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Sample records for hiv surveillance system

  1. Evaluation of HIV Surveillance System in Rivers State, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Rivers State has been reported to have the highest HIV prevalence of all the thirty-six states in Nigeria. HIV surveillance system generates information for timely and appropriate public health action. Evaluation of the surveillance system is vital in ensuring that the purpose of the surveillance system is being met.

  2. Evaluation of HIV Surveillance System in Rivers State, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sony Computer (Iby)

    HIV surveillance system generates information for timely and appropriate ..... active type of surveillance.14 Nonetheless, it requires training, supervision and motivation ... very effectively.14 The introduction of reward-system could be included.

  3. Second Generation of HIV Surveillance System: A Pattern for Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Nematollahi, M; Khalesi, N; Moghaddasi, H; Askarian, M

    2012-01-01

    Background For the purpose of minimizing the HIV/AIDS epidemic effects, one of the programs is the promotion of scientific methods and setting of the suitable surveillance systems. The present research was conducted to design the HIV/AIDS surveillance system in Iran applying WHO recommendations and the experience of some countries. Methods In 2009, based on the country's requirements, the HIV/AIDS surveillance system was proposed and designed for Iran. The Delphi technique was utilized to fin...

  4. Developing a surveillance system for HIV/AIDS in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emmanuel, F.; Bokhari, A.

    2006-01-01

    Apart from other interventions, surveillance remains a major focus of the national response to HIV/AIDS. However, with a shift in the epidemic pattern, the existing surveillance strategies are barely insufficient and long-term structural changes are desirable. This article provides a conceptual framework for developing a scientific system for HIV surveillance in Pakistan. Second generation surveillance system including repeated cross-sectional surveys in high risk population groups are suggested to collect behavioral and serological data at regular intervals on an annual basis to monitor the epidemic trend as well as the associated behaviors. In addition, multiple data resources have been highlighted, which could be coordinated to describe the epidemic pattern in the country. This information should form the basis for national prevention planning and ought to be used for making sensible choices through which prevention efforts are most likely to reduce new infections. (author)

  5. Is the HIV sentinel surveillance system adequate in China? Findings from an evaluation of the national HIV sentinel surveillance system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Bulterys

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: An external evaluation was conducted to assess the performance of the national HIV sentinel surveillance system (HSS, identify operational challenges at national and local levels and provide recommendations for improvement.Methods: The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC Updated Guidelines for Evaluating Public Health Surveillance Systems were followed to assess the key attributes of HSS. Comprehensive assessment activities were conducted, including: using a detailed checklist to review surveillance guidelines, protocols and relevant documents; conducting self-administered, anonymous surveys with 286 local China CDC staff; and carrying out field observations in 32 sentinel sites in four provinces.Results: China has built an extensive HSS with 1888 sentinel sites to monitor HIV epidemic trends by population groups over time. The strengths of HSS lie in its flexibility, simplicity, usefulness and increase in coverage in locations and populations. With its rapid expansion in 2010, HSS faces challenges in maintaining acceptability, timeliness, data quality, representativeness and sustainability.Recommendations: Implementation of the national guidelines should be standardized by strengthening training, monitoring and supervision of all staff involved, including community-based organizations. National surveillance guidelines need to be revised to strengthen data quality and representativeness, particularly to include specific instructions on HIV testing result provision, collection of identifying information, sample size and sampling methods particularly for men who have sex with men (MSM, collection of refusal information, and data interpretation. Sustainability of China’s HSS could be strengthened by applying locally tailored surveillance strategies, strengthening coordination and cooperation among government agencies and ensuring financial and human resources.

  6. Sustainable Monitoring and Surveillance Systems to Improve HIV Programs: Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low-Beer, Daniel; Mahy, Mary; Renaud, Francoise; Calleja, Txema

    2018-04-24

    HIV programs have provided a major impetus for investments in surveillance data, with 5-10% of HIV program budgets recommended to support data. However there are questions concerning the sustainability of these investments. The Sustainable Development Goals have consolidated health into one goal and communicable diseases into one target (Target 3.3). Sustainable Development Goals now introduce targets focused specifically on data (Targets 17.18 and 17.19). Data are seen as one of the three systemic issues (in Goal 17) for implementing Sustainable Development Goals, alongside policies and partnerships. This paper reviews the surveillance priorities in the context of the Sustainable Development Goals and highlights the shift from periodic measurement towards sustainable disaggregated, real-time, case, and patient data, which are used routinely to improve programs. Finally, the key directions in developing person-centered monitoring systems are assessed with country examples. The directions contribute to the Sustainable Development Goal focus on people-centered development applied to data. ©Daniel Low-Beer, Mary Mahy, Francoise Renaud, Txema Calleja. Originally published in JMIR Public Health and Surveillance (http://publichealth.jmir.org), 24.04.2018.

