting drug users were more likely to die from non-AIDS-related causes. The mortality of HIV-infected patients declined significantly after the introduction of HAART in Taiwan. In the HAART era, AIDS-related deaths decreased significantly while deaths from non-AIDS-related conditions increased.

  3. [HIV infection as a cause of accelerated aging and frailty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Zaida; Sánchez-Conde, Matilde; Brañas, Fátima

    2017-06-07

    The HIV-infected population is aging due to the success of combination antiretroviral therapy, which prolongs survival, as well as the growing number of newly diagnosed cases in adults 50 years old and over. HIV-infected individuals suffer from an accelerated aging due to the persistent and chronic activation of the immune system that leads to immune exhaustion and accelerated immunosenescence, even when on optimal immuno-virological control treatment. The clinical expression of the immunosenescence state is an increased prevalence of aging-related non-HIV associated comorbidities and a rising prevalence of frailty occurring earlier than in the general population. Thus, HIV-infected patients are biologically older than their chronological age, and they suffer from aging-related problems, such as frailty, which should be assessed. Copyright © 2017 SEGG. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Loss and Dysregulation of Th17 Cells during HIV Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra L. Bixler

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial translocation across the damaged mucosal epithelium has emerged as a major paradigm for chronic immune activation observed during HIV infection. T helper 17 (Th17 cells are a unique lineage of T helper cells that are enriched in mucosal tissues and are thought to play a central role in protecting the integrity of the mucosal barrier and maintaining immune homeostasis at mucosal sites. Th17 cells are lost very early during the course of HIV infection, and their loss has been shown to correlate with bacterial translocation. Interestingly, Th17 cells are unable to completely recover from the early destruction even after successful antiretroviral therapy (ART. Here, we review some of the potential mechanisms for the loss and dysregulation of Th17 cells during HIV infection.

  5. Factors associated with increased mortality in a predominantly HIV-infected population with Stevens Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Knight

    Full Text Available Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN are life-threatening drug reactions with a higher incidence in HIV-infected persons. SJS/TEN are associated with skin and mucosal failure, predisposing to systemic bacterial infection (BSI, a major cause of death. There are limited data on risk factors associated with BSI and and mortality in HIV-infected people with SJS/TEN.We conducted a retrospective study of patients admitted to a university hospital with SJS/TEN over a 3 year period. We evaluated their underlying illnesses, eliciting drugs, predictive value of bacterial skin cultures and other factors associated with mortality and BSI in a predominantly HIV-infected population by comparing characteristics of the patients who demised and those who survived.We admitted 86 cases during the study period and 67/86(78% were HIV-infected. Tuberculosis was the commonest co-morbidity, diagnosed in 12/86(14% cases. Skin cultures correlated with BSI by the same organism in 7/64(11% cases and 6/7 were Gram-negative. Two of the 8 cases of Gram-negative BSI had an associated Gram-negative skin culture, although not always the same organism. All 8 fatalities had >30% epidermal detachment, 7 were HIV-infected, 6 died of BSI and 6 had tuberculosis.Having >30% epidermal detachment in SJS/TEN carries an increased risk of BSI and mortality. Tuberculosis and BSI are associated with higher risk of death in SJS/TEN. Our data suggests there may be an association between Gram-negative BSI and Gram-negative skin infection.

  6. Increased risk of fragility fractures among HIV infected compared to uninfected male veterans

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Womack, Julie A; Goulet, Joseph L; Gibert, Cynthia; Brandt, Cynthia; Chang, Chung Chou; Gulanski, Barbara; Fraenkel, Liana; Mattocks, Kristin; Rimland, David; Rodriguez-Barradas, Maria C; Tate, Janet; Yin, Michael T; Justice, Amy C

    2011-01-01

    HIV infection has been associated with an increased risk of fragility fracture. We explored whether or not this increased risk persisted in HIV infected and uninfected men when controlling for traditional fragility fracture risk factors...

  7. Impact of the Menstrual Cycle on Immunologic Markers in HIV-Infected Taiwanese Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuang-Han Chao

    2006-03-01

    Conclusions: The CD8+ T cells were increased and activated in women with HIV infection but these alterations were not affected by the menstrual cycle. Therefore, sex hormones seem not to affect the course of HIV infection.

  8. Vaccination scars in HIV infected patients – does vaccinia vaccination confer protection against HIV?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Sanne; Hønge, Bo Langhoff; Medina, Candida

    Vaccination scars in HIV infected patients – does vaccinia vaccination confer protection against HIV?......Vaccination scars in HIV infected patients – does vaccinia vaccination confer protection against HIV?...

  9. Toddler “Functionally Cured” of HIV Infection | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on. Feature: NIH Research Toddler “Functionally Cured” of HIV Infection Past Issues / Spring 2013 Table of Contents Pediatric ... 18 months to a baby girl born with HIV infection. Photo: Jay Ferchaud, University of Mississippi Medical Center ...

  10. The Oral Bacterial Communities of Children with Well-Controlled HIV Infection and without HIV Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany E Goldberg

    Full Text Available The oral microbial community (microbiota plays a critical role in human health and disease. Alterations in the oral microbiota may be associated with disorders such as gingivitis, periodontitis, childhood caries, alveolar osteitis, oral candidiasis and endodontic infections. In the immunosuppressed population, the spectrum of potential oral disease is even broader, encompassing candidiasis, necrotizing gingivitis, parotid gland enlargement, Kaposi's sarcoma, oral warts and other diseases. Here, we used 454 pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes to examine the oral microbiome of saliva, mucosal and tooth samples from HIV-positive and negative children. Patient demographics and clinical characteristics were collected from a cross-section of patients undergoing routine dental care. Multiple specimens from different sampling sites in the mouth were collected for each patient. The goal of the study was to observe the potential diversity of the oral microbiota among individual patients, sample locations, HIV status and various dental characteristics. We found that there were significant differences in the microbiome among the enrolled patients, and between sampling locations. The analysis was complicated by uneven enrollment in the patient cohorts, with only five HIV-negative patients enrolled in the study and by the rapid improvement in the health of HIV-infected children between the time the study was conceived and completed. The generally good oral health of the HIV-negative patients limited the number of dental plaque samples that could be collected. We did not identify significant differences between well-controlled HIV-positive patients and HIV-negative controls, suggesting that well-controlled HIV-positive patients essentially harbor similar oral flora compared to patients without HIV. Nor were significant differences in the oral microbiota identified between different teeth or with different dental characteristics. Additional studies are

  11. Survival Benefit of Kidney Transplantation in HIV-infected Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Jayme E; Gustafson, Sally; Mehta, Shikha; Reed, Rhiannon D; Shelton, Brittany; MacLennan, Paul A; Durand, Christine; Snyder, Jon; Salkowski, Nicholas; Massie, Allan; Sawinski, Deirdre; Segev, Dorry L

    2017-03-01

    To determine the survival benefit of kidney transplantation in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Although kidney transplantation (KT) has emerged as a viable option for select HIV-infected patients, concerns have been raised that risks of KT in HIV-infected patients are higher than those in their HIV-negative counterparts. Despite these increased risks, KT may provide survival benefit for the HIV-infected patient with ESRD, yet this important clinical question remains unanswered. Data from the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients were linked to IMS pharmacy fills (January 1, 2001 to October 1, 2012) to identify and study 1431 HIV-infected KT candidates from the first point of active status on the waiting list. Time-dependent Cox regression was used to establish a counterfactual framework for estimating survival benefit of KT. Adjusted relative risk (aRR) of mortality at 5 years was 79% lower after KT compared with dialysis (aRR 0.21; 95% CI 0.10-0.42; P <0.001), and statistically significant survival benefit was achieved by 194 days of KT. Among patients coinfected with hepatitis C, aRR of mortality at 5 years was 91% lower after KT compared with dialysis (aRR 0.09; 95% CI 0.02-0.46; P < 0.004); however, statistically significant survival benefit was not achieved until 392 days after KT. Evidence suggests that for HIV-infected ESRD patients, KT is associated with a significant survival benefit compared with remaining on dialysis.

  12. Sarcoidosis following HIV infection: evidence for CD4+ lymphocyte dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, David G; Jasmer, Robert M; Huang, Laurence; Gotway, Michael B; Nishimura, Stephen; King, Talmadge E

    2003-09-01

    The chronic granulomatous inflammation of sarcoidosis has been hypothesized to depend on the CD4+ T-helper lymphocyte. HIV infection, which depletes these cells, has been reported to attenuate the manifestations of sarcoidosis. We asked whether the development of symptomatic sarcoidosis in the context of preexisting HIV infection was dependent on the CD4+ lymphocyte count. We performed a retrospective standardized chart review of all patients who developed granulomatous inflammation following HIV infection at an urban academic referral center. We identified seven patients with sarcoidosis within this cohort and compared their CD4+ lymphocyte count to that in a cohort of 16 patients in whom similar granulomatous inflammation was found but who did not have sarcoidosis. We then compared our cases to all reported cases using a systematic literature review. The CD4+ lymphocyte count was > 200 cells/ microL in all of our patients with HIV infection when they developed subsequent sarcoidosis. In contrast, specific etiologies for granulomatous inflammation were found in all 10 HIV-infected patients who presented with granulomatous inflammation and a CD4+ lymphocyte count of 200 cells/ microL. We conclude that the development of the chronic granulomatous inflammation of sarcoidosis appears to depend on the preservation or restoration of the peripheral CD4+ lymphocyte count and that in most cases the CD4+ lymphocyte count exceeds 200 cells/ microL. Furthermore, alternative specific etiologies of granulomatous inflammation are generally identifiable in HIV-infected patients with peripheral CD4+ lymphocyte counts of < 200 cells/ microL.

  13. Testosterone Replacement Therapy and Polycythemia in HIV-infected Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorkas, Charles Kyriakos; Vaamonde, Carlos M.; Glesby, Marshall J.

    2013-01-01

    We conducted a case-control study to assess testosterone use as a primary risk factor for polycythemia in 21 HIV-infected men. Any testosterone use within two months of first elevated hemoglobin was associated with polycythemia (matched odds ratio 6.55; 95% CI 1.83-23.4; P=0.004) and intramuscular administration demonstrated a stronger association than topical use. No adverse cardiovascular or thrombotic events were observed. HIV-infected patients taking testosterone should undergo routine hematologic monitoring with adjustment of therapy when appropriate. PMID:22008652

  14. Distal renal tubular acidosis in a child with HIV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Shanbag

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal tubular acidosis (RTA is not uncommon in HIV-infected children with ad-vanced disease, and has been described mainly due to nephrotoxic anti-retroviral therapy and in association with prophylaxis or treatment of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia with co-trimoxazole. We describe an 8-year-old boy, newly diagnosed to have HIV infection, who presented with distal RTA. There were no features of chronic RTA in the form of rickets or nephrocalcinosis, making an inherited form unlikely.

  15. Sexually transmitted infections among HIV-infected women in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Asavapiriyanont, Suvanna; Lolekha, Rangsima; Roongpisuthipong, Anuvat; Wiratchai, Amornpan; Kaoiean, Surasak; Suksripanich, Orapin; Chalermchockcharoenkit, Amphan; Ausavapipit, Jaruensook; Srifeungfung, Somporn; Pattanasin, Sarika; Katz, Kenneth A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Data on sexually transmitted infections (STI) prevalence among HIV-infected women in Thailand are limited. We studied, among HIV-infected women, prevalence of STI symptoms and signs; prevalence and correlates of having any STI; prevalence and correlates of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) or Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) among women without CT and/or GC symptoms or signs; and number of women without CT and/or GC symptoms or signs needed to screen (NNS) to detect one woman with CT and/or GC ...

  16. Unusual presentation of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis in HIV-infected patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bains, Anupama; Vedant, Deepak; Gupta, Priyanka; Tegta, G R

    2016-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is caused by protozoan parasite of genus leishmania. Visceral leishmaniasis, diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis, and atypical forms of cutaneous leishmaniasis are common in HIV-infected patients. Our patient presented with an obstructive mass in nasal cavity and was diagnosed as a case of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. Spontaneous healing of lesions in HIV-infected patients is rare rather they are unresponsive to treatment and have frequent relapses, especially in patients with low CD4 count. However, in our patient, the lesion improved significantly after 2 months of highly active antiretroviral therapy and co-trimoxazole prophylaxis.

  17. Atypical presentations of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) in HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Ansuya; Paruk, Hoosain; Bhagwan, Bhupendra; Moodley, Anand

    2017-02-01

    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis is a monophasic demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system associated with various viral infections including HIV infection. We present the findings of seven HIV-infected patients with mild to moderate immunosuppression presenting with atypical features. Four patients had a multiphasic course; three patients had tumefactive lesions, and two patients had corpus callosum lesions. Two patients with the multiphasic course also had tumefactive lesions. Their clinical and radiological findings are presented. Despite the few cases, we propose that the dysimmune process lying between marked immunosuppression (CD4  500 cells/μL) might be responsible for these atypical presentations.

  18. Zygomycosis Associated with HIV Infection and Liver Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry Nichols

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Zygomycosis is an increasing threat to patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection. Zygomycosis (formerly called mucormycosis is the fungal infection with Mucor, Rhizopus, or other species that share a common morphology of large empty pauciseptate hyphae with rare random-angle branching and a collapsed “twisted ribbon” appearance. Morphology allows a specific diagnosis on frozen section or smear prior to growth and identification of the fungi in culture which makes it improtant because treatment is different than that for more common mycoses such as candidiasis and aspergillosis. We present an informative and illustrative case of zygomycosis in a patient with HIV infection and liver transplantation.

