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Sample records for hiv type 1-positive

  1. Influenza vaccination of HIV-1-positive and HIV-1-negative former intravenous drug users.

    Amendola, A; Boschini, A; Colzani, D; Anselmi, G; Oltolina, A; Zucconi, R; Begnini, M; Besana, S; Tanzi, E; Zanetti, A R

    2001-12-01

    The immunogenicity of an anti-influenza vaccine was assessed in 409 former intravenous drug user volunteers and its effect on the levels of HIV-1 RNA, proviral DNA and on CD4+ lymphocyte counts in a subset HIV-1-positive subjects was measured. HIV-1-positive individuals (n = 72) were divided into three groups on the basis of their CD4+ lymphocyte counts, while the 337 HIV-1-negative participants were allocated into group four. Haemagglutination inhibiting (HI) responses varied from 45.8 to 70% in the HIV-1-positive subjects and were significantly higher in group four (80.7% responses to the H1N1 strain, 81.6% to the H3N2 strain, and 83% to the B strain). The percentage of subjects with HI protective antibody titres (> or = 1:40) increased significantly after vaccination, especially in HIV-1 uninfected subjects. Immunization caused no significant changes in CD4+ counts and in neither plasma HIV-1 RNA nor proviral DNA levels. Therefore, vaccination against influenza may benefit persons infected by HIV-1. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. No evidence of XMRV or related retroviruses in a London HIV-1-positive patient cohort.

    Eleanor R Gray

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have implicated a recently discovered gammaretrovirus, XMRV (Xenotropic murine leukaemia virus-related virus, in chronic fatigue syndrome and prostate cancer, though whether as causative agent or opportunistic infection is unclear. It has also been suggested that the virus can be found circulating amongst the general population. The discovery has been controversial, with conflicting results from attempts to reproduce the original studies.We extracted peripheral blood DNA from a cohort of 540 HIV-1-positive patients (approximately 20% of whom have never been on anti-retroviral treatment and determined the presence of XMRV and related viruses using TaqMan PCR. While we were able to amplify as few as 5 copies of positive control DNA, we did not find any positive samples in the patient cohort.In view of these negative findings in this highly susceptible group, we conclude that it is unlikely that XMRV or related viruses are circulating at a significant level, if at all, in HIV-1-positive patients in London or in the general population.

  3. Interferon lambda 4 (IFNL4 gene polymorphism is associated with spontaneous clearance of HCV in HIV-1 positive patients

    Camila Fernanda da Silveira Alves

    Full Text Available Abstract Approximately one-third of the individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 are co-infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV. Co-infected patients have an increased risk for developing end-stage liver diseases. Variants upstream of the IFNL3 gene have been associated with spontaneous and treatment-induced clearance of HCV infection. Recently, a novel polymorphism was discovered, denoted IFNL4 ΔG > TT (rs368234815, which seems to be a better predictor of spontaneous clearance than the IFNL4 rs12979860 polymorphism. We aimed to determine the prevalence of the IFNL4 ΔG > TT variants and to evaluate the association with spontaneous clearance of HCV infection in Brazilian HIV-1 patients. The IFNL4 ΔG > TT genotypes were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction digestion in 138 HIV-1 positive patients who had an anti-HCV positive result. Spontaneous clearance of HCV was observed in 34 individuals (24.6%. IFNL4 genotype distribution was significantly different between individuals who had spontaneous clearance and chronic HCV patients (p=0.002. The probability of spontaneous clearance of HCV infection for patients with the IFNL4 TT/TT genotype was 3.6 times higher than for patients carrying the IFNL4 ΔG allele (OR=3.63, 95% CI:1.51-8.89, p=0.001. The IFNL4 ΔG > TT polymorphism seems to be better than IFNL4 rs12979860 to predict spontaneous clearance of the HCV in Brazilian HIV-1 positive patients.

  4. Mortality of treated HIV-1 positive individuals according to viral subtype in Europe and Canada

    Obel, Niels

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To estimate prognosis by viral subtype in HIV-1-infected individuals from start of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and after viral failure. DESIGN: Collaborative analysis of data from eight European and three Canadian cohorts. METHODS: Adults (N>20 000) who started triple ART between 199...

  5. Plasma soluble factor following two decades prolonged suppressive antiretroviral therapy in HIV-1-positive males: A cross-sectional study.

    Sperk, Maike; Zhang, Wang; Nowak, Piotr; Neogi, Ujjwal

    2018-02-01

    Acute human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is associated with a marked induction of several pathways that are linked to inflammation and CD4 T-cell depletion. Many of these processes do not fully resolve on short-term combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) (15 years) successful antiretroviral therapy (ART) and the linkage between levels of biomarkers remain unclear. Therefore, the present study aims to assess the host plasma proteome in a well-defined clinical material from HIV-1-positive male patients on successful long-term ART (>15 years) and compared them with age-matched healthy controls and treatment-naïve male patients with viremia in a cross-sectional manner.Plasma samples were obtained from 3 categories of age-matched HIV-1-positive male patients on long-term successfully (ART, n = 10) with a median (Interquartile range, IQR) of 19 (17-20) years, treatment-naïve patients with viremia (VP, n = 14), and HIV-1-negative persons (HC, n = 11). Plasma proteome was analyzed using the proximity extension assay targeting 92 factors. Statistical analyses were performed with GraphPad Prism v7, R-packages, and Qlucore Omics Explorer v3.2. Functional enrichment analysis was performed by Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG), and interactions of specific molecules were identified using Path Designer integrated into Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA).Group wise comparison identified 53 soluble factors, which differed between the groups (P studied groups (adjusted P HIV-negative individuals despite successful long-term ART. Additional analysis of NK cells along with T-cell subsets can provide insights into the long-term effects of ART on the immune system.

  6. Analysis of Th17 and Tc17 Frequencies and Antiviral Defenses in Gut-Associated Lymphoid Tissue of Chronic HIV-1 Positive Patients.

    d'Ettorre, Gabriella; Ceccarelli, Giancarlo; Andreotti, Mauro; Selvaggi, Carla; Giustini, Noemi; Serafino, Sara; Schietroma, Ivan; Nunnari, Giuseppe; Antonelli, Guido; Vullo, Vincenzo; Scagnolari, Carolina

    2015-01-01

    The complex relationship between both the Th1/Th17 and Tc1/Tc17 axis and innate defences in the intestinal mucosa during HIV-1 infection has not been well characterized. This study examined the frequency, phenotype, and functional status of T cell populations in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue and peripheral blood of virologically suppressed HIV-1-infected patients on therapy, focusing on the Th1, Th17, Tc1, and Tc17 cell subsets. We found a persistent immune cell activation (CD38 and HLADR expression) into the GALT despite the higher levels of Th17 and Tc17 in respect to peripheral blood. An upregulation of type I IFN response in GALT compared to the peripheral blood compartment was also recorded. Furthermore, IFN-α/β levels were negatively related to the frequencies of Th1 naïve cells and Tc1 cell subsets (naïve, central memory, and effector memory) in the GALT. In contrast, no relationships between type I IFN response and Th1 or Tc1 cell subsets in peripheral blood compartment and between IFN-α/β and Th17/Tc17 in both GALT and peripheral blood district were recorded. These data indicate that prolonged antiretroviral treatment improves GALT immune function despite the persistence of immune activation and type I IFN response in chronic HIV-1 positive patients.

  7. Analysis of Th17 and Tc17 Frequencies and Antiviral Defenses in Gut-Associated Lymphoid Tissue of Chronic HIV-1 Positive Patients

    Gabriella d’Ettorre

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The complex relationship between both the Th1/Th17 and Tc1/Tc17 axis and innate defences in the intestinal mucosa during HIV-1 infection has not been well characterized. This study examined the frequency, phenotype, and functional status of T cell populations in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue and peripheral blood of virologically suppressed HIV-1-infected patients on therapy, focusing on the Th1, Th17, Tc1, and Tc17 cell subsets. We found a persistent immune cell activation (CD38 and HLADR expression into the GALT despite the higher levels of Th17 and Tc17 in respect to peripheral blood. An upregulation of type I IFN response in GALT compared to the peripheral blood compartment was also recorded. Furthermore, IFN-α/β levels were negatively related to the frequencies of Th1 naïve cells and Tc1 cell subsets (naïve, central memory, and effector memory in the GALT. In contrast, no relationships between type I IFN response and Th1 or Tc1 cell subsets in peripheral blood compartment and between IFN-α/β and Th17/Tc17 in both GALT and peripheral blood district were recorded. These data indicate that prolonged antiretroviral treatment improves GALT immune function despite the persistence of immune activation and type I IFN response in chronic HIV-1 positive patients.

  8. Identification of Novel Recombinant Forms of Hepatitis B Virus Generated from Genotypes Ae and G in HIV-1-Positive Japanese Men Who Have Sex with Men.

    Kojima, Yoko; Kawahata, Takuya; Mori, Haruyo; Furubayashi, Keiichi; Taniguchi, Yasushi; Itoda, Ichiro; Komano, Jun

    2015-07-01

    The rare hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotype G (HBV/G) coinfects HIV-1-positive individuals along with HBV/A and generates recombinants. However, the circulation of HBV A/G recombinants remains poorly understood. This molecular epidemiologic study examined HBV A/G recombinants in Japanese HIV-1-positive men who have sex with men (MSM). Initially, blood specimens submitted for confirmatory tests of HIV infection in Osaka and Tokyo, Japan, from 2006 to 2013 were examined for HIV-1, and HIV-1-positive specimens were screened for HBV. Among 817 specimens from HIV-1-positive individuals, HBsAg was detected in 59 specimens; of these, HBV/Ae (alternatively A2), a subgenotype of HBV/A prevalent in Europe and North America, was identified in 70.2%, HBV/C in 17.5%, and HBV/G in 10.5%, and HBV/E in 1.8% according to the core gene sequence. The full-length genome analysis of HBV was performed on HBV/G-positive specimens because some HBV A/G recombinants were historically overlooked by genotyping based on a partial genome analysis. It revealed that five of the specimens contained novel Ae/G recombinants, the core gene of which had a high sequence similarity to HBV/G. Detailed analyses showed that novel recombinants were coinfected with HBV/Ae in a recombinant-dominant fashion. No major drug-resistant mutations were found in the newly identified HBV Ae/G recombinants. Some of the individuals asymptomatically coinfected with HIV/HBV suffered mild liver injury. This study demonstrated that novel Ae/G HBV recombinants were identified in Japanese HIV-1-positive MSM. The pathogenicity of novel HBV Ae/G recombinants should be examined in a future longitudinal study. Surveillance of such viruses in HIV-1-positive individuals should be emphasized.

  9. Clinical features and effect of antiviral therapy on anti-liver/kidney microsomal antibody type 1 positive chronic hepatitis C.

    Ferri, Silvia; Muratori, Luigi; Quarneti, Chiara; Muratori, Paolo; Menichella, Rita; Pappas, Georgios; Granito, Alessandro; Ballardini, Giorgio; Bianchi, Francesco B; Lenzi, Marco

    2009-06-01

    Anti-liver/kidney microsomal antibody type 1 (anti-LKM1), a serological marker of type 2 autoimmune hepatitis, is also detected in a small proportion of patients with hepatitis C. This study aimed to evaluate clinical features and effect of antiviral therapy in patients with hepatitis C who are anti-LKM1 positive. Sixty consecutive anti-LKM1 positive and 120 age and sex-matched anti-LKM1 negative chronic hepatitis C patients were assessed at diagnosis and during follow-up. Of these, 26 anti-LKM1 positive and 72 anti-LKM1 negative received antiviral therapy. Anti-LKM1 was detected by indirect immunofluorescence and immunoblot. Number of HCV-infected hepatocytes and intrahepatic CD8+ lymphocytes was determined by immunohistochemistry. At diagnosis anti-LKM1 positive patients had higher IgG levels and more intrahepatic CD8+ lymphocytes (p 0.022 and 0.046, respectively). Viral genotypes distribution and response to therapy were identical. Hepatic flares during antiviral treatment only occurred in a minority of patients in concomitance with anti-LKM1 positivity. Immune system activation is more pronounced in anti-LKM1 positive patients with hepatitis C, possibly representing the expression of autoimmune mechanisms of liver damage. Antiviral treatment is as beneficial in these patients as in anti-LKM1 negative patients, and the rare necroinflammatory flares are effectively controlled by corticosteroids, allowing subsequent resumption of antiviral therapy.

  10. Acute hepatitis B virus infection with simultaneous high HBsAg and high anti-HBs signals in a previously HBV vaccinated HIV-1 positive patient

    van Dommelen, Laura; Verbon, Annelies; van Doorn, H. Rogier; Goossens, Valère J.

    2010-01-01

    We present a case of a clinical manifest hepatitis B virus infection and a potentially misleading HBV serological profile in an HIV-1 positive patient despite previous HBV vaccination. The patient presented with an acute hepatitis B and there was no indication of chronic HBV infection or the

  11. Evaluation of human papillomavirus detection by Abbott m2000 system on samples collected by FTA Elute™ Card in a Chinese HIV-1 positive population.

    Qin, Yu; Zhang, Hongyun; Marlowe, Natalia; Fei, Mandong; Yu, Judy; Lei, Xiaoqin; Yu, Lulu; Zhang, Jia; Cao, Di; Ma, Li; Chen, Wen

    2016-12-01

    HIV+/AIDS women have an increased risk of developing into CIN and cervical cancer compared to the general population. Limited medical resource and the lack of AIDS relevant knowledge impair the coverage and efficiency of cervical cancer screening. To compare the clinical performance of self-collected dry storage medium (FTA Elute card) and physician-collected PreservCyt medium in detection of high risk human papillomavirus (HR HPV) among HIV-1 positive population. Three hundred HIV-1 positive women (aged 25-65) were recruited from Yunnan infectious hospital. Two cervicovaginal samples were collected from each participant: one was collected by the women themselves and applied on a FTA Elute card; the other one was collected by a physician and stored in PreservCyt solution. All the samples were tested for 14 HR HPV using Abbott RealTime High Risk HPV assay. Biopsies were taken for histological diagnosis if any abnormal impression was noticed under colposcopy. 291 (97.0%) of participants were eligible for this study. 101 (34.70%) participants were found HR HPV positive in both FTA card and PreservCyt samples, and 19 (6.53%) women were diagnosed as CIN2+. The HR HPV positive rate on samples collected by FTA Elute card and PreservCyt solution was 42.61% and 39.86%, respectively. The overall agreement was 87% (kappa=0.731) between FTA card and PreservCyt. The clinical sensitivity and specificity of FTA card and PreservCyt were 100%, 61.39% and 100%, 64.33%, respectively. In this study, FTA Elute card demonstrated a good performance on self-collected sample for HR HPV detection in HIV-1 positive population. For the women from low-resource area with HIV-1 infection, FTA Elute card could be an attractive sample collection method for cervical cancer screening. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Frequency of subtype B and F1 dual infection in HIV-1 positive, Brazilian men who have sex with men

    Soares de Oliveira Ana

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because various HIV vaccination studies are in progress, it is important to understand how often inter- and intra-subtype co/superinfection occurs in different HIV-infected high-risk groups. This knowledge would aid in the development of future prevention programs. In this cross-sectional study, we report the frequency of subtype B and F1 co-infection in a clinical group of 41 recently HIV-1 infected men who have sex with men (MSM in São Paulo, Brazil. Methodology Proviral HIV-1 DNA was isolated from subject's peripheral blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes that were obtained at the time of enrollment. Each subject was known to be infected with a subtype B virus as determined in a previous study. A small fragment of the integrase gene (nucleotide 4255–4478 of HXB2 was amplified by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR using subclade F1 specific primers. The PCR results were further confirmed by phylogenetic analysis. Viral load (VL data were extrapolated from the medical records of each patient. Results For the 41 samples from MSM who were recently infected with subtype B virus, it was possible to detect subclade F1 proviral DNA in five patients, which represents a co-infection rate of 12.2%. In subjects with dual infection, the median VL was 5.3 × 104 copies/ML, whereas in MSM that were infected with only subtype B virus the median VL was 3.8 × 104 copies/ML (p > 0.8. Conclusions This study indicated that subtype B and F1 co-infection occurs frequently within the HIV-positive MSM population as suggested by large number of BF1 recombinant viruses reported in Brazil. This finding will help us track the epidemic and provide support for the development of immunization strategies against the HIV.

  13. Lyme neuroborreliosis in HIV-1 positive men successfully treated with oral doxycycline: a case series and literature review

    Gisslén Magnus; Säll Christer; Bremell Daniel; Hagberg Lars

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Lyme neuroborreliosis is the most common bacterial central nervous system infection in the temperate parts of the northern hemisphere. Even though human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) -1 infection is common in Lyme borreliosis endemic areas, only five cases of co-infection have previously been published. Four of these cases presented with typical Lyme neuroborreliosis symptoms such as meningoradiculitis and facial palsy, while a fifth case had more severe symptoms of encep...

  14. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Cellular Drug Transporters Are Associated with Intolerance to Antiretroviral Therapy in Brazilian HIV-1 Positive Individuals.

    Mônica Barcellos Arruda

    Full Text Available Adverse reactions are the main cause of treatment discontinuation among HIV+ individuals. Genes related to drug absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME influence drug bioavailability and treatment response. We have investigated the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in 29 ADME genes and intolerance to therapy in a case-control study including 764 individuals. Results showed that 15 SNPs were associated with intolerance to nucleoside and 11 to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs and NNRTIs, and 8 to protease inhibitors (PIs containing regimens under alpha = 0.05. After Bonferroni adjustment, two associations remained statistically significant. SNP rs2712816, at SLCO2B1 was associated to intolerance to NRTIs (ORGA/AA = 2.37; p = 0.0001, while rs4148396, at ABCC2, conferred risk of intolerance to PIs containing regimens (ORCT/TT = 2.64; p = 0.00009. Accordingly, haplotypes carrying rs2712816A and rs4148396T alleles were also associated to risk of intolerance to NRTIs and PIs, respectively. Our data reinforce the role of drug transporters in response to HIV therapy and may contribute to a future development of personalized therapies.

  15. Acute hepatitis B virus infection with simultaneous high HBsAg and high anti-HBs signals in a previously HBV vaccinated HIV-1 positive patient.

    van Dommelen, Laura; Verbon, Annelies; van Doorn, H Rogier; Goossens, Valère J

    2010-03-01

    We present a case of a clinical manifest hepatitis B virus infection and a potentially misleading HBV serological profile in an HIV-1 positive patient despite previous HBV vaccination. The patient presented with an acute hepatitis B and there was no indication of chronic HBV infection or the presence of a mutation in the 'a' determinant. Remarkably, simultaneously with high HBV surface antigen and HBV viral load, high anti-HBs antibodies were present. If, due to previous HBV vaccination only anti-HBs was tested in this patient, the result of the high anti-HBs antibodies could be very misleading and offering a false sense of security. Our findings contribute to the ongoing discussion on how to assess HBV specific immunological memory and determining the role of HBV booster vaccinations in immunocompromised individuals.

  16. Polysomnographic evaluation of uninfected babies born to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 positive mothers = Evaluación polisomnográfica de bebés no infectados nacidos de madres VIH-1 positivas

    Archila Melendez, Mario Eduardo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Type 1 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 is a lymphotropic and neurotropic retrovirus. Thus, it causes immunological and neurological alterations particularly in children. In the neonatal period the maturational changes of the central nervous system occur rapidly, and their alteration can be reflected in processes such as the sleep-awake pattern. Objective: To evaluate sleep organization, EEG and respiratory pattern in newborns to HIV-1 positive mothers. Methods: 22 infants underwent polysomnography. Delta brushes number in REM and NREM sleep, duration of interburst interval and interhemispheric synchrony were used to calculate EEG maturation. Analysis of the sleep architecture was based on polysomnographic sleep percentage of REM, NREM and transitional sleep to total sleep time. Results: The difference between electroencephalographically calculated and clinically calculated conceptional age was less than two weeks. Percentages of REM and NREM sleep ranged from 39-64 and 30-58 with a median of 52.5 and 36.5 respectively. Concordance was lower in newborns who had high transitional sleep percentages, compared to that in newborns who did not have high such characteristic (p less 0.05. Discussion: Despite intrauterine exposure to HIV-1 and to antiretroviral drugs we did not observe a significant effect on EEG maturation. The decreased concordance in newborns with high transitional sleep percentages would suggest an alteration in the maturation process, but this aspect itself is not sufficient to consider that intrauterine exposure to HIV-1 and antiretrovirals affect the entire sleep architecture Future studies should clarify whether the decreased concordance between behavior and NREM sleep is replicable.

  17. Legionella pneumophila infection presenting as headache, confusion and dysarthria in a human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1 positive patient: case report

    Robbins Nathaniel M

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Legionella pneumophila is a common cause of community-acquired pneumonia. Central nervous system dysfunction is common, and diagnosis in the absence of pulmonary symptoms can be challenging. Here we describe an atypical clinical presentation of Legionella infection in a patient with HIV who was found to have an unusual neuroradiologic lesion that further served to obscure the diagnosis. This is the first such description in a patient with Legionellosis and HIV coinfection. Case presentation A 43 year-old HIV positive man presented to our hospital with dysarthria, fevers, headache, and altered mental status. Initial work-up revealed pneumonia and a lesion of the splenium of the corpus callosum on magnetic resonance imaging. He was subsequently diagnosed with Legionella pneumonia and treated with complete symptom resolution. Conclusions Neurologic abnormalities are frequent in Legionellosis, but the diagnosis may be difficult in the absence of overt respiratory symptoms and in the presence of HIV coinfection. A high index of suspicion and early initiation of empiric antibiotics is imperative since early treatment may help prevent long-term sequelae. Neuroimaging abnormalities, though rare, can help the physician narrow down the diagnosis and avoid unnecessary invasive testing. Future studies should aim to elucidate the as yet unknown role of neuroimaging in the diagnoses and prognostication of Legionellosis, as well as the interaction between Legionella infection and HIV.

  18. Long-term analysis of resistance development in HIV-1 positive patients treated with protease and reverse transcriptase inhibitors: Correlation of the genotype and disease progression

    Prejdová, Jana; Weber, Jan; Machala, L.; Reiniš, Milan; Linka, M.; Brůčková, M.; Vandasová, M.; Staňková, M.; Konvalinka, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 1 (2005), 29-36 ISSN 0001-723X R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NI6339 Grant - others:5th Framework(XE) QLK2-CT-2001-02360 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : HIV * protease inhibitors * resistance development Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 0.696, year: 2005

  19. Serological Evidence of HTLV-I and HTLV-II Coinfections in HIV-1 Positive Patients in Belém, State of Pará, Brazil

    Vallinoto ACR

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of HTLV-I/II and HIV-1 coinfections have been shown to be frequent, probably in consequence of their similar modes of transmission. This paper presents the prevalence of coinfection of HTLV among HIV-1 infected and AIDS patients in Belém, State of Pará, Brazil. A group of 149 patients attending the AIDS Reference Unit of the State Department of Health was tested for the presence of antibodies to HTLV-I/II using an enzyme immunoassay and the positive reactions were confirmed with a Western blot that discriminates between HTLV-I and HTLV-II infections. Four patients (2.7% were positive to HTLV-I, seven (4.7% to HTLV-II and one (0.7% showed an indeterminate pattern of reaction. The present results show for the first time in Belém not only the occurrence of HTLV-II/HIV-1 coinfections but also a higher prevalence of HTLV-II in relation to HTLV-I. Furthermore, it also enlarges the geographical limits of the endemic area for HTLV-II in the Amazon region of Brazil.

  20. HIV type 2 epidemic in Spain: challenges and missing opportunities.

    de Mendoza, Carmen; Cabezas, Teresa; Caballero, Estrella; Requena, Silvia; Amengual, María J; Peñaranda, María; Sáez, Ana; Tellez, Raquel; Lozano, Ana B; Treviño, Ana; Ramos, José M; Pérez, José L; Barreiro, Pablo; Soriano, Vicente

    2017-06-19

    : HIV type 2 (HIV-2) is a neglected virus despite estimates of 1-2 million people infected worldwide. HIV-2 is less efficiently transmitted than HIV-1 by sex and from mother to child. Although AIDS may develop in HIV-2 carriers, it takes longer than in HIV-1-infected patients. In contrast with HIV-1 infection, there is no global pandemic caused by HIV-2, as the virus is largely confined to West Africa. In a less extent and due to socioeconomic ties and wars, HIV-2 is prevalent in Portugal and its former colonies in Brazil, India, Mozambique and Angola. Globally, HIV-2 infections are steadily declining over time. A total of 338 cases of HIV-2 infection had been reported at the Spanish HIV-2 registry until December 2016, of whom 63% were men. Overall 72% were sub-Saharan Africans, whereas 16% were native Spaniards. Dual HIV-1 and HIV-2 coinfection was found in 9% of patients. Heterosexual contact was the most likely route of HIV-2 acquisition in more than 90% of cases. Roughly one-third presented with CD4 cell counts less than 200 cells/μl and/or AIDS clinical events. Plasma HIV-2 RNA was undetectable at baseline in 40% of patients. To date, one-third of HIV-2 carriers have received antiretroviral therapy, using integrase inhibitors 32 individuals. New diagnoses of HIV-2 in Spain have remained stable since 2010 with an average of 15 cases yearly. Illegal immigration from Northwestern African borders accounts for over 75% of new HIV-2 diagnoses. Given the relatively large community of West Africans already living in Spain and the continuous flux of immigration from endemic regions, HIV-2 infection either alone or as coinfection with HIV-1 should be excluded once in all HIV-seroreactive persons, especially when showing atypical HIV serological profiles, immunovirological disconnect (CD4 cell count loss despite undetectable HIV-1 viremia) and/or high epidemiological risks (birth in or sex partners from endemic regions).

  1. Short term clinical disease progression in HIV-1 positive patients taking combination antiretroviral therapy : The EuroSIDA risk-score

    Mocroft, A; Ledergerber, B; Zilmer, K

    2007-01-01

    /death in patients taking cART. A score was derived for 4169 patients from EuroSIDA and validated on 5150 patients from the Swiss HIV Cohort Study (SHCS). RESULTS: In EuroSIDA, 658 events occurred during 22 321 person-years of follow-up: an incidence rate of 3.0/100 person-years of follow-up [95% confidence interval...... (CI), 2.7-3.3]. Current levels of viral load, CD4 cell count, CD4 cell slope, anaemia, and body mass index all independently predicted new AIDS/death, as did age, exposure group, a prior AIDS diagnosis, prior antiretroviral treatment and stopping all antiretroviral drugs. The EuroSIDA risk...... in the risk-score was associated with a 2.70 times higher incidence of clinical progression (95% CI, 2.56-2.84) in EuroSIDA and 2.88 (95% CI, 2.75-3.02) in SHCS. CONCLUSIONS: A clinically relevant prognostic score was derived in EuroSIDA and validated within the SHCS, with good agreement. The EuroSIDA risk...

  2. A Wheat R2R3-type MYB Transcription Factor TaODORANT1 Positively Regulates Drought and Salt Stress Responses in Transgenic Tobacco Plants

    Qiuhui Wei

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available MYB transcription factors play important roles in plant responses to biotic and abiotic stress. In this study, TaODORANT1, a R2R3-MYB gene, was cloned from wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. TaODORANT1 was localized in the nucleus and functioned as a transcriptional activator. TaODORANT1 was up-regulated in wheat under PEG6000, NaCl, ABA, and H2O2 treatments. TaODORANT1-overexpressing transgenic tobacco plants exhibited higher relative water content and lower water loss rate under drought stress, as well as lower Na+ accumulation in leaves under salt stress. The transgenic plants showed higher CAT activity but lower ion leakage, H2O2 and malondialdehyde contents under drought and salt stresses. Besides, the transgenic plants also exhibited higher SOD activity under drought stress. Our results also revealed that TaODORANT1 overexpression up-regulated the expression of several ROS- and stress-related genes in response to both drought and salt stresses, thus enhancing transgenic tobacco plants tolerance. Our studies demonstrate that TaODORANT1 positively regulates plant tolerance to drought and salt stresses.

  3. Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) genetic diversity and ...

    The presence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type-1 diversity has an impact on vaccine efficacy and drug resistance. It is important to know the circulating genetic variants and associated drug-resistance mutations in the context of scale up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Nigeria. The objective of this study was to ...

  4. Frequency of human immunodeficiency virus type-2 in hiv infected patients in Maputo City, Mozambique

    Bhatt Nilesh

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The HIV/AIDS pandemic is primarily caused by HIV-1. Another virus type, HIV-2, is found mainly in West African countries. We hypothesized that population migration and mobility in Africa may have facilitated the introduction and spreading of HIV-2 in Mozambique. The presence of HIV-2 has important implications for diagnosis and choice of treatment of HIV infection. Hence, the aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of HIV-2 infection and its genotype in Maputo, Mozambique. HIV-infected individuals (N = 1,200 were consecutively enrolled and screened for IgG antibodies against HIV-1 gp41 and HIV-2 gp36 using peptide-based enzyme immunoassays (pepEIA. Specimens showing reactivity on the HIV-2 pepEIA were further tested using the INNO-LIA immunoblot assay and HIV-2 PCR targeting RT and PR genes. Subtype analysis of HIV-2 was based on the protease gene. After screening with HIV-2 pepEIA 1,168 were non-reactive and 32 were reactive to HIV-2 gp36 peptide. Of this total, 30 specimens were simultaneously reactive to gp41 and gp36 pepEIA while two samples reacted solely to gp36 peptide. Only three specimens containing antibodies against gp36 and gp105 on the INNO-LIA immunoblot assay were found to be positive by PCR to HIV-2 subtype A. The proportion of HIV-2 in Maputo City was 0.25% (90%CI 0.01-0.49. The HIV epidemic in Southern Mozambique is driven by HIV-1, with HIV-2 also circulating at a marginal rate. Surveillance program need to improve HIV-2 diagnosis and consider periodical survey aiming to monitor HIV-2 prevalence in the country.

  5. Effect of HIV Infection on Human Papillomavirus Types Causing Invasive Cervical Cancer in Africa

    de Vuyst, Hugo; Tenet, Vanessa; Plummer, Martyn; Tully, Stephen; Franceschi, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: HIV infection is known to worsen the outcome of cervical human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and may do so differentially by HPV type. Design: Twenty-one studies were included in a meta-analysis of invasive cervical cancers (ICC) among women infected with HIV in Africa. Method: Type-specific HPV DNA prevalence was compared with data from a similar meta-analysis of HIV-negative ICC using prevalence ratios (PR). Results: HPV detection was similar in 770 HIV-positive (91.2%) and 3846 HIV-negative (89.6%) ICC, but HIV-positive ICC harbored significantly more multiple HPV infections (PR = 1.75, 95% confidence intervals: 1.18 to 2.58), which were significantly more prevalent in ICC tested from cells than from biopsies. HPV16 was the most frequently detected type in HIV-positive ICC (42.5%), followed by HPV18 (22.2%), HPV45 (14.4%), and HPV35 (7.1%). Nevertheless, HIV-positive ICC were significantly less frequently infected with HPV16 than HIV-negative ICC (PR = 0.88, 95% confidence intervals: 0.79 to 0.99). Other high-risk types were significantly more prevalent in HIV-positive ICC, but only for HPV18 was there a significantly higher prevalence of both single and multiple infections in HIV-positive ICC. Increases for other high-risk types were primarily accounted for by multiple infections. The proportion of HPV-positive ICC estimated attributable to HPV16/18 (71.8% in HIV positive, 73.4% in HIV negative) or HPV16/18/31/33/45/52/58 (88.8%, 89.5%) was not affected by HIV. Conclusions: HIV alters the relative carcinogenicity of HPV types, but prophylactic HPV16/18 vaccines may nevertheless prevent a similar proportion of ICC, irrespective of HIV infection. PMID:27331659

  6. MicroRNA profile changes in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 seropositive individuals

    Smith Stephen M

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract MicroRNAs (miRNAs play diverse roles in regulating cellular and developmental functions. We have profiled the miRNA expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 36 HIV-1 seropositive individuals and 12 normal controls. The HIV-1-positive individuals were categorized operationally into four classes based on their CD4+ T-cell counts and their viral loads. We report that specific miRNA signatures can be observed for each of the four classes.

  7. Delayed-type hypersensitivity skin test responses to PPD and other antigens among BCG-vaccinated HIV-1-infected and healthy children and adolescents.

    Costa, Natalia Moriya Xavierda; Albuquerque, Maly de; Lins, Janaína Bacelar Acioli; Alvares-Junior, João Teixeira; Stefani, Mariane Martins de Araújo

    2011-10-01

    Among HIV-1-infected patients, CD4+ T cell counts are well-established markers of cell-mediated immunity. Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) skin tests can be used to evaluate in vivo cell-mediated immunity to common antigens. DTH responses to tuberculin purified protein derivative (PPD), sporotrichin, trichophytin, candidin and streptokinase/streptodornase antigens were assessed. Thirty-six HIV-1-infected children/adolescents and 56 age- and sex-matched HIV-1/HIV-2-seronegative participants were tested. All participants had a BCG scar. Fisher's exact test was used to evaluate significant differences between groups (pPPD positivity prevailed among healthy participants (40/56, 71.4%). PPD reactivity in the HIV-1-positive group was 8.3% (pPPD induration was 2.5mm (range: 2-5mm) in the HIV-1 group and 6.0 mm among healthy participants (range: 3-15 mm). There was no correlation between PPD positivity and age. No correlation between CD4+ T cell counts and DTH reactivity was observed among HIV-1-infected patients. DTH skin test responses, including PPD reactivity, were significantly lower among HIV-1-infected participants compared to healthy controls, which likely reflects advanced disease and T cell depletion.

  8. Alcohol Types and HIV Disease Progression Among HIV-Infected Drinkers Not Yet on Antiretroviral Therapy in Russia and Uganda.

    Asiimwe, Stephen B; Fatch, Robin; Patts, Gregory; Winter, Michael; Lloyd-Travaglini, Christine; Emenyonu, Nneka; Muyindike, Winnie; Kekibiina, Allen; Blokhina, Elena; Gnatienko, Natalia; Kruptisky, Evgeny; Cheng, Debbie M; Samet, Jeffrey H; Hahn, Judith A

    2017-11-01

    In HIV-infected drinkers, alcohol types more likely to cause inflammation could plausibly increase the risk of HIV disease progression. We therefore assessed the association between alcohol type and plasma HIV RNA level (HIV viral load) among HIV-infected drinkers not on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Russia and Uganda. We analyzed the data of participants from cohorts in Russia and Uganda and assessed their HIV viral load at enrollment by the alcohol type predominantly consumed. We defined predominant alcohol type as the alcohol type contributing >50% of total alcohol consumption in the 1 month (Russia) or 3 months (Uganda) prior to enrollment. Using multiple linear regression, we compared log 10 HIV viral load by predominant alcohol type, controlling for age, gender, socioeconomic status, total number of standard drinks, frequency of drinking ≥6 drinks/occasion, and in Russia, history of injection drug use. Most participants (99.2% of 261 in Russia and 98.9% of 352 in Uganda) predominantly drank one alcohol type. In Russia, we did not find evidence for differences in viral load levels between drinkers of fortified wine (n = 5) or hard liquor (n = 49), compared to drinkers of beer/low-ethanol-content cocktails (n = 163); however, wine/high-ethanol-content cocktail drinkers (n = 42) had higher mean log 10 viral load than beer/low-ethanol-content cocktail drinkers (β = 0.38, 95% CI 0.07-0.69; p = 0.02). In Uganda, we did not find evidence for differences in viral load levels between drinkers of locally-brewed beer (n = 41), commercially-distilled spirits (n = 38), or locally-distilled spirits (n = 43), compared to drinkers of commercially-made beer (n = 218); however, wine drinkers (n = 8) had lower mean log 10 HIV viral load (β = -0.65, 95% CI -1.36 to 0.07, p = 0.08), although this did not reach statistical significance. Among HIV-infected drinkers not yet on ART in Russia and Uganda, we observed an association between the

  9. Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) genetic diversity and ...

    PROGMANAGER

    2013-04-24

    Apr 24, 2013 ... objective of this study was to determine the genetic diversity of HIV-1 and the prevalence of antiretroviral (ARV) ... individuals in resource limited settings. Key words: ... management of HIV infection even as antiretroviral (ARV).

  10. Blocking type I interferon signaling enhances T cell recovery and reduces HIV-1 reservoirs.

    Cheng, Liang; Ma, Jianping; Li, Jingyun; Li, Dan; Li, Guangming; Li, Feng; Zhang, Qing; Yu, Haisheng; Yasui, Fumihiko; Ye, Chaobaihui; Tsao, Li-Chung; Hu, Zhiyuan; Su, Lishan; Zhang, Liguo

    2017-01-03

    Despite the efficient suppression of HIV-1 replication that can be achieved with combined antiretroviral therapy (cART), low levels of type I interferon (IFN-I) signaling persist in some individuals. This sustained signaling may impede immune recovery and foster viral persistence. Here we report studies using a monoclonal antibody to block IFN-α/β receptor (IFNAR) signaling in humanized mice (hu-mice) that were persistently infected with HIV-1. We discovered that effective cART restored the number of human immune cells in HIV-1-infected hu-mice but did not rescue their immune hyperactivation and dysfunction. IFNAR blockade fully reversed HIV-1-induced immune hyperactivation and rescued anti-HIV-1 immune responses in T cells from HIV-1-infected hu-mice. Finally, we found that IFNAR blockade in the presence of cART reduced the size of HIV-1 reservoirs in lymphoid tissues and delayed HIV-1 rebound after cART cessation in the HIV-1-infected hu-mice. We conclude that low levels of IFN-I signaling contribute to HIV-1-associated immune dysfunction and foster HIV-1 persistence in cART-treated hosts. Our results suggest that blocking IFNAR may provide a potential strategy to enhance immune recovery and reduce HIV-1 reservoirs in individuals with sustained elevations in IFN-I signaling during suppressive cART.

  11. Identification of conserved subdominant HIV Type 1 CD8(+) T Cell epitopes restricted within common HLA Supertypes for therapeutic HIV Type 1 vaccines

    Karlsson, Ingrid; Kløverpris, Henrik; Jensen, Kristoffer Jarlov

    2012-01-01

    The high HIV-1 prevalence, up to 4.6% in Guinea-Bissau, West Africa, makes it a relevant location for testing of therapeutic vaccines. With the aim of performing a clinical study in Guinea-Bissau, after first testing the vaccine for safety in Denmark, Europe, we here describe the design...... of a universal epitope peptide-based T cell vaccine with relevance for any geographic locations. The two major obstacles when designing such a vaccine are the high diversities of the HIV-1 genome and of the human major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I. We selected 15 CD8-restricted epitopes predicted......-specific, HLA-restricted T cell specificities using peptide-MHC class I tetramer labeling of CD8(+) T cells from HIV-1-infected individuals. The selected vaccine epitopes are infrequently targeted in HIV-1-infected individuals from both locations. Moreover, we HLA-typed HIV-1-infected individuals...

  12. Effect of HIV Infection on Human Papillomavirus Types Causing Invasive Cervical Cancer in Africa

    Clifford, Gary M.; de Vuyst, Hugo; Tenet, Vanessa; Plummer, Martyn; Tully, Stephen; Franceschi, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: HIV infection is known to worsen the outcome of cervical human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and may do so differentially by HPV type. Design: Twenty-one studies were included in a meta-analysis of invasive cervical cancers (ICC) among women infected with HIV in Africa. Method: Type-specific HPV DNA prevalence was compared with data from a similar meta-analysis of HIV-negative ICC using prevalence ratios (PR). Results: HPV detection was similar in 770 HIV-positive (91.2%) and 384...

  13. Sources and types of information on self-care symptom management strategies for HIV and AIDS

    Regis R. Marie Modeste

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: It has been reported that South Africa has the highest number of people living with HIV worldwide, with more women being infected than men. Women living with HIV have been documented as experiencing various symptoms related to HIV and use various strategies to manage these symptoms. Objective: The objective of this study was to explore the sources and types of information regarding self-care symptom management strategies received by women living with HIV. Method: The study was conducted at an HIV clinic in an urban area of KwaZulu-Natal. Individual in-depth interviews were completed with 11 women who were living with HIV,exploring the sources of information received on how they manage the HIV- (and/or AIDS- related symptoms they experienced as well as the types of information received. The collecteddata were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Results: The participants identified various sources, which mainly included groups of people who provided them with information on how to manage their HIV-related symptoms, namely healthcare providers, their personal networks and the community. The different sources offered different types of information, including the use of medication, complementary treatments and self-comforting activities. Conclusion: The study highlights that participants used multiple sources to get information about how to manage the experienced symptoms related to HIV, namely, healthcare providers, family and friends as well as themselves. It is to be noted that each source provided a preferred type of information.

  14. Introduction of HIV type 1 into an isolated population

    Madsen, Tina V; Leitner, Thomas; Lohse, Nicolai

    2007-01-01

    Introduction of HIV-1 into a population may not always give rise to a subsequent epidemic. Greenland is an isolated and sparsely populated island in The Danish Kingdom. We aimed to estimate the number of introductions of HIV-1 into Greenland, the number of subsequent epidemics, and the countries...... from which the virus was introduced. Phylogenetic analyses were performed on three regions of HIV-1 (gag, pol, and env) in samples from 70 Greenlandic patients. Furthermore, we included gene sequences from contemporary Danish HIV-1-infected patients and sequences from the Los Alamos HIV Sequence...... Database. All Greenlandic sequences were subtype B except one sequence found to be a recombinant (probably CRF13). Sequence clusters in the phylogenetic trees indicated that there had been at least nine introductions of HIV-1 into Greenland. One cluster, supported by bootstrap values of 81, 76, and 96...

  15. Minor drug-resistant HIV type-1 variants in breast milk and plasma of HIV type-1-infected Ugandan women after nevirapine single-dose prophylaxis.

    Pilger, Daniel; Hauser, Andrea; Kuecherer, Claudia; Mugenyi, Kizito; Kabasinguzi, Rose; Somogyi, Sybille; Harms, Gundel; Kunz, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Nevirapine single-dose (NVP-SD) reduces mother-to-child transmission of HIV type-1 (HIV-1), but frequently induces resistance mutations in the HIV-1 genome. Little is known about drug-resistant HIV-1 variants in the breast milk of women who have taken NVP-SD. Blood and breast milk samples of 39 HIV-1-infected Ugandan women were taken 6-12 weeks after NVP-SD intake. Samples were analysed by population sequencing and allele-specific real-time PCR (AS-PCR) with detection limits for NVP-resistant HIV-1 variants (K103N and Y181C) of D n = 5, G n = 2 and C n = 1). A total of 7 (37%) and 10 (53%) women carried NVP-resistant virus in breast milk and plasma, respectively. Overall, 71% (5/7) women with NVP-resistant HIV-1 in breast milk displayed >1 drug-resistant variant. Resistance in breast milk was higher at week 6 (6/13 samples [46%]) compared with week 12 (1/6 samples [17%]). In total, 10 drug-resistant populations harbouring the K103N and/or Y181C mutation were detected in the 19 breast milk samples; 7 (70%) were caused by resistant minorities (< 5% of the total HIV-1 population). In the four women with drug-resistant virus in both plasma and breast milk, the mutation patterns differed between the two compartments. Minor populations of drug-resistant HIV-1 were frequently found in breast milk of Ugandan women after exposure to NVP-SD. Further studies need to explore the role of minor drug-resistant variants in the postnatal transmission of (resistant) HIV-1.

  16. Clustering patterns of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte epitopes in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) proteins reveal imprints of immune evasion on HIV-1 global variation

    Yusim, K.; Kesmir, Can; Gaschen, B.

    2002-01-01

    The human cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) has been intensely studied, and hundreds of CTL epitopes have been experimentally defined, published, and compiled in the HIV Molecular Immunology Database. Maps of CTL epitopes on HIV-1 protein sequenc...

  17. Quality control assessment of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) viral load quantification assays: results from an international collaboration on HIV-2 infection in 2006

    Damond, Florence; Benard, Antoine; Ruelle, Jean; Alabi, Abraham; Kupfer, Bernd; Gomes, Perpetua; Rodes, Berta; Albert, Jan; Böni, Jürg; Garson, Jeremy; Ferns, Bridget; Matheron, Sophie; Chene, Geneviève; Brun-Vezinet, Françoise; Goubau, Patrick; Campa, Pauline; Descamps, Diane; Simon, François; Taieb, Audrey; Autran, Brigitte; Cotten, Matt; Jaye, Assan; Peterson, Kevin; Rowland-Jones, Sarah; Rockstroh, Jürgen; Schwarze-Zander, Carolynne; de Wolf, Frank; van Sighem, Ard; Reiss, Peter; van der Loeff, Maarten Schim; Schutten, Martin; Camacho, Ricardo; Mansinho, Kamal; Antunes, Francisco; Luis, Franca; Valadas, Emilia; Toro, Carlos; Soriano, Vicente; Gyllensten, Katarina; Sonnerborg, Anders; Yilmaz, Aylin; Gisslén, Magnus; Calmy, Alexandra; Rickenbach, Martin; Pillay, Deenan; Tosswill, Jennifer; Anderson, Jane; Chadwick, David

    2008-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) RNA quantification assays used in nine laboratories of the ACHI(E)V(2E) (A Collaboration on HIV-2 Infection) study group were evaluated. In a blinded experimental design, laboratories quantified three series of aliquots of an HIV-2 subtype A strain, each

  18. Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Enhances HIV-1 Susceptibility by Affecting Langerhans Cell Function

    de Jong, Marein A. W. P.; de Witte, Lot; Taylor, Maureen E.; Geijtenbeek, Teunis B. H.

    2010-01-01

    Genital herpes is the most prevalent viral sexually transmitted infection worldwide and is mainly caused by HSV type 2 (HSV-2). HSV-2 infection enhances HIV-1 susceptibility, even in the absence of clinical symptoms. In this study, we investigated the effect of HSV-2 on HIV-1 transmission by mucosal

  19. Stroke in a Patient With HIV Infection

    Buse Rahime Hasırcı

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Stroke which is a common complication in Human immumodeficiency virus type 1 positive patients is seen between 1% and 5% in clinical series. Vasculopathy and atherogenesis in HIV are the main pathologic mechanisms of stroke. We report a 63 year old man with sudden onset of a right hemiplegia and who was diagnosed as HIV-related stroke.

  20. Necroptosis takes place in human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1-infected CD4+ T lymphocytes.

    Ting Pan

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 infection is characterized by progressive depletion of CD4+ T lymphocytes and dysfunction of the immune system. The numbers of CD4+ T lymphocytes in the human body are maintained constantly by homeostatic mechanisms that failed during HIV-1 infection, resulting in progressive loss of CD4+ T cells mainly via apoptosis. Recently, a non-apoptotic form of necrotic programmed cell death, named necroptosis, has been investigated in many biological and pathological processes. We then determine whether HIV-1-infected cells also undergo necroptosis. In this report, we demonstrate that HIV-1 not only induces apoptosis, but also mediates necroptosis in the infected primary CD4+ T lymphocytes and CD4+ T-cell lines. Necroptosis-dependent cytopathic effects are significantly increased in HIV-1-infected Jurkat cells that is lack of Fas-associated protein-containing death domain (FADD, indicating that necroptosis occurs as an alternative cell death mechanism in the absence of apoptosis. Unlike apoptosis, necroptosis mainly occurs in HIV-infected cells and spares bystander damage. Treatment with necrostatin-1(Nec-1, a RIP1 inhibitor that specifically blocks the necroptosis pathway, potently restrains HIV-1-induced cytopathic effect and interestingly, inhibits the formation of HIV-induced syncytia in CD4+ T-cell lines. This suggests that syncytia formation is mediated, at least partially, by necroptosis-related processes. Furthermore, we also found that the HIV-1 infection-augmented tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α plays a key role in inducing necroptosis and HIV-1 Envelope and Tat proteins function as its co-factors. Taken together,necroptosis can function as an alternative cell death pathway in lieu of apoptosis during HIV-1 infection, thereby also contributing to HIV-1-induced cytopathic effects. Our results reveal that in addition to apoptosis, necroptosis also plays an important role in HIV-1-induced pathogenesis.

  1. Cytochrome P4502D6(193-212): a new immunodominant epitope and target of virus/self cross-reactivity in liver kidney microsomal autoantibody type 1-positive liver disease.

    Kerkar, Nanda; Choudhuri, Kaushik; Ma, Yun; Mahmoud, Ayman; Bogdanos, Dimitrios P; Muratori, Luigi; Bianchi, Francesco; Williams, Roger; Mieli-Vergani, Giorgina; Vergani, Diego

    2003-02-01

    Cytochrome P4502D6 (CYP2D6), target of liver kidney microsomal autoantibody type 1 (LKM1), characterizes autoimmune hepatitis type 2 (AIH2) but is also found in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. To provide a complete linear epitope B cell map of CYP2D6, we tested peptides spanning the entire sequence of CYP2D6. In addition to confirming previously described antigenic sites, we identified four new epitopes (193-212, 238-257, 268-287, and 478-497). CYP2D6(193-212) is immunodominant and was the target of 12 of 13 (93%) patients with AIH2 and 5 of 10 (50%) HCV/LKM1-positive patients. Because LKM1 is present in both AIH2 and a viral infection, we tested whether Abs to CYP2D6(193-212) arise through cross-reactive immunity between virus and self. We identified a hexameric sequence "RLLDLA" sharing 5 of 6 aa with "RLLDLS" of HCV(2985-2990) and all 6 aa with CMV(130-135). Of 17 CYP2D6(193-212)-reactive sera, 11 (7 AIH and 4 HCV) reacted by ELISA with the HCV homologue, 8 (5 AIH and 3 HCV) with the CMV homologue, and 8 (5 AIH and 3 HCV) showed double reactivity. Autoantibody binding to CYP2D6(193-212) was inhibited by preincubation with HCV(2977-2996) or CMV(121-140). Recombinant HCV-nonstructural protein 5 and CMV-UL98 proteins also inhibited Ab binding to CYP2D6(193-212). Affinity-purified CYP2D6(193-212)-specific Ab inhibited the metabolic activity of CYP2D6. The demonstrated similarity and cross-reactivity between CYP2D6(193-212) and two unrelated viruses suggests that multiple exposure to viruses mimicking self may represent an important pathway to the development of autoimmunity.

  2. Types and delivery of emotional support to promote linkage and engagement in HIV care

    Cook CL

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Christa L Cook,1 Shantrel Canidate,2 Nicole Ennis,3 Robert L Cook4 1Department of Family, Community, and Health System Science, College of Nursing, 2Social and Behavioral Science, College of Public Health and Health Profession, 3Department of Clinical and Health Psychology, College of Public Health and Health Professions, 4Department of Epidemiology, College of Public Health and Health Professions and College of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA Purpose: Despite recommendations for early entry into human immunodeficiency virus (HIV care, many people diagnosed with HIV delay seeking care. Multiple types of social support (ie, cognitive, emotional, and tangible are often needed for someone to transition into HIV care, but a lack of emotional support at diagnosis may be the reason why some people fail to stay engaged in care. Thus, the purpose of this study was to identify how people living with HIV conceptualized emotional support needs and delivery at diagnosis. Method: We conducted a secondary analysis of qualitative data from 27 people living with HIV, many of whom delayed entry into HIV care. Results: Participants described their experiences seeking care after an HIV diagnosis and identified components of emotional support that aided entry into care – identification, connection, and navigational presence. Many participants stated that these types of support were ideally delivered by peers with HIV. Conclusion: In clinical practice, providers often use an HIV diagnosis as an opportunity to educate patients about HIV prevention and access to services. However, this type of social support may not facilitate engagement in care if emotional support needs are not met. Keywords: linkage to care, engagement in care, social support, qualitative

  3. Constitutively Active MAVS Inhibits HIV-1 Replication via Type I Interferon Secretion and Induction of HIV-1 Restriction Factors.

    Sachin Gupta

    Full Text Available Type I interferon is known to inhibit HIV-1 replication through the induction of interferon stimulated genes (ISG, including a number of HIV-1 restriction factors. To better understand interferon-mediated HIV-1 restriction, we constructed a constitutively active form of the RIG-I adapter protein MAVS. Constitutive MAVS was generated by fusion of full length MAVS to a truncated form of the Epstein Barr virus protein LMP1 (ΔLMP1. Supernatant from ΔLMP1-MAVS-transfected 293T cells contained high levels of type I interferons and inhibited HIV replication in both TZM-bl and primary human CD4+ T cells. Supernatant from ΔLMP1-MAVS-transfected 293T cells also inhibited replication of VSV-G pseudotyped single cycle SIV in TZM-bl cells, suggesting restriction was post-entry and common to both HIV and SIV. Gene array analysis of ΔLMP1-MAVS-transfected 293T cells and trans-activated CD4+ T cells showed significant upregulation of ISG, including previously characterized HIV restriction factors Viperin, Tetherin, MxB, and ISG56. Interferon blockade studies implicated interferon-beta in this response. In addition to direct viral inhibition, ΔLMP1-MAVS markedly enhanced secretion of IFN-β and IL-12p70 by dendritic cells and the activation and maturation of dendritic cells. Based on this immunostimulatory activity, an adenoviral vector (Ad5 expressing ΔLMP1-MAVS was tested as a molecular adjuvant in an HIV vaccine mouse model. Ad5-Gag antigen combined with Ad5-ΔLMP1-MAVS enhanced control of vaccinia-gag replication in a mouse challenge model, with 4/5 animals showing undetectable virus following challenge. Overall, ΔLMP1-MAVS is a promising reagent to inhibit HIV-1 replication in infected tissues and enhance vaccine-mediated immune responses, while avoiding toxicity associated with systemic type I interferon administration.

  4. Genital herpes simplex virus type 2 infection in humanized HIV-transgenic mice triggers HIV shedding and is associated with greater neurological disease.

    Nixon, Briana; Fakioglu, Esra; Stefanidou, Martha; Wang, Yanhua; Dutta, Monica; Goldstein, Harris; Herold, Betsy C

    2014-02-15

    Epidemiological studies consistently demonstrate synergy between herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Higher HIV-1 loads are observed in coinfected individuals, and conversely, HIV-1 is associated with more-severe herpetic disease. A small animal model of coinfection would facilitate identification of the biological mechanisms underlying this synergy and provide the opportunity to evaluate interventions. Mice transgenic for HIV-1 provirus and human cyclin T1 under the control of a CD4 promoter (JR-CSF/hu-cycT1) were intravaginally infected with HSV-2 and evaluated for disease progression, HIV shedding, and mucosal immune responses. HSV-2 infection resulted in higher vaginal HIV loads and genital tissue expression of HIV RNA, compared with HSV-uninfected JR-CSF/hu-cycT1 mice. There was an increase in genital tract inflammatory cells, cytokines, chemokines, and interferons in response to HSV-2, although the kinetics of the response were delayed in HIV-transgenic, compared with control mice. Moreover, the JR-CSF/hu-cycT1 mice exhibited earlier and more-severe neurological disease. The latter was associated with downregulation of secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor expression in neuronal tissue, a molecule with antiinflammatory, antiviral, and neuroprotective properties. JR-CSF/hu-cycT1 mice provide a valuable model to study HIV/HSV-2 coinfection and identify potential mechanisms by which HSV-2 facilitates HIV-1 transmission and HIV modulates HSV-2-mediated disease.

  5. HIV-infected persons with type 2 diabetes show evidence of endothelial dysfunction and increased inflammation

    Hove-Skovsgaard, Malene; Gaardbo, Julie Christine; Kolte, Lilian

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Increased incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in both HIV infection and type 2 diabetes (T2D) compared to the general population has been described. Little is known about the combined effect of HIV infection and T2D on inflammation and endothelial function, both of which may...... contribute to elevated risk of CVD. METHODS: Cross-sectional study including 50 HIV-infected persons on combination anti-retroviral therapy (cART), with HIV RNA 2D (HIV + T2D+), n = 25 without T2D (HIV + T2D-)) and 50 uninfected persons (n = 22 with T2D (HIV-T2D+) and n = 28...... without T2D (HIV-T2D-)). Groups were matched on age and sex. High sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) was used to determine inflammation (cut-off 3 mg/L). The marker of endothelial dysfunction asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) was measured using high performance liquid chromatography. Trimethylamine...

  6. Detection of a human intracisternal A-type retroviral particle antigenically related to HIV

    Garry, R. F.; Fermin, C. D.; Hart, D. J.; Alexander, S. S.; Donehower, L. A.; Luo-Zhang, H.

    1990-01-01

    Sjogren's syndrome is an autoimmune disease that is characterized by dryness of the mouth and eyes. The loss of salivary and lacrimal gland function is accompanied by lymphocytic infiltration. Because similar symptoms and glandular pathology are observed in certain persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a search was initiated for a possible retroviral etiology in this syndrome. A human intracisternal A-type retroviral particle that is antigenically related to HIV was detected in lymphoblastoid cells exposed to homogenates of salivary tissue from patients with Sjogren's syndrome. Comparison of this retroviral particle to HIV indicates that they are distinguishable by several ultrastructural, physical, and enzymatic criteria.

  7. Circumcision status and incident herpes simplex virus type 2 infection, genital ulcer disease, and HIV infection

    Mehta, Supriya D.; Moses, Stephen; Parker, Corette B.; Agot, Kawango; Maclean, Ian; Bailey, Robert C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective We assessed the protective effect of medical male circumcision (MMC) against HIV, herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), and genital ulcer disease (GUD) incidence. Design Two thousand, seven hundred and eighty-seven men aged 18–24 years living in Kisumu, Kenya were randomly assigned to circumcision (n=1391) or delayed circumcision (n =1393) and assessed by HIV and HSV-2 testing and medical examinations during follow-ups at 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Methods Cox regression estimated the risk ratio of each outcome (incident HIV, GUD, HSV-2) for circumcision status and multivariable models estimated HIV risk associated with HSV-2, GUD, and circumcision status as time-varying covariates. Results HIV incidence was 1.42 per 100 person-years. Circumcision was 62% protective against HIV [risk ratio =0.38; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.22–0.67] and did not change when controlling for HSV-2 and GUD (risk ratio =0.39; 95% CI 0.23–0.69). GUD incidence was halved among circumcised men (risk ratio =0.52; 95% CI 0.37–0.73). HSV-2 incidence did not differ by circumcision status (risk ratio =0.94; 95% CI 0.70–1.25). In the multivariable model, HIV seroconversions were tripled (risk ratio =3.44; 95% CI 1.52–7.80) among men with incident HSV-2 and seven times greater (risk ratio =6.98; 95% CI 3.50–13.9) for men with GUD. Conclusion Contrary to findings from the South African and Ugandan trials, the protective effect of MMC against HIV was independent of GUD and HSV-2, and MMC had no effect on HSV-2 incidence. Determining the causes of GUD is necessary to reduce associated HIV risk and to understand how circumcision confers protection against GUD and HIV PMID:22382150

  8. Metabolic dysregulation and interventions in type 2 diabetes mellitus and HIV-lipodystrophy

    Wijk, J.P.H. van

    2005-01-01

    The focus of this thesis is on two aspects of metabolic dysregulation, type 2 diabetes mellitus and HIV-lipodystrophy, and the effects of insulin-sensitizing agents. Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) have received increasing attenttion for the treatment of hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes. Currently,

  9. HPV types, HIV and invasive cervical carcinoma risk in Kampala, Uganda: a case-control study

    Kleter Bernhard

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While the association of human papillomavirus (HPV with cervical cancer is well established, the influence of HIV on the risk of this disease in sub-Saharan Africa remains unclear. To assess the risk of invasive cervical carcinoma (ICC associated with HIV and HPV types, a hospital-based case-control study was performed between September 2004 and December 2006 in Kampala, Uganda. Incident cases of histologically-confirmed ICC (N=316 and control women (N=314, who were visitors or care-takers of ICC cases in the hospital, were recruited. Blood samples were obtained for HIV serology and CD4 count, as well as cervical samples for HPV testing. HPV DNA detection and genotyping was performed using the SPF10/DEIA/LiPA25 technique which detects all mucosal HPV types by DEIA and identifies 25 HPV genotypes by LiPA version 1. Samples that tested positive but could not be genotyped were designated HPVX. Odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated by logistic regression, adjusting for possible confounding factors. Results For both squamous cell carcinoma (SCC and adenocarcinoma of the cervix, statistically significantly increased ORs were found among women infected with HPV, in particular single HPV infections, infections with HPV16-related types and high-risk HPV types, in particular HPV16, 18 and 45. For other HPV types the ORs for both SCC and adenocarcinoma were not statistically significantly elevated. HIV infection and CD4 count were not associated with SCC or adenocarcinoma risk in our study population. Among women infected with high-risk HPV types, no association between HIV and SCC emerged. However, an inverse association with adenocarcinoma was observed, while decrease in CD4 count was not associated with ICC risk. Conclusions The ORs for SCC and adenocarcinoma were increased in women infected with HPV, in particular single HPV infections, infections with HPV16- and 18-related types, and high-risk HPV types

  10. Photoinactivation of mcr-1 positive Escherichia coli

    Caires, C. S. A.; Leal, C. R. B.; Rodrigues, A. C. S.; Lima, A. R.; Silva, C. M.; Ramos, C. A. N.; Chang, M. R.; Arruda, E. J.; Oliveira, S. L.; Nascimento, V. A.; Caires, A. R. L.

    2018-01-01

    The emergence of plasmid-mediated colistin resistance in Enterobacteriaceae, mostly in Escherichia coli due to the mcr-1 gene, has revealed the need to develop alternative approaches in treating mcr-1 positive bacterial infections. This is because colistin is a broad-spectrum antibiotic and one of the ‘last-resort’ antibiotics for multidrug resistant bacteria. The present study evaluated for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, the efficacy of photoinactivation processes to kill a known mcr-1 positive E. coli strain. Eosin methylene-blue (EMB) was investigated as a photoantimicrobial agent for inhibiting the growth of a mcr-1 positive E. coli strain obtained from a patient with a diabetic foot infection. The photoantimicrobial activity of EMB was also tested in a non-multidrug resistant E. coli strain. The photoinactivation process was tested using light doses in the 30-45 J cm-2 range provided by a LED device emitting at 625 nm. Our findings demonstrate that a mcr-1 positive E. coli strain is susceptible to photoinactivation. The results show that the EMB was successfully photoactivated, regardless of the bacterial multidrug resistance; inactivating the bacterial growth by oxidizing the cells in accordance with the generation of the oxygen reactive species. Our results suggest that bacterial photoinactivation is an alternative and effective approach to kill mcr-1 positive bacteria.

  11. HIV and herpes simplex virus type 2 epidemiological synergy: misguided observational evidence? A modelling study.

    Omori, Ryosuke; Nagelkerke, Nico; Abu-Raddad, Laith J

    2017-12-04

    To investigate whether observational studies of HIV and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infections have the capacity to assess the HIV/HSV-2 epidemiological synergy. An individual-based Monte Carlo model was used to simulate HIV/HSV-2 epidemics in two scenarios: no HIV/HSV-2 biological interaction and HSV-2 seropositivity enhancing HIV acquisition. Cross-sectional observational studies were simulated by sampling individuals from the population to assess resulting crude and adjusted ORs of the HIV/HSV-2 association. Meta-analyses were conducted to estimate the pooled mean ORs. Impact of under-reporting of sexual behaviour and miscapture of high-risk individuals was assessed through sensitivity analyses. Assuming no HIV/HSV-2 biological interaction, the crude HIV/HSV-2 OR ranged between 1.38 and 9.93, with a pooled mean of 6.45 (95% CI 5.81 to 7.17). Adjustment for the number of sexual partners over last year, over lifetime and for both partner numbers simultaneously reduced the mean OR to 5.45 (95% CI 4.90 to 6.06), 3.70 (95% CI 3.32 to 4.12) and 3.54 (95% CI 3.17 to 3.94), respectively. Assuming HIV/HSV-2 biological interaction, the crude OR ranged between 3.44 and 9.95, with a pooled mean of 8.05 (95% CI 7.14 to 9.07). The adjustments reduced the mean OR to 7.00 (95% CI 6.21 to 7.90), 3.76 (95% CI 3.32 to 4.25) and 3.68 (95% CI 3.25 to 4.17), respectively. Under-reporting of partners reduced the confounder-adjustment effects. Miscapture of high-risk individuals considerably lowered the estimated ORs. It is difficult to control for sexual-behaviour confounding in observational studies. The observed HIV/HSV-2 association appears more consistent with two infections sharing the same mode of transmission, rather than with HSV-2 enhancing HIV acquisition. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. Immunological predictors of survival in HIV type 2-infected rural villagers in Guinea-Bissau

    Jaffar, Shabbar; Van der Loeff, Maarten Schim; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the association between beta2-microglobulin, neopterin, serum levels of soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR), CD4 count, and plasma viremia with survival in 133 HIV-2-infected villagers and 160 controls living in rural Guinea-Bissau. Subjects were recruite...

  13. Immunogenicity and effectiveness of Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine in HIV infected and uninfected African children.

    Madhi, Shabir A; Kuwanda, Locadiah; Saarinen, Leena; Cutland, Clare; Mothupi, Rosalia; Käyhty, Helena; Klugman, Keith P

    2005-12-01

    The quantitative (anti-Hib capsular polysaccharide antibody concentrations; anti-HibPS) and qualitative (bactericidal activity and avidity) aspects in immune responses to Haemophilus influenzae type b polyribosyl ribitol phospshate-CRM(197) conjugate vaccine (HibCV; HibTiter) were evaluated in 66 HIV infected children not receiving anti-retroviral therapy and 127 HIV uninfected children. Surveillance was conducted for invasive Hib disease in a cohort of 39,865 (approximately 6.4% of whom were HIV infected) children from March 1998 to June 2004. HIV infected children had lower anti-HibPS geometric mean antibody concentrations 1 month post-immunisation than HIV uninfected children (Por=1.0 microg/ml (RR 0.54; 95% CI 0.43-0.69). A lower proportion of HIV infected children than HIV uninfected children (RR 0.78; 95% CI 0.66-0.93) had measurable anti-Hib serum bactericidal activity (SBA) and the HibPS antibody concentration required for 50% killing of Hib bacteria was greater among HIV infected than HIV uninfected children (P=0.001). The estimated risk of HibCV failure was 35.1-fold greater (95% CI 14.6-84.6) amongst HIV infected than HIV uninfected children.

  14. Immunological predictors of survival in HIV type 2-infected rural villagers in Guinea-Bissau

    Jaffar, Shabbar; Van der Loeff, Maarten Schim; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the association between beta2-microglobulin, neopterin, serum levels of soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR), CD4 count, and plasma viremia with survival in 133 HIV-2-infected villagers and 160 controls living in rural Guinea-Bissau. Subjects were recruited......%, and plasma viral load were associated independently with survival in multivariate analyses. Neopterin and suPAR did not reach statistical significance. These findings suggest that immune activation is central to the pathogenesis of HIV. They also have important implications for resource-poor settings where...

  15. Identification of a current hot spot of HIV type 1 transmission in Mongolia by molecular epidemiological analysis.

    Davaalkham, Jagdagsuren; Unenchimeg, Puntsag; Baigalmaa, Chultem; Erdenetuya, Gombo; Nyamkhuu, Dulmaa; Shiino, Teiichiro; Tsuchiya, Kiyoto; Hayashida, Tsunefusa; Gatanaga, Hiroyuki; Oka, Shinichi

    2011-10-01

    We investigated the current molecular epidemiological status of HIV-1 in Mongolia, a country with very low incidence of HIV-1 though with rapid expansion in recent years. HIV-1 pol (1065 nt) and env (447 nt) genes were sequenced to construct phylogenetic trees. The evolutionary rates, molecular clock phylogenies, and other evolutionary parameters were estimated from heterochronous genomic sequences of HIV-1 subtype B by the Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo method. We obtained 41 sera from 56 reported HIV-1-positive cases as of May 2009. The main route of infection was men who have sex with men (MSM). Dominant subtypes were subtype B in 32 cases (78%) followed by subtype CRF02_AG (9.8%). The phylogenetic analysis of the pol gene identified two clusters in subtype B sequences. Cluster 1 consisted of 21 cases including MSM and other routes of infection, and cluster 2 consisted of eight MSM cases. The tree analyses demonstrated very short branch lengths in cluster 1, suggesting a surprisingly active expansion of HIV-1 transmission during a short period with the same ancestor virus. Evolutionary analysis indicated that the outbreak started around the early 2000s. This study identified a current hot spot of HIV-1 transmission and potential seed of the epidemic in Mongolia. Comprehensive preventive measures targeting this group are urgently needed.

  16. Amphetamine-type stimulants and HIV infection among men who have sex with men: implications on HIV research and prevention from a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Nga Thi Thu Vu; Lisa Maher; Iryna Zablotska

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: HIV infections and the use of amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) among men who have sex with men (MSM) have been increasing internationally, but the role of ATS use as a co-factor for HIV infection remains unclear. We aimed to summarize the association between ATS use and HIV infection among MSM. Methods: We conducted a systematic search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, GLOBAL HEALTH and PsycINFO for relevant English, peer-reviewed articles of quantitative studies published between 1980 and 2...

  17. National HIV prevalence estimates for sub-Saharan Africa: controlling selection bias with Heckman-type selection models

    Hogan, Daniel R; Salomon, Joshua A; Canning, David; Hammitt, James K; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Bärnighausen, Till

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Population-based HIV testing surveys have become central to deriving estimates of national HIV prevalence in sub-Saharan Africa. However, limited participation in these surveys can lead to selection bias. We control for selection bias in national HIV prevalence estimates using a novel approach, which unlike conventional imputation can account for selection on unobserved factors. Methods For 12 Demographic and Health Surveys conducted from 2001 to 2009 (N=138 300), we predict HIV status among those missing a valid HIV test with Heckman-type selection models, which allow for correlation between infection status and participation in survey HIV testing. We compare these estimates with conventional ones and introduce a simulation procedure that incorporates regression model parameter uncertainty into confidence intervals. Results Selection model point estimates of national HIV prevalence were greater than unadjusted estimates for 10 of 12 surveys for men and 11 of 12 surveys for women, and were also greater than the majority of estimates obtained from conventional imputation, with significantly higher HIV prevalence estimates for men in Cote d'Ivoire 2005, Mali 2006 and Zambia 2007. Accounting for selective non-participation yielded 95% confidence intervals around HIV prevalence estimates that are wider than those obtained with conventional imputation by an average factor of 4.5. Conclusions Our analysis indicates that national HIV prevalence estimates for many countries in sub-Saharan African are more uncertain than previously thought, and may be underestimated in several cases, underscoring the need for increasing participation in HIV surveys. Heckman-type selection models should be included in the set of tools used for routine estimation of HIV prevalence. PMID:23172342

  18. Global Dispersal Pattern of HIV Type 1 Subtype CRF01_AE

    Poljak, Mario; Angelis, Konstantinos; Albert, Jan; Mamais, Ioannis; Magiorkinis, Gkikas; Hatzakis, Angelos; Hamouda, Osamah; Stuck, Daniel; Vercauteren, Jurgen; Wensing, Annemarie; Alexiev, Ivailo

    2016-01-01

    Background. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) subtype CRF01_AE originated in Africa and then passed to Thailand, where it established a major epidemic. Despite the global presence of CRF01_AE, little is known about its subsequent dispersal pattern. Methods. We assembled a global data set of 2736 CRF01_AE sequences by pooling sequences from public databases and patient-cohort studies. We estimated viral dispersal patterns, using statistical phylogeographic analysis run over bootstrap...