  7. HIV surveillance in complex emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, P; Dondero, T J

    2001-04-01

    Many studies have shown a positive association between both migration and temporary expatriation and HIV risk. This association is likely to be similar or even more pronounced for forced migrants. In general, HIV transmission in host-migrant or host-forced-migrant interactions depends on the maturity of the HIV epidemic in both the host and the migrant population, the relative seroprevalence of HIV in the host and the migrant population, the prevalence of other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) that may facilitate transmission, and the level of sexual interaction between the two communities. Complex emergencies are the major cause of mass population movement today. In complex emergencies, additional factors such as sexual interaction between forced-migrant populations and the military; sexual violence; increasing commercial sex work; psychological trauma; and disruption of preventive and curative health services may increase the risk for HIV transmission. Despite recent success in preventing HIV infection in stable populations in selected developing countries, internally displaced persons and refugees (or forced migrants) have not been systematically included in HIV surveillance systems, nor consequently in prevention activities. Standard surveillance systems that rely on functioning health services may not provide useful data in many complex emergency settings. Secondary sources can provide some information in these settings. Little attempt has been made, however, to develop innovative HIV surveillance systems in countries affected by complex emergencies. Consequently, data on the HIV epidemic in these countries are scarce and HIV prevention programs are either not implemented or interventions are not effectively targeted. Second generation surveillance methods such as cross-sectional, population-based surveys can provide rapid information on HIV, STIs, and sexual behavior. The risks for stigmatization and breaches of confidentiality must be recognized

  8. Diagnosed HIV Infection in Transgender Adults and Adolescents: Results from the National HIV Surveillance System, 2009-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Hollie; Babu, Aruna Surendera; Wiewel, Ellen Weiss; Opoku, Jenevieve; Crepaz, Nicole

    2017-09-01

    Publications on diagnosed HIV infection among transgender people have been limited to state- or local-level data. We analyzed data from the National HIV Surveillance System and present results from the first national-level analysis of transgender people with diagnosed HIV infection. From 2009 to 2014, HIV surveillance jurisdictions from 45 states plus the District of Columbia identified and reported at least one case of newly diagnosed HIV infection for transgender people; jurisdictions from 5 states reported no cases for transgender people. Of 2351 transgender people with newly diagnosed HIV infection during 2009-2014, 84.0% were transgender women (male-to-female), 15.4% were transgender men (female-to-male), and 0.7% were additional gender identity (e.g., gender queer, bi-gender). Over half of both transgender women (50.8%; 1002/1974) and men (58.4%; 211/361) with newly diagnosed HIV infection were non-Hispanic black/African American. Improvements in data collection methods and quality are needed to gain a better understanding of HIV burden among transgender people.

  9. HIV test offers and acceptance: New York State findings from the behavioral risk factor surveillance system and the National HIV behavioral surveillance, 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Leung, Shu-Yin; Sinclair, Amber H; Battles, Haven B; Swain, Carol-Ann E; French, Patrick Tyler; Anderson, Bridget J; Sowizral, Mycroft J; Ruberto, Rachael; Brissette, Ian; Lillquist, Patricia; Smith, Lou C

    2015-01-01

    The New York State HIV testing law requires that patients aged 13-64 years be offered HIV testing in health care settings. We investigated the extent to which HIV testing was offered and accepted during the 24 months after law enactment. We added local questions to the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance (NHBS) surveys asking respondents aged 18-64 years whether they were offered an HIV test in health care settings, and whether they had accepted testing. Statewide prevalence estimates of test offers and acceptance were obtained from a combined 2011-2012 BRFSS sample (N = 6,223). Local estimates for 2 high-risk populations were obtained from NHBS 2011 men who have sex with men (N = 329) and 2012 injection drug users (N = 188) samples. BRFSS data showed that 73% of New Yorkers received care in any health care setting in the past 12 months, of whom 25% were offered an HIV test. Sixty percent accepted the test when offered. The levels of test offer increased from 20% to 29% over time, whereas acceptance levels decreased from 68% to 53%. NHBS data showed that 81% of men who have sex with men received care, of whom 43% were offered an HIV test. Eighty-eight percent accepted the test when offered. Eighty-five percent of injection drug users received care, of whom 63% were offered an HIV test, and 63% accepted the test when offered. We found evidence of partial and increasing implementation of the HIV testing law. Importantly, these studies demonstrated New Yorkers' willingness to accept an offered HIV test as part of routine care in health care settings.

