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Sample records for hiv-1 tat dependent

  1. Interaction of the phospholipid scramblase 1 with HIV-1 Tat results in the repression of Tat-dependent transcription

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    Kusano, Shuichi, E-mail: skusano@m2.kufm.kagoshima-u.ac.jp; Eizuru, Yoshito

    2013-04-19

    Highlights: •PLSCR1 specifically interacted with HIV-1 Tat in vitro and in vivo. •PLSCR1 repressed Tat-dependent transactivation of the HIV-1 LTR. •Suppression of PLSCR1 expression enhanced the levels of HIV-1 transcripts. •PLSCR1 reduced the nuclear localization of Tat. -- Abstract: Human phospholipid scramblase 1 (PLSCR1) is an interferon (IFN)-stimulated gene and possesses an IFN-mediated antiviral function. We show here that PLSCR1 directly interacts with human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) Tat. This interaction occurs both in vitro and in vivo through amino acids 160–250 of PLSCR1. Overexpression of PLSCR1 efficiently represses the Tat-dependent transactivation of the HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR) and reduces the nuclear translocation of Tat. In addition, shRNA-mediated suppression of endogenous PLSCR1 expression enhances the levels of gag mRNA in an HIV-1-infected T-cell line. These findings indicate that PLSCR1 negatively regulates the Tat-dependent transactivation of the HIV-1 LTR during HIV-1 infection.

  2. Modulation of microtubule assembly by the HIV-1 Tat protein is strongly dependent on zinc binding to Tat

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    Muller Sylviane

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During HIV-1 infection, the Tat protein plays a key role by transactivating the transcription of the HIV-1 proviral DNA. In addition, Tat induces apoptosis of non-infected T lymphocytes, leading to a massive loss of immune competence. This apoptosis is notably mediated by the interaction of Tat with microtubules, which are dynamic components essential for cell structure and division. Tat binds two Zn2+ ions through its conserved cysteine-rich region in vitro, but the role of zinc in the structure and properties of Tat is still controversial. Results To investigate the role of zinc, we first characterized Tat apo- and holo-forms by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. Both of the Tat forms are monomeric and poorly folded but differ by local conformational changes in the vicinity of the cysteine-rich region. The interaction of the two Tat forms with tubulin dimers and microtubules was monitored by analytical ultracentrifugation, turbidity measurements and electron microscopy. At 20°C, both of the Tat forms bind tubulin dimers, but only the holo-Tat was found to form discrete complexes. At 37°C, both forms promoted the nucleation and increased the elongation rates of tubulin assembly. However, only the holo-Tat increased the amount of microtubules, decreased the tubulin critical concentration, and stabilized the microtubules. In contrast, apo-Tat induced a large amount of tubulin aggregates. Conclusion Our data suggest that holo-Tat corresponds to the active form, responsible for the Tat-mediated apoptosis.

  3. Specific elimination of HIV-1 infected cells using Tat/Rev-dependent circuit

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    Perdigão, Pedro Ricardo Lucas,

    2011-01-01

    Tese de mestrado. Biologia (Biologia Molecular e Genética). Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências, 2011 Despite the success of antiretroviral cocktails, a cure for HIV-1 remains elusive. This is mainly due to the existence of persistent cellular reservoirs infected with non-transcriptional, latent HIV-1. An effective treatment against HIV-1 would target both active and latent HIV-1-infected cells, and eliminate them without harming non-infected cells. In order to achieve this, we h...

  4. In vitro nuclear interactome of the HIV-1 Tat protein.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gautier, Virginie W

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: One facet of the complexity underlying the biology of HIV-1 resides not only in its limited number of viral proteins, but in the extensive repertoire of cellular proteins they interact with and their higher-order assembly. HIV-1 encodes the regulatory protein Tat (86-101aa), which is essential for HIV-1 replication and primarily orchestrates HIV-1 provirus transcriptional regulation. Previous studies have demonstrated that Tat function is highly dependent on specific interactions with a range of cellular proteins. However they can only partially account for the intricate molecular mechanisms underlying the dynamics of proviral gene expression. To obtain a comprehensive nuclear interaction map of Tat in T-cells, we have designed a proteomic strategy based on affinity chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. RESULTS: Our approach resulted in the identification of a total of 183 candidates as Tat nuclear partners, 90% of which have not been previously characterised. Subsequently we applied in silico analysis, to validate and characterise our dataset which revealed that the Tat nuclear interactome exhibits unique signature(s). First, motif composition analysis highlighted that our dataset is enriched for domains mediating protein, RNA and DNA interactions, and helicase and ATPase activities. Secondly, functional classification and network reconstruction clearly depicted Tat as a polyvalent protein adaptor and positioned Tat at the nexus of a densely interconnected interaction network involved in a range of biological processes which included gene expression regulation, RNA biogenesis, chromatin structure, chromosome organisation, DNA replication and nuclear architecture. CONCLUSION: We have completed the in vitro Tat nuclear interactome and have highlighted its modular network properties and particularly those involved in the coordination of gene expression by Tat. Ultimately, the highly specialised set of molecular interactions identified will

  5. Role of Endolysosomes in HIV-1 Tat-Induced Neurotoxicity

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    Liang Hui

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Combined anti-retroviral therapeutic drugs effectively increase the lifespan of HIV-1-infected individuals who then have a higher prevalence of HAND (HIV-1 associated neurocognitive disorder. Soluble factors including HIV-1 proteins released from HIV-1-infected cells have been implicated in the pathogenesis of HAND, and particular attention has been paid to the HIV-1 Tat (transactivator of transcription protein because of its ability to directly excite neurons and cause neuronal cell death. Since HIV-1 Tat enters cells by receptor-mediated endocytosis and since endolysosomes play an important role in neuronal cell life and death, we tested here the hypothesis that HIV-1 Tat neurotoxicity is associated with changes in the endolysosome structure and function and also autophagy. Following the treatment of primary cultured rat hippocampal neurons with HIV-1 Tat or as controls mutant-Tat or PBS, neuronal viability was determined using a triple staining method. Preceding observations of HIV-1 Tat-induced neuronal cell death, we observed statistically significant changes in the structure and membrane integrity of endolysosomes, endolysosome pH and autophagy. As early as 24 h after HIV-1 Tat was applied to neurons, HIV-1 Tat accumulated in endolysosomes, endolysosome morphology was affected and their size increased, endolysosome membrane integrity was disrupted, endolysosome pH increased, specific activities of endolysosome enzymes decreased and autophagy was inhibited, as indicated by the significant changes in three markers for autophagy. In contrast, statistically significant levels of HIV-1 Tat-induced neuronal cell death were observed only after 48 h of HIV-1 Tat treatment. Our findings suggest that endolysosomes are involved in HIV-1 Tat-induced neurotoxicity and may represent a target for therapeutic intervention against HAND.

  6. USP7 deubiquitinase controls HIV-1 production by stabilizing Tat protein.

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    Ali, Amjad; Raja, Rameez; Farooqui, Sabihur Rahman; Ahmad, Shaista; Banerjea, Akhil C

    2017-05-04

    Deubiquitinases (DUBs) are key regulators of complex cellular processes. HIV-1 Tat is synthesized early after infection and is mainly responsible for enhancing viral production. Here, we report that one of the DUBs, USP7, stabilized the HIV-1 Tat protein through its deubiquitination. Treatment with either a general DUB inhibitor (PR-619) or USP7-specific inhibitor (P5091) resulted in Tat protein degradation. The USP7-specific inhibitor reduced virus production in a latently infected T-lymphocytic cell line J1.1, which produces large amounts of HIV-1 upon stimulation. A potent increase in Tat-mediated HIV-1 production was observed with USP7 in a dose-dependent manner. As expected, deletion of the USP7 gene using the CRISPR-Cas9 method reduced the Tat protein and supported less virus production. Interestingly, the levels of endogenous USP7 increased after HIV-1 infection in human T-cells (MOLT-3) and in mammalian cells transfected with HIV-1 proviral DNA. Thus, HIV-1 Tat is stabilized by the host cell deubiquitinase USP7, leading to enhanced viral production, and HIV-1 in turn up-regulates the USP7 protein level. © 2017 The Author(s); published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  7. Identification of HIV-1 Tat-Associated Proteins Contributing to HIV-1 Transcription and Latency

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    Jean, Maxime Junior; Power, Derek; Kong, Weili; Huang, Huachao; Santoso, Netty; Zhu, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Tat is a virus-encoded trans-activator that plays a central role in viral transcription. We used our recently developed parallel analysis of in vitro translated open reading frames (ORFs) (PLATO) approach to identify host proteins that associate with HIV-1 Tat. From this proteomic assay, we identify 89 Tat-associated proteins (TAPs). We combine our results with other datasets of Tat or long terminal repeat (LTR)-associated proteins. For some of these proteins (NAT10, TINP1, XRCC5, SIN3A), we confirm their strong association with Tat. These TAPs also suppress Tat-mediated HIV-1 transcription. Removing suppression of HIV-1 transcription benefits the reversal of post-integrated, latent HIV-1 proviruses. We demonstrate that these transcriptionally suppressing TAPs contribute to HIV-1 latency in Jurkat latency (J-LAT) cells. Therefore, our proteomic analysis highlights the previously unappreciated TAPs that play a role in maintaining HIV-1 latency and can be further studied as potential pharmacological targets for the “shock and kill” HIV-1 cure strategy. PMID:28368303

  8. Tat-dependent production of an HIV-1 TAR-encoded miRNA-like small RNA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harwig, Alex; Jongejan, Aldo; van Kampen, Antoine H. C.; Berkhout, Ben; Das, Atze T.

    2016-01-01

    Evidence is accumulating that retroviruses can produce microRNAs (miRNAs). To prevent cleavage of their RNA genome, retroviruses have to use an alternative RNA source as miRNA precursor. The transacting responsive (TAR) hairpin structure in HIV-1 RNA has been suggested as source for miRNAs, but how

  9. HIV-1 Tat protein enhances the intracellular growth of Leishmania amazonensis via the ds-RNA induced protein PKR.

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    Vivarini, Áislan de Carvalho; Pereira, Renata de Meirelles Santos; Barreto-de-Souza, Victor; Temerozo, Jairo Ramos; Soares, Deivid C; Saraiva, Elvira M; Saliba, Alessandra Mattos; Bou-Habib, Dumith Chequer; Lopes, Ulisses Gazos

    2015-11-26

    HIV-1 co-infection with human parasitic diseases is a growing public health problem worldwide. Leishmania parasites infect and replicate inside macrophages, thereby subverting host signaling pathways, including the response mediated by PKR. The HIV-1 Tat protein interacts with PKR and plays a pivotal role in HIV-1 replication. This study shows that Tat increases both the expression and activation of PKR in Leishmania-infected macrophages. Importantly, the positive effect of Tat addition on parasite growth was dependent on PKR signaling, as demonstrated in PKR-deficient macrophages or macrophages treated with the PKR inhibitor. The effect of HIV-1 Tat on parasite growth was prevented when the supernatant of HIV-1-infected macrophages was treated with neutralizing anti-HIV-1 Tat prior to Leishmania infection. The addition of HIV-1 Tat to Leishmania-infected macrophages led to inhibition of iNOS expression, modulation of NF-kB activation and enhancement of IL-10 expression. Accordingly, the expression of a Tat construct containing mutations in the basic region (49-57aa), which is responsible for the interaction with PKR, favored neither parasite growth nor IL-10 expression in infected macrophages. In summary, we show that Tat enhances Leishmania growth through PKR signaling.

  10. Direct effects of HIV-1 Tat on excitability and survival of primary dorsal root ganglion neurons: possible contribution to HIV-1-associated pain.

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    Xianxun Chi

    Full Text Available The vast majority of people living with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 have pain syndrome, which has a significant impact on their quality of life. The underlying causes of HIV-1-associated pain are not likely attributable to direct viral infection of the nervous system due to the lack of evidence of neuronal infection by HIV-1. However, HIV-1 proteins are possibly involved as they have been implicated in neuronal damage and death. The current study assesses the direct effects of HIV-1 Tat, one of potent neurotoxic viral proteins released from HIV-1-infected cells, on the excitability and survival of rat primary dorsal root ganglion (DRG neurons. We demonstrated that HIV-1 Tat triggered rapid and sustained enhancement of the excitability of small-diameter rat primary DRG neurons, which was accompanied by marked reductions in the rheobase and resting membrane potential (RMP, and an increase in the resistance at threshold (R(Th. Such Tat-induced DRG hyperexcitability may be a consequence of the inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5 activity. Tat rapidly inhibited Cdk5 kinase activity and mRNA production, and roscovitine, a well-known Cdk5 inhibitor, induced a very similar pattern of DRG hyperexcitability. Indeed, pre-application of Tat prevented roscovitine from having additional effects on the RMP and action potentials (APs of DRGs. However, Tat-mediated actions on the rheobase and R(Th were accelerated by roscovitine. These results suggest that Tat-mediated changes in DRG excitability are partly facilitated by Cdk5 inhibition. In addition, Cdk5 is most abundant in DRG neurons and participates in the regulation of pain signaling. We also demonstrated that HIV-1 Tat markedly induced apoptosis of primary DRG neurons after exposure for longer than 48 h. Together, this work indicates that HIV-1 proteins are capable of producing pain signaling through direct actions on excitability and survival of sensory neurons.

  11. p53-Derived Host Restriction of HIV-1 Replication by Protein Kinase R-Mediated Tat Phosphorylation and Inactivation

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    Yoon, Cheol-Hee; Kim, Sang-Yoon; Byeon, Se Eun; Jeong, Yideul; Lee, Jinjoo; Kim, Kwang Pyo; Park, Jinseu

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Tumor suppressor p53 has been suggested to be a host restriction factor against HIV-1 replication, but the detailed molecular mechanism has remained elusive for decades. Here, we demonstrate that p53-mediated HIV-1 suppression is attributed to double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-dependent protein kinase (PKR)-mediated HIV-1 trans-activator (Tat) phosphorylation and inactivation. p53 silencing significantly enhanced HIV-1 replication in infected cells. Ectopic expression of p53 suppressed Tat activity, which was rescued by PKR silencing. In addition, ectopic expression of PKR abolished Tat activity in p53−/− and eIF2αCA cells. Finally, we found that HIV-1 infection activates p53, followed by the induction and activation of PKR. PKR directly interacted with HIV-1 Tat and phosphorylates the first exon of Tat exclusively at five Ser/Thr residues (T23, T40, S46, S62, and S68), which inhibits Tat-mediated provirus transcription in three critical steps: (i) phosphorylation near the arginine-rich motif (ARM) inhibits Tat translocation into the nucleus, (ii) accumulation of Tat phosphorylation abolishes Tat–Tat-responsive region (TAR) binding, and (iii) Tat phosphorylation at T23 and/or T40 obliterates the Tat-cyclin T1 interaction. These five Ser/Thr sites on Tat were highly conserved in HIV-1 strains prevalent in Europe and the United States. Taken together, our findings indicate that p53-derived host restriction of HIV-1 replication is likely attributable, at least in part, to a noncanonical p53/PKR/Tat phosphorylation and inactivation pathway in HIV-1 infection and AIDS pathogenesis. IMPORTANCE HIV-1-mediated disease progression to AIDS lasts for years to decades after primary infection. Host restriction and associated viral latency have been studied for several decades. p53 has been suggested as an important host restriction factor against HIV-1 replication. However, the detailed molecular mechanism is still unclear. In the present study, we found that the p53

  12. Creatine protects against mitochondrial dysfunction associated with HIV-1 Tat-induced neuronal injury

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    Stevens, Patrick R.; Gawryluk, Jeremy W.; Hui, Liang; Chen, Xuesong; Geiger, Jonathan D.

    2015-01-01

    HIV-1 infected individuals are living longer but experiencing a prevalence rate of over 50% for HIV-1 associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) for which no effective treatment is available. Viral and cellular factors secreted by HIV-1 infected cells leads to neuronal injury and HIV-1 Tat continues to be implicated in the pathogenesis of HAND. Here we tested the hypothesis that creatine protected against HIV-1 Tat-induced neuronal injury by preventing mitochondrial bioenergetic crisis and/or redox catastrophe. Creatine blocked HIV-1 Tat1-72-induced increases in neuron cell death and synaptic area loss. Creatine protected against HIV-1 Tat-induced decreases in ATP. Creatine and creatine plus HIV-1 Tat increased cellular levels of creatine, and creatine plus HIV-1 Tat further decreased ratios of phosphocreatine to creatine observed with creatine or HIV-1 Tat treatments alone. Additionally, creatine protected against HIV-1 Tat-induced mitochondrial hypopolarization and HIV-1 Tat-induced mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening. Thus, creatine may be a useful adjunctive therapy against HAND. PMID:25613139

  13. HIV-1 Tat potently stabilises Mdm2 and enhances viral replication.

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    Raja, Rameez; Ronsard, Larance; Lata, Sneh; Trivedi, Shubhendu; Banerjea, Akhil C

    2017-07-11

    Murine double minute 2 (Mdm2) is known to enhance the transactivation potential of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) Tat protein by causing its ubiquitination. However, the regulation of Mdm2 during HIV-1 infection and its implications for viral replication have not been well studied. Here, we show that the Mdm2 protein level increases during HIV-1 infection and this effect is mediated by HIV-1 Tat protein. Tat appears to stabilise Mdm2 at the post-translational level by inducing its phosphorylation at serine-166 position through AKT. Although p53 is one of the key players for Mdm2 induction, Tat-mediated stabilisation of Mdm2 appears to be independent of p53. Moreover, the non-phosphorylatable mutant of Mdm2 (S166A) fails to interact with Tat and shows decreased half-life in the presence of Tat compared with wild-type Mdm2. Furthermore, the non-phosphorylatable mutant of Mdm2 (S166A) is unable to support HIV-1 replication. Thus, HIV-1 Tat appears to stabilise Mdm2, which in turn enhances Tat-mediated viral replication. This study highlights the importance of post-translational modifications of host cellular factors in HIV-1 replication and pathogenesis. © 2017 The Author(s).

  14. The Tat Inhibitor Didehydro-Cortistatin A Prevents HIV-1 Reactivation from Latency.

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    Mousseau, Guillaume; Kessing, Cari F; Fromentin, Rémi; Trautmann, Lydie; Chomont, Nicolas; Valente, Susana T

    2015-07-07

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) inhibits HIV-1 replication, but the virus persists in latently infected resting memory CD4(+) T cells susceptible to viral reactivation. The virus-encoded early gene product Tat activates transcription of the viral genome and promotes exponential viral production. Here we show that the Tat inhibitor didehydro-cortistatin A (dCA), unlike other antiretrovirals, reduces residual levels of viral transcription in several models of HIV latency, breaks the Tat-mediated transcriptional feedback loop, and establishes a nearly permanent state of latency, which greatly diminishes the capacity for virus reactivation. Importantly, treatment with dCA induces inactivation of viral transcription even after its removal, suggesting that the HIV promoter is epigenetically repressed. Critically, dCA inhibits viral reactivation upon CD3/CD28 or prostratin stimulation of latently infected CD4(+) T cells from HIV-infected subjects receiving suppressive ART. Our results suggest that inclusion of a Tat inhibitor in current ART regimens may contribute to a functional HIV-1 cure by reducing low-level viremia and preventing viral reactivation from latent reservoirs. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduces HIV-1 replication to very low levels, but the virus persists in latently infected memory CD4(+) T cells, representing a long-lasting source of resurgent virus upon ART interruption. Based on the mode of action of didehydro-cortistatin A (dCA), a Tat-dependent transcription inhibitor, our work highlights an alternative approach to current HIV-1 eradication strategies to decrease the latent reservoir. In our model, dCA blocks the Tat feedback loop initiated after low-level basal reactivation, blocking transcriptional elongation and hence viral production from latently infected cells. Therefore, dCA combined with ART would be aimed at delaying or halting ongoing viral replication, reactivation, and replenishment of the latent viral reservoir. Thus, the latent pool of

  15. Tat RNA silencing suppressor activity contributes to perturbation of lymphocyte miRNA by HIV-1

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    Yu Lianbo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNA (miRNA-mediated RNA silencing is integral to virtually every cellular process including cell cycle progression and response to virus infection. The interplay between RNA silencing and HIV-1 is multifaceted, and accumulating evidence posits a strike-counterstrike interface that alters the cellular environment to favor virus replication. For instance, miRNA-mediated RNA silencing of HIV-1 translation is antagonized by HIV-1 Tat RNA silencing suppressor activity. The activity of HIV-1 accessory proteins Vpr/Vif delays cell cycle progression, which is a process prominently modulated by miRNA. The expression profile of cellular miRNA is altered by HIV-1 infection in both cultured cells and clinical samples. The open question stands of what, if any, is the contribution of Tat RNA silencing suppressor activity or Vpr/Vif activity to the perturbation of cellular miRNA by HIV-1. Results Herein, we compared the perturbation of miRNA expression profiles of lymphocytes infected with HIV-1NL4-3 or derivative strains that are deficient in Tat RNA silencing suppressor activity (Tat K51A substitution or ablated of the vpr/vif open reading frames. Microarrays recapitulated the perturbation of the cellular miRNA profile by HIV-1 infection. The miRNA expression trends overlapped ~50% with published microarray results on clinical samples from HIV-1 infected patients. Moreover, the number of miRNA perturbed by HIV-1 was largely similar despite ablation of Tat RSS activity and Vpr/Vif; however, the Tat RSS mutation lessened HIV-1 downregulation of twenty-two miRNAs. Conclusions Our study identified miRNA expression changes attributable to Tat RSS activity in HIV-1NL4-3. The results accomplish a necessary step in the process to understand the interface of HIV-1 with host RNA silencing activity. The overlap in miRNA expression trends observed between HIV-1 infected CEMx174 lymphocytes and primary cells supports the utility of cultured

  16. HIV-1 TAT protein enhances sensitization to methamphetamine by affecting dopaminergic function.

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    Kesby, James P; Najera, Julia A; Romoli, Benedetto; Fang, Yiding; Basova, Liana; Birmingham, Amanda; Marcondes, Maria Cecilia G; Dulcis, Davide; Semenova, Svetlana

    2017-10-01

    Methamphetamine abuse is common among humans with immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The HIV-1 regulatory protein TAT induces dysfunction of mesolimbic dopaminergic systems which may result in impaired reward processes and contribute to methamphetamine abuse. These studies investigated the impact of TAT expression on methamphetamine-induced locomotor sensitization, underlying changes in dopamine function and adenosine receptors in mesolimbic brain areas and neuroinflammation (microgliosis). Transgenic mice with doxycycline-induced TAT protein expression in the brain were tested for locomotor activity in response to repeated methamphetamine injections and methamphetamine challenge after a 7-day abstinence period. Dopamine function in the nucleus accumbens (Acb) was determined using high performance liquid chromatography. Expression of dopamine and/or adenosine A receptors (ADORA) in the Acb and caudate putamen (CPu) was assessed using RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry analyses. Microarrays with pathway analyses assessed dopamine and adenosine signaling in the CPu. Activity-dependent neurotransmitter switching of a reserve pool of non-dopaminergic neurons to a dopaminergic phenotype in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) was determined by immunohistochemistry and quantified with stereology. TAT expression enhanced methamphetamine-induced sensitization. TAT expression alone decreased striatal dopamine (D1, D2, D4, D5) and ADORA1A receptor expression, while increasing ADORA2A receptors expression. Moreover, TAT expression combined with methamphetamine exposure was associated with increased adenosine A receptors (ADORA1A) expression and increased recruitment of dopamine neurons in the VTA. TAT expression and methamphetamine exposure induced microglia activation with the largest effect after combined exposure. Our findings suggest that dopamine-adenosine receptor interactions and reserve pool neuronal recruitment may represent potential targets to develop new treatments for

  17. Detection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Tat protein by aptamer-based biosensors

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    Hashim, Uda; Fatin, M. F.; Ruslinda, A. R.; Gopinath, Subash C. B.; Uda, M. N. A.

    2017-03-01

    A study was conducted to detect the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) Tat protein using interdigitated electrodes. The measurements and images of the IDEs' finger gaps and the images of chitosan-carbon nanotubes deposited on top of the interdigitated electrodes were taken using the Scanning Electron Microscope. The detection of HIV-1 Tat protein was done using split aptamers and aptamer tail. Biosensors were chosen as diagnostic equipment due to their rapid diagnostic capabilities.

  18. Caffeine Blocks HIV-1 Tat-Induced Amyloid Beta Production and Tau Phosphorylation.

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    Soliman, Mahmoud L; Geiger, Jonathan D; Chen, Xuesong

    2017-03-01

    The increased life expectancy of people living with HIV-1 who are taking effective anti-retroviral therapeutics is now accompanied by increased Alzheimer's disease (AD)-like neurocognitive problems and neuropathological features such as increased levels of amyloid beta (Aβ) and phosphorylated tau proteins. Others and we have shown that HIV-1 Tat promotes the development of AD-like pathology. Indeed, HIV-1 Tat once endocytosed into neurons can alter morphological features and functions of endolysosomes as well as increase Aβ generation. Caffeine has been shown to have protective actions against AD and based on our recent findings that caffeine can inhibit endocytosis in neurons and can prevent neuronal Aβ generation, we tested the hypothesis that caffeine blocks HIV-1 Tat-induced Aβ generation and tau phosphorylation. In SH-SY5Y cells over-expressing wild-type amyloid beta precursor protein (AβPP), we demonstrated that HIV-1 Tat significantly increased secreted levels and intracellular levels of Aβ as well as cellular protein levels of phosphorylated tau. Caffeine significantly decreased levels of secreted and cellular levels of Aβ, and significantly blocked HIV-1 Tat-induced increases in secreted and cellular levels of Aβ. Caffeine also blocked HIV-1 Tat-induced increases in cellular levels of phosphorylated tau. Furthermore, caffeine blocked HIV-1 Tat-induced endolysosome dysfunction as indicated by decreased protein levels of vacuolar-ATPase and increased protein levels of cathepsin D. These results further implicate endolysosome dysfunction in the pathogenesis of AD and HAND, and by virtue of its ability to prevent and/or block neuropathological features associated with AD and HAND caffeine might find use as an effective adjunctive therapeutic agent.

  19. Effects of HIV-1 Tat on Enteric Neuropathogenesis

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    Ngwainmbi, Joy; De, Dipanjana D.; Smith, Tricia H.; El-Hage, Nazira; Fitting, Sylvia; Kang, Minho; Dewey, William L.; Hauser, Kurt F.

    2014-01-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract presents a major site of immune modulation by HIV, resulting in significant morbidity. Most GI processes affected during HIV infection are regulated by the enteric nervous system. HIV has been identified in GI histologic specimens in up to 40% of patients, and the presence of viral proteins, including the trans-activator of transcription (Tat), has been reported in the gut indicating that HIV itself may be an indirect gut pathogen. Little is known of how Tat affects the enteric nervous system. Here we investigated the effects of the Tat protein on enteric neuronal excitability, proinflammatory cytokine release, and its overall effect on GI motility. Direct application of Tat (100 nm) increased the number of action potentials and reduced the threshold for action potential initiation in isolated myenteric neurons. This effect persisted in neurons pretreated with Tat for 3 d (19 of 20) and in neurons isolated from Tat+ (Tat-expressing) transgenic mice. Tat increased sodium channel isoforms Nav1.7 and Nav1.8 levels. This increase was accompanied by an increase in sodium current density and a leftward shift in the sodium channel activation voltage. RANTES, IL-6, and IL-1β, but not TNF-α, were enhanced by Tat. Intestinal transit and cecal water content were also significantly higher in Tat+ transgenic mice than Tat− littermates (controls). Together, these findings show that Tat has a direct and persistent effect on enteric neuronal excitability, and together with its effect on proinflammatory cytokines, regulates gut motility, thereby contributing to GI dysmotilities reported in HIV patients. PMID:25339738

  20. HIV-1 Tat and cocaine mediated synaptopathy in cortical and midbrain neurons is prevented by the isoflavone Equol

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    Sarah eBertrand

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Illicit drugs, such as cocaine, are known to increase the likelihood and severity of HIV-1 associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND. In the current studies synaptic integrity was assessed following exposure to low concentrations of the HIV-1 viral protein Tat 1-86B, with or without cocaine, by quantifying filamentous actin (F-actin rich structures (i.e., puncta and dendritic spines on neuronal dendrites in vitro. In addition, the synapse-protective effects of either R-Equol or S-Equol (derivatives of the soy isoflavone, daidzein were determined. Individually, neither low concentrations of HIV-1 Tat (10nM nor low concentrations of cocaine (1.6µM had any significant effect on F-actin puncta number; however, the same low concentrations of HIV-1 Tat+cocaine together significantly reduced dendritic synapses. This synaptic reduction was prevented by pre-treatment with either R-Equol or S-Equol, in an estrogen receptor beta (ERβ dependent manner. In sum, targeted therapeutic intervention with S-Equol may prevent HIV-1+drug abuse synaptopathy, and thereby potentially delay the development of HAND.

  1. Interaction between Tat and Drugs of Abuse during HIV-1 Infection and Central Nervous System Disease.

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    Maubert, Monique E; Pirrone, Vanessa; Rivera, Nina T; Wigdahl, Brian; Nonnemacher, Michael R

    2015-01-01

    In many individuals, drug abuse is intimately linked with HIV-1 infection. In addition to being associated with one-third of all HIV-1 infections in the United States, drug abuse also plays a role in disease progression and severity in HIV-1-infected patients, including adverse effects on the central nervous system (CNS). Specific systems within the brain are known to be damaged in HIV-1-infected individuals and this damage is similar to that observed in drug abuse. Even in the era of anti-retroviral therapy (ART), CNS pathogenesis occurs with HIV-1 infection, with a broad range of cognitive impairment observed, collectively referred to as HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). A number of HIV-1 proteins (Tat, gp120, Nef, Vpr) have been implicated in the etiology of pathogenesis and disease as a result of the biologic activity of the extracellular form of each of the proteins in a number of tissues, including the CNS, even in ART-suppressed patients. In this review, we have made Tat the center of attention for a number of reasons. First, it has been shown to be synthesized and secreted by HIV-1-infected cells in the CNS, despite the most effective suppression therapies available to date. Second, Tat has been shown to alter the functions of several host factors, disrupting the molecular and biochemical balance of numerous pathways contributing to cellular toxicity, dysfunction, and death. In addition, the advantages and disadvantages of ART suppression with regard to controlling the genesis and progression of neurocognitive impairment are currently under debate in the field and are yet to be fully determined. In this review, we discuss the individual and concerted contributions of HIV-1 Tat, drug abuse, and ART with respect to damage in the CNS, and how these factors contribute to the development of HAND in HIV-1-infected patients.

  2. Interaction between Tat and Drugs of Abuse during HIV-1 Infection and Central Nervous System Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique E Maubert

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In many individuals, drug abuse is intimately linked with HIV-1 infection. In addition to being associated with one-third of all HIV-1 infections in the United States, drug abuse also plays a role in disease progression and severity in HIV-1-infected patients, including adverse effects on the central nervous system (CNS. Specific systems within the brain are known to be damaged in HIV-1-infected individuals and this damage is similar to that observed in drug abuse. Even in the era of anti-retroviral therapy (ART, CNS pathogenesis occurs with HIV-1 infection, with a broad range of cognitive impairment observed, collectively referred to as HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND. A number of HIV-1 proteins (Tat, gp120, Nef, Vpr have been implicated in the etiology of pathogenesis and disease as a result of the biologic activity of the extracellular form of each of the proteins in a number of tissues, including the CNS, even in ART-suppressed patients. In this review, we have made Tat the center of attention for a number of reasons. First, it has been shown to be synthesized and secreted by HIV-1-infected cells in the CNS, despite the most effective suppression therapies available to date. Second, Tat has been shown to alter the functions of several host factors, disrupting the molecular and biochemical balance of numerous pathways contributing to cellular toxicity, dysfunction, and death. In addition, the advantages and disadvantages of ART suppression with regard to controlling the genesis and progression of neurocognitive impairment are currently under debate in the field and are yet to be fully determined. In this review, we discuss the individual and concerted contributions of HIV-1 Tat, drug abuse, and ART with respect to damage in the CNS, and how these factors contribute to the development of HAND in HIV-1-infected patients.

  3. HIV-1 Tat Promotes Lysosomal Exocytosis in Astrocytes and Contributes to Astrocyte-mediated Tat Neurotoxicity.

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    Fan, Yan; He, Johnny J

    2016-10-21

    Tat interaction with astrocytes has been shown to be important for Tat neurotoxicity and HIV/neuroAIDS. We have recently shown that Tat expression leads to increased glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression and aggregation and activation of unfolded protein response/endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in astrocytes and causes neurotoxicity. However, the exact molecular mechanism of astrocyte-mediated Tat neurotoxicity is not defined. In this study, we showed that neurotoxic factors other than Tat protein itself were present in the supernatant of Tat-expressing astrocytes. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry revealed significantly elevated lysosomal hydrolytic enzymes and plasma membrane-associated proteins in the supernatant of Tat-expressing astrocytes. We confirmed that Tat expression and infection of pseudotyped HIV.GFP led to increased lysosomal exocytosis from mouse astrocytes and human astrocytes. We found that Tat-induced lysosomal exocytosis was tightly coupled to astrocyte-mediated Tat neurotoxicity. In addition, we demonstrated that Tat-induced lysosomal exocytosis was astrocyte-specific and required GFAP expression and was mediated by ER stress. Taken together, these results show for the first time that Tat promotes lysosomal exocytosis in astrocytes and causes neurotoxicity through GFAP activation and ER stress induction in astrocytes and suggest a common cascade through which aberrant astrocytosis/GFAP up-regulation potentiates neurotoxicity and contributes to neurodegenerative diseases. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. HIV-1 Tat Promotes Lysosomal Exocytosis in Astrocytes and Contributes to Astrocyte-mediated Tat Neurotoxicity*

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    Fan, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Tat interaction with astrocytes has been shown to be important for Tat neurotoxicity and HIV/neuroAIDS. We have recently shown that Tat expression leads to increased glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression and aggregation and activation of unfolded protein response/endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in astrocytes and causes neurotoxicity. However, the exact molecular mechanism of astrocyte-mediated Tat neurotoxicity is not defined. In this study, we showed that neurotoxic factors other than Tat protein itself were present in the supernatant of Tat-expressing astrocytes. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry revealed significantly elevated lysosomal hydrolytic enzymes and plasma membrane-associated proteins in the supernatant of Tat-expressing astrocytes. We confirmed that Tat expression and infection of pseudotyped HIV.GFP led to increased lysosomal exocytosis from mouse astrocytes and human astrocytes. We found that Tat-induced lysosomal exocytosis was tightly coupled to astrocyte-mediated Tat neurotoxicity. In addition, we demonstrated that Tat-induced lysosomal exocytosis was astrocyte-specific and required GFAP expression and was mediated by ER stress. Taken together, these results show for the first time that Tat promotes lysosomal exocytosis in astrocytes and causes neurotoxicity through GFAP activation and ER stress induction in astrocytes and suggest a common cascade through which aberrant astrocytosis/GFAP up-regulation potentiates neurotoxicity and contributes to neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:27609518

  5. Homonuclear 1H NMR and circular dichroism study of the HIV-1 Tat Eli variant

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    Watkins, Jennifer D; Campbell, Grant R; Halimi, Hubert; Loret, Erwann P

    2008-01-01

    Background The HIV-1 Tat protein is a promising target to develop AIDS therapies, particularly vaccines, due to its extracellular role that protects HIV-1-infected cells from the immune system. Tat exists in two different lengths, 86 or 87 residues and 99 or 101 residues, with the long form being predominant in clinical isolates. We report here a structural study of the 99 residue Tat Eli variant using 2D liquid-state NMR, molecular modeling and circular dichroism. Results Tat Eli was obtained from solid-phase peptide synthesis and the purified protein was proven biologically active in a trans-activation assay. Circular dichroism spectra at different temperatures up to 70°C showed that Tat Eli is not a random coil at 20°C. Homonuclear 1H NMR spectra allowed us to identify 1639 NMR distance constraints out of which 264 were interresidual. Molecular modeling satisfying at least 1474 NMR constraints revealed the same folding for different model structures. The Tat Eli model has a core region composed of a part of the N-terminus including the highly conserved Trp 11. The extra residues in the Tat Eli C-terminus protrude from a groove between the basic region and the cysteine-rich region and are well exposed to the solvent. Conclusion We show that active Tat variants share a similar folding pattern whatever their size, but mutations induce local structural changes. PMID:18808674

  6. HIV-1 Tat Protein Enhances Expression and Function of Breast Cancer Resistance Protein.

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    Zhou, Yancong; Zhang, Kun; Yin, Xiaojie; Nie, Qichang; Ma, Yonggang

    2016-01-01

    ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters can transfer a variety of antiviral agents from the cytoplasm to body fluid, which results in a reduced intracellular concentration of the drugs. Proteins of HIV-1, e.g., Tat and gp120, altered some types of ABC transporter expression in brain microvascular endothelial cells and astrocytes. However, the effect of Tat on ABC transporters in T lymphocytes is unclear. In this study the status of breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) in Tat expressing cell lines was examined with real-time PCR and flow cytometry. It was found that HIV-1 Tat protein upregulated BCRP expression and enhanced efflux mediated by BCRP significantly, which could inhibit antiviral drugs from entering infected cells and interfere with the therapeutic effect of HAART.

  7. Immune regulator ABIN1 suppresses HIV-1 transcription by negatively regulating the ubiquitination of Tat.

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    Chen, Shiyou; Yang, Xiaodan; Cheng, Weijia; Ma, Yuhong; Shang, Yafang; Cao, Liu; Chen, Shuliang; Chen, Yu; Wang, Min; Guo, Deyin

    2017-02-13

    A20-binding inhibitor of NF-κB activation (ABIN1), an important immune regulator, was previously shown to be involved in HIV-1 replication. However, the reported studies done with overexpressed ABIN1 provided controversial results. Here we identified ABIN1 as a suppressor of HIV-1 transcription since transient knockdown of ABIN1 led to increased HIV-1 replication both in transformed Jurkat T cell line and in primary human CD4+ T lymphocytes. Depletion of ABIN1 specifically enhanced the HIV-1 transcription from the integrated genome during viral life cycle, but not the earlier steps such as reverse transcription or integration. Immunoprecipitation assays revealed that ABIN1 specifically inhibits the proto-oncogene HDM2 catalyzed K63-linked polyubiquitination of Tat at Lys71, which is critical for the transactivation activity of Tat. The ubiquitin chain binding activity of ABIN1 carried by UBAN domain turned out to be essential for the inhibitory role of ABIN1. The results of immunofluorescence localization experiments suggested that ABIN1 may obstruct Tat ubiquitination by redistributing some of HDM2 from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. Our findings have revealed ABIN1 as intrinsic suppressor of HIV-1 mRNA transcription by regulating the ubiquitination of Tat.

  8. A flavonoid, luteolin, cripples HIV-1 by abrogation of tat function.

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    Rajeev Mehla

    Full Text Available Despite the effectiveness of combination antiretroviral treatment (cART against HIV-1, evidence indicates that residual infection persists in different cell types. Intensification of cART does not decrease the residual viral load or immune activation. cART restricts the synthesis of infectious virus but does not curtail HIV-1 transcription and translation from either the integrated or unintegrated viral genomes in infected cells. All treated patients with full viral suppression actually have low-level viremia. More than 60% of treated individuals also develop minor HIV-1 -associated neurocognitive deficits (HAND due to residual virus and immune activation. Thus, new therapeutic agents are needed to curtail HIV-1 transcription and residual virus. In this study, luteolin, a dietary supplement, profoundly reduced HIV-1 infection in reporter cells and primary lymphocytes. HIV-1inhibition by luteolin was independent of viral entry, as shown by the fact that wild-type and VSV-pseudotyped HIV-1 infections were similarly inhibited. Luteolin was unable to inhibit viral reverse transcription. Luteolin had antiviral activity in a latent HIV-1 reactivation model and effectively ablated both clade-B- and -C -Tat-driven LTR transactivation in reporter assays but had no effect on Tat expression and its sub-cellular localization. We conclude that luteolin confers anti-HIV-1 activity at the Tat functional level. Given its biosafety profile and ability to cross the blood-brain barrier, luteolin may serve as a base flavonoid to develop potent anti-HIV-1 derivatives to complement cART.

  9. HIV-1 Tat Inhibits Autotaxin Lysophospholipase D Activity and Modulates Oligodendrocyte Differentiation

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    Wheeler, Natalie A.; Fuss, Babette; Knapp, Pamela E.

    2016-01-01

    White matter injury has been frequently reported in HIV+ patients. Previous studies showed that HIV-1 Tat (transactivator of transcription), a viral protein that is produced and secreted by HIV-infected cells, is toxic to young, immature oligodendrocytes (OLGs). Adding Tat to the culture medium reduced the viability of immature OLGs, and the surviving OLGs exhibited reduced process networks. OLGs produce and secrete autotaxin (ATX), an ecto-enzyme containing a lysophospholipase D (lysoPLD) activity that converts lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) to lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a lipid signaling molecule that stimulates OLG differentiation. We hypothesized that Tat affects OLG development by interfering with the ATX-LPA signaling pathway. Our data show that Tat treatment leads to changes in the expression of OLG differentiation genes and the area of OLG process networks, both of which can be rescued by LPA. Tat-treated OLGs showed no change in LPA receptor expression but significantly decreased extracellular ATX levels and lysoPLD activity. In Tat transgenic mice, expression of Tat in vivo leads to decreased OLG ATX secretion. Furthermore, co-immunoprecipitation experiments revealed a potential physical interaction between Tat and ATX. Together, these data strongly suggest two functional implications of Tat blocking ATX’s lysoPLD activity. On one hand, it attenuates OLG differentiation, and on the other hand it interferes with the protective effects of LPA on OLG process morphology. PMID:27659560

  10. HIV-1 Tat C-mediated regulation of tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor-3 by microRNA 32 in human microglia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background HIV-1 Tat protein is known to be associated with neuroinflammation, a condition that develops in almost half of patients infected with HIV-1. HIV-1 Tat can alter glial neuroprotective functions, leading to neurotoxicity within the CNS. HIV-1 Tat is known to be secreted from productively infected cells and can affect neighboring uninfected cells by modulating cellular gene expression in a bystander fashion. Methods We were interested to study whether exogenous exposure to HIV-1 Tat-C protein perturbs the microRNA (miRNA) expression profile of human microglial cells, leading to altered protein expression. We used protein expression and purification, miRNA overexpression, miRNA knockdown, transfection, site-directed mutagenesis, real-time PCR, luciferase assay and western blotting techniques to perform our study. Results HIV-1 Tat-C treatment of human microglial cells resulted in a dose-dependent increase in miR-32 expression. We found that tumor necrosis factor-receptor–associated factor 3 TRAF3) is a direct target for miR-32, and overexpression of miR-32 in CHME3 cells decreased TRAF3 both at the mRNA and the protein level. Recovery of TRAF3 protein expression after transfection of anti-miR-32 and the results of the luciferase reporter assay provided direct evidence of TRAF3 regulation by miR-32. We found that the regulation of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) and IRF7 is controlled by cellular levels of TRAF3 protein in microglial cells, as after overexpression of miR-32 and application of anti-miR-32, expression levels of IRF3 and IRF7 were inversely regulated by expression levels of TRAF3. Thus, our results suggest a novel miRNA mediated mechanism for regulation of TRAF3 in human microglial cells exposed to HIV-1 Tat C protein. These results may help to elucidate the detrimental neuroinflammatory consequences of HIV-1 Tat C protein in bystander fashion. Conclusion HIV-1 Tat protein can modulate TRAF3 expression through miRNA mediated pathway and

  11. HIV-1 Tat C-mediated regulation of tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor-3 by microRNA 32 in human microglia

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    Mishra Ritu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV-1 Tat protein is known to be associated with neuroinflammation, a condition that develops in almost half of patients infected with HIV-1. HIV-1 Tat can alter glial neuroprotective functions, leading to neurotoxicity within the CNS. HIV-1 Tat is known to be secreted from productively infected cells and can affect neighboring uninfected cells by modulating cellular gene expression in a bystander fashion. Methods We were interested to study whether exogenous exposure to HIV-1 Tat-C protein perturbs the microRNA (miRNA expression profile of human microglial cells, leading to altered protein expression. We used protein expression and purification, miRNA overexpression, miRNA knockdown, transfection, site-directed mutagenesis, real-time PCR, luciferase assay and western blotting techniques to perform our study. Results HIV-1 Tat-C treatment of human microglial cells resulted in a dose-dependent increase in miR-32 expression. We found that tumor necrosis factor-receptor–associated factor 3 TRAF3 is a direct target for miR-32, and overexpression of miR-32 in CHME3 cells decreased TRAF3 both at the mRNA and the protein level. Recovery of TRAF3 protein expression after transfection of anti-miR-32 and the results of the luciferase reporter assay provided direct evidence of TRAF3 regulation by miR-32. We found that the regulation of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3 and IRF7 is controlled by cellular levels of TRAF3 protein in microglial cells, as after overexpression of miR-32 and application of anti-miR-32, expression levels of IRF3 and IRF7 were inversely regulated by expression levels of TRAF3. Thus, our results suggest a novel miRNA mediated mechanism for regulation of TRAF3 in human microglial cells exposed to HIV-1 Tat C protein. These results may help to elucidate the detrimental neuroinflammatory consequences of HIV-1 Tat C protein in bystander fashion. Conclusion HIV-1 Tat protein can modulate TRAF3 expression through

  12. HIV-1 Tat-mediated apoptosis in human blood-retinal barrier-associated cells.

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    Xin Che

    Full Text Available HIV-1-associated ocular complications, such as microvasculopathies, can lead to the loss of vision in HIV-1-infected patients. Even in patients under highly active antiretroviral therapy, ocular lesions are unavoidable. Ocular complications have been demonstrated to be closely related to the breakdown of the blood-retinal-barrier (BRB; however, the underlying mechanism is not clear. The data from this study indicated that the HIV-1 Tat protein induced the apoptosis of human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (HRMECs and retinal pigmen epithelium (RPE cells, which compose the inner BRB and the outer BRB, respectively. In addition, this study found that the activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs was involved in the apoptosis of RPE cells, but it caused no changes in HRMECs. Furthermore, both cell types exhibited enhanced expression of Bak, Bax and Cytochrome c. The inhibition of Tat activity protected against the apoptosis induced by NMDAR activation and prevented the dysregulation of Bak, Bax and Cytochrome c, revealing an important role for the mitochondrial pathway in HIV-1 Tat-induced apoptosis. Together, these findings suggest a possible mechanism and may identify a potential therapeutic strategy for HIV-1-associated ocular complications.

  13. A real-time view of the TAR:Tat:P-TEFb complex at HIV-1 transcription sites

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    Knezevich Anna

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract HIV-1 transcription is tightly regulated: silent in long-term latency and highly active in acutely-infected cells. Transcription is activated by the viral protein Tat, which recruits the elongation factor P-TEFb by binding the TAR sequence present in nascent HIV-1 RNAs. In this study, we analyzed the dynamic of the TAR:Tat:P-TEFb complex in living cells, by performing FRAP experiments at HIV-1 transcription sites. Our results indicate that a large fraction of Tat present at these sites is recruited by Cyclin T1. We found that in the presence of Tat, Cdk9 remained bound to nascent HIV-1 RNAs for 71s. In contrast, when transcription was activated by PMA/ionomycin, in the absence of Tat, Cdk9 turned-over rapidly and resided on the HIV-1 promoter for only 11s. Thus, the mechanism of trans-activation determines the residency time of P-TEFb at the HIV-1 gene, possibly explaining why Tat is such a potent transcriptional activator. In addition, we observed that Tat occupied HIV-1 transcription sites for 55s, suggesting that the TAR:Tat:P-TEFb complex dissociates from the polymerase following transcription initiation, and undergoes subsequent cycles of association/dissociation.

  14. Improved intracellular delivery of glucocerebrosidase mediated by the HIV-1 TAT protein transduction domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyun Oh; Luu, Nga; Kaneski, Christine R; Schiffmann, Raphael; Brady, Roscoe O; Murray, Gary J

    2005-11-18

    Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) for Gaucher disease designed to target glucocerebrosidase (GC) to macrophages via mannose-specific endocytosis is very effective in reversing hepatosplenomegaly, and normalizing hematologic parameters but is less effective in improving bone and lung involvement and ineffective in brain. Recombinant GCs containing an in-frame fusion to the HIV-1 trans-activator protein transduction domain (TAT) were expressed in eukaryotic cells in order to obtain active, normally glycosylated GC fusion proteins for enzyme uptake studies. Despite the absence of mannose-specific endocytic receptors on the plasma membranes of various fibroblasts, the recombinant GCs with C-terminal TAT fusions were readily internalized by these cells. Immunofluorescent confocal microscopy demonstrated the recombinant TAT-fusion proteins with a mixed endosomal and lysosomal localization. Thus, TAT-modified GCs represent a novel strategy for a new generation of therapeutic enzymes for ERT for Gaucher disease.

  15. Shutdown of HIV-1 Transcription in T Cells by Nullbasic, a Mutant Tat Protein

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    Hongping Jin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Nullbasic is a derivative of the HIV-1 transactivator of transcription (Tat protein that strongly inhibits HIV-1 replication in lymphocytes. Here we show that lentiviral vectors that constitutively express a Nullbasic-ZsGreen1 (NB-ZSG1 fusion protein by the eEF1α promoter led to robust long-term inhibition of HIV-1 replication in Jurkat cells. Although Jurkat-NB-ZSG1 cells were infected by HIV-1, no virus production could be detected and addition of phorbol ester 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA and JQ1 had no effect, while suberanilohydroxamic acid (SAHA modestly stimulated virus production but at levels 300-fold lower than those seen in HIV-1-infected Jurkat-ZSG1 cells. Virus replication was not recovered by coculture of HIV-1-infected Jurkat-NB-ZSG1 cells with uninfected Jurkat cells. Latently infected Jurkat latent 6.3 and ACH2 cells treated with latency-reversing agents produced measurable viral capsid (CA, but little or none was made when they expressed NB-ZSG1. When Jurkat cells chronically infected with HIV-1 were transduced with lentiviral virus-like particles conveying NB-ZSG1, a >3-log reduction in CA production was observed. Addition of PMA increased virus CA production but at levels 500-fold lower than those seen in nontransduced Jurkat cells. Transcriptome sequencing analysis confirmed that HIV-1 mRNA was strongly inhibited by NB-ZSG1 but indicated that full-length viral mRNA was made. Analysis of HIV-1-infected Jurkat cells expressing NB-ZSG1 by chromatin immunoprecipitation assays indicated that recruitment of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII and histone 3 lysine 9 acetylation were inhibited. The reduction of HIV-1 promoter-associated RNAPII and epigenetic changes in viral nucleosomes indicate that Nullbasic can inhibit HIV-1 replication by enforcing viral silencing in cells.

  16. Morphine exacerbates HIV-1 Tat-induced cytokine production in astrocytes through convergent effects on [Ca(2+](i, NF-kappaB trafficking and transcription.

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    Nazira El-Hage

    Full Text Available Astroglia are key cellular sites where opiate drug signals converge with the proinflammatory effects of HIV-1 Tat signals to exacerbate HIV encephalitis. Despite this understanding, the molecular sites of convergence driving opiate-accelerated neuropathogenesis have not been deciphered. We therefore explored potential points of interaction between the signaling pathways initiated by HIV-1 Tat and opioids in striatal astrocytes. Profiling studies screening 152 transcription factors indicated that the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB subunit, c-Rel, was a likely candidate for Tat or Tat plus opiate-induced increases in cytokine and chemokine production by astrocytes. Pretreatment with the NF-kappaB inhibitor parthenolide provided evidence that Tat+/-morphine-induced release of MCP-1, IL-6 and TNF-alpha by astrocytes is NF-kappaB dependent. The nuclear export inhibitor, leptomycin B, blocked the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of NF-kappaB; causing p65 (RelA accumulation in the nucleus, and significantly attenuated cytokine production in Tat+/-morphine exposed astrocytes. Similarly, chelating intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+](i blocked Tat+/-morphine-evoked MCP-1 and IL-6 release, while artificially increasing the concentration of extracellular Ca(2+ reversed this effect. Taken together, these results demonstrate that: 1 exposure to Tat+/-morphine is sufficient to activate NF-kappaB and cytokine production, 2 the release of MCP-1 and IL-6 by Tat+/-morphine are highly Ca(2+-dependent, while TNF-alpha appears to be less affected by the changes in [Ca(2+](i, and 3 in the presence of Tat, exposure to opiates augments Tat-induced NF-kappaB activation and cytokine release through a Ca(2+-dependent pathway.

  17. Determining the Functions of HIV-1 Tat and a Second Magnesium Ion in the CDK9/Cyclin T1 Complex: A Molecular Dynamics Simulation Study.

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    Hai-Xiao Jin

    Full Text Available The current paradigm of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK regulation based on the well-established CDK2 has been recently expanded. The determination of CDK9 crystal structures suggests the requirement of an additional regulatory protein, such as human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 Tat, to exert its physiological functions. In most kinases, the exact number and roles of the cofactor metal ions remain unappreciated, and the repertoire has thus gained increasing attention recently. Here, molecular dynamics (MD simulations were implemented on CDK9 to explore the functional roles of HIV-1 Tat and the second Mg2+ ion at site 1 (Mg12+. The simulations unveiled that binding of HIV-1 Tat to CDK9 not only stabilized hydrogen bonds (H-bonds between ATP and hinge residues Asp104 and Cys106, as well as between ATP and invariant Lys48, but also facilitated the salt bridge network pertaining to the phosphorylated Thr186 at the activation loop. By contrast, these H-bonds cannot be formed in CDK9 owing to the absence of HIV-1 Tat. MD simulations further revealed that the Mg12+ ion, coupled with the Mg22+ ion, anchored to the triphosphate moiety of ATP in its catalytic competent conformation. This observation indicates the requirement of the Mg12+ ion for CDK9 to realize its function. Overall, the introduction of HIV-1 Tat and Mg12+ ion resulted in the active site architectural characteristics of phosphorylated CDK9. These data highlighted the functional roles of HIV-1 Tat and Mg12+ ion in the regulation of CDK9 activity, which contributes an important complementary understanding of CDK molecular underpinnings.

  18. Determining the Functions of HIV-1 Tat and a Second Magnesium Ion in the CDK9/Cyclin T1 Complex: A Molecular Dynamics Simulation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hai-Xiao; Go, Mei-Lin; Yin, Peng; Qiu, Xiao-Ting; Zhu, Peng; Yan, Xiao-Jun

    2015-01-01

    The current paradigm of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) regulation based on the well-established CDK2 has been recently expanded. The determination of CDK9 crystal structures suggests the requirement of an additional regulatory protein, such as human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Tat, to exert its physiological functions. In most kinases, the exact number and roles of the cofactor metal ions remain unappreciated, and the repertoire has thus gained increasing attention recently. Here, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were implemented on CDK9 to explore the functional roles of HIV-1 Tat and the second Mg2+ ion at site 1 (Mg12+). The simulations unveiled that binding of HIV-1 Tat to CDK9 not only stabilized hydrogen bonds (H-bonds) between ATP and hinge residues Asp104 and Cys106, as well as between ATP and invariant Lys48, but also facilitated the salt bridge network pertaining to the phosphorylated Thr186 at the activation loop. By contrast, these H-bonds cannot be formed in CDK9 owing to the absence of HIV-1 Tat. MD simulations further revealed that the Mg12+ ion, coupled with the Mg22+ ion, anchored to the triphosphate moiety of ATP in its catalytic competent conformation. This observation indicates the requirement of the Mg12+ ion for CDK9 to realize its function. Overall, the introduction of HIV-1 Tat and Mg12+ ion resulted in the active site architectural characteristics of phosphorylated CDK9. These data highlighted the functional roles of HIV-1 Tat and Mg12+ ion in the regulation of CDK9 activity, which contributes an important complementary understanding of CDK molecular underpinnings.

  19. Measuring the Uptake and Transactivation Function of HIV-1 Tat Protein in a Trans-cellular Cocultivation Setup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Arthur P; Prasad, Vinayaka R

    2016-01-01

    HIV-1 Tat protein is secreted from infected cells and is endocytosed by uninfected bystander cells. Subsequently, Tat is translocated to the nucleus and binds to promoters of host cell genes, increasing the production of inflammatory host cytokines and chemokines. This inflammatory activation of uninfected cells by HIV-1 Tat protein contributes to the overall inflammatory burden in the central nervous system (CNS) that leads to the development of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Here we describe methods to evaluate the uptake and transcriptional impact of HIV-1 Tat on uninfected cells by using a trans-cellular transactivation system. Cell lines transiently transfected with Tat expression constructs secrete Tat into the culture medium. Trans-cellular uptake and transactivation caused by secreted Tat can be measured by co-culturing LTR-responsive reporter cells with Tat-transfected cells. Such Tat-producer cells can also be co-cultured with immune cell lines, such as monocytic THP-1 cells or lymphocytic Jurkat T-cells, to evaluate transcriptional changes elicited by Tat taken up by the uninfected cells.

  20. LRRK2 kinase inhibition prevents pathological microglial phagocytosis in response to HIV-1 Tat protein

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    Marker Daniel F

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV-1 associated neurocognitive disorders (HANDs are accompanied by significant morbidity, which persists despite the use of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART. While activated microglia play a role in pathogenesis, changes in their immune effector functions, including phagocytosis and proinflammatory signaling pathways, are not well understood. We have identified leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2 as a novel regulator of microglial phagocytosis and activation in an in vitro model of HANDs, and hypothesize that LRRK2 kinase inhibition will attenuate microglial activation during HANDs. Methods We treated BV-2 immortalized mouse microglia cells with the HIV-1 trans activator of transcription (Tat protein in the absence or presence of LRRK2 kinase inhibitor (LRRK2i. We used Western blot, qRT-PCR, immunocytochemistry and latex bead engulfment assays to analyze LRRK2 protein levels, proinflammatory cytokine and phagocytosis receptor expression, LRRK2 cellular distribution and phagocytosis, respectively. Finally, we utilized ex vivo microfluidic chambers containing primary hippocampal neurons and BV-2 microglia cells to investigate microglial phagocytosis of neuronal axons. Results We found that Tat-treatment of BV-2 cells induced kinase activity associated phosphorylation of serine 935 on LRRK2 and caused the formation of cytoplasmic LRRK2 inclusions. LRRK2i decreased Tat-induced phosphorylation of serine 935 on LRRK2 and inhibited the formation of Tat-induced cytoplasmic LRRK2 inclusions. LRRK2i also decreased Tat-induced process extension in BV-2 cells. Furthermore, LRRK2i attenuated Tat-induced cytokine expression and latex bead engulfment. We examined relevant cellular targets in microfluidic chambers and found that Tat-treated BV-2 microglia cells cleared axonal arbor and engulfed neuronal elements, whereas saline treated controls did not. LRRK2i was found to protect axons in the presence

  1. HIV-1 Tat biosensor: Current development and trends for early detection strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatin, M F; Ruslinda, A R; Arshad, M K Md; Tee, K K; Ayub, R M; Hashim, U; Kamarulzaman, A; Gopinath, Subash C B

    2016-04-15

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has infected almost 35 million people worldwide. Various tests have been developed to detect the presence of HIV during the early stages of the disease in order to reduce the risk of transmission to other humans. The HIV-1 Tat protein is one of the proteins present in HIV that are released abundantly approximately 2-4 weeks after infection. In this review, we have outlined various strategies for detecting the Tat protein, which helps transcribe the virus and enhances replication. Detection strategies presented include immunoassays, biosensors and gene expression, which utilize antibodies or aptamers as common probes to sense the presence of Tat. Alternatively, measuring the levels of gene transcription is a direct method of analysing the HIV gene to confirm the presence of Tat. By detection of the Tat protein, virus transmission can be detected in high-risk individuals in the early stages of the disease to reduce the risk of an HIV pandemic. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Transactivation and signaling functions of Tat are not correlated: biological and immunological characterization of HIV-1 subtype-C Tat protein

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    Desai Anita

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Of the diverse subtypes of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type-1 (HIV-1, subtype-C strains cause a large majority of infections worldwide. The reasons for the global dominance of HIV-1 subtype-C infections are not completely understood. Tat, being critical for viral infectivity and pathogenesis, may differentially modulate pathogenic properties of the viral subtypes. Biochemical studies on Tat are hampered by the limitations of the current purification protocols. Tat purified using standard protocols often is competent for transactivation activity but defective for a variety of other biological functions. Keeping this limitation in view, we developed an efficient protein purification strategy for Tat. Results Tat proteins obtained using the novel strategy described here were free of contaminants and retained biological functions as evaluated in a range of assays including the induction of cytokines, upregulation of chemokine coreceptor, transactivation of the viral promoter and rescue of a Tat-defective virus. Given the highly unstable nature of Tat, we evaluated the effect of the storage conditions on the biological function of Tat following purification. Tat stored in a lyophilized form retained complete biological activity regardless of the storage temperature. To understand if variations in the primary structure of Tat could influence the secondary structure of the protein and consequently its biological functions, we determined the CD spectra of subtype-C and -B Tat proteins. We demonstrate that subtype-C Tat may have a relatively higher ordered structure and be less flexible than subtype-B Tat. We show that subtype-C Tat as a protein, but not as a DNA expression vector, was consistently inferior to subtype-B Tat in a variety of biological assays. Furthermore, using ELISA, we evaluated the anti-Tat antibody titers in a large number of primary clinical samples (n = 200 collected from all four southern Indian states. Our

  3. HIV-1 Tat protein alter the tight junction integrity and function of retinal pigment epithelium: an in vitro study

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    Lin Haotian

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background How HIV-1 enter into the eyes remains obscure. We postulated that HIV-1 Tat protein can alter the expression of specific tight-junction proteins and disturb the blood retinal barrier, and contributes to HIV trafficking into the eyes. This study is to determine the effects of HIV-1 Tat proteins on the barrier function and tight-junction protein expression of retinal pigment epithelial cell (RPE. Methods A human RPE cell line (D407 cultured on microporous filter-supports was used. After treating with HIV-1 Tat protein, transepithelial electrical resistance (TER of confluent RPE cells was measured by epithelial voltmeter. The permeability of the RPE cells to sodium fluorescein was measured. The expressions of the occludin and claudins were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction, immunofluorescence, and Western blot analysis. Activation of ERK1/2 was detected by Western blot analysis with specific antiphospho protein antibodies. NF-κB DNA binding activity was determined by transcription factor assay. Specific pharmacologic inhibitors directed against the MAPKs were used to analyze the signaling involved in barrier destruction of RPE cells exposed to HIV-1 Tat. Results Treating cultured human retinal pigment epithelial cells with 100 nM Tat for 24 hours increased the permeability and decreased the TER of the epithelial monolayer. HIV-1 Tat also disrupted and downregulated the tight-junction proteins claudin-1, claudin-3, and claudin-4 in these cells, whereas claudin-2 was upregulated, and the expression of occludin was unaffected. HIV-1 Tat protein also induced activation of ERK1/2 and NF-κB. HIV-1 Tat protein induced barrier destruction, changes in expression of TJs, and activation of ERK1/2 and NF-κB were abrogated by inhibitor of ERK1/2 and NF-κB. Conclusion HIV-1 Tat protein causes increases in the paracellular permeability of RPE cells in vitro concomitant with changes in expression of certain transmembrane

  4. Iron(II) supramolecular helicates interfere with the HIV-1 Tat-TAR RNA interaction critical for viral replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malina, Jaroslav; Hannon, Michael J.; Brabec, Viktor

    2016-07-01

    The interaction between the HIV-1 transactivator protein Tat and TAR (transactivation responsive region) RNA, plays a critical role in HIV-1 transcription. Iron(II) supramolecular helicates were evaluated for their in vitro activity to inhibit Tat-TAR RNA interaction using UV melting studies, electrophoretic mobility shift assay, and RNase A footprinting. The results demonstrate that iron(II) supramolecular helicates inhibit Tat-TAR interaction at nanomolar concentrations by binding to TAR RNA. These studies provide a new insight into the biological potential of metallosupramolecular helicates.

  5. Exposure to HIV-1 Tat in brain impairs sensorimotor gating and activates microglia in limbic and extralimbic brain regions of male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Jason J; Singh, Harminder D; Carey, Amanda N; McLaughlin, Jay P

    2015-09-15

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is associated with mood disorders and behavioral disinhibition. Impairments in sensorimotor gating and associated neurocognitive disorders are reported, but the HIV-proteins and mechanisms involved are not known. The regulatory HIV-1 protein, Tat, is neurotoxic and its expression in animal models increases anxiety-like behavior concurrent with neuroinflammation and structural changes in limbic and extra-limbic brain regions. We hypothesized that conditional expression of HIV-1 Tat1-86 in the GT-tg bigenic mouse model would impair sensorimotor gating and increase microglial reactivity in limbic and extralimbic brain regions. Conditional Tat induction via doxycycline (Dox) treatment (0-125 mg/kg, i.p., for 1-14 days) significantly potentiated the acoustic startle reflex (ASR) of GT-tg mice and impaired prepulse inhibition (PPI) of this response in a dose-dependent manner when Dox (100mg/kg) was administered for brief (1 day) or prolonged (daily for 7 days) intervals. A greater proportion of active/reactive Iba1-labeled microglia was seen in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), dentate gyrus, and nucleus accumbens core when Tat protein was induced under either brief or prolonged expression conditions. Other subregions of the medial prefrontal cortex, amygdala, hippocampal formation, ventral tegmental area, and ventral pallidum also displayed Tat-induced microglial activation, but only the activation observed in the ACC recapitulated the pattern of ASR and PPI behaviors. Tat exposure also increased frontal cortex GFAP. Pretreatment with indomethacin attenuated the behavioral effects of brief (but not prolonged) Tat-exposure. Overall, exposure to HIV-1 Tat protein induced sensorimotor deficits associated with acute and persistent neuroinflammation in limbic/extralimbic brain regions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Inhibition of both HIV-1 reverse transcription and gene expression by a cyclic peptide that binds the Tat-transactivating response element (TAR RNA.

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    Matthew S Lalonde

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The RNA response element TAR plays a critical role in HIV replication by providing a binding site for the recruitment of the viral transactivator protein Tat. Using a structure-guided approach, we have developed a series of conformationally-constrained cyclic peptides that act as structural mimics of the Tat RNA binding region and block Tat-TAR interactions at nanomolar concentrations in vitro. Here we show that these compounds block Tat-dependent transcription in cell-free systems and in cell-based reporter assays. The compounds are also cell permeable, have low toxicity, and inhibit replication of diverse HIV-1 strains, including both CXCR4-tropic and CCR5-tropic primary HIV-1 isolates of the divergent subtypes A, B, C, D and CRF01_AE. In human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, the cyclic peptidomimetic L50 exhibited an IC(50 ∼250 nM. Surprisingly, inhibition of LTR-driven HIV-1 transcription could not account for the full antiviral activity. Timed drug-addition experiments revealed that L-50 has a bi-phasic inhibition curve with the first phase occurring after HIV-1 entry into the host cell and during the initiation of HIV-1 reverse transcription. The second phase coincides with inhibition of HIV-1 transcription. Reconstituted reverse transcription assays confirm that HIV-1 (- strand strong stop DNA synthesis is blocked by L50-TAR RNA interactions in-vitro. These findings are consistent with genetic evidence that TAR plays critical roles both during reverse transcription and during HIV gene expression. Our results suggest that antiviral drugs targeting TAR RNA might be highly effective due to a dual inhibitory mechanism.

  7. Impact of Genetic Variations in HIV-1 Tat on LTR-Mediated Transcription via TAR RNA Interaction

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    Larance Ronsard

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available HIV-1 evades host defense through mutations and recombination events, generating numerous variants in an infected patient. These variants with an undiminished virulence can multiply rapidly in order to progress to AIDS. One of the targets to intervene in HIV-1 replication is the trans-activator of transcription (Tat, a major regulatory protein that transactivates the long terminal repeat promoter through its interaction with trans-activation response (TAR RNA. In this study, HIV-1 infected patients (n = 120 from North India revealed Ser46Phe (20% and Ser61Arg (2% mutations in the Tat variants with a strong interaction toward TAR leading to enhanced transactivation activities. Molecular dynamics simulation data verified that the variants with this mutation had a higher binding affinity for TAR than both the wild-type Tat and other variants that lacked Ser46Phe and Ser61Arg. Other mutations in Tat conferred varying affinities for TAR interaction leading to differential transactivation abilities. This is the first report from North India with a clinical validation of CD4 counts to demonstrate the influence of Tat genetic variations affecting the stability of Tat and its interaction with TAR. This study highlights the co-evolution pattern of Tat and predominant nucleotides for Tat activity, facilitating the identification of genetic determinants for the attenuation of viral gene expression.

  8. Extracts from Acacia catechu suppress HIV-1 replication by inhibiting the activities of the viral protease and Tat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Acacia catechu (Mimosa family) stem bark extracts have been used traditionally as a dietary supplement as well as a folk medicine given its reported anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, hepatoprotective, antioxidant, anti-microbial and anti-tumor activities. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the anti-HIV-1 activity of the extracts from stem bark of A. catechu. Methods The aqueous and 50% ethanolic extracts of A. catechu stem bark were prepared and 50% ethanolic extract was further fractioned by successively partitioning with petroleum ether, chloroform and n-butanol. All the extracts and fractions were evaluated for cytotoxicity and anti-HIV-1 activity using different in vitro assays. The active n-butanol fraction was evaluated for its inhibition against HIV-1 reverse transcriptase, integrase, protease, pro-viral genome integration and viral Tat protein mediated transactivation. The effect of n-butanol fraction on the induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines secretion in Vk2/E6E7 cells and transepithelial resistance in Caco-2 and HEC-1A cells was investigated. Results The aqueous and 50% ethanolic extracts of A. catechu showed IC50 values of 1.8 ± 0.18 μg/ml and 3.6 ± 0.31 μg/ml, respectively in cell-free virus based assay using TZM-bl cells and HIV-1NL4.3 (X-4 tropic). In the above assay, n-butanol fraction exhibited anti-HIV-1 activity with an IC50 of 1.7 ± 0.12 μg/ml. The n-butanol fraction showed a dose-dependent inhibition against HIV-1NL4.3 infection of the peripheral blood lymphocytes and against HIV-1BaL(R-5-tropic) as well as two different primary viral isolates of HIV-1 infection of TZM-bl cells. The n-butanol fraction demonstrates a potent inhibitory activity against the viral protease (IC50 = 12.9 μg/ml), but not reverse transcriptase or integrase. Further, in Alu-PCR no effect on viral integration was observed. The n-butanol fraction interfered with the Tat-mediated Long Terminal Repeat transactivation in

  9. Comparative Analysis of Tat-Dependent and Tat-Deficient Natural Lentiviruses

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    Deepanwita Bose

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV causing acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS in infected humans has resulted in a global pandemic that has killed millions. HIV-1 and HIV-2 belong to the lentivirus genus of the Retroviridae family. This genus also includes viruses that infect other vertebrate animals, among them caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV and Maedi-Visna virus (MVV, the prototypes of a heterogeneous group of viruses known as small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLVs, affecting both goat and sheep worldwide. Despite their long host-SRLV natural history, SRLVs were never found to be responsible for immunodeficiency in contrast to primate lentiviruses. SRLVs only replicate productively in monocytes/macrophages in infected animals but not in CD4+ T cells. The focus of this review is to examine and compare the biological and pathological properties of SRLVs as prototypic Tat-independent lentiviruses with HIV-1 as prototypic Tat-dependent lentiviruses. Results from this analysis will help to improve the understanding of why and how these two prototypic lentiviruses evolved in opposite directions in term of virulence and pathogenicity. Results may also help develop new strategies based on the attenuation of SRLVs to control the highly pathogenic HIV-1 in humans.