  19. Dendritic cell based vaccines for HIV infection: The way ahead

    OpenAIRE

    García, Felipe; Plana, Montserrat; Climent, Nuria; León, Agathe; Gatell, Jose M.; Gallart, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    Dendritic cells have a central role in HIV infection. On one hand, they are essential to induce strong HIV-specific CD4+ helper T-cell responses that are crucial to achieve a sustained and effective HIV-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T-lymphocyte able to control HIV replication. On the other hand, DCs contribute to virus dissemination and HIV itself could avoid a correct antigen presentation. As the efficacy of immune therapy and therapeutic vaccines against HIV infection has been modest in the best...

  20. Serological diagnosis of Chagas disease in HIV-infected patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulce Stauffert

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: This study assessed the rate of request for the serological diagnosis of Chagas disease among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-infected patients treated at the Specialized Care Service of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. METHODS: This cross-sectional study used secondary data obtained from the medical records of 252 patients aged between 18 and 75 years. RESULTS: The serological diagnosis of Chagas disease was requested only in 3.2% of cases. CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrate poor adherence to protocols on the part of healthcare professionals, indicating the need to reevaluate the procedures applied to HIV-infected patients from endemic regions for both diseases.

  1. NATURAL HISTORY OF HIV-INFECTION IN CHILDREN WITH THE ROUTE OF INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Denisenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural history of HIV infection in 91 vertically HIV infected patients and in 101 parenterally HIV infected children were investigated. High relative incidence rates regardless of the route of HIV transmission have demonstrated HIV-related symptoms — generalized lymphadenopathy, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, underweight, anemia, prolonged unmotivated fever, and opportunistic infections — bacterial infections, candidiasis, herpes simplex, cytomegalovirus infection. Vertically HIV infected children had higher relative incidence rates of HIV-related symptoms, opportunistic infections and generalized forms of opportunistic infections.

  2. Adverse Reactions of Trivalent Influenza Vaccine in HIV-Infected Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahboube Hajiabdolbaghi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we assessed the adverse reactions to influenza vaccination in HIV- infected individuals. From November 2006 to January 2007, a total of 203 HIV-infected persons were recruited. Demographic data were collected. Subjects were evaluated 48 h and 15 days after vaccination for symptoms and significant health events as possible side effects. Participants were instructed to measure their temperature in the morning and evening for 2 days post-immunization and to assess injection site and systemic adverse reactions. 80.3% of the subjects were male. The mean age of the subjects was 36.9±7.9 years. Local and systemic reactions were reported by 61 (30% and 62 (30.5% persons, respectively. The most common adverse reactions to the influenza vaccine included skin redness (37 cases, induration (32 cases, and pain (55 cases as local reac-tions, and fever (22 cases, myalgia (46 cases, headache (12 cases and weakness (35 cases as general reactions. 1.4 % of the subjects had fever over 38.5 ºC. There were significant associations between myalgia and flushing with CD4 counts (P<0.05. We found no relationship between ad-verse reactions and sex, history of smoking, allergy, alcohol, and drug usage, stage of HIV infec-tion, anti-retroviral therapies, anti-TB medication and previous vaccination. We concluded that inactivated influenza vaccine administered in HIV-infected adults did not result in potential ad-verse events in this study population.

  3. Supporting health care workers in the treatment of HIV-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, M

    1992-03-01

    The care of HIV-infected patients is demanding, raising concerns among health care workers regarding safety, competence, and emotional endurance. Many health care workers are reluctant to undertake this challenging work. For many professions within health care, for example nursing, there is a clearly articulated responsibility to treat all ill individuals. Less unanimity on this point continues among physicians. Clearly, a first issue is to continue the discussion of the nature of physicians' professional responsibilities and to convey an understanding of the duties of physicians to medical students and to those considering careers as doctors. Meanwhile, efforts must continue to recruit individuals in all areas of health care to work with HIV-infected people. To some extent, this process will happen as a natural consequence of the evolution of the epidemic and its decreasing geographic and demographic restriction. "Mainstreaming" AIDS care will also require continuing attention to important issues, such as acquiring and maintaining the requisite professional competence in the management of HIV-related illnesses, ensuring the availability of support services that are required for the comprehensive care of HIV complications, and continuing education on and proactive monitoring of infection control practices. All of these activities assist in the creation of a positive environment for the care of AIDS patients. In addition, the emotional consequences of caring for HIV-infected people should be directly addressed, although there is less information on which strategies are useful. A supportive working environment, characterized by some meaningful element of control by all health care workers not just the medical staff, nonauthoritarian management, explicit and responsive processes for approaching the inevitable ethical dilemmas that arise in the care of HIV-infected patients, and a recognition of the emotional, psychological, and technical aspects of medical care are

  4. Educational attainment and risk of HIV infection, response to antiretroviral treatment, and mortality in HIV-infected patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legarth, Rebecca; Omland, Lars H; Kronborg, Gitte

    2014-01-01

    identified. All-cause MRRs were 1.8 (95% CI 1.0-3.2) and 1.8 (1.1-2.8) for HIV-infected patients and population controls with low educational attainment compared with medium and high educational attainment. MRRs for smoking and alcohol-related deaths were 3.6 (95% CI 1.5-8.9) for HIV-infected patients and 2......OBJECTIVE: To estimate association between educational attainment and risk of HIV diagnosis, response to HAART, all-cause, and cause-specific mortality in Denmark in 1998-2009. DESIGN: Prospective, population-based cohort study including 1277 incident HIV-infected patients without hepatitis C virus...... or intravenous drug abuse identified in the Danish HIV Cohort Study and 5108 individually matched population controls. METHODS: Data on educational attainment, categorized as low, medium, or high, were identified in The Danish Attainment Register. Logistic and Poisson regression were used to estimate odds ratios...

  5. In vitro separation and expansion of CD4 lymphocytes from HIV-infected individuals without activation of HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S D; Nielsen, Jens Ole; Hansen, J E

    1997-01-01

    In order to offer a gene therapy-based treatment against AIDS, it is likely to be necessary to harvest and culture CD4 cells from HIV-positive patients without activating the HIV infection. We have used a magnetic cell sorting (MACS) system to enrich CD4 cells. Using positive selection, CD4 cells...... expression and no loss of polyclonality. Only in two of six cultures were we able to detect HIV-antigen production, and using an LTR-PCR and an RT assay, we did not find activation of the HIV infection during the culture period. Thus, the method described separates and expands CD4 cells from HIV......-positive patients without activation of the HIV infection....

  6. Lung cancer in persons with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigel, Keith; Makinson, Alain; Thaler, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    Lung cancer is emerging as a leading cause of death in HIV-infected persons. This review will discuss the latest scientific evidence regarding the mechanisms driving lung cancer risk in HIV infection, the clinical presentation of lung cancer in HIV-infected persons and recent data regarding the outcomes, treatment and prevention of lung cancer in this group. Increased risk of lung cancer in HIV-infected persons is primarily due to higher smoking rates, but emerging evidence also implicates immunosuppression and inflammatory processes. Lung cancer outcomes may be worse in HIV-infected persons in the antiretroviral era, but this may stem, in part, from treatment disparities. Early detection of lung cancer using chest computed tomography (CT) is being increasingly adopted for smokers in the general population, and recent studies suggest that it may be safe and efficacious in HIV-infected smokers. Lung cancer is an important complication associated with chronic HIV infection. It is associated with unique HIV-related causal mechanisms, and may be associated with worse outcomes in some HIV-infected persons. Smoking cessation and early cancer detection with chest CT are likely to benefit HIV-infected smokers.

  7. Incident anal human papillomavirus and human papillomavirus-related sequelae in HIV-infected versus HIV-uninfected adolescents in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, Tanya L Kowalczyk; Wilson, Craig M; Rudy, Bret J; Sucharew, Heidi; Kahn, Jessica A

    2013-09-01

    Little is known about the incidence of anal human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and related sequelae, as well as factors associated with these outcomes, among adolescents who are HIV infected versus HIV uninfected but at risk. We analyzed the data from a multisite US study, the Reaching for Excellence in Adolescent Care and Health Project. Adolescents aged 12 to 18 years who were behaviorally HIV infected (n = 319) or HIV uninfected but at risk (n = 177) were recruited. Incidence rates for anal HPV, high-risk anal HPV, anogenital warts, and anal dysplasia were calculated using Poisson modeling. Factors associated with these outcomes were examined using Cox proportional hazards modeling. Mean age at entry was 16.8 years; mean (SD) follow-up time for detection of anal HPV was 22.4 (10.8) months. Most participants (76%) were female; 70% were black non-Hispanic. HIV-infected (vs. HIV-uninfected) women had a significantly higher incidence of anal HPV (30 vs. 14 per 100 person-years; P = 0.002), high-risk anal HPV (12 vs. 5.3 per 100 person-years; P = 0.04), and anogenital warts (6.7 vs. 1.6 per 100 person-years; P = 0.002) but not anal dysplasia. Although incidence rates were higher for these outcomes among HIV-infected versus HIV-uninfected men, the differences were not statistically significant. Among women, factors associated with anal HPV and related sequelae differed by HIV status and included biological, behavioral, and HIV-related factors. No factors were associated with outcomes in men. HIV-infected versus HIV-uninfected adolescent women had higher rates of anal HPV and anogenital warts. Because HIV-infected youth are at increased risk of these outcomes, enhanced HPV prevention efforts such as vaccination are warranted for this group.

  8. Liver retransplantation in HIV-infected patients: a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gastaca, M.; Aguero, F.; Rimola, A.; Montejo, M.; Miralles, P.; Lozano, R.; Castells, L.; Abradelo, M.; Mata Mde, L.; San Juan Rodriguez, F.; Cordero, E.; Campo, S.; Manzardo, C.; Urbina, J.O. de; Perez, I.; Rosa Gde, L.; Miro, J.M.; Barrera, P.

    2012-01-01

    Information regarding liver retransplantation in HIV-infected patients is scant. Data from 14 HIV-infected patients retransplanted between 2002 and 2011 in Spain (6% retransplantation rate) were analyzed and compared with those from 157 matched HIV-negative retransplanted patients. In HIV-infected

  9. CASE STUDY A 13-Year-Old HIV-Infected Girl with Thrombocytopenia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    alpha and splenectomy, and for HIV infected children, ART.4 Many of these choices, such as splenectomy and cytotoxic agents, are contraindicated or considered a last resort in HIV-infected children. Studies in HIV-infected children with ITP show ...

  10. Primary HIV infection as source of HIV transmission within steady and casual partnerships among homosexual men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xiridou, Maria; Geskus, Ronald; de Wit, John; Coutinho, Roel; Kretzschmar, Mirjam

    2004-01-01

    To assess the contribution of primary or acute HIV infection to the transmission of HIV among homosexual men in Amsterdam and to investigate how the initiation of treatment during primary HIV infection (PHI) can affect the incidence of HIV infection. A mathematical model describing HIV transmission

  11. DMPD: Is HIV infection a TNF receptor signalling-driven disease? [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18178131 Is HIV infection a TNF receptor signalling-driven disease? Herbein G, Khan... KA. Trends Immunol. 2008 Feb;29(2):61-7. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Is HIV infection a TNF receptor... signalling-driven disease? PubmedID 18178131 Title Is HIV infection a TNF receptor signalling-driven diseas

  12. Erythropoiesis in HIV-infected and uninfected Malawian children with severe anemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calis, Job C. J.; Phiri, Kamija S.; Vet, Raymond J. W. M.; de Haan, Rob J.; Munthali, Francis; Kraaijenhagen, Robert J.; Hulshof, Paul J. M.; Molyneux, Malcolm E.; Brabin, Bernard J.; Boele van Hensbroek, Michaël; Bates, Imelda

    2010-01-01

    Anemia is common in HIV infection, but the pathophysiology is poorly understood. Bone marrow analysis in 329 severely anemic (hemoglobin <5 g/dl) Malawian children with (n = 40) and without (n = 289) HIV infection showed that HIV-infected children had fewer CD34(+) hematopoietic progenitors (median

  13. Diagnostic Performance of a Multiplex PCR assay for meningitis in an HIV-infected population in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Rhein, Joshua; Bahr, Nathan C; Hemmert, Andrew C; Cloud, Joann L; Bellamkonda, Satya; Oswald, Cody; Lo, Eric; Nabeta, Henry; Kiggundu, Reuben; Akampurira, Andrew; Musubire, Abdu; Williams, Darlisha; Meya, David B; Boulware, David R

    2015-01-01

    Meningitis remains a worldwide problem, and rapid diagnosis is essential to optimize survival. We evaluated the utility of a multiplex PCR test in differentiating possible etiologies of meningitis. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from 69 HIV-infected Ugandan adults with meningitis was collected at diagnosis (n=51) and among persons with cryptococcal meningitis during therapeutic lumbar punctures (n=68). Cryopreserved CSF specimens were analyzed with BioFire FilmArray? Meningitis/Encephalitis panel,...

  14. Preventing HIV infection: educating the general public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroger, F

    1991-01-01

    This essay discusses the rationale for targeting HIV prevention programs to the general public, as opposed to focusing strictly on high-risk populations. The author first considers varying definitions of the term "general public," then explains the goal of general public education programs. Additionally, the author lays down the theoretical foundations of general audience education programs and weights related research findings. Finally, he offers recommendations for future practice. Noting the complex socioecological elements involved in health behavior, the author argues in favor of a broad definition for the general public. This broad outlook allows programs to still target high-risk population while not bypassing low-risk persons, who are sometimes treated as irrelevant because they do not contribute to excess morbidity or mortality. When it comes to HIV educational programs for the general public, their goals should be to instruct the public on how the virus is transmitted, to allay unfounded fears, and to increase the level of support for AIDS prevention and control. Such a program would require a theoretical basis drawn from multiple sources: health education, health communication, clinical and social psychology, and social marketing. The author concludes by proving recommendations designed to reinforce existing programs: 1) strengthen efforts to ensure that all people are educated about HIV and to encourage people to treat AIDS patients with compassion; 2) continue to explore for the most effective communication channels; 3) strengthen the communication infrastructure for those who are disenfranchised from health education; and 4) strengthen evaluation efforts of health communication programs.