  10. Access to HIV community services by vulnerable populations: evidence from an enhanced HIV/AIDS surveillance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, H C E; Phillips-Howard, P A; Hargreaves, S C; Downing, J; Bellis, M A; Vivancos, R; Morley, C; Syed, Q; Cook, P A

    2011-05-01

    HIV disproportionately affects vulnerable populations such as black and minority ethnic groups, men who have sex with men (MSM) and migrants, in many countries including those in the UK. Community organisations in the UK are charitable non-governmental organisations with a proportion of the workforce who volunteer, and provide invaluable additional support for people living with HIV (PLWHIV). Information on their contribution to HIV care in vulnerable groups is relatively sparse. Data generated from an enhanced HIV surveillance system in North West England, UK, was utilised for this study. We aimed to determine the characteristics of individuals who chose to access community services in addition to clinical services (1375 out of 4195 records of PLWHIV in clinical services). Demographic information, risk factors including residency status, uniquely gathered in this region, and deprivation scores were examined. Multivariate logistic regression modelling was conducted to predict the relative effect of patient characteristics on attendance at community services. Attendance at community services was highest in those living in the most, compared with least, deprived areas (p<0.001), and was most evident in MSM and heterosexuals. Compared to white UK nationals attendance was significantly higher in non-UK nationals of uncertain residency status (Adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 21.91, 95% confidence interval [CI] 10.48-45.83; p<0.001), refugees (AOR = 5.75, 95% CI 3.3-10.03; p<0.001), migrant workers (AOR = 5.48, 95% CI 2.22-13.51; p<0.001) and temporary visitors (AOR = 3.44, 95% CI 1.68-7.05; p<0.001). Community services, initially established predominantly to support MSM, have responded to the changing demography of HIV and reach the most vulnerable members of society. Consequent to their support of migrant populations, community services are vital for the management of HIV in black and minority groups. Paradoxically, this coincides with increasing funding pressures on these

  11. HIV surveillance in MENA: recent developments and results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozicevic, Ivana; Riedner, Gabriele; Calleja, Jesus Maria Garcia

    2013-11-01

    To provide an overview of the current level of development and results from the national HIV surveillance systems of the 23 countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), and to assess the quality of HIV surveillance systems in the period 2007-2011. A questionnaire was used to collect the information about the structure, activities and the results of HIV surveillance systems from the National AIDS Programmes. Assessment of the quality was based on four indicators: timeliness of data collection, appropriateness of populations under surveillance, consistency of the surveillance sites and groups measured over time, and coverage of the surveillance system. Only in four countries did surveillance systems enable assessment of epidemic trends in the same populations and locations over time, such as in pregnant women (Morocco, Iran), injecting drug users (Iran, Pakistan), female sex workers (Djibouti, Morocco) and male sex workers (Pakistan). There is increasing evidence of HIV infection being firmly established in at least one of the populations most at risk of HIV in nine MENA countries, while lower risk populations show elevated HIV prevalence in South Sudan, Djibouti and some parts of Somalia. The performance of HIV surveillance systems in several of the MENA countries has improved in recent years. The extent of HIV epidemics in the populations most at risk of HIV is still largely unknown in 10 countries. Multiple data sources that most of the countries still lack would enable indirectly estimation not only of the patterns of HIV epidemics but also the effectiveness of HIV responses.