  10. Depicting Binding-Mediated Translocation of HIV-1 Tat Peptides in Living Cells with Nanoscale Pens of Tat-Conjugated Quantum Dots

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    Chien Y. Lin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs can translocate across cell membranes, and thus have great potential for the cellular delivery of macromolecular cargoes. However, the mechanism of this cellular uptake process is not yet fully understood. In this study, a time-lapse single-particle light-sheet microscopy technique was implemented to obtain a parallel visualization of the translocating process of individual human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1 transactivator of transcription (Tat peptide conjugated quantum dots (TatP-QDs in complex cellular terrains. Here, TatP-QDs served as nanoscale dynamic pens, which depict remarkable trajectory aggregates of TatP-QDs on the cell surface. Spectral-embedding analysis of the trajectory aggregates revealed a manifold formed by isotropic diffusion and a fraction of directed movement, possibly caused by interaction between the Tat peptides and heparan sulfate groups on the plasma membrane. Further analysis indicated that the membrane deformation induced by Tat-peptide attachment increased with the disruption of the actin framework in cytochalasin D (cyto D-treated cells, yielding higher interactions on the TatP-QDs. In native cells, the Tat peptides can remodel the actin framework to reduce their interaction with the local membrane environment. Characteristic hot spots for interaction were detected on the membrane, suggesting that a funnel passage may have formed for the Tat-coated particles. This finding offers valuable insight into the cellular delivery of nanoscale cargo, suggesting an avenue for direct therapeutic delivery.

  11. Celastrol ameliorates HIV-1 Tat-induced inflammatory responses via NF-kappaB and AP-1 inhibition and heme oxygenase-1 induction in astrocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youn, Gi Soo; Kwon, Dong-Joo; Ju, Sung Mi [Department of Biomedical Science and Research Institute for Bioscience and Biotechnology, Hallym University, Chunchon 200-702 (Korea, Republic of); Rhim, Hyangshuk [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Department of Medical Life Sciences, College of Medicine, the Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 137-701 (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Yong Soo [Department of Biological Science, College of Natural Sciences, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Soo Young [Department of Biomedical Science and Research Institute for Bioscience and Biotechnology, Hallym University, Chunchon 200-702 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jinseu, E-mail: jinpark@hallym.ac.kr [Department of Biomedical Science and Research Institute for Bioscience and Biotechnology, Hallym University, Chunchon 200-702 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-01

    HIV-1 Tat causes extensive neuroinflammation that may progress to AIDS-related encephalitis and dementia. Celastrol possesses various biological activities such as anti-oxidant, anti-tumor, and anti-inflammatory activities. In this study, we investigated the modulatory effects of celastrol on HIV-1 Tat-induced inflammatory responses and the molecular mechanisms underlying its action in astrocytes. Pre-treatment of CRT-MG human astroglioma cells with celastrol significantly inhibited HIV-1 Tat-induced expression of ICAM-1/VCAM-1 and subsequent monocyte adhesiveness in CRT-MG cells. In addition, celastrol suppressed HIV-1 Tat-induced expression of pro-inflammatory chemokines, such as CXCL10, IL-8, and MCP-1. Celastrol decreased HIV-1 Tat-induced activation of JNK MAPK, AP-1, and NF-κB. Furthermore, celastrol induced mRNA and protein expression of HO-1 as well as Nrf2 activation. Blockage of HO-1 expression using siRNA reversed the inhibitory effect of celastrol on HIV-1 Tat-induced inflammatory responses. These results suggest that celastrol has regulatory effects on HIV-1 Tat-induced inflammatory responses by blocking the JNK MAPK-AP-1/NF-κB signaling pathways and inducing HO-1 expression in astrocytes. - Highlights: • Celastrol suppressed HIV-1 Tat-induced expression of pro-inflammatory genes. • Celastrol inhibited HIV-1 Tat -induced activation of JNK MAPK. • Celastrol inhibited HIV-1 Tat-induced activation of both NF-κB and AP-1. • Celastrol inhibited HIV-1 Tat-induced inflammatory responses via HO-1 induction.

  12. Single Quantum Dot Tracking Reveals that an Individual Multivalent HIV-1 Tat Protein Transduction Domain Can Activate Machinery for Lateral Transport and Endocytosis

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Roy, Chandra Nath; Promjunyakul, Warunya; Hatakeyama, Hiroyasu; Gonda, Kohsuke; Imamura, Junji; Vasudevanpillai, Biju; Ohuchi, Noriaki; Kanzaki, Makoto; Higuchi, Hideo; Kaku, Mitsuo

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the cellular entry of the HIV-1 Tat protein transduction domain (TatP) and the molecular information necessary to improve the transduction efficiency of TatP remain unclear due to the technical limitations for direct visualization of TatP's behavior in cells. Using confocal microscopy, total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, and four-dimensional microscopy, we developed a single-molecule tracking assay for TatP labeled with quantum dots (QDs) to examine th...

  13. In silico Analyses of Subtype Specific HIV-1 Tat-TAR RNA Interaction Reveals the Structural Determinants for Viral Activity

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    Larance Ronsard

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available HIV-1 Tat transactivates viral genes through strong interaction with TAR RNA. The stem-loop bulged region of TAR consisting of three nucleotides at the position 23–25 and the loop region consisting of six nucleotides at the position 30–35 are essential for viral transactivation. The arginine motif of Tat (five arginine residues on subtype TatC is critically important for TAR interaction. Any mutations in this motif could lead to reduce transactivation ability and pathogenesis. Here, we identified structurally important residues (arginine and lysine residues of Tat in this motif could bind to TAR via hydrogen bond interactions which is critical for transactivation. Natural mutant Ser46Phe in the core motif could likely led to conformational change resulting in more hydrogen bond interactions than the wild type Tat making it highly potent transactivator. Importantly, we report the possible probabilities of number of hydrogen bond interactions in the wild type Tat and the mutants with TAR complexes. This study revealed the differential transactivation of subtype B and C Tat could likely be due to the varying number of hydrogen bonds with TAR. Our data support that the N-terminal and the C-terminal domains of Tat is involved in the TAR interactions through hydrogen bonds which is important for transactivation. This study highlights the evolving pattern of structurally important determinants of Tat in the arginine motif for viral transactivation.

  14. The p38 MAPK NF-κB pathway, not the ERK pathway, is involved in exogenous HIV-1 Tat-induced apoptotic cell death in retinal pigment epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Ling; Zhu, Xiuping; Ma, Ting; Wang, Jianming; Wang, Feng; Zhang, Shu

    2013-08-01

    The mechanism through which human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection causes retinal disease and the loss of vision in AIDS patients remains unknown. The HIV-1 transactivator protein Tat (HIV-1 Tat) plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of HIV-1 infection and is often described as pleiotropic at different concentrations. In a previous study, we demonstrated that the HIV-1 Tat protein can disrupt the barrier function of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) at 100 nM without affecting cell viability. The present study was undertaken to determine if HIV-1 Tat can induce RPE cell death at different concentrations and to determine the mechanism of any observed cell death. The results demonstrated that two RPE cell lines (ARPE-19 and D407) treated with Tat at concentrations of 200 nM and above exhibited reduced growth and apoptosis in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The disruption of mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilisation, the activation of caspase-3/7 and 9, the downregulation of Bcl-2, the upregulation of Bax, and the activation of p38 MAPK, ERK and NF-κB were all observed in HIV-1 Tat-treated RPE cells. When exposed to an inhibitor or transfected with siRNA of p38 MAPK and NF-κB, the level of cell death and deregulation of the expression of the apoptotic protein were attenuated. These effects were not observed with an ERK inhibitor or siRNA. Based on these results, we suggest that the induction of apoptosis by HIV-1 Tat in RPE cells may be mediated by p38 MAPK and NF-κB activation and involve the mitochondrial pathway. Therefore, these pathways may provide clues leading to novel therapeutic approaches for the retinopathy induced by HIV infection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. HIV-1 Tat activates neuronal ryanodine receptors with rapid induction of the unfolded protein response and mitochondrial hyperpolarization.

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    John P Norman

    Full Text Available Neurologic disease caused by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 is ultimately refractory to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART because of failure of complete virus eradication in the central nervous system (CNS, and disruption of normal neural signaling events by virally induced chronic neuroinflammation. We have previously reported that HIV-1 Tat can induce mitochondrial hyperpolarization in cortical neurons, thus compromising the ability of the neuron to buffer calcium and sustain energy production for normal synaptic communication. In this report, we demonstrate that Tat induces rapid loss of ER calcium mediated by the ryanodine receptor (RyR, followed by the unfolded protein response (UPR and pathologic dilatation of the ER in cortical neurons in vitro. RyR antagonism attenuated both Tat-mediated mitochondrial hyperpolarization and UPR induction. Delivery of Tat to murine CNS in vivo also leads to long-lasting pathologic ER dilatation and mitochondrial morphologic abnormalities. Finally, we performed ultrastructural studies that demonstrated mitochondria with abnormal morphology and dilated endoplasmic reticulum (ER in brain tissue of patients with HIV-1 inflammation and neurodegeneration. Collectively, these data suggest that abnormal RyR signaling mediates the neuronal UPR with failure of mitochondrial energy metabolism, and is a critical locus for the neuropathogenesis of HIV-1 in the CNS.

  16. Infected cell killing by HIV-1 protease promotes NF-kappaB dependent HIV-1 replication.

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    Gary D Bren

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Acute HIV-1 infection of CD4 T cells often results in apoptotic death of infected cells, yet it is unclear what evolutionary advantage this offers to HIV-1. Given the independent observations that acute T cell HIV-1 infection results in (1 NF-kappaB activation, (2 caspase 8 dependent apoptosis, and that (3 caspase 8 directly activates NF-kappaB, we questioned whether these three events might be interrelated. We first show that HIV-1 infected T cell apoptosis, NF-kappaB activation, and caspase 8 cleavage by HIV-1 protease are coincident. Next we show that HIV-1 protease not only cleaves procaspase 8, producing Casp8p41, but also independently stimulates NF-kappaB activity. Finally, we demonstrate that the HIV protease cleavage of caspase 8 is necessary for optimal NF-kappaB activation and that the HIV-1 protease specific cleavage fragment Casp8p41 is sufficient to stimulate HIV-1 replication through NF-kappaB dependent HIV-LTR activation both in vitro as well as in cells from HIV infected donors. Consequently, the molecular events which promote death of HIV-1 infected T cells function dually to promote HIV-1 replication, thereby favoring the propagation and survival of HIV-1.

  17. Sialic acid associated with αvβ3 integrin mediates HIV-1 Tat protein interaction and endothelial cell proangiogenic activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiodelli, Paola; Urbinati, Chiara; Mitola, Stefania; Tanghetti, Elena; Rusnati, Marco

    2012-06-08

    Sialic acid (NeuAc) is a major anion on endothelial cells (ECs) that regulates different biological processes including angiogenesis. NeuAc is present in the oligosaccharidic portion of integrins, receptors that interact with extracellular matrix components and growth factors regulating cell adhesion, migration, and proliferation. Tat is a cationic polypeptide that, once released by HIV-1(+) cells, accumulates in the extracellular matrix, promoting EC adhesion and proangiogenic activation by engaging α(v)β(3). By using two complementary approaches (NeuAc removal by neuraminidase or its masking by NeuAc-binding lectin from Maackia amurensis, MAA), we investigated the presence of NeuAc on endothelial α(v)β(3) and its role in Tat interaction, EC adhesion, and proangiogenic activation. α(v)β(3) immunoprecipitation with biotinylated MAA or Western blot analysis of neuraminidase-treated ECs demonstrated that NeuAc is associated with both the α(v) and the β(3) subunits. Surface plasmon resonance analysis demonstrated that the masking of α(v)β(3)-associated NeuAc by MAA prevents Tat/α(v)β(3) interaction. MAA and neuraminidase prevent α(v)β(3)-dependent EC adhesion to Tat, the consequent FAK and ERK1/2 phosphorylation, and EC proliferation, migration, and regeneration in a wound-healing assay. Finally, MAA inhibits Tat-induced neovascularization in the ex vivo human artery ring sprouting assay. The inhibitions are specific because the NeuAc-unrelated lectin from Ulex europaeus is ineffective on Tat. Also, MAA and neuraminidase affect only weakly integrin-dependent EC adhesion and proangiogenic activation by fibronectin. In conclusion, NeuAc is associated with endothelial α(v)β(3) and mediates Tat-dependent EC adhesion and proangiogenic activation. These data point to the possibility to target integrin glycosylation for the treatment of angiogenesis/AIDS-associated pathologies.

  18. Cannabinoid inhibits HIV-1 Tat-stimulated adhesion of human monocyte-like cells to extracellular matrix proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raborn, Erinn S.; Jamerson, Melissa; Marciano-Cabral, Francine; Cabral, Guy A.

    2014-01-01

    Aims The aim of this study was to assess the effect of select cannabinoids on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transactivating (Tat) protein-enhanced monocyte-like cell adhesion to proteins of the extracellular matrix (ECM). Main Methods Collagen IV, laminin, or an ECM gel were used to construct extracellular matrix layers. Human U937 monocyte-like cells were exposed to Tat in the presence of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), CP55,940, and other select cannabinoids. Cell attachment to ECM proteins was assessed using an adhesion assay. Key findings THC and CP55,940 inhibited Tat-enhanced attachment of U937 cells to ECM proteins in a mode that was linked to the cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2R). The cannabinoid treatment of Tat-activated U937 cells was associated with altered β1-integrin expression and distribution of polymerized actin, suggesting a modality by which these cannabinoids inhibited adhesion to the ECM. Significance The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a complex structure that is composed of cellular elements and an extracellular matrix (ECM). HIV-1 Tat promotes transmigration of monocytes across this barrier, a process that includes interaction with ECM proteins. The results indicate that cannabinoids that activate the CB2R inhibit the ECM adhesion process. Thus, this receptor has potential to serve as a therapeutic agent for ablating neuroinflammation associated with HIV-elicited influx of monocytes across the BBB. PMID:24742657

  19. Chemical Composition of Essential Oils from Thymus vulgaris, Cymbopogon citratus, and Rosmarinus officinalis, and Their Effects on the HIV-1 Tat Protein Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feriotto, Giordana; Marchetti, Nicola; Costa, Valentina; Beninati, Simone; Tagliati, Federico; Mischiati, Carlo

    2017-12-28

    New drugs would be beneficial to fight resistant HIV strains, in particular those capable of interfering with essential viral functions other than those targeted by highly active antiretroviral therapy drugs. Despite the central role played by Tat protein in HIV transcription, a search for vegetable extracts able to hamper this important viral function was never carried out. In this work, we evaluated the chemical composition and possible interference of essential oil from Thymus vulgaris, Cananga odorata, Cymbopogon citratus, and Rosmarinus officinalis with the Tat/TAR-RNA interaction and with Tat-induced HIV-1 LTR transcription. GC/MS Analysis demonstrated the biodiversity of herbal species translated into essential oils composed of different blends of terpenes. In all of them, 4 - 6 constituents represent from 81.63% to 95.19% of the total terpenes. Essential oils of Thymus vulgaris, Cymbopogon citratus, and Rosmarinus officinalis were active in interfering with Tat functions, encouraging further studies to identify single terpenes responsible for the antiviral activity. In view of the quite different composition of these essential oils, we concluded that their interference on Tat function depends on specific terpene or a characteristic blend. © 2018 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  20. Selective side-chain modification of cysteine and arginine residues blocks pathogenic activity of HIV-1-Tat functional peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devadas, Krishnakumar; Boykins, Robert A; Hardegen, Neil J; Philp, Deborah; Kleinman, Hynda K; Osa, Etin-Osa; Wang, Jiun; Clouse, Kathleen A; Wahl, Larry M; Hewlett, Indira K; Rappaport, Jay; Yamada, Kenneth M; Dhawan, Subhash

    2006-04-01

    Extracellular Tat protein of HIV-1 activates virus replication in HIV-infected cells and induces a variety of host factors in the uninfected cells, some of which play a critical role in the progression of HIV infection. The cysteine-rich and arginine-rich basic domains represent key components of the HIV-Tat protein for pathogenic effects of the full-length Tat protein and, therefore, could be ideal candidates for the development of a therapeutic AIDS vaccine. The present study describes selective modifications of the side-chain functional groups of cysteine and arginine amino acids of these HIV-Tat peptides to minimize the pathogenic effects of these peptides while maintaining natural peptide linkages. Modification of cysteine by introducing either a methyl or t-butyl group in the free sulfhydryl group and replacing the guanidine group with a urea linkage in the side chain of arginine in the cysteine-rich and arginine-rich Tat peptide sequences completely blocked the ability of these peptides to induce HIV replication, chemokine receptor CCR-5 expression, and NF-kappaB activity in monocytes. Such modifications also inhibited angiogenesis and migration of Kaposi's sarcoma cells normally induced by Tat peptides. Such chemical modifications of the cysteine-rich and arginine-rich peptides did not affect their reactivity with antibodies against the full-length Tat protein. With an estimated 40 million HIV-positive individuals worldwide and approximately 4 million new infections emerging every year, a synthetic subunit HIV-Tat vaccine comprised of functionally inactive Tat domains could provide a safe, effective, and economical therapeutic vaccine to reduce the progression of HIV disease.

  1. The effects of CpG-ODNs and Chitosan adjuvants on the elicitation of immune responses induced by the HIV-1-Tat-based candidate vaccines in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alipour, Samira; Mahdavi, Atiyeh; Abdoli, Asghar

    2017-03-01

    HIV1-Tat-based vaccines could elicit broad, durable and neutralizing immune responses and are considered as potential AIDS vaccines. The present study aims to formulate CpG-ODNs adjuvant and Chitosan with Tat protein to enhance the immunogenicity of HIV-1-Tat-based candidate vaccines and to investigate their efficacies in mice. To this end, we added CpG-ODNs, Chitosan and Alum as adjuvants to the Tat-based candidate vaccine formulations. Then, we compared frequency and magnitude of both humoral and cellular immune responses from mice immunized with the adjuvant-formulated Tat candidate vaccines against those obtained from mice immunized with recombinant Tat protein alone. Mice were subcutaneously immunized three times at 2-week intervals with the candidate vaccines. Measurements of anti-Tat immune responses showed that all vaccinated groups had a good immunity compared to the control groups and developed high levels of both humoral and cellular responses. However, immunized mice with CpG-ODNs, and Chitosan-adjuvanted Tat vaccines elicited stronger T-cell responses (both humoral and cellular immunity) compared to the others. These data suggest that co-administration of recombinant Tat protein with CpG-ODNs and Chitosan may serve as a potential formulation for enhancing of the Tat vaccine-induced immunity and might have effects on shaping Th polarization induced by HIV1-Tat protein vaccines. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Toll-like receptor expression and activation in astroglia: differential regulation by HIV-1 Tat, gp120, and morphine

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hage, Nazira; Podhaizer, Elizabeth M.; Sturgill, Jamie; Hauser, Kurt F.

    2012-01-01

    In this study we determine whether morphine alone or in combination with HIV-1 Tat or gp120 affects the expression of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) by astrocytes and to assess whether TLRs expressed by astrocytes function in the release of inflammatory mediators in vitro. TLR profiling by immunofluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry, in-cell westerns, and RT-PCR showed that subpopulations of astrocytes possessed TLR 2, TLR3, TLR4, and TLR9 antigenicity. Exposure to HIV-1 Tat, gp120, and/or morphine significantly altered the proportion of TLR-immunopositive and/or TLR expression by astroglia in a TLR-specific manner. Subsets of astroglia displayed significant increases in TLR2 with reciprocal decreases in TLR9 expression in response to Tat or gp120 ± morphine treatment. TLR9 expression was also significantly decreased by morphine alone. Exposing astrocytes to the TLR agonists LTA (TLR2), poly I:C (TLR3), LPS (TLR4) and unmethylated CpG ODN (TLR9) resulted in increased secretion of MCP-1/CCL2 and elevations in reactive oxygen species. TLR3 and TLR4 stimulation increased the secretion of TNF-α, IL-6, and RANTES/CCL5, while activation of TLR2 caused a significant increase in nitric oxide levels. The results suggest that HIV-1 proteins and/or opioid abuse disrupt the innate immune response of the central nervous system (CNS) which may lead to increased pathogenicity. PMID:21425908

  3. Neoflavonoids as Inhibitors of HIV-1 Replication by Targeting the Tat and NF-κB Pathways

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    Dionisio A. Olmedo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-eight neoflavonoids have been prepared and evaluated in vitro against HIV-1. Antiviral activity was assessed on MT-2 cells infected with viral clones carrying the luciferase reporter gene. Inhibition of HIV transcription and Tat function were tested on cells stably transfected with the HIV-LTR and Tat protein. Seven 4-phenylchromen-2-one derivatives showed HIV transcriptional inhibitory activity but only the phenylchrome-2-one 10 inhibited NF-κB and displayed anti-Tat activity simultaneously. Compounds 10, 14, and 25, inhibited HIV replication in both targets at concentrations <25 μM. The assays of these synthetic 4-phenylchromen-2-ones may aid in the investigation of some aspects of the anti-HIV activity of such compounds and could serve as a scaffold for designing better anti-HIV compounds, which may lead to a potential anti-HIV therapeutic drug.

  4. Changes in the cellular microRNA profile by the intracellular expression of HIV-1 Tat regulator: A potential mechanism for resistance to apoptosis and impaired proliferation in HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Del Cojo, María; López-Huertas, María Rosa; Díez-Fuertes, Francisco; Rodríguez-Mora, Sara; Bermejo, Mercedes; López-Campos, Guillermo; Mateos, Elena; Jiménez-Tormo, Laura; Gómez-Esquer, Francisco; Díaz-Gil, Gema; Alcamí, José; Coiras, Mayte

    2017-01-01

    HIV-1 induces changes in the miRNA expression profile of infected CD4+ T cells that could improve viral replication. HIV-1 regulator Tat modifies the cellular gene expression and has been appointed as an RNA silencing suppressor. Tat is a 101-residue protein codified by two exons that regulates the elongation of viral transcripts. The first exon of Tat (amino acids 1-72) forms the transcriptionally active protein Tat72, but the presence of the second exon (amino acids 73-101) results in a more competent regulatory protein (Tat101) with additional functions. Intracellular, full-length Tat101 induces functional and morphological changes in CD4+ T cells that contribute to HIV-1 pathogenesis such as delay in T-cell proliferation and protection against FasL-mediated apoptosis. But the precise mechanism by which Tat produces these changes remains unknown. We analyzed how the stable expression of intracellular Tat101 and Tat72 modified the miRNA expression profile in Jurkat cells and if this correlated with changes in apoptotic pathways and cell cycle observed in Tat-expressing cells. Specifically, the enhanced expression of hsa-miR-21 and hsa-miR-222 in Jurkat-Tat101 cells was associated with the reduced expression of target mRNAs encoding proteins related to apoptosis and cell cycle such as PTEN, PDCD4 and CDKN1B. We developed Jurkat cells with stable expression of hsa-miR-21 or hsa-miR-222 and observed a similar pattern to Jurkat-Tat101 in resistance to FasL-mediated apoptosis, cell cycle arrest in G2/M and altered cell morphology. Consequently, upregulation of hsa-miR-21 and hsa-miR-222 by Tat may contribute to protect against apoptosis and to anergy observed in HIV-infected CD4+ T cells.

  5. Single quantum dot tracking reveals that an individual multivalent HIV-1 Tat protein transduction domain can activate machinery for lateral transport and endocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Roy, Chandra Nath; Promjunyakul, Warunya; Hatakeyama, Hiroyasu; Gonda, Kohsuke; Imamura, Junji; Vasudevanpillai, Biju; Ohuchi, Noriaki; Kanzaki, Makoto; Higuchi, Hideo; Kaku, Mitsuo

    2013-08-01

    The mechanisms underlying the cellular entry of the HIV-1 Tat protein transduction domain (TatP) and the molecular information necessary to improve the transduction efficiency of TatP remain unclear due to the technical limitations for direct visualization of TatP's behavior in cells. Using confocal microscopy, total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, and four-dimensional microscopy, we developed a single-molecule tracking assay for TatP labeled with quantum dots (QDs) to examine the kinetics of TatP initially and immediately before, at the beginning of, and immediately after entry into living cells. We report that even when the number of multivalent TatP (mTatP)-QDs bound to a cell was low, each single mTatP-QD first locally induced the cell's lateral transport machinery to move the mTatP-QD toward the center of the cell body upon cross-linking of heparan sulfate proteoglycans. The centripetal and lateral movements were linked to the integrity and flow of actomyosin and microtubules. Individual mTatP underwent lipid raft-mediated temporal confinement, followed by complete immobilization, which ultimately led to endocytotic internalization. However, bivalent TatP did not sufficiently promote either cell surface movement or internalization. Together, these findings provide clues regarding the mechanisms of TatP cell entry and indicate that increasing the valence of TatP on nanoparticles allows them to behave as cargo delivery nanomachines.

  6. HIV-1 Tat inhibits EAAT-2 through AEG-1 upregulation in models of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xiang; Zhang, Yu; Xu, Qiping; Zheng, Honghua; Wu, Xiaoyan; Qiu, Jinhua; Zhang, Zhou; Wang, Wei; Shao, Yiming; Xing, Hui Qin

    2017-06-13

    During HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND), decreasing in excitatory amino acid transporter 2 (EAAT-2) in astrocyte plasma membranes leads to elevated levels of extracellular glutamate and, in turn, neuronal apoptosis. We used immunohistochemistry, western blot, qRT-PCR, and RNA interference to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the decreased EAAT-2 expression during HAND at the tissue and cellular levels. We used simian immunodeficiency virus-human immunodeficiency virus chimeric virus (SHIV)-infected macaques as an in vivo model of HAND. Our results show that EAAT-2 expression was decreased in the cerebral cortex, while AEG-1 expression was increased, and the expression levels of these proteins were negatively correlated. In vitro analyses showed that HIV-1 Tat inhibited EAAT-2 expression by inducing overexpression of AEG-1. More specifically, HIV-1 Tat increased AEG-1 expression via the PI3-K signaling pathway, while increasing EAAT-2 inhibition by YinYan-1 (YY-1) via the NF-κB signaling pathway. These results warrant testing AEG-1 as a potential therapeutic target for treating HAND.

  7. Neurodegenerative Effects of Recombinant HIV-1 Tat(1-86) are Associated with Inhibition of Microtubule Formation and Oxidative Stress-Related Reductions in Microtubule-Associated Protein-2(a,b)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Tracy R.; Smith, Katherine J.; Self, Rachel L.; Braden, Brittany B.

    2011-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) protein Trans-activator of Transcription (Tat) is a nuclear regulatory protein that may contribute to the development of HIV-1 associated dementia by disrupting the neuronal cytoskeleton. The present studies examined effects of recombinant Tat(1-86; 1–100 nM) on microtubule-associated protein (MAP)-dependent and MAP-independent microtubule formation ex vivo and oxidative neuronal injury in rat organotypic hippocampal explants. Acute exposure to Tat(1-86) (≥1 nM) markedly reduced MAP-dependent and –independent microtubule formation ex vivo, as did vincristine sulfate (0.1–10 μM). Cytotoxicity, as measured by propidium iodide uptake, was observed in granule cells of the DG with exposure to 100 nM Tat(1-86) for 24 or 72 h, while significant reductions in MAP-2 immunoreactivity were observed in granule cells and pyramidal cells of the CA1 and CA3 regions at each timepoint. These effects were prevented by co-exposure to the soluble vitamin E analog Trolox (500 μM). Thus, effects of Tat(1-86) on the neuronal viability may be associated with direct interactions with microtubules and generation of oxidative stress. PMID:21259049

  8. Mapping the architecture of the HIV-1 Tat circuit: A decision-making circuit that lacks bistability and exploits stochastic noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razooky, Brandon S; Weinberger, Leor S

    2011-01-01

    Upon infection of a CD4(+) T cell, HIV-1 appears to 'choose' between two alternate fates: active replication or a long-lived dormant state termed proviral latency. A transcriptional positive-feedback loop generated by the HIV-1 Tat protein appears sufficient to mediate this decision. Here, we describe a coupled wet-lab and computational approach that uses mathematical modeling and live-cell time-lapse microscopy to map the architecture of the HIV-1 Tat transcriptional regulatory circuit and generate predictive models of HIV-1 latency. This approach provided the first characterization of a 'decision-making' circuit that lacks bistability and instead exploits stochastic fluctuations in cellular molecules (i.e. noise) to generate a decision between an on or off transcriptional state. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. UV and X-ray structural studies of a 101-residue long Tat protein from a HIV-1 primary isolate and of its mutated, detoxified, vaccine candidate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foucault, Marine; Mayol, Katia; Receveur-Bréchot, Véronique; Bussat, Marie-Claire; Klinguer-Hamour, Christine; Verrier, Bernard; Beck, Alain; Haser, Richard; Gouet, Patrice; Guillon, Christophe

    2010-05-01

    The 101-residue long Tat protein of primary isolate 133 of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), wt-Tat(133) displays a high transactivation activity in vitro, whereas the mutant thereof, STLA-Tat(133), a vaccine candidate for HIV-1, has none. These two proteins were chemically synthesized and their biological activity was validated. Their structural properties were characterized using circular dichroism (CD), fluorescence emission, gel filtration, dynamic light scattering, and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) techniques. SAXS studies revealed that both proteins were extended and belong to the family of intrinsically unstructured proteins. CD measurements showed that wt-Tat(133) or STLA-Tat(133) underwent limited structural rearrangements when complexed with specific fragments of antibodies. Crystallization trials have been performed on the two forms, assuming that the Tat(133) proteins might have a better propensity to fold in supersaturated conditions, and small crystals have been obtained. These results suggest that biologically active Tat protein is natively unfolded and requires only a limited gain of structure for its function. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Clade C HIV-1 isolates circulating in Southern Africa exhibit a greater frequency of dicysteine motif-containing Tat variants than those in Southeast Asia and cause increased neurovirulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Vasudev R; Neogi, Ujjwal; Talboom, Joshua S; Padilla, Ligia; Rahman, Mustafizur; Fritz-French, Cari; Gonzalez-Ramirez, Sandra; Verma, Anjali; Wood, Charles; Ruprecht, Ruth M; Ranga, Udaykumar; Azim, Tasnim; Joska, John; Eugenin, Eliseo; Shet, Anita; Bimonte-Nelson, Heather; Tyor, William R; Prasad, Vinayaka R

    2013-06-08

    HIV-1 Clade C (Subtype C; HIV-1C) is responsible for greater than 50% of infections worldwide. Unlike clade B HIV-1 (Subtype B; HIV-1B), which is known to cause HIV associated dementia (HAD) in approximately 15% to 30% of the infected individuals, HIV-1C has been linked with lower prevalence of HAD (0 to 6%) in India and Ethiopia. However, recent studies report a higher prevalence of HAD in South Africa, Zambia and Botswana, where HIV-1C infections predominate. Therefore, we examined whether Southern African HIV-1C is genetically distinct and investigated its neurovirulence. HIV-1 Tat protein is a viral determinant of neurocognitive dysfunction. Therefore, we focused our study on the variations seen in tat gene and its contribution to HIV associated neuropathogenesis. A phylogenetic analysis of tat sequences of Southern African (South Africa and Zambia) HIV isolates with those from the geographically distant Southeast Asian (India and Bangladesh) isolates revealed that Southern African tat sequences are distinct from Southeast Asian isolates. The proportion of HIV - 1C variants with an intact dicysteine motif in Tat protein (C30C31) was significantly higher in the Southern African countries compared to Southeast Asia and broadly paralleled the high incidence of HAD in these countries. Neuropathogenic potential of a Southern African HIV-1C isolate (from Zambia; HIV-1C 1084i), a HIV-1C isolate (HIV-1 IndieC1) from Southeast Asia and a HIV-1B isolate (HIV-1 ADA) from the US were tested using in vitro assays to measure neurovirulence and a SCID mouse HIV encephalitis model to measure cognitive deficits. In vitro assays revealed that the Southern African isolate, HIV-1C 1084i exhibited increased monocyte chemotaxis and greater neurotoxicity compared to Southeast Asian HIV-1C. In neurocognitive tests, SCID mice injected with MDM infected with Southern African HIV-1C 1084i showed greater cognitive dysfunction similar to HIV-1B but much higher than those exposed to

  11. The RNA annealing mechanism of the HIV-1 Tat peptide: conversion of the RNA into an annealing-competent conformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doetsch, Martina; Fürtig, Boris; Gstrein, Thomas; Stampfl, Sabine; Schroeder, Renée

    2011-05-01

    The annealing of nucleic acids to (partly) complementary RNA or DNA strands is involved in important cellular processes. A variety of proteins have been shown to accelerate RNA/RNA annealing but their mode of action is still mainly uncertain. In order to study the mechanism of protein-facilitated acceleration of annealing we selected a short peptide, HIV-1 Tat(44-61), which accelerates the reaction efficiently. The activity of the peptide is strongly regulated by mono- and divalent cations which hints at the importance of electrostatic interactions between RNA and peptide. Mutagenesis of the peptide illustrated the dominant role of positively charged amino acids in RNA annealing--both the overall charge of the molecule and a precise distribution of basic amino acids within the peptide are important. Additionally, we found that Tat(44-61) drives the RNA annealing reaction via entropic rather than enthalpic terms. One-dimensional-NMR data suggest that the peptide changes the population distribution of possible RNA structures to favor an annealing-prone RNA conformation, thereby increasing the fraction of colliding RNA molecules that successfully anneal.

  12. Selective Vulnerability of Striatal D2 versus D1 Dopamine Receptor-Expressing Medium Spiny Neurons in HIV-1 Tat Transgenic Male Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schier, Christina J; Marks, William D; Paris, Jason J; Barbour, Aaron J; McLane, Virginia D; Maragos, William F; McQuiston, A Rory; Knapp, Pamela E; Hauser, Kurt F

    2017-06-07

    Despite marked regional differences in HIV susceptibility within the CNS, there has been surprisingly little exploration into the differential vulnerability among neuron types and the circuits they underlie. The dorsal striatum is especially susceptible, harboring high viral loads and displaying marked neuropathology, with motor impairment a frequent manifestation of chronic infection. However, little is known about the response of individual striatal neuron types to HIV or how this disrupts function. Therefore, we investigated the morphological and electrophysiological effects of HIV-1 trans -activator of transcription (Tat) in dopamine subtype 1 (D1) and dopamine subtype 2 (D2) receptor-expressing striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs) by breeding transgenic Tat-expressing mice to Drd1a -tdTomato- or Drd2 -eGFP-reporter mice. An additional goal was to examine neuronal vulnerability early during the degenerative process to gain insight into key events underlying the neuropathogenesis. In D2 MSNs, exposure to HIV-1 Tat reduced dendritic spine density significantly, increased dendritic damage (characterized by swellings/varicosities), and dysregulated neuronal excitability (decreased firing at 200-300 pA and increased firing rates at 450 pA), whereas insignificant morphologic and electrophysiological consequences were observed in Tat-exposed D1 MSNs. These changes were concomitant with an increased anxiety-like behavioral profile (lower latencies to enter a dark chamber in a light-dark transition task, a greater frequency of light-dark transitions, and reduced rearing time in an open field), whereas locomotor behavior was unaffected by 2 weeks of Tat induction. Our findings suggest that D2 MSNs and a specific subset of neural circuits within the dorsal striatum are preferentially vulnerable to HIV-1. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Despite combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), neurocognitive disorders afflict 30-50% of HIV-infected individuals and synaptodendritic injury

  13. Soy Isoflavones Genistein and Daidzein Exert Anti-Apoptotic Actions via a Selective ER-mediated Mechanism in Neurons following HIV-1 Tat1–86 Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Sheila M.; Aksenova, Marina V.; Aksenov, Michael Y.; Mactutus, Charles F.; Booze, Rosemarie M.

    2012-01-01

    Background HIV-1 viral protein Tat partially mediates the neural dysfunction and neuronal cell death associated with HIV-1 induced neurodegeneration and neurocognitive disorders. Soy isoflavones provide protection against various neurotoxic insults to maintain neuronal function and thus help preserve neurocognitive capacity. Methodology/Principal Findings We demonstrate in primary cortical cell cultures that 17β-estradiol or isoflavones (genistein or daidzein) attenuate Tat1–86-induced expression of apoptotic proteins and subsequent cell death. Exposure of cultured neurons to the estrogen receptor antagonist ICI 182,780 abolished the anti-apoptotic actions of isoflavones. Use of ERα or ERβ specific antagonists determined the involvement of both ER isoforms in genistein and daidzein inhibition of caspase activity; ERβ selectively mediated downregulation of mitochondrial pro-apoptotic protein Bax. The findings suggest soy isoflavones effectively diminished HIV-1 Tat-induced apoptotic signaling. Conclusions/Significance Collectively, our results suggest that soy isoflavones represent an adjunctive therapeutic option with combination anti-retroviral therapy (cART) to preserve neuronal functioning and sustain neurocognitive abilities of HIV-1 infected persons. PMID:22629415

  14. HIV-1 Tat immunization restores immune homeostasis and attacks the HAART-resistant blood HIV DNA: results of a randomized phase II exploratory clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensoli, Fabrizio; Cafaro, Aurelio; Casabianca, Anna; Tripiciano, Antonella; Bellino, Stefania; Longo, Olimpia; Francavilla, Vittorio; Picconi, Orietta; Sgadari, Cecilia; Moretti, Sonia; Cossut, Maria R Pavone; Arancio, Angela; Orlandi, Chiara; Sernicola, Leonardo; Maggiorella, Maria T; Paniccia, Giovanni; Mussini, Cristina; Lazzarin, Adriano; Sighinolfi, Laura; Palamara, Guido; Gori, Andrea; Angarano, Gioacchino; Di Pietro, Massimo; Galli, Massimo; Mercurio, Vito S; Castelli, Francesco; Di Perri, Giovanni; Monini, Paolo; Magnani, Mauro; Garaci, Enrico; Ensoli, Barbara

    2015-04-29

    The phase II multicenter, randomized, open label, therapeutic trial (ISS T-002, Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00751595) was aimed at evaluating the immunogenicity and the safety of the biologically active HIV-1 Tat protein administered at 7.5 or 30 μg, given 3 or 5 times monthly, and at exploring immunological and virological disease biomarkers. The study duration was 48 weeks, however, vaccinees were followed until the last enrolled subject reached the 48 weeks. Reported are final data up to 144 weeks of follow-up. The ISS T-002 trial was conducted in 11 clinical centers in Italy on 168 HIV positive subjects under Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART), anti-Tat Antibody (Ab) negative at baseline, with plasma viremia immune homeostasis and effective anti-viral responses capable of attacking the virus reservoir. Thus, Tat immunization represents a promising pathogenesis-driven intervention to intensify HAART efficacy.

  15. Fractalkine/CX3CL1 protects striatal neurons from synergistic morphine and HIV-1 Tat-induced dendritic losses and death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzuki Masami

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fractalkine/CX3CL1 and its cognate receptor CX3CR1 are abundantly expressed in the CNS. Fractalkine is an unusual C-X3-C motif chemokine that is important in neuron-microglial communication, a co-receptor for HIV infection, and can be neuroprotective. To assess the effects of fractalkine on opiate-HIV interactive neurotoxicity, wild-type murine striatal neurons were co-cultured with mixed glia from the striata of wild-type or Cx3cr1 knockout mice ± HIV-1 Tat and/or morphine. Time-lapse digital images were continuously recorded at 20 min intervals for up to 72 h using computer-aided microscopy to track the same cells repeatedly. Results Co-exposure to Tat and morphine caused synergistic increases in neuron death, dendritic pruning, and microglial motility as previously reported. Exogenous fractalkine prevented synergistic Tat and morphine-induced dendritic losses and neuron death even though the inflammatory mediator TNF-α remained significantly elevated. Antibody blockade of CX3CR1 mimicked the toxic effects of morphine plus Tat, but did not add to their toxicity; while fractalkine failed to protect wild-type neurons co-cultured with Cx3cr1-/--null glia against morphine and Tat toxicity. Exogenous fractalkine also normalized microglial motility, which is elevated by Tat and morphine co-exposure, presumably limiting microglial surveillance that may lead to toxic effects on neurons. Fractalkine immunofluorescence was expressed in neurons and to a lesser extent by other cell types, whereas CX3CR1 immunoreactivity or GFP fluorescence in cells cultured from the striatum of Cx3cr1-/- (Cx3cr1GFP/GFP mice were associated with microglia. Immunoblotting shows that fractalkine levels were unchanged following Tat and/or morphine exposure and there was no increase in released fractalkine as determined by ELISA. By contrast, CX3CR1 protein levels were markedly downregulated. Conclusions The results suggest that deficits in fractalkine

  16. An attenuated herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1 encoding the HIV-1 Tat protein protects mice from a deadly mucosal HSV1 challenge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariaconcetta Sicurella

    Full Text Available Herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (HSV1 and HSV2 are common infectious agents in both industrialized and developing countries. They cause recurrent asymptomatic and/or symptomatic infections, and life-threatening diseases and death in newborns and immunocompromised patients. Current treatment for HSV relies on antiviral medications, which can halt the symptomatic diseases but cannot prevent the shedding that occurs in asymptomatic patients or, consequently, the spread of the viruses. Therefore, prevention rather than treatment of HSV infections has long been an area of intense research, but thus far effective anti-HSV vaccines still remain elusive. One of the key hurdles to overcome in anti-HSV vaccine development is the identification and effective use of strategies that promote the emergence of Th1-type immune responses against a wide range of epitopes involved in the control of viral replication. Since the HIV1 Tat protein has several immunomodulatory activities and increases CTL recognition of dominant and subdominant epitopes of heterologous antigens, we generated and assayed a recombinant attenuated replication-competent HSV1 vector containing the tat gene (HSV1-Tat. In this proof-of-concept study we show that immunization with this vector conferred protection in 100% of mice challenged intravaginally with a lethal dose of wild-type HSV1. We demonstrate that the presence of Tat within the recombinant virus increased and broadened Th1-like and CTL responses against HSV-derived T-cell epitopes and elicited in most immunized mice detectable IgG responses. In sharp contrast, a similarly attenuated HSV1 recombinant vector without Tat (HSV1-LacZ, induced low and different T cell responses, no measurable antibody responses and did not protect mice against the wild-type HSV1 challenge. These findings strongly suggest that recombinant HSV1 vectors expressing Tat merit further investigation for their potential to prevent and/or contain HSV1

  17. HIV-1 Tat affects the programming and functionality of human CD8⁺ T cells by modulating the expression of T-box transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sforza, Fabio; Nicoli, Francesco; Gallerani, Eleonora; Finessi, Valentina; Reali, Eva; Cafaro, Aurelio; Caputo, Antonella; Ensoli, Barbara; Gavioli, Riccardo

    2014-07-31

    HIV infection is characterized by several immune dysfunctions of both CD8⁺ and CD4⁺ T cells as hyperactivation, impairment of functionality and expansion of memory T cells. CD8⁺ T-cell dysfunctions have been associated with increased expression of T-bet, Eomesdermin and pro-inflammatory cytokines, and with down-regulation of CD127. The HIV-1 trans-activator of transcription (Tat) protein, which is released by infected cells and detected in tissues of HIV-positive individuals, is known to contribute to the dysregulation of CD4⁺ T cells; however, its effects on CD8⁺ T cells have not been investigated. Thus, in this study, we sought to address whether Tat may affect CD8⁺ T-cell functionality and programming. CD8⁺ T cells were activated by T-cell receptor engagement in the presence or absence of Tat. Cytokine production, killing capacity, surface phenotype and expression of transcription factors important for T-cell programming were evaluated. Tat favors the secretion of interleukin-2, interferon-γ and granzyme B in CD8⁺ T cells. Behind this functional modulation we observed that Tat increases the expression of T-bet, Eomesdermin, Blimp-1, Bcl-6 and Bcl-2 in activated but not in unstimulated CD8⁺ T lymphocytes. This effect is associated with the down-regulation of CD127 and the up-regulation of CD27. Tat deeply alters the programming and functionality of CD8⁺ T lymphocytes.

  18. Subcutaneous administration CpG-ODNs acts as a potent adjuvant for an HIV-1-tat-based vaccine candidate to elicit cellular immunity in BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panahi, Zeinab; Abdoli, Asghar; Mosayebi, Ghasem; Mahdavi, Mehdi; Bahrami, Fariborz

    2018-01-08

    To evaluate the combined effects of CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG-ODNs) adjuvant and subcutaneous injection route on efficacy of a HIV-1-tat DNA vaccine candidate using BALB/c mice as an animal model. Evaluation of cellular and humoral immunity of mice injected subcutaneously with HIV-1-tat gene cloned into a pcDNA3.1 vector indicated that significant levels of IFN-γ cytokine secretion (900 pg/ml), lymphocyte proliferation (2.5 stimulation index) and IgG2a (1.45 absorbance 450 nm) production could be achieved. These indicators of stimulated cellular immunity were elicited 2 weeks after the last injection (P < 0.05). Formulation of HIV-1-tat DNA vaccine candidate with CpG-ODNs as an adjuvant while administrated subcutaneously are a promising approach to induce effective cellular immunity responses against HIV-1 infection.

  19. Herpes simplex virus type 2 triggers reactivation of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus from latency and collaborates with HIV-1 Tat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qiao; Qin, Di; Lv, Zhigang; Zhu, Xiaolei; Ma, Xinting; Yan, Qin; Zeng, Yi; Guo, Yuanyuan; Feng, Ninghan; Lu, Chun

    2012-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) infection was necessary but not sufficient for Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) development without other cofactors. Previously, we identified that both human immunodeficiency type 1 (HIV-1) Tat and herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) were important cofactors reactivating KSHV from latency. Here, we further investigated the potential of herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) to influence KSHV replication and examined the role of Tat in this procedure. We demonstrated that HSV-2 was a potentially important factor in the pathogenesis of KS, as determined by production of lytic phase mRNA transcripts, viral proteins and infectious viral particles in BCBL-1 cells. These results were further confirmed by an RNA interference experiment using small interfering RNA targeting KSHV Rta and a luciferase reporter assay testing Rta promoter-driven luciferase activity. Mechanistic studies showed that HSV-2 infection activated nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway. Inhibition of NF-κB pathway enhanced HSV-2-mediated KSHV activation, whereas activation of NF-κB pathway suppressed KSHV replication in HSV-2-infected BCBL-1 cells. Additionally, ectopic expression of Tat enhanced HSV-2-induced KSHV replication. These novel findings suggest a role of HSV-2 in the pathogenesis of KS and provide the first laboratory evidence that Tat may participate HSV-2-mediated KSHV activation, implying the complicated pathogenesis of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related KS (AIDS-KS) patients.

  20. Herpes simplex virus type 2 triggers reactivation of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus from latency and collaborates with HIV-1 Tat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao Tang

    Full Text Available Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV infection was necessary but not sufficient for Kaposi's sarcoma (KS development without other cofactors. Previously, we identified that both human immunodeficiency type 1 (HIV-1 Tat and herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1 were important cofactors reactivating KSHV from latency. Here, we further investigated the potential of herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2 to influence KSHV replication and examined the role of Tat in this procedure. We demonstrated that HSV-2 was a potentially important factor in the pathogenesis of KS, as determined by production of lytic phase mRNA transcripts, viral proteins and infectious viral particles in BCBL-1 cells. These results were further confirmed by an RNA interference experiment using small interfering RNA targeting KSHV Rta and a luciferase reporter assay testing Rta promoter-driven luciferase activity. Mechanistic studies showed that HSV-2 infection activated nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB signaling pathway. Inhibition of NF-κB pathway enhanced HSV-2-mediated KSHV activation, whereas activation of NF-κB pathway suppressed KSHV replication in HSV-2-infected BCBL-1 cells. Additionally, ectopic expression of Tat enhanced HSV-2-induced KSHV replication. These novel findings suggest a role of HSV-2 in the pathogenesis of KS and provide the first laboratory evidence that Tat may participate HSV-2-mediated KSHV activation, implying the complicated pathogenesis of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS-related KS (AIDS-KS patients.

  1. The Tat protein of human immunodeficiency virus-1 enhances hepatitis C virus replication through interferon gamma-inducible protein-10

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    Qu Jing

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1 and hepatitis C virus (HCV is associated with faster progression of liver disease and an increase in HCV persistence. However, the mechanism by which HIV-1 accelerates the progression of HCV liver disease remains unknown. Results HIV-1/HCV co-infection is associated with increased expression of interferon gamma-induced protein-10 (IP-10 mRNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs. HCV RNA levels were higher in PBMCs of patients with HIV-1/HCV co-infection than in patients with HCV mono-infection. HIV-1 Tat and IP-10 activated HCV replication in a time-dependent manner, and HIV-1 Tat induced IP-10 production. In addition, the effect of HIV-1 Tat on HCV replication was blocked by anti-IP-10 monoclonal antibody, demonstrating that the effect of HIV-1 Tat on HCV replication depends on IP-10. Taken together, these results suggest that HIV-1 Tat protein activates HCV replication by upregulating IP-10 production. Conclusions HIV-1/HCV co-infection is associated with increased expression of IP-10 mRNA and replication of HCV RNA. Furthermore, both HIV-1 Tat and IP-10 activate HCV replication. HIV-1 Tat activates HCV replication by upregulating IP-10 production. These results expand our understanding of HIV-1 in HCV replication and the mechanism involved in the regulation of HCV replication mediated by HIV-1 during co-infection.

  2. Characterization of the HIV-1 TAR RNA-Tat peptide and drug interactions by on-line acoustic wave sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassew, Nardos Gobena

    This thesis presents the application of the thickness shear-mode (TSM) acoustic wave sensor to the study of RNA-protein and RNA-drug interactions at the solid-liquid interface. The binding of the human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 Tat protein to the trans-activation responsive RNA element (TAR) has been studied using this sensor. Data from such measurements show that the sensor is able to discriminate between different Tat peptides derived from the parent protein based on size. The effects of mutations introduced at specific sites in the protein and RNA on the TAR-Tat binding have also been examined in detail. Reduced level of response in acoustic parameters due to mutations was observed indicating that the decrease in binding in response to site specific mutations can be acoustically detected. Data from acoustic wave sensor measurements indicate that the TAR-Tat binding is also affected by ionic strength. Both the frequency and motional resistance signals show periodic responses when varying concentrations of salt are introduced on a TAR-modified surface. The binding of the two molecules seems to be a function of the response of the nucleic acid to salt concentrations. The kinetics of binding of Tat peptides to TAR RNA and to a bulge mutant analogue (MTAR) is also examined from the rate of change of the series resonant frequency. Results from such analysis illustrate longer Tat peptides formed more stable complexes with TAR RNA and exhibited increased discrimination between mutant and wild type TAR. The binding of two aminoglycoside antibiotics, neomycin and streptomycin, to TAR RNA and their effectiveness in preventing TAR-Tat complex formation has been studied in detail. Binding affinity is directly correlated with the inhibitory potency of these molecules and the TSM sensor shows that neomycin exhibits at least a ten fold greater affinity to TAR and that it is also a more potent inhibitor than streptomycin. The results from this research involving TAR-Tat and

  3. HIV-1 infection of macrophages is dependent on evasion of innate immune cellular activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Jhen; Chain, Benjamin M; Miller, Robert F; Webb, Benjamin L J; Barclay, Wendy; Towers, Greg J; Katz, David R; Noursadeghi, Mahdad

    2009-11-13

    The cellular innate immune response to HIV-1 is poorly characterized. In view of HIV-1 tropism for macrophages, which can be activated via pattern recognition receptors to trigger antimicrobial defences, we investigated innate immune responses to HIV-1 by monocyte-derived macrophages. In a model of productive HIV-1 infection, cellular innate immune responses to HIV-1 were investigated, at the level of transcription factor activation, specific gene expression and genome-wide transcriptional profiling. In addition, the viral determinants of macrophage responses and the physiological effect of innate immune cellular activation on HIV-1 replication were assessed. Productive HIV-1 infection did not activate nuclear factor-kappaB and interferon regulatory factor 3 transcription factors or interferon gene expression (IFN) and caused remarkably small changes to the host-cell transcriptome, with no evidence of inflammatory or IFN signatures. Evasion of IFN induction was not dependent on HIV-1 envelope-mediated cellular entry, inhibition by accessory proteins or reverse transcription of ssRNA that may reduce innate immune cellular activation by viral RNA. Furthermore, IFNbeta priming did not sensitize responses to HIV-1. Importantly, exogenous IFNbeta or stimulation with the RNA analogue poly I:C to simulate innate immune activation invoked HIV-1 restriction. We conclude that macrophages lack functional pattern recognition receptors for this virus and that HIV-1 tropism for macrophages helps to establish a foothold in the host without triggering innate immune cellular activation, which would otherwise block viral infection effectively.

  4. Anti-HIV-1 antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity: is there more to antibodies than neutralization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wen Shi; Kent, Stephen J

    2017-11-30

    An increasing body of evidence suggests that nonneutralizing Fc effector functions including antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) contribute to protection against HIV-1 acquisition. We discuss recent advances in anti-HIV-1 ADCC research with a particular focus on ADCC mediated by Env-specific antibodies in vitro and in vivo, the curative potential of HIV-1-specific ADCC antibodies and the mechanisms of HIV-1 resistance to ADCC. ADCC activities of broadly neutralizing and nonneutralizing monoclonal antibody panels were recently characterized in vitro against several lab-adapted and primary isolates of HIV-1. ADCC activity of these monoclonal antibodies generally correlated with binding to infected cells and were greater against the lab-adapted strains compared with primary HIV-1 isolates. Several recent studies in mouse and macaque models of HIV-1 infection suggest Fc-mediated effector functions contribute to the protective efficacy of broadly neutralizing antibodies and exert immune pressure on HIV-1 in vivo. An increasing body of evidence suggests that ADCC-mediating antibodies, particularly when combined with neutralizing functions, can facilitate prevention and control of HIV-1. The precise mechanisms of partial protection conferred by nonneutralizing antibodies in vivo remain unclear and will need to be fully investigated in order to realize their full potential for HIV-1 vaccines.

  5. Competition between Sec- and TAT-dependent protein translocation in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cristóbal, S.; de Gier, J.-W.; Nielsen, Henrik

    1999-01-01

    Recently, a new protein translocation pathway, the twin-arginine translocation (TAT) pathway, has been identified in both bacteria and chloroplasts. To study the possible competition between the TAT- and the well-characterized Sec translocon-dependent pathways in Escherichia coli, we have fused...

  6. Nullbasic, a potent anti-HIV tat mutant, induces CRM1-dependent disruption of HIV rev trafficking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Hsuan Lin

    Full Text Available Nullbasic, a mutant of the HIV-1 Tat protein, has anti-HIV-1 activity through mechanisms that include inhibition of Rev function and redistribution of the HIV-1 Rev protein from the nucleolus to the nucleoplasm and cytoplasm. Here we investigate the mechanism of this effect for the first time, establishing that redistribution of Rev by Nullbasic is not due to direct interaction between the two proteins. Rather, Nullbasic affects subcellular localization of cellular proteins that regulate Rev trafficking. In particular, Nullbasic induced redistribution of exportin 1 (CRM1, nucleophosmin (B23 and nucleolin (C23 from the nucleolus to the nucleus when Rev was coexpressed, but never in its absence. Inhibition of the Rev:CRM1 interaction by leptomycin B or a non-interacting RevM10 mutant completely blocked redistribution of Rev by Nullbasic. Finally, Nullbasic did not inhibit importin β- or transportin 1-mediated nuclear import, suggesting that cytoplasmic accumulation of Rev was due to increased export by CRM1. Overall, our data support the conclusion that CRM1-dependent subcellular redistribution of Rev from the nucleolus by Nullbasic is not through general perturbation of either nuclear import or export. Rather, Nullbasic appears to interact with and disrupt specific components of a Rev trafficking complex required for its nucleocytoplasmic shuttling and, in particular, its nucleolar accumulation.

  7. Construction of Nef-positive doxycycline-dependent HIV-1 variants using bicistronic expression elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velden, Yme U. van der; Kleibeuker, Wendy; Harwig, Alex; Klaver, Bep; Siteur-van Rijnstra, Esther; Frankin, Esmay; Berkhout, Ben; Das, Atze T., E-mail: a.t.das@amc.uva.nl

    2016-01-15

    Conditionally replicating HIV-1 variants that can be switched on and off at will are attractive tools for HIV research. We previously developed a genetically modified HIV-1 variant that replicates exclusively when doxycycline (dox) is administered. The nef gene in this HIV-rtTA variant was replaced with the gene encoding the dox-dependent rtTA transcriptional activator. Because loss of Nef expression compromises virus replication in primary cells and precludes studies on Nef function, we tested different approaches to restore Nef production in HIV-rtTA. Strategies that involved translation via an EMCV or synthetic internal ribosome entry site (IRES) failed because these elements were incompatible with efficient virus replication. Fusion protein approaches with the FMDV 2A peptide and human ubiquitin were successful and resulted in genetically-stable Nef-expressing HIV-rtTA strains that replicate more efficiently in primary T-cells and human immune system (HIS) mice than Nef-deficient variants, thus confirming the positive effect of Nef on in vivo virus replication. - Highlights: • Different approaches to encode additional proteins in the HIV-1 genome were tested. • IRES translation elements are incompatible with efficient HIV-1 replication. • Ubiquitin and 2A fusion protein approaches allow efficient HIV-1 replication. • Doxycycline-controlled HIV-1 variants that encode all viral proteins were developed. • Nef stimulates HIV-rtTA replication in primary cells and human immune system mice.

  8. Targeting Multidrug-resistant Staphylococci with an anti-rpoA Peptide Nucleic Acid Conjugated to the HIV-1 TAT Cell Penetrating Peptide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa FN Abushahba

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus infections present a serious challenge to healthcare practitioners due to the emergence of resistance to numerous conventional antibiotics. Due to their unique mode of action, peptide nucleic acids are novel alternatives to traditional antibiotics to tackle the issue of bacterial multidrug resistance. In this study, we designed a peptide nucleic acid covalently conjugated to the HIV-TAT cell penetrating peptide (GRKKKRRQRRRYK in order to target the RNA polymerase α subunit gene (rpoA required for bacterial genes transcription. We explored the antimicrobial activity of the anti-rpoA construct (peptide nucleic acid-TAT against methicillin-resistant S. aureus, vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus, vancomycin-resistant S. aureus, linezolid-resistant S. aureus, and methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis in pure culture, infected mammalian cell culture, and in an in vivo Caenorhabditis elegans infection model. The anti-rpoA construct led to a concentration-dependent inhibition of bacterial growth (at micromolar concentrations in vitro and in both infected cell culture and in vivo in C. elegans. Moreover, rpoA gene silencing resulted in suppression of its message as well as reduced expression of two important methicillin-resistant S. aureus USA300 toxins (α-hemolysin and Panton-Valentine leukocidin. This study confirms that rpoA gene is a potential target for development of novel antisense therapeutics to treat infections caused by methicillin-resistant S. aureus.

  9. Construction of doxycyline-dependent mini-HIV-1 variants for the development of a virotherapy against leukemias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berkhout Ben

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL is a high-risk type of blood-cell cancer. We describe the improvement of a candidate therapeutic virus for virotherapy of leukemic cells. Virotherapy is based on the exclusive replication of a virus in leukemic cells, leading to the selective removal of these malignant cells. To improve the safety of such a virus, we constructed an HIV-1 variant that replicates exclusively in the presence of the nontoxic effector doxycycline (dox. This was achieved by replacement of the viral TAR-Tat system for transcriptional activation by the Escherichia coli-derived Tet system for inducible gene expression. This HIV-rtTA virus replicates in a strictly dox-dependent manner. In this virus, additional deletions and/or inactivating mutations were introduced in the genes for accessory proteins. These proteins are essential for virus replication in untransformed cells, but dispensable in leukemic T cells. These minimized HIV-rtTA variants contain up to 7 deletions/inactivating mutations (TAR, Tat, vif, vpR, vpU, nef and U3 and replicate efficiently in the leukemic SupT1 T cell line, but do not replicate in normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells. These virus variants are also able to efficiently remove leukemic cells from a mixed culture with untransformed cells. The therapeutic viruses use CD4 and CXCR4 for cell entry and could potentially be used against CXCR4 expressing malignancies such as T-lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma, NK leukemia and some myeloid leukemias.

  10. Peptide derived from HIV-1 TAT protein destabilizes a monolayer of endothelial cells in an in vitro model of the blood-brain barrier and allows permeation of high molecular weight proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Itzik; Sasson, Keren; Teichberg, Vivian I; Schnaider-Beeri, Michal; Fridkin, Mati; Shechter, Yoram

    2012-12-28

    Most chemotherapeutic agents are blood-brain barrier (BBB) impermeants. HIV-1-derived TAT protein variants contain a transmembrane domain, which may enable them to cross the BBB and reach the brain. Here we synthesized CAYGRKKRRQRRR, a peptide containing a cysteine moiety attached to the N terminus of the transmembrane domain (C-TAT peptide), and studied its effects in an in vitro BBB model, which we found to reflect penetration by a receptor-independent pathway. Incubation of the brain capillary endothelial cell monolayer with 0.3-0.6 μmol/ml of this C-TAT peptide, for a period of 1-2 h, destabilizes brain capillary endothelial cell monolayer and introduces the ability of impermeant therapeutic agents including high molecular weight proteins to penetrate it substantially. The cysteinyl moiety at position 1 of the C-TAT peptide contributes largely to the destabilizing potency and the penetration efficacy of impermeant substances. The destabilizing effect was reversed using heparin. In summary, experimental conditions allowing a significant increase in entry of impermeant low and high molecular weight substances from the luminal (blood) to the abluminal side (brain) were found in an in vitro BBB model reflecting in vivo protein penetrability by a receptor-independent pathway.

  11. A Novel Bromodomain Inhibitor Reverses HIV-1 Latency through Specific Binding with BRD4 to Promote Tat and P-TEFb Association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huachao Huang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available While combinatory antiretroviral therapy (cART can effectively reduce HIV-1 viremia, it cannot eliminate HIV-1 infection. In the presence of cART, viral reservoirs remain latent, impeding the cure of HIV-1/AIDS. Recently, latency-reversing agents (LRAs have been developed with the intent of purging latent HIV-1, providing an intriguing strategy for the eradication of the residual viral reservoirs. Our earlier studies show that the first-generation, methyl-triazolo bromodomain, and extra-terminal domain inhibitor (BETi, JQ1, facilitates the reversal of HIV-1 latency. BETis have emerged as a new class of compounds that are promising for this HIV-1 “shock and kill” eradication approach. However, when used as a single drug, JQ1 only modestly reverses HIV-1 latency, which complicates studying the underlining mechanisms. Meanwhile, it has been widely discussed that the induction of latent proviruses is stochastic (Ho et al., 2013. Thus, new BETis are currently under active development with focus on improving potency, ease of synthesis and structural diversity. Using fluorous-tagged multicomponent reactions, we developed a novel second-generation, 3,5-dimethylisoxazole BETi based on an imidazo[1,2-a] pyrazine scaffold, UMB-32. Furthermore, we screened 37 UMB-32 derivatives and identified that one, UMB-136, reactivates HIV-1 in multiple cell models of HIV-1 latency with better efficiency than either JQ1 or UMB-32. UMB-136 enhances HIV-1 transcription and increases viral production through the release of P-TEFb. Importantly, UMB-136 enhances the latency-reversing effects of PKC agonists (prostratin, bryostatin-1 in CD8-depleted PBMCs containing latent viral reservoirs. Our results illustrate that structurally improved BETis, such as UMB-136, may be useful as promising LRAs for HIV-1 eradication.

  12. Nuclear trafficking of the HIV-1 pre-integration complex depends on the ADAM10 intracellular domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endsley, Mark A., E-mail: maendsle@utmb.edu [Department Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Texas Medical Branch, 301 University Blvd, Galveston, TX 77555 (United States); Somasunderam, Anoma D., E-mail: asomasun@utmb.edu [Department Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Texas Medical Branch, 301 University Blvd, Galveston, TX 77555 (United States); Li, Guangyu, E-mail: LIG001@mail.etsu.edu [Department of Internal Medicine, Quillen College of Medicine, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN 37614 (United States); Oezguen, Numan, E-mail: numan.oezguen@bcm.edu [Department of Pathology and Immunology, Microbiome Center, Texas Children' s Hospital, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Thiviyanathan, Varatharasa, E-mail: Varatharasa.Thiviyanathan@uth.tmc.edu [Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Murray, James L., E-mail: jmurray100@yahoo.com [GeneTAG Technology, Inc., 3155 Northwoods Place, Norcross, GA 30071 (United States); Rubin, Donald H., E-mail: don.h.rubin@vanderbilt.edu [Research Medicine, VA Tennessee Valley Healthcare System, 1310 24th Ave. South, Nashville, TN 37212 (United States); Departments of Medicine, Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, 1161 21st Ave South, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Hodge, Thomas W., E-mail: twhodge3@gmail.com [Pre-clinical and Antiviral Research, Tamir Biotechnology, Inc., 12625 High Bluff Dr., Suite 113, San Diego, CA 92130 (United States); and others

    2014-04-15

    Previously, we showed that ADAM10 is necessary for HIV-1 replication in primary human macrophages and immortalized cell lines. Silencing ADAM10 expression interrupted the HIV-1 life cycle prior to nuclear translocation of viral cDNA. Furthermore, our data indicated that HIV-1 replication depends on the expression of ADAM15 and γ-secretase, which proteolytically processes ADAM10. Silencing ADAM15 or γ-secretase expression inhibits HIV-1 replication between reverse transcription and nuclear entry. Here, we show that ADAM10 expression also supports replication in CD4{sup +} T lymphocytes. The intracellular domain (ICD) of ADAM10 associates with the HIV-1 pre-integration complex (PIC) in the cytoplasm and immunoprecipitates and co-localizes with HIV-1 integrase, a key component of PIC. Taken together, our data support a model whereby ADAM15/γ-secretase processing of ADAM10 releases the ICD, which then incorporates into HIV-1 PIC to facilitate nuclear trafficking. Thus, these studies suggest ADAM10 as a novel therapeutic target for inhibiting HIV-1 prior to nuclear entry. - Highlights: • Nuclear trafficking of the HIV-1 pre-integration complex depends on ADAM10. • ADAM10 associates with HIV-1 integrase in the pre-integration complex. • HIV-1 replication depends on the expression of ADAM15 and γ-secretase. • Silencing ADAM15 or γ-secretase expression inhibits nuclear import of viral cDNA. • ADAM10 is important for HIV-1 replication in human macrophages and CD4{sup +} T lymphocytes.

  13. Induction of Antibodies and T Cell Responses by a Recombinant Influenza Virus Carrying an HIV-1 TatΔ51–59 Protein in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Garulli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recombinant influenza viruses hold promise as vectors for vaccines to prevent transmission of mucosal pathogens. In this study, we generated a recombinant WSN/TatΔ51–59 virus in which Tat protein lacking residues 51 to 59 of the basic domain was inserted into the N-terminus of the hemagglutinin (HA of A/WSN/33 virus. The TatΔ51–59 insertion into the viral HA caused a 2-log reduction in viral titers in cell culture, compared with the parental A/WSN/33 virus, and severely affected virus replication in vivo. Nevertheless, Tat-specific antibodies and T cell responses were elicited upon a single intranasal immunization of BALB/c mice with WSN/TatΔ51–59 virus. Moreover, Tat-specific immune responses were also detected following vaccine administration via the vaginal route. These data provide further evidence that moderately large HIV antigens can be delivered by chimeric HA constructs and elicit specific immune responses, thus increasing the options for the potential use of recombinant influenza viruses, and their derivatives, for prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines.

  14. HIV-1 causes CD4 cell death through DNA-dependent protein kinase during viral integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Arik; García, Mayra; Petrovas, Constantinos; Yamamoto, Takuya; Koup, Richard A; Nabel, Gary J

    2013-06-20

    Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) has infected more than 60 million people and caused nearly 30 million deaths worldwide, ultimately the consequence of cytolytic infection of CD4(+) T cells. In humans and in macaque models, most of these cells contain viral DNA and are rapidly eliminated at the peak of viraemia, yet the mechanism by which HIV-1 induces helper T-cell death has not been defined. Here we show that virus-induced cell killing is triggered by viral integration. Infection by wild-type HIV-1, but not an integrase-deficient mutant, induced the death of activated primary CD4 lymphocytes. Similarly, raltegravir, a pharmacologic integrase inhibitor, abolished HIV-1-induced cell killing both in cell culture and in CD4(+) T cells from acutely infected subjects. The mechanism of killing during viral integration involved the activation of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK), a central integrator of the DNA damage response, which caused phosphorylation of p53 and histone H2AX. Pharmacological inhibition of DNA-PK abolished cell death during HIV-1 infection in vitro, suggesting that processes which reduce DNA-PK activation in CD4 cells could facilitate the formation of latently infected cells that give rise to reservoirs in vivo. We propose that activation of DNA-PK during viral integration has a central role in CD4(+) T-cell depletion, raising the possibility that integrase inhibitors and interventions directed towards DNA-PK may improve T-cell survival and immune function in infected individuals.