  15. Bone health in children and adolescents with perinatal HIV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George K Siberry

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The long-term impact on bone health of lifelong HIV infection and prolonged ART in growing and developing children is not yet known. Measures of bone health in youth must be interpreted in the context of expected developmental and physiologic changes in bone mass, size, density and strength that occur from fetal through adult life. Low bone mineral density (BMD appears to be common in perinatally HIV-infected youth, especially outside of high-income settings, but data are limited and interpretation complicated by the need for better pediatric norms. The potential negative effects of tenofovir on BMD and bone mass accrual are of particular concern as this drug may be used more widely in younger children. Emphasizing good nutrition, calcium and vitamin D sufficiency, weight-bearing exercise and avoidance of alcohol and smoking are effective and available approaches to maintain and improve bone health in all settings. More data are needed to inform therapies and monitoring for HIV-infected youth with proven bone fragility. While very limited data suggest lack of marked increase in fracture risk for youth with perinatal HIV infection, the looming concern for these children is that they may fail to attain their expected peak bone mass in early adulthood which could increase their risk for fractures and osteoporosis later in adulthood.

  16. Treating HIV Infection like a Sexually Transmitted Disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    brciin, and may eventually be fatal. Unfortunately, it has been difficult or impossible to implement ... tion, since their sexual behaviour has already led to rhem get- ting a sexually transmitted dieseose. The disease ... Since some STDs could oeluolly facilitate the spread of HIV infection [see below), developing more extensive ...

  17. Innate immune recognition and activation during HIV infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The pathogenesis of HIV infection, and in particular the development of immunodeficiency, remains incompletely understood. Whichever intricate molecular mechanisms are at play between HIV and the host, it is evident that the organism is incapable of restricting and eradicating the invading pathogen. Both innate and adaptive immune responses are raised, but they appear to be insufficient or too late to eliminate the virus. Moreover, the picture is complicated by the fact that the very same cells and responses aimed at eliminating the virus seem to play deleterious roles by driving ongoing immune activation and progressive immunodeficiency. Whereas much knowledge exists on the role of adaptive immunity during HIV infection, it has only recently been appreciated that the innate immune response also plays an important part in HIV pathogenesis. In this review, we present current knowledge on innate immune recognition and activation during HIV infection based on studies in cell culture, non-human primates, and HIV-infected individuals, and discuss the implications for the understanding of HIV immunopathogenesis. PMID:20569472

  18. Establishing support groups for HIV-infected women: Using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HIV-infected women need support to deal with their diagnosis as well as with the stigma attached to HIV. As part of their practical training, Master's-level psychology students negotiated with the staff of four clinics in townships in Tshwane, South Africa, to establish support groups for HIV+ women and offered to assist them in ...

  19. Clinical variations in dermatophytosis in HIV infected patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaviarasan P

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Dermatophyte infections are common in HIV infected patients and can occur at some point during their illness. They may show clinical variations. The present study was to note the prevalence and clinical variations in dermatophytosis in HIV infected patients. Out of 185 HIV infected patients screened at our hospital, the diagnosis of dermatophytosis was made in 41 cases. The prevalence of dermatophytosis was 22.2% Male to female ratio was 3:1 The mean age of our patients was 30.7 years. The occupations of our patients in decreasing order of frequency were labourers (43.9%, drivers (29.3% and rest were housewives, commercial sex workers etc. Heterosexual route was the most common mode of acquisition of HIV infection. Tinea corporis was the commonest dermatophyte infection and was seen in 22 (53.7% cases, followed by tinea cruris in 18 (49.9%, tinea pedis in 7 (17.1, tinea faciei in 6 (14.7% and one patient had tinea manum infection. Tinea unguium was recorded in 11 cases. Out of the 22 patients with tinea corporis, 19 were in the HIV Group IV. Ten of them presented with multiple, large sharply marginated areas of hyperkeratosis resembling dry scaly skin (anergic form of tinea corporis. Proximal white subungual onychomycosis (PWSO, thought to be pathognomonic of HIV was seen in 3 cases only. This study has brought into focus variations in presentations of dermatophytosis.

  20. Prevalence of HIV infection among subjects visitng a private medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An insight into the level of understanding and response to HIV infection was obtained by comparing the number of people that went for voluntary and referred HIV screening for a period of five (5) years (2004-2009) at a private laboratory in Nsukka, Enugu State. Their sexes and ages were equally noted. Blood samples were ...

  1. Oral and dental lesions in HIV infected Nigerian children | Oyedeji ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... study designed to identify the oral lesions in consecutive HIV infected children and their distribution at a Paediatric Anti-retroviral clinic. Information on oral disease and clinical features of the subjects were obtained by history and clinical examination and laboratory investigations by the paediatricians and dental surgeon.

  2. Reduced serum tetanus antibody titre in HIV infected subjects with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tetanus infection is widespread and difficult to completely eradicate. Thus the present study was designed to assess the tetanus antibody titre in HIV infected subjects in relation to the presence or absence of malaria parasitaemia. 107 subjects consisting of asymptomatic group (asymptomatic HIV, n=17 and asymptomatic ...

  3. Sepsis in HIV-infected patients; epidemiology and host response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huson, M.A.M.

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis, we examined the impact of HIV infection on the epidemiology (Part I) of sepsis, and host response (Part II) to sepsis. We studied sepsis patients in Gabon, a setting with a high prevalence of HIV, and in Dutch intensive care units (ICUs). In Part I, we found that HIV positive

  4. Supporting the sexual and reproductive rights of HIV-infected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAJOG. March 2006, V ol. 12, No. 1. Supporting the sexual and reproductive rights of HIV-infected individuals. EDITORIAL. The past 10 years have seen major advances in health care policy and services that support sexual and reproductive rights in South Africa. Significant milestones include the legalisation of termination ...

  5. What Factors are Responsible for Higher Prevalence of HIV Infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The sample size for urban and rural women who had been tested for HIV and ever had sex was 2227 and 6210 respectively. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used. RESULTS: The present study found that rural women were significantly less likely to be HIV-infected compared to urban women (OR ...

  6. Early Infant Diagnosis of HIV Infection in Southeastern Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    for a high level of infant mortality necessitating early infant diagnosis. Serologic tests are not useful because of persistence .... interventions for Prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV infection exist and where ... All mothers who received prenatal care in NAUTH were placed on highly active antiretroviral ...

  7. Prevalence of HIV infection in tuberculosis patients in Nguru ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    None was a homosexual or IV drug abuser. Conclusion: The prevalence of HIV infection among patients with tuberculosis is high in this part of Nigeria and the most active and productive age groups as well as people in the lower socioeconomic stratum are most affected. Keywords: tuberculosis, HIV, prevalence, ...

  8. Reticence in disclosure of HIV infection and reasons for bereavement

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reticence in disclosure of HIV infection and reasons for bereavement: impact on perinatally infected adolescents' mental health and understanding of HIV treatment ... engagement in the process of disclosure of HIV status is necessary to reduce stigma and complicated grieving, and improve mental health in this population.

  9. Survival analysis of HIV-infected patients under antiretroviral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    Abstract. Background: The introduction of ART dramatically improved the survival and health quality of HIV-infected patients in the industrialized world; and the survival benefit of ART has been well studied too. However, in resource-poor settings, where such treatment was started only recently, limited data exist on treatment ...

  10. Children's caregiving of HIV-infected parents accessing treatment in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It discusses the responsibilities and challenges that children face when becoming the primary caregiver to an HIV-infected parent enrolled in an antiretroviral therapy (ART) programme, and the coping strategies these children adopt to deal with hardship. The research draws attention to the difficulties and opportunities of ...

  11. Dyslipidemia among HIV-infected patients | Wiwanitkit | Annals of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Annals of African Medicine. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 13, No 3 (2014) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Dyslipidemia among HIV-infected patients. S Wiwanitkit, V ...

  12. Phocomelia in an HIV infected baby: Case report | Udo | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phocomelia in an HIV infected baby: Case report. JJ Udo, SO Ochigbo, OE Ikpeme, TE Nlemadim. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/njp.v40i4.16 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE ...

  13. The association of TB with HIV infection in Oromia Regional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACIPH_Admin

    Ethiop.J.Health Dev. 2009;23(1). Table 1: The distribution of different forms of TB and prevalence of HIV infection by area of resident in Oromia Region, Ethiopia, 2006/2007. Zone or town. Population. Smear Positive. Smear Negative. EPTB. Retreatment cases. All forms. HIV positive. N. Case/. 1000. N. Case/. 1000. N. Case/.

  14. Tuberculosis among HIV-infected population: incidence and risk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Only prior history of TB disease was found to have a significant association with an increased risk of TB, hazard ratio 5.7 (95% CI 2.0-16.4, p value 0.001). Conclusion: Tuberculosis incidence among HIV-infected adults with medium/high CD4 count in Bagamoyo is lower than in other high TB burden countries. Previously TB ...

  15. Adherence to antiretroviral therapy among HIV-infected subjects in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since the early days of antiretroviral therapy, adherence has emerged a milestone to success. The objective of this study was to evaluate the factors militating against adherence to antiretroviral therapy among HIV-infected individuals in the resource - limited setting of the Niger Delta of Nigeria. A structured interviewer- ...

  16. Impaired distensibility of ascending aorta in patients with HIV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zormpala Alexandra

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our aim was to investigate the aortic distensibility (AD of the ascending aorta and carotid artery intima-media thickness (c-IMT in HIV-infected patients compared to healthy controls. Methods One hundred and five HIV-infected patients (86 males [82%], mean age 41 ± 0.92 years, and 124 age and sex matched HIV-1 uninfected controls (104 males [84%], mean age 39.2 ± 1.03 years were evaluated by high-resolution ultrasonography to determine AD and c-IMT. For all patients and controls clinical and laboratory factors associated with atherosclerosis were recorded. Results HIV- infected patients had reduced AD compared to controls: 2.2 ± 0.01 vs. 2.62 ± 0.01 10-6 cm2 dyn-1, respectively (p -6 cm2 dyn-1, p = 0.01]. In multiadjusted analysis, increasing age and exposure to HAART were independently associated with decreased AD. Conclusion HIV infection is independently associated with decreased distensibility of the ascending aorta, a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis. Increasing age and duration of exposure to HAART are factors further contributing to decreased AD.

  17. Forum: Tuberculosis prevention in HIV-infected pregnant women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Forum: Tuberculosis prevention in HIV-infected pregnant women in South Africa. CE Martin, V Black. Abstract. The high burden of HIV and tuberculosis (TB) among pregnant women in South Africa contributes to a high maternal mortality rate. Isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) is recommended for the prevention of active TB ...

  18. peripheral facial paralysis as a manifestation of hiv infection

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three cases of infranuclear facial nerve palsy associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 are reported. All were previously asymptomatic and had no other symptom suggestive of HIV infection. Two patients had typical Bells palsy while one had a facial diplegia. CD4 cell counts were above 100 ...

  19. The Histological Appearances Of The Adult Kidney In Hiv Infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SITWALA COMPUTERS

    renal pathologies are seen in HIV infection in Europe and. America however, there is no literature on autopsy studies. 9,10 conducted in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS ..... 12. Tan JC, Busque S, Workeneh B, Ho B, Derby G,. Blouch KL, et al. Effects of aging on glomerular function and number in living kidney donors.

  20. Prevalence of HIV infection among premarital couples in southeast ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Catholic Church in Nigeria offers premarital HIV screening to couples, yet instances of voluntary screening are rare in southeast Nigeria. This study examines the contribution of such tests to HIV detection, and evaluates the prevalence of HIV infection in southeast Nigeria among couples who are planning to marry.

  1. Adherence to antiretroviral therapy among HIV-infected children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adherence to antiretroviral therapy among HIV-infected children receiving care at Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre (KCMC), Northern Tanzania: A cross- sectional analytical study. Amos Haki Nsheha, Dorothy Elizabeth Dow, Gabriel Erick Kapanda, Bernardus Carolus Hamel, Levina January Msuya ...

  2. Prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among pregnant women in an antenatal clinic in Port-Harcourt, Nigeria. ... 6, No 3 (2007) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... A total of 10,032 pregnant women were screened for the possible occurrence of HIV 1 and HIV 2 within the period.

  3. Awareness of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the level of awareness of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection among antenatal clients in Nnewi Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: A cross sectional descriptive study of six hundred consecutive antenatal clients attending the Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital and five private ...

  4. Care of women with HIV infection - a gynaecologist/obstetrician's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Women, especially those in the reproductive age group, make up more than 50% of people living with HIV/AIDS worldwide. Most of these infections are acquired via heterosexual transmission, and therefore the interaction between HIV infection and most of the gynaecological conditions is to be expected. Further research is ...

  5. Thrombocytopenia in Haart naive HIV infected patients attending the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Haematological abnormalities are common in HIV infected patients. Thrombocytopenia has been associated with progression of disease. The presence of thrombocytopenia is significantly associated with decreased survival and is a predictor of mortality. Objective: To determine the prevalence of ...