  12. Mapping HIV/STI behavioural surveillance in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lert France

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Used in conjunction with biological surveillance, behavioural surveillance provides data allowing for a more precise definition of HIV/STI prevention strategies. In 2008, mapping of behavioural surveillance in EU/EFTA countries was performed on behalf of the European Centre for Disease prevention and Control. Method Nine questionnaires were sent to all 31 member States and EEE/EFTA countries requesting data on the overall behavioural and second generation surveillance system and on surveillance in the general population, youth, men having sex with men (MSM, injecting drug users (IDU, sex workers (SW, migrants, people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA, and sexually transmitted infection (STI clinics patients. Requested data included information on system organisation (e.g. sustainability, funding, institutionalisation, topics covered in surveys and main indicators. Results Twenty-eight of the 31 countries contacted supplied data. Sixteen countries reported an established behavioural surveillance system, and 13 a second generation surveillance system (combination of biological surveillance of HIV/AIDS and STI with behavioural surveillance. There were wide differences as regards the year of survey initiation, number of populations surveyed, data collection methods used, organisation of surveillance and coordination with biological surveillance. The populations most regularly surveyed are the general population, youth, MSM and IDU. SW, patients of STI clinics and PLWHA are surveyed less regularly and in only a small number of countries, and few countries have undertaken behavioural surveys among migrant or ethnic minorities populations. In many cases, the identification of populations with risk behaviour and the selection of populations to be included in a BS system have not been formally conducted, or are incomplete. Topics most frequently covered are similar across countries, although many different indicators are used. In most

  13. Surviving Surveillance: How Pregnant Women and Mothers Living With HIV Respond to Medical and Social Surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Saara; Ion, Allyson; Kwaramba, Gladys; Lazarus, Lisa; Loutfy, Mona

    2017-12-01

    Pregnant women and mothers living with HIV are under surveillance of service providers, family members, and the community at large. Surveillance occurs throughout the medical management of their HIV during pregnancy, preventing HIV transmission to their baby, infant feeding practices, and as part of assessments related to their ability to mother. Enacted and anticipatory HIV-related stigma can exacerbate the negative impact that being under surveillance has on mothers living with HIV as they move through their pregnancy, birthing, and mothering experiences. In response, women living with HIV find ways to manage their experiences of surveillance through engaging in acts of distancing, planning, and resisting at different points in time, and sometimes enacting all three practices at once. Positioning the narratives of pregnant women and mothers living with HIV in relation to their experiences of surveillance illuminates the relationship between the surveillance of mothers living with HIV and HIV-related stigma.

  14. Locating People Diagnosed With HIV for Public Health Action: Utility of HIV Case Surveillance and Other Data Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Mabel; Mattson, Christine L; Scheer, Susan; Udeagu, Chi-Chi N; Buskin, Susan E; Hughes, Alison J; Jaenicke, Thomas; Wohl, Amy Rock; Prejean, Joseph; Wei, Stanley C

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) case surveillance and other health care databases are increasingly being used for public health action, which has the potential to optimize the health outcomes of people living with HIV (PLWH). However, often PLWH cannot be located based on the contact information available in these data sources. We assessed the accuracy of contact information for PLWH in HIV case surveillance and additional data sources and whether time since diagnosis was associated with accurate contact information in HIV case surveillance and successful contact. The Case Surveillance-Based Sampling (CSBS) project was a pilot HIV surveillance system that selected a random population-based sample of people diagnosed with HIV from HIV case surveillance registries in 5 state and metropolitan areas. From November 2012 through June 2014, CSBS staff members attempted to locate and interview 1800 sampled people and used 22 data sources to search for contact information. Among 1063 contacted PLWH, HIV case surveillance data provided accurate telephone number, address, or HIV care facility information for 239 (22%), 412 (39%), and 827 (78%) sampled people, respectively. CSBS staff members used additional data sources, such as support services and commercial people-search databases, to locate and contact PLWH with insufficient contact information in HIV case surveillance. PLWH diagnosed surveillance than were PLWH diagnosed ≥1 year ago ( P = .002), and the benefit from using additional data sources was greater for PLWH with more longstanding HIV infection ( P surveillance cannot provide accurate contact information, health departments can prioritize searching additional data sources, especially for people with more longstanding HIV infection.

  15. Brief behavioural surveys in routine HIV sentinel surveillance: a new tool for monitoring the HIV epidemic in Viet Nam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duong Cong Thanh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this report we describe a new approach in HIV sentinel surveillance that was piloted in Viet Nam in 2009 and is currently being rolled out in all provinces. It comprises a brief behavioural questionnaire added to the HIV sentinel surveillance surveys conducted routinely among people who inject drugs, female sex workers and men who have sex with men. Timely reporting of data from this system has resulted in improvements to HIV prevention efforts for most at-risk populations.