  15. The Productive Entry Pathway of HIV-1 in Macrophages Is Dependent on Endocytosis through Lipid Rafts Containing CD4

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wilgenburg, Bonnie; Moore, Michael D.; James, William S.; Cowley, Sally A.

    2014-01-01

    Macrophages constitute an important reservoir of HIV-1 infection, yet HIV-1 entry into these cells is poorly understood due to the difficulty in genetically manipulating primary macrophages. We developed an effective genetic approach to manipulate the sub-cellular distribution of CD4 in macrophages, and investigated how this affects the HIV-1 entry pathway. Pluripotent Stem Cells (PSC) were transduced with lentiviral vectors designed to manipulate CD4 location and were then differentiated into genetically modified macrophages. HIV-1 infection of these cells was assessed by performing assays that measure critical steps of the HIV-1 lifecycle (fusion, reverse transcription, and expression from HIV-1 integrants). Expression of LCK (which tethers CD4 to the surface of T cells, but is not normally expressed in macrophages) in PSC-macrophages effectively tethered CD4 at the cell surface, reducing its normal endocytic recycling route, and increasing surface CD4 expression 3-fold. This led to a significant increase in HIV-1 fusion and reverse transcription, but productive HIV-1 infection efficiency (as determined by reporter expression from DNA integrants) was unaffected. This implies that surface-tethering of CD4 sequesters HIV-1 into a pathway that is unproductive in macrophages. Secondly, to investigate the importance of lipid rafts (as detergent resistant membranes - DRM) in HIV-1 infection, we generated genetically modified PSC-macrophages that express CD4 mutants known to be excluded from DRM. These macrophages were significantly less able to support HIV-1 fusion, reverse-transcription and integration than engineered controls. Overall, these results support a model in which productive infection by HIV-1 in macrophages occurs via a CD4-raft-dependent endocytic uptake pathway. PMID:24465876

  16. Iron chelators of the di-2-pyridylketone thiosemicarbazone and 2-benzoylpyridine thiosemicarbazone series inhibit HIV-1 transcription: identification of novel cellular targets--iron, cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 2, and CDK9

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Debebe, Zufan; Ammosova, Tatyana; Breuer, Denitra; Lovejoy, David B; Kalinowski, Danuta S; Kumar, Krishna; Jerebtsova, Marina; Ray, Patricio; Kashanchi, Fatah; Gordeuk, Victor R; Richardson, Des R; Nekhai, Sergei

    2011-01-01

    ...)/cyclin T1 and other host transcriptional coactivators to the HIV-1 promoter. Tat itself is phosphorylated by CDK2, and inhibition of CDK2 by small interfering RNA, the iron chelator 2-hydroxy-1-naphthylaldehyde isonicotinoyl hydrazone (311...

  17. HIV-1 stimulates nuclear entry of amyloid beta via dynamin dependent EEA1 and TGF-β/Smad signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    András, Ibolya E., E-mail: iandras@med.miami; Toborek, Michal, E-mail: mtoborek@med.miami.edu

    2014-04-15

    Clinical evidence indicates increased amyloid deposition in HIV-1-infected brains, which contributes to neurocognitive dysfunction in infected patients. Here we show that HIV-1 exposure stimulates amyloid beta (Aβ) nuclear entry in human brain endothelial cells (HBMEC), the main component of the blood–brain barrier (BBB). Treatment with HIV-1 and/or Aβ resulted in concurrent increase in early endosomal antigen-1 (EEA1), Smad, and phosphorylated Smad (pSmad) in nuclear fraction of HBMEC. A series of inhibition and silencing studies indicated that Smad and EEA1 closely interact by influencing their own nuclear entry; the effect that was attenuated by dynasore, a blocker of GTP-ase activity of dynamin. Importantly, inhibition of dynamin, EEA1, or TGF-β/Smad effectively attenuated HIV-1-induced Aβ accumulation in the nuclei of HBMEC. The present study indicates that nuclear uptake of Aβ involves the dynamin-dependent EEA1 and TGF-β/Smad signaling pathways. These results identify potential novel targets to protect against HIV-1-associated dysregulation of amyloid processes at the BBB level. - Highlights: • HIV-1 induces nuclear accumulation of amyloid beta (Aβ) in brain endothelial cells. • EEA-1 and TGF-Β/Smad act in concert to regulate nuclear entry of Aβ. • Dynamin appropriates the EEA-1 and TGF-Β/Smad signaling. • Dynamin serves as a master regulator of HIV-1-induced nuclear accumulation of Aβ.

  18. Role of TIM-4 in exosome-dependent entry of HIV-1 into human immune cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Brian; Farrow, Anitra L; Williams, Sparkle D; Bansal, Anju; Krendelchtchikov, Alexandre; Gu, Linlin; Matthews, Qiana L

    2017-01-01

    Exosomes, 30-200 nm nanostructures secreted from donor cells and internalized by recipient cells, can play an important role in the cellular entry of some viruses. These microvesicles are actively secreted into various body fluids, including blood, urine, saliva, cerebrospinal fluid, and breast milk. We successfully isolated exosomes from human breast milk and plasma. The size and concentration of purified exosomes were measured by nanoparticle tracking, while Western blotting confirmed the presence of the exosomal-associated proteins CD9 and CD63, clathrin, and T cell immunoglobulin and mucin proteins (TIMs). Through viral infection assays, we determined that HIV-1 utilizes an exosome-dependent mechanism for entry into human immune cells. The virus contains high amounts of phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) and may bind PtdSer receptors, such as TIMs. This mechanism is supported by our findings that exosomes from multiple sources increased HIV-1 entry into T cells and macrophages, and viral entry was potently blocked with anti-TIM-4 antibodies.

  19. Critical involvement of the ATM-dependent DNA damage response in the apoptotic demise of HIV-1-elicited syncytia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Luc Perfettini

    Full Text Available DNA damage can activate the oncosuppressor protein ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM, which phosphorylates the histone H2AX within characteristic DNA damage foci. Here, we show that ATM undergoes an activating phosphorylation in syncytia elicited by the envelope glycoprotein complex (Env of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1 in vitro. This was accompanied by aggregation of ATM in discrete nuclear foci that also contained phospho-histone H2AX. DNA damage foci containing phosphorylated ATM and H2AX were detectable in syncytia present in the brain or lymph nodes from patients with HIV-1 infection, as well as in a fraction of blood leukocytes, correlating with viral status. Knockdown of ATM or of its obligate activating factor NBS1 (Nijmegen breakage syndrome 1 protein, as well as pharmacological inhibition of ATM with KU-55933, inhibited H2AX phosphorylation and prevented Env-elicited syncytia from undergoing apoptosis. ATM was found indispensable for the activation of MAP kinase p38, which catalyzes the activating phosphorylation of p53 on serine 46, thereby causing p53 dependent apoptosis. Both wild type HIV-1 and an HIV-1 mutant lacking integrase activity induced syncytial apoptosis, which could be suppressed by inhibiting ATM. HIV-1-infected T lymphoblasts from patients with inactivating ATM or NBS1 mutations also exhibited reduced syncytial apoptosis. Altogether these results indicate that apoptosis induced by a fusogenic HIV-1 Env follows a pro-apoptotic pathway involving the sequential activation of ATM, p38MAPK and p53.

  20. BST-2 Expression Modulates Small CD4-Mimetic Sensitization of HIV-1-Infected Cells to Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Jonathan; Prévost, Jérémie; von Bredow, Benjamin; Ding, Shilei; Brassard, Nathalie; Medjahed, Halima; Coutu, Mathieu; Melillo, Bruno; Bibollet-Ruche, Frédéric; Hahn, Beatrice H; Kaufmann, Daniel E; Smith, Amos B; Sodroski, Joseph; Sauter, Daniel; Kirchhoff, Frank; Gee, Katrina; Neil, Stuart J; Evans, David T; Finzi, Andrés

    2017-06-01

    Antibodies recognizing conserved CD4-induced (CD4i) epitopes on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Env and able to mediate antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) have been shown to be present in sera from most HIV-1-infected individuals. These antibodies preferentially recognize Env in its CD4-bound conformation. CD4 downregulation by Nef and Vpu dramatically reduces exposure of CD4i HIV-1 Env epitopes and therefore reduce the susceptibility of HIV-1-infected cells to ADCC mediated by HIV-positive (HIV+) sera. Importantly, this mechanism of immune evasion can be circumvented with small-molecule CD4 mimetics (CD4mc) that are able to transition Env into the CD4-bound conformation and sensitize HIV-1-infected cells to ADCC mediated by HIV+ sera. However, HIV-1 developed additional mechanisms to avoid ADCC, including Vpu-mediated BST-2 antagonism, which decreases the overall amount of Env present at the cell surface. Accordingly, BST-2 upregulation in response to alpha interferon (IFN-α) was shown to increase the susceptibility of HIV-1-infected cells to ADCC despite the activity of Vpu. Here we show that BST-2 upregulation by IFN-β and interleukin-27 (IL-27) also increases the surface expression of Env and thus boosts the ability of CD4mc to sensitize HIV-1-infected cells to ADCC by sera from HIV-1-infected individuals.IMPORTANCE HIV-1 evolved sophisticated strategies to conceal Env epitopes from ADCC-mediating antibodies present in HIV+ sera. Vpu-mediated BST-2 downregulation was shown to decrease ADCC responses by limiting the amount of Env present at the cell surface. This effect of Vpu was shown to be attenuated by IFN-α treatment. Here we show that in addition to IFN-α, IFN-β and IL-27 also affect Vpu-mediated BST-2 downregulation and greatly enhance ADCC responses against HIV-1-infected cells in the presence of CD4mc. These findings may inform strategies aimed at HIV prevention and eradication. Copyright © 2017 American Society for

  1. RNA-dependent oligomerization of APOBEC3G is required for restriction of HIV-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik Huthoff

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The human cytidine deaminase APOBEC3G (A3G is a potent inhibitor of retroviruses and transposable elements and is able to deaminate cytidines to uridines in single-stranded DNA replication intermediates. A3G contains two canonical cytidine deaminase domains (CDAs, of which only the C-terminal one is known to mediate cytidine deamination. By exploiting the crystal structure of the related tetrameric APOBEC2 (A2 protein, we identified residues within A3G that have the potential to mediate oligomerization of the protein. Using yeast two-hybrid assays, co-immunoprecipitation, and chemical crosslinking, we show that tyrosine-124 and tryptophan-127 within the enzymatically inactive N-terminal CDA domain mediate A3G oligomerization, and this coincides with packaging into HIV-1 virions. In addition to the importance of specific residues in A3G, oligomerization is also shown to be RNA-dependent. Homology modelling of A3G onto the A2 template structure indicates an accumulation of positive charge in a pocket formed by a putative dimer interface. Substitution of arginine residues at positions 24, 30, and 136 within this pocket resulted in reduced virus inhibition, virion packaging, and oligomerization. Consistent with RNA serving a central role in all these activities, the oligomerization-deficient A3G proteins associated less efficiently with several cellular RNA molecules. Accordingly, we propose that occupation of the positively charged pocket by RNA promotes A3G oligomerization, packaging into virions and antiviral function.

  2. Epigenetic alterations in the brain associated with HIV-1 infection and methamphetamine dependence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Desplats

    Full Text Available HIV involvement of the CNS continues to be a significant problem despite successful use of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART. Drugs of abuse can act in concert with HIV proteins to damage glia and neurons, worsening the neurotoxicity caused by HIV alone. Methamphetamine (METH is a highly addictive psychostimulant drug, abuse of which has reached epidemic proportions and is associated with high-risk sexual behavior, increased HIV transmission, and development of drug resistance. HIV infection and METH dependence can have synergistic pathological effects, with preferential involvement of frontostriatal circuits. At the molecular level, epigenetic alterations have been reported for both HIV-1 infection and drug abuse, but the neuropathological pathways triggered by their combined effects are less known. We investigated epigenetic changes in the brain associated with HIV and METH. We analyzed postmortem frontal cortex tissue from 27 HIV seropositive individuals, 13 of which had a history of METH dependence, in comparison to 14 cases who never used METH. We detected changes in the expression of DNMT1, at mRNA and protein levels, that resulted in the increase of global DNA methylation. Genome-wide profiling of DNA methylation in a subset of cases, showed differential methylation on genes related to neurodegeneration; dopamine metabolism and transport; and oxidative phosphorylation. We provide evidence for the synergy of HIV and METH dependence on the patterns of DNA methylation on the host brain, which results in a distinctive landscape for the comorbid condition. Importantly, we identified new epigenetic targets that might aid in understanding the aggravated neurodegenerative, cognitive, motor and behavioral symptoms observed in persons living with HIV and addictions.

  3. Epigenetic alterations in the brain associated with HIV-1 infection and methamphetamine dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desplats, Paula; Dumaop, Wilmar; Cronin, Peter; Gianella, Sara; Woods, Steven; Letendre, Scott; Smith, David; Masliah, Eliezer; Grant, Igor

    2014-01-01

    HIV involvement of the CNS continues to be a significant problem despite successful use of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Drugs of abuse can act in concert with HIV proteins to damage glia and neurons, worsening the neurotoxicity caused by HIV alone. Methamphetamine (METH) is a highly addictive psychostimulant drug, abuse of which has reached epidemic proportions and is associated with high-risk sexual behavior, increased HIV transmission, and development of drug resistance. HIV infection and METH dependence can have synergistic pathological effects, with preferential involvement of frontostriatal circuits. At the molecular level, epigenetic alterations have been reported for both HIV-1 infection and drug abuse, but the neuropathological pathways triggered by their combined effects are less known. We investigated epigenetic changes in the brain associated with HIV and METH. We analyzed postmortem frontal cortex tissue from 27 HIV seropositive individuals, 13 of which had a history of METH dependence, in comparison to 14 cases who never used METH. We detected changes in the expression of DNMT1, at mRNA and protein levels, that resulted in the increase of global DNA methylation. Genome-wide profiling of DNA methylation in a subset of cases, showed differential methylation on genes related to neurodegeneration; dopamine metabolism and transport; and oxidative phosphorylation. We provide evidence for the synergy of HIV and METH dependence on the patterns of DNA methylation on the host brain, which results in a distinctive landscape for the comorbid condition. Importantly, we identified new epigenetic targets that might aid in understanding the aggravated neurodegenerative, cognitive, motor and behavioral symptoms observed in persons living with HIV and addictions.

  4. Altered error specificity of RNase H-deficient HIV-1 reverse transcriptases during DNA-dependent DNA synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, Mar; Barrioluengo, Verónica; Afonso-Lehmann, Raquel N.; Menéndez-Arias, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Asp443 and Glu478 are essential active site residues in the RNase H domain of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase (RT). We have investigated the effects of substituting Asn for Asp443 or Gln for Glu478 on the fidelity of DNA-dependent DNA synthesis of phylogenetically diverse HIV-1 RTs. In M13mp2 lacZα-based forward mutation assays, HIV-1 group M (BH10) and group O RTs bearing substitutions D443N, E478Q, V75I/D443N or V75I/E478Q showed 2.0- to 6.6-fold increased accuracy in comparison with the corresponding wild-type enzymes. This was a consequence of their lower base substitution error rates. One-nucleotide deletions and insertions represented between 30 and 68% of all errors identified in the mutational spectra of RNase H-deficient HIV-1 group O RTs. In comparison with the wild-type RT, these enzymes showed higher frameshift error rates and higher dissociation rate constants (koff) for DNA/DNA template–primers. The effects on frameshift fidelity were similar to those reported for mutation E89G and suggest that in HIV-1 group O RT, RNase H inactivation could affect template/primer slippage. Our results support a role for the RNase H domain during plus-strand DNA polymerization and suggest that mutations affecting RNase H function could also contribute to retrovirus variability during the later steps of reverse transcription. PMID:23444139

  5. Slaying the Trojan horse: natural killer cells exhibit robust anti-HIV-1 antibody-dependent activation and cytolysis against allogeneic T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooneratne, Shayarana L; Richard, Jonathan; Lee, Wen Shi; Finzi, Andrés; Kent, Stephen J; Parsons, Matthew S

    2015-01-01

    Many attempts to design prophylactic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccines have focused on the induction of neutralizing antibodies (Abs) that block infection by free virions. Despite the focus on viral particles, virus-infected cells, which can be found within mucosal secretions, are more infectious than free virus both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, assessment of human transmission couples suggests infected seminal lymphocytes might be responsible for a proportion of HIV-1 transmissions. Although vaccines that induce neutralizing Abs are sought, only some broadly neutralizing Abs efficiently block cell-to-cell transmission of HIV-1. As HIV-1 vaccines need to elicit immune responses capable of controlling both free and cell-associated virus, we evaluated the potential of natural killer (NK) cells to respond in an Ab-dependent manner to allogeneic T cells bearing HIV-1 antigens. This study presents data measuring Ab-dependent anti-HIV-1 NK cell responses to primary and transformed allogeneic T-cell targets. We found that NK cells are robustly activated in an anti-HIV-1 Ab-dependent manner against allogeneic targets and that tested target cells are subject to Ab-dependent cytolysis. Furthermore, the educated KIR3DL1(+) NK cell subset from HLA-Bw4(+) individuals exhibits an activation advantage over the KIR3DL1(-) subset that contains both NK cells educated through other receptor/ligand combinations and uneducated NK cells. These results are intriguing and important for understanding the regulation of Ab-dependent NK cell responses and are potentially valuable for designing Ab-dependent therapies and/or vaccines. NK cell-mediated anti-HIV-1 antibody-dependent functions have been associated with protection from infection and disease progression; however, their role in protecting from infection with allogeneic cells infected with HIV-1 is unknown. We found that HIV-1-specific ADCC antibodies bound to allogeneic cells infected with HIV-1 or coated

  6. A suicide gene approach using the human pro-apoptotic protein tBid inhibits HIV-1 replication

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    Gueckel Eva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regulated expression of suicide genes is a powerful tool to eliminate specific subsets of cells and will find widespread usage in both basic and applied science. A promising example is the specific elimination of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 infected cells by LTR-driven suicide genes. The success of this approach, however, depends on a fast and effective suicide gene, which is expressed exclusively in HIV-1 infected cells. These preconditions have not yet been completely fulfilled and, thus, success of suicide approaches has been limited so far. We tested truncated Bid (tBid, a human pro-apoptotic protein that induces apoptosis very rapidly and efficiently, as suicide gene for gene therapy against HIV-1 infection. Results When tBid was introduced into the HIV-1 LTR-based, Tat- and Rev-dependent transgene expression vector pLRed(INS2R, very efficient induction of apoptosis was observed within 24 hours, but only in the presence of both HIV-1 regulatory proteins Tat and Rev. Induction of apoptosis was not observed in their absence. Cells containing this vector rapidly died when transfected with plasmids containing full-length viral genomic DNA, completely eliminating the chance for HIV-1 replication. Viral replication was also strongly reduced when cells were infected with HIV-1 particles. Conclusions This suicide vector has the potential to establish a safe and effective gene therapy approach to exclusively eliminate HIV-1 infected cells before infectious virus particles are released.

  7. Staged induction of HIV-1 glycan–dependent broadly neutralizing antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonsignori, Mattia; Kreider, Edward F.; Fera, Daniela; Meyerhoff, R. Ryan; Bradley, Todd; Wiehe, Kevin; Alam, S. Munir; Aussedat, Baptiste; Walkowicz, William E.; Hwang, Kwan-Ki; Saunders, Kevin O.; Zhang, Ruijun; Gladden, Morgan A.; Monroe, Anthony; Kumar, Amit; Xia, Shi-Mao; Cooper, Melissa; Louder, Mark K.; McKee, Krisha; Bailer, Robert T.; Pier, Brendan W.; Jette, Claudia A.; Kelsoe, Garnett; Williams, Wilton B.; Morris, Lynn; Kappes, John; Wagh, Kshitij; Kamanga, Gift; Cohen, Myron S.; Hraber, Peter T.; Montefiori, David C.; Trama, Ashley; Liao, Hua-Xin; Kepler, Thomas B.; Moody, M. Anthony; Gao, Feng; Danishefsky, Samuel J.; Mascola, John R.; Shaw, George M.; Hahn, Beatrice H.; Harrison, Stephen C.; Korber, Bette T.; Haynes, Barton F.

    2017-01-01

    A preventive HIV-1 vaccine should induce HIV-1–specific broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs). However, bnAbs generally require high levels of somatic hypermutation (SHM) to acquire breadth, and current vaccine strategies have not been successful in inducing bnAbs. Because bnAbs directed against a glycosylated site adjacent to the third variable loop (V3) of the HIV-1 envelope protein require limited SHM, the V3-glycan epitope is an attractive vaccine target. By studying the cooperation among multiple V3-glycan B cell lineages and their coevolution with autologous virus throughout 5 years of infection, we identify key events in the ontogeny of a V3-glycan bnAb. Two autologous neutralizing antibody lineages selected for virus escape mutations and consequently allowed initiation and affinity maturation of a V3-glycan bnAb lineage. The nucleotide substitution required to initiate the bnAb lineage occurred at a low-probability site for activation-induced cytidine deaminase activity. Cooperation of B cell lineages and an improbable mutation critical for bnAb activity defined the necessary events leading to breadth in this V3-glycan bnAb lineage. These findings may, in part, explain why initiation of V3-glycan bnAbs is rare, and suggest an immunization strategy for inducing similar V3-glycan bnAbs. PMID:28298420

  8. RRE-dependent HIV-1 Env RNA effects on Gag protein expression, assembly and release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Claudia S; Sloan, Rachel; Cylinder, Isabel; Kozak, Susan L; Kabat, David; Barklis, Eric

    2014-08-01

    The HIV-1 Gag proteins are translated from the full-length HIV-1 viral RNA (vRNA), whereas the envelope (Env) protein is translated from incompletely spliced Env mRNAs. Nuclear export of vRNAs and Env mRNAs is mediated by the Rev accessory protein which binds to the rev-responsive element (RRE) present on these RNAs. Evidence has shown there is a direct or indirect interaction between the Gag protein, and the cytoplasmic tail (CT) of the Env protein. Our current work shows that env gene expression impacts HIV-1 Gag expression and function in two ways. At the protein level, full-length Env expression altered Gag protein expression, while Env CT-deletion proteins did not. At the RNA level, RRE-containing Env mRNA expression reduced Gag expression, processing, and virus particle release from cells. Our results support models in which Gag is influenced by the Env CT, and Env mRNAs compete with vRNAs for nuclear export. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Activation and inflammation markers in HIV-1-infected patients in dependency of treatment strategies

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    R Ehret

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the study: HIV-1-infected patients have elevated levels of immune activation and systemic inflammatory markers which are partially strong predictors of disease progression or are associated with increased cardiovascular risk. The dependency of anti-retroviral treatment (ART, the usage of NNRTI or PI-based and the application of non-nuc regimens is analysed here on the basis of a dataset (Chronic Inflammation Dependency on TREatment: CIDRE cohort from 1500 patients in Berlin. Methods: In a retrospective analysis we compared relative CD4+ cell counts, viral load, relative CD8+CD38+DR-and CD3+DR+cells, concentration of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP and interleukin-6 (IL-6 in therapy-naïve or treated patients dependent on usage or non-usage of NUCs, PI or NNRTI. Statistics were performed with R (R Core Team; 2012; R: A language and environment for statistical computing using Wilcoxon rank sum test in two-sided analysis. Summary of results: As to expect, ART-naïve patients (n=190 had significantly higher viral loads and lower CD4+cell counts (p: both<0.05 and showed higher activation levels than treated patient (CD8+CD38+DR- and CD3+DR+both<0.05. But no significant difference was calculated for hsCRP or IL-6. Nuc-sparing regimen (n=46 did not show any distinction compared to nuc-containing therapies (n=1249 for the analysed parameters. Significant differences were detected for PI-regimen (n=711 with lower CD4+ cell counts and higher activation (CD8+38+DR-, CD3+DR+ and IL-6 (p: all<0.05 but not for hsCRP (p=0.39. The opposite was true for NNRTI-based therapies (n=445 with higher CD4+ cell percentages and lower activation and inflammation markers (p: all<0.05 and as well no difference in hsCRP (p=0.97 compared with all other treated patients. Conclusions: The lack of differences between therapy-naïve patients and patients on ART for inflammation markers may be due to the relative good immunological state of the first group

  10. Expression of an RNA glycosidase inhibits HIV-1 transactivation of transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutky, Meherzad; Hudak, Katalin A

    2017-10-05

    HIV-1 (human immunodeficiency virus) transcription is primarily controlled by the virally encoded Tat (transactivator of transcription) protein and its interaction with the viral TAR (transcription response element) RNA element. Specifically, binding of a Tat-containing complex to TAR recruits cellular factors that promote elongation of the host RNA polymerase engaging the viral DNA template. Disruption of this interaction halts viral RNA transcription. In the present study, we investigated the effect of pokeweed antiviral protein (PAP), an RNA glycosidase (EC#: 3.2.2.22) synthesized by the pokeweed plant (Phytolacca americana), on transcription of HIV-1 mRNA. We show that co-expression of PAP with a proviral clone in culture cells resulted in a Tat-dependent decrease in viral mRNA levels. PAP reduced HIV-1 transcriptional activity by inhibiting Tat protein synthesis. The effects of PAP expression on host factors AP-1 (activator protein 1), NF-κB (nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B-cells) and specificity protein 1, which modulate HIV-1 transcription by binding to the viral LTR (5'-long terminal repeat), were also investigated. Only AP-1 showed a modest JNK pathway-dependent increase in activity in the presence of PAP; however, this activation was not sufficient to significantly enhance transcription from a partial viral LTR containing AP-1 binding sites. Therefore, the primary effect of PAP on HIV-1 transcription is to reduce viral RNA synthesis by decreasing the abundance of Tat. These findings provide a mechanistic explanation for the observed decrease in viral RNAs in cells expressing PAP and contribute to our understanding of the antiviral effects of this plant protein. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  11. Interferon-inducible mechanism of dendritic cell-mediated HIV-1 dissemination is dependent on Siglec-1/CD169.

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    Wendy Blay Puryear

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 interactions with myeloid dendritic cells (DCs can result in virus dissemination to CD4⁺ T cells via a trans infection pathway dependent on virion incorporation of the host cell derived glycosphingolipid (GSL, GM3. The mechanism of DC-mediated trans infection is extremely efficacious and can result in infection of multiple CD4⁺ T cells as these cells make exploratory contacts on the DC surface. While it has long been appreciated that activation of DCs with ligands that induce type I IFN signaling pathway dramatically enhances DC-mediated T cell trans infection, the mechanism by which this occurs has remained unclear until now. Here, we demonstrate that the type I IFN-inducible Siglec-1, CD169, is the DC receptor that captures HIV in a GM3-dependent manner. Selective downregulation of CD169 expression, neutralizing CD169 function, or depletion of GSLs from virions, abrogated DC-mediated HIV-1 capture and trans infection, while exogenous expression of CD169 in receptor-naïve cells rescued GSL-dependent capture and trans infection. HIV-1 particles co-localized with CD169 on DC surface immediately following capture and subsequently within non-lysosomal compartments that redistributed to the DC--T cell infectious synapses upon initiation of T cell contact. Together, these findings describe a novel mechanism of pathogen parasitization of host encoded cellular recognition machinery (GM3--CD169 interaction for DC-dependent HIV dissemination.

  12. A New Glycan-Dependent CD4-Binding Site Neutralizing Antibody Exerts Pressure on HIV-1 In Vivo.

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    Natalia T Freund

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The CD4 binding site (CD4bs on the envelope glycoprotein is a major site of vulnerability that is conserved among different HIV-1 isolates. Many broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs to the CD4bs belong to the VRC01 class, sharing highly restricted origins, recognition mechanisms and viral escape pathways. We sought to isolate new anti-CD4bs bNAbs with different origins and mechanisms of action. Using a gp120 2CC core as bait, we isolated antibodies encoded by IGVH3-21 and IGVL3-1 genes with long CDRH3s that depend on the presence of the N-linked glycan at position-276 for activity. This binding mode is similar to the previously identified antibody HJ16, however the new antibodies identified herein are more potent and broad. The most potent variant, 179NC75, had a geometric mean IC80 value of 0.42 μg/ml against 120 Tier-2 HIV-1 pseudoviruses in the TZM.bl assay. Although this group of CD4bs glycan-dependent antibodies can be broadly and potently neutralizing in vitro, their in vivo activity has not been tested to date. Here, we report that 179NC75 is highly active when administered to HIV-1-infected humanized mice, where it selects for escape variants that lack a glycan site at position-276. The same glycan was absent from the virus isolated from the 179NC75 donor, implying that the antibody also exerts selection pressure in humans.

  13. A New Glycan-Dependent CD4-Binding Site Neutralizing Antibody Exerts Pressure on HIV-1 In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Natalia T; Horwitz, Joshua A; Nogueira, Lilian; Sievers, Stuart A; Scharf, Louise; Scheid, Johannes F; Gazumyan, Anna; Liu, Cassie; Velinzon, Klara; Goldenthal, Ariel; Sanders, Rogier W; Moore, John P; Bjorkman, Pamela J; Seaman, Michael S; Walker, Bruce D; Klein, Florian; Nussenzweig, Michel C

    2015-10-01

    The CD4 binding site (CD4bs) on the envelope glycoprotein is a major site of vulnerability that is conserved among different HIV-1 isolates. Many broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) to the CD4bs belong to the VRC01 class, sharing highly restricted origins, recognition mechanisms and viral escape pathways. We sought to isolate new anti-CD4bs bNAbs with different origins and mechanisms of action. Using a gp120 2CC core as bait, we isolated antibodies encoded by IGVH3-21 and IGVL3-1 genes with long CDRH3s that depend on the presence of the N-linked glycan at position-276 for activity. This binding mode is similar to the previously identified antibody HJ16, however the new antibodies identified herein are more potent and broad. The most potent variant, 179NC75, had a geometric mean IC80 value of 0.42 μg/ml against 120 Tier-2 HIV-1 pseudoviruses in the TZM.bl assay. Although this group of CD4bs glycan-dependent antibodies can be broadly and potently neutralizing in vitro, their in vivo activity has not been tested to date. Here, we report that 179NC75 is highly active when administered to HIV-1-infected humanized mice, where it selects for escape variants that lack a glycan site at position-276. The same glycan was absent from the virus isolated from the 179NC75 donor, implying that the antibody also exerts selection pressure in humans.

  14. Intracellular analysis of in vitro modified HIV Tat protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koken, S. E.; Greijer, A. E.; Verhoef, K.; van Wamel, J.; Bukrinskaya, A. G.; Berkhout, B.

    1994-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency viruses HIV-1 and HIV-2 encode a Tat protein that specifically activates transcription from the viral long terminal repeat. To characterize the properties of the Tat proteins, we have expressed them in Escherichia coli. The purified Tat protein was biochemically analyzed and

  15. RNA helicase MOV10 functions as a co-factor of HIV-1 Rev to facilitate Rev/RRE-dependent nuclear export of viral mRNAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Feng; Zhang, Junsong; Zhang, Yijun; Geng, Guannan; Liang, Juanran; Li, Yingniang; Chen, Jingliang [Institute of Human Virology, Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Key Laboratory of Tropical Disease Control of Ministry of Education, Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Liu, Chao, E-mail: liuchao9@mail.sysu.edu.cn [Institute of Human Virology, Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Key Laboratory of Tropical Disease Control of Ministry of Education, Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Zhang, Hui [Institute of Human Virology, Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Key Laboratory of Tropical Disease Control of Ministry of Education, Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080 (China)

    2015-12-15

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) exploits multiple host factors during its replication. The REV/RRE-dependent nuclear export of unspliced/partially spliced viral transcripts needs the assistance of host proteins. Recent studies have shown that MOV10 overexpression inhibited HIV-1 replication at various steps. However, the endogenous MOV10 was required in certain step(s) of HIV-1 replication. In this report, we found that MOV10 potently enhances the nuclear export of viral mRNAs and subsequently increases the expression of Gag protein and other late products through affecting the Rev/RRE axis. The co-immunoprecipitation analysis indicated that MOV10 interacts with Rev in an RNA-independent manner. The DEAG-box of MOV10 was required for the enhancement of Rev/RRE-dependent nuclear export and the DEAG-box mutant showed a dominant-negative activity. Our data propose that HIV-1 utilizes the anti-viral factor MOV10 to function as a co-factor of Rev and demonstrate the complicated effects of MOV10 on HIV-1 life cycle. - Highlights: • MOV10 can function as a co-factor of HIV-1 Rev. • MOV10 facilitates Rev/RRE-dependent transport of viral mRNAs. • MOV10 interacts with Rev in an RNA-independent manner. • The DEAG-box of MOV10 is required for the enhancement of Rev/RRE-dependent export.

  16. Phospholipase D1 Couples CD4+ T Cell Activation to c-Myc-Dependent Deoxyribonucleotide Pool Expansion and HIV-1 Replication.

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    Harry E Taylor

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Quiescent CD4+ T cells restrict human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 infection at early steps of virus replication. Low levels of both deoxyribonucleotide triphosphates (dNTPs and the biosynthetic enzymes required for their de novo synthesis provide one barrier to infection. CD4+ T cell activation induces metabolic reprogramming that reverses this block and facilitates HIV-1 replication. Here, we show that phospholipase D1 (PLD1 links T cell activation signals to increased HIV-1 permissivity by triggering a c-Myc-dependent transcriptional program that coordinates glucose uptake and nucleotide biosynthesis. Decreasing PLD1 activity pharmacologically or by RNA interference diminished c-Myc-dependent expression during T cell activation at the RNA and protein levels. PLD1 inhibition of HIV-1 infection was partially rescued by adding exogenous deoxyribonucleosides that bypass the need for de novo dNTP synthesis. Moreover, the data indicate that low dNTP levels that impact HIV-1 restriction involve decreased synthesis, and not only increased catabolism of these nucleotides. These findings uncover a unique mechanism of action for PLD1 inhibitors and support their further development as part of a therapeutic combination for HIV-1 and other viral infections dependent on host nucleotide biosynthesis.

  17. HIV-1 and its gp120 inhibits the influenza A(H1N1pdm09 life cycle in an IFITM3-dependent fashion.

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    Milene Mesquita

    Full Text Available HIV-1-infected patients co-infected with A(H1N1pdm09 surprisingly presented benign clinical outcome. The knowledge that HIV-1 changes the host homeostatic equilibrium, which may favor the patient resistance to some co-pathogens, prompted us to investigate whether HIV-1 infection could influence A(H1N1pdm09 life cycle in vitro. We show here that exposure of A(H1N1pdm09-infected epithelial cells to HIV-1 viral particles or its gp120 enhanced by 25% the IFITM3 content, resulting in a decrease in influenza replication. This event was dependent on toll-like receptor 2 and 4. Moreover, knockdown of IFITM3 prevented HIV-1 ability to inhibit A(H1N1pdm09 replication. HIV-1 infection also increased IFITM3 levels in human primary macrophages by almost 100%. Consequently, the arrival of influenza ribonucleoproteins (RNPs to nucleus of macrophages was inhibited, as evaluated by different approaches. Reduction of influenza RNPs entry into the nucleus tolled A(H1N1pdm09 life cycle in macrophages earlier than usual, limiting influenza's ability to induce TNF-α. As judged by analysis of the influenza hemagglutin (HA gene from in vitro experiments and from samples of HIV-1/A(H1N1pdm09 co-infected individuals, the HIV-1-induced reduction of influenza replication resulted in delayed viral evolution. Our results may provide insights on the mechanisms that may have attenuated the clinical course of Influenza in HIV-1/A(H1N1pdm09 co-infected patients during the recent influenza form 2009/2010.

  18. HIV-1 and its gp120 inhibits the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 life cycle in an IFITM3-dependent fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, Milene; Fintelman-Rodrigues, Natalia; Sacramento, Carolina Q; Abrantes, Juliana L; Costa, Eduardo; Temerozo, Jairo R; Siqueira, Marilda M; Bou-Habib, Dumith Chequer; Souza, Thiago Moreno L

    2014-01-01

    HIV-1-infected patients co-infected with A(H1N1)pdm09 surprisingly presented benign clinical outcome. The knowledge that HIV-1 changes the host homeostatic equilibrium, which may favor the patient resistance to some co-pathogens, prompted us to investigate whether HIV-1 infection could influence A(H1N1)pdm09 life cycle in vitro. We show here that exposure of A(H1N1)pdm09-infected epithelial cells to HIV-1 viral particles or its gp120 enhanced by 25% the IFITM3 content, resulting in a decrease in influenza replication. This event was dependent on toll-like receptor 2 and 4. Moreover, knockdown of IFITM3 prevented HIV-1 ability to inhibit A(H1N1)pdm09 replication. HIV-1 infection also increased IFITM3 levels in human primary macrophages by almost 100%. Consequently, the arrival of influenza ribonucleoproteins (RNPs) to nucleus of macrophages was inhibited, as evaluated by different approaches. Reduction of influenza RNPs entry into the nucleus tolled A(H1N1)pdm09 life cycle in macrophages earlier than usual, limiting influenza's ability to induce TNF-α. As judged by analysis of the influenza hemagglutin (HA) gene from in vitro experiments and from samples of HIV-1/A(H1N1)pdm09 co-infected individuals, the HIV-1-induced reduction of influenza replication resulted in delayed viral evolution. Our results may provide insights on the mechanisms that may have attenuated the clinical course of Influenza in HIV-1/A(H1N1)pdm09 co-infected patients during the recent influenza form 2009/2010.

  19. Immunization with Clinical HIV-1 Env Proteins Induces Broad Antibody Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity-Mediating Antibodies in a Rabbit Vaccination Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Ingrid; Borggren, Marie; Jensen, Sanne Skov

    2018-01-01

    antibody response, rabbits were immunized with selected antigens using different prime-boost strategies. We immunized 35 different groups of rabbits with Env antigens from clinical HIV-1 subtypes A and B, including immunization with DNA alone, protein alone, and DNA prime with protein boost. The rabbit......The induction of both neutralizing antibodies and non-neutralizing antibodies with effector functions, for example, antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), is desired in the search for effective vaccines against HIV-1. In the pursuit of novel immunogens capable of inducing an efficient...... sera were screened for ADCC activity using a GranToxiLux-based assay with human peripheral blood mononuclear cells as effector cells and CEM.NKRCCR5 cells coated with HIV-1 envelope as target cells. The groups with the highest ADCC activity were further characterized for cross-reactivity between HIV-1...

  20. Necroptosis takes place in human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1-infected CD4+ T lymphocytes.

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    Ting Pan

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 infection is characterized by progressive depletion of CD4+ T lymphocytes and dysfunction of the immune system. The numbers of CD4+ T lymphocytes in the human body are maintained constantly by homeostatic mechanisms that failed during HIV-1 infection, resulting in progressive loss of CD4+ T cells mainly via apoptosis. Recently, a non-apoptotic form of necrotic programmed cell death, named necroptosis, has been investigated in many biological and pathological processes. We then determine whether HIV-1-infected cells also undergo necroptosis. In this report, we demonstrate that HIV-1 not only induces apoptosis, but also mediates necroptosis in the infected primary CD4+ T lymphocytes and CD4+ T-cell lines. Necroptosis-dependent cytopathic effects are significantly increased in HIV-1-infected Jurkat cells that is lack of Fas-associated protein-containing death domain (FADD, indicating that necroptosis occurs as an alternative cell death mechanism in the absence of apoptosis. Unlike apoptosis, necroptosis mainly occurs in HIV-infected cells and spares bystander damage. Treatment with necrostatin-1(Nec-1, a RIP1 inhibitor that specifically blocks the necroptosis pathway, potently restrains HIV-1-induced cytopathic effect and interestingly, inhibits the formation of HIV-induced syncytia in CD4+ T-cell lines. This suggests that syncytia formation is mediated, at least partially, by necroptosis-related processes. Furthermore, we also found that the HIV-1 infection-augmented tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α plays a key role in inducing necroptosis and HIV-1 Envelope and Tat proteins function as its co-factors. Taken together,necroptosis can function as an alternative cell death pathway in lieu of apoptosis during HIV-1 infection, thereby also contributing to HIV-1-induced cytopathic effects. Our results reveal that in addition to apoptosis, necroptosis also plays an important role in HIV-1-induced pathogenesis.

  1. Small CD4 Mimetics Prevent HIV-1 Uninfected Bystander CD4 + T Cell Killing Mediated by Antibody-dependent Cell-mediated Cytotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Jonathan; Veillette, Maxime; Ding, Shilei; Zoubchenok, Daria; Alsahafi, Nirmin; Coutu, Mathieu; Brassard, Nathalie; Park, Jongwoo; Courter, Joel R.; Melillo, Bruno; Smith, Amos B.; Shaw, George M.; Hahn, Beatrice H.; Sodroski, Joseph; Kaufmann, Daniel E.; Finzi, Andrés

    2015-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection causes a progressive depletion of CD4 + T cells. Despite its importance for HIV-1 pathogenesis, the precise mechanisms underlying CD4 + T-cell depletion remain incompletely understood. Here we make the surprising observation that antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) mediates the death of uninfected bystander CD4 + T cells in cultures of HIV-1-infected cells. While HIV-1-infected cells are protected from ADCC by the action of the viral Vpu and Nef proteins, uninfected bystander CD4 + T cells bind gp120 shed from productively infected cells and are efficiently recognized by ADCC-mediating antibodies. Thus, gp120 shedding represents a viral mechanism to divert ADCC responses towards uninfected bystander CD4 + T cells. Importantly, CD4-mimetic molecules redirect ADCC responses from uninfected bystander cells to HIV-1-infected cells; therefore, CD4-mimetic compounds might have therapeutic utility in new strategies aimed at specifically eliminating HIV-1-infected cells. PMID:26870823

  2. Porphyromonas gingivalis induces CCR5-dependent transfer of infectious HIV-1 from oral keratinocytes to permissive cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietrich Elizabeth A

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systemic infection with HIV occurs infrequently through the oral route. The frequency of occurrence may be increased by concomitant bacterial infection of the oral tissues, since co-infection and inflammation of some cell types increases HIV-1 replication. A putative periodontal pathogen, Porphyromonas gingivalis selectively up-regulates expression of the HIV-1 coreceptor CCR5 on oral keratinocytes. We, therefore, hypothesized that P. gingivalis modulates the outcome of HIV infection in oral epithelial cells. Results Oral and tonsil epithelial cells were pre-incubated with P. gingivalis, and inoculated with either an X4- or R5-type HIV-1. Between 6 and 48 hours post-inoculation, P. gingivalis selectively increased the infectivity of R5-tropic HIV-1 from oral and tonsil keratinocytes; infectivity of X4-tropic HIV-1 remained unchanged. Oral keratinocytes appeared to harbor infectious HIV-1, with no evidence of productive infection. HIV-1 was harbored at highest levels during the first 6 hours after HIV exposure and decreased to barely detectable levels at 48 hours. HIV did not appear to co-localize with P. gingivalis, which increased selective R5-tropic HIV-1 trans infection from keratinocytes to permissive cells. When CCR5 was selectively blocked, HIV-1 trans infection was reduced. Conclusion P. gingivalis up-regulation of CCR5 increases trans infection of harbored R5-tropic HIV-1 from oral keratinocytes to permissive cells. Oral infections such as periodontitis may, therefore, increase risk for oral infection and dissemination of R5-tropic HIV-1.

  3. Canonical and Non-Canonical Autophagy in HIV-1 Replication Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leymarie, Olivier; Lepont, Leslie; Berlioz-Torrent, Clarisse

    2017-09-23

    Autophagy is a lysosomal-dependent degradative process essential for maintaining cellular homeostasis, and is a key player in innate and adaptive immune responses to intracellular pathogens such as human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). In HIV-1 target cells, autophagy mechanisms can (i) selectively direct viral proteins and viruses for degradation; (ii) participate in the processing and presentation of viral-derived antigens through major histocompatibility complexes; and (iii) contribute to interferon production in response to HIV-1 infection. As a consequence, HIV-1 has evolved different strategies to finely regulate the autophagy pathway to favor its replication and dissemination. HIV-1 notably encodes accessory genes encoding Tat, Nef and Vpu proteins, which are able to perturb and hijack canonical and non-canonical autophagy mechanisms. This review outlines the current knowledge on the complex interplay between autophagy and HIV-1 replication cycle, providing an overview of the autophagy-mediated molecular processes deployed both by infected cells to combat the virus and by HIV-1 to evade antiviral response.

  4. Gene expression analysis of a panel of cell lines that differentially restrict HIV-1 CA mutants infection in a cyclophilin a-dependent manner.

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    Vaibhav B Shah

    Full Text Available HIV-1 replication is dependent on binding of the viral capsid to the host protein cyclophilin A (CypA. Interference with cyclophilin A binding, either by mutations in the HIV-1 capsid protein (CA or by the drug cyclosporine A (CsA, inhibits HIV-1 replication in cell culture. Resistance to CsA is conferred by A92E or G94D substitutions in CA. The mutant viruses are also dependent on CsA for their replication. Interestingly, infection of some cell lines by these mutants is enhanced by CsA, while infection of others is not affected by the drug. The cells are thus termed nonpermissive and permissive, respectively, for infection by CsA-dependent mutants. The mechanistic basis for the cell type dependence is not well understood, but has been hypothesized to result from a dominant-acting host factor that blocks HIV-1 infection by a mechanism that requires CypA binding to the viral capsid. In an effort to identify a CypA-dependent host restriction factor, we adopted a strategy involving comparative gene expression analysis in three permissive and three non-permissive cell types. We ranked the genes based on their relative overexpression in non-permissive cell types compared to the permissive cell types. Based on specific selection criteria, 26 candidate genes were selected and targeted using siRNA in nonpermissive (HeLa cells. Depletion of none of the selected candidate genes led to the reversal of CsA-dependent phenotype of the A92E mutant. Our data suggest that none of the 26 genes tested is responsible for the dependence of the A92E mutant on CsA. Our study provides gene expression data that may be useful for future efforts to identify the putative CypA-dependent HIV-1 restriction factor and in studies of other cell-specific phenotypes.

  5. Transcytosis of HIV-1 through vaginal epithelial cells is dependent on trafficking to the endocytic recycling pathway.

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    Ballington L Kinlock

    Full Text Available While it is accepted that viruses can enter epithelial cells by endocytosis, the lack of an established biological mechanism for the trafficking of infectious virions through vaginal epithelial cells and their release from the plasma membrane has contributed to ongoing controversy about whether endocytosis is a mere artifact of some cell culture systems and whether squamous vaginal epithelial cells are even relevant as it pertains to HIV-1 transmission.In this study, we investigated the intracellular trafficking pathway that HIV-1 exploits to transcytose vaginal epithelial cells. The reduction of endosome tubulation by recycling endosome inhibitors blocked transcytosis of HIV-1 in a cell culture and transwell system. In addition, we demonstrate that although heat-inactivated virus was endocytosed as efficiently as native virus, heat-inactivated virus was trafficked exclusively to the lysosomal pathway for degradation following endocytosis. Lysosomal protease-specific inhibitors blocked the degradation of inactivated virions. Immunofluorescence analysis not only demonstrated that HIV-1 was inside the cells but the different colocalization pattern of native vs. heat inactivated virus with transferrin provided conclusive evidence that HIV-1 uses the recycling pathway to get across vaginal epithelial cells.Altogether, our findings demonstrate the precise intracellular trafficking pathway utilized by HIV-1 in epithelial cells, confirms that HIV-1 transcytosis through vaginal epithelial cells is a biological phenomenon and brings to light the differential intracellular trafficking of native vs heat-inactivated HIV-1 which with further exploration could prove to provide valuable insights that could be used in the prevention of transcytosis/transmission of HIV-1 across the mucosal epithelia.

  6. Sexual transmission of HIV-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Julie; Fidler, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    HIV-1 transmission occurs in a limited number of ways all of which are preventable. Overall, the risk of HIV-1 transmission following a single sexual exposure is low especially in comparison with other sexually transmitted infections (STIs); with estimates of the average probability of male to female HIV-1 transmission only 0.0005-0.0026 per coital act. The risk of acquiring HIV-1 from a single contact varies enormously and is dependant upon the infectiousness of the HIV-1 positive individual and the susceptibility to HIV-1 of their sexual partner. An understanding of the determinants of HIV-1 transmission is important not only to assess the infection risk to an individual when exposed to the virus (e.g. to determine the provision of post exposure prophylaxis), but also to make accurate predictions on the potential spread of HIV-1 infection in a population and to direct appropriate targeted prevention strategies. In this review article we summarise the current literature on the major worldwide source of HIV-1 acquisition, sexual transmission. This article forms part of a special issue of Antiviral Research marking the 25th anniversary of antiretroviral drug discovery and development, Vol 85, issue 1, 2010. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Impaired Downregulation of NKG2D Ligands by Nef Proteins from Elite Controllers Sensitizes HIV-1-Infected Cells to Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsahafi, Nirmin; Richard, Jonathan; Prévost, Jérémie; Coutu, Mathieu; Brassard, Nathalie; Parsons, Matthew S; Kaufmann, Daniel E; Brockman, Mark; Finzi, Andrés

    2017-08-15

    HIV-1 Nef clones isolated from a rare subset of HIV-1-infected elite controllers (EC), with the ability to suppress viral load to undetectable levels in the absence of antiretroviral therapy, are unable to fully downregulate CD4 from the plasma membrane of CD4(+) T cells. Residual CD4 left at the plasma membrane allows Env-CD4 interaction, which leads to increased exposure of Env CD4-induced epitopes and increases susceptibility of infected cells to antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). ADCC is mediated largely by natural killer (NK) cells, which control their activation status through the cumulative signals received through activating and inhibitory receptors. Recently, the activating NKG2D receptor was demonstrated to positively influence ADCC responses. Since HIV-1 Nef has been reported to reduce the expression of NKG2D ligands, we evaluated the relative abilities of Nef from EC and progressors to downmodulate NKG2D ligands. Furthermore, we assessed the impact of EC and progressor Nef on the ADCC susceptibility of HIV-1-infected cells. We observed a significantly increased expression of NKG2D ligands on cells infected with viruses coding for Nef from EC. Importantly, NKG2D ligand expression levels correlated with enhanced susceptibility of HIV-1-infected cells to ADCC. The biological significance of this correlation was corroborated by the demonstration that antibody-mediated blockade of NKG2D significantly reduced ADCC of cells infected with viruses carrying Nef from EC. These results suggest the involvement of NKG2D-NKG2D ligand interactions in the enhanced susceptibility of EC HIV-1-infected cells to ADCC responses.IMPORTANCE Attenuated Nef functions have been reported in HIV-1 isolated from EC. The inability of elite controller Nef to fully remove CD4 from the surface of infected cells enhanced their susceptibility to elimination by ADCC. We now show that downregulation of NKG2D ligands by HIV-1 Nef from EC is inefficient and leaves infected cells

  8. Opening of the TAR hairpin in the HIV-1 genome causes aberrant RNA dimerization and packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Atze T

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The TAR hairpin is present at both the 5′ and 3′ end of the HIV-1 RNA genome. The 5′ element binds the viral Tat protein and is essential for Tat-mediated activation of transcription. We recently observed that complete TAR deletion is allowed in the context of an HIV-1 variant that does not depend on this Tat-TAR axis for transcription. Mutations that open the 5′ stem-loop structure did however affect the leader RNA conformation and resulted in a severe replication defect. In this study, we set out to analyze which step of the HIV-1 replication cycle is affected by this conformational change of the leader RNA. Results We demonstrate that opening the 5′ TAR structure through a deletion in either side of the stem region caused aberrant dimerization and reduced packaging of the unspliced viral RNA genome. In contrast, truncation of the TAR hairpin through deletions in both sides of the stem did not affect RNA dimer formation and packaging. Conclusions These results demonstrate that, although the TAR hairpin is not essential for RNA dimerization and packaging, mutations in TAR can significantly affect these processes through misfolding of the relevant RNA signals.

  9. HIV-1 Infection of T Cells and Macrophages Are Differentially Modulated by Virion-Associated Hck: A Nef-Dependent Phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilda Tachedjian

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The proline repeat motif (PxxP of Nef is required for interaction with the SH3 domains of macrophage-specific Src kinase Hck. However, the implication of this interaction for viral replication and infectivity in macrophages and T lymphocytes remains unclear. Experiments in HIV-1 infected macrophages confirmed the presence of a Nef:Hck complex which was dependent on the Nef proline repeat motif. The proline repeat motif of Nef also enhanced both HIV-1 infection and replication in macrophages, and was required for incorporation of Hck into viral particles. Unexpectedly, wild-type Hck inhibited infection of macrophages, but Hck was shown to enhance infection of primary T lymphocytes. These results indicate that the interaction between Nef and Hck is important for Nef-dependent modulation of viral infectivity. Hck-dependent enhancement of HIV-1 infection of T cells suggests that Nef-Hck interaction may contribute to the spread of HIV-1 infection from macrophages to T cells by modulating events in the producer cell, virion and target cell.

  10. Influence of the Envelope gp120 Phe 43 Cavity on HIV-1 Sensitivity to Antibody-Dependent Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prévost, Jérémie; Zoubchenok, Daria; Richard, Jonathan; Veillette, Maxime; Pacheco, Beatriz; Coutu, Mathieu; Brassard, Nathalie; Parsons, Matthew S; Ruxrungtham, Kiat; Bunupuradah, Torsak; Tovanabutra, Sodsai; Hwang, Kwan-Ki; Moody, M Anthony; Haynes, Barton F; Bonsignori, Mattia; Sodroski, Joseph; Kaufmann, Daniel E; Shaw, George M; Chenine, Agnès L; Finzi, Andrés

    2017-04-01

    HIV-1-infected cells presenting envelope glycoproteins (Env) in the CD4-bound conformation on their surface are preferentially targeted by antibody-dependent cellular-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). HIV-1 has evolved sophisticated mechanisms to avoid the exposure of Env ADCC epitopes by downregulating CD4 and by limiting the overall amount of Env on the cell surface. In HIV-1, substitution of large residues such as histidine or tryptophan for serine 375 (S375H/W) in the gp120 Phe 43 cavity, where Phe 43 of CD4 contacts gp120, results in the spontaneous sampling of an Env conformation closer to the CD4-bound state. While residue S375 is well conserved in the majority of group M HIV-1 isolates, CRF01_AE strains have a naturally occurring histidine at this position (H375). Interestingly, CRF01_AE is the predominant circulating strain in Thailand, where the RV144 trial took place. In this trial, which resulted in a modest degree of protection, ADCC responses were identified as being part of the correlate of protection. Here we investigate the influence of the Phe 43 cavity on ADCC responses. Filling this cavity with a histidine or tryptophan residue in Env with a natural serine residue at this position (S375H/W) increased the susceptibility of HIV-1-infected cells to ADCC. Conversely, the replacement of His 375 by a serine residue (H375S) within HIV-1 CRF01_AE decreased the efficiency of the ADCC response. Our results raise the intriguing possibility that the presence of His 375 in the circulating strain where the RV144 trial was held contributed to the observed vaccine efficacy.IMPORTANCE HIV-1-infected cells presenting Env in the CD4-bound conformation on their surface are preferentially targeted by ADCC mediated by HIV-positive (HIV(+)) sera. Here we show that the gp120 Phe 43 cavity modulates the propensity of Env to sample this conformation and therefore affects the susceptibility of infected cells to ADCC. CRF01_AE HIV-1 strains have an unusual Phe 43 cavity

  11. A New Glycan-Dependent CD4-Binding Site Neutralizing Antibody Exerts Pressure on HIV-1 In Vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freund, Natalia T.; Horwitz, Joshua A.; Nogueira, Lilian; Sievers, Stuart A.; Scharf, Louise; Scheid, Johannes F.; Gazumyan, Anna; Liu, Cassie; Velinzon, Klara; Goldenthal, Ariel; Sanders, Rogier W.; Moore, John P.; Bjorkman, Pamela J.; Seaman, Michael S.; Walker, Bruce D.; Klein, Florian; Nussenzweig, Michel C.

    2015-01-01

    The CD4 binding site (CD4bs) on the envelope glycoprotein is a major site of vulnerability that is conserved among different HIV-1 isolates. Many broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) to the CD4bs belong to the VRC01 class, sharing highly restricted origins, recognition mechanisms and viral escape

  12. Interplay between viral Tat protein and c-Jun transcription factor in controlling LTR promoter activity in different human immunodeficiency virus type I subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Sluis, Renée M; Derking, Ronald; Breidel, Seyguerney; Speijer, Dave; Berkhout, Ben; Jeeninga, Rienk E

    2014-04-01

    HIV-1 transcription depends on cellular transcription factors that bind to sequences in the long-terminal repeat (LTR) promoter. Each HIV-1 subtype has a specific LTR promoter configuration, and minor sequence changes in transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) or their arrangement can influence transcriptional activity, virus replication and latency properties. Previously, we investigated the proviral latency properties of different HIV-1 subtypes in the SupT1 T cell line. Here, subtype-specific latency and replication properties were studied in primary PHA-activated T lymphocytes. No major differences in latency and replication capacity were measured among the HIV-1 subtypes. Subtype B and AE LTRs were studied in more detail with regard to a putative AP-1 binding site using luciferase reporter constructs. c-Jun, a member of the AP-1 transcription factor family, can activate both subtype B and AE LTRs, but the latter showed a stronger response, reflecting a closer match with the consensus AP-1 binding site. c-Jun overexpression enhanced Tat-mediated transcription of the viral LTR, but in the absence of Tat inhibited basal promoter activity. Thus, c-Jun can exert a positive or negative effect via the AP-1 binding site in the HIV-1 LTR promoter, depending on the presence or absence of Tat.

  13. HIV-1 phenotypic reverse transcriptase inhibitor drug resistance test interpretation is not dependent on the subtype of the virus backbone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Bronze

    Full Text Available To date, the majority of HIV-1 phenotypic resistance testing has been performed with subtype B virus backbones (e.g. HXB2. However, the relevance of using this backbone to determine resistance in non-subtype B HIV-1 viruses still needs to be assessed. From 114 HIV-1 subtype C clinical samples (36 ARV-naïve, 78 ARV-exposed, pol amplicons were produced and analyzed for phenotypic resistance using both a subtype B- and C-backbone in which the pol fragment was deleted. Phenotypic resistance was assessed in resulting recombinant virus stocks (RVS for a series of antiretroviral drugs (ARV's and expressed as fold change (FC, yielding 1660 FC comparisons. These Antivirogram® derived FC values were categorized as having resistant or sensitive susceptibility based on biological cut-off values (BCOs. The concordance between resistance calls obtained for the same clinical sample but derived from two different backbones (i.e. B and C accounted for 86.1% (1429/1660 of the FC comparisons. However, when taking the assay variability into account, 95.8% (1590/1660 of the phenotypic data could be considered as being concordant with respect to their resistance call. No difference in the capacity to detect resistance associated with M184V, K103N and V106M mutations was noted between the two backbones. The following was concluded: (i A high level of concordance was shown between the two backbone phenotypic resistance profiles; (ii Assay variability is largely responsible for discordant results (i.e. for FC values close to BCO; (iii Confidence intervals should be given around the BCO's, when assessing resistance in HIV-1 subtype C; (iv No systematic resistance under- or overcalling of subtype C amplicons in the B-backbone was observed; (v Virus backbone subtype sequence variability outside the pol region does not contribute to phenotypic FC values. In conclusion the HXB2 virus backbone remains an acceptable vector for phenotyping HIV-1 subtype C pol amplicons.

  14. A New Glycan-Dependent CD4-Binding Site Neutralizing Antibody Exerts Pressure on HIV-1 In Vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Freund, Natalia?T.; Horwitz, Joshua A.; Lilian Nogueira; Sievers, Stuart A.; Louise Scharf; Scheid, Johannes F.; Anna Gazumyan; Cassie Liu; Klara Velinzon; Ariel Goldenthal; Sanders, Rogier W.; Moore, John P.; Bjorkman, Pamela J.; Seaman, Michael S.; Walker, Bruce D.

    2015-01-01

    The CD4 binding site (CD4bs) on the envelope glycoprotein is a major site of vulnerability that is conserved among different HIV-1 isolates. Many broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) to the CD4bs belong to the VRC01 class, sharing highly restricted origins, recognition mechanisms and viral escape pathways. We sought to isolate new anti-CD4bs bNAbs with different origins and mechanisms of action. Using a gp120 2CC core as bait, we isolated antibodies encoded by IGVH3-21 and IGVL3-1 genes wi...

  15. A TatABC-type Tat translocase is required for unimpaired aerobic growth of Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC13032.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Oertel

    Full Text Available The twin-arginine translocation (Tat system transports folded proteins across the cytoplasmic membrane of bacteria and the thylakoid membrane of plant chloroplasts. Escherichia coli and other Gram-negative bacteria possess a TatABC-type Tat translocase in which each of the three inner membrane proteins TatA, TatB, and TatC performs a mechanistically distinct function. In contrast, low-GC Gram-positive bacteria, such as Bacillus subtilis, use a TatAC-type minimal Tat translocase in which the TatB function is carried out by a bifunctional TatA. In high-GC Gram-positive Actinobacteria, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Corynebacterium glutamicum, tatA, tatB, and tatC genes can be identified, suggesting that these organisms, just like E. coli, might use TatABC-type Tat translocases as well. However, since contrary to this view a previous study has suggested that C. glutamicum might in fact use a TatAC translocase with TatB only playing a minor role, we reexamined the requirement of TatB for Tat-dependent protein translocation in this microorganism. Under aerobic conditions, the misassembly of the Rieske iron-sulfur protein QcrA was identified as a major reason for the severe growth defect of Tat-defective C. glutamicum mutant strains. Furthermore, our results clearly show that TatB, besides TatA and TatC, is strictly required for unimpaired aerobic growth. In addition, TatB was also found to be essential for the secretion of a heterologous Tat-dependent model protein into the C. glutamicum culture supernatant. Together with our finding that expression of the C. glutamicum TatB in an E. coli ΔtatB mutant strain resulted in the formation of an active Tat translocase, our results clearly indicate that a TatABC translocase is used as the physiologically relevant functional unit for Tat-dependent protein translocation in C. glutamicum and, most likely, also in other TatB-containing Actinobacteria.

  16. Chemokine co-receptor CCR5/CXCR4-dependent modulation of Kv2.1 channel confers acute neuroprotection to HIV-1 glycoprotein gp120 exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Shepherd

    Full Text Available Infection with human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1 within the brain has long been known to be associated with neurodegeneration and neurocognitive disorder (referred as HAND, a condition characterized in its early stages by declining cognitive function and behavioral disturbances. Mechanistically, the HIV-1 coat glycoprotein 120 (gp120 has been suggested to be a critical factor inducing apoptotic cell death in neurons via the activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK, upon chronic exposure to the virus. Here we show that acute exposure of neurons to HIV-1 gp120 elicits a homeostatic response, which provides protection against non-apoptotic cell death, involving the major somatodendritic voltage-gated K⁺ (Kv channel Kv2.1 as the key mediator. The Kv2.1 channel has recently been shown to provide homeostatic control of neuronal excitability under conditions of seizures, ischemia and neuromodulation/neuroinflammation. Following acute exposure to gp120, cultured rat hippocampal neurons show rapid dephosphorylation of the Kv2.1 protein, which ultimately leads to changes in specific sub-cellular localization and voltage-dependent channel activation properties of Kv2.1. Such modifications in Kv2.1 are dependent on the activation of the chemokine co-receptors CCR5 and CXCR4, and subsequent activation of the protein phosphatase calcineurin. This leads to the overall suppression of neuronal excitability and provides neurons with a homeostatic protective mechanism. Specific blockade of calcineurin and Kv2.1 channel activity led to significant enhancement of non-apoptotic neuronal death upon acute gp120 treatment. These observations shed new light on the intrinsic homeostatic mechanisms of neuronal resilience during the acute stages of neuro-HIV infections.

  17. HIV-1 protein induced modulation of primary human osteoblast differentiation and function via a Wnt/β-catenin-dependent mechanism.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Butler, Joseph S

    2013-02-01

    HIV infection is associated with metabolic bone disease resulting in bone demineralization and reduced bone mass. The molecular mechanisms driving this disease process have yet to be elucidated. Wnt\\/β-catenin signaling plays a key role in bone development and remodeling. We attempted to determine the effects of the HIV-1 protein, gp120, on Wnt\\/β-catenin signaling at an intracellular and transcriptional level in primary human osteoblasts (HOBs). This work, inclusive of experimental controls, was part of a greater project assessing the effects of a variety of different agents on Wnt\\/β-catenin signaling (BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2010;11:210).We examined the phenotypic effects of silencing and overexpressing the Wnt antagonist, Dickkopf-1 (Dkk1) in HOBs treated with gp120. HOBs exposed to gp120 displayed a significant reduction in alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP) activity and cell proliferation and increased cellular apoptosis over a 48 h time course. Immunocytochemistry demonstrated a significant reduction in intracytosolic and intranuclear β-catenin in response to HIV-1 protein exposure. These changes were associated with a reduction of TCF\\/LEF-mediated transcription, the transcriptional outcome of canonical Wnt β-catenin signaling. Silencing Dkk1 expression in HOBs exposed to gp120 resulted in increased ALP activity and cell proliferation, and decreased cellular apoptosis relative to scrambled control. Dkk1 overexpression exacerbated the inhibitory effect of gp120 on HOB function, with decreases in ALP activity and cell proliferation and increased cellular apoptosis relative to vector control. Wnt\\/β-catenin signaling plays a key regulatory role in HIV-associated bone loss, with Dkk1, aputative central mediator in this degenerative process. © 2012 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 31: 218-226, 2013.

  18. Hidden Lineage Complexity of Glycan-Dependent HIV-1 Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies Uncovered by Digital Panning and Native-Like gp140 Trimer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linling He

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Germline precursors and intermediates of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs are essential to the understanding of humoral response to HIV-1 infection and B-cell lineage vaccine design. Using a native-like gp140 trimer probe, we examined antibody libraries constructed from donor-17, the source of glycan-dependent PGT121-class bNAbs recognizing the N332 supersite on the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein. To facilitate this analysis, a digital panning method was devised that combines biopanning of phage-displayed antibody libraries, 900 bp long-read next-generation sequencing, and heavy/light (H/L-paired antibodyomics. In addition to single-chain variable fragments resembling the wild-type bNAbs, digital panning identified variants of PGT124 (a member of the PGT121 class with a unique insertion in the heavy chain complementarity-determining region 1, as well as intermediates of PGT124 exhibiting notable affinity for the native-like trimer and broad HIV-1 neutralization. In a competition assay, these bNAb intermediates could effectively compete with mouse sera induced by a scaffolded BG505 gp140.681 trimer for the N332 supersite. Our study thus reveals previously unrecognized lineage complexity of the PGT121-class bNAbs and provides an array of library-derived bNAb intermediates for evaluation of immunogens containing the N332 supersite. Digital panning may prove to be a valuable tool in future studies of bNAb diversity and lineage development.

  19. Hidden Lineage Complexity of Glycan-Dependent HIV-1 Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies Uncovered by Digital Panning and Native-Like gp140 Trimer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Linling; Lin, Xiaohe; de Val, Natalia; Saye-Francisco, Karen L; Mann, Colin J; Augst, Ryan; Morris, Charles D; Azadnia, Parisa; Zhou, Bin; Sok, Devin; Ozorowski, Gabriel; Ward, Andrew B; Burton, Dennis R; Zhu, Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Germline precursors and intermediates of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) are essential to the understanding of humoral response to HIV-1 infection and B-cell lineage vaccine design. Using a native-like gp140 trimer probe, we examined antibody libraries constructed from donor-17, the source of glycan-dependent PGT121-class bNAbs recognizing the N332 supersite on the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein. To facilitate this analysis, a digital panning method was devised that combines biopanning of phage-displayed antibody libraries, 900 bp long-read next-generation sequencing, and heavy/light (H/L)-paired antibodyomics. In addition to single-chain variable fragments resembling the wild-type bNAbs, digital panning identified variants of PGT124 (a member of the PGT121 class) with a unique insertion in the heavy chain complementarity-determining region 1, as well as intermediates of PGT124 exhibiting notable affinity for the native-like trimer and broad HIV-1 neutralization. In a competition assay, these bNAb intermediates could effectively compete with mouse sera induced by a scaffolded BG505 gp140.681 trimer for the N332 supersite. Our study thus reveals previously unrecognized lineage complexity of the PGT121-class bNAbs and provides an array of library-derived bNAb intermediates for evaluation of immunogens containing the N332 supersite. Digital panning may prove to be a valuable tool in future studies of bNAb diversity and lineage development.

  20. Hidden Lineage Complexity of Glycan-Dependent HIV-1 Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies Uncovered by Digital Panning and Native-Like gp140 Trimer

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Linling; Lin, Xiaohe; de Val, Natalia; Saye-Francisco, Karen L.; Mann, Colin J.; Augst, Ryan; Morris, Charles D.; Azadnia, Parisa; Zhou, Bin; Sok, Devin; Ozorowski, Gabriel; Ward, Andrew B.; Burton, Dennis R.; Zhu, Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Germline precursors and intermediates of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) are essential to the understanding of humoral response to HIV-1 infection and B-cell lineage vaccine design. Using a native-like gp140 trimer probe, we examined antibody libraries constructed from donor-17, the source of glycan-dependent PGT121-class bNAbs recognizing the N332 supersite on the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein. To facilitate this analysis, a digital panning method was devised that combines biopanning of phage-displayed antibody libraries, 900 bp long-read next-generation sequencing, and heavy/light (H/L)-paired antibodyomics. In addition to single-chain variable fragments resembling the wild-type bNAbs, digital panning identified variants of PGT124 (a member of the PGT121 class) with a unique insertion in the heavy chain complementarity-determining region 1, as well as intermediates of PGT124 exhibiting notable affinity for the native-like trimer and broad HIV-1 neutralization. In a competition assay, these bNAb intermediates could effectively compete with mouse sera induced by a scaffolded BG505 gp140.681 trimer for the N332 supersite. Our study thus reveals previously unrecognized lineage complexity of the PGT121-class bNAbs and provides an array of library-derived bNAb intermediates for evaluation of immunogens containing the N332 supersite. Digital panning may prove to be a valuable tool in future studies of bNAb diversity and lineage development. PMID:28883821

  1. Structure of an N276-Dependent HIV-1 Neutralizing Antibody Targeting a Rare V5 Glycan Hole Adjacent to the CD4 Binding Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wibmer, Constantinos Kurt; Gorman, Jason; Anthony, Colin S.; Mkhize, Nonhlanhla N.; Druz, Aliaksandr; York, Talita; Schmidt, Stephen D.; Labuschagne, Phillip; Louder, Mark K.; Bailer, Robert T.; Karim, Salim S. Abdool; Mascola, John R.; Williamson, Carolyn; Moore, Penny L.; Kwong, Peter D.; Morris, Lynn (NHLS-South Africa); (NIH); (Witwatersrand); (KwaZulu-Natal)

    2016-08-31

    ABSTRACT

    All HIV-1-infected individuals develop strain-specific neutralizing antibodies to their infecting virus, which in some cases mature into broadly neutralizing antibodies. Defining the epitopes of strain-specific antibodies that overlap conserved sites of vulnerability might provide mechanistic insights into how broadly neutralizing antibodies arise. We previously described an HIV-1 clade C-infected donor, CAP257, who developed broadly neutralizing plasma antibodies targeting an N276 glycan-dependent epitope in the CD4 binding site. The initial CD4 binding site response potently neutralized the heterologous tier 2 clade B viral strain RHPA, which was used to design resurfaced gp120 antigens for single-B-cell sorting. Here we report the isolation and structural characterization of CAP257-RH1, an N276 glycan-dependent CD4 binding site antibody representative of the early CD4 binding site plasma response in donor CAP257. The cocrystal structure of CAP257-RH1 bound to RHPA gp120 revealed critical interactions with the N276 glycan, loop D, and V5, but not with aspartic acid 368, similarly to HJ16 and 179NC75. The CAP257-RH1 monoclonal antibody was derived from the immunoglobulin-variable IGHV3-33 and IGLV3-10 genes and neutralized RHPA but not the transmitted/founder virus from donor CAP257. Its narrow neutralization breadth was attributed to a binding angle that was incompatible with glycosylated V5 loops present in almost all HIV-1 strains, including the CAP257 transmitted/founder virus. Deep sequencing of autologous CAP257 viruses, however, revealed minority variants early in infection that lacked V5 glycans. These glycan-free V5 loops are unusual holes in the glycan shield that may have been necessary for initiating this N276 glycan-dependent CD4 binding site B-cell lineage.