  6. HIV infection, tuberculosis and workload in a general paediatric ward

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim. To describe the impact of HIV infection and tuberculosis on the workload of a general paediatric ward at Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital in 2007. Methods. Prospective descriptive surveillance of the patient composition of a general paediatric ward over a 1-year period. Results. Median bed occupancy was ...

  7. Anthropometric measurements of HIV-infected children aged one to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-10-12

    Oct 12, 2015 ... Abstract: Objectives: To deter- mine the association between HIV infection and anthropometric measures (weight, height, mid- upper arm circumference and head circumference) of children aged one to five years. Method: A cross sectional de- scriptive study using structured questionnaire and measurement ...

  8. Prevalence of HIV infection among the patients with an avascular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To study the prevalence of HIV infection among the risk factors associated with the avascular necrosis of the femoral head in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Design: Multicenter retrospective study. Setting: Rheumatology consultations and Orthopedic-Traumatology Surgery Department Of The University Hospital ...

  9. Independent and interactive effects of HIV infection, clinical stage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. There is still limited to no evidence on the independent and interactive effects of HIV infection, disease stage, baseline disease severity and other important comorbidities on mortality risk among young children treated for severe acute malnutrition (SAM) in South Africa (SA, using the World Health Organization ...

  10. (Penicillium) marneffei infection in a returning HIV-infected traveller

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report a case of disseminated fatal Talaromyces (Penicillium) marneffei infection in an HIV-infected, antiretroviral treatment- experienced South African woman who had travelled to mainland China. The 37-year-old woman was admitted to a private hospital in fulminant septic shock and died within 12 h of admission.

  11. Prevalence of HIV infection among trauma patients admitted to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HIV infection, a major health problem worldwide, has been reported to be prevalent in trauma patients, thus presents an occupational hazard to health care workers who care for these patients. The purpose of this study was to establish the prevalence of HIV among trauma patients in our setting and to compare the outcome ...

  12. Prevalence Of HIV Infection Among Antenatal Attendees At Uyo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This retrospective study was conducted at the maternity unit of the University of Uyo Teaching Hospital Uyo. The aim was to determine the prevalence of HIV infection among pregnant women receiving antenatal care in the center. The voluntary counselling and testing register, the partner notification and antenatal clinic ...

  13. Occupational risk factors for HIV infection among traditional birth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) in order to determine occupational risk factors associated for HIV infection. All together 370 female TBAs were recruited into the study of whom 67 (18.1%) were trained. The median age was 50 (Q1=42, Q3=55) years. The use of mouth to ...

  14. Prevalence and Determinants of HIV Infection among Maritime ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    adedamla

    living with HIV worldwide are workers. Shortly after the recognition of HIV as the cause of AIDS, it was pointed out that maritime workers could be particularly vulnerable to HIV infection. In the global maritime industry, about.2 million seafarers, plus fishing, seaport and other land-based personnel, face a rising risk of HIV ...

  15. Age at disclosure of HIV infection amongst children attending the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: with easier access to life saving antiretroviral drugs, children with HIV/AIDS now have better life expectancy and informing them of their status has become of exceeding importance. Objectives: this study set to assess the age at which HIV infected children attending the Paediatric HIV care and treatment clinic of ...

  16. Distribution of HIV Infections Among Blood Donors in Abia State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A five-year retrospective study on the distribution of HIV infection among blood donors was conducted at the Nigerian Christian Hospital, Onicha Ngwa. A total of 8862 prospective blood donors (comprising of 6504 males and 2358 females) were screened for HIV using the ELISA technique. Nine hundred and thirty five ...

  17. Exploring gender perceptions of risk of HIV infection and related ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The literature shows that there are important differences between women and men in the underlying mechanisms of transmission of HIV infection and AIDS, as well as in the social and economic consequences of HIV/AIDS. These stem from sexual behaviour and socially constructed 'gender' differences between women ...

  18. Early Infant Diagnosis of HIV Infection in Southeastern Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Vertical transmission of HIV-1 is responsible for a high level of infant mortality necessitating early infant diagnosis. Serologic tests are not useful because of persistence of maternal antibodies in infants. Amplification of the integrated viral genome by PCR is the preferred method of diagnosis of HIV infection ...

  19. Brief communication: Low prevalence of HIV infection, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HIV/AIDS is a major public health problem in Ethiopia. Therefore, a school based cross-sectional study was conducted in Gondar; Northwest Ethiopia to determine the seroprevalence of HIV infection and to assess Knowledge, attitude and practice related to HIV/AIDS. A total of 565 students were included in the study.

  20. Sero-prevalence of HIV infection in children attending some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This six-month study reports on the seroprevalence of HIV infection among children less than 15 years of age but above 18 months attending Murtala Muhammad Specialist Hospitals (MMSH), Infectious Diseases Hospital (IDH) and Hasiya Bayero Pediatric Hospital (HBPH) Kano. The voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) ...

  1. Purulent pelvic collections in HIV infected female patients: bacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to compare the bacterial flora in purulent pelvic collections obtained from HIV infected and noninfected female patients treated over a period of two years. Samples of pus were collected from both groups during laparotomy that was carried out by the same trained surgeon and sent for culture and ...

  2. The challenges of success: adolescents with perinatal HIV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynne M Mofenson

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The great success in the prevention and treatment of pediatric HIV in high resource countries, and now in low resource countries, has changed the face of the HIV epidemic in children from one of near certain mortality to that of a chronic disease. However, these successes pose new challenges as perinatally HIV-infected youth survive into adulthood. Increased survival of HIV-infected children is associated with challenges in maintaining adherence to what is likely life-long therapy, and in selecting successive antiretroviral drug regimens, given the limited availability of pediatric formulations, limitations in pharmacokinetic and safety data of drugs in children, and the development of extensive drug resistance in multi-drug-experienced children. Pediatric HIV care must now focus on morbidity related to long-term HIV infection and its treatment. Survival into adulthood of perinatally HIV-infected youth in high resource countries provides important lessons about how the epidemic will change with increasing access to antiretroviral therapy for children in low resource countries. This series of papers will focus on issues related to management of perinatally infected youth and young adults.

  3. Hepatotoxicity and Associated Risk Factors in Hiv-Infected Patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hepatotoxicity and Associated Risk Factors in Hiv-Infected Patients Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy at Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital, Bahirdar, Ethiopia. ... over use (P=0.014; AOR = 1.23; CI: 1.36- 3.29) and detectable HIV-1 RNA copies (P=0.015; AOR=2.07; CI: 1.15-3.74) independently predicts the elevation of ALT.

  4. Predictors of impaired renal function among HIV infected patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Predictors of impaired renal function among HIV infected patients commencing highly active antiretroviral therapy in Jos, Nigeria. ... Data were analysed for age, gender, weight, WHO clinical stage, CD4 count, HIV-1 RNA viral load, HBsAg and anti-HCV antibody status. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was ...

  5. Stroke in a patient with tuberculous meningitis and HIV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Bruna Pasticci

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Tuberculous meningitis (TBM is a devastating disease. TBM occurs more commonly in HIV infected patients. The influence of HIV co-infection on clinical manifestations and outcome of TBM is not well defined. Yet, some differences have been observed and stroke has been recorded to occur more frequently. This study reports on an HIV infected Caucasian female with lung, meningeal tuberculosis and stroke due to a cortical sub-cortical ischemic lesion.TBM was documented in the absence of neurologic symptoms. At the same time, miliary lung TB caused by multi-susceptible Mycobacterium tuberculosis was diagnosed. Anti-TB therapy consisting of a combination of four drugs was administered. The patient improved and was discharged five weeks later. In conclusion, TBM and multiple underling pathologies including HIV infection, as well as other risk factors can lead to a greater risk of stroke. Moreover, drug interactions and their side effects add levels of complexity. TBM must be included in the differential diagnosis of HIV infected patients with stroke and TBM treatment needs be started as soon as possible before the onset of vasculopathy.

  6. Coinfection of cutaneous leishmaniasis and hiv infection | Lartey ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis has recently been discovered in some parts of Ghana. The case of an HIV infected patient presenting with cutaneous leishmaniasis at the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital is discussed. The diagnosis of leishmaniasis was con-firmed by histology. Also highlighted is the fact that this is the first reported ...

  7. Renal transplantation in HIV-infected patients: 2010 update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trullas, Joan C; Cofan, Federico; Tuset, Montse; Ricart, María J; Brunet, Mercedes; Cervera, Carlos; Manzardo, Christian; López-Dieguez, María; Oppenheimer, Federico; Moreno, Asuncion; Campistol, Josep M; Miro, Jose M

    2011-04-01

    The prognosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has improved in recent years with the introduction of antiretroviral treatment. While the frequency of AIDS-defining events has decreased as a cause of death, mortality from non-AIDS-related events including end-stage renal diseases has increased. The etiology of chronic kidney disease is multifactorial: immune-mediated glomerulonephritis, HIV-associated nephropathy, thrombotic microangiopathies, and so on. HIV infection is no longer a contraindication to transplantation and is becoming standard therapy in most developed countries. The HIV criteria used to select patients for renal transplantation are similar in Europe and North America. Current criteria state that prior opportunistic infections are not a strict exclusion criterion, but patients must have a CD4+ count above 200 cells/mm(3) and a HIV-1 RNA viral load suppressible with treatment. In recent years, more than 200 renal transplants have been performed in HIV-infected patients worldwide, and mid-term patient and graft survival rates have been similar to that of HIV-negative patients. The main issues in post-transplant period are pharmacokinetic interactions between antiretrovirals and immunosuppressants, a high rate of acute rejection, the management of hepatitis C virus coinfection, and the high cardiovascular risk after transplantation. More studies are needed to determine the most appropriate antiretroviral and immunosuppressive regimens and the long-term outcome of HIV infection and kidney graft. © 2011 International Society of Nephrology

  8. Prevalence of HepatitisB virus infections among HIV infected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Setting: Kenya Medical Research Institute HBV Laboratory, Nairobi, Kenya Subjects: A total of four hundred HIV infected patients randomised from a Nairobi HIV comprehensive care centre between June and October 2015. Results: Of the 400 subjects screened; (27.75%) had HBV immunisation, (3%) had acute disease, ...

  9. Renal insufficiency in Ghanaian HIV infected patients: need for dose ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Antiretrovirals (ARVs) could lead to clinically significant nephrotoxicity and as such will require dose adjustments in the presence of renal insufficiency. Objective: To explore renal function estimating equations as alternatives for glomerular filtration rate (GFR) measurement in a stable cohort of HIV-infected ...

  10. How disclosure and antiretroviral therapy help HIV-infected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Saharan Africa cope with stigma. ... HIV-related stigma has a major impact on the health and psychosocial wellbeing of HIV-infected children and youths. While there is some debate about the extent to which improved access to antiretroviral ...

  11. peripheral facial paralysis as a manifestation of hiv infection

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MANIFESTATION OF HIV INFECTION: A REPORT OF. THREE CASES. I. B. Keshinro and S. S. Danbauchi. Department of Medicine, Ahmadu BeIIo University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Nigeria. ABSTRACT. Three cases of infranuclear facial nerve palsy associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 ...

  12. The Experience of Children with Hemophilia and HIV Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Christopher S.

    1994-01-01

    Children with hemophilia and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection are not a transmission risk to other children, and they can help enact best practices for school attendance by other such children. The article examines the National Hemophilia Foundation's work to promote appropriate inclusion of students with hemophilia and HIV in all…

  13. Prevalence of cryptococcosis among HIV-infected patients in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    toll, we recommend that its routine check should be integrated in the management of HIV/AIDS patients. Key words: Cryptococcosis, HIV/AIDS ... HIV infection and the AIDS management pattern4. In sub-Saharan Africa with the highest ... with undetermined reactions were subjected to API. 20C Aux (BioRad). Clinical history ...

  14. isoniazid prophylaxis for tuberculosis prevention among hiv infected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    East African Medical Journal Vol. 77 No. 9 September 2000. ISONIAZID PROPHYLAXIS FOR TUBERCULOSIS PREVENTION AMONG HIV INFECTED POLICE OFFICERS IN DAR ES SALAAM. M. Bakari, MD, MMed, Lecturer and Specialist Physician, A. Moshi, MD, MMed, Specialist Physician, E.A. Aris, MD, MMed, ...

  15. Tobacco Use among ARV Treated HIV Infected Rural South Africans ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tobacco use remains one of the major cardiovascular risk factors and its use in antiretroviral (ARV) treated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected people may lead to activation of immune cells and rendering them ... Keywords: Tobacco Use, Cardiovascular Disease, Antiretroviral, Human Immunodeficiency Virus ...

  16. Beliefs and Perceptions about HIV Infection/AIDS among Adults ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, in spite of the higher correlation with formal education, some misconceptions still existed in all groups. The differences for those with higher and lower levels of education were however not statistically significant. It was concluded that awareness of HIV infection and AIDS is a high among adults attending the Oral ...

  17. Clinical correlates of suicidality among individuals with HIV infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper describes clinical risk factors for suicidality among individuals with HIV infection and AIDS disease in Mbarara, Uganda. In this study, suicidality includes both suicidal ideation and suicidal attempts. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 543 HIV-positive individuals aged 15 years and above, recruited from ...