  16. Brief behavioural surveys in routine HIV sentinel surveillance: a new tool for monitoring the HIV epidemic in Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanh, Duong Cong; Hien, Nguyen Tran; Tuan, Nguyen Anh; Ha, Hoang Thi Thanh; Thang, Pham Hong; Ha, Nguyen Thi Thanh; Tuan, Le Anh; Quang, Tran Dai; Tram, Tran Hong; Le Hai, Nguyen; Huong, Phan Thi Thu; Son, Vo Hai; Duc, Bui Hoang; Nga, Nguyen Thien; Jacka, David; Sabin, Keith

    2015-01-01

    In this report we describe a new approach in HIV sentinel surveillance that was piloted in Viet Nam in 2009 and is currently being rolled out in all provinces. It comprises a brief behavioural questionnaire added to the HIV sentinel surveillance surveys conducted routinely among people who inject drugs, female sex workers and men who have sex with men. Timely reporting of data from this system has resulted in improvements to HIV prevention efforts for most at-risk populations.

  17. Assessment of HIV molecular surveillance capacity in the European Union, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Patrick; Pharris, Anastasia; Leitmeyer, Katrin; De Angelis, Stefania; Wensing, Annemarie; Amato-Gauci, Andrew J; Broberg, Eeva

    2017-12-01

    IntroductionExpanding access to HIV antiretroviral treatment is expected to decrease HIV incidence and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) mortality. However, this may also result in increased HIV drug resistance (DR). Better monitoring and surveillance of HIV DR is required to inform treatment regimens and maintain the long term effectiveness of antiretroviral drugs. As there is currently no formal European Union (EU)-wide collection of HIV DR data, this study aimed to assess the current HIV molecular surveillance capacity in EU/European Economic Area (EEA) countries in order to inform the planning of HIV DR monitoring at EU level. Methods: Thirty EU/EEA countries were invited to participate in a survey on HIV molecular surveillance capacity, which also included laboratory aspects. Results: Among 21 responding countries, 13 reported using HIV sequence data (subtype and/or DR) for surveillance purposes at national level. Of those, nine stated that clinical, epidemiological and sequence data were routinely linked for analysis. Discussion/conclusion : We identified similarities between existing HIV molecular surveillance systems, but also found important challenges including human resources, data ownership and legal issues that would need to be addressed.Information on capacities should allow better planning of the phased introduction of HIV DR surveillance at EU/EEA level.

  18. HIV testing and intimate partner violence among non-pregnant women in 15 US states/territories: findings from behavioral risk factor surveillance system survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrullah, Muazzam; Oraka, Emeka; Breiding, Mathew J; Chavez, Pollyanna R

    2013-09-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been shown to be associated with higher rates of HIV infection among women, underscoring the importance of encouraging IPV victims to receive HIV testing. However, we do not know how much HIV testing behavior is influenced by IPV victimization. The current study characterized the association between individual types of IPV and HIV testing in a large sample of non-pregnant women in 15 US states/territories. The 2005 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data were analyzed after restricting the sample to non-pregnant women. The dependent variable, whether a woman ever had an HIV test, was examined in relation to individual types of IPV victimization (threatened physical violence; attempted physical violence; completed physical violence; and unwanted sex). Associations between HIV testing and types of IPV were assessed using adjusted risk ratios (aRR) that controlled for demographics and HIV-related risk factors (intravenous drug use, sexually transmitted diseases, exchange sex, unprotected anal sex). Approximately 28.6 % of women reported ever having experienced IPV, and 52.8 % of these women reported being tested for HIV. Among women who had not experienced IPV, 32.9 % reported ever having been tested for HIV. HIV testing was associated with lifetime experience of threatened violence (aRR = 1.43; 95 % CI = 1.24-1.65), attempted violence (aRR = 1.43; 95 % CI = 1.20-1.69), completed physical violence (aRR = 1.30; 95 % CI = 1.13-1.48), and unwanted sex (aRR = 1.66; 95 % CI = 1.48-1.86). Women who experienced each type of IPV were more likely to have been ever tested for HIV compared to women with no IPV history. However, nearly half of those reporting IPV, even though at greater risk for HIV infection, had never been tested. Additional efforts are needed to address barriers to testing in this group.