    IMPORTANCEThe conserved CD4 binding site on gp120 is a major target for HIV-1 vaccine design, but key events in the elicitation and maturation of

  2. Novel PI3K/Akt inhibitors screened by the cytoprotective function of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Kim

    Full Text Available The PI3K/Akt pathway regulates various stress-related cellular responses such as cell survival, cell proliferation, metabolism and protein synthesis. Many cancer cell types display the activation of this pathway, and compounds inhibiting this cell survival pathway have been extensively evaluated as anti-cancer agents. In addition to cancers, several human viruses, such as HTLV, HPV, HCV and HIV-1, also modulate this pathway, presumably in order to extend the life span of the infected target cells for productive viral replication. The expression of HIV-1 Tat protein exhibited the cytoprotective effect in macrophages and a human microglial cell line by inhibiting the negative regulator of this pathway, PTEN. This cytoprotective effect of HIV-1 appears to contribute to the long-term survival and persistent HIV-1 production in human macrophage reservoirs. In this study we exploited the PI3K/Akt dependent cytoprotective effect of Tat-expressing CHME5 cells. We screened a collection of compounds known to modulate inflammation, and identified three novel compounds: Lancemaside A, Compound K and Arctigenin that abolished the cytoprotective phenotype of Tat-expressing CHME5 cells. All three compounds antagonized the kinase activity of Akt. Further detailed signaling studies revealed that each of these three compounds targeted different steps of the PI3K/Akt pathway. Arctigenin regulates the upstream PI3K enzyme from converting PIP2 to PIP3. Lancemaside A1 inhibited the movement of Akt to the plasma membrane, a critical step for Akt activation. Compound K inhibited Akt phosphorylation. This study supports that Tat-expressing CHME5 cells are an effective model system for screening novel PI3K/Akt inhibitors.

  3. Novel PI3K/Akt Inhibitors Screened by the Cytoprotective Function of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Tat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Hyun; Kim, Baek

    2011-01-01

    The PI3K/Akt pathway regulates various stress-related cellular responses such as cell survival, cell proliferation, metabolism and protein synthesis. Many cancer cell types display the activation of this pathway, and compounds inhibiting this cell survival pathway have been extensively evaluated as anti-cancer agents. In addition to cancers, several human viruses, such as HTLV, HPV, HCV and HIV-1, also modulate this pathway, presumably in order to extend the life span of the infected target cells for productive viral replication. The expression of HIV-1 Tat protein exhibited the cytoprotective effect in macrophages and a human microglial cell line by inhibiting the negative regulator of this pathway, PTEN. This cytoprotective effect of HIV-1 appears to contribute to the long-term survival and persistent HIV-1 production in human macrophage reservoirs. In this study we exploited the PI3K/Akt dependent cytoprotective effect of Tat-expressing CHME5 cells. We screened a collection of compounds known to modulate inflammation, and identified three novel compounds: Lancemaside A, Compound K and Arctigenin that abolished the cytoprotective phenotype of Tat-expressing CHME5 cells. All three compounds antagonized the kinase activity of Akt. Further detailed signaling studies revealed that each of these three compounds targeted different steps of the PI3K/Akt pathway. Arctigenin regulates the upstream PI3K enzyme from converting PIP2 to PIP3. Lancemaside A1 inhibited the movement of Akt to the plasma membrane, a critical step for Akt activation. Compound K inhibited Akt phosphorylation. This study supports that Tat-expressing CHME5 cells are an effective model system for screening novel PI3K/Akt inhibitors. PMID:21765914

  4. Intracellular interactions between APOBEC3G, RNA, and HIV-1 Gag: APOBEC3G multimerization is dependent on its association with RNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friew Yeshitila N

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Host restriction factor APOBEC3G (A3G blocks human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 replication by G-to-A hypermutation, and by inhibiting DNA synthesis and provirus formation. Previous reports have suggested that A3G is a dimer and its virion incorporation is mediated through interactions with viral or nonviral RNAs and/or HIV-1 Gag. We have now employed a bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay (BiFC to analyze the intracellular A3G-A3G, A3G-RNA, and A3G-Gag interactions in living cells by reconstitution of yellow fluorescent protein (YFP from its N- or C-terminal fragments. Results The results obtained with catalytic domain 1 and 2 (CD1 and CD2 mutants indicate that A3G-A3G and A3G-Gag multimerization is dependent on an intact CD1 domain, which is required for RNA binding. A mutant HIV-1 Gag that exhibits reduced RNA binding also failed to reconstitute BiFC with wild-type A3G, indicating a requirement for both HIV-1 Gag and A3G to bind to RNA for their multimerization. Addition of a non-specific RNA binding peptide (P22 to the N-terminus of a CD1 mutant of A3G restored BiFC and virion incorporation, but failed to inhibit viral replication, indicating that the mutations in CD1 resulted in additional defects that interfere with A3G's antiviral activity. Conclusion These studies establish a robust BiFC assay for analysis of intracellular interactions of A3G with other macromolecules. The results indicate that in vivo A3G is a monomer that forms multimers upon binding to RNA. In addition, we observed weak interactions between wild-type A3G molecules and RNA binding-defective mutants of A3G, which could explain previously described protein-protein interactions between purified A3G molecules.

  5. Chelation Motifs Affecting Metal-dependent Viral Enzymes: N'-acylhydrazone Ligands as Dual Target Inhibitors of HIV-1 Integrase and Reverse Transcriptase Ribonuclease H Domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carcelli, Mauro; Rogolino, Dominga; Gatti, Anna; Pala, Nicolino; Corona, Angela; Caredda, Alessia; Tramontano, Enzo; Pannecouque, Christophe; Naesens, Lieve; Esposito, Francesca

    2017-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, still represent a serious global health emergency. The chronic toxicity derived from the current anti-retroviral therapy limits the prolonged use of several antiretroviral agents, continuously requiring the discovery of new antiviral agents with innovative strategies of action. In particular, the development of single molecules targeting two proteins (dual inhibitors) is one of the current main goals in drug discovery. In this contest, metal-chelating molecules have been extensively explored as potential inhibitors of viral metal-dependent enzymes, resulting in some important classes of antiviral agents. Inhibition of HIV Integrase (IN) is, in this sense, paradigmatic. HIV-1 IN and Reverse Transcriptase-associated Ribonuclease H (RNase H) active sites show structural homologies, with the presence of two Mg(II) cofactors, hence it seems possible to inhibit both enzymes by means of chelating ligands with analogous structural features. Here we present a series of N'-acylhydrazone ligands with groups able to chelate the Mg(II) hard Lewis acid ions in the active sites of both the enzymes, resulting in dual inhibitors with micromolar and even nanomolar activities. The most interesting identified N'-acylhydrazone analog, compound 18, shows dual RNase H-IN inhibition and it is also able to inhibit viral replication in cell-based antiviral assays in the low micromolar range. Computational modeling studies were also conducted to explore the binding attitudes of some model ligands within the active site of both the enzymes.

  6. Psychoneuroimmunology and HIV-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoni, Michael H.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Presents evidence describing benefits of behavioral interventions such as aerobic exercise training on both psychological and immunological functioning among high risk human immunodeficiency virus-Type 1 (HIV-1) seronegative and very early stage seropositive homosexual men. HIV-1 infection is cast as chronic disease for which early…

  7. HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caulfield, Michael; Cupo, Albert; Dean, Hansi; Hoffenberg, Simon; King, C. Richter; Klasse, P. J.; Marozsan, Andre; Moore, John P.; Sanders, Rogier W.; Ward, Andrew; Wilson, Ian; Julien, Jean-Philippe

    2017-08-22

    The present application relates to novel HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins, which may be utilized as HIV-1 vaccine immunogens, and antigens for crystallization, electron microscopy and other biophysical, biochemical and immunological studies for the identification of broad neutralizing antibodies. The present invention encompasses the preparation and purification of immunogenic compositions, which are formulated into the vaccines of the present invention.

  8. The RING-CH ligase K5 antagonizes restriction of KSHV and HIV-1 particle release by mediating ubiquitin-dependent endosomal degradation of tetherin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Pardieu

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Tetherin (CD317/BST2 is an interferon-induced membrane protein that inhibits the release of diverse enveloped viral particles. Several mammalian viruses have evolved countermeasures that inactivate tetherin, with the prototype being the HIV-1 Vpu protein. Here we show that the human herpesvirus Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV is sensitive to tetherin restriction and its activity is counteracted by the KSHV encoded RING-CH E3 ubiquitin ligase K5. Tetherin expression in KSHV-infected cells inhibits viral particle release, as does depletion of K5 protein using RNA interference. K5 induces a species-specific downregulation of human tetherin from the cell surface followed by its endosomal degradation. We show that K5 targets a single lysine (K18 in the cytoplasmic tail of tetherin for ubiquitination, leading to relocalization of tetherin to CD63-positive endosomal compartments. Tetherin degradation is dependent on ESCRT-mediated endosomal sorting, but does not require a tyrosine-based sorting signal in the tetherin cytoplasmic tail. Importantly, we also show that the ability of K5 to substitute for Vpu in HIV-1 release is entirely dependent on K18 and the RING-CH domain of K5. By contrast, while Vpu induces ubiquitination of tetherin cytoplasmic tail lysine residues, mutation of these positions has no effect on its antagonism of tetherin function, and residual tetherin is associated with the trans-Golgi network (TGN in Vpu-expressing cells. Taken together our results demonstrate that K5 is a mechanistically distinct viral countermeasure to tetherin-mediated restriction, and that herpesvirus particle release is sensitive to this mode of antiviral inhibition.

  9. SIRT1 regulates HIV transcription via Tat deacetylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Pagans

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV Tat protein is acetylated by the transcriptional coactivator p300, a necessary step in Tat-mediated transactivation. We report here that Tat is deacetylated by human sirtuin 1 (SIRT1, a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent class III protein deacetylase in vitro and in vivo. Tat and SIRT1 coimmunoprecipitate and synergistically activate the HIV promoter. Conversely, knockdown of SIRT1 via small interfering RNAs or treatment with a novel small molecule inhibitor of the SIRT1 deacetylase activity inhibit Tat-mediated transactivation of the HIV long terminal repeat. Tat transactivation is defective in SIRT1-null mouse embryonic fibroblasts and can be rescued by expression of SIRT1. These results support a model in which cycles of Tat acetylation and deacetylation regulate HIV transcription. SIRT1 recycles Tat to its unacetylated form and acts as a transcriptional coactivator during Tat transactivation.

  10. HIV-1 transcription and latency: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lint, Carine; Bouchat, Sophie; Marcello, Alessandro

    2013-06-26

    Combination antiretroviral therapy, despite being potent and life-prolonging, is not curative and does not eradicate HIV-1 infection since interruption of treatment inevitably results in a rapid rebound of viremia. Reactivation of latently infected cells harboring transcriptionally silent but replication-competent proviruses is a potential source of persistent residual viremia in cART-treated patients. Although multiple reservoirs may exist, the persistence of resting CD4+ T cells carrying a latent infection represents a major barrier to eradication. In this review, we will discuss the latest reports on the molecular mechanisms that may regulate HIV-1 latency at the transcriptional level, including transcriptional interference, the role of cellular factors, chromatin organization and epigenetic modifications, the viral Tat trans-activator and its cellular cofactors. Since latency mechanisms may also operate at the post-transcriptional level, we will consider inhibition of nuclear RNA export and inhibition of translation by microRNAs as potential barriers to HIV-1 gene expression. Finally, we will review the therapeutic approaches and clinical studies aimed at achieving either a sterilizing cure or a functional cure of HIV-1 infection, with a special emphasis on the most recent pharmacological strategies to reactivate the latent viruses and decrease the pool of viral reservoirs.

  11. Monoclonal Antibodies Specific for the V2, V3, CD4-Binding Site, and gp41 of HIV-1 Mediate Phagocytosis in a Dose-Dependent Manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musich, Thomas; Li, Liuzhe; Liu, Lily; Zolla-Pazner, Susan; Robert-Guroff, Marjorie; Gorny, Miroslaw K

    2017-04-15

    In light of the weak or absent neutralizing activity mediated by anti-V2 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), we tested whether they can mediate Ab-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP), which is an important element of anti-HIV-1 immunity. We tested six anti-V2 MAbs and compared them with 21 MAbs specific for V3, the CD4-binding site (CD4bs), and gp41 derived from chronically HIV-1-infected individuals and produced by hybridoma cells. ADCP activity was measured by flow cytometry using uptake by THP-1 monocytic cells of fluorescent beads coated with gp120, gp41, BG505 SOSIP.664, or BG505 DS-SOSIP.664 complexed with MAbs. The measurement of ADCP activity by the area under the curve showed significantly higher activity of anti-gp41 MAbs than of the members of the three other groups of MAbs tested using beads coated with monomeric gp41 or gp120; anti-V2 MAbs were dominant compared to anti-V3 and anti-CD4bs MAbs against clade C gp120 ZM109 ADCP activity mediated by V2 and V3 MAbs was positive against stabilized DS-SOSIP.664 trimer but negligible against SOSIP.664 targets, suggesting that a closed envelope conformation better exposes the variable loops. Two IgG3 MAbs against the V2 and V3 regions displayed dominant ADCP activity compared to a panel of IgG1 MAbs. This superior ADCP activity was confirmed when two of three recombinant IgG3 anti-V2 MAbs were compared to their IgG1 counterparts. The study demonstrated dominant ADCP activity of anti-gp41 against monomers but not trimers, with some higher activity of anti-V2 MAbs than of anti-V3 and anti-CD4bs MAbs. The ability to mediate ADCP suggests a mechanism by which anti-HIV-1 envelope Abs can contribute to protective efficacy. IMPORTANCE Anti-V2 antibodies (Abs) correlated with reduced risk of HIV-1 infection in recipients of the RV144 vaccine, suggesting that they play a protective role, but a mechanism providing such protection remains to be determined. The rare and weak neutralizing activities of anti-V2 MAbs prompted us

  12. Dominant negative mutant Cyclin T1 proteins inhibit HIV transcription by specifically degrading Tat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okamoto Takashi

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb is an essential cellular co-factor for the transcription of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1. The cyclin T1 (CycT1 subunit of P-TEFb associates with a viral protein, Tat, at the transactivation response element (TAR. This represents a critical and necessary step for the stimulation of transcriptional elongation. Therefore, CycT1 may serve as a potential target for the development of anti-HIV therapies. Results To create effective inhibitors of HIV transcription, mutant CycT1 proteins were constructed based upon sequence similarities between CycT1 and other cyclin molecules, as well as the defined crystal structure of CycT1. One of these mutants, termed CycT1-U7, showed a potent dominant negative effect on Tat-dependent HIV transcription despite a remarkably low steady-state expression level. Surprisingly, the expression levels of Tat proteins co-expressed with CycT1-U7 were significantly lower than Tat co-expressed with wild type CycT1. However, the expression levels of CycT1-U7 and Tat were restored by treatment with proteasome inhibitors. Concomitantly, the dominant negative effect of CycT1-U7 was abolished by these inhibitors. Conclusion These results suggest that CycT1-U7 inhibits HIV transcription by promoting a rapid degradation of Tat. These mutant CycT1 proteins represent a novel class of specific inhibitors for HIV transcription that could potentially be used in the design of anti-viral therapy.

  13. A second-site mutation that restores replication of a Tat-defective human immunodeficiency virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, K.; Berkhout, B.

    1999-01-01

    We previously constructed a large set of mutants of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) regulatory protein Tat with conservative amino acid substitutions in the activation domain. These Tat variants were analyzed in the context of the infectious virus, and several mutants were found to

  14. Cytoplasmic Dynein Promotes HIV-1 Uncoating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Pawlica

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Retroviral capsid (CA cores undergo uncoating during their retrograde transport (toward the nucleus, and/or after reaching the nuclear membrane. However, whether HIV-1 CA core uncoating is dependent upon its transport is not understood. There is some evidence that HIV-1 cores retrograde transport involves cytoplasmic dynein complexes translocating on microtubules. Here we investigate the role of dynein-dependent transport in HIV-1 uncoating. To interfere with dynein function, we depleted dynein heavy chain (DHC using RNA interference, and we over-expressed p50/dynamitin. In immunofluorescence microscopy experiments, DHC depletion caused an accumulation of CA foci in HIV-1 infected cells. Using a biochemical assay to monitor HIV-1 CA core disassembly in infected cells, we observed an increase in amounts of intact (pelletable CA cores upon DHC depletion or p50 over-expression. Results from these two complementary assays suggest that inhibiting dynein-mediated transport interferes with HIV-1 uncoating in infected cells, indicating the existence of a functional link between HIV-1 transport and uncoating.

  15. Dual role of autophagy in HIV-1 replication and pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Killian M

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Autophagy, the major mechanism for degrading long-lived intracellular proteins and organelles, is essential for eukaryotic cell homeostasis. Autophagy also defends the cell against invasion by microorganisms and has important roles in innate and adaptive immunity. Increasingly evident is that HIV-1 replication is dependent on select components of autophagy. Fittingly, HIV-1 proteins are able to modulate autophagy to maximize virus production. At the same time, HIV-1 proteins appear to disrupt autophagy in uninfected cells, thereby contributing to CD4+ cell death and HIV-1 pathogenesis. These observations allow for new approaches for the treatment and possibly the prevention of HIV-1 infection. This review focuses on the relationship between autophagy and HIV-1 infection. Discussed is how autophagy plays dual roles in HIV-1 replication and HIV-1 disease progression.

  16. Palbociclib, a selective inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinase4/6, blocks HIV-1 reverse transcription through the control of sterile α motif and HD domain-containing protein-1 (SAMHD1) activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauls, Eduardo; Badia, Roger; Torres-Torronteras, Javier; Ruiz, Alba; Permanyer, Marc; Riveira-Muñoz, Eva; Clotet, Bonaventura; Marti, Ramón; Ballana, Ester; Esté, José A

    2014-09-24

    Sterile α motif and HD domain-containing protein-1 (SAMHD1) inhibits HIV-1 reverse transcription by decreasing the pool of intracellular deoxynucleotides. SAMHD1 is controlled by cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)-mediated phosphorylation. However, the exact mechanism of SAMHD1 regulation in primary cells is unclear. We explore the effect of palbociclib, a CDK6 inhibitor, in HIV-1 replication. Human primary monocytes were differentiated into macrophages with monocyte-colony stimulating factor and CD4 T lymphocytes stimulated with phytohaemagglutinin (PHA)/interleukin-2. Cells were treated with palbociclib and then infected with a Green fluorescent protein-expressing HIV-1 or R5 HIV-1 BaL. Viral DNA was measured by quantitative PCR and infection assessed by flow cytometry. Deoxynucleotide triphosphate (dNTP) content was determined using a polymerase-based method. Pan-CDK inhibitors AT7519, roscovitine and purvalanol A reduced SAMHD1 phosphorylation. HIV-1 replication was blocked by AT7519 (66.4 ± 3.8%; n = 4), roscovitine (47.3 ± 3.9%; n = 4) and purvalanol A (55.7 ± 15.7%; n = 4) at subtoxic concentrations. Palbociclib, a potent and selective CDK6 inhibitor, blocked SAMHD1 phosphorylation, intracellular dNTP levels, HIV-1 reverse transcription and HIV-1 replication in primary macrophages and CD4 T lymphocytes. Notably, treatment of macrophages with palbociclib led to reduced CDK2 activation, measured as the phosphorylation of the T-loop at the Thr160. The antiviral effect was lost when SAMHD1 was degraded by Vpx, providing further evidence for a role of SAMHD1 in mediating the antiretroviral effect. Our results indicate that SAMHD1-mediated HIV-1 restriction is controlled by CDK as previously suggested but point to a preferential role for CDK2 and CDK6 as mediators of SAMHD1 activation. Our study provides a new signaling pathway susceptible for the development of new therapeutic approaches against HIV-1 infection.

  17. Indian Long-term Non-Progressors Show Broad ADCC Responses with Preferential Recognition of V3 Region of Envelope and a Region from Tat Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Archana; Kurle, Swarali; Shete, Ashwini; Ghate, Manisha; Godbole, Sheela; Madhavi, Vijaya; Kent, Stephen J; Paranjape, Ramesh; Thakar, Madhuri

    2017-01-01

    HIV-specific antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity (ADCC) is likely to be important in governing protection from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and slowing disease progression. Little is known about the ADCC responses to HIV-1 subtype C. We characterized ADCC responses in HIV-1 subtype C-infected Indian subjects with slow disease progression and identified the dominant antigenic regions recognized by these antibodies. ADCC responses were measured in plasma from 34 long-term non-progressors (LTNPs), who were asymptomatic and maintained CD4 count above 500 cells/mm(3) for the last 7 years in the absence of antiretroviral therapy (ART), and 58 ART naïve progressors with CD4 count Indian LTNPs showed higher and broader ADCC responses compared to the progressors. The Env-C and Tat-specific ADCC responses were associated with lower plasma viral load, whereas the Env-C responses were also associated with higher CD4 counts. Five of 10 LTNP responders targeted epitopes in the V3 region (amino acids 288-330) of Env-C. Additionally, three Tat regions were targeted by ADCC antibodies from LTNPs. ADCC responses were associated with slow HIV progression in Indian subtype C-infected cohort. The frequently recognized peptides from the V3 loop of Env and the novel epitopes from Tat by the LTNPs warrants further study to understand the role of ADCC responses to these regions in control and prevention of HIV-1 infection.

  18. Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Tat binds to dipeptidyl aminopeptidase IV (CD26): a possible mechanism for Tat's immunosuppressive activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutheil, W G; Subramanyam, M; Flentke, G R; Sanford, D G; Munoz, E; Huber, B T; Bachovchin, W W

    1994-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) Tat protein suppresses antigen-induced, but not mitogen-induced, activation of human T cells when added to T-cell cultures [Viscidi, R. P., Mayur, K., Lederman, H. M. & Frankel, A. D. (1989) Science 246, 1606-1608]. This activity is potentially pertinent to the development of AIDS because lymphocytes from HIV-infected individuals exhibit a similar antigen-specific dysfunction. Here we report that Tat binds with high affinity to the T-cell activation molecule dipeptidyl aminopeptidase IV (DP IV), also known as CD26. This molecule occurs on the surface of CD4+ cells responsible for the recall antigen response and appears to play an essential role in this response. Tat binds to both the cell surface and soluble forms of DP IV at physiological salt concentrations without inhibiting the protease activity of DP IV against small chromogenic substrates used to assay activity, but Tat markedly inhibits the activity of DP IV at lower salt concentrations. The kinetics of inhibition indicate the affinity of Tat for DP IV varies from 20 pM to 11 nM, and the activity of the Tat-DP IV complex varies from 13% to 100%, as the NaCl concentration varies from 0 to 140 mM. Cytofluorometry experiments demonstrate that Tat competes with anti-Ta1, a monoclonal antibody (mAb) specific for DP IV, for binding to cell surface DP IV, thus indicating that Tat binds DP IV at or near the Ta1 epitope. Moreover, the anti-Ta1 mAb blocks the immunosuppressive activity of Tat. The high affinity of Tat for DP IV, previous evidence implicating DP IV in antigen-specific T-cell activation events, and the ability of anti-Ta1 mAb to block the immunosuppressive effect of Tat make DP IV a plausible receptor for Tat's immunosuppressive activity. Images PMID:7912830

  19. Conformational Masking and Receptor-Dependent Unmasking of Highly Conserved Env Epitopes Recognized by Non-Neutralizing Antibodies That Mediate Potent ADCC against HIV-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George K. Lewis

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism of antibody-mediated protection is a major focus of HIV-1 vaccine development and a significant issue in the control of viremia. Virus neutralization, Fc-mediated effector function, or both, are major mechanisms of antibody-mediated protection against HIV-1, although other mechanisms, such as virus aggregation, are known. The interplay between virus neutralization and Fc-mediated effector function in protection against HIV-1 is complex and only partially understood. Passive immunization studies using potent broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs show that both neutralization and Fc-mediated effector function provides the widest dynamic range of protection; however, a vaccine to elicit these responses remains elusive. By contrast, active immunization studies in both humans and non-human primates using HIV-1 vaccine candidates suggest that weakly neutralizing or non-neutralizing antibodies can protect by Fc-mediated effector function, albeit with a much lower dynamic range seen for passive immunization with bnAbs. HIV-1 has evolved mechanisms to evade each type of antibody-mediated protection that must be countered by a successful AIDS vaccine. Overcoming the hurdles required to elicit bnAbs has become a major focus of HIV-1 vaccine development. Here, we discuss a less studied problem, the structural basis of protection (and its evasion by antibodies that protect only by potent Fc-mediated effector function.

  20. HIV-1 Nef targets MHC-I and CD4 for degradation via a final common beta-COP-dependent pathway in T cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malinda R Schaefer

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available To facilitate viral infection and spread, HIV-1 Nef disrupts the surface expression of the viral receptor (CD4 and molecules capable of presenting HIV antigens to the immune system (MHC-I. To accomplish this, Nef binds to the cytoplasmic tails of both molecules and then, by mechanisms that are not well understood, disrupts the trafficking of each molecule in different ways. Specifically, Nef promotes CD4 internalization after it has been transported to the cell surface, whereas Nef uses the clathrin adaptor, AP-1, to disrupt normal transport of MHC-I from the TGN to the cell surface. Despite these differences in initial intracellular trafficking, we demonstrate that MHC-I and CD4 are ultimately found in the same Rab7(+ vesicles and are both targeted for degradation via the activity of the Nef-interacting protein, beta-COP. Moreover, we demonstrate that Nef contains two separable beta-COP binding sites. One site, an arginine (RXR motif in the N-terminal alpha helical domain of Nef, is necessary for maximal MHC-I degradation. The second site, composed of a di-acidic motif located in the C-terminal loop domain of Nef, is needed for efficient CD4 degradation. The requirement for redundant motifs with distinct roles supports a model in which Nef exists in multiple conformational states that allow access to different motifs, depending upon which cellular target is bound by Nef.

  1. HIV-1 Nef targets MHC-I and CD4 for degradation via a final common beta-COP-dependent pathway in T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Malinda R; Wonderlich, Elizabeth R; Roeth, Jeremiah F; Leonard, Jolie A; Collins, Kathleen L

    2008-08-22

    To facilitate viral infection and spread, HIV-1 Nef disrupts the surface expression of the viral receptor (CD4) and molecules capable of presenting HIV antigens to the immune system (MHC-I). To accomplish this, Nef binds to the cytoplasmic tails of both molecules and then, by mechanisms that are not well understood, disrupts the trafficking of each molecule in different ways. Specifically, Nef promotes CD4 internalization after it has been transported to the cell surface, whereas Nef uses the clathrin adaptor, AP-1, to disrupt normal transport of MHC-I from the TGN to the cell surface. Despite these differences in initial intracellular trafficking, we demonstrate that MHC-I and CD4 are ultimately found in the same Rab7(+) vesicles and are both targeted for degradation via the activity of the Nef-interacting protein, beta-COP. Moreover, we demonstrate that Nef contains two separable beta-COP binding sites. One site, an arginine (RXR) motif in the N-terminal alpha helical domain of Nef, is necessary for maximal MHC-I degradation. The second site, composed of a di-acidic motif located in the C-terminal loop domain of Nef, is needed for efficient CD4 degradation. The requirement for redundant motifs with distinct roles supports a model in which Nef exists in multiple conformational states that allow access to different motifs, depending upon which cellular target is bound by Nef.

  2. Prospective Memory in HIV-1 Infection

    OpenAIRE

    CAREY, CATHERINE L.; WOODS, STEVEN PAUL; RIPPETH, JULIE D.; HEATON, ROBERT K.; GRANT, IGOR

    2006-01-01

    The cognitive deficits associated with HIV-1 infection are thought to primarily reflect neuropathophysiology within the fronto-striato-thalamo-cortical circuits. Prospective memory (ProM) is a cognitive function that is largely dependent on prefronto-striatal circuits, but has not previously been examined in an HIV-1 sample. A form of episodic memory, ProM involves the complex processes of forming, monitoring, and executing future intentions vis-à-vis ongoing distractions. The current study e...

  3. HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein resistance to monoclonal antibody 2G12 is subject-specific and context-dependent in macaques and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malherbe, Delphine C; Sanders, Rogier W; van Gils, Marit J; Park, Byung; Gomes, Michelle M; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Barnett, Susan; Haigwood, Nancy L

    2013-01-01

    HIV-1 Envelope (Env) protein is the sole target of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) that arise during infection to neutralize autologous variants. Under this immune pressure, HIV escape variants are continuously selected and over the course of infection Env becomes more neutralization resistant. Many common alterations are known to affect sensitivity to NAbs, including residues encoding potential N-linked glycosylation sites (PNGS). Knowledge of Env motifs associated with neutralization resistance is valuable for the design of an effective Env-based vaccine so we characterized Envs isolated longitudinally from a SHIV(SF162P4) infected macaque for sensitivity to neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) B12, 2G12, 4E10 and 2F5. The early Env, isolated from plasma at day 56 after infection, was the most sensitive and the late Env, from day 670, was the most resistant to MAbs. We identified four PNGS in these Envs that accumulated over time at positions 130, 139, 160 and 397. We determined that removal of these PNGS significantly increased neutralization sensitivity to 2G12, and conversely, we identified mutations by in silico analyses that contributed resistance to 2G12 neutralization. In order to expand our understanding of these PNGS, we analyzed Envs from clade B HIV-infected human subjects and identified additional glycan and amino acid changes that could affect neutralization by 2G12 in a context-dependent manner. Taken together, these in vitro and in silico analyses of clade B Envs revealed that 2G12 resistance is achieved by previously unrecognized PNGS substitutions in a context-dependent manner and by subject-specific pathways.

  4. HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein resistance to monoclonal antibody 2G12 is subject-specific and context-dependent in macaques and humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine C Malherbe

    Full Text Available HIV-1 Envelope (Env protein is the sole target of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs that arise during infection to neutralize autologous variants. Under this immune pressure, HIV escape variants are continuously selected and over the course of infection Env becomes more neutralization resistant. Many common alterations are known to affect sensitivity to NAbs, including residues encoding potential N-linked glycosylation sites (PNGS. Knowledge of Env motifs associated with neutralization resistance is valuable for the design of an effective Env-based vaccine so we characterized Envs isolated longitudinally from a SHIV(SF162P4 infected macaque for sensitivity to neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs B12, 2G12, 4E10 and 2F5. The early Env, isolated from plasma at day 56 after infection, was the most sensitive and the late Env, from day 670, was the most resistant to MAbs. We identified four PNGS in these Envs that accumulated over time at positions 130, 139, 160 and 397. We determined that removal of these PNGS significantly increased neutralization sensitivity to 2G12, and conversely, we identified mutations by in silico analyses that contributed resistance to 2G12 neutralization. In order to expand our understanding of these PNGS, we analyzed Envs from clade B HIV-infected human subjects and identified additional glycan and amino acid changes that could affect neutralization by 2G12 in a context-dependent manner. Taken together, these in vitro and in silico analyses of clade B Envs revealed that 2G12 resistance is achieved by previously unrecognized PNGS substitutions in a context-dependent manner and by subject-specific pathways.

  5. Vaccination with TAT-antigen fusion protein induces protective, CD8(+) T cell-mediated immunity against Leishmania major

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kronenberg, Katharina; Brosch, Sven; Butsch, Florian; Tada, Yayoi; Shibagaki, Naotaka; Udey, Mark C; von Stebut, Esther

    2010-01-01

    ...; induction of CD8 responses has proven to be difficult. We evaluated the immunogenicity of fusion proteins comprising the protein transduction domain of HIV-1 TAT and the Leishmania antigen LACK...

  6. High-Salinity Growth Conditions Promote Tat-Independent Secretion of Tat Substrates in Bacillus subtilis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ploeg, Rene; Monteferrante, Carmine G.; Piersma, Sjouke; Barnett, James P.; Kouwen, Thijs R. H. M.; Robinson, Colin; van Dijl, Jan Maarten

    2012-01-01

    The Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis contains two Tat translocases, which can facilitate transport of folded proteins across the plasma membrane. Previous research has shown that Tat-dependent protein secretion in B. subtilis is a highly selective process and that heterologous proteins,

  7. HIV-1 vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excler, Jean-Louis; Robb, Merlin L; Kim, Jerome H

    2014-01-01

    The development of a safe and effective preventive HIV-1 vaccine remains a public health priority. Despite scientific difficulties and disappointing results, HIV-1 vaccine clinical development has, for the first time, established proof-of-concept efficacy against HIV-1 acquisition and identified vaccine-associated immune correlates of risk. The correlate of risk analysis showed that IgG antibodies against the gp120 V2 loop correlated with decreased risk of HIV infection, while Env-specific IgA directly correlated with increased risk. The development of vaccine strategies such as improved envelope proteins formulated with potent adjuvants and DNA and vectors expressing mosaics, or conserved sequences, capable of eliciting greater breadth and depth of potentially relevant immune responses including neutralizing and non-neutralizing antibodies, CD4+ and CD8+ cell-mediated immune responses, mucosal immune responses, and immunological memory, is now proceeding quickly. Additional human efficacy trials combined with other prevention modalities along with sustained funding and international collaboration remain key to bring an HIV-1 vaccine to licensure. PMID:24637946

  8. Binding of HIV-1 gp120 to DC-SIGN Promotes ASK-1-Dependent Activation-Induced Apoptosis of Human Dendritic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Vera S. F.; Chung, Nancy P. Y.; Wang, Shu-Rong; Li, Zhongye; Ma, Jing; Lin, Chia-Wei; Hsieh, Ya-Ju; Chang, Kao-Ping; Kung, Sui-Sum; Wu, Yi-Chia; Chu, Cheng-Wei; Tai, Hsiao-Ting; Gao, George F.; Zheng, Bojian; Yokoyama, Kazunari K.; Austyn, Jonathan M.; Lin, Chen-Lung S.

    2013-01-01

    During disease progression to AIDS, HIV-1 infected individuals become increasingly immunosuppressed and susceptible to opportunistic infections. It has also been demonstrated that multiple subsets of dendritic cells (DC), including DC-SIGN(+) cells, become significantly depleted in the blood and lymphoid tissues of AIDS patients, which may contribute to the failure in initiating effective host immune responses. The mechanism for DC depletion, however, is unclear. It is also known that vast quantities of viral envelope protein gp120 are shed from maturing HIV-1 virions and form circulating immune complexes in the serum of HIV-1-infected individuals, but the pathological role of gp120 in HIV-1 pathogenesis remains elusive. Here we describe a previously unrecognized mechanism of DC death in chronic HIV-1 infection, in which ligation of DC-SIGN by gp120 sensitizes DC to undergo accelerated apoptosis in response to a variety of activation stimuli. The cultured monocyte-derived DC and also freshly-isolated DC-SIGN(+) blood DC that were exposed to either cross-linked recombinant gp120 or immune-complex gp120 in HIV(+) serum underwent considerable apoptosis after CD40 ligation or exposure to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNFα and IL-1β. Furthermore, circulating DC-SIGN(+) DC that were isolated directly from HIV-1(+) individuals had actually been pre-sensitized by serum gp120 for activation-induced exorbitant apoptosis. In all cases the DC apoptosis was substantially inhibited by DC-SIGN blockade. Finally, we showed that accelerated DC apoptosis was a direct consequence of excessive activation of the pro-apoptotic molecule ASK-1 and transfection of siRNA against ASK-1 significantly prevented the activation-induced excessive DC death. Our study discloses a previously unknown mechanism of immune modulation by envelope protein gp120, provides new insights into HIV immunopathogenesis, and suggests potential therapeutic approaches to

  9. Comparative analysis of twin-arginine (Tat)-dependent protein secretion of a heterologous model protein (GFP) in three different Gram-positive bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meissner, Daniel; Vollstedt, Angela; van Dijl, Jan Maarten; Freudl, Roland

    In contrast to the general protein secretion (Sec) system, the twin-arginine translocation (Tat) export pathway allows the translocation of proteins across the bacterial plasma membrane in a fully folded conformation. Due to this feature, the Tat pathway provides an attractive alternative to the

  10. Human Ubc9 is involved in intracellular HIV-1 Env stability after trafficking out of the trans-Golgi network in a Gag dependent manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R Bohl

    Full Text Available The cellular E2 Sumo conjugase, Ubc9 interacts with HIV-1 Gag, and is important for the assembly of infectious HIV-1 virions. In the previous study we demonstrated that in the absence of Ubc9, a defect in virion assembly was associated with decreased levels of mature intracellular Envelope (Env that affected Env incorporation into virions and virion infectivity. We have further characterized the effect of Ubc9 knockdown on HIV Env processing and assembly. We found that gp160 stability in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER and its trafficking to the trans-Golgi network (TGN were unaffected, indicating that the decreased intracellular mature Env levels in Ubc9-depleted cells were due to a selective degradation of mature Env gp120 after cleavage from gp160 and trafficked out of the TGN. Decreased levels of Gag and mature Env were found to be associated with the plasma membrane and lipid rafts, which suggest that these viral proteins were not trafficked correctly to the assembly site. Intracellular gp120 were partially rescued when treated with a combination of lysosome inhibitors. Taken together our results suggest that in the absence of Ubc9, gp120 is preferentially degraded in the lysosomes likely before trafficking to assembly sites leading to the production of defective virions. This study provides further insight in the processing and packaging of the HIV-1 gp120 into mature HIV-1 virions.

  11. Human Ubc9 is involved in intracellular HIV-1 Env stability after trafficking out of the trans-Golgi network in a Gag dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohl, Christopher R; Abrahamyan, Levon G; Wood, Charles

    2013-01-01

    The cellular E2 Sumo conjugase, Ubc9 interacts with HIV-1 Gag, and is important for the assembly of infectious HIV-1 virions. In the previous study we demonstrated that in the absence of Ubc9, a defect in virion assembly was associated with decreased levels of mature intracellular Envelope (Env) that affected Env incorporation into virions and virion infectivity. We have further characterized the effect of Ubc9 knockdown on HIV Env processing and assembly. We found that gp160 stability in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and its trafficking to the trans-Golgi network (TGN) were unaffected, indicating that the decreased intracellular mature Env levels in Ubc9-depleted cells were due to a selective degradation of mature Env gp120 after cleavage from gp160 and trafficked out of the TGN. Decreased levels of Gag and mature Env were found to be associated with the plasma membrane and lipid rafts, which suggest that these viral proteins were not trafficked correctly to the assembly site. Intracellular gp120 were partially rescued when treated with a combination of lysosome inhibitors. Taken together our results suggest that in the absence of Ubc9, gp120 is preferentially degraded in the lysosomes likely before trafficking to assembly sites leading to the production of defective virions. This study provides further insight in the processing and packaging of the HIV-1 gp120 into mature HIV-1 virions.

  12. HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein resistance to monoclonal antibody 2G12 is subject-specific and context-dependent in macaques and humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malherbe, Delphine C.; Sanders, Rogier W.; van Gils, Marit J.; Park, Byung; Gomes, Michelle M.; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Barnett, Susan; Haigwood, Nancy L.

    2013-01-01

    HIV-1 Envelope (Env) protein is the sole target of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) that arise during infection to neutralize autologous variants. Under this immune pressure, HIV escape variants are continuously selected and over the course of infection Env becomes more neutralization resistant. Many

  13. Prospective memory in HIV-1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Catherine L; Woods, Steven Paul; Rippeth, Julie D; Heaton, Robert K; Grant, Igor

    2006-05-01

    The cognitive deficits associated with HIV-1 infection are thought to primarily reflect neuropathophysiology within the fronto-striato-thalamo-cortical circuits. Prospective memory (ProM) is a cognitive function that is largely dependent on prefronto-striatal circuits, but has not previously been examined in an HIV-1 sample. A form of episodic memory, ProM involves the complex processes of forming, monitoring, and executing future intentions vis-à-vis ongoing distractions. The current study examined ProM in 42 participants with HIV-1 infection and 29 demographically similar seronegative healthy comparison (HC) subjects. The HIV-1 sample demonstrated deficits in time- and event-based ProM, as well as more frequent 24-hour delay ProM failures and task substitution errors relative to the HC group. In contrast, there were no significant differences in recognition performance, indicating that the HIV-1 group was able to accurately retain and recognize the ProM intention when retrieval demands were minimized. Secondary analyses revealed that ProM performance correlated with validated clinical measures of executive functions, episodic memory (free recall), and verbal working memory, but not with tests of semantic memory, retention, or recognition discrimination. Taken together, these findings indicate that HIV-1 infection is associated with ProM impairment that is primarily driven by a breakdown in the strategic (i.e., executive) aspects of retrieving future intentions, which is consistent with a prefronto-striatal circuit neuropathogenesis.

  14. Tat gets the "green" light on transcription initiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashanchi Fatah

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 Tat transactivation is an essential step in the viral life cycle. Over the past several years, it has become widely accepted that Tat exerts its transcriptional effect by binding the transactivation-responsive region (TAR and enhancing transcriptional elongation. Consistent with this hypothesis, it has been shown that Tat promotes the binding of P-TEFb, a transcription elongation factor composed of cyclin T1 and cdk9, and the interaction of Tat with P-TEFb and TAR leads to hyperphosphorylation of the C-terminal domain (CTD of RNA Pol II and increased processivity of RNA Pol II. A recent report, however, has generated renewed interest that Tat may also play a critical role in transcription complex (TC assembly at the preinitiation step. Using in vivo chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, the authors reported that the HIV TC contains TBP but not TBP-associated factors. The stimulatory effect involved the direct interaction of Tat and P-TEFb and was evident at the earliest step of TC assembly, the TBP-TATA box interaction. In this article, we will review this data in context of earlier data which also support Tat's involvement in transcriptional complex assembly. Specifically, we will discuss experiments which demonstrated that Tat interacted with TBP and increased transcription initiation complex stability in cell free assays. We will also discuss studies which demonstrated that over expression of TBP alone was sufficient to obtain Tat activated transcription in vitro and in vivo. Finally, studies using self-cleaving ribozymes which suggested that Tat transactivation was not compatible with pausing of the RNA Pol II at the TAR site will be discussed.

  15. Identification of novel HIV-1 dependency factors in primary CCR4(+)CCR6(+)Th17 cells via a genome-wide transcriptional approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleret-Buhot, Aurélie; Zhang, Yuwei; Planas, Delphine; Goulet, Jean-Philippe; Monteiro, Patricia; Gosselin, Annie; Wacleche, Vanessa Sue; Tremblay, Cécile L; Jenabian, Mohammad-Ali; Routy, Jean-Pierre; El-Far, Mohamed; Chomont, Nicolas; Haddad, Elias K; Sekaly, Rafick-Pierre; Ancuta, Petronela

    2015-12-10

    The HIV-1 infection is characterized by profound CD4(+) T cell destruction and a marked Th17 dysfunction at the mucosal level. Viral suppressive antiretroviral therapy restores Th1 but not Th17 cells. Although several key HIV dependency factors (HDF) were identified in the past years via genome-wide siRNA screens in cell lines, molecular determinants of HIV permissiveness in primary Th17 cells remain to be elucidated. In an effort to orient Th17-targeted reconstitution strategies, we investigated molecular mechanisms of HIV permissiveness in Th17 cells. Genome-wide transcriptional profiling in memory CD4(+) T-cell subsets enriched in cells exhibiting Th17 (CCR4(+)CCR6(+)), Th1 (CXCR3(+)CCR6(-)), Th2 (CCR4(+)CCR6(-)), and Th1Th17 (CXCR3(+)CCR6(+)) features revealed remarkable transcriptional differences between Th17 and Th1 subsets. The HIV-DNA integration was superior in Th17 versus Th1 upon exposure to both wild-type and VSV-G-pseudotyped HIV; this indicates that post-entry mechanisms contribute to viral replication in Th17. Transcripts significantly enriched in Th17 versus Th1 were previously associated with the regulation of TCR signaling (ZAP-70, Lck, and CD96) and Th17 polarization (RORγt, ARNTL, PTPN13, and RUNX1). A meta-analysis using the NCBI HIV Interaction Database revealed a set of Th17-specific HIV dependency factors (HDFs): PARG, PAK2, KLF2, ITGB7, PTEN, ATG16L1, Alix/AIP1/PDCD6IP, LGALS3, JAK1, TRIM8, MALT1, FOXO3, ARNTL/BMAL1, ABCB1/MDR1, TNFSF13B/BAFF, and CDKN1B. Functional studies demonstrated an increased ability of Th17 versus Th1 cells to respond to TCR triggering in terms of NF-κB nuclear translocation/DNA-binding activity and proliferation. Finally, RNA interference studies identified MAP3K4 and PTPN13 as two novel Th17-specific HDFs. The transcriptional program of Th17 cells includes molecules regulating HIV replication at multiple post-entry steps that may represent potential targets for novel therapies aimed at protecting Th17 cells

  16. Processing by rhomboid protease is required for Providencia stuartii TatA to interact with TatC and to form functional homo-oligomeric complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsch, Maximilian J; Krehenbrink, Martin; Tarry, Michael J; Berks, Ben C; Palmer, Tracy

    2012-06-01

    The twin arginine transport (Tat) system transports folded proteins across the prokaryotic cytoplasmic membrane and the plant thylakoid membrane. In Escherichia coli three membrane proteins, TatA, TatB and TatC, are essential components of the machinery. TatA from Providencia stuartii is homologous to E. coli TatA but is synthesized as an inactive pre-protein with an N-terminal extension of eight amino acids. Removal of this extension by the rhomboid protease AarA is required to activate P. stuartii TatA. Here we show that P. stuartii TatA can functionally substitute for E. coli TatA provided that the E. coli homologue of AarA, GlpG, is present. The oligomerization state of the P. stuartii TatA pro-protein was compared with that of the proteolytically activated protein and with E. coli TatA. The pro-protein still formed small homo-oligomers but cannot form large TatBC-dependent assemblies. In the absence of TatB, E. coli TatA or the processed form of P. stuartii TatA form a complex with TatC. However, this complex is not observed with the pro-form of P. stuartii TatA. Taken together our results suggest that the P. stuartii TatA pro-protein is inactive because it is unable to interact with TatC and cannot form the large TatA complexes required for transport. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Mechanisms of HIV-1 Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Mary; Srikrishna, Geetha; Balagopal, Ashwin

    2017-06-01

    HIV-1 infection is of global importance, and still incurs substantial morbidity and mortality. Although major pharmacologic advances over the past two decades have resulted in remarkable HIV-1 control, a cure is still forthcoming. One approach to a cure is to exploit natural mechanisms by which the host restricts HIV-1. Herein, we review past and recent discoveries of HIV-1 restriction factors, a diverse set of host proteins that limit HIV-1 replication at multiple levels, including entry, reverse transcription, integration, translation of viral proteins, and packaging and release of virions. Recent studies of intracellular HIV-1 restriction have offered unique molecular insights into HIV-1 replication and biology. Studies have revealed insights of how restriction factors drive HIV-1 evolution. Although HIV-1 restriction factors only partially control the virus, their importance is underscored by their effect on HIV-1 evolution and adaptation. The list of host restriction factors that control HIV-1 infection is likely to expand with future discoveries. A deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms of regulation by these factors will uncover new targets for therapeutic control of HIV-1 infection.

  18. Interferon alpha and Tat involvement in the immunosuppression of uninfected T cells and C-C chemokine decline in AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagury, D; Lachgar, A; Chams, V; Fall, L S; Bernard, J; Zagury, J F; Bizzini, B; Gringeri, A; Santagostino, E; Rappaport, J; Feldman, M; Burny, A; Gallo, R C

    1998-03-31

    HIV type 1 (HIV-1) not only directly kills infected CD4(+) T cells but also induces immunosuppression of uninfected T cells. Two immunosuppressive proteins, interferon alpha (IFNalpha) and extracellular Tat, mediate this process because specific antibodies against these proteins prevent generation of suppressor cells in HIV-1-infected peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures. Furthermore, the production of C-C chemokines in response to immune cell activation, initially enhanced by IFNalpha and Tat, ultimately is inhibited by these proteins in parallel with their induction of immunosuppression. The clinical corollary is the immunosuppression of uninfected T cells and the decline in C-C chemokine release found at advanced stages of HIV-1 infection paralleling rising levels of IFNalpha and extracellular Tat. We, therefore, suggest that IFNalpha and Tat may be critical targets for anti-AIDS strategies.

  19. HIV-1 infection of in vitro cultured human monocytes: early events and influence of anti HIV-1 antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendrup, M; Olofsson, S; Nielsen, Jens Ole

    1994-01-01

    To characterize the role of the humoral immune response on HIV-1 infection of monocytes and macrophages (M phi s) we examined the susceptibility of in vitro cultured monocyte/M phi s to various HIV-1 isolates and the influence of heterologous and particularly autologous anti HIV-1 sera...... on this infection. Depending on the period of in vitro cultivation and the virus isolate used different patterns of susceptibility were detected. One week old monocyte/M phi s were highly susceptible to HIV-1 infection, in contrast to monocyte/M phi s cultured 4 weeks. The infection by virus isolated immediately...

  20. Recruitment of Tat to heterochromatin protein HP1 via interaction with CTIP2 inhibits human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication in microglial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohr, Olivier; Lecestre, Dominique; Chasserot-Golaz, Sylvette; Marban, Céline; Avram, Dorina; Aunis, Dominique; Leid, Mark; Schaeffer, Evelyne

    2003-05-01

    The Tat protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) plays a key role as inducer of viral gene expression. We report that Tat function can be potently inhibited in human microglial cells by the recently described nuclear receptor cofactor chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factor-interacting protein 2 (CTIP2). Overexpression of CTIP2 leads to repression of HIV-1 replication, as a result of inhibition of Tat-mediated transactivation. In contrast, the related CTIP1 was unable to affect Tat function and viral replication. Using confocal microscopy to visualize Tat subcellular distribution in the presence of the CTIPs, we found that overexpression of CTIP2, and not of CTIP1, leads to disruption of Tat nuclear localization and recruitment of Tat within CTIP2-induced nuclear ball-like structures. In addition, our studies demonstrate that CTIP2 colocalizes and associates with the heterochromatin-associated protein HP1alpha. The CTIP2 protein harbors two Tat and HP1 interaction interfaces, the 145-434 and the 717-813 domains. CTIP2 and HP1alpha associate with Tat to form a three-protein complex in which the 145-434 CTIP2 domain interacts with the N-terminal region of Tat, while the 717-813 domain binds to HP1. The importance of this Tat binding interface and of Tat subnuclear relocation was confirmed by analysis of CTIP2 deletion mutants. Our findings suggest that inhibition of HIV-1 expression by CTIP2 correlates with recruitment of Tat within CTIP2-induced structures and relocalization within inactive regions of the chromatin via formation of the Tat-CTIP2-HP1alpha complex. These data highlight a new mechanism of Tat inactivation through subnuclear relocalization that may ultimately lead to inhibition of viral pathogenesis.

  1. Revisiting HIV-1 uncoating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arhel Nathalie

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract HIV uncoating is defined as the loss of viral capsid that occurs within the cytoplasm of infected cells before entry of the viral genome into the nucleus. It is an obligatory step of HIV-1 early infection and accompanies the transition between reverse transcription complexes (RTCs, in which reverse transcription occurs, and pre-integration complexes (PICs, which are competent to integrate into the host genome. The study of the nature and timing of HIV-1 uncoating has been paved with difficulties, particularly as a result of the vulnerability of the capsid assembly to experimental manipulation. Nevertheless, recent studies of capsid structure, retroviral restriction and mechanisms of nuclear import, as well as the recent expansion of technical advances in genome-wide studies and cell imagery approaches, have substantially changed our understanding of HIV uncoating. Although early work suggested that uncoating occurs immediately following viral entry in the cell, thus attributing a trivial role for the capsid in infected cells, recent data suggest that uncoating occurs several hours later and that capsid has an all-important role in the cell that it infects: for transport towards the nucleus, reverse transcription and nuclear import. Knowing that uncoating occurs at a later stage suggests that the viral capsid interacts extensively with the cytoskeleton and other cytoplasmic components during its transport to the nucleus, which leads to a considerable reassessment of our efforts to identify potential therapeutic targets for HIV therapy. This review discusses our current understanding of HIV uncoating, the functional interplay between infectivity and timely uncoating, as well as exposing the appropriate methods to study uncoating and addressing the many questions that remain unanswered.

  2. Single Particle Tracking Confirms That Multivalent Tat Protein Transduction Domain-induced Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycan Cross-linkage Activates Rac1 for Internalization*

    OpenAIRE

    Imamura, Junji; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Gonda, Kohsuke; Roy, Chandra Nath; Gatanaga, Hiroyuki; Ohuchi, Noriaki; Higuchi, Hideo

    2011-01-01

    The mechanism by which HIV-1-Tat protein transduction domain (TatP) enters the cell remains unclear because of an insufficient understanding of the initial kinetics of peptide entry. Here, we report the successful visualization and tracking of TatP molecular kinetics on the cell surface with 7-nm spatial precision using quantum dots. Strong cell binding was only observed with a TatP valence of ≥8, whereas monovalent TatP binding was negligible. The requirement of the cell-surface heparan sulf...

  3. A novel bivalent HIV-1 entry inhibitor reveals fundamental differences in CCR5 -μ- opioid receptor interactions in human astroglia and microglia

    Science.gov (United States)

    EL-HAGE, Nazira; DEVER, Seth M.; PODHAIZER, Elizabeth M.; ARNATT, Cristopher K.; ZHANG, Yan; HAUSER, Kurt F.

    2013-01-01

    Objective We explored whether the opiate, morphine, affects the actions of maraviroc, as well as a recently synthesized bivalent derivative of maraviroc linked to an opioid antagonist, naltrexone, on HIV-1 entry in primary human glia. Methods HIV-1 entry was monitored in glia transiently transfected with an LTR construct containing a luciferase reporter gene under control of a promoter for the HIV-1 transactivator protein Tat. The effect of maraviroc and the bivalent ligand ± morphine on CCR5 surface expression and cytokine release was also explored. Results Maraviroc inhibits HIV-1 entry into glial cells, while morphine negates the effects of maraviroc leading to a significant increase in viral entry. We also demonstrate that the maraviroc-containing bivalent ligand better inhibits R5-tropic viral entry in astrocytes than microglia compared to maraviroc when coadministered with morphine. Importantly, the inhibitory effects of the bivalent compound in astrocytes were not compromised by morphine. Exposure to maraviroc decreased the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and restricted HIV-1-dependent increases in CCR5 expression in both astrocytes and microglia, while exposure to the bivalent had similar effect in astrocytes but not in microglia. CCR5-MOR stoichiometric ratio varied among the two cell types with CCR5 expressed at much higher levels than MOR in microglia, which could explain the effectiveness of the bivalent ligand in astrocytes compared to microglia. Conclusion A novel bivalent compound reveals fundamental differences in CCR5-MOR interactions and HIV-1 infectivity among glia, and has unique therapeutic potential in opiate abuse-HIV interactive comorbidity. PMID:23751259

  4. HIV-1 replication in macrophages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kootstra, N.A.

    1999-01-01

    Lentiviruses such as the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) are considered to be unique amongst the retroviruses due to their ability to replicate in macrophages, which are often referred to as non-dividing cells. The studies described in this thesis focus on the ability of HIV-1 to

  5. A template-dependent dislocation mechanism potentiates K65R reverse transcriptase mutation development in subtype C variants of HIV-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Coutsinos

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have suggested that the K65R reverse transcriptase (RT mutation develops more readily in subtype C than subtype B HIV-1. We recently showed that this discrepancy lies partly in the subtype C template coding sequence that predisposes RT to pause at the site of K65R mutagenesis. However, the mechanism underlying this observation and the elevated rates of K65R development remained unknown. Here, we report that DNA synthesis performed with subtype C templates consistently produced more K65R-containing transcripts than subtype B templates, regardless of the subtype-origin of the RT enzymes employed. These findings confirm that the mechanism involved is template-specific and RT-independent. In addition, a pattern of DNA synthesis characteristic of site-specific primer/template slippage and dislocation was only observed with the subtype C sequence. Analysis of RNA secondary structure suggested that the latter was unlikely to impact on K65R development between subtypes and that Streisinger strand slippage during DNA synthesis at the homopolymeric nucleotide stretch of the subtype C K65 region might occur, resulting in misalignment of the primer and template. Consequently, slippage would lead to a deletion of the middle adenine of codon K65 and the production of a -1 frameshift mutation, which upon dislocation and realignment of the primer and template, would lead to development of the K65R mutation. These findings provide additional mechanistic evidence for the facilitated development of the K65R mutation in subtype C HIV-1.

  6. Delineating CD4 dependency of HIV-1: Adaptation to infect low level CD4 expressing target cells widens cellular tropism but severely impacts on envelope functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauparlant, David; Rusert, Peter; Magnus, Carsten; Kadelka, Claus; Weber, Jacqueline; Uhr, Therese; Zagordi, Osvaldo; Oberle, Corinna; Duenas-Decamp, Maria J; Clapham, Paul R; Metzner, Karin J; Günthard, Huldrych F; Trkola, Alexandra

    2017-03-01

    A hallmark of HIV-1 infection is the continuously declining number of the virus' predominant target cells, activated CD4+ T cells. With diminishing CD4+ T cell levels, the capacity to utilize alternate cell types and receptors, including cells that express low CD4 receptor levels such as macrophages, thus becomes crucial. To explore evolutionary paths that allow HIV-1 to acquire a wider host cell range by infecting cells with lower CD4 levels, we dissected the evolution of the envelope-CD4 interaction under in vitro culture conditions that mimicked the decline of CD4high target cells, using a prototypic subtype B, R5-tropic strain. Adaptation to CD4low targets proved to severely alter envelope functions including trimer opening as indicated by a higher affinity to CD4 and loss in shielding against neutralizing antibodies. We observed a strikingly decreased infectivity on CD4high target cells, but sustained infectivity on CD4low targets, including macrophages. Intriguingly, the adaptation to CD4low targets altered the kinetic of the entry process, leading to rapid CD4 engagement and an extended transition time between CD4 and CCR5 binding during entry. This phenotype was also observed for certain central nervous system (CNS) derived macrophage-tropic viruses, highlighting that the functional perturbation we defined upon in vitro adaptation to CD4low targets occurs in vivo. Collectively, our findings suggest that CD4low adapted envelopes may exhibit severe deficiencies in entry fitness and shielding early in their evolution. Considering this, adaptation to CD4low targets may preferentially occur in a sheltered and immune-privileged environment such as the CNS to allow fitness restoring compensatory mutations to occur.

  7. Delineating CD4 dependency of HIV-1: Adaptation to infect low level CD4 expressing target cells widens cellular tropism but severely impacts on envelope functionality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Beauparlant

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A hallmark of HIV-1 infection is the continuously declining number of the virus' predominant target cells, activated CD4+ T cells. With diminishing CD4+ T cell levels, the capacity to utilize alternate cell types and receptors, including cells that express low CD4 receptor levels such as macrophages, thus becomes crucial. To explore evolutionary paths that allow HIV-1 to acquire a wider host cell range by infecting cells with lower CD4 levels, we dissected the evolution of the envelope-CD4 interaction under in vitro culture conditions that mimicked the decline of CD4high target cells, using a prototypic subtype B, R5-tropic strain. Adaptation to CD4low targets proved to severely alter envelope functions including trimer opening as indicated by a higher affinity to CD4 and loss in shielding against neutralizing antibodies. We observed a strikingly decreased infectivity on CD4high target cells, but sustained infectivity on CD4low targets, including macrophages. Intriguingly, the adaptation to CD4low targets altered the kinetic of the entry process, leading to rapid CD4 engagement and an extended transition time between CD4 and CCR5 binding during entry. This phenotype was also observed for certain central nervous system (CNS derived macrophage-tropic viruses, highlighting that the functional perturbation we defined upon in vitro adaptation to CD4low targets occurs in vivo. Collectively, our findings suggest that CD4low adapted envelopes may exhibit severe deficiencies in entry fitness and shielding early in their evolution. Considering this, adaptation to CD4low targets may preferentially occur in a sheltered and immune-privileged environment such as the CNS to allow fitness restoring compensatory mutations to occur.

  8. Drug 9AA reactivates p21/Waf1 and Inhibits HIV-1 progeny formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubrovsky Larisa

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract It has been demonstrated that the p53 pathway plays an important role in HIV-1 infection. Previous work from our lab has established a model demonstrating how p53 could become inactivated in HIV-1 infected cells through binding to Tat. Subsequently, p53 was inactivated and lost its ability to transactivate its downstream target gene p21/waf1. P21/waf1 is a well-known cdk inhibitor (CKI that can lead to cell cycle arrest upon DNA damage. Most recently, the p21/waf1 function was further investigated as a molecular barrier for HIV-1 infection of stem cells. Therefore, we reason that the restoration of the p53 and p21/waf1 pathways could be a possible theraputical arsenal for combating HIV-1 infection. In this current study, we show that a small chemical molecule, 9-aminoacridine (9AA at low concentrations, could efficiently reactivate p53 pathway and thereby restoring the p21/waf1 function. Further, we show that the 9AA could significantly inhibit virus replication in activated PBMCs, likely through a mechanism of inhibiting the viral replication machinery. A mechanism study reveals that the phosphorylated p53ser15 may be dissociated from binding to HIV-1 Tat protein, thereby activating the p21/waf1 gene. Finally, we also show that the 9AA-activated p21/waf1 is recruited to HIV-1 preintegration complex, through a mechanism yet to be elucidated.

  9. Can the HIV-1 splicing machinery be targeted for drug discovery?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dlamini Z

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Zodwa Dlamini, Rodney Hull Research, Innovation & Engagements Portfolio, Mangosuthu University of Technology, Durban, South Africa Abstract: HIV-1 is able to express multiple protein types and isoforms from a single 9 kb mRNA transcript. These proteins are also expressed at particular stages of viral development, and this is achieved through the control of alternative splicing and the export of these transcripts from the nucleus. The nuclear export is controlled by the HIV protein Rev being required to transport incompletely spliced and partially spliced mRNA from the nucleus where they are normally retained. This implies a close relationship between the control of alternate splicing and the nuclear export of mRNA in the control of HIV-1 viral proliferation. This review discusses both the processes. The specificity and regulation of splicing in HIV-1 is controlled by the use of specific splice sites as well as exonic splicing enhancer and exonic splicing silencer sequences. The use of these silencer and enhancer sequences is dependent on the serine arginine family of proteins as well as the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein family of proteins that bind to these sequences and increase or decrease splicing. Since alternative splicing is such a critical factor in viral development, it presents itself as a promising drug target. This review aims to discuss the inhibition of splicing, which would stall viral development, as an anti-HIV therapeutic strategy. In this review, the most recent knowledge of splicing in human immunodeficiency viral development and the latest therapeutic strategies targeting human immunodeficiency viral splicing are discussed. Keywords: alternative splicing, exonic splicing enhancer, exonic specific silencer, splicing based therapies, SR proteins, hnRNP, Rev, Tat, Vpr

  10. Epigenetic heterogeneity in HIV-1 latency establishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Yuka; Kobayashi-Ishihara, Mie; Fujikawa, Dai; Ishida, Takaomi; Watanabe, Toshiki; Yamagishi, Makoto

    2015-01-09

    Despite prolonged antiretroviral therapy, HIV-1 persists as transcriptionally inactive proviruses. The HIV-1 latency remains a principal obstacle in curing AIDS. It is important to understand mechanisms by which HIV-1 latency is established to make the latent reservoir smaller. We present a molecular characterization of distinct populations at an early phase of infection. We developed an original dual-color reporter virus to monitor LTR kinetics from establishment to maintenance stage. We found that there are two ways of latency establishment i.e., by immediate silencing and slow inactivation from active infection. Histone covalent modifications, particularly polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2)-mediated H3K27 trimethylation, appeared to dominate viral transcription at the early phase. PRC2 also contributes to time-dependent LTR dormancy in the chronic phase of the infection. Significant differences in sensitivity against several stimuli were observed between these two distinct populations. These results will expand our understanding of heterogeneous establishment of HIV-1 latency populations.

  11. Morphine enhances HIV-1SF162-mediated neuron death and delays recovery of injured neurites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masvekar, Ruturaj R; El-Hage, Nazira; Hauser, Kurt F; Knapp, Pamela E

    2014-01-01

    HIV-1 enters the CNS soon after initial systemic infection; within the CNS parenchyma infected and/or activated perivascular macrophages, microglia and astrocytes release viral and cellular toxins that drive secondary toxicity in neurons and other cell types. Our previous work has largely modeled HIV-neuropathology using the individual viral proteins Tat or gp120, with murine striatal neurons as targets. To model disease processes more closely, the current study uses supernatant from HIV-1-infected cells. Supernatant from HIV-1SF162-infected differentiated-U937 cells (HIV+sup) was collected and p24 level was measured by ELISA to assess the infection. Injection drug abuse is a significant risk factor for HIV-infection, and opiate drug abusers show increased HIV-neuropathology, even with anti-retroviral treatments. We therefore assessed HIV+sup effects on neuronal survival and neurite growth/pruning with or without concurrent exposure to morphine, an opiate that preferentially acts through µ-opioid receptors. Effects of HIV+sup ± morphine were assessed on neuronal populations, and also by time-lapse imaging of individual cells. HIV+sup caused dose-dependent toxicity over a range of p24 levels (10-500 pg/ml). Significant interactions occurred with morphine at lower p24 levels (10 and 25 pg/ml), and GSK3β was implicated as a point of convergence. In the presence of glia, selective neurotoxic measures were significantly enhanced and interactions with morphine were also augmented, perhaps related to a decreased level of BDNF. Importantly, the arrest of neurite growth that occurred with exposure to HIV+sup was reversible unless neurons were continuously exposed to morphine. Thus, while reducing HIV-infection levels may be protective, ongoing exposure to opiates may limit recovery. Opiate interactions observed in this HIV-infective environment were similar, though not entirely concordant, with Tat/gp120 interactions reported previously, suggesting unique interactions

  12. Morphine enhances HIV-1SF162-mediated neuron death and delays recovery of injured neurites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruturaj R Masvekar

    Full Text Available HIV-1 enters the CNS soon after initial systemic infection; within the CNS parenchyma infected and/or activated perivascular macrophages, microglia and astrocytes release viral and cellular toxins that drive secondary toxicity in neurons and other cell types. Our previous work has largely modeled HIV-neuropathology using the individual viral proteins Tat or gp120, with murine striatal neurons as targets. To model disease processes more closely, the current study uses supernatant from HIV-1-infected cells. Supernatant from HIV-1SF162-infected differentiated-U937 cells (HIV+sup was collected and p24 level was measured by ELISA to assess the infection. Injection drug abuse is a significant risk factor for HIV-infection, and opiate drug abusers show increased HIV-neuropathology, even with anti-retroviral treatments. We therefore assessed HIV+sup effects on neuronal survival and neurite growth/pruning with or without concurrent exposure to morphine, an opiate that preferentially acts through µ-opioid receptors. Effects of HIV+sup ± morphine were assessed on neuronal populations, and also by time-lapse imaging of individual cells. HIV+sup caused dose-dependent toxicity over a range of p24 levels (10-500 pg/ml. Significant interactions occurred with morphine at lower p24 levels (10 and 25 pg/ml, and GSK3β was implicated as a point of convergence. In the presence of glia, selective neurotoxic measures were significantly enhanced and interactions with morphine were also augmented, perhaps related to a decreased level of BDNF. Importantly, the arrest of neurite growth that occurred with exposure to HIV+sup was reversible unless neurons were continuously exposed to morphine. Thus, while reducing HIV-infection levels may be protective, ongoing exposure to opiates may limit recovery. Opiate interactions observed in this HIV-infective environment were similar, though not entirely concordant, with Tat/gp120 interactions reported previously, suggesting

  13. p27(SJ), a novel protein in St John's Wort, that suppresses expression of HIV-1 genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbinian-Sarkissian, N; Darbinyan, A; Otte, J; Radhakrishnan, S; Sawaya, B E; Arzumanyan, A; Chipitsyna, G; Popov, Y; Rappaport, J; Amini, S; Khalili, K

    2006-02-01

    Transcription of the HIV-1 genome is controlled by the cooperation of viral regulatory proteins and several host factors which bind to specific DNA sequences within the viral promoter spanning the long terminal repeat, (LTR). Here, we describe the identification of a novel protein, p27(SJ), present in a laboratory callus culture of Hypericum perforatum (St John's Wort) that suppresses transcription of the HIV-1 genome in several human cell types including primary culture of microglia and astrocytes. p27(SJ) associates with C/EBPbeta, a transcription factor that regulates expression of the HIV-1 genome in macrophages and monocytic cells, and the viral transactivator, Tat. The association of p27(SJ) with C/EBPbeta and Tat alters their subcellular localization, causing their accumulation in the perinuclear cytoplasmic compartment of the cells. Fusion of a nuclear localization signal to p27(SJ) forces its entry into the nucleus and diminishes the capacity of p27(SJ) to suppress Tat activity, but does not alter its ability to suppress C/EBPbeta activation of the LTR. Results from binding assays showed the inhibitory effect of p27(SJ) on C/EBPbeta interaction with DNA. Finally, our results demonstrate that expression of p27(SJ) decreases the level of viral replication in HIV-1-infected cells. These observations suggest the potential for the development of a therapeutic advance based on p27(SJ) protein to control HIV-1 transcription and replication in cells associated with HIV-1 infection in the brain.