  19. Infection and depletion of CD4+ group-1 innate lymphoid cells by HIV-1 via type-I interferon pathway.

    Juanjuan Zhao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs are severely depleted during chronic HIV-1 infection by unclear mechanisms. We report here that human ILC1s comprising of CD4+ and CD4- subpopulations were present in various human lymphoid organs but with different transcription programs and functions. Importantly, CD4+ ILC1s expressed HIV-1 co-receptors and were productively infected by HIV-1 in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, chronic HIV-1 infection activated and depleted both CD4+ and CD4- ILC1s, and impaired their cytokine production activity. Highly active antiretroviral (HAART therapy in HIV-1 patients efficiently rescued the ILC1 numbers and reduced their activation, but failed to restore their functionality. We also found that blocking type-I interferon (IFN-I signaling during HIV-1 infection in vivo in humanized mice prevented HIV-1 induced depletion or apoptosis of ILC1 cells. Therefore, we have identified the CD4+ ILC1 cells as a new target population for HIV-1 infection, and revealed that IFN-I contributes to the depletion of ILC1s during HIV-1 infection.

  20. Prevalence, incidence and determinants of herpes simplex virus type 2 infection among HIV-seronegative women at high-risk of HIV infection: a prospective study in Beira, Mozambique

    Meque, Ivete; Dubé, Karine; Feldblum, Paul J.; Clements, Archie C. A.; Zango, Arlinda; Cumbe, Fidelina; Chen, Pai Lien; Ferro, Josefo J.; van de Wijgert, Janneke H.

    2014-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence, incidence and determinants of herpes simplex type 2 (HSV-2) infection, and associations between HSV-2 and incident HIV infection, among women at higher risk for HIV infection in Beira, Mozambique. Between 2009 and 2012, 411 women aged 18-35 years at higher risk of HIV

  1. Short Communication: Prevalence of HIV Type 1 Transmitted Drug Resistance in Slovenia: 2005–2010

    Lunar, Maja M.; Židovec Lepej, Snježana; Abecasis, Ana B.; Tomažič, Janez; Vidmar, Ludvik; Karner, Primož; Vovko, Tomaž D.; Pečavar, Blaž; Maver, Polona J.; Seme, Katja

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Slovenia is a small European country with a total of 547 HIV-infected individuals cumulatively reported by the end of 2011. However, the estimated incidence rate of HIV infections increased from 7.0 per million in 2003 to 26.8 per million in 2011. In this study, we assessed the prevalence of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) in the past 6 years (2005–2010) and analyzed the time trend of the proportion of men having sex with men (MSM) and HIV-1 subtype B among newly diagnosed individuals in a 15-year period (1996–2010) in Slovenia. Among 150 patients included in the study, representing 63% of HIV-1 newly diagnosed patients in 2005–2010, TDR was found in seven patients (4.7%). The prevalence of TDR to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, and protease inhibitors was 2% (3/150), 2% (3/150), and 0.7% (1/150), respectively. The majority of patients were infected with subtype B (134/150, 89%), while subtype A was detected in 6.0% (9/150), subtype D in 1.3% (2/150), and subtype G and CRF02_AG in 0.7% (one patient each). Three of 150 sequences could not be typed. Infection with subtype B was found to be significantly associated with male gender, Slovenia being reported as the country of the patient's nationality and origin of the virus, CDC class A, mode of transmission with homosexual/bisexual contact, sex with an anonymous person, and a higher CD4+ count. Among patients carrying the subtype B virus, an MSM transmission route was reported in 87% of patients. Although the prevalence of TDR in Slovenia is still below the European average, active surveillance should be continued, especially among MSM, the most vulnerable population for HIV-1 infection in this part of Europe. PMID:22860694

  2. Short communication: prevalence of HIV type 1 transmitted drug resistance in Slovenia: 2005-2010.

    Lunar, Maja M; Židovec Lepej, Snježana; Abecasis, Ana B; Tomažič, Janez; Vidmar, Ludvik; Karner, Primož; Vovko, Tomaž D; Pečavar, Blaž; Maver, Polona J; Seme, Katja; Poljak, Mario

    2013-02-01

    Slovenia is a small European country with a total of 547 HIV-infected individuals cumulatively reported by the end of 2011. However, the estimated incidence rate of HIV infections increased from 7.0 per million in 2003 to 26.8 per million in 2011. In this study, we assessed the prevalence of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) in the past 6 years (2005-2010) and analyzed the time trend of the proportion of men having sex with men (MSM) and HIV-1 subtype B among newly diagnosed individuals in a 15-year period (1996-2010) in Slovenia. Among 150 patients included in the study, representing 63% of HIV-1 newly diagnosed patients in 2005-2010, TDR was found in seven patients (4.7%). The prevalence of TDR to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, and protease inhibitors was 2% (3/150), 2% (3/150), and 0.7% (1/150), respectively. The majority of patients were infected with subtype B (134/150, 89%), while subtype A was detected in 6.0% (9/150), subtype D in 1.3% (2/150), and subtype G and CRF02_AG in 0.7% (one patient each). Three of 150 sequences could not be typed. Infection with subtype B was found to be significantly associated with male gender, Slovenia being reported as the country of the patient's nationality and origin of the virus, CDC class A, mode of transmission with homosexual/bisexual contact, sex with an anonymous person, and a higher CD4(+) count. Among patients carrying the subtype B virus, an MSM transmission route was reported in 87% of patients. Although the prevalence of TDR in Slovenia is still below the European average, active surveillance should be continued, especially among MSM, the most vulnerable population for HIV-1 infection in this part of Europe.

  3. Human papillomavirus prevalence and type distribution in 3603 HIV-positive and HIV-negative women in the general population of Tanzania

    Dartell, Myassa Arkam; Rasch, Vibeke; Kahesa, Crispin

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the Prevention of Cervical Cancer in Tanzania (PROTECT) study is to assess the prevalence of oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) and to determine the type distribution among women in the general population according to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status, in preparation for a po......The aim of the Prevention of Cervical Cancer in Tanzania (PROTECT) study is to assess the prevalence of oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) and to determine the type distribution among women in the general population according to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status, in preparation...

  4. Sero- and Molecular Epidemiology of HIV-1 in Papua Province, Indonesia

    Muhammad Qushai Yunifiar M

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS cause serious health problems and affect the Indonesian economy. Papua province has the highest prevalence of HIV infection in the country; however, epidemiological data are limited. Therefore, in order to reveal the current situation of HIV/AIDS in Papua province, sero- and molecular epidemiological studies of HIV were conducted. Methods: serological tests were conducted on 157 healthy individuals from the general population residing in Paniai, Papua. In addition, a molecular epidemiological study was then conducted on HIV type 1 (HIV-1 genes derived from infected individuals. Peripheral blood samples from HIV-1-positive individuals and 15 additionally enrolled, previously confirmed HIV-1-positive individuals were subjected to a genotypic analysis. Results: serological tests revealed that 2 out of 157 (1.27% healthy individuals were HIV-positive. In addition, HIV-1 subtyping revealed that subtype B and CRF01_AE were the major subtype and circulating recombinant form (CRF of HIV-1 prevalent in the region, while subtype A1 and a recombinant form including viral gene fragments of CRF01_AE and subtype B was also detected. In addition, HIV drug resistance-associated major mutations were detected in the reverse transcriptase gene derived from infected individual on antiretroviral therapy. Conclusion: these results provide important information for clearer understanding on the current situation of HIV/AIDS in Papua province in Indonesia.

  5. A multi-level modeling approach examining PTSD symptom reduction during prolonged exposure therapy: moderating effects of number of trauma types experienced, having an HIV-related index trauma, and years since HIV diagnosis among HIV-positive adults.

    Junglen, Angela G; Smith, Brian C; Coleman, Jennifer A; Pacella, Maria L; Boarts, Jessica M; Jones, Tracy; Feeny, Norah C; Ciesla, Jeffrey A; Delahanty, Douglas L

    2017-11-01

    People living with HIV (PLWH) have extensive interpersonal trauma histories and higher rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) than the general population. Prolonged exposure (PE) therapy is efficacious in reducing PTSD across a variety of trauma samples; however, research has not examined factors that influence how PTSD symptoms change during PE for PLWH. Using multi-level modeling, we examined the potential moderating effect of number of previous trauma types experienced, whether the index trauma was HIV-related or not, and years since HIV diagnosis on PTSD symptom reduction during a 10-session PE protocol in a sample of 51 PLWH. In general, PTSD symptoms decreased linearly throughout the PE sessions. Experiencing more previous types of traumatic events was associated with a slower rate of PTSD symptom change. In addition, LOCF analyses found that participants with a non-HIV-related versus HIV-related index trauma had a slower rate of change for PTSD symptoms over the course of PE. However, analyses of raw data decreased this finding to marginal. Years since HIV diagnosis did not impact PTSD symptom change. These results provide a better understanding of how to tailor PE to individual clients and aid clinicians in approximating the rate of symptom alleviation. Specifically, these findings underscore the importance of accounting for trauma history and index trauma type when implementing a treatment plan for PTSD in PLWH.

  6. HPV type infection in different anogenital sites among HIV-positive Brazilian women

    Donadi Eduardo Antonio

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To evaluate the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV types, and risk factors for HPV positivity across cervix, vagina and anus, we conducted a study among 138 women with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. Goal Compare the prevalence of different HPV types and the risk factors for HPV positivity in three sites. Results The most frequently detected HPV types in all sites were, in decreasing order, HPV16, 53, 18, 61 and 81. Agreement between the cervix and vagina was good (kappa 0.60 – 0.80 for HPV16 and 53 and excellent (Kappa > 0.80 for HPV18 and 61. HPV positivity was inversely associated with age for all combinations including the anal site. Conclusion In HIV positive women, HPV18 is the most spread HPV type found in combinations of anal and genital sites. The relationship of anal to genital infection has implications for the development of anal malignancies. Thus, the efficacy of the current HPV vaccine may be considered not only for the cervix, but also for prevention of HPV18 anal infection among immunossuppressed individuals.

  7. Frequency of HIV type 2 infections among blood donor population from India: A 10-year experience

    Kannangai R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In India, HIV-2 epidemic is alongside with HIV-1. Blood banks are introducing nucleic acid testing (NAT for screening. The limitation of NAT systems is the inability to detect HIV-2. Materials and Method : An analysis of HIV screening of a blood bank at a tertiary care center from 1998 to 2007 was carried out. Results : A total of 175026 donors were screened by serological assays and 789 were reactive for HIV antibody. Only 478 (61% were confirmed positive by Western blot/immunoblot. There were 465 (97.2% donations positive for HIV-1, 6 (1.3% for HIV-2 (monotypic infection and 7 (1.5% for HIV-1 and HIV-2 (dual infection. Conclusion : We show the presence of HIV-2 infection among the blood donors and the need for incorporating HIV-2 detection also in the NAT systems.

  8. Types and predictors of partner reactions to HIV status disclosure among HIV-infected adult Nigerians in a tertiary hospital in the Niger Delta

    Ogoina, Dimie; Ikuabe, Peter; Ebuenyi, Ikenna; Harry, Tubonye; Inatimi, Otonyo; Chukwueke, Ogechi

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to describe the types and determinants of partner reactions to HIV-status disclosure among adults attending an antiretroviral therapy-(ART) clinic in the Bayelsa State, Nigeria. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was undertaken between January and March 2013 among

  9. Genital Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Shedding Among Adults With and Without HIV Infection in Uganda.

    Phipps, Warren; Nakku-Joloba, Edith; Krantz, Elizabeth M; Selke, Stacy; Huang, Meei-Li; Kambugu, Fred; Orem, Jackson; Casper, Corey; Corey, Lawrence; Wald, Anna

    2016-02-01

    Despite the high prevalence of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) in sub-Saharan Africa, the natural history of infection among Africans is not well characterized. We evaluated the frequency of genital HSV shedding in HIV-seropositive and HIV-seronegative men and women in Uganda. Ninety-three HSV-2-seropositive Ugandan adults collected anogenital swab specimens for HSV DNA quantification by polymerase chain reaction 3 times daily for 6 weeks. HSV-2 was detected from 2484 of 11 283 swab specimens collected (22%), with a median quantity of 4.3 log10 HSV copies/mL (range, 2.2-8.9 log10 HSV copies/mL). Genital lesions were reported on 749 of 3875 days (19%), and subclinical HSV shedding was detected from 1480 of 9113 swab specimens (16%) collected on days without lesions. Men had higher rates of total HSV shedding (relative risk [RR], 2.0 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.3-2.9]; P genital lesions (RR, 2.1 [95% CI, 1.2-3.4]; P = .005), compared with women. No differences in shedding rates or lesion frequency were observed based on HIV serostatus. HSV-2 shedding frequency and quantity are high among HSV-2-seropositive adults in sub-Saharan Africa, including persons with and those without HIV infection. Shedding rates were particularly high among men, which may contribute to the high prevalence of HSV-2 and early acquisition among African women. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. HIV type 1 chemokine receptor usage in mother-to-child transmission.

    Salvatori, F; Scarlatti, G

    2001-07-01

    To investigate the role of the HIV-1 phenotype in mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission, we evaluated coreceptor usage and replication kinetics in chemokine receptor-expressing U87MG.CD4 cells of primary isolates from 32 HIV-1-infected mothers of Italian origin, none under preventive antiretroviral therapy, and from their infected infants. Five of 15 mothers of infected children and 2 of 17 mothers of uninfected children harbored viruses able to use CXCR4 as coreceptor. However, all isolates used CCR5, alone or in association with CXCR4. The replicative capacity in coreceptor-expressing cells of the viral isolates did not differ between the two groups of mothers. All mothers with an R5 virus transmitted a virus with the same coreceptor usage, whereas those four with a multitropic virus transmitted such a virus in one case. Although the presence of a mixed viral population was documented in the mothers, we did not observe transmission solely of X4 viruses. Interestingly, the only child infected with a multitropic virus carried a defective CCR5 allele. Analysis of the env V3 region of the provirus from this child revealed infection with multiple viral variants with a predominance of R5-type over X4-type sequences. These findings show that CCR5 usage of a viral isolate is not a discriminating risk factor for vertical transmission. Furthermore, X4 viruses can be transmitted to the newborn, although less frequently. In particular, we document the transmission of multiple viral variants with different coreceptor usage in a Delta32 CCR5 heterozygous child, and demonstrate that the heterozygous genotype per se does not contribute to the restriction of R5-type virus spread.

  11. Type and severity of intimate partner violence and its relationship with PTSD in HIV-infected women.

    Hansrod, Fatima; Spies, Georgina; Seedat, Soraya

    2015-01-01

    HIV has an impact on the presence and severity of both intimate partner violence (IPV) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in infected women. However, the relationship of type and severity of IPV with PTSD in this population has not been adequately explored. We focus on the association between the type and severity of IPV and HIV status and PTSD in a sample of South African women. One hundred and sixty-nine women (114 HIV-positive and 55 HIV-negative controls), matched for geographical area, education, and socio-economic status, were recruited from HIV clinics. Clinical and demographic data were collected, including data on childhood trauma, other traumatic life events, IPV, posttraumatic stress symptoms, problematic alcohol use, and depressive symptoms. HIV-positive women had significantly more depressive symptoms, alcohol abuse, and childhood trauma exposure as well as significantly higher rates of PTSD (25.4%) when compared with uninfected women (10.9%). No significant group differences in the rate, pattern, and severity of physical, sexual, psychological, injury, and negotiation IPV were found. In logistic regression analysis, the rate and severity category of IPV did not significantly predict PTSD in HIV-positive women when childhood trauma and life events were controlled for. Our results indicate the need for screening for alcohol abuse, PTSD and depressive symptoms at HIV wellness, and ARV clinics. The high rates of PTSD in HIV-positive women indicate the need for specialized programs to manage PTSD and minimize negative sequelae in this population. These results also highlight the need for improved screening and prevention of childhood trauma and IPV both in infected and uninfected women.

  12. The National NeuroAIDS Tissue Consortium brain gene array: two types of HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment.

    Benjamin B Gelman

    Full Text Available The National NeuroAIDS Tissue Consortium (NNTC performed a brain gene expression array to elucidate pathophysiologies of Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders.Twenty-four human subjects in four groups were examined A Uninfected controls; B HIV-1 infected subjects with no substantial neurocognitive impairment (NCI; C Infected with substantial NCI without HIV encephalitis (HIVE; D Infected with substantial NCI and HIVE. RNA from neocortex, white matter, and neostriatum was processed with the Affymetrix® array platform.With HIVE the HIV-1 RNA load in brain tissue was three log(10 units higher than other groups and over 1,900 gene probes were regulated. Interferon response genes (IFRGs, antigen presentation, complement components and CD163 antigen were strongly upregulated. In frontal neocortex downregulated neuronal pathways strongly dominated in HIVE, including GABA receptors, glutamate signaling, synaptic potentiation, axon guidance, clathrin-mediated endocytosis and 14-3-3 protein. Expression was completely different in neuropsychologically impaired subjects without HIVE. They had low brain HIV-1 loads, weak brain immune responses, lacked neuronally expressed changes in neocortex and exhibited upregulation of endothelial cell type transcripts. HIV-1-infected subjects with normal neuropsychological test results had upregulation of neuronal transcripts involved in synaptic transmission of neostriatal circuits.Two patterns of brain gene expression suggest that more than one pathophysiological process occurs in HIV-1-associated neurocognitive impairment. Expression in HIVE suggests that lowering brain HIV-1 replication might improve NCI, whereas NCI without HIVE may not respond in kind; array results suggest that modulation of transvascular signaling is a potentially promising approach. Striking brain regional differences highlighted the likely importance of circuit level disturbances in HIV/AIDS. In

  13. Health Insurance Type and Control of Hypertension Among US Women Living With and Without HIV Infection in the Women's Interagency HIV Study.

    Ludema, Christina; Cole, Stephen R; Eron, Joseph J; Holmes, G Mark; Anastos, Kathryn; Cocohoba, Jennifer; Cohen, Marge H; Cooper, Hannah L F; Golub, Elizabeth T; Kassaye, Seble; Konkle-Parker, Deborah; Metsch, Lisa; Milam, Joel; Wilson, Tracey E; Adimora, Adaora A

    2017-06-01

    Health care access is an important determinant of health. We assessed the effect of health insurance status and type on blood pressure control among US women living with (WLWH) and without HIV. We used longitudinal cohort data from the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). WIHS participants were included at their first study visit since 2001 with incident uncontrolled blood pressure (BP) (i.e., BP ≥140/90 and at which BP at the prior visit was controlled (i.e., insured via Medicaid, were African-American, and had a yearly income ≤$12,000. Among participants living with HIV, comparing the uninsured to those with Medicaid yielded an 18-month BP control risk difference of 0.16 (95% CI: 0.10, 0.23). This translates into a number-needed-to-treat (or insure) of 6; to reduce the caseload of WLWH with uncontrolled BP by one case, five individuals without insurance would need to be insured via Medicaid. Blood pressure control was similar among WLWH with private insurance and Medicaid. There were no differences observed by health insurance status on 18-month risk of BP control among the HIV-uninfected participants. These results underscore the importance of health insurance for hypertension control-especially for people living with HIV. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2017. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  14. Molecular tracing of sexual HIV type 1 transmission in the southwest border of China

    Bao, L. L.; Vidal, Nicole; Fang, H.; Deng, W.; Chen, S.; Guo, W. Z.; Qin, C.; Peeters, Martine; Delaporte, Eric; Andrieu, J. M.; Lu, Wei

    2008-01-01

    Since the first outbreak of HIV-1 was reported in heroin users in China in 1989, HIV-1 has spread steadily among injection drug users, leading to an exponential growth of nationwide outbreaks from 1998 to 2004. However, the impact of sexual transmission on outbreaks of HIV in China's general population is still unclear. Through a governmental HIV/AIDS surveillance program, an HIV serological study was conducted in volunteers between 1996 and 2005 in Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture of ...

  15. Prevalence and Type Distribution of Human Papillomavirus Among 1813 Men in Tanzania and the Relationship to HIV Status

    Olesen, Tina Bech; Iftner, Thomas; Mwaiselage, Julius

    2013-01-01

    Infection with high-risk (HR) human papillomavirus (HPV) is associated with penile cancer in men, cervical cancer in women, and anal cancer and certain types of head and neck cancers in both sexes. Few studies have assessed the prevalence and type distribution of HPV among men in sub-Saharan Africa......, where the rates of HIV and penile and cervical cancer are high....

  16. Lack of protection against vertical transmission of HIV-1 by interferons produced during pregnancy in a cohort from East African republic of Malawi

    Zachar, V.; Fazio-Tirrozzo, G.; Fink, T.; Roberts, D. J.; Broadhead, R. L.; Brabin, B.; Ebbesen, P.

    2000-01-01

    Interferons (IFNs) associated with pregnancy were studied for their possible role in inhibition of vertical transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). A study group was composed of 43 HIV-1-positive mothers, of whom 15 transmitted the virus to the offspring and 28 did not. The

  17. Impact of HIV Type 1 DNA Levels on Spontaneous Disease Progression: A Meta-Analysis

    Tsiara, Chrissa G; Nikolopoulos, Georgios K; Bagos, Pantelis G

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Several studies have reported the prognostic strength of HIV-1 DNA with variable results however. The aims of the current study were to estimate more accurately the ability of HIV-1 DNA to predict progression of HIV-1 disease toward acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) or death...... of primary studies indicated that HIV-1 DNA was a significantly better predictor than HIV-1 RNA of either AIDS alone (ratio of RRs=1.47, 95% CI: 1.05-2.07) or of combined (AIDS or death) progression outcomes (ratio of RRs=1.51, 95% CI: 1.11-2.05). HIV-1 DNA is a strong predictor of HIV-1 disease progression...

  18. Investigating signs of recent evolution in the pool of proviral HIV type 1 DNA during years of successful HAART

    Mens, Helene; Pedersen, Anders G; Jørgensen, Louise B

    2007-01-01

    In order to shed light on the nature of the persistent reservoir of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), we investigated signs of recent evolution in the pool of proviral DNA in patients on successful HAART. Pro-viral DNA, corresponding to the C2-V3-C3 region of the HIV-1 env gene...... there were temporal trends indicating ongoing replication and evolution. In summary, it was not possible to detect definitive signs of ongoing evolution in either the bulk-sequenced or the clonal data with the methods employed here, but our results could be consistent with localized expression of archival...

  19. Differential expression of human beta defensins in placenta and detection of allelic variants in the DEFB1 gene from HIV-1 positive mothers Expresión diferencial en placenta de beta-defensinas humanas y detección de variantes alélicas en el gen DEFB1 de madres positivas para VIH-1

    María Teresa Rugeles

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Low infection rates in neonates born to HIV-1-seropositive mothers highlight the existence of natural defense mechanisms in the maternal-fetal interface. Human beta defensins (HBDs inhibit HIV-1 replication in vitro and their variants are associated with HIV-1 resistance/susceptibility.
    Objective. Levels of HBD mRNA expression in placentas were obtained from seropositive and healthy mothers to determine whether HIV-1 infection induces anti-viral factors.
    Materials and methods. HBD-1, -2 and -3 transcripts were quantified by real time RT-PCR, and A692G/G1654A/A1836G variants in the DEFB1 gene were evaluated by sequencing.
    Results. Transcript levels of HBD-1 were significantly higher, and those of HBD-3 were lower in placenta from seropositive mothers compared to controls. Additionally, simultaneous presence of the A692G A/G and A1836G G/G genotypes was associated with high expression of HBD-1 in all populations and the A692G variant in babies born to seropositive mothers was in Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium.
    Conclusion. Contrasting results in levels of HBDs were probably due to viral stimuli and suggest that HIV-1 induce a differential expression of HBDs in placenta and these proteins could be involved in protecting against HIV-1 at least early in pregnancy. However, it was not possible to associate these findings directly with protection against HIV-1 vertical transmission since none of the newborn infants became infected.
    Introducción. Las bajas tasas de infección en neonatos nacidos de madres seropositivas para el VIH-1 resaltan la existencia de mecanismos de defensa natural en la interfase materno-fetal. Las beta-defensinas humanas inhiben la replicación del VIH-1 in vitro y sus polimorfismos están asociados con la resistencia o susceptibilidad al VIH-1.
    Objetivo. Comparar los niveles de expresión de ARNm de beta-defensinas humanas en placentas de madres seropositivas y en seronegativas para

  20. Changes in the topology of gene expression networks by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) integration in macrophages.

    Soto-Girón, María Juliana; García-Vallejo, Felipe

    2012-01-01

    One key step of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection is the integration of its viral cDNA. This process is mediated through complex networks of host-virus interactions that alter several normal cell functions of the host. To study the complexity of disturbances in cell gene expression networks by HIV-1 integration, we constructed a network of human macrophage genes located close to chromatin regions rich in proviruses. To perform the network analysis, we selected 28 genes previously identified as the target of cDNA integration and their transcriptional profiles were obtained from GEO Profiles (NCBI). A total of 2770 interactions among the 28 genes located around the HIV-1 proviruses in human macrophages formed a highly dense main network connected to five sub-networks. The overall network was significantly enriched by genes associated with signal transduction, cellular communication and regulatory processes. To simulate the effects of HIV-1 integration in infected macrophages, five genes with the most number of interaction in the normal network were turned off by putting in zero the correspondent expression values. The HIV-1 infected network showed changes in its topology and alteration in the macrophage functions reflected in a re-programming of biosynthetic and general metabolic process. Understanding the complex virus-host interactions that occur during HIV-1 integration, may provided valuable genomic information to develop new antiviral treatments focusing on the management of some specific gene expression networks associated with viral integration. This is the first gene network which describes the human macrophages genes interactions related with HIV-1 integration. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Broad, Intense Anti-Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Ex Vivo CD8+ Responses in HIV Type 1-Infected Patients: Comparison with Anti-Epstein-Barr Virus Responses and Changes during Antiretroviral Therapy

    Dalod, Marc; Dupuis, Marion; Deschemin, Jean-Christophe; Sicard, Didier; Salmon, Dominique; Delfraissy, Jean-Francois; Venet, Alain; Sinet, Martine; Guillet, Jean-Gerard

    1999-01-01

    The ex vivo antiviral CD8+ repertoires of 34 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-seropositive patients with various CD4+ T-cell counts and virus loads were analyzed by gamma interferon enzyme-linked immunospot assay, using peptides derived from HIV type 1 and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Most patients recognized many HIV peptides, with markedly high frequencies, in association with all the HLA class I molecules tested. We found no correlation between the intensity of anti-HIV CD8+ responses and the CD4+ counts or virus load. In contrast, the polyclonality of anti-HIV CD8+ responses was positively correlated with the CD4+ counts. The anti-EBV responses were significantly less intense than the anti-HIV responses and were positively correlated with the CD4+ counts. Longitudinal follow-up of several patients revealed the remarkable stability of the anti-HIV and anti-EBV CD8+ responses in two patients with stable CD4+ counts, while both antiviral responses decreased in two patients with obvious progression toward disease. Last, highly active antiretroviral therapy induced marked decreases in the number of anti-HIV CD8+ T cells, while the anti-EBV responses increased. These findings emphasize the magnitude of the ex vivo HIV-specific CD8+ responses at all stages of HIV infection and suggest that the CD8+ hyperlymphocytosis commonly observed in HIV infection is driven mainly by virus replication, through intense, continuous activation of HIV-specific CD8+ T cells until ultimate progression toward disease. Nevertheless, highly polyclonal anti-HIV CD8+ responses may be associated with a better clinical status. Our data also suggest that a decrease of anti-EBV CD8+ responses may occur with depletion of CD4+ T cells, but this could be restored by highly active antiretroviral treatment. PMID:10438796

  2. Incidence and prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus with HIV infection in Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Prioreschi, A; Munthali, R J; Soepnel, L; Goldstein, J A; Micklesfield, L K; Aronoff, D M; Norris, S A

    2017-03-29

    This systematic review aims to investigate the incidence and prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in patients with HIV infection in African populations. Only studies reporting data from Africa were included. A systematic search was conducted using four databases for articles referring to HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy, and T2DM in Africa. Articles were excluded if they reported data on children, animals or type 1 diabetes exclusively. Incidence of T2DM and prevalence of T2DM. Risk ratios were generated for pooled data using random effects models. Bias was assessed using an adapted Cochrane Collaboration bias assessment tool. Of 1056 references that were screened, only 20 were selected for inclusion. Seven reported the incidence of T2DM in patients with HIV infection, eight reported the prevalence of T2DM in HIV-infected versus uninfected individuals and five reported prevalence of T2DM in HIV-treated versus untreated patients. Incidence rates ranged from 4 to 59 per 1000 person years. Meta-analysis showed no significant differences between T2DM prevalence in HIV-infected individuals versus uninfected individuals (risk ratio (RR) =1.61, 95% CI 0.62 to 4.21, p=0.33), or between HIV-treated patients versus untreated patients (RR=1.38, 95% CI 0.66 to 2.87, p=0.39), and heterogeneity was high in both meta-analyses (I 2 =87% and 52%, respectively). Meta-analysis showed no association between T2DM prevalence and HIV infection or antiretroviral therapy; however, these results are limited by the high heterogeneity of the included studies and moderate-to-high risk of bias, as well as, the small number of studies included. There is a need for well-designed prospective longitudinal studies with larger population sizes to better assess incidence and prevalence of T2DM in African patients with HIV. Furthermore, screening for T2DM using gold standard methods in this population is necessary. PROSPERO42016038689. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For

  3. Types and predictors of partner reactions to HIV status disclosure among HIV-infected adult Nigerians in a tertiary hospital in the Niger Delta.

    Ogoina, Dimie; Ikuabe, Peter; Ebuenyi, Ikenna; Harry, Tubonye; Inatimi, Otonyo; Chukwueke, Ogechi

    2015-03-01

    Our aim was to describe the types and determinants of partner reactions to HIV-status disclosure among adults attending an antiretroviral therapy-(ART) clinic in the Bayelsa State, Nigeria. A cross-sectional study was undertaken between January and March 2013 among consecutive adult patients who had disclosed their HIV-status to their current sexual partner. Sociodemograhic data and types of initial and subsequent partner reactions to disclosure were obtained using interviewer-administered standardized-questionnaire. Independent determinants of reactions to disclosure were ascertained by unconditional logistic regression. Out of 123 study participants, 57.7% were females, 92% were receiving ART and 86.1% were currently married. Majority of the participants reported predominant positive or supportive initial (72.4%) and subsequent (89.5%) partner reactions to disclosure, with significant increase in positive reactions over time. Positive initial partner reactions were independently associated with prior post-test counselling-(Odds ratio [OR]-6.5, 95% Confidence interval [CI]-1.3-31.6-p=0.02), age>35 years-(OR-5.8, 95% CI-1.6-20.9-p=0.008) and being healthy at time of disclosure-(OR-7.8, 95% CI-1.7-35.4-p=0.008). Subsequent positive partner reactions were significantly associated with receiving antiretroviral therapy and having only one lifetime sexual partner. Our results indicate that partner reactions to HIV-status disclosure are predominantly supportive. Disclosure counselling and early initiation of ART may be effective in improving HIV-status disclosure in Nigeria.

  4. Molecular Phylogenetics of Transmitted Drug Resistance in Newly Diagnosed HIV Type 1 Individuals in Denmark, a Nation-Wide Study

    Audelin, Anne Margrethe; Gerstoft, Jan; Obel, Niels

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Highly active antiretroviral treatment is compromised by viral resistance mutations. Transmitted drug resistance (TDR) is therefore monitored closely, but follow-up studies of these patients are limited. Virus from 1405 individuals diagnosed with HIV-1 in Denmark between 2001 and 2009...... without resistance mutations. We observed no difference in progression of the infection between individuals infected with TDR and individuals infected with wild-type HIV-1. The prevalence of TDR is low in Denmark and transmission of dual-drug-resistant HIV-1 is infrequent. The TDR isolates were shown...... resulting in a prevalence of 6.1%, with no changes over time. The main resistance mutations were nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) mutation 215 revertants, as well as nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) mutation 103N/S and protease inhibitor (PI) mutations 90M and 85V...

  5. Molecular phylogenetics of transmitted drug resistance in newly diagnosed HIV Type 1 individuals in Denmark: a nation-wide study

    Audelin, Anne Margrethe; Gerstoft, Jan; Obel, Niels

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Highly active antiretroviral treatment is compromised by viral resistance mutations. Transmitted drug resistance (TDR) is therefore monitored closely, but follow-up studies of these patients are limited. Virus from 1405 individuals diagnosed with HIV-1 in Denmark between 2001 and 2009...... without resistance mutations. We observed no difference in progression of the infection between individuals infected with TDR and individuals infected with wild-type HIV-1. The prevalence of TDR is low in Denmark and transmission of dual-drug-resistant HIV-1 is infrequent. The TDR isolates were shown...... resulting in a prevalence of 6.1%, with no changes over time. The main resistance mutations were nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) mutation 215 revertants, as well as nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) mutation 103N/S and protease inhibitor (PI) mutations 90M and 85V...

  6. Amphetamine-type stimulants and HIV infection among men who have sex with men: implications on HIV research and prevention from a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Thu Vu, Nga Thi; Maher, Lisa; Zablotska, Iryna

    2015-01-01

    Introduction HIV infections and the use of amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) among men who have sex with men (MSM) have been increasing internationally, but the role of ATS use as a co-factor for HIV infection remains unclear. We aimed to summarize the association between ATS use and HIV infection among MSM. Methods We conducted a systematic search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, GLOBAL HEALTH and PsycINFO for relevant English, peer-reviewed articles of quantitative studies published between 1980 and 25 April 2013. Pooled estimates of the association – prevalence rate ratios (PRR, cross-sectional studies), odds ratio (OR, case-control studies) and hazard ratio (HR, longitudinal studies), with 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) – were calculated using random-effects models stratified by study design and ATS group (meth/amphetamines vs. ecstasy). We assessed the existence of publication bias in funnel plots and checked for sources of heterogeneity using meta-regression and subgroup analysis. Results We identified 6710 article titles, screened 1716 abstracts and reviewed 267 full text articles. A total of 35 publications were eligible for data abstraction and meta-analysis, resulting in 56 records of ATS use. Most studies (31/35) were conducted in high-income countries. Published studies used different research designs, samples and measures of ATS use. The pooled association between meth/amphetamine use and HIV infection was statistically significant in all three designs (PRR=1.86; 95% CI: 1.57–2.17; OR=2.73; 95% CI: 2.16–3.46 and HR=3.43; 95% CI: 2.98–3.95, respectively, for cross-sectional, case-control and longitudinal studies). Ecstasy use was not associated with HIV infection in cross-sectional studies (PRR=1.15; 95% CI: 0.88–1.49; OR=3.04; 95% CI: 1.29–7.18 and HR=2.48; 95% CI: 1.42–4.35, respectively, for cross-sectional, case-control and longitudinal studies). Results in cross-sectional studies were highly heterogeneous due to issues with ATS measurement and

  7. Prevalence, type, and correlates of trauma exposure among adolescent men and women in Soweto, South Africa: implications for HIV prevention

    Kalysha Closson

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Youth trauma exposure is associated with syndemic HIV risk. We measured lifetime prevalence, type, and correlates of trauma experience by gender among adolescents living in the HIV hyper-endemic setting of Soweto, South Africa. Methods Using data from the Botsha Bophelo Adolescent Health Survey (BBAHS, prevalence of “ever” experiencing a traumatic event among adolescents (aged 14–19 was assessed using a modified Traumatic Event Screening Inventory-Child (TESI-C scale (19 items, study alpha = 0.63. We assessed self-reported number of potentially traumatic events (PTEs experienced overall and by gender. Gender-stratified multivariable logistic regression models assessed independent correlates of ‘high PTE score’ (≥7 PTEs. Results Overall, 767/830 (92% participants were included (58% adolescent women. Nearly all (99.7% reported experiencing at least one PTE. Median PTE was 7 [Q1,Q3: 5-9], with no gender differences (p = 0.19. Adolescent men reported more violent PTEs (e.g., “seen an act of violence in the community” whereas women reported more non-violent HIV/AIDS-related PTEs (e.g., “family member or someone close died of HIV/AIDS”. High PTE score was independently associated with high food insecurity among adolescent men and women (aOR = 2.63, 95%CI = 1.36-5.09; aOR = 2.57, 95%CI = 1.55-4.26, respectively. For men, high PTE score was also associated with older age (aOR = 1.40/year, 95%CI = 1.21-1.63; and recently moving to Soweto (aOR = 2.78, 95%CI = 1.14-6.76. Among women, high PTE score was associated with depression using the CES-D scale (aOR = 2.00, 95%CI = 1.31-3.03, and inconsistent condom use vs. no sexual experience (aOR = 2.69, 95%CI = 1.66-4.37. Conclusion Nearly all adolescents in this study experienced trauma, with gendered differences in PTE types and correlates, but not prevalence. Exposure to PTEs were distributed along social and gendered axes. Among adolescent women, associations with

  8. Prevalence, type, and correlates of trauma exposure among adolescent men and women in Soweto, South Africa: implications for HIV prevention.

    Closson, Kalysha; Dietrich, Janan Janine; Nkala, Busi; Musuku, Addy; Cui, Zishan; Chia, Jason; Gray, Glenda; Lachowsky, Nathan J; Hogg, Robert S; Miller, Cari L; Kaida, Angela

    2016-11-25

    Youth trauma exposure is associated with syndemic HIV risk. We measured lifetime prevalence, type, and correlates of trauma experience by gender among adolescents living in the HIV hyper-endemic setting of Soweto, South Africa. Using data from the Botsha Bophelo Adolescent Health Survey (BBAHS), prevalence of "ever" experiencing a traumatic event among adolescents (aged 14-19) was assessed using a modified Traumatic Event Screening Inventory-Child (TESI-C) scale (19 items, study alpha = 0.63). We assessed self-reported number of potentially traumatic events (PTEs) experienced overall and by gender. Gender-stratified multivariable logistic regression models assessed independent correlates of 'high PTE score' (≥7 PTEs). Overall, 767/830 (92%) participants were included (58% adolescent women). Nearly all (99.7%) reported experiencing at least one PTE. Median PTE was 7 [Q1,Q3: 5-9], with no gender differences (p = 0.19). Adolescent men reported more violent PTEs (e.g., "seen an act of violence in the community") whereas women reported more non-violent HIV/AIDS-related PTEs (e.g., "family member or someone close died of HIV/AIDS"). High PTE score was independently associated with high food insecurity among adolescent men and women (aOR = 2.63, 95%CI = 1.36-5.09; aOR = 2.57, 95%CI = 1.55-4.26, respectively). For men, high PTE score was also associated with older age (aOR = 1.40/year, 95%CI = 1.21-1.63); and recently moving to Soweto (aOR = 2.78, 95%CI = 1.14-6.76). Among women, high PTE score was associated with depression using the CES-D scale (aOR = 2.00, 95%CI = 1.31-3.03,) and inconsistent condom use vs. no sexual experience (aOR = 2.69, 95%CI = 1.66-4.37). Nearly all adolescents in this study experienced trauma, with gendered differences in PTE types and correlates, but not prevalence. Exposure to PTEs were distributed along social and gendered axes. Among adolescent women, associations with depression and inconsistent condom use suggest pathways for HIV risk. HIV

  9. Longing for belonging: Adolescents' experiences of living with HIV in different types of families in Swaziland

    Shabalala, F.S.

    2017-01-01

    This study illuminates adolescents’ everyday life experiences of living with HIV in different family contexts in the Manzini region in Swaziland, and the tactics they used to navigate the social and health system environments in their management of the HIV illness and disease. A significant

  10. Epidemiological networks and drug resistance of HIV type 1 in Krasnoyarsk region, Russia

    Rumyantseva, Olga A.; Olkhovskiy, Igor A.; Malysheva, Marina A.; Ruzaeva, Ludmila A.; Vasiliev, Alexander V.; Kazennova, Elena V.; Bobkova, Marina R.; Lukashov, Vladimir V.

    2009-01-01

    To study the molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 in Krasnoyarsk region, Russia, where HIV-1 has spread rapidly since 2000, we obtained pol sequences from individuals living in this region (n = 67) as well as in the geographically closely related Altay region (n = 13). In both regions, subtype A viruses

  11. HIV-1 molecular epidemiology among newly diagnosed HIV-1 individuals in Hebei, a low HIV prevalence province in China.

    Xinli Lu

    Full Text Available New human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 diagnoses are increasing rapidly in Hebei. The aim of this study presents the most extensive HIV-1 molecular epidemiology investigation in Hebei province in China thus far. We have carried out the most extensive systematic cross-sectional study based on newly diagnosed HIV-1 positive individuals in 2013, and characterized the molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 based on full length gag-partial pol gene sequences in the whole of Hebei. Nine HIV-1 genotypes based on full length gag-partial pol gene sequence were identified among 610 newly diagnosed naïve individuals. The four main genotypes were circulating recombinant form (CRF01_AE (53.4%, CRF07_BC (23.4%, subtype B (15.9%, and unique recombinant forms URFs (4.9%. Within 1 year, three new genotypes (subtype A1, CRF55_01B, CRF65_cpx, unknown before in Hebei, were first found among men who have sex with men (MSM. All nine genotypes were identified in the sexually contracted HIV-1 population. Among 30 URFs, six recombinant patterns were revealed, including CRF01_AE/BC (40.0%, CRF01_AE/B (23.3%, B/C (16.7%, CRF01_AE/C (13.3%, CRF01_AE/B/A2 (3.3% and CRF01_AE/BC/A2 (3.3%, plus two potential CRFs. This study elucidated the complicated characteristics of HIV-1 molecular epidemiology in a low HIV-1 prevalence northern province of China and revealed the high level of HIV-1 genetic diversity. All nine HIV-1 genotypes circulating in Hebei have spread out of their initial risk groups into the general population through sexual contact, especially through MSM. This highlights the urgency of HIV prevention and control in China.

  12. HIV-1 molecular epidemiology among newly diagnosed HIV-1 individuals in Hebei, a low HIV prevalence province in China.

    Lu, Xinli; Kang, Xianjiang; Liu, Yongjian; Cui, Ze; Guo, Wei; Zhao, Cuiying; Li, Yan; Chen, Suliang; Li, Jingyun; Zhang, Yuqi; Zhao, Hongru

    2017-01-01

    New human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) diagnoses are increasing rapidly in Hebei. The aim of this study presents the most extensive HIV-1 molecular epidemiology investigation in Hebei province in China thus far. We have carried out the most extensive systematic cross-sectional study based on newly diagnosed HIV-1 positive individuals in 2013, and characterized the molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 based on full length gag-partial pol gene sequences in the whole of Hebei. Nine HIV-1 genotypes based on full length gag-partial pol gene sequence were identified among 610 newly diagnosed naïve individuals. The four main genotypes were circulating recombinant form (CRF)01_AE (53.4%), CRF07_BC (23.4%), subtype B (15.9%), and unique recombinant forms URFs (4.9%). Within 1 year, three new genotypes (subtype A1, CRF55_01B, CRF65_cpx), unknown before in Hebei, were first found among men who have sex with men (MSM). All nine genotypes were identified in the sexually contracted HIV-1 population. Among 30 URFs, six recombinant patterns were revealed, including CRF01_AE/BC (40.0%), CRF01_AE/B (23.3%), B/C (16.7%), CRF01_AE/C (13.3%), CRF01_AE/B/A2 (3.3%) and CRF01_AE/BC/A2 (3.3%), plus two potential CRFs. This study elucidated the complicated characteristics of HIV-1 molecular epidemiology in a low HIV-1 prevalence northern province of China and revealed the high level of HIV-1 genetic diversity. All nine HIV-1 genotypes circulating in Hebei have spread out of their initial risk groups into the general population through sexual contact, especially through MSM. This highlights the urgency of HIV prevention and control in China.

  13. Vibrational Markovian modelling of footprints after the interaction of antibiotics with the packaging region of HIV type 1.

    Díaz, Humberto González; de Armas, Ronal Ramos; Molina, Reinaldo

    2003-11-01

    The design of novel anti-HIV compounds has now become a crucial area for scientists working in numerous interrelated fields of science such as molecular biology, medicinal chemistry, mathematical biology, molecular modelling and bioinformatics. In this context, the development of simple but physically meaningful mathematical models to represent the interaction between anti-HIV drugs and their biological targets is of major interest. One such area currently under investigation involves the targets in the HIV-RNA-packaging region. In the work described here, we applied Markov chain theory in an attempt to describe the interaction between the antibiotic paromomycin and the packaging region of the RNA in Type-1 HIV. In this model, a nucleic acid squeezed graph is used. The vertices of the graph represent the nucleotides while the edges are the phosphodiester bonds. A stochastic (Markovian) matrix was subsequently defined on this graph, an operation that codifies the probabilities of interaction between specific nucleotides of HIV-RNA and the antibiotic. The strength of these local interactions can be calculated through an inelastic vibrational model. The successive power of this matrix codifies the probabilities with which the vibrations after drug-RNA interactions vanish along the polynucleotide main chain. The sums of self-return probabilities in the k-vicinity of each nucleotide represent physically meaningful descriptors. A linear discriminant function was developed and gave rise to excellent discrimination in 80.8% of interacting and footprinted nucleotides. The Jackknife method was employed to assess the stability and predictability of the model. On the other hand, a linear regression model predicted the local binding affinity constants between a specific nucleotide and the antibiotic (R(2)=0.91, Q(2)=0.86). These kinds of models could play an important role either in the discovery of new anti-HIV compounds or the study of their mode of action.

  14. Compartmentalized human immunodeficiency virus type 1 originates from long-lived cells in some subjects with HIV-1-associated dementia.

    Schnell, Gretja; Spudich, Serena; Harrington, Patrick; Price, Richard W; Swanstrom, Ronald

    2009-04-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) invades the central nervous system (CNS) shortly after systemic infection and can result in the subsequent development of HIV-1-associated dementia (HAD) in a subset of infected individuals. Genetically compartmentalized virus in the CNS is associated with HAD, suggesting autonomous viral replication as a factor in the disease process. We examined the source of compartmentalized HIV-1 in the CNS of subjects with HIV-1-associated neurological disease and in asymptomatic subjects who were initiating antiretroviral therapy. The heteroduplex tracking assay (HTA), targeting the variable regions of env, was used to determine which HIV-1 genetic variants in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were compartmentalized and which variants were shared with the blood plasma. We then measured the viral decay kinetics of individual variants after the initiation of antiretroviral therapy. Compartmentalized HIV-1 variants in the CSF of asymptomatic subjects decayed rapidly after the initiation of antiretroviral therapy, with a mean half-life of 1.57 days. Rapid viral decay was also measured for CSF-compartmentalized variants in four HAD subjects (t(1/2) mean = 2.27 days). However, slow viral decay was measured for CSF-compartmentalized variants from an additional four subjects with neurological disease (t(1/2) range = 9.85 days to no initial decay). The slow decay detected for CSF-compartmentalized variants was not associated with poor CNS drug penetration, drug resistant virus in the CSF, or the presence of X4 virus genotypes. We found that the slow decay measured for CSF-compartmentalized variants in subjects with neurological disease was correlated with low peripheral CD4 cell count and reduced CSF pleocytosis. We propose a model in which infiltrating macrophages replace CD4(+) T cells as the primary source of productive viral replication in the CNS to maintain high viral loads in the CSF in a substantial subset of subjects with HAD.

  15. Compartmentalized human immunodeficiency virus type 1 originates from long-lived cells in some subjects with HIV-1-associated dementia.

    Gretja Schnell

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 invades the central nervous system (CNS shortly after systemic infection and can result in the subsequent development of HIV-1-associated dementia (HAD in a subset of infected individuals. Genetically compartmentalized virus in the CNS is associated with HAD, suggesting autonomous viral replication as a factor in the disease process. We examined the source of compartmentalized HIV-1 in the CNS of subjects with HIV-1-associated neurological disease and in asymptomatic subjects who were initiating antiretroviral therapy. The heteroduplex tracking assay (HTA, targeting the variable regions of env, was used to determine which HIV-1 genetic variants in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF were compartmentalized and which variants were shared with the blood plasma. We then measured the viral decay kinetics of individual variants after the initiation of antiretroviral therapy. Compartmentalized HIV-1 variants in the CSF of asymptomatic subjects decayed rapidly after the initiation of antiretroviral therapy, with a mean half-life of 1.57 days. Rapid viral decay was also measured for CSF-compartmentalized variants in four HAD subjects (t(1/2 mean = 2.27 days. However, slow viral decay was measured for CSF-compartmentalized variants from an additional four subjects with neurological disease (t(1/2 range = 9.85 days to no initial decay. The slow decay detected for CSF-compartmentalized variants was not associated with poor CNS drug penetration, drug resistant virus in the CSF, or the presence of X4 virus genotypes. We found that the slow decay measured for CSF-compartmentalized variants in subjects with neurological disease was correlated with low peripheral CD4 cell count and reduced CSF pleocytosis. We propose a model in which infiltrating macrophages replace CD4(+ T cells as the primary source of productive viral replication in the CNS to maintain high viral loads in the CSF in a substantial subset of subjects with HAD.

  16. No difference in in vitro susceptibility to HIV type 1 between high-risk HIV-negative Ethiopian commercial sex workers and low-risk control subjects

    Messele, T.; Rinke de Wit, T. F.; Brouwer, M.; Aklilu, M.; Birru, T.; Fontanet, A. L.; Schuitemaker, H.; Hamann, D.

    2001-01-01

    Host factors such as increased beta-chemokine production, HIV-1 coreceptor expression level, and HIV-1 coreceptor polymorphism have been thought to influence susceptibility to HIV-1 infection. To determine the protective role of these factors in Ethiopians who remained HIV-1 uninfected, despite

  17. Erk1 positively regulates osteoclast differentiation and bone resorptive activity.

    Yongzheng He

    Full Text Available The extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1 and 2 are widely-expressed and they modulate proliferation, survival, differentiation, and protein synthesis in multiple cell lineages. Altered ERK1/2 signaling is found in several genetic diseases with skeletal phenotypes, including Noonan syndrome, Neurofibromatosis type 1, and Cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome, suggesting that MEK-ERK signals regulate human skeletal development. Here, we examine the consequence of Erk1 and Erk2 disruption in multiple functions of osteoclasts, specialized macrophage/monocyte lineage-derived cells that resorb bone. We demonstrate that Erk1 positively regulates osteoclast development and bone resorptive activity, as genetic disruption of Erk1 reduced osteoclast progenitor cell numbers, compromised pit formation, and diminished M-CSF-mediated adhesion and migration. Moreover, WT mice reconstituted long-term with Erk1(-/- bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMNCs demonstrated increased bone mineral density as compared to recipients transplanted with WT and Erk2(-/- BMMNCs, implicating marrow autonomous, Erk1-dependent osteoclast function. These data demonstrate Erk1 plays an important role in osteoclast functions while providing rationale for the development of Erk1-specific inhibitors for experimental investigation and/or therapeutic modulation of aberrant osteoclast function.

  18. HIV risks vary according to type of sex work in a cross-sectional survey from Nagaland, India.

    O'Halloran, Anna B Z; Armstrong, Gregory; Medhi, Gajendra K; Sono, Collins Z; Mahanta, Jagadish; Kermode, Michelle

    2014-11-12

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a significant problem among female sex workers (FSWs) in Nagaland, India. Place of solicitation and sex vary considerably in this context. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between categories of sex work and HIV risks. In 2009 a survey was undertaken among 417 FSWs in Dimapur, Nagaland using an interviewer-administered questionnaire and blood and urine samples. Using this data, we constructed a typology of sex work by combining usual place of solicitation and place of sex, and examined variations in demographics, sex work patterns, sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV prevalence across typology categories. Binary logistic regression analyses were done to examine the association between category of sex work and HIV, STIs, and condom use. By combining place of solicitation with place of sex, seven distinct categories of sex work emerged. The largest category were women who usually solicited in a public place and had sex in a rented room or lodge (31.7%, n = 132). One-tenth of participants were HIV positive (10.3%) and 35.4% had at least one STI (reactive syphilis serology, gonorrhoea or chlamydia). FSWs who both solicited and entertained in a rented room or lodge (OR = 13.3; 95% CI 2.2, 81.5) and those who solicited by phone and had sex in a rented room or lodge (OR = 6.3; 95% CI 1.0, 38.0) were more likely to be HIV positive compared to home-based FSWs. Women who both solicited and entertained in public (OR = 6.7; 95% CI 1.6, 28.0) and who solicited in public and entertained in a rented room or lodge (OR = 2.5; 95% CI 1.1, 6.0) were more likely to test positive for an STI compared to home-based FSWs. The results indicate that different categories of sex work are associated with different HIV and STI risk profiles. Local contextual understanding of the different types of sex work and the associated levels of risk assist NGOs to target their interventions more

  19. Regulated production and anti-HIV type 1 activities of cytidine deaminases APOBEC3B, 3F, and 3G.

    Rose, Kristine M; Marin, Mariana; Kozak, Susan L; Kabat, David

    2005-07-01

    APOBEC3G and 3F (A3G and A3F) cytidine deaminases incorporate into retroviral cores where they lethally hypermutate nascent DNA reverse transcripts. As substantiated here, the viral infectivity factor (Vif) encoded by human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) binds A3G and A3F and induces their degradation, thereby precluding their incorporation into viral progeny. Previous evidence suggested that A3G is expressed in H9 and other nonpermissive cells that contain this antiviral defense but not in several permissive cells, and that overexpression of A3G or A3F makes permissive cells nonpermissive. Using a broader panel of cell lines, we confirmed a correlation between A3G and cellular abilities to inactivate HIV-1(Deltavif). However, there was a quantitative discrepancy because several cells with weak antiviral activities had similar amounts of wild-type A3G mRNA and protein compared to H9 cells. Antiviral activity of H9 cells was also attenuated in some conditions. These quantitative discrepancies could not be explained by the presence of A3F or other A3G paralogs in some of the cell lines. Thus, A3A, A3B, and A3C had weak but significant anti-HIV-1 activities and did not dominantly interfere with A3G or A3F antiviral functions. Control of A3G synthesis by the protein kinase C/mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway was also similar in permissive and nonpermissive cells. A3G in highly permissive cells is degraded by Vif, suggesting that it is not in a sequestered site, and is specifically incorporated in low amounts into HIV-1(Deltavif). Although A3G and/or A3F inactivate HIV-1(Deltavif) and are neutralized by Vif, the antiviral properties of cell lines are also influenced by other cellular and viral factors.

  20. Detection of Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) Genomes and HBV Drug Resistant Variants by Deep Sequencing Analysis of HBV Genomes in Immune Cell Subsets of HBV Mono-Infected and/or Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type-1 (HIV-1) and HBV Co-Infected Individuals

    Lee, Z.; Nishikawa, S.; Gao, S.; Eksteen, J. B.; Czub, M.; Gill, M. J.; Osiowy, C.; van der Meer, F.; van Marle, G.; Coffin, C. S.

    2015-01-01

    The hepatitis B virus (HBV) and the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) can infect cells of the lymphatic system. It is unknown whether HIV-1 co-infection impacts infection of peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) subsets by the HBV. Aims To compare the detection of HBV genomes and HBV sequences in unsorted PBMCs and subsets (i.e., CD4+ T, CD8+ T, CD14+ monocytes, CD19+ B, CD56+ NK cells) in HBV mono-infected vs. HBV/HIV-1 co-infected individuals. Methods Total PBMC and subsets isolated from 14 HBV mono-infected (4/14 before and after anti-HBV therapy) and 6 HBV/HIV-1 co-infected individuals (5/6 consistently on dual active anti-HBV/HIV therapy) were tested for HBV genomes, including replication indicative HBV covalently closed circular (ccc)-DNA, by nested PCR/nucleic hybridization and/or quantitative PCR. In CD4+, and/or CD56+ subsets from two HBV monoinfected cases, the HBV polymerase/overlapping surface region was analyzed by next generation sequencing. Results All analyzed whole PBMC from HBV monoinfected and HBV/HIV coinfected individuals were HBV genome positive. Similarly, HBV DNA was detected in all target PBMC subsets regardless of antiviral therapy, but was absent from the CD4+ T cell subset from all HBV/HIV-1 positive cases (PHBV monoinfected cases on tenofovir therapy, mutations at residues associated with drug resistance and/or immune escape (i.e., G145R) were detected in a minor percentage of the population. Summary HBV genomes and drug resistant variants were detectable in PBMC subsets from HBV mono-infected individuals. The HBV replicates in PBMC subsets of HBV/HIV-1 patients except the CD4+ T cell subpopulation. PMID:26390290

  1. Long-term results after cardiac surgery in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1).

    Mestres, Carlos A; Chuquiure, Javier E; Claramonte, Xavier; Muñoz, Josefa; Benito, Natividad; Castro, Miguel A; Pomar, José L; Miró, José M

    2003-06-01

    Assessment of long-term results of immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1)-infected patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Retrospective analysis of profile and outcomes of 31 HIV-1-infected patients (35 operations, 1985-2002). Twenty-seven males and four females (mean age 34.67) in three groups: acute infective endocarditis (AIE) 21 (67.74%), coronary (CAD) 5 (16.13%) and non-infective valvular disease (NIVD) 5 (16.13%). HIV factors: drug addiction (23-74.19%), homosexuality (5-16.12%), heterosexuality (3-9.67%), hemodialysis (1-3.22%). HIV stage: A (17), B (2), C (2) in AIE; A (2), B (3) in CAD and A (3), C (2) in NIVD. Mean preoperative CD4 count was 278 cells/microL (12infected patients requiring cardiac surgery, a decrease in AIE, however NIVD and CAD increasingly seen. Cardiac surgery did not blunt CD4 response induced by antiretrovirals. The late cause of death were not AIDS-related events.

  2. The effect of cholecalciferol and calcitriol on biochemical bone markers in HIV type 1-infected males

    Bang, Ulrich Christian; Kolte, Lilian; Hitz, Mette

    2013-01-01

    HIV-1-infected patients have an increased risk of osteoporosis and fractures. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the bone metabolism in HIV-1-infected patients exposed to calcitriol and cholecalciferol. We also investigated the relationship between T cells and bone markers. We...... conducted a placebo-controlled randomized study running for 16 weeks including 61 HIV-1-infected males, of whom 51 completed the protocol. Nineteen participants were randomized to daily treatment with (A) 0.5-1.0 μg calcitriol and 1,200 IU (30 μg) cholecalciferol, 17 participants to (B) 1,200 IU...

  3. Interleukin-27 is a potent inhibitor of cis HIV-1 replication in monocyte-derived dendritic cells via a type I interferon-independent pathway.

    Qian Chen

    Full Text Available IL-27, a member of the IL-12 family of cytokines, plays an important and diverse role in the function of the immune system. Whilst generally recognized as an anti-inflammatory cytokine, in addition IL-27 has been found to have broad anti-viral effects. Recently, IL-27 has been shown to be a potent inhibitor of HIV-1 infection in CD4+ T cells and macrophages. The main objective of this study was to see whether IL-27 has a similar inhibitory effect on HIV-1 replication in dendritic cells (DCs. Monocytes were differentiated into immature DCs (iDCs and mature DCs (mDCs with standard techniques using a combination of GM-CSF, IL-4 and LPS. Following differentiation, iDCs were infected with HIV-1 and co-cultured in the presence or absence of IL-27. IL-27 treated DCs were shown to be highly potent inhibitors of cis HIV-1, particularly of CCR5 tropic strains. Of note, other IL-12 family members (IL-12, IL-23 and IL-35 had no effect on HIV-1 replication. Microarray studies of IL-27 treated DCs showed no up-regulation of Type I (IFN gene expression. Neutralization of the Type-I IFN receptor had no impact on the HIV inhibition. Lastly, IL-27 mediated inhibition was shown to act post-viral entry and prior to completion of reverse transcription. These results show for the first time that IL-27 is a potent inhibitor of cis HIV-1 infection in DCs by a Type I IFN independent mechanism. IL-27 has previously been reported to inhibit HIV-1 replication in CD4+ T cells and macrophages, thus taken together, this cytokine is a potent anti-HIV agent against all major cell types targeted by the HIV-1 virus and may have a therapeutic role in the future.

  4. Prevalence of hepatitis B and delta according to HIV-type: a multi-country cross-sectional survey in West Africa.

    Coffie, Patrick A; Tchounga, Boris K; Bado, Guillaume; Kabran, Mathieu; Minta, Daouda K; Wandeler, Gilles; Gottlieb, Geoffrey S; Dabis, François; Eholie, Serge P; Ekouevi, Didier K

    2017-07-04

    In West Africa where HIV-1 and HIV-2 co-circulate, the co-infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis Delta virus (HDV) is not well described. This study aimed at estimating the prevalence of HBV and HBV/HDV co-infection according to HIV types and risk factors for HBV infection among West African HIV-infected patients. A cross-sectional survey was conducted within the IeDEA West Africa cohort from March to December 2012 in Côte d'Ivoire (three sites), Burkina Faso and Mali (one site each). All HIV-infected adult patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) or not who attended one of the participating HIV clinics during the study period and agreed to participate were included. Blood samples were collected and re-tested for HIV type discrimination, HBV and HDV serology as well as HBV viral load. Logistic regression was used to identify risk factors for HBV infection. A total of 791 patients were included: 192 HIV-1, 447 HIV-2 and 152 HIV-1&2 dually reactive. At time of sampling, 555 (70.2%) were on ART and median CD4+ cell count was 472/mm 3 (inter-quartile range [IQR]: IQR: 294-644). Sixty-seven (8.5%, 95% CI 6.6-10.6) patients were HBsAg positive without any difference according to HIV type (7.9% in HIV-1, 7.2% in HIV-1&2 dually reactive and 9.4% in HIV-2; p = 0.61). In multivariate logistic analysis, age ≤ 30 years old (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 5.00, 95% CI 1.96-12.76), age between 31 and 49 years old (aOR 1.78, 95% CI 1.00-2.21) and male gender (aOR 2.15, 95% CI 1.25-3.69) were associated with HBsAg positivity. HBV DNA testing was performed in 36 patients with blood sample available (25 on ART) and 8 (22.2%) had detectable HBV DNA. Among the HBsAg-positive individuals, 14.9% (95% CI 7.4-25.7) were also positive for anti-HDV antibody without any difference according to HIV type (28.6% in HIV-1, 14.3% in HIV-2 and 0.0% in HIV-1&2 dually reactive; p = 0.15). HBV and HBV/HDV co-infection are common in West Africa, irrespective of HIV type. Therefore

  5. Escape from Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1 Entry Inhibitors

    Carol D. Weiss

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV enters cells through a series of molecular interactions between the HIV envelope protein and cellular receptors, thus providing many opportunities to block infection. Entry inhibitors are currently being used in the clinic, and many more are under development. Unfortunately, as is the case for other classes of antiretroviral drugs that target later steps in the viral life cycle, HIV can become resistant to entry inhibitors. In contrast to inhibitors that block viral enzymes in intracellular compartments, entry inhibitors interfere with the function of the highly variable envelope glycoprotein as it continuously adapts to changing immune pressure and available target cells in the extracellular environment. Consequently, pathways and mechanisms of resistance for entry inhibitors are varied and often involve mutations across the envelope gene. This review provides a broad overview of entry inhibitor resistance mechanisms that inform our understanding of HIV entry and the design of new inhibitors and vaccines.

  6. Nucleic acids encoding modified human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) group M consensus envelope glycoproteins

    Haynes, Barton F [Durham, NC; Gao, Feng [Durham, NC; Korber, Bette T [Los Alamos, NM; Hahn, Beatrice H [Birmingham, AL; Shaw, George M [Birmingham, AL; Kothe, Denise [Birmingham, AL; Li, Ying Ying [Hoover, AL; Decker, Julie [Alabaster, AL; Liao, Hua-Xin [Chapel Hill, NC

    2011-12-06

    The present invention relates, in general, to an immunogen and, in particular, to an immunogen for inducing antibodies that neutralizes a wide spectrum of HIV primary isolates and/or to an immunogen that induces a T cell immune response. The invention also relates to a method of inducing anti-HIV antibodies, and/or to a method of inducing a T cell immune response, using such an immunogen. The invention further relates to nucleic acid sequences encoding the present immunogens.

  7. Carcinogenicity of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Types in HIV-Positive Women: A Meta-Analysis From HPV Infection to Cervical Cancer

    Clifford, Gary M.; Tully, Stephen; Franceschi, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background. Data on the relative carcinogenic potential of human papillomavirus (HPV) types among women infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (WHIV) are needed to inform prevention programs for this population. Methods. A systematic literature review and meta-analysis of high-risk HPV-type distribution in 19883 HIV-positive women was performed. The women, from 86 studies worldwide, included 11739 with normal cytological findings; 1784 with atypical squamous cells of undete...

  8. Two types of nanoparticle-based bio-barcode amplification assays to detect HIV-1 p24 antigen

    Dong Huahuang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV-1 p24 antigen is a major viral component of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 which can be used to identify persons in the early stage of infection and transmission of HIV-1 from infected mothers to infants. The detection of p24 is usually accomplished by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA with low detection sensitivity. Here we report the use of two bio-barcode amplification (BCA assays combined with polymerase chain reaction (PCR and gel electrophoresis to quantify HIV-1 p24 antigen. Method A pair of anti-p24 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs were used in BCA assays to capture HIV-1 p24 antigen in a sandwich format and allowed for the quantitative measurement of captured p24 using PCR and gel electrophoresis. The first 1 G12 mAb was coated on microplate wells or magnetic microparticles (MMPs to capture free p24 antigens. Captured p24 in turn captured 1D4 mAb coated gold nanoparticle probes (GNPs containing double-stranded DNA oligonucleotides. One strand of the oligonucleotides was covalently immobilized whereas the unbound complimentary bio-barcode DNA strand could be released upon heating. The released bio-barcode DNA was amplified by PCR, electrophoresed in agarose gel and quantified. Results The in-house ELISA assay was found to quantify p24 antigen with a limit of detection (LOD of 1,000 pg/ml and a linear range between 3,000 and 100,000 pg/ml. In contrast, the BCA-based microplate method yielded an LOD of 1 pg/ml and a linear detection range from 1 to 10,000 pg/ml. The BCA-based MMP method yielded an LOD of 0.1 pg/ml and a linear detection range from 0.1 to 1,000 pg/ml. Conclusions When combined with PCR and simple gel electrophoresis, BCA-based microplate and MMPs assays can be used to quantify HIV-1 p24 antigen. These methods are 3–4 orders of magnitude more sensitive than our in-house ELISA-based assay and may provide a useful approach to detect p24 in patients newly infected

  9. Inhibitory effects of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate on the life cycle of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1).

    Yamaguchi, Koushi; Honda, Mitsuo; Ikigai, Hajime; Hara, Yukihiko; Shimamura, Tadakatsu

    2002-01-01

    Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg), the major tea catechin, is known as a potent anti-bacterial agent. In addition, anti-tumor promoting, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative and antiviral activities have been reported. In the present study, we investigated possible anti-human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) activity of EGCg and its mechanisms of action in the viral life cycle. EGCg impinges on each step of the HIV life cycle. Thus, destruction of the viral particles, viral attachment to cells, post-adsorption entry into cells, reverse transcription (RT), viral production from chronically-infected cells, and the level of expression of viral mRNA, were analyzed using T-lymphoid (H9) and monocytoid (THP-1) cell systems, and antiviral protease activity was measured using a cell-free assay. Inhibitory effects of EGCg on specific binding of the virions to the cellular surfaces and changes in the steady state viral regulation (mRNA expression) due to EGCg were not observed. However, EGCg had a destructive effect on the viral particles, and post-adsorption entry and RT in acutely infected monocytoid cells were significantly inhibited at concentrations of EGCg greater than 1 microM, and protease kinetics were suppressed at a concentration higher than 10 microM in the cell-free study. Viral production by THP-1 cells chronically-infected with HIV-1 was also inhibited in a dose-dependent manner and the inhibitory effect was enhanced by liposome modification of EGCg. As expected, increased viral mRNA production was observed in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated chronically HIV-1-infected cells. This production was significantly inhibited by EGCg treatment of THP-1 cells. In contrast, production of HIV-1 viral mRNA in unstimulated or LPS-stimulated T-lymphoid cells (H9) was not inhibited by EGCg. Anti-HIV viral activity of EGCg may thus result from an interaction with several steps in the HIV-1 life cycle.

  10. The porcine circovirus type 1 capsid gene promoter improves antigen expression and immunogenicity in a HIV-1 plasmid vaccine

    Burger Marieta

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the promising avenues for development of vaccines against Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 and other human pathogens is the use of plasmid-based DNA vaccines. However, relatively large doses of plasmid must be injected for a relatively weak response. We investigated whether genome elements from Porcine circovirus type 1 (PCV-1, an apathogenic small ssDNA-containing virus, had useful expression-enhancing properties that could allow dose-sparing in a plasmid vaccine. Results The linearised PCV-1 genome inserted 5' of the CMV promoter in the well-characterised HIV-1 plasmid vaccine pTHgrttnC increased expression of the polyantigen up to 2-fold, and elicited 3-fold higher CTL responses in mice at 10-fold lower doses than unmodified pTHgrttnC. The PCV-1 capsid gene promoter (Pcap alone was equally effective. Enhancing activity was traced to a putative composite host transcription factor binding site and a "Conserved Late Element" transcription-enhancing sequence previously unidentified in circoviruses. Conclusions We identified a novel PCV-1 genome-derived enhancer sequence that significantly increased antigen expression from plasmids in in vitro assays, and improved immunogenicity in mice of the HIV-1 subtype C vaccine plasmid, pTHgrttnC. This should allow significant dose sparing of, or increased responses to, this and other plasmid-based vaccines. We also report investigations of the potential of other circovirus-derived sequences to be similarly used.