  18. PRE-EXPOSURE PROPHYLAXIS FOR PREVENTION OF HIV INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rita Diniz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To review existing data on Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP for prevention of HIV infection, including the role of medical male circumcision, oral administration of antiretroviral drugs and topical microbicides. Data Sources: PubMed and www.clinicaltrials.gov. Review Methods: Comprehensive review. Results: Medical male circumcision has been shown to prevent 48-60% of new HIV-1 infections. The efficacy rate of antiretroviral drugs given per os to prevent HIV infection varies in direct association with the adherence rate (62.2% in TDF2 study with 84% adherence; 44% in iPrEx study with <50% adherence; 48% in Bangkok study with 67% adherence; 67-75% in Partners PrEP study with 82% adherence; and 6% in FEM-PrEP study with 40% adherence. As for the use of topic microbicides, the CAPRISA 004 study showed 39% reduction in HIV infection using a 1% tenofovir gel. On the other hand, PRO2000 gel showed a modest reduction of 30% which was not statistically significant. Conclusions: The studies suggest that medical male circumcision is highly cost-effective at preventing HIV infection but requires careful communication strategies to be successful. PrEP using antiretroviral drugs is also very effective but it is highly dependent on the adherence rate. As for topical microbicides, 1% tenofovir gel is currently the only promising option.

  19. Secondary syphilis in HIV infection - a diagnostic dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panvelker V

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of secondary syphilis in HIV infection is being reported. The patient presented with skin rash only. VDRL was found to be negative and HIV testing was positive. He was treated for secondary syphilis with clinical response. Blood VDRL test was subsequently reported as reactive.

  20. Pulmonary disease in HIV-infected Patients at the University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    is scarce and variable. Rapid and accurate aetiological diagnosis of pneumonias in HIV-infected patients is thus essential to establishing the local prevalence patterns of disease. However this remains a challenge in developing countries, particularly in patients with sputum smears negative for alcohol acid fast bacilli ...

  1. HIV infection in India: Epidemiology, molecular epidemiology and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2008-10-15

    Oct 15, 2008 ... http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/jbsc/033/04/0515-0525 ... Since then the epidemic has spread throughout the country. In the ... The absolute number of HIV infections in the country is expected to be close to 2.5 million and National AIDS Control Programme, phase III is geared to contain the epidemic.

  2. Tuberculosis prevention in HIV-infected pregnant women in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-11-02

    Nov 2, 2012 ... Isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) is recommended for the prevention of active TB in HIV-infected individuals, including pregnant women. However, there are few data regarding IPT use in the latter, with concern regarding the concurrent use of. IPT with nevirapine in pregnancy, as both treatments are ...

  3. Nutritional, immune, micronutrient and health status of HIV-infected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eight per cent of children had features of TB, while 19% had a lower respiratory tract infection. The median viral load of the group ... Conclusion: A high prevalence of acute and chronic malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies occurred among HIV-infected children residing in care centres. The study highlights the need to ...

  4. Nocardia osteomyelitis in the setting of previously unknown HIV infection

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    Moore, Sandra Leigh [NYU Medical Center, Department of Radiology, New York, New York (United States); Jones, Sian; Lee, Julia L. [Mount Sinai Medical Center, Department of Radiology, New York, New York (United States)

    2005-01-01

    We present a case of primary Nocardia osteomyelitis in the setting of HIV infection. The clinical and radiographic manifestations of musculoskeletal nocardiosis are nonspecific and resemble those of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. To our knowledge no other cases of Nocardia osteomyelitis have been reported in the radiology literature. (orig.)

  5. The Clinical Spectrum and Financial Burden of HIV Infected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Clinical Spectrum and Financial Burden of HIV Infected Children in a Regional Hospital in South Africa. ... South African Family Practice ... that the cost of hospitalising HIV-positive children is significantly more than HIV-negative controls, which will increase the financial burden on already restricted health resources.

  6. Diastasis recti abdominis in HIV-infected men with lipodystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, P D

    2005-01-01

    Diastasis recti abdominis is a condition in which the rectus abdominus muscle separates in the midline at the linea alba producing a ventral herniation. We have observed the occurrence of this condition in HIV-infected men attending an osteopathic clinic. Two such cases are described in detail. An apparent association with HIV-associated lipodystrophy syndrome and implications for management are explored.

  7. Lipodystrophy syndrome in HIV-infected children on HAART | Innes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lipodystrophy syndrome (LD) is common in HIV-infected children, particularly those taking didanosine, stavudine or zidovudine. Lipo-atrophy in particular causes major stigmatisation and interferes with adherence. In addition, LD may have significant long-term health consequences, particularly cardiovascular. Since the ...

  8. Concomitant HIV infection in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Concomitant HIV infection in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma patients is hard to recognise and should be tested for routinely in areas of high endemicity. J.J.B. de Groot, M.J. Webb, J.E. Raubenheimer, M.C. Struwig, V.J. Louw ...

  9. Prevalence of cervical cytology abnormalities among HIV infected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To establish the prevalence of cervical cytology abnormalities, determine the correlation between CD4+ cell count and abnormal Pap smear, determine the correlation between WHO-HIV staging and abnormal pap smear among HIV infected women attending HIV clinic at Rwanda Military Hospital. Design: ...

  10. Cervical pre-malignant lesions in HIV infected women attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aims of this study was to determine proportion of HIV infected women with cervical pre-malignant lesions; and compare the use of Visual Inspection of the cervix after application of Acetic acid (VIA) and Papanicolau (Pap) smear in screening for cervical premalignant lesions in HIV positive women attending Care and ...

  11. Causes and outcome of hospitalization among HIV-infected adults ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cohorts describing cause specific mortality in HIV-infected patients initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) operate on an outpatient basis. Hospitalized patients represent the spectrum and burden of severe morbidity and mortality in patients on ART. Objective: To determine the causes and outcomes of ...

  12. Morbidity and mortality in HIV - infected children admitted at Moi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To describe the characteristics and causes of hospitalisation and mortality for HIV infected children admitted to Moi Teaching and Referral hospital in western Kenya. Design: a retrospective study of prospectively collected data. Setting: The paediatric wards of Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital (MTRH).

  13. HIV infection in elderly medical patients | Mtei | East African Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HIV infection in elderly medical patients. L. N. Mtei, P. Pallangyo. Abstract. (East African Medical Journal: 2001 78(3): 144-147). Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/eamj.v78i3.9081 · AJOL African Journals Online.

  14. Causes and outcome of hospitalization among HIV-infected adults ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    Background: Cohorts describing cause specific mortality in HIV-infected patients initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) operate on an outpatient .... Detailed medical history was obtained following which thorough physical examination was performed. Medical history included an in-depth assessment of presenting complaints ...

  15. Predictive value of group I oral lesions for HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhayat, Ahmed; Yengopal, Veerasamy; Rudolph, Michael

    2010-05-01

    Attendees presenting for treatment of acute illness at primary health care facilities in South Africa were assessed to determine the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and the predictability of group I oral lesions (GOLs) for HIV infection. This was a cross-sectional analytical study. Patients >18 years of age were recruited and underwent an oral examination and a HIV test. A total of 522 attendees were examined and the HIV prevalence was 40%. None of them were taking antiretroviral drugs. GOLs were diagnosed in 53% of HIV patients, with pseudomembranous and erythematous candidiasis being the most common (38% and 24%, respectively). The average odds and likelihood ratios for multiple lesions were high (32 and 30, respectively) and showed a strong correlation between GOLs and a positive HIV status. The prevalence of HIV (40%) and GOLs (53%) was high. GOLs were useful markers of HIV infection, with multiple lesions being highly predictive of HIV infection. Copyright (c) 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Survival analysis of HIV-infected patients under antiretroviral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    mother-to-child transmission of HIV. In July 2003, the government of Ethiopia adopted a policy of ARV ... other uniformed forces; long-distance truck drivers and other transport workers; fishermen and fisherwomen; ... which contribute to HIV infection and its transmission, were a direct result of the nature of military personnel.

  17. Intimate partner violence among HIV infected and uninfected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    urinary tract infection, miscarriage, foetal wastage, caesarean delivery, and HIV infection (Stöckl et al., 2010). Despite the ... status, counselling and testing is routinely done during admission in the delivery room. ..... Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Intimate Partner Violence: Risk and Protective. Factors,.

  18. HIV infection and the kidney | Fabian | Southern African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is a wide clinical spectrum of renal disease in the course of HIV infection, which includes potentially reversible acute renal failure (ARF) (more recently known as acute kidney injury), electrolyte and acid-base disturbances, and intrinsic renal disease unrelated to HIV itself (e.g. co-morbid diabetes mellitus and ...

  19. The Prevalence of HIV Infection among Pregnant Women at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background:Kabutare Hospital is a District Hospital in Rwanda. The HIV infection has been a threat to mothers and their babies since many years in Rwanda, where the prevalence countrywide is estimated at 3% (DHS 2010) and 4.7% among pregnant women (UNAIDS2009). We conducted a study to know the ...

  20. Innate immune recognition and activation during HIV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larsen Carsten S

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The pathogenesis of HIV infection, and in particular the development of immunodeficiency, remains incompletely understood. Whichever intricate molecular mechanisms are at play between HIV and the host, it is evident that the organism is incapable of restricting and eradicating the invading pathogen. Both innate and adaptive immune responses are raised, but they appear to be insufficient or too late to eliminate the virus. Moreover, the picture is complicated by the fact that the very same cells and responses aimed at eliminating the virus seem to play deleterious roles by driving ongoing immune activation and progressive immunodeficiency. Whereas much knowledge exists on the role of adaptive immunity during HIV infection, it has only recently been appreciated that the innate immune response also plays an important part in HIV pathogenesis. In this review, we present current knowledge on innate immune recognition and activation during HIV infection based on studies in cell culture, non-human primates, and HIV-infected individuals, and discuss the implications for the understanding of HIV immunopathogenesis.

  1. Neurological and neurocognitive function of HIV-infected children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and in older children cryptococcal meningitis.10-14 HIV-infected patients are at risk for thromboembolic strokes caused by disturbances in blood coagulation via antiphospholipid antibodies or reduced protein S concentration, and ischaemic strokes due to infections, coagulopathies or HIV-associated vasculopathy.15 ...

  2. Interleukin-2 therapy in patients with HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrams, D; Lévy, Y; Losso, M H

    2009-01-01

    Interleukin-2 in HIV-Infected Patients with Low CD4+ Counts under Active Antiretroviral Therapy (SILCAAT) study and the Evaluation of Subcutaneous Proleukin in a Randomized International Trial (ESPRIT). In each, patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) who had CD4+ cell counts of either...

  3. adverse drug reactions among hiv infected and uninfected adults ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    East African Medical Journal Vol. 88 No. 10 October 2011. ADVERSE DRUG REACTIONS AMONG HIV INFECTED AND UNINFECTED ADULTS RECEIVING ANTI-. TUBERCULOUS THERAPY AT KENYATTA NATIONAL HOSPITAL. J. O. Masese, M. Pharm (Clin. Pharm), Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmacy ...

  4. Adverse drug reactions among HIV infected and uninfected adults ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Information about the prevalence of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) among HIV infected and HIV uninfected patients receiving anti-tuberculous therapy in Africa is limited due to unavailability of local data or publications and hence the basis of this study. Objective: To determine the prevalence of adverse drug ...

  5. Vulnerability to HIV infection among Luo female adolescent orphans ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Large-scale surveys have reported that about 55% of orphans worldwide are adolescents. In Kenya, the majority of HIV-infected adolescents are females. The current study used the anthropological methods of in-depth case studies to analyse how migratory life situations of individual female adolescent orphans in the Luo ...

  6. The impact of HIV infection on childhood pneumonia: comparison ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    infected children. While the pattern of HIV-related pneumonia in African adults is well documented and is recognised as quite different from that which occurs among HIV-infected adults in high-income regions, less is known of the situation in ...

  7. Occupational risk factors for HIV infection among traditional birth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) in order to determine occupational risk factors associated for HIV infection. All together 370 female TBAs were recruited into the study of whom 67 (18.1%) were trained. The median age was 50 (Q1=42,. Q3=55) years. The use of mouth to ...

  8. The association of TB with HIV infection in Oromia Regional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The association of TB with HIV infection in Oromia Regional National State, Ethiopia in 2006/7. A Bekele, K Fleming, Z Habtamu, A Fogarty. Abstract. Background: Infection with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is an established risk factor for tuberculosis infection. Population-based data on associations between HIV ...

  9. Characteristics of HIV-infected children seen in Western Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Main outcome measures: Diagnosis, clinical stage and immune status at enrollment and follow-up; hospitalisation and death. Descriptive statistical analyses and chi square tests were performed. Results: Four thousand and seventeen HIV-infected children seen between June 2002 and April 2008. Median age at enrollment ...

  10. Features associated with underlying HIV infection in severe acute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Introduction. Up to half of all children presenting to Nutrition. Rehabilitation Units (NRUs) in Malawi with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) are infected with HIV. There are many similarities in the clinical presentation of SAM and HIV. It is important to identify HIV infected children, in order to improve case management ...

  11. Pseudogout Associated Hip Pain in a Patient with HIV Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benan M. Dala-Ali

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available HIV infection is a global pandemic, currently affecting approximately 77,000 people in the UK and 33 million people around the world. The infection has widespread effects on the body and can involve the musculoskeletal system. It is therefore important that orthopaedic surgeons are aware of the condition and its sequelae. We present the case of a 46-year-old man with a 10-year history of HIV who presented with acute hip pain, difficulty weight-bearing, and constitutional symptoms. Following radiological, microbiological, and serological tests a diagnosis of pseudogout was established following microscopic analysis of the hip joint aspirate. The patient's symptoms resolved completely following the joint aspiration and NSAID therapy. Studies have shown a relationship between HIV infection and gout. The virus has also been linked to osteonecrosis, osteopenia, bone and joint tuberculosis, and septic arthritis from rare pathogens. However, it is difficult to fully ascertain whether these conditions are related to the HIV infection itself or the HAART (highly active antiretroviral therapy. There are no previously reported cases of HIV-infected patients with pseudogout. The case is discussed with reference to the literature.