  19. Laser surveillance system (LASSY)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeck, H.; Hammer, J.

    1988-01-01

    The development progress during the reporting period 1988 of the laser surveillance system of spent fuel pools is summarized. The present engineered system comes close to a final version for field application as all technical questions have been solved in 1988. 14 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  20. It's Never Just HIV: Exposure to an HIV Prevention Media Campaign and Behavior Change Among Men Who Have Sex with Men Participating in the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance System in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Kathleen H; Neaigus, Alan; Shepard, Colin W; Cutler, Blayne H; Sweeney, Monica M; Rucinski, Katherine B; Jenness, Samuel M; Wendel, Travis; Marshall, David M; Hagan, Holly

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the exposure to and impact of the It's Never Just HIV mass media campaign aimed at HIV negative men who have sex with men (MSM) in New York City. Questions about the campaign were included in the local questionnaire of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-sponsored National HIV Behavioral Surveillance (NHBS) study of MSM in NYC conducted in 2011. Participants in this cross-sectional study were recruited using venue-based sampling. Among 447 NYC National HIV Behavioral Surveillance study participants who self-reported HIV negative or unknown status and answered questions about the NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene's It's Never Just HIV campaign, more than one-third (n = 173, 38.7%) reported having seen the campaign. Latinos (34.8%) and blacks (34.4%) were less likely to report seeing the campaign compared to whites (47.7%). Most of those who reported seeing the campaign saw it on the subway (80.1%). Only 9.4% of those who saw the campaign reported having changed their sexual or health behaviors in response to the campaign. These data suggest that thousands of HIV-uninfected MSM in NYC have been reached by the campaign and recalled its message.

  1. Laser surveillance system (LASSY)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeck, H.

    1991-09-01

    Laser Surveillance System (LASSY) is a beam of laser light which scans a plane above the water or under-water in a spent-fuel pond. The system can detect different objects and estimates its coordinates and distance as well. LASSY can operate in stand-alone configuration or in combination with a video surveillance to trigger signal to a videorecorder. The recorded information on LASSY computer's disk comprises date, time, start and stop angle of detected alarm, the size of the disturbance indicated in number of deviated points and some other information. The information given by the laser system cannot be fully substituted by TV camera pictures since the scanning beam creates a horizontal surveillance plan. The engineered prototype laser system long-term field test has been carried out in Soluggia (Italy) and has shown its feasibility and reliability under the conditions of real spent fuel storage pond. The verification of the alarm table on the LASSY computer with the recorded video pictures of TV surveillance system confirmed that all alarm situations have been detected. 5 refs

  2. Disaster prevention surveillance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nara, Satoru; Kamiya, Eisei

    2001-01-01

    Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. has supplied many management systems to nuclear reactor institution. 'The nuclear countermeasures-against-calamities special-measures' was enforced. A nuclear entrepreneur has devised the measure about expansion prevention and restoration of a calamity while it endeavors after prevention of generating of a nuclear calamity. Our company have supplied the 'disaster prevention surveillance system' to the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute Tokai Research Establishment aiming at strengthening of the monitoring function at the time (after the accident) of the accident used as one of the above-mentioned measures. A 'disaster prevention surveillance system' can share the information on the accident spot in an on-site command place, an activity headquarters, and support organizations, when the serious accident happens. This system is composed of various sensors (temperature, pressure and radiation), cameras, computers and network. (author)

  3. Shifting the Paradigm: Using HIV Surveillance Data as a Foundation for Improving HIV Care and Preventing HIV Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Patricia; Gardner, Lytt I; Buchacz, Kate; Garland, Pamela Morse; Mugavero, Michael J; Bosshart, Jeffrey T; Shouse, R Luke; Bertolli, Jeanne

    2013-01-01

    Context Reducing HIV incidence in the United States and improving health outcomes for people living with HIV hinge on improving access to highly effective treatment and overcoming barriers to continuous treatment. Using laboratory tests routinely reported for HIV surveillance to monitor individuals’ receipt of HIV care and contacting them to facilitate optimal care could help achieve these objectives. Historically, surveillance-based public health intervention with individuals for HIV control has been controversial because of concerns that risks to privacy and autonomy could outweigh benefits. But with the availability of lifesaving, transmission-interrupting treatment for HIV infection, some health departments have begun surveillance-based outreach to facilitate HIV medical care. Methods Guided by ethics frameworks, we explored the ethical arguments for changing the uses of HIV surveillance data. To identify ethical, procedural, and strategic considerations, we reviewed the activities of health departments that are using HIV surveillance data to contact persons identified as needing assistance with initiating or returning to care. Findings Although privacy concerns surrounding the uses of HIV surveillance data still exist, there are ethical concerns associated with not using HIV surveillance to maximize the benefits from HIV medical care and treatment. Early efforts to use surveillance data to facilitate optimal HIV medical care illustrate how the ethical burdens may vary depending on the local context and the specifics of implementation. Health departments laid the foundation for these activities by engaging stakeholders to gain their trust in sharing sensitive information; establishing or strengthening legal, policy and governance infrastructure; and developing communication and follow-up protocols that protect privacy. Conclusions We describe a shift toward using HIV surveillance to facilitate optimal HIV care. Health departments should review the