  11. An example of genetically distinct HIV type 1 variants in cerebrospinal fluid and plasma during suppressive therapy.

    Dahl, Viktor; Gisslen, Magnus; Hagberg, Lars; Peterson, Julia; Shao, Wei; Spudich, Serena; Price, Richard W; Palmer, Sarah

    2014-05-15

    We sequenced the genome of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) recovered from 70 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens and 29 plasma samples and corresponding samples obtained before treatment initiation from 17 subjects receiving suppressive therapy. More CSF sequences than plasma sequences were hypermutants. We determined CSF sequences and plasma sequences in specimens obtained from 2 subjects after treatment initiation. In one subject, we found genetically distinct CSF and plasma sequences, indicating that they came from HIV-1 from 2 different compartments, one potentially the central nervous system, during suppressive therapy. In addition, there was little evidence of viral evolution in the CSF during therapy, suggesting that continuous virus replication is not the major cause of viral persistence in the central nervous system.

  12. Behavioral intention to take up different types of HIV testing among men who have sex with men who were never-testers in Hong Kong.

    Wang, Zixin; Lau, Joseph T F; She, Rui; Ip, Mary; Jiang, Hui; Ho, Shara P Y; Yang, XueYing

    2018-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing is an important global prevention strategy but underutilized by local men who have sex with men (MSM). This study investigated the prevalence of behavioral intention to take up HIV testing (specific or any type), in the next six months among MSM who had not been tested for HIV in the last three years (never-testers) in Hong Kong. The data was based on 141 never-testers of 430 MSM who completed the anonymous baseline telephone survey of an ongoing randomized controlled trial from January 2015 to August 2015. Only 17.7% of them showed strong intention to take up any type of HIV testing in the next six months. Adjusted analysis showed that perceived benefit of HIV testing (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.29, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01, 1.66), perceived psychological barriers of HIV testing (AOR: 0.85, 95%CI: 0.73, 1.00), and perceived self-efficacy in taking up HIV testing (AOR: 1.28, 95%CI: 1.07, 1.52) were significantly associated with behavioral intention to take up any HIV testing. Perceived cue to action from non-governmental organization staff was positively associated with a marginal p-value of 0.077 (AOR: 2.37, 95%CI: 0.97, 5.77). It is warranted to strengthen perceived benefit, remove psychological barriers, and increase perceived self-efficacy related to HIV testing. Innovative and effective health promotions are greatly needed to increase HIV testing coverage among never-testers.

  13. HIV-1 and herpes simplex virus type-2 genital shedding among co-infected women using self-collected swabs in Chiang Rai, Thailand.

    Forhan, S E; Dunne, E F; Sternberg, M R; Whitehead, S J; Leelawiwat, W; Thepamnuay, S; Chen, C; Evans-Strickfaden, Tt; McNicholl, J M; Markowitz, L E

    2012-08-01

    We analysed 528 genital self-collected swabs (SCS) from 67 HIV-1 and herpes simplex virus type-2 (HSV-2) co-infected women collected during the placebo month of a randomized crossover clinical trial of suppressive acyclovir in Chiang Rai, Thailand. In this first longitudinal study of HIV-1 and HSV-2 co-infected women using genital SCS specimens, we found frequent mucosal HIV-1 shedding. Overall, 372 (70%) swabs had detectable HIV-1 RNA with median HIV-1 viral load of 2.61 log(10) copies/swab. We found no statistically significant association between detectable HIV-1 RNA and HSV-2 DNA in the same SCS specimen (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.40; 95% confidence intervals [CI], 0.78-2.60, P = 0.25). Only baseline HIV-1 plasma viral load was independently associated with genital HIV-1 RNA shedding (aOR, 7.6; 95% CI, 3.3-17.2, P genital sampling, and inclusion of genital sites other than the cervix.

  14. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV types Western blot (WB band profiles as potential surrogate markers of HIV disease progression and predictors of vertical transmission in a cohort of infected but antiretroviral therapy naïve pregnant women in Harare, Zimbabwe

    Chirenje Mike Z

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Expensive CD4 count and viral load tests have failed the intended objective of enabling access to HIV therapy in poor resource settings. It is imperative to develop simple, affordable and non-subjective disease monitoring tools to complement clinical staging efforts of inexperienced health personnel currently manning most healthcare centres because of brain drain. Besides accurately predicting HIV infection, sequential appearance of specific bands of WB test offers a window of opportunity to develop a less subjective tool for monitoring disease progression. Methods HIV type characterization was done in a cohort of infected pregnant women at 36 gestational weeks using WB test. Student-t test was used to determine maternal differences in mean full blood counts and viral load of mothers with and those without HIV gag antigen bands. Pearson Chi-square test was used to assess differences in lack of bands appearance with vertical transmission and lymphadenopathy. Results Among the 64 HIV infected pregnant women, 98.4% had pure HIV-1 infection and one woman (1.7% had dual HIV-1/HIV-2 infections. Absence of HIV pol antigen bands was associated with acute infection, p = 0.002. All women with chronic HIV-1 infection had antibody reactivity to both the HIV-1 envelope and polymerase antigens. However, antibody reactivity to gag antigens varied among the women, being 100%, 90%, 70% and 63% for p24, p17, p39 and p55, respectively. Lack of antibody reactivity to gag p39 antigen was associated with disease progression as confirmed by the presence of lymphadenopathy, anemia, higher viral load, p = 0.010, 0.025 and 0.016, respectively. Although not statistically significant, women with p39 band missing were 1.4 times more likely to transmit HIV-1 to their infants. Conclusion Absence of antibody reactivity to pol and gag p39 antigens was associated with acute infection and disease progression, respectively. Apart from its use in HIV disease

  15. Analysis of Select Herpes Simplex Virus 1 (HSV-1) Proteins for Restriction of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1): HSV-1 gM Protein Potently Restricts HIV-1 by Preventing Intracellular Transport and Processing of Env gp160.

    Polpitiya Arachchige, Sachith; Henke, Wyatt; Pramanik, Ankita; Kalamvoki, Maria; Stephens, Edward B

    2018-01-15

    Virus-encoded proteins that impair or shut down specific host cell functions during replication can be used as probes to identify potential proteins/pathways used in the replication of viruses from other families. We screened nine proteins from herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) for the ability to enhance or restrict human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication. We show that several HSV-1 proteins (glycoprotein M [gM], US3, and UL24) potently restricted the replication of HIV-1. Unlike UL24 and US3, which reduced viral protein synthesis, we observed that gM restriction of HIV-1 occurred through interference with the processing and transport of gp160, resulting in a significantly reduced level of mature gp120/gp41 released from cells. Finally, we show that an HSV-1 gM mutant lacking the majority of the C-terminal domain (HA-gM[Δ345-473]) restricted neither gp160 processing nor the release of infectious virus. These studies identify proteins from heterologous viruses that can restrict viruses through novel pathways. IMPORTANCE HIV-1 infection of humans results in AIDS, characterized by the loss of CD4 + T cells and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections. Both HIV-1 and HSV-1 can infect astrocytes and microglia of the central nervous system (CNS). Thus, the identification of HSV-1 proteins that directly restrict HIV-1 or interfere with pathways required for HIV-1 replication could lead to novel antiretroviral strategies. The results of this study show that select viral proteins from HSV-1 can potently restrict HIV-1. Further, our results indicate that the gM protein of HSV-1 restricts HIV-1 through a novel pathway by interfering with the processing of gp160 and its incorporation into virus maturing from the cell. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  16. Association of a 3' untranslated region polymorphism in proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 with HIV viral load and CD4+ levels in HIV/hepatitis C virus coinfected women.

    Kuniholm, Mark H; Liang, Hua; Anastos, Kathryn; Gustafson, Deborah; Kassaye, Seble; Nowicki, Marek; Sha, Beverly E; Pawlowski, Emilia J; Gange, Stephen J; Aouizerat, Bradley E; Pushkarsky, Tatiana; Bukrinsky, Michael I; Prasad, Vinayaka R

    2017-11-28

    To assess variation in genes that regulate cholesterol metabolism in relation to the natural history of HIV infection. Cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis of the Women's Interagency HIV Study. We examined 2050 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 19 genes known to regulate cholesterol metabolism in relation to HIV viral load and CD4 T-cell levels in a multiracial cohort of 1066 antiretroviral therapy-naive women. Six SNPs were associated with both HIV viral load and CD4 T-cell levels at a false discovery rate of 0.01. Bioinformatics tools did not predict functional activity for five SNPs, located in introns of nuclear receptor corepressor 2, retinoid X receptor alpha (RXRA), and tetratricopeptide repeat domain 39B. Rs17111557 located in the 3' untranslated region of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) putatively affects binding of hsa-miR-548t-5p and hsa-miR-4796-3p, which could regulate PCSK9 expression levels. Interrogation of rs17111557 revealed stronger associations in the subset of women with HIV/hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfection (n = 408, 38% of women). Rs17111557 was also associated with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in HIV/HCV coinfected (β: -10.4; 95% confidence interval: -17.9, -2.9; P = 0.007), but not in HIV monoinfected (β:1.2; 95% confidence interval: -6.3, 8.6; P = 0.76) women in adjusted analysis. PCSK9 polymorphism may affect HIV pathogenesis, particularly in HIV/HCV coinfected women. A likely mechanism for this effect is PCSK9-mediated regulation of cholesterol metabolism. Replication in independent cohorts is needed to clarify the generalizability of the observed associations.

  17. Molecular Docking Studies of Marine Diterpenes as Inhibitors of Wild-Type and Mutants HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase

    Alessandra M. T. de Souza

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available AIDS is a pandemic responsible for more than 35 million deaths. The emergence of resistant mutations due to drug use is the biggest cause of treatment failure. Marine organisms are sources of different molecules, some of which offer promising HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT inhibitory activity, such as the diterpenes dolabelladienotriol (THD, IC50 = 16.5 µM, (6R-6-hydroxydichotoma-3,14-diene-1,17-dial (HDD, IC50 = 10 µM and (6R-6-acetoxydichotoma-3,14-diene-1,17-dial (ADD, IC50 = 35 µM, isolated from a brown algae of the genus Dictyota, showing low toxicity. In this work, we evaluated the structure-activity relationship (SAR of THD, HDD and ADD as anti HIV-1 RT, using a molecular modeling approach. The analyses of stereoelectronic parameters revealed a direct relationship between activity and HOMO (Highest Occupied Molecular Orbital-LUMO (Lowest Unoccupied Molecular Orbital gap (ELUMO–EHOMO, where antiviral profile increases with larger HOMO-LUMO gap values. We also performed molecular docking studies of THD into HIV-1 RT wild-type and 12 different mutants, which showed a seahorse conformation, hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonds with important residues of the binding pocket. Based on in vitro experiments and docking studies, we demonstrated that mutations have little influence in positioning and interactions of THD. Following a rational drug design, we suggest a modification of THD to improve its biological activity.

  18. Biological characterization of HIV type 1 envelope V3 regions from mothers and infants associated with perinatal transmission.

    Matala, E; Hahn, T; Yedavalli, V R; Ahmad, N

    2001-12-10

    Our previous study has shown that the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope V3 region minor genotypes of infected mothers were transmitted to their infants and predominated initially as a homogeneous virus population in the infants (Ahmad N, Baroudy BM, Baker RC, et al.: J Virol 1995;69:1001-1012). Here we have characterized the biological properties, including cellular tropism, replication efficiency, cytopathic effects, and coreceptor utilization, of these V3 region isolates from mothers and infants. Nineteen V3 region sequences from three mother-infant pairs, including the minor variants of mothers and the major variants of infants as characterized in our previous study, were reciprocally inserted into an HIV-1 infectious molecular clone, pNL4-3, and chimeric viruses were generated by DNA transfections into HeLa cells. Equal amounts of chimeric viruses were then used to infect T lymphocyte cell lines (A3.01 and MT-2), primary blood lymphocytes (PBLs), primary monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs), and coreceptor cell lines. We found that the V3 region chimeras failed to replicate in T lymphocyte cell lines but replicated in MDMs and PBLs, albeit at reduced levels compared with R5 laboratory HIV-1 strains. In addition, the V3 region chimeras were able to infect the HOS-CD4(+)CCR5(+) cell line, suggesting CCR5 coreceptor utilization. Moreover, the V3 region chimeras were unable to induce syncytia in MT-2 cells, indicative of non-syncytium-inducing (NSI) phenotypes. In conclusion, the HIV-1 minor genotypes of infected mothers with macrophage-tropic and NSI or R5 phenotypes are transmitted to their infants and are initially maintained with the same properties.

  19. Vitamin D deficiency among HIV type 1-infected individuals in the Netherlands: effects of antiretroviral therapy.

    Bout-van den Beukel, C.J.P. van den; Fievez, L.; Michels, M.; Sweep, F.C.; Hermus, A.R.M.M.; Bosch, M.E.; Burger, D.M.; Bravenboer, B.; Koopmans †, P.P.; Ven, A.J.A.M. van der

    2008-01-01

    Vitamin D regulates bone metabolism but has also immunoregulatory properties. In HIV-infected patients bone disorders are increasingly observed. Furthermore, low 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) levels have been associated with low CD4(+) counts, immunological hyperactivity, and AIDS progression rates. Few studies

  20. The latest evidence for possible HIV-1 curative strategies.

    Pham, Hanh Thi; Mesplède, Thibault

    2018-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection remains a major health issue worldwide. In developed countries, antiretroviral therapy has extended its reach from treatment of people living with HIV-1 to post-exposure prophylaxis, treatment as prevention, and, more recently, pre-exposure prophylaxis. These healthcare strategies offer the epidemiological tools to curve the epidemic in rich settings and will be concomitantly implemented in developing countries. One of the remaining challenges is to identify an efficacious curative strategy. This review manuscript will focus on some of the current curative strategies aiming at providing a sterilizing or functional cure to HIV-1-positive individuals. These include the following: early treatment initiation in post-treatment controllers as a long-term HIV-1 remission strategy, latency reversal, gene editing with or without stem cell transplantation, and antibodies against either the viral envelope protein or the host integrin α4β7.

  1. The power of siblings and caregivers: under-explored types of social support among children affected by HIV and AIDS.

    Sharer, Melissa; Cluver, Lucie; Shields, Joseph J; Ahearn, Frederick

    2016-03-01

    Children affected by HIV and AIDS have significantly higher rates of mental health problems than unaffected children. There is a need for research to examine how social support functions as a source of resiliency for children in high HIV-prevalence settings such as South Africa. The purpose of this research was to explore how family social support relates to depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress (PTS). Using the ecological model as a frame, data were drawn from a 2011 cross-sectional study of 1380 children classified as either orphaned by AIDS and/or living with an AIDS sick family member. The children were from high-poverty, high HIV-prevalent rural and urban communities in South Africa. Social support was analyzed in depth by examining the source (e.g. caregiver, sibling) and the type (e.g. emotional, instrumental, quality). These variables were entered into multiple regression analyses to estimate the most parsimonious regression models to show the relationships between social support and depression, anxiety, and PTS symptoms among the children. Siblings emerged as the most consistent source of social support on mental health. Overall caregiver and sibling support explained 13% variance in depression, 12% in anxiety, and 11% in PTS. Emotional support was the most frequent type of social support associated with mental health in all regression models, with higher levels of quality and instrumental support having the strongest relation to positive mental health outcomes. Although instrumental and quality support from siblings were related to positive mental health, unexpectedly, the higher the level of emotional support received from a sibling resulted in the child reporting more symptoms of depression, anxiety, and PTS. The opposite was true for emotional support provided via caregivers, higher levels of this support was related to lower levels of all mental health symptoms. Sex was significant in all regressions, indicating the presence of moderation.

  2. Immunogenicity and safety of two doses of catch-up immunization with Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine in Indian children living with HIV.

    Arya, Bikas K; Bhattacharya, Sangeeta Das; Sutcliffe, Catherine G; Saha, Malay K; Bhattacharyya, Subhasish; Niyogi, Swapan Kumar; Moss, William J; Panda, Samiran; Das, Ranjan Saurav; Mallick, Mausom; Mandal, Sutapa

    2016-04-27

    Children living with HIV are at increased risk of disease from Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib). Data are limited on the immunogenicity of a two-dose, catch-up schedule for Hib conjugate vaccine (HibCV) among HIV-infected children accessing antiretroviral therapy (ART) late. The objectives of the study were to: (1) evaluate baseline immunity to Hib and the immunogenicity and safety of two doses of HibCV among HIV-infected Indian children; and (2) document the threshold antibody level required to prevent Hib colonization among HIV-infected children following immunization. We conducted a prospective cohort study among HIV-infected children 2-15 years of age and HIV-uninfected children 2-5 years of age. HIV-infected children received two doses of HibCV and uninfected children received one. Serum anti-Hib PRP IgG antibodies were measured at baseline and two months after immunization in the HIV-infected children. Nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs were collected at baseline and follow-up. 125 HIV-infected and 44 uninfected children participated. 40% of HIV-infected children were receiving ART and 26% had a viral load >100,000 copies/mL. The geometric mean concentration of serum anti-Hib PRP antibody increased from 0.25 μg/mL at baseline to 2.65 μg/mL after two doses of HibCV, representing a 10.6-fold increase (pchildren mounted an immune response. Moderate or severe immune suppression, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole prophylaxis, and lower baseline antibody levels were associated with lower post-vaccine serum anti-Hib PRP IgG antibodies. A serum anti-Hib PRP IgG antibody level ≥ 3.3 μg/mL was protective against Hib NP colonization. There were no differences in adverse events between HIV-infected and uninfected children. Including a catch-up immunization schedule for older HIV infected children in countries introducing Hib vaccines is important. Older HIV-infected children with delayed access to ART and without suppressed viral loads mounted an adequate immune response

  3. HIV-1 Promotes the Degradation of Components of the Type 1 IFN JAK/STAT Pathway and Blocks Anti-viral ISG Induction.

    Gargan, Siobhan; Ahmed, Suaad; Mahony, Rebecca; Bannan, Ciaran; Napoletano, Silvia; O'Farrelly, Cliona; Borrow, Persephone; Bergin, Colm; Stevenson, Nigel J

    2018-04-01

    Anti-retroviral therapy successfully suppresses HIV-1 infection, but fails to provide a cure. During infection Type 1 IFNs normally play an essential role in viral clearance, but in vivo IFN-α only has a modest impact on HIV-1 infection, suggesting its possible targeting by HIV. Here, we report that the HIV protein, Vif, inhibits effective IFN-α signalling via degradation of essential JAK/STAT pathway components. We found that STAT1 and STAT3 are specifically reduced in HEK293T cells expressing Vif and that full length, infectious HIV-1 IIIB strain promotes their degradation in a Vif-dependent manner. HIV-1 IIIB infection of myeloid ThP-1 cells also reduced the IFN-α-mediated induction of the anti-viral gene, ISG15, but not MxA, revealing a functional consequence of this HIV-1-mediated immune evasion strategy. Interestingly, while total STAT levels were not reduced upon in vitro IIIB infection of primary human PBMCs, IFN-α-mediated phosphorylation of STAT1 and STAT3 and ISG induction were starkly reduced, with removal of Vif (IIIBΔVif), partially restoring pSTATs, ISG15 and MxB induction. Similarly, pSTAT1 and pSTAT3 expression and IFN-α-induced ISG15 were reduced in PBMCs from HIV-infected patients, compared to healthy controls. Furthermore, IFN-α pre-treatment of a CEM T lymphoblast cells significantly inhibited HIV infection/replication (measured by cellular p24), only in the absence of Vif (IIIBΔVif), but was unable to suppress full length IIIB infection. When analysing the mechanism by which Vif might target the JAK/STAT pathway, we found Vif interacts with both STAT1 and STAT3, (but not STAT2), and its expression promotes ubiquitination and MG132-sensitive, proteosomal degradation of both proteins. Vif's Elongin-Cullin-SOCS-box binding motif enables the formation of an active E3 ligase complex, which we found to be required for Vif's degradation of STAT1 and STAT3. In fact, the E3 ligase scaffold proteins, Cul5 and Rbx2, were also found to be

  4. Molecular epidemiological analysis of paired pol/env sequences from Portuguese HIV type 1 patients.

    Abecasis, Ana B; Martins, Andreia; Costa, Inês; Carvalho, Ana P; Diogo, Isabel; Gomes, Perpétua; Camacho, Ricardo J

    2011-07-01

    The advent of new therapeutic approaches targeting env and the search for efficient anti-HIV-1 vaccines make it necessary to identify the number of recombinant forms using genomic regions that were previously not frequently sequenced. In this study, we have subtyped paired pol and env sequences from HIV-1 strains infecting 152 patients being clinically followed in Portugal. The percentage of strains in which we found discordant subtypes in pol and env was 25.7%. When the subtype in pol and env was concordant (65.1%), the most prevalent subtypes were subtype B (40.8%), followed by subtype C (17.8%) and subtype G (5.3%). The most prevalent recombinant form was CRF14_BGpol/Genv (7.2%).

  5. Sequence Quality Analysis Tool for HIV Type 1 Protease and Reverse Transcriptase

    DeLong, Allison K.; Wu, Mingham; Bennett, Diane; Parkin, Neil; Wu, Zhijin; Hogan, Joseph W.; Kantor, Rami

    2012-01-01

    Access to antiretroviral therapy is increasing globally and drug resistance evolution is anticipated. Currently, protease (PR) and reverse transcriptase (RT) sequence generation is increasing, including the use of in-house sequencing assays, and quality assessment prior to sequence analysis is essential. We created a computational HIV PR/RT Sequence Quality Analysis Tool (SQUAT) that runs in the R statistical environment. Sequence quality thresholds are calculated from a large dataset (46,802...

  6. Impacts of HIV infection and long-term use of antiretroviral therapy on the prevalence of oral human papilloma virus type 16.

    Amornthatree, Korntip; Sriplung, Hutcha; Mitarnun, Winyou; Nittayananta, Wipawee

    2012-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine (i) the prevalence and the copy numbers of oral human papilloma virus type 16 (HPV-16) in HIV-infected patients compared with non-HIV controls, and (ii) the effects of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and its duration on the virus. A cross-sectional study was carried out in HIV-infected patients with and without ART and in non-HIV controls. Saliva samples were collected, and the DNA extracted from those samples was used as a template to detect HPV-16 E6 and E7 by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Student's t-test and ANOVA test were performed to determine the prevalence rates among groups. Forty-nine HIV-infected patients: 37 on ART (age range, 23-54 years; mean, 37 years), 12 not on ART (age range, 20-40 years; mean, 31 years), and 20 non-HIV controls (age range, 19-53 years; mean, 31 years) were enrolled. The prevalence of oral HPV-16 infection and the copy numbers of the virus were significantly higher in HIV-infected patients than in non-HIV controls when using E6 assay (geometric mean = 10696 vs. 563 copies/10(5) cells, P prevalence of oral HPV-16 infection and the copy numbers of the virus (P = 0.567). We conclude that the prevalence of oral HPV-16 infection and the copy numbers of the virus are increased by HIV infection. Neither the use of ART nor its duration significantly affected the virus. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  7. "You just can't trust everybody": the impact of sexual risk, partner type and perceived partner trustworthiness on HIV-status disclosure decisions among HIV-positive black gay and bisexual men.

    Bird, Jason D P; Eversman, Michael; Voisin, Dexter R

    2017-08-01

    HIV remains an intractable public health concern in the USA, with infection rates notably concentrated among Black gay and bisexual men. Status disclosure by HIV-positive individuals can be an important aspect of risk reduction but doing so poses dilemmas concerning privacy, stigma and self-protection, especially among populations subjected to multiple types of stigmatisation. Understanding the factors related to the disclosure process can help to inform prevention efforts. Using exploratory in-depth interviews, this qualitative study examines the disclosure process among a sample of twenty HIV-positive Black gay and bisexual men (mean age = 40) recruited through a non-profit health centre in a mid-western city in the USA. Data were analysed using a thematic analysis approach with HIV-disclosure as an a priori sensitising concept. Fears of stigma and secondary disclosure within social networks were critical barriers to talking about HIV with sexual partners and disclosure decisions involved a complex process centred on three primary themes: degree of sexual risk, partner type and perceived partner trustworthiness. The unique combinations of these contextual factors resulted in increased or decreased likelihood of disclosure. A conceptual model explicating a potential process by which these contextual factors influence disclosure decisions is presented.

  8. Construction and characterization of HIV type 1 CRF07_BC infectious molecular clone from men who have sex with men.

    Jiang, Yan-Ling; Bai, Wen-Wei; Qu, Fan-Wei; Ma, Hua; Jiang, Run-Sheng; Shen, Bao-Sheng

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the biological characterization of HIV type 1 (HIV-1) CRF07_BC infection among men who have sex with men (MSM). From November 2011 to November 2013, a total of 66 blood samples were collected from MSM with acute HIV-1 infection with CRF07_BC subgroup strains. Deletion in the gag p6 region was detected by sequence alignment and comparative analysis. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of HNXX1301-1307 samples were separated by density gradient centrifugation. Nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) was used to amplify the viral DNA. The near full-length HIV-1 DNA products were ligated to the long terminal repeat (LTR) vector plasmid (07BCLTR) to construct a full-length HIV clone. The molecular clone was transfected into HEK-293T cells, TZM-b1 cells and patients' PBMCs. The pregenome of an infectious molecular clone of HIV-1 (pNL4-3) was amplified, and a subclone with CRF07_BC was developed to construct the full-length chimeric molecular clone pNL4-3/07BCLTR. Detection of p24 antigen and luciferase activity was used to measure the in vitro infectivity of pNL4-3/07BCLTR. Among the 66 MSM patients infected with CRF07_BC strains, deletion mutations of the Gag P6 proteins were found in 7 of 18CRF07_BC strains; deletion mutations of 2-13 amino acids in different regions were discovered in 6 strains; and the remaining 42 strains did not show deletions. Seven strains with amino acids deficiency in the P6 protein accounted for 27% of all strains and 75% of all deletion genotype strains. A total of 186 full-length molecular clones of CRF07_BC were constructed. There were 5, 9, 10 and 11 clones of HNXX1302, HNXX1304, HNXX1305 and HNXX1306 that resulted in p24-positive supernatant when transfected into HEK-293T cells. Full-length clones of HNXX1302, HNXX1304, HNXX1305 and HNXX1306 showed slight infection in the transfected TZM-b1 cells, as judged by the fluorescence values of TZM-b1 cells 48h post-transfection. However, we were unable to

  9. Rescue of HIV-1 release by targeting widely divergent NEDD4-type ubiquitin ligases and isolated catalytic HECT domains to Gag.

    Eric R Weiss

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Retroviruses engage the ESCRT pathway through late assembly (L domains in Gag to promote virus release. HIV-1 uses a PTAP motif as its primary L domain, which interacts with the ESCRT-I component Tsg101. In contrast, certain other retroviruses primarily use PPxY-type L domains, which constitute ligands for NEDD4-type ubiquitin ligases. Surprisingly, although HIV-1 Gag lacks PPxY motifs, the release of HIV-1 L domain mutants is potently enhanced by ectopic NEDD4-2s, a native isoform with a naturally truncated C2 domain that appears to account for the residual titer of L domain-defective HIV-1. The reason for the unique potency of the NEDD4-2s isoform has remained unclear. We now show that the naturally truncated C2 domain of NEDD4-2s functions as an autonomous Gag-targeting module that can be functionally replaced by the unrelated Gag-binding protein cyclophilin A (CypA. The residual C2 domain of NEDD4-2s was sufficient to transfer the ability to stimulate HIV-1 budding to other NEDD4 family members, including the yeast homologue Rsp5, and even to isolated catalytic HECT domains. The isolated catalytic domain of NEDD4-2s also efficiently promoted HIV-1 budding when targeted to Gag via CypA. We conclude that the regions typically required for substrate recognition by HECT ubiquitin ligases are all dispensable to stimulate HIV-1 release, implying that the relevant target for ubiquitination is Gag itself or can be recognized by divergent isolated HECT domains. However, the mere ability to ubiquitinate Gag was not sufficient to stimulate HIV-1 budding. Rather, our results indicate that the synthesis of K63-linked ubiquitin chains is critical for ubiquitin ligase-mediated virus release.

  10. Low Prevalence of Transmitted HIV Type 1 Drug Resistance Among Antiretroviral-Naive Adults in a Rural HIV Clinic in Kenya

    Hassan, Amin S.; Mwaringa, Shalton M.; Obonyo, Clare A.; Nabwera, Helen M.; Sanders, Eduard J.; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F.; Cane, Patricia A.; Berkley, James A.

    2013-01-01

    Low levels of HIV-1 transmitted drug resistance (TDR) have previously been reported from many parts of sub-Saharan Africa (sSA). However, recent data, mostly from urban settings, suggest an increase in the prevalence of HIV-1 TDR. Our objective was to determine the prevalence of TDR mutations among

  11. B cell markers in Ph1-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Alimena, G; De Rossi, G; Gastaldi, R; Guglielmi, C; Mandelli, F

    1980-01-01

    A case of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) where the blast cells had B cell markers and displayed the presence of a typical Ph1 chromosome, originated by a standard t (9;22) translocation, is reported. Cytological and clinical aspects during the entire course of the disease were consistent with the diagnosis of ALL. Evidence of differentiation along a well-defined lymphoid cell line in a Ph1-positive cell confirms the presence of the Ph1 chromosome in conditions other than chronic granulocytic leukemia and shows that it possibly does not occur in an exclusively undifferentiated totipotent stem cell.

  12. Rise in seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus type 1 among highly sexual active homosexual men and an increasing association between herpes simplex virus type 2 and HIV over time (1984-2003)

    Smit, Colette; Pfrommer, Christiaan; Mindel, Adrian; Taylor, Janette; Spaargaren, Joke; Berkhout, Ben; Coutinho, Roel; Dukers, Nicole H. T. M.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) are both highly prevalent. The rate of genital HSV-1 transmission is reportedly increasing over time. HSV-2 is considered to be an important risk factor for HIV transmission. We therefore studied changes in the HSV-1 and HSV-2

  13. Transmitted drug resistance and type of infection in newly diagnosed HIV-1 individuals in Honduras.

    Murillo, Wendy; Paz-Bailey, Gabriela; Morales, Sonia; Monterroso, Edgar; Paredes, Mayte; Dobbs, Trudy; Parekh, Bharat S; Albert, Jan; Rivera, Ivette Lorenzana de

    2010-12-01

    Transmitted drug resistance (TDR) reduces the efficacy of antiretroviral treatment and is a public health concern. To gain insight in the epidemiology of TDR in Honduras by evaluating the amount of TDR in a representative sample of newly diagnosed individuals and by determining whether these are recent or established infections. Two hundred treatment-naïve, newly diagnosed HIV-positive individuals representing different population groups (general population, Garifunas ethnic group, female sex workers and men who have sex with men) and different geographic regions were enrolled during April 2004-April 2007. The HIV-1 pol gene was sequenced to identify drug-resistant mutations and TDR was scored as recommended by the WHO. Specimens were classified as recent or established infections using the BED assay. Among 200 samples analyzed from Honduran patients the prevalence of TDR was 7% (95% CI: 3.9-11.5%), 5% for non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), 3% for nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) and 0.5% for protease inhibitors (PIs). Testing of these samples with the BED assay revealed that 12% of the specimens were associated with recent infections. TDR was significantly more common in specimens with recent infection (21%) than established infection (5%) (p=0.016). The prevalence of TDR in Honduras was moderate (7%). The percentage of specimens who were recently infected was low (12%), suggesting that late HIV diagnosis is common. The TDR prevalence was higher in recent than in established infections, which may indicate that TDR is increasing over time. The higher prevalence of NNRTI and NRTI mutations as compared to PI mutations is probably due to a broader and longer use of these drugs in Honduras. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Short communication: identification of a novel HIV type 1 subtype H/J recombinant in Canada with discordant HIV viral load (RNA) values in three different commercial assays.

    Kim, John E; Beckthold, Brenda; Chen, Zhaoxia; Mihowich, Jennifer; Malloch, Laurie; Gill, Michael John

    2007-11-01

    The presence of HIV-1 non-B subtypes is increasing worldwide. This poses challenges to commercial diagnostic and viral load (RNA) monitoring tests that are predominantly based on HIV-1 subtype B strains. Based on phylogenetic analysis of the gag, pol, and env gene regions, we describe the first HIV-1 H/J recombinant in Canada that presented divergent viral load values. DNA sequence analysis of the gag gene region further revealed that genetic diversity between this H/J recombinant and the primers and probes used in the bio-Merieux Nuclisens HIV-1 QT (Nuclisens) and Roche Amplicor Monitor HIV-1, v1.5 (Monitor) viral RNA assays can erroneously lead to undetectable viral load values. This observation appears to be more problematic in the Nuclisens assay. In light of increasing genetic diversity in HIV worldwide we recommend that DNA sequencing of HIV, especially in the gag gene region targeted by primers and probes used in molecular diagnostic and viral load tests, be incorporated into clinical monitoring practices.

  15. Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) nuclear import via Vpr-Importin α interactions as a novel HIV-1 therapy

    Suzuki, Tatsunori; Yamamoto, Norio; Nonaka, Mizuho; Hashimoto, Yoshie; Matsuda, Go; Takeshima, Shin-nosuke; Matsuyama, Megumi; Igarashi, Tatsuhiko; Miura, Tomoyuki; Tanaka, Rie; Kato, Shingo; Aida, Yoko

    2009-01-01

    The development of multidrug-resistant viruses compromises the efficacy of anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) therapy and limits treatment options. Therefore, new targets that can be used to develop novel antiviral agents need to be identified. One such target is the interaction between Vpr, one of the accessory gene products of HIV-1 and Importin α, which is crucial, not only for the nuclear import of Vpr, but also for HIV-1 replication in macrophages. We have identified a potential parent compound, hematoxylin, which suppresses Vpr-Importin α interaction, thereby inhibiting HIV-1 replication in a Vpr-dependent manner. Analysis by real-time PCR demonstrated that hematoxylin specifically inhibited nuclear import step of pre-integration complex. Thus, hematoxylin is a new anti-HIV-1 inhibitor that targets the nuclear import of HIV-1 via the Vpr-Importin α interaction, suggesting that a specific inhibitor of the interaction between viral protein and the cellular factor may provide a new strategy for HIV-1 therapy.

  16. Sequence quality analysis tool for HIV type 1 protease and reverse transcriptase.

    Delong, Allison K; Wu, Mingham; Bennett, Diane; Parkin, Neil; Wu, Zhijin; Hogan, Joseph W; Kantor, Rami

    2012-08-01

    Access to antiretroviral therapy is increasing globally and drug resistance evolution is anticipated. Currently, protease (PR) and reverse transcriptase (RT) sequence generation is increasing, including the use of in-house sequencing assays, and quality assessment prior to sequence analysis is essential. We created a computational HIV PR/RT Sequence Quality Analysis Tool (SQUAT) that runs in the R statistical environment. Sequence quality thresholds are calculated from a large dataset (46,802 PR and 44,432 RT sequences) from the published literature ( http://hivdb.Stanford.edu ). Nucleic acid sequences are read into SQUAT, identified, aligned, and translated. Nucleic acid sequences are flagged if with >five 1-2-base insertions; >one 3-base insertion; >one deletion; >six PR or >18 RT ambiguous bases; >three consecutive PR or >four RT nucleic acid mutations; >zero stop codons; >three PR or >six RT ambiguous amino acids; >three consecutive PR or >four RT amino acid mutations; >zero unique amino acids; or 15% genetic distance from another submitted sequence. Thresholds are user modifiable. SQUAT output includes a summary report with detailed comments for troubleshooting of flagged sequences, histograms of pairwise genetic distances, neighbor joining phylogenetic trees, and aligned nucleic and amino acid sequences. SQUAT is a stand-alone, free, web-independent tool to ensure use of high-quality HIV PR/RT sequences in interpretation and reporting of drug resistance, while increasing awareness and expertise and facilitating troubleshooting of potentially problematic sequences.

  17. Phylodynamic and Phylogeographic Patterns of the HIV Type 1 Subtype F1 Parenteral Epidemic in Romania

    Hué, Stéphane; Buckton, Andrew J.; Myers, Richard E.; Duiculescu, Dan; Ene, Luminita; Oprea, Cristiana; Tardei, Gratiela; Rugina, Sorin; Mardarescu, Mariana; Floch, Corinne; Notheis, Gundula; Zöhrer, Bettina; Cane, Patricia A.; Pillay, Deenan

    2012-01-01

    Abstract In the late 1980s an HIV-1 epidemic emerged in Romania that was dominated by subtype F1. The main route of infection is believed to be parenteral transmission in children. We sequenced partial pol coding regions of 70 subtype F1 samples from children and adolescents from the PENTA-EPPICC network of which 67 were from Romania. Phylogenetic reconstruction using the sequences and other publically available global subtype F sequences showed that 79% of Romanian F1 sequences formed a statistically robust monophyletic cluster. The monophyletic cluster was epidemiologically linked to parenteral transmission in children. Coalescent-based analysis dated the origins of the parenteral epidemic to 1983 [1981–1987; 95% HPD]. The analysis also shows that the epidemic's effective population size has remained fairly constant since the early 1990s suggesting limited onward spread of the virus within the population. Furthermore, phylogeographic analysis suggests that the root location of the parenteral epidemic was Bucharest. PMID:22251065

  18. Global dispersal pattern of HIV type 1 subtype CRF01-AE : A genetic trace of human mobility related to heterosexual sexual activities centralized in southeast Asia

    Angelis, Konstantinos; Albert, Jan; Mamais, Ioannis; Magiorkinis, Gkikas; Hatzakis, Angelos; Hamouda, Osamah; Struck, Daniel; Vercauteren, Jurgen; Wensing, Annemarie M J; Alexiev, Ivailo; Åsjö, Birgitta; Balotta, Claudia; Camacho, Ricardo J.; Coughlan, Suzie; Griskevicius, Algirdas; Grossman, Zehava; Horban, Andrzej; Kostrikis, Leondios G.; Lepej, Snjezana; Liitsola, Kirsi; Linka, Marek; Nielsen, Claus; Otelea, Dan; Paredes, Roger; Poljak, Mario; Puchhammer-Stöckl, Elisabeth; Schmit, Jean Claude; Sönnerborg, Anders; Staneková, Danica; Stanojevic, Maja; Boucher, Charles A B; Kaplan, Lauren; Vandamme, Anne Mieke; Paraskevis, Dimitrios

    2015-01-01

    Background. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) subtype CRF01-AE originated in Africa and then passed to Thailand, where it established a major epidemic. Despite the global presence of CRF01-AE, little is known about its subsequent dispersal pattern. Methods. We assembled a global data set

  19. Predictors of CD4(+) T-Cell Counts of HIV Type 1–Infected Persons After Virologic Failure of All 3 Original Antiretroviral Drug Classes

    Costagliola, Dominique; Ledergerber, Bruno; Torti, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    Low CD4(+) T-cell counts are the main factor leading to clinical progression in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. We aimed to investigate factors affecting CD4(+) T-cell counts after triple-class virological failure....

  20. HIV/AIDS

    ... Key populations are groups who are at increased risk of HIV irrespective of epidemic type or local context. They include: men who have sex with men, ... HIV testing and counselling; HIV treatment and care; risk-reduction ... management of STIs, tuberculosis and viral hepatitis. Elimination of ...

  1. Seroprevalence of Herpes Simplex Virus type-2 (HSV-2) among pregnant women who participated in a national HIV surveillance activity in Haiti.

    Domercant, Jean Wysler; Jean Louis, Frantz; Hulland, Erin; Griswold, Mark; Andre-Alboth, Jocelyne; Ye, Tun; Marston, Barbara J

    2017-08-18

    Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), one the most common causes of genital ulcers, appears to increase both the risk of HIV acquisition and HIV transmission. HSV-2/HIV co-infection among pregnant women may increase the risk of perinatal transmission of HIV. This study describes rates of HSV-2 among pregnant women in Haiti and HSV-2 test performance in this population. Unlinked residual serum specimens from the 2012 National HIV and Syphilis Sentinel Surveillance Survey among pregnant women in Haiti were tested using two commercial kits (Focus HerpeSelect, Kalon) for HSV-2 antibodies. We evaluated rates of HSV-2 seropositivity and HSV-2/HIV co-infection, associations between HSV-2 and demographic characteristics using multivariable Cox proportional hazards modeling, and HSV-2 test performance in this population. Serum samples from 1000 pregnant women (all 164 HIV positive and 836 random HIV negative) were selected. The overall weighted prevalence of HSV-2 was 31.4% (95% CI: 27.7-35.4) and the prevalence of HIV-positivity among HSV-2 positive pregnant women was five times higher than the prevalence among HSV-2 negative women (4.8% [95% CI: 3.9-6.0] vs. 0.9% [95% CI: 0.6-1.3], respectively). Factors significantly associated with HSV-2 positivity were HIV-positivity (PR: 2.27 [95% CI: 1.94-2.65]) and older age (PRs: 1.41 [95% CI: 1.05-1.91] for 20-24 years, 1.71 [95% CI:1.13-2.60] for 30-34 years, and 1.55 [95% CI: 1.10-2.19] for 35 years or greater]), while rural residence was negatively associated with HSV-2 positivity (PR 0.83 [95% CI: 0.69-1.00]), after controlling for other covariables. For this study a conservative Focus index cutoff of 3.5 was used, but among samples with a Focus index value ≥2.5, 98.4% had positive Kalon tests. The prevalence of HSV-2 is relatively high among pregnant women in Haiti. Public health interventions to increase access to HSV-2 screening in antenatal services are warranted.

  2. Evaluating HIV Prevention Programs: Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Antibodies as Biomarker for Sexual Risk Behavior in Young Adults in Resource-Poor Countries.

    Juliane Behling

    Full Text Available Measuring effectiveness of HIV prevention interventions is challenged by bias when using self-reported knowledge, attitude or behavior change. HIV incidence is an objective marker to measure effectiveness of HIV prevention interventions, however, because new infection rates are relatively low, prevention studies require large sample sizes. Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2 is similarly transmitted and more prevalent and could thus serve as a proxy marker for sexual risk behavior and therefore HIV infection.HSV-2 antibodies were assessed in a sub-study of 70,000 students participating in an education intervention in Western Province, Kenya. Feasibility of testing for HSV-2 antibodies was assessed comparing two methods using Fisher's exact test. Three hundred and ninety four students (aged 18 to 22 years were randomly chosen from the cohort and tested for HIV, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Trichomonas vaginalis. Out of these, 139 students were tested for HSV-2 with ELISA and surveyed for sexual risk behavior and 89 students were additionally tested for HSV-2 with a point-of-contact (POC test.Prevalence rates were 0.5%, 1.8%, 0.3% and 2.3% for HIV, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Trichomonas vaginalis, respectively. Prevalence of HSV-2 antibodies was 3.4 % as measured by POC test (n=89 and 14.4 % by ELISA (n=139. Specificity of the POC test compared with ELISA was 100%, and the sensitivity only 23.1%. Associations between self-reported sexual behavior and HSV-2 serostatus could not be shown.Associations between self-reported sexual risk behavior and HSV-2 serostatus could not be shown, probably due to social bias in interviews since its transmission is clearly linked. HSV-2 antibody testing is feasible in resource-poor settings and shows higher prevalence rates than other sexually transmitted diseases thus representing a potential biomarker for evaluation of HIV prevention interventions.

  3. HIV providers' likelihood to prescribe pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention differs by patient type: a short report.

    Adams, Leah M; Balderson, Benjamin H

    2016-09-01

    Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), the antiretroviral treatment regimen for HIV-negative people at high risk of acquiring HIV, has demonstrated efficacy across clinical trials in several patient populations. The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) have released detailed guidelines to aid providers in prescribing PrEP for their high-risk patients, including men who have sex with men (MSM), high-risk heterosexuals, and injection drug users (IDUs). Given that much attention in PrEP has focused on MSM patients, the present study used an online survey to assess factors involved in HIV care providers' (n = 363) decisions about prescribing PrEP, along with their willingness to prescribe PrEP to patients from various risk populations (e.g., MSM, heterosexuals, IDUs). The efficacy of PrEP was an important factor in providers' decisions about prescribing PrEP, as were considerations about patients' adherence to the regimen, regular follow-up for care, and medication costs. This survey's findings also suggest that providers' willingness to prescribe PrEP varies by patient group, with providers most willing to initiate the regimen with MSM who have an HIV-positive partner, and least willing to prescribe to high-risk heterosexuals or IDUs. In the context of the current CDC recommendations for PrEP that include MSM, heterosexuals, and IDUs, examining providers' rationales for and barriers against supporting this HIV prevention strategy across patient groups merits further attention.

  4. Immunological responses during a virologically failing antiretroviral regimen are associated with in vivo synonymous mutation rates of HIV type-1 env

    Mens, Helene; Jørgensen, Louise Bruun; Kronborg, Gitte

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about the underlying causes of differences in immunological response to antiretroviral therapy during multidrug-resistant (MDR) HIV type-1 (HIV-1) infection. This study aimed to identify virological factors associated with immunological response during therapy failure...... for analysis. In a longitudinal mixed-effects model, plasma HIV-1 RNA only tended to predict immunological response (P=0.06), whereas minor protease inhibitor (PI) and nucleoside reverse transcriptase (NRTI) mutations at baseline correlated significantly with CD4+ T-cell count slopes (r= -0.56, P=0.04 and r......= -0.64, P=0.008, respectively). Interestingly, synonymous mutations of env correlated inversely with CD4+ T-cell count slopes (r=-0.60; P=0.01) and individuals with codons under positive selection had significantly better CD4+ T-cell responses than individuals without (0.42 versus -5.34; P=0...

  5. UV-induced transcription from the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) long terminal repeat and UV-induced secretion of an extracellular factor that induces HIV-1 transcription in nonirradiated cells

    Stein, B.; Kraemer, M.R.; Rahmsdorf, H.J.; Ponta, H.; Herrlich, P.

    1989-01-01

    UV irradiation, but not visible sunlight, induces the transcription of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Chimeric constructs carrying all or parts of the HIV-1 long terminal repeat linked to an indicator gene were transfected into HeLa cells or murine and human T-cell lines, and their response to irradiation was tested. The cis-acting element conferring UV responsiveness is identical to the sequence binding transcription factor NF kappa B. UV irradiation enhances NF kappa B binding activity as assayed by gel retardation experiments. Interestingly, the requirement for UV irradiation can be replaced by cocultivation of transfected cells with UV-irradiated nontransfected (HIV-1-negative) cells. A UV-induced extracellular protein factor is detected in the culture medium conditioned by UV-treated cells. The factor is produced upon UV irradiation by several murine and human cell lines, including HeLa, Molt-4, and Jurkat, and acts on several cells. These data suggest that the UV response of keratinocytes in human skin can be magnified and spread to deeper layers that are more shielded, including the Langerhans cells, and that this indirect UV response may contribute to the activation of HIV-1 in humans

  6. Activities of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease inhibitor nelfinavir mesylate in combination with reverse transcriptase and protease inhibitors against acute HIV-1 infection in vitro.

    Patick, A K; Boritzki, T J; Bloom, L A

    1997-01-01

    Nelfinavir mesylate (formerly AG1343) is a potent and selective, nonpeptidic inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease that was discovered by protein structure-based design methodologies. We evaluated the antiviral and cytotoxic effects of two-drug combinations of nelfinavir with the clinically approved antiretroviral therapeutics zidovudine (ZDV), lamivudine (3TC), dideoxycytidine (ddC; zalcitabine), stavudine (d4T), didanosine (ddI), indinavir, saquinavir, and ritona...

  7. HIV/AIDS and the Flu

    ... Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other HIV/AIDS and the Flu Questions & Answers Language: English ( ... people with HIV and AIDS. Should people with HIV/AIDS receive the inactivated influenza vaccine? People with ...

  8. Normal telomere lengths in naive and memory CD4+ T cells in HIV type 1 infection: a mathematical interpretation

    Wolthers, K. C.; Noest, A. J.; Otto, S. A.; Miedema, F.; de Boer, R. J.

    1999-01-01

    To study CD4+ T cell productivity during HIV-1 infection, CD4+ T cell telomere lengths were measured. Cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis of HIV-1-infected individuals with CD4+ T cells counts >300 cells/mm3 showed normal average telomeric restriction fragment (TRF) length and normal

  9. Normal telomere lengths in naive and memory CD4 T cells in HIV type 1 infection : a mathematical interpretation

    Wolthers, K.C.; Noest, A.J.; Otto, S.A.; Miedema, F.; Boer, R.J. de

    1999-01-01

    To study CD4+ T cell productivity during HIV-1 infection, CD4+ T cell telomere lengths were measured. Cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis of HIV-1-infected individuals with CD4+ T cells counts >300 cells/mm3 showed normal average telomeric restriction fragment (TRF) length and normal

  10. Differences in HIV Type 1 RNA Plasma Load Profile of Closely Related Cocirculating Ethiopian Subtype C Strains: C and C '

    Ayele, Workenesh; Mekonnen, Yared; Messele, Tsehaynesh; Mengistu, Yohannes; Tsegaye, Aster; Bakker, Margreet; Berkhout, Ben; Dorigo-Zetsma, Wendelien; Wolday, Dawit; Goudsmit, Jaap; Coutinho, Roel; de Baar, Michel; Paxton, William A.; Pollakis, Georgios

    2010-01-01

    Two HIV-1 subtype C subclusters have been identified in Ethiopia (C and C') with little knowledge regarding their biological or clinical differences. We longitudinally monitored HIV-1 viral loads and CD4(+) T cell counts for 130 subtype C-infected individuals from Ethiopia over 5 years. The genetic

  11. Compartmentalized Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Originates from Long-Lived Cells in Some Subjects with HIV-1–Associated Dementia

    Schnell, Gretja; Spudich, Serena; Harrington, Patrick; Price, Richard W.; Swanstrom, Ronald

    2009-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) invades the central nervous system (CNS) shortly after systemic infection and can result in the subsequent development of HIV-1–associated dementia (HAD) in a subset of infected individuals. Genetically compartmentalized virus in the CNS is associated with HAD, suggesting autonomous viral replication as a factor in the disease process. We examined the source of compartmentalized HIV-1 in the CNS of subjects with HIV-1–associated neurological disease and in asymptomatic subjects who were initiating antiretroviral therapy. The heteroduplex tracking assay (HTA), targeting the variable regions of env, was used to determine which HIV-1 genetic variants in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were compartmentalized and which variants were shared with the blood plasma. We then measured the viral decay kinetics of individual variants after the initiation of antiretroviral therapy. Compartmentalized HIV-1 variants in the CSF of asymptomatic subjects decayed rapidly after the initiation of antiretroviral therapy, with a mean half-life of 1.57 days. Rapid viral decay was also measured for CSF-compartmentalized variants in four HAD subjects (t1/2 mean = 2.27 days). However, slow viral decay was measured for CSF-compartmentalized variants from an additional four subjects with neurological disease (t1/2 range = 9.85 days to no initial decay). The slow decay detected for CSF-compartmentalized variants was not associated with poor CNS drug penetration, drug resistant virus in the CSF, or the presence of X4 virus genotypes. We found that the slow decay measured for CSF-compartmentalized variants in subjects with neurological disease was correlated with low peripheral CD4 cell count and reduced CSF pleocytosis. We propose a model in which infiltrating macrophages replace CD4+ T cells as the primary source of productive viral replication in the CNS to maintain high viral loads in the CSF in a substantial subset of subjects with HAD

  12. Molecular epidemiological analysis of env and pol sequences in newly diagnosed HIV type 1-infected, untreated patients in Hungary.

    Mezei, Mária; Ay, Eva; Koroknai, Anita; Tóth, Renáta; Balázs, Andrea; Bakos, Agnes; Gyori, Zoltán; Bánáti, Ferenc; Marschalkó, Márta; Kárpáti, Sarolta; Minárovits, János

    2011-11-01

    The aim of our study was to monitor the diversity of HIV-1 strains circulating in Hungary and investigate the prevalence of resistance-associated mutations to reverse transcriptase (RT) and protease (PR) inhibitors in newly diagnosed, drug-naive patients. A total of 30 HIV-1-infected patients without prior antiretroviral treatment diagnosed during the period 2008-2010 were included into this study. Viral subtypes and the presence of RT, PR resistance-associated mutations were established by sequencing. Classification of HIV-1 strains showed that 29 (96.6%) patients were infected with subtype B viruses and one patient (3.3%) with subtype A virus. The prevalence of HIV-1 strains with transmitted drug resistance mutations in newly diagnosed individuals was 16.6% (5/30). This study showed that HIV-1 subtype B is still highly predominant in Hungary and documented a relatively high transmission rate of drug resistance in our country.

  13. [Correspondence analysis on the types of social support and the role of the supporters towards people living with HIV/AIDS in rural areas, Henan province].

    Zhang, Ting; Zeng, Ting-ting; Lv, Jun; Cao, Wei-hua

    2010-04-01

    To explore the relationship between types of social support and roles of supporters, on people living with HIV/AIDS, in rural areas of Henan province. A rural area from Henan province where the main route of HIV transmission was through blood collection was selected as the research site. Survivors registered in that area were randomly selected as subjects. Questionnaire on social support related to social network analysis paradigm was designed and face-to-face interview was used to collect information. Correspondence analysis method was adopted to analyze the relationship between types of social support and roles of social supporters. 204 questionnaires were sorted out with 2227 pairs of bind between types of social support and roles of social supporters analyzed. According to scatter plot of row and column points, our data showed that support from the spouses was mainly associated with caring for daily life and companionship for medical treatment on the patients. The research subjects stated that they would primarily discuss over the major issues or chat with their parents and children as they were the ones that they could trust the most. However, they would turn to their brothers, sisters or other relatives to borrow money or asking for other kinds of help. Non-relatives were the resources on social interaction, like going-out together or borrowing life necessities. Supporters with different social roles on HIV/AIDS issues, appeared to be corresponded to specific types of social support in rural areas of Henan province.

  14. HIV-1 epidemiology and circulating subtypes in the countryside of South Brazil

    Carina Sperotto Librelotto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 has spread worldwide, with several subtypes and circulating recombinant forms. Brazil has an incidence of 20.5 HIV-1/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS patients per 100,000 inhabitants; however, the Southernmost State of Rio Grande do Sul (RS has more than twice the number of HIV-1-infected people (41.3/100,000 inhabitants and a different pattern of subtype frequencies, as previously reported in studies conducted in the capital (Porto Alegre and its metropolitan region. This study examined HIV-1/AIDS epidemiological and molecular aspects in the countryside of Rio Grande do Sul. METHODS: Socio-demographic, clinical and risk behavioral characteristics were obtained from HIV-1-positive adult patients using a structured questionnaire. HIV-1 subtypes were determined by nested-polymerase chain reaction (PCR and sequencing of the pol and env genes. RESULTS: The study sample included 149 (55% women patients with a mean age of 41.8 ± 11.9 years. Most (73.8% patients had a low education level and reported heterosexual practices as the most (91.9% probable transmission route. HIV-1 subtypes were detected in 26 patients: 18 (69.2% infected with subtype C, six (23.1% infected with subtype B and two (7.7% infected with BC recombinant forms. CONCLUSIONS: These data highlight the increasing number of HIV-1 subtype C infections in the countryside of South Brazil.

  15. Virological and immunological response to antiretroviral regimens containing maraviroc in HIV type 1-infected patients in clinical practice: role of different tropism testing results and of concomitant treatments.

    Rossetti, Barbara; Bianco, Claudia; Bellazzi, Lara Ines; Bruzzone, Bianca; Colao, Grazia; Corsi, Paola; Monno, Laura; Pagano, Gabriella; Paolucci, Stefania; Punzi, Grazia; Setti, Maurizio; Zazzi, Maurizio; De Luca, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the immunovirological response to antiretroviral regimens containing maraviroc in HIV-infected viremic patients with viral tropism predicted by different assays. We selected antiretroviral treatment-experienced HIV-1-infected patients initiating regimens containing maraviroc after different phenotypic or genotypic viral tropism assays, with at least one HIV-1 RNA determination during follow-up. Survival analysis was employed to assess the virological response as time to HIV-1 RNA immunological response as time to a CD4 cell count increase of ≥ 100/μl from baseline. Predictors of these outcomes were analyzed by multivariate Cox regression models. In 191 treatments with maraviroc, virological response was achieved in 65.4% and the response was modestly influenced by the baseline viral load and concomitant drug activity but not influenced by the type of tropism assay employed. Immunological response was achieved in 58.1%; independent predictors were baseline HIV-1 RNA (per log10 higher: HR 1.29, 95% CI 1.05-1.60) and concomitant therapy with enfuvirtide (HR 2.05, 0.96-4.39) but not tropism assay results. Of 17 patients with baseline R5-tropic virus and available tropism results while viremic during follow-up on maraviroc, seven (41%) showed a tropism switch to non-R5 virus. A significant proportion of experienced patients treated with regimens containing maraviroc achieved virological response. The tropism test type used was not associated with immunovirological response and concomitant treatment with enfuvirtide increased the chance of immunological response. More than half of virological failures with maraviroc were not accompanied by tropism switch.

  16. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections; Strain and Type Variations; Diagnosis and Prevention.

    1992-10-26

    Scarlatti et al. 1992 (41) 1 1 Arendrup et al. 1992 (42) SIVsm/monkey 7 0 Zhang et al. manuscript (43) B) Sequential samples: serum collected >6 months...983-990. 1991. 12. Scarlatti , G, Lombardi, V, Plebani, A, Principi, N, Chiara, V, Ferraris, G, Bucceri, A, Feny6, E M, Wigzell, H, Rossi, P, and...envelope glycoprotein gp125 of human immunodeficiency virus type2. Manuscript. M2. Scarlatti , G, Albert, J, Rossi, P, Hodara, V, Biraghi, P, Muggiasca

  17. Large Isoform of Mammalian Relative of DnaJ is a Major Determinant of Human Susceptibility to HIV-1 Infection

    Yu-Ping Chiang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Individual differences in susceptibility to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 infection have been of interest for decades. We aimed to determine the contribution of large isoform of Mammalian DnaJ (MRJ-L, a HIV-1 Vpr-interacting cellular protein, to this natural variation. Expression of MRJ-L in monocyte-derived macrophages was significantly higher in HIV-infected individuals (n = 31 than their uninfected counterparts (n = 27 (p = 0.009. Fifty male homosexual subjects (20 of them are HIV-1 positive were further recruited to examine the association between MRJ-L levels and occurrence of HIV infection. Bayesian multiple logistic regression revealed that playing a receptive role and increased levels of MRJ-L in macrophages were two risk factors for HIV-1 infection. A 1% rise in MRJ-L expression was associated with a 1.13 fold (95% CrI 1.06–1.29 increase in odds of contracting HIV-1 infection. Ex vivo experiments revealed that MRJ-L facilitated Vpr-dependent nuclear localization of virus. Infection of macrophage-tropic strain is a critical step in HIV-1 transmission. MRJ-L is a critical factor in this process; hence, subjects with higher macrophage MRJ-L levels are more vulnerable to HIV-1 infection.

  18. The effects of HIV disease and older age on laboratory-based, naturalistic, and self-perceived symptoms of prospective memory: does retrieval cue type and delay interval matter?

    Avci, G; Loft, S; Sheppard, D P; Woods, S P

    2016-11-01

    There is a rising prevalence of older HIV+ adults who are at risk of deficits in higher order neurocognitive functions and associated problems in everyday functioning. The current study applied multiprocess theory to examine the effects of HIV and aging on measures of laboratory-based, naturalistic, and self-perceived symptoms of prospective memory (PM). Participants included 125 Younger (48 with HIV, age = 32 ± 4.6 years) and 189 Older (112 with HIV, age = 56 ± 4.9 years) adults. Controlling for global neurocognitive functioning, mood, and other demographics, older age and HIV had independent effects on long-delay time-based PM in the laboratory, whereas on a naturalistic PM task older HIV- adults performed better than older HIV+ adults and younger persons. In line with the naturalistic findings, older age, but not HIV, was associated with a relative sparing of self-perceived PM failures in daily life across longer delay self-cued intervals. Findings suggest that, even in relatively younger aging cohorts, the effects of HIV and older age on PM can vary across PM delay intervals by the strategic demands of the retrieval cue type, are expressed differently in the laboratory and in daily life, and are independent of other higher order neurocognitive functions (e.g., retrospective memory).

  19. Therapeutic Vaccination Using Cationic Liposome-Adjuvanted HIV Type 1 Peptides Representing HLA-Supertype-Restricted Subdominant T Cell Epitopes

    Román, Victor Raúl Gómez; Jensen, Kristoffer Jarlov; Jensen, Sanne Skov

    2013-01-01

    We have designed a therapeutic HIV-1 vaccine concept based on peptides together with the adjuvant CAF01. Peptides represented 15 HLA-supertype-restricted subdominant and conserved CD8 T cell epitopes and three CD4 T-helper cell epitopes. In this phase I clinical trial, safety and immunogenicity...... were assessed in untreated HIV-1-infected individuals in Guinea-Bissau, West Africa. Twenty-three HIV-1-infected individuals were randomized to receive placebo (n=5) or vaccine (n=18). Safety was appraised by clinical follow-up combined with monitoring of biochemistry, hematology, CD4 T cell counts......, and HIV-1 viral loads. T cell immunogenicity was monitored longitudinally by interferon (IFN)-γ ELISpot. New vaccine-specific T cell responses were induced in 6/14 vaccinees for whom ELISpot data were valid. CD4 T cell counts and viral loads were stable. The study shows that therapeutic immunization...

  20. Prevalence, incidence and determinants of herpes simplex virus type 2 infection among HIV-seronegative women at high-risk of HIV infection: a prospective study in Beira, Mozambique.

    Ivete Meque

    Full Text Available To estimate the prevalence, incidence and determinants of herpes simplex type 2 (HSV-2 infection, and associations between HSV-2 and incident HIV infection, among women at higher risk for HIV infection in Beira, Mozambique.Between 2009 and 2012, 411 women aged 18-35 years at higher risk of HIV acquisition (defined as having had two or more sexual partners in the month prior to study enrollment were enrolled and followed monthly for one year. At each study visit, they were counseled, interviewed, and tested for HSV-2 and HIV antibodies.The HSV-2 prevalence at baseline was 60.6% (95% CI: 55.7% -65.4%. Increasing age (aOR = 2.94, 95% CI: 1.74-4.97, P<0.001 and aOR = 3.39, 95% CI: 1.58-7.29, P = 0.002 for age groups of 21-24 and 25-35 years old respectively, lower educational level (aOR = 1.81, 95% CI: 1.09-3.02, P = 0.022, working full time (aOR = 8.56, 95% CI: 1.01-72.53, P = 0.049 and having practiced oral sex (aOR = 3.02, 95% CI: 1.16-7.89, P = 0.024 were strongly associated with prevalent HSV-2 infection. Thirty one participants seroconverted for HSV-2 (20.5%; 95% CI: 14.4% -27.9% and 22 for HIV during the study period. The frequency of vaginal sex with a casual partner using a condom in the last 7 days was independently associated with incident HSV-2 infection (aOR = 1.91, 95% CI: 1.05-3.47, P = 0.034. Positive HSV-2 serology at baseline was not significantly associated with risk of subsequent HIV seroconversion.Young women engaging in risky sexual behaviors in Beira had high prevalence and incidence of HSV-2 infection. Improved primary HSV-2 control strategies are urgently needed in Beira.

  1. The power of siblings and caregivers: under-explored types of social support among children affected by HIV and AIDS

    Sharer, Melissa; Cluver, Lucie; Shields, Joseph J.; Ahearn, Frederick

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Children affected by HIV and AIDS have significantly higher rates of mental health problems than unaffected children. There is a need for research to examine how social support functions as a source of resiliency for children in high HIV-prevalence settings such as South Africa. The purpose of this research was to explore how family social support relates to depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress (PTS). Using the ecological model as a frame, data were drawn from a 2011 cross-...

  2. Safety and efficacy of dolutegravir in treatment-experienced subjects with raltegravir-resistant HIV type 1 infection: 24-week results of the VIKING Study.

    Eron, Joseph J; Clotet, Bonaventura; Durant, Jacques; Katlama, Christine; Kumar, Princy; Lazzarin, Adriano; Poizot-Martin, Isabelle; Richmond, Gary; Soriano, Vincent; Ait-Khaled, Mounir; Fujiwara, Tamio; Huang, Jenny; Min, Sherene; Vavro, Cindy; Yeo, Jane

    2013-03-01

    Dolutegravir (DTG; S/GSK1349572), a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) integrase inhibitor, has limited cross-resistance to raltegravir (RAL) and elvitegravir in vitro. This phase IIb study assessed the activity of DTG in HIV-1-infected subjects with genotypic evidence of RAL resistance. Subjects received DTG 50 mg once daily (cohort I) or 50 mg twice daily (cohort II) while continuing a failing regimen (without RAL) through day 10, after which the background regimen was optimized, when feasible, for cohort I, and at least 1 fully active drug was mandated for cohort II. The primary efficacy end point was the proportion of subjects on day 11 in whom the plasma HIV-1 RNA load decreased by ≥0.7 log(10) copies/mL from baseline or was <400 copies/mL. A rapid antiviral response was observed. More subjects achieved the primary end point in cohort II (23 of 24 [96%]), compared with cohort I (21 of 27 [78%]) at day 11. At week 24, 41% and 75% of subjects had an HIV-1 RNA load of <50 copies/mL in cohorts I and II, respectively. Further integrase genotypic evolution was uncommon. Dolutegravir had a good, similar safety profile with each dosing regimen. Dolutegravir 50 mg twice daily with an optimized background provided greater and more durable benefit than the once-daily regimen. These data are the first clinical demonstration of the activity of any integrase inhibitor in subjects with HIV-1 resistant to RAL.

  3. A qualitative study on the experiences and perspectives of public sector patients in Cape Town in managing the workload of demands of HIV and type 2 diabetes multimorbidity.

    Matima, Rangarirai; Murphy, Katherine; Levitt, Naomi S; BeLue, Rhonda; Oni, Tolu

    2018-01-01

    Current South African health policy for chronic disease management proposes integration of chronic services for better outcomes for chronic conditions; that is based on the Integrated Chronic Disease Model (ICDM). However, scant data exist on how patients with chronic multimorbidities currently experience the (re)-organisation of health services and what their perceived needs are in order to enhance the management of their conditions. A qualitative study was conducted in a community health centre treating both HIV and diabetes patients in Cape Town. The study was grounded in the Shippee's Cumulative Complexity Model (CCM) and explored "patient workload" and "patient capacity" to manage chronic conditions. Individual interviews were conducted with 10 adult patient-participants with HIV and type two diabetes (T2D) multimorbidity and 6 healthcare workers who provided health services to these patient-participants. Patient-participants in this study experienced clinic-related workload such as: two separate clinics for HIV and T2D and perceived and experienced power mismatch between patients and healthcare workers. Self-care related workloads were largely around nutritional requirements, pill burden, and stigma. Burden of these demands varied in difficulty among patient-participants due to capacity factors such as: positive attitudes, optimal health literacy, social support and availability of economic resources. Strategies mentioned by participants for improved continuity of care and self-management of multi-morbidities included integration of chronic services, consolidated guidelines for healthcare workers, educational materials for patients, improved information systems and income for patients. Using the CCM to explore multimorbidity captured most of the themes around "patient workload" and "patient capacity", and was thus a suitable framework to explore multimorbidity in this high HIV/T2D burden setting. Integration of chronic services and addressing social

  4. Estimation of the Binding Free Energy of AC1NX476 to HIV-1 Protease Wild Type and Mutations Using Free Energy Perturbation Method.

    Ngo, Son Tung; Mai, Binh Khanh; Hiep, Dinh Minh; Li, Mai Suan

    2015-10-01

    The binding mechanism of AC1NX476 to HIV-1 protease wild type and mutations was studied by the docking and molecular dynamics simulations. The binding free energy was calculated using the double-annihilation binding free energy method. It is shown that the binding affinity of AC1NX476 to wild type is higher than not only ritonavir but also darunavir, making AC1NX476 become attractive candidate for HIV treatment. Our theoretical results are in excellent agreement with the experimental data as the correlation coefficient between calculated and experimentally measured binding free energies R = 0.993. Residues Asp25-A, Asp29-A, Asp30-A, Ile47-A, Gly48-A, and Val50-A from chain A, and Asp25-B from chain B play a crucial role in the ligand binding. The mutations were found to reduce the receptor-ligand interaction by widening the binding cavity, and the binding propensity is mainly driven by the van der Waals interaction. Our finding may be useful for designing potential drugs to combat with HIV. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  5. Seamless modification of wild-type induced pluripotent stem cells to the natural CCR5Δ32 mutation confers resistance to HIV infection.

    Ye, Lin; Wang, Jiaming; Beyer, Ashley I; Teque, Fernando; Cradick, Thomas J; Qi, Zhongxia; Chang, Judy C; Bao, Gang; Muench, Marcus O; Yu, Jingwei; Levy, Jay A; Kan, Yuet Wai

    2014-07-01

    Individuals homozygous for the C-C chemokine receptor type 5 gene with 32-bp deletions (CCR5Δ32) are resistant to HIV-1 infection. In this study, we generated induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) homozygous for the naturally occurring CCR5Δ32 mutation through genome editing of wild-type iPSCs using a combination of transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) or RNA-guided clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas9 together with the piggyBac technology. Remarkably, TALENs or CRISPR-Cas9-mediated double-strand DNA breaks resulted in up to 100% targeting of the colonies on one allele of which biallelic targeting occurred at an average of 14% with TALENs and 33% with CRISPR. Excision of the piggyBac using transposase seamlessly reproduced exactly the naturally occurring CCR5Δ32 mutation without detectable exogenous sequences. We differentiated these modified iPSCs into monocytes/macrophages and demonstrated their resistance to HIV-1 challenge. We propose that this strategy may provide an approach toward a functional cure of HIV-1 infection.