  14. Molecular mechanisms by which HERV-K Gag interferes with HIV-1 Gag assembly and particle infectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monde, Kazuaki; Terasawa, Hiromi; Nakano, Yusuke; Soheilian, Ferri; Nagashima, Kunio; Maeda, Yosuke; Ono, Akira

    2017-04-26

    Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs), the remnants of ancient retroviral infections, constitute approximately 8% of human genomic DNA. Since HERV-K Gag expression is induced by HIV-1 Tat in T cells, induced HERV-K proteins could affect HIV-1 replication. Indeed, previously we showed that HERV-K Gag and HIV-1 Gag coassemble and that this appears to correlate with the effect of HERV-K Gag expression on HIV-1 particle release and its infectivity. We further showed that coassembly requires both MA and NC domains, which presumably serve as scaffolding for Gag via their abilities to bind membrane and RNA, respectively. Notably, however, despite possessing these abilities, MLV Gag failed to coassemble with HIV-1 Gag and did not affect assembly and infectivity of HIV-1 particles. It is unclear how the specificity of coassembly is determined. Here, we showed that coexpression of HERV-K Gag with HIV-1 Gag changed size and morphology of progeny HIV-1 particles and severely diminished infectivity of such progeny viruses. We further compared HERV-K-MLV chimeric constructs to identify molecular determinants for coassembly specificity and for inhibition of HIV-1 release efficiency and infectivity. We found that the CA N-terminal domain (NTD) of HERV-K Gag is important for the reduction of the HIV-1 release efficiency, whereas both CA-NTD and major homology region of HERV-K Gag contribute to colocalization with HIV-1 Gag. Interestingly, these regions of HERV-K Gag were not required for reduction of progeny HIV-1 infectivity. Our results showed that HERV-K Gag CA is important for reduction of HIV-1 release and infectivity but the different regions within CA are involved in the effects on the HIV-1 release and infectivity. Altogether, these findings revealed that HERV-K Gag interferes the HIV-1 replication by two distinct molecular mechanisms.

  15. HIV-1 infection of in vitro cultured human monocytes: early events and influence of anti HIV-1 antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendrup, M; Olofsson, S; Nielsen, Jens Ole

    1994-01-01

    To characterize the role of the humoral immune response on HIV-1 infection of monocytes and macrophages (M phi s) we examined the susceptibility of in vitro cultured monocyte/M phi s to various HIV-1 isolates and the influence of heterologous and particularly autologous anti HIV-1 sera...... on this infection. Depending on the period of in vitro cultivation and the virus isolate used different patterns of susceptibility were detected. One week old monocyte/M phi s were highly susceptible to HIV-1 infection, in contrast to monocyte/M phi s cultured 4 weeks. The infection by virus isolated immediately...... to CD4 and that post binding events may be common to the infection of lymphocytes. Anti HIV-1 sera showed neutralizing activity against heterologous and even autologous escape virus. This finding, together with the observation that monocytes and M phi s are infected in vivo, suggests that protection...

  16. Time-Dependent, HIV-Tat-Induced Perturbation of Human Neurons In Vitro: Towards a Model for the Molecular Pathology of HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Gurwitz, Kim T.; Richard J. Burman; Murugan, Brandon D.; Shaun Garnett; Tariq Ganief; Soares, Nelson C.; Joseph V. Raimondo; Jonathan M Blackburn

    2017-01-01

    A significant proportion of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV)-positive individuals are affected by the cognitive, motor and behavioral dysfunction that characterizes HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). While the molecular etiology of HAND remains largely uncharacterized, HIV transactivator of transcription (HIV-Tat) is thought to be an important etiological cause. Here we have used mass spectrometry (MS)-based discovery proteomics to identify the quantitative, cell-wide ch...

  17. Histone deacetylase inhibitors for purging HIV-1 from the latent reservoir.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matalon, S.; Rasmussen, T.A.; Dinarello, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    A reservoir of latently infected memory CD4(+) T cells is believed to be the source of HIV-1 reemergence after discontinuation of antiretroviral therapy. HIV-1 eradication may depend on depletion of this reservoir. Integrated HIV-1 is inaccessible for expression, in part because of histone

  18. Effect of HIV-1-related protein expression on cardiac and skeletal muscles from transgenic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guidot David M

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 infection and the consequent acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS has protean manifestations, including muscle wasting and cardiomyopathy, which contribute to its high morbidity. The pathogenesis of these myopathies remains partially understood, and may include nutritional deficiencies, biochemical abnormalities, inflammation, and other mechanisms due to viral infection and replication. Growing evidence has suggested that HIV-1-related proteins expressed by the host in response to viral infection, including Tat and gp120, may also be involved in the pathophysiology of AIDS, particularly in cells or tissues that are not directly infected with HIV-1. To explore the potentially independent effects of HIV-1-related proteins on heart and skeletal muscles, we used a transgenic rat model that expresses several HIV-1-related proteins (e.g., Tat, gp120, and Nef. Outcome measures included basic heart and skeletal muscle morphology, glutathione metabolism and oxidative stress, and gene expressions of atrogin-1, muscle ring finger protein-1 (MuRF-1 and Transforming Growth Factor-β1 (TGFβ1, three factors associated with muscle catabolism. Results Consistent with HIV-1 associated myopathies in humans, HIV-1 transgenic rats had increased relative heart masses, decreased relative masses of soleus, plantaris and gastrocnemius muscles, and decreased total and myosin heavy chain type-specific plantaris muscle fiber areas. In both tissues, the levels of cystine (Cyss, the oxidized form of the anti-oxidant cysteine (Cys, and Cyss:Cys ratios were significantly elevated, and cardiac tissue from HIV-1 transgenic rats had altered glutathione metabolism, all reflective of significant oxidative stress. In HIV-1 transgenic rat hearts, MuRF-1 gene expression was increased. Further, HIV-1-related protein expression also increased atrogin-1 (~14- and ~3-fold and TGFβ1 (~5-fold and ~3-fold in heart and

  19. Time-Dependent, HIV-Tat-Induced Perturbation of Human Neurons In Vitro: Towards a Model for the Molecular Pathology of HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim T. Gurwitz

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A significant proportion of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-positive individuals are affected by the cognitive, motor and behavioral dysfunction that characterizes HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND. While the molecular etiology of HAND remains largely uncharacterized, HIV transactivator of transcription (HIV-Tat is thought to be an important etiological cause. Here we have used mass spectrometry (MS-based discovery proteomics to identify the quantitative, cell-wide changes that occur when non-transformed, differentiated human neurons are treated with HIV-Tat over time. We identified over 4000 protein groups (false discovery rate <0.01 in this system with 131, 118 and 45 protein groups differentially expressed at 6, 24 and 48 h post treatment, respectively. Alterations in the expression of proteins involved in gene expression and cytoskeletal maintenance were particularly evident. In tandem with proteomic evidence of cytoskeletal dysregulation we observed HIV-Tat induced functional alterations, including a reduction of neuronal intrinsic excitability as assessed by patch-clamp electrophysiology. Our findings may be relevant for understanding in vivo molecular mechanisms in HAND.

  20. Mesenchymal stem cell derived hematopoietic cells are permissive to HIV-1 infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mondal Debasis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tissue resident mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are multipotent, self-renewing cells known for their differentiation potential into cells of mesenchymal lineage. The ability of single cell clones isolated from adipose tissue resident MSCs (ASCs to differentiate into cells of hematopoietic lineage has been previously demonstrated. In the present study, we investigated if the hematopoietic differentiated (HD cells derived from ASCs could productively be infected with HIV-1. Results HD cells were generated by differentiating clonally expanded cultures of adherent subsets of ASCs (CD90+, CD105+, CD45-, and CD34-. Transcriptome analysis revealed that HD cells acquire a number of elements that increase their susceptibility for HIV-1 infection, including HIV-1 receptor/co-receptor and other key cellular cofactors. HIV-1 infected HD cells (HD-HIV showed elevated p24 protein and gag and tat gene expression, implying a high and productive infection. HD-HIV cells showed decreased CD4, but significant increase in the expression of CCR5, CXCR4, Nef-associated factor HCK, and Vpu-associated factor BTRC. HIV-1 restricting factors like APOBEC3F and TRIM5 also showed up regulation. HIV-1 infection increased apoptosis and cell cycle regulatory genes in HD cells. Although undifferentiated ASCs failed to show productive infection, HIV-1 exposure increased the expression of several hematopoietic lineage associated genes such as c-Kit, MMD2, and IL-10. Conclusions Considering the presence of profuse amounts of ASCs in different tissues, these findings suggest the possible role that could be played by HD cells derived from ASCs in HIV-1 infection. The undifferentiated ASCs were non-permissive to HIV-1 infection; however, HIV-1 exposure increased the expression of some hematopoietic lineage related genes. The findings relate the importance of ASCs in HIV-1 research and facilitate the understanding of the disease process and management strategies.

  1. Single Particle Tracking Confirms That Multivalent Tat Protein Transduction Domain-induced Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycan Cross-linkage Activates Rac1 for Internalization*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Junji; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Gonda, Kohsuke; Roy, Chandra Nath; Gatanaga, Hiroyuki; Ohuchi, Noriaki; Higuchi, Hideo

    2011-01-01

    The mechanism by which HIV-1-Tat protein transduction domain (TatP) enters the cell remains unclear because of an insufficient understanding of the initial kinetics of peptide entry. Here, we report the successful visualization and tracking of TatP molecular kinetics on the cell surface with 7-nm spatial precision using quantum dots. Strong cell binding was only observed with a TatP valence of ≥8, whereas monovalent TatP binding was negligible. The requirement of the cell-surface heparan sulfate (HS) chains of HS proteoglycans (HSPGs) for TatP binding and intracellular transport was demonstrated by the enzymatic removal of HS and simultaneous observation of two individual particles. Multivalent TatP induces HSPG cross-linking, recruiting activated Rac1 to adjacent lipid rafts and thereby enhancing the recruitment of TatP/HSPG to actin-associated microdomains and its internalization by macropinocytosis. These findings clarify the initial binding mechanism of TatP to the cell surface and demonstrate the importance of TatP valence for strong surface binding and signal transduction. Our data also shed light on the ability of TatP to exploit the machinery of living cells, using HSPG signaling to activate Rac1 and alter TatP mobility and internalization. This work should guide the future design of TatP-based peptides as therapeutic nanocarriers with efficient transduction. PMID:21199870

  2. Single particle tracking confirms that multivalent Tat protein transduction domain-induced heparan sulfate proteoglycan cross-linkage activates Rac1 for internalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Junji; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Gonda, Kohsuke; Roy, Chandra Nath; Gatanaga, Hiroyuki; Ohuchi, Noriaki; Higuchi, Hideo

    2011-03-25

    The mechanism by which HIV-1-Tat protein transduction domain (TatP) enters the cell remains unclear because of an insufficient understanding of the initial kinetics of peptide entry. Here, we report the successful visualization and tracking of TatP molecular kinetics on the cell surface with 7-nm spatial precision using quantum dots. Strong cell binding was only observed with a TatP valence of ≥8, whereas monovalent TatP binding was negligible. The requirement of the cell-surface heparan sulfate (HS) chains of HS proteoglycans (HSPGs) for TatP binding and intracellular transport was demonstrated by the enzymatic removal of HS and simultaneous observation of two individual particles. Multivalent TatP induces HSPG cross-linking, recruiting activated Rac1 to adjacent lipid rafts and thereby enhancing the recruitment of TatP/HSPG to actin-associated microdomains and its internalization by macropinocytosis. These findings clarify the initial binding mechanism of TatP to the cell surface and demonstrate the importance of TatP valence for strong surface binding and signal transduction. Our data also shed light on the ability of TatP to exploit the machinery of living cells, using HSPG signaling to activate Rac1 and alter TatP mobility and internalization. This work should guide the future design of TatP-based peptides as therapeutic nanocarriers with efficient transduction.

  3. Small molecules targeted to a non-catalytic "RVxF" binding site of protein phosphatase-1 inhibit HIV-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Ammosova

    Full Text Available HIV-1 Tat protein recruits host cell factors including CDK9/cyclin T1 to HIV-1 TAR RNA and thereby induces HIV-1 transcription. An interaction with host Ser/Thr protein phosphatase-1 (PP1 is critical for this function of Tat. PP1 binds to a Tat sequence, Q(35VCF(38, which resembles the PP1-binding "RVxF" motif present on PP1-binding regulatory subunits. We showed that expression of PP1 binding peptide, a central domain of Nuclear Inhibitor of PP1, disrupted the interaction of HIV-1 Tat with PP1 and inhibited HIV-1 transcription and replication. Here, we report small molecule compounds that target the "RVxF"-binding cavity of PP1 to disrupt the interaction of PP1 with Tat and inhibit HIV-1 replication. Using the crystal structure of PP1, we virtually screened 300,000 compounds and identified 262 small molecules that were predicted to bind the "RVxF"-accommodating cavity of PP1. These compounds were then assayed for inhibition of HIV-1 transcription in CEM T cells. One of the compounds, 1H4, inhibited HIV-1 transcription and replication at non-cytotoxic concentrations. 1H4 prevented PP1-mediated dephosphorylation of a substrate peptide containing an RVxF sequence in vitro. 1H4 also disrupted the association of PP1 with Tat in cultured cells without having an effect on the interaction of PP1 with the cellular regulators, NIPP1 and PNUTS, or on the cellular proteome. Finally, 1H4 prevented the translocation of PP1 to the nucleus. Taken together, our study shows that HIV- inhibition can be achieved through using small molecules to target a non-catalytic site of PP1. This proof-of-principle study can serve as a starting point for the development of novel antiviral drugs that target the interface of HIV-1 viral proteins with their host partners.

  4. HIV Tat Impairs Neurogenesis through Functioning As a Notch Ligand and Activation of Notch Signaling Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yan; Gao, Xiang; Chen, Jinhui; Liu, Ying; He, Johnny J

    2016-11-02

    Alterations in adult neurogenesis have been noted in the brain of HIV-infected individuals and are likely linked to HIV-associated neurocognitive deficits, including those in learning and memory. But the underlying molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. In the study, we took advantage of doxycycline-inducible and astrocyte-specific HIV-1 Tat transgenic mice (iTat) and determined the relationship between Tat expression and neurogenesis. Tat expression in astrocytes was associated with fewer neuron progenitor cells (NPCs), fewer immature neurons, and fewer mature neurons in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus of the mouse brain. In vitro NPC-derived neurosphere assays showed that Tat-containing conditioned media from astrocytes or recombinant Tat protein inhibited NPC proliferation and migration and altered NPC differentiation, while immunodepletion of Tat from Tat-containing conditioned media or heat inactivation of recombinant Tat abrogated those effects. Notch signaling downstream gene Hes1 promoter-driven luciferase reporter gene assay and Western blotting showed that recombinant Tat or Tat-containing conditioned media activated Hes1 transcription and protein expression, which were abrogated by Tat heat inactivation, immunodepletion, and cysteine mutation at position 30. Last, Notch signaling inhibitor N-[N-(3,5-difluorophenacetyl)-l-alanyl]-S-phenylglycine t-butyl ester (DAPT) significantly rescued Tat-impaired NPC differentiation in vitro and neurogenesis in vivo Together, these results show that Tat adversely affects NPCs and neurogenesis through Notch signaling and point to the potential of developing Notch signaling inhibitors as HIV/neuroAIDS therapeutics. HIV infection of the CNS causes cognitive and memory deficits, which have become more prevalent in the era of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Neurogenesis is impaired in HIV-infected individuals. But the underlying molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. In this study, we have

  5. Sequence and structure requirements for specific recognition of HIV-1 TAR and DIS RNA by the HIV-1 Vif protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freisz, Séverine; Mezher, Joelle; Hafirassou, Lamine; Wolff, Philippe; Nominé, Yves; Romier, Christophe; Dumas, Philippe; Ennifar, Eric

    2012-07-01

    The HIV-1 Vif protein plays an essential role in the regulation of the infectivity of HIV-1 virion and in vivo pathogenesis. Vif neutralizes the human DNA-editing enzyme APOBEC3 protein, an antiretroviral cellular factor from the innate immune system, allowing the virus to escape the host defence system. It was shown that Vif is packaged into viral particles through specific interactions with the viral genomic RNA. Conserved and structured sequences from the 5'-noncoding region, such as the Tat-responsive element (TAR) or the genomic RNA dimerization initiation site (DIS), are primary binding sites for Vif. In the present study we used isothermal titration calorimetry to investigate sequence and structure determinants important for Vif binding to short viral RNA corresponding to TAR and DIS stem-loops. We showed that Vif specifically binds TAR and DIS in the low nanomolar range. In addition, Vif primarily binds the TAR UCU bulge, but not the apical loop. Determinants for Vif binding to the DIS loop-loop complex are likely more complex and involve the self-complementary loop together with the upper part of the stem. These results suggest that Tat-TAR inhibitors or DIS small molecule binders might be also effective to disturb Vif-TAR and Vif-DIS binding in order to reduce Vif packaging into virions.

  6. Impaired plant growth and development caused by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueno, Marni E; Hibi, Yurina; Imai, Kenichi; Laurena, Antonio C; Okamoto, Takashi

    2010-10-01

    Previous attempts to express the human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) Tat (trans-activator of transcription) protein in plants resulted in a number of physiological abnormalities, such as stunted growth and absence of seed formation, that could not be explained. In the study reported here, we expressed Tat in tomato and observed phenotypic abnormalities, including stunted growth, absence of root formation, chlorosis, and plant death, as a result of reduced cytokinin levels. These reduced levels were ascribed to a differentially expressed CKO35 in Tat-bombarded tomato. Of the two CKO isoforms that are naturally expressed in tomato, CKO43 and CKO37, only the expression of CKO37 was affected by Tat. Our analysis of the Tat confirmed that the Arg-rich and RGD motifs of Tat have functional relevance in tomato and that independent mutations at these motifs caused inhibition of the differentially expressed CKO isoform and the extracellular secretion of the Tat protein, respectively, in our Tat-bombarded tomato samples.

  7. Intracellular trafficking of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles conjugated with TAT peptide: 3-dimensional electron tomography analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nair, Baiju G.; Fukuda, Takahiro; Mizuki, Toru; Hanajiri, Tatsuro [Bio-Nano Electronics Research Centre, Toyo University, Saitama 350-8585 (Japan); Maekawa, Toru, E-mail: maekawa@toyo.jp [Bio-Nano Electronics Research Centre, Toyo University, Saitama 350-8585 (Japan)

    2012-05-18

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We study the intracellular localisation of TAT-SPIONs using 3-D electron tomography. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 3-D images of TAT-SPIONs in a cell are clearly shown. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Release of TAT-SPIONs from endocytic vesicles into the cytoplasm is clearly shown. -- Abstract: Internalisation of nanoparticles conjugated with cell penetrating peptides is a promising approach to various drug delivery applications. Cell penetrating peptides such as transactivating transcriptional activator (TAT) peptides derived from HIV-1 proteins are effective intracellular delivery vectors for a wide range of nanoparticles and pharmaceutical agents thanks to their amicable ability to enter cells and minimum cytotoxicity. Although different mechanisms of intracellular uptake and localisation have been proposed for TAT conjugated nanoparticles, it is necessary to visualise the particles on a 3-D plane in order to investigate the actual intracellular uptake and localisation. Here, we study the intracellular localisation and trafficking of TAT peptide conjugated superparamagnetic ion oxide nanoparticles (TAT-SPIONs) using 3-D electron tomography. 3-D tomograms clearly show the location of TAT-SPIONs in a cell and their slow release from the endocytic vesicles into the cytoplasm. The present methodology may well be utilised for further investigations of the behaviours of nanoparticles in cells and eventually for the development of nano drug delivery systems.

  8. A Naturally Occurring rev1-vpu Fusion Gene Does Not Confer a Fitness Advantage to HIV-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon M Langer

    Full Text Available Pandemic strains of HIV-1 (group M encode a total of nine structural (gag, pol, env, regulatory (rev, tat and accessory (vif, vpr, vpu, nef genes. However, some subtype A and C viruses exhibit an unusual gene arrangement in which the first exon of rev (rev1 and the vpu gene are placed in the same open reading frame. Although this rev1-vpu gene fusion is present in a considerable fraction of HIV-1 strains, its functional significance is unknown.Examining infectious molecular clones (IMCs of HIV-1 that encode the rev1-vpu polymorphism, we show that a fusion protein is expressed in infected cells. Due to the splicing pattern of viral mRNA, however, these same IMCs also express a regular Vpu protein, which is produced at much higher levels. To investigate the function of the fusion gene, we characterized isogenic IMC pairs differing only in their ability to express a Rev1-Vpu protein. Analysis in transfected HEK293T and infected CD4+ T cells showed that all of these viruses were equally active in known Vpu functions, such as down-modulation of CD4 or counteraction of tetherin. Furthermore, the polymorphism did not affect Vpu-mediated inhibition of NF-кB activation or Rev-dependent nuclear export of incompletely spliced viral mRNAs. There was also no evidence for enhanced replication of Rev1-Vpu expressing viruses in primary PBMCs or ex vivo infected human lymphoid tissues. Finally, the frequency of HIV-1 quasispecies members that encoded a rev1-vpu fusion gene did not change in HIV-1 infected individuals over time.Expression of a rev1-vpu fusion gene does not affect regular Rev and Vpu functions or alter HIV-1 replication in primary target cells. Since there is no evidence for increased replication fitness of rev1-vpu encoding viruses, this polymorphism likely emerged in the context of other mutations within and/or outside the rev1-vpu intergenic region, and may have a neutral phenotype.

  9. A Naturally Occurring rev1-vpu Fusion Gene Does Not Confer a Fitness Advantage to HIV-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Simon M; Hopfensperger, Kristina; Iyer, Shilpa S; Kreider, Edward F; Learn, Gerald H; Lee, Lan-Hui; Hahn, Beatrice H; Sauter, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Pandemic strains of HIV-1 (group M) encode a total of nine structural (gag, pol, env), regulatory (rev, tat) and accessory (vif, vpr, vpu, nef) genes. However, some subtype A and C viruses exhibit an unusual gene arrangement in which the first exon of rev (rev1) and the vpu gene are placed in the same open reading frame. Although this rev1-vpu gene fusion is present in a considerable fraction of HIV-1 strains, its functional significance is unknown. Examining infectious molecular clones (IMCs) of HIV-1 that encode the rev1-vpu polymorphism, we show that a fusion protein is expressed in infected cells. Due to the splicing pattern of viral mRNA, however, these same IMCs also express a regular Vpu protein, which is produced at much higher levels. To investigate the function of the fusion gene, we characterized isogenic IMC pairs differing only in their ability to express a Rev1-Vpu protein. Analysis in transfected HEK293T and infected CD4+ T cells showed that all of these viruses were equally active in known Vpu functions, such as down-modulation of CD4 or counteraction of tetherin. Furthermore, the polymorphism did not affect Vpu-mediated inhibition of NF-кB activation or Rev-dependent nuclear export of incompletely spliced viral mRNAs. There was also no evidence for enhanced replication of Rev1-Vpu expressing viruses in primary PBMCs or ex vivo infected human lymphoid tissues. Finally, the frequency of HIV-1 quasispecies members that encoded a rev1-vpu fusion gene did not change in HIV-1 infected individuals over time. Expression of a rev1-vpu fusion gene does not affect regular Rev and Vpu functions or alter HIV-1 replication in primary target cells. Since there is no evidence for increased replication fitness of rev1-vpu encoding viruses, this polymorphism likely emerged in the context of other mutations within and/or outside the rev1-vpu intergenic region, and may have a neutral phenotype.

  10. Kinetics of HIV-1 long terminal repeat trans-activation. Use of intragenic ribozyme to assess rate-limiting steps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeang, K. T.; Berkhout, B.

    1992-01-01

    We have examined, using self-cleaving ribozymes, the intracellular trans-activation kinetics of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) long terminal repeat (LTR) by viral protein Tat. Experiments were designed to effect a competition (during RNA chain elongation) between cleavage of a

  11. Inhibition of HIV-1 replication by P-TEFb inhibitors DRB, seliciclib and flavopiridol correlates with release of free P-TEFb from the large, inactive form of the complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Van Trung

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The positive transcription elongation factor, P-TEFb, comprised of cyclin dependent kinase 9 (Cdk9 and cyclin T1, T2 or K regulates the productive elongation phase of RNA polymerase II (Pol II dependent transcription of cellular and integrated viral genes. P-TEFb containing cyclin T1 is recruited to the HIV long terminal repeat (LTR by binding to HIV Tat which in turn binds to the nascent HIV transcript. Within the cell, P-TEFb exists as a kinase-active, free form and a larger, kinase-inactive form that is believed to serve as a reservoir for the smaller form. Results We developed a method to rapidly quantitate the relative amounts of the two forms based on differential nuclear extraction. Using this technique, we found that titration of the P-TEFb inhibitors flavopiridol, DRB and seliciclib onto HeLa cells that support HIV replication led to a dose dependent loss of the large form of P-TEFb. Importantly, the reduction in the large form correlated with a reduction in HIV-1 replication such that when 50% of the large form was gone, HIV-1 replication was reduced by 50%. Some of the compounds were able to effectively block HIV replication without having a significant impact on cell viability. The most effective P-TEFb inhibitor flavopiridol was evaluated against HIV-1 in the physiologically relevant cell types, peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs and monocyte derived macrophages (MDMs. Flavopiridol was found to have a smaller therapeutic index (LD50/IC50 in long term HIV-1 infectivity studies in primary cells due to greater cytotoxicity and reduced efficacy at blocking HIV-1 replication. Conclusion Initial short term studies with P-TEFb inhibitors demonstrated a dose dependent loss of the large form of P-TEFb within the cell and a concomitant reduction in HIV-1 infectivity without significant cytotoxicity. These findings suggested that inhibitors of P-TEFb may serve as effective anti-HIV-1 therapies. However, longer term HIV-1

  12. HIV-1 infection of in vitro cultured human monocytes: early events and influence of anti HIV-1 antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendrup, M; Olofsson, S; Nielsen, Jens Ole

    1994-01-01

    To characterize the role of the humoral immune response on HIV-1 infection of monocytes and macrophages (M phi s) we examined the susceptibility of in vitro cultured monocyte/M phi s to various HIV-1 isolates and the influence of heterologous and particularly autologous anti HIV-1 sera on this in......To characterize the role of the humoral immune response on HIV-1 infection of monocytes and macrophages (M phi s) we examined the susceptibility of in vitro cultured monocyte/M phi s to various HIV-1 isolates and the influence of heterologous and particularly autologous anti HIV-1 sera...... on this infection. Depending on the period of in vitro cultivation and the virus isolate used different patterns of susceptibility were detected. One week old monocyte/M phi s were highly susceptible to HIV-1 infection, in contrast to monocyte/M phi s cultured 4 weeks. The infection by virus isolated immediately...... after seroconversion lead to persistent infection with high level of antigen production in contrast to infection by homologous virus isolated later. MAb against the V3-IIIB loop and sCD4 inhibited the infection of monocyte/M phi s in a dose dependent manner, indicating that infection requires binding...

  13. A Tat-grafted anti-nucleic acid antibody acquires nuclear-localization property and a preference for TAR RNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Jong-Geun [Department of Microbiology, Ajou University School of Medicine, San 5, Woncheon-dong, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon 443-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong-Sik; Kim, Yong-Sung [Department of Molecular Science and Technology, Ajou University, San 5, Woncheon-dong, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon 443-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Myung-Hee, E-mail: kwonmh@ajou.ac.kr [Department of Microbiology, Ajou University School of Medicine, San 5, Woncheon-dong, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon 443-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-03-18

    Highlights: {yields} We generate '{sub H3}Tat-3D8' by grafting Tat{sub 48-60} peptide to VH CDR of 3D8 scFv antibody. {yields} {sub H3}Tat-3D8 antibody retains nucleic acid binding and hydrolyzing activities. {yields} {sub H3}Tat-3D8 acquires a preference for TAR RNA structure. {yields} Properties of Tat{sub 48-60} is transferred to an antibody via Tat-grafting into a CDR. -- Abstract: The 3D8 single chain variable fragment (3D8 scFv) is an anti-nucleic acid antibody that can hydrolyze nucleic acids and enter the cytosol of cells without reaching the nucleus. The Tat peptide, derived from the basic region of the HIV-1 Tat protein, translocates to cell nuclei and has TAR RNA binding activity. In this study, we generated a Tat-grafted antibody ({sub H3}Tat-3D8) by replacing complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3) within the VH domain of the 3D8 scFv with a Tat{sub 48-60} peptide (GRKKRRQRRRPPQ). {sub H3}Tat-3D8 retained the DNA-binding and DNA-hydrolyzing activity of the scFv, and translocated to the nuclei of HeLa cells and preferentially recognized TAR RNA. Thus, the properties associated with the Tat peptide were transferred to the antibody via Tat-grafting without loss of the intrinsic DNA-binding and hydrolyzing activities of the 3D8 scFv antibody.

  14. Characterizing HIV-1 Splicing by Using Next-Generation Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Ann; Zhou, Shuntai; Pollom, Elizabeth; Swanstrom, Ronald

    2017-03-15

    Full-length human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA serves as the genome or as an mRNA, or this RNA undergoes splicing using four donors and 10 acceptors to create over 50 physiologically relevant transcripts in two size classes (1.8 kb and 4 kb). We developed an assay using Primer ID-tagged deep sequencing to quantify HIV-1 splicing. Using the lab strain NL4-3, we found that A5 (env/nef) is the most commonly used acceptor (about 50%) and A3 (tat) the least used (about 3%). Two small exons are made when a splice to acceptor A1 or A2 is followed by activation of donor D2 or D3, and the high-level use of D2 and D3 dramatically reduces the amount of vif and vpr transcripts. We observed distinct patterns of temperature sensitivity of splicing to acceptors A1 and A2. In addition, disruption of a conserved structure proximal to A1 caused a 10-fold reduction in all transcripts that utilized A1. Analysis of a panel of subtype B transmitted/founder viruses showed that splicing patterns are conserved, but with surprising variability of usage. A subtype C isolate was similar, while a simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) isolate showed significant differences. We also observed transsplicing from a downstream donor on one transcript to an upstream acceptor on a different transcript, which we detected in 0.3% of 1.8-kb RNA reads. There were several examples of splicing suppression when the env intron was retained in the 4-kb size class. These results demonstrate the utility of this assay and identify new examples of HIV-1 splicing regulation. IMPORTANCE During HIV-1 replication, over 50 conserved spliced RNA variants are generated. The splicing assay described here uses new developments in deep-sequencing technology combined with Primer ID-tagged cDNA primers to efficiently quantify HIV-1 splicing at a depth that allows even low-frequency splice variants to be monitored. We have used this assay to examine several features of HIV-1 splicing and to identify new examples of

  15. Nuclear retention of multiply spliced HIV-1 RNA in resting CD4+ T cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kara G Lassen

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available HIV-1 latency in resting CD4+ T cells represents a major barrier to virus eradication in patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART. We describe here a novel post-transcriptional block in HIV-1 gene expression in resting CD4+ T cells from patients on HAART. This block involves the aberrant localization of multiply spliced (MS HIV-1 RNAs encoding the critical positive regulators Tat and Rev. Although these RNAs had no previously described export defect, we show that they exhibit strict nuclear localization in resting CD4+ T cells from patients on HAART. Overexpression of the transcriptional activator Tat from non-HIV vectors allowed virus production in these cells. Thus, the nuclear retention of MS HIV-1 RNA interrupts a positive feedback loop and contributes to the non-productive nature of infection of resting CD4+ T cells. To define the mechanism of nuclear retention, proteomic analysis was used to identify proteins that bind MS HIV-1 RNA. Polypyrimidine tract binding protein (PTB was identified as an HIV-1 RNA-binding protein differentially expressed in resting and activated CD4+ T cells. Overexpression of PTB in resting CD4+ T cells from patients on HAART allowed cytoplasmic accumulation of HIV-1 RNAs. PTB overexpression also induced virus production by resting CD4+ T cells. Virus culture experiments showed that overexpression of PTB in resting CD4+ T cells from patients on HAART allowed release of replication-competent virus, while preserving a resting cellular phenotype. Whether through effects on RNA export or another mechanism, the ability of PTB to reverse latency without inducing cellular activation is a result with therapeutic implications.

  16. Cellular immunity and target cell susceptibility in persons with repeated HIV-1 exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akridge, R; Hladik, F; Markee, J; Alef, C; Kelley, H; Collier, A; Collier, A; McElrath, M J

    1999-03-01

    We prospectively studied 37 HIV-1 uninfected persons engaging in repeated high risk sexual activity with an HIV-1 infected partner, as well as 18 of their infected partners. Only one subject (3%) demonstrated the homozygous 32-bp deletion delta32delta32 of the HIV-1 co-receptor CCR5. CD4+ cells from all high risk subjects except the delta32delta32 CCR5 homozygote were susceptible in vitro to both CCR5-dependent and CXCR4-dependent HIV-1 strains. Median HIV-1 plasma RNA levels of the infected partners were not significantly different from levels of matched infected controls. Thirteen subjects demonstrated HIV-1 specific CTL at one or more visits, and these activities were more commonly observed in persons with the wild type CCR5 genotype. These results indicate that cellular immunity rather than inheritance of the delta32 CCR5 mutation accounts more often for persistently HIV-1-resistant cases.

  17. HIV-1 assembly in macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benaroch Philippe

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The molecular mechanisms involved in the assembly of newly synthesized Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV particles are poorly understood. Most of the work on HIV-1 assembly has been performed in T cells in which viral particle budding and assembly take place at the plasma membrane. In contrast, few studies have been performed on macrophages, the other major target of HIV-1. Infected macrophages represent a viral reservoir and probably play a key role in HIV-1 physiopathology. Indeed macrophages retain infectious particles for long periods of time, keeping them protected from anti-viral immune response or drug treatments. Here, we present an overview of what is known about HIV-1 assembly in macrophages as compared to T lymphocytes or cell lines. Early electron microscopy studies suggested that viral assembly takes place at the limiting membrane of an intracellular compartment in macrophages and not at the plasma membrane as in T cells. This was first considered as a late endosomal compartment in which viral budding seems to be similar to the process of vesicle release into multi-vesicular bodies. This view was notably supported by a large body of evidence involving the ESCRT (Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for Transport machinery in HIV-1 budding, the observation of viral budding profiles in such compartments by immuno-electron microscopy, and the presence of late endosomal markers associated with macrophage-derived virions. However, this model needs to be revisited as recent data indicate that the viral compartment has a neutral pH and can be connected to the plasma membrane via very thin micro-channels. To date, the exact nature and biogenesis of the HIV assembly compartment in macrophages remains elusive. Many cellular proteins potentially involved in the late phases of HIV-1 cycle have been identified; and, recently, the list has grown rapidly with the publication of four independent genome-wide screens. However, their respective

  18. Quantitative multicolor super-resolution microscopy reveals tetherin HIV-1 interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Lehmann

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Virus assembly and interaction with host-cell proteins occur at length scales below the diffraction limit of visible light. Novel super-resolution microscopy techniques achieve nanometer resolution of fluorescently labeled molecules. The cellular restriction factor tetherin (also known as CD317, BST-2 or HM1.24 inhibits the release of human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1 through direct incorporation into viral membranes and is counteracted by the HIV-1 protein Vpu. For super-resolution analysis of HIV-1 and tetherin interactions, we established fluorescence labeling of HIV-1 proteins and tetherin that preserved HIV-1 particle formation and Vpu-dependent restriction, respectively. Multicolor super-resolution microscopy revealed important structural features of individual HIV-1 virions, virus assembly sites and their interaction with tetherin at the plasma membrane. Tetherin localization to micro-domains was dependent on both tetherin membrane anchors. Tetherin clusters containing on average 4 to 7 tetherin dimers were visualized at HIV-1 assembly sites. Combined biochemical and super-resolution analysis revealed that extended tetherin dimers incorporate both N-termini into assembling virus particles and restrict HIV-1 release. Neither tetherin domains nor HIV-1 assembly sites showed enrichment of the raft marker GM1. Together, our super-resolution microscopy analysis of HIV-1 interactions with tetherin provides new insights into the mechanism of tetherin-mediated HIV-1 restriction and paves the way for future studies of virus-host interactions.

  19. Unperturbed posttranscriptional regulatory Rev protein function and HIV-1 replication in astrocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Chauhan

    Full Text Available Astrocytes protect neurons, but also evoke proinflammatory responses to injury and viral infections, including HIV. There is a prevailing notion that HIV-1 Rev protein function in astrocytes is perturbed, leading to restricted viral replication. In earlier studies, our finding of restricted viral entry into astrocytes led us to investigate whether there are any intracellular restrictions, including crippled Rev function, in astrocytes. Despite barely detectable levels of DDX3 (Rev-supporting RNA helicase and TRBP (anti-PKR in primary astrocytes compared to astrocytic cells, Rev function was unperturbed in wild-type, but not DDX3-ablated astrocytes. As in permissive cells, after HIV-1 entry bypass in astrocytes, viral-encoded Tat and Rev proteins had robust regulatory activities, leading to efficient viral replication. Productive HIV-1 infection in astrocytes persisted for several weeks. Our findings on HIV-1 entry bypass in astrocytes demonstrated that the intracellular environment is conducive to viral replication and that Tat and Rev functions are unperturbed.

  20. A post-entry role for CD63 in early HIV-1 replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangyu; Dziuba, Natallia; Friedrich, Brian; Murray, James L; Ferguson, Monique R

    2011-04-10

    Macrophages and CD4(+) lymphocytes are the major reservoirs for HIV-1 infection. CD63 is a tetraspanin transmembrane protein, which has been shown to play an essential role during HIV-1 replication in macrophages. In this study, we further confirm the requirement of CD63 in early HIV-1 replication events in both macrophages and a CD4(+) cell line. Further analysis revealed that viral attachment and cell-cell fusion were unaffected by CD63 silencing. However, CD63-depleted macrophages showed a significant decrease in the initiation and completion of HIV-1 reverse transcription, affecting subsequent events of the HIV-1 life cycle. Integration of HIV-1 cDNA as well as the formation of 2-LTR circles was notably reduced. Reporter assays showed that CD63 down regulation reduced production of the early HIV protein Tat. In agreement, CD63 silencing also inhibited production of the late protein p24. These findings suggest that CD63 plays an early post-entry role prior to or at the reverse transcription step. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Escherichia coli "TatExpress" strains super-secrete human growth hormone into the bacterial periplasm by the Tat pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, Douglas F; Richards, Kirsty L; Peswani, Amber R; Roobol, Jo; Busby, Stephen J W; Robinson, Colin

    2017-12-01

    Numerous high-value proteins are secreted into the Escherichia coli periplasm by the General Secretory (Sec) pathway, but Sec-based production chassis cannot handle many potential target proteins. The Tat pathway offers a promising alternative because it transports fully folded proteins; however, yields have been too low for commercial use. To facilitate Tat export, we have engineered the TatExpress series of super-secreting strains by introducing the strong inducible bacterial promoter, ptac, upstream of the chromosomal tatABCD operon, to drive its expression in E. coli strains commonly used by industry (e.g., W3110 and BL21). This modification significantly improves the Tat-dependent secretion of human growth hormone (hGH) into the bacterial periplasm, to the extent that secreted hGH is the dominant periplasmic protein after only 1 hr induction. TatExpress strains accumulate in excess of 30 mg L-1 periplasmic recombinant hGH, even in shake flask cultures. A second target protein, an scFv, is also shown to be exported at much higher rates in TatExpress strains. © 2017 The Authors. Biotechnology and Bioengineering Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. SMYD2-Mediated Histone Methylation Contributes to HIV-1 Latency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Daniela; Jeng, Mark; Camus, Gregory; Gramatica, Andrea; Schwarzer, Roland; Johnson, Jeffrey R; Hull, Philip A; Montano, Mauricio; Sakane, Naoki; Pagans, Sara; Godin, Robert; Deeks, Steven G; Krogan, Nevan J; Greene, Warner C; Ott, Melanie

    2017-05-10

    Transcriptional latency of HIV is a last barrier to viral eradication. Chromatin-remodeling complexes and post-translational histone modifications likely play key roles in HIV-1 reactivation, but the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. We performed an RNAi-based screen of human lysine methyltransferases and identified the SET and MYND domain-containing protein 2 (SMYD2) as an enzyme that regulates HIV-1 latency. Knockdown of SMYD2 or its pharmacological inhibition reactivated latent HIV-1 in T cell lines and in primary CD4(+) T cells. SMYD2 associated with latent HIV-1 promoter chromatin, which was enriched in monomethylated lysine 20 at histone H4 (H4K20me1), a mark lost in cells lacking SMYD2. Further, we find that lethal 3 malignant brain tumor 1 (L3MBTL1), a reader protein with chromatin-compacting properties that recognizes H4K20me1, was recruited to the latent HIV-1 promoter in a SMYD2-dependent manner. We propose that a SMYD2-H4K20me1-L3MBTL1 axis contributes to HIV-1 latency and can be targeted with small-molecule SMYD2 inhibitors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Sargassum fusiforme fraction is a potent and specific inhibitor of HIV-1 fusion and reverse transcriptase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thornber Carol

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sargassum fusiforme (Harvey Setchell has been shown to be a highly effective inhibitor of HIV-1 infection. To identify its mechanism of action, we performed bioactivity-guided fractionation on Sargassum fusiforme mixture. Here, we report isolation of a bioactive fraction SP4-2 (S. fusiforme, which at 8 μg/ml inhibited HIV-1 infection by 86.9%, with IC50 value of 3.7 μg. That represents 230-fold enhancement of antiretroviral potency as compared to the whole extract. Inhibition was mediated against both CXCR4 (X4 and CCR5 (R5 tropic HIV-1. Specifically, 10 μg/ml SP4-2 blocked HIV-1 fusion and entry by 53%. This effect was reversed by interaction of SP4-2 with sCD4, suggesting that S. fusiforme inhibits HIV-1 infection by blocking CD4 receptor, which also explained observed inhibition of both X4 and R5-tropic HIV-1. SP4-2 also inhibited HIV-1 replication after virus entry, by directly inhibiting HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT in a dose dependent manner by up to 79%. We conclude that the SP4-2 fraction contains at least two distinct and biologically active molecules, one that inhibits HIV-1 fusion by interacting with CD4 receptor, and another that directly inhibits HIV-1 RT. We propose that S. fusiforme is a lead candidate for anti-HIV-1 drug development.

  4. Curcumin derivatives as HIV-1 protease inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sui, Z.; Li, J.; Craik, C.S.; Ortiz de Montellano, P.R. [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Curcumin, a non-toxic natural compound from Curcuma longa, has been found to be an HIV-1 protease inhibitor. Some of its derivatives were synthesized and their inhibitory activity against the HIV-1 protease was tested. Curcumin analogues containing boron enhanced the inhibitory activity. At least of the the synthesized compounds irreversibly inhibits the HIV-1 protease.

  5. NF45 and NF90 Bind HIV-1 RNA and Modulate HIV Gene Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Li

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A previous proteomic screen in our laboratory identified nuclear factor 45 (NF45 and nuclear factor 90 (NF90 as potential cellular factors involved in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 replication. Both are RNA binding proteins that regulate gene expression; and NF90 has been shown to regulate the expression of cyclin T1 which is required for Tat-dependent trans-activation of viral gene expression. In this study the roles of NF45 and NF90 in HIV replication were investigated through overexpression studies. Ectopic expression of either factor potentiated HIV infection, gene expression, and virus production. Deletion of the RNA binding domains of NF45 and NF90 diminished the enhancement of HIV infection and gene expression. Both proteins were found to interact with the HIV RNA. RNA decay assays demonstrated that NF90, but not NF45, increased the half-life of the HIV RNA. Overall, these studies indicate that both NF45 and NF90 potentiate HIV infection through their RNA binding domains.

  6. Inhibition of HIV-1 replication by chimeric phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotides applied in free solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, O S; Hansen, J E

    1998-01-01

    Oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) containing a variable number of 3' and 5' terminal phosphorothioate linkages were applied in free solution to cells infected by HIV-1. ODNs of 28 nt length were applied at up to 5 microM concentration. The ODNs were found to inhibit HIV-1 infection in a dose dependent...... manner, which correlated with the number of modified linkages (4, 8 and 12, respectively). A target sequence in the HIV-1 rev mRNA, previously reported as sensitive to antisense inhibition by full length phosphorothioate ODNs, only revealed non-sequence dependent inhibition of HIV-1, when tested...

  7. A macaque model of HIV-1 infection

    OpenAIRE

    Hatziioannou, Theodora; Ambrose, Zandrea; Chung, Nancy P. Y.; Piatak, Michael; Yuan, Fang; Trubey, Charles M.; Coalter, Vicky; Kiser, Rebecca; Schneider, Doug; Smedley, Jeremy; Pung, Rhonda; Gathuka, Mercy; Estes, Jacob D.; Veazey, Ronald S.; KewalRamani, Vineet N.

    2009-01-01

    The lack of a primate model that utilizes HIV-1 as the challenge virus is an impediment to AIDS research; existing models generally employ simian viruses that are divergent from HIV-1, reducing their usefulness in preclinical investigations. Based on an understanding of species-specific variation in primate TRIM5 and APOBEC3 antiretroviral genes, we constructed simian-tropic (st)HIV-1 strains that differ from HIV-1 only in the vif gene. We demonstrate that such minimally modified stHIV-1 stra...

  8. Oxidative stress induced by HIV-1 reverse transcriptase modulates the enzyme's performance in gene immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaguliants, Maria; Smirnova, Olga; Ivanov, Alexander V; Kilpelainen, Athina; Kuzmenko, Yulia; Petkov, Stefan; Latanova, Anastasia; Krotova, Olga; Engström, Gunnel; Karpov, Vadim; Kochetkov, Sergey; Wahren, Britta; Starodubova, Elizaveta

    2013-10-01

    HIV-1 infection induces chronic oxidative stress. The resultant neurotoxicity has been associated with Tat protein. Here, we for the first time describe the induction of oxidative stress by another HIV-1 protein, reverse transcriptase (RT). Expression of HIV-1 RT in human embryonic kidney cells generated potent production of the reactive oxygen species (ROS), detected by the fluorescence-based probes. Quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated that expression of RT in HEK293 cells induced a 10- to 15-fold increased transcription of the phase II detoxifying enzymes human quinone oxidoreductase (Nqo1) and heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), indicating the induction of oxidative stress response. The capacity to induce oxidative stress and stress response appeared to be an intrinsic property of a vast variety of RTs: enzymatically active and inactivated, bearing mutations of drug resistance, following different routes of processing and presentation, expressed from viral or synthetic expression-optimized genes. The total ROS production induced by RT genes of the viral origin was found to be lower than that induced by the synthetic/expression-optimized or chimeric RT genes. However, the viral RT genes induced higher levels of ROS production and higher levels of HO-1 mRNA than the synthetic genes per unit of protein in the expressing cell. The capacity of RT genes to induce the oxidative stress and stress response was then correlated with their immunogenic performance. For this, RT genes were administered into BALB/c mice by intradermal injections followed by electroporation. Splenocytes of immunized mice were stimulated with the RT-derived and control antigens and antigen-specific proliferation was assessed by IFN-γ/IL-2 Fluorospot. RT variants generating high total ROS levels induced significantly stronger IFN-γ responses than the variants inducing lower total ROS, while high levels of ROS normalized per unit of protein in expressing cell were associated with a weak IFN-γ response. Poor

  9. A European multicientre study on the comparison of HIV-1 viral loads between VERIS HIV-1 Assay and Roche COBAS® TAQMAN® HIV-1 test, Abbott RealTime HIV-1 Assay, and Siemens VERSANT HIV-1 Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Patrick; Delgado, Rafael; Drago, Monica; Fanti, Diana; Fleury, Hervé; Hofmann, Jörg; Izopet, Jacques; Kühn, Sebastian; Lombardi, Alessandra; Mancon, Alessandro; Marcos, Mª Angeles; Mileto, Davide; Sauné, Karine; O'Shea, Siobhan; Pérez-Rivilla, Alfredo; Ramble, John; Trimoulet, Pascale; Vila, Jordi; Whittaker, Duncan; Artus, Alain; Rhodes, Daniel

    2017-07-01

    Viral load monitoring is essential for patients under treatment for HIV. Beckman Coulter has developed the VERIS HIV-1 Assay for use on the novel, automated DxN VERIS Molecular Diagnostics System. ¥ OBJECTIVES: Evaluation of the clinical performance of the new quantitative VERIS HIV-1 Assay at multiple EU laboratories. Method comparison with the VERIS HIV-1 Assay was performed with 415 specimens at 5 sites tested with COBAS ® AmpliPrep/COBAS ® TaqMan ® HIV-1 Test, v2.0, 169 specimens at 3 sites tested with RealTime HIV-1 Assay, and 202 specimens from 2 sites tested with VERSANT HIV-1 Assay. Patient monitoring sample results from 4 sites were also compared. Bland-Altman analysis showed the average bias between VERIS HIV-1 Assay and COBAS HIV-1 Test, RealTime HIV-1 Assay, and VERSANT HIV-1 Assay to be 0.28, 0.39, and 0.61 log 10 cp/mL, respectively. Bias at low end levels below 1000cp/mL showed predicted bias to be HIV-1 Assay versus COBAS HIV-1 Test and RealTime HIV-1 Assay, and HIV-1 Assay. Analysis on 174 specimens tested with the 0.175mL volume VERIS HIV-1 Assay and COBAS HIV-1 Test showed average bias of 0.39 log 10 cp/mL. Patient monitoring results using VERIS HIV-1 Assay demonstrated similar viral load trends over time to all comparators. The VERIS HIV-1 Assay for use on the DxN VERIS System demonstrated comparable clinical performance to COBAS ® HIV-1 Test, RealTime HIV-1 Assay, and VERSANT HIV-1 Assay. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. HIV-1 evades innate immune recognition through specific cofactor recruitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasaiyaah, Jane; Tan, Choon Ping; Fletcher, Adam J.; Price, Amanda J.; Blondeau, Caroline; Hilditch, Laura; Jacques, David A.; Selwood, David L.; James, Leo C.; Noursadeghi, Mahdad; Towers, Greg J.

    2013-11-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 is able to replicate in primary human macrophages without stimulating innate immunity despite reverse transcription of genomic RNA into double-stranded DNA, an activity that might be expected to trigger innate pattern recognition receptors. We reasoned that if correctly orchestrated HIV-1 uncoating and nuclear entry is important for evasion of innate sensors then manipulation of specific interactions between HIV-1 capsid and host factors that putatively regulate these processes should trigger pattern recognition receptors and stimulate type 1 interferon (IFN) secretion. Here we show that HIV-1 capsid mutants N74D and P90A, which are impaired for interaction with cofactors cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor subunit 6 (CPSF6) and cyclophilins (Nup358 and CypA), respectively, cannot replicate in primary human monocyte-derived macrophages because they trigger innate sensors leading to nuclear translocation of NF-κB and IRF3, the production of soluble type 1 IFN and induction of an antiviral state. Depletion of CPSF6 with short hairpin RNA expression allows wild-type virus to trigger innate sensors and IFN production. In each case, suppressed replication is rescued by IFN-receptor blockade, demonstrating a role for IFN in restriction. IFN production is dependent on viral reverse transcription but not integration, indicating that a viral reverse transcription product comprises the HIV-1 pathogen-associated molecular pattern. Finally, we show that we can pharmacologically induce wild-type HIV-1 infection to stimulate IFN secretion and an antiviral state using a non-immunosuppressive cyclosporine analogue. We conclude that HIV-1 has evolved to use CPSF6 and cyclophilins to cloak its replication, allowing evasion of innate immune sensors and induction of a cell-autonomous innate immune response in primary human macrophages.

  11. In vivo functions of CPSF6 for HIV-1 as revealed by HIV-1 capsid evolution in HLA-B27-positive subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S Henning

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The host protein CPSF6 possesses a domain that can interact with the HIV-1 capsid (CA protein. CPSF6 has been implicated in regulating HIV-1 nuclear entry. However, its functional significance for HIV-1 replication has yet to be firmly established. Here we provide evidence for two divergent functions of CPSF6 for HIV-1 replication in vivo. We demonstrate that endogenous CPSF6 exerts an inhibitory effect on naturally occurring HIV-1 variants in individuals carrying the HLA-B27 allele. Conversely, we find a strong selective pressure in these individuals to preserve CPSF6 binding, while escaping from the restrictive activity by CPSF6. This active maintenance of CPSF6 binding during HIV-1 CA evolution in vivo contrasts with the in vitro viral evolution, which can reduce CPSF6 binding to evade from CPSF6-mediated restriction. Thus, these observations argue for a beneficial role of CPSF6 for HIV-1 in vivo. CPSF6-mediated restriction renders HIV-1 less dependent or independent from TNPO3, RanBP2 and Nup153, host factors implicated in HIV-1 nuclear entry. However, viral evolution that maintains CPSF6 binding in HLA-B27+ subjects invariably restores the ability to utilize these host factors, which may be the major selective pressure for CPSF6 binding in vivo. Our study uncovers two opposing CA-dependent functions of CPSF6 in HIV-1 replication in vivo; however, the benefit for binding CPSF6 appears to outweigh the cost, providing support for a vital function of CPSF6 during HIV-1 replication in vivo.

  12. A novel self-assembled nanoparticle vaccine with HIV-1 Tat₄₉₋₅₇/HPV16 E7₄₉₋₅₇ fusion peptide and GM-CSF DNA elicits potent and prolonged CD8⁺ T cell-dependent anti-tumor immunity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jun; Yin, Rui; Tian, Yi; Huang, Zeming; Shi, Jinglei; Fu, Xiaolan; Wang, Li; Wu, Yuzhang; Hao, Fei; Ni, Bing

    2012-02-01

    Peptide-based vaccines derived from the E7 protein of human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 were developed to induce effective T cell responses against established cervical cancer, but have met with limited clinical success. It is necessary to develop novel peptide-based strategies to substantially improve the immune response against HPV16-related cancer. In this study, we aimed to design a novel peptide-based self-assembled nanoparticle HPV16 vaccine by combining the cell-penetrating peptide HIV-1 Tat(49-57) that was fused with the HPV16 E7(49-57) cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitope and the granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) gene, and to investigate how it improves the immune response and the therapeutic outcome ex vivo and in vivo. Nanoparticles were prepared and identified by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), gel retardation and DNase I protection assays. This type of vaccine formulation formed the 20-80 nm nanoparticles, and greatly improved epitope-specific immunity both ex vivo and in vivo. Importantly, this vaccine type was associated with decreased tumor growth and enhanced long-term survival in the prophylactic and therapeutic mouse models. The underlying mechanisms were determined to involve priming of enhanced frequency of CD8(+) memory T subtype cells. These results suggest that the nanoparticle Tat-E7/pGM-CSF represents a promising novel approach to enhance the potency of peptide-based cervical cancer vaccines, and this vaccine design strategy may act as a useful reference for research of virus-associated diseases and specific tumor immunotherapies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Immune hierarchy among HIV-1 CD8+ T cell epitopes delivered by dendritic cells depends on MHC-I binding irrespective of mode of loading and immunization in HLA-A*0201 mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kloverpris, Henrik N; Karlsson, Ingrid; Thorn, Mette

    2009-01-01

    Recent human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccination strategies aim at targeting a broad range of cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes from different HIV-1 proteins by immunization with multiple CTL epitopes simultaneously. However, this may establish an immune hierarchical response......, where the immune system responds to only a small number of the epitopes administered. To evaluate the feasibility of such vaccine strategies, we used the human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A*0201 transgenic (tg) HHD murine in vivo model and immunized with dendritic cells pulsed with seven HIV-1-derived HLA......-A*0201 binding CTL epitopes. The seven peptides were simultaneously presented on the same dendritic cell (DC) or on separate DCs before immunization to one or different lymphoid compartments. Data from this study showed that the T-cell response, as measured by cytolytic activity and gamma-interferon (IFN...

  14. Preclinical development of the green tea catechin, epigallocatechin gallate, as an HIV-1 therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nance, Christina L; Siwak, Edward B; Shearer, William T

    2009-02-01

    Previously, we presented evidence that at physiologic concentrations the green tea catechin, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), inhibited attachment of HIV-1 glycoprotein 120 to the CD4 molecule on T cells, but the downstream effects of EGCG on HIV-1 infectivity were not determined. To evaluate the inhibition of HIV-1 infectivity by EGCG and begin preclinical development of EGCG as a possible therapy. PBMCs, CD4(+) T cells, and macrophages were isolated from blood of HIV-1-uninfected donors. HIV-1 infectivity was assessed by an HIV-1 p24 ELISA. Cell survival was assessed by cell viability by Trypan blue exclusion assay, cell growth by thymidine incorporation, and apoptosis by flow-cytometric analysis of annexin-V binding. Epigallocatechin gallate inhibited HIV-1 infectivity on human CD4(+) T cells and macrophages in a dose-dependent manner. At a physiologic concentration of 6 mumol/L, EGCG significantly inhibited HIV-1 p24 antigen production across a broad spectrum of both HIV-1 clinical isolates and laboratory-adapted subtypes (B [P < .001], C, D, and G [P < .01]). The specificity of the EGCG-induced inhibition was substantiated by the failure of EGCG derivatives lacking galloyl and/or pyrogallol side groups to alter HIV-1 p24 levels. EGCG-induced inhibition of HV-1 infectivity was not a result of cytotoxicity, cell growth inhibition, or apoptosis. We conclude that by preventing the attachment of HIV-1-glycoprotein 120 to the CD4 molecule, EGCG inhibits HIV-1 infectivity. Because this inhibition can be achieved at physiologic concentrations, the natural anti-HIV agent EGCG is a candidate as an alternative therapy in HIV-1 therapy.

  15. Inhibition of HIV Replication by Cyclic and Hairpin PNAs Targeting the HIV-1 TAR RNA Loop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Upert

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1 replication and gene expression entails specific interaction of the viral protein Tat with its transactivation responsive element (TAR, to form a highly stable stem-bulge-loop structure. Previously, we described triphenylphosphonium (TPP cation-based vectors that efficiently deliver nucleotide analogs (PNAs into the cytoplasm of cells. In particular, we showed that the TPP conjugate of a linear 16-mer PNA targeting the apical stem-loop region of TAR impedes Tat-mediated transactivation of the HIV-1 LTR in vitro and also in cell culture systems. In this communication, we conjugated TPP to cyclic and hairpin PNAs targeting the loop region of HIV-1 TAR and evaluated their antiviral efficacy in a cell culture system. We found that TPP-cyclic PNAs containing only 8 residues, showed higher antiviral potency compared to hairpin PNAs of 12 or 16 residues. We further noted that the TPP-conjugates of the 8-mer cyclic PNA as well as the 16-mer linear PNA displayed similar antiviral efficacy. However, cyclic PNAs were shown to be highly specific to their target sequences. This communication emphasizes on the importance of small constrained cyclic PNAs over both linear and hairpin structures for targeting biologically relevant RNA hairpins.

  16. Progress and perspectives on HIV-1 microbicide development

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Alexandre, Kabamba B

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The majority of HIV-1 infections occur via sexual intercourse. Women are the most affected by the epidemic, particularly in developing countries, due to their socio-economic dependence on men and the fact that they are often victims of gender based...

  17. Diagnostik af HIV-1 infektionen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, C B; Dickmeiss, E; Bygbjerg, Ib Christian

    1991-01-01

    Different methods have been developed for the diagnosis of HIV infection, i.e. detection of antibodies, antigen and proviral DNA. ELISA methods for detecting HIV-1 antibodies are widely used as screening assays. A sample which is repeatedly positive with ELISA is re-tested with a confirmatory test...... in a proportion of patients. Detection and quantitation of HIV antigen are used as indicators of disease progression and for monitoring the antiviral efficacy of therapeutic interventions. When no antibodies or antigens can be detected in persons suspected of having HIV infection, culture of HIV can be performed....... For research purposes, detection of small amounts of proviral DNA can be made with polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The method is not yet applicable in routine diagnosis of HIV infection....

  18. Cocaine modulates HIV-1 integration in primary CD4+ T cells: implications in HIV-1 pathogenesis in drug-abusing patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addai, Amma B.; Pandhare, Jui; Paromov, Victor; Mantri, Chinmay K.; Pratap, Siddharth; Dash, Chandravanu

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies suggest that cocaine abuse worsens HIV-1 disease progression. Increased viral load has been suggested to play a key role for the accelerated HIV disease among cocaine-abusing patients. The goal of this study was to investigate whether cocaine enhances proviral DNA integration as a mechanism to increase viral load. We infected CD4+ T cells that are the primary targets of HIV-1 in vivo and treated the cells with physiologically relevant concentrations of cocaine (1 µM–100 µM). Proviral DNA integration in the host genome was measured by nested qPCR. Our results illustrated that cocaine from 1 µM through 50 µM increased HIV-1 integration in CD4+ T cells in a dose-dependent manner. As integration can be modulated by several early postentry steps of HIV-1 infection, we examined the direct effects of cocaine on viral integration by in vitro integration assays by use of HIV-1 PICs. Our data illustrated that cocaine directly increases viral DNA integration. Furthermore, our MS analysis showed that cocaine is able to enter CD4+ T cells and localize to the nucleus-. In summary, our data provide strong evidence that cocaine can increase HIV-1 integration in CD4+ T cells. Therefore, we hypothesize that increased HIV-1 integration is a novel mechanism by which cocaine enhances viral load and worsens disease progression in drug-abusing HIV-1 patients. PMID:25691383

  19. Innate immune sensing of HIV-1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Martin R; Olagnier, David; Hiscott, John

    2015-03-01

    The innate immune system plays a critical role in the control of viral infections. Although the mechanisms involved in sensing and response to viral pathogens has progressed tremendously in the last decade, an understanding of the innate antiviral response to human retroviruses lagged behind. Recent studies now demonstrate that human retroviruses such as human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and human T-lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1) trigger a type I interferon antiviral response through novel cytosolic sensors that detect DNA intermediates of reverse transcription; in addition, these early host-pathogen interactions may trigger cell death pathways depending on the activation state of the target cell. The purpose of this review is to summarize the recent progress in the understanding of innate immune sensing of human retroviruses. Innate immune sensing of HIV-1 and HTLV-1 is influenced by the target cell phenotype, viral replicative intermediates, and host restriction factors that limit retroviral replication. Macrophages and dendritic cells detect HIV-DNA intermediates, whereas CD4 T cells differentially sense HIV DNA depending on the level of T-cell activation. Furthermore, the structure of the viral capsid and interplay between innate DNA sensors and host restriction factors all contribute to the magnitude of the ensuing innate immune response. The interplay between HIV infection and the innate immune system has emerged as an important component of HIV pathogenesis, linked to both induction of innate immunity and stimulation of cell death mechanisms. Ultimately, an in-depth knowledge of the mechanisms of innate immune control of human retrovirus infection may facilitate the development of novel treatment strategies to control retrovirus-induced immunopathology.

  20. CD4+ T cells from elite controllers resist HIV-1 infection by selective upregulation of p21

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huabiao; Li, Chun; Huang, Jinghe; Cung, Thai; Seiss, Katherine; Beamon, Jill; Carrington, Mary F.; Porter, Lindsay C.; Burke, Patrick S.; Yang, Yue; Ryan, Bethany J.; Liu, Ruiwu; Weiss, Robert H.; Pereyra, Florencia; Cress, William D.; Brass, Abraham L.; Rosenberg, Eric S.; Walker, Bruce D.; Yu, Xu G.; Lichterfeld, Mathias

    2011-01-01

    Elite controllers represent a unique group of HIV-1–infected persons with undetectable HIV-1 replication in the absence of antiretroviral therapy. However, the mechanisms contributing to effective viral immune defense in these patients remain unclear. Here, we show that compared with HIV-1 progressors and HIV-1–negative persons, CD4+ T cells from elite controllers are less susceptible to HIV-1 infection. This partial resistance to HIV-1 infection involved less effective reverse transcription and mRNA transcription from proviral DNA and was associated with strong and selective upregulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 (also known as cip-1 and waf-1). Experimental blockade of p21 in CD4+ T cells from elite controllers resulted in a marked increase of viral reverse transcripts and mRNA production and led to higher enzymatic activities of cyclin-dependent kinase 9 (CDK9), which serves as a transcriptional coactivator of HIV-1 gene expression. This suggests that p21 acts as a barrier against HIV-1 infection in CD4+ T cells from elite controllers by inhibiting a cyclin-dependent kinase required for effective HIV-1 replication. These data demonstrate a mechanism of host resistance to HIV-1 in elite controllers and may open novel perspectives for clinical strategies to prevent or treat HIV-1 infection. PMID:21403397

  1. A single gp120 residue can affect HIV-1 tropism in macaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Q Del Prete

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Species-dependent variation in proteins that aid or limit virus replication determines the ability of lentiviruses to jump between host species. Identifying and overcoming these differences facilitates the development of animal models for HIV-1, including models based on chimeric SIVs that express HIV-1 envelope (Env glycoproteins, (SHIVs and simian-tropic HIV-1 (stHIV strains. Here, we demonstrate that the inherently poor ability of most HIV-1 Env proteins to use macaque CD4 as a receptor is improved during adaptation by virus passage in macaques. We identify a single amino acid, A281, in HIV-1 Env that consistently changes during adaptation in macaques and affects the ability of HIV-1 Env to use macaque CD4. Importantly, mutations at A281 do not markedly affect HIV-1 Env neutralization properties. Our findings should facilitate the design of HIV-1 Env proteins for use in non-human primate models and thus expedite the development of clinically relevant reagents for testing interventions against HIV-1.

  2. HIV-1 infection: functional competition between gp41 and interleukin-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanhadji, Kamel; Tardy, Jean-Claude; Touraine, Jean-Louis

    2010-08-01

    To determine whether the gp41 of HIV-1 could adhere to the interleukin (IL)-2 receptor at the surface of target cells in vitro, we analysed in vitro the possible functional competition between various forms of the HIV-1 gp41 molecule (i.e. peptides, trimeric or primary structures) and IL-2. This competition has been analysed in a test involving the proliferation of an IL-2-dependent cell line (CTLL2). The putative interaction between the IL-2 molecule and HIV-1 has also been assayed on MT4 cells (CD4(+) T lymphocytes) in culture. The gp41 trimeric molecule and an HIV-1 gp41 peptide (578-590 aminoacid sequence) dramatically inhibited CTLL2 cell proliferation, despite the presence of IL-2. The addition of serum, containing anti-gp41 antibodies, from HIV-1 patients resulted in a significant abolition of this inhibition. The concomitant incubation of IL-2 and HIV-1 with MT4 cells resulted in a strong decrease (70%) in HIV-1 p24 release. These data suggest that the gp41 of HIV-1 can use the IL-2 receptor during the process of HIV-1 infection and that there is some functional mimesis between gp41 and IL-2. Copyright 2010 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Galectin-3 promotes HIV-1 budding via association with Alix and Gag p6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng-Fan; Tsao, Ching-Han; Lin, Yu-Ting; Hsu, Daniel K; Chiang, Meng-Lin; Lo, Chia-Hui; Chien, Fan-Ching; Chen, Peilin; Arthur Chen, Yi-Ming; Chen, Huan-Yuan; Liu, Fu-Tong

    2014-01-01

    Galectin-3 has been reported to regulate the functions of a number of immune cell types. We previously reported that galectin-3 is translocated to immunological synapses in T cells upon T-cell receptor engagement, where it associates with ALG-2-interacting protein X (Alix). Alix is known to coordinate with the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) to promote human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 virion release. We hypothesized that galectin-3 plays a role in HIV-1 viral budding. Cotransfection of cells of the Jurkat T line with galectin-3 and HIV-1 plasmids resulted in increased HIV-1 budding, and suppression of galectin-3 expression by RNAi in Hut78 and primary CD4+ T cells led to reduced HIV-1 budding. We used immunofluorescence microscopy to observe the partial colocalization of galectin-3, Alix and Gag in HIV-1-infected cells. Results from co-immunoprecipitation experiments indicate that galectin-3 expression promotes Alix-Gag p6 association, whereas the results of Alix knockdown suggest that galectin-3 promotes HIV-1 budding through Alix. HIV-1 particles released from galectin-3-expressing cells acquire the galectin-3 protein in an Alix-dependent manner, with proteins primarily residing inside the virions. We also found that the galectin-3 N-terminal domain interacts with the proline-rich region of Alix. Collectively, these results suggest that endogenous galectin-3 facilitates HIV-1 budding by promoting the Alix-Gag p6 association. PMID:24996823

  4. HIV-1 production is specifically associated with human NMT1 long form in human NMT isozymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamune, Nobutoki; Gota, Kayoko; Misumi, Shogo; Tanaka, Kenzo; Okinaka, Shigetaka; Shoji, Shozo

    2008-02-01

    The N-myristoylation of the N-terminal of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) Pr55(gag) by human N-myristoyltransferase (hNMT) is a prerequisite modification for HIV-1 production. hNMT consists of multiple isozymes encoded by hNMT1 and hNMT2. The hNMT1 isozyme consists of long, medium, and short forms. Here, we investigated which isozyme is crucial for HIV-1 production. Human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells transfected with infectious HIV-1 vectors were used as models of HIV-1-infected cells in this study. The significant reduction in HIV-1 production and the failure of the specific localization of Pr55(gag) in a detergent-resistant membrane fraction were dependent on the knockdown of the different forms of the hNMT1 isozyme but not of the hNMT2 isozyme. Additionally, the coexpression of an inactive mutant hNMT1 isozyme, namely the hNMT1 long form (hNMT1(L)), but not that of other hNMT mutants resulted in a significant reduction in HIV-1 production. These results strongly suggest that HIV-1 production is specifically associated with hNMT1, particularly hNMT1(L), but not with hNMT2 in vivo, contributing to the understanding of a step in HIV-1 replication.