  12. Oxacillin resistant Staphlococcus aureus among HIV infected and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Infections due to methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) present global challenges to clinicians since therapeutic options are limited and suboptimal dosing contributes to heightened mortality and increased length of hospital stay particularly among the HIV infected patients. Objectives: To assess the prevalence ...

  13. HIV infection, tuberculosis and workload in a general paediatric ward

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HIV-TB co-infection prevalence rates in hospitalised children; to determine the proportion of hospitalised HIV-infected children who required high care; to describe the proportion of deaths associated with HIV and/or TB; and to relate workload to the level of nursing cover in a general paediatric ward over a 1-year period in a ...

  14. Smoking and life expectancy among HIV-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy in Europe and North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helleberg, Marie; May, Margaret T; Ingle, Suzanne M; Dabis, Francois; Reiss, Peter; Fätkenheuer, Gerd; Costagliola, Dominique; d'Arminio, Antonella; Cavassini, Matthias; Smith, Colette; Justice, Amy C; Gill, John; Sterne, Jonathan A C; Obel, Niels

    2015-01-14

    Cardiovascular disease and non-AIDS malignancies have become major causes of death among HIV-infected individuals. The relative impact of lifestyle and HIV-related factors are debated. We estimated associations of smoking with mortality more than 1 year after antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation among HIV-infected individuals enrolled in European and North American cohorts. IDUs were excluded. Causes of death were assigned using standardized procedures. We used abridged life tables to estimate life expectancies. Life-years lost to HIV were estimated by comparison with the French background population. Among 17,995 HIV-infected individuals followed for 79,760 person-years, the proportion of smokers was 60%. The mortality rate ratio (MRR) comparing smokers with nonsmokers was 1.94 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.56-2.41]. The MRRs comparing current and previous smokers with never smokers were 1.70 (95% CI 1.23-2.34) and 0.92 (95% CI 0.64-1.34), respectively. Smokers had substantially higher mortality from cardiovascular disease, non-AIDS malignancies than nonsmokers [MRR 6.28 (95% CI 2.19-18.0) and 3.31 (95% CI 1.80-5.45), respectively]. [corrected]. Among 35-year-old HIV-infected men, the loss of life-years associated with smoking and HIV was 7.9 (95% CI 7.1-8.7) and 5.9 (95% CI 4.9-6.9), respectively. The life expectancy of virally suppressed, never-smokers was 43.5 years (95% CI 41.7-45.3), compared with 44.4 years among 35-year-old men in the background population. Excess MRRs/1000 person-years associated with smoking increased from 0.6 (95% CI -1.3 to 2.6) at age 35 to 43.6 (95% CI 37.9-49.3) at age at least 65 years. Well treated HIV-infected individuals may lose more life years through smoking than through HIV. Excess mortality associated with smoking increases markedly with age. Therefore, increases in smoking-related mortality can be expected as the treated HIV-infected population ages. Interventions for smoking cessation should be prioritized.

  15. [Psychopathologic pictures in HIV infection: AIDS lethargy and AIDS dementia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diederich, N; Karenberg, A; Peters, U H

    1988-06-01

    The paper describes the psychiatric status on the basis of 76 patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome. There is considerable difference between the different stages of the disease. The disorders are divided into groups following the German and French psychopathological tradition, where the incidence is dependent on the underlying complaint. 50% of the patients suffered from chronic psychoorganic disorders (34% organic personality disorders, 16% dementia). 9% suffered from an acute psychosis caused by complications and founded on substantial physical illness. 3 patients showed symptoms of a (under given circumstances) hitherto unknown endoform psychosis. In 9% of the patients, psychoreactive disturbances (anxiety and reactive depression) were observed. Two infants had congenital development deficiencies. 25% of the patients were without any psychopathology. Patients showing organic personality disorders mostly resemble each other to such a degree as to form a separate group. We suggest to name this group according to the most prominent psychopathology as "AIDS-lethargy". This status is characterised by a specific apathy, tiredness and indolence of the patients combined with the lack of emotional participation related to their own destiny. AIDS-lethargy is the first manifestation in appearance of the HIV infection of the brain itself. Another sequel of the brain infection is AIDS dementia which can be classified as "subcortical dementia" and differs from the more current forms of dementia clinically. Affected are mainly neuropsychologic functions like arousal, attention, mood and motivation, whereas the hallmarks of cortical involvement-aphasia, agnosia and apraxia-are not present. Supplementary findings (EEG, CCT, CSF): The group of patients with chronic psychoorganic disorders differs significantly from the group with psychoreactive disorders and normals. Pathological EEG and CCT are more frequent in psychoorganic disorders. CSF-test-including the

  16. The Incidence of Respiratory Tract Infections in Vertically HIV-Infected Children in Lower Silesia in Poland and the Approach to Infection Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchar, E; Dawiec, M; Kraszewska-Glomba, B; Miśkiewicz, K; Nitsch-Osuch, Aneta; Szenborn, L

    2015-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a risk factor associated with respiratory tract infections. However little is known about the prevalence of these infections in HIV-infected children in Poland. We investigated the incidence of respiratory tract infections in 26 HIV-infected children (aged 4-18, mean 10.3 years, including 17 girls) treated in our center and compared it with the age-matched control group of 70 children. The prevalence of chronic diseases and other factors such as cigarette smoking by household members or attending educational institutions were also taken into consideration. Among the HIV-infected children, 48 respiratory infections were observed, including 4 cases of pneumonia and 44 other respiratory infections for 312 person-month observations vs. 256 infections including 13 cases of pneumonia and 243 other respiratory infections for 840 person-month observations in the control group. Thus, incidence of respiratory infections per month was lower in HIV-infected children (14%) compared with the control group (29%), i.e., 0.14 95% CI (0.10-0.18) infections per month vs. 0.29 95% CI (0.26-0.32). There was no difference in the incidence of pneumonia. The lower incidence of respiratory infections in HIV-infected children may be explained by their avoiding sick people, taking influenza vaccination on the annual basis, and possibly antiviral medication. We conclude that the influence of modifiable environmental factors that reduce the risk of respiratory tract infections is more significant than the HIV infection itself.

  17. Herpes simplex virus 2 infection: A risk factor for HIV infection in heterosexuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuradha K

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Genital ulcerative disease is one of the risk factors for acquisition of HIV. As HSV-2 infection is currently the most common cause of genital ulcerative disease, it acts as a potential risk factor for HIV infection. The present study was undertaken to know the seroprevalence of antibodies to HSV-2 in HIV seropositive individuals and in the general population, and to ascertain if HSV-2 is a risk factor for developing HIV infection. Methods: The study group included one hundred new HIV seropositive persons irrespective of active genital herpes or history of genital herpes. Fifty age- and sex- matched healthy volunteers were included as controls. In all patients and controls, diagnostic serology was done for HSV-2 using HSV-2-specific glycoprotein IgG2 by indirect immunoassay using the ELISA test. Statistical value ′P′ was calculated using the Chi-squared test. Results: Out of the 100 HIV seropositives, 66 were males and 34 were females with an age range of 20-54 years. In only 22 (19 males and 3 females of these, positive history of genital herpes was obtained. In 49 out of the 100 HIV seropositives, IgG2 antibodies against HSV-2 were detected. In the control group, 11 out of 50 controls were seropositive for HSV-2 IgG2 antibody. There was a statistically significant association between HSV-2 and HIV seropositivity with ′P′ value < 0.005. Conclusion: The high prevalence of HSV-2 seropositivity in the HIV-infected group (49% as compared to normal controls (22% was statistically significant. Prior HSV-2 infection could be an important risk factor for acquisition of HIV in our patients.

  18. Mortality in HIV-Infected Alcohol and Drug Users in St. Petersburg, Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbairn, Nadia S; Walley, Alexander Y; Cheng, Debbie M; Quinn, Emily; Bridden, Carly; Chaisson, Christine; Blokhina, Elena; Lioznov, Dmitry; Krupitsky, Evgeny; Raj, Anita; Samet, Jeffrey H

    2016-01-01

    In Russia, up to half of premature deaths are attributed to hazardous drinking. The respective roles of alcohol and drug use in premature death among people with HIV in Russia have not been described. Criminalization and stigmatization of substance use in Russia may also contribute to mortality. We explored whether alcohol, drug use and risk environment factors are associated with short-term mortality in HIV-infected Russians who use substances. Secondary analyses were conducted using prospective data collected at baseline, 6 and 12-months from HIV-infected people who use substances recruited between 2007-2010 from addiction and HIV care settings in a single urban setting of St. Petersburg, Russia. We used Cox proportional hazards models to explore associations between 30-day alcohol hazardous drinking, injection drug use, polysubstance use and environmental risk exposures (i.e. past incarceration, police involvement, selling sex, and HIV stigma) with mortality. Among 700 participants, 59% were male and the mean age was 30 years. There were 40 deaths after a median follow-up of 12 months (crude mortality rate 5.9 per 100 person-years). In adjusted analyses, 30-day NIAAA hazardous drinking was significantly associated with mortality compared to no drinking [adjusted Hazard Ratio (aHR) 2.60, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.24-5.44] but moderate drinking was not (aHR 0.95, 95% CI: 0.35-2.59). No other factors were significantly associated with mortality. The high rates of short-term mortality and the strong association with hazardous drinking suggest a need to integrate evidence-based alcohol interventions into treatment strategies for HIV-infected Russians.

  19. Risk of Cancer among Commercially Insured HIV-Infected Adults on Antiretroviral Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeannette Y. Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to explore the cancer incidence rates among HIV-infected persons with commercial insurance who were on antiretroviral therapy and compare them with those rates in the general population. Paid health insurance claims for 63,221 individuals 18 years or older, with at least one claim with a diagnostic code for HIV and at least one filled prescription for an antiretroviral medication between January 1, 2006, and September 30, 2012, were obtained from the LifeLink® Health Plan Claims Database. The expected number of cancer cases in the general population for each gender-age group (60 years was estimated using incidence rates from the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER program. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs were estimated using their 95% confidence intervals (CIs. Compared to the general population, incidence rates for HIV-infected adults were elevated (SIR, 95% CI for Kaposi sarcoma (46.08; 38.74–48.94, non-Hodgkin lymphoma (4.22; 3.63–4.45, Hodgkin lymphoma (9.83; 7.45–10.84, and anal cancer (30.54; 25.62–32.46 and lower for colorectal cancer (0.69; 0.52–0.76, lung cancer (0.70; 0.54, 0.77, and prostate cancer (0.54; 0.45–0.58. Commercially insured, treated HIV-infected adults had elevated rates for infection-related cancers, but not for common non-AIDS defining cancers.

  20. Misdiagnosed HIV infection in pregnant women initiating universal ART in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Nei-Yuan; Zerbe, Allison; Phillips, Tamsin K; Myer, Landon; Abrams, Elaine J

    2017-08-29

    Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are the primary diagnostic tools for HIV used in resource-constrained settings. Without a proper confirmation algorithm, there is concern that false-positive (FP) RDTs could result in misdiagnosis of HIV infection and inappropriate antiretroviral treatment (ART) initiation, but programmatic data on FP are few. We examined the accuracy of RDT diagnosis among HIV-infected pregnant women attending public sector antenatal services in Cape Town, South Africa. We describe the proportion of women found to have started on ART erroneously due to FP RDT results based on pre-ART viral load (VL) testing and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We analysed 952 consecutively enrolled pregnant women diagnosed as HIV infected based on two RDTs per local guideline and found 4.5% (43/952) of pre-ART VL results to be women who had detectable virus on subsequent VL measurements, ELISA was performed on the 37 remaining women. Of these, 3/952 (0.3%) HIV RDT diagnoses were found to be FP. We estimate that using ELISA to confirm all positive RDTs would cost $1110 (uncertainty interval $381-$5382) to identify one patient erroneously initiated on ART, while it costs $3912 for a lifetime of antiretrovirals with VL monitoring for one person. Compared to the cost of confirming the RDT-based diagnoses, the cost of HIV misdiagnosis is high. While testing programmes based on RDT should strive for constant quality improvement, where resources permit, laboratory confirmation algorithms can play an important role in strengthening the quality of HIV diagnosis in the era of universal ART.

  1. Loss to Followup in HIV-Infected Patients from Asia-Pacific Region: Results from TAHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jialun Zhou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined characteristics of HIV-infected patients in the TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database who were lost to follow-up (LTFU from treatment and care. Time from last clinic visit to 31 March 2009 was analysed to determine the interval that best classified LTFU. Patients defined as LTFU were then categorised into permanently LTFU (never returned and temporary LTFU (re-entered later, and these groups compared. A total of 3626 patients were included (71% male. No clinic visits for 180 days was the best-performing LTFU definition (sensitivity 90.6%, specificity 92.3%. During 7697 person-years of follow-up, 1648 episodes of LFTU were recorded (21.4 per 100-person-years. Patients LFTU were younger (P=0.002, had HIV viral load ≥500 copies/mL or missing (P=0.021, had shorter history of HIV infection (P=0.048, and received no, single- or double-antiretroviral therapy, or a triple-drug regimen containing a protease inhibitor (P<0.001. 48% of patients LTFU never returned. These patients were more likely to have low or missing haemoglobin (P<0.001, missing recent HIV viral load (P<0.001, negative hepatitis C test (P=0.025, and previous temporary LTFU episodes (P<0.001. Our analyses suggest that patients not seen at a clinic for 180 days are at high risk of permanent LTFU, and should be aggressively traced.