  6. Quantitative analysis of differentially expressed saliva proteins in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infected individuals

    Zhang, Nawei; Zhang, Zhenyu; Feng, Shan; Wang, Qingtao; Malamud, Daniel; Deng, Haiteng

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A high-throughput method for profiling and quantification of the differentially expressed proteins in saliva samples was developed. ► Identified that DMBT1, S100A7, S100A8, S100A9 and alpha defensin were up-regulated in saliva from HIV-1 seropositive patients. ► Established analytical strategies are translatable to the clinical setting. -- Abstract: In the present study, we have established a new methodology to analyze saliva proteins from HIV-1-seropositive patients before highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and seronegative controls. A total of 593 and 601 proteins were identified in the pooled saliva samples from 5 HIV-1 subjects and 5 controls, respectively. Forty-one proteins were found to be differentially expressed. Bioinformatic analysis of differentially expressed salivary proteins showed an increase of antimicrobial proteins and decrease of protease inhibitors upon HIV-1 infection. To validate some of these differentially expressed proteins, a high-throughput quantitation method was established to determine concentrations of 10 salivary proteins in 40 individual saliva samples from 20 seropositive patients before HAART and 20 seronegative subjects. This method was based on limited protein separation within the zone of the stacking gel of the 1D SDS PAGE and using isotope-coded synthetic peptides as internal standards. The results demonstrated that a combination of protein profiling and targeted quantitation is an efficient method to identify and validate differentially expressed salivary proteins. Expression levels of members of the calcium-binding S100 protein family and deleted in malignant brain tumors 1 protein (DMBT1) were up-regulated while that of Mucin 5B was down-regulated in HIV-1 seropositive saliva samples, which may provide new perspectives for monitoring HIV-infection and understanding the mechanism of HIV-1 infectivity

  7. Quantitative analysis of differentially expressed saliva proteins in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infected individuals

    Zhang, Nawei; Zhang, Zhenyu [Beijing Chaoyang Hospital Affiliated Capital Medical University, Beijing (China); Feng, Shan [MOE Key Laboratory of Bioinformatics, School of Life Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); Wang, Qingtao [Beijing Chaoyang Hospital Affiliated Capital Medical University, Beijing (China); Malamud, Daniel [NYU College of Dentistry, 345 East 24th Street, New York, NY 10010 (United States); Deng, Haiteng, E-mail: dht@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [MOE Key Laboratory of Bioinformatics, School of Life Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China)

    2013-04-24

    Highlights: ► A high-throughput method for profiling and quantification of the differentially expressed proteins in saliva samples was developed. ► Identified that DMBT1, S100A7, S100A8, S100A9 and alpha defensin were up-regulated in saliva from HIV-1 seropositive patients. ► Established analytical strategies are translatable to the clinical setting. -- Abstract: In the present study, we have established a new methodology to analyze saliva proteins from HIV-1-seropositive patients before highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and seronegative controls. A total of 593 and 601 proteins were identified in the pooled saliva samples from 5 HIV-1 subjects and 5 controls, respectively. Forty-one proteins were found to be differentially expressed. Bioinformatic analysis of differentially expressed salivary proteins showed an increase of antimicrobial proteins and decrease of protease inhibitors upon HIV-1 infection. To validate some of these differentially expressed proteins, a high-throughput quantitation method was established to determine concentrations of 10 salivary proteins in 40 individual saliva samples from 20 seropositive patients before HAART and 20 seronegative subjects. This method was based on limited protein separation within the zone of the stacking gel of the 1D SDS PAGE and using isotope-coded synthetic peptides as internal standards. The results demonstrated that a combination of protein profiling and targeted quantitation is an efficient method to identify and validate differentially expressed salivary proteins. Expression levels of members of the calcium-binding S100 protein family and deleted in malignant brain tumors 1 protein (DMBT1) were up-regulated while that of Mucin 5B was down-regulated in HIV-1 seropositive saliva samples, which may provide new perspectives for monitoring HIV-infection and understanding the mechanism of HIV-1 infectivity.

  8. prevalence and immune status of hiv/hbv co-infected pregnant women

    boaz

    occurrence of HBV antibodies in HIV-1 positive pregnant women and the relationship to Ante-retroviral therapy (ART) and other demographic ... the potential benefits of interferon use during ... infection and does not influence HIV suppression.

  9. The Utility of a Syndemic Framework in Understanding Chronic Disease Management Among HIV-Infected and Type 2 Diabetic Men Who Have Sex with Men.

    Byg, Blaire; Bazzi, Angela Robertson; Funk, Danielle; James, Bonface; Potter, Jennifer

    2016-12-01

    Syndemic theory posits that epidemics of multiple physical and psychosocial problems co-occur among disadvantaged groups due to adverse social conditions. Although sexual minority populations are often stigmatized and vulnerable to multiple health problems, the syndemic perspective has been underutilized in understanding chronic disease. To assess the potential utility of this perspective in understanding the management of co-occurring HIV and Type 2 diabetes, we used linear regression to examine glycemic control (A1c) among men who have sex with men (MSM) with both HIV and Type 2 diabetes (n = 88). Bivariable linear regression explored potential syndemic correlates of inadequate glycemic control. Compared to those with adequate glycemic control (A1c ≤ 7.5 %), more men with inadequate glycemic control (A1c > 7.5 %) had hypertension (70 vs. 46 %, p = 0.034), high triglycerides (93 vs. 61 %, p = 0.002), depression (67 vs. 39 %, p = 0.018), current substance abuse (15 vs. 2 %, p = 0.014), and detectable levels of HIV (i.e., viral load ≥75 copies per ml blood; 30 vs. 10 %, p = 0.019). In multivariable regression controlling for age, the factors that were independently associated with higher A1c were high triglycerides, substance use, and detectable HIV viral load, suggesting that chronic disease management among MSM is complex and challenging for patients and providers. Findings also suggest that syndemic theory can be a clarifying lens for understanding chronic disease management among sexual minority stigmatized populations. Interventions targeting single conditions may be inadequate when multiple conditions co-occur; thus, research using a syndemic framework may be helpful in identifying intervention strategies that target multiple co-occurring conditions.

  10. The effect of cholecalciferol and calcitriol on biochemical bone markers in HIV type 1-infected males: results of a clinical trial.

    Bang, Ulrich Christian; Kolte, Lilian; Hitz, Mette; Schierbeck, Louise Lind; Nielsen, Susanne Dam; Benfield, Thomas; Jensen, Jens-Erik Beck

    2013-04-01

    HIV-1-infected patients have an increased risk of osteoporosis and fractures. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the bone metabolism in HIV-1-infected patients exposed to calcitriol and cholecalciferol. We also investigated the relationship between T cells and bone markers. We conducted a placebo-controlled randomized study running for 16 weeks including 61 HIV-1-infected males, of whom 51 completed the protocol. Nineteen participants were randomized to daily treatment with (A) 0.5-1.0 μg calcitriol and 1,200 IU (30 μg) cholecalciferol, 17 participants to (B) 1,200 IU cholecalciferol, and 15 participants to (C) placebo. At baseline and after 16 weeks, we determined collagen type 1 trimeric cross-linked peptide (CTx), procollagen type 1 N-terminal peptide (P1NP), parathyroid hormone (PTH), ionized calcium, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D]. We determined naive CD4(+) and CD8(+), activated CD4(+) and CD8(+), and regulatory CD4(+)CD25(+)CD127(low) T lymphocytes. Baseline levels of P1NP and CTx correlated (coefficient 0.5, p<0.001) with each other but not with PTH, 25OHD, or 1,25(OH)2D. In patients receiving calcitriol and cholecalciferol, the mean levels of P1NP (p<0.001) and CTx (p= 0.002) declined significantly compared to our placebo group. Based on changes in P1NP and CTx, we estimated that net bone formation occurred more frequently in group A compared to groups B and C. PTH correlated inversely with naive CD4(+) and CD8(+) cells. Otherwise, no relationships between bone markers and T lymphocytes were demonstrated. Supplementation with calcitriol and cholecalciferol induced biochemical indications of bone formation in HIV-1 patients.

  11. Trends of drug-resistance-associated mutations in the reverse transcriptase gene of HIV type 1 isolates from North India.

    Azam, Mohd; Malik, Abida; Rizvi, Meher; Rai, Arvind

    2014-04-01

    A major cause of failure of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is the presence of drug-resistance-associated mutations in the polymerase gene of HIV-1. The paucity of data regarding potential drug resistance to reverse transcriptase inhibitors (RTIs) prompted us to carry out this study. This information will shed light on the extent of drug resistance already present in HIV strains and will give future directions in patient treatment and in drug design. Drug resistance genotyping of a partial reverse transcriptase gene was done in 103 HIV-1-infected patients, including the ART-naive and ART-experienced population. The drug resistance pattern was analyzed using the Stanford HIV-DR database, the IAS-USA mutation list and the REGA algorithm-v8.0. Subtyping was done using the REGA HIV-1 subtyping tool-v2.01. The majority of our sequences (96 %) were found to be subtype C, and four (3.8 %) were subtype A1. Significant prevalence of DR mutations (28 %) was observed in the RT gene. Major amino acid substitutions were seen at positions 41, 90, 98, 103, 106, 108, 138, 181, 184, 190, 215, and 219, which confer high/intermediate levels of resistance to most RTIs, independently or together. Our results show that there is an urgent need to tailor ART drug regimens to the individual to achieve optimum therapeutic outcome in North India.

  12. Exosomes from Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1)-Infected Cells License Quiescent CD4+ T Lymphocytes To Replicate HIV-1 through a Nef- and ADAM17-Dependent Mechanism

    Arenaccio, Claudia; Chiozzini, Chiara; Columba-Cabezas, Sandra; Manfredi, Francesco; Affabris, Elisabetta; Baur, Andreas; Federico, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    Resting CD4+ T lymphocytes resist human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Here, we provide evidence that exosomes from HIV-1-infected cells render resting human primary CD4+ T lymphocytes permissive to HIV-1 replication. These results were obtained with transwell cocultures of HIV-1-infected cells with quiescent CD4+ T lymphocytes in the presence of inhibitors of exosome release and were confirmed using exosomes purified from supernatants of HIV-1-infected primary CD4+ T lymphocytes. We...

  13. HIV avidity index performance using a modified fourth-generation immunoassay to detect recent HIV infections.

    Suligoi, Barbara; Regine, Vincenza; Raimondo, Mariangela; Rodella, Anna; Terlenghi, Luigina; Caruso, Arnaldo; Bagnarelli, Patrizia; Capobianchi, Maria Rosaria; Zanchetta, Nadia; Ghisetti, Valeria; Galli, Claudio

    2017-10-26

    Detecting recent HIV infections is important to evaluate incidence and monitor epidemic trends. We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic performance and accuracy of the avidity index (AI) for discriminating for recent HIV infections. We collected serum samples from HIV-1 positive individuals: A) with known date of infection (midpoint in time between last HIV-negative and first HIV-positive test); B) infected for >1 year. Samples were divided into two aliquots: one diluted with phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and the other with 1 M guanidine. Both aliquots were assayed by the Architect HIV Ag/Ab Combo 4th generation assay (Abbott). We compared AI found in recent (RI=HIV subtype had no impact on AI misclassifications. All individuals in group A reached the AI threshold of 0.80 within 24 months after seroconversion. The AI is an accurate serological marker for discriminating recent from established HIV infections and meets WHO requirements for HIV incidence assays.

  14. Safety and immunogenicity of adenovirus-vectored near-consensus HIV type 1 clade B gag vaccines in healthy adults.

    Harro, Clayton D; Robertson, Michael N; Lally, Michelle A; O'Neill, Lori D; Edupuganti, Srilatha; Goepfert, Paul A; Mulligan, Mark J; Priddy, Frances H; Dubey, Sheri A; Kierstead, Lisa S; Sun, Xiao; Casimiro, Danilo R; DiNubile, Mark J; Shiver, John W; Leavitt, Randi Y; Mehrotra, Devan V

    2009-01-01

    Vaccines inducing pathogen-specific cell-mediated immunity are being developed using attenuated adenoviral (Ad) vectors. We report the results of two independent Phase I trials of similar replication-deficient Ad5 vaccines containing a near-consensus HIV-1 clade B gag transgene. Healthy HIV-uninfected adults were enrolled in two separate, multicenter, dose-escalating, blinded, placebo-controlled studies to assess the safety and immunogenicity of a three-dose homologous regimen of Ad5 and MRKAd5 HIV-1 gag vaccines given on day 1, week 4, and week 26. Adverse events were collected for 29 days following each intradeltoid injection. The primary immunogenicity endpoint was the proportion of subjects with a positive unfractionated Gag-specific IFN-gamma ELISPOT response measured 4 weeks after the last dose (week 30). Analyses were performed after combining data for each dose group from both protocols, stratifying by baseline Ad5 titers. Overall, 252 subjects were randomized to receive either vaccine or placebo, including 229 subjects (91%) who completed the study through week 30. Tolerability and immunogenicity did not appear to differ between the Ad5 and MRKAd5 vaccines. The frequency of injection-site reactions was dose dependent. Systemic adverse events were also dose dependent and more frequent in subjects with baseline Ad5 titers or =200, especially after the first dose. The percent of ELISPOT responders and the ELISPOT geometric means overall were significantly higher for all four vaccine doses studied compared to placebo, and were generally higher in vaccine recipients with baseline Ad5 titers or = 200. Ad5 titers increased after vaccination in a dose-dependent fashion. Both Ad5-vectored HIV-1 vaccines were generally well tolerated and induced cell-mediated immune responses against HIV Gag-peptides in the majority of healthy adults with baseline Ad5 titers vaccine-induced immunity to the Ad5 vector may dampen the CMI response to HIV Gag.

  15. Proof of activity with AMD11070, an orally bioavailable inhibitor of CXCR4-tropic HIV type 1.

    Moyle, Graeme; DeJesus, Edwin; Boffito, Marta; Wong, Rebecca S; Gibney, Colleen; Badel, Karin; MacFarland, Ron; Calandra, Gary; Bridger, Gary; Becker, Stephen

    2009-03-15

    The X4 Antagonist Concept Trial investigates the safety and antiviral activity of AMD11070, a potent inhibitor of X4-tropic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in vitro in HIV-infected patients harboring X4-tropic virus. Patients enrolled in the study had an X4 virus population 2000 relative luminescence units (rlu; by the Monogram Trofile Assay) and an HIV-1 RNA level 5000 copies/mL. Patients received AMD11070 monotherapy for 10 days. Coreceptor tropism, plasma HIV-1 RNA level, and CD4 cell count were measured at study entry, on day 5, and on day 10. Daily predose and serial samples on the last day of treatment were obtained for determination of plasma AMD11070 concentration. Ten patients were given AMD11070 monotherapy (200 mg to 8 patients and 100 mg to 2 patients) twice daily for 10 days. The median baseline CD4 cell count was 160 cells/mm(3), and the median HIV-1 RNA level was 91,447 copies/mL. Four of 9 evaluable patients achieved a reduction in X4 virus population of >or= rlu. The median change in X4 virus population at the end of treatment was -0.22 log(10) rlu (range, -1.90 to 0.23 log(10) rlu). Three of 4 patients who responded to therapy showed a tropism shift from dual- or mixed-tropic viruses to exclusively R5 virus by day 10. There were no drug-related serious adverse events, adverse events of greater than grade 2, or laboratory abnormalities. These results demonstrate the activity of AMD11070, the first oral CXCR4 antagonist, against X4-tropic HIV-1. The drug was well tolerated, with no serious safety concerns. AMD11070 is on clinical hold because of histologic changes to the liver observed in long-term animal studies; additional preclinical safety assessments are pending.

  16. Serological and molecular typing of HIV type 1 infection in the Tiriyo tribe, a native Indian community of the Amazon region of Brazil.

    Machado, Luiz F A; Vallinoto, Antonio C R; Souza, Maria I M; Azevedo, Vania N; Ishak, Marluisa O G; Ishak, Ricardo

    2006-12-01

    The seroprevalence and the occurrence of an HIV-1 subtype was assessed in blood samples of the Tiriyo tribe. Antibody was found in 0.6% and the molecular analysis of the pro region detected the emergence of a subtype B for the first time in a native Indian tribe of the Amazon region of Brazil.

  17. Induction of antibodies against epitopes inaccessible on the HIV type 1 envelope oligomer by immunization with recombinant monomeric glycoprotein 120

    Schønning, Kristian; Bolmstedt, A; Novotny, J

    1998-01-01

    An N-glycan (N306) at the base of the V3 loop of HIV-BRU gp120 is shielding a linear neutralization epitope at the tip of the V3 loop on oligomeric Env. In contrast, this epitope is readily antigenic on monomeric gp120. Immunization with recombinant monomeric HIV-BRU gp120 may thus be expected...... immunogenic structures inaccessible on the envelope oligomer. The limited ability of recombinant gp120 vaccines to induce neutralizing antibodies against primary isolates may thus not exclusively reflect genetic variation....

  18. Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) as a coronary atherosclerosis risk factor in HIV-infected men: multicenter AIDS cohort study.

    Hechter, Rulin C; Budoff, Matthew; Hodis, Howard N; Rinaldo, Charles R; Jenkins, Frank J; Jacobson, Lisa P; Kingsley, Lawrence A; Taiwo, Babafemi; Post, Wendy S; Margolick, Joseph B; Detels, Roger

    2012-08-01

    We assessed associations of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and -2), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) infection with subclinical coronary atherosclerosis in 291 HIV-infected men in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study. Coronary artery calcium (CAC) was measured by non-contrast coronary CT imaging. Markers for herpesviruses infection were measured in frozen specimens collected 10-12 years prior to case identification. Multivariable logistic regression models and ordinal logistic regression models were performed. HSV-2 seropositivity was associated with coronary atherosclerosis (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=4.12, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.58-10.85) after adjustment for age, race/ethnicity, cardiovascular risk factors, and HIV infection related factors. Infection with a greater number of herpesviruses was associated with elevated CAC levels (AOR=1.58, 95% CI=1.06-2.36). Our findings suggest HSV-2 may be a risk factor for subclinical coronary atherosclerosis in HIV-infected men. Infection with multiple herpesviruses may contribute to the increased burden of atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Molecular dynamics simulation studies of the wild type and E92Q/N155H mutant of Elvitegravir-resistance HIV-1 integrase.

    Chen, Qi; Cheng, Xiaolin; Wei, Dongqing; Xu, Qin

    2015-03-01

    Although Elvitegravir (EVG) is a newly developed antiretrovirals drug to treat the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), drug resistance has already been found in clinic, such as E92Q/N155H and Q148H/G140S. Several structural investigations have already been reported to reveal the molecular mechanism of the drug resistance. As full length crystal structure for HIV-1 integrase is still unsolved, we herein use the crystal structure of the full length prototype foamy virus (PFV) in complex with virus DNA and inhibitor Elvitegravir as a template to construct the wild type and E92Q/N155H mutant system of HIV-1 integrase. Molecular dynamic simulations was used to revel the binding mode and the drug resistance of the EVG ligand in E92Q/N155H. Several important interactions were discovered between the mutated residues and the residues in the active site of the E92Q/N155H double mutant pattern, and cross correlation and clustering methods were used for detailed analysis. The results from the MD simulation studies will be used to guide the experimental efforts of developing novel inhibitors against drug-resistant HIV integrase mutants.

  20. Molecular dynamics simulation studies of the wild type and E92Q/N155H mutant of Elvitegravir-resistance HIV-1 integrase

    Chen, Qi [Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ., Shanghai (China). State Key Lab. of Microbial Metabolism and College of Life Science and Biotechnology; Cheng, Xiaolin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Center for Molecular Biophysics; Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Cellular and Molecular Biology; Wei, Dongqing [Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ., Shanghai (China). State Key Lab. of Microbial Metabolism and College of Life Science and Biotechnology; Xu, Qin [Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ., Shanghai (China). State Key Lab. of Microbial Metabolism and College of Life Science and Biotechnology

    2014-11-06

    Although Elvitegravir (EVG) is a newly developed antiretrovirals drug to treat the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), drug resistance has already been found in clinic, such as E92Q/N155H and Q148H/G140S. Several structural investigations have already been reported to reveal the molecular mechanism of the drug resistance. As full length crystal structure for HIV-1 integrase is still unsolved, we use in this paper the crystal structure of the full length prototype foamy virus (PFV) in complex with virus DNA and inhibitor Elvitegravir as a template to construct the wild type and E92Q/N155H mutant system of HIV-1 integrase. Molecular dynamic simulations was used to revel the binding mode and the drug resistance of the EVG ligand in E92Q/N155H. Several important interactions were discovered between the mutated residues and the residues in the active site of the E92Q/N155H double mutant pattern, and cross correlation and clustering methods were used for detailed analysis. The results from the MD simulation studies will be used to guide the experimental efforts of developing novel inhibitors against drug-resistant HIV integrase mutants.

  1. HIV type-1 genotypic resistance profiles in vertically infected patients from Argentina reveal an association between K103N+L100I and L74V mutations.

    Aulicino, Paula C; Rocco, Carlos A; Mecikovsky, Debora; Bologna, Rosa; Mangano, Andrea; Sen, Luisa

    2010-01-01

    Patterns and pathways of HIV type-1 (HIV-1) antiretroviral (ARV) drug resistance-associated mutations in clinical isolates are conditioned by ARV history and factors such as viral subtype and fitness. Our aim was to analyse the frequency and association of ARV drug resistance mutations in a group of long-term vertically infected patients from Argentina. Plasma samples from 71 patients (38 children and 33 adolescents) were collected for genotypic HIV-1 ARV resistance testing during the period between February 2006 and October 2008. Statistically significant pairwise associations between ARV resistance mutations in pol, as well as associations between mutations and drug exposure, were identified using Fisher's exact tests with Bonferroni and false discovery rate corrections. Phylogenetic analyses were performed for subtype assignment. In protease (PR), resistance-associated mutations M46I/L, I54M/L/V/A/S and V82A/F/T/S/M/I were associated with each other and with minor mutations at codons 10, 24 and 71. Mutations V82A/F/T/S/M/I were primarily selected by the administration of ritonavir (RTV) in an historical ARV regimen. In reverse transcriptase, thymidine analogue mutation (TAM)1 profile was more common than TAM2. The non-nucleoside K103N+L100I mutations were observed at high frequency (15.5%) and were significantly associated with the nucleoside mutation L74V in BF recombinants. Associations of mutations at PR sites reflect the frequent use of RTV at an early time in this group of patients and convergent resistance mechanisms driven by the high exposure to protease inhibitors, as well as local HIV-1 diversity. The results provide clinical evidence of a molecular interaction between K103N+L100I and L74V mutations at the reverse transcriptase gene in vivo, limiting the future use of second-generation non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors such as etravirine.

  2. Seventeen-year-old mother-to-child HIV type 1 transmission identified by phylogeny and signature patterns

    Katzenstein, T.L.; Petersen, A.B.; Jorgensen, L.B.

    2008-01-01

    A case, in which the clinical suspicion of perinatal HIV transmission of a newly diagnosed 17-year-old woman was supported by the phylogenetic analyses of pol sequences obtained for routine resistance testing and further substantiated by analyses of gag and env, is described Udgivelsesdato: 2008/8...

  3. Characterization of near full-length genomes of HIV type 1 strains in Denmark: Basis for a universal therapeutic vaccine

    Andresen, Betina S.; Vinner, Lasse; Tang, Sheila Tuyet

    2007-01-01

    We report here the near full-length sequence characterization of 17 Danish clinical HIV-1 strains isolated from HLA-A02 patients not in need of ART, with relatively low viral loads and normal CD4 cell counts. Sequencing was performed directly on DNA extracted from short-term cocultures of PBMCs...... of a universal immunotherapeutic vaccine construct based on these epitopes....

  4. Prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 p24 antigen in U.S. blood donors--an assessment of the efficacy of testing in donor screening. The HIV-Antigen Study Group.

    Alter, H J; Epstein, J S; Swenson, S G; VanRaden, M J; Ward, J W; Kaslow, R A; Menitove, J E; Klein, H G; Sandler, S G; Sayers, M H

    1990-11-08

    We performed a multicenter study in 1989 to determine whether screening whole-blood donors for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) p24 antigen would improve transfusion safety by identifying carriers of the virus who are seronegative for HIV-1 antibody. More than 500,000 donations were tested at 13 U.S. blood centers with test kits from two manufacturers. Units found repeatedly reactive were retested in a central laboratory; if the results were positive, they were confirmed by a neutralization assay. A subgroup of units was also tested for HIV-1 by the polymerase chain reaction. Selected donors confirmed or not confirmed as having p24 antigen were contacted for follow-up interviews to identify risk factors and undergo retesting for HIV-1 markers. Positive tests for p24 antigen were confirmed by neutralization in five donors (0.001 percent of all donations tested), all of whom were also positive for HIV-1 antibody and HIV-1 by polymerase chain reaction. Three of the antigen-positive donors had other markers of infectious disease that would have resulted in the exclusion of their blood; two had risk factors for HIV-1 that should have led to self-exclusion. Of 220 blood units with repeatedly reactive p24 antigen whose presence could not be confirmed by neutralization (0.04 percent of the donations studied), none were positive for HIV-1 antibody, HIV-1 by polymerase chain reaction (120 units tested), or virus culture (76 units tested)--attesting to the specificity of confirmatory neutralization. The finding that no donation studied was positive for p24 antigen and negative for HIV-1 antibody suggests that screening donors for p24 antigen with tests of the current level of sensitivity would not add substantially to the safety of the U.S. blood supply.

  5. Antigen-driven C–C Chemokine-mediated HIV-1 Suppression by CD4+ T Cells from Exposed Uninfected Individuals Expressing the Wild-type CCR-5 Allele

    Furci, Lucinda; Scarlatti, Gabriella; Burastero, Samuele; Tambussi, Giuseppe; Colognesi, Claudia; Quillent, Caroline; Longhi, Renato; Loverro, Patrizia; Borgonovo, Barbara; Gaffi, Davide; Carrow, Emily; Malnati, Mauro; Lusso, Paolo; Siccardi, Antonio G.; Lazzarin, Adriano; Beretta, Alberto

    1997-01-01

    Despite repeated exposure to HIV-1, certain individuals remain persistently uninfected. Such exposed uninfected (EU) people show evidence of HIV-1–specific T cell immunity and, in rare cases, selective resistance to infection by macrophage-tropic strains of HIV-1. The latter has been associated with a 32–base pair deletion in the C–C chemokine receptor gene CCR-5, the major coreceptor of macrophage-tropic strains of HIV-1. We have undertaken an analysis of the HIV-specific T cell responses in 12 EU individuals who were either homozygous for the wild-type CCR-5 allele or heterozygous for the deletion allele (CCR-5Δ32). We have found evidence of an oligoclonal T cell response mediated by helper T cells specific for a conserved region of the HIV-1 envelope. These cells produce very high levels of C–C chemokines when stimulated by the specific antigen and suppress selectively the replication of macrophage-tropic, but not T cell–tropic, strains of HIV-1. These chemokine-producing helper cells may be part of a protective immune response that could be potentially exploited for vaccine development. PMID:9236198

  6. HIV Testing

    ... Abroad Treatment Basic Statistics Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... All Collapse All Should I get tested for HIV? CDC recommends that everyone between the ages of ...

  7. Carcinogenicity of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Types in HIV-Positive Women: A Meta-Analysis From HPV Infection to Cervical Cancer

    Tully, Stephen; Franceschi, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background. Data on the relative carcinogenic potential of human papillomavirus (HPV) types among women infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (WHIV) are needed to inform prevention programs for this population. Methods. A systematic literature review and meta-analysis of high-risk HPV-type distribution in 19883 HIV-positive women was performed. The women, from 86 studies worldwide, included 11739 with normal cytological findings; 1784 with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS); 2173 with low-grade and 1282 with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSILs) diagnosed cytologically; 1198 with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1 (CIN1), 456 with CIN2, and 455 with CIN3 diagnosed histologically; and 796 with invasive cervical cancers (ICCs). A large proportion of WHIV, and almost all with ICCs, were from Africa. Results. In Africa, HPV 16 accounted for 13% of HPV-positive WHIV with normal cytological findings, but this proportion increased through ASCUS, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, CIN1, and CIN2 (18%–25%), up to 41%–47% for CIN3 and ICCs. Only HPV 16, HPV 18, and HPV 45 accounted for a greater proportion of HPV infections in ICCs compared with normal cytological findings (ICC:normal ratios, 3.68, 2.47, and 2.55, respectively). Other high-risk types accounted for important proportions of low- and/or high-grade lesions, but their contribution dropped in ICCs, with ICC:normal ratios in Africa ranging from 0.79 for HPV 33 down to 0.38 for HPV 56. Findings for HPV 16 and HPV 18 in Europe/North America, Asia, and Latin America were compatible with those from Africa. Conclusions. HPV 16 and HPV 18 in particular, but also HPV 45, at least in Africa, warrant special attention in WHIV. Broad consistency of findings with those in HIV-uninfected population would suggest that the risk stratification offered by partial HPV genotyping tests also have relevance for HIV-positive women. PMID:28199532

  8. Drug susceptibility to etravirine and darunavir among Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1-derived pseudoviruses in treatment-experienced patients with HIV/AIDS in South Korea.

    Kwon, Oh-Kyung; Kim, Sung Soon; Rhee, Jee Eun; Kee, Mee-Kyung; Park, Mina; Oh, Hye-Ri; Choi, Ju-Yeon

    2015-04-09

    In South Korea, about 20 types of antiretroviral drugs are used in the treatment of patients with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Since 2010, raltegravir, etravirine, and darunavir have been spotlighted as new drugs for highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)-experienced adults with resistant HIV-1 in South Korea. In this study, we investigated potential susceptibility of pseudoviruses derived from treatment-experienced Korean patients to etravirine vs efavirenz and to darunavir vs amprenavir and indinavir using a modified single-round assay. Pseudoviruses derived from nine treatment-experienced patients infected with HIV-1 were investigated by comparison with the wild-type strain pNL4-3. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values were calculated and drug susceptibility was compared. The intensity of genotypic drug resistance was classified based on the 'SIR' interpretation of the Stanford data base. Drug susceptibility was generally higher for etravirine and darunavir compared with efavirenz, amprenavir, and indinavir in pseudoviruses derived from treatment-experienced patients. Pseudoviruses derived from patients KRB4025 and KRB8014, who exhibited long-term use of protease inhibitors, showed an outside of tested drug concentration, especially for amprenavir and indinavir. However, they exhibited a lower fold-change in resistance to darunavir. Etravirine and darunavir have been used in HAART since 2010 in South Korea. Therefore, these antiretroviral drugs together with other newly introduced antiretroviral drugs are interesting for the optimal treatment of patients with treatment failure. This study may help to find a more effective HAART in the case of HIV-1 infected patients that have difficulty being treated.

  9. Genomic analysis of HIV type 1 strains derived from a mother and child pair of long-term nonprogressors

    Reiniš, Milan; Weiser, B.; Kuiken, C.; Dong, T.; Lang, D.; Nachman, S.; Zhang, Y.; Rowland-Jones, S.; Burger, H.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 2 (2007), s. 309-315 ISSN 0889-2229 Grant - others:U.S. National Institue of Allergy and Infectious Disease (US) RO1-AI-42555; Fogarty International Center, the National Institute on Drug Abuse, and the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute(US) D43 TW000233 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : HIV-1 * genomic analysis Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.022, year: 2007

  10. Biological and genetic evolution of HIV type 1 in two siblings with different patterns of disease progression.

    Ripamonti, Chiara; Leitner, Thomas; Laurén, Anna; Karlsson, Ingrid; Pastore, Angela; Cavarelli, Mariangela; Antonsson, Liselotte; Plebani, Anna; Fenyö, Eva Maria; Scarlatti, Gabriella

    2007-12-01

    To investigate the immunological and virological factors that may lead to different patterns of disease progression characteristic of HIV-1-infected children, two HIV-1-infected siblings, a slow and a fast progressor, were followed prospectively before the onset of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Viral coreceptor usage, including the use of CCR5/CXCR4 chimeric receptors, macrophage tropism, and sensitivity to the CC-chemokine RANTES, has been studied. An autologous and heterologous neutralizing antibody response has been documented using peripheral blood mononuclear cells- and GHOST(3) cell line-based assays. Viral evolution was investigated by env C2-V3 region sequence analysis. Although both siblings were infected with HIV-1 of the R5 phenotype, their viruses showed important biological differences. In the fast progressor there was a higher RANTES sensitivity of the early virus, an increased trend to change the mode of CCR5 receptor use, and a larger genetic evolution. Both children developed an autologous neutralizing antibody response starting from the second year with evidence of the continuous emergence of resistant variants. A marked viral genetic and phenotypic evolution was documented in the fast progressor sibling, which is accompanied by a high viral RANTES sensitivity and persistent neutralizing antibodies.

  11. Changes in drug resistance patterns following the introduction of HIV type 1 non-B subtypes in Spain.

    De Mendoza, Carmen; Garrido, Carolina; Poveda, Eva; Corral, Angélica; Zahonero, Natalia; Treviño, Ana; Anta, Lourdes; Soriano, Vincent

    2009-10-01

    Natural genetic variability at the pol gene may account for differences in drug susceptibility and selection of resistance patterns across HIV-1 clades. Spread of non-B subtypes along with changes in antiretroviral drug use may have modified drug resistance patterns in recent years. All HIV-1 clinical samples sent to a reference laboratory located in Madrid for drug resistance testing since January 2000 were analyzed. The pol gene was sequenced and HIV-1 subtypes were assigned using the Stanford algorithm and phylogenetic analyses for non-B subtypes. Drug resistance mutations were recorded using the IAS-USA mutation list (April 2008). A total of 3034 specimens from 730 antiretroviral-naive individuals (92 with non-B subtypes) and 1569 antiretroviral-experienced patients (97 with non-B subtypes) were examined. The prevalence of HIV-1 non-B subtypes in the study period increased from 4.4% (2000-2003) to 10.1% (2004-2007) (p 41.8%) and G (17.5%). Thymidine analogue mutations (TAMs) were more prevalent in B than non-B subtypes, in both drug-naive (6.2% vs. 1%; p < 0.01) and treatment-experienced patients (49% vs. 30%, p < 0.01). K103N was most frequent in B than non-B subtypes (34% vs. 21%; p < 0.01); conversely, 106A/M was more prevalent in non-B than B clades (11% vs. 5%). Codon 179 mutations associated with etravirine resistance were more frequent in non-B than B subtypes. Finally, secondary protease resistance mutations were more common in non-B than B clades, with a potentially significant impact at least on tipranavir. The prevalence of HIV-1 non-B subtypes has increased since the year 2000 in a large drug resistance database in Spain, determining changes in drug resistance patterns that may influence the susceptibility to new antiretroviral drugs and have an impact on genotypic drug resistance interpretation algorithms.

  12. Modeling HIV-1 Induced Neuroinflammation in Mice: Role of Platelets in Mediating Blood-Brain Barrier Dysfunction.

    Letitia D Jones

    Full Text Available The number of HIV-1 positive individuals developing some form of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND is increasing. In these individuals, the integrity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB is compromised due to an increase in exposure to pro-inflammatory mediators, viral proteins, and virus released from infected cells. It has been shown that soluble CD40L (sCD40L is released upon platelet activation and is an important mediator of the pathogenesis of HAND but the underlying mechanisms are unclear, emphasizing the need of an effective animal model. Here, we have utilized a novel animal model in which wild-type (WT mice were infected with EcoHIV; a derivative of HIV-1 that contains a substitution of envelope protein gp120 with that of gp80 derived from murine leukemia virus-1 (MuLV-1. As early as two-weeks post-infection, EcoHIV led to increased permeability of the BBB associated with decreased expression of tight junction protein claudin-5, in CD40L and platelet activation-dependent manner. Treatment with an antiplatelet drug, eptifibatide, in EcoHIV-infected mice normalized BBB function, sCD40L release and platelet activity, thus implicating platelet activation and platelet-derived CD40L in virally induced BBB dysfunction. Our results also validate and underscore the importance of EcoHIV infection mouse model as a tool to explore therapeutic targets for HAND.

  13. Introducing Catastrophe-QSAR. Application on Modeling Molecular Mechanisms of Pyridinone Derivative-Type HIV Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors

    Marius Lazea

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The classical method of quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR is enriched using non-linear models, as Thom’s polynomials allow either uni- or bi-variate structural parameters. In this context, catastrophe QSAR algorithms are applied to the anti-HIV-1 activity of pyridinone derivatives. This requires calculation of the so-called relative statistical power and of its minimum principle in various QSAR models. A new index, known as a statistical relative power, is constructed as an Euclidian measure for the combined ratio of the Pearson correlation to algebraic correlation, with normalized t-Student and the Fisher tests. First and second order inter-model paths are considered for mono-variate catastrophes, whereas for bi-variate catastrophes the direct minimum path is provided, allowing the QSAR models to be tested for predictive purposes. At this stage, the max-to-min hierarchies of the tested models allow the interaction mechanism to be identified using structural parameter succession and the typical catastrophes involved. Minimized differences between these catastrophe models in the common structurally influential domains that span both the trial and tested compounds identify the “optimal molecular structural domains” and the molecules with the best output with respect to the modeled activity, which in this case is human immunodeficiency virus type 1 HIV-1 inhibition. The best molecules are characterized by hydrophobic interactions with the HIV-1 p66 subunit protein, and they concur with those identified in other 3D-QSAR analyses. Moreover, the importance of aromatic ring stacking interactions for increasing the binding affinity of the inhibitor-reverse transcriptase ligand-substrate complex is highlighted.

  14. The histone deacetylase HDAC1 positively regulates Notch signaling during Drosophila wing development

    Zehua Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The Notch signaling pathway is highly conserved across different animal species and plays crucial roles in development and physiology. Regulation of Notch signaling occurs at multiple levels in different tissues and cell types. Here, we show that the histone deacetylase HDAC1 acts as a positive regulator of Notch signaling during Drosophila wing development. Depletion of HDAC1 causes wing notches on the margin of adult wing. Consistently, the expression of Notch target genes is reduced in the absence of HDAC1 during wing margin formation. We further provide evidence that HDAC1 acts upstream of Notch activation. Mechanistically, we show that HDAC1 regulates Notch protein levels by promoting Notch transcription. Consistent with this, the HDAC1-associated transcriptional co-repressor Atrophin (Atro is also required for transcriptional activation of Notch in the wing disc. In summary, our results demonstrate that HDAC1 positively regulates Notch signaling and reveal a previously unidentified function of HDAC1 in Notch signaling.

  15. Activities of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease inhibitor nelfinavir mesylate in combination with reverse transcriptase and protease inhibitors against acute HIV-1 infection in vitro.

    Patick, A K; Boritzki, T J; Bloom, L A

    1997-10-01

    Nelfinavir mesylate (formerly AG1343) is a potent and selective, nonpeptidic inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease that was discovered by protein structure-based design methodologies. We evaluated the antiviral and cytotoxic effects of two-drug combinations of nelfinavir with the clinically approved antiretroviral therapeutics zidovudine (ZDV), lamivudine (3TC), dideoxycytidine (ddC; zalcitabine), stavudine (d4T), didanosine (ddI), indinavir, saquinavir, and ritonavir and a three-drug combination of nelfinavir with ZDV and 3TC against an acute HIV-1 strain RF infection of CEM-SS cells in vitro. Quantitative assessment of drug interaction was evaluated by a universal response surface approach (W. R. Greco, G. Bravo, and J. C. Parsons, Pharm. Rev. 47:331-385, 1995) and by the method of M. N. Prichard and C. Shipman (Antiviral Res. 14:181-206, 1990). Both analytical methods yielded similar results and showed that the two-drug combinations of nelfinavir with the reverse transcriptase inhibitors ZDV, 3TC, ddI, d4T, and ddC and the three-drug combination with ZDV and 3TC resulted in additive to statistically significant synergistic interactions. In a similar manner, the combination of nelfinavir with the three protease inhibitors resulted in additive (ritonavir and saquinavir) to slightly antagonistic (indinavir) interactions. In all combinations, minimal cellular cytotoxicity was observed with any drug alone and in combination. These results suggest that administration of combinations of the appropriate doses of nelfinavir with other currently approved antiretroviral therapeutic agents in vivo may result in enhanced antiviral activity with no associated increase in cellular cytotoxicity.

  16. Worldwide molecular epidemiology of HIV

    Henry I Z Requejo

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV is the worldwide disseminated causative agent of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS. HIV is a member of the Lentivirus genus of Retroviridae family and is grouped in two types named HIV-1 and HIV-2. These viruses have a notable ability to mutate and adapt to the new conditions of human environment. A large incidence of errors at the transcriptional level results in changes on the genetic bases during the reproductive cycle. The elevated genomic variability of HIV has carried important implications for the diagnosis, treatment and prevention as well as epidemiologic investigations. The present review describes important definitions and geographical distribution of subtypes, circulating recombinant forms and other genomic variations of HIV. The present study aimed at leading students of Biomedical Sciences and public health laboratory staff guidance to general and specific knowledge about the genomic variability of the HIV.

  17. Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) genital shedding in HSV-2-/HIV-1-co-infected women receiving effective combination antiretroviral therapy.

    Péré, Héléne; Rascanu, Aida; LeGoff, Jérome; Matta, Mathieu; Bois, Frédéric; Lortholary, Olivier; Leroy, Valériane; Launay, Odile; Bélec, Laurent

    2016-03-01

    The dynamics of genital shedding of HSV-2 DNA was assessed in HIV-1-infected women taking combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). HIV-1 RNA, HIV-1 DNA and HSV DNA loads were measured during 12-18 months using frozen plasma, PBMC and cervicovaginal lavage samples from 22 HIV-1-infected women, including 17 women naive for antiretroviral therapy initiating cART and 5 women with virological failure switching to a new regimen. Nineteen (86%) women were HSV-2-seropositive. Among HSV-2-/HIV-1-co-infected women, HIV-1 RNA loads showed a rapid fall from baseline after one month of cART, in parallel in paired plasma and cervicovaginal secretions. In contrast, HIV-1 DNA loads did not show significant variations from baseline up to 18 months of treatment in both systemic and genital compartments. HSV DNA was detected at least once in 12 (63%) of 19 women during follow up: HSV-2 shedding in the genital compartment was observed in 11% of cervicovaginal samples at baseline and in 16% after initiating or switching cART. Cervicovaginal HIV-1 RNA loads were strongly associated with plasma HIV-1 RNA loads over time, but not with cervicovaginal HSV DNA loads. Reactivation of genital HSV-2 replication frequently occurred despite effective cART in HSV-2-/HIV-1-co-infected women. Genital HSV-2 replication under cART does not influence cervicovaginal HIV-1 RNA or DNA shedding. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Habitual condom use across partner type and sexual position among younger gay and bisexual men: findings from New Zealand HIV behavioural surveillance 2006-2011.

    Lachowsky, N J; Dewey, C E; Dickson, N P; Saxton, P J W; Hughes, A J; Milhausen, R R; Summerlee, A J S

    2015-09-01

    Our objectives were to investigate demographic and behavioural factors associated with condom use and to examine how habitual condom use was across partner types and sexual positions among younger men who have sex with men (YMSM), aged 16-29, surveyed in New Zealand. We analysed the 2006-2011 national HIV behavioural surveillance data from YMSM who reported anal intercourse in four scenarios of partner type and sexual position: casual insertive, casual receptive, regular insertive and regular receptive. For each, respondents' condom use was classified as frequent (always/almost always) or otherwise, with associated factors identified with multivariate mixed-effect logistic regression. Habitual condom use across scenarios was examined using a latent variable technique that estimated the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Frequent condom use was reported for 63.6% of 5153 scenarios reported from 2412 YMSM. Frequent use increased from boyfriend to fuckbuddy to casual partners. Infrequent use was associated with online recruitment, Pacific ethnicity, less education, HIV positivity, sex with women, having ≥20 sexual partners versus 1 and reporting insertive and receptive sexual positions. Frequent condom use was associated with having two to five sexual partners versus one and shorter regular partnerships. The ICC=0.865 indicated highly habitual patterns of use; habitual infrequent condom use was most prevalent with regular partners (53.3%) and habitual frequent condom use was most prevalent with casual partners (70.2%) and for either sexual position (50.5% and 49.1%). Habitual condom use among YMSM highlights the value of early, engaging and sustained condom promotion. Public health should provide better and more compelling condom education, training and promotion for YMSM. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. Recombination of HIV type 1C (C'/C") in Ethiopia: possible link of EthHIV-1C' to subtype C sequences from the high-prevalence epidemics in India and Southern Africa

    Pollakis, Georgios; Abebe, Almaz; Kliphuis, Aletta; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F.; Fisseha, Bitew; Tegbaru, Belete; Tesfaye, Girma; Negassa, Hailu; Mengistu, Yohannes; Fontanet, Arnaud L.; Cornelissen, Marion; Goudsmit, Jaap

    2003-01-01

    The magnitude and complexity of the HIV-1 genetic diversity are major challenges for vaccine development. Investigation of the genotypes circulating in areas of high incidence, as well as their interactions, will be a milestone in the development of an efficacious vaccine. Because HIV-1 subtype C

  20. Performance of 3 Rapid Tests for Discrimination Between HIV-1 and HIV-2 in Guinea-Bissau, West Africa

    Hønge, Bo Langhoff; Bjarnason Obinah, Magnús Pétur; Jespersen, Sanne

    2014-01-01

    As HIV-2 is intrinsically resistant to nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, it is mandatory to discriminate between HIV types before initiating antiretroviral treatment. Guinea-Bissau has the world's highest prevalence of HIV-2 and HIV-1/HIV-2 dually infected individuals. We evaluated ...... (agreement 90.9%) and SD Bioline HIV-1/2 3.0 (agreement 84.5%). Our results underscore the need for evaluation of tests in relevant populations before implementation....

  1. Epidemiological trends of HIV-1 infection in blood donors from Catalonia, Spain (2005-2014).

    Bes, Marta; Piron, Maria; Casamitjana, Natàlia; Gregori, Josep; Esteban, Juan Ignacio; Ribera, Esteban; Quer, Josep; Puig, Lluís; Sauleda, Sílvia

    2017-09-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) subtype B is predominant in Spain. However, the recent arrival of immigrant populations has increased the prevalence of non-B subtypes and circulating recombinant forms. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of HIV-1 subtypes and transmitted drug-resistance mutations in blood donors from the Catalonian region (northeastern Spain). HIV-1-positive blood donors identified in Catalonia from 2005 to 2014 were included. Demographic variables and risk factors for HIV-1 acquisition were recorded. HIV-1 subtyping was carried out by HIV-1 DNA polymerase region sequencing, and phylogenetic analyses were performed using the neighbor-joining method. During the study period, 2.8 million blood donations were screened, and 214 HIV-1-positive donors were identified, yielding an overall prevalence of 7.7 per 100,000 donations (89% men; mean age, 34 ± 10 years). Most HIV-1-positive donors were native to Spain (81%), and 61% were regular blood donors. When risk factors were known, 62% reportedly were men who had sex with men. HIV-1 subtyping was possible in 176 HIV-1-positive individuals: 143 (81%) had HIV-1 subtype B, and 33 (19%) had non-B subtypes. Most HIV-1 non-B subtypes were circulating recombinant forms (n = 20; 61%). Factors associated with HIV-1 subtype B were male sex (p = 0.007) and men who had sex with men (p HIV-1-positive blood donors in Catalonia. Continuous local epidemiological surveillance is required to implement optimal prevention strategies for controlling transfusion-transmitted HIV and to improve health policies regarding HIV infection. © 2017 AABB.

  2. Women and HIV

    ... Consumer Information by Audience For Women Women and HIV: Get the Facts on HIV Testing, Prevention, and Treatment Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... How can you lower your chance of HIV? HIV Quick Facts What is HIV? HIV is the ...

  3. Vaginalmycosis and HIV-1 infection in Kaduna, Nigeria. | Eni ...

    ... mycosis in HIV-1positive women and managed accordingly. Proper management of these two conditions will improve reproductive health of women in Nigeria. Keywords: Vaginal mycosis, Genital candidiasis, Reproductive health: Candida albicans: HIV-1 infection. Journal of Biomedical Investigation Vol. 3 (1) 2005: pp.

  4. The development of HEPT-type HIV non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and its implications for DABO family.

    Chen, Wenmin; Zhan, Peng; Wu, Jingde; Li, Zhenyu; Liu, Xinyong

    2012-01-01

    1-[(2-hydroxyethoxy)methyl]-6-(phenylthio)thymine (HEPT) was discovered as the first HIV-1 non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) in 1989. The research on HEPT derivatives (HEPTs) has been lasted for more than 20 years and HEPT family is probably the most investigated NNRTI. Extensive molecular modifications on HEPT have led to many highly potent compounds with broad-resistance spectrum and optimal pharmacokinetic profiles. Moreover, X-crystallographic studies of HEPTs/RT complexes revealed the binding mode of HEPTs and the action mechanism of NNRTI, which has greatly facilitated the design of novel NNRTIs. Recently, the development of HEPTs was accelerated by the application of the "follow-on"-based chemical evolution strategies, such as designed multiple ligands (DMLs) and molecular hybridization (MH). Herein, this article will provide an insight into the development of HEPTs, including structural modifications, crystal structure of RT complexed with HEPTs and its structure-activity relationship (SAR). Additionally, this review also covers the emerging HEPT related dual inhibitors and HEPT-pyridinone hybrids, as well as the contributions of HEPTs to the development of dihydro-alkoxy-benzyl-oxopyrimidine (DABO) family, thus highlighting the importance of HEPTs on the development of NNRTIs.

  5. CBF tomograms with [/sup 99m/Tc-HM-PAO in patients with dementia (Alzheimer type and HIV) and Parkinson's disease--initial results

    Costa, D.C.; Ell, P.J.; Burns, A.; Philpot, M.; Levy, R.

    1988-01-01

    We present preliminary data on the utility of functional brain imaging with [99mTc]-d,l-HM-PAO and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in the study of patients with dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT), HIV-related dementia syndrome, and the on-off syndrome of Parkinson's disease. In comparison with a group of age-matched controls, the DAT patients revealed distinctive bilateral temporal and posterior parietal deficits, which correlate with detailed psychometric evaluation. Patients with amnesia as the main symptom (group A) showed bilateral mesial temporal lobe perfusion deficits (p less than 0.02). More severely affected patients (group B) with significant apraxia, aphasia, or agnosia exhibited patterns compatible with bilateral reduced perfusion in the posterior parietal cortex, as well as reduced perfusion to both temporal lobes, different from the patients of the control group (p less than 0.05). SPECT studies of HIV patients with no evidence of intracraneal space occupying pathology showed marked perfusion deficits. Patients with Parkinson's disease and the on-off syndrome studied during an on phase (under levodopa therapy) and on another occasion after withdrawal of levodopa (off) demonstrated a significant change in the uptake of [99mTc]-d,l-HM-PAO in the caudate nucleus (lower on off) and thalamus (higher on off). These findings justify the present interest in the functional evaluation of the brain of patients with dementia. [99mTc]-d,l-HM-PAO and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF)/SPECT appear useful and highlight individual disorders of flow in a variety of neuropsychiatric conditions

  6. Computational Studies of a Mechanism for Binding and Drug Resistance in the Wild Type and Four Mutations of HIV-1 Protease with a GRL-0519 Inhibitor

    Guodong Hu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Drug resistance of mutations in HIV-1 protease (PR is the most severe challenge to the long-term efficacy of HIV-1 PR inhibitor in highly active antiretroviral therapy. To elucidate the molecular mechanism of drug resistance associated with mutations (D30N, I50V, I54M, and V82A and inhibitor (GRL-0519 complexes, we have performed five molecular dynamics (MD simulations and calculated the binding free energies using the molecular mechanics Poisson–Boltzmann surface area (MM-PBSA method. The ranking of calculated binding free energies is in accordance with the experimental data. The free energy spectra of each residue and inhibitor interaction for all complexes show a similar binding model. Analysis based on the MD trajectories and contribution of each residues show that groups R2 and R3 mainly contribute van der Waals energies, while groups R1 and R4 contribute electrostatic interaction by hydrogen bonds. The drug resistance of D30N can be attributed to the decline in binding affinity of residues 28 and 29. The size of Val50 is smaller than Ile50 causes the residue to move, especially in chain A. The stable hydrophobic core, including the side chain of Ile54 in the wild type (WT complex, became unstable in I54M because the side chain of Met54 is flexible with two alternative conformations. The binding affinity of Ala82 in V82A decreases relative to Val82 in WT. The present study could provide important guidance for the design of a potent new drug resisting the mutation inhibitors.

  7. CBF tomograms with (/sup 99m/Tc-HM-PAO in patients with dementia (Alzheimer type and HIV) and Parkinson's disease--initial results

    Costa, D.C.; Ell, P.J.; Burns, A.; Philpot, M.; Levy, R.

    1988-12-01

    We present preliminary data on the utility of functional brain imaging with (99mTc)-d,l-HM-PAO and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in the study of patients with dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT), HIV-related dementia syndrome, and the on-off syndrome of Parkinson's disease. In comparison with a group of age-matched controls, the DAT patients revealed distinctive bilateral temporal and posterior parietal deficits, which correlate with detailed psychometric evaluation. Patients with amnesia as the main symptom (group A) showed bilateral mesial temporal lobe perfusion deficits (p less than 0.02). More severely affected patients (group B) with significant apraxia, aphasia, or agnosia exhibited patterns compatible with bilateral reduced perfusion in the posterior parietal cortex, as well as reduced perfusion to both temporal lobes, different from the patients of the control group (p less than 0.05). SPECT studies of HIV patients with no evidence of intracraneal space occupying pathology showed marked perfusion deficits. Patients with Parkinson's disease and the on-off syndrome studied during an on phase (under levodopa therapy) and on another occasion after withdrawal of levodopa (off) demonstrated a significant change in the uptake of (99mTc)-d,l-HM-PAO in the caudate nucleus (lower on off) and thalamus (higher on off). These findings justify the present interest in the functional evaluation of the brain of patients with dementia. (99mTc)-d,l-HM-PAO and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF)/SPECT appear useful and highlight individual disorders of flow in a variety of neuropsychiatric conditions.

  8. Clinical efficacy of a combination of Percoll continuous density gradient and swim-up techniques for semen processing in HIV-1 serodiscordant couples

    Osamu Inoue

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the clinical efficacy of a procedure comprising a combination of Percoll continuous density gradient and modified swim-up techniques for the removal of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 from the semen of HIV-1 infected males, a total of 129 couples with an HIV-1 positive male partner and an HIV-1 negative female partner (serodiscordant couples who were treated at Keio University Hospital between January 2002 and April 2012 were examined. A total of 183 ejaculates from 129 HIV-1 infected males were processed. After swim-up, we successfully collected motile sperms at a recovery rate as high as 100.0% in cases of normozoospermia (126/126 ejaculates, oligozoospermia (6/6, and asthenozoospermia (36/36. The recovery rate of oligoasthenozoospermia was 86.7% (13/15. In processed semen only four ejaculates (4/181:2.2% showed viral nucleotide sequences consistent with those in the blood of the infected males. After using these sperms, no horizontal infections of the female patients and no vertical infections of the newborns were observed. Furthermore, no obvious adverse effects were observed in the offspring. This protocol allowed us to collect HIV-1 negative motile sperms at a high rate, even in male factor cases. We concluded that our protocol is clinically effective both for decreasing HIV-1 infections and for yielding a healthy child.

  9. Short Communication Phylogenetic Characterization of HIV Type 1 CRF01_AE V3 Envelope Sequences in Pregnant Women in Northern Vietnam

    Caridha, Rozina; Ha, Tran Thi Thanh; Gaseitsiwe, Simani; Hung, Pham Viet; Anh, Nguyen Mai; Bao, Nguyen Huy; Khang, Dinh Duy; Hien, Nguyen Tran; Cam, Phung Dac; Chiodi, Francesca

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Characterization of HIV-1 strains is important for surveillance of the HIV-1 epidemic. In Vietnam HIV-1-infected pregnant women often fail to receive the care they are entitled to. Here, we analyzed phylogenetically HIV-1 env sequences from 37 HIV-1-infected pregnant women from Ha Noi (n=22) and Hai Phong (n=15), where they delivered in 2005–2007. All carried CRF01_AE in the gp120 V3 region. In 21 women CRF01_AE was also found in the reverse transcriptase gene. We compared their env gp120 V3 sequences phylogenetically in a maximum likelihood tree to those of 198 other CRF01_AE sequences in Vietnam and 229 from neighboring countries, predominantly Thailand, from the HIV-1 database. Altogether 464 sequences were analyzed. All but one of the maternal sequences colocalized with sequences from northern Vietnam. The maternal sequences had evolved the least when compared to sequences collected in Ha Noi in 2002, as shown by analysis of synonymous and nonsynonymous changes, than to other Vietnamese sequences collected earlier and/or elsewhere. Since the HIV-1 epidemic in women in Vietnam may still be underestimated, characterization of HIV-1 in pregnant women is important to observe how HIV-1 has evolved and follow its molecular epidemiology. PMID:21936713

  10. An attenuated herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1) encoding the HIV-1 Tat protein protects mice from a deadly mucosal HSV1 challenge.

    Sicurella, Mariaconcetta; Nicoli, Francesco; Gallerani, Eleonora; Volpi, Ilaria; Berto, Elena; Finessi, Valentina; Destro, Federica; Manservigi, Roberto; Cafaro, Aurelio; Ensoli, Barbara; Caputo, Antonella; Gavioli, Riccardo; Marconi, Peggy C

    2014-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (HSV1 and HSV2) are common infectious agents in both industrialized and developing countries. They cause recurrent asymptomatic and/or symptomatic infections, and life-threatening diseases and death in newborns and immunocompromised patients. Current treatment for HSV relies on antiviral medications, which can halt the symptomatic diseases but cannot prevent the shedding that occurs in asymptomatic patients or, consequently, the spread of the viruses. Therefore, prevention rather than treatment of HSV infections has long been an area of intense research, but thus far effective anti-HSV vaccines still remain elusive. One of the key hurdles to overcome in anti-HSV vaccine development is the identification and effective use of strategies that promote the emergence of Th1-type immune responses against a wide range of epitopes involved in the control of viral replication. Since the HIV1 Tat protein has several immunomodulatory activities and increases CTL recognition of dominant and subdominant epitopes of heterologous antigens, we generated and assayed a recombinant attenuated replication-competent HSV1 vector containing the tat gene (HSV1-Tat). In this proof-of-concept study we show that immunization with this vector conferred protection in 100% of mice challenged intravaginally with a lethal dose of wild-type HSV1. We demonstrate that the presence of Tat within the recombinant virus increased and broadened Th1-like and CTL responses against HSV-derived T-cell epitopes and elicited in most immunized mice detectable IgG responses. In sharp contrast, a similarly attenuated HSV1 recombinant vector without Tat (HSV1-LacZ), induced low and different T cell responses, no measurable antibody responses and did not protect mice against the wild-type HSV1 challenge. These findings strongly suggest that recombinant HSV1 vectors expressing Tat merit further investigation for their potential to prevent and/or contain HSV1 infection and

  11. An attenuated herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1 encoding the HIV-1 Tat protein protects mice from a deadly mucosal HSV1 challenge.

    Mariaconcetta Sicurella

    Full Text Available Herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (HSV1 and HSV2 are common infectious agents in both industrialized and developing countries. They cause recurrent asymptomatic and/or symptomatic infections, and life-threatening diseases and death in newborns and immunocompromised patients. Current treatment for HSV relies on antiviral medications, which can halt the symptomatic diseases but cannot prevent the shedding that occurs in asymptomatic patients or, consequently, the spread of the viruses. Therefore, prevention rather than treatment of HSV infections has long been an area of intense research, but thus far effective anti-HSV vaccines still remain elusive. One of the key hurdles to overcome in anti-HSV vaccine development is the identification and effective use of strategies that promote the emergence of Th1-type immune responses against a wide range of epitopes involved in the control of viral replication. Since the HIV1 Tat protein has several immunomodulatory activities and increases CTL recognition of dominant and subdominant epitopes of heterologous antigens, we generated and assayed a recombinant attenuated replication-competent HSV1 vector containing the tat gene (HSV1-Tat. In this proof-of-concept study we show that immunization with this vector conferred protection in 100% of mice challenged intravaginally with a lethal dose of wild-type HSV1. We demonstrate that the presence of Tat within the recombinant virus increased and broadened Th1-like and CTL responses against HSV-derived T-cell epitopes and elicited in most immunized mice detectable IgG responses. In sharp contrast, a similarly attenuated HSV1 recombinant vector without Tat (HSV1-LacZ, induced low and different T cell responses, no measurable antibody responses and did not protect mice against the wild-type HSV1 challenge. These findings strongly suggest that recombinant HSV1 vectors expressing Tat merit further investigation for their potential to prevent and/or contain HSV1

  12. Current hemoglobin levels are more predictive of disease progression than hemoglobin measured at baseline in patients receiving antiretroviral treatment for HIV type 1 infection

    Kowalska, Justyna D; Mocroft, Amanda; Blaxhult, Anders

    2007-01-01

    The role of hemoglobin levels as an independent prognostic marker of progression to AIDS and/or death in HIV-infected patients starting combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) was investigated. A total of 2,579 patients from the EuroSIDA cohort with hemoglobin, CD4 cell count, and HIV RNA viral...

  13. Seroprevalence of Human Herpesvirus-8 in HIV-1 Infected and Uninfected Individuals in Cameroon

    Owen Wood

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the prevalence of HHV-8 antibodies in 516 plasma samples collected from HIV positive and negative patients from blood banks and urban areas of Cameroon. Among HIV-1 positive samples, HHV-8 seropositivity rate was 61% based on combined reactivity using both ELISA and IFA techniques. HIV negative samples showed 62% seropositivity rate for HHV-8 antibodies. Our results indicate a high HHV-8 prevalence rate in both HIV infected and uninfected individuals in Cameroon.

  14. Analytical Performances of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 RNA-Based Amplix® Real-Time PCR Platform for HIV-1 RNA Quantification

    Christian Diamant Mossoro-Kpinde

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. We evaluated the performances of Amplix real-time PCR platform developed by Biosynex (Strasbourg, France, combining automated station extraction (Amplix station 16 Dx and real-time PCR (Amplix NG, for quantifying plasma HIV-1 RNA by lyophilized HIV-1 RNA-based Amplix reagents targeting gag and LTR, using samples from HIV-1-infected adults from Central African Republic. Results. Amplix real-time PCR assay showed low limit of detection (28 copies/mL, across wide dynamic range (1.4–10 log copies/mL, 100% sensitivity and 99% specificity, high reproducibility, and accuracy with mean bias < 5%. The assay showed excellent correlations and concordance of 95.3% with the reference HIV-1 RNA load assay (Roche, with mean absolute bias of +0.097 log copies/mL by Bland-Altman analysis. The assay was able to detect and quantify the most prevalent HIV-1 subtype strains and the majority of non-B subtypes, CRFs of HIV-1 group M, and HIV-1 groups N and O circulating in Central Africa. The Amplix assay showed 100% sensitivity and 99.6% specificity to diagnose virological failure in clinical samples from antiretroviral drug-experienced patients. Conclusions. The HIV-1 RNA-based Amplix real-time PCR platform constitutes sensitive and reliable system for clinical monitoring of HIV-1 RNA load in HIV-1-infected children and adults, particularly adapted to intermediate laboratory facilities in sub-Saharan Africa.

  15. Incidence of Co-Infections of HIV, Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 and Syphilis in a Large Cohort of Men Who Have Sex with Men in Beijing, China

    Zhang, Zheng; Wang, Zixin; Qi, Xiao; Ruan, Yuhua; Zhou, Yunhua; Li, Chunrong; Luo, Fengji; Lau, Joseph T. F.

    2016-01-01

    Background The HIV-epidemic among MSM in China has worsened. In this key population, prevalence of HSV-2 and syphilis infection and co-infection with HIV is high. Methods A longitudinal study was conducted (n = 962) in Beijing, China, with three overlapping cohorts (n = 857, 757 and 760) consisting of MSM that were free from pairs of infections of concern (i.e. HIV-HSV-2, HIV-syphilis, HSV-2-syphilis) at baseline to estimate incidence of HIV, HSV-2, syphilis, and those of co-infection. Results The incidence of HIV, HSV-2 and syphilis in the overall cohort was 3.90 (95% CI = 2.37, 5.43), 7.87 (95% CI = 5.74, 10.00) and 6.06 (95% CI = 4.18, 7.94) cases per 100 person-years (PYs), respectively. The incidence of HIV-HSV-2, HIV-Syphilis and HSV-2-Syphilis co-infections was 0.30 (95% CI = 0.29, 0.88), 1.02 (95% CI = 0.13, 2.17) and 1.41 (95% CI: 0.04, 2.78) cases per 100 PYs, respectively, in the three sub-cohorts constructed for this study. Conclusions The incidence of HIV, HSV-2 and syphilis was very high and those of their co-infections were relatively high. Such co-infections have negative impacts on the HIV/STI epidemics. Prevention practices need to take such co-infections into account. PMID:26820145

  16. Evaluation of four rapid tests for diagnosis and differentiation of HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections in Guinea-Conakry, West Africa.

    Chaillet, Pascale; Tayler-Smith, Katie; Zachariah, Rony; Duclos, Nanfack; Moctar, Diallo; Beelaert, Greet; Fransen, Katrien

    2010-09-01

    With both HIV-1 and HV-2 prevalent in Guinea-Conakry, accurate diagnosis and differentiation is crucial for treatment purposes. Thus, four rapid HIV tests were evaluated for their HIV-1 and HIV-2 diagnostic and discriminative capacity for use in Guinea-Conakry. These included SD Bioline HIV 1/2 3.0 (Standard Diagnostics Inc.), Genie II HIV1/HIV2 (Bio-Rad), First Response HIV Card Test 1-2.0 (PMC Medical) and Immunoflow HIV1-HIV2 (Core Diagnostics). Results were compared with gold standard tests (INNO-LIA HIV-I/II Score) and NEW LAV BLOT II (Bio-Rad). Four hundred and forty three sequential stored HIV-positive serum samples, of known HIV-type, were evaluated. Genie II HIV1/HIV2, Immunoflow HIV1-HIV2 and SD Bioline HIV 1/2 3.0 had 100% sensitivity (95% CI, 98.9-100%) while for First Response HIV Card Test 1-2.0 this was 99.5% (95% CI, 98.2%-99.9%). In terms of discriminatory capacity, Genie II HIV1/HIV2 identified 382/ 384(99.5%) HIV-1 samples, 49/ 52(95%) HIV-2 and 7/7(100%) HIV-positive untypable samples. Immunoflow HIV1-HIV2 identified 99% HIV-1, 67% HIV-2 and all HIV-positive untypable samples. First Response HIV Card Test 1-2.0 identified 94% HIV-1, 64% HIV-2 and 57% HIV-positive untypable samples. SD-Bioline HIV 1/2 3.0 was the worst overall performer identifying 65% HIV-1, 69% HIV-2 and all HIV-positive untypable samples. The use of SD Bioline HIV 1/2 3.0 (the current standard in Guinea-Conakry) as a discriminatory HIV test is poor and may be best replaced by Immunoflow HIV1-HIV2. Copyright 2010 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Variability of HIV-1 genomes among children and adolescents from Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Sabri Saeed Sanabani

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genetic variability is a major feature of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 and considered the key factor to frustrating efforts to halt the virus epidemic. In this study, we aimed to investigate the genetic variability of HIV-1 strains among children and adolescents born from 1992 to 2009 in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. METHODOLOGY: Plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC were collected from 51 HIV-1-positive children and adolescents on ART followed between September 1992 and July 2009. After extraction, the genetic materials were used in a polymerase chain reaction (PCR to amplify the viral near full length genomes (NFLGs from 5 overlapped fragments. NFLGs and partial amplicons were directly sequenced and data were phylogenetically inferred. RESULTS: Of the 51 samples studied, the NFLGs and partial fragments of HIV-1 from 42 PBMCs and 25 plasma were successfully subtyped. Results based on proviral DNA revealed that 22 (52.4% patients were infected with subtype B, 16 (38.1% were infected with BF1 mosaic variants and 4 (9.5% were infected with sub-subtype F1. All the BF1 recombinants were unique and distinct from any previously identified unique or circulating recombinant forms in South America. Evidence of dual infections was detected in 3 patients coinfected with the same or distinct HIV-1 subtypes. Ten of the 31 (32.2% and 12 of the 21 (57.1% subjects with recovered proviral and plasma, respectively, protease sequences were infected with major mutants resistant to protease inhibitors. The V3 sequences of 14 patients with available sequences from PBMC/or plasma were predicted to be R5-tropic virus except for two patients who harbored an X4 strain. CONCLUSIONS: The high proportion of HIV-1 BF1 recombinant, coinfection rate and vertical transmission in Brazil merits urgent attention and effective measures to reduce the transmission of HIV among spouses and sex partners.

  18. Selective decrease in circulating V alpha 24+V beta 11+ NKT cells during HIV type 1 infection

    van der Vliet, Hans J. J.; von Blomberg, B. Mary E.; Hazenberg, Mette D.; Nishi, Nobusuke; Otto, Sigrid A.; van Benthem, Birgit H.; Prins, Maria; Claessen, Frans A.; van den Eertwegh, Alfons J. M.; Giaccone, Giuseppe; Miedema, Frank; Scheper, Rik J.; Pinedo, Herbert M.

    2002-01-01

    CD1d-restricted NKT cells express an invariant TCR and have been demonstrated to play an important regulatory role in a variety of immune responses. Invariant NKT cells down-regulate autoimmune responses by production of type 2 cytokines and can initiate antitumor and antimicrobial immune responses

  19. Association between Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy and Type of Infectious Respiratory Disease and All-Cause In-Hospital Mortality in Patients with HIV/AIDS: A Case Series.