  4. Wallops Ship Surveillance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Donna C.

    2011-01-01

    Approved as a Wallops control center backup system, the Wallops Ship Surveillance Software is a day-of-launch risk analysis tool for spaceport activities. The system calculates impact probabilities and displays ship locations relative to boundary lines. It enables rapid analysis of possible flight paths to preclude the need to cancel launches and allow execution of launches in a timely manner. Its design is based on low-cost, large-customer- base elements including personal computers, the Windows operating system, C/C++ object-oriented software, and network interfaces. In conformance with the NASA software safety standard, the system is designed to ensure that it does not falsely report a safe-for-launch condition. To improve the current ship surveillance method, the system is designed to prevent delay of launch under a safe-for-launch condition. A single workstation is designated the controller of the official ship information and the official risk analysis. Copies of this information are shared with other networked workstations. The program design is divided into five subsystems areas: 1. Communication Link -- threads that control the networking of workstations; 2. Contact List -- a thread that controls a list of protected item (ocean vessel) information; 3. Hazard List -- threads that control a list of hazardous item (debris) information and associated risk calculation information; 4. Display -- threads that control operator inputs and screen display outputs; and 5. Archive -- a thread that controls archive file read and write access. Currently, most of the hazard list thread and parts of other threads are being reused as part of a new ship surveillance system, under the SureTrak project.

  5. Sonoma Persistent Surveillance System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennington, D M

    2006-03-24

    Sonoma offers the first cost-effective, broad-area, high-resolution, real-time motion imagery system for surveillance applications. Sonoma is unique in its ability to provide continuous, real-time video imagery of an area the size of a small city with resolutions sufficient to track 8,000 moving objects in the field of view. At higher resolutions and over smaller areas, Sonoma can even track the movement of individual people. The visual impact of the data available from Sonoma is already causing a paradigm shift in the architecture and operation of other surveillance systems. Sonoma is expected to cost just one-tenth the price of comparably sized sensor systems. Cameras mounted on an airborne platform constantly monitor an area, feeding data to the ground for real-time analysis. Sonoma was designed to provide real-time data for actionable intelligence in situations such as monitoring traffic, special events, border security, and harbors. If a Sonoma system had been available in the aftermath of the Katrina and Rita hurricanes, emergency responders would have had real-time information on roads, water levels, and traffic conditions, perhaps saving many lives.

  6. Smart sensing surveillance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Charles; Chu, Kai-Dee; O'Looney, James; Blake, Michael; Rutar, Colleen

    2010-04-01

    An effective public safety sensor system for heavily-populated applications requires sophisticated and geographically-distributed infrastructures, centralized supervision, and deployment of large-scale security and surveillance networks. Artificial intelligence in sensor systems is a critical design to raise awareness levels, improve the performance of the system and adapt to a changing scenario and environment. In this paper, a highly-distributed, fault-tolerant, and energy-efficient Smart Sensing Surveillance System (S4) is presented to efficiently provide a 24/7 and all weather security operation in crowded environments or restricted areas. Technically, the S4 consists of a number of distributed sensor nodes integrated with specific passive sensors to rapidly collect, process, and disseminate heterogeneous sensor data from near omni-directions. These distributed sensor nodes can cooperatively work to send immediate security information when new objects appear. When the new objects are detected, the S4 will smartly select the available node with a Pan- Tilt- Zoom- (PTZ) Electro-Optics EO/IR camera to track the objects and capture associated imagery. The S4 provides applicable advanced on-board digital image processing capabilities to detect and track the specific objects. The imaging detection operations include unattended object detection, human feature and behavior detection, and configurable alert triggers, etc. Other imaging processes can be updated to meet specific requirements and operations. In the S4, all the sensor nodes are connected with a robust, reconfigurable, LPI/LPD (Low Probability of Intercept/ Low Probability of Detect) wireless mesh network using Ultra-wide band (UWB) RF technology. This UWB RF technology can provide an ad-hoc, secure mesh network and capability to relay network information, communicate and pass situational awareness and messages. The Service Oriented Architecture of S4 enables remote applications to interact with the S4

  7. Predictors of advanced disease and late presentation in new HIV diagnoses reported to the surveillance system in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Oliva

    2014-03-01

    Conclusions: Despite universal health care coverage in Spain, men, immigrants and people infected through drug use or heterosexual contact seem to be experiencing difficulties in gaining timely access to HIV care.