  5. HIV-1 induces DCIR expression in CD4+ T cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra A Lambert

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The C-type lectin receptor DCIR, which has been shown very recently to act as an attachment factor for HIV-1 in dendritic cells, is expressed predominantly on antigen-presenting cells. However, this concept was recently challenged by the discovery that DCIR can also be detected in CD4(+ T cells found in the synovial tissue from rheumatoid arthritis (RA patients. Given that RA and HIV-1 infections share common features such as a chronic inflammatory condition and polyclonal immune hyperactivation status, we hypothesized that HIV-1 could promote DCIR expression in CD4(+ T cells. We report here that HIV-1 drives DCIR expression in human primary CD4(+ T cells isolated from patients (from both aviremic/treated and viremic/treatment naive persons and cells acutely infected in vitro (seen in both virus-infected and uninfected cells. Soluble factors produced by virus-infected cells are responsible for the noticed DCIR up-regulation on uninfected cells. Infection studies with Vpr- or Nef-deleted viruses revealed that these two viral genes are not contributing to the mechanism of DCIR induction that is seen following acute infection of CD4(+ T cells with HIV-1. Moreover, we report that DCIR is linked to caspase-dependent (induced by a mitochondria-mediated generation of free radicals and -independent intrinsic apoptotic pathways (involving the death effector AIF. Finally, we demonstrate that the higher surface expression of DCIR in CD4(+ T cells is accompanied by an enhancement of virus attachment/entry, replication and transfer. This study shows for the first time that HIV-1 induces DCIR membrane expression in CD4(+ T cells, a process that might promote virus dissemination throughout the infected organism.

  6. HIV-1 Induces DCIR Expression in CD4+ T Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Alexandra A.; Imbeault, Michaël; Gilbert, Caroline; Tremblay, Michel J.

    2010-01-01

    The C-type lectin receptor DCIR, which has been shown very recently to act as an attachment factor for HIV-1 in dendritic cells, is expressed predominantly on antigen-presenting cells. However, this concept was recently challenged by the discovery that DCIR can also be detected in CD4+ T cells found in the synovial tissue from rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Given that RA and HIV-1 infections share common features such as a chronic inflammatory condition and polyclonal immune hyperactivation status, we hypothesized that HIV-1 could promote DCIR expression in CD4+ T cells. We report here that HIV-1 drives DCIR expression in human primary CD4+ T cells isolated from patients (from both aviremic/treated and viremic/treatment naive persons) and cells acutely infected in vitro (seen in both virus-infected and uninfected cells). Soluble factors produced by virus-infected cells are responsible for the noticed DCIR up-regulation on uninfected cells. Infection studies with Vpr- or Nef-deleted viruses revealed that these two viral genes are not contributing to the mechanism of DCIR induction that is seen following acute infection of CD4+ T cells with HIV-1. Moreover, we report that DCIR is linked to caspase-dependent (induced by a mitochondria-mediated generation of free radicals) and -independent intrinsic apoptotic pathways (involving the death effector AIF). Finally, we demonstrate that the higher surface expression of DCIR in CD4+ T cells is accompanied by an enhancement of virus attachment/entry, replication and transfer. This study shows for the first time that HIV-1 induces DCIR membrane expression in CD4+ T cells, a process that might promote virus dissemination throughout the infected organism. PMID:21085612

  7. HIV-1 transgene expression in rats causes oxidant stress and alveolar epithelial barrier dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Barbara A

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV-infected individuals are at increased risk for acute and chronic airway disease even though there is no evidence that the virus can infect the lung epithelium. Although HIV-related proteins including gp120 and Tat can directly cause oxidant stress and cellular dysfunction, their effects in the lung are unknown. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of HIV-1 transgene expression in rats on alveolar epithelial barrier function. Alveolar epithelial barrier function was assessed by determining lung liquid clearance in vivo and alveolar epithelial monolayer permeability in vitro. Oxidant stress in the alveolar space was determined by measuring the glutathione redox couple by high performance liquid chromatography, and the expression and membrane localization of key tight junction proteins were assessed. Finally, the direct effects of the HIV-related proteins gp120 and Tat on alveolar epithelial barrier formation and tight junction protein expression were determined. Results HIV-1 transgene expression caused oxidant stress within the alveolar space and impaired epithelial barrier function even though there was no evidence of overt inflammation within the airways. The expression and membrane localization of the tight junction proteins zonula occludens-1 and occludin were decreased in alveolar epithelial cells from HIV-1 transgenic rats. Further, treating alveolar epithelial monolayers from wild type rats in vitro with recombinant gp120 or Tat for 24 hours reproduced many of the effects on zonula occludens-1 and occludin expression and membrane localization. Conclusion Taken together, these data indicate that HIV-related proteins cause oxidant stress and alter the expression of critical tight junction proteins in the alveolar epithelium, resulting in barrier dysfunction.

  8. DMPD: HIV-1 infection and regulation of Tat function in macrophages. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rrmann CH, Rice AP. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2004 Sep;36(9):1767-75. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show HIV-...ication Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2004 Sep;36(9):1767-75. Pathway - PNG File (.png) SVG File (.svg) HTML File (.html

  9. Quantifying Ongoing HIV-1 Exposure in HIV-1–Serodiscordant Couples to Identify Individuals With Potential Host Resistance to HIV-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackelprang, Romel D.; Baeten, Jared M.; Donnell, Deborah; Celum, Connie; Farquhar, Carey; de Bruyn, Guy; Essex, Max; McElrath, M. Juliana; Nakku-Joloba, Edith; Lingappa, Jairam R.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Immunogenetic correlates of resistance to HIV-1 in HIV-1–exposed seronegative (HESN) individuals with consistently high exposure may inform HIV-1 prevention strategies. We developed a novel approach for quantifying HIV-1 exposure to identify individuals remaining HIV-1 uninfected despite persistent high exposure. Methods. We used longitudinal predictors of HIV-1 transmission in HIV-1 serodiscordant couples to score HIV-1 exposure and define HESN clusters with persistently high, low, and decreasing risk trajectories. The model was validated in an independent cohort of serodiscordant couples. We describe a statistical tool that can be applied to other HESN cohorts to identify individuals with high exposure to HIV-1. Results. HIV-1 exposure was best quantified by frequency of unprotected sex with, plasma HIV-1 RNA levels among, and presence of genital ulcer disease among HIV-1–infected partners and by age, pregnancy status, herpes simplex virus 2 serostatus, and male circumcision status among HESN participants. Overall, 14% of HESN individuals persistently had high HIV-1 exposure and exhibited a declining incidence of HIV-1 infection over time. Conclusions. A minority of HESN individuals from HIV-1–discordant couples had persistent high HIV-1 exposure over time. Decreasing incidence of infection in this group suggests these individuals were selected for resistance to HIV-1 and may be most appropriate for identifying biological correlates of natural host resistance to HIV-1 infection. PMID:22926009

  10. HIV-1 as RNA evolution machine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhout, Ben

    2011-01-01

    We have over the years studied several sequence or structural elements within the HIV-1 RNA genome. Molecular mechanisms have been proposed for the role of these RNA motifs in virus replication. We have developed HIV-1 evolution as a powerful research method to study different aspects of the viral

  11. T cell dynamics in HIV-1 infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clark, D.R.; Boer, R.J. de; Wolthers, K.C.; Miedema, F.

    1999-01-01

    One of the most prominent features of HIV-1 infection is CD4⁺ T cell depletion. This statement is widely used in papers on HIV-1 research; however, while true, it is deceptively simplistic in that it fails to describe what is actually a complex change in the representation of T cell

  12. HIV-1 Latency in Monocytes/Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 targets CD4+ T cells and cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage. HIV pathogenesis is characterized by the depletion of T lymphocytes and by the presence of a population of cells in which latency has been established called the HIV-1 reservoir. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART has significantly improved the life of HIV-1 infected patients. However, complete eradication of HIV-1 from infected individuals is not possible without targeting latent sources of infection. HIV-1 establishes latent infection in resting CD4+ T cells and findings indicate that latency can also be established in the cells of monocyte/macrophage lineage. Monocyte/macrophage lineage includes among others, monocytes, macrophages and brain resident macrophages. These cells are relatively more resistant to apoptosis induced by HIV-1, thus are important stable hideouts of the virus. Much effort has been made in the direction of eliminating HIV-1 resting CD4+ T-cell reservoirs. However, it is impossible to achieve a cure for HIV-1 without considering these neglected latent reservoirs, the cells of monocyte/macrophage lineage. In this review we will describe our current understanding of the mechanism of latency in monocyte/macrophage lineage and how such cells can be specifically eliminated from the infected host.

  13. CD4-gp120 interaction interface - a gateway for HIV-1 infection in human: molecular network, modeling and docking studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Deeksha; Podder, Avijit; Pandit, Mansi; Latha, Narayanan

    2017-09-01

    The major causative agent for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV-1). HIV-1 is a predominant subtype of HIV which counts on human cellular mechanism virtually in every aspect of its life cycle. Binding of viral envelope glycoprotein-gp120 with human cell surface CD4 receptor triggers the early infection stage of HIV-1. This study focuses on the interaction interface between these two proteins that play a crucial role for viral infectivity. The CD4-gp120 interaction interface has been studied through a comprehensive protein-protein interaction network (PPIN) analysis and highlighted as a useful step towards identifying potential therapeutic drug targets against HIV-1 infection. We prioritized gp41, Nef and Tat proteins of HIV-1 as valuable drug targets at early stage of viral infection. Lack of crystal structure has made it difficult to understand the biological implication of these proteins during disease progression. Here, computational protein modeling techniques and molecular dynamics simulations were performed to generate three-dimensional models of these targets. Besides, molecular docking was initiated to determine the desirability of these target proteins for already available HIV-1 specific drugs which indicates the usefulness of these protein structures to identify an effective drug combination therapy against AIDS.

  14. ADAR1 and PACT contribute to efficient translation of transcripts containing HIV-1 trans-activating response (TAR) element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukwurah, Evelyn; Handy, Indhira; Patel, Rekha C

    2017-03-23

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) has evolved various measures to counter the host cell's innate antiviral response during the course of infection. Interferon (IFN)-stimulated gene products are produced following HIV-1 infection to limit viral replication, but viral proteins and RNAs counteract their effect. One such mechanism is specifically directed against the IFN-induced Protein Kinase PKR, which is centrally important to the cellular antiviral response. In the presence of viral RNAs, PKR is activated and phosphorylates the translation initiation factor eIF2α. This shuts down the synthesis of both host and viral proteins, allowing the cell to mount an effective antiviral response. PACT (protein activator of PKR) is a cellular protein activator of PKR, primarily functioning to activate PKR in response to cellular stress. Recent studies have indicated that during HIV-1 infection, PACT's normal cellular function is compromised and that PACT is unable to activate PKR. Using various reporter systems and in vitro kinase assays, we establish in this report that interactions between PACT, ADAR1 and HIV-1-encoded Tat protein diminish the activation of PKR in response to HIV-1 infection. Our results highlight an important pathway by which HIV-1 transcripts subvert the host cell's antiviral activities to enhance their translation. © 2017 The Author(s).

  15. Expression of ATP-binding cassette membrane transporters in a HIV-1 transgenic rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robillard, Kevin R; Hoque, Md Tozammel; Bendayan, Reina

    2014-02-21

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp, product of Mdr1a and Mdr1b genes), multidrug resistance associated proteins (Mrps), and breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp), all members of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) membrane-associated drug transporters superfamily, can significantly restrict the entry of antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) into organs which exhibit a barrier function such as the central nervous system (CNS) and the male genital tract (MGT). In vitro, HIV-1 viral proteins such as glycoprotein-120 (gp120) and transcriptional transactivator (tat) have been shown to alter the expression of these transporters and ARVs permeability. The objective of this study was to compare mRNA expression of these transporters, in vivo, in several tissues obtained from HIV-1 transgenic rats (Tg-rat) (8 and 24 weeks) with those of age-matched wild-type rats. At 24 weeks, significant changes in several drug transporter mRNA expressions were observed, in particular, in brain, kidney, liver and testes. These findings suggest that HIV-1 viral proteins can alter the expression of ABC drug transporters, in vivo, in the context of HIV-1 and further regulate ARVs permeability in several organs including the CNS and MGT, two sites which have been reported to display very low ARVs permeability in the clinic. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. GADD45 proteins inhibit HIV-1 replication through specific suppression of HIV-1 transcription.

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    Liang, Zhibin; Liu, Ruikang; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Suzhen; Hu, Xiaomei; Tan, Juan; Liang, Chen; Qiao, Wentao

    2016-06-01

    GADD45 proteins are a group of stress-induced proteins and participate in various cellular pathways including cell cycle regulation, cell survival and death, DNA repair and demethylation. It was recently shown that HIV-1 infection induces the expression of GADD45 proteins. However, the effect of GADD45 on HIV-1 replication has not been studied. Here, we report that overexpression of GADD45 proteins reduces HIV-1 production through suppressing transcription from the HIV-1 LTR promoter. This inhibitory effect is specific to HIV-1, since GADD45 proteins neither inhibit the LTR promoters from other retroviruses nor reduce the production of these viruses. Knockdown of endogenous GADD45 modestly activates HIV-1 in the J-Lat A72 latency cell line, which suggests GADD45 proteins might play a role in maintaining HIV-1 latency. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Inhibitory effect of aqueous dandelion extract on HIV-1 replication and reverse transcriptase activity

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    Han Huamin

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, which is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, is an immunosuppressive disease that results in life-threatening opportunistic infections. The general problems in current therapy include the constant emergence of drug-resistant HIV strains, adverse side effects and the unavailability of treatments in developing countries. Natural products from herbs with the abilities to inhibit HIV-1 life cycle at different stages, have served as excellent sources of new anti-HIV-1 drugs. In this study, we aimed to investigate the anti-HIV-1 activity of aqueous dandelion extract. Methods The pseudotyped HIV-1 virus has been utilized to explore the anti-HIV-1 activity of dandelion, the level of HIV-1 replication was assessed by the percentage of GFP-positive cells. The inhibitory effect of the dandelion extract on reverse transcriptase activity was assessed by the reverse transcriptase assay kit. Results Compared to control values obtained from cells infected without treatment, the level of HIV-1 replication and reverse transcriptase activity were decreased in a dose-dependent manner. The data suggest that dandelion extract has a potent inhibitory activity against HIV-1 replication and reverse transcriptase activity. The identification of HIV-1 antiviral compounds from Taraxacum officinale should be pursued. Conclusions The dandelion extract showed strong activity against HIV-1 RT and inhibited both the HIV-1 vector and the hybrid-MoMuLV/MoMuSV retrovirus replication. These findings provide additional support for the potential therapeutic efficacy of Taraxacum officinale. Extracts from this plant may be regarded as another starting point for the development of an antiretroviral therapy with fewer side effects.

  18. Contraceptive method and pregnancy incidence among women in HIV-1-serodiscordant partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngure, Kenneth; Heffron, Renee; Mugo, Nelly R; Celum, Connie; Cohen, Craig R; Odoyo, Josephine; Rees, Helen; Kiarie, James N; Were, Edwin; Baeten, Jared M

    2012-02-20

    Effective contraception reduces unintended pregnancies and is a central strategy to reduce vertical HIV-1 transmission for HIV-1-infected women. Among 2269 HIV-1-seropositive and 1085-seronegative women from seven African countries who were members of HIV-1-serodiscordant heterosexual partnerships and who were participating in an HIV-1 prevention clinical trial, we assessed pregnancy incidence according to contraceptive method using multivariate Andersen-Gill analysis. Compared with women using no contraceptive method, pregnancy incidence was significantly reduced among HIV-1-seropositive and HIV-1-seronegative women using injectable contraception [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 0.24, P = 0.001 and aHR 0.25, P pregnancy risk only among HIV-1-seropositive women (aHR 0.51, P = 0.004) but not seronegative women (aHR 0.64, P = 0.3), and, for both seropositive and seronegative women, oral contraceptive pill users were more likely to become pregnant than injectable contraceptive users (aHR 2.22, P = 0.01 for HIV-1-seropositive women and aHR 2.65, P = 0.09 for HIV-1-seronegative women). Condoms, when reported as being used as the primary contraceptive method, marginally reduced pregnancy incidence (aHR 0.85, P = 0.1 for seropositive women and aHR 0.67, P = 0.02 for seronegative women). There were no pregnancies among women using intrauterine devices, implantable methods or who had undergone surgical sterilization, although these methods were used relatively infrequently. Family planning programs and HIV-1 prevention trials need innovative ways to motivate uptake and sustained use of longer acting, less user-dependent contraception for women who do not desire pregnancy.

  19. Inhibitory effect of aqueous dandelion extract on HIV-1 replication and reverse transcriptase activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), which is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), is an immunosuppressive disease that results in life-threatening opportunistic infections. The general problems in current therapy include the constant emergence of drug-resistant HIV strains, adverse side effects and the unavailability of treatments in developing countries. Natural products from herbs with the abilities to inhibit HIV-1 life cycle at different stages, have served as excellent sources of new anti-HIV-1 drugs. In this study, we aimed to investigate the anti-HIV-1 activity of aqueous dandelion extract. Methods The pseudotyped HIV-1 virus has been utilized to explore the anti-HIV-1 activity of dandelion, the level of HIV-1 replication was assessed by the percentage of GFP-positive cells. The inhibitory effect of the dandelion extract on reverse transcriptase activity was assessed by the reverse transcriptase assay kit. Results Compared to control values obtained from cells infected without treatment, the level of HIV-1 replication and reverse transcriptase activity were decreased in a dose-dependent manner. The data suggest that dandelion extract has a potent inhibitory activity against HIV-1 replication and reverse transcriptase activity. The identification of HIV-1 antiviral compounds from Taraxacum officinale should be pursued. Conclusions The dandelion extract showed strong activity against HIV-1 RT and inhibited both the HIV-1 vector and the hybrid-MoMuLV/MoMuSV retrovirus replication. These findings provide additional support for the potential therapeutic efficacy of Taraxacum officinale. Extracts from this plant may be regarded as another starting point for the development of an antiretroviral therapy with fewer side effects. PMID:22078030

  20. Molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 among the HIV infected people of Manipur, Northeastern India: Emergence of unique recombinant forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Adhikarimayum Lakhikumar; Singh, Thiyam Ramsing; Devi, Khuraijam Ranjana; Singh, Lisam Shanjukumar

    2017-06-01

    According to the Joint National Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), the northeastern region of India has the highest HIV prevalence in the country. This study was conducted to determine the current HIV-1 molecular epidemiology of Manipur, a state in northeast India. Blood samples from HIV-1 seropositive subjects were collected between June 2011 and February 2014. The partial regions of HIV-1 genes; pol and tat-vpu-env were independently amplified, sequenced, analyzed, and genotyped. Based on all sequences generated from 110 samples using pol and/or tat-vpu-env gene, the overall HIV-1 genotypes distribution of Manipur was as follows: 65.45% (72/110) subtype C, 32.73% (36/110) unique recombinant forms (URFs), and 1.82% (2/110) subtype B. The distribution of HIV-1 genotypes among the risk groups was: heterosexual: 58.33% (35/60) subtype C, 38.33% (23/60) URFs, and 3.34% (2/60) subtype B; intravenous drug users (IDUs): 85.36% (35/41) subtype C, 9.76% (4/41) URFs, and 4.88% (2/41) subtype B; mother to child (MTC): 50% (3/6) URFs and 50% (3/6) subtype C and blood transfusion: 100% (3/3) subtype C. The findings for the first time revealed the emergence of URFs of HIV-1 in Manipur which is predominant among the sexual and MTC risk groups as compared to IDUs. Taking together, this study illustrated that Manipur is the "recombinant hotspot of HIV" of India. The results will provide the clinical importance for continuous monitoring of HIV-infections in order to design appropriate prevention measures to limit the spread of new HIV infections. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Differential control of CXCR4 and CD4 downregulation by HIV-1 Gag

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    Valiathan Rajeshwari R

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ESCRT (endosomal sorting complex required for transport machinery functions to sort cellular receptors into the lumen of the multivesicular body (MVB prior to lysosomal degradation. ESCRT components can also be recruited by enveloped viruses to sites of viral assembly where they have been proposed to mediate viral egress. For example, HIV-1 budding is dependent on Gag-mediated recruitment of the cellular ESCRTs-I, -III, AIP1/Alix and Vps4 proteins. Viral recruitment of ESCRT proteins could therefore impact on host cell processes such as receptor downregulation. Results Here we show that downregulation of the HIV-1 co-receptor, CXCR4, by its ligand SDF-1, is ESCRT-I dependent. Expression of HIV-1 Gag attenuated downregulation of CXCR4, resulting in accumulation of undegraded receptors within intracellular compartments. The effect of Gag was dependent on an ESCRT-I interacting motif within the C-terminal p6 region of Gag. In contrast, PMA-induced downregulation of the HIV-1 receptor CD4 was independent of ESCRT-I and Vps4; HIV-1 Gag had no effect on this process. Conclusion These results establish that the HIV-1 receptor, CD4, and co-receptor, CXCR4 are differentially regulated by ESCRT proteins. HIV-1 Gag selectively modulates protein sorting at the MVB, interfering with ESCRT-I dependent but not ESCRT-I independent processes.

  2. Endocytosis of human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) in astrocytes: a fiery path to its destination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Ashok; Khandkar, Mehrab

    2015-01-01

    Despite successful suppression of peripheral HIV-1 infection by combination antiretroviral therapy, immune activation by residual virus in the brain leads to HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). In the brain, several types of cells, including microglia, perivascular macrophage, and astrocytes have been reported to be infected by HIV-1. Astrocytes, the most abundant cells in the brain, maintain homeostasis. The general consensus on HIV-1 infection in astrocytes is that it produces unproductive viral infection. HIV-1 enters astrocytes by pH-dependent endocytosis, leading to degradation of the virus in endosomes, but barely succeeds in infection. Here, we have discussed endocytosis-mediated HIV-1 entry and viral programming in astrocytes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Inhibiting sexual transmission of HIV-1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shattock, Robin J; Moore, John P

    2003-10-01

    The worldwide infection rate for HIV-1 is estimated to be 14,000 per day, but only now, more than 20 years into the epidemic, are the immediate events between exposure to infectious virus and the establishment of infection becoming clear. Defining the mechanisms of HIV-1 transmission, the target cells involved and how the virus attaches to and fuses with these cells, could reveal ways to block the sexual spread of the virus. In this review, we will discuss how our increasing knowledge of the ways in which HIV-1 is transmitted is shaping the development of new, more sophisticated intervention strategies based on the application of vaginal or rectal microbicides.

  4. IFITM Proteins Restrict HIV-1 Infection by Antagonizing the Envelope Glycoprotein

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    Jingyou Yu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The interferon-induced transmembrane (IFITM proteins have been recently shown to restrict HIV-1 and other viruses. Here, we provide evidence that IFITM proteins, particularly IFITM2 and IFITM3, specifically antagonize the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env, thereby inhibiting viral infection. IFITM proteins interact with HIV-1 Env in viral producer cells, leading to impaired Env processing and virion incorporation. Notably, the level of IFITM incorporation into HIV-1 virions does not strictly correlate with the extent of inhibition. Prolonged passage of HIV-1 in IFITM-expressing T lymphocytes leads to emergence of Env mutants that overcome IFITM restriction. The ability of IFITMs to inhibit cell-to-cell infection can be extended to HIV-1 primary isolates, HIV-2 and SIVs; however, the extent of inhibition appears to be virus-strain dependent. Overall, our study uncovers a mechanism by which IFITM proteins specifically antagonize HIV-1 Env to restrict HIV-1 infection and provides insight into the specialized role of IFITMs in HIV infection.

  5. Trans-activation of the JC virus late promoter by the tat protein of type 1 human immunodeficiency virus in glial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tada, Hiroomi; Lashgari, M.; Amini, S.; Khalili, K. (Thomas Jefferson Univ., Philadelphia, PA (USA)); Rappaport, J.; Wong-Staal, F. (National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1990-05-01

    Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system caused by the JC virus (JCV), a human papovavirus. PML is a relatively rare disease seen predominantly in immunocompromised individuals and is a frequent complication observed in AIDS patients. The significantly higher incidence of PML in AIDS patients than in other immunosuppressive disorders has suggested that the presence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in the brain may directly or indirectly contribute to the pathogenesis of this disease. In the present study the authors have examined the expression of the JCV genome in both glial and non-glial cells in the presence of HIV-1 regulatory proteins. They find that the HIV-1-encoded trans-regulatory protein tat increases the basal activity of the JCV late promoter, JCV{sub L}, in glial cells. They conclude that the presence of the HIV-1-encoded tat protein may positively affect the JCV lytic cycle in glial cells by stimulating JCV gene expression. The results suggest a mechanism for the relatively high incidence of PML in AIDS patients than in other immunosuppressive disorders. Furthermore, the findings indicate that the HIV-1 regulatory protein tat may stimulate other viral and perhaps cellular promoters, in addition to its own.

  6. Differential susceptibility of human thymic dendritic cell subsets to X4 and R5 HIV-1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Nathalie; Nugeyre, Marie-Thérèse; Scott-Algara, Daniel; Cumont, Marie-Christine; Barré-Sinoussi, Françoise; Pancino, Gianfranco; Israël, Nicole

    2006-02-28

    Human thymus can be infected by HIV-1 with potential consequences on immune regeneration and homeostasis. We previously showed that CD4 thymocytes preferentially replicate CXCR4 tropic (X4) HIV-1 dependently on interleukin (IL)-7. Here we addressed the susceptibility of thymic dendritic cells (DC) to HIV-1 infection. We investigated the replication ability of CXCR4 or CCR5 (R5) tropic HIV-1 in thymic micro-explants as well as in isolated thymic CD11clowCD14- DC, CD11chighCD14+ DC and plasmacytoid DC subsets. Thymic tissue was productively infected by both X4 and R5 viruses. However, X4 but not R5 HIV-1 replication was enhanced by IL-7 in thymic micro-explants, suggesting that R5 virus replication occurred in cells other than thymocytes. Indeed, we found that R5 HIV-1 replicated efficiently in DC isolated from thymic tissue. The replicative capacity of X4 and R5 viruses differed according to the different DC subsets. R5 but not X4 HIV-1 efficiently replicated in CD11chighCD14+ DC. In contrast, no HIV-1 replication was detected in CD11clowCD14- DC. Both X4 and R5 viruses efficiently replicated in plasmacytoid DC, which secreted interferon-alpha upon HIV-1 exposure. Productive HIV-1 infection also caused DC loss, consistent with different permissivity of each DC subset. Thymic DC sustain high levels of HIV-1 replication. DC might thus be the first target for R5 HIV-1 infection of thymus, acting as a Trojan horse for HIV-1 spread to thymocytes. Furthermore, DC death induced by HIV-1 infection may affect thymopoiesis.

  7. Stoichiometric parameters of HIV-1 entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarr, Melissa; Siliciano, Robert

    2015-01-01

    During HIV type 1 (HIV-1) entry, trimers of gp120 bind to CD4 and either the CCR5 or CXCR4 coreceptor on the target cell. The stoichiometric parameters associated with HIV-1 entry remain unclear. Important unanswered questions include: how many trimers must attach to CD4 molecules, how many must bind coreceptors, and how many functional gp120 subunits per trimer are required for entry? We performed single round infectivity assays with chimeric viruses and compared the experimental relative infectivity curves with curves generated by mathematical models. Our results indicate that HIV-1 entry requires only a small number of functional spikes (one or two), that Env trimers may function with fewer than three active subunits, and that there is no major difference in the stoichiometric requirements for CCR5 vs. CXCR4 mediated HIV-1 entry into host cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Molecular Understanding of HIV-1 Latency

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    W. Abbas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART has been an important breakthrough in the treatment of HIV-1 infection and has also a powerful tool to upset the equilibrium of viral production and HIV-1 pathogenesis. Despite the advent of potent combinations of this therapy, the long-lived HIV-1 reservoirs like cells from monocyte-macrophage lineage and resting memory CD4+ T cells which are established early during primary infection constitute a major obstacle to virus eradication. Further HAART interruption leads to immediate rebound viremia from latent reservoirs. This paper focuses on the essentials of the molecular mechanisms for the establishment of HIV-1 latency with special concern to present and future possible treatment strategies to completely purge and target viral persistence in the reservoirs.

  9. Clinical research in HIV-1 infected children

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    Fraaij, Pieter

    2005-01-01

    textabstractAcquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) was described for the first time in 1981. Two years later the previously unknown human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was identified as the causative agent. HIV has been included in the genus Lent/viruses of the Retroviridae family. Two types are recognized: HIV-1 and HIV-2. Of these, HIV-1 is the primary etiologic agent of the current pandemic. HIV probably originates from simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) which is endemic in African mon...

  10. The Vpr protein from HIV-1: distinct roles along the viral life cycle

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    Benichou Serge

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The genomes of human and simian immunodeficiency viruses (HIV and SIV encode the gag, pol and env genes and contain at least six supplementary open reading frames termed tat, rev, nef, vif, vpr, vpx and vpu. While the tat and rev genes encode regulatory proteins absolutely required for virus replication, nef, vif, vpr, vpx and vpu encode for small proteins referred to "auxiliary" (or "accessory", since their expression is usually dispensable for virus growth in many in vitro systems. However, these auxiliary proteins are essential for viral replication and pathogenesis in vivo. The two vpr- and vpx-related genes are found only in members of the HIV-2/SIVsm/SIVmac group, whereas primate lentiviruses from other lineages (HIV-1, SIVcpz, SIVagm, SIVmnd and SIVsyk contain a single vpr gene. In this review, we will mainly focus on vpr from HIV-1 and discuss the most recent developments in our understanding of Vpr functions and its role during the virus replication cycle.

  11. Exosomes: Implications in HIV-1 Pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madison, Marisa N.; Okeoma, Chioma M.

    2015-01-01

    Exosomes are membranous nanovesicles of endocytic origin that carry host and pathogen derived genomic, proteomic, and lipid cargos. Exosomes are secreted by most cell types into the extracellular milieu and are subsequently internalized by recipient cells. Upon internalization, exosomes condition recipient cells by donating their cargos and/or activating various signal transduction pathways, consequently regulating physiological and pathophysiological processes. The role of exosomes in viral pathogenesis, especially human immunodeficiency virus type 1 [HIV-1] is beginning to unravel. Recent research reports suggest that exosomes from various sources play important but different roles in the pathogenesis of HIV-1. From these reports, it appears that the source of exosomes is the defining factor for the exosomal effect on HIV-1. In this review, we will describe how HIV-1 infection is modulated by exosomes and in turn how exosomes are targeted by HIV-1 factors. Finally, we will discuss potentially emerging therapeutic options based on exosomal cargos that may have promise in preventing HIV-1 transmission. PMID:26205405

  12. HIV-1 transmission linkage in an HIV-1 prevention clinical trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitner, Thomas [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Campbell, Mary S [UNIV OF WASHINGTON; Mullins, James I [UNIV OF WASHINGTON; Hughes, James P [UNIV OF WASHINGTON; Wong, Kim G [UNIV OF WASHINGTON; Raugi, Dana N [UNIV OF WASHINGTON; Scrensen, Stefanie [UNIV OF WASHINGTON

    2009-01-01

    HIV-1 sequencing has been used extensively in epidemiologic and forensic studies to investigate patterns of HIV-1 transmission. However, the criteria for establishing genetic linkage between HIV-1 strains in HIV-1 prevention trials have not been formalized. The Partners in Prevention HSV/HIV Transmission Study (ClinicaITrials.gov NCT00194519) enrolled 3408 HIV-1 serodiscordant heterosexual African couples to determine the efficacy of genital herpes suppression with acyclovir in reducing HIV-1 transmission. The trial analysis required laboratory confirmation of HIV-1 linkage between enrolled partners in couples in which seroconversion occurred. Here we describe the process and results from HIV-1 sequencing studies used to perform transmission linkage determination in this clinical trial. Consensus Sanger sequencing of env (C2-V3-C3) and gag (p17-p24) genes was performed on plasma HIV-1 RNA from both partners within 3 months of seroconversion; env single molecule or pyrosequencing was also performed in some cases. For linkage, we required monophyletic clustering between HIV-1 sequences in the transmitting and seroconverting partners, and developed a Bayesian algorithm using genetic distances to evaluate the posterior probability of linkage of participants sequences. Adjudicators classified transmissions as linked, unlinked, or indeterminate. Among 151 seroconversion events, we found 108 (71.5%) linked, 40 (26.5%) unlinked, and 3 (2.0%) to have indeterminate transmissions. Nine (8.3%) were linked by consensus gag sequencing only and 8 (7.4%) required deep sequencing of env. In this first use of HIV-1 sequencing to establish endpoints in a large clinical trial, more than one-fourth of transmissions were unlinked to the enrolled partner, illustrating the relevance of these methods in the design of future HIV-1 prevention trials in serodiscordant couples. A hierarchy of sequencing techniques, analysis methods, and expert adjudication contributed to the linkage

  13. Defense Mechanism Card Pull in TAT Stories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Phebe

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the question of whether different Thematic Apperception Test (TAT; Murray, 1943 ) cards are likely to prompt stories that are characterized by different defense mechanisms. This condition is known as card pull and refers to the probability that different TAT cards elicit different personality scores for the same variable. If so, the assessment of defense use would be importantly influenced by the TAT cards used in an assessment. TAT stories from 3 different community samples were examined (Ns = 91, 98, 121), using a statistical method developed by Stein et al ( 2014 ). The results indicated that different TAT cards pull for different defenses, as assessed by the Defense Mechanism Manual (DMM: Cramer, 1991b ). However, the nature of card pull was not always consistent across samples. These dissimilarities could be due to group differences, or to the presence of different TAT cards used in the test battery, indicating that card pull is importantly determined by context.

  14. Oral keratinocytes support non-replicative infection and transfer of harbored HIV-1 to permissive cells

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    Giacaman Rodrigo A

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oral keratinocytes on the mucosal surface are frequently exposed to HIV-1 through contact with infected sexual partners or nursing mothers. To determine the plausibility that oral keratinocytes are primary targets of HIV-1, we tested the hypothesis that HIV-1 infects oral keratinocytes in a restricted manner. Results To study the fate of HIV-1, immortalized oral keratinocytes (OKF6/TERT-2; TERT-2 cells were characterized for the fate of HIV-specific RNA and DNA. At 6 h post inoculation with X4 or R5-tropic HIV-1, HIV-1gag RNA was detected maximally within TERT-2 cells. Reverse transcriptase activity in TERT-2 cells was confirmed by VSV-G-mediated infection with HIV-NL4-3Δenv-EGFP. AZT inhibited EGFP expression in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting that viral replication can be supported if receptors are bypassed. Within 3 h post inoculation, integrated HIV-1 DNA was detected in TERT-2 cell nuclei and persisted after subculture. Multiply spliced and unspliced HIV-1 mRNAs were not detectable up to 72 h post inoculation, suggesting that HIV replication may abort and that infection is non-productive. Within 48 h post inoculation, however, virus harbored by CD4 negative TERT-2 cells trans infected co-cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs or MOLT4 cells (CD4+ CCR5+ by direct cell-to-cell transfer or by releasing low levels of infectious virions. Primary tonsil epithelial cells also trans infected HIV-1 to permissive cells in a donor-specific manner. Conclusion Oral keratinocytes appear, therefore, to support stable non-replicative integration, while harboring and transmitting infectious X4- or R5-tropic HIV-1 to permissive cells for up to 48 h.

  15. Contraceptive method and pregnancy incidence among African women in HIV-1 serodiscordant partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    NGURE, Kenneth; HEFFRON, Renee; MUGO, Nelly R.; CELUM, Connie; COHEN, Craig R.; ODOYO, Josephine; REES, Helen; KIARIE, James N.; WERE, Edwin; BAETEN, Jared M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Effective contraception reduces unintended pregnancies and is a central strategy to reduce vertical HIV-1 transmission for HIV-1 infected women. Methods Among 2269 HIV-1 seropositive and 1085 seronegative women from 7 African countries who were members of HIV-1 serodiscordant heterosexual partnerships and who were participating in an HIV-1 prevention clinical trial, we assessed pregnancy incidence for women using various contraceptive methods using multivariate Andersen-Gill analysis. Results Compared with women using no contraceptive method, pregnancy incidence was significantly reduced among HIV-1 seropositive and seronegative women using injectable contraception (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 0.24, p=0.001 and aHR 0.25, ppregnancy risk only among HIV-1 seropositive women (aHR 0.51, p=0.004) but not seronegative women (aHR 0.64, p=0.3), and, for both seropositive and seronegative women, oral contraceptive pill users were more likely to become pregnant than injectable contraceptive users (aHR 2.22, p=0.01 for HIV-1 seropositive women and aHR 2.65, p=0.09 for HIV-1 seronegative women). Condoms, when reported as being used as the primary contraceptive method, marginally reduced pregnancy incidence (aHR 0.85, p=0.1 for seropositive women and aHR 0.67, p=0.02 for seronegative women). There were no pregnancies among women using intrauterine devices, implantable methods or who had undergone surgical sterilization, although these methods were used relatively infrequently. Conclusions Family planning programs and HIV-1 prevention trials need innovative ways to motivate uptake and sustained use of longer acting, less user-dependent contraception for women who do not desire pregnancy. PMID:22156966

  16. Anti-HIV-1 ADCC Antibodies following Latency Reversal and Treatment Interruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wen Shi; Kristensen, Anne B; Rasmussen, Thomas A; Tolstrup, Martin; Østergaard, Lars; Søgaard, Ole S; Wines, Bruce D; Hogarth, P Mark; Reynaldi, Arnold; Davenport, Miles P; Emery, Sean; Amin, Janaki; Cooper, David A; Kan, Virginia L; Fox, Julie; Gruell, Henning; Parsons, Matthew S; Kent, Stephen J

    2017-08-01

    There is growing interest in utilizing antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) to eliminate infected cells following reactivation from HIV-1 latency. A potential barrier is that HIV-1-specific ADCC antibodies decline in patients on long-term antiretroviral therapy (ART) and may not be sufficient to eliminate reactivated latently infected cells. It is not known whether reactivation from latency with latency-reversing agents (LRAs) could provide sufficient antigenic stimulus to boost HIV-1-specific ADCC. We found that treatment with the LRA panobinostat or a short analytical treatment interruption (ATI), 21 to 59 days, was not sufficient to stimulate an increase in ADCC-competent antibodies, despite viral rebound in all subjects who underwent the short ATI. In contrast, a longer ATI, 2 to 12 months, among subjects enrolled in the Strategies for Management of Antiretroviral Therapy (SMART) trial robustly boosted HIV-1 gp120-specific Fc receptor-binding antibodies and ADCC against HIV-1-infected cells in vitro These results show that there is a lag between viral recrudescence and the boosting of ADCC antibodies, which has implications for strategies toward eliminating latently infected cells.IMPORTANCE The "shock and kill" HIV-1 cure strategy aims to reactivate HIV-1 expression in latently infected cells and subsequently eliminate the reactivated cells through immune-mediated killing. Several latency reversing agents (LRAs) have been examined in vivo, but LRAs alone have not been able to achieve HIV-1 remission and prevent viral rebound following analytical treatment interruption (ATI). In this study, we examined whether LRA treatment or ATI can provide sufficient antigenic stimulus to boost HIV-1-specific functional antibodies that can eliminate HIV-1-infected cells. Our study has implications for the antigenic stimulus required for antilatency strategies and/or therapeutic vaccines to boost functional antibodies and assist in eliminating the latent reservoir

  17. HIV-1 vaccine induced immune responses in newborns of HIV-1 infected mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Elizabeth J; Johnson, Daniel C; Muresan, Petronella; Fenton, Terence; Tomaras, Georgia D; McNamara, James; Read, Jennifer S; Douglas, Steven D; Deville, Jaime; Gurwith, Marc; Gurunathan, Sanjay; Lambert, John S

    2006-07-13

    Breast milk transmission continues to account for a large proportion of cases of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 worldwide. An effective HIV-1 vaccine coupled with either passive immunization or short-term antiretroviral prophylaxis represents a potential strategy to prevent breast milk transmission. This study evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of ALVAC HIV-1 vaccine with and without a subunit envelope boost in infants born to HIV-1-infected women. : Placebo-controlled, double-blinded study. Infants born to HIV-1-infected mothers in the US were immunized with a prime-boost regimen using a canarypox virus HIV-1 vaccine (vCP1452) and a recombinant glycoprotein subunit vaccine (rgp120). Infants (n = 30) were randomized to receive: vCP1452 alone, vCP1452 + rgp120, or corresponding placebos. Local reactions were mild or moderate and no significant systemic toxicities occurred. Subjects receiving both vaccines had gp120-specific binding serum antibodies that were distinguishable from maternal antibody. Repeated gp160-specific lymphoproliferative responses were observed in 75%. Neutralizing activity to HIV-1 homologous to the vaccine strain was observed in 50% of the vCP1452 + rgp120 subjects who had lost maternal antibody by week 24. In some infants HIV-1-specific proliferative and antibody responses persisted until week 104. HIV-1-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses were detected in two subjects in each treatment group; the frequency of HIV-1 specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses did not differ between vaccine and placebo recipients. The demonstration of vaccine-induced immune responses in early infancy supports further study of HIV-1 vaccination as a strategy to reduce breast milk transmission.

  18. Biocompatible anionic polymeric microspheres as priming delivery system for effetive HIV/AIDS Tat-based vaccines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto Titti

    Full Text Available Here we describe a prime-boost regimen of vaccination in Macaca fascicularis that combines priming with novel anionic microspheres designed to deliver the biologically active HIV-1 Tat protein and boosting with Tat in Alum. This regimen of immunization modulated the IgG subclass profile and elicited a balanced Th1-Th2 type of humoral and cellular responses. Remarkably, following intravenous challenge with SHIV89.6Pcy243, vaccinees significantly blunted acute viremia, as compared to control monkeys, and this control was associated with significantly lower CD4+ T cell depletion rate during the acute phase of infection and higher ability to resume the CD4+ T cell counts in the post-acute and chronic phases of infection. The long lasting control of viremia was associated with the persistence of high titers anti-Tat antibodies whose profile clearly distinguished vaccinees in controllers and viremics. Controllers, as opposed to vaccinated and viremic cynos, exhibited significantly higher pre-challenge antibody responses to peptides spanning the glutamine-rich and the RGD-integrin-binding regions of Tat. Finally, among vaccinees, titers of anti-Tat IgG1, IgG3 and IgG4 subclasses had a significant association with control of viremia in the acute and post-acute phases of infection. Altogether these findings indicate that the Tat/H1D/Alum regimen of immunization holds promise for next generation vaccines with Tat protein or other proteins for which maintenance of the native conformation and activity are critical for optimal immunogenicity. Our results also provide novel information on the role of anti-Tat responses in the prevention of HIV pathogenesis and for the design of new vaccine candidates.

  19. CCR5 inhibitors in HIV-1 therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorr, Patrick; Perros, Manos

    2008-11-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) is the causative pathogen of AIDS, the world's biggest infectious disease killer. About 33 million people are infected worldwide, with 2.1 million deaths a year as a direct consequence. The devastating nature of AIDS has prompted widespread research, which has led to an extensive array of therapies to suppress viral replication and enable recovery of the immune system to prolong and improve patient life substantially. However, the genetic plasticity and replication rate of HIV-1 are considerable, which has lead to rapid drug resistance. This, together with the need for reducing drug side effects and increasing regimen compliance, has led researchers to identify antiretroviral drugs with new modes of action. This review describes the discovery and clinical development of CCR5 antagonists and the recent approval of maraviroc as a breakthrough in anti-HIV-1 therapy. CCR5 inhibitors target a human cofactor to disable HIV-1 entry into the cells, and thereby provide a new hurdle for the virus to overcome. The status and expert opinion of CCR5 antagonists for the treatment of HIV-1 infection are detailed.

  20. Contrasting roles for TLR ligands in HIV-1 pathogenesis.

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    Beda Brichacek

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The first line of a host's response to various pathogens is triggered by their engagement of cellular pattern recognition receptors (PRRs. Binding of microbial ligands to these receptors leads to the induction of a variety of cellular factors that alter intracellular and extracellular environment and interfere directly or indirectly with the life cycle of the triggering pathogen. Such changes may also affect any coinfecting microbe. Using ligands to Toll-like receptors (TLRs 5 and 9, we examined their effect on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 replication in lymphoid tissue ex vivo. We found marked differences in the outcomes of such treatment. While flagellin (TLR5 agonist treatment enhanced replication of CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR 5-tropic and CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4-tropic HIV-1, treatment with oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN M362 (TLR9 agonist suppressed both viral variants. The differential effects of these TLR ligands on HIV-1 replication correlated with changes in production of CC chemokines CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, and of CXC chemokines CXCL10, and CXCL12 in the ligand-treated HIV-1-infected tissues. The nature and/or magnitude of these changes were dependent on the ligand as well as on the HIV-1 viral strain. Moreover, the tested ligands differed in their ability to induce cellular activation as evaluated by the expression of the cluster of differentiation markers (CD 25, CD38, CD39, CD69, CD154, and human leukocyte antigen D related (HLA-DR as well as of a cell proliferation marker, Ki67, and of CCR5. No significant effect of the ligand treatment was observed on apoptosis and cell death/loss in the treated lymphoid tissue ex vivo. Our results suggest that binding of microbial ligands to TLRs is one of the mechanisms that mediate interactions between coinfected microbes and HIV-1 in human tissues. Thus, the engagement of appropriate TLRs by microbial molecules or their mimetic might become a new strategy for HIV therapy or prevention.

  1. Selective inhibition of HIV-1 replication by the CDK9 inhibitor FIT-039.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Mika; Hidaka, Akemi; Toyama, Masaaki; Hosoya, Takamitsu; Yamamoto, Makoto; Hagiwara, Masatoshi; Baba, Masanori

    2015-11-01

    FIT-039 has recently been identified as a novel cyclin-dependent kinase 9 inhibitor with potent antiviral activity against a broad spectrum of DNA viruses, such as herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and human cytomegaloviruses. In this study, FIT-039 was examined for its inhibitory effect on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication in chronically infected cells. Its 50% effective concentration was 1.4-2.1μM, irrespective of the cells used for antiviral assays, while its 50% cytotoxic concentration was >20μM, indicating that FIT-039 is a selective inhibitor of HIV-1 replication. FIT-039 also inhibited HIV-1 RNA expression in a dose-dependent fashion. Since previous studies demonstrated that FIT-039 exhibited antiviral efficacy without noticeable adverse effects in HSV-1-infected mice, the compound should be further investigated for its clinical potential against HIV-1 infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Specific Elimination of Latently HIV-1 Infected Cells Using HIV-1 Protease-Sensitive Toxin Nanocapsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jing; Yan, Ming; Liu, Yang; Li, Jie; Xie, Yiming; Lu, Yunfeng; Kamata, Masakazu; Chen, Irvin S Y

    2016-01-01

    Anti-retroviral drugs suppress HIV-1 plasma viremia to undetectable levels; however, latent HIV-1 persists in reservoirs within HIV-1-infected patients. The silent provirus can be activated through the use of drugs, including protein kinase C activators and histone deacetylase inhibitors. This "shock" approach is then followed by "kill" of the producing cells either through direct HIV-1-induced cell death or natural immune mechanisms. However, these mechanisms are relatively slow and effectiveness is unclear. Here, we develop an approach to specifically target and kill cells that are activated early in the process of virus production. We utilize a novel nanocapsule technology whereby the ricin A chain is encapsulated in an inactive form within a polymer shell. Specificity for release of the ricin A toxin is conferred by peptide crosslinkers that are sensitive to cleavage by HIV-1 protease. By using well-established latent infection models, J-Lat and U1 cells, we demonstrate that only within an HIV-1-producing cell expressing functional HIV-1 protease will the nanocapsule release its ricin A cargo, shutting down viral and cellular protein synthesis, and ultimately leading to rapid death of the producer cell. Thus, we provide proof of principle for a novel technology to kill HIV-1-producing cells without effects on non-target cells.

  3. Antibody-Mediated Internalization of Infectious HIV-1 Virions Differs among Antibody Isotypes and Subclasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRaven, Michael D; Sawant, Sheetal; Gurley, Thaddeus C; Xu, Thomas T.; Dennison, S. Moses; Liao, Hua-Xin; Chenine, Agnès-Laurence; Alam, S. Munir; Haynes, Barton F.; Tomaras, Georgia D.

    2016-01-01

    Emerging data support a role for antibody Fc-mediated antiviral activity in vaccine efficacy and in the control of HIV-1 replication by broadly neutralizing antibodies. Antibody-mediated virus internalization is an Fc-mediated function that may act at the portal of entry whereby effector cells may be triggered by pre-existing antibodies to prevent HIV-1 acquisition. Understanding the capacity of HIV-1 antibodies in mediating internalization of HIV-1 virions by primary monocytes is critical to understanding their full antiviral potency. Antibody isotypes/subclasses differ in functional profile, with consequences for their antiviral activity. For instance, in the RV144 vaccine trial that achieved partial efficacy, Env IgA correlated with increased risk of HIV-1 infection (i.e. decreased vaccine efficacy), whereas V1-V2 IgG3 correlated with decreased risk of HIV-1 infection (i.e. increased vaccine efficacy). Thus, understanding the different functional attributes of HIV-1 specific IgG1, IgG3 and IgA antibodies will help define the mechanisms of immune protection. Here, we utilized an in vitro flow cytometric method utilizing primary monocytes as phagocytes and infectious HIV-1 virions as targets to determine the capacity of Env IgA (IgA1, IgA2), IgG1 and IgG3 antibodies to mediate HIV-1 infectious virion internalization. Importantly, both broadly neutralizing antibodies (i.e. PG9, 2G12, CH31, VRC01 IgG) and non-broadly neutralizing antibodies (i.e. 7B2 mAb, mucosal HIV-1+ IgG) mediated internalization of HIV-1 virions. Furthermore, we found that Env IgG3 of multiple specificities (i.e. CD4bs, V1-V2 and gp41) mediated increased infectious virion internalization over Env IgG1 of the same specificity, while Env IgA mediated decreased infectious virion internalization compared to IgG1. These data demonstrate that antibody-mediated internalization of HIV-1 virions depends on antibody specificity and isotype. Evaluation of the phagocytic potency of vaccine

  4. Transcription elongation regulator 1 (TCERG1) regulates competent RNA polymerase II-mediated elongation of HIV-1 transcription and facilitates efficient viral replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coiras, Mayte; Montes, Marta; Montanuy, Immaculada; López-Huertas, María Rosa; Mateos, Elena; Le Sommer, Caroline; Garcia-Blanco, Mariano A; Hernández-Munain, Cristina; Alcamí, José; Suñé, Carlos

    2013-10-28

    Control of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) release from pausing has been proposed as a checkpoint mechanism to ensure optimal RNAPII activity, especially in large, highly regulated genes. HIV-1 gene expression is highly regulated at the level of elongation, which includes transcriptional pausing that is mediated by both viral and cellular factors. Here, we present evidence for a specific role of the elongation-related factor TCERG1 in regulating the extent of HIV-1 elongation and viral replication in vivo. We show that TCERG1 depletion diminishes the basal and viral Tat-activated transcription from the HIV-1 LTR. In support of a role for an elongation mechanism in the transcriptional control of HIV-1, we found that TCERG1 modifies the levels of pre-mRNAs generated at distal regions of HIV-1. Most importantly, TCERG1 directly affects the elongation rate of RNAPII transcription in vivo. Furthermore, our data demonstrate that TCERG1 regulates HIV-1 transcription by increasing the rate of RNAPII elongation through the phosphorylation of serine 2 within the carboxyl-terminal domain (CTD) of RNAPII and suggest a mechanism for the involvement of TCERG1 in relieving pausing. Finally, we show that TCERG1 is required for HIV-1 replication. Our study reveals that TCERG1 regulates HIV-1 transcriptional elongation by increasing the elongation rate of RNAPII and phosphorylation of Ser 2 within the CTD. Based on our data, we propose a general mechanism for TCERG1 acting on genes that are regulated at the level of elongation by increasing the rate of RNAPII transcription through the phosphorylation of Ser2. In the case of HIV-1, our evidence provides the basis for further investigation of TCERG1 as a potential therapeutic target for the inhibition of HIV-1 replication.

  5. NFAT5 regulates HIV-1 in primary monocytes via a highly conserved long terminal repeat site.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahin Ranjbar

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available To replicate, HIV-1 capitalizes on endogenous cellular activation pathways resulting in recruitment of key host transcription factors to its viral enhancer. RNA interference has been a powerful tool for blocking key checkpoints in HIV-1 entry into cells. Here we apply RNA interference to HIV-1 transcription in primary macrophages, a major reservoir of the virus, and specifically target the transcription factor NFAT5 (nuclear factor of activated T cells 5, which is the most evolutionarily divergent NFAT protein. By molecularly cloning and sequencing isolates from multiple viral subtypes, and performing DNase I footprinting, electrophoretic mobility shift, and promoter mutagenesis transfection assays, we demonstrate that NFAT5 functionally interacts with a specific enhancer binding site conserved in HIV-1, HIV-2, and multiple simian immunodeficiency viruses. Using small interfering RNA to ablate expression of endogenous NFAT5 protein, we show that the replication of three major HIV-1 viral subtypes (B, C, and E is dependent upon NFAT5 in human primary differentiated macrophages. Our results define a novel host factor-viral enhancer interaction that reveals a new regulatory role for NFAT5 and defines a functional DNA motif conserved across HIV-1 subtypes and representative simian immunodeficiency viruses. Inhibition of the NFAT5-LTR interaction may thus present a novel therapeutic target to suppress HIV-1 replication and progression of AIDS.

  6. Modulation of chromatin structure by the FACT histone chaperone complex regulates HIV-1 integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matysiak, Julien; Lesbats, Paul; Mauro, Eric; Lapaillerie, Delphine; Dupuy, Jean-William; Lopez, Angelica P; Benleulmi, Mohamed Salah; Calmels, Christina; Andreola, Marie-Line; Ruff, Marc; Llano, Manuel; Delelis, Olivier; Lavigne, Marc; Parissi, Vincent

    2017-07-28

    Insertion of retroviral genome DNA occurs in the chromatin of the host cell. This step is modulated by chromatin structure as nucleosomes compaction was shown to prevent HIV-1 integration and chromatin remodeling has been reported to affect integration efficiency. LEDGF/p75-mediated targeting of the integration complex toward RNA polymerase II (polII) transcribed regions ensures optimal access to dynamic regions that are suitable for integration. Consequently, we have investigated the involvement of polII-associated factors in the regulation of HIV-1 integration. Using a pull down approach coupled with mass spectrometry, we have selected the FACT (FAcilitates Chromatin Transcription) complex as a new potential cofactor of HIV-1 integration. FACT is a histone chaperone complex associated with the polII transcription machinery and recently shown to bind LEDGF/p75. We report here that a tripartite complex can be formed between HIV-1 integrase, LEDGF/p75 and FACT in vitro and in cells. Biochemical analyzes show that FACT-dependent nucleosome disassembly promotes HIV-1 integration into chromatinized templates, and generates highly favored nucleosomal structures in vitro. This effect was found to be amplified by LEDGF/p75. Promotion of this FACT-mediated chromatin remodeling in cells both increases chromatin accessibility and stimulates HIV-1 infectivity and integration. Altogether, our data indicate that FACT regulates HIV-1 integration by inducing local nucleosomes dissociation that modulates the functional association between the incoming intasome and the targeted nucleosome.

  7. Maturation-induced cloaking of neutralization epitopes on HIV-1 particles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda S Joyner

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available To become infectious, HIV-1 particles undergo a maturation process involving proteolytic cleavage of the Gag and Gag-Pol polyproteins. Immature particles contain a highly stable spherical Gag lattice and are impaired for fusion with target cells. The fusion impairment is relieved by truncation of the gp41 cytoplasmic tail (CT, indicating that an interaction between the immature viral core and gp41 within the particle represses HIV-1 fusion by an unknown mechanism. We hypothesized that the conformation of Env on the viral surface is regulated allosterically by interactions with the HIV-1 core during particle maturation. To test this, we quantified the binding of a panel of monoclonal antibodies to mature and immature HIV-1 particles by immunofluorescence imaging. Surprisingly, immature particles exhibited markedly enhanced binding of several gp41-specific antibodies, including two that recognize the membrane proximal external region (MPER and neutralize diverse HIV-1 strains. Several of the differences in epitope exposure on mature and immature particles were abolished by truncation of the gp41 CT, thus linking the immature HIV-1 fusion defect with altered Env conformation. Our results suggest that perturbation of fusion-dependent Env conformational changes contributes to the impaired fusion of immature particles. Masking of neutralization-sensitive epitopes during particle maturation may contribute to HIV-1 immune evasion and has practical implications for vaccine strategies targeting the gp41 MPER.

  8. Ectopic expression of anti-HIV-1 shRNAs protects CD8{sup +} T cells modified with CD4ζ CAR from HIV-1 infection and alleviates impairment of cell proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamata, Masakazu, E-mail: masa3k@ucla.edu [Division of Hematology-Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Kim, Patrick Y. [Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Ng, Hwee L. [Division of Infectious Diseases, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Ringpis, Gene-Errol E.; Kranz, Emiko; Chan, Joshua; O' Connor, Sean [Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Yang, Otto O. [Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Division of Infectious Diseases, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States); UCLA AIDS Institute, Los Angeles, CA (United States); AIDS Healthcare Foundation, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Chen, Irvin S.Y. [Division of Hematology-Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States); UCLA AIDS Institute, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2015-07-31

    Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) are artificially engineered receptors that confer a desired specificity to immune effector T cells. As an HIV-1-specific CAR, CD4ζ CAR has been extensively tested in vitro as well as in clinical trials. T cells modified with this CAR mediated highly potent anti-HIV-1 activities in vitro and were well-tolerated in vivo, but exerted limited effects on viral load and reservoir size due to poor survival and/or functionality of the transduced cells in patients. We hypothesize that ectopic expression of CD4ζ on CD8{sup +} T cells renders them susceptible to HIV-1 infection, resulting in poor survival of those cells. To test this possibility, highly purified CD8{sup +} T cells were genetically modified with a CD4ζ-encoding lentiviral vector and infected with HIV-1. CD8{sup +} T cells were vulnerable to HIV-1 infection upon expression of CD4ζ as evidenced by elevated levels of p24{sup Gag} in cells and culture supernatants. Concurrently, the number of CD4ζ-modified CD8{sup +} T cells was reduced relative to control cells upon HIV-1 infection. To protect these cells from HIV-1 infection, we co-expressed two anti-HIV-1 shRNAs previously developed by our group together with CD4ζ. This combination vector was able to suppress HIV-1 infection without impairing HIV-1-dependent effector activities of CD4ζ. In addition, the number of CD4ζ-modified CD8{sup +} T cells maintained similar levels to that of the control even under HIV-1 infection. These results suggest that protecting CD4ζ-modified CD8{sup +} T cells from HIV-1 infection is required for prolonged HIV-1-specific immune surveillance. - Highlights: • Ectopic expression of CD4ζ CAR in CD8{sup +} T cells renders them susceptible to HIV-1 infection. • Co-expression of two anti-HIV-1 shRNAs protects CD4ζ CAR-modified CD8{sup +} T cells from HIV-1 infection. • Protecting CD4ζ CAR-modified CD8{sup +} T cells from HIV-1 infection suppresses its cytopathic effect.

  9. Cross-Reactivity of Anti-HIV-1 T Cell Immune Responses among the Major HIV-1 Clades in HIV-1-Positive Individuals from 4 Continents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Paul M. Coplan; Swati B. Gupta; Sheri A. Dubey; Punnee Pitisuttithum; Alex Nikas; Bernard Mbewe; Efthyia Vardas; Mauro Schechter; Esper G. Kallas; Dan C. Freed; Tong-Ming Fu; Christopher T. Mast; Pilaipan Puthavathana; James Kublin; Kelly Brown Collins; John Chisi; Richard Pendame; Scott J. Thaler; Glenda Gray; James Mcintyre; Walter L. Straus; Jon H. Condra; Devan V. Mehrotra; Harry A. Guess; Emilio A. Emini; John W. Shiver

    2005-01-01

    .... Therefore, we quantified the cross-clade reactivity, among unvaccinated individuals, of anti-HIV-1 T cell responses to the infecting HIV-1 clade relative to other major circulating clades. Methods...

  10. HIV-1 Reservoir Association with Immune Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Vallejo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this issue of EBioMedicine, Ruggiero and colleagues describe immune activation biomarkers associated with the size of the HIV reservoir in a carefully designed cross-sectional study. The cohort consists of a homogeneous sample of HIV-1-infected patients with long-term plasma HIV-1 RNA suppression under antiretroviral treatment (ART. It is crucial to explore the potential utility of biomarkers that are easier (less labor intensive, less expensive to measure than integrated HIV DNA load, in order to quickly and accurately quantify cellular reservoirs of HIV.

  11. L’état physique dans tous ses états

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Kokoškina

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Cet article est consacré aux prédicats adjectivaux qui expriment l’état physique relatif à un sujet humain : les <états de forme>, les <états d’ébriété>, les <états de fatigue>, les <états de veille ou de sommeil>, les <états de vie ou de mort>, etc. Les langues confrontées sont le russe et le français. Nous avons volontairement choisi de confronter deux langues qui appartiennent à deux familles différentes, l’une slave et l’autre romane. Nous essaierons de démontrer que les prédicats d’états...

  12. Exercise and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV-1) Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawless, DeSales; Jackson, Catherine G. R.; Greenleaf, John E.

    1995-01-01

    The human immune system is highly efficient and remarkably protective when functioning properly. Similar to other physiological systems, it functions best when the body is maintained with a balanced diet, sufficient rest and a moderately stress-free lifestyle. It can be disrupted by inappropriate drug use and extreme emotion or exertion. The functioning of normal or compromised immune systems can be enhanced by properly prescribed moderate exercise conditioning regimens in healthy people, and in some human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1)-infected patients but not in others who unable to complete an interval training program. Regular exercise conditioning in healthy people reduces cardiovascular risk factors, increases stamina, facilitates bodyweight control, and reduces stress by engendering positive feelings of well-being. Certain types of cancer may also be suppressed by appropriate exercise conditioning. Various exercise regimens are being evaluated as adjunct treatments for medicated patients with the HIV-1 syndrome. Limited anecdotal evidence from patients suggests that moderate exercise conditioning is per se responsible for their survival well beyond expectancy. HIV-1-infected patients respond positively, both physiologically and psychologically, to moderate exercise conditioning. However, the effectiveness of any exercise treatment programme depends on its mode, frequency, intensity and duration when prescribed o complement the pathological condition of the patient. The effectiveness of exercise conditioning regimens in patients with HIV-1 infection is reviewed in this article. In addition, we discuss mechanisms and pathways, involving the interplay of psychological and physiological factors, through which the suppressed immune system can be enhanced. The immune modulators discussed are endogenous opioids, cytokines, neurotransmitters and other hormones. Exercise conditioning treatment appears to be more effective when combined with other stress management

  13. HIV-1 Epitope Variability Is Associated with T Cell Receptor Repertoire Instability and Breadth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balamurugan, Arumugam; Claiborne, Deon; Ng, Hwee L; Yang, Otto O

    2017-08-15

    Mutational escape of HIV-1 from HIV-1-specific CD8(+) T lymphocytes (CTLs) is a major barrier for effective immune control. Each epitope typically is targeted by multiple clones with distinct T cell receptors (TCRs). While the clonal repertoire may be important for containing epitope variation, determinants of its composition are poorly understood. We investigate the clonal repertoire of 29 CTL responses against 23 HIV-1 epitopes longitudinally in nine chronically infected untreated subjects with plasma viremia of epitope varied considerably in stability over time, although clonal stability (Sorensen index) was not significantly time dependent within this interval. However, TCR stability inversely correlated with epitope variability in the Los Alamos HIV-1 Sequence Database, consistent with TCR evolution being driven by epitope variation. Finally, a robust inverse correlation of TCR breadth against each epitope versus epitope variability further suggested that this variability drives TCR repertoire diversification. In the context of studies demonstrating rapidly shifting HIV-1 sequences in vivo, our findings support a variably dynamic process of shifting CTL clonality lagging in tandem with viral evolution and suggest that preventing escape of HIV-1 may require coordinated direction of the CTL clonal repertoire to simultaneously block escape pathways.IMPORTANCE Mutational escape of HIV-1 from HIV-1-specific CD8(+) T lymphocytes (CTLs) is a major barrier to effective immune control. The number of distinct CTL clones targeting each epitope is proposed to be an important factor, but the determinants are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that the clonal stability and number of clones for the CTL response against an epitope are inversely associated with the general variability of the epitope. These results show that CTLs constantly lag epitope mutation, suggesting that preventing HIV-1 escape may require coordinated direction of the CTL clonal repertoire to

  14. Loss of memory (CD27) B lymphocytes in HIV-1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Milito, A; Mörch, C; Sönnerborg, A; Chiodi, F

    2001-05-25

    The mechanisms of B-cell dysfunction during HIV-1 infection, including polyclonal B-cell activation, are poorly understood. We studied the phenotype and the functionality of peripheral memory B cells in HIV-1-infected subjects. The phenotype of B cells and the responsiveness to T-cell dependent activation in vitro were analysed in 36 HIV-1-infected and 34 healthy subjects. Phenotyping of B and T cells was performed by FACS. IgG content was measured in plasma (by nephelometry) and cultures (by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) of B lymphocytes activated through CD40 or CD27 ligation. Expression of Fas and Fas ligand was performed by FACS on B-cell subpopulations from five HIV-1-infected and four uninfected subjects. The peripheral memory (CD27) B cells were significantly reduced in HIV-1-infected subjects. The amount of memory B cells was low in both drug-naive subjects and patients undergoing antiretroviral therapy. Ex vivo expression of CD70 (CD27 ligand) on T cells was significantly higher in HIV-1-infected subjects and inversely correlated with the frequency of memory B cells. In spite of the reduced number of memory B cells, in vitro spontaneous and activation-induced IgG secretion was higher in HIV-1-infected patients than in uninfected controls. The hyperactivation status of B lymphocytes in HIV-1-infected patients was further confirmed by the finding of upregulation of Fas and FasL expression on memory B cells. Memory B lymphocytes are depleted from peripheral blood in HIV-1-infected subjects. Our ex vivo findings suggest that persistent T-cell activation may contribute to loss of memory B cells through upregulation of Fas/FasL on these cells and terminal differentiation into plasma cells.

  15. Galectin-3 promotes HIV-1 budding via association with Alix and Gag p6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng-Fan; Tsao, Ching-Han; Lin, Yu-Ting; Hsu, Daniel K; Chiang, Meng-Lin; Lo, Chia-Hui; Chien, Fan-Ching; Chen, Peilin; Arthur Chen, Yi-Ming; Chen, Huan-Yuan; Liu, Fu-Tong

    2014-11-01

    Galectin-3 has been reported to regulate the functions of a number of immune cell types. We previously reported that galectin-3 is translocated to immunological synapses in T cells upon T-cell receptor engagement, where it associates with ALG-2-interacting protein X (Alix). Alix is known to coordinate with the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) to promote human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 virion release. We hypothesized that galectin-3 plays a role in HIV-1 viral budding. Cotransfection of cells of the Jurkat T line with galectin-3 and HIV-1 plasmids resulted in increased HIV-1 budding, and suppression of galectin-3 expression by RNAi in Hut78 and primary CD4+ T cells led to reduced HIV-1 budding. We used immunofluorescence microscopy to observe the partial colocalization of galectin-3, Alix and Gag in HIV-1-infected cells. Results from co-immunoprecipitation experiments indicate that galectin-3 expression promotes Alix-Gag p6 association, whereas the results of Alix knockdown suggest that galectin-3 promotes HIV-1 budding through Alix. HIV-1 particles released from galectin-3-expressing cells acquire the galectin-3 protein in an Alix-dependent manner, with proteins primarily residing inside the virions. We also found that the galectin-3 N-terminal domain interacts with the proline-rich region of Alix. Collectively, these results suggest that endogenous galectin-3 facilitates HIV-1 budding by promoting the Alix-Gag p6 association. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Use of four next-generation sequencing platforms to determine HIV-1 coreceptor tropism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Archer

    Full Text Available HIV-1 coreceptor tropism assays are required to rule out the presence of CXCR4-tropic (non-R5 viruses prior treatment with CCR5 antagonists. Phenotypic (e.g., Trofile™, Monogram Biosciences and genotypic (e.g., population sequencing linked to bioinformatic algorithms assays are the most widely used. Although several next-generation sequencing (NGS platforms are available, to date all published deep sequencing HIV-1 tropism studies have used the 454™ Life Sciences/Roche platform. In this study, HIV-1 co-receptor usage was predicted for twelve patients scheduled to start a maraviroc-based antiretroviral regimen. The V3 region of the HIV-1 env gene was sequenced using four NGS platforms: 454™, PacBio® RS (Pacific Biosciences, Illumina®, and Ion Torrent™ (Life Technologies. Cross-platform variation was evaluated, including number of reads, read length and error rates. HIV-1 tropism was inferred using Geno2Pheno, Web PSSM, and the 11/24/25 rule and compared with Trofile™ and virologic response to antiretroviral therapy. Error rates related to insertions/deletions (indels and nucleotide substitutions introduced by the four NGS platforms were low compared to the actual HIV-1 sequence variation. Each platform detected all major virus variants within the HIV-1 population with similar frequencies. Identification of non-R5 viruses was comparable among the four platforms, with minor differences attributable to the algorithms used to infer HIV-1 tropism. All NGS platforms showed similar concordance with virologic response to the maraviroc-based regimen (75% to 80% range depending on the algorithm used, compared to Trofile (80% and population sequencing (70%. In conclusion, all four NGS platforms were able to detect minority non-R5 variants at comparable levels suggesting that any NGS-based method can be used to predict HIV-1 coreceptor usage.