    Renata Báez-Saldaña

    Full Text Available Respiratory manifestations of HIV disease differ globally due to differences in current availability of effective highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART programs and epidemiology of infectious diseases.To describe the association between HAART and discharge diagnosis and all-cause in-hospital mortality among hospitalized patients with infectious respiratory disease and HIV/AIDS.We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients hospitalized at a specialty hospital for respiratory diseases in Mexico City between January 1st, 2010 and December 31st, 2011. We included patients whose discharge diagnosis included HIV or AIDS and at least one infectious respiratory diagnosis. The information source was the clinical chart. We analyzed the association between HAART for 180 days or more and type of respiratory disease using polytomous logistic regression and all-cause hospital mortality by multiple logistic regressions.We studied 308 patients, of whom 206 (66.9% had been diagnosed with HIV infection before admission to the hospital. The CD4+ lymphocyte median count was 68 cells/mm3 [interquartile range (IQR: 30-150]. Seventy-five (24.4% cases had received HAART for more than 180 days. Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP (n = 142, tuberculosis (n = 63, and bacterial community-acquired pneumonia (n = 60 were the most frequent discharge diagnoses. Receiving HAART for more than 180 days was associated with a lower probability of PJP [Adjusted odd ratio (aOR: 0.245, 95% Confidence Interval (CI: 0.08-0.8, p = 0.02], adjusted for sociodemographic and clinical covariates. HAART was independently associated with reduced odds (aOR 0.214, 95% CI 0.06-0.75 of all-cause in-hospital mortality, adjusting for HIV diagnosis previous to hospitalization, age, access to social security, low socioeconomic level, CD4 cell count, viral load, and discharge diagnoses.HAART for 180 days or more was associated with 79% decrease in all-cause in-hospital mortality and lower

  20. Evidence that Vpu modulates HIV-1 Gag-envelope interaction towards envelope incorporation and infectivity in a cell type dependent manner.

    Archana Gautam

    Full Text Available The HIV-1 Vpu is required for efficient virus particle release from the plasma membrane and intracellular CD4 degradation in infected cells. In the present study, we found that the loss of virus infectivity as a result of envelope (Env incorporation defect caused by a Gag matrix (MA mutation (L30E was significantly alleviated by introducing a start codon mutation in vpu. Inactivation of Vpu partially restored the Env incorporation defect imposed by L30E substitution in MA. This effect was found to be comparable in cell types such as 293T, HeLa, NP2 and GHOST as well as in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC and monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM. However, in HeLa cells BST-2 knockdown was found to further alleviate the effect of Vpu inactivation on infectivity of L30E mutant. Our data demonstrated that the impaired infectivity of virus particles due to Env incorporation defect caused by MA mutation was modulated by start codon mutation in Vpu.

  1. Global Dispersal Pattern of HIV Type 1 Subtype CRF01_AE: A Genetic Trace of Human Mobility Related to Heterosexual Sexual Activities Centralized in Southeast Asia.

    Angelis, Konstantinos; Albert, Jan; Mamais, Ioannis; Magiorkinis, Gkikas; Hatzakis, Angelos; Hamouda, Osamah; Struck, Daniel; Vercauteren, Jurgen; Wensing, Annemarie M J; Alexiev, Ivailo; Åsjö, Birgitta; Balotta, Claudia; Camacho, Ricardo J; Coughlan, Suzie; Griskevicius, Algirdas; Grossman, Zehava; Horban, Andrzej; Kostrikis, Leondios G; Lepej, Snjezana; Liitsola, Kirsi; Linka, Marek; Nielsen, Claus; Otelea, Dan; Paredes, Roger; Poljak, Mario; Puchhammer-Stöckl, Elisabeth; Schmit, Jean-Claude; Sönnerborg, Anders; Staneková, Danica; Stanojevic, Maja; Boucher, Charles A B; Kaplan, Lauren; Vandamme, Anne-Mieke; Paraskevis, Dimitrios

    2015-06-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) subtype CRF01_AE originated in Africa and then passed to Thailand, where it established a major epidemic. Despite the global presence of CRF01_AE, little is known about its subsequent dispersal pattern. We assembled a global data set of 2736 CRF01_AE sequences by pooling sequences from public databases and patient-cohort studies. We estimated viral dispersal patterns, using statistical phylogeographic analysis run over bootstrap trees estimated by the maximum likelihood method. We show that Thailand has been the source of viral dispersal to most areas worldwide, including 17 of 20 sampled countries in Europe. Japan, Singapore, Vietnam, and other Asian countries have played a secondary role in the viral dissemination. In contrast, China and Taiwan have mainly imported strains from neighboring Asian countries, North America, and Africa without any significant viral exportation. The central role of Thailand in the global spread of CRF01_AE can be probably explained by the popularity of Thailand as a vacation destination characterized by sex tourism and by Thai emigration to the Western world. Our study highlights the unique case of CRF01_AE, the only globally distributed non-B clade whose global dispersal did not originate in Africa. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Incidence of herpes simplex virus type 2 infection in 5 sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics and the effect of HIV/STD risk-reduction counseling.

    Gottlieb, Sami L; Douglas, John M; Foster, Mark; Schmid, D Scott; Newman, Daniel R; Baron, Anna E; Bolan, Gail; Iatesta, Michael; Malotte, C Kevin; Zenilman, Jonathan; Fishbein, Martin; Peterman, Thomas A; Kamb, Mary L

    2004-09-15

    The seroincidence of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection was determined among 1766 patients attending sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics and enrolled in a randomized, controlled trial of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/STD risk-reduction counseling (RRC). Arm 1 received enhanced RRC (4 sessions); arm 2, brief RRC (2 sessions); and arm 3, the control arm, brief informational messages. The overall incidence rate was 11.7 cases/100 person-years (py). Independent predictors of incidence of HSV-2 infection included female sex; black race; residence in Newark, New Jersey; new HSV-2 infections were diagnosed clinically. Incidence rates were 12.9 cases/100 py in the control arm, 11.8 cases/100 py in arm 2, and 10.3 cases/100 py in arm 1 (hazard ratio, 0.8 [95% confidence interval, 0.6-1.1], vs. controls). The possible benefit of RRC in preventing acquisition of HSV-2 infection offers encouragement that interventions more specifically tailored to genital herpes may be useful and should be an important focus of future studies.

  3. Prevalence of mabDAS-1 positivity in biopsy specimens from the esophagogastric junction.

    Rogge-Wolf, Claudia; Seldenrijk, Cornelis A; Das, Kiron M; Timmer, Robin; Breumelhof, Ronald; Smout, André J P M; Amenta, Peter S; Griffel, Louis H

    2002-12-01

    Intestinal metaplasia (IM) is a precursor for malignancies at the esophagogastric junction. A monoclonal antibody, mAbDAS-1, can probably identify cellular characteristics of IM before the appearance of goblet cells. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of mAbDAS-1 positivity in biopsies from the squamocolumnar junction (SCJ) and to correlate this positivity with the presence of IM and clinical findings. In 559 patients, reflux symptoms were scored, and the presence of reflux esophagitis and hiatus hernia was evaluated during endoscopy. Two biopsy specimens were obtained from the SCJ. In a subset of patients (n = 99), biopsies from the endoscopically defined cardiac region (2 cm distal to proximal margin of gastric folds) were available. Biopsy specimens were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, Alcian Blue, modified Giemsa, and mAbDAS-1. mAbDAS-1 positivity was observed in the SCJ biopsies of 201 of 486 (41.4%) patients without IM and in 64 of 73 (87.7%) patients with IM. Patients without IM but with antibody positivity showed similar histological characteristics as patients with IM at the SCJ. Biopsies of 123 of 559 patients (22%) revealed a columnar-cuboidal epithelium, which was found to be mAbDAS-1 positive in 64.2% (77 of 123). Tissue specimens from the cardiac region without IM stained positive in 14.2% (13 of 91), 12 of those also stained at the SCJ. In patients without IM, a high prevalence of mAbDAS-1 positivity was observed. Biopsies of these patients showed similar histological characteristics as patients with IM. Although not all patients exhibiting this reactivity may develop IM, mAbDAS-1 reactivity may help in the understanding of the histogenesis of IM at the SCJ.

  4. comparative analysis of micronutrients status of hiv infected and hiv ...

    USER

    2015-06-01

    Jun 1, 2015 ... Antiretroviral drugs are used to reduce the viral load, disease symptoms and ... amount of blue color produced read colorimetrically at 440nm using light ..... studies of HIV type 1 related cognitive changes. Arch. Neutral, 49 ...

  5. Effects of biscuit-type feeding supplementation on the neurocognitive outcomes of HIV-affected school-age children: a randomized, double-blind, controlled intervention trial in Kenya

    Kek Khee Loo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine if meat or soy protein dietary supplementation will enhance the neurocognitive performance of HIV-affected children at-risk of malnutrition and food insecurity. Methods: A randomized, double-blind, controlled intervention trial evaluated the effect of nutritional supplementation on the neurocognitive outcomes of 49 HIV-affected school-age children in western Kenya. The intervention consisted in providing the mother, target child, and siblings with one of three isocaloric biscuit-type supplements – soy, wheat, or beef – on 5 days per week for 18 months. Neurocognitive outcomes of the target children were assessed by a battery of eight measures and followed up longitudinally for up to 24 months. Results: Mixed effects modeling demonstrated significant differences in the rates of increase over time among all three groups (F test degrees of freedom of 2, P<0.05 for Raven’s progressive matrices performance, but not for verbal meaning, arithmetic, digit span backward, forward, and total, embedded figure test, and Beery visual–motor integration scores. Conclusion: HIV-affected school-age children provided with soy protein supplementation showed greater improvement in nonverbal cognitive (fluid intelligence performance compared with peers who received isocaloric beef or wheat biscuits. Soy nutrients may have an enhancing effect on neurocognitive skills in HIV-affected school-age children.

  6. Full-length characterization of A1/D intersubtype recombinant genomes from a therapy-induced HIV type 1 controller during acute infection and his noncontrolling partner

    Fomsgaard, A.; Vinner, L.; Therrien, D.

    2008-01-01

    To increase the understanding of mechanisms of HIV control we have genetically and immunologically characterized a full-length HIV-1 isolated from an acute infection in a rare case of undetectable viremia. The subject, a 43-year-old Danish white male (DK1), was diagnosed with acute HIV-1 infection...... and phylogenic trees were constructed and diversity and evolutionary distances were calculated. Intracellular IFN-gamma in CD8(+)CD3(+) T-lymphocyte reactions was investigated by intracellular flow cytometry (IC-FACS). Virus isolates from both patients were A1D intersubtype recombinants showing 98% sequence...

  7. Socio-demographic and epidemiological characteristics associated with human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1 infection in HIV-1-explosed but uninfected individuals, and in HIV-1-infected patients from a southern brasilian population Características sociodemográficas e epidemiológicas associadas com a infecção pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana tipo 1 (HIV-1 em indivíduos expostos ao HIV-1 mas não infectados e em pacientes infectados pelo HIV-1, provenientes da população da região Sul do Brasil

    Edna Maria Vissoci Reiche

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The ability to control human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 infection and progression of the disease is regulated by host and viral factors. This cross-sectional study describes the socio-demographic and epidemiological characteristics associated with HIV-1 infection in 1,061 subjects attended in Londrina and region, south of Brazil: 136 healthy individuals (Group 1, 147 HIV-1-exposed but uninfected individuals (Group 2, 161 HIV-1-infected asymptomatic patients (Group 3, and 617 patients with AIDS (Group 4. Data were obtained by a standardized questionnaire and serological tests. The age of the individuals ranged from 15.1 to 79.5 years, 54.0% and 56.1% of the Groups 3 and 4 patients, respectively, were men. The major features of groups 2, 3, and 4 were a predominance of education level up to secondary school (55.8%, 60.2% and 62.4%, respectively, sexual route of exposure (88.4%, 87.0% and 82.0%, respectively, heterosexual behavior (91.8%, 75.2% and 83.7%, respectively, and previous sexually transmitted diseases (20.4%, 32.5%, and 38.1%, respectively. The patients with AIDS showed the highest rates of seropositivity for syphilis (25.6%, of anti-HCV (22.3%, and anti-HTLV I/II obtained by two serological screening tests (6.2% and 6.8%, respectively. The results documenting the predominant characteristics for HIV-1 infection among residents of Londrina and region, could be useful for the improvement of current HIV-1 prevention, monitoring and therapeutic programs targeted at this population.Este estudo transversal descreve as principais características sociodemográficas e epidemiológicas associadas com a infecção pelo HIV-1 em 1.061 indivíduos atendidos em Londrina e região, Sul do Brasil: 136 indivíduos saudáveis (Grupo 1, 147 indivíduos expostos ao HIV-1 mas não infectados (Grupo 2, 161 pacientes infectados pelo HIV-1 assintomáticos (Grupo 3 e 617 pacientes com aids (Grupo 4. Os dados foram obtidos pela aplicação de um

  8. Examining differences in types and location of recruitment venues for young males and females from urban neighborhoods: findings from a multi-site HIV prevention study.

    Chutuape, Kate S; Ziff, Mauri; Auerswald, Colette; Castillo, Marné; McFadden, Antionette; Ellen, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    Finding and accessing members of youth subpopulations, such as young men who have sex with men (YMSM) of color or young females of color, for behavioral or disease surveillance or study recruitment, pose particular challenges. Venue-based sampling strategies--which hinge on where individuals congregate or "hang out" rather than where they live--appear to be effective alternatives. Methods used to identify venues focus on engaging members of social networks to learn where targeted populations congregate. However, it is not always clear if and how these methods differ according to gender, whether the youth accessed at a venue are actually from neighborhoods in which the venues are found, and whether the location of venues relative to neighborhoods of residence is different for young men and young women. This study illustrates the gender differences in venue type and venue location where eligible youth study participants from high-risk neighborhoods could be accessed for HIV research across 15 research sites (sites). The findings indicate that the study's method led to identifying venues where one quarter or more of the youth were eligible study participants and from the high-risk neighborhoods. Sites targeting young women of color had a higher proportion of eligible study participants who were also from the high-risk neighborhoods than sites targeting YMSM. Clubs were most commonly identified by sites targeting YMSM as recruitment venues, whereas neighborhood-based service or commercial centers were more common venues for young women of color. This study reveals how venue-based recruitment strategies can be tailored and resources maximized by understanding the key differences in the types of venues preferred by males and females and by recognizing that female-preferred venues are more likely to be closer to home.

  9. Modification of a loop sequence between α-helices 6 and 7 of virus capsid (CA protein in a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 derivative that has simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVmac239 vif and CA α-helices 4 and 5 loop improves replication in cynomolgus monkey cells

    Adachi Akio

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 productively infects only humans and chimpanzees but not cynomolgus or rhesus monkeys while simian immunodeficiency virus isolated from macaque (SIVmac readily establishes infection in those monkeys. Several HIV-1 and SIVmac chimeric viruses have been constructed in order to develop an animal model for HIV-1 infection. Construction of an HIV-1 derivative which contains sequences of a SIVmac239 loop between α-helices 4 and 5 (L4/5 of capsid protein (CA and the entire SIVmac239 vif gene was previously reported. Although this chimeric virus could grow in cynomolgus monkey cells, it did so much more slowly than did SIVmac. It was also reported that intrinsic TRIM5α restricts the post-entry step of HIV-1 replication in rhesus and cynomolgus monkey cells, and we previously demonstrated that a single amino acid in a loop between α-helices 6 and 7 (L6/7 of HIV type 2 (HIV-2 CA determines the susceptibility of HIV-2 to cynomolgus monkey TRIM5α. Results In the study presented here, we replaced L6/7 of HIV-1 CA in addition to L4/5 and vif with the corresponding segments of SIVmac. The resultant HIV-1 derivatives showed enhanced replication capability in established T cell lines as well as in CD8+ cell-depleted primary peripheral blood mononuclear cells from cynomolgus monkey. Compared with the wild type HIV-1 particles, the viral particles produced from a chimeric HIV-1 genome with those two SIVmac loops were less able to saturate the intrinsic restriction in rhesus monkey cells. Conclusion We have succeeded in making the replication of simian-tropic HIV-1 in cynomolgus monkey cells more efficient by introducing into HIV-1 the L6/7 CA loop from SIVmac. It would be of interest to determine whether HIV-1 derivatives with SIVmac CA L4/5 and L6/7 can establish infection of cynomolgus monkeys in vivo.

  10. Human T-lymphotropic Virus-1/2 detected in drug abused men who have sex with men infected with HIV in Surakarta, Indonesia

    Agung Prasetyo, Afiono; Sari, Yulia

    2018-05-01

    Human T-lymphotropic virus types 1 and 2 (HTLV-1/2) share similar routes of transmission with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and the HTLV-1/2 co-infection may affect the clinical course of HIV infection. The HIV/HTLV-1/2 co-infection risk higher if the patient performing the high-risk activities. This study evaluated the presentation of HTLV-1 and 2 in HIV-infected men who have sex with men with drug abused history in Surakarta Indonesia. Blood samples collected from HIV-infected men who have sex with men with drug abused history in Surakarta were tested using HTLV-1/2 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and confirmed by RT-PCR nested addressed the part of HTLV-1 LTR and HTLV-2 LTR region, respectively. The specificity of the molecular assays was confirmed by sequencing the amplicons. The anti HTLV-1/2 positive rate was 17.4% (8/46). All positive serological samples were confirmed by nested RT-PCR. Of these, three was HTLV-1 positive and five was HTLV-2 positive. Molecular analysis of positive PCR products revealed that all HTLV-1 isolates had a close relationship with HTLV-1 isolated in Japan while all HTLV-2 isolates with that of isolated in the USA. HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 were detected in drug abused men who have sex with men infected with HIV in Surakarta.

  11. HIV Prevention

    2012-02-01

    Dr. Kevin Fenton, Director of CDC’s National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, talks about steps people can take to protect their health from HIV.  Created: 2/1/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 2/1/2012.

  12. [A case of anti-LKM 1 positive autoimmune hepatitis accompanied by systemic lupus erythematosus].

    Choi, Dae Han; Kim, Hae Kyung; Park, Tae Il; John, Byung Min; Kang, Sung Hwan; Lee, Yoon Serk; Kim, Tae Hyun; Lee, Uh Joo; Lee, Tae Seung; Yoon, Gwi Ok

    2008-03-01

    Overlap of autoimmune hepatitis and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a comparatively rare condition. Although both autoimmune hepatitis and SLE can share common autoimmune features such as polyarthralgia, hypergammaglobulinemia and positive ANA, it has been considered as two different entities. We report a case of anti-LKM1 positive autoimmune hepatitis who developed SLE two years later. The presence of interface hepatitis with lymphoplasma cell infiltrates and rosette formation points to the autoimmune hepatitis rather than SLE hepatitis. Autoimmune hepatitis is infrequently accompanied by SLE, therefore, it could be recommended to investigate for SLE in patients with autoimmune hepatitis.

  13. A conceptual model exploring the relationship between HIV stigma and implementing HIV clinical trials in rural communities of North Carolina.

    Sengupta, Sohini; Strauss, Ronald P; Miles, Margaret S; Roman-Isler, Malika; Banks, Bahby; Corbie-Smith, Giselle

    2010-01-01

    HIV/AIDS disproportionately affects minority groups in the United States, especially in the rural southeastern states. Poverty and lack of access to HIV care, including clinical trials, are prevalent in these areas and contribute to HIV stigma. This is the first study to develop a conceptual model exploring the relationship between HIV stigma and the implementation of HIV clinical trials in rural contexts to help improve participation in those trials. We conducted focus groups with HIV service providers and community leaders, and individual interviews with people living with HIV/AIDS in six counties in rural North Carolina. Themes related to stigma were elicited. We classified the themes into theoretical constructs and developed a conceptual model. HIV stigma themes were classified under the existing theoretical constructs of perceived, experienced, vicarious, and felt normative stigma. Two additional constructs emerged: causes of HIV stigma (e.g., low HIV knowledge and denial in the community) and consequences of HIV stigma (e.g., confidentiality concerns in clinical trials). The conceptual model illustrates that the causes of HIV stigma can give rise to perceived, experienced, and vicarious HIV stigma, and these types of stigma could lead to the consequences of HIV stigma that include felt normative stigma. Understanding HIV stigma in rural counties of North Carolina may not be generalizeable to other rural US southeastern states. The conceptual model emphasizes that HIV stigma--in its many forms--is a critical barrier to HIV clinical trial implementation in rural North Carolina.

  14. Is an HIV vaccine possible?

    Nancy A. Wilson

    Full Text Available The road to the discovery of a vaccine for HIV has been arduous and will continue to be difficult over the ensuing twenty years. Most vaccines are developed by inducing neutralizing antibodies against the target pathogen or by using attenuated strains of the particular pathogen to engender a variety of protective immune responses. Unfortunately, simple methods of generating anti-HIV antibodies have already failed in a phase III clinical trial. While attenuated SIV variants work well against homologous challenges in non-human primates, the potential for reversion to a more pathogenic virus and recombination with challenge viruses will preclude the use of attenuated HIV in the field. It has been exceedingly frustrating to vaccinate for HIV-specific neutralizing antibodies given the enormous diversity of the Envelope (Env glycoprotein and its well-developed glycan shield. However, there are several antibodies that will neutralize many different strains of HIV and inducing these types of antibodies in vaccinees remains the goal of a vigorous effort to develop a vaccine for HIV based on neutralizing antibodies. Given the difficulty in generating broadly reactive neutralizing antibodies, the HIV vaccine field has turned its attention to inducing T cell responses against the virus using a variety of vectors. Unfortunately, the results from Merck's phase IIb STEP trial proved to be disappointing. Vaccinees received Adenovirus type 5 (Ad5 expressing Gag, Pol, and Nef of HIV. This vaccine regimen failed to either prevent infection or reduce the level of HIV replication after challenge. These results mirrored those in non-human primate testing of Ad5 using rigorous SIV challenge models. This review will focus on recent developments in HIV vaccine development. We will deal largely with attempts to develop a T cell-based vaccine using the non-human primate SIV challenge model.

  15. The incidence rate of HIV type-1 drug resistance in patients on antiretroviral therapy: a nationwide population-based Danish cohort study 1999-2005

    Audelin, A.M.; Lohse, N.; Obel, N.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Newer antiretroviral treatment regimens for HIV carry a lower risk of inducing drug resistance mutations. We estimated changes in incidence rates (IRs) of new mutations in HIV-infected individuals receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). METHODS: Population-based data...... were obtained from the Danish HIV Cohort Study and the Danish HIV Sequence Database. We included treatment-naive patients initiating HAART after December 1997 and computed time to first drug resistance mutation, identified as new mutations detected within 1 year after a 60-day period of treatment.......077). The IR of PI resistance decreased from 7.5 (1.4-21.8) in 1999 to 2.9 (0.7-11.4) in 2002-2003 (P=0.148). The IRs were low for specific resistance mutations, except for M184V (IR 5.6 [4.0-7.9]) and K103N (IR 8.2 [5.6-12.0]). CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of acquired drug resistance has decreased among HIV...

  16. Utility of the heteroduplex assay (HDA) as a simple and cost-effective tool for the identification of HIV type 1 dual infections in resource-limited settings.

    Powell, Rebecca L R; Urbanski, Mateusz M; Burda, Sherri; Nanfack, Aubin; Kinge, Thompson; Nyambi, Phillipe N

    2008-01-01

    The predominance of unique recombinant forms (URFs) of HIV-1 in Cameroon suggests that dual infection, the concomitant or sequential infection with genetically distinct HIV-1 strains, occurs frequently in this region; yet, identifying dual infection among large HIV cohorts in local, resource-limited settings is uncommon, since this generally relies on labor-intensive and costly sequencing methods. Consequently, there is a need to develop an effective, cost-efficient method appropriate to the developing world to identify these infections. In the present study, the heteroduplex assay (HDA) was used to verify dual or single infection status, as shown by traditional sequence analysis, for 15 longitudinally sampled study subjects from Cameroon. Heteroduplex formation, indicative of a dual infection, was identified for all five study subjects shown by sequence analysis to be dually infected. Conversely, heteroduplex formation was not detectable for all 10 HDA reactions of the singly infected study subjects. These results suggest that the HDA is a simple yet powerful and inexpensive tool for the detection of both intersubtype and intrasubtype dual infections, and that the HDA harbors significant potential for reliable, high-throughput screening for dual infection. As these infections and the recombinants they generate facilitate leaps in HIV-1 evolution, and may present major challenges for treatment and vaccine design, this assay will be critical for monitoring the continuing pandemic in regions of the world where HIV-1 viral diversity is broad.

  17. Short communication: high prevalence of drug resistance in HIV type 1-infected children born in Honduras and Belize 2001 to 2004.

    Parham, Leda; de Rivera, Ivette Lorenzana; Murillo, Wendy; Naver, Lars; Largaespada, Natalia; Albert, Jan; Karlsson, Annika C

    2011-10-01

    Antiretroviral therapy has had a great impact on the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV-1. However, development of drug resistance, which could be subsequently transmitted to the child, is a major concern. In Honduras and Belize the prevalence of drug resistance among HIV-1-infected children remains unknown. A total of 95 dried blood spot samples was obtained from HIV-1-infected, untreated children in Honduras and Belize born during 2001 to 2004, when preventive antiretroviral therapy was often suboptimal and consisted of monotherapy with nevirapine or zidovudine. Partial HIV-1 pol gene sequences were successfully obtained from 66 children (Honduras n=55; Belize n=11). Mutations associated with drug resistance were detected in 13% of the Honduran and 27% of the Belizean children. Most of the mutations detected in Honduras (43%) and all mutations detected in Belize were associated with resistance to nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, which was expected from the wide use of nevirapine to prevent MTCT during the study period. In addition, although several mothers reported that they had not received antiretroviral therapy, mutations associated with resistance to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and protease inhibitors were found in Honduras. This suggests prior and unreported use of these drugs, or that these women had been infected with resistant virus. The present study demonstrates, for the first time, the presence of drug resistance-associated mutations in HIV-1-infected Honduran and Belizean children.

  18. HIV prevalence, attitudes and behaviour in clients of a confidential HIV testing and counselling centre in Uganda.

    Müller, O; Barugahare, L; Schwartländer, B; Byaruhanga, E; Kataaha, P; Kyeyune, D; Heckmann, W; Ankrah, M

    1992-08-01

    To describe clients, operation and impact of an African public HIV testing and counselling centre. Analysis of samples from clients attending the AIDS Information Centre (AIC) in Kampala, Uganda in early 1991. HIV-1-positive and HIV-negative consecutive clients (250 of each), 86 consecutive couples, and 200 consecutive clients who were HIV-negative in 1990 and were attending for their repeat test. HIV seroprevalence rates, attitudes, behaviour and behaviour change. HIV-1 prevalence was 28% overall, 24% in men and 35% in women. Reasons for taking the HIV test were a planned marriage or a new relationship (27%; 84% in couples), to plan for the future (35%), distrust of sexual partner (14%) and illness or disease/death (not HIV-specific) of partner (20%). The majority of the reported intentions in response to a positive or a negative HIV test result were positive, demonstrating the ability to cope with this information. Of repeat clients, two (1%) had become HIV-1-positive. The majority of repeat clients reported one sexual partner only (67%) or sexual abstinence (25%). Compared with pre-test information from AIC clients attending for the first time, repeat clients reported casual sexual contacts less often (6 versus 25%) and, of those, the majority used condoms. Our study demonstrates the demand for and the feasibility of confidential HIV testing and counseling services in Uganda, and illustrates the value of these services in achieving behaviour changes. Such services should be considered an additional approach for the reduction of HIV transmission in Africa, especially in areas with high HIV seroprevalence rates.

  19. T CD4+ cells count among patients co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 and human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1: high prevalence of tropical spastic paraparesis/HTLV-1-associated myelopathy (TSP/HAM Contagens de células T CD4+ na co-infecção HIV-1 e HTLV-1: alta prevalência da paraparesia espástica tropical/mielopatia associada ao HTLV-1

    Jorge Casseb

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: HIV positive patients co-infected with HTLV-1 may have an increase in their T CD4+ cell counts, thus rendering this parameter useless as an AIDS-defining event. OBJECTIVE: To study the effects induced by the co-infection of HIV-1 and HTLV-1 upon CD4+ cells. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Since 1997, our group has been following a cohort of HTLV-1-infected patients, in order to study the interaction of HTLV-1 with HIV and/or with hepatitis C virus (HCV, as well as HTLV-1-only infected asymptomatic carriers and those with tropical spastic paraparesis/HTLV-1 associated myelopathy (TSP/HAM. One hundred and fifty HTLV-1-infected subjects have been referred to our clinic at the Institute of Infectious Diseases "Emílio Ribas", São Paulo. Twenty-seven of them were also infected with HIV-1 and HTLV-1-infection using two ELISAs and confirmed and typed by Western Blot (WB or polymerase chain reaction (PCR. All subjects were evaluated by two neurologists, blinded to the patient's HTLV status, and the TSP/HAM diagnostic was based on the World Health Organization (WHO classification. AIDS-defining events were in accordance with the Centers for Disease Control (CDC classification of 1988. The first T CD4+ cells count available before starting anti-retroviral therapy are shown compared to the HIV-1-infected subjects at the moment of AIDS defining event. RESULTS: A total of 27 HIV-1/HTLV-1 co-infected subjects were identified in this cohort; 15 already had AIDS and 12 remained free of AIDS. The median of T CD4+ cell counts was 189 (98-688 cells/mm³ and 89 (53-196 cells/mm³ for co-infected subjects who had an AIDS-defining event, and HIV-only infected individuals, respectively (p = 0.036. Eight of 27 co-infected subjects (30% were diagnosed as having a TSP/HAM simile diagnosis, and three of them had opportunistic infections but high T CD4+ cell counts at the time of their AIDS- defining event. DISCUSSION: Our results indicate that higher T CD4+ cells

  20. [The shades of anti-Jo1 positive antisynthetase syndrome in a Hungarian cohort].

    Szabó, Katalin; Nagy-Vincze, Melinda; Bodoki, Levente; Hodosi, Katalin; Dankó, Katalin; Griger, Zoltán

    2016-04-10

    In idiopathic inflammatory myopathies, the presence of anti-Jo-1 antibody defines a distinct clinical phenotype (myositis, arthritis, interstitial lung disease, Raynaud's phenomenon fever, mechanic's hands), called antisynthetase syndrome. To determine the demographic data as well as clinical, laboratory and terapeutical features of anti-Jo1 positive patients, followed by the department of the authors. The medical records of 49 consecutive anti-Jo1 patients were reviewed. Demographic and clinical results were very similar to those published by other centers. Significant correlation was found between the anti-Jo-1 titer and the creatine kinase and C-reactive protein levels. Distinct laboratory results measured at the time of diagnosis of the disease (C-reactive protein, antigen A associated with Sjogren's syndrome, positive rheumatoid factor), and the presence of certain clinical symptoms (fever, vasculitic skin) may indicate a worse prognosis within the antisyntetase positive patient group. In the cases above more agressive immunosuppressive therapy may be required.

  1. HIV/AIDS Coinfection

    ... Coinfection Hepatitis C Coinfection HIV/AIDS Coinfection HIV/AIDS Coinfection Approximately 10% of the HIV-infected population ... Control and Prevention website to learn about HIV/AIDS and Viral Hepatitis guidelines and resources. Home About ...

  2. HIV/AIDS

    HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. It harms your immune system by destroying the white blood cells ... It is the final stage of infection with HIV. Not everyone with HIV develops AIDS. HIV most ...

  3. HIV and Immunizations

    ... AIDS Drugs Clinical Trials Apps skip to content HIV Treatment Home Understanding HIV/AIDS Fact Sheets HIV ... 4 p.m. ET) Send us an email HIV and Immunizations Last Reviewed: February 6, 2018 Key ...

  4. HIV Medication Adherence

    ... AIDS Drugs Clinical Trials Apps skip to content HIV Treatment Home Understanding HIV/AIDS Fact Sheets HIV ... 4 p.m. ET) Send us an email HIV Medication Adherence Last Reviewed: January 17, 2018 Key ...

  5. HIV and AIDS

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español HIV and AIDS KidsHealth / For Kids / HIV and AIDS ... actually the virus that causes the disease AIDS. HIV Hurts the Immune System People who are HIV ...

  6. HIV Treatment: The Basics

    ... AIDS Drugs Clinical Trials Apps skip to content HIV Treatment Home Understanding HIV/AIDS Fact Sheets HIV ... 4 p.m. ET) Send us an email HIV Treatment: The Basics Last Reviewed: March 22, 2018 ...

  7. HIV and Pregnancy

    ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG HIV and Pregnancy Home For Patients Search FAQs HIV ... HIV and Pregnancy FAQ113, July 2017 PDF Format HIV and Pregnancy Pregnancy What is human immunodeficiency virus ( ...

  8. HIV and Cardiovascular Disease

    ... Select a Language: Fact Sheet 652 HIV and Cardiovascular Disease HIV AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE WHY SHOULD PEOPLE WITH HIV CARE ABOUT CVD? ... OF CVD? WHAT ABOUT CHANGING MEDICATIONS? HIV AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE Cardiovascular disease (CVD) includes a group of problems ...

  9. Supernatants from oral epithelial cells and gingival fibroblasts modulate human immunodeficiency virus type 1 promoter activation induced by periodontopathogens in monocytes/macrophages.

    González, O A; Ebersole, J L; Huang, C B

    2010-04-01

    Bacterial and host cell products during coinfections of Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1-positive (HIV-1(+)) patients regulate HIV-1 recrudescence in latently infected cells (e.g. T cells, monocytes/macrophages), impacting highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) failure and progression of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. A high frequency of oral opportunistic infections (e.g. periodontitis) in HIV-1(+) patients has been demonstrated; however, their potential to impact HIV-1 exacerbation is unclear. We sought to determine the ability of supernatants derived from oral epithelial cells (OKF4) and human gingival fibroblasts (Gin-4) challenged with periodontal pathogens, to modulate the HIV-1 promoter activation in monocytes/macrophages. BF24 monocytes/macrophages transfected with the HIV-1 promoter driving the expression of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) were stimulated with Porphyromonas gingivalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum, or Treponema denticola in the presence of supernatants from OKF4 or Gin4 cells either unstimulated or previously pulsed with bacteria. CAT levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and cytokine production was evaluated by Luminex beadlyte assays. OKF4 and Gin4 supernatants enhanced HIV-1 promoter activation particularly related to F. nucleatum challenge. An additive effect was observed in HIV-1 promoter activation when monocytes/macrophages were simultaneously stimulated with gingival cell supernatants and bacterial extracts. OKF4 cells produced higher levels of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukins -6 and -8 in response to F. nucleatum and P. gingivalis. Preincubation of OKF4 supernatants with anti-GM-CSF reduced the additive effect in periodontopathogen-induced HIV-1 promoter activation. These results suggest that soluble mediators produced by gingival resident cells in response to periodontopathogens could contribute to HIV-1 promoter activation in monocytes

  10. Prevalence and Incidence of Anal and Cervical High-Risk Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Types covered by Current HPV Vaccines among HIV-Infected Women in the Study to Understand the Natural History of HIV/AIDS in the Era of Effective Therapy (The SUN Study).

    Kojic, Erna Milunka; Conley, Lois; Bush, Tim; Cu-Uvin, Susan; Unger, Elizabeth R; Henry, Keith; Hammer, John; Escota, Gerome; Darragh, Teresa M; Palefsky, Joel M; Brooks, John T; Patel, Pragna

    2018-02-14

    Nonavalent (9v) human papilloma virus vaccine targets high-risk (HR)-HPV types 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, 58, and low-risk 6, 11. We examined prevalence, incidence, and clearance of anal and cervical HR-HPV in HIV-infected women. From 2004-2006, the SUN Study enrolled 167 women from four US cities. Anal and cervical specimens were collected annually for cytology and identification of 37 HPV types; 14 HR include: 9v 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, 58; non-9v 35, 39, 51, 56, 59, 66, 68. Baseline characteristics of 126 women included: median age 38 years; 57% non-Hispanic black; 67% HIV RNA HPV prevalence at anus and cervix was 90% and 83%; for 9v HR-HPV types, 67% and 51%; non-9v HR-HPV, 54% and 29%, respectively. 9v and non-9v HR-HPV incidence rates/100 person-years were similar (10.4 vs 9.5: 8.5 vs 8.3, respectively); 9v clearance rates were 42% and 61%; non-9v 46% and 59%, in anus and cervix, respectively. Anal HR-HPV prevalence was higher than cervical with lower clearance; incidence was similar. Although prevalence of non-9v HR-HPV was substantial, 9v HR-HPV types were generally more prevalent. These findings support use of nonavalent vaccine in HIV-infected women. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. HIV/AIDS - Multiple Languages

    ... HIV - Newly diagnosed with HIV, part 5 - English MP3 Children and HIV - Newly diagnosed with HIV, part 5 - 简体中文 (Chinese, Simplified (Mandarin dialect)) MP3 Children and HIV - Newly diagnosed with HIV, part ...

  12. Basic HIV/AIDS Statistics

    ... HIV Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV/AIDS Basic Statistics Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir HIV and ... HIV. Interested in learning more about CDC's HIV statistics? Terms, Definitions, and Calculations Used in CDC HIV ...

  13. One lesion, one virus: individual components of high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV-positive men contain a single HPV type

    Richel, Olivier; Quint, Koen D.; Lindeman, Jan; van Noesel, Carel J. M.; de Koning, Maurits N. C.; van den Munckhof, Henk A. M.; de Vries, Henry J. C.; Prins, Jan M.; Quint, Wim G. V.

    2014-01-01

    High-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) is present in many human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive men who have sex with men. The major etiologic factor is infection with an oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) genotype. We investigated whether individual components of high-grade AIN are

  14. Drug resistance mutations in HIV type 1 isolates from naive patients eligible for first line antiretroviral therapy in JJ Hospital, Mumbai, India.

    Deshpande, Alake; Karki, Surendra; Recordon-Pinson, Patricia; Fleury, Herve J

    2011-12-01

    More than 50 HIV-1-infected patients, naive of antiretroviral therapy (ART) but eligible for first line ART in JJ Hospital, Mumbai, India were investigated for surveillance drug resistance mutations (SDRMs); all but one virus belonged to subtype C; we could observe SDRMs to nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and protease inhibitors in 9.6% of the patients.

  15. Quantitative trait loci for CD4:CD8 lymphocyte ratio are associated with risk of type 1 diabetes and HIV-1 immune control

    Ferreira, Manuel A. R.; Mangino, Massimo; Brumme, Chanson J.; Zhao, Zhen Zhen; Medland, Sarah E.; Wright, Margaret J.; Nyholt, Dale R.; Gordon, Scott; Campbell, Megan; McEvoy, Brian P.; Henders, Anjali; Evans, David M.; Lanchbury, Jerry S.; Pereyra, Florencia; Walker, Bruce D.; Haas, David W.; Soranzo, Nicole; Spector, Tim D.; de Bakker, Paul I. W.; Frazer, Ian H.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Agan, Brian; Agarwal, Shanu; Allen, Brady; Altidor, Sherly; Altschuler, Eric; Ambardar, Sujata; Anastos, Kathryn; Anderson, Ben; Andrady, Ushan; Angell, Teresa; Appelbaum, Jonathan; Arnold, Kathy; Arroyo, Julio; Arthur, Ernie; Barbaro, Daniel; Barrett, Tom; Barrie, William; Barthel, Vincent; Bartlett, Mary E.; Barton, Simon; Basden, Pat; Basgoz, Nesli; Bellos, Nicholas; Berger, Judith; Bernard, Annette; Bernard, Nicole; Blair, Donald; Schuitemaker, Hanneke

    2010-01-01

    Abnormal expansion or depletion of particular lymphocyte subsets is associated with clinical manifestations such as HIV progression to AIDS and autoimmune disease. We sought to identify genetic predictors of lymphocyte levels and reasoned that these may play a role in immune-related diseases. We

  16. L-Chicoric acid inhibits human immunodeficiency virus type 1 integration in vivo and is a noncompetitive but reversible inhibitor of HIV-1 integrase in vitro

    Reinke, Ryan A.; Lee, Deborah J.; McDougall, Brenda R.; King, Peter J.; Victoria, Joseph; Mao Yingqun; Lei Xiangyang; Reinecke, Manfred G.; Robinson, W. Edward

    2004-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) integrase (IN) must covalently join the viral cDNA into a host chromosome for productive HIV infection. L-Chicoric acid (L-CA) enters cells poorly but is a potent inhibitor of IN in vitro. Using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), L-CA inhibits integration at concentrations from 500 nM to 10 μM but also inhibits entry at concentrations above 1 μM. Using recombinant HIV IN, steady-state kinetic analyses with L-CA were consistent with a noncompetitive or irreversible mechanism of inhibition. IN, in the presence or absence of L-CA, was successively washed. Inhibition of IN diminished, demonstrating that L-CA was reversibly bound to the protein. These data demonstrate that L-CA is a noncompetitive but reversible inhibitor of IN in vitro and of HIV integration in vivo. Thus, L-CA likely interacts with amino acids other than those which bind substrate

  17. Molecular epidemiology of HIV type 1 infection in Iran: genomic evidence of CRF35_AD predominance and CRF01_AE infection among individuals associated with injection drug use.

    Jahanbakhsh, Fatemeh; Ibe, Shiro; Hattori, Junko; Monavari, Seyed Hamid Reza; Matsuda, Masakazu; Maejima, Masami; Iwatani, Yasumasa; Memarnejadian, Arash; Keyvani, Hossein; Azadmanesh, Kayhan; Sugiura, Wataru

    2013-01-01

    To understand the molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 infection in Iran, we conducted the first study to analyze the genome sequence of Iranian HIV-1 isolates. For this cross-sectional study, we enrolled 10 HIV-1-infected individuals associated with injection drug use from Tehran, Shiraz, and Kermanshah. Near full-length genome sequences obtained from their plasma samples were used for phylogenetic tree and similarity plotting analyses. Among 10 isolates, nine were clearly identified as CRF35_AD and the remaining one as CRF01_AE. Interestingly, five of our Iranian CRF35_AD isolates made two clusters with 10 Afghan CRF35_AD isolates in a phylogenetic tree, indicating epidemiological connections among injection drug users in Iran and Afghanistan. In contrast, our CRF01_AE isolate had no genetic relationship with any other CRF01_AE isolates worldwide, even from Afghanistan. This study provides the first genomic evidence of HIV-1 CRF35_AD predominance and CRF01_AE infection among individuals associated with injection drug use in Iran.

  18. Co-infection of human herpesvirus type 2 (HHV-2) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among pregnant women in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Lima, Lyana Rodrigues Pinto; Fernandes, Luis Eduardo Barros Costa; Villela, Daniel A M; Morgado, Mariza Gonçalves; Pilotto, José Henrique; de Paula, Vanessa Salete

    2018-03-01

    Pregnant women who are infected with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) are particularly vulnerable to severe and recurrent infections with Human Herpesvirus 2 (HHV-2). Neonatal transmission of HHV-2 has been associated with malformations and neurological sequelae in infants, which makes it very important to perform antenatal monitoring for genital herpes. In the study, 134 pregnant women infected with HIV were tested for HHV-2 IgM and IgG using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and had HHV-2 DNA analyzed by Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR). Fisher's exact test was applied to analyze the epidemiological dates (p pregnant women infected with HIV had HHV-2 IgG and 3.75% of them showed HHV-2 viremia. HHV-2 IgM was found in 6% of the pregnant women and 25% of them had HHV-2 viremia. The risk factors associated with HHV-2 seropositive were age under 20 and a CD4/CD8 ratio > 1. Our study found high HHV-2/HIV coinfection prevalence and HHV-2 viremia among patients with recurrent and primary genital infection, reinforcing the need of prevention and control of HHV-2 infection in order to avoid this virus transmission.

  19. Acquisition of wild-type HIV-1 infection in a patient on pre-exposure prophylaxis with high intracellular concentrations of tenofovir diphosphate: a case report.

    Hoornenborg, Elske; Prins, Maria; Achterbergh, Roel C A; Woittiez, Lycke R; Cornelissen, Marion; Jurriaans, Suzanne; Kootstra, Neeltje A; Anderson, Peter L; Reiss, Peter; de Vries, Henry J C; Prins, Jan M; de Bree, Godelieve J

    2017-01-01

    Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate is highly effective against acquisition of HIV infection, and only two cases of infection with a multidrug-resistant virus have been reported under adequate long-term adherence, as evidenced by tenofovir diphosphate

  20. Living with HIV

    ... Abroad Treatment Basic Statistics Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV/AIDS Living With HIV Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ...

  1. HIV Risk and Prevention

    ... Prevention VIH En Español Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Email Updates on HIV Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV Risk and Prevention Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ...

  2. New subtypes and genetic recombination in HIV type 1-infecting patients with highly active antiretroviral therapy in Peru (2008-2010).

    Yabar, Carlos Augusto; Acuña, Maribel; Gazzo, Cecilia; Salinas, Gabriela; Cárdenas, Fanny; Valverde, Ada; Romero, Soledad

    2012-12-01

    HIV-1 subtype B is the most frequent strain in Peru. However, there is no available data about the genetic diversity of HIV-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) here. A group of 267 patients in the Peruvian National Treatment Program with virologic failure were tested for genotypic evidence of HIV drug resistance at the Instituto Nacional de Salud (INS) of Peru between March 2008 and December 2010. Viral RNA was extracted from plasma and the segments of the protease (PR) and reverse transcriptase (RT) genes were amplified by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), purified, and fully sequenced. Consensus sequences were submitted to the HIVdb Genotypic Resistance Interpretation Algorithm Database from Stanford University, and then aligned using Clustal X v.2.0 to generate a phylogenetic tree using the maximum likelihood method. Intrasubtype and intersubtype recombination analyses were performed using the SCUEAL program (Subtype Classification by Evolutionary ALgo-rithms). A total of 245 samples (91%) were successfully genotyped. The analysis obtained from the HIVdb program showed 81.5% resistance cases (n=198). The phylogenetic analysis revealed that subtype B was predominant in the population (98.8%), except for new cases of A, C, and H subtypes (n=4). Of these cases, only subtype C was imported. Likewise, recombination analysis revealed nine intersubtype and 20 intrasubtype recombinant cases. This is the first report of the presence of HIV-1 subtypes C and H in Peru. The introduction of new subtypes and circulating recombinants forms can make it difficult to distinguish resistance profiles in patients and consequently affect future treatment strategies against HIV in this country.

  3. Analysis of HIV subtypes and the phylogenetic tree in HIV-positive samples from Saudi Arabia

    Al-Zahrani, Alhusain J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective was to assess the prevalence of HIV-1 genetic subtypes in Saudi Arabia in samples that are serologically positive for HIV-1 and compare the HIV-1 genetic subtypes prevalent in Saudi Arabia with the subtypes prevalent in other countries. Thirty-nine HIV-1 positive samples were analyzed for HIV-1 subtypes using molecular techniques. The study is retrospective study that was conducted in Dammam, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and in Abbott laboratories (United States of America) from2004 to 2007. All samples were seropositive for HIV-1 group M. Of the 39 seropositive samples, only 12 were polymerase chain reaction positive. Subtype C is the most common virus strain as it occurred in 58% of these samples; subtype B occurred in 17%; subtypes A, D and G were found in 8% each. The phylogenetic tree was also identified for the isolates. Detection of HIV subtypes is important for epidemiological purposes and may help in tracing the source of HIV infections in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. (author)

  4. AaERF1 positively regulates the resistance to Botrytis cinerea in Artemisia annua.

    Xu Lu

    Full Text Available Plants are sessile organisms, and they can not move away under abiotic or biotic stresses. Thus plants have evolved a set of genes that response to adverse environment to modulate gene expression. In this study, we characterized and functionally studied an ERF transcription factor from Artemisia annua, AaERF1, which plays an important role in biotic stress responses. The AaERF1 promoter had been cloned and GUS staining results of AaERF1 promoter-GUS transgenic A. annua showed that AaERF1 is expressed ubiquitiously in all organs. Several putative cis-acting elements such as W-box, TGA-box and Py-rich element, which are involved in defense responsiveness, are present in the promoter. The expression of AaERF1 can be induced vigorously by methyl jasmonate as well as by ethephon and wounding, implying that AaERF1 may activate some of the defense genes via the jasmonic acid and ethylene signaling pathways of A. annua. The results of electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA and yeast one-hybrid experiments showed that AaERF1 was able to bind to the GCC box cis-acting element in vitro and in yeast. Ectopic expression of AaERF1 could enhance the expression levels of the defense marker genes PLANT DEFENSIN1.2 (PDF1.2 and BASIC CHITINASE (ChiB, and increase the resistance to Botrytis cinerea in the 35S::AaERF1 transgenic Arabidopsis. The down-regulated expression level of AaERF1 evidently reduced the resistance to B. cinerea in A. annua. The overall results showed that AaERF1 positively regulated the resistance to B. cinerea in A. annua.

  5. Expression of hLAMP-1-Positive Particles During Early Heart Development in the Chick.

    Abd-Elhamid, T H; Conway, M L; Sinning, A R

    2017-10-01

    Heart development requires coordinated activity of various factors, the disturbance of which can lead to congenital heart defects. Heart lectin-associated matrix protein-1 (hLAMP-1) is a matrix protein expressed within Hensen's node at Hamburger-Hamilton (HH) stage 4, in the lateral mesoderm by HH stages 5-6 and enhanced within the left pre-cardiac field at HH stage 7. At HH stages 15-16, hLAMP-1 expression is observed in the atrioventricular canal and the outflow tract. Also, the role of hLAMP-1 in induction of mesenchyme formation in chick heart has been well documented. To further elucidate the role of this molecule in heart development, we examined its expression patterns during HH stages 8-14 in the chick. In this regard, we immunostained sections of the heart during HH stages 8-14 with antibodies specific to hLAMP-1. Our results showed prominent expression of hLAMP-1-positive particles in the extracellular matrix associated with the pre-cardiac mesoderm, the endoderm, ectoderm as well as neuroectoderm at HH stages 8-9. After formation of the linear heart tube at HH stage 10, the expression of hLAMP-1-stained particles disappears in those regions of original contact between the endoderm and heart forming fields due to rupture of the dorsal mesocardium while their expression becomes confined to the arterial and venous poles of the heart tube. This expression pattern is maintained until HH stage 14. This expression pattern suggests that hLAMP-1 may be involved in the formation of the endocardial tube. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Prevalence and associated factors of late HIV diagnosis in north ...

    Information regarding age, sex, WHO stage, type of opportunistic condition, HIV testing service and on diagnosis CD4 counts were all collected. On diagnosis CD4 counts <200cells/µl was coded as Late HIV diagnosis. The proportion of with Late HIV diagnosis was calculated and logistic regression modal was used to ...

  7. Factors Associated with Recent HIV Testing among Heterosexuals at High-Risk for HIV Infection in New York City

    Marya eGwadz

    2016-04-01

    gender-specific facilitators of HIV testing. Findings suggest a number of avenues for increasing HIV testing rates including increasing the number and types of settings offering high-quality HIV testing; promoting STI as well as HIV testing; better integrating STI and HIV testing systems; implementing peer-driven social/behavioral intervention approaches to harness the positive influence of social networks and reduce unfavorable shared peer norms; and specialized approaches for women who use drugs.

  8. Cross-reactive microbial peptides can modulate HIV-specific CD8+ T cell responses.

    Christopher W Pohlmeyer

    Full Text Available Heterologous immunity is an important aspect of the adaptive immune response. We hypothesized that this process could modulate the HIV-1-specific CD8+ T cell response, which has been shown to play an important role in HIV-1 immunity and control. We found that stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs from HIV-1-positive subjects with microbial peptides that were cross-reactive with immunodominant HIV-1 epitopes resulted in dramatic expansion of HIV-1-specific CD8+ T cells. Interestingly, the TCR repertoire of HIV-1-specific CD8+ T cells generated by ex vivo stimulation of PBMCs using HIV-1 peptide was different from that of cells stimulated with cross-reactive microbial peptides in some HIV-1-positive subjects. Despite these differences, CD8+ T cells stimulated with either HIV-1 or cross-reactive peptides effectively suppressed HIV-1 replication in autologous CD4+ T cells. These data suggest that exposure to cross-reactive microbial antigens can modulate HIV-1-specific immunity.

  9. Determination of mean recency period for estimation of HIV type 1 Incidence with the BED-capture EIA in persons infected with diverse subtypes.

    Parekh, Bharat S; Hanson, Debra L; Hargrove, John; Branson, Bernard; Green, Timothy; Dobbs, Trudy; Constantine, Niel; Overbaugh, Julie; McDougal, J Steven

    2011-03-01

    The IgG capture BED enzyme immunoassay (BED-CEIA) was developed to detect recent HIV-1 infection for the estimation of HIV-1 incidence from cross-sectional specimens. The mean time interval between seroconversion and reaching a specified assay cutoff value [referred to here as the mean recency period (ω)], an important parameter for incidence estimation, is determined for some HIV-1 subtypes, but testing in more cohorts and new statistical methods suggest the need for a revised estimation of ω in different subtypes. A total of 2927 longitudinal specimens from 756 persons with incident HIV infections who had been enrolled in 17 cohort studies was tested by the BED-CEIA. The ω was determined using two statistical approaches: (1) linear mixed effects regression (ω(1)) and (2) a nonparametric survival method (ω(2)). Recency periods varied among individuals and by population. At an OD-n cutoff of 0.8, ω(1) was 176 days (95% CL 164-188 days) whereas ω(2) was 162 days (95% CL 152-172 days) when using a comparable subset of specimens (13 cohorts). When method 2 was applied to all available data (17 cohorts), ω(2) ranged from 127 days (Thai AE) to 236 days (subtypes AG, AD) with an overall ω(2) of 197 days (95% CL 173-220). About 70% of individuals reached a threshold OD-n of 0.8 by 197 days (mean ω) and 95% of people reached 0.8 OD-n by 480 days. The determination of ω with more data and new methodology suggests that ω of the BED-CEIA varies between different subtypes and/or populations. These estimates for ω may affect incidence estimates in various studies.

  10. Low prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) infection in population attending a major hospital in New Delhi, India.

    Aggarwal, R K; Chattopadhya, D; Kumari, S

    1996-03-01

    During 4 year period between April 1990 and March 1994, 4120 specimens from the patients attending out patient departments of Medical, Surgical and Antenatal units of a major city hospital were tested for HIV infection as a part of an on-going sentinel surveillance programme. In addition, 1440 specimens from the patients attending STD clinic of the same hospital and 862 females seeking termination of pregnancy from a near by hospital were included for comparison. It was found that only 3 individuals with high risk behaviours out of 2002 females attending antenatal clinic showed evidence of HIV infection (rate 1.49 per 1000). The corresponding rate for the group of patients attending STD clinic and seeking termination of pregnancy were 3 out of 1440 (rate 2.15 per 1000) and 1 out of 862 (rate 1.16 per 1000) respectively. It was noted that prevalence of HIV infection in the hospital attending population with unspecified risk factor (medical, surgical and antenatal clinics) was not a matter of serious concern. The importance of finding out risk factors in females attending antenatal clinic is evident from the study.

  11. [Studies on antigencity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) external glycoprotein as well as its expression in Pichia pastoris].

    Zhao, Li-Hui; Yu, Xiang-Hui; Jiang, Chun-Lai; Wu, Yong-Ge; Shen, Jia-Cong; Kong, Wei

    2007-05-01

    Based on the computer simulation, we analyzed hydrophobicity, potential epitope of recombined subtypes HIV-1 Env protein (851 amino acids) from Guangxi in China. Compared with conservative peptides of other subtypes in env protein, three sequences (469-511aa, 538-674aa, 700-734aa) were selected to recombine into a chimeric gene that codes three conservative epitope peptides with stronger antigencity, and was constructed in the yeast expression plasmid pPICZB. Chimeric proteins were expressed in Pichia pastoris under the induction of methanol, and were analyzed by SDS-PAGE and Westernblot. The results showed that fusion proteins of three-segment antigen were expressed in Pichia pastoris and that specific protein band at the site of 40kD was target protein, which is interacted with HIV-1 serum. The target proteins were purified by metal Ni-sepharose 4B, and were demonstrated to possess good antigenic specificity from the data of ELISA. This chimeric antigen may be used as research and developed into HIV diagnostic reagents.

  12. Exploring the role, needs and challenges of relatives of mothers with HIV or HIV and psychosis: A qualitative study

    Spies, Ruan; Derks, Olivia K.; Sterkenburg, Paula S.; Schuengel, Carlo; van Rensburg, Esme

    2016-01-01

    This study explored types and nature of supports by relatives of mothers living with HIV and psychosis in comparison to mothers with HIV only. Interview data on their experiences of their roles, needs and challenges were collected from 33 relatives on mothers with HIV and psychosis (n=12,

  13. In vivo dynamics of GFRα1-positive spermatogonia stimulated by GDNF signals using a bead transplantation assay

    Uchida, Aya; Kishi, Kasane; Aiyama, Yoshimi; Miura, Kento [Department of Veterinary Anatomy, The University of Tokyo, Yayoi, Tokyo, 113-8657 (Japan); Takase, Hinako M.; Suzuki, Hitomi; Kanai-Azuma, Masami [Department of Experimental Animal Model for Human Disease, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, 113-8510 (Japan); Iwamori, Tokuko [Center of Biomedical Research, Kyusyu University, Fukuoka, 812-8582 (Japan); Kurohmaru, Masamichi; Tsunekawa, Naoki [Department of Veterinary Anatomy, The University of Tokyo, Yayoi, Tokyo, 113-8657 (Japan); Kanai, Yoshiakira, E-mail: aykanai@mail.ecc.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Veterinary Anatomy, The University of Tokyo, Yayoi, Tokyo, 113-8657 (Japan)

    2016-08-05

    In mouse testes, spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs), a subpopulation of GFRα1 (GDNF family receptor-α1)-positive spermatogonia, are widely distributed along the convoluted seminiferous tubules. The proliferation and differentiation of the SSCs are regulated in part by local expression of GDNF (glial cell-derived neurotorphic factor), one of major niche factors for SSCs. However, the in vivo dynamics of the GDNF-stimulated GFRα1-positive spermatogonia remains unclear. Here, we developed a simple method for transplanting DiI-labeled and GDNF-soaked beads into the mouse testicular interstitium. By using this method, we examined the dynamics of GFRα1-positive spermatogonia in the tubular walls close to the transplanted GDNF-soaked beads. The bead-derived GDNF signals were able to induce the stratified aggregate formation of GFRα1-positive undifferentiated spermatogonia by day 3 post-transplantation. Each aggregate consisted of tightly compacted A{sub single} and marginal A{sub paired}–A{sub aligned} GFRα1-positive spermatogonia and was surrounded by A{sub aligned} GFRα1-negative spermatogonia at more advanced stages. These data not only provide in vivo evidence for the inductive roles of GDNF in forming a rapid aggregation of GFRα1-positive spermatogonia but also indicate the usefulness of this in vivo assay system of various growth factors for the stem/progenitor spermatogonia in mammalian spermatogenesis. - Highlights: • A novel bead transplantation assay was developed to examine the in vivo effects of growth factors on spermatogonia. • A rapid aggregation of GFRα1-positive spermatogonia was induced by the transplanted GDNF-soaked beads. • Tightly-compacted A{sub single} and marginal A{sub paired}–A{sub aligned} spermatogonia were formed in each GFRα1-positive aggregate.

  14. No. 185-HIV Screening in Pregnancy.

    Keenan-Lindsay, Lisa; Yudin, Mark H

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this guideline is to provide recommendations to obstetric health care providers and to minimize practice variations for HIV screening, while taking provincial and territorial recommendations into account. The risk of transmission of HIV from mother to fetus is significant if the mother is not treated. The primary outcome of screening for and treating HIV in pregnancy is a marked decrease in the rate of vertical transmission of HIV from mother to fetus. Secondary outcomes include confirmation of HIV infection in the woman, which allows optimization of her health and long-term management. The Cochrane Library and Medline were searched for English-language articles published related to HIV screening and pregnancy. Additional articles were identified through the references of these articles. All study types were reviewed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. The global transmission network of HIV-1.

    Wertheim, Joel O; Leigh Brown, Andrew J; Hepler, N Lance; Mehta, Sanjay R; Richman, Douglas D; Smith, Davey M; Kosakovsky Pond, Sergei L

    2014-01-15

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is pandemic, but its contemporary global transmission network has not been characterized. A better understanding of the properties and dynamics of this network is essential for surveillance, prevention, and eventual eradication of HIV. Here, we apply a simple and computationally efficient network-based approach to all publicly available HIV polymerase sequences in the global database, revealing a contemporary picture of the spread of HIV-1 within and between countries. This approach automatically recovered well-characterized transmission clusters and extended other clusters thought to be contained within a single country across international borders. In addition, previously undescribed transmission clusters were discovered. Together, these clusters represent all known modes of HIV transmission. The extent of international linkage revealed by our comprehensive approach demonstrates the need to consider the global diversity of HIV, even when describing local epidemics. Finally, the speed of this method allows for near-real-time surveillance of the pandemic's progression.

  16. Detection of HIV-RNA-positive monocytes in peripheral blood of HIV-positive patients by simultaneous flow cytometric analysis of intracellular HIV RNA and cellular immunophenotype.

    Patterson, B K; Mosiman, V L; Cantarero, L; Furtado, M; Bhattacharya, M; Goolsby, C

    1998-04-01

    Determinations of plasma HIV viral RNA copy numbers help to define the kinetics of HIV-1 infection in vivo and to monitor antiretroviral therapy. However, questions remain regarding the identity of various infected cell types contributing to this free virus pool and to the in vivo lifecycle of HIV during disease progression. Characterization of a novel fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assay employing a pool of labeled oligonucleotide probes directed against HIV RNA was done followed by coupling of the FISH assay with simultaneous surface immunophenotyping to address these questions. In vitro characterizations of this assay using tumor necrosis factor-alpha stimulated and unstimulated ACH-2 cells demonstrated the ability to detect < 5% HIV RNA positive cells with a sensitivity of < 30 RNA copies per cell. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 39 HIV-seropositive patients on no, single, combination, or triple drug therapy and 8 HIV-seronegative patients were examined. The majority of HIV-positive patients (24/39) harbored monocytes positive for HIV RNA and a significantly higher fraction of patients with high plasma viral load carried positive monocytes (13/16) than did patients in the low plasma viral load group (11/23). These results demonstrate the effectiveness of a novel FISH assay for identifying and monitoring HIV-infected cell populations in the peripheral blood of HIV-positive patients. In addition, monocytes are a major source of cellular HIV virus in the peripheral blood of HIV patients, even with progression of disease.

  17. Get Tested for HIV

    ... AIDS: What is HIV/AIDS? Women and HIV/AIDS Next section ... Tested? Why do I need to get tested for HIV? The only way to know if you have HIV is to get tested. Many people with HIV don’t have any symptoms. In the United States, about 1 in 7 ...

  18. A gp41-based heteroduplex mobility assay provides rapid and accurate assessment of intrasubtype epidemiological linkage in HIV type 1 heterosexual transmission Pairs.

    Manigart, Olivier; Boeras, Debrah I; Karita, Etienne; Hawkins, Paulina A; Vwalika, Cheswa; Makombe, Nathan; Mulenga, Joseph; Derdeyn, Cynthia A; Allen, Susan; Hunter, Eric

    2012-12-01

    A critical step in HIV-1 transmission studies is the rapid and accurate identification of epidemiologically linked transmission pairs. To date, this has been accomplished by comparison of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplified nucleotide sequences from potential transmission pairs, which can be cost-prohibitive for use in resource-limited settings. Here we describe a rapid, cost-effective approach to determine transmission linkage based on the heteroduplex mobility assay (HMA), and validate this approach by comparison to nucleotide sequencing. A total of 102 HIV-1-infected Zambian and Rwandan couples, with known linkage, were analyzed by gp41-HMA. A 400-base pair fragment within the envelope gp41 region of the HIV proviral genome was PCR amplified and HMA was applied to both partners' amplicons separately (autologous) and as a mixture (heterologous). If the diversity between gp41 sequences was low (<5%), a homoduplex was observed upon gel electrophoresis and the transmission was characterized as having occurred between partners (linked). If a new heteroduplex formed, within the heterologous migration, the transmission was determined to be unlinked. Initial blind validation of gp-41 HMA demonstrated 90% concordance between HMA and sequencing with 100% concordance in the case of linked transmissions. Following validation, 25 newly infected partners in Kigali and 12 in Lusaka were evaluated prospectively using both HMA and nucleotide sequences. Concordant results were obtained in all but one case (97.3%). The gp41-HMA technique is a reliable and feasible tool to detect linked transmissions in the field. All identified unlinked results should be confirmed by sequence analyses.

  19. CD4-dependent characteristics of coreceptor use and HIV type 1 V3 sequence in a large population of therapy-naive individuals.

    Low, Andrew J; Marchant, David; Brumme, Chanson J; Brumme, Zabrina L; Dong, Winnie; Sing, Tobias; Hogg, Robert S; Montaner, Julio S G; Gill, Vikram; Cheung, Peter K; Harrigan, P Richard

    2008-02-01

    We investigated the associations between coreceptor use, V3 loop sequence, and CD4 count in a cross-sectional analysis of a large cohort of chronically HIV-infected, treatment-naive patients. HIV coreceptor usage was determined in the last pretherapy plasma sample for 977 individuals initiating HAART in British Columbia, Canada using the Monogram Trofile Tropism assay. Relative light unit (RLU) readouts from the Trofile assay, as well as HIV V3 loop sequence data, were examined as a function of baseline CD4 cell count for 953 (97%) samples with both phenotype and genotype data available. Median CCR5 RLUs were high for both R5 and X4-capable samples, while CXCR4 RLUs were orders of magnitude lower for X4 samples (p < 0.001). CCR5 RLUs in R5 samples (N = 799) increased with decreasing CD4 count (p < 0.001), but did not vary with plasma viral load (pVL) (p = 0.74). In X4 samples (N = 178), CCR5 RLUs decreased with decreasing CD4 count (p = 0.046) and decreasing pVL (p = 0.097), while CXCR4 RLUs increased with decreasing pVL (p = 0.0008) but did not vary with CD4 (p = 0.96). RLUs varied with the presence of substitutions at V3 loop positions 11, 25, and 6-8. The prevalence and impact of substitutions at codons 25 and 6-8 were CD4 dependent as was the presence of amino acid mixtures in the V3; substitutions at position 11 were CD4 independent. Assay RLU measures predictably vary with both immunological and virological parameters. The ability to predict X4 virus using genotypic determinants at positions 25 and 6-8 of the V3 loop is CD4 dependent, while position 11 appears to be CD4 independent.

  20. Control of HIV infection by IFN-α: implications for latency and a cure.

    Bourke, Nollaig M; Napoletano, Silvia; Bannan, Ciaran; Ahmed, Suaad; Bergin, Colm; McKnight, Áine; Stevenson, Nigel J

    2018-03-01

    Viral infections, including HIV, trigger the production of type I interferons (IFNs), which in turn, activate a signalling cascade that ultimately culminates with the expression of anti-viral proteins. Mounting evidence suggests that type I IFNs, in particular IFN-α, play a pivotal role in limiting acute HIV infection. Highly active anti-retroviral treatment reduces viral load and increases life expectancy in HIV positive patients; however, it fails to fully eliminate latent HIV reservoirs. To revisit HIV as a curable disease, this article reviews a body of literature that highlights type I IFNs as mediators in the control of HIV infection, with particular focus on the anti-HIV restriction factors induced and/or activated by IFN-α. In addition, we discuss the relevance of type I IFN treatment in the context of HIV latency reversal, novel therapeutic intervention strategies and the potential for full HIV clearance.

  1. 2-(Alkyl/aryl)amino-6-benzylpyrimidin-4(3H)-ones as inhibitors of wild-type and mutant HIV-1: enantioselectivity studies.

    Rotili, Dante; Samuele, Alberta; Tarantino, Domenico; Ragno, Rino; Musmuca, Ira; Ballante, Flavio; Botta, Giorgia; Morera, Ludovica; Pierini, Marco; Cirilli, Roberto; Nawrozkij, Maxim B; Gonzalez, Emmanuel; Clotet, Bonaventura; Artico, Marino; Esté, José A; Maga, Giovanni; Mai, Antonello

    2012-04-12

    The single enantiomers of two pyrimidine-based HIV-1 non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, 1 (MC1501) and 2 (MC2082), were tested in both cellular and enzyme assays. In general, the R forms were more potent than their S counterparts and racemates and (R)-2 was more efficient than (R)-1 and the reference compounds, with some exceptions. Interestingly, (R)-2 displayed a faster binding to K103N RT with respect to WT RT, while (R)-1 showed the opposite behavior. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  2. Effect of Probiotic Bacteria on Microbial Host Defense, Growth, and Immune Function in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type-1 Infection

    Stig Bengmark

    2011-12-01

    formula alone. Pilot studies have shown that probiotic bacteria given as a supplement have improved growth and protected against loss of CD4+ T cells. The recognition that normal bacterial flora prime neonatal immune response and that abnormal flora have a profound impact on metabolism has generated insight into potential mechanisms of gut dysfunction in many settings including HIV-1 infection. As discussed here, current and emerging studies support the concept that probiotic bacteria can provide specific benefit in HIV-1 infection. Probiotic bacteria have proven active against bacterial vaginosis in HIV-1 positive women and have enhanced growth in infants with congenital HIV-1 infection. Probiotic bacteria may stabilize CD4+ T cell numbers in HIV-1 infected children and are likely to have protective effects against inflammation and chronic immune activation of the gastrointestinal immune system.

  3. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Full Text Available ... of HIV in the United States, please visit: https://www.aids.gov/hiv-aids-basics/hiv-aids- ... HIV, STD, and TB Prevention. About HIV/AIDS. ( https://www.cdc.gov/actagainstaids/basics/whatishiv.html ). Atlanta, ...

  4. First-in-Human Evaluation of the Safety and Immunogenicity of an Intranasally Administered Replication-Competent Sendai Virus–Vectored HIV Type 1 Gag Vaccine: Induction of Potent T-Cell or Antibody Responses in Prime-Boost Regimens

    Nyombayire, Julien; Anzala, Omu; Gazzard, Brian; Karita, Etienne; Bergin, Philip; Hayes, Peter; Kopycinski, Jakub; Omosa-Manyonyi, Gloria; Jackson, Akil; Bizimana, Jean; Farah, Bashir; Sayeed, Eddy; Parks, Christopher L.; Inoue, Makoto; Hironaka, Takashi; Hara, Hiroto; Shu, Tsugumine; Matano, Tetsuro; Dally, Len; Barin, Burc; Park, Harriet; Gilmour, Jill; Lombardo, Angela; Excler, Jean-Louis; Fast, Patricia; Laufer, Dagna S.; Cox, Josephine H.