  8. Smart sensing surveillance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Charles; Chu, Kai-Dee; O'Looney, James; Blake, Michael; Rutar, Colleen

    2010-04-01

    Unattended ground sensor (UGS) networks have been widely used in remote battlefield and other tactical applications over the last few decades due to the advances of the digital signal processing. The UGS network can be applied in a variety of areas including border surveillance, special force operations, perimeter and building protection, target acquisition, situational awareness, and force protection. In this paper, a highly-distributed, fault-tolerant, and energyefficient Smart Sensing Surveillance System (S4) is presented to efficiently provide 24/7 and all weather security operation in a situation management environment. The S4 is composed of a number of distributed nodes to collect, process, and disseminate heterogeneous sensor data. Nearly all S4 nodes have passive sensors to provide rapid omnidirectional detection. In addition, Pan- Tilt- Zoom- (PTZ) Electro-Optics EO/IR cameras are integrated to selected nodes to track the objects and capture associated imagery. These S4 camera-connected nodes will provide applicable advanced on-board digital image processing capabilities to detect and track the specific objects. The imaging detection operations include unattended object detection, human feature and behavior detection, and configurable alert triggers, etc. In the S4, all the nodes are connected with a robust, reconfigurable, LPI/LPD (Low Probability of Intercept/ Low Probability of Detect) wireless mesh network using Ultra-wide band (UWB) RF technology, which can provide an ad-hoc, secure mesh network and capability to relay network information, communicate and pass situational awareness and messages. The S4 utilizes a Service Oriented Architecture such that remote applications can interact with the S4 network and use the specific presentation methods. The S4 capabilities and technologies have great potential for both military and civilian applications, enabling highly effective security support tools for improving surveillance activities in densely crowded

  9. [HIV and syphilis coinfection in pregnancy and vertical HIV transmission: a study based on epidemiological surveillance data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Lisiane M W; Gonçalves, Tonantzin Ribeiro; Barcellos, Nêmora Tregnago

    2016-12-01

    To estimate the rate of HIV and syphilis coinfection among pregnant women living in Porto Alegre, Brazil, as well as the association of coinfection with vertical HIV transmission and socioeconomic variables. This analytical retrospective cross-sectional study employed data from the regular epidemiological surveillance system for the period from 2010 to 2013. Data were obtained regarding pregnant women with HIV and exposed children, syphilis in pregnancy, and congenital syphilis. The study population included 1 500 HIV-positive women with deliveries from 2010 to 2013. Of these, 155 (10.3%) were also infected with syphilis, corresponding to an HIV and syphilis coinfection rate of 10.2% (± 1.5%). The coinfected group had lower education levels, higher prevalence of black women, and greater HIV exposure related to drug use by the woman or a partner. Coinfected women had more delayed HIV diagnosis (for example, during childbirth) and greater prevalence of lacking prenatal care (44%). Crude analysis showed an association between vertical HIV transmission and HIV and syphilis co-infection (PR = 2.1; 95%CI: 1.21-3.74; P = 0.01) that persisted in the adjusted analysis. A profile of increased vulnerability was identified among pregnant women with HIV and syphilis coinfection. A positive impact of the treatment to reduce congenital syphilis and eliminate vertical transmission of HIV depends on enhanced access to qualified health care.

  10. Integrating HIV Surveillance and Field Services: Data Quality and Care Continuum in King County, Washington, 2010-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Julia E; Katz, David A; Bennett, Amy B; Buskin, Susan E; Dombrowski, Julia C; Hawes, Stephen E; Golden, Matthew R

    2017-12-01

    To assess how integration of HIV surveillance and field services might influence surveillance data and linkage to care metrics. We used HIV surveillance and field services data from King County, Washington, to assess potential impact of misclassification of prior diagnoses on numbers of new diagnoses. The relationship between partner services and linkage to care was evaluated with multivariable log-binomial regression models. Of the 2842 people who entered the King County HIV Surveillance System in 2010 to 2015, 52% were newly diagnosed, 41% had a confirmed prior diagnosis in another state, and 7% had an unconfirmed prior diagnosis. Twelve percent of those classified as newly diagnosed for purposes of national HIV surveillance self-reported a prior HIV diagnosis that was unconfirmed. Partner services recipients were more likely than nonrecipients to link to care within 30 days (adjusted risk ratio [RR] = 1.10; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03, 1.18) and 90 days (adjusted RR = 