  2. Changes in students' attitudes toward HIV-infected patients as the students progress through medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyant, R J; Simon, M S; Bennett, M E

    1993-05-01

    To examine how medical students' attitudes and intentions toward the treatment of persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) changed as the students progressed through medical school. Similar 44-item self-administered questionnaires, to be completed anonymously, were given to 394 medical students at the University of Michigan Medical School in February 1989, when the students were in their first or second years, and to 378 of the same students in February 1991, when they were in their third or fourth years. Seven subscale variables were created, and their effects on students' willingness to treat HIV-infected patients were assessed. Bivariate statistics and logistic regression were used to relate the dependent and independent variables. In 1989, 201 (51%) of the students responded; in 1991, 208 (55%) responded. The students showed a high--but declining--degree of willingness to care for patients infected with HIV or at high risk of infection. Homophobic attitudes decreased, but so did the students' intentions to follow infection-control guidelines. The students who expressed a career interest in surgery specialties indicated less willingness to provide care for HIV-infected patients, presumably because these students felt that they would be at a higher risk of exposure. Overall, the students' responses indicated that over the two years of the study they became more restrictive in their attitudes toward HIV-positive patients, felt less personal obligation toward caring for these patients, and were less likely to use appropriate infection-control methods to ensure their own safety.

  3. HPV in HIV-Infected Women: Implications for Primary Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Dauphin Mckenzie

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is growing evidence that HIV-infected women might have a different HPV type distribution in cervical dysplasia specimens as compared to the general population. This has implications for primary prevention.Objective: We aimed to obtain preliminary data on the human papillomavirus (HPV genotypes prevalent in histological samples of HIV-infected women with CIN 3/ CIS of the cervix in Miami, Florida. Method: Retrospective data were collected on HIV-infected women referred to the UM-JMH colposcopy clinic between years 2000 and 2008. The histology slides of CIN3/CIS biopsies underwent pathological review and sections were cut from these archived specimens for HPV DNA extraction. HPV genotyping was then performed using the GeneSquare™ HPV genotyping assay. We report on our first set of 23 samples.Results: Eight high risk HPV (HR-HPV types were detected. Types in decreasing order of frequency were 16, 35, 45, 52, 59, 31, 58, and 56. Most cases had multiple infections. HPV type 16 was the most common (45% followed by HPV-35 and -45 with equal frequency (40%. No samples contained HPV-18Conclusion: Our preliminary data suggest that cervical dysplasia specimens of HIV-infected women more likely (55% contain non -16 and -18 high risk HPV types. We show that this held true for histologically confirmed carcinoma in situ. Epidemiological studies guide vaccine development, therefore HPV type prevalence in CIS and invasive cervical cancer among HIV-infected women should be more rigorously explored to ensure that this highly vulnerable population receives appropriate primary prevention.

  4. HPV in HIV-Infected Women: Implications for Primary Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Nathalie Dauphin; Kobetz, Erin N.; Ganjei-Azar, Parvin; Rosa-Cunha, Isabella; Potter, JoNell E.; Morishita, Atsushi; Lucci, Joseph A.; Guettouche, Toumy; Hnatyszyn, James H.; Koru-Sengul, Tulay

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is growing evidence that human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women might have a different human papillomavirus (HPV) type distribution in cervical dysplasia specimens as compared to the general population. This has implications for primary prevention. Objective: We aimed to obtain preliminary data on the HPV genotypes prevalent in histological samples of HIV-infected women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 3/CIS of the cervix in Miami, FL, USA. Methods: Retrospective data were collected on HIV-infected women referred to the University of Miami-Jackson Memorial Hospital colposcopy clinic between years 2000 and 2008. The histology slides of CIN 3/CIS biopsies underwent pathological review and sections were cut from these archived specimens for HPV DNA extraction. HPV genotyping was then performed using the GeneSquare™ HPV genotyping assay. We report on our first set of 23 samples. Results: Eight high-risk HPV types were detected. Types in decreasing order of frequency were 16, 35, 45, 52, 59, 31, 58, and 56. Most cases had multiple infections. HPV type 16 was the most common (45%) followed by HPV-35 and -45 with equal frequency (40%). No samples contained HPV-18. Conclusion: Our preliminary results suggest that cervical dysplasia specimens of HIV-infected women more likely (55%) contain non-16 and -18 high-risk HPV types. We show that this held true for histologically confirmed severe dysplasia and carcinoma-in situ. Epidemiological studies guide vaccine development, therefore HPV type prevalence in CIS and invasive cervical cancer among HIV-infected women should be more rigorously explored to ensure that this highly vulnerable population receives appropriate primary prevention. PMID:25161956

  5. The vulnerability of Brazilian female prisoners to HIV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strazza L.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to determine the vulnerability of women in prison to HIV infection. The study was carried out from August to October 2000 in a São Paulo State Penitentiary, where 299 female prisoners were serving time. We interviewed and obtained a blood sample from 290 females who agreed to enter the study. Sera were tested for the presence of antibodies to HIV, hepatitis C virus (HCV and syphilis and the odds ratio (OR was calculated for variables related to HIV positivity on the basis of a questionnaire. The overall prevalence data were: 13.9% for HIV (37 of 267, 22.8% for syphilis (66 of 290, and 16.2% for HCV (47 of 290. Sexual partnership variables were significantly related to HIV infection. These included HIV-positive partners (OR = 7.36, P = 0.0001, casual partners (OR = 8.96, P = 0.009, injectable drug user partners (OR = 4.7, P = 0.0001, and history of sexually transmitted disease (OR = 2.07, P = 0.05. In addition, a relationship was detected between HIV infection and drug use (OR = 2.48, P = 0.04 and injectable drug use (OR = 4.2, P = 0.002. Even women with only one partner presented a significant OR for HIV infection (OR = 2.57, P = 0.009, reflecting their vulnerability due to their trust in their partner, who did not use a condom. Although the use of injectable substances is associated with HIV infection, our results point to sexual behavior as the most important component of HIV transmission in the female prisoner population.

  6. Copenhagen comorbidity in HIV infection (COCOMO study: a study protocol for a longitudinal, non-interventional assessment of non-AIDS comorbidity in HIV infection in Denmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Ronit

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Modern combination antiretroviral therapy (cART has improved survival for people living with HIV (PLWHIV. Non-AIDS comorbidities have replaced opportunistic infections as leading causes of mortality and morbidity, and are becoming a key health concern as this population continues to age. The aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence and incidence of non-AIDS comorbidity among PLWHIV in Denmark in the cART era and to determine risk factors contributing to the pathogenesis. The study primarily targets cardiovascular, respiratory, and hepatic non-AIDS comorbidity. Methods/design The Copenhagen comorbidity in HIV-infection (COCOMO study is an observational, longitudinal cohort study. The study was initiated in 2015 and recruitment is ongoing with the aim of including 1500 PLWHIV from the Copenhagen area. Follow-up examinations after 2 and 10 years are planned. Uninfected controls are derived from the Copenhagen General Population Study (CGPS, a cohort study including 100,000 uninfected participants from the same geographical region. Physiological and biological measures including blood pressure, ankle-brachial index, electrocardiogram, spirometry, exhaled nitric oxide, transient elastography of the liver, computed tomography (CT angiography of the heart, unenhanced CT of the chest and upper abdomen, and a number of routine biochemical analysis are uniformly collected in participants from the COCOMO study and the CGPS. Plasma, serum, buffy coat, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC, urine, and stool samples are collected in a biobank for future studies. Data will be updated through periodical linking to national databases. Discussion As life expectancy for PLWHIV improves, it is essential to study long-term impact of HIV and cART. We anticipate that findings from this cohort study will increase knowledge on non-AIDS comorbidity in PLWHIV and identify targets for future interventional trials. Recognizing the demographic

  7. In vitro separation and expansion of CD4 lymphocytes from HIV-infected individuals without activation of HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S D; Nielsen, Jens Ole; Hansen, J E

    1997-01-01

    In order to offer a gene therapy-based treatment against AIDS, it is likely to be necessary to harvest and culture CD4 cells from HIV-positive patients without activating the HIV infection. We have used a magnetic cell sorting (MACS) system to enrich CD4 cells. Using positive selection, CD4 cells...

  8. Understanding HIV infection for the design of a therapeutic vaccine. Part I: Epidemiology and pathogenesis of HIV infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goede, A.L. de; Vulto, A.G.; Osterhaus, A.D.; Gruters, R.A.

    2015-01-01

    HIV infection leads to a gradual loss CD4+ T lymphocytes comprising immune competence and progression to AIDS. Effective treatment with combined antiretroviral drugs (cART) decreases viral load below detectable levels but is not able to eliminate the virus from the body. The success of cART is

  9. Perception of risk of HIV infections and sexual behaviour of the sexually active university students in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkomazana, Njabulo; Maharaj, Pranitha

    2014-01-01

    The study sought to establish university students' perceptions of risk of HIV infections. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 345 sexually active students at two universities in Zimbabwe (one state and one private). Results revealed that above a quarter of the respondents felt at risk of getting HIV due to their regular partners' sexual behaviours and more than half felt at risk of getting HIV due to their casual partners' sexual behaviours. In addition, a third of the respondents acknowledged the HIV risk due to their own sexual behaviours. More state university respondents felt exposed to HIV infections due to own sexual behaviours than their private university counterparts. Despite these revelations, only 66.56% had earlier thought of their chances of getting infected with HIV. Personal HIV risk perceptions were low, reported by 27.76% of the sexually active respondents. Almost all respondents described their fellows' sexual behaviours as either risky or very risky.

  10. Temporal changes in causes of death among HIV-infected patients in the HAART era in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Antonio G; Tuboi, Suely H; May, Silvia B; Moreira, Luiz F S; Ramadas, Luciana; Nunes, Estevão P; Merçon, Mônica; Faulhaber, José C; Harrison, Lee H; Schechter, Mauro

    2009-08-15

    The widespread use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has led to marked decreases in death rates in Brazil in HIV-infected individuals. Nonetheless, there are scarce data on specific causes of death. Death rates from a cohort of HIV-infected patients in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, were analyzed in 2-year periods, from 1997 to 2006. Poisson models and survival models accounting for competing risks were used to assess association of covariables. A standardized validated algorithm was used to ascertain specific causes of death. Of the 1538 eligible patients, 226 (14.7%) died during the study period, corresponding to a mortality rate of 3.2 per 100 person-years. The median follow-up time was 4.61 years (interquartile range = 5.63 years) and the loss to follow-up rate was 2.4 per 100 person-years. Overall, 98 (43.4%) were classified as non-AIDS-related causes. Although opportunistic infections were the leading causes of death (37.6%), deaths due to AIDS-related causes declined significantly over time (P causes of deaths was higher than that of AIDS-related causes of death. In the HAART era, there has been a significant change in causes of death among HIV-infected patients in Rio de Janeiro. As access to HAART improves, integration with other public programs will become critically important for the long-term success of HIV/AIDS programs in developing countries.

  11. [Guidelines for caring for HIV-infected adults and postexposure prophylaxis for HIV infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozsypal, H; Stankova, M; Sedlacek, D; Snopkova, S; Kapla, J; Aster, V; Machala, L; Jilich, D; Dlouhy, P; Kolcakova, J; Zjevikova, A; Jerhotova, Z; Olbrechtova, L

    2013-06-01

    The authors present instructions for providing antiretroviral therapy in the Czech health care system, based partly on recommendations from abroad and partly on their own experiences of caring for HIV /AIDS patients. The structure and content are similar to those in the 2010 edition, with new study outcomes and modern trends in treatment strategy being taken into consideration. The guidelines are based on systematic patient assessment and aimed at making an accurate diagnosis and formulating recommendations according to individual criteria. The document provides specific instructions for decisions on initiating antiretroviral therapy, selection of individual drugs, monitoring of treatment effect and adverse reactions, and reaction to potential therapy failure. Special attention is paid to administration of antiretroviral drugs to pregnant women and patients with comorbidities, especially tuberculosis, hepatitis or renal insufficiency. The new version includes procedures for postexposure prophylaxis for HIV infection. The guidelines are supplemented by a table summary of antiretroviral drugs. The presented document is to be used in negotiations between the association,state authorities and health care payers.