    2017-01-01

    Background. We report the first-in-human safety and immunogenicity assessment of a prototype intranasally administered, replication-competent Sendai virus (SeV)–vectored, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine. Methods. Sixty-five HIV-1–uninfected adults in Kenya, Rwanda, and the United Kingdom were assigned to receive 1 of 4 prime-boost regimens (administered at 0 and 4 months, respectively; ratio of vaccine to placebo recipients, 12:4): priming with a lower-dose SeV-Gag given intranasally, followed by boosting with an adenovirus 35–vectored vaccine encoding HIV-1 Gag, reverse transcriptase, integrase, and Nef (Ad35-GRIN) given intramuscularly (SLA); priming with a higher-dose SeV-Gag given intranasally, followed by boosting with Ad35-GRIN given intramuscularly (SHA); priming with Ad35-GRIN given intramuscularly, followed by boosting with a higher-dose SeV-Gag given intranasally (ASH); and priming and boosting with a higher-dose SeV-Gag given intranasally (SHSH). Results. All vaccine regimens were well tolerated. Gag-specific IFN-γ enzyme-linked immunospot–determined response rates and geometric mean responses were higher (96% and 248 spot-forming units, respectively) in groups primed with SeV-Gag and boosted with Ad35-GRIN (SLA and SHA) than those after a single dose of Ad35-GRIN (56% and 54 spot-forming units, respectively) or SeV-Gag (55% and 59 spot-forming units, respectively); responses persisted for ≥8 months after completion of the prime-boost regimen. Functional CD8+ T-cell responses with greater breadth, magnitude, and frequency in a viral inhibition assay were also seen in the SLA and SHA groups after Ad35-GRIN boost, compared with those who received either vaccine alone. SeV-Gag did not boost T-cell counts in the ASH group. In contrast, the highest Gag-specific antibody titers were seen in the ASH group. Mucosal antibody responses were sporadic. Conclusions. SeV-Gag primed functional, durable HIV-specific T

  5. First-in-Human Evaluation of the Safety and Immunogenicity of an Intranasally Administered Replication-Competent Sendai Virus-Vectored HIV Type 1 Gag Vaccine: Induction of Potent T-Cell or Antibody Responses in Prime-Boost Regimens.

    Nyombayire, Julien; Anzala, Omu; Gazzard, Brian; Karita, Etienne; Bergin, Philip; Hayes, Peter; Kopycinski, Jakub; Omosa-Manyonyi, Gloria; Jackson, Akil; Bizimana, Jean; Farah, Bashir; Sayeed, Eddy; Parks, Christopher L; Inoue, Makoto; Hironaka, Takashi; Hara, Hiroto; Shu, Tsugumine; Matano, Tetsuro; Dally, Len; Barin, Burc; Park, Harriet; Gilmour, Jill; Lombardo, Angela; Excler, Jean-Louis; Fast, Patricia; Laufer, Dagna S; Cox, Josephine H

    2017-01-01

     We report the first-in-human safety and immunogenicity assessment of a prototype intranasally administered, replication-competent Sendai virus (SeV)-vectored, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine.  Sixty-five HIV-1-uninfected adults in Kenya, Rwanda, and the United Kingdom were assigned to receive 1 of 4 prime-boost regimens (administered at 0 and 4 months, respectively; ratio of vaccine to placebo recipients, 12:4): priming with a lower-dose SeV-Gag given intranasally, followed by boosting with an adenovirus 35-vectored vaccine encoding HIV-1 Gag, reverse transcriptase, integrase, and Nef (Ad35-GRIN) given intramuscularly (S L A); priming with a higher-dose SeV-Gag given intranasally, followed by boosting with Ad35-GRIN given intramuscularly (S H A); priming with Ad35-GRIN given intramuscularly, followed by boosting with a higher-dose SeV-Gag given intranasally (AS H ); and priming and boosting with a higher-dose SeV-Gag given intranasally (S H S H ).  All vaccine regimens were well tolerated. Gag-specific IFN-γ enzyme-linked immunospot-determined response rates and geometric mean responses were higher (96% and 248 spot-forming units, respectively) in groups primed with SeV-Gag and boosted with Ad35-GRIN (S L A and S H A) than those after a single dose of Ad35-GRIN (56% and 54 spot-forming units, respectively) or SeV-Gag (55% and 59 spot-forming units, respectively); responses persisted for ≥8 months after completion of the prime-boost regimen. Functional CD8 + T-cell responses with greater breadth, magnitude, and frequency in a viral inhibition assay were also seen in the S L A and S H A groups after Ad35-GRIN boost, compared with those who received either vaccine alone. SeV-Gag did not boost T-cell counts in the AS H group. In contrast, the highest Gag-specific antibody titers were seen in the AS H group. Mucosal antibody responses were sporadic.  SeV-Gag primed functional, durable HIV-specific T-cell responses and boosted antibody

  6. Lectins with Anti-HIV Activity: A Review

    Ouafae Akkouh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lectins including flowering plant lectins, algal lectins, cyanobacterial lectins, actinomycete lectin, worm lectins, and the nonpeptidic lectin mimics pradimicins and benanomicins, exhibit anti-HIV activity. The anti-HIV plant lectins include Artocarpus heterophyllus (jacalin lectin, concanavalin A, Galanthus nivalis (snowdrop agglutinin-related lectins, Musa acuminata (banana lectin, Myrianthus holstii lectin, Narcissus pseudonarcissus lectin, and Urtica diocia agglutinin. The anti-HIV algal lectins comprise Boodlea coacta lectin, Griffithsin, Oscillatoria agardhii agglutinin. The anti-HIV cyanobacterial lectins are cyanovirin-N, scytovirin, Microcystis viridis lectin, and microvirin. Actinohivin is an anti-HIV actinomycete lectin. The anti-HIV worm lectins include Chaetopterus variopedatus polychaete marine worm lectin, Serpula vermicularis sea worm lectin, and C-type lectin Mermaid from nematode (Laxus oneistus. The anti-HIV nonpeptidic lectin mimics comprise pradimicins and benanomicins. Their anti-HIV mechanisms are discussed.

  7. Opportunistic infection of HIV/AIDS patients in West Papua

    Witaningrum, A. M.; Khairunisa, S. Q.; Yunifiar, M. Q.; Bramanthi, R.; Rachman, B. E.; Nasronudin

    2018-03-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) had a major impact on health problemin Indonesia. HIV type 1 (HIV-1) epidemic is currently infected with HIV viruses developing rapidly in Indonesia.Papua provinces have the highest prevalence rate of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in Indonesia; however, data on opportunistic infection of HIV-1 are limited. The study using medical records as a research sample was conducted among HIV patients from January 2013 - December 2014 in Sele be Solu hospital among 49 patients. Opportunistic infections commonly occur in HIV-infected patients. The aim of the study was to know theprevalence of opportunistic infection among HIV positive patients in West Papua. Forty-nine HIV-1 patients were collected in Sele be Solu Hospital, West Papua.Opportunistic infection was identified such as tuberculosis, tuberculosis Pulmo, tuberculosis and candidiasis, candidiasis and diarrhea. The clinical sign appeared in HIV infected patients such as itchy, cough and loss weight. The prevalence of opportunistic infection indicated the necessity of monitoring the opportunistic infection of HIV/AIDS patients in Indonesia.

  8. Asymptomatic HIV infection

    ... of HIV/AIDS during which there are no symptoms of HIV infection. During this phase, the immune system in someone with HIV slowly weakens, but the person has no symptoms. How long this phase lasts depends on how ...

  9. HIV and Pulmonary Hypertension

    ... What do I need to know about pulmonary hypertension in connection with HIV? Although pulmonary hypertension and ... Should an HIV patient be tested for pulmonary hypertension? HIV patients know that medical supervision is critical ...

  10. HIV-1 Latency in Monocytes/Macrophages

    Amit Kumar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 targets CD4+ T cells and cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage. HIV pathogenesis is characterized by the depletion of T lymphocytes and by the presence of a population of cells in which latency has been established called the HIV-1 reservoir. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART has significantly improved the life of HIV-1 infected patients. However, complete eradication of HIV-1 from infected individuals is not possible without targeting latent sources of infection. HIV-1 establishes latent infection in resting CD4+ T cells and findings indicate that latency can also be established in the cells of monocyte/macrophage lineage. Monocyte/macrophage lineage includes among others, monocytes, macrophages and brain resident macrophages. These cells are relatively more resistant to apoptosis induced by HIV-1, thus are important stable hideouts of the virus. Much effort has been made in the direction of eliminating HIV-1 resting CD4+ T-cell reservoirs. However, it is impossible to achieve a cure for HIV-1 without considering these neglected latent reservoirs, the cells of monocyte/macrophage lineage. In this review we will describe our current understanding of the mechanism of latency in monocyte/macrophage lineage and how such cells can be specifically eliminated from the infected host.

  11. Vaccinations for Adults with HIV Infection

    ... for example, lack of a functioning spleen, need vac- influenzae type b) cination with Hib. Talk to ... of developing severe complications because of your HIV infection. Meningococcal ACWY (Men- ACWY, MCV4) Yes! MenACWY vaccine ...

  12. Gender Differences in Depressive Symptoms Among HIV-Positive Concordant and Discordant Heterosexual Couples in China.

    Li, Li; Liang, Li-Jung; Lin, Chunqing; Ji, Guoping; Xiao, Yongkang

    2017-03-01

    HIV seropositive individuals and their heterosexual partners/spouses, either seropositive or seronegative, are facing several mental health challenges. The objective of this study was to examine gender differences in depressive symptoms among HIV-positive concordant and HIV-discordant couples. We identified heterosexual couples from participants of a randomized controlled trial conducted in Anhui province, China. A total of 265 couples, comprising 129 HIV+ male/HIV- female couples, 98 HIV- male/HIV+ female couples, and 38 HIV-positive concordant couples, were included in the analyses. We collected data using the computer-assisted personal interview method. We used a linear mixed-effects regression model to assess whether gender differences in depressive symptoms varied across couple types. HIV-positive women reported a significantly higher level of depressive symptoms than their partners/spouses. HIV-positive women with HIV-positive partners had higher depressive symptoms than those with HIV-negative partners, whereas HIV-positive men reported similar levels of depressive symptoms regardless of their partners' serostatus. Among the concordant couples, those with the highest annual family income showed the greatest gender differences in depressive symptoms. We suggest that family interventions should be gender- and couple-type specific and that mental health counseling is warranted not only for HIV-positive women but also for HIV-negative women in an HIV-affected relationship.

  13. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 reservoirs: mechanisms of latency and therapeutic strategies = Reservorios del virus de inmunodeficiencia humana tipo 1 (VIH-1: mecanismos de latencia y estrategias terapéuticas

    Arcia Anaya, Eliuth David

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 can establish a latent infection in different kind of cells, which constitute the cellular reservoirs for the virus and allow its maintenance in the body indefinitely, even in patients with antiretroviral treatment. The main reservoirs of the HIV-1 are resting CD4+ T cells, although cells like monocytes/macrophages, dendritic cells, and other cells like hematopoietic stem cells and mast cells may be reservoirs of the virus. There are different mechanisms that contribute to the establishment and maintenance of latency in those cells, and include transcriptional interference, low availability of transcription factors, chromatin condensation, some microRNA that block viral translation, and so on. The knowledge of these mechanisms is crucial for the development of new drugs that may eliminate the virus from the body and lead to a cure.

  14. Neutralisation of HIV-1 cell-cell spread by human and llama antibodies.

    McCoy, Laura E; Groppelli, Elisabetta; Blanchetot, Christophe; de Haard, Hans; Verrips, Theo; Rutten, Lucy; Weiss, Robin A; Jolly, Clare

    2014-10-02

    Direct cell-cell spread of HIV-1 is a very efficient mode of viral dissemination, with increasing evidence suggesting that it may pose a considerable challenge to controlling viral replication in vivo. Much current vaccine research involves the study of broadly neutralising antibodies (bNabs) that arise during natural infection with the aims of eliciting such antibodies by vaccination or incorporating them into novel therapeutics. However, whether cell-cell spread of HIV-1 can be effectively targeted by bNabs remains unclear, and there is much interest in identifying antibodies capable of efficiently neutralising virus transmitted by cell-cell contact. In this study we have tested a panel of bNAbs for inhibition of cell-cell spread, including some not previously evaluated for inhibition of this mode of HIV-1 transmission. We found that three CD4 binding site antibodies, one from an immunised llama (J3) and two isolated from HIV-1-positive patients (VRC01 and HJ16) neutralised cell-cell spread between T cells, while antibodies specific for glycan moieties (2G12, PG9, PG16) and the MPER (2F5) displayed variable efficacy. Notably, while J3 displayed a high level of potency during cell-cell spread we found that the small size of the llama heavy chain-only variable region (VHH) J3 is not required for efficient neutralisation since recombinant J3 containing a full-length human heavy chain Fc domain was significantly more potent. J3 and J3-Fc also neutralised cell-cell spread of HIV-1 from primary macrophages to CD4+ T cells. In conclusion, while bNabs display variable efficacy at preventing cell-cell spread of HIV-1, we find that some CD4 binding site antibodies can inhibit this mode of HIV-1 dissemination and identify the recently described llama antibody J3 as a particularly potent inhibitor. Effective neutralisation of cell-cell spread between physiologically relevant cell types by J3 and J3-Fc supports the development of VHH J3 nanobodies for therapeutic or

  15. CD4+ T cells with an activated and exhausted phenotype distinguish immunodeficiency during aviremic HIV-2 infection

    Buggert, Marcus; Frederiksen, Juliet Wairimu; Lund, Ole

    2016-01-01

    cells are linked to such outcome. DESIGN: HIV-seronegative (n=25), HIV-1 (n?=?33), HIV-2 (n?=?39, of whom 26 were aviremic), and HIV-1/2 dually (HIV-D) (n?=?13) infected subjects were enrolled from an occupational cohort in Guinea-Bissau. METHODS:: CD4+ T cell differentiation, activation, exhaustion......, senescence, and transcription factors were assessed by polychromatic flow cytometry. Multidimensional clustering bioinformatic tools were used to identify CD4+ T cell subpopulations linked to infection type and disease stage. RESULTS: HIV-2-infected individuals had early- and late-differentiated CD4+ T cell...... clusters with lower activation (CD38+HLA-DR+) and exhaustion (PD-1) than HIV-1 and HIV-D-infected subjects. We also noted that aviremic HIV-2-infected individuals possessed fewer CD4+ T cells with pathological signs compared to other HIV-infected groups. Still, compared to HIV-seronegatives, aviremic HIV-2...

  16. Short communication prevalence of susceptibility to etravirine by genotype and phenotype in samples received for routine HIV type 1 resistance testing in the United States.

    Picchio, Gaston; Vingerhoets, Johan; Tambuyzer, Lotke; Coakley, Eoin; Haddad, Mojgan; Witek, James

    2011-12-01

    Abstract The prevalence of susceptibility to etravirine was investigated among clinical samples submitted for routine clinical testing in the United States using two separate weighted genotypic scoring systems. The presence of etravirine mutations and susceptibility to etravirine by phenotype of clinical samples from HIV-1-infected patients, submitted to Monogram Biosciences for routine resistance testing between June 2008 and June 2009, were analyzed. Susceptibility by genotype was determined using the Monogram and Tibotec etravirine-weighted genotypic scoring systems, with scores of ≤3 and ≤2, respectively, indicating full susceptibility. Susceptibility by phenotype was determined using the PhenoSense HIV assay, with lower and higher clinical cut-offs of 2.9 and 10, respectively. The frequency of individual etravirine mutations and the impact of the K103N mutation on susceptibility to etravirine by genotype were also determined. Among the 5482 samples with ≥1 defined nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) mutations associated with resistance, 67% were classed as susceptible to etravirine by genotype by both scoring systems. Susceptibility to etravirine by phenotype was higher (76%). The proportion of first-generation NNRTI-resistant samples with (n=3598) and without (n=1884) K103N with susceptibility to etravirine by genotype was 77% and 49%, respectively. Among samples susceptible to first-generation NNRTIs (n=9458), >99% of samples were susceptible to etravirine by phenotype (FC <2.9); the remaining samples had FC ≥2.9-10. In summary, among samples submitted for routine clinical testing in the United States, a high proportion of samples with first-generation NNRTI resistance was susceptible to etravirine by genotype and phenotype. A higher proportion of NNRTI-resistant samples with K103N than without was susceptible to etravirine.

  17. Argyrophilic nucleolar organizer region in MIB-1 positive cells in non-small cell lung cancer: clinicopathological significance and survival

    Kobyakov, Dmitriy Sergeevich; Avdalyan, Ashot Merudzhanovich; Lazarev, Aleksandr Fedorovich; Lushnikova, Elena Leonidovna; Nepomnyashchikh, Lev Moiseevich

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the relation between argyrophilic nucleolar organizer region (AgNOR)-associated proteins and clinicopathological parameters and survival in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A total of 207 surgical specimens diagnosed as NSCLC were included in this study. Double-staining procedures were performed using antigen Ki-67 (clone MIB-1) and silver nitrate by immunohistochemical and AgNOR-staining methods. The AgNOR area in MIB-1-positive cells of NSCLC is related to clinicopathological parameters under the TNM (tumor, node, and metastasis) system. The survival of patients with small AgNOR area in MIB-1-positive cells is better than that of patients with large AgNOR area. Molecular, biological (AgNOR area in MIB-1-positive cells), and clinicopathological (greatest tumor dimension, metastases to regional lymph nodes, histology, and differentiation) parameters are independent prognostic factors of NSCLC. The AgNOR area in MIB-1-positive cells is related to clinicopathological parameters and survival in NSCLC

  18. CCN4/WISP-1 positively regulates chondrogenesis by controlling TGF-β3 function.

    Yoshioka, Yuya; Ono, Mitsuaki; Maeda, Azusa; Kilts, Tina M; Hara, Emilio Satoshi; Khattab, Hany; Ueda, Junji; Aoyama, Eriko; Oohashi, Toshitaka; Takigawa, Masaharu; Young, Marian F; Kuboki, Takuo

    2016-02-01

    The CCN family of proteins plays important roles in development and homeostasis of bone and cartilage. To understand the role of CCN4 in chondrogenesis, human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) were transduced with CCN4 adenovirus (adCCN4) or siRNA to CCN4 (siCCN4) in the presence or absence of transforming growth factor-β3 (TGF-β3). Overexpression of CCN4 enhanced TGF-β3-induced SMAD2/3 phosphorylation and chondrogenesis of hBMSCs in an in vitro assay using a micromass culture model. On the other hand, knockdown of CCN4 inhibited the TGF-β3-induced SMAD2/3 phosphorylation and synthesis of cartilage matrix in micromass cultures of hBMSCs. Immunoprecipitation-western blot analysis revealed that CCN4 bound to TGF-β3 and regulated the ability of TGF-β3 to bind to hBMSCs. In vivo analysis confirmed there was a significant decrease in the gene expression levels of chondrocyte markers in cartilage samples from Ccn4-knock out (KO) mice, compared to those from wild type (WT) control. In order to investigate the regenerative properties of the articular cartilage in Ccn4-KO mice, articular cartilage defects were surgically performed in the knee joints of young mice, and the results showed that the cartilage was partially repaired in WT mice, but not in Ccn4-KO mice. In conclusion, these results show, for the first time, that CCN4 has a positive influence on chondrogenic differentiation by modulating the effects of TGF-β3. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. HIV-1 and the macrophage

    Bol, Sebastiaan M.; Cobos-Jimenez, Viviana; Kootstra, Neeltje A.; van 't Wout, Angelique B.

    2011-01-01

    Macrophages and CD4(+) T cells are natural target cells for HIV-1, and both cell types contribute to the establishment of the viral reservoir that is responsible for continuous residual virus replication during antiretroviral therapy and viral load rebound upon treatment interruption. Scientific

  20. Molecular HIV screening.

    Bourlet, Thomas; Memmi, Meriam; Saoudin, Henia; Pozzetto, Bruno

    2013-09-01

    Nuclear acid testing is more and more used for the diagnosis of infectious diseases. This paper focuses on the use of molecular tools for HIV screening. The term 'screening' will be used under the meaning of first-line HIV molecular techniques performed on a routine basis, which excludes HIV molecular tests designed to confirm or infirm a newly discovered HIV-seropositive patient or other molecular tests performed for the follow-up of HIV-infected patients. The following items are developed successively: i) presentation of the variety of molecular tools used for molecular HIV screening, ii) use of HIV molecular tools for the screening of blood products, iii) use of HIV molecular tools for the screening of organs and tissue from human origin, iv) use of HIV molecular tools in medically assisted procreation and v) use of HIV molecular tools in neonates from HIV-infected mothers.

  1. Embryonic and foetal Islet-1 positive cells in human hearts are also positive to c-Kit

    C. Serradifalco

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available During embryogenesis, the mammalian heart develops from a primitive heart tube originating from two bilateral primary heart fields located in the lateral plate mesoderm. Cells belongings to the pre-cardiac mesoderm will differentiate into early cardiac progenitors, which express early transcription factors which are also common to the Isl-1 positive cardiac progenitor cells isolated from the developing pharyngeal mesoderm and the foetal and post-natal mice hearts. A second population of cardiac progenitor cells positive to c-Kit has been abundantly isolated from adult hearts. Until now, these two populations have been considered two different sets of progenitor cells present in the heart in different stages of an individual life. In the present study we collected embryonic, foetal and infant hearts, and we tested the hypotheses that c-Kit positive cells, usually isolated from the adult heart, are also present in the intra-uterine life and persist in the adult heart after birth, and that foetal Isl-1 positive cells are also positive to c-Kit. Using immunohistochemistry we studied the temporal distribution of Isl-1 positive and c-Kit/CD105 double positive cells, and by immunofluorescence and confocal analysis we studied the co-localization of c-Kit and Isl-1 positive cells. The results indicated that cardiomyocytes and interstitial cells were positive for c-Kit from the 9th to the 19th gestational week, that cells positive for both c-Kit and CD105 appeared in the interstitium at the 17th gestational week and persisted in the postnatal age, and that the Isl-1 positive cells were a subset of the c-Kit positive population.

  2. PINK1 positively regulates IL-1β-mediated signaling through Tollip and IRAK1 modulation

    Lee Hyun Jung

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parkinson disease (PD is characterized by a slow, progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantianigra. The cause of neuronal loss in PD is not well understood, but several genetic loci, including PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1, have been linked to early-onset autosomal recessive forms of familial PD. Neuroinflammation greatly contributes to PD neuronal degeneration and pathogenesis. IL-1 is one of the principal cytokines that regulates various immune and inflammatory responses via the activation of the transcription factors NF-κB and activating protein-1. Despite the close relationship between PD and neuroinflammation, the functional roles of PD-linked genes during inflammatory processes remain poorly understood. Methods To explore the functional roles of PINK1 in response to IL-1β stimulation, HEK293 cells, mouse embryonic fibroblasts derived from PINK1-null (PINK1−/− and control (PINK1+/+ mice, and 293 IL-1RI cells stably expressing type 1 IL-1 receptor were used. Immunoprecipitation and western blot analysis were performed to detect protein–protein interaction and protein ubiquitination. To confirm the effect of PINK1 on NF-κB activation, NF-κB-dependent firefly luciferase reporter assay was conducted. Results PINK1 specifically binds two components of the IL-1-mediated signaling cascade, Toll-interacting protein (Tollip and IL-1 receptor-associated kinase 1 (IRAK1. The association of PINK1 with Tollip, a negative regulator of IL-1β signaling, increases upon IL-1β stimulation, which then facilitates the dissociation of Tollip from IRAK1 as well as the assembly of the IRAK1–TNF receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6 complex. PINK1 also enhances Lys63-linked polyubiquitination of IRAK1, an essential modification of recruitment of NF-κB essential modulator and subsequent IκB kinase activation, and increases formation of the intermediate signalosome including IRAK1, TRAF6, and

  3. Molecular Characterization of Notch1 Positive Progenitor Cells in the Developing Retina.

    Galina Dvoriantchikova

    Full Text Available The oscillatory expression of Notch signaling in neural progenitors suggests that both repressors and activators of neural fate specification are expressed in the same progenitors. Since Notch1 regulates photoreceptor differentiation and contributes (together with Notch3 to ganglion cell fate specification, we hypothesized that genes encoding photoreceptor and ganglion cell fate activators would be highly expressed in Notch1 receptor-bearing (Notch1+ progenitors, directing these cells to differentiate into photoreceptors or into ganglion cells when Notch1 activity is diminished. To identify these genes, we used microarray analysis to study expression profiles of whole retinas and isolated from them Notch1+ cells at embryonic day 14 (E14 and postnatal day 0 (P0. To isolate Notch1+ cells, we utilized immunomagnetic cell separation. We also used Notch3 knockout (Notch3KO animals to evaluate the contribution of Notch3 signaling in ganglion cell differentiation. Hierarchical clustering of 6,301 differentially expressed genes showed that Notch1+ cells grouped near the same developmental stage retina cluster. At E14, we found higher expression of repressors (Notch1, Hes5 and activators (Dll3, Atoh7, Otx2 of neuronal differentiation in Notch1+ cells compared to whole retinal cell populations. At P0, Notch1, Hes5, and Dll1 expression was significantly higher in Notch1+ cells than in whole retinas. Otx2 expression was more than thirty times higher than Atoh7 expression in Notch1+ cells at P0. We also observed that retinas of wild type animals had only 14% (P < 0.05 more ganglion cells compared to Notch3KO mice. Since this number is relatively small and Notch1 has been shown to contribute to ganglion cell fate specification, we suggested that Notch1 signaling may play a more significant role in RGC development than the Notch3 signaling cascade. Finally, our findings suggest that Notch1+ progenitors--since they heavily express both pro-ganglion cell (Atoh7

  4. HIV Structural Database

    SRD 102 HIV Structural Database (Web, free access)   The HIV Protease Structural Database is an archive of experimentally determined 3-D structures of Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 (HIV-1), Human Immunodeficiency Virus 2 (HIV-2) and Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV) Proteases and their complexes with inhibitors or products of substrate cleavage.

  5. HIV Viral Load

    ... PF4 Antibody Hepatitis A Testing Hepatitis B Testing Hepatitis C Testing HER2/neu Herpes Testing High-sensitivity C-reactive Protein (hs-CRP) Histamine Histone Antibody HIV Antibody and HIV Antigen (p24) HIV Antiretroviral Drug Resistance Testing, Genotypic HIV Viral Load HLA Testing HLA- ...

  6. National HIV Testing Day

    Dr. Kevin A. Fenton, Director of CDC's National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, discusses National HIV Testing Day, an annual observance which raises awareness of the importance of knowing one's HIV status and encourages at-risk individuals to get an HIV test.

  7. Eliminating Perinatal HIV Transmission

    In this podcast, CDC’s Dr. Steve Nesheim discusses perinatal HIV transmission, including the importance of preventing HIV among women, preconception care, and timely HIV testing of the mother. Dr. Nesheim also introduces the revised curriculum Eliminating Perinatal HIV Transmission intended for faculty of OB/GYN and pediatric residents and nurse midwifery students.

  8. Human endogenous retrovirus K Gag coassembles with HIV-1 Gag and reduces the release efficiency and infectivity of HIV-1.

    Monde, Kazuaki; Contreras-Galindo, Rafael; Kaplan, Mark H; Markovitz, David M; Ono, Akira

    2012-10-01

    Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs), which are remnants of ancestral retroviruses integrated into the human genome, are defective in viral replication. Because activation of HERV-K and coexpression of this virus with HIV-1 have been observed during HIV-1 infection, it is conceivable that HERV-K could affect HIV-1 replication, either by competition or by cooperation, in cells expressing both viruses. In this study, we found that the release efficiency of HIV-1 Gag was 3-fold reduced upon overexpression of HERV-K(CON) Gag. In addition, we observed that in cells expressing Gag proteins of both viruses, HERV-K(CON) Gag colocalized with HIV-1 Gag at the plasma membrane. Furthermore, HERV-K(CON) Gag was found to coassemble with HIV-1 Gag, as demonstrated by (i) processing of HERV-K(CON) Gag by HIV-1 protease in virions, (ii) coimmunoprecipitation of virion-associated HERV-K(CON) Gag with HIV-1 Gag, and (iii) rescue of a late-domain-defective HERV-K(CON) Gag by wild-type (WT) HIV-1 Gag. Myristylation-deficient HERV-K(CON) Gag localized to nuclei, suggesting cryptic nuclear trafficking of HERV-K Gag. Notably, unlike WT HERV-K(CON) Gag, HIV-1 Gag failed to rescue myristylation-deficient HERV-K(CON) Gag to the plasma membrane. Efficient colocalization and coassembly of HIV-1 Gag and HERV-K Gag also required nucleocapsid (NC). These results provide evidence that HIV-1 Gag heteromultimerizes with HERV-K Gag at the plasma membrane, presumably through NC-RNA interaction. Intriguingly, HERV-K Gag overexpression reduced not only HIV-1 release efficiency but also HIV-1 infectivity in a myristylation- and NC-dependent manner. Altogether, these results indicate that Gag proteins of endogenous retroviruses can coassemble with HIV-1 Gag and modulate the late phase of HIV-1 replication.

  9. Diagnosis, antiretroviral therapy, and emergence of resistance to antiretroviral agents in HIV-2 infection: a review

    Maia Hightower

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 and type 2 (HIV-2 are the causative agents of AIDS. HIV-2 is prevalent at moderate to high rates in West African countries, such as Senegal, Guinea, Gambia, and Cape Verde. Diagnosis of HIV-2 is made with a positive HIV-1/HIV-2 ELISA or simple/rapid assay, followed by one or two confirmatory tests specific for HIV-2. Following CD4+ T cell counts, HIV-2 viral burden and clinical signs and symptoms of immunodeficiency are beneficial in monitoring HIV-2 disease progression. Although non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors are ineffective in treating HIV-2, nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and protease inhibitors can be effective in dual and triple antiretroviral regimens. Their use can decrease HIV-2 viral load, increase CD4+ T cell counts and improve AIDS-related symptoms. HIV-2 resistance to various nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and protease inhibitors, including zidovudine, lamivudine, ritonavir and indinavir, has been identified in some HIV-2 infected patients on antiretroviral therapy. The knowledge of HIV-2 peculiarities, when compared to HIV-1, is crucial to helping diagnose and guide the clinician in the choice of the initial antiretroviral regimen and for monitoring therapy success.

  10. Cyclophilin B enhances HIV-1 infection

    DeBoer, Jason; Madson, Christian J. [Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Creighton University, Omaha, NE (United States); Belshan, Michael, E-mail: michaelbelshan@creighton.edu [Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Creighton University, Omaha, NE (United States); The Nebraska Center for Virology, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States)

    2016-02-15

    Cyclophilin B (CypB) is a member of the immunophilin family and intracellular chaperone. It predominantly localizes to the ER, but also contains a nuclear localization signal and is secreted from cells. CypB has been shown to interact with the Gag protein of human immunodeficiency type 1 (HIV-1). Several proteomic and genetic studies identified it as a potential factor involved in HIV replication. Herein, we show that over-expression of CypB enhances HIV infection by increasing nuclear import of viral DNA. This enhancement was unaffected by cyclosporine treatment and requires the N-terminus of the protein. The N-terminus contains an ER leader sequence, putative nuclear localization signal, and is required for secretion. Deletion of the N-terminus resulted in mislocalization from the ER and suppression of HIV infection. Passive transfer experiments showed that secreted CypB did not impact HIV infection. Combined, these experiments show that intracellular CypB modulates a pathway of HIV nuclear import. - Highlights: • CypB has been identified in several proteomic studies of HIV-1 infection. • CypB expression is upregulated in activated and infected T-cells. • Over-expression of CypB enhances HIV nuclear import and infection. • The N-terminus of CypB is necessary for these effects.

  11. Cyclophilin B enhances HIV-1 infection

    DeBoer, Jason; Madson, Christian J.; Belshan, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Cyclophilin B (CypB) is a member of the immunophilin family and intracellular chaperone. It predominantly localizes to the ER, but also contains a nuclear localization signal and is secreted from cells. CypB has been shown to interact with the Gag protein of human immunodeficiency type 1 (HIV-1). Several proteomic and genetic studies identified it as a potential factor involved in HIV replication. Herein, we show that over-expression of CypB enhances HIV infection by increasing nuclear import of viral DNA. This enhancement was unaffected by cyclosporine treatment and requires the N-terminus of the protein. The N-terminus contains an ER leader sequence, putative nuclear localization signal, and is required for secretion. Deletion of the N-terminus resulted in mislocalization from the ER and suppression of HIV infection. Passive transfer experiments showed that secreted CypB did not impact HIV infection. Combined, these experiments show that intracellular CypB modulates a pathway of HIV nuclear import. - Highlights: • CypB has been identified in several proteomic studies of HIV-1 infection. • CypB expression is upregulated in activated and infected T-cells. • Over-expression of CypB enhances HIV nuclear import and infection. • The N-terminus of CypB is necessary for these effects.

  12. The cytosolic exonuclease TREX1 inhibits the innate immune response to HIV-1

    Yan, Nan; Regalado-Magdos, Ashton D.; Stiggelbout, Bart; Lee-Kirsch, Min Ae; Lieberman, Judy

    2010-01-01

    Viral infection triggers innate immune sensors to produce type I interferons (IFN). However, HIV infection of T cells and macrophages does not trip these alarms. How HIV avoids activating nucleic acid sensors is unknown. The cytosolic exonuclease TREX1 suppressed IFN triggered by HIV. In Trex1−/− mouse cells and human CD4+ T cells and macrophages in which TREX1 was inhibited by RNA interference, cytosolic HIV DNA accumulated, and HIV infection induced type I IFN that inhibited HIV replication and spreading. TREX1 bound to cytosolic HIV DNA and digested excess HIV DNA that would otherwise activate IFN expression via a TBK1, STING and IRF3 dependent pathway. HIV-stimulated IFN production in cells deficient in TREX1 did not involve known nucleic acid sensors. PMID:20871604

  13. Seroepidemiology of high-risk HPV in HIV-negative and HIV-infected MSM: the H2M study

    Mooij, Sofie H.; van der Klis, Fiona R. M.; van der Sande, Marianne A. B.; Schepp, Rutger M.; Speksnijder, Arjen G. C. L.; Bogaards, Johannes A.; de Melker, Hester E.; de Vries, Henry J. C.; Snijders, Peter J. F.; van der Loeff, Maarten F. Schim

    2013-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM), in particular HIV-infected MSM, are at increased risk for diseases related to human papilloma virus (HPV). Our goal was to assess the effect of HIV status on the presence of type-specific antibodies against seven high-risk HPV types in HPV-unvaccinated MSM. Moreover,

  14. Processing sites in the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 Gag-Pro-Pol precursor are cleaved by the viral protease at different rates

    Lindquist Jeffrey N

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We have examined the kinetics of processing of the HIV-1 Gag-Pro-Pol precursor in an in vitro assay with mature protease added in trans. The processing sites were cleaved at different rates to produce distinct intermediates. The initial cleavage occurred at the p2/NC site. Intermediate cleavages occurred at similar rates at the MA/CA and RT/IN sites, and to a lesser extent at sites upstream of RT. Late cleavages occurred at the sites flanking the protease (PR domain, suggesting sequestering of these sites. We observed paired intermediates indicative of half- cleavage of RT/RH site, suggesting that the RT domain in Gag-Pro-Pol was in a dimeric form under these assay conditions. These results clarify our understanding of the processing kinetics of the Gag-Pro-Pol precursor and suggest regulated cleavage. Our results further suggest that early dimerization of the PR and RT domains may serve as a regulatory element to influence the kinetics of processing within the Pol domain.

  15. Processing sites in the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Gag-Pro-Pol precursor are cleaved by the viral protease at different rates.

    Pettit, Steve C; Lindquist, Jeffrey N; Kaplan, Andrew H; Swanstrom, Ronald

    2005-11-01

    We have examined the kinetics of processing of the HIV-1 Gag-Pro-Pol precursor in an in vitro assay with mature protease added in trans. The processing sites were cleaved at different rates to produce distinct intermediates. The initial cleavage occurred at the p2/NC site. Intermediate cleavages occurred at similar rates at the MA/CA and RT/IN sites, and to a lesser extent at sites upstream of RT. Late cleavages occurred at the sites flanking the protease (PR) domain, suggesting sequestering of these sites. We observed paired intermediates indicative of half- cleavage of RT/RH site, suggesting that the RT domain in Gag-Pro-Pol was in a dimeric form under these assay conditions. These results clarify our understanding of the processing kinetics of the Gag-Pro-Pol precursor and suggest regulated cleavage. Our results further suggest that early dimerization of the PR and RT domains may serve as a regulatory element to influence the kinetics of processing within the Pol domain.

  16. Towards discovering dual functional inhibitors against both wild type and K103N mutant HIV-1 reverse transcriptases: molecular docking and QSAR studies on 4,1-benzoxazepinone analogues

    Zhang, Zhenshan; Zheng, Mingyue; Du, Li; Shen, Jianhua; Luo, Xiaomin; Zhu, Weiliang; Jiang, Hualiang

    2006-05-01

    To find useful information for discovering dual functional inhibitors against both wild type (WT) and K103N mutant reverse transcriptases (RTs) of HIV-1, molecular docking and 3D-QSAR approaches were applied to a set of twenty-five 4,1-benzoxazepinone analogues of efavirenz (SUSTIVA®), some of them are active against the two RTs. 3D-QSAR models were constructed, based on their binding conformations determined by molecular docking, with r 2 cv values ranging from 0.656 to 0.834 for CoMFA and CoMSIA, respectively. The models were then validated to be highly predictive and extrapolative by inhibitors in two test sets with different molecular skeletons. Furthermore, CoMFA models were found to be well matched with the binding sites of both WT and K103N RTs. Finally, a reasonable pharmacophore model of 4,1-benzoxazepinones were established. The application of the model not only successfully differentiated the experimentally determined inhibitors from non-inhibitors, but also discovered two potent inhibitors from the compound database SPECS. On the basis of both the 3D-QSAR and pharmacophore models, new clues for discovering and designing potent dual functional drug leads against HIV-1 were proposed: (i) adopting positively charged aliphatic group at the cis-substituent of C3; (ii) reducing the electronic density at the position of O4; (iii) positioning a small branched aliphatic group at position of C5; (iv) using the negatively charged bulky substituents at position of C7.

  17. Bonafide, type-specific human papillomavirus persistence among HIV-positive pregnant women: predictive value for cytological abnormalities, a longitudinal cohort study

    Angela RI Meyrelles

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the rate of human papillomavirus (HPV persistence, associated risk factors, and predictors of cytological alteration outcomes in a cohort of human immunodeficiency virus-infected pregnant women over an 18-month period. HPV was typed through L1 gene sequencing in cervical smears collected during gestation and at 12 months after delivery. Outcomes were defined as nonpersistence (clearance of the HPV in the 2nd sample, re-infection (detection of different types of HPV in the 2 samples, and type-specific HPV persistence (the same HPV type found in both samples. An unfavourable cytological outcome was considered when the second exam showed progression to squamous intraepithelial lesion or high squamous intraepithelial lesion. Ninety patients were studied. HPV DNA persistence occurred in 50% of the cases composed of type-specific persistence (30% or re-infection (20%. A low CD4+T-cell count at entry was a risk factor for type-specific, re-infection, or HPV DNA persistence. The odds ratio (OR was almost three times higher in the type-specific group when compared with the re-infection group (OR = 2.8; 95% confidence interval: 0.43-22.79. Our findings show that bonafide (type-specific HPV persistence is a stronger predictor for the development of cytological abnormalities, highlighting the need for HPV typing as opposed to HPV DNA testing in the clinical setting.

  18. National HIV Testing Day

    2011-06-09

    Dr. Kevin A. Fenton, Director of CDC's National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, discusses National HIV Testing Day, an annual observance which raises awareness of the importance of knowing one's HIV status and encourages at-risk individuals to get an HIV test.  Created: 6/9/2011 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 6/9/2011.

  19. Eliminating Perinatal HIV Transmission

    2012-11-26

    In this podcast, CDC’s Dr. Steve Nesheim discusses perinatal HIV transmission, including the importance of preventing HIV among women, preconception care, and timely HIV testing of the mother. Dr. Nesheim also introduces the revised curriculum Eliminating Perinatal HIV Transmission intended for faculty of OB/GYN and pediatric residents and nurse midwifery students.  Created: 11/26/2012 by Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention.   Date Released: 11/26/2012.

  20. The involvement of plasmacytoid cells in HIV infection and pathogenesis.

    Aiello, Alessandra; Giannessi, Flavia; Percario, Zulema A; Affabris, Elisabetta

    2018-04-01

    Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are a unique dendritic cell subset that are specialized in type I interferon (IFN) production. pDCs are key players in the antiviral immune response and serve as bridge between innate and adaptive immunity. Although pDCs do not represent the main reservoir of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), they are a crucial subset in HIV infection as they influence viral transmission, target cell infection and antigen presentation. pDCs act as inflammatory and immunosuppressive cells, thus contributing to HIV disease progression. This review provides a state of art analysis of the interactions between HIV and pDCs and their potential roles in HIV transmission, chronic immune activation and immunosuppression. A thorough understanding of the roles of pDCs in HIV infection will help to improve therapeutic strategies to fight HIV infection, and will further increase our knowledge on this important immune cell subset. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Care of HIV-exposed and HIV-infected neonates

    However, further reduction in MTCT may be possible if newborns at high risk of acquiring HIV ... infants of breastfeeding mothers with newly diagnosed HIV infection, dual NVP/ .... birth HIV DNA PCR testing for HIV-exposed low birth weight.

  2. Side Effects of HIV Medicines: HIV and Diabetes

    ... Children and Adolescents HIV and Women HIV and Gay and Bisexual Men HIV and Older Adults HIV ... throughout the body. A hormone called insulin helps move the glucose into the cells. Once in the ...

  3. Do Customers Flee From HIV? A Survey of HIV Stigma and Its Potential Economic Consequences on Small Businesses in Tshwane (Pretoria), South Africa.

    Chao, Li-Wei; Szrek, Helena; Leite, Rui; Ramlagan, Shandir; Peltzer, Karl

    2017-01-01

    HIV stigma and discrimination affect care-seeking behavior and may also affect entrepreneurial activity. We interview 2382 individuals in Pretoria, South Africa, and show that respondents believe that businesses with known HIV+ workers may lose up to half of their customers, although the impact depends on the type of business. Survey respondents' fear of getting HIV from consuming everyday products sold by the business-despite a real infection risk of zero-was a major factor driving perceived decline in customers, especially among food businesses. Respondents' perceptions of the decline in overall life satisfaction when one gets sick from HIV and the respondent's dislike of people with HIV were also important predictors of potential customer exit. We suggest policy mechanisms that could improve the earnings potential of HIV+ workers: reducing public health scare tactics that exacerbate irrational fear of HIV infection risk and enriching public health education about HIV and ARVs to improve perceptions about people with HIV.

  4. Increased visfatin levels are associated with higher disease activity in anti-Jo-1-positive myositis patients.

    Hulejová, Hana; Kryštůfková, Olga; Mann, Heřman; Klein, Martin; Pavlíčková, Klára; Zámečník, Josef; Vencovský, Jiří; Šenolt, Ladislav

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate serum levels of visfatin in anti-Jo-1-positive myositis patients, its expression in muscle tissue and to investigate potential relationships between visfatin, B-cell activating factor of the TNF family (BAFF), disease activity and anti-Jo-1 autoantibody levels. Serum levels of visfatin and BAFF were measured in 38 anti-Jo-1 positive myositis patients and 35 healthy subjects. Disease activity was evaluated by myositis disease activity assessment tool (MYOACT) using visual analogue scales (VAS) and by serum muscle enzymes. Visfatin expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in muscle tissue of myositis patients (n=10) and compared with non-inflammatory control muscle tissue samples from patients with myasthenia gravis (n=5). Serum visfatin and BAFF levels were significantly higher in myositis patients compared to healthy subjects and were associated with clinical muscle activity assessed by VAS. Only serum BAFF levels, but not visfatin levels, positively correlated with muscle enzyme concentrations and anti-Jo1 antibody levels. There was a positive correlation between visfatin and BAFF serum levels in myositis patients but a negative correlation was observed in healthy subjects. Visfatin expression was up-regulated in endomysial and perimysial inflammatory infiltrates of muscle tissue from myositis patients. Up-regulation of visfatin in myositis muscle tissue and an association between increased visfatin levels and muscle disease activity evaluated by MYOACT in anti-Jo-1 positive myositis patients could support possible role of visfatin in the pathogenesis of myositis.

  5. ANALYSIS OF HIV SUBTYPES AND CLINICAL STAGING OF HIV DISEASE/AIDS IN EAST JAVA

    Yulia Ismail

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1 known to cause Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS disease are divided into several subtypes (A, B, C, D, F, G, H, J, K and Circulating Recombinant Form (CRF. Different characteristics of subtype of the virus and its interaction with the host can affect the severity of the disease. This study was to analyze HIV-1 subtypes circulating in HIV/AIDS patients from the East Java region descriptively and to analyze its relationship with clinical stadiums of HIV/AIDS. Information from this research was expected to complement the data of mocular epidemiology of HIV in Indonesia. This study utilited blood plasma from patients who had been tested to be HIV positive who sected treatment to or were reffered to the Intermediate Care Unit of Infectious Disease (UPIPI Dr. Soetomo Hospital Surabaya from various area representing the East Java regions. Plasma was separated from blood samples by centrifugation for use in the the molecular biology examination including RNA extraction, nested PCR using specific primer for HIV gp120 env gene region, DNA purifying, DNA sequencing, and homology and phylogenetic analysis. Based on the nucleotide sequence of the HIV gp120 env gene, it was found that the most dominant subtypes in East Java were in one group of Circulating Recombinant Form (CRF that is CRF01_AE, CRF33_01B and CRF34_01B which was also found in Southeast Asia. In the phylogenetic tree, most of HIV samples (30 samples are in the same branch with CRF01_AE, CRF33_01B and CRF34_01B, except for one sample (HIV40 which is in the same branch with subtype B. HIV subtypes are associated with clinical stadiums (disease severity since samples from different stages of HIV disease have the same subtype.

  6. Occurrence of transmitted HIV-1 drug resistance among Drug-naïve pregnant women in selected HIV-care centres in Ghana.

    Martin-Odoom, Alexander; Adiku, Theophilus; Delgado, Elena; Lartey, Margaret; Ampofo, William K

    2017-03-01

    Access to antiretroviral therapy in Ghana has been scaled up across the country over the last decade. This study sought to determine the occurrence of transmitted HIV-1 drug resistance in pregnant HIV-1 positive women yet to initiate antiretroviral therapy at selected HIV Care Centres in Ghana. Plasma specimens from twenty-six (26) HIV seropositive pregnant women who were less than 28weeks pregnant with their first pregnancy and ART naïve were collected from selected HIV care centres in three (3) regions in Ghana. Genotypic testing was done for the reverse transcriptase gene and the sequences generated were analyzed for HIV-1 drug resistance mutations using the Stanford University HIV Drug Resistance Database. Resistance mutations associated with the reverse transcriptase gene were detected in 4 (15.4%) of the participants. At least one major drug resistance mutation in the reverse transcriptase gene was found in 3 (11.5%) of the women. The detection of transmitted HIV-1 drug resistance in this drug-naïve group in two regional HIV care sites is an indication of the need for renewed action in monitoring the emergence of transmitted HIV-1 drug resistance in Ghana. None declared.

  7. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Full Text Available ... Drugs and HIV Learn the Link - Drugs and HIV Email Facebook Twitter 2005 –Ongoing Behaviors associated with ... Send the Message . Get the Facts What are HIV and AIDS? HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) is the ...

  8. Global HIV/AIDS Epidemic

    ... Policy The Global HIV/AIDS Epidemic The Global HIV/AIDS Epidemic Published: Nov 29, 2017 Facebook Twitter ... 2001-FY 2018 Request The Global Response to HIV/AIDS International efforts to combat HIV began in ...

  9. HIV/AIDS in Women

    HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. It harms your immune system by destroying the white blood cells ... It is the final stage of infection with HIV. Not everyone with HIV develops AIDS. HIV often ...

  10. HIV / AIDS: An Unequal Burden

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV / AIDS: An Unequal Burden Past Issues / Summer 2009 ... high-risk category, emphasizes Dr. Cargill. Photo: iStock HIV and Pregnancy Are there ways to help HIV- ...

  11. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Full Text Available ... contracting or transmitting HIV/AIDS or other infectious diseases. Research Reports: HIV/AIDS : Explores the link between drug misuse and HIV/AIDS, populations most at risk, trends in HIV/AIDS, and ...

  12. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Full Text Available ... help us Send the Message . Get the Facts What are HIV and AIDS? HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) ... hiv-aids-101/statistics/ . Reference Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, National ...

  13. HIV/AIDS, HPV and Anal Cancer

    Wang, Chia-ching J.; Sparano, Joseph; Palefsky, Joel M.

    2016-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Anal cancer is an increasingly common non-AIDS-defining cancer among HIV-infected individuals. It is associated with human papillomavirus (HPV), the most common sexually transmitted infectious agent. The 14 oncogenic types of HPV are causally associated with 5–10% of all cancers, notably anogenital cancers. HPV16 is the most common genotype detected in about 70% of anal cancers. The HPV types detected in anal cancer are included in the 9-valent vaccine. HPV vaccines have demonstrated efficacy in reducing anal precancerous lesions in HIV-infected individuals. The standard treatment for anal cancer has been fluorouracil (5-FU) and mitomycin (or cisplatin) as chemotherapy agents plus radiation, which can also be effectively used for the HIV-infected patients. Continued studies will be needed to test new treatment strategies in HIV-infected patients with anal cancer to determine which treatment protocols provide the best therapeutic index. PMID:27889034

  14. Current scenario of opportunistic and co-infections in HIV-infected individuals at a tertiary care hospital in Mumbai, India.

    Chavan, V R; Chaudhary, V; Ahir, P; Mehta, R; Mavani, P S; Kerkar, C; Pramanik, J M

    2015-01-01

    An update on opportunistic infections/co-infections (OIs/CIs) is essential to understand the success of highly active antiretroviral therapy offered by the government agencies in reducing AIDS-related OIs/CIs. Hence, the present study aimed to evaluate the frequency of OIs/CIs in HIV-positive individuals at a tertiary care hospital in Mumbai. Its' association with CD4 counts, anti-retroviral treatment and on HIV transmission was also determined. An observational study was designed to evaluate different OIs/CIs in individuals, who tested positive for HIV infection at the ICTC/Shakti Clinic of Seth G.S. Medical College and KEM Hospital, Mumbai. Data analysis was done with the use of SPSS software (version 19.0, SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA). P value was considered significant if it is < 0.05. Heterosexual contact was the major route of transmission among the enrolled 185 individuals. Ninety (48.06%) HIV-infected individuals were with OIs/CIs. Tuberculosis (TB) was the most common OI (68.8%). Other CIs noted were Herpes zoster, syphilis, hepatitis C and B, malaria, typhoid and dengue. The median CD4 count in HIV-positive individuals with TB was 337 ± 248 cells/μl, and 67.7% of individuals with OIs/CIs had low CD4 counts (<400 cells/μl). Individuals in 31-40 years of age group had significantly (P = 0.01) more OIs/CIs. More (53.7%) spouse/children of HIV-positive individuals without OIs/CIs were HIV-1 positive. Low proportions of individuals with or without OIs/CIs were on ART. Nearly half of HIV-infected individuals were with OIs/CIs. Initiation of free ART programme since 2004 possibly associated with the type and rate of OIs/CIs. Tuberculosis and multiple OIs/CIs were associated with low CD4 counts. Infection was high in 31-40 years age group. Most of the spouses of individuals without OIs/CIs were HIV positive, indirectly indicates lack of condom use or lack of awareness of condom use.

  15. Genotypic evaluation of etravirine sensitivity of clinical human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) isolates carrying resistance mutations to nevirapine and efavirenz.

    Oumar, A A; Jnaoui, K; Kabamba-Mukadi, B; Yombi, J C; Vandercam, B; Goubau, P; Ruelle, J

    2010-01-01

    Etravirine is a second-generation non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) with a pattern of resistance mutations quite distinct from the current NNRTIs. We collected all routine samples of HIV-1 patients followed in the AIDS reference laboratory of UCLouvain (in 2006 and 2007) carrying resistance-associated mutations to nevirapine (NVP) or efavirenz (EFV). The sensitivity to Etravirine was estimated using three different drug resistance algorithms: ANRS (July 2008), IAS (December 2008) and Stanford (November 2008). We also verified whether the mutations described as resistance mutations are not due to virus polymorphisms by the study of 58 genotypes of NNRTI-naive patients. Sixty one samples harboured resistance to NVP and EFV: 41/61 had at least one resistance mutation to Etravirine according to ANRS-IAS algorithms; 42/61 samples had at least one resistance mutation to Etravirine according to the Stanford algorithm. 48 and 53 cases were fully sensitive to Etravirine according to ANRS-IAS and Stanford algorithms, respectively. Three cases harboured more than three mutations and presented a pattern of high-degree resistance to Etravirine according to ANRS-IAS algorithm, while one case harboured more than three mutations and presented high degree resistance to Etravirine according to the Stanford algorithm. The V1061 and V179D mutations were more frequent in the ARV-naive group than in the NNRTI-experienced one. According to the currently available algorithms, Etravirine can still be used in the majority of patients with virus showing resistance to NVP and/or EFV, if a combination of other active drugs is included.

  16. Serodiagnostic profiles of HIV and HIV pathogenesis in vivo

    Goudsmit, J.; Lange, J. M.; Smit, L.; Bakker, M.; Klaver, B.; Danner, S. A.; Coutinho, R. A.

    1988-01-01

    Different stages of HIV infection are marked by expression of HIV genes, production of HIV antibodies, formation of antigen/antibody complexes and clearance of such complexes. Transient HIV antigenemia appearing generally 6-8 weeks prior to HIV antibody (HIV-Ab) seroconversion and lasting 3-4 months

  17. Upper Gastrointestinal Symptoms Predictive of Candida Esophagitis and Erosive Esophagitis in HIV and Non-HIV Patients

    Takahashi, Yuta; Nagata, Naoyoshi; Shimbo, Takuro; Nishijima, Takeshi; Watanabe, Koji; Aoki, Tomonori; Sekine, Katsunori; Okubo, Hidetaka; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Sakurai, Toshiyuki; Yokoi, Chizu; Mimori, Akio; Oka, Shinichi; Uemura, Naomi; Akiyama, Junichi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Upper gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms are common in both HIV and non-HIV-infected patients, but the difference of GI symptom severity between 2 groups remains unknown. Candida esophagitis and erosive esophagitis, 2 major types of esophagitis, are seen in both HIV and non-HIV-infected patients, but differences in GI symptoms that are predictive of esophagitis between 2 groups remain unknown. We aimed to determine whether GI symptoms differ between HIV-infected and non-HIV-infected patients, and identify specific symptoms of candida esophagitis and erosive esophagitis between 2 groups. We prospectively enrolled 6011 patients (HIV, 430; non-HIV, 5581) who underwent endoscopy and completed questionnaires. Nine upper GI symptoms (epigastric pain, heartburn, acid regurgitation, hunger cramps, nausea, early satiety, belching, dysphagia, and odynophagia) were evaluated using a 7-point Likert scale. Associations between esophagitis and symptoms were analyzed by the multivariate logistic regression model adjusted for age, sex, and proton pump inhibitors. Endoscopy revealed GI-organic diseases in 33.4% (2010/6.011) of patients. The prevalence of candida esophagitis and erosive esophagitis was 11.2% and 12.1% in HIV-infected patients, respectively, whereas it was 2.9% and 10.7 % in non-HIV-infected patients, respectively. After excluding GI-organic diseases, HIV-infected patients had significantly (P symptom scores for heartburn, hunger cramps, nausea, early satiety, belching, dysphagia, and odynophagia than non-HIV-infected patients. In HIV-infected patients, any symptom was not significantly associated with CD4 cell count. In multivariate analysis, none of the 9 GI symptoms were associated with candida esophagitis in HIV-infected patients, whereas dysphagia and odynophagia were independently (P HIV-infected patients. However, heartburn and acid regurgitation were independently (P symptom scores were reliable in both HIV (α, 0.86) and non-HIV-infected patients

  18. Living with HIV/AIDS - Multiple Languages

    ... HIV - Newly diagnosed with HIV, part 5 - English MP3 Children and HIV - Newly diagnosed with HIV, part 5 - 简体中文 (Chinese, Simplified (Mandarin dialect)) MP3 Children and HIV - Newly diagnosed with HIV, part ...

  19. Impairments of Motor Function While Multitasking in HIV.

    Kronemer, Sharif I; Mandel, Jordan A; Sacktor, Ned C; Marvel, Cherie L

    2017-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) became a treatable illness with the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy (CART). As a result, patients with regular access to CART are expected to live decades with HIV. Long-term HIV infection presents unique challenges, including neurocognitive impairments defined by three major stages of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). The current investigation aimed to study cognitive and motor impairments in HIV using a novel multitasking paradigm. Unlike current standard measures of cognitive and motor performance in HIV, multitasking increases real-world validity by mimicking the dual motor and cognitive demands that are part of daily professional and personal settings (e.g., driving, typing and writing). Moreover, multitask assessments can unmask compensatory mechanisms, normally used under single task conditions, to maintain performance. This investigation revealed that HIV+ participants were impaired on the motor component of the multitask, while cognitive performance was spared. A patient-specific positive interaction between motor performance and working memory recall was driven by poor HIV+ multitaskers. Surprisingly, HAND stage did not correspond with multitask performance and a variety of commonly used assessments indicated normal motor function among HIV+ participants with poor motor performance during the experimental task. These results support the use of multitasks to reveal otherwise hidden impairment in chronic HIV by expanding the sensitivity of clinical assessments used to determine HAND stage. Future studies should examine the capability of multitasks to predict performance in personal, professional and health-related behaviors and prognosis of patients living with chronic HIV.

  20. Impairments of Motor Function While Multitasking in HIV

    Cherie L. Marvel

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV became a treatable illness with the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy (CART. As a result, patients with regular access to CART are expected to live decades with HIV. Long-term HIV infection presents unique challenges, including neurocognitive impairments defined by three major stages of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND. The current investigation aimed to study cognitive and motor impairments in HIV using a novel multitasking paradigm. Unlike current standard measures of cognitive and motor performance in HIV, multitasking increases real-world validity by mimicking the dual motor and cognitive demands that are part of daily professional and personal settings (e.g., driving, typing and writing. Moreover, multitask assessments can unmask compensatory mechanisms, normally used under single task conditions, to maintain performance. This investigation revealed that HIV+ participants were impaired on the motor component of the multitask, while cognitive performance was spared. A patient-specific positive interaction between motor performance and working memory recall was driven by poor HIV+ multitaskers. Surprisingly, HAND stage did not correspond with multitask performance and a variety of commonly used assessments indicated normal motor function among HIV+ participants with poor motor performance during the experimental task. These results support the use of multitasks to reveal otherwise hidden impairment in chronic HIV by expanding the sensitivity of clinical assessments used to determine HAND stage. Future studies should examine the capability of multitasks to predict performance in personal, professional and health-related behaviors and prognosis of patients living with chronic HIV.

  1. Pregnancy, contraceptive use, and HIV acquisition in HPTN 039: relevance for HIV prevention trials among African women.

    Reid, Stewart E; Dai, James Y; Wang, Jing; Sichalwe, Bupe N; Akpomiemie, Godspower; Cowan, Frances M; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; Baeten, Jared M; Hughes, James P; Wald, Anna; Celum, Connie

    2010-04-01

    Biomedical HIV prevention trials enroll sexually active women at risk of HIV and often discontinue study product during pregnancy. We assessed risk factors for pregnancy and HIV acquisition, and the effect of pregnancy on time off study drug in HIV Prevention Trials Network 039. A total of 1358 HIV negative, herpes simplex virus type 2-seropositive women from South Africa, Zambia, and Zimbabwe were enrolled and followed for up to 18 months. A total of 228 pregnancies occurred; time off study drug due to pregnancy accounted for 4% of woman-years of follow-up among women. Being pregnant was not associated with increased HIV risk (hazard ratio 0.64, 95% confidence interval 0.23-1.80, P = 0.40). However, younger age was associated with increased risk for both pregnancy and HIV. There was no association between condom use as a sole contraceptive and reduced pregnancy incidence; hormonal contraception was not associated with increased HIV risk. Bacterial vaginosis at study entry was associated with increased HIV risk (hazard ratio 2.03, P = 0.02). Pregnancy resulted in only a small amount of woman-time off study drug. Young women are at high risk for HIV and are an appropriate population for HIV prevention trials but also have higher risk of pregnancy. Condom use was not associated with reduced incidence of pregnancy.

  2. Subgroup-Elimination Transcriptomics Identifies Signaling Proteins that Define Subclasses of TRPV1-Positive Neurons and a Novel Paracrine Circuit

    Isensee, Jörg; Wenzel, Carsten; Buschow, Rene; Weissmann, Robert; Kuss, Andreas W.; Hucho, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Normal and painful stimuli are detected by specialized subgroups of peripheral sensory neurons. The understanding of the functional differences of each neuronal subgroup would be strongly enhanced by knowledge of the respective subgroup transcriptome. The separation of the subgroup of interest, however, has proven challenging as they can hardly be enriched. Instead of enriching, we now rapidly eliminated the subgroup of neurons expressing the heat-gated cation channel TRPV1 from dissociated rat sensory ganglia. Elimination was accomplished by brief treatment with TRPV1 agonists followed by the removal of compromised TRPV1(+) neurons using density centrifugation. By differential microarray and sequencing (RNA-Seq) based expression profiling we compared the transcriptome of all cells within sensory ganglia versus the same cells lacking TRPV1 expressing neurons, which revealed 240 differentially expressed genes (adj. p1.5). Corroborating the specificity of the approach, many of these genes have been reported to be involved in noxious heat or pain sensitization. Beyond the expected enrichment of ion channels, we found the TRPV1 transcriptome to be enriched for GPCRs and other signaling proteins involved in adenosine, calcium, and phosphatidylinositol signaling. Quantitative population analysis using a recent High Content Screening (HCS) microscopy approach identified substantial heterogeneity of expressed target proteins even within TRPV1-positive neurons. Signaling components defined distinct further subgroups within the population of TRPV1-positive neurons. Analysis of one such signaling system showed that the pain sensitizing prostaglandin PGD2 activates DP1 receptors expressed predominantly on TRPV1(+) neurons. In contrast, we found the PGD2 producing prostaglandin D synthase to be expressed exclusively in myelinated large-diameter neurons lacking TRPV1, which suggests a novel paracrine neuron-neuron communication. Thus, subgroup analysis based on the elimination

  3. Therapeutic HIV Peptide Vaccine

    Fomsgaard, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Therapeutic vaccines aim to control chronic HIV infection and eliminate the need for lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART). Therapeutic HIV vaccine is being pursued as part of a functional cure for HIV/AIDS. We have outlined a basic protocol for inducing new T cell immunity during chronic HIV-1...... infection directed to subdominant conserved HIV-1 epitopes restricted to frequent HLA supertypes. The rationale for selecting HIV peptides and adjuvants are provided. Peptide subunit vaccines are regarded as safe due to the simplicity, quality, purity, and low toxicity. The caveat is reduced immunogenicity...

  4. Safety and immunogenicity of a live recombinant canarypox virus expressing HIV type 1 gp120 MN MN tm/gag/protease LAI (ALVAC-HIV, vCP205) followed by a p24E-V3 MN synthetic peptide (CLTB-36) administered in healthy volunteers at low risk for HIV infection. AGIS Group and L'Agence Nationale de Recherches sur Le Sida.

    Salmon-Céron, D; Excler, J L; Finkielsztejn, L; Autran, B; Gluckman, J C; Sicard, D; Matthews, T J; Meignier, B; Valentin, C; El Habib, R; Blondeau, C; Raux, M; Moog, C; Tartaglia, J; Chong, P; Klein, M; Milcamps, B; Heshmati, F; Plotkin, S

    1999-05-01

    A live recombinant canarypox vector expressing HIV-1 gpl20 MN tm/gag/protease LAI (ALVAC-HIV, vCP205) alone or boosted by a p24E-V3 MN synthetic peptide (CLTB-36) was tested in healthy volunteers at low risk for HIV infection for their safety and immunogenicity. Both antigens were well tolerated. ALVAC-HIV (vCP205) induced low levels of neutralizing antibodies against HIV-1 MN in 33% of the volunteers. None of them had detectable neutralizing antibodies against a nonsyncytium-inducing HIV-1 clade B primary isolate (Bx08). After the fourth injection of vCP205, CTL activity was detected in 33% of the volunteers and was directed against Env, Gag, and Pol. This activity was mediated by both CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes. On the other hand, the CLTB-36 peptide was poorly immunogenic and induced no neutralizing antibodies or CTLs. Although the ALVAC-HIV (vCP205) and CLTB-36 prime-boost regimen was not optimal, further studies with ALVAC-HIV (vCP205) are warranted because of its clear induction of a cellular immune response and utility as a priming agent for other subunit antigens such as envelope glycoproteins, pseudoparticles, or new peptides.

  5. Alcohol Enhances HIV Infection of Cord Blood Monocyte-Derived Macrophages

    Mastrogiannis, Dimitrios S.; Wang, Xu; Dai, Min; Li, Jieliang; Wang, Yizhong; Zhou, Yu; Sakarcan, Selin; Peña, Juliet Crystal; Ho, Wenzhe

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol consumption or alcohol abuse is common among pregnant HIV+ women and has been identified as a potential behavioral risk factor for the transmission of HIV. In this study, we examined the impact of alcohol on HIV infection of cord blood monocyte-derived macrophages (CBMDM). We demonstrated that alcohol treatment of CBMDM significantly enhanced HIV infection of CBMDM. Investigation of the mechanisms of alcohol action on HIV demonstrated that alcohol inhibited the expression of several HIV restriction factors, including anti-HIV microRNAs, APOBEC3G and APOBEC3H. Additionally, alcohol also suppressed the expression of IFN regulatory factor 7 (IRF-7) and retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I), an intracellular sensor of viral infection. The suppression of these IFN regulatory factors was associated with reduced expression of type I IFN. These experimental findings suggest that maternal alcohol consumption may facilitate HIV infection, promoting vertical transmission of HIV. PMID:25053361

  6. Molecular analysis of critical sequences within the EBNA-2 type 1 gene from Epstein-Barr virus isolates from patients with infectious mononucleosis, tonsillar hyperplasia, and HIV infection

    Al-Homsi, A. S.; Berger, C.; van Baarle, D.; Kersten, M. J.; Klein, M. R.; McQuain, C.; van Oers, R.; Knecht, H.

    1998-01-01

    EBNA-2 is the first protein to be detected after infection of primary B lymphocytes by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and plays an essential role as transcriptional activator in EBV-induced lymphocyte transformation. We analysed by PCR and sequencing regions of the EBNA-2 type 1 gene from isolates from 13

  7. What drives the number of high-risk human papillomavirus types in the anal canal in HIV-positive men who have sex with men?

    del Amo, Julia; González, Cristina; Geskus, Ronald B.; Torres, Montse; del Romero, Jorge; Viciana, Pompeyo; Masiá, Mar; Blanco, Jose R.; Hernández-Novoa, Beatriz; Ortiz, Marta; Peña, Alejandro; García, Federico; Torres, Montserrat; Ocampo, Antonio; Da Silva, Alfredo Rodríguez; Miralles, Celia; Mauricio Iribarren, Gustavo; Madrid, Nadia; Dronda, Fernando; Benito, Amparo; Sanz, Itziar; Vera, Mar; Rodríguez, Carmen; Martín Alegre, Carmen; Carlos Carrió, Juan; Raposo, Montse; Trastoy, Mónica; Fontillón, Maria; Robledano, Catalina; Gutierrez, Félix; Padilla, Sergio; Andrada, Encarna; Cervero, Miguel; Ramón Blanco, José; Pérez, Laura; Portilla, Joaquín; Portilla, Irene; Angel Vonwichmann, Miguel; Antonio Iribarren, José; Camino, Xabier; Sendagorta, Elena; Herranz, Pedro; Rodríguez, Patricia; Luis Gómez, Juan; Rosado, Dacil; Alejos, Belén; Angeles Rodríguez, Maria

    2013-01-01

    We estimated the effect of sexual behavior, age, and immunodeficiency on the number of high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) types in the anal canal among human immunodeficiency virus-positive men who have sex with men (MSM). Anal samples were genotyped with the Linear Array HPV Genotyping Test,

  8. Interferon-inducible protein 10 (IP-10) is associated with viremia of early HIV-1 infection in Korean patients.

    Lee, SoYong; Chung, Yoon-Seok; Yoon, Cheol-Hee; Shin, YoungHyun; Kim, SeungHyun; Choi, Byeong-Sun; Kim, Sung Soon

    2015-05-01

    Cytokines/chemokines play key roles in modulating disease progression in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Although it is known that early HIV-1 infection is associated with increased production of proinflammatory cytokines, the relationship between cytokine levels and HIV-1 pathogenesis is not clear. The concentrations of 18 cytokines/chemokines in 30 HIV-1 negative and 208 HIV-1 positive plasma samples from Korean patients were measured by the Luminex system. Early HIV-1 infection was classified according to the Fiebig stage (FS) based on the characteristics of the patients infected with HIV-1. Concentrations of interleukin-12 (IL-12), interferon-inducible protein-10 (IP-10), macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α) and regulated upon activation, normal T cells expressed and secreted (RANTES) were increased significantly during the early stage of HIV-1 infection (FS II-IV) compared with the HIV-1-negative group. Of these cytokines, an elevated level of IP-10 was the only factor to be correlated positively with a higher viral load during the early stages of HIV-1 infection (FS II-IV) in Koreans (R = 0.52, P IP-10 may be an indicator for HIV-1 viremia and associated closely with viral replication in patients with early HIV-1 infection. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Presence of mcr-1-positive Enterobacteriaceae in retail chicken meat but not in humans in the Netherlands since 2009.