  17. The uptake of HIV Tat peptide proceeds via two pathways which differ from macropinocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Dov, Nadav; Korenstein, Rafi

    2015-03-01

    Cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) have been extensively studied as vectors for cellular delivery of therapeutic molecules, yet the identity of their uptake routes remained unclear and is still under debate. In this study we provide new insights into CPP entry routes by quantitatively measuring the intracellular uptake of FAM-labeled Tat-peptide under rigorous kinetic and thermal conditions. The uptake of Tat-peptide between 4 and 15°C corresponds to Q10=1.1, proceeding through a prompt (endocytosis processes. Tat-peptide and dextran do not interfere with each other's uptake rate and the ratio of Tat-peptide uptake to its extracellular concentration is ~15 times higher than that for dextran. In addition, Phloretin, a modulator of cell membrane dipole potential, is shown to increase dextran uptake but to reduce that of Tat. We conclude that the uptake of Tat differs from that of dextran in all parameters. Tat uptake proceeds by dual entry routes which differ by their energy dependence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. miRNA-1236 inhibits HIV-1 infection of monocytes by repressing translation of cellular factor VprBP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li; Shen, Chan-Juan; Cohen, Éric A; Xiong, Si-Dong; Wang, Jian-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Primary monocytes are refractory to HIV-1 infection and become permissive upon differentiation into monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDCs) or macrophages. Multiple mechanisms have been proposed to interpret HIV-1 restriction in monocytes. Human cellular miRNAs can modulate HIV-1 infection by targeting either conserved regions of the HIV-1 genome or host gene transcripts. We have recently reported that the translation of host protein pur-alpha is repressed by abundant cellular miRNAs to inhibit HIV-1 infection in monocytes. Here, we report that the transcript of another cellular factor, VprBP [Vpr (HIV-1)-binding protein], was repressed by cellular miRNA-1236, which contributes to HIV-1 restriction in monocytes. Transfection of miR-1236 inhibitors enhanced translation of VprBP in monocytes and significantly promoted viral infection; exogenous input of synthesized miR-1236 mimics into MDDCs suppressed translation of VprBP, and, accordingly, significantly impaired viral infection. Our data emphasize the role of miRNA in modulating differentiation-dependent susceptibility of the host cell to HIV-1 infection. Understanding the modulation of HIV-1 infection by cellular miRNAs may provide key small RNAs or the identification of new important protein targets regulated by miRNAs for the development of antiviral strategies.

  19. Viral linkage in HIV-1 seroconverters and their partners in an HIV-1 prevention clinical trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary S Campbell

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Characterization of viruses in HIV-1 transmission pairs will help identify biological determinants of infectiousness and evaluate candidate interventions to reduce transmission. Although HIV-1 sequencing is frequently used to substantiate linkage between newly HIV-1 infected individuals and their sexual partners in epidemiologic and forensic studies, viral sequencing is seldom applied in HIV-1 prevention trials. The Partners in Prevention HSV/HIV Transmission Study (ClinicalTrials.gov #NCT00194519 was a prospective randomized placebo-controlled trial that enrolled serodiscordant heterosexual couples to determine the efficacy of genital herpes suppression in reducing HIV-1 transmission; as part of the study analysis, HIV-1 sequences were examined for genetic linkage between seroconverters and their enrolled partners.We obtained partial consensus HIV-1 env and gag sequences from blood plasma for 151 transmission pairs and performed deep sequencing of env in some cases. We analyzed sequences with phylogenetic techniques and developed a Bayesian algorithm to evaluate the probability of linkage. For linkage, we required monophyletic clustering between enrolled partners' sequences and a Bayesian posterior probability of ≥ 50%. Adjudicators classified each seroconversion, finding 108 (71.5% linked, 40 (26.5% unlinked, and 3 (2.0% indeterminate transmissions, with linkage determined by consensus env sequencing in 91 (84%. Male seroconverters had a higher frequency of unlinked transmissions than female seroconverters. The likelihood of transmission from the enrolled partner was related to time on study, with increasing numbers of unlinked transmissions occurring after longer observation periods. Finally, baseline viral load was found to be significantly higher among linked transmitters.In this first use of HIV-1 sequencing to establish endpoints in a large clinical trial, more than one-fourth of transmissions were unlinked to the enrolled partner

  20. Are blockers of gp120/CD4 interaction effective inhibitors of HIV-1 immunopathogenesis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbeuval, Jean-Philippe; Shearer, Gene M

    2006-01-01

    The immunopathogenic mechanisms that result in the depletion of CD4+ T-cells after HIV-1 infection remain controversial. We consider here mechanisms that have been suggested, and propose a data-supported model in which CD4+ T-cells undergo apoptosis that is signaled by the binding of viral gp120 to cellular CD4. Blood leucocytes from HIV-1-uninfected donors, including CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells, monocytes, myeloid and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) were cultured with either infectious or noninfectious HIV-1. The cultures were tested for expression of interferon-alpha, TRAIL, DR5 and apoptosis. Inhibitors of IFNalpha, TRAIL, DR5 and gp120/CD4 binding were added to the cultures. Ex vivo studies were performed using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from HIV-1-infected patients to test the validity of our in vitro findings. Both infectious and noninfectious HIV-1 induced pDC to produce IFNalpha, which induced expression of TRAIL by CD4+ but not CD8+ T-cells. CD4+ T-cells expressed the TRAIL death receptor 5 (DR5), upon HIV-1 binding to CD4. Antibodies against TRAIL and DR5 partly inhibited apoptosis. However, soluble CD4 (sCD4-IgG) efficiently blocked IFNalpha production, TRAIL and DR5 expression and apoptosis of T helper cells. Studies of HIV-1-infected patients' PBMC indicated increased plasma TRAIL production and CD4+ T-cell DR5 expression, which correlated directly with viral load and inversely with CD4 count. Noninfectious interactions between HIV-1 and CD4 are major contributors to CD4+ T-cell death via IFNalpha-induced TRAIL expression and HIV-1-induced DR5 expression on CD4+ T-cells. Since noninfectious as well as infectious HIV-1 induces the death cascade resulting in selective apoptosis of CD4+ T-cells, these HIV-1/CD4-dependent binding events would not necessarily be reflected in HIV-1 RNA and DNA expression by the CD4+ target T-cells. Because each step of this model leading to apoptosis requires the binding of gp120 to CD4, we suggest that molecules

  1. Epidemiology of HIV-1 and emerging problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lukashov, V. V.; de Ronde, A.; de Jong, J. J.; Goudsmit, J.

    2000-01-01

    Broad use of antiretroviral drugs is becoming a factor that is important to consider for understanding the HIV-1 epidemiology. Since 1993, we observe that a proportion of new infections within major risk groups in Amsterdam is caused by azidothymidine (AZT)-resistant viruses. After the introduction

  2. Molecular mechanisms of HIV-1 associated neurodegeneration

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Erichsen D, Lopez A L, Peng H, Niemann D, Williams C,. Bauer M, Morgello S, Cotter R L, Ryan L A, Ghorpade A,. Gendelman H E and Zheng J 2003 Neuronal injury regulates fractalkine: relevance for HIV-1 associated dementia; J. Neu- roimmunol. 138 144–155. Enting R H, Hoetelmans R M, Lange J M, Burger D M and.

  3. Molecular mechanisms of HIV-1 associated neurodegeneration

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Since identification of the human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1), numerous studies suggest a link between neurological impairments, in particular dementia, with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) with alarming occurrence worldwide. Approximately, 60% of HIV-infected people show some form of neurological ...

  4. Enteric viruses in HIV-1 seropositive and HIV-1 seronegative children with diarrheal diseases in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Monica Simões; Fumian, Tulio Machado; Maranhão, Adriana Gonçalves; de Assis, Rosane Maria; Xavier, Maria da Penha Trindade Pinheiro; Rocha, Myrna Santos; Miagostovich, Marize Pereira; Leite, José Paulo Gagliardi; Volotão, Eduardo de Mello

    2017-01-01

    Diarrheal diseases (DD) have distinct etiological profiles in immune-deficient and immune-competent patients. This study compares detection rates, genotype distribution and viral loads of different enteric viral agents in HIV-1 seropositive (n = 200) and HIV-1 seronegative (n = 125) children hospitalized with DD in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Except for group A rotavirus (RVA), which were detected through enzyme immunoassay, the other enteric viruses (norovirus [NoV], astrovirus [HAstV], adenovirus [HAdV] and bocavirus [HBoV]) were detected through PCR or RT-PCR. A quantitative PCR was performed for RVA, NoV, HAstV, HAdV and HBoV. Infections with NoV (19% vs. 9.6%; p<0.001), HBoV (14% vs. 7.2%; p = 0.042) and HAdV (30.5% vs. 14.4%; p<0.001) were significantly more frequent among HIV-1 seropositive children. RVA was significantly less frequent among HIV-1 seropositive patients (6.5% vs. 20%; p<0.001). Similarly, frequency of infection with HAstV was lower among HIV-1 seropositive children (5.5% vs. 12.8%; p = 0.018). Among HIV-1 seropositive children 33 (16.5%) had co-infections, including three enteric viruses, such as NoV, HBoV and HAdV (n = 2) and NoV, HAstV and HAdV (n = 2). The frequency of infection with more than one virus was 17 (13.6%) in the HIV-1 negative group, triple infection (NoV + HAstV + HBoV) being observed in only one patient. The median viral load of HAstV in feces was significantly higher among HIV-1 positive children compared to HIV-1 negative children. Concerning children infected with RVA, NoV, HBoV and HAdV, no statistically significant differences were observed in the medians of viral loads in feces, comparing HIV-1 seropositive and HIV-1 seronegative children. Similar detection rates were observed for RVA, HAstV and HAdV, whilst NoV and HBoV were significantly more prevalent among children with CD4+ T lymphocyte count below 200 cells/mm3. Enteric viruses should be considered an important cause of DD in HIV-1 seropositive children, along with

  5. Enteric viruses in HIV-1 seropositive and HIV-1 seronegative children with diarrheal diseases in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Augusta Rodrigues Portes

    Full Text Available Diarrheal diseases (DD have distinct etiological profiles in immune-deficient and immune-competent patients. This study compares detection rates, genotype distribution and viral loads of different enteric viral agents in HIV-1 seropositive (n = 200 and HIV-1 seronegative (n = 125 children hospitalized with DD in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Except for group A rotavirus (RVA, which were detected through enzyme immunoassay, the other enteric viruses (norovirus [NoV], astrovirus [HAstV], adenovirus [HAdV] and bocavirus [HBoV] were detected through PCR or RT-PCR. A quantitative PCR was performed for RVA, NoV, HAstV, HAdV and HBoV. Infections with NoV (19% vs. 9.6%; p<0.001, HBoV (14% vs. 7.2%; p = 0.042 and HAdV (30.5% vs. 14.4%; p<0.001 were significantly more frequent among HIV-1 seropositive children. RVA was significantly less frequent among HIV-1 seropositive patients (6.5% vs. 20%; p<0.001. Similarly, frequency of infection with HAstV was lower among HIV-1 seropositive children (5.5% vs. 12.8%; p = 0.018. Among HIV-1 seropositive children 33 (16.5% had co-infections, including three enteric viruses, such as NoV, HBoV and HAdV (n = 2 and NoV, HAstV and HAdV (n = 2. The frequency of infection with more than one virus was 17 (13.6% in the HIV-1 negative group, triple infection (NoV + HAstV + HBoV being observed in only one patient. The median viral load of HAstV in feces was significantly higher among HIV-1 positive children compared to HIV-1 negative children. Concerning children infected with RVA, NoV, HBoV and HAdV, no statistically significant differences were observed in the medians of viral loads in feces, comparing HIV-1 seropositive and HIV-1 seronegative children. Similar detection rates were observed for RVA, HAstV and HAdV, whilst NoV and HBoV were significantly more prevalent among children with CD4+ T lymphocyte count below 200 cells/mm3. Enteric viruses should be considered an important cause of DD in HIV-1 seropositive children, along

  6. Modeling Anti-HIV-1 HSPC-Based Gene Therapy in Humanized Mice Previously Infected with HIV-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamaikawin, Wannisa; Shimizu, Saki; Kamata, Masakazu; Cortado, Ruth; Jung, Yujin; Lam, Jennifer; Wen, Jing; Kim, Patrick; Xie, Yiming; Kim, Sanggu; Arokium, Hubert; Presson, Angela P; Chen, Irvin S Y; An, Dong Sung

    2018-06-15

    Investigations of anti-HIV-1 human hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell (HSPC)-based gene therapy have been performed by HIV-1 challenge after the engraftment of gene-modified HSPCs in humanized mouse models. However, the clinical application of gene therapy is to treat HIV-1-infected patients. Here, we developed a new method to investigate an anti-HIV-1 HSPC-based gene therapy in humanized mice previously infected with HIV-1. First, humanized mice were infected with HIV-1. When plasma viremia reached >107 copies/mL 3 weeks after HIV-1 infection, the mice were myeloablated with busulfan and transplanted with anti-HIV-1 gene-modified CD34+ HSPCs transduced with a lentiviral vector expressing two short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) against CCR5 and HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR), along with human thymus tissue under the kidney capsule. Anti-HIV-1 vector-modified human CD34+ HSPCs successfully repopulated peripheral blood and lymphoid tissues in HIV-1 previously infected humanized mice. Anti-HIV-1 shRNA vector-modified CD4+ T lymphocytes showed selective advantage in HIV-1 previously infected humanized mice. This new method will be useful for investigations of anti-HIV-1 gene therapy when testing in a more clinically relevant experimental setting.

  7. Identification of Acute HIV-1 Infection by Hologic Aptima HIV-1 RNA Qualitative Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eller, Leigh Anne; Malia, Jennifer; Jagodzinski, Linda L.; Trichavaroj, Rapee; Oundo, Joseph; Lueer, Cornelia; Cham, Fatim; de Souza, Mark; Michael, Nelson L.; Robb, Merlin L.; Peel, Sheila A.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Hologic Aptima HIV-1 Qualitative RNA assay was used in a rigorous screening approach designed to identify individuals at the earliest stage of HIV-1 infection for enrollment into subsequent studies of cellular and viral events in early infection (RV 217/Early Capture HIV Cohort [ECHO] study). Volunteers at high risk for HIV-1 infection were recruited from study sites in Thailand, Tanzania, Uganda, and Kenya with high HIV-1 prevalence rates among the populations examined. Small-volume blood samples were collected by finger stick at twice-weekly intervals and tested with the Aptima assay. Participants with reactive Aptima test results were contacted immediately for entry into a more comprehensive follow-up schedule with frequent blood draws. Evaluation of the Aptima test prior to use in this study showed a detection sensitivity of 5.5 copies/ml (50%), with all major HIV-1 subtypes detected. A total of 54,306 specimens from 1,112 volunteers were examined during the initial study period (August 2009 to November 2010); 27 individuals were identified as converting from uninfected to infected status. A sporadic reactive Aptima signal was observed in HIV-1-infected individuals under antiretroviral therapy. Occasional false-reactive Aptima results in uninfected individuals, or nonreactive results in HIV-1-infected individuals not on therapy, were observed and used to calculate assay sensitivity and specificity. The sensitivity and specificity of the Aptima assay were 99.03% and 99.23%, respectively; positive and negative predictive values were 92.01% and 99.91%, respectively. Conversion from HIV-1-uninfected to -infected status was rapid, with no evidence of a prolonged period of intermittent low-level viremia. PMID:28424253

  8. Making a Short Story Long: Regulation of P-TEFb and HIV-1 Transcriptional Elongation in CD4+ T Lymphocytes and Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew P. Rice

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Productive transcription of the integrated HIV-1 provirus is restricted by cellular factors that inhibit RNA polymerase II elongation. The viral Tat protein overcomes this by recruiting a general elongation factor, P-TEFb, to the TAR RNA element that forms at the 5’ end of nascent viral transcripts. P-TEFb exists in multiple complexes in cells, and its core consists of a kinase, Cdk9, and a regulatory subunit, either Cyclin T1 or Cyclin T2. Tat binds directly to Cyclin T1 and thereby targets the Cyclin T1/P-TEFb complex that phosphorylates the CTD of RNA polymerase II and the negative factors that inhibit elongation, resulting in efficient transcriptional elongation. P-TEFb is tightly regulated in cells infected by HIV-1—CD4+ T lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. A number of mechanisms have been identified that inhibit P-TEFb in resting CD4+ T lymphocytes and monocytes, including miRNAs that repress Cyclin T1 protein expression and dephosphorylation of residue Thr186 in the Cdk9 T-loop. These repressive mechanisms are overcome upon T cell activation and macrophage differentiation when the permissivity for HIV-1 replication is greatly increased. This review will summarize what is currently known about mechanisms that regulate P-TEFb and how this regulation impacts HIV-1 replication and latency.

  9. The HIV-1 transgenic rat model of neuroHIV

    OpenAIRE

    Vigorito, Michael; Connaghan, Kaitlyn P.; Chang, Sulie L.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the ability of current combination anti-retroviral therapy (cART) to limit the progression of HIV-1 to AIDS, HIV-positive individuals continue to experience neuroHIV in the form of HIV-associated neurological disorders (HAND), which can range from subtle to substantial neurocognitive impairment. NeuroHIV may also influence substance use, abuse, and dependence in HIV-positive individuals. Because of the nature of the virus, variables such as mental health co-morbidities make it difficu...

  10. Picomolar dichotomous activity of gnidimacrin against HIV-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Huang

    Full Text Available Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART has offered a promising approach for controlling HIV-1 replication in infected individuals. However, with HARRT, HIV-1 is suppressed rather than eradicated due to persistence of HIV-1 in latent viral reservoirs. Thus, purging the virus from latent reservoirs is an important strategy toward eradicating HIV-1 infection. In this study, we discovered that the daphnane diterpene gnidimacrin, which was previously reported to have potent anti-cancer cell activity, activated HIV-1 replication and killed persistently-infected cells at picomolar concentrations. In addition to its potential to purge HIV-1 from latently infected cells, gnidimacrin potently inhibited a panel of HIV-1 R5 virus infection of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs at an average concentration lower than 10 pM. In contrast, gnidimacrin only partially inhibited HIV-1 ×4 virus infection of PBMCs. The strong anti-HIV-1 R5 virus activity of gnidimacrin was correlated with its effect on down-regulation of the HIV-1 coreceptor CCR5. The anti-R5 virus activity of gnidimacrin was completely abrogated by a selective protein kinase C beta inhibitor enzastaurin, which suggests that protein kinase C beta plays a key role in the potent anti-HIV-1 activity of gnidimacrin in PBMCs. In summary, these results suggest that gnidimacrin could activate latent HIV-1, specifically kill HIV-1 persistently infected cells, and inhibit R5 viruses at picomolar concentrations.

  11. Picomolar dichotomous activity of gnidimacrin against HIV-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Li; Ho, Phong; Yu, Jie; Zhu, Lei; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Chen, Chin-Ho

    2011-01-01

    Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has offered a promising approach for controlling HIV-1 replication in infected individuals. However, with HARRT, HIV-1 is suppressed rather than eradicated due to persistence of HIV-1 in latent viral reservoirs. Thus, purging the virus from latent reservoirs is an important strategy toward eradicating HIV-1 infection. In this study, we discovered that the daphnane diterpene gnidimacrin, which was previously reported to have potent anti-cancer cell activity, activated HIV-1 replication and killed persistently-infected cells at picomolar concentrations. In addition to its potential to purge HIV-1 from latently infected cells, gnidimacrin potently inhibited a panel of HIV-1 R5 virus infection of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) at an average concentration lower than 10 pM. In contrast, gnidimacrin only partially inhibited HIV-1 ×4 virus infection of PBMCs. The strong anti-HIV-1 R5 virus activity of gnidimacrin was correlated with its effect on down-regulation of the HIV-1 coreceptor CCR5. The anti-R5 virus activity of gnidimacrin was completely abrogated by a selective protein kinase C beta inhibitor enzastaurin, which suggests that protein kinase C beta plays a key role in the potent anti-HIV-1 activity of gnidimacrin in PBMCs. In summary, these results suggest that gnidimacrin could activate latent HIV-1, specifically kill HIV-1 persistently infected cells, and inhibit R5 viruses at picomolar concentrations.

  12. Assessment of HIV-1 entry inhibitors by MLV/HIV-1 pseudotyped vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaler Sonja

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Murine leukemia virus (MLV vector particles can be pseudotyped with a truncated variant of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 envelope protein (Env and selectively target gene transfer to human cells expressing both CD4 and an appropriate co-receptor. Vector transduction mimics the HIV-1 entry process and is therefore a safe tool to study HIV-1 entry. Results Using FLY cells, which express the MLV gag and pol genes, we generated stable producer cell lines that express the HIV-1 envelope gene and a retroviral vector genome encoding the green fluorescent protein (GFP. The BH10 or 89.6 P HIV-1 Env was expressed from a bicistronic vector which allowed the rapid selection of stable cell lines. A codon-usage-optimized synthetic env gene permitted high, Rev-independent Env expression. Vectors generated by these producer cells displayed different sensitivity to entry inhibitors. Conclusion These data illustrate that MLV/HIV-1 vectors are a valuable screening system for entry inhibitors or neutralizing antisera generated by vaccines.

  13. Transplanting supersites of HIV-1 vulnerability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongqing Zhou

    Full Text Available One strategy for isolating or eliciting antibodies against a specific target region on the envelope glycoprotein trimer (Env of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 involves the creation of site transplants, which present the target region on a heterologous protein scaffold with preserved antibody-binding properties. If the target region is a supersite of HIV-1 vulnerability, recognized by a collection of broadly neutralizing antibodies, this strategy affords the creation of "supersite transplants", capable of binding (and potentially eliciting antibodies similar to the template collection of effective antibodies. Here we transplant three supersites of HIV-1 vulnerability, each targeted by effective neutralizing antibodies from multiple donors. To implement our strategy, we chose a single representative antibody against each of the target supersites: antibody 10E8, which recognizes the membrane-proximal external region (MPER on the HIV-1 gp41 glycoprotein; antibody PG9, which recognizes variable regions one and two (V1V2 on the HIV-1 gp120 glycoprotein; and antibody PGT128 which recognizes a glycopeptide supersite in variable region 3 (glycan V3 on gp120. We used a structural alignment algorithm to identify suitable acceptor proteins, and then designed, expressed, and tested antigenically over 100-supersite transplants in a 96-well microtiter-plate format. The majority of the supersite transplants failed to maintain the antigenic properties of their respective template supersite. However, seven of the glycan V3-supersite transplants exhibited nanomolar affinity to effective neutralizing antibodies from at least three donors and recapitulated the mannose9-N-linked glycan requirement of the template supersite. The binding of these transplants could be further enhanced by placement into self-assembling nanoparticles. Essential elements of the glycan V3 supersite, embodied by as few as 3 N-linked glycans and ∼ 25 Env residues, can be

  14. Inhibition of HIV-1 by curcumin A, a novel curcumin analog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumari N

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Namita Kumari,1,2,* Amol A Kulkarni,3,* Xionghao Lin,2 Charlee McLean,1 Tatiana Ammosova,2 Andrey Ivanov,2 Maria Hipolito,1 Sergei Nekhai,2 Evaristus Nwulia11Translational Neuroscience Laboratory, 2Department of Medicine, Center for Sickle Cell Disease, College of Medicine, 3College of Pharmacy, Howard University, Washington, DC, USA*These authors contributed equally to this study Abstract: Despite the remarkable success of combination antiretroviral therapy at curtailing HIV progression, emergence of drug-resistant viruses, chronic low-grade inflammation, and adverse effects of combination antiretroviral therapy treatments, including metabolic disorders collectively present the impetus for development of newer and safer antiretroviral drugs. Curcumin, a phytochemical compound, was previously reported to have some in vitro anti-HIV and anti-inflammatory activities, but poor bioavailability has limited its clinical utility. To circumvent the bioavailability problem, we derivatized curcumin to sustain retro-aldol decomposition at physiological pH. The lead compound derived, curcumin A, showed increased stability, especially in murine serum where it was stable for up to 25 hours, as compared to curcumin that only had a half-life of 10 hours. Both curcumin and curcumin A showed similar inhibition of one round of HIV-1 infection in cultured lymphoblastoid (also called CEM T cells (IC50=0.7 µM. But in primary peripheral blood mononuclear cells, curcumin A inhibited HIV-1 more potently (IC50=2 µM compared to curcumin (IC50=12 µM. Analysis of specific steps of HIV-1 replication showed that curcumin A inhibited HIV-1 reverse transcription, but had no effect on HIV-1 long terminal repeat basal or Tat-induced transcription, or NF-κB-driven transcription at low concentrations that affected reverse transcription. Finally, we showed curcumin A induced expression of HO-1 and decreased cell cycle progression of T cells. Our findings thus indicate that

  15. Digoxin reveals a functional connection between HIV-1 integration preference and T-cell activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Zhyvoloup

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available HIV-1 integrates more frequently into transcribed genes, however the biological significance of HIV-1 integration targeting has remained elusive. Using a selective high-throughput chemical screen, we discovered that the cardiac glycoside digoxin inhibits wild-type HIV-1 infection more potently than HIV-1 bearing a single point mutation (N74D in the capsid protein. We confirmed that digoxin repressed viral gene expression by targeting the cellular Na+/K+ ATPase, but this did not explain its selectivity. Parallel RNAseq and integration mapping in infected cells demonstrated that digoxin inhibited expression of genes involved in T-cell activation and cell metabolism. Analysis of >400,000 unique integration sites showed that WT virus integrated more frequently than N74D mutant within or near genes susceptible to repression by digoxin and involved in T-cell activation and cell metabolism. Two main gene networks down-regulated by the drug were CD40L and CD38. Blocking CD40L by neutralizing antibodies selectively inhibited WT virus infection, phenocopying digoxin. Thus the selectivity of digoxin depends on a combination of integration targeting and repression of specific gene networks. The drug unmasked a functional connection between HIV-1 integration and T-cell activation. Our results suggest that HIV-1 evolved integration site selection to couple its early gene expression with the status of target CD4+ T-cells, which may affect latency and viral reactivation.

  16. Immunoglobulin Gene Insertions and Deletions in the Affinity Maturation of HIV-1 Broadly Reactive Neutralizing Antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepler, Thomas B.; Liao, Hua-Xin; Alam, S. Munir; Bhaskarabhatla, Rekha; Zhang, Ruijun; Stewart, Shelley; Anasti, Kara; Kelsoe, Garnett; Parks, Robert; Lloyd, Krissey E.; Stolarchuk, Christina; Pritchett, Jamie; Solomon, Erika; Friberg, Emma; Morris, Lynn; Karim, Salim S. Abdool; Cohen, Myron S.; Walter, Emmanuel; Moody, M. Anthony; Wu, Xueling; Altae-Tran, Han R.; Georgiev, Ivelin S.; Kwong, Peter D.; Boyd, Scott D.; Fire, Andrew Z.; Mascola, John R.; Haynes, Barton F.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Induction of HIV-1 broad neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) is a goal of HIV-1 vaccine development but has remained challenging partially due to unusual traits of bnAbs, including high somatic hypermutation (SHM) frequencies and in-frame insertions and deletions (indels). Here we examined the propensity and functional requirement for indels within HIV-1 bnAbs. High-throughput sequencing of the immunoglobulin (Ig) VHDJH genes in HIV-1 infected and uninfected individuals revealed that the indel frequency was elevated among HIV-1-infected subjects, with no unique properties attributable to bnAb-producing individuals. This increased indel occurrence depended only on the frequency of SHM point-mutations. Indel-encoded regions were generally proximal to antigen binding sites. Additionally, reconstruction of a HIV-1 CD4-binding site bnAb clonal lineage revealed that a large compound VHDJH indel was required for bnAb activity. Thus, vaccine development should focus on designing regimens targeted at sustained activation of bnAb lineages to achieve the required SHM and indel events. PMID:25211073

  17. Synthesis of a Vpr-Binding Derivative for Use as a Novel HIV-1 Inhibitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, Kyoji; Ishii, Hideki; Murakami, Tomoyuki; Takeshima, Shin-nosuke; Chutiwitoonchai, Nopporn; Kodama, Eiichi N.; Kawaji, Kumi; Kondoh, Yasumitsu; Honda, Kaori; Osada, Hiroyuki; Tsunetsugu-Yokota, Yasuko; Suzuki, Masaaki; Aida, Yoko

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of multidrug-resistant viruses compromises the efficacy of anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) therapy and limits treatment options. Therefore, new targets that can be used to develop novel antiviral agents need to be identified. We previously identified a potential parent compound, hematoxylin, which suppresses the nuclear import of HIV-1 via the Vpr-importin α interaction and inhibits HIV-1 replication in a Vpr-dependent manner by blocking nuclear import of the pre-integration complex. However, it was unstable. Here, we synthesized a stable derivative of hematoxylin that bound specifically and stably to Vpr and inhibited HIV-1 replication in macrophages. Furthermore, like hematoxylin, the derivative inhibited nuclear import of Vpr in an in vitro nuclear import assay, but had no effect on Vpr-induced G2/M phase cell cycle arrest or caspase activity. Interestingly, this derivative bound strongly to amino acid residues 54–74 within the C-terminal α-helical domain (αH3) of Vpr. These residues are highly conserved among different HIV strains, indicating that this region is a potential target for drug-resistant HIV-1 infection. Thus, we succeeded in developing a stable hematoxylin derivative that bound directly to Vpr, suggesting that specific inhibitors of the interaction between cells and viral accessory proteins may provide a new strategy for the treatment of HIV-1 infection. PMID:26701275

  18. Protease inhibitors effectively block cell-to-cell spread of HIV-1 between T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titanji, Boghuma Kabisen; Aasa-Chapman, Marlen; Pillay, Deenan; Jolly, Clare

    2013-12-24

    The Human Immunodeficiency Virus type-1 (HIV-1) spreads by cell-free diffusion and by direct cell-to-cell transfer, the latter being a significantly more efficient mode of transmission. Recently it has been suggested that cell-to-cell spread may permit ongoing virus replication in the presence of antiretroviral therapy (ART) based on studies performed using Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (RTIs). Protease Inhibitors (PIs) constitute an important component of ART; however whether this class of inhibitors can suppress cell-to-cell transfer of HIV-1 is unexplored. Here we have evaluated the inhibitory effect of PIs during cell-to-cell spread of HIV-1 between T lymphocytes. Using quantitative assays in cell line and primary cell systems that directly measure the early steps of HIV-1 infection we find that the PIs Lopinavir and Darunavir are equally potent against both cell-free and cell-to-cell spread of HIV-1. We further show that a protease resistant mutant maintains its resistant phenotype during cell-to-cell spread and is transmitted more efficiently than wild-type virus in the presence of drug. By contrast we find that T cell-T cell spread of HIV-1 is 4-20 fold more resistant to inhibition by the RTIs Nevirapine, Zidovudine and Tenofovir. Notably, varying the ratio of infected and uninfected cells in co-culture impacted on the degree of inhibition, indicating that the relative efficacy of ART is dependent on the multiplicity of infection. We conclude that if the variable effects of antiviral drugs on cell-to-cell virus dissemination of HIV-1 do indeed impact on viral replication and maintenance of viral reservoirs this is likely to be influenced by the antiviral drug class, since PIs appear particularly effective against both modes of HIV-1 spread.

  19. Intercellular adhesion molecule 1 promotes HIV-1 attachment but not fusion to target cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoyuki Kondo

    Full Text Available Incorporation of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1 into HIV-1 particles is known to markedly enhance the virus binding and infection of cells expressing lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1. At the same time, ICAM-1 has been reported to exert a less pronounced effect on HIV-1 fusion with lymphoid cells. Here we examined the role of ICAM-1/LFA-1 interactions in productive HIV-1 entry into lymphoid cells using a direct virus-cell fusion assay. ICAM-1 promoted HIV-1 attachment to cells in a temperature-dependent manner. It exerted a marginal effect on virus binding in the cold, but enhanced binding up to 4-fold at physiological temperature. ICAM-1-independent attachment in the cold was readily reversible upon subsequent incubation at elevated temperature, whereas ICAM-1-bearing particles were largely retained by cells. The better virus retention resulted in a proportional increase in HIV-1 internalization and fusion, suggesting that ICAM-1 did not specifically accelerate endocytosis or fusion steps. We also measured the rates of CD4 engagement, productive endocytosis and HIV-endosome fusion using specific fusion inhibitors. These rates were virtually independent of the presence of ICAM-1 in viral particles. Importantly, irrespective of the presence of ICAM-1, HIV-1 escaped from the low temperature block, which stopped virus endocytosis and fusion, much later than from a membrane-impermeant fusion inhibitor targeting surface-accessible particles. This result, along with the complete inhibition of HIV-1 fusion by a small molecule dynamin inhibitor, implies this virus enters lymphoid cells used in this study via endocytosis and that this pathway is not altered by the viral ICAM-1. Our data highlight the role of ICAM-1 in stabilizing the HIV-1 attachment to LFA-1 expressing cells, which leads to a proportional enhancement of the receptor-mediated uptake and fusion with endosomes.

  20. A New Class of Multimerization Selective Inhibitors of HIV-1 Integrase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Amit; Slaughter, Alison; Jena, Nivedita; Feng, Lei; Kessl, Jacques J.; Fadel, Hind J.; Malani, Nirav; Male, Frances; Wu, Li; Poeschla, Eric; Bushman, Frederic D.; Fuchs, James R.; Kvaratskhelia, Mamuka

    2014-01-01

    The quinoline-based allosteric HIV-1 integrase (IN) inhibitors (ALLINIs) are promising candidates for clinically useful antiviral agents. Studies using these compounds have highlighted the role of IN in both early and late stages of virus replication. However, dissecting the exact mechanism of action of the quinoline-based ALLINIs has been complicated by the multifunctional nature of these inhibitors because they both inhibit IN binding with its cofactor LEDGF/p75 and promote aberrant IN multimerization with similar potencies in vitro. Here we report design of small molecules that allowed us to probe the role of HIV-1 IN multimerization independently from IN-LEDGF/p75 interactions in infected cells. We altered the rigid quinoline moiety in ALLINIs and designed pyridine-based molecules with a rotatable single bond to allow these compounds to bridge between interacting IN subunits optimally and promote oligomerization. The most potent pyridine-based inhibitor, KF116, potently (EC50 of 0.024 µM) blocked HIV-1 replication by inducing aberrant IN multimerization in virus particles, whereas it was not effective when added to target cells. Furthermore, KF116 inhibited the HIV-1 IN variant with the A128T substitution, which confers resistance to the majority of quinoline-based ALLINIs. A genome-wide HIV-1 integration site analysis demonstrated that addition of KF116 to target or producer cells did not affect LEDGF/p75-dependent HIV-1 integration in host chromosomes, indicating that this compound is not detectably inhibiting IN-LEDGF/p75 binding. These findings delineate the significance of correctly ordered IN structure for HIV-1 particle morphogenesis and demonstrate feasibility of exploiting IN multimerization as a therapeutic target. Furthermore, pyridine-based compounds present a novel class of multimerization selective IN inhibitors as investigational probes for HIV-1 molecular biology. PMID:24874515

  1. Intestinal microbiota and HIV-1 infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. B. S. M. Trindade

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal microbiota consists of a qualitatively and quantitatively diverse range of microorganisms dynamically interacting with the host. It is remarkably stable with regard to the presence of microorganisms and their roles which, however, can be altered due to pathological conditions, diet composition, gastrointestinal disturbances and/or drug ingestion. The present review aimed at contributing to the discussion about changes in the intestinal microbiota due to HIV-1 infection, focusing on the triad infection-microbiota-nutrition as factors that promote intestinal bacterial imbalance. Intestinal microbiota alterations can be due to the HIV-1 infection as a primary factor or the pharmacotherapy employed, or they can be one of the consequences of the disease.

  2. Limits on oral transmission of HIV-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, M S; Shugars, D C; Fiscus, S A

    2000-07-22

    This article discusses the potential of acquiring an HIV-1 infection through an oral route, with a view of offering clues for its prevention. In a study of adult animals given low concentration cell-free simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) orally, histological examination suggested that SIV infected lymphoid tissue through the antigen-transporting crypt epithelium rather than through dendritic cells. The investigators found no evidence of acquiring SIV via the gastrointestinal tract. For humans, HIV transmission from saliva or intimate family contact seems to be extremely rare. This could be because of the low concentration of HIV-1 in saliva. A study of 40 people found that significantly less HIV was found in salivary secretions than in plasma. Another possible explanation for inefficient oral transmission might be that HIV-1 in the oropharynx is inhibited by components found in salivary secretions. Conversely, studies have noted that risk of oral transmission of HIV from contaminated breast milk and semen is higher than from saliva. Breast-feeding by an HIV-infected woman puts the baby at substantial risk of infection and receptive fellatio cannot be considered a safe sex act.

  3. HIV-1 vaccine design: Learning from natural infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Kerkhof, T.L.G.M.

    2016-01-01

    Het humane immuundeficiëntie virus type 1 (hiv-1) is het virus dat aids veroorzaakt. Er is nog steeds geen bescherming tegen een hiv-1 infectie en de beëindiging van de wereldwijde epidemie kan waarschijnlijk alleen worden bereikt met behulp van een vaccin. Een hiv-1 vaccin zal bescherming moeten

  4. HIV-1 envelope trimer fusion proteins and their applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sliepen, K.H.E.W.J.

    2016-01-01

    HIV-1 is a major threat to global health and a vaccine is not yet on the horizon. A successful HIV-1 vaccine should probably induce HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies that target the envelope glycoprotein (Env) trimer on the outside of the virion. A possible starting point for such a vaccine are soluble

  5. TAT Modification of Alpha-Helical Anticancer Peptides to Improve Specificity and Efficacy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueyu Hao

    Full Text Available HPRP-A1 is an amphipathic α-helical anticancer peptide (ACP derived from the N-terminus of ribosomal protein L1 (RpL1 of Helicobacter pylori. In our previously study, HPRP-A1 has been reported that induced HeLa cell apoptosis in a caspase-dependent approach and involved both by the death receptor 'extrinsic' pathway and the mitochondria 'intrinsic' pathway. Here we report the construction of a new hybrid peptide, HPRP-A1-TAT, comprising the cell-permeating peptide TAT linked to the C-terminus of HPRP-A1. This peptide exhibits higher anticancer activity against HeLa cells with lower toxicity against human RBC than HPRP-A1. Two FITC-labeled peptides, FITC-HPRP-A1 and FITC-HPRP-A1-TAT, were used to investigate and compare the cellular uptake mechanism using fluorescence spectra and flow cytometry. Compared with HPRP-A1, HPRP-A1-TAT quickly crossed cell, entered the cytoplasm via endocytosis, and disrupted the cell membrane integrity. HPRP-A1-TAT exhibited stronger anticancer activity than HPRP-A1 at the same concentration by increasing early apoptosis of HeLa cells and inducing caspase activity. Notably, after 24 h, the cellular concentration of HPRP-A1-TAT was higher than that of HPRP-A1. This result suggests that TAT protects HPRP-A1 against degradation, likely due to its high number of positively charged amino acids or the further release of peptides into cancer cells from endocytotic vesicles. We believe that this TAT modification approach may provide an effective new strategy for improving the therapeutic index and anticancer activity of ACPs for clinical use.

  6. TAT Modification of Alpha-Helical Anticancer Peptides to Improve Specificity and Efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Xueyu; Yan, Qiuyan; Zhao, Jing; Wang, Wenren; Huang, Yibing; Chen, Yuxin

    2015-01-01

    HPRP-A1 is an amphipathic α-helical anticancer peptide (ACP) derived from the N-terminus of ribosomal protein L1 (RpL1) of Helicobacter pylori. In our previously study, HPRP-A1 has been reported that induced HeLa cell apoptosis in a caspase-dependent approach and involved both by the death receptor 'extrinsic' pathway and the mitochondria 'intrinsic' pathway. Here we report the construction of a new hybrid peptide, HPRP-A1-TAT, comprising the cell-permeating peptide TAT linked to the C-terminus of HPRP-A1. This peptide exhibits higher anticancer activity against HeLa cells with lower toxicity against human RBC than HPRP-A1. Two FITC-labeled peptides, FITC-HPRP-A1 and FITC-HPRP-A1-TAT, were used to investigate and compare the cellular uptake mechanism using fluorescence spectra and flow cytometry. Compared with HPRP-A1, HPRP-A1-TAT quickly crossed cell, entered the cytoplasm via endocytosis, and disrupted the cell membrane integrity. HPRP-A1-TAT exhibited stronger anticancer activity than HPRP-A1 at the same concentration by increasing early apoptosis of HeLa cells and inducing caspase activity. Notably, after 24 h, the cellular concentration of HPRP-A1-TAT was higher than that of HPRP-A1. This result suggests that TAT protects HPRP-A1 against degradation, likely due to its high number of positively charged amino acids or the further release of peptides into cancer cells from endocytotic vesicles. We believe that this TAT modification approach may provide an effective new strategy for improving the therapeutic index and anticancer activity of ACPs for clinical use.

  7. The intracellular delivery of TAT-aequorin reveals calcium-mediated sensing of environmental and symbiotic signals by the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Gigaspora margarita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscatiello, Roberto; Sello, Simone; Novero, Mara; Negro, Alessandro; Bonfante, Paola; Navazio, Lorella

    2014-08-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) is an ecologically relevant symbiosis between most land plants and Glomeromycota fungi. The peculiar traits of AM fungi have so far limited traditional approaches such as genetic transformation. The aim of this work was to investigate whether the protein transduction domain of the HIV-1 transactivator of transcription (TAT) protein, previously shown to act as a potent nanocarrier for macromolecule delivery in both animal and plant cells, may translocate protein cargoes into AM fungi. We evaluated the internalization into germinated spores of Gigaspora margarita of two recombinant TAT fusion proteins consisting of either a fluorescent (GFP) or a luminescent (aequorin) reporter linked to the TAT peptide. Both TAT-fused proteins were found to enter AM fungal mycelia after a short incubation period (5-10 min). Ca2+ measurements in G. margarita mycelia pre-incubated with TAT-aequorin demonstrated the occurrence of changes in the intracellular free Ca2+ concentration in response to relevant stimuli, such as touch, cold, salinity, and strigolactones, symbiosis-related plant signals. These data indicate that the cell-penetrating properties of the TAT peptide can be used as an effective strategy for intracellularly delivering proteins of interest and shed new light on Ca2+ homeostasis and signalling in AM fungi. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  8. Exploring the Complexity of the HIV-1 Fitness Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouyos, Roger D.; Leventhal, Gabriel E.; Hinkley, Trevor; Haddad, Mojgan; Whitcomb, Jeannette M.; Petropoulos, Christos J.; Bonhoeffer, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Although fitness landscapes are central to evolutionary theory, so far no biologically realistic examples for large-scale fitness landscapes have been described. Most currently available biological examples are restricted to very few loci or alleles and therefore do not capture the high dimensionality characteristic of real fitness landscapes. Here we analyze large-scale fitness landscapes that are based on predictive models for in vitro replicative fitness of HIV-1. We find that these landscapes are characterized by large correlation lengths, considerable neutrality, and high ruggedness and that these properties depend only weakly on whether fitness is measured in the absence or presence of different antiretrovirals. Accordingly, adaptive processes on these landscapes depend sensitively on the initial conditions. While the relative extent to which mutations affect fitness on their own (main effects) or in combination with other mutations (epistasis) is a strong determinant of these properties, the fitness landscape of HIV-1 is considerably less rugged, less neutral, and more correlated than expected from the distribution of main effects and epistatic interactions alone. Overall this study confirms theoretical conjectures about the complexity of biological fitness landscapes and the importance of the high dimensionality of the genetic space in which adaptation takes place. PMID:22412384

  9. Exploring the complexity of the HIV-1 fitness landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger D Kouyos

    Full Text Available Although fitness landscapes are central to evolutionary theory, so far no biologically realistic examples for large-scale fitness landscapes have been described. Most currently available biological examples are restricted to very few loci or alleles and therefore do not capture the high dimensionality characteristic of real fitness landscapes. Here we analyze large-scale fitness landscapes that are based on predictive models for in vitro replicative fitness of HIV-1. We find that these landscapes are characterized by large correlation lengths, considerable neutrality, and high ruggedness and that these properties depend only weakly on whether fitness is measured in the absence or presence of different antiretrovirals. Accordingly, adaptive processes on these landscapes depend sensitively on the initial conditions. While the relative extent to which mutations affect fitness on their own (main effects or in combination with other mutations (epistasis is a strong determinant of these properties, the fitness landscape of HIV-1 is considerably less rugged, less neutral, and more correlated than expected from the distribution of main effects and epistatic interactions alone. Overall this study confirms theoretical conjectures about the complexity of biological fitness landscapes and the importance of the high dimensionality of the genetic space in which adaptation takes place.

  10. Quantification of the Epitope Diversity of HIV-1-Specific Binding Antibodies by Peptide Microarrays for Global HIV-1 Vaccine Development

    OpenAIRE

    Stephenson, Kathryn E.; Neubauer, George H.; Reimer, Ulf; Pawlowski, Nikolaus; Knaute, Tobias; Zerweck, Johannes; Korber, Bette T; Barouch, Dan H.

    2014-01-01

    An effective vaccine against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) will have to provide protection against a vast array of different HIV-1 strains. Current methods to measure HIV-1-specific binding antibodies following immunization typically focus on determining the magnitude of antibody responses, but the epitope diversity of antibody responses has remained largely unexplored. Here we describe the development of a global HIV-1 peptide microarray that contains 6,564 peptides from across...

  11. HIV-1 Phylogenetic analysis shows HIV-1 transits through the meninges to brain and peripheral tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamers, Susanna L.; Gray, Rebecca R.; Salemi, Marco; Huysentruyt, Leanne C.; McGrath, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Brain infection by the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) has been investigated in many reports with a variety of conclusions concerning the time of entry and degree of viral compartmentalization. To address these diverse findings, we sequenced HIV-1 gp120 clones from a wide range of brain, peripheral and meningeal tissues from five patients who died from several HIV-1 associated disease pathologies. High-resolution phylogenetic analysis confirmed previous studies that showed a significant degree of compartmentalization in brain and peripheral tissue subpopulations. Some intermixing between the HIV-1 subpopulations was evident, especially in patients that died from pathologies other than HIV-associated dementia. Interestingly, the major tissue harboring virus from both the brain and peripheral tissues was the meninges. These results show that 1) HIV-1 is clearly capable of migrating out of the brain, 2) the meninges are the most likely primary transport tissues, and 3) infected brain macrophages comprise an important HIV reservoir during highly active antiretroviral therapy. PMID:21055482

  12. Evaluation of Xpert HIV-1 Qual assay for resolution of HIV-1 infection in samples with negative or indeterminate Geenius HIV-1/2 results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaeli, Michal; Wax, Marina; Gozlan, Yael; Rakovsky, Aviya; Mendelson, Ella; Mor, Orna

    2016-03-01

    Diagnosis of HIV infection is a multistage algorithm. Following screening with 4(th) generation combination immunoassay, confirmation of HIV infection is performed with an antibody assay that differentiates HIV-1 from HIV-2 infection. In the newly updated algorithm, samples that are nonreactive or indeterminate in the differentiation assay are to be tested with an HIV-1 nucleic acid amplification (NAAT) test for resolution. Xpert HIV-1 Qual is a new NAAT assay approved for the identification of HIV infection in whole and dried blood. To assess the performance of Xpert HIV-1 Qual supplementary assay in resolving the clinical status of serum samples reactive by 4(th) generation immunoassays and indeterminate or negative by Geenius HIV-1/2 confirmatory assay. In a retrospective study, samples from 97 individuals for whom the true HIV-1 status was already known (by follow-up samples) and which were negative or indeterminate by HIV-1/2 Geenius assay were tested with Xpert Qual HIV-1 assay. Xpert Qual assay correctly classified all 97 samples from HIV-1 positive (n=49) and negative (n=48) individuals. The sensitivity and specificity of Xpert Qual when using the true HIV status as a reference were 100% (92.7-100% at 95% confidence interval [CI] and 92.6-100% at 95% CI, respectively). Applying Xpert Qual HIV-1 assay in the new HIV multi-stage diagnostic algorithm correctly classified 100% of HIV-1 infections including 49 from HIV-1 carriers who have not yet seroconverted. With this assay the total time required for acute HIV diagnosis could be significantly reduced. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Photochemical neutralization of HIV-1 and inhibition of HIV-1 induced syncytium formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, D.E.; Utecht, R.E. [South Dakota State Univ., Brookings, SD (United States); Chanh, T.C.; Allan, J.S. [Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research, San Antonio, TX (United States); Sogandares-Bernal, F.; Judy, M.M.; Matthews J.L. [Baylor Research Foundation, Dallas, TX (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The authors have prepared a new class of photochemically activatable antiviral compounds based on the 1,8-naphthalimide skeleton which are excited by visible (420 nm) light, and which are highly effective in causing neutralization of enveloped viruses including HIV-1, HSV-1, and VSV. One such photoactive compound, 1,14-bis-(N-hexyl-3-bromo-1,8-naphthalimid-4-yl)-1,4,11,14-tetrazatetradecane-5,10-dione (diED66Br) effectively neutralized HIV-1 in vitro at concentrations below .1{mu}M; similar results are obtained for HSV-1 and VSV. DiED66Br also effectively inhibits syncytium formation induced by cells infected with HIV-1 at doses which had no effect on normal human blood peripheral mononuclear cells. The synthesis of the photochemically active compounds and the mode of antiviral action will be discussed.

  14. Inhibition of HIV-1 in vitro by C-5 propyne phosphorothioate antisense to rev

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, O S; Nielsen, Jens Ole; Hansen, J E

    1995-01-01

    A 15-mer C-5 propyne modified phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotide antisense to rev was approximately 5-fold more effective in providing viral inhibition compared to a 28-mer unmodified phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotide targeted to the same sequence and previously shown to inhibit HIV-1...... in a sequence-dependent manner. The antiviral effect was obtained by lipofection or simple addition of 0.2-1 microM modified oligodeoxynucleotide to the culture medium of H9 cells chronically infected with the HIV-1LAI isolate of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. We conclude that C-5 propyne...... oligodeoxynucleotides in accordance with previous findings by others are superior to unmodified phosphorothioates in providing inhibition of HIV-1 in a sequence-dependent manner and that this inhibition can be conferred by oligodeoxynucleotides in free solution....

  15. Defining HIV-1 transmission clusters based on sequence data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Amin S; Pybus, Oliver G; Sanders, Eduard J; Albert, Jan; Esbjörnsson, Joakim

    2017-06-01

    : Understanding HIV-1 transmission dynamics is relevant to both screening and intervention strategies of HIV-1 infection. Commonly, HIV-1 transmission chains are determined based on sequence similarity assessed either directly from a sequence alignment or by inferring a phylogenetic tree. This review is aimed at both nonexperts interested in understanding and interpreting studies of HIV-1 transmission, and experts interested in finding the most appropriate cluster definition for a specific dataset and research question. We start by introducing the concepts and methodologies of how HIV-1 transmission clusters usually have been defined. We then present the results of a systematic review of 105 HIV-1 molecular epidemiology studies summarizing the most common methods and definitions in the literature. Finally, we offer our perspectives on how HIV-1 transmission clusters can be defined and provide some guidance based on examples from real life datasets.

  16. Efficient Vpu-Mediated Tetherin Antagonism by an HIV-1 Group O Strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Katharina; Starz, Kathrin; Sauter, Daniel; Langer, Simon; Bibollet-Ruche, Frederic; Learn, Gerald H; Stürzel, Christina M; Leoz, Marie; Plantier, Jean-Christophe; Geyer, Matthias; Hahn, Beatrice H; Kirchhoff, Frank

    2017-03-15

    Simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs) use their Nef proteins to counteract the restriction factor tetherin. However, a deletion in human tetherin prevents antagonism by the Nef proteins of SIVcpz and SIVgor, which represent the ape precursors of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). To promote virus release from infected cells, pandemic HIV-1 group M strains evolved Vpu as a tetherin antagonist, while the Nef protein of less widespread HIV-1 group O strains acquired the ability to target a region adjacent to this deletion. In this study, we identified an unusual HIV-1 group O strain (RBF206) that evolved Vpu as an effective antagonist of human tetherin. While both RBF206 Vpu and Nef exert anti-tetherin activity in transient-transfection assays, mainly Vpu promotes RBF206 release in infected CD4(+) T cells. Although mutations distinct from the adaptive changes observed in group M Vpus (M-Vpus) were critical for the acquisition of its anti-tetherin activity, RBF206 O-Vpu potently suppresses NF-κB activation and reduces CD4 cell surface expression. Interestingly, RBF206 Vpu counteracts tetherin in a largely species-independent manner, degrading both the long and short isoforms of human tetherin. Downmodulation of CD4, but not counteraction of tetherin, by RBF206 Vpu was dependent on the cellular ubiquitin ligase machinery. Our data present the first example of an HIV-1 group O Vpu that efficiently antagonizes human tetherin and suggest that counteraction by O-Nefs may be suboptimal.IMPORTANCE Previous studies showed that HIV-1 groups M and O evolved two alternative strategies to counteract the human ortholog of the restriction factor tetherin. While HIV-1 group M switched from Nef to Vpu due to a deletion in the cytoplasmic domain of human tetherin, HIV-1 group O, which lacks Vpu-mediated anti-tetherin activity, acquired a Nef protein that is able to target a region adjacent to the deletion. Here we report an unusual exception, identifying a strain of HIV-1

  17. Factors of intermittent HIV-1 excretion in semen and efficiency of sperm processing in obtaining spermatozoa without HIV-1 genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujan, Louis; Daudin, Myriam; Matsuda, Tomohiro; Righi, Laurence; Thauvin, Laurence; Berges, Laetitia; Izopet, Jacques; Berrebi, Alain; Massip, Patrice; Pasquier, Christophe

    2004-03-26

    To study the risk factors for HIV-1 in semen according to the localization of HIV-1 in sperm cell fractions and to assess the efficiency of sperm processing in obtaining spermatozoa without HIV-1 genomes. Ninety-four HIV-infected patients provided 281 paired blood and semen samples. Sperm cell separation was performed using two successive methods. HIV-1 RNA was quantified in blood and seminal plasma. HIV-1 RNA and DNA were detected in cell fractions. HIV-1 RNA was found in 14% of seminal plasma samples and up to 8.7% of native semen cells were positive for HIV-1 RNA and DNA. Ten seminal plasma samples had detectable RNA although blood viral load was undetectable. Antiretroviral treatment reduced the likelihood of RNA detection in seminal plasma. For semen with polynuclear cells and HIV-1 RNA in seminal plasma, the likelihood of detecting HIV-1 genomes in semen cells was increased fourfold and sixfold, respectively. In 25% of patients, HIV-1 excretion was intermittent. In the group of patients with systematic negative seminal plasma, HIV-1 genomes were detected in up to 10% of sperm cell samples. Our method of sperm processing always enabled us to obtain spermatozoa without detectable HIV-1 genomes. Polynuclear cells in semen are a risk factor for seminal HIV-1 excretion. Blood viral load was the only predictive factor for the intermittence of HIV-1 excretion in semen over time. Sperm processing using two successive methods was effective in obtaining spermatozoa without detectable HIV-1 genomes regardless of the viral load level in native semen.

  18. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells suppress HIV-1 replication but contribute to HIV-1 induced immunopathogenesis in humanized mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangming Li

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The role of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 infection and pathogenesis remains unclear. HIV-1 infection in the humanized mouse model leads to persistent HIV-1 infection and immunopathogenesis, including type I interferons (IFN-I induction, immune-activation and depletion of human leukocytes, including CD4 T cells. We developed a monoclonal antibody that specifically depletes human pDC in all lymphoid organs in humanized mice. When pDC were depleted prior to HIV-1 infection, the induction of IFN-I and interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs were abolished during acute HIV-1 infection with either a highly pathogenic CCR5/CXCR4-dual tropic HIV-1 or a standard CCR5-tropic HIV-1 isolate. Consistent with the anti-viral role of IFN-I, HIV-1 replication was significantly up-regulated in pDC-depleted mice. Interestingly, the cell death induced by the highly pathogenic HIV-1 isolate was severely reduced in pDC-depleted mice. During chronic HIV-1 infection, depletion of pDC also severely reduced the induction of IFN-I and ISGs, associated with elevated HIV-1 replication. Surprisingly, HIV-1 induced depletion of human immune cells including T cells in lymphoid organs, but not the blood, was reduced in spite of the increased viral replication. The increased cell number in lymphoid organs was associated with a reduced level of HIV-induced cell death in human leukocytes including CD4 T cells. We conclude that pDC play opposing roles in suppressing HIV-1 replication and in promoting HIV-1 induced immunopathogenesis. These findings suggest that pDC-depletion and IFN-I blockade will provide novel strategies for treating those HIV-1 immune non-responsive patients with persistent immune activation despite effective anti-retrovirus treatment.

  19. Increased Risk of HIV-1 Transmission in Pregnancy: A Prospective Study among African HIV-1 Serodiscordant Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    MUGO, Nelly R.; HEFFRON, Renee; DONNELL, Deborah; WALD, Anna; WERE, Edwin O.; REES, Helen; CELUM, Connie; KIARIE, James N.; COHEN, Craig R.; KAYINTEKORE, Kayitesi; BAETEN, Jared M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Physiologic and behavioral changes during pregnancy may alter HIV-1 susceptibility and infectiousness. Prospective studies exploring pregnancy and HIV-1 acquisition risk in women have found inconsistent results. No study has explored the effect of pregnancy on HIV-1 transmission risk from HIV-1 infected women to male partners. Methods In a prospective study of African HIV-1 serodiscordant couples, we evaluated the relationship between pregnancy and the risk of 1) HIV-1 acquisition among women and 2) HIV-1 transmission from women to men. Results 3321 HIV-1 serodiscordant couples were enrolled, 1085 (32.7%) with HIV-1 susceptible female partners and 2236 (67.3%) with susceptible male partners. HIV-1 incidence in women was 7.35 versus 3.01 per 100 person-years during pregnant and non-pregnant periods (hazard ratio [HR] 2.34, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.33–4.09). This effect was attenuated and not statistically significant after adjusting for sexual behavior and other confounding factors (adjusted HR 1.71, 95% CI 0.93–3.12). HIV-1 incidence in male partners of infected women was 3.46 versus 1.58 per 100 person-years when their partners were pregnant versus not pregnant (HR 2.31, 95% CI 1.22–4.39). This effect was not attenuated in adjusted analysis (adjusted HR 2.47, 95% CI 1.26–4.85). Conclusions HIV-1 risk increased two-fold during pregnancy. Elevated risk of HIV-1 acquisition in pregnant women appeared in part to be explained by behavioral and other factors. This is the first study to show pregnancy increased the risk of female-to-male HIV-1 transmission, which may reflect biological changes of pregnancy that could increase HIV-1 infectiousness. PMID:21785321

  20. An autoreactive antibody from an SLE/HIV-1 individual broadly neutralizes HIV-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonsignori, Mattia; Wiehe, Kevin; Grimm, Sebastian K.; Lynch, Rebecca; Yang, Guang; Kozink, Daniel M.; Perrin, Florence; Cooper, Abby J.; Hwang, Kwan-Ki; Chen, Xi; Liu, Mengfei; McKee, Krisha; Parks, Robert J.; Eudailey, Joshua; Wang, Minyue; Clowse, Megan; Criscione-Schreiber, Lisa G.; Moody, M. Anthony; Ackerman, Margaret E.; Boyd, Scott D.; Gao, Feng; Kelsoe, Garnett; Verkoczy, Laurent; Tomaras, Georgia D.; Liao, Hua-Xin; Kepler, Thomas B.; Montefiori, David C.; Mascola, John R.; Haynes, Barton F.

    2014-01-01

    Broadly HIV-1–neutralizing antibodies (BnAbs) display one or more unusual traits, including a long heavy chain complementarity-determining region 3 (HCDR3), polyreactivity, and high levels of somatic mutations. These shared characteristics suggest that BnAb development might be limited by immune tolerance controls. It has been postulated that HIV-1–infected individuals with autoimmune disease and defective immune tolerance mechanisms may produce BnAbs more readily than those without autoimmune diseases. In this study, we identified an HIV-1–infected individual with SLE who exhibited controlled viral load (<5,000 copies/ml) in the absence of controlling HLA phenotypes and developed plasma HIV-1 neutralization breadth. We collected memory B cells from this individual and isolated a BnAb, CH98, that targets the CD4 binding site (CD4bs) of HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein 120 (gp120). CH98 bound to human antigens including dsDNA, which is specifically associated with SLE. Anti-dsDNA reactivity was also present in the patient’s plasma. CH98 had a mutation frequency of 25% and 15% nt somatic mutations in the heavy and light chain variable domains, respectively, a long HCDR3, and a deletion in the light chain CDR1. The occurrence of anti-dsDNA reactivity by a HIV-1 CD4bs BnAb in an individual with SLE raises the possibility that some BnAbs and SLE-associated autoantibodies arise from similar pools of B cells. PMID:24614107

  1. Human Cytosolic Extracts Stabilize the HIV-1 Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricke, Thomas; Brandariz-Nuñez, Alberto; Wang, Xiaozhao; Smith, Amos B.

    2013-01-01

    The stability of the HIV-1 core in the cytoplasm is crucial for productive HIV-1 infection. Mutations that stabilize or destabilize the core showed defects on HIV-1 reverse transcription and infection. We developed a novel and simple assay to measure the stability of in vitro-assembled HIV-1 CA-NC complexes. The assay allowed us to demonstrate that cytosolic extracts strongly stabilize the HIV-1 core. Interestingly, stabilization of in vitro-assembled HIV-1 CA-NC complexes is not due solely to macromolecular crowding, suggesting the presence of specific cellular factors that stabilize the HIV-1 core. By using our novel assay, we measured the abilities of different drugs, such as PF74, CAP-1, IXN-053, cyclosporine, Bi2 (also known as BI-2), and the peptide CAI, to modulate the stability of in vitro-assembled HIV-1 CA-NC complexes. Interestingly, we found that PF74 and Bi2 strongly stabilized HIV-1 CA-NC complexes. On the other hand, the peptide CAI destabilized HIV-1 CA-NC complexes. We also found that purified cyclophilin A destabilizes in vitro-assembled HIV-1 CA-NC complexes in the presence of cellular extracts in a cyclosporine-sensitive manner. In agreement with previous observations using the fate-of-the-capsid assay, we also demonstrated the ability of recombinant CPSF6 to stabilize HIV-1 CA-NC complexes. Overall, our findings suggested that cellular extracts specifically stabilize the HIV-1 core. We believe that our assay can be a powerful tool to assess HIV-1 core stability in vitro. PMID:23885082

  2. Inhibitory effects of Sudanese plant extracts on HIV-1 replication and HIV-1 protease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, G; Miyashiro, H; Nakamura, N; Hattori, M; Kawahata, T; Otake, T; Kakiuchi, N; Shimotohno, K

    1999-02-01

    Forty-eight methanol and aqueous extracts from Sudanese plants were screened for their inhibitory activity on viral replication. Nineteen extracts showed inhibitory effects on HIV-induced cytopathic effects (CPE) on MT-4 cells. The extracts were further screened against HIV-1 protease (PR) using an HPLC assay method. Of the tested extracts, the methanol extracts of Acacia nilotica (bark and pods), Euphorbia granulata (leaves), Maytenus senegalensis (stem-bark) and aqueous extracts of A. nilotica (pods) and M. senegalensis (stem-bark) showed considerable inhibitory effects against HIV-1 PR. Inhibitory principles were isolated from M. senegalensis and their activities were also discussed.

  3. Antigen-presenting cells represent targets for R5 HIV-1 infection in the first trimester pregnancy uterine mucosa.

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    Romain Marlin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: During the first trimester of pregnancy, HIV-1 mother-to-child transmission is relatively rare despite the permissivity of placental cells to cell-to-cell HIV-1 infection. The placenta interacts directly with maternal uterine cells (decidual cells but the physiological role of the decidua in the control of HIV-1 transmission and whether decidua could be a source of infected cells is unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To answer to this question, decidual mononuclear cells were exposed to HIV-1 in vitro. Decidual cells were shown to be more susceptible to infection by an R5 HIV-1, as compared to an X4 HIV-1. Infected cells were identified by flow cytometry analysis. The results showed that CD14(+ cells were the main targets of HIV-1 infection in the decidua. These infected CD14(+ cells expressed DC-SIGN, CD11b, CD11c, the Fc gamma receptor CD16, CD32 and CD64, classical MHC class-I and class-II and maturation and activation molecules CD83, CD80 and CD86. The permissivity of decidual tissue was also evaluated by histoculture. Decidual tissue was not infected by X4 HIV-1 but was permissive to R5 HIV-1. Different profiles of infection were observed depending on tissue localization. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The presence of HIV-1 target cells in the decidua in vitro and the low rate of in utero mother-to-child transmission during the first trimester of pregnancy suggest that a natural control occurs in vivo limiting cell-to-cell infection of the placenta and consequently infection of the fetus.

  4. HIV-1 genetic variants in Kyrgyzstan

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    V Laga

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: During the last two decades, HIV-1 has been spreading rapidly in former Soviet Union republics including Kyrgyzstan. The current molecular monitoring of HIV-infection epidemic is carried out in Russia only with no or limited data from the other FSU countries. The aim of this work was to investigate the prevalence of HIV-1 genetic variants circulating in Kyrgyzstan. Methods: Blood collection from the HIV-infected patients was carried out by local specialists with the informed consent and the questionnaire was answered by each of the patients. The total number of samples was 100. The washed cell pellets were transferred to Moscow following with proviral DNA extraction, PCR amplification and gag, pol and env genes sequencing. The phylogenetic analysis of nucleotide sequences using neighbor-joining method was carried out by MEGA 3 program. The preliminary data were obtained in 22 samples isolated from PBMC of HIV-infected patients from Kyrgyzstan. Results: Among the samples studied 6 (27.3% samples belonged to a subtype CRF02_AG, 16 samples - to subtype A (A1. One of the samples belonging to CRF02_AG, probably, is a recombinant between CRF02_AG and A1. There was no major drug resistance mutations in the samples studied. The minor mutations were presented in small proportions: 1 in PR (L10I, 6 in RT (A62V - in 3 samples, V108G, E138A, Y181F, M184I, L210M - on one sample and 1 in IN (L74M. It was impossible to associate the distribution of mutations with HIV-1 genetic variant. The V3 loop (env gene in 17 samples was analyzed for tropism using geno2pheno program; all samples were found to be R5-viruses. Conclusion: The HIV-1 subtype A seems to dominate in Kyrgyzstan like in other FSU countries. The recombinant CRF02_AG epidemiologically linked to Uzbekistan is quite widespread. The rest of Kyrgyzstan collection is under investigation and the data will be refined soon.

  5. Rigidity analysis of HIV-1 protease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heal, J. W.; Wells, S. A.; Jimenez-Roldan, E.; Freedman, R. F.; Römer, R. A.

    2011-03-01

    We present a rigidity analysis on a large number of X-ray crystal structures of the enzyme HIV-1 protease using the 'pebble game' algorithm of the software FIRST. We find that although the rigidity profile remains similar across a comprehensive set of high resolution structures, the profile changes significantly in the presence of an inhibitor. Our study shows that the action of the inhibitors is to restrict the flexibility of the β-hairpin flaps which allow access to the active site. The results are discussed in the context of full molecular dynamics simulations as well as data from NMR experiments.

  6. Genetic Variability of HIV-1 for Drug Resistance Assay Development

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    Dana S. Clutter

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A hybridization-based point-of-care (POC assay for HIV-1 drug resistance would be useful in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs where resistance testing is not routinely available. The major obstacle in developing such an assay is the extreme genetic variability of HIV-1. We analyzed 27,203 reverse transcriptase (RT sequences from the Stanford HIV Drug Resistance Database originating from six LMIC regions. We characterized the variability in a 27-nucleotide window surrounding six clinically important drug resistance mutations (DRMs at positions 65, 103, 106, 181, 184, and 190. The number of distinct codons at each DRM position ranged from four at position 184 to 11 at position 190. Depending on the mutation, between 11 and 15 of the 24 flanking nucleotide positions were variable. Nonetheless, most flanking sequences differed from a core set of 10 flanking sequences by just one or two nucleotides. Flanking sequence variability was also lower in each LMIC region compared with overall variability in all regions. We also describe an online program that we developed to perform similar analyses for mutations at any position in RT, protease, or integrase.

  7. HIV-1 transgenic rats display alterations in immunophenotype and cellular responses associated with aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbondanzo, Susan J; Chang, Sulie L

    2014-01-01

    Advances in anti-retroviral therapy over the last two decades have allowed life expectancy in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus to approach that of the general population. The process of aging in mammalian species, including rats, results in immune response changes, alterations in immunological phenotypes, and ultimately increased susceptibility to many infectious diseases. In order to investigate the immunological pathologies associated with chronic HIV-1 disease, particularly in aging individuals, the HIV-1 transgenic (HIV-1Tg) rat model was utilized. HIV-1Tg rats were challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to determine immunological alterations during the aging process. LPS is known to cause an imbalance in cytokine and chemokine release, and provides a method to identify changes in immune responses to bacterial infection in an HIV animal model. An immune profile and accompanying cellular consequences as well as changes in inflammatory cytokine and chemokine release related to age and genotype were assessed in HIV-1Tg rats. The percentage of T cells decreased with age, particularly T cytotoxic cells, whereas T helper cells increased with age. Neutrophils and monocytes increased in HIV-1Tg rats during maturation compared to age-matched F344 control rats. Aging HIV-1Tg rats displayed a significant increase in the pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-6 and TNF-α, along with an increase in the chemokine, KC/GRO, in comparison to age-matched controls. Our data indicate that immunophenotype and immune responses can change during aging in HIV-positive individuals. This information could be important in determining the most beneficial age-dependent therapeutic treatment for HIV patients.

  8. HIV-1 transgenic rats display alterations in immunophenotype and cellular responses associated with aging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan J Abbondanzo

    Full Text Available Advances in anti-retroviral therapy over the last two decades have allowed life expectancy in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus to approach that of the general population. The process of aging in mammalian species, including rats, results in immune response changes, alterations in immunological phenotypes, and ultimately increased susceptibility to many infectious diseases. In order to investigate the immunological pathologies associated with chronic HIV-1 disease, particularly in aging individuals, the HIV-1 transgenic (HIV-1Tg rat model was utilized. HIV-1Tg rats were challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS to determine immunological alterations during the aging process. LPS is known to cause an imbalance in cytokine and chemokine release, and provides a method to identify changes in immune responses to bacterial infection in an HIV animal model. An immune profile and accompanying cellular consequences as well as changes in inflammatory cytokine and chemokine release related to age and genotype were assessed in HIV-1Tg rats. The percentage of T cells decreased with age, particularly T cytotoxic cells, whereas T helper cells increased with age. Neutrophils and monocytes increased in HIV-1Tg rats during maturation compared to age-matched F344 control rats. Aging HIV-1Tg rats displayed a significant increase in the pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-6 and TNF-α, along with an increase in the chemokine, KC/GRO, in comparison to age-matched controls. Our data indicate that immunophenotype and immune responses can change during aging in HIV-positive individuals. This information could be important in determining the most beneficial age-dependent therapeutic treatment for HIV patients.