  12. Seroincidence of 2009 H1N1 infection in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women prior to vaccine availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althoff, Keri N.; Eichelberger, Maryna; Gange, Stephen J.; Sharp, Gerald B.; Gao, Jin; Glesby, Marshall J.; Young, Mary; Greenblatt, Ruth M.; French, Audrey L.; Villacres, Maria C.; Minkoff, Howard

    2012-01-01

    The 2009 H1N1 pandemic was a unique opportunity to investigate differences in influenza infection using serology by HIV status. Using serial serum specimens collected from 1 April to 30 September 2009 and the prior 2 years from Women’s Interagency HIV study participants, there was no difference in serologic evidence of 2009 H1N1 infection among HIV-infected women with a CD4 cell count at least 350 cells/µl compared with HIV-uninfected women. Owing to evidence showing a greater risk of influenza-related complications, HIV-infected individuals should continue to be a priority group for vaccination. PMID:21505313

  13. Decreases in colonic and systemic inflammation in chronic HIV infection after IL-7 administration.

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    Irini Sereti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite antiretroviral therapy (ART, some HIV-infected persons maintain lower than normal CD4(+ T-cell counts in peripheral blood and in the gut mucosa. This incomplete immune restoration is associated with higher levels of immune activation manifested by high systemic levels of biomarkers, including sCD14 and D-dimer, that are independent predictors of morbidity and mortality in HIV infection. In this 12-week, single-arm, open-label study, we tested the efficacy of IL-7 adjunctive therapy on T-cell reconstitution in peripheral blood and gut mucosa in 23 ART suppressed HIV-infected patients with incomplete CD4(+ T-cell recovery, using one cycle (consisting of three subcutaneous injections of recombinant human IL-7 (r-hIL-7 at 20 µg/kg. IL-7 administration led to increases of both CD4(+ and CD8(+ T-cells in peripheral blood, and importantly an expansion of T-cells expressing the gut homing integrin α4β7. Participants who underwent rectosigmoid biopsies at study baseline and after treatment had T-cell increases in the gut mucosa measured by both flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. IL-7 therapy also resulted in apparent improvement in gut barrier integrity as measured by decreased neutrophil infiltration in the rectosigmoid lamina propria 12 weeks after IL-7 administration. This was also accompanied by decreased TNF and increased FOXP3 expression in the lamina propria. Plasma levels of sCD14 and D-dimer, indicative of systemic inflammation, decreased after r-hIL-7. Increases of colonic mucosal T-cells correlated strongly with the decreased systemic levels of sCD14, the LPS coreceptor - a marker of monocyte activation. Furthermore, the proportion of inflammatory monocytes expressing CCR2 was decreased, as was the basal IL-1β production of peripheral blood monocytes. These data suggest that administration of r-hIL-7 improves the gut mucosal abnormalities of chronic HIV infection and attenuates the systemic inflammatory and coagulation

  14. Sexual risk of HIV infection among expatriates posted in AIDS endemic areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, R; van Zessen, G; Houweling, H; Ligthelm, R J; van den Akker, R

    1997-07-15

    To assess the prevalence of HIV infection and related risk factors among Dutch expatriates returning from assignment in sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America, and South and South-east Asia. From July 1994 to January 1996, a questionnaire on the risks of sexual exposure was completed by 864 respondents, and blood samples were taken. Of the 634 men, 41% reported having sex with casual or steady local partners and 11% with casual or steady expatriate partners, during an average stay of 26 months in the previous 3 years. Of the 230 women, these figures were 31 and 24%, respectively. Of the men with local casual partners (29%), 59% paid for sex at least once. For men as well as women, having sexual contacts abroad was associated with younger age, positive intention prior to departure to have sex abroad, being single at departure, and, only for the men, working for a commercial organization, and feelings of loneliness and boredom. Among men, consistent condom use with casual local partners was 69%, and with casual expatriate partners 63%. Among women, these figures were 64 and 48%, respectively. Consistent condom use with steady local or expatriate partners was much lower. Among men, non-consistent condom use with casual partners was more prevalent if they had been abroad for a longer time, condoms were not taken along from The Netherlands, the country where they were posted was Asian, and the estimated HIV prevalence among the local population was lower. Among the women, non-consistent condom use was more prevalent if condoms were not taken along, and if they did not have the intention before departure to have sex abroad. Of the persons from whom blood could be obtained, one man was HIV-positive. Another man who refused to participate in the study indicated that he was HIV-positive. Although 23% of the expatriates had unprotected sex with partners from endemic areas, very few HIV infections were found. In comparison with a previous study among this population carried out in

  15. Rising HIV infection rates in Ho Chi Minh City herald emerging AIDS epidemic in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindan, C P; Lieu, T X; Giang, L T; Lap, V D; Thuc, N V; Thinh, T; Lurie, P; Mandel, J S

    1997-09-01

    To describe the epidemiology of HIV in Ho Chi Minh City in the context of current surveillance data from Vietnam. Since the late 1980s, HIV surveillance data have been collected in Ho Chi Minh City from centers for the treatment of venereal disease and tuberculosis, centers for the rehabilitation of injecting drug users and sex workers, prenatal clinics, blood banks and other sites. The first case of HIV infection in Vietnam was identified in 1990 in Ho Chi Minh City. The cumulative number of reported HIV infections in this city at the end of 1996 was 2774, about half of the number of cases in the country; 86% of infections were among men, 86% among injecting drug users, 2.5% among patients with sexually transmitted diseases and 2.5% among sex workers. The first HIV infection among antenatal women was detected in 1994. The prevalence of HIV among injecting drug users rose dramatically from 1% in 1992 to 39% in 1996, compared with 1.2% among sex workers, 0.3% among blood donors and 1.3% among tuberculosis patients in 1996. The populations of injecting drug users and sex workers in Ho Chi Minh City are estimated to be 30000 and 80000, respectively, and rates of sexually transmitted diseases are 2-3 per 1000 persons per year. By the end of December 1996, 42 out of 53 provinces had reported HIV infections, and border areas near China and Cambodia began identifying large numbers of HIV-seropositive people. Ho Chi Minh City is at the forefront of a new HIV epidemic in Vietnam. This epidemic shows similarities to that in Thailand nearly a decade ago, with rapidly rising HIV rates among injecting drug users and infection already established among sex workers. Prevention efforts should include the targeting of injecting drug users and sex workers outside rehabilitation centers, the availability of sterile needles and condoms, the establishment of anonymous testing sites, the control of sexually transmitted diseases and the coordination of programs within southeast Asia.

  16. Randomized, controlled intervention trial of male circumcision for reduction of HIV infection risk: the ANRS 1265 Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Observational studies suggest that male circumcision may provide protection against HIV-1 infection. A randomized, controlled intervention trial was conducted in a general population of South Africa to test this hypothesis. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A total of 3,274 uncircumcised men, aged 18-24 y, were randomized to a control or an intervention group with follow-up visits at months 3, 12, and 21. Male circumcision was offered to the intervention group immediately after randomization and to the control group at the end of the follow-up. The grouped censored data were analyzed in intention-to-treat, univariate and multivariate, analyses, using piecewise exponential, proportional hazards models. Rate ratios (RR of HIV incidence were determined with 95% CI. Protection against HIV infection was calculated as 1 - RR. The trial was stopped at the interim analysis, and the mean (interquartile range follow-up was 18.1 mo (13.0-21.0 when the data were analyzed. There were 20 HIV infections (incidence rate = 0.85 per 100 person-years in the intervention group and 49 (2.1 per 100 person-years in the control group, corresponding to an RR of 0.40 (95% CI: 0.24%-0.68%; p < 0.001. This RR corresponds to a protection of 60% (95% CI: 32%-76%. When controlling for behavioural factors, including sexual behaviour that increased slightly in the intervention group, condom use, and health-seeking behaviour, the protection was of 61% (95% CI: 34%-77%. CONCLUSION: Male circumcision provides a degree of protection against acquiring HIV infection, equivalent to what a vaccine of high efficacy would have achieved. Male circumcision may provide an important way of reducing the spread of HIV infection in sub-Saharan Africa. (Preliminary and partial results were presented at the International AIDS Society 2005 Conference, on 26 July 2005, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil..

  17. Real-time, universal screening for acute HIV infection in a routine HIV counseling and testing population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilcher, Christopher D; McPherson, J Todd; Leone, Peter A; Smurzynski, Marlene; Owen-O'Dowd, Judy; Peace-Brewer, Amy L; Harris, Juanita; Hicks, Charles B; Eron, Joseph J; Fiscus, Susan A

    2002-07-10

    Acute human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection cannot be diagnosed by routine antibody tests and is rarely diagnosed in clinical practice. However, HIV nucleic acid-based testing is widely used to screen for antibody-negative acute infection among low-risk blood donors. To assess the feasibility of screening in high-volume laboratories for acute and long-term HIV infection in a routine HIV testing population, in which HIV infection prevalence is low, using specimen pooling and HIV RNA reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) tests. Clinical diagnostic performance evaluation at a state-funded public health virology and serology laboratory. A total of 8505 consecutive individuals presenting for routine HIV counseling and testing during a total of 20 business days to simulate a month of testing in August and December 2001 at 110 publicly funded testing sites in North Carolina. Prevalence of acute and long-term HIV infection. Serum specimens negative by HIV enzyme immunoassay (EIA) were screened in pools by an ultrasensitive HIV RNA RT-PCR test. Results for individual HIV RNA-positive specimens were reclassified as true or false according to results of confirmatory testing. Of the 8505 individuals screened, 8194 had not previously tested HIV positive and had sufficient serum to complete the testing protocol. Of those, 39 had long-term HIV infection (prevalence, 47.6 per 10,000 at-risk persons [95% confidence interval, 33.8-65.0 per 10,000]). Of the 8155 at-risk individuals whose antibody tests were negative, 5 were HIV RNA positive. Four of those had true-positive acute infection (prevalence, 4.9 per 10,000 [95% confidence interval, 1.3-12.5 per 10,000]). All 4 were women; 2 developed symptoms consistent with an acute retroviral syndrome in the week after testing. Screening all specimens required 147 HIV RNA tests. Overall specificity of the strategy was 0.9999. These findings suggest the widespread diagnosis of acute HIV infections in a routine

  18. Simple anthropometric measures correlate with metabolic risk indicators as strongly as magnetic resonance imaging-measured adipose tissue depots in both HIV-infected and control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherzer, Rebecca; Shen, Wei; Bacchetti, Peter; Kotler, Donald; Lewis, Cora E; Shlipak, Michael G; Heymsfield, Steven B; Grunfeld, Carl

    2008-06-01

    Studies in persons without HIV infection have compared percentage body fat (%BF) and waist circumference as markers of risk for the complications of excess adiposity, but only limited study has been conducted in HIV-infected subjects. We compared anthropometric and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based adiposity measures as correlates of metabolic complications of adiposity in HIV-infected and control subjects. The study was a cross-sectional analysis of 666 HIV-positive and 242 control subjects in the Fat Redistribution and Metabolic Change in HIV Infection (FRAM) study assessing body mass index (BMI), waist (WC) and hip (HC) circumferences, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), %BF, and MRI-measured regional adipose tissue. Study outcomes were 3 metabolic risk variables [homeostatic model assessment (HOMA), triglycerides, and HDL cholesterol]. Analyses were stratified by sex and HIV status and adjusted for demographic, lifestyle, and HIV-related factors. In HIV-infected and control subjects, univariate associations with HOMA, triglycerides, and HDL were strongest for WC, MRI-measured visceral adipose tissue, and WHR; in all cases, differences in correlation between the strongest measures for each outcome were small (r HIV-infected and control subjects.

  19. Determinants of Smoking and Quitting in HIV-Infected Individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Regan

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking is widespread among HIV-infected patients, who confront increased risk of smoking-related co-morbidities. The effects of HIV infection and HIV-related variables on smoking and smoking cessation are incompletely understood. We investigated the correlates of smoking and quitting in an HIV-infected cohort using a validated natural language processor to determine smoking status.We developed and validated an algorithm using natural language processing (NLP to ascertain smoking status from electronic health record data. The algorithm was applied to records for a cohort of 3487 HIV-infected from a large health care system in Boston, USA, and 9446 uninfected control patients matched 3:1 on age, gender, race and clinical encounters. NLP was used to identify and classify smoking-related portions of free-text notes. These classifications were combined into patient-year smoking status and used to classify patients as ever versus never smokers and current smokers versus non-smokers. Generalized linear models were used to assess associations of HIV with 3 outcomes, ever smoking, current smoking, and current smoking in analyses limited to ever smokers (persistent smoking, while adjusting for demographics, cardiovascular risk factors, and psychiatric illness. Analyses were repeated within the HIV cohort, with the addition of CD4 cell count and HIV viral load to assess associations of these HIV-related factors with the smoking outcomes.Using the natural language processing algorithm to assign annual smoking status yielded sensitivity of 92.4, specificity of 86.2, and AUC of 0.89 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.88-0.91. Ever and current smoking were more common in HIV-infected patients than controls (54% vs. 44% and 42% vs. 30%, respectively, both P<0.001. In multivariate models HIV was independently associated with ever smoking (adjusted rate ratio [ARR] 1.18, 95% CI 1.13-1.24, P <0.001, current smoking (ARR 1.33, 95% CI 1.25-1.40, P<0.001, and

  20. [Neurologic aspects of HIV infections--follow-up of pediatric patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollár, Katalin; Jelenik, Zsuzsanna; Hegelsberger, Edit

    2003-11-20

    Before the widespread introduction of combined antiretroviral therapy (1995) complications from HIV and AIDS in the central nervous system had been reported in larger proportion in infants and children than in adults: 80-90% versus 60-70%. Particular clinical manifestations tend to occur at different stages during the evolution of HIV infection. The authors review the neurological aspects of HIV infection. First, a summary of the protocol of the neurological examinations and related experience is given. Then authors present the evaluation of neuro-psychological development, prevalence of neurological impairment and neuro-imaging of nine HIV infected children (seven boys, two girls) for the period of ten years (1991-2001). Three/ten children had vertically transmitted HIV six/nine were infected by a nosocomial route in their early childhood. Children were regularly followed up from the diagnosis of HIV. The median follow up time has been 79 month (range: 18-144 month). Four patients died during the study period. The neurological status, the motor and mental development were examined at three month intervals or monthly under one year of age. EEG was performed every six month and CT/MRI once a year. All patients received combined antiretroviral treatment and immunoglobulin therapy continuously. Three/nine children have normal development, one/nine has hyperactive and attention deficit disorder with normal IQ range, two/nine have slight, one/nine moderate and two/nine serious mental retardation. Mild neurological signs were found in two children, various moderate and serious neuro/psychological symptoms were found in four patients, one of them was treated with benign epilepsy too. There was also dose correlation between the clinical symptoms and the results of EEG examination (diffuse background slowing) and results of neuroimaging studies (cortical atrophy, calcification of the basal ganglia, toxoplasma abscesses). According to the results of different examinations