    Kluytmans-van den Bergh, Marjolein F; Huizinga, Pepijn; Bonten, Marc J; Bos, Martine; De Bruyne, Katrien; Friedrich, Alexander W; Rossen, John W; Savelkoul, Paul H; Kluytmans, Jan A

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the plasmid-mediated colistin resistance gene mcr-1 was found in Enterobacteriaceae from humans, pigs and retail meat in China. Several reports have documented global presence of the gene in Enterobacteriaceae from humans, food animals and food since. We screened several well-characterised strain collections of Enterobacteriaceae, obtained from retail chicken meat and hospitalised patients in the Netherlands between 2009 and 2015, for presence of colistin resistance and the mcr-1 gene. A total of 2,471 Enterobacteriaceae isolates, from surveys in retail chicken meat (196 isolates), prevalence surveys in hospitalised patients (1,247 isolates), clinical cultures (813 isolates) and outbreaks in healthcare settings (215 isolates), were analysed. The mcr-1 gene was identified in three (1.5%) of 196 extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli isolates from retail chicken meat samples in 2009 and 2014. Two isolates were obtained from the same batch of meat samples, most likely representing contamination from a common source. No mcr-1-positive isolates were identified among 2,275 human isolates tested. All mcr-1-positive isolates were colistin-resistant (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) > 2 mg/L). Our findings indicate that mcr-1-based colistin-resistance currently poses no threat to healthcare in the Netherlands. They indicate however that continued monitoring of colistin resistance and its underlying mechanisms in humans, livestock and food is needed.

  10. Acyclovir and Transmission of HIV-1 from Persons Infected with HIV-1 and HSV-2

    Celum, Connie; Wald, Anna; Lingappa, Jairam R.; Magaret, Amalia S.; Wang, Richard S.; Mugo, Nelly; Mujugira, Andrew; Baeten, Jared M.; Mullins, James I.; Hughes, James P.; Bukusi, Elizabeth A.; Cohen, Craig R.; Katabira, Elly; Ronald, Allan; Kiarie, James; Farquhar, Carey; Stewart, Grace John; Makhema, Joseph; Essex, Myron; Were, Edwin; Fife, Kenneth H.; de Bruyn, Guy; Gray, Glenda E.; McIntyre, James A.; Manongi, Rachel; Kapiga, Saidi; Coetzee, David; Allen, Susan; Inambao, Mubiana; Kayitenkore, Kayitesi; Karita, Etienne; Kanweka, William; Delany, Sinead; Rees, Helen; Vwalika, Bellington; Stevens, Wendy; Campbell, Mary S.; Thomas, Katherine K.; Coombs, Robert W.; Morrow, Rhoda; Whittington, William L.H.; McElrath, M. Juliana; Barnes, Linda; Ridzon, Renee; Corey, Lawrence

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Most persons who are infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) are also infected with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), which is frequently reactivated and is associated with increased plasma and genital levels of HIV-1. Therapy to suppress HSV-2 reduces the frequency of reactivation of HSV-2 as well as HIV-1 levels, suggesting that suppression of HSV-2 may reduce the risk of transmission of HIV-1. METHODS We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of suppressive therapy for HSV-2 (acyclovir at a dose of 400 mg orally twice daily) in couples in which only one of the partners was seropositive for HIV-1 (CD4 count, ≥250 cells per cubic millimeter) and that partner was also infected with HSV-2 and was not taking antiretroviral therapy at the time of enrollment. The primary end point was transmission of HIV-1 to the partner who was not initially infected with HIV-1; linkage of transmissions was assessed by means of genetic sequencing of viruses. RESULTS A total of 3408 couples were enrolled at 14 sites in Africa. Of the partners who were infected with HIV-1, 68% were women, and the baseline median CD4 count was 462 cells per cubic millimeter. Of 132 HIV-1 seroconversions that occurred after randomization (an incidence of 2.7 per 100 person-years), 84 were linked within couples by viral sequencing: 41 in the acyclovir group and 43 in the placebo group (hazard ratio with acyclovir, 0.92, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.60 to 1.41; P = 0.69). Suppression with acyclovir reduced the mean plasma concentration of HIV-1 by 0.25 log10 copies per milliliter (95% CI, 0.22 to 0.29; P<0.001) and the occurrence of HSV-2–positive genital ulcers by 73% (risk ratio, 0.27; 95% CI, 0.20 to 0.36; P<0.001). A total of 92% of the partners infected with HIV-1 and 84% of the partners not infected with HIV-1 remained in the study for 24 months. The level of adherence to the dispensed study drug was 96%. No serious adverse events related to acyclovir

  11. Langerhans Cells: the 'Yin and Yang' of HIV Restriction and Transmission.

    Mayr, Luzia; Su, Bin; Moog, Christiane

    2017-03-01

    Langerhans cells are specialized sentinels present in the epidermis expressing Langerin, a specific C-type lectin receptor involved in HIV capture and destruction. Recently, the specific mechanism leading to this HIV restriction was discovered. Nevertheless, Langerhans cells can be infected and the way HIV escapes this restriction needs to be unraveled. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Progressive dysregulation of autonomic and HPA axis functions in HIV-1 clade C infection in South India.

    Chittiprol, Seetharamaiah; Kumar, Adarsh M; Satishchandra, P; Taranath Shetty, K; Bhimasena Rao, R S; Subbakrishna, D K; Philip, Mariyamma; Satish, K S; Ravi Kumar, H; Kumar, Mahendra

    2008-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection causes a wide spectrum of abnormalities in neurological, neuropsychological, and neuroendocrinological functions. Several studies report disturbance in autonomic nervous system (ANS) and hypothalamic pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function in HIV-1B infected individuals. However, no such investigations on the effect of HIV-1 clade C infection, particularly during the initial phase of the disease progression, have been reported. The present investigations were carried out longitudinally over a 2-year period at 12 monthly intervals in clinically asymptomatic HIV-1 clade C seropositive patients (n=120) and seronegative control subjects (n=29). We determined both the basal levels and the dynamic changes in plasma levels of norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (E), adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol (CORT). Studies were also extended longitudinally (at three separate yearly visits of each participant), to evaluate the response of autonomic and HPA axis to mirror star tracing challenge test (MSTCT) and the values were determined as area under the curve (AUC, corrected for baseline levels of NE, E, ACTH, and CORT). The findings show that the values of basal plasma NE levels, as well as NE response to MSTCT (AUC) at the first visit of HIV-1 seropositive individuals did not differ from those found in the control subjects (NE, pg/ml, HIV-1C=313.5+/-12.7 vs. controls=353.0+/-21.3; p=NS; AUC, HIV-1C=225+/-14.75 vs. controls=232.7+/-19.34; p=NS, respectively). At the subsequent two visits of HIV-1 positive patients however, NE response to MSTCT challenge was progressively attenuated (AUC=235+/-19.5 and 162.7+/-13.6; p<0.01 and 0.05, respectively) compared to that found at the first visit. On the other hand, plasma levels of E as well as E response to MSTCT at the first visit were significantly lower in HIV-1C seropositive individuals compared to those in the control subjects (pg/ml, HIV-1C=77.30+/-5.7 vs. controls

  13. Online resources for persons recently diagnosed with HIV/AIDS: an analysis of HIV-related webpages.

    Horvath, Keith J; Harwood, Eileen M; Courtenay-Quirk, Cari; McFarlane, Mary; Fisher, Holly; Dickenson, Tina; Kachur, Rachel; Rosser, B R Simon; O'Leary, Ann

    2010-07-01

    The Internet is a major source of HIV-related information and resources for persons recently diagnosed with HIV/AIDS (PRDHA). This study examined the types of HIV-related websites that appear as a result of HIV-related keyword searches and the extent to which website information targets PRDHA. The first page of HIV-related webpages from 18 keyword searches was coded. Among 137 webpages meeting inclusion criteria, 63% represented HIV-informational websites, 31% targeted HIV-positive individuals, and over half contained or provided access to HIV prevention, treatment, and transmission information. Thirty-three percent of webpages contained or provided access to PRDHA-targeted information, with a greater percentage of those webpages having mobile, non-English, and "Ask the Expert" features compared with non-PRDHA targeted webpages. Implications for PRDHA include the following: (1) they should explore HIV-related websites to gain insight into the credibility of the information contained on those sites; (2) PRDHA must be aware that HIV-related websites have the potential to elicit dated, emotionally distressing, or irrelevant information; and (3) to obtain information that relates to their demographic and situational profile, they may wish to use specific key terms (e.g., "HIV women") rather than attempting to navigate webpages that arise from general search terms (e.g., "HIV"). Recommendations for future development of online resources for PRDHA include providing HIV-relevant information in a stepwise fashion, providing demographically targeted HIV information, and greater utilization of mobile technology.

  14. HIV and Hepatitis C

    ... AIDS Drugs Clinical Trials Apps skip to content HIV and Opportunistic Infections, Coinfections, and Conditions Home Understanding ... 4 p.m. ET) Send us an email HIV and Hepatitis C Last Reviewed: July 25, 2017 ...

  15. HIV/AIDS Basics

    ... Partner Spotlight Awareness Days Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or ... AIDS Get Email Updates on AAA Anonymous Feedback HIV/AIDS Media Infographics Syndicated Content Podcasts Slide Sets ...

  16. HIV and Tuberculosis (TB)

    ... AIDS Drugs Clinical Trials Apps skip to content HIV and Opportunistic Infections, Coinfections, and Conditions Home Understanding ... 4 p.m. ET) Send us an email HIV and Tuberculosis (TB) Last Reviewed: June 14, 2018 ...

  17. HIV and Hepatitis B

    ... AIDS Drugs Clinical Trials Apps skip to content HIV and Opportunistic Infections, Coinfections, and Conditions Home Understanding ... 4 p.m. ET) Send us an email HIV and Hepatitis B Last Reviewed: July 24, 2017 ...

  18. Thrombocytopenia in HIV

    2007-06-15

    infected community and can severely hamper thrombopoietin production, due to liver damage. HIV and platelets. Thrombocytopenia in HIV was first described in 1982. The prevalence is more or less 40%, depending on which ...

  19. HIV Resistance Testing

    ... 14, 2016 Select a Language: Fact Sheet 126 HIV Resistance Testing WHAT IS RESISTANCE? HOW DOES RESISTANCE ... ARVs. If you miss doses of your medications, HIV will multiply more easily. More mutations will occur. ...

  20. HIV: Treatment and Comorbidity

    C. Rokx (Casper)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractClinicians worldwide strive to improve HIV care for their patients. Antiretroviral therapy prevents HIV related mortality and is lifelong. A clinical evaluation of these treatment strategies is necessary to identify strategies that may jeopardize treatment effectiveness and patient

  1. Testing for HIV

    ... Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Home Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Safety & Availability (Biologics) HIV Home Test Kits Testing for HIV Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ...

  2. Pregnancy and HIV

    ... 17, 2014 Select a Language: Fact Sheet 611 Pregnancy and HIV HOW DO BABIES GET AIDS? HOW CAN WE ... doses due to nausea and vomiting during early pregnancy, giving HIV a chance to develop resistance The risk of ...

  3. Serious Non-AIDS Conditions in HIV

    Lundgren, Jens D; Borges, Alvaro H; Neaton, James D

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Optimal control of HIV can be achieved by early diagnosis followed by the initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Two large randomised trials (TEMPRANO and START) have recently been published documenting the clinical benefits to HIV-positive adults of early ART initiation....... Main findings are reviewed with a focus on serious non-AIDS (SNA) conditions. RECENT FINDINGS: Data from the two trials demonstrated that initiating ART early in the course of HIV infection resulted in marked reductions in the risk of opportunistic diseases and invasive bacterial infections....... This indicates that HIV causes immune impairment in early infection that is remedied by controlling viral replication. Intriguingly, in START, a marked reduction in risk of cancers, both infection-related and unrelated types of cancers, was observed. Like the findings for opportunistic infections, this anti...

  4. HIV Genetic Diversity and Drug Resistance

    Santos, André F.; Soares, Marcelo A.

    2010-01-01

    Most of the current knowledge on antiretroviral (ARV) drug development and resistance is based on the study of subtype B of HIV-1, which only accounts for 10% of the worldwide HIV infections. Cumulative evidence has emerged that different HIV types, groups and subtypes harbor distinct biological properties, including the response and susceptibility to ARV. Recent laboratory and clinical data highlighting such disparities are summarized in this review. Variations in drug susceptibility, in the emergence and selection of specific drug resistance mutations, in viral replicative capacity and in the dynamics of resistance acquisition under ARV selective pressure are discussed. Clinical responses to ARV therapy and associated confounding factors are also analyzed in the context of infections by distinct HIV genetic variants. PMID:21994646

  5. The HIV Airway

    Adele

    dren living with HIV/AIDS. Annual national antenatal surveil- lance shows an HIV prevalence of 26.5% among pregnant women. Anaesthetists are confronted with an increasing number of HIV infected patients, presenting for both emergency and elective sur- gery. They range from having asymptomatic infection to end stage.

  6. HIV Antibody Test

    ... 65 in the case of the USPSTF) and pregnant women be screened for HIV at least once. The CDC and American College ... to make sure she is not infected with HIV before getting pregnant may opt to get tested (see Pregnancy: HIV .) ...

  7. The Puzzle of HIV Neutral and Selective Evolution.

    Leitner, Thomas

    2018-06-01

    HIV is one of the fastest evolving organisms known. It evolves about 1 million times faster than its host, humans. Because HIV establishes chronic infections, with continuous evolution, its divergence within a single infected human surpasses the divergence of the entire humanoid history. Yet, it is still the same virus, infecting the same cell types and using the same replication machinery year after year. Hence, one would think that most mutations that HIV accumulates are neutral. But the picture is more complicated than that. HIV evolution is also a clear example of strong positive selection, that is, mutants have a survival advantage. How do these facts come together?

  8. Host and Viral Factors in HIV-Mediated Bystander Apoptosis

    Garg, Himanshu; Joshi, Anjali

    2017-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections lead to a progressive loss of CD4 T cells primarily via the process of apoptosis. With a limited number of infected cells and vastly disproportionate apoptosis in HIV infected patients, it is believed that apoptosis of uninfected bystander cells plays a significant role in this process. Disease progression in HIV infected individuals is highly variable suggesting that both host and viral factors may influence HIV mediated apoptosis. Amongst the viral factors, the role of Envelope (Env) glycoprotein in bystander apoptosis is well documented. Recent evidence on the variability in apoptosis induction by primary patient derived Envs underscores the role of Env glycoprotein in HIV disease. Amongst the host factors, the role of C-C Chemokine Receptor type 5 (CCR5), a coreceptor for HIV Env, is also becoming increasingly evident. Polymorphisms in the CCR5 gene and promoter affect CCR5 cell surface expression and correlate with both apoptosis and CD4 loss. Finally, chronic immune activation in HIV infections induces multiple defects in the immune system and has recently been shown to accelerate HIV Env mediated CD4 apoptosis. Consequently, those factors that affect CCR5 expression and/or immune activation in turn indirectly regulate HIV mediated apoptosis making this phenomenon both complex and multifactorial. This review explores the complex role of various host and viral factors in determining HIV mediated bystander apoptosis. PMID:28829402

  9. Cyclic GMP-AMP Synthase is an Innate Immune Sensor of HIV and Other Retroviruses

    Gao, Daxing; Wu, Jiaxi; Wu, You-Tong; Du, Fenghe; Aroh, Chukwuemika; Yan, Nan; Sun, Lijun; Chen, Zhijian J.

    2013-01-01

    Retroviruses, including HIV, can activate innate immune responses, but the host sensors for retroviruses are largely unknown. Here we show that HIV infection activates cyclic-GMP-AMP (cGAMP) synthase (cGAS) to produce cGAMP, which binds to and activates the adaptor protein STING to induce type-I interferons and other cytokines. Inhibitors of HIV reverse transcriptase, but not integrase, abrogated interferon-β induction by the virus, suggesting that the reverse transcribed HIV DNA triggers the...

  10. Molecular Mechanisms in Activation of Latent HIV-1

    H. Rafati (Haleh)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Finding a cure for the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is extremely challenging. Development of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART), transformed HIV-1 infection from an acute syndrome into chronic disease. Although using HAART results in

  11. Raltegravir with optimized background therapy for resistant HIV-1 infection

    Steigbigel, Roy T; Cooper, David A; Kumar, Princy N

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Raltegravir (MK-0518) is an inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) integrase active against HIV-1 susceptible or resistant to older antiretroviral drugs. METHODS: We conducted two identical trials in different geographic regions to evaluate the safety and efficacy of...

  12. Heart disease among children with HIV/AIDS attending the ...

    Background: There are very few published studies of heart disease in HIV infected children living in sub-Saharan Africa, a region with more than 50% of the world's population of HIV infected patients. Objectives: To determine the prevalence, and describe the type and clinical presentation of heart disease among children ...

  13. Interferon α subtypes in HIV infection.

    Sutter, Kathrin; Dickow, Julia; Dittmer, Ulf

    2018-02-13

    Type I interferons (IFN), which are immediately induced after most virus infections, are central for direct antiviral immunity and link innate and adaptive immune responses. However, several viruses have evolved strategies to evade the IFN response by preventing IFN induction or blocking IFN signaling pathways. Thus, therapeutic application of exogenous type I IFN or agonists inducing type I IFN responses are a considerable option for future immunotherapies against chronic viral infections. An important part of the type I IFN family are 12 IFNα subtypes, which all bind the same receptor, but significantly differ in their biological activities. Up to date only one IFNα subtype (IFNα2) is being used in clinical treatment against chronic virus infections, however its therapeutic success rate is rather limited, especially during Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection. Recent studies addressed the important question if other IFNα subtypes would be more potent against retroviral infections in in vitro and in vivo experiments. Indeed, very potent IFNα subtypes were defined and their antiviral and immunomodulatory properties were characterized. In this review we summarize the recent findings on the role of individual IFNα subtypes during HIV and Simian Immunodeficiency Virus infection. This includes their induction during HIV/SIV infection, their antiretroviral activity and the regulation of immune response against HIV by different IFNα subtypes. The findings might facilitate novel strategies for HIV cure or functional cure studies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Mimotopes selected by biopanning with high-titer HIV-neutralizing antibodies in plasma from Chinese slow progressors

    Xiaoli Zhang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: One approach to identifying HIV-1 vaccine candidates is to dissect the natural antiviral immune response in treatment-naïve individuals infected for over ten years, considered slow progressor patients (SPs. It is suspected that SP plasma has strongly neutralizing antibodies (NAb targeting specific HIV viral epitopes. METHODS: NAbs levels of 11 HIV-1-infected SPs were detected by PBMC-based neutralization assays. To investigate SP NAb epitope, this study used a biopanning approach to obtain mimotopes of HIV-1 that were recognized by SP plasma NAbs. IgG was purified from hightiter NAb SP plasma, and used as the ligand for three rounds of biopanning to select HIV-specific mimotopes from a phage-displayed random peptide library. Double-antibody sandwich ELISA, competitive inhibition assays, and peptide sequence analysis were used to evaluate the characteristics of phage-borne mimotopes. RESULTS: SPs had significantly more plasma neutralizing activity than typical progressors (TPs (p = 0.04. P2 and P9 plasma, which have highest-titer HIV-NAb, were selected as ligands for biopanning. After three rounds of biopanning, 48 phage clones were obtained, of which 22 clones were consistent with requirement, binding with HIV-1 positive plasma and unbinding with HIV-1 negative plasma. Compared with linear HIV-1 protein sequence and HIV-1 protein structure files, only 12 clones were possible linear mimotopes of NAbs. In addition, the C40 clone located in gp41 CHR was found to be a neutralizing epitope, which could inhibit pooled HIV-1 positive plasma reaction. CONCLUSION: Biopanning of serum IgG can yield mimotopes of HIV-1-related antigen epitopes. This methodology provides a basis for exploration into HIV-1-related antigen-antibody interactions and furthers NAb immunotherapy and vaccine design.

  15. Relationship of race-, sexual orientation-, and HIV-related discrimination with adherence to HIV treatment: a pilot study.

    Boarts, Jessica M; Bogart, Laura M; Tabak, Melanie A; Armelie, Aaron P; Delahanty, Douglas L

    2008-10-01

    Adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) must be close to perfect in order to maintain suppression of HIV viral load, and to prevent the development of drug resistant strains of HIV. People living with HIV (PLWH) often report low levels of adherence. One variable that has been linked to poor adherence is perceived discrimination; however, research has generally not considered the possible unique effects of different types of discrimination on adherence. The present pilot study aimed to examine the association of three types of discrimination (due to HIV+ status, race, or sexual orientation) with adherence among 57 PLWH. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to demonstrate the relationships between each type of discrimination and self-reported adherence. Racial discrimination significantly predicted lower adherence levels, whereas sexual orientation- and HIV-related discrimination did not. Results underscore the importance of addressing discrimination issues, specifically racial, when designing interventions to improve adherence to HAART.

  16. New SU(1,1) position-dependent effective mass coherent states for a generalized shifted harmonic oscillator

    Yahiaoui, Sid-Ahmed; Bentaiba, Mustapha

    2014-01-01

    A new SU(1,1) position-dependent effective mass coherent states (PDEM CS) related to the shifted harmonic oscillator (SHO) are deduced. This is accomplished by applying a similarity transformation to the generally deformed oscillator algebra (GDOA) generators for PDEM systems and a new set of operators that close the su(1,1) Lie algebra are constructed, being the PDEM CS of the basis for its unitary irreducible representation. From the Lie algebra generators, we evaluate the uncertainty relationship for a position and momentum-like operators in the PDEM CS and show that it is minimized in the sense of Barut–Girardello CS. We prove that the deduced PDEM CS preserve the same analytical form than those of Glauber states. As an illustration of our procedure, we depicted the 2D-probability density in the PDEM CS for SHO with the explicit form of the mass distribution with no singularities. (paper)

  17. Designing Peptide-Based HIV Vaccine for Chinese

    Fan, Xiaojuan

    2014-01-01

    CD4+ T cells are central to the induction and maintenance of CD8+ T cell and antibody-producing B cell responses, and the latter are essential for the protection against disease in subjects with HIV infection. How to elicit HIV-specific CD4+ T cell responses in a given population using vaccines is one of the major areas of current HIV vaccine research. To design vaccine that targets specifically Chinese, we assembled a database that is comprised of sequences from 821 Chinese HIV isolates and 46 human leukocyte antigen (HLA) DR alleles identified in Chinese population. We then predicted 20 potential HIV epitopes using bioinformatics approaches. The combination of these 20 epitopes has a theoretical coverage of 98.1% of the population for both the prevalent HIV genotypes and also Chinese HLA-DR types. We suggest that testing this vaccine experimentally will facilitate the development of a CD4+ T cell vaccine especially catered for Chinese. PMID:25136573

  18. BCR-ABL1- positive chronic myeloid leukemia with erythrocytosis presenting as polycythemia vera: a case report.

    Cornea, Mihaela I Precup; Levrat, Emmanuel; Pugin, Paul; Betticher, Daniel C

    2015-04-08

    The World Health Organization classification of chronic myeloproliferative disease encompasses eight entities of bone marrow neoplasms, among them Breakpoint cluster region-Abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog 1-positive chronic myeloid leukemia and polycythemia vera. Polycythemia vera requires, in the majority of cases (95%), the negativity of Breakpoint cluster region-Abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog 1 rearrangement and the presence of the Janus kinase 2 mutation. We report a case of erythrocytosis as the primary manifestation of a chronic myeloid leukemia, with the presence of the Philadelphia chromosome and the Breakpoint cluster region-Abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog 1 fusion gene, and in the absence of any Janus kinase 2 mutation. A 68-year-old Caucasian woman, with a history of cigarette consumption and obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (undergoing continuous positive airway pressure treatment) had presented to our institution with fatigue and a hemoglobin level of 18.6g/L, with slight leukocytosis at 16G/L, and no other anomalies on her complete blood cell count. Examination of her arterial blood gases found only a slight hypoxemia; erythropoietin and ferritin levels were very low and could not explain a secondary erythrocytosis. Further analyses revealed the absence of any Janus kinase 2 mutation, thus excluding polycythemia vera. Taken together with a high vitamin B12 level, we conducted a Breakpoint cluster region-Abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog 1 gene analysis and bone marrow cytogenetic analysis, both of which returned positive, leading to the diagnosis of chronic myeloid leukemia. To date, this case is the first description of a Breakpoint cluster region-Abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog 1-positive chronic myeloid leukemia, presenting with erythrocytosis as the initial manifestation, and mimicking a Janus kinase 2 V617F-negative polycythemia vera. Her impressive response to imatinib

  19. HIV antibodies for treatment of HIV infection.

    Margolis, David M; Koup, Richard A; Ferrari, Guido

    2017-01-01

    The bar is high to improve on current combination antiretroviral therapy (ART), now highly effective, safe, and simple. However, antibodies that bind the HIV envelope are able to uniquely target the virus as it seeks to enter new target cells, or as it is expressed from previously infected cells. Furthermore, the use of antibodies against HIV as a therapeutic may offer advantages. Antibodies can have long half-lives, and are being considered as partners for long-acting antiretrovirals for use in therapy or prevention of HIV infection. Early studies in animal models and in clinical trials suggest that such antibodies can have antiviral activity but, as with small-molecule antiretrovirals, the issues of viral escape and resistance will have to be addressed. Most promising, however, are the unique properties of anti-HIV antibodies: the potential ability to opsonize viral particles, to direct antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) against actively infected cells, and ultimately the ability to direct the clearance of HIV-infected cells by effector cells of the immune system. These distinctive activities suggest that HIV antibodies and their derivatives may play an important role in the next frontier of HIV therapeutics, the effort to develop treatments that could lead to an HIV cure. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  20. To be or not to be sick and tired: Managing the visibility of HIV and HIV-related fatigue.

    Schuft, Laura; Duval, Estelle; Thomas, Julie; Ferez, Sylvain

    2017-01-01

    This article takes a new direction in exploring HIV-related fatigue by adopting a qualitative interactionist approach. We analyse the social meanings attributed to fatigue among people living with HIV in France, the social gains and losses of its visibility and the social frames that condition its discursive and physical expression. The two-part methodology combines grounded theory analysis of 50 transcribed unstructured interviews conducted across France and participant observations within four HIV-related associations. Results reveal that the visibility of fatigue is in part dependent on the visibility of this stigmatized illness. The expression of fatigue is therefore closely linked with disclosure and concerns about HIV stigma. The degree to which HIV and HIV-related fatigue are rendered (in)visible also depends on structural factors including gender prescriptions, as well as context effects such as the type of social or 'care' relations involved in the social frame of interaction.

  1. Combining biomedical preventions for HIV: Vaccines with pre-exposure prophylaxis, microbicides or other HIV preventions.

    McNicholl, Janet M

    2016-12-01

    Biomedical preventions for HIV, such as vaccines, microbicides or pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with antiretroviral drugs, can each only partially prevent HIV-1 infection in most human trials. Oral PrEP is now FDA approved for HIV-prevention in high risk groups, but partial adherence reduces efficacy. If combined as biomedical preventions (CBP) an HIV vaccine could provide protection when PrEP adherence is low and PrEP could prevent vaccine breakthroughs. Other types of PrEP or microbicides may also be partially protective. When licensed, first generation HIV vaccines are likely to be partially effective. Individuals at risk for HIV may receive an HIV vaccine combined with other biomedical preventions, in series or in parallel, in clinical trials or as part of standard of care, with the goal of maximally increasing HIV prevention. In human studies, it is challenging to determine which preventions are best combined, how they interact and how effective they are. Animal models can determine CBP efficacy, whether additive or synergistic, the efficacy of different products and combinations, dose, timing and mechanisms. CBP studies in macaques have shown that partially or minimally effective candidate HIV vaccines combined with partially effective oral PrEP, vaginal PrEP or microbicide generally provided greater protection than either prevention alone against SIV or SHIV challenges. Since human CBP trials will be complex, animal models can guide their design, sample size, endpoints, correlates and surrogates of protection. This review focuses on animal studies and human models of CBP and discusses implications for HIV prevention.

  2. Micro RNA in Exosomes from HIV-Infected Macrophages

    William W. Roth

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Exosomes are small membrane-bound vesicles secreted by cells that function to shuttle RNA and proteins between cells. To examine the role of exosomal micro RNA (miRNA during the early stage of HIV-1 infection we characterized miRNA in exosomes from HIV-infected macrophages, compared with exosomes from non-infected macrophages. Primary human monocytes from uninfected donors were differentiated to macrophages (MDM which were either mock-infected or infected with the macrophage-tropic HIV-1 BaL strain. Exosomes were recovered from culture media and separated from virus particles by centrifugation on iodixanol density gradients. The low molecular weight RNA fraction was prepared from purified exosomes. After pre-amplification, RNA was hybridized to microarrays containing probes for 1200 miRNA species of known and unknown function. We observed 48 miRNA species in both infected and uninfected MDM exosomes. Additionally, 38 miRNAs were present in infected-cell exosomes but not uninfected-cell exosomes. Of these, 13 miRNAs were upregulated in exosomes from HIV-infected cells, including 4 miRNA species that were increased by more than 10-fold. Though numerous miRNA species have been identified in HIV-infected cells, relatively little is known about miRNA content in exosomes from these cells. In the future, we plan to investigate whether the upregulated miRNA species we identified are increased in exosomes from HIV-1-positive patients.

  3. Short communication: Anti-HIV-1 envelope immunoglobulin Gs in blood and cervicovaginal samples of Beninese commercial sex workers.

    Batraville, Laurie-Anne; Richard, Jonathan; Veillette, Maxime; Labbé, Annie-Claude; Alary, Michel; Guédou, Fernand; Kaufmann, Daniel E; Poudrier, Johanne; Finzi, Andrés; Roger, Michel

    2014-11-01

    Characterization of the immune correlates of protection against HIV infection is crucial for the development of preventive strategies. This study examined HIV-1 envelope (Env) glycoproteins, specifically immunoglobulin G (IgG), in systemic and mucosal compartments of female Beninese commercial sex workers (CSWs). Samples of 23 HIV-1-positive and 20 highly exposed HIV-1-seronegative (HESN) CSWs were studied. HIV-1 Env-specific IgG detection in sera and cervicovaginal lavages (CVLs) from the study population was done by cell-based ELISA. The HIV neutralizing activity was evaluated with a neutralization assay. The HIV-1-specific antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) response of the cohort was measured with a FACS-based assay evaluating the ADCC-mediated elimination of gp120-coated target cells. No anti-HIV-1 Env-specific IgG neutralizing or ADCC activities were detected in samples from HESN CSWs. Samples from HIV-1-infected CSWs presented ADCC activity in both sera and CVLs. Anti-Env IgG from sera and CVLs from HIV-1-infected CSWs preferentially recognized Env in its CD4-bound conformation. HIV-1-infected CSWs have ADCC-mediating IgG that preferentially recognizes Env in its CD4-bound conformation at the mucosal site.

  4. Reproduction and fertility in human immunodeficiency virus type-1 infection

    van Leeuwen, E.; Prins, J. M.; Jurriaans, S.; Boer, K.; Reiss, P.; Repping, S.; van der Veen, F.

    2007-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) affects mostly men and women in their reproductive years. For those who have access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), the course of HIV-1 infection has shifted from a lethal to a chronic disease. As a result of this, many patients with HIV-1

  5. Copy number variation of KIR genes influences HIV-1 control

    Pelak, Kimberly; Need, Anna C; Fellay, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    A genome-wide screen for large structural variants showed that a copy number variant (CNV) in the region encoding killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) associates with HIV-1 control as measured by plasma viral load at set point in individuals of European ancestry. This CNV encompasses...... the KIR3DL1-KIR3DS1 locus, encoding receptors that interact with specific HLA-Bw4 molecules to regulate the activation of lymphocyte subsets including natural killer (NK) cells. We quantified the number of copies of KIR3DS1 and KIR3DL1 in a large HIV-1 positive cohort, and showed that an increase in KIR3...... amounts of these activating and inhibitory KIR play a role in regulating the peripheral expansion of highly antiviral KIR3DS1+ NK cells, which may determine differences in HIV-1 control following infection....

  6. Generationing, Stealthing, and Gift Giving: The Intentional Transmission of HIV by HIV-Positive Men to their HIV-Negative Sex Partners.

    Klein, Hugh

    2014-11-06

    Gift giving is the process by which an HIV-positive person purposely infects an HIV-negative person with HIV, usually with that person's knowledge and consent. Little has been written about this HIV transmission practice. In this paper, two specific types of gift giving - generationing and stealthing - are explained and introduced to the scientific literature. Generationing is a type of gift giving in which one gift giver successfully infects a previously-uninfected man with HIV, and then the two men collaborate in an effort to seroconvert another man, and so forth. Stealthing is another type of gift giving in which an HIV-positive man actively tries to infect an HIV-negative man with HIV, without the latter's knowledge or consent. The present study reports on the prevalence of gift giving (4.6%) in a population of men who use the Internet specifically to identify partners for unprotected sex. The research is based on a national random sample of 332 men who have sex with men, identified from 16 websites. Data were collected via telephone interviews conducted between January 2008 and May 2009. The paper concludes with a discussion of the implications of these findings for HIV prevention and intervention efforts. Most notably, to the extent that generationing, stealthing, and gift giving occur among MSM, they represent a very high risk of HIV transmission. More work needs to be done to understand these behaviors, the factors that underlie them, and to determine how prevalent they are in the bare-backing population of MSM.

  7. Correlates of HIV infection among people visiting public HIV ...

    Correlates of HIV infection among people visiting public HIV counseling and testing clinics in Mpumalanga, ... Background: HIV voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) reduces high-risk sexual behaviour. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  8. HIV/AIDS in Women - Multiple Languages

    ... medicines and women - HIV medicines, part 7 - English MP3 HIV medicines and women - HIV medicines, part 7 - 简体中文 (Chinese, Simplified (Mandarin dialect)) MP3 HIV medicines and women - HIV medicines, part 7 - ...

  9. Perceived HIV-associated stigma among HIV-seropositive men: psychometric study of HIV stigma scale

    Adrian eValle

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the internal consistency and factor structure of the abridged Spanish version of the Berger HIV Stigma Scale (HSS-21, provide evidence for its convergent and discriminant validity, and describe perceived stigma in an urban population from northeast Mexico. Methods: Seventy five HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM were recruited. Participants answered the Spanish versions of three Likert-type scales: HSS-21, Robsenberg’s self-esteem scale, and the abbreviated version of the Zung’s Depression Scale.Results: HSS-21 showed high reliability and validity; its factor structure included four components: concern with public attitudes; negative self-image; disclosure concerns; and enacted stigma. The level of stigma was high in 27 out of 75 (36% participants; nevertheless, the score found in the component related to disclosure concerns indicated high level of stigma in 68% of participants. The score of HSS-21 was positively correlated with the score of depression and negatively correlated with the score of self-esteem. Conclusion: Results demonstrated high reliability for the HSS-21; correlations with other scales supported its validity. This scale demonstrated to be a practical tool for assessing stigma among Mexican HIV-positive MSM. High level of stigma was found only in the factor related to disclosure concerns. Policy Implications: Identifying HIV-associated stigma through a short, reliable and validated instrument will allow the development of interventions that cope and manage stigma in HIV-positive MSM. HSS-21 distinguishes between different dimensions of stigma and will contribute to a better understanding of this phenomenon.

  10. Polymorphisms in DC-SIGN and L-SIGN genes are associated with HIV-1 vertical transmission in a Northeastern Brazilian population.

    da Silva, Ronaldo Celerino; Segat, Ludovica; Zanin, Valentina; Arraes, Luiz Claudio; Crovella, Sergio

    2012-11-01

    DC-SIGN and L-SIGN are receptors expressed on specialized macrophages in decidua, (Hofbauer and placental capillary endothelial cells), known to interact with several pathogens, including HIV-1. To disclose the possible involvement of these molecules in the susceptibility to HIV vertical transmission, we analyzed DC-SIGN and L-SIGN gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 192 HIV-1 positive children and 58 HIV-1 negative children all born to HIV-1 positive mothers, as well as 96 healthy uninfected children not exposed to HIV-1, all from Northeast Brazil. The frequency of three SNPs in the DC-SIGN promoter (-139G>A, -201G>T and -336A>G) were significantly different when comparing HIV positive children with HIV-1 exposed uninfected children, indicating an association with susceptibility to HIV-1 vertical transmission. This genetic association suggests that DC-SIGN molecule may play a role in susceptibility to HIV-1 infection through vertical transmission. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Cyclophilin B enhances HIV-1 infection.

    DeBoer, Jason; Madson, Christian J; Belshan, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Cyclophilin B (CypB) is a member of the immunophilin family and intracellular chaperone. It predominantly localizes to the ER, but also contains a nuclear localization signal and is secreted from cells. CypB has been shown to interact with the Gag protein of human immunodeficiency type 1 (HIV-1). Several proteomic and genetic studies identified it as a potential factor involved in HIV replication. Herein, we show that over-expression of CypB enhances HIV infection by increasing nuclear import of viral DNA. This enhancement was unaffected by cyclosporine treatment and requires the N-terminus of the protein. The N-terminus contains an ER leader sequence, putative nuclear localization signal, and is required for secretion. Deletion of the N-terminus resulted in mislocalization from the ER and suppression of HIV infection. Passive transfer experiments showed that secreted CypB did not impact HIV infection. Combined, these experiments show that intracellular CypB modulates a pathway of HIV nuclear import. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The cross-talk of HIV-1 Tat and methamphetamine in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders

    Susana T Valente

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Antiretroviral therapy (ART has dramatically improved the lives of HIV-1 infected individuals. Nonetheless, HIV associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND, which range from undetectable neurocognitive impairments to severe dementia, still affect approximately 50% of the infected population, hampering their quality of life.The persistence of HAND is promoted by several factors, including longer life expectancies, the residual levels of virus in the central nervous system and the continued presence of HIV-1 regulatory proteins such as the transactivator of transcription (Tat in the brain. Tat is a secreted viral protein that crosses the blood brain barrier into the central nervous system, where it has the ability to directly act on neurons and non-neuronal cells alike. These actions result in the release of soluble factors involved in inflammation, oxidative stress and excitotoxicity, ultimately resulting in neuronal damage. The percentage of methamphetamine abusers is high among the HIV-1-positive population compared to the general population. On the other hand, methamphetamine abuse is correlated with increased viral replication, enhanced Tat-mediated neurotoxicity and neurocognitive impairments. Although several strategies have been investigated to reduce HAND and methamphetamine use, no clinically approved treatment is currently available. Here, we review the latest findings of the effects of Tat and methamphetamine in HAND and discuss a few promising potential therapeutic developments.

  13. HIV p24 as scaffold for presenting conformational HIV Env antigens.

    Maria Tagliamonte

    Full Text Available Heterologous protein scaffolds engrafted with structurally defined HIV Env epitopes recognized by broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs represent a promising strategy to elicit broad neutralizing antibodies. In such regards, a protein scaffold based on the HIV p24 CA protein is a highly attractive approach, providing also Gag epitopes for eliciting HIV non-neutralizing protective antibodies and specific CD4(+ and CD8(+ T cell responses. In the present study, computational techniques were employed to verify the presence of acceptor sites for conformational HIV Env epitopes and, as proof of concept, the analysis of HIV p24 CA-based scaffolds using a complete V3 loop in a MAb-bound conformation is presented. The V3-p24 epitope-scaffold proteins show the formation of capsomers made of hexamers similarly to the p24 wild type protein. Moreover, the conformational V3 loop presented on p24 scaffold is recognized by a panel of anti-V3 MAbs. The results suggest that HIV p24 CA protein has suitable acceptor sites for engrafting foreign epitopes, without disrupting the formation of capsomer hexamer structures, and that the V3 epitope does retain its antibody-bound conformation. This strongly support the feasibility of developing a scaffolding strategy based on p24 CA proteins displaying conformational minimal structural, antigenic HIV Env epitopes.

  14. HIV-1 phylogenetic analysis shows HIV-1 transits through the meninges to brain and peripheral tissues.

    Lamers, Susanna L; Gray, Rebecca R; Salemi, Marco; Huysentruyt, Leanne C; McGrath, Michael S

    2011-01-01

    Brain infection by the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) has been investigated in many reports with a variety of conclusions concerning the time of entry and degree of viral compartmentalization. To address these diverse findings, we sequenced HIV-1 gp120 clones from a wide range of brain, peripheral and meningeal tissues from five patients who died from several HIV-1 associated disease pathologies. High-resolution phylogenetic analysis confirmed previous studies that showed a significant degree of compartmentalization in brain and peripheral tissue subpopulations. Some intermixing between the HIV-1 subpopulations was evident, especially in patients that died from pathologies other than HIV-associated dementia. Interestingly, the major tissue harboring virus from both the brain and peripheral tissues was the meninges. These results show that (1) HIV-1 is clearly capable of migrating out of the brain, (2) the meninges are the most likely primary transport tissues, and (3) infected brain macrophages comprise an important HIV reservoir during highly active antiretroviral therapy. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Neutron monitoring measurements for the CIT [Compact Ignition Tokamak] materials irradiations in the ATR I1 position

    Rogers, J.W.; Anderl, R.A.

    1989-12-01

    Measurements were performed to help characterize the neutron environments in which the Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT) materials were irradiated. These materials were irradiated in a lead shield plug assembly at the ATR I1 position. Neutron monitor materials were placed in the capsules in proximity with the CIT specimens. The neutron monitors sensed the neutrons through reactions that have different neutron energy region responses. By measuring the radioactivity of the neutron monitors it was possible to determine the neutron fluence rates (n/cm 2 /sec) and fluences (n/cm 2 ) at the locations of the monitors. It was also possible to determine the axial and radial gradients of the neutron environments near the specimens. This report presents the results obtained from these measurements for both the CIT number-sign 1 (ORNL 64-2) and CIT number-sign 2 (ORNL 64-1) capsules. In general, ASTM methods and procedures were used in all neutron monitoring associated activities. 7 refs., 9 figs., 10 tabs

  16. Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C and HIV-1 Coinfection in Two Informal Urban Settlements in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Kerubo, Glennah; Khamadi, Samoel; Okoth, Vincent; Madise, Nyovani; Ezeh, Alex; Ziraba, Abdhalah; Abdalla, Ziraba; Mwau, Matilu

    2015-01-01

    HIV-1 and Hepatitis B and C viruses coinfection is common in Sub-Saharan Africa due to similar routes of transmission and high levels of poverty. Most studies on HIV-1 and Hepatitis B and C viruses have occurred in hospital settings and blood transfusion units. Data on Hepatitis B and C viruses and HIV-1 coinfection in informal urban settlements in Kenya are scanty, yet they could partly explain the disproportionately high morbidity and mortality associated with HIV-1 infections in these slums. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of HIV and Hepatitis B and C dual infection in urban slums in Nairobi. Blood samples were collected from residents of Viwandani and Korogocho between 2006 and 2007. A structured questionnaire was used to obtain socio-demographic data from participants. Samples were screened for Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), anti-HCV and anti-HIV-1. Statistical analysis was done using STATA. Samples were successfully collected from 418 (32%) men and 890 (68%) females. The HIV-1, HBV and HCV prevalence was 20.4%, 13.3% and 0.76% respectively at the time of the study. Of the 268 (20.4%) HIV-1 positive participants, 56 (4.26%) had HBV while 6 (0.46%) had HCV. Of the 1041 HIV-1 negative participants, 117 (8.9%) had HBV while 4 (0.31%) had HCV. Only two people (0.15%) were co-infected with all the three viruses together. The odds of getting hepatitis infection were higher in HIV-1 participants (for HBV OR 2.08,psettlements. HIV infection was highest in age group 35-39 years and among the divorced/separated or widowed. Prevalence of all viruses was highest in those who did not have any formal education. The HIV prevalence in these informal settlements suggests a higher rate than what is observed nationally. The prevalence rates of HBV are significantly higher in the HIV-1 positive and negative populations. HCV as well as triple HIV-1, HBV and HCV coinfection are uncommon in Korogocho and Viwandani. This clearly indicates the need

  17. Interphase FISH for BCR-ABL1 rearrangement on neutrophils: A decisive tool to discriminate a lymphoid blast crisis of chronic myeloid leukemia from a de novo BCR-ABL1 positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Balducci, Estelle; Loosveld, Marie; Rahal, Ilhem; Boudjarane, John; Alazard, Emilie; Missirian, Chantal; Lafage-Pochitaloff, Marina; Michel, Gérard; Zattara, Hélène

    2018-02-01

    Discrimination between lymphoid blast crisis of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and de novo BCR-ABL1 positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) represents a diagnostic challenge because this distinction has a major incidence on the management of patients. Here, we report an uncommon pediatric case of ALL with cryptic ins(22;9)(q11;q34q34) and p190-type BCR-ABL1 transcript. We performed interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for BCR-ABL1 rearrangement on blood neutrophils, which was positive consistent with the diagnosis of lymphoid blast crisis of CML. This case illustrates the major interest of interphase FISH for BCR-ABL1 rearrangement on blood neutrophils as a decisive method to discriminate a lymphoid blast crisis of CML from a de novo BCR-ABL1 positive ALL. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Patients with discordant responses to antiretroviral therapy have impaired killing of HIV-infected T cells.

    Sekar Natesampillai

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In medicine, understanding the pathophysiologic basis of exceptional circumstances has led to an enhanced understanding of biology. We have studied the circumstance of HIV-infected patients in whom antiretroviral therapy results in immunologic benefit, despite virologic failure. In such patients, two protease mutations, I54V and V82A, occur more frequently. Expressing HIV protease containing these mutations resulted in less cell death, caspase activation, and nuclear fragmentation than wild type (WT HIV protease or HIV protease containing other mutations. The impaired induction of cell death was also associated with impaired cleavage of procaspase 8, a requisite event for HIV protease mediated cell death. Primary CD4 T cells expressing I54V or V82A protease underwent less cell death than with WT or other mutant proteases. Human T cells infected with HIV containing these mutations underwent less cell death and less Casp8p41 production than WT or HIV containing other protease mutations, despite similar degrees of viral replication. The reductions in cell death occurred both within infected cells, as well as in uninfected bystander cells. These data indicate that single point mutations within HIV protease which are selected in vivo can significantly impact the ability of HIV to kill CD4 T cells, while not impacting viral replication. Therefore, HIV protease regulates both HIV replication as well as HIV induced T cell depletion, the hallmark of HIV pathogenesis.

  19. Case Report: HIV test misdiagnosis

    Case Study: HIV test misdiagnosis 124. Case Report: HIV ... A positive rapid HIV test does not require ... 3 College of Medicine - Johns Hopkins Research Project, Blantyre,. Malawi ... test results: a pilot study of three community testing sites.

  20. HIV/AIDS and Alcohol

    ... Psychiatric Disorders Other Substance Abuse HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) targets the body’s immune ... and often leads to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). The U.S. CDC reported that in 2015, 39, ...

  1. Living with HIV/AIDS

    ... destroying the white blood cells that fight infection. AIDS stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. It is the final stage of infection with HIV. Not everyone with HIV develops AIDS. Infection with HIV is serious. But thanks to ...

  2. HIV, AIDS, and the Future

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV, AIDS, and the Future Past Issues / Summer 2009 ... turn Javascript on. Photo: The NAMES Project Foundation HIV and AIDS are a global catastrophe. While advances ...

  3. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Full Text Available ... hiv-aids-101/statistics/ . Reference Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, National ... not just injection) can put a person at risk for getting HIV. Drug and alcohol intoxication affect ...

  4. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Full Text Available ... What are HIV and AIDS? HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) is the virus that causes AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome). AIDS ... but no cure, at the present time. The virus (HIV) and the disease it causes (AIDS) are ...

  5. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Full Text Available ... the Link - Drugs and HIV Learn the Link - Drugs and HIV Email Facebook Twitter 2005 –Ongoing Behaviors ... GA: CDC, DHHS. Retrieved November 2017. How are Drug Misuse and HIV Related? Drug misuse and addiction ...

  6. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Full Text Available ... Consequences of Drug Misuse Hepatitis (Viral) HIV/AIDS Mental Health Military Opioid Overdose Reversal with Naloxone (Narcan, ... hiv-aids-101/statistics/ . Reference Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, National ...

  7. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Full Text Available ... can suppress the virus and prevent or decrease symptoms of illness. To learn about current statistics of HIV in the United States, please visit: https://www.aids.gov/hiv-aids-basics/hiv-aids-101/statistics/ . ...

  8. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Full Text Available ... please visit: https://www.aids.gov/hiv-aids-basics/hiv-aids-101/statistics/ . Reference Centers for Disease ... About HIV/AIDS. ( https://www.cdc.gov/actagainstaids/basics/whatishiv.html ). Atlanta, GA: CDC, DHHS. Retrieved November ...

  9. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Full Text Available ... causes (AIDS) are often linked and referred to as "HIV/AIDS." HIV can be transferred between people ... years, HIV is no longer a death sentence, as it was when the epidemic began. This is ...

  10. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Full Text Available ... of HIV infection in the United States. Drugs can change the way the brain works, disrupting the ... linked and referred to as "HIV/AIDS." HIV can be transferred between people if an infected person's ...

  11. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Full Text Available ... the spread of HIV infection in the United States. Drugs can change the way the brain works, ... about current statistics of HIV in the United States, please visit: https://www.aids.gov/hiv-aids- ...

  12. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Full Text Available ... in the spread of HIV infection in the United States. Drugs can change the way the brain works, ... learn about current statistics of HIV in the United States, please visit: https://www.aids.gov/hiv-aids- ...

  13. Productive infection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in dendritic cells requires fusion-mediated viral entry

    Janas, Alicia M.; Dong, Chunsheng; Wang Jianhua; Wu Li

    2008-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) enters dendritic cells (DCs) through endocytosis and viral receptor-mediated fusion. Although endocytosis-mediated HIV-1 entry can generate productive infection in certain cell types, including human monocyte-derived macrophages, productive HIV-1 infection in DCs appears to be dependent on fusion-mediated viral entry. It remains to be defined whether endocytosed HIV-1 in DCs can initiate productive infection. Using HIV-1 infection and cellular fractionation assays to measure productive viral infection and entry, here we show that HIV-1 enters monocyte-derived DCs predominately through endocytosis; however, endocytosed HIV-1 cannot initiate productive HIV-1 infection in DCs. In contrast, productive HIV-1 infection in DCs requires fusion-mediated viral entry. Together, these results provide functional evidence in understanding HIV-1 cis-infection of DCs, suggesting that different pathways of HIV-1 entry into DCs determine the outcome of viral infection

  14. HIV Vaccine for Prevention and Cure, A Mission Possible.

    Lu, Da-Yong; Wu, Hong-Ying; Ding, Jian; Sastry, Nagendra; Lu, Ting-Ren

    2016-01-01

    HIV/AIDS was once a highly deadly infective disease that killed the global people of a million annually two decades ago. While we are enjoying the HIV therapeutic advances (mostly important from HAART invention), one obvious drawback is still unresolved-unable to clearance all HIV from infected human bodies. As a result, a series of different therapeutic attempts have been proposed based on present knowledge of different features of HIV-induced pathogenesis and human mortalities. Facing this shortcoming, innovative designs and update of HIV vaccines and other types of HIV therapeutic inventions can be a final solution for completely HIV clearance and infection managements in human beings. Owing to these scientific and medical significances, several experimental and clinical attempts have to be made. Among these attempts, part of them (updating HIV vaccine developments and clinical routines) are quite promising and noteworthy. In this article, we offer the general information of this attempt and discuss it separately, especially on the respects of HIV vaccine strategic innovations.

  15. Evaluation of HIV Surveillance System in Rivers State, Nigeria ...

    Sony Computer (Iby)

    HIV surveillance system generates information for timely and appropriate ..... active type of surveillance.14 Nonetheless, it requires training, supervision and motivation ... very effectively.14 The introduction of reward-system could be included.

  16. Venues for Meeting Sex Partners and Partner HIV Risk Characteristics: HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN064) Women's HIV Seroincidence Study (ISIS).

    Roman Isler, M; Golin, C; Wang, J; Hughes, J; Justman, J; Haley, D; Kuo, I; Adimora, A; Chege, W; Hodder, S

    2016-06-01

    Identifying venues where women meet sexual partners, particular partners who increase women's risk of acquiring HIV, could inform prevention efforts. We categorized venues where women enrolled in HPTN 064 reported meeting their last three sex partners as: (1) Formal, (2) Public, (3) Private, and (4) Virtual spaces. We used multinomial logistic regression to assess the association between these venues and women's individual characteristics and reports of their partners' HIV risk characteristics. The 2099 women reported meeting 3991 partners, 51 % at Public, 30 % Private, 17 % Formal and 3 % at Virtual venues. Women meeting partners at Formal venues reported more education and condom use than women meeting partners at other venues. Fewer partners met through Formal venues had "high" risk characteristics for HIV than through other venues and hence may pose less risk of HIV transmission. HIV prevention interventions can help women choose partners with fewer risk characteristics across all venue types.

  17. Cancer clinical trials in persons with HIV infection.

    Little, Richard F

    2017-01-01

    The era of modern HIV therapeutics is well underway. The cancer and infectious disease epidemiology of HIV disease has markedly altered as populations are availed to the benefits of antiretroviral therapy (ARV). The types of cancers occurring among those with HIV infection has broadened but the case burden in absolute numbers is very low relative to the background population. There are fewer incident cases of the AIDS-defining cancers (aggressive B-cell lymphomas, Kaposi's sarcoma, and cervical cancer). There is an increased risk for certain non-AIDS-defining cancers, but these occur somewhat sporadically relative to clinical trial enrollment. The changing epidemiology of cancer in HIV poses challenges as well as opportunities for participation of persons with HIV in cancer therapy clinical trials. There are excellent examples of cancer trials that inform cancer therapy for patients with HIV infection. Examples include those from HIV-specific trials and from trials mainly focused on the background population that included patients with HIV infection. Interpretation of clinical trials to guide therapy for those with HIV infection and cancer largely depends on data that does not include HIV-infected patients. The ability to extend clinical trial findings to populations not included in clinical trials remains problematic for a variety of populations, including those with HIV or AIDS. Careful prioritization of studies designed to bridge this gap is needed. However, there are published studies that serve as excellent examples bridging these gaps and the portfolio of cancer therapy trials underway will inform HIV and cancer better than at any time in the past.

  18. The organization of HIV and other health activities within urban religious congregations.

    Palar, Kartika; Mendel, Peter; Derose, Kathryn Pitkin

    2013-10-01

    Most religious congregations in the USA are involved with some type of social service activity, including health activities. However, relatively few formally engage with people with HIV, and many have reported barriers to introducing HIV prevention activities. We conducted a qualitative case study of HIV involvement among 14 urban congregations in Los Angeles County in 2007. In-depth qualitative interviews of lay leaders and clergy were analyzed for themes related to HIV and other health activities, including types of health issues addressed, types of activities conducted, how activities were organized, and the relationship between HIV and other health activities. We identified three primary models representing how congregations organized HIV and other health activities: (1) embedded (n = 7), where HIV activities were contained within other health activities; (2) parallel (n = 5), where HIV and other health activities occurred side by side and were organizationally distinct; (3) overlap (n = 2), where HIV and non-HIV health efforts were conducted by distinct groups, but shared some members and organization. We discuss implications of each model for initiating and sustaining HIV activities within urban congregations over time.

  19. The Oncolytic Virus MG1 Targets and Eliminates Cells Latently Infected With HIV-1: Implications for an HIV Cure.

    Ranganath, Nischal; Sandstrom, Teslin S; Burke Schinkel, Stephanie C; Côté, Sandra C; Angel, Jonathan B

    2018-02-14

    Cells latently infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) evade immune- and drug-mediated clearance. These cells harbor intracellular signaling defects, including impairment of the antiviral type I interferon response. Such defects have also been observed in several cancers and have been exploited for the development of therapeutic oncolytic viruses, including the recombinant Maraba virus (MG1). We therefore hypothesized that MG1 would infect and eliminate cells latently infected with HIV-1, while sparing healthy uninfected cells. Preferential infection and elimination by MG1 was first demonstrated in cell lines latently infected with HIV-1. Following this, a reduction in HIV-1 DNA and inducible HIV-1 replication was observed following MG1 infection of latently infected, resting CD4+ T cells generated using an in vitro model of latency. Last, MG1 infection resulted in a reduction in HIV-1 DNA and inducible HIV-1 replication in memory CD4+ T cells isolated from effectively treated, HIV-1-infected individuals. Our results therefore highlight a novel approach to eliminate the latent HIV-1 reservoir. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  20. Travelling with HIV

    Nielsen, Ulla S; Jensen-Fangel, Søren; Pedersen, Gitte

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We aimed to describe travel patterns, extent of professional pre-travel advice and health problems encountered during travel among HIV-infected individuals. METHODS: During a six-month period a questionnaire was handed out to 2821 adult HIV-infected individuals attending any...... of the eight Danish medical HIV care centers. RESULTS: A total of 763 individuals responded. During the previous two years 49% had travelled outside Europe; 18% had travelled less and 30% were more cautious when choosing travel destination than before the HIV diagnosis. Pre-travel advice was sought by only 38......%, and travel insurance was taken out by 86%. However, 29%/74% did not inform the advisor/the insurance company about their HIV status. Nearly all patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) were adherent, but 58% worried about carrying HIV-medicine and 19% tried to hide it. Only 19% experienced...

  1. Parenting and HIV.

    Rochat, Tamsen; Netsi, Elena; Redinger, Stephanie; Stein, Alan

    2017-06-01

    With the widespread use of antiretroviral therapy and successful prevention of mother-to-child transmission the development of HIV-negative children with HIV-positive parents has become an important focus. There is considerable evidence that children's developmental risk is heightened because a parental HIV-diagnosis is associated with a range of potential problems such as depression, stigma and financial difficulties. Up to a third of children in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are cared for by an HIV-positive parent or caregiver. We review the mechanisms by which HIV affects parenting including its negative effects on parental responsiveness in the early years of parenting and parental avoidant coping styles and parenting deficits in the later years. We describe low-cost parenting interventions suited for low resourced HIV endemic settings. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Differential effects of sex in a West African cohort of HIV-1, HIV-2 and HIV-1/2 dually infected patients: men are worse off.

    Jespersen, Sanne; Hønge, Bo Langhoff; Esbjörnsson, Joakim; Medina, Candida; da Silva Té, David; Correira, Faustino Gomes; Laursen, Alex Lund; Østergaard, Lars; Andersen, Andreas; Aaby, Peter; Erikstrup, Christian; Wejse, Christian

    2016-02-01

    Several studies have reported conflicting effects of sex on HIV-1 infection. We describe differences in baseline characteristics and assess the impact of sex on HIV progression among patients at a clinic with many HIV-2 and HIV-1/2 dually infected patients. This study utilised a retrospective cohort of treatment-naïve adults at the largest HIV clinic in Guinea-Bissau from 6 June 2005 to 1 December 2013. Baseline characteristics were assessed and the patients followed until death, transfer, loss to follow-up, or 1 June 2014. We estimated the time from the first clinic visit until initiation of ART, death or loss to follow-up using Cox proportional hazard models. A total of 5694 patients were included in the study, 3702 women (65%) and 1992 men (35%). Women were more likely than men to be infected with HIV-2 (19% vs. 15%, P < 0.01) or dually infected with HIV-1/2 (11% vs. 9%, P = 0.02). For all HIV types, women were younger (median 35 vs. 40 years), less likely to have schooling (55% vs. 77%) or to be married (46% vs. 67%), and had higher baseline CD4 cell counts (median 214 vs. 178 cells/μl). Men had a higher age-adjusted mortality rate (hazard rate ratio (HRR) 1.29, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.09-1.52) and were more often lost to follow-up (HRR 1.27, 95% CI 1.17-1.39). Significant differences exist between HIV-infected men and women regardless of HIV type. Men seek treatment at a later stage and, despite better socio-economic status, have higher mortality and loss to follow-up than women. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Recognition of HIV-1 peptides by host CTL is related to HIV-1 similarity to human proteins.

    Morgane Rolland

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: While human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes preferentially target specific regions of the viral proteome, HIV-1 features that contribute to immune recognition are not well understood. One hypothesis is that similarities between HIV and human proteins influence the host immune response, i.e., resemblance between viral and host peptides could preclude reactivity against certain HIV epitopes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed the extent of similarity between HIV-1 and the human proteome. Proteins from the HIV-1 B consensus sequence from 2001 were dissected into overlapping k-mers, which were then probed against a non-redundant database of the human proteome in order to identify segments of high similarity. We tested the relationship between HIV-1 similarity to host encoded peptides and immune recognition in HIV-infected individuals, and found that HIV immunogenicity could be partially modulated by the sequence similarity to the host proteome. ELISpot responses to peptides spanning the entire viral proteome evaluated in 314 individuals showed a trend indicating an inverse relationship between the similarity to the host proteome and the frequency of recognition. In addition, analysis of responses by a group of 30 HIV-infected individuals against 944 overlapping peptides representing a broad range of individual HIV-1B Nef variants, affirmed that the degree of similarity to the host was significantly lower for peptides with reactive epitopes than for those that were not recognized. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that antigenic motifs that are scarcely represented in human proteins might represent more immunogenic CTL targets not selected against in the host. This observation could provide guidance in the design of more effective HIV immunogens, as sequences devoid of host-like features might afford superior immune reactivity.

  4. HIV and Neurocognitive Dysfunction

    Spudich, Serena

    2013-01-01

    The spectrum of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) has been dramatically altered in the setting of widely available effective antiretroviral therapy (ART). Once culminating in dementia in many individuals infected with HIV, HAND now typically manifests as more subtle, though still morbid, forms of cognitive impairment in persons surviving long-term with treated HIV infection. Despite the substantial improvement in severity of this disorder, the fact that neurologic injury persists ...

  5. Pregnancy and HIV infection

    Mete Sucu; Cihan Cetin; Mehmet Ozsurmeli; Ghanim Khatib; Ceren Cetin; Cuneyt Evruke

    2016-01-01

    The management of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection is progressing rapidly. In developed countries, the perinatal transmission rates have decreased from 20-30% to 1-2% with the use of antiretroviral therapy and cesarean section. Interventions for the prevention of prenatal transmission has made the prenatal care of pregnant patients with HIV infection more complex. Rapid development of standard care and continuing increase in the distribution of HIV infection has required clinician...

  6. Paediatric HIV infection.

    Scarlatti, G

    1996-09-28

    By the year 2000 there will be six million pregnant women and five to ten million children infected with HIV-1. Intervention strategies have been planned and in some instances already started. A timely and cost-effective strategy needs to take into account that most HIV-1 infected individuals reside in developing countries. Further studies are needed on immunological and virological factors affecting HIV-1 transmission from mother to child, on differential disease progression in affected children, and on transient infection.

  7. Epidemiological profile of naive HIV-1/AIDS patients in Istanbul: the largest case series from Turkey.

    Yemisen, Mucahit; Aydın, Ozlem Altuntas; Gunduz, Alper; Ozgunes, Nail; Mete, Bilgul; Ceylan, Bahadir; Karaosmanoglu, Hayat Kumbasar; Yildiz, Dilek; Sargin, Fatma; Ozaras, Resat; Tabak, Fehmi

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to report the epidemiological profile of HIV-1 positive patients from, Istanbul, Turkey, which has one of the lowest HIV-1/AIDS prevalences in Europe. The patients were followed by ACTHIV-IST group which was established by the Infectious Diseases Departments of five teaching hospitals (three university hospitals and two public hospitals) in Istanbul, Turkey. The HIV-1 positive patients were added to the standard patient files in all of the centers; these files were then transferred to the ACTHIV-IST database in the Internet. A total of 829 naiv-untreated HIV-1 positive patients were chosen from the database. The number of male patients was 700 (84.4%) and the mean age of the patients was 37 years (range, 17-79). In our study group 348 (42%) of the patients were married and 318 (38.7%) of the patients were single. The probable route of transmission was heterosexual intercourse in 437 (52.7%) patients and homosexual intercourse in 256 (30.9%) patients. In 519 (62.6%) patients the diagnose was made due to a screening test and in 241 (29.1%) patients, the diagnose was made due to an HIV-related/non-related disease. The mean CD4+ T cell number in 788 of the patients was 357.8/mm(3) (±271.1), and the median viral load in 698 of the patients was 100,000 copies/mL (20-9,790,000). In Turkey, the number of HIV-1 positive patients is still low and to diagnose with a screening test is the most common way of diagnostic route.

  8. Language and HIV communication

    Lynn VA

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Vickie A LynnDepartment of Community and Family Health, College of Public Health, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USAI am writing to comment on Kontomanolis et al’s recent article entitled “The social stigma of HIV-AIDS: society’s role”.1 Although I applaud the authors for writing about this important topic and I wholeheartedly agree that HIV-related stigma is devastating to women living with HIV, I want to point out that using stigmatizing language when writing an article about HIV-related stigma is counterproductive.View the original paper by Kontomanolis and colleagues.

  9. Comparison of Multispot EIA with Western blot for confirmatory serodiagnosis of HIV.

    Torian, Lucia V; Forgione, Lisa A; Punsalang, Amado E; Pirillo, Robert E; Oleszko, William R

    2011-12-01

    Recent improvements in the sensitivity of immunoassays (IA) used for HIV screening, coupled with increasing recognition of the importance of rapid point-of-care testing, have led to proposals to adjust the algorithm for serodiagnosis of HIV so that screening and confirmation can be performed using a dual or triple IA sequence that does not require Western blotting for confirmation. One IA that has been proposed as a second or confirmatory test is the Bio-Rad Multispot(®) Rapid HIV-1/HIV-2 Test. This test would have the added advantage of differentiating between HIV-1 and HIV-2 antibodies. To compare the sensitivity and type-specificity of an algorithm combining a 3rd generation enzyme immunoassay (EIA) followed by a confirmatory Multispot with the conventional algorithm that combines a 3rd generation EIA (Bio-Rad GS HIV-1/HIV-2 Plus O EIA) followed by confirmatory Western blot (Bio-Rad GS HIV-1 WB). 8760 serum specimens submitted for HIV testing to the New York City Public Health Laboratory between May 22, 2007, and April 30, 2010, tested repeatedly positive on 3rd generation HIV-1-2+O EIA screening and received parallel confirmatory testing by WB and Multispot (MS). 8678/8760 (99.1%) specimens tested WB-positive; 82 (0.9%) tested WB-negative or indeterminate (IND). 8690/8760 specimens (99.2%) tested MS-positive, of which 14 (17.1%) had been classified as negative or IND by WB. Among the HIV-1 WB-positive specimens, MS classified 26 (0.29%) as HIV-2. Among the HIV-1 WB negative and IND, MS detected 12 HIV-2. MS detected an additional 14 HIV-1 infections among WB negative or IND specimens, differentiated 26 HIV-1 WB positives as HIV-2, and detected 12 additional HIV-2 infections among WB negative/IND. A dual 3rd generation EIA algorithm incorporating MS had equivalent HIV-1 sensitivity to the 3rd generation EIA-WB algorithm and had the added advantage of detecting 12 HIV-2 specimens that were not HIV-1 WB cross-reactors. In this series an algorithm using EIA

  10. INFLUENZA IMMUNISATION IN HIV-INFECTED PERSONS

    in 1997' (surpassing the 6O'lb vaccine coverage goal for the country's Healthy People 2000 Project). ... (i) are HIV-infected persons at special risk for influenza complications and is annual immunisation .... virus type' 1 rep :cation can be increased in peripheral 0100d of sero- positive patiems aher influenrc. vacdnation.

  11. Pre-AIDS mortality and its association with HIV disease progression in haemophilic men, injecting drug users and homosexual men

    Prins, M. [= Maria; Sabin, C. A.; Lee, C. A.; Devereux, H.; Coutinho, R. A.

    2000-01-01

    To study pre-AIDS mortality and its association with HIV disease progression in different exposure groups with known intervals of HIV seroconversion. The type and rate of pre-AIDS deaths were assessed in 111 HIV-infected haemophilic men followed in London, and 118 injecting drug users and 158

  12. Upper Gastrointestinal Symptoms Predictive of Candida Esophagitis and Erosive Esophagitis in HIV and Non-HIV Patients: An Endoscopy-Based Cross-Sectional Study of 6011 Patients.

    Takahashi, Yuta; Nagata, Naoyoshi; Shimbo, Takuro; Nishijima, Takeshi; Watanabe, Koji; Aoki, Tomonori; Sekine, Katsunori; Okubo, Hidetaka; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Sakurai, Toshiyuki; Yokoi, Chizu; Mimori, Akio; Oka, Shinichi; Uemura, Naomi; Akiyama, Junichi

    2015-11-01

    Upper gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms are common in both HIV and non-HIV-infected patients, but the difference of GI symptom severity between 2 groups remains unknown. Candida esophagitis and erosive esophagitis, 2 major types of esophagitis, are seen in both HIV and non-HIV-infected patients, but differences in GI symptoms that are predictive of esophagitis between 2 groups remain unknown. We aimed to determine whether GI symptoms differ between HIV-infected and non-HIV-infected patients, and identify specific symptoms of candida esophagitis and erosive esophagitis between 2 groups.We prospectively enrolled 6011 patients (HIV, 430; non-HIV, 5581) who underwent endoscopy and completed questionnaires. Nine upper GI symptoms (epigastric pain, heartburn, acid regurgitation, hunger cramps, nausea, early satiety, belching, dysphagia, and odynophagia) were evaluated using a 7-point Likert scale. Associations between esophagitis and symptoms were analyzed by the multivariate logistic regression model adjusted for age, sex, and proton pump inhibitors.Endoscopy revealed GI-organic diseases in 33.4% (2010/6.011) of patients. The prevalence of candida esophagitis and erosive esophagitis was 11.2% and 12.1% in HIV-infected patients, respectively, whereas it was 2.9% and 10.7 % in non-HIV-infected patients, respectively. After excluding GI-organic diseases, HIV-infected patients had significantly (P symptom scores for heartburn, hunger cramps, nausea, early satiety, belching, dysphagia, and odynophagia than non-HIV-infected patients. In HIV-infected patients, any symptom was not significantly associated with CD4 cell count. In multivariate analysis, none of the 9 GI symptoms were associated with candida esophagitis in HIV-infected patients, whereas dysphagia and odynophagia were independently (P HIV-infected patients. However, heartburn and acid regurgitation were independently (P symptom scores were reliable in both HIV (α, 0.86) and non-HIV-infected patients (α, 0.85).This

  13. Factors associated with linkage to HIV care and TB treatment at community-based HIV testing services in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Meehan, Sue-Ann; Sloot, Rosa; Draper, Heather R; Naidoo, Pren; Burger, Ronelle; Beyers, Nulda

    2018-01-01

    Diagnosing HIV and/or TB is not sufficient; linkage to care and treatment is conditional to reduce the burden of disease. This study aimed to determine factors associated with linkage to HIV care and TB treatment at community-based services in Cape Town, South Africa. This retrospective cohort study utilized routinely collected data from clients who utilized stand-alone (fixed site not attached to a health facility) and mobile HIV testing services in eight communities in the City of Cape Town Metropolitan district, between January 2008 and June 2012. Clients were included in the analysis if they were ≥12 years and had a known HIV status. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) logistic regression models were used to assess the association between determinants (sex, age, HIV testing service and co-infection status) and self-reported linkage to HIV care and/or TB treatment. Linkage to HIV care was 3 738/5 929 (63.1%). Linkage to HIV care was associated with the type of HIV testing service. Clients diagnosed with HIV at mobile services had a significantly reduced odds of linking to HIV care (aOR 0.7 (CI 95%: 0.6-0.8), p<0.001. Linkage to TB treatment was 210/275 (76.4%). Linkage to TB treatment was not associated with sex and service type, but was associated with age. Clients in older age groups were less likely to link to TB treatment compared to clients in the age group 12-24 years (all, p-value<0.05). A large proportion of clients diagnosed with HIV at mobile services did not link to care. Almost a quarter of clients diagnosed with TB did not link to treatment. Integrated community-based HIV and TB testing services are efficient in diagnosing HIV and TB, but strategies to improve linkage to care are required to control these epidemics.