  9. p21(WAF1/CIP1 RNA expression in highly HIV-1 exposed, uninfected individuals.

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    Joshua Herbeck

    Full Text Available Some individuals remain HIV-1 antibody and PCR negative after repeated exposures to the virus, and are referred to as HIV-exposed seronegatives (HESN. However, the causes of resistance to HIV-1 infection in cases other than those with a homozygous CCR5Δ32 deletion are unclear. We hypothesized that human p21WAF1/CIP1 (a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor could play a role in resistance to HIV-1 infection in HESN, as p21 expression has been associated with suppression of HIV-1 in elite controllers and reported to block HIV-1 integration in cell culture. We measured p21 RNA expression in PBMC from 40 HESN and 40 low exposure HIV-1 seroconverters (LESC prior to their infection using a real-time PCR assay. Comparing the 20 HESN with the highest exposure risk (median = 111 partners/2.5 years prior to the 20 LESC with the lowest exposure risk (median = 1 partner/2.5 years prior, p21 expression trended higher in HESN in only one of two experiments (P = 0.11 vs. P = 0.80. Additionally, comparison of p21 expression in the top 40 HESN (median = 73 partners/year and lowest 40 LESC (median = 2 partners/year showed no difference between the groups (P = 0.84. There was a weak linear trend between risk of infection after exposure and increasing p21 gene expression (R2 = 0.02, P = 0.12, but again only in one experiment. Hence, if p21 expression contributes to the resistance to viral infection in HESN, it likely plays a minor role evident only in those with extremely high levels of exposure to HIV-1.

  10. HIV-1 is not a major driver of increased plasma IL-6 levels in chronic HIV-1 disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shive, Carey L.; Biancotto, Angélique; Funderburg, Nicholas T.; Pilch-Cooper, Heather A.; Valdez, Hernan; Margolis, Leonid; Sieg, Scott F.; McComsey, Grace A.; Rodriguez, Benigno; Lederman, Michael M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Increased plasma IL-6 levels have been associated with HIV-1 disease progression risk, yet the drivers of IL-6 production in HIV-1 infection are not known. This study was designed to explore the relationship between HIV-1 replication and IL-6 induction. Design Correlations between plasma levels of IL-6 and HIV-1 RNA were examined in two clinical studies. To more directly assess the induction of IL-6 by HIV-1, several cell and tissue types that support HIV-1 replication in vivo were infected with HIV-1 and expression of IL-6 was measured. Methods Spearman’s rank correlations were used to examine the relationship between plasma levels of IL-6 and HIV-1 RNA. Macrophages, and colonic and lymph node histocultures were infected with HIV-1 or stimulated with bacterial products, LPS or flagellin, and IL-6 levels in supernatant were measured by ELISA or multiplex bead assay. Results In the clinical studies there was weak or no correlation between plasma levels of IL-6 and HIV-1 RNA but IL-6 levels were correlated with plasma levels of the LPS coreceptor CD14. Macrophages stimulated with LPS or flagellin showed robust production of IL-6, but there was no increase in IL-6 production after HIV-1 infection. IL-6 expression was not increased in lymph node histocultures obtained from HIV-1 infected subjects nor after productive HIV-1 infection of colonic or lymph node histocultures ex vivo. Conclusions We find no evidence that HIV-1 replication is an important driver of IL-6 expression in vivo or in in vitro systems. PMID:22659649

  11. A Conserved Target Site in HIV-1 Gag RNA is Accessible to Inhibition by Both an HDV Ribozyme and a Short Hairpin RNA

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    Robert J Scarborough

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Antisense-based molecules targeting HIV-1 RNA have the potential to be used as part of gene or drug therapy to treat HIV-1 infection. In this study, HIV-1 RNA was screened to identify more conserved and accessible target sites for ribozymes based on the hepatitis delta virus motif. Using a quantitative screen for effects on HIV-1 production, we identified a ribozyme targeting a highly conserved site in the Gag coding sequence with improved inhibitory potential compared to our previously described candidates targeting the overlapping Tat/Rev coding sequence. We also demonstrate that this target site is highly accessible to short hairpin directed RNA interference, suggesting that it may be available for the binding of antisense RNAs with different modes of action. We provide evidence that this target site is structurally conserved in diverse viral strains and that it is sufficiently different from the human transcriptome to limit off-target effects from antisense therapies. We also show that the modified hepatitis delta virus ribozyme is more sensitive to a mismatch in its target site compared to the short hairpin RNA. Overall, our results validate the potential of a new target site in HIV-1 RNA to be used for the development of antisense therapies.

  12. Prevalence and incidence of HIV-1 and HIV-2 before, during and after a civil war in an occupational cohort in Guinea-Bissau, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Månsson, Fredrik; Biague, Antonio; da Silva, Zacarias José; Dias, Francisco; Nilsson, L A Fredrik; Andersson, Sören; Fenyö, Eva Maria; Norrgren, Hans

    2009-07-31

    To study prevalence and incidence of HIV-1 and HIV-2 between 1990 and 2007 and to examine impact of the civil war in 1998-1999. We also wanted to investigate possible interaction between HIV-1 and HIV-2. Open prospective cohort study of 4592 police officers in Guinea-Bissau, West Africa. Analysis of HIV-1 and HIV-2 prevalence and incidence divided in 2-3 years time strata. HIV-1 prevalence (including HIV-1/HIV-2 dual reactivity) increased gradually from 0.6 to 3.6% before the war and was 9.5% in the first serosurvey after the war. HIV-1 incidence more than doubled during and shortly after the war, from 0.50 to 1.22 per 100 person-years. Both prevalence and incidence of HIV-1 decreased in the following periods after the war. HIV-2 prevalence decreased from 13.4 to 6.2% during the entire study period and HIV-2 incidence decreased from 1.38 to 0.18 per 100 person-years. Adjusted incidence rate ratios of HIV-1 incidence in HIV-2-positive participants compared with HIV-negative participants ranged from 1.02 to 1.18 (not significant) depending on the confounding variables included. HIV-1 has increased, whereas HIV-2 has decreased and the risk of acquiring HIV-1 is now more than four times higher as compared with HIV-2. The civil war in 1998-1999 appears to have induced a temporary increase in HIV-1 transmission, but now a stabilization of HIV-1 incidence and prevalence seems to have taken place. There was no evidence of a protective effect of HIV-2 against HIV-1 infection.

  13. Cyclophilin B enhances HIV-1 infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeBoer, Jason; Madson, Christian J. [Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Creighton University, Omaha, NE (United States); Belshan, Michael, E-mail: michaelbelshan@creighton.edu [Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Creighton University, Omaha, NE (United States); The Nebraska Center for Virology, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States)

    2016-02-15

    Cyclophilin B (CypB) is a member of the immunophilin family and intracellular chaperone. It predominantly localizes to the ER, but also contains a nuclear localization signal and is secreted from cells. CypB has been shown to interact with the Gag protein of human immunodeficiency type 1 (HIV-1). Several proteomic and genetic studies identified it as a potential factor involved in HIV replication. Herein, we show that over-expression of CypB enhances HIV infection by increasing nuclear import of viral DNA. This enhancement was unaffected by cyclosporine treatment and requires the N-terminus of the protein. The N-terminus contains an ER leader sequence, putative nuclear localization signal, and is required for secretion. Deletion of the N-terminus resulted in mislocalization from the ER and suppression of HIV infection. Passive transfer experiments showed that secreted CypB did not impact HIV infection. Combined, these experiments show that intracellular CypB modulates a pathway of HIV nuclear import. - Highlights: • CypB has been identified in several proteomic studies of HIV-1 infection. • CypB expression is upregulated in activated and infected T-cells. • Over-expression of CypB enhances HIV nuclear import and infection. • The N-terminus of CypB is necessary for these effects.

  14. Evaluation of three enzyme immunoassays for HIV-1 antigen detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, P B; Lisker, A; Folds, J D

    1989-01-01

    Three enzyme immunoassay (EIA) methods for the detection of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) were evaluated. Serum or plasma samples from 22 individuals seropositive for HIV-1 antibodies were tested with the Abbott, Coulter, and DuPont kits for presence of HIV-1 p24 antigen. Another 12 samples were tested with two kits only. Discordant results were obtained with 9 of 34 (26%) HIV-1-antibody-positive patient samples tested. Most of these discrepancies were found in samples containing less than 30 pg/ml of HIV-1 p24 core antigen. A sampling of sera from normal blood donors and patients with infectious or autoimmune diseases revealed a low level of false positive reactions, especially with sera containing antinuclear antibodies or rheumatoid factor. Noteworthy is the frequency of false positive reactions seen with the DuPont EIA for HIV-1 p24 antigen. 18/111 sera (16.2%) containing auto-antibodies tested positively with the DuPont HIV-1 p24 antigen EIA. The nonspecific nature of the test reactivity for 9/10 of these samples was confirmed using an HIV-1 p24 antigen inhibition assay. These findings are discussed in light of the need for HIV-1 antigen detection in the clinical laboratory and of other methods for HIV-1 detection: the polymerase chain reaction and measurements of reverse transcriptase activity.

  15. Genetic composition of replication competent clonal HIV-1 variants isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), HIV-1 proviral DNA from PBMC and HIV-1 RNA in serum in the course of HIV-1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edo-Matas, Diana; van Gils, Marit J; Bowles, Emma J; Navis, Marjon; Rachinger, Andrea; Boeser-Nunnink, Brigitte; Stewart-Jones, Guillaume B; Kootstra, Neeltje A; van 't Wout, Angélique B; Schuitemaker, Hanneke

    2010-09-30

    The HIV-1 quasispecies in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) is considered to be a mix of actively replicating, latent, and archived viruses and may be genetically distinct from HIV-1 variants in plasma that are considered to be recently produced. Here we analyzed the genetic relationship between gp160 env sequences from replication competent clonal HIV-1 variants that were isolated from PBMC and from contemporaneous HIV-1 RNA in serum and HIV-1 proviral DNA in PBMC of four longitudinally studied therapy naïve HIV-1 infected individuals. Replication competent clonal HIV-1 variants, HIV-1 RNA from serum, and HIV-1 proviral DNA from PBMC formed a single virus population at most time points analyzed. However, an under-representation in serum of HIV-1 sequences with predicted CXCR4 usage was sometimes observed implying that the analysis of viral sequences from different sources may provide a more complete assessment of the viral quasispecies in peripheral blood in vivo. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. HIV-1 infection induces changes in expression of cellular splicing factors that regulate alternative viral splicing and virus production in macrophages

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    Purcell Damian FJ

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Macrophages are important targets and long-lived reservoirs of HIV-1, which are not cleared of infection by currently available treatments. In the primary monocyte-derived macrophage model of infection, replication is initially productive followed by a decline in virion output over ensuing weeks, coincident with a decrease in the levels of the essential viral transactivator protein Tat. We investigated two possible mechanisms in macrophages for regulation of viral replication, which appears to be primarily regulated at the level of tat mRNA: 1 differential mRNA stability, used by cells and some viruses for the rapid regulation of gene expression and 2 control of HIV-1 alternative splicing, which is essential for optimal viral replication. Results Following termination of transcription at increasing times after infection in macrophages, we found that tat mRNA did indeed decay more rapidly than rev or nef mRNA, but with similar kinetics throughout infection. In addition, tat mRNA decayed at least as rapidly in peripheral blood lymphocytes. Expression of cellular splicing factors in uninfected and infected macrophage cultures from the same donor showed an inverse pattern over time between enhancing factors (members of the SR family of RNA binding proteins and inhibitory factors (members of the hnRNP family. While levels of the SR protein SC35 were greatly up-regulated in the first week or two after infection, hnRNPs of the A/B and H groups were down-regulated. Around the peak of virus production in each culture, SC35 expression declined to levels in uninfected cells or lower, while the hnRNPs increased to control levels or above. We also found evidence for increased cytoplasmic expression of SC35 following long-term infection. Conclusion While no evidence of differential regulation of tat mRNA decay was found in macrophages following HIV-1 infection, changes in the balance of cellular splicing factors which regulate alternative

  17. Tripeptides from synthetic amino acids block the Tat-TAR association and slow down HIV spread in cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Verena; Krebs, Andreas; Stoll, Michaela; Dietrich, Ursula; Ferner, Jan; Schwalbe, Harald; Scheffer, Ute; Dürner, Gerd; Göbel, Michael W

    2007-10-15

    Non-natural amino acids with aromatic or heteroaromatic side chains were incorporated into tripeptides of the general structure Arg-X-Arg and tested as ligands of the HIV RNA element TAR. Some of these compounds could compete efficiently with the association of TAR and Tat and downregulated a TAR-controlled reporter gene in HeLa cells. Peptide 7, which contains a 2-pyrimidinyl-alkyl chain, also inhibited the spread of HIV-1 in cell cultures. NMR studies of 7 bound to HIV-2-TAR gave evidence for contacts in the bulge region.

  18. Inhibition of HIV-1 in vitro by C-5 propyne phosphorothioate antisense to rev

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, O S; Nielsen, Jens Ole; Hansen, J E

    1995-01-01

    A 15-mer C-5 propyne modified phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotide antisense to rev was approximately 5-fold more effective in providing viral inhibition compared to a 28-mer unmodified phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotide targeted to the same sequence and previously shown to inhibit HIV-1...... in a sequence-dependent manner. The antiviral effect was obtained by lipofection or simple addition of 0.2-1 microM modified oligodeoxynucleotide to the culture medium of H9 cells chronically infected with the HIV-1LAI isolate of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. We conclude that C-5 propyne...

  19. Primary T-lymphocytes rescue the replication of HIV-1 DIS RNA mutants in part by facilitating reverse transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kate L; Sonza, Secondo; Mak, Johnson

    2008-03-01

    The dimerization initiation site (DIS) stem-loop within the HIV-1 RNA genome is vital for the production of infectious virions in T-cell lines but not in primary cells. In comparison to peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), which can support the replication of both wild type and HIV-1 DIS RNA mutants, we have found that DIS RNA mutants are up to 100 000-fold less infectious than wild-type HIV-1 in T-cell lines. We have also found that the cell-type-dependent replication of HIV-1 DIS RNA mutants is largely producer cell-dependent, with mutants displaying a greater defect in viral cDNA synthesis when viruses were not derived from PBMCs. While many examples exist of host-pathogen interplays that are mediated via proteins, analogous examples which rely on nucleic acid triggers are limited. Our data provide evidence to illustrate that primary T-lymphocytes rescue, in part, the replication of HIV-1 DIS RNA mutants through mediating the reverse transcription process in a cell-type-dependent manner. Our data also suggest the presence of a host cell factor that acts within the virus producer cells. In addition to providing an example of an RNA-mediated cell-type-dependent block to viral replication, our data also provides evidence which help to resolve the dilemma of how HIV-1 genomes with mismatched DIS sequences can recombine to generate chimeric viral RNA genomes.

  20. PET imaging of DNA damage using {sup 89}Zr-labelled anti-γH2AX-TAT immunoconjugates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, James C.; Topping, Caitriona; Mosley, Michael; Kersemans, Veerle; Cornelissen, Bart [University of Oxford, CRUK/MRC Oxford Institute for Radiation Oncology, Department of Oncology, Oxford (United Kingdom); Falzone, Nadia [University of Oxford, CRUK/MRC Oxford Institute for Radiation Oncology, Department of Oncology, Oxford (United Kingdom); Royal Marsden Hospital, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom); Fernandez-Varea, Jose M. [Universitat de Barcelona, Facultat de Fisica (ECM and ICC), Barcelona (Spain)

    2015-10-15

    The efficacy of most anticancer treatments, including radiotherapy, depends on an ability to cause DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Very early during the DNA damage signalling process, the histone isoform H2AX is phosphorylated to form γH2AX. With the aim of positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of DSBs, we synthesized a {sup 89}Zr-labelled anti-γH2AX antibody, modified with the cell-penetrating peptide, TAT, which includes a nuclear localization sequence. {sup 89}Zr-anti-γH2AX-TAT was synthesized using EDC/NHS chemistry for TAT peptide linkage. Desferrioxamine conjugation allowed labelling with {sup 89}Zr. Uptake and retention of {sup 89}Zr-anti-γH2AX-TAT was evaluated in the breast adenocarcinoma cell line MDA-MB-468 in vitro or as xenografts in athymic mice. External beam irradiation was used to induce DSBs and expression of γH2AX. Since {sup 89}Zr emits ionizing radiation, detailed radiobiological measurements were included to ensure {sup 89}Zr-anti-γH2AX-TAT itself does not cause any additional DSBs. Uptake of {sup 89}Zr-anti-γH2AX-TAT was similar to previous results using {sup 111}In-anti-γH2AX-TAT. Retention of {sup 89}Zr-anti-γH2AX-TAT was eightfold higher at 1 h post irradiation, in cells expressing γH2AX, compared to non-irradiated cells or to non-specific IgG control. PET imaging of mice showed higher uptake of {sup 89}Zr-anti-γH2AX-TAT in irradiated xenografts, compared to non-irradiated or non-specific controls (12.1 ± 1.6 vs 5.2 ± 1.9 and 5.1 ± 0.8 %ID/g, respectively; p < 0.0001). The mean absorbed dose to the nucleus of cells taking up {sup 89}Zr-anti-γH2AX-TAT was twofold lower compared to {sup 111}In-anti-γH2AX-TAT. Additional exposure of neither irradiated nor non-irradiated cells nor tissues to {sup 89}Zr-anti-γH2AX-TAT resulted in any significant changes in the number of observable DNA DSBs, γH2AX foci or clonogenic survival. {sup 89}Zr-anti-γH2AX-TAT allows PET imaging of DNA DSBs in a tumour xenograft mouse model

  1. Large Isoform of Mammalian Relative of DnaJ is a Major Determinant of Human Susceptibility to HIV-1 Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ping Chiang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Individual differences in susceptibility to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 infection have been of interest for decades. We aimed to determine the contribution of large isoform of Mammalian DnaJ (MRJ-L, a HIV-1 Vpr-interacting cellular protein, to this natural variation. Expression of MRJ-L in monocyte-derived macrophages was significantly higher in HIV-infected individuals (n = 31 than their uninfected counterparts (n = 27 (p = 0.009. Fifty male homosexual subjects (20 of them are HIV-1 positive were further recruited to examine the association between MRJ-L levels and occurrence of HIV infection. Bayesian multiple logistic regression revealed that playing a receptive role and increased levels of MRJ-L in macrophages were two risk factors for HIV-1 infection. A 1% rise in MRJ-L expression was associated with a 1.13 fold (95% CrI 1.06–1.29 increase in odds of contracting HIV-1 infection. Ex vivo experiments revealed that MRJ-L facilitated Vpr-dependent nuclear localization of virus. Infection of macrophage-tropic strain is a critical step in HIV-1 transmission. MRJ-L is a critical factor in this process; hence, subjects with higher macrophage MRJ-L levels are more vulnerable to HIV-1 infection.

  2. APOBEC3G inhibits HIV-1 RNA elongation by inactivating the viral trans-activation response element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowarski, Roni; Prabhu, Ponnandy; Kenig, Edan; Smith, Yoav; Britan-Rosich, Elena; Kotler, Moshe

    2014-07-29

    Deamination of cytidine residues in viral DNA is a major mechanism by which APOBEC3G (A3G) inhibits vif-deficient human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication. dC-to-dU transition following RNase-H activity leads to viral cDNA degradation, production of non-functional proteins, formation of undesired stop codons and decreased viral protein synthesis. Here, we demonstrate that A3G provides an additional layer of defense against HIV-1 infection dependent on inhibition of proviral transcription. HIV-1 transcription elongation is regulated by the trans-activation response (TAR) element, a short stem-loop RNA structure required for elongation factors binding. Vif-deficient HIV-1-infected cells accumulate short viral transcripts and produce lower amounts of full-length HIV-1 transcripts due to A3G deamination of the TAR apical loop cytidine, highlighting the requirement for TAR loop integrity in HIV-1 transcription. We further show that free single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) termini are not essential for A3G activity and a gap of CCC motif blocked with juxtaposed DNA or RNA on either or 3'+5' ends is sufficient for A3G deamination. These results identify A3G as an efficient mutator and that deamination of (-)SSDNA results in an early block of HIV-1 transcription. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. CD4 regulatory T cells augment HIV-1 expression of polarized M1 and M2 monocyte derived macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Tanya O; Zhang, Mingce; Ochsenbauer, Christina; Smythies, Lesley E; Cron, Randall Q

    2017-04-01

    Previous in vitro studies have shown that the HIV-1 virus can alter the cytokine/chemokine profile of polarized macrophages which may lead to their increased susceptibility to viral infection. Here, we found that M2 monocyte derived macrophages (MDM) were significantly more permissive to productive infection by R5-tropic HIV-1 strains, including transmitted founder (T/F) viruses, than M1 MDM. Previous in vitro studies by our lab showed that regulatory T cells (Tregs) suppress HIV-1 infection in non-Treg CD4 T cells. Here, we investigated potential inhibitory effects of Tregs on HIV-1 infection of polarized MDM. We found that Tregs significantly increased HIV-1 infection in M1 and M2 MDM via a mechanism that was cell contact dependent. These findings suggest a potential role for Tregs in HIV-1 infection of tissue resident macrophages of M1 and M2 phenotype, which may contribute to the establishment and pathogenesis of HIV-1 disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. In vitro functional assessment of natural HIV-1 group M Vpu sequences using a universal priming approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Asa; Anmole, Gursev; Soto-Nava, Maribel; Escamilla-Gomez, Tania; Markle, Tristan; Jin, Steven W; Lee, Guinevere Q; Harrigan, P Richard; Bangsberg, David R; Martin, Jeffrey; Avila-Rios, Santiago; Reyes-Teran, Gustavo; Brockman, Mark A; Brumme, Zabrina L

    2017-02-01

    The HIV-1 accessory protein Vpu exhibits high inter- and intra- subtype genetic diversity that may influence Vpu function and possibly contribute to HIV-1 pathogenesis. However, scalable methods to evaluate genotype/phenotype relationships in natural Vpu sequences are limited, particularly those expressing the protein in CD4+ T-cells, the natural target of HIV-1 infection. A major impediment to assay scalability is the extensive genetic diversity within, and immediately upstream of, Vpu's initial 5' coding region, which has necessitated the design of oligonucleotide primers specific for each individual HIV-1 isolate (or subtype). To address this, we developed two universal forward primers, located in relatively conserved regions 38 and 90 bases upstream of Vpu, and a single universal reverse primer downstream of Vpu, which are predicted to cover the vast majority of global HIV-1 group M sequence diversity. We show that inclusion of up to 90 upstream bases of HIV-1 genomic sequence does not significantly influence in vitro Vpu expression or function when a Rev/Rev Response Element (RRE)-dependent expression system is used. We further assess the function of four diverse HIV-1 Vpu sequences, revealing reproducible and significant differences between them. Our approach represents a scalable option to measure the in vitro function of genetically diverse natural Vpu isolates in a CD4+ T-cell line. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. High level production of the recombinant gag24 protein from HIV-1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The gag24 gene of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1) was expressed under the control of the tryptophan promoter in Escherichia coli. The effect of several parameters on the production of gag24 was studied. The expression level achieved (25%) depended on the host strain and the induction conditions.

  6. Nup153 and Nup98 bind the HIV-1 core and contribute to the early steps of HIV-1 replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Nunzio, Francesca; Fricke, Thomas; Miccio, Annarita; Valle-Casuso, Jose Carlos; Perez, Patricio; Souque, Philippe; Rizzi, Ermanno; Severgnini, Marco; Mavilio, Fulvio; Charneau, Pierre; Diaz-Griffero, Felipe

    2013-05-25

    The early steps of HIV-1 replication involve the entry of HIV-1 into the nucleus, which is characterized by viral interactions with nuclear pore components. HIV-1 developed an evolutionary strategy to usurp the nuclear pore machinery and chromatin in order to integrate and efficiently express viral genes. In the current work, we studied the role of nucleoporins 153 and 98 (Nup153 and Nup98) in infection of human Jurkat lymphocytes by HIV-1. We showed that Nup153-depleted cells exhibited a defect in nuclear import, while depletion of Nup 98 caused a slight defect in HIV integration. To explore the biochemical viral determinants for the requirement of Nup153 and Nup98 during HIV-1 infection, we tested the ability of these nucleoporins to interact with HIV-1 cores. Our findings showed that both nucleoporins bind HIV-1 cores suggesting that this interaction is important for HIV-1 nuclear import and/or integration. Distribution analysis of integration sites in Nup153-depleted cells revealed a reduced tendency of HIV-1 to integrate in intragenic sites, which in part could account for the large infectivity defect observed in Nup153-depleted cells. Our work strongly supports a role for Nup153 in HIV-1 nuclear import and integration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Rhomboid protease AarA mediates quorum-sensing in Providencia stuartii by activating TatA of the twin-arginine translocase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Lindsay G; Strisovsky, Kvido; Clemmer, Katy M; Bhatt, Shantanu; Freeman, Matthew; Rather, Philip N

    2007-01-16

    The Providencia stuartii AarA protein is a member of the rhomboid family of intramembrane serine proteases and is required for the production of an unknown quorum-sensing molecule. In a screen to identify rhomboid-encoding genes from Proteus mirabilis, tatA was identified as a multicopy suppressor and restored extracellular signal production as well as complementing all other phenotypes of a Prov. stuartii aarA mutant. TatA is a component of the twin-arginine translocase (Tat) protein secretion pathway and likely forms a secretion pore. By contrast, the native tatA gene of Prov. stuartii in multicopy did not suppress an aarA mutation. We find that TatA in Prov. stuartii has a short N-terminal extension that was atypical of TatA proteins from most other bacteria. This extension was proteolytically removed by AarA both in vivo and in vitro. A Prov. stuartii TatA protein missing the first 7 aa restored the ability to rescue the aarA-dependent phenotypes. To verify that loss of the Tat system was responsible for the various phenotypes exhibited by an aarA mutant, a tatC-null allele was constructed. The tatC mutant exhibited the same phenotypes as an aarA mutant and was epistatic to aarA. These data provide a molecular explanation for the requirement of AarA in quorum-sensing and uncover a function for the Tat protein export system in the production of secreted signaling molecules. Finally, TatA represents a validated natural substrate for a prokaryotic rhomboid protease.

  8. Survival of the fittest: positive selection of CD4+ T cells expressing a membrane-bound fusion inhibitor following HIV-1 infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine Kimpel

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Although a variety of genetic strategies have been developed to inhibit HIV replication, few direct comparisons of the efficacy of these inhibitors have been carried out. Moreover, most studies have not examined whether genetic inhibitors are able to induce a survival advantage that results in an expansion of genetically-modified cells following HIV infection. We evaluated the efficacy of three leading genetic strategies to inhibit HIV replication: 1 an HIV-1 tat/rev-specific small hairpin (sh RNA; 2 an RNA antisense gene specific for the HIV-1 envelope; and 3 a viral entry inhibitor, maC46. In stably transduced cell lines selected such that >95% of cells expressed the genetic inhibitor, the RNA antisense envelope and viral entry inhibitor maC46 provided the strongest inhibition of HIV-1 replication. However, when mixed populations of transduced and untransduced cells were challenged with HIV-1, the maC46 fusion inhibitor resulted in highly efficient positive selection of transduced cells, an effect that was evident even in mixed populations containing as few as 1% maC46-expressing cells. The selective advantage of the maC46 fusion inhibitor was also observed in HIV-1-infected cultures of primary T lymphocytes as well as in HIV-1-infected humanized mice. These results demonstrate robust inhibition of HIV replication with the fusion inhibitor maC46 and the antisense Env inhibitor, and importantly, a survival advantage of cells expressing the maC46 fusion inhibitor both in vitro and in vivo. Evaluation of the ability of genetic inhibitors of HIV-1 replication to confer a survival advantage on genetically-modified cells provides unique information not provided by standard techniques that may be important in the in vivo efficacy of these genes.

  9. Reconstitution and characterization of antibody repertoires of HIV-1-infected "elite neutralizers".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zehua; Li, Jingjing; Hu, Xintao; Shao, Yiming; Zhang, Mei-Yun

    2015-06-01

    Around 3-5% HIV-1-infected individuals develop high titers of broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibodies (bnAbs) during chronic infection. However, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) isolated from such "elite neutralizers" do not, in most cases, depict the serum IgGs in neutralizing the virus. We hypothesize that HIV-1-specific antibodies in infected subjects may work in a population manner in containing the virus in vivo, and in vitro reconstituted antibody repertoires of "elite neutralizers" may mimic the sera in binding and neutralizing the virus. This study aims to investigate the antibody repertoires of three such "elite neutralizers" by reconstituting the immune antibody repertories in vitro followed by a comparative study of the recombinant library IgGs with the corresponding serum IgGs. We found that the recombinant library IgGs were much weaker than the serum IgGs in binding to envelope glycoproteins (Envs) and in neutralizing the virus and inhibiting Env-mediated cell-cell fusion. However, the sorted libraries composing of HIV-1-specific neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) in the three recombinant libraries exhibited comparable binding and inhibitory activities, as well as antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC), to the serum IgGs. The sorted library IgGs further showed neutralization profiles which are similar to those of the serum IgGs, but they were overall less potent than the serum IgGs. The sorted library IgGs and the serum IgGs bound weakly to the resurfaced Env gp120, RSC3, and did not bind to the CD4 binding site (CD4bs) knock-out mutant, ΔRSC3. Profiling with VRC01 binding site knock-out site mutants of gp120BaL indicates that, if there are any CD4bs bnAbs in these sera, they are more likely b12-like, but not VRC01-class bnAbs. Our results suggest that HIV-1-specific Ab-expressing B cells, especially potent nAb-expressing B cells may not be rich in the B cell repertoires of "elite neutralizers", but they may be highly active in producing nAbs in

  10. Exploring the functional interaction between POSH and ALIX and the relevance to HIV-1 release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Votteler, Jörg; Iavnilovitch, Elena; Fingrut, Orit; Shemesh, Vivian; Taglicht, Daniel; Erez, Omri; Sörgel, Stefan; Walther, Torsten; Bannert, Norbert; Schubert, Ulrich; Reiss, Yuval

    2009-04-24

    The ALG2-interacting protein X (ALIX)/AIP1 is an adaptor protein with multiple functions in intracellular protein trafficking that plays a central role in the biogenesis of enveloped viruses. The ubiquitin E3-ligase POSH (plenty of SH3) augments HIV-1 egress by facilitating the transport of Gag to the cell membrane. Recently, it was reported, that POSH interacts with ALIX and thereby enhances ALIX mediated phenotypes in Drosophila. In this study we identified ALIX as a POSH ubiquitination substrate in human cells: POSH induces the ubiquitination of ALIX that is modified on several lysine residues in vivo and in vitro. This ubiquitination does not destabilize ALIX, suggesting a regulatory function. As it is well established that ALIX rescues virus release of L-domain mutant HIV-1, HIV-1DeltaPTAP, we demonstrated that wild type POSH, but not an ubiquitination inactive RING finger mutant (POSHV14A), substantially enhances ALIX-mediated release of infectious virions derived from HIV-1DeltaPTAP L-domain mutant (YPXnL-dependent HIV-1). In further agreement with the idea of a cooperative function of POSH and ALIX, mutating the YPXnL-ALIX binding site in Gag completely abrogated augmentation of virus release by overexpression of POSH. However, the effect of the POSH-mediated ubiquitination appears to be auxiliary, but not necessary, as silencing of POSH by RNAi does not disturb ALIX-augmentation of virus release. Thus, the cumulative results identified ALIX as an ubiquitination substrate of POSH and indicate that POSH and ALIX cooperate to facilitate efficient virus release. However, while ALIX is obligatory for the release of YPXnL-dependent HIV-1, POSH, albeit rate-limiting, may be functionally interchangeable.

  11. Exploring the functional interaction between POSH and ALIX and the relevance to HIV-1 release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sörgel Stefan

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ALG2-interacting protein X (ALIX/AIP1 is an adaptor protein with multiple functions in intracellular protein trafficking that plays a central role in the biogenesis of enveloped viruses. The ubiquitin E3-ligase POSH (plenty of SH3 augments HIV-1 egress by facilitating the transport of Gag to the cell membrane. Recently, it was reported, that POSH interacts with ALIX and thereby enhances ALIX mediated phenotypes in Drosophila. Results In this study we identified ALIX as a POSH ubiquitination substrate in human cells: POSH induces the ubiquitination of ALIX that is modified on several lysine residues in vivo and in vitro. This ubiquitination does not destabilize ALIX, suggesting a regulatory function. As it is well established that ALIX rescues virus release of L-domain mutant HIV-1, HIV-1ΔPTAP, we demonstrated that wild type POSH, but not an ubiquitination inactive RING finger mutant (POSHV14A, substantially enhances ALIX-mediated release of infectious virions derived from HIV-1ΔPTAP L-domain mutant (YPXnL-dependent HIV-1. In further agreement with the idea of a cooperative function of POSH and ALIX, mutating the YPXnL-ALIX binding site in Gag completely abrogated augmentation of virus release by overexpression of POSH. However, the effect of the POSH-mediated ubiquitination appears to be auxiliary, but not necessary, as silencing of POSH by RNAi does not disturb ALIX-augmentation of virus release. Conclusion Thus, the cumulative results identified ALIX as an ubiquitination substrate of POSH and indicate that POSH and ALIX cooperate to facilitate efficient virus release. However, while ALIX is obligatory for the release of YPXnL-dependent HIV-1, POSH, albeit rate-limiting, may be functionally interchangeable.

  12. Species tropism of HIV-1 modulated by viral accessory proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Masako eNomaguchi; Naoya eDoi; Yui eMatsumoto; Yosuke eSakai; Sachi eFujiwara; Akio eAdachi

    2012-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is tropic and pathogenic only for humans, and does not replicate in macaque monkeys routinely used for experimental infections. This specially narrow host range (species tropism) has impeded much the progress of HIV-1/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) basic research. Extensive studies on the underlying mechanism have revealed that Vif, one of viral accessory proteins, is critical for the HIV-1 species tropism in addition to Gag-capsid protei...

  13. A Maraviroc-Resistant HIV-1 with Narrow Cross-Resistance to Other CCR5 Antagonists Depends on both N-Terminal and Extracellular Loop Domains of Drug-Bound CCR5▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilton, John C.; Wilen, Craig B.; Didigu, Chukwuka A.; Sinha, Rohini; Harrison, Jessamina E.; Agrawal-Gamse, Caroline; Henning, Elizabeth A.; Bushman, Frederick D.; Martin, Jeffrey N.; Deeks, Steven G.; Doms, Robert W.

    2010-01-01

    CCR5 antagonists inhibit HIV entry by binding to a coreceptor and inducing changes in the extracellular loops (ECLs) of CCR5. In this study, we analyzed viruses from 11 treatment-experienced patients who experienced virologic failure on treatment regimens containing the CCR5 antagonist maraviroc (MVC). Viruses from one patient developed high-level resistance to MVC during the course of treatment. Although resistance to one CCR5 antagonist is often associated with broad cross-resistance to other agents, these viruses remained sensitive to most other CCR5 antagonists, including vicriviroc and aplaviroc. MVC resistance was dependent upon mutations within the V3 loop of the viral envelope (Env) protein and was modulated by additional mutations in the V4 loop. Deep sequencing of pretreatment plasma viral RNA indicated that resistance appears to have occurred by evolution of drug-bound CCR5 use, despite the presence of viral sequences predictive of CXCR4 use. Envs obtained from this patient before and during MVC treatment were able to infect cells expressing very low CCR5 levels, indicating highly efficient use of a coreceptor. In contrast to previous reports in which CCR5 antagonist-resistant viruses interact predominantly with the N terminus of CCR5, these MVC-resistant Envs were also dependent upon the drug-modified ECLs of CCR5 for entry. Our results suggest a model of CCR5 cross-resistance whereby viruses that predominantly utilize the N terminus are broadly cross-resistant to multiple CCR5 antagonists, whereas viruses that require both the N terminus and antagonist-specific ECL changes demonstrate a narrow cross-resistance profile. PMID:20702642

  14. HIV-1 Vpr Accelerates Viral Replication during Acute Infection by Exploitation of Proliferating CD4+ T Cells In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kei; Misawa, Naoko; Iwami, Shingo; Satou, Yorifumi; Matsuoka, Masao; Ishizaka, Yukihito; Ito, Mamoru; Aihara, Kazuyuki; An, Dong Sung; Koyanagi, Yoshio

    2013-01-01

    The precise role of viral protein R (Vpr), an HIV-1-encoded protein, during HIV-1 infection and its contribution to the development of AIDS remain unclear. Previous reports have shown that Vpr has the ability to cause G2 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in HIV-1-infected cells in vitro. In addition, vpr is highly conserved in transmitted/founder HIV-1s and in all primate lentiviruses, which are evolutionarily related to HIV-1. Although these findings suggest an important role of Vpr in HIV-1 pathogenesis, its direct evidence in vivo has not been shown. Here, by using a human hematopoietic stem cell-transplanted humanized mouse model, we demonstrated that Vpr causes G2 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis predominantly in proliferating CCR5+ CD4+ T cells, which mainly consist of regulatory CD4+ T cells (Tregs), resulting in Treg depletion and enhanced virus production during acute infection. The Vpr-dependent enhancement of virus replication and Treg depletion is observed in CCR5-tropic but not CXCR4-tropic HIV-1-infected mice, suggesting that these effects are dependent on the coreceptor usage by HIV-1. Immune activation was observed in CCR5-tropic wild-type but not in vpr-deficient HIV-1-infected humanized mice. When humanized mice were treated with denileukin diftitox (DD), to deplete Tregs, DD-treated humanized mice showed massive activation/proliferation of memory T cells compared to the untreated group. This activation/proliferation enhanced CCR5 expression in memory CD4+ T cells and rendered them more susceptible to CCR5-tropic wild-type HIV-1 infection than to vpr-deficient virus. Taken together, these results suggest that Vpr takes advantage of proliferating CCR5+ CD4+ T cells for enhancing viremia of CCR5-tropic HIV-1. Because Tregs exist in a higher cycling state than other T cell subsets, Tregs appear to be more vulnerable to exploitation by Vpr during acute HIV-1 infection. PMID:24339781

  15. Reverse transcription of the HIV-1 pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basavapathruni, Aravind; Anderson, Karen S

    2007-12-01

    The HIV/AIDS pandemic has existed for >25 years. Extensive work globally has provided avenues to combat viral infection, but the disease continues to rage on in the human population and infected approximately 4 million people in 2006 alone. In this review, we provide a brief history of HIV/AIDS, followed by analysis of one therapeutic target of HIV-1: its reverse transcriptase (RT). We discuss the biochemical characterization of RT in order to place emphasis on possible avenues of inhibition, which now includes both nucleoside and non-nucleoside modalities. Therapies against RT remain a cornerstone of anti-HIV treatment, but the virus eventually resists inhibition through the selection of drug-resistant RT mutations. Current inhibitors and associated resistance are discussed, with the hopes that new therapeutics can be developed against RT.

  16. TIM-family proteins inhibit HIV-1 release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Minghua; Ablan, Sherimay D; Miao, Chunhui; Zheng, Yi-Min; Fuller, Matthew S; Rennert, Paul D; Maury, Wendy; Johnson, Marc C; Freed, Eric O; Liu, Shan-Lu

    2014-09-02

    Accumulating evidence indicates that T-cell immunoglobulin (Ig) and mucin domain (TIM) proteins play critical roles in viral infections. Herein, we report that the TIM-family proteins strongly inhibit HIV-1 release, resulting in diminished viral production and replication. Expression of TIM-1 causes HIV-1 Gag and mature viral particles to accumulate on the plasma membrane. Mutation of the phosphatidylserine (PS) binding sites of TIM-1 abolishes its ability to block HIV-1 release. TIM-1, but to a much lesser extent PS-binding deficient mutants, induces PS flipping onto the cell surface; TIM-1 is also found to be incorporated into HIV-1 virions. Importantly, TIM-1 inhibits HIV-1 replication in CD4-positive Jurkat cells, despite its capability of up-regulating CD4 and promoting HIV-1 entry. In addition to TIM-1, TIM-3 and TIM-4 also block the release of HIV-1, as well as that of murine leukemia virus (MLV) and Ebola virus (EBOV); knockdown of TIM-3 in differentiated monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) enhances HIV-1 production. The inhibitory effects of TIM-family proteins on virus release are extended to other PS receptors, such as Axl and RAGE. Overall, our study uncovers a novel ability of TIM-family proteins to block the release of HIV-1 and other viruses by interaction with virion- and cell-associated PS. Our work provides new insights into a virus-cell interaction that is mediated by TIMs and PS receptors.

  17. RNA Interference Therapies for an HIV-1 Functional Cure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarborough, Robert J; Gatignol, Anne

    2017-12-27

    HIV-1 drug therapies can prevent disease progression but cannot eliminate HIV-1 viruses from an infected individual. While there is hope that elimination of HIV-1 can be achieved, several approaches to reach a functional cure (control of HIV-1 replication in the absence of drug therapy) are also under investigation. One of these approaches is the transplant of HIV-1 resistant cells expressing anti-HIV-1 RNAs, proteins or peptides. Small RNAs that use RNA interference pathways to target HIV-1 replication have emerged as competitive candidates for cell transplant therapy and have been included in all gene combinations that have so far entered clinical trials. Here, we review RNA interference pathways in mammalian cells and the design of therapeutic small RNAs that use these pathways to target pathogenic RNA sequences. Studies that have been performed to identify anti-HIV-1 RNA interference therapeutics are also reviewed and perspectives on their use in combination gene therapy to functionally cure HIV-1 infection are provided.

  18. Chronic HIV-1 infection frequently fails to protect against superinfection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Piantadosi

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Reports of HIV-1 superinfection (re-infection have demonstrated that the immune response generated against one strain of HIV-1 does not always protect against other strains. However, studies to determine the incidence of HIV-1 superinfection have yielded conflicting results. Furthermore, few studies have attempted to identify superinfection cases occurring more than a year after initial infection, a time when HIV-1-specific immune responses would be most likely to have developed. We screened a cohort of high-risk Kenyan women for HIV-1 superinfection by comparing partial gag and envelope sequences over a 5-y period beginning at primary infection. Among 36 individuals, we detected seven cases of superinfection, including cases in which both viruses belonged to the same HIV-1 subtype, subtype A. In five of these cases, the superinfecting strain was detected in only one of the two genome regions examined, suggesting that recombination frequently occurs following HIV-1 superinfection. In addition, we found that superinfection occurred throughout the course of the first infection: during acute infection in two cases, between 1-2 y after infection in three cases, and as late as 5 y after infection in two cases. Our results indicate that superinfection commonly occurs after the immune response against the initial infection has had time to develop and mature. Implications from HIV-1 superinfection cases, in which natural re-exposure leads to re-infection, will need to be considered in developing strategies for eliciting protective immunity to HIV-1.

  19. Progress in HIV-1 antibody research using humanized mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruell, Henning; Klein, Florian

    2017-05-01

    Recent discoveries of highly potent broadly HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies provide new opportunities to successfully prevent, treat, and potentially cure HIV-1 infection. To test their activity in vivo, humanized mice have been shown to be a powerful model and were used to investigate antibody-mediated prevention and therapy approaches. In this review, we will summarize recent findings in humanized mice that have informed on the potential use of broadly neutralizing antibodies targeting HIV-1 in humans. Humanized mouse models have been used to demonstrate the antiviral efficacy of HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies in vivo. It has been shown that a combination of antibodies can suppress viremia below the limit of detection and targets the HIV-1 reservoir. Moreover, passively administered antibodies and vector-mediated antibody production protect humanized mice from HIV-1 infection. Finally, immunization studies in knock-in/transgenic mice carrying human antibody gene segments have informed on potential vaccination strategies to induce broad and potent HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies. Humanized mouse models are of great value for HIV-1 research. They represent a highly versatile in vivo system to investigate novel approaches for HIV-1 prevention and therapy and expedite the critical translation from basic findings to clinical application.

  20. A Conserved GPG-Motif in the HIV-1 Nef Core Is Required for Principal Nef-Activities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Martínez-Bonet

    Full Text Available To find out new determinants required for Nef activity we performed a functional alanine scanning analysis along a discrete but highly conserved region at the core of HIV-1 Nef. We identified the GPG-motif, located at the 121-137 region of HIV-1 NL4.3 Nef, as a novel protein signature strictly required for the p56Lck dependent Nef-induced CD4-downregulation in T-cells. Since the Nef-GPG motif was dispensable for CD4-downregulation in HeLa-CD4 cells, Nef/AP-1 interaction and Nef-dependent effects on Tf-R trafficking, the observed effects on CD4 downregulation cannot be attributed to structure constraints or to alterations on general protein trafficking. Besides, we found that the GPG-motif was also required for Nef-dependent inhibition of ring actin re-organization upon TCR triggering and MHCI downregulation, suggesting that the GPG-motif could actively cooperate with the Nef PxxP motif for these HIV-1 Nef-related effects. Finally, we observed that the Nef-GPG motif was required for optimal infectivity of those viruses produced in T-cells. According to these findings, we propose the conserved GPG-motif in HIV-1 Nef as functional region required for HIV-1 infectivity and therefore with a potential interest for the interference of Nef activity during HIV-1 infection.

  1. Characteristics of HIV-1 Serodiscordant Couples Enrolled in a Clinical Trial of Antiretroviral Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis for HIV-1 Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Mujugira; Baeten, Jared M.; Deborah Donnell; Patrick Ndase; Mugo, Nelly R.; Linda Barnes; Campbell, James D.; Jonathan Wangisi; Tappero, Jordan W.; Elizabeth Bukusi; Cohen, Craig R.; Elly Katabira; Allan Ronald; Elioda Tumwesigye; Edwin Were

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Stable heterosexual HIV-1 serodiscordant couples in Africa have high HIV-1 transmission rates and are a critical population for evaluation of new HIV-1 prevention strategies. The Partners PrEP Study is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of tenofovir and emtricitabine-tenofovir pre-exposure prophylaxis to decrease HIV-1 acquisition within heterosexual HIV-1 serodiscordant couples. We describe the trial design and characteristics of the study cohort. Methods HIV-1...

  2. The NS3 protein of rice hoja blanca virus complements the RNAi suppressor function of HIV-1 Tat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schnettler, Esther; de Vries, Walter; Hemmes, Hans; Haasnoot, Joost; Kormelink, Richard; Goldbach, Rob; Berkhout, Ben

    2009-01-01

    The question of whether RNA interference (RNAi) acts as an antiviral mechanism in mammalian cells remains controversial. The antiviral interferon (IFN) response cannot easily be distinguished from a possible antiviral RNAi pathway owing to the involvement of double-stranded RNA ( dsRNA) as a common

  3. The NS3 protein of rice hoja blanca virus complements the RNAi suppressor function of HIV-1 Tat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schnettler, E.; Vries, de W.; Hemmes, J.C.; Haasnoot, J.; Kormelink, R.J.M.; Goldbach, R.W.; Berkhout, B.

    2009-01-01

    The question of whether RNA interference (RNAi) acts as an antiviral mechanism in mammalian cells remains controversial. The antiviral interferon (IFN) response cannot easily be distinguished from a possible antiviral RNAi pathway owing to the involvement of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) as a common

  4. Iron(II) supramolecular helicates interfere with the HIV-1 Tat-TAR RNA interaction critical for viral replication

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malina, Jaroslav; Hannon, Michael J.; Brabec, Viktor

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 6, JUL2016 (2016) ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-03517S Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : DINUCLEAR RUTHENIUM(II) COMPLEX * METALLOSUPRAMOLECULAR CYLINDERS * BIOLOGICAL EVALUATION Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016

  5. Nup153 and Nup98 bind the HIV-1 core and contribute to the early steps of HIV-1 replication

    OpenAIRE

    Di Nunzio, Francesca; Fricke, Thomas; Miccio, Annarita; Valle-Casuso, Jose Carlos; Perez, Patricio; Souque, Philippe; Rizzi, Ermanno; Severgnini, Marco; Mavilio, Fulvio; Charneau, Pierre; Diaz-Griffero, Felipe

    2013-01-01

    The early steps of HIV-1 replication involve the entry of HIV-1 into the nucleus, which is characterized by viral interactions with nuclear pore components. HIV-1 developed an evolutionary strategy to usurp the nuclear pore machinery and chromatin in order to integrate and efficiently express viral genes. In the current work, we studied the role of nucleoporins 153 and 98 (Nup153 and Nup98) in infection of human Jurkat lymphocytes by HIV-1. We showed that Nup153-depleted cells exhibited a def...

  6. Mice transgenic for CD4-specific human CD4, CCR5 and cyclin T1 expression: a new model for investigating HIV-1 transmission and treatment efficacy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kieran Seay

    Full Text Available Mice cannot be used to evaluate HIV-1 therapeutics and vaccines because they are not infectible by HIV-1 due to structural differences between several human and mouse proteins required for HIV-1 entry and replication including CD4, CCR5 and cyclin T1. We overcame this limitation by constructing mice with CD4 enhancer/promoter-regulated human CD4, CCR5 and cyclin T1 genes integrated as tightly linked transgenes (hCD4/R5/cT1 mice promoting their efficient co-transmission and enabling the murine CD4-expressing cells to support HIV-1 entry and Tat-mediated LTR transcription. All of the hCD4/R5/cT1 mice developed disseminated infection of tissues that included the spleen, small intestine, lymph nodes and lungs after intravenous injection with an HIV-1 infectious molecular clone (HIV-IMC expressing Renilla reniformis luciferase (LucR. Furthermore, localized infection of cervical-vaginal mucosal leukocytes developed after intravaginal inoculation of hCD4/R5/cT1 mice with the LucR-expressing HIV-IMC. hCD4/R5/cT1 mice reproducibly developed in vivo infection after inoculation with LucR-expressing HIV-IMC which could be bioluminescently quantified and visualized with a high sensitivity and specificity which enabled them to be used to evaluate the efficacy of HIV-1 therapeutics. Treatment with highly active anti-retroviral therapy or one dose of VRC01, a broadly neutralizing anti-HIV-1 antibody, almost completed inhibited acute systemic HIV-1 infection of the hCD4/R5/cT1 mice. hCD4/R5/cT1 mice could also be used to evaluate the capacity of therapies delivered by gene therapy to inhibit in vivo HIV infection. VRC01 secreted in vivo by primary B cells transduced with a VRC01-encoding lentivirus transplanted into hCD4/R5/cT1 mice markedly inhibited infection after intravenous challenge with LucR-expressing HIV-IMC. The reproducible infection of CD4/R5/cT1 mice with LucR-expressing HIV-IMC after intravenous or mucosal inoculation combined with the availability

  7. Characterization of two candidate genes, NCoA3 and IRF8, potentially involved in the control of HIV-1 latency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gumez Audrey

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The persistence of latent HIV-1 reservoirs is the principal barrier preventing the eradication of HIV-1 infection in patients by current antiretroviral therapy. It is thus crucial to understand the molecular mechanisms involved in the establishment, maintenance and reactivation of HIV-1 latency. Since chromatin remodeling has been implicated in the transcriptional reactivation of the HIV-1 promoter, we assessed the role of the histone deacetylase inhibitor sodium butyrate (NaB on two HIV-1 latently infected cell lines (U1 and ACH-2 gene expression. Results Analysis of microarrays data led us to select two candidate genes: NCoA3 (Nuclear Receptor Coactivator 3, a nuclear receptor coactivator and IRF8 (Interferon Regulatory Factor 8, an interferon regulatory factor. NCoA3 gene expression is upregulated following NaB treatment of latently infected cells whereas IRF8 gene expression is strongly downregulated in the promonocytic cell line following NaB treatment. Their differential expressions were confirmed at the transcriptional and translational levels. Moreover, NCoA3 gene expression was also upregulated after treatment of U1 and ACH-2 cells with phorbol myristyl acetate (PMA but not trichostatin A (TSA and after treatment with NaB of two others HIV-1 latently infected cell lines (OM10.1 and J1.1. IRF8 gene is only expressed in U1 cells and was also downregulated after treatment with PMA or TSA. Functional analyses confirmed that NCoA3 synergizes with Tat to enhance HIV-1 promoter transcription and that IRF8 represses the IRF1-mediated activation through the HIV-1 promoter Interferon-stimulated response element (ISRE. Conclusion These results led us to postulate that NCoA3 could be involved in the transcriptional reactivation of the HIV-1 promoter from latency and that IRF8 may contribute to the maintenance of the latent state in the promonocytic cell line. Implication of these factors in the maintenance or reactivation of the

  8. Extracellular ATP induces the rapid release of HIV-1 from virus containing compartments of human macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziano, Francesca; Desdouits, Marion; Garzetti, Livia; Podini, Paola; Alfano, Massimo; Rubartelli, Anna; Furlan, Roberto; Benaroch, Philippe; Poli, Guido

    2015-06-23

    HIV type 1 (HIV-1) infects CD4(+) T lymphocytes and tissue macrophages. Infected macrophages differ from T cells in terms of decreased to absent cytopathicity and for active accumulation of new progeny HIV-1 virions in virus-containing compartments (VCC). For these reasons, infected macrophages are believed to act as "Trojan horses" carrying infectious particles to be released on cell necrosis or functional stimulation. Here we explored the hypothesis that extracellular ATP (eATP) could represent a microenvironmental signal potentially affecting virion release from VCC of infected macrophages. Indeed, eATP triggered the rapid release of infectious HIV-1 from primary human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) acutely infected with the CCR5-dependent HIV-1 strain. A similar phenomenon was observed in chronically infected promonocytic U1 cells differentiated to macrophage-like cells (D-U1) by costimulation with phorbol esters and urokinase-type plasminogen activator. Worthy of note, eATP did not cause necrotic, apoptotic, or pyroptotic cell death, and its effect on HIV-1 release was suppressed by Imipramine (an antidepressant agent known to inhibit microvesicle formation by interfering with membrane-associated acid sphingomyelinase). Virion release was not triggered by oxidized ATP, whereas the effect of eATP was inhibited by a specific inhibitor of the P2X7 receptor (P2X7R). Thus, eATP triggered the discharge of virions actively accumulating in VCC of infected macrophages via interaction with the P2X7R in the absence of significant cytopathicity. These findings suggest that the microvesicle pathway and P2X7R could represent exploitable targets for interfering with the VCC-associated reservoir of infectious HIV-1 virions in tissue macrophages.

  9. LILRB2 interaction with HLA class I correlates with control of HIV-1 infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arman A Bashirova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Natural progression of HIV-1 infection depends on genetic variation in the human major histocompatibility complex (MHC class I locus, and the CD8+ T cell response is thought to be a primary mechanism of this effect. However, polymorphism within the MHC may also alter innate immune activity against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 by changing interactions of human leukocyte antigen (HLA class I molecules with leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptors (LILR, a group of immunoregulatory receptors mainly expressed on myelomonocytic cells including dendritic cells (DCs. We used previously characterized HLA allotype-specific binding capacities of LILRB1 and LILRB2 as well as data from a large cohort of HIV-1-infected individuals (N = 5126 to test whether LILR-HLA class I interactions influence viral load in HIV-1 infection. Our analyses in persons of European descent, the largest ethnic group examined, show that the effect of HLA-B alleles on HIV-1 control correlates with the binding strength between corresponding HLA-B allotypes and LILRB2 (p = 10(-2. Moreover, overall binding strength of LILRB2 to classical HLA class I allotypes, defined by the HLA-A/B/C genotypes in each patient, positively associates with viral replication in the absence of therapy in patients of both European (p = 10(-11-10(-9 and African (p = 10(-5-10(-3 descent. This effect appears to be driven by variations in LILRB2 binding affinities to HLA-B and is independent of individual class I allelic effects that are not related to the LILRB2 function. Correspondingly, in vitro experiments suggest that strong LILRB2-HLA binding negatively affects antigen-presenting properties of DCs. Thus, we propose an impact of LILRB2 on HIV-1 disease outcomes through altered regulation of DCs by LILRB2-HLA engagement.

  10. KIF5B and Nup358 Cooperatively Mediate the Nuclear Import of HIV-1 during Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adarsh Dharan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Following envelope mediated fusion, the HIV-1 core is released into the cytoplasm of the target cell and undergoes a series of trafficking and replicative steps that result in the nuclear import of the viral genome, which ultimately leads to the integration of the proviral DNA into the host cell genome. Previous studies have found that disruption of microtubules, or depletion of dynein or kinesin motors, perturb the normal uncoating and trafficking of the viral genome. Here, we show that the Kinesin-1 motor, KIF5B, induces a relocalization of the nuclear pore component Nup358 into the cytoplasm during HIV-1 infection. This relocalization of NUP358 is dependent on HIV-1 capsid, and NUP358 directly associates with viral cores following cytoplasmic translocation. This interaction between NUP358 and the HIV-1 core is dependent on multiple capsid binding surfaces, as this association is not observed following infection with capsid mutants in which a conserved hydrophobic binding pocket (N74D or the cyclophilin A binding loop (P90A is disrupted. KIF5B knockdown also prevents the nuclear entry and infection by HIV-1, but does not exert a similar effect on the N74D or P90A capsid mutants which do not rely on Nup358 for nuclear import. Finally, we observe that the relocalization of Nup358 in response to CA is dependent on cleavage protein and polyadenylation factor 6 (CPSF6, but independent of cyclophilin A. Collectively, these observations identify a previously unappreciated role for KIF5B in mediating the Nup358 dependent nuclear import of the viral genome during infection.

  11. Membrane topology analysis of HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp41

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Dan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The gp41 subunit of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env has been widely regarded as a type I transmembrane protein with a single membrane-spanning domain (MSD. An alternative topology model suggested multiple MSDs. The major discrepancy between the two models is that the cytoplasmic Kennedy sequence in the single MSD model is assigned as the extracellular loop accessible to neutralizing antibodies in the other model. We examined the membrane topology of the gp41 subunit in both prokaryotic and mammalian systems. We attached topological markers to the C-termini of serially truncated gp41. In the prokaryotic system, we utilized a green fluorescent protein (GFP that is only active in the cytoplasm. The tag protein (HaloTag and a membrane-impermeable ligand specific to HaloTag was used in the mammalian system. Results In the absence of membrane fusion, both the prokaryotic and mammalian systems (293FT cells supported the single MSD model. In the presence of membrane fusion in mammalian cells (293CD4 cells, the data obtained seem to support the multiple MSD model. However, the region predicted to be a potential MSD is the highly hydrophilic Kennedy sequence and is least likely to become a MSD based on several algorithms. Further analysis revealed the induction of membrane permeability during membrane fusion, allowing the membrane-impermeable ligand and antibodies to cross the membrane. Therefore, we cannot completely rule out the possible artifacts. Addition of membrane fusion inhibitors or alterations of the MSD sequence decreased the induction of membrane permeability. Conclusions It is likely that a single MSD model for HIV-1 gp41 holds true even in the presence of membrane fusion. The degree of the augmentation of membrane permeability we observed was dependent on the membrane fusion and sequence of the MSD.

  12. HIV-1 Activates T Cell Signaling Independently of Antigen to Drive Viral Spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Len, Alice C L; Starling, Shimona; Shivkumar, Maitreyi; Jolly, Clare

    2017-01-24

    HIV-1 spreads between CD4 T cells most efficiently through virus-induced cell-cell contacts. To test whether this process potentiates viral spread by activating signaling pathways, we developed an approach to analyze the phosphoproteome in infected and uninfected mixed-population T cells using differential metabolic labeling and mass spectrometry. We discovered HIV-1-induced activation of signaling networks during viral spread encompassing over 200 cellular proteins. Strikingly, pathways downstream of the T cell receptor were the most significantly activated, despite the absence of canonical antigen-dependent stimulation. The importance of this pathway was demonstrated by the depletion of proteins, and we show that HIV-1 Env-mediated cell-cell contact, the T cell receptor, and the Src kinase Lck were essential for signaling-dependent enhancement of viral dissemination. This study demonstrates that manipulation of signaling at immune cell contacts by HIV-1 is essential for promoting virus replication and defines a paradigm for antigen-independent T cell signaling. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Antiviral Therapy by HIV-1 Broadly Neutralizing and Inhibitory Antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqing Zhang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 infection causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS, a global epidemic for more than three decades. HIV-1 replication is primarily controlled through antiretroviral therapy (ART but this treatment does not cure HIV-1 infection. Furthermore, there is increasing viral resistance to ART, and side effects associated with long-term therapy. Consequently, there is a need of alternative candidates for HIV-1 prevention and therapy. Recent advances have discovered multiple broadly neutralizing antibodies against HIV-1. In this review, we describe the key epitopes on the HIV-1 Env protein and the reciprocal broadly neutralizing antibodies, and discuss the ongoing clinical trials of broadly neutralizing and inhibitory antibody therapy as well as antibody combinations, bispecific antibodies, and methods that improve therapeutic efficacy by combining broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs with latency reversing agents. Compared with ART, HIV-1 therapeutics that incorporate these broadly neutralizing and inhibitory antibodies offer the advantage of decreasing virus load and clearing infected cells, which is a promising prospect in HIV-1 prevention and treatment.

  14. HIV-1, how llamas help us fight the AIDS pandemic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strokappe, N.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314411534

    2013-01-01

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1) is one of the major health problems worldwide and has been for over thirty years. Most (67%) of the people infected with HIV-1 are living in sub-Saharan Africa. Here, the access to treatments is limited and most women are not in a position to protect

  15. Vaginalmycosis and HIV-1 infection in Kaduna, Nigeria. | Eni ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vaginal mycosis and HIV-1 infection are common health problems in females. These infections cause high mortality, morbidity and reproductive health disorders in females. The study is to investigate to what extent these infections are prevalent in this centre. 300 non- pregnant females who tested positive with HIV-1 ...

  16. The origin and emergence of an HIV-1 epidemic:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, Christian Anders Wathne; Audelin, Anne M.; Helleberg, Marie

    2014-01-01

    To describe, at patient-level detail, the determining events and factors involved in the development of a country's HIV-1 epidemic.......To describe, at patient-level detail, the determining events and factors involved in the development of a country's HIV-1 epidemic....

  17. Telomeres and HIV-1 infection: in search of exhaustion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolthers, K. C.; Miedema, F.

    1998-01-01

    Telomere length analysis could be helpful in determining if exhaustion and replicative senescence are involved in HIV-1 pathogenesis. Evidence that CD8+ T cells have shorter telomeres may point towards an increased turnover of CD8+ T cells and exhaustion of the CD8+ T-cell responses in HIV-1

  18. Schistosomiasis and HIV-1 infection in rural Zimbabwe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallestrup, Per; Zinyama, Rutendo; Gomo, Exnevia

    2005-01-01

    Stunted development and reduced fecundity of Schistosoma parasites in immunodeficient mice and the impaired ability of human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1)-infected humans to excrete schistosome eggs have been described. This study explores the effect that HIV-1-associated immunodeficiency has ...

  19. Development of aptamer based HIV-1 entry inhibitor prophylactic drugs

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    London, G

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available AIDS remains a major public health problem globally, especially in Southern Africa where over 6.4 million people are infected by the most prevalent HIV-1 subtype C. To help stop the spread of HIV-1 subtype C, we isolated 2ʹ-F-RNA aptamers against gp...

  20. Dendritic Cell Immune Responses in HIV-1 Controllers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Gayo, Enrique; Yu, Xu G

    2017-02-01

    Robust HIV-1-specific CD8 T cell responses are currently regarded as the main correlate of immune defense in rare individuals who achieve natural, drug-free control of HIV-1; however, the mechanisms that support evolution of such powerful immune responses are not well understood. Dendritic cells (DCs) are specialized innate immune cells critical for immune recognition, immune regulation, and immune induction, but their possible contribution to HIV-1 immune defense in controllers remains ill-defined. Recent studies suggest that myeloid DCs from controllers have improved abilities to recognize HIV-1 through cytoplasmic immune sensors, resulting in more potent, cell-intrinsic type I interferon secretion in response to viral infection. This innate immune response may facilitate DC-mediated induction of highly potent antiviral HIV-1-specific T cells. Moreover, protective HLA class I isotypes restricting HIV-1-specific CD8 T cells may influence DC function through specific interactions with innate myelomonocytic MHC class I receptors from the leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor family. Bi-directional interactions between dendritic cells and HIV-1-specific T cells may contribute to natural HIV-1 immune control, highlighting the importance of a fine-tuned interplay between innate and adaptive immune activities for effective antiviral immune defense.

  1. Raltegravir with optimized background therapy for resistant HIV-1 infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steigbigel, Roy T; Cooper, David A; Kumar, Princy N

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Raltegravir (MK-0518) is an inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) integrase active against HIV-1 susceptible or resistant to older antiretroviral drugs. METHODS: We conducted two identical trials in different geographic regions to evaluate the safety and efficacy...

  2. Antibody function in neutralization and protection against HIV-1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hessell, A.J.

    2009-01-01

    The ability to induce neutralizing antibodies is generally thought to be of great importance for vaccine efficacy. In HIV-1 research this quality has been elusive as the HIV-1 virus has evolved multiple mechanisms to evade neutralizing antibodies. This thesis traces studies with four broadly

  3. HTLV-1 Tax activates HIV-1 transcription in latency models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geddes, Victor Emmanuel Viana; José, Diego Pandeló; Leal, Fabio E; Nixon, Douglas F; Tanuri, Amilcar; Aguiar, Renato Santana

    2017-04-01

    HIV-1 latency is a major obstacle to HIV-1 eradication. Coinfection with HTLV-1 has been associated with faster progression to AIDS. HTLV-1 encodes the transactivator Tax which can activate both HTLV-1 and HIV-1 transcription. Here, we demonstrate that Tax activates HIV transcription in latent CD4(+) T cells. Tax promotes the activation of P-TEFb, releasing CDK9 and Cyclin T1 from inactive forms, promoting transcription elongation and reactivation of latent HIV-1. Tax mutants lacking interaction with the HIV-1-LTR promoter were not able to activate P-TEFb, with no subsequent activation of latent HIV. In HIV-infected primary resting CD4(+) T cells, Tax-1 reactivated HIV-1 transcription up to five fold, confirming these findings in an ex vivo latency model. Finally, our results confirms that HTLV-1/Tax hijacks cellular partners, promoting HIV-1 transcription, and this interaction should be further investigated in HIV-1 latency studies in patients with HIV/HTLV-1 co-infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Molecular Mechanisms in Activation of Latent HIV-1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Rafati (Haleh)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Finding a cure for the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is extremely challenging. Development of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART), transformed HIV-1 infection from an acute syndrome into chronic disease. Although using HAART results in

  5. Neutralizing antibodies in slowly progressing HIV-1 infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schønning, Kristian; Nielsen, C; Iversen, Johan

    1995-01-01

    Ten asymptomatic individuals who had experienced only limited CD4+ cell loss after prolonged infection with HIV-1 were studied. These individuals had a mean CD4+ cell count of 674 x 10(6) cells/L and a mean duration of infection of 8.5 years. Also included were 10 asymptomatic HIV-1-infected...

  6. The role of polymorphonuclear neutrophils during HIV-1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaseen, Mahmoud Mohammad; Abuharfeil, Nizar Mohammad; Yaseen, Mohammad Mahmoud; Shabsoug, Barakat Mohammad

    2018-01-01

    It is well-recognized that human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) mainly targets CD4+ T cells and macrophages. Nonetheless, during the past three decades, a huge number of studies have reported that HIV-1 can directly or indirectly target other cellular components of the immune system including CD8+ T cells, B cells, dendritic cells, natural killer cells, and polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs), among others. PMNs are the most abundant leukocytes in the human circulation, and are known to play principal roles in the elimination of invading pathogens, regulating different immune responses, healing of injured tissues, and maintaining mucosal homeostasis. Until recently, little was known about the impact of HIV-1 infection on PMNs as well as the impact of PMNs on HIV-1 disease progression. This is because early studies focused on neutropenia and recurrent microbial infections, particularly, during advanced disease. However, recent studies have extended the investigation area to cover new aspects of the interactions between HIV-1 and PMNs. This review aims to summarize these advances and address the impact of HIV-1 infection on PMNs as well as the impact of PMNs on HIV-1 disease progression to better understand the pathophysiology of HIV-1 infection.

  7. Probing the sequence space available for HIV-1 evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Brake, Olivier; Von Eije, Karin J.; Berkhout, Ben

    2008-01-01

    We designed a novel experimental approach to probe the sequence space available for HIV-1 evolution. Selective pressure was put on conserved HIV-1 genomic sequences by means of RNA interference (RNAi). Virus escape was monitored in many parallel cultures, and we scored the mutations selected in the

  8. Daily Acyclovir Delays HIV-1 Disease Progression Among HIV-1/HSV-2 Dually-Infected Persons: A Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingappa, Jairam R.; Baeten, Jared M.; Wald, Anna; Hughes, James P.; Thomas, Katherine K.; Mujugira, Andrew; Mugo, Nelly; Bukusi, Elizabeth A.; Cohen, Craig R.; Katabira, Elly; Ronald, Allan; Kiarie, James; Farquhar, Carey; Stewart, Grace John; Makhema, Joseph; Essex, Myron; Were, Edwin; Fife, Kenneth H.; de Bruyn, Guy; Gray, Glenda E.; McIntyre, James; Manongi, Rachel; Kapiga, Saidi; Coetzee, David; Allen, Susan; Inambao, Mubiana; Kayitenkore, Kayitesi; Karita, Etienne; Kanweka, William; Delany, Sinead; Rees, Helen; Vwalika, Bellington; Magaret, Amalia; Wang, Richard S.; Kidoguchi, Lara; Barnes, Linda; Ridzon, Renee; Corey, Lawrence; Celum, Connie

    2010-01-01

    Background Well-tolerated medications that slow HIV-1 disease progression and delay initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) are needed. Most HIV-1-infected persons are dually-infected with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2). Daily HSV-2 suppression reduces plasma HIV-1 levels, but whether HSV-2 suppression delays HIV-1 disease progression is unknown. Methods Within a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of HSV-2 suppressive therapy (acyclovir 400 mg orally bid) to decrease HIV-1 transmission, 3381 HSV-2/HIV-1 dually-infected heterosexual Africans who at enrollment had CD4 counts ≥250 cells/mm3 and were not taking ART were followed for up to 24 months. We evaluated the effect of acyclovir on HIV-1 disease progressio