  14. Interplay between HIV Entry and Transportin-SR2 Dependency

    Gijsbers Rik

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transportin-SR2 (TRN-SR2, TNPO3, transportin 3 was previously identified as an interaction partner of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 integrase and functions as a nuclear import factor of HIV-1. A possible role of capsid in transportin-SR2-mediated nuclear import was recently suggested by the findings that a chimeric HIV virus, carrying the murine leukemia virus (MLV capsid and matrix proteins, displayed a transportin-SR2 independent phenotype, and that the HIV-1 N74D capsid mutant proved insensitive to transportin-SR2 knockdown. Results Our present analysis of viral specificity reveals that TRN-SR2 is not used to the same extent by all lentiviruses. The DNA flap does not determine the TRN-SR2 requirement of HIV-1. We corroborate the TRN-SR2 independent phenotype of the chimeric HIV virus carrying the MLV capsid and matrix proteins. We reanalyzed the HIV-1 N74D capsid mutant in cells transiently or stably depleted of transportin-SR2 and confirm that the N74D capsid mutant is independent of TRN-SR2 when pseudotyped with the vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSV-G. Remarkably, although somewhat less dependent on TRN-SR2 than wild type virus, the N74D capsid mutant carrying the wild type HIV-1 envelope required TRN-SR2 for efficient replication. By pseudotyping with envelopes that mediate pH-independent viral uptake including HIV-1, measles virus and amphotropic MLV envelopes, we demonstrate that HIV-1 N74D capsid mutant viruses retain partial dependency on TRN-SR2. However, this dependency on TRN-SR2 is lost when the HIV N74D capsid mutant is pseudotyped with envelopes mediating pH-dependent endocytosis, such as the VSV-G and Ebola virus envelopes. Conclusion Here we discover a link between the viral entry of HIV and its interaction with TRN-SR2. Our data confirm the importance of TRN-SR2 in HIV-1 replication and argue for careful interpretation of experiments performed with VSV-G pseudotyped viruses in

  15. Fate and persistence of a pathogenic NDM-1-positive Escherichia coli strain in anaerobic and aerobic sludge microcosms

    Mantilla-Calderon, David

    2017-04-15

    The presence of emerging biological pollutants in treated wastewater effluents has gained attention due to increased interest in water reuse. To evaluate the effectiveness of the removal of such contaminants by the conventional wastewater treatment process, the fate and decay kinetics of NDM-1-positive Escherichia coli strain PI7 and its plasmid-encoded antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) were assessed in microcosms of anaerobic and aerobic sludge. Results showed that E. coli PI7 decayed at a significantly slower rate under anaerobic conditions. Approximate half-lives were 32.4 ± 1.4 h and 5.9 ± 0.9 h in the anaerobic and aerobic microcosms, respectively. In the aerobic microcosms, after 72 h of operation, E. coli PI7 remained detectable but no further decay was observed. Instead, 1 in every 10000 E. coli cells was identified to be recalcitrant to decay and persist indefinitely in the sludge. ARGs associated with the E. coli PI7 were detected to have transferred to other native microorganisms in the sludge, or are released to the liquid fraction upon host decay. Extracellular DNA quickly degraded in the liquid fraction of the aerobic sludge. In contrast, no DNA decay was detected in the anaerobic sludge water matrix throughout the 24 h sampling period. This study suggests an increased likelihood of environmental dispersion of ARGs associated with anaerobically treated wastewater effluents and highlights the potential importance of persister cells in the dissemination of E. coli in the environment during reuse events of treated wastewater.IMPORTANCE This study examines the decay kinetics of a pathogenic and antibiotic resistant strain of Escherichia coli in microcosms simulating biological treatment units of aerobic and anaerobic sludge. The results of this study points at a significantly prolonged persistence of the E. coli and the associated antibiotic resistance gene in the anaerobic sludge. However, horizontal transfer of the plasmid encoding the antibiotic

  16. Fate and Persistence of a Pathogenic NDM-1-Positive Escherichia coli Strain in Anaerobic and Aerobic Sludge Microcosms.

    Mantilla-Calderon, David; Hong, Pei-Ying

    2017-07-01

    The presence of emerging biological pollutants in treated wastewater effluents has gained attention due to increased interest in water reuse. To evaluate the effectiveness of the removal of such contaminants by the conventional wastewater treatment process, the fate and decay kinetics of NDM-1-positive Escherichia coli strain PI7 and its plasmid-encoded antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) were assessed in microcosms of anaerobic and aerobic sludge. Results showed that E. coli PI7 decayed at a significantly lower rate under anaerobic conditions. Approximate half-lives were 32.4 ± 1.4 h and 5.9 ± 0.9 h in the anaerobic and aerobic microcosms, respectively. In the aerobic microcosms, after 72 h of operation, E. coli PI7 remained detectable, but no further decay was observed. Instead, 1 in every 10,000 E. coli cells was identified to be recalcitrant to decay and persist indefinitely in the sludge. ARGs associated with the E. coli PI7 strain were detected to have transferred to other native microorganisms in the sludge or were released to the liquid fraction upon host decay. Extracellular DNA quickly degraded in the liquid fraction of the aerobic sludge. In contrast, no DNA decay was detected in the anaerobic sludge water matrix throughout the 24-h sampling period. This study suggests an increased likelihood of environmental dispersion of ARGs associated with anaerobically treated wastewater effluents and highlights the potential importance of persister cells in the dissemination of E. coli in the environment during reuse events of treated wastewater. IMPORTANCE This study examines the decay kinetics of a pathogenic and antibiotic resistant strain of Escherichia coli in microcosms simulating biological treatment units of aerobic and anaerobic sludge. The results of this study point at a significantly prolonged persistence of the E. coli and the associated antibiotic resistance gene in the anaerobic sludge. However, horizontal transfer of the plasmid encoding the

  17. Types of HIV/AIDS Antiretroviral Drugs

    ... Relations Cyber Infrastructure Computational Biology Equal Employment Opportunity Ethics Global Research Office of Mission Integration and Financial Management Strategic Planning Workforce Effectiveness Workplace Solutions Technology Transfer Intellectual Property Division of AIDS ...

  18. EcoHIV infection of mice establishes latent viral reservoirs in T cells and active viral reservoirs in macrophages that are sufficient for induction of neurocognitive impairment.

    Gu, Chao-Jiang; Borjabad, Alejandra; Hadas, Eran; Kelschenbach, Jennifer; Kim, Boe-Hyun; Chao, Wei; Arancio, Ottavio; Suh, Jin; Polsky, Bruce; McMillan, JoEllyn; Edagwa, Benson; Gendelman, Howard E; Potash, Mary Jane; Volsky, David J

    2018-06-01

    Suppression of HIV replication by antiretroviral therapy (ART) or host immunity can prevent AIDS but not other HIV-associated conditions including neurocognitive impairment (HIV-NCI). Pathogenesis in HIV-suppressed individuals has been attributed to reservoirs of latent-inducible virus in resting CD4+ T cells. Macrophages are persistently infected with HIV but their role as HIV reservoirs in vivo has not been fully explored. Here we show that infection of conventional mice with chimeric HIV, EcoHIV, reproduces physiological conditions for development of disease in people on ART including immunocompetence, stable suppression of HIV replication, persistence of integrated, replication-competent HIV in T cells and macrophages, and manifestation of learning and memory deficits in behavioral tests, termed here murine HIV-NCI. EcoHIV established latent reservoirs in CD4+ T lymphocytes in chronically-infected mice but could be induced by epigenetic modulators ex vivo and in mice. In contrast, macrophages expressed EcoHIV constitutively in mice for up to 16 months; murine leukemia virus (MLV), the donor of gp80 envelope in EcoHIV, did not infect macrophages. Both EcoHIV and MLV were found in brain tissue of infected mice but only EcoHIV induced NCI. Murine HIV-NCI was prevented by antiretroviral prophylaxis but once established neither persistent EcoHIV infection in mice nor NCI could be reversed by long-acting antiretroviral therapy. EcoHIV-infected, athymic mice were more permissive to virus replication in macrophages than were wild-type mice, suffered cognitive dysfunction, as well as increased numbers of monocytes and macrophages infiltrating the brain. Our results suggest an important role of HIV expressing macrophages in HIV neuropathogenesis in hosts with suppressed HIV replication.

  19. Disturbed amino acid metabolism in HIV: association with neuropsychiatric symptoms

    Johanna M Gostner

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Blood levels of the amino acid phenylalanine, as well as of the tryptophan breakdown product kynurenine, are found to be elevated in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1-infected patients. Both essential amino acids, tryptophan and phenylalanine are important precursor molecules for neurotransmitter biosynthesis. Thus, dysregulated amino acid metabolism may be related to disease-associated neuropsychiatric symptoms such as development of depression, fatigue, and cognitive impairment.Increased phenylalanine/tyrosine and kynurenine/tryptophan ratios are associated with immune activation in patients with HIV-1 infection and decrease upon effective antiretroviral therapy. Recent large-scale metabolic studies have confirmed the crucial involvement of tryptophan and phenylalanine metabolism in HIV-associated disease. Herein, we summarize the current status of the role of tryptophan and phenylalanine metabolism in HIV disease and discuss how inflammatory stress-associated dysregulation of amino acid metabolism may be part of the pathophysiology of common HIV-associated neuropsychiatric conditions.

  20. Medical UV exposures and HIV activation

    Zmudzka, B.Z.; Miller, S.A.; Jacobs, M.E.; Beer, J.Z.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents the first attempt to evaluate the potential of clinical UV exposures to induce the human immunodeficiency (HIV) promoter and, thus, to upregulate HIV growth in those skin cells that are directly affected by the exposure. Using the data for HIV promoter activation in vitro, we computed UVB and psoralen plus UVA (PUVA) doses that produce 50% of the maximal promoter activation (AD 50 ). Then, using (a) literature data for UV transmittance in the human skin, (b) a composite action spectrum for HIV promoter and pyrimidine dimer induction by UVB and (c) an action spectrum for DNA synthesis inhibition by PUVA, we estimated the distribution of medical UVB and PUVA doses in the skin. This allowed us to estimate how deep into the skin the HIV-activating doses might penetrate in an initial and an advanced stge of UVB and PUVA therapy. Such analysis was done for normal type II skin and for single exposures. For UVB we found that, when the incident dose on the surface of the skin is 500 J/m 2 (290-320 nm) (initial stage of the therapy), the dose producing 50% of the maximal HIV promoter activation (AD 50 UVB ) is limited to the stratum corneum. For PUVA we found that, when the incident UVA doses are 25 or 100 kJ/m 2 (320-400 nm) (an initial and an advanced stage of therapy, respectively), and the 8-methoxypsoralen concentration in the blood is 0.1 μg/mL (the desired level), the combined doses to the mid epidermis (and some areas of the upper dermis) are well below the 50% HIV promoter-activating PUVA dose (AD 50 PUVA ). These results suggest that the probability of HIV activation in the epidermis by direct mechanisms is higher for UVB than for PUVA treatment. However, complexities of the UV-inducible HIV activation and immunomodulatory phenomena are such that our results by themselves should not be taken as an indication that UVB therapy carries a high risk than PUVA therapy when administered to HIV-infected patients. (Author)

  1. Vaginal rings for delivery of HIV microbicides.

    Malcolm, R Karl; Fetherston, Susan M; McCoy, Clare F; Boyd, Peter; Major, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Following the successful development of long-acting steroid-releasing vaginal ring devices for the treatment of menopausal symptoms and contraception, there is now considerable interest in applying similar devices to the controlled release of microbicides against HIV. In this review article, the vaginal ring concept is first considered within the wider context of the early advances in controlled-release technology, before describing the various types of ring device available today. The remainder of the article highlights the key developments in HIV microbicide-releasing vaginal rings, with a particular focus on the dapivirine ring that is presently in late-stage clinical testing.

  2. HIV Stigma Mediates the Association Between Social Cohesion and Consistent Condom Use Among Female Sex Workers Living with HIV in the Dominican Republic.

    Carrasco, Maria Augusta; Nguyen, Trang Q; Barrington, Clare; Perez, Martha; Donastorg, Yeycy; Kerrigan, Deanna

    2018-07-01

    Evidence indicates that social cohesion is a successful strategy to improve consistent condom use (CCU) among female sex workers. However, the individual and layered or combined effect that various types of overlapping stigmas may have on CCU between female sex workers living with HIV and their clients and steady partners has not been analyzed. Drawing on the Abriendo Puertas cohort of female sex workers living with HIV in the Dominican Republic, we used structural equation modeling to test the hypothesis that both HIV stigma and sex work stigma mediate the association between social cohesion and CCU and that they have a layered effect. The results indicated that HIV stigma mediated the association between social cohesion and CCU with clients and partners, while sex work-related stigma did not. There was no evidence of a layered HIV stigma and sex work stigma effect, which may be due to methodological limitations to handle highly correlated latent variables. Findings highlight the need to address internalized HIV stigma within the context of community-based approaches to enhance their HIV prevention impact. This will help to reduce the risk of HIV re-infection with a new distinct HIV viral strain, STI infection, and onward HIV transmission among female sex workers living with HIV.

  3. Canadian consensus statement on HIV and its transmission in the context of criminal law.

    Loutfy, Mona; Tyndall, Mark; Baril, Jean-Guy; Montaner, Julio Sg; Kaul, Rupert; Hankins, Catherine

    2014-05-01

    A poor appreciation of the science related to HIV contributes to an overly broad use of the criminal law against individuals living with HIV in cases of HIV nondisclosure. To promote an evidence-informed application of the law in Canada, a team of six Canadian medical experts on HIV and transmission led the development of a consensus statement on HIV sexual transmission, HIV transmission associated with biting and spitting, and the natural history of HIV infection. The statement is based on a literature review of the most recent and relevant scientific evidence (current as of December 2013) regarding HIV and its transmission. It has been endorsed by >70 additional Canadian HIV experts and the Association of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Disease Canada. Scientific and medical evidence clearly indicate that HIV is difficult to transmit during sex. For the purpose of informing the justice system, the per-act possibility of HIV transmission through sex, biting or spitting is described along a continuum from low possibility, to negligible possibility, to no possibility of transmission. This possibility takes into account the impact of factors such as the type of sexual acts, condom use, antiretroviral therapy and viral load. Dramatic advances in HIV therapy have transformed HIV infection into a chronic manageable condition. HIV physicians and scientists have a professional and ethical responsibility to assist those in the criminal justice system to understand and interpret the science regarding HIV. This is critical to prevent miscarriage of justice and to remove unnecessary barriers to evidence-based HIV prevention strategies.

  4. Primary breast lymphoma: a consideration in an HIV patient when a mass is discovered by screening mammography: a case report.

    Akinwande, Olagoke K; Paley, Robert

    2008-12-11

    Primary Breast lymphoma is a rare lesion that has been reported in patients without HIV. However, Primary Breast lymphoma occurring in a patient with HIV has rarely been reported despite the fact that HIV infection is known to increase the propensity to develop certain types of lymphoma. We report a case of an HIV patient with breast lymphoma that was discovered by screening mammography while presenting our argument for more cautionary management in this patient population.

  5. Differing HIV vulnerability among female sex workers in a high HIV burden Indian state.

    Megha Mamulwar

    Full Text Available The HIV sentinel surveillance [HSS] conducted in 2010-11 among female sex workers [FSW] in the state of Maharashtra, India provided an opportunity to assess characteristics of different types of FSWs and their HIV risk. It is important for India's National AIDS Control Program, to understand the differences in vulnerability among these FSW, in order to define more specific and effective risk reduction intervention strategies. Therefore, we analyzed data from HSS with the objective of understanding the HIV vulnerability among different types of FSW in Maharashtra.Cross sectional data collected as a part of HSS among FSWs in year 2010-11 from 21 sentinel sites in the state of Maharashtra were analyzed to understand the vulnerability and characteristics of different types of female sex workers based on their place of solicitation using multinomial logistic regression.While the HIV prevalence was 6.6% among all FSWs, it was 9.9% among brothel based [BB], 9% among street based [SB] and 3.1% and 3.7% among home based [HB], and bar based [Bar-B] sex workers respectively. SB FSWs were least likely to be located in HIV low burden districts [ANC] [ARRR: 0.61[95% CI: 0.49, 0.77

  6. Differing HIV vulnerability among female sex workers in a high HIV burden Indian state

    Godbole, Sheela; Bembalkar, Shilpa; Kamble, Pranil; Dulhani, Nisha; Yadav, Rajesh; Kadu, Chitra; Kumar, Pradeep; Lalikar, Shivraj; Acharya, Shrikala; Gangakhedkar, Raman; Risbud, Arun; Venkatesh, Srinivas

    2018-01-01

    Introduction The HIV sentinel surveillance [HSS] conducted in 2010–11 among female sex workers [FSW] in the state of Maharashtra, India provided an opportunity to assess characteristics of different types of FSWs and their HIV risk. It is important for India’s National AIDS Control Program, to understand the differences in vulnerability among these FSW, in order to define more specific and effective risk reduction intervention strategies. Therefore, we analyzed data from HSS with the objective of understanding the HIV vulnerability among different types of FSW in Maharashtra. Material and methods Cross sectional data collected as a part of HSS among FSWs in year 2010–11 from 21 sentinel sites in the state of Maharashtra were analyzed to understand the vulnerability and characteristics of different types of female sex workers based on their place of solicitation using multinomial logistic regression. Results While the HIV prevalence was 6.6% among all FSWs, it was 9.9% among brothel based [BB], 9% among street based [SB] and 3.1% and 3.7% among home based [HB], and bar based [Bar-B] sex workers respectively. SB FSWs were least likely to be located in HIV low burden districts [ANC] [ARRR: 0.61[95% CI: 0.49, 0.77

  7. Differing HIV vulnerability among female sex workers in a high HIV burden Indian state.

    Mamulwar, Megha; Godbole, Sheela; Bembalkar, Shilpa; Kamble, Pranil; Dulhani, Nisha; Yadav, Rajesh; Kadu, Chitra; Kumar, Pradeep; Lalikar, Shivraj; Acharya, Shrikala; Gangakhedkar, Raman; Risbud, Arun; Venkatesh, Srinivas

    2018-01-01

    The HIV sentinel surveillance [HSS] conducted in 2010-11 among female sex workers [FSW] in the state of Maharashtra, India provided an opportunity to assess characteristics of different types of FSWs and their HIV risk. It is important for India's National AIDS Control Program, to understand the differences in vulnerability among these FSW, in order to define more specific and effective risk reduction intervention strategies. Therefore, we analyzed data from HSS with the objective of understanding the HIV vulnerability among different types of FSW in Maharashtra. Cross sectional data collected as a part of HSS among FSWs in year 2010-11 from 21 sentinel sites in the state of Maharashtra were analyzed to understand the vulnerability and characteristics of different types of female sex workers based on their place of solicitation using multinomial logistic regression. While the HIV prevalence was 6.6% among all FSWs, it was 9.9% among brothel based [BB], 9% among street based [SB] and 3.1% and 3.7% among home based [HB], and bar based [Bar-B] sex workers respectively. SB FSWs were least likely to be located in HIV low burden districts [ANC] [ARRR: 0.61[95% CI: 0.49, 0.77

  8. Dentistry and HIV/AIDS related stigma.

    Elizondo, Jesus Eduardo; Treviño, Ana Cecilia; Violant, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    To analyze HIV/AIDS positive individual's perception and attitudes regarding dental services. One hundred and thirty-four subjects (30.0% of women and 70.0% of men) from Nuevo León, Mexico, took part in the study (2014). They filled out structured, analytical, self-administered, anonymous questionnaires. Besides the sociodemographic variables, the perception regarding public and private dental services and related professionals was evaluated, as well as the perceived stigma associated with HIV/AIDS, through a Likert-type scale. The statistical evaluation included a factorial and a non-hierarchical cluster analysis. Social inequalities were found regarding the search for public and private dental professionals and services. Most subjects reported omitting their HIV serodiagnosis and agreed that dentists must be trained and qualified to treat patients with HIV/AIDS. The factorial analysis revealed two elements: experiences of stigma and discrimination in dental appointments and feelings of concern regarding the attitudes of professionals or their teams concerning patients' HIV serodiagnosis. The cluster analysis identified three groups: users who have not experienced stigma or discrimination (85.0%); the ones who have not had those experiences, but feel somewhat concerned (12.7%); and the ones who underwent stigma and discrimination and feel concerned (2.3%). We observed a low percentage of stigma and discrimination in dental appointments; however, most HIV/AIDS patients do not reveal their serodiagnosis to dentists out of fear of being rejected. Such fact implies a workplace hazard to dental professionals, but especially to the very own health of HIV/AIDS patients, as dentists will not be able to provide them a proper clinical and pharmaceutical treatment.

  9. Dentistry and HIV/AIDS related stigma

    Jesus Eduardo Elizondo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze HIV/AIDS positive individual’s perception and attitudes regarding dental services.METHODS One hundred and thirty-four subjects (30.0% of women and 70.0% of men from Nuevo León, Mexico, took part in the study (2014. They filled out structured, analytical, self-administered, anonymous questionnaires. Besides the sociodemographic variables, the perception regarding public and private dental services and related professionals was evaluated, as well as the perceived stigma associated with HIV/AIDS, through a Likert-type scale. The statistical evaluation included a factorial and a non-hierarchical cluster analysis.RESULTS Social inequalities were found regarding the search for public and private dental professionals and services. Most subjects reported omitting their HIV serodiagnosis and agreed that dentists must be trained and qualified to treat patients with HIV/AIDS. The factorial analysis revealed two elements: experiences of stigma and discrimination in dental appointments and feelings of concern regarding the attitudes of professionals or their teams concerning patients’ HIV serodiagnosis. The cluster analysis identified three groups: users who have not experienced stigma or discrimination (85.0%; the ones who have not had those experiences, but feel somewhat concerned (12.7%; and the ones who underwent stigma and discrimination and feel concerned (2.3%.CONCLUSIONS We observed a low percentage of stigma and discrimination in dental appointments; however, most HIV/AIDS patients do not reveal their serodiagnosis to dentists out of fear of being rejected. Such fact implies a workplace hazard to dental professionals, but especially to the very own health of HIV/AIDS patients, as dentists will not be able to provide them a proper clinical and pharmaceutical treatment.

  10. HIV-1 viral load measurement in venous blood and fingerprick blood using Abbott RealTime HIV-1 DBS assay.

    Tang, Ning; Pahalawatta, Vihanga; Frank, Andrea; Bagley, Zowie; Viana, Raquel; Lampinen, John; Leckie, Gregor; Huang, Shihai; Abravaya, Klara; Wallis, Carole L

    2017-07-01

    HIV RNA suppression is a key indicator for monitoring success of antiretroviral therapy. From a logistical perspective, viral load (VL) testing using Dried Blood Spots (DBS) is a promising alternative to plasma based VL testing in resource-limited settings. To evaluate the analytical and clinical performance of the Abbott RealTime HIV-1 assay using a fully automated one-spot DBS sample protocol. Limit of detection (LOD), linearity, lower limit of quantitation (LLQ), upper limit of quantitation (ULQ), and precision were determined using serial dilutions of HIV-1 Virology Quality Assurance stock (VQA Rush University), or HIV-1-containing armored RNA, made in venous blood. To evaluate correlation, bias, and agreement, 497 HIV-1 positive adult clinical samples were collected from Ivory Coast, Uganda and South Africa. For each HIV-1 participant, DBS-fingerprick, DBS-venous and plasma sample results were compared. Correlation and bias values were obtained. The sensitivity and specificity were analyzed at a threshold of 1000 HIV-1 copies/mL generated using the standard plasma protocol. The Abbott HIV-1 DBS protocol had an LOD of 839 copies/mL, a linear range from 500 to 1×10 7 copies/mL, an LLQ of 839 copies/mL, a ULQ of 1×10 7 copies/mL, and an inter-assay SD of ≤0.30 log copies/mL for all tested levels within this range. With clinical samples, the correlation coefficient (r value) was 0.896 between DBS-fingerprick and plasma and 0.901 between DBS-venous and plasma, and the bias was -0.07 log copies/mL between DBS-fingerprick and plasma and -0.02 log copies/mL between DBS-venous and plasma. The sensitivity of DBS-fingerprick and DBS-venous was 93%, while the specificity of both DBS methods was 95%. The results demonstrated that the Abbott RealTime HIV-1 assay with DBS sample protocol is highly sensitive, specific and precise across a wide dynamic range and correlates well with plasma values. The Abbott RealTime HIV-1 assay with DBS sample protocol provides an

  11. The role of social support on HIV testing and treatment adherence: A qualitative study of HIV-infected refugees in southwestern Uganda.

    Rouhani, Shada A; O'Laughlin, Kelli N; Faustin, Zikama M; Tsai, Alexander C; Kasozi, Julius; Ware, Norma C

    2017-08-01

    Little is known about the factors that encourage or discourage refugees to test for HIV, or to access and adhere to HIV care. In non-refugee populations, social support has been shown to influence HIV testing and utilisation of services. The present study enrolled HIV-infected refugees on anti-retroviral therapy (ART) in Uganda, who participated in qualitative interviews on HIV testing, treatment, and adherence. Interviews were analysed for themes about four types of social support: emotional, informational, instrumental, and appraisal support. A total of 61 interviews were analysed. Four roles for these types of social support were identified: (1) informational support encouraged refugees to test for HIV; (2) emotional support helped refugees cope with a diagnosis of HIV; (3) instrumental support facilitated adherence to ART and (4) after diagnosis, HIV-infected refugees provided informational and emotional support to encourage other refugees to test for HIV. These results suggest that social support influences HIV testing and treatment among refugees. Future interventions should capitalise on social support within a refugee settlement to facilitate testing and treatment.

  12. Trends in underlying causes of death in people with HIV from 1999 to 2011 (D:A:D)

    Smith, Colette J; Ryom, Lene; Weber, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: With the advent of effective antiretroviral treatment, the life expectancy for people with HIV is now approaching that seen in the general population. Consequently, the relative importance of other traditionally non-AIDS-related morbidities has increased. We investigated trends over....... The D:A:D study is a collaboration of 11 cohort studies following HIV-1-positive individuals receiving care at 212 clinics in Europe, USA, and Australia. All fatal events were centrally validated at the D:A:D coordinating centre using coding causes of death in HIV (CoDe) methodology. We calculated...

  13. Association of ABO and Rh blood group types to hepatitis B, hepatitis C, HIV and syphillis infection, a five year experience in healthy blood donors in a tertiary care hospital

    Batool, Z.; Durrani, S.H.; Tariq, S.

    2017-01-01

    Aim of the study: The aim of the study was to find out the frequency of Hepatitis B Hepatitis C, Syphilis, HIV and malaria in apparently healthy blood donors and to find out any association between ABO and Rh blood groups. Methods: It was a descriptive study carried out at Rehman Medical Institute laboratory. All blood donors who volunteered for blood donation from Jan 2008 to Dec 2014 were reviewed for blood groups and screening tests. Those who were eligible were then screened for Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, HIV, syphilis and malaria on Architect 8200i through chemiluminescent immunoassay whereas malaria was screened by a thin film. Blood group was determined by both forward and reverse grouping. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS software and expressed as frequencies. Results: A total of 41033 apparently healthy donors were included in the study. All of them were voluntary donors. Their age ranged from 18-70 years with a mean age of 38+-10.5 years. Out of these 41033, 40245 (98.3%) were males and 788(1.9%) were females. The most frequent blood group was B positive followed by O positive. Out of 41033 donors 961 (2.30%) had Hepatitis B, 566 (1.30%) had Hepatitis C, 363 (0.90%) had syphilis, 311 (0.76%) had malaria and 30 (0.07%) had HIV. There is a significant association between A blood group and HIV and hepatitis B. Donors with blood group O had no significant association with any blood transmitted infection. Conclusion: Blood group O may have some influence in protecting against blood transmitted infection. People having Blood group A are more prone to get Hepatitis B and HIV. (author)

  14. HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein

    Caulfield, Michael; Cupo, Albert; Dean, Hansi; Hoffenberg, Simon; King, C. Richter; Klasse, P. J.; Marozsan, Andre; Moore, John P.; Sanders, Rogier W.; Ward, Andrew; Wilson, Ian; Julien, Jean-Philippe

    2017-08-22

    The present application relates to novel HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins, which may be utilized as HIV-1 vaccine immunogens, and antigens for crystallization, electron microscopy and other biophysical, biochemical and immunological studies for the identification of broad neutralizing antibodies. The present invention encompasses the preparation and purification of immunogenic compositions, which are formulated into the vaccines of the present invention.

  15. HIV and the eye

    In an area of high HIV prevalence, HIV-related ocular lesions are relatively common. L Visser, MB ... especially if this patient falls within the high- risk groups for ... Indications for treatment of ocular disease .... A lumbar puncture is needed to.

  16. Ludacris Talks About HIV

    2012-07-24

    Ludacris, award winning singer and actor, urges everyone to talk about HIV/AIDS and its prevention.  Created: 7/24/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 7/24/2012.

  17. HIV and pregnancy

    Lindgren, Susanne

    1996-01-01

    From the Department of Clinical Science, Divisions of Obstetrics and Gynaecology and Paediatrics and the Department of Immumology, Microbiology, Pathology and Infectious Diseases, Division of Clinical Virology, Karolinska Institute, Huddinge University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden HIV and Pregnancy An Epidemiological, Clinical and Virological Study of HIV-infected Pregnant Women amd T...

  18. 4. CRIMINALISING HIV TRANSMISSION

    Esem

    A combination of effective evidence-based approaches should be adopted to expand ... global scenario, as well as its impact on the spread of new. HIV infections. .... in people not going for voluntary HIV testing for fear of being found positive ...

  19. HIV-associated vasculopathy

    Third World countries. HIV has brought an array of new clinical presentations and has also generated new syndromes.4. HIV vasculopathy was first described as an entity in 19875 and may ..... The EGF pathway is also implicated in cancer, which suggests that anticancer drugs that interfere with this pathway might increase.

  20. Psychogenic "HIV infection"

    Sno, H. N.; Storosum, J. G.; Wortel, C. H.

    1991-01-01

    The case of a man who falsely represented himself as being HIV positive is reported. In less than one year he was admitted twice with symptoms suggestive of HIV infection. The diagnoses malingering and factitious disorder were consecutively made. Early recognition of Factitious Disorder is essential

  1. HIV and AIDS

    ... sex with infected partners. If a woman with HIV is pregnant, her newborn baby can catch the virus from ... from spreading to the baby. That's why all pregnant women should be tested for HIV so they can begin treatment if necessary. How ...

  2. HIV/AIDS - resources

    Resources - HIV/AIDS ... information on AIDS : AIDS.gov -- www.aids.gov AIDS Info -- aidsinfo.nih.gov The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation -- www.kff.org/hivaids US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -- www.cdc.gov/hiv

  3. Let's Stop HIV Together

    2012-07-16

    This podcast features 22 individuals who encourage others in the fight against HIV.  Created: 7/16/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 7/16/2012.

  4. HIV infection in Bophuthatswana

    ble exposure to HIV infection and associated risk fac- tors, information regarding demographic data, blood transfusion history, travelling from/to HIV endemic countries, history of imprisonment in the past 5 years, symptoms and signs of AIDS, lifestyle (number of sexu- al partners, heterosexual, homosexual, etc.) was collect-.

  5. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Full Text Available ... HIV or transmitting it to someone else. Biological effects of drugs. Drug misuse and addiction can affect a person's overall health, thereby altering susceptibility to HIV and progression of AIDS. Drugs of abuse and HIV both affect the brain. Research has shown that HIV causes greater injury ...

  6. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Full Text Available ... Send the Message . Get the Facts What are HIV and AIDS? HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) is the virus that ... AIDS) are often linked and referred to as "HIV/AIDS." HIV can be transferred between people if an ...

  7. HIV and mycobacteria.

    Procop, Gary W

    2017-07-01

    The importance of mycobacteria as opportunistic pathogens, particularly members of the M. avium complex (MAC), in patients with progressive HIV infection was recognized early in the AIDS epidemic. It took longer to appreciate the global impact and devastation that would result from the deadly synergy that exists between HIV and M. tuberculosis. This HIV/M. tuberculosis co-pandemic is ongoing and claiming millions of lives every year. In addition to MAC, a number of other non-tuberculous mycobacteria have been recognized as opportunistic pathogens in HIV-infected individuals; some of these are more commonly encountered (e.g., M. kansasii) than others (M. haemophilum and M. genevense). Finally, there are challenges to concomitantly treating the HIV and the infecting Mycobacterium species, because of antimicrobial resistance, therapeutic side-effects and the complex pharmacologic interactions of the antiretroviral and antimycobacterial multidrug therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. HIV and travel.

    Schuhwerk, M A; Richens, J; Zuckerman, Jane N

    2006-01-01

    There is a high demand for travel among HIV-positive individual. This demand arises partly from those who have benefited from advances in antiretroviral therapy as well as those with disease progression. The key to a successful and uneventful holiday lies in careful pre-trip planning, yet many patients fail to obtain advice before travelling. Travel advice for HIV patients is becoming increasingly specialized. In addition to advice on common travel-related infectious diseases, HIV-positive travellers are strongly advised to carry information with them and they need specific advice regarding country entry restrictions, HIV inclusive travel insurance, safety of travel vaccinations and highly active antiretroviral therapy-related issues. A wide range of relevant issues for the HIV-positive traveller are discussed in this review and useful websites can be found at the end.

  9. HIV and chronic kidney disease

    Naicker, Saraladevi; Rahmania, Sadaf; Kopp, Jeffrey B.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a frequent complication of HIV infection, occurring in 3.5 – 48.5%, and occurs as a complication of HIV infection, other co-morbid disease and infections and as a consequence of therapy of HIV infection and its complications. The classic involvement of the kidney by HIV infection is HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN), occurring typically in young adults of African ancestry with advanced HIV disease in association with APOL1 high-risk variants. HIV-immune comple...

  10. Indikatorsygdomme for hiv-infektion

    Hansen, Birgitte Rønde; Andersen, Åse Bengård; Koch, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The mortality of HIV-infected patients in Denmark approaches that of the background population. Still, half of the HIV-infected patients are diagnosed late, resulting in poorer response to therapy, larger cost and greater transmission rate. A pan-European initiative, "HIV in Europe" has published...... a guideline on indicator-based HIV testing in order to improve early HIV diagnosis. The Danish Society of Infectious Diseases wishes to highlight the importance of indicator-based HIV testing, in order to improve the possibility of early diagnosis and therapy of HIV-infection....

  11. Antiviral Therapy by HIV-1 Broadly Neutralizing and Inhibitory Antibodies

    Zhiqing Zhang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 infection causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS, a global epidemic for more than three decades. HIV-1 replication is primarily controlled through antiretroviral therapy (ART but this treatment does not cure HIV-1 infection. Furthermore, there is increasing viral resistance to ART, and side effects associated with long-term therapy. Consequently, there is a need of alternative candidates for HIV-1 prevention and therapy. Recent advances have discovered multiple broadly neutralizing antibodies against HIV-1. In this review, we describe the key epitopes on the HIV-1 Env protein and the reciprocal broadly neutralizing antibodies, and discuss the ongoing clinical trials of broadly neutralizing and inhibitory antibody therapy as well as antibody combinations, bispecific antibodies, and methods that improve therapeutic efficacy by combining broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs with latency reversing agents. Compared with ART, HIV-1 therapeutics that incorporate these broadly neutralizing and inhibitory antibodies offer the advantage of decreasing virus load and clearing infected cells, which is a promising prospect in HIV-1 prevention and treatment.

  12. Gene Therapy Targeting HIV Entry

    Chuka Didigu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite the unquestionable success of antiretroviral therapy (ART in the treatment of HIV infection, the cost, need for daily adherence, and HIV-associated morbidities that persist despite ART all underscore the need to develop a cure for HIV. The cure achieved following an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT using HIV-resistant cells, and more recently, the report of short-term but sustained, ART-free control of HIV replication following allogeneic HSCT, using HIV susceptible cells, have served to both reignite interest in HIV cure research, and suggest potential mechanisms for a cure. In this review, we highlight some of the obstacles facing HIV cure research today, and explore the roles of gene therapy targeting HIV entry, and allogeneic stem cell transplantation in the development of strategies to cure HIV infection.

  13. Structural drivers and social protection: mechanisms of HIV risk and HIV prevention for South African adolescents.

    Cluver, Lucie Dale; Orkin, Frederick Mark; Meinck, Franziska; Boyes, Mark Edward; Sherr, Lorraine

    2016-01-01

    Social protection is high on the HIV-prevention agenda for youth in sub-Saharan Africa. However, questions remain: How do unconditional cash transfers work? What is the effect of augmenting cash provision with social care? And can "cash plus care" social protection reduce risks for adolescents most vulnerable to infection? This study tackles these questions by first identifying mediated pathways to adolescent HIV risks and then examining potential main and moderating effects of social protection in South Africa. This study was a prospective observational study of 3515 10-to-17-year-olds (56.7% female; 96.8% one-year retention). Within randomly selected census areas in four rural and urban districts in two South African provinces, all homes with a resident adolescent were sampled between 2009/2010 and 2011/2012. Measures included 1) potential structural drivers of HIV infection such as poverty and community violence; 2) HIV risk behaviours; 3) hypothesized psychosocial mediating factors; and 4) types of social protection involving cash and care. Using gender-disaggregated analyses, longitudinal mediation models were tested for potential main and moderating effects of social protection. Structural drivers were associated with increased onset of adolescent HIV risk behaviour (psocial protection were associated with reductions in HIV risk behaviour and psychosocial deprivations. In addition, cash social protection moderated risk pathways: for adolescent girls and boys experiencing more acute structural deprivation, social protection had the greatest associations with HIV risk prevention (e.g. moderation effects for girls: B=-0.08, psocial protection has the greatest prevention effects for the most vulnerable. Social protection comprising unconditional cash plus care was associated with reduced risk pathways through moderation and main effects, respectively. Our findings suggest the importance of social protection within a combination package of HIV

  14. HIV-infected individuals with the CCR delta32/CCR5 genotype have lower HIV RNA levels and higher CD4 cell counts in the early years of the infection than do patients with the wild type. Copenhagen AIDS Cohort Study Group

    Katzenstein, T L; Eugen-Olsen, J; Hofmann, B

    1997-01-01

    The relations among serum HIV RNA levels, CD4 cell counts, presence of the mutant CCR5-allele in heterozygous form, and clinical outcome was analyzed in 96 patients from the Copenhagen AIDS Cohort. In the early years of the infection, patients with the CCR5 delta32/CCR5 genotype had significantly...

  15. HIV-1 specific IgA detected in vaginal secretions of HIV uninfected women participating in a microbicide trial in Southern Africa are primarily directed toward gp120 and gp140 specificities.

    Kelly E Seaton

    Full Text Available Many participants in microbicide trials remain uninfected despite ongoing exposure to HIV-1. Determining the emergence and nature of mucosal HIV-specific immune responses in such women is important, since these responses may contribute to protection and could provide insight for the rational design of HIV-1 vaccines.We first conducted a pilot study to compare three sampling devices (Dacron swabs, flocked nylon swabs and Merocel sponges for detection of HIV-1-specific IgG and IgA antibodies in vaginal secretions. IgG antibodies from HIV-1-positive women reacted broadly across the full panel of eight HIV-1 envelope (Env antigens tested, whereas IgA antibodies only reacted to the gp41 subunit. No Env-reactive antibodies were detected in the HIV-negative women. The three sampling devices yielded equal HIV-1-specific antibody titers, as well as total IgG and IgA concentrations. We then tested vaginal Dacron swabs archived from 57 HIV seronegative women who participated in a microbicide efficacy trial in Southern Africa (HPTN 035. We detected vaginal IgA antibodies directed at HIV-1 Env gp120/gp140 in six of these women, and at gp41 in another three women, but did not detect Env-specific IgG antibodies in any women.Vaginal secretions of HIV-1 infected women contained IgG reactivity to a broad range of Env antigens and IgA reactivity to gp41. In contrast, Env-binding antibodies in the vaginal secretions of HIV-1 uninfected women participating in the microbicide trial were restricted to the IgA subtype and were mostly directed at HIV-1 gp120/gp140.

  16. Physics of HIV

    Tristram-Nagle, Stephanie

    2018-05-01

    This review summarizes over a decade of investigations into how membrane-binding proteins from the HIV-1 virus interact with lipid membrane mimics of various HIV and host T-cell membranes. The goal of the work was to characterize at the molecular level both the elastic and structural changes that occur due to HIV protein/membrane interactions, which could lead to new drugs to thwart the HIV virus. The main technique used to study these interactions is diffuse x-ray scattering, which yields the bending modulus, K C, as well as structural parameters such as membrane thickness, area/lipid and position of HIV peptides (parts of HIV proteins) in the membrane. Our methods also yield information about lipid chain order or disorder caused by the peptides. This review focuses on three stages of the HIV-1 life cycle: (1) infection, (2) Tat membrane transport, and (3) budding. In the infection stage, our lab studied three different parts of HIV-1 gp41 (glycoprotein 41 fusion protein): (1) FP23, the N-terminal 23 amino acids that interact non-specifically with the T-cell host membrane to cause fusion of two membranes, and its trimer version, (2) cholesterol recognition amino acid consensus sequence, on the membrane proximal external region near the membrane-spanning domain, and (3) lentiviral lytic peptide 2 on the cytoplasmic C-terminal tail. For Tat transport, we used membrane mimics of the T-cell nuclear membrane as well as simpler models that varied charge and negative curvature. For membrane budding, we varied the myristoylation of the MA31 peptide as well as the negatively charged lipid. These studies show that HIV peptides with different roles in the HIV life cycle affect differently the relevant membrane mimics. In addition, the membrane lipid composition plays an important role in the peptides’ effects.

  17. Higher Desolvation Energy Reduces Molecular Recognition in Multi-Drug Resistant HIV-1 Protease

    Ladislau C. Kovari

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Designing HIV-1 protease inhibitors that overcome drug-resistance is still a challenging task. In this study, four clinical isolates of multi-drug resistant HIV-1 proteases that exhibit resistance to all the US FDA-approved HIV-1 protease inhibitors and also reduce the substrate recognition ability were examined. A multi-drug resistant HIV-1 protease isolate, MDR 769, was co-crystallized with the p2/NC substrate and the mutated CA/p2 substrate, CA/p2 P1’F. Both substrates display different levels of molecular recognition by the wild-type and multi-drug resistant HIV-1 protease. From the crystal structures, only limited differences can be identified between the wild-type and multi-drug resistant protease. Therefore, a wild-type HIV-1 protease and four multi-drug resistant HIV-1 proteases in complex with the two peptides were modeled based on the crystal structures and examined during a 10 ns-molecular dynamics simulation. The simulation results reveal that the multi-drug resistant HIV-1 proteases require higher desolvation energy to form complexes with the peptides. This result suggests that the desolvation of the HIV-1 protease active site is an important step of protease-ligand complex formation as well as drug resistance. Therefore, desolvation energy could be considered as a parameter in the evaluation of future HIV-1 protease inhibitor candidates.

  18. Dectin-1 Positive Dendritic Cells Expand after Infection with Leishmania major Parasites and Represent Promising Targets for Vaccine Development

    Zimara, Nicole; Chanyalew, Menberework; Aseffa, Abraham; van Zandbergen, Ger; Lepenies, Bernd; Schmid, Maximilian; Weiss, Richard; Rascle, Anne; Wege, Anja Kathrin; Jantsch, Jonathan; Schatz, Valentin; Brown, Gordon D.; Ritter, Uwe

    2018-01-01

    Resistant mouse strains mount a protective T cell-mediated immune response upon infection with Leishmania (L.) parasites. Healing correlates with a T helper (Th) cell-type 1 response characterized by a pronounced IFN-γ production, while susceptibility is associated with an IL-4-dependent Th2-type response. It has been shown that dermal dendritic cells are crucial for inducing protective Th1-mediated immunity. Additionally, there is growing evidence that C-type lectin receptor (CLR)-mediated signaling is involved in directing adaptive immunity against pathogens. However, little is known about the function of the CLR Dectin-1 in modulating Th1- or Th2-type immune responses by DC subsets in leishmaniasis. We characterized the expression of Dectin-1 on CD11c+ DCs in peripheral blood, at the site of infection, and skin-draining lymph nodes of L. major-infected C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice and in peripheral blood of patients suffering from cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). Both mouse strains responded with an expansion of Dectin-1+ DCs within the analyzed tissues. In accordance with the experimental model, Dectin-1+ DCs expanded as well in the peripheral blood of CL patients. To study the role of Dectin-1+ DCs in adaptive immunity against L. major, we analyzed the T cell stimulating potential of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) in the presence of the Dectin-1 agonist Curdlan. These experiments revealed that Curdlan induces the maturation of BMDCs and the expansion of Leishmania-specific CD4+ T cells. Based on these findings, we evaluated the impact of Curdlan/Dectin-1 interactions in experimental leishmaniasis and were able to demonstrate that the presence of Curdlan at the site of infection modulates the course of disease in BALB/c mice: wild-type BALB/c mice treated intradermally with Curdlan developed a protective immune response against L. major whereas Dectin-1−/− BALB/c mice still developed the fatal course of disease after Curdlan treatment. Furthermore

  19. Viral load and genomic integration of HPV 16 in cervical samples from HIV-1-infected and uninfected women in Burkina Faso.

    Rousseau, Marie-Noelle Didelot; Costes, Valérie; Konate, Issouf; Nagot, Nicolas; Foulongne, Vincent; Ouedraogo, Abdoulaye; Van de Perre, Philippe; Mayaud, Philippe; Segondy, Michel

    2007-06-01

    The relationships between human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV 16) viral load, HPV 16 integration status, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) status, and cervical cytology were studied among women enrolled in a cohort of female sex workers in Burkina Faso. The study focused on 24 HPV 16-infected women. The HPV 16 viral load in cervical samples was determined by real-time PCR. Integration ratio was estimated as the ratio between E2 and E6 genes DNA copy numbers. Integrated HPV16 viral load was defined as the product of HPV 16 viral load by the integration ratio. High HPV 16 viral load and high integration ratio were more frequent among women with squamous intraepithelial lesions compared with women with normal cytology (33% vs. 11%, and 33% vs. 0%, respectively), and among women with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions compared with women without high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (50% vs. 17%, and 50% vs. 11%, respectively). High HPV 16 DNA load, but not high integration ratio, was also more frequent among HIV-1-positive women (39% vs. 9%; and 23% vs. 18%, respectively). The absence of statistical significance of these differences might be explained by the small study sample size. High-integrated HPV 16 DNA load was significantly associated with the presence of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (50% vs. 5%, P = 0.03) in univariate and multivariate analysis (adjusted odds-ratio: 19.05; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.11-328.3, P = 0.03), but not with HIV-1 or other high-risk HPV types (HR-HPV). Integrated HPV 16 DNA load may be considered as a useful marker of high-grade cervical lesions in HPV 16-infected women. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Faith-based HIV prevention and counseling programs: findings from the Cincinnati census of religious congregations.

    Szaflarski, Magdalena; Ritchey, P Neal; Jacobson, C Jeffrey; Williams, Rhys H; Baumann Grau, Amy; Meganathan, Karthikeyan; Ellison, Christopher G; Tsevat, Joel

    2013-06-01

    Congregations are well positioned to address HIV in their communities, but their response to HIV has been mixed. An emerging literature describes HIV programming in urban, predominantly black congregations, but population-based data remain limited. This study examined the levels of HIV prevention and counseling programs and associated factors (e.g., religious, organizational) by using data from a phone census of congregations in the Greater Cincinnati area (N = 447). Over 10 % of congregations (36 % of Black Protestant and 5-18 % of other types of congregations) offered HIV education/prevention alone or in combination with counseling or with counseling and testing. Path analysis results showed notable significant (p theology-polity on HIV prevention/counseling programs, but these effects were fully mediated by other factors, including other community work and racial composition. The levels of HIV programming in this study were high by national standards, but further outreach is needed in high-risk African American communities.

  1. HIV-1-Specific IgA Monoclonal Antibodies from an HIV-1 Vaccinee Mediate Galactosylceramide Blocking and Phagocytosis

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Vaccine-elicited humoral immune responses comprise an array of antibody forms and specificities, with only a fraction contributing to protective host immunity. Elucidation of antibody effector functions responsible for protective immunity against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) acquisition is a major goal for the HIV-1 vaccine field. Immunoglobulin A (IgA) is an important part of the host defense against pathogens; however, little is known about the role of vaccine-elicited IgA and its capacity to mediate antiviral functions. To identify the antiviral functions of HIV-1-specific IgA elicited by vaccination, we cloned HIV-1 envelope-specific IgA monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) by memory B cell cultures from peripheral blood mononuclear cells from an RV144 vaccinee and produced two IgA clonal cell lines (HG129 and HG130) producing native, nonrecombinant IgA MAbs. The HG129 and HG130 MAbs mediated phagocytosis by monocytes, and HG129 blocked HIV-1 Env glycoprotein binding to galactosylceramide, an alternative HIV-1 receptor. These findings elucidate potential antiviral functions of vaccine-elicited HIV-1 envelope-specific IgA that may act to block HIV-1 acquisition at the portal of entry by preventing HIV-1 binding to galactosylceramide and mediating antibody Fc receptor-mediated virion phagocytosis. Furthermore, these findings highlight the complex and diverse interactions of vaccine-elicited IgA with pathogens that depend on IgA fine specificity and form (e.g., multimeric or monomeric) in the systemic circulation and mucosal compartments. IMPORTANCE Host-pathogen interactions in vivo involve numerous immune mechanisms that can lead to pathogen clearance. Understanding the nature of antiviral immune mechanisms can inform the design of efficacious HIV-1 vaccine strategies. Evidence suggests that both neutralizing and nonneutralizing antibodies can mediate some protection against HIV in animal models. Although numerous studies have characterized the

  2. Study of HIV-1 subtypes in serodiscordant couples attending an integrated counselling and testing centre in Mumbai using heteroduplex mobility analysis and DNA sequencing

    Mehta P

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To determine the prevalent subtypes of HIV-1 in serodiscordant couples. Setting: Integrated Counselling and Testing Centre (ICTC, Department of Microbiology. Study Design: Prospective pilot study. Participants: Thirty HIV-1 serodiscordant couples. Inclusion Criteria: a Documentation of HIV-1 infection in one partner and seronegative status in the other, current history of continued unprotected sexual activity within the partnership, demonstration that they have been in a partnership for at least 1 year and are not currently on highly active antiretroviral therapy HAART; b willingness of both partners to provide written informed consent including consent to continued couple counselling for 3 months. Materials and Methods: HIV-1 subtyping was carried out by heteroduplex mobility analysis (HMA by amplifying env region; and DNA sequencing by amplifying gag region. Results: HIV-1 env gene was amplified successfully in 10/30 samples; gag gene, in 25/30 samples; and both env and gag gene were amplified successfully in 5/30 samples. HIV-1 subtype C was detected from 21 samples; subtype B, from 7; and subtype A, from 2. Sample from 1 positive partner was detected as subtype C by env HMA and subtype B by gag sequencing. Conclusion: HIV-1 subtype C was found to be the predominant subtype of HIV-1 in serodiscordant couples attending our ICTC, followed by HIV-1 subtype B and HIV-1 subtype A, respectively. DNA sequencing was found to be the most reliable method for determining the subtypes of HIV-1.

  3. Head and neck cancer in HIV patients and their parents: a Danish cohort study

    Engsig, Frederik N; Gerstoft, Jan; Kronborg, Gitte

    2011-01-01

    The mechanism for the increased risk of head and neck cancer (HNC) observed in HIV patients is controversial. We hypothesized that family-related risk factors increase the risk of HNC why we estimated the risk of this type of cancer in both HIV patients and their parents.......The mechanism for the increased risk of head and neck cancer (HNC) observed in HIV patients is controversial. We hypothesized that family-related risk factors increase the risk of HNC why we estimated the risk of this type of cancer in both HIV patients and their parents....

  4. Low-level viremia and proviral DNA impede immune reconstitution in HIV-1-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy

    Ostrowski, Sisse R; Katzenstein, Terese L; Thim, Per T.

    2005-01-01

    Immunological and virological consequences of low-level viremia in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) remain to be determined....

  5. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and HIV infection among pregnant women in Ibadan North Local Government, Oyo State.

    Awobode, H O; Olubi, I C

    2014-12-01

    Toxoplasmosis, a disease caused by Toxoplasma gondii poses a risk of congenital infection during pregnancy in infected women. The disease poses a threat of ocular and neurological sequelae in congenitally ilfected infants and HIV patients; however, there is little valuable information on its prevalence in Ibadan. A cross sectional study of pregnant women attending antenatal care in three primary healthcare centres in Ibadan was carried out. 179 women were screened for T gondii infection using PCR, 83 of these were also screened for HIV. Forty nine (27.4%) were positive for T gondii, and 2(2.4%) were HIV positive (P = 0.002, OR = 0.28, CL = 95%). 27 (15.1%) of the infected women were in third trimester, with 20 (11.2%) and 2 (1.1%) in second and first trimester respectively. 18 (10.1%) positive cases were identified among the primigravidas and 31 (17.2%) among the multigravidas. Risk factors associated with Toxoplasma infection were assessed, and the source of drinking water and the types of animals around habitation were found to be significantly associated with the presence of Toxoplasma infection (P = 0.002, OR = 2.109 and P = 0.004, OR = 1.693 respectively). The high prevalence among women in third trimester may indicate high risk of congenital infection, and the significant association found between the source of drinking water and infection suggests environmental contamination as a major possible mode of infection. The need to educate pregnant women about the transmission mechanisms of T. gondii, and the effects of the infection on neonates and babies is pertinent in order to effectively control Toxoplasma infection.

  6. Regulatory T cells expanded from HIV-1-infected individuals maintain phenotype, TCR repertoire and suppressive capacity.

    Mathieu Angin

    Full Text Available While modulation of regulatory T cell (Treg function and adoptive Treg transfer are being explored as therapeutic modalities in the context of autoimmune diseases, transplantation and cancer, their role in HIV-1 pathogenesis remains less well defined. Controversy persists regarding their beneficial or detrimental effects in HIV-1 disease, which warrants further detailed exploration. Our objectives were to investigate if functional CD4(+ Tregs can be isolated and expanded from HIV-1-infected individuals for experimental or potential future therapeutic use and to determine phenotype and suppressive capacity of expanded Tregs from HIV-1 positive blood and tissue. Tregs and conventional T cell controls were isolated from blood and gut-associated lymphoid tissue of individuals with HIV-1 infection and healthy donors using flow-based cell-sorting. The phenotype of expanded Tregs was assessed by flow-cytometry and quantitative PCR. T-cell receptor ß-chain (TCR-β repertoire diversity was investigated by deep sequencing. Flow-based T-cell proliferation and chromium release cytotoxicity assays were used to determine Treg suppressive function. Tregs from HIV-1 positive individuals, including infants, were successfully expanded from PBMC and GALT. Expanded Tregs expressed high levels of FOXP3, CTLA4, CD39 and HELIOS and exhibited a highly demethylated TSDR (Treg-specific demethylated region, characteristic of Treg lineage. The TCRß repertoire was maintained following Treg expansion and expanded Tregs remained highly suppressive in vitro. Our data demonstrate that Tregs can be expanded from blood and tissue compartments of HIV-1+ donors with preservation of Treg phenotype, function and TCR repertoire. These results are highly relevant for the investigation of potential future therapeutic use, as currently investigated for other disease states and hold great promise for detailed studies on the role of Tregs in HIV-1 infection.

  7. An innovative HIV testing service using the internet: Anonymous urine delivery testing service at drugstores in Beijing, China.

    Xiaoxia He

    Full Text Available Innovative human immunodeficiency virus (HIV testing services will be needed to achieve the first 90 (90% of HIV-positive persons aware of their infection status of the 90-90-90 target in China. Here, we describe an internet-based urine delivery testing service delivered through three pilot drugstores in Beijing that send specimens to a designated laboratory for HIV. From May 2016 to January 2017, we provided 500 HIV urine-testing service packs for display at the drugstores, and a total of 430 (86.0% urine specimens were mailed back. All of the 430 urine specimens were of good quality and were tested. 70 urine specimens were HIV positive, showing a 16.3% (70/430 positivity rate. A total of 94.3% (66/70 of the HIV-positive participants obtained their test results through the internet, and 69.7% (46/66 of these participants received follow-up care. A total of 40 out of 46 (87.0% participants agreed to have their results confirmed by a blood test, and 39 out of 40 (97.5% participants were confirmed as HIV-1 positive, including two individuals that were previously diagnosed. Lastly, 28 out of 37 (75.7% of the study participants were referred to the hospital and provided free antiviral treatment. Our data indicate that this innovative HIV testing service is effective and play an important role in HIV testing and surveillance.

  8. An innovative HIV testing service using the internet: Anonymous urine delivery testing service at drugstores in Beijing, China.

    He, Xiaoxia; Liu, Guowu; Xia, Dongyan; Feng, Xia; Lv, Yi; Cheng, Huanyi; Wang, Yuehua; Lu, Hongyan; Jiang, Yan

    2018-01-01

    Innovative human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing services will be needed to achieve the first 90 (90% of HIV-positive persons aware of their infection status) of the 90-90-90 target in China. Here, we describe an internet-based urine delivery testing service delivered through three pilot drugstores in Beijing that send specimens to a designated laboratory for HIV. From May 2016 to January 2017, we provided 500 HIV urine-testing service packs for display at the drugstores, and a total of 430 (86.0%) urine specimens were mailed back. All of the 430 urine specimens were of good quality and were tested. 70 urine specimens were HIV positive, showing a 16.3% (70/430) positivity rate. A total of 94.3% (66/70) of the HIV-positive participants obtained their test results through the internet, and 69.7% (46/66) of these participants received follow-up care. A total of 40 out of 46 (87.0%) participants agreed to have their results confirmed by a blood test, and 39 out of 40 (97.5%) participants were confirmed as HIV-1 positive, including two individuals that were previously diagnosed. Lastly, 28 out of 37 (75.7%) of the study participants were referred to the hospital and provided free antiviral treatment. Our data indicate that this innovative HIV testing service is effective and play an important role in HIV testing and surveillance.

  9. HIV-1 Replication and the Cellular Eukaryotic Translation Apparatus

    Santiago Guerrero

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Eukaryotic translation is a complex process composed of three main steps: initiation, elongation, and termination. During infections by RNA- and DNA-viruses, the eukaryotic translation machinery is used to assure optimal viral protein synthesis. Human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1 uses several non-canonical pathways to translate its own proteins, such as leaky scanning, frameshifting, shunt, and cap-independent mechanisms. Moreover, HIV-1 modulates the host translation machinery by targeting key translation factors and overcomes different cellular obstacles that affect protein translation. In this review, we describe how HIV-1 proteins target several components of the eukaryotic translation machinery, which consequently improves viral translation and replication.

  10. HIV/AIDS Clinical Trials Fact Sheet

    ... AIDS Drugs Clinical Trials Apps skip to content HIV Overview Home Understanding HIV/AIDS Fact Sheets HIV/ ... 4 p.m. ET) Send us an email HIV/AIDS Clinical Trials Last Reviewed: August 25, 2017 ...

  11. What is a Preventive HIV Vaccine?

    ... Entire Series Related Content AIDSource | Vaccine Research HIV Vaccines History of HIV Vaccine Research Need Help? Call 1- ... Entire Series Related Content AIDSource | Vaccine Research HIV Vaccines History of HIV Vaccine Research Need Help? Call 1- ...

  12. HIV Molecular Immunology 2014

    Yusim, Karina [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Korber, Bette Tina Marie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Barouch, Dan [Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States); Koup, Richard [Vaccine Research Center National Institutes of Health (United States); de Boer, Rob [Utrecht Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Biology; Moore, John P. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). Weill Medical College; Brander, Christian [Institucioi Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats (ICREA), Barcelona (Spain); Haynes, Barton F. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States). Duke Human Vaccine Institute and Departments of Medicine, Surgery and Immunology; Walker, Bruce D. [Ragon Institute of Massachusetts General Hospital, Cambridge, MA (United States); Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States); Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2015-02-03

    HIV Molecular Immunology is a companion volume to HIV Sequence Compendium. This publication, the 2014 edition, is the PDF version of the web-based HIV Immunology Database (http://www.hiv.lanl.gov/content/immunology/). The web interface for this relational database has many search options, as well as interactive tools to help immunologists design reagents and interpret their results. In the HIV Immunology Database, HIV-specific B-cell and T-cell responses are summarized and annotated. Immunological responses are divided into three parts, CTL, T helper, and antibody. Within these parts, defined epitopes are organized by protein and binding sites within each protein, moving from left to right through the coding regions spanning the HIV genome. We include human responses to natural HIV infections, as well as vaccine studies in a range of animal models and human trials. Responses that are not specifically defined, such as responses to whole proteins or monoclonal antibody responses to discontinuous epitopes, are summarized at the end of each protein section. Studies describing general HIV responses to the virus, but not to any specific protein, are included at the end of each part. The annotation includes information such as crossreactivity, escape mutations, antibody sequence, TCR usage, functional domains that overlap with an epitope, immune response associations with rates of progression and therapy, and how specific epitopes were experimentally defined. Basic information such as HLA specificities for T-cell epitopes, isotypes of monoclonal antibodies, and epitope sequences are included whenever possible. All studies that we can find that incorporate the use of a specific monoclonal antibody are included in the entry for that antibody. A single T-cell epitope can have multiple entries, generally one entry per study. Finally, maps of all defined linear epitopes relative to the HXB2 reference proteins are provided.

  13. No influence of GB virus C on disease progression in a Danish cohort of HIV-infected men

    Ryt-Hansen, Rosa; Katzenstein, Terese L; Gerstoft, Jan

    2006-01-01

    homosexual white HIV-1 positive Danish men. Patients were enrolled between 1984 and 1987 and followed for a mean of 6.7 years. Follow-up was censored in May 1996 when the first patient in the cohort received HAART. Plasma samples were screened at baseline using polymerase chain reaction methods for GBVC...

  14. Extensive virologic and immunologic characterization in an HIV-infected individual following allogeneic stem cell transplant and analytic cessation of antiretroviral therapy: A case study.

    Cummins, Nathan W; Rizza, Stacey; Litzow, Mark R; Hua, Stephane; Lee, Guinevere Q; Einkauf, Kevin; Chun, Tae-Wook; Rhame, Frank; Baker, Jason V; Busch, Michael P; Chomont, Nicolas; Dean, Patrick G; Fromentin, Rémi; Haase, Ashley T; Hampton, Dylan; Keating, Sheila M; Lada, Steven M; Lee, Tzong-Hae; Natesampillai, Sekar; Richman, Douglas D; Schacker, Timothy W; Wietgrefe, Stephen; Yu, Xu G; Yao, Joseph D; Zeuli, John; Lichterfeld, Mathias; Badley, Andrew D

    2017-11-01

    Notwithstanding 1 documented case of HIV-1 cure following allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT), several subsequent cases of allo-SCT in HIV-1 positive individuals have failed to cure HIV-1 infection. The aim of our study was to describe changes in the HIV reservoir in a single chronically HIV-infected patient on suppressive antiretroviral therapy who underwent allo-SCT for treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. We prospectively collected peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) by leukapheresis from a 55-year-old man with chronic HIV infection before and after allo-SCT to measure the size of the HIV-1 reservoir and characterize viral phylogeny and phenotypic changes in immune cells. At day 784 post-transplant, when HIV-1 was undetectable by multiple measures-including PCR measurements of both total and integrated HIV-1 DNA, replication-competent virus measurement by large cell input quantitative viral outgrowth assay, and in situ hybridization of colon tissue-the patient consented to an analytic treatment interruption (ATI) with frequent clinical monitoring. He remained aviremic off antiretroviral therapy until ATI day 288, when a low-level virus rebound of 60 HIV-1 copies/ml occurred, which increased to 1,640 HIV-1 copies/ml 5 days later, prompting reinitiation of ART. Rebounding plasma HIV-1 sequences were phylogenetically distinct from proviral HIV-1 DNA detected in circulating PBMCs before transplantation. The main limitations of this study are the insensitivity of reservoir measurements, and the fact that it describes a single case. allo-SCT led to a significant reduction in the size of the HIV-1 reservoir and a >9-month-long ART-free remission from HIV-1 replication. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that the origin of rebound virus was distinct from the viruses identified pre-transplant in the PBMCs.

  15. HIV counselling in prisons.

    Curran, L; McHugh, M; Nooney, K

    1989-01-01

    HIV presents particular problem in penal establishments: the nature of the population; conditions in prison; media attention and misinformation; the possibility of transmission within and beyond the prison population; the extra issues that apply to female prisoners. These are discussed in the context of prison policy regarding HIV and the broad strategic approach which is being adopted to manage the problem of HIV within penal institutions. Counselling has a key role in the overall strategy. Pre- and post-test counselling with prisoners is described and the particular problems presented by inmates are discussed and illustrated by reference to case histories. Developments in counselling provision for inmates are outlined.

  16. Benchmarking HIV health care

    Podlekareva, Daria; Reekie, Joanne; Mocroft, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: State-of-the-art care involving the utilisation of multiple health care interventions is the basis for an optimal long-term clinical prognosis for HIV-patients. We evaluated health care for HIV-patients based on four key indicators. METHODS: Four indicators of health care we...... document pronounced regional differences in adherence to guidelines and can help to identify gaps and direct target interventions. It may serve as a tool for assessment and benchmarking the clinical management of HIV-patients in any setting worldwide....

  17. Nutrition and HIV

    Friis, Henrik; Olsen, Mette Frahm; Filteau, Suzanne

    2017-01-01

    , which is mainly synergistic and operating at different levels. HIV infection increases energy and nutrient requirements, yet it reduces food security. The result is nutritional deficiencies, which increase progression of HIV infection. Both undernutrition and food insecurity may also lead to increased...... risk of transmission. Nutritional intake and status may affect metabolism of antiretroviral drugs, some of which may affect body composition, and increase risk of the metabolic syndrome. In addition, HIV is transmitted through breastfeeding, causing a serious infant feeding dilemma for which...

  18. HIV in Pregnancy.

    Roth, Cheryl; Hrenchir, Pauline F; Pacheco, Christine J

    2016-01-01

    In the United States, women with HIV have the ability to make informed choices relating to their reproductive lives more now than ever before. The increasing availability of antiretroviral therapy has spurred renewed interest among many HIV-positive women in their decisions about whether to have children. It is important for perinatal nurses to understand the maternal and fetal implications of HIV in pregnancy, including parameters for treatment and the drug regimens typically used during the antepartum, intrapartum, and postpartum periods. © 2016 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  19. Natural Plant Alkaloid (Emetine Inhibits HIV-1 Replication by Interfering with Reverse Transcriptase Activity

    Ana Luiza Chaves Valadão

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ipecac alkaloids are secondary metabolites produced in the medicinal plant Psychotria ipecacuanha. Emetine is the main alkaloid of ipecac and one of the active compounds in syrup of Ipecac with emetic property. Here we evaluated emetine’s potential as an antiviral agent against Human Immunodeficiency Virus. We performed in vitro Reverse Transcriptase (RT Assay and Natural Endogenous Reverse Transcriptase Activity Assay (NERT to evaluate HIV RT inhibition. Emetine molecular docking on HIV-1 RT was also analyzed. Phenotypic assays were performed in non-lymphocytic and in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMC with HIV-1 wild-type and HIV-harboring RT-resistant mutation to Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (M184V. Our results showed that HIV-1 RT was blocked in the presence of emetine in both models: in vitro reactions with isolated HIV-1 RT and intravirion, measured by NERT. Emetine revealed a strong potential of inhibiting HIV-1 replication in both cellular models, reaching 80% of reduction in HIV-1 infection, with low cytotoxic effect. Emetine also blocked HIV-1 infection of RT M184V mutant. These results suggest that emetine is able to penetrate in intact HIV particles, and bind and block reverse transcription reaction, suggesting that it can be used as anti-HIV microbicide. Taken together, our findings provide additional pharmacological information on the potential therapeutic effects of emetine.

  20. Stigma in the workplace: employer attitudes about people with HIV in Beijing, Hong Kong, and Chicago.

    Rao, Deepa; Angell, Beth; Lam, Chow; Corrigan, Patrick

    2008-11-01

    Studies of HIV stigma in China are becoming more prevalent, but these studies have seldom involved direct cross-cultural comparisons. Moreover, although researchers consider employers to be a key power group whose practices can significantly impact the adjustment and recovery of people with HIV, the attitudes of employers in China towards people with HIV have rarely been studied. The present study sought to investigate employers' attitudes and hiring practices towards people with HIV across three culturally and linguistically distinct cities: Chicago, Beijing, and Hong Kong. One hundred employers from a broad spectrum of firm types were interviewed across the three cities, and their qualitative data were analyzed for information about the processes behind employer practices in hiring people with HIV. Employers from all three cities showed reluctance to hire people with HIV, but this trend was most pronounced with employers from Beijing and Hong Kong. Concerns about biological contagion were apparent in all three cities. Social contagion, or the belief that people with HIV could morally corrupt those around them, was a particular concern of employers from Beijing and Hong Kong. The concerns about hiring people with HIV in Hong Kong and Beijing may be related to specific cultural dynamics related to loss of 'face', level of contact and knowledge about people with HIV, and the psychological interconnectedness between people in society. In sum, employers in all three cities showed concerns about hiring people with HIV, but at the same time, their attitudes about discriminating against people with HIV differed widely across the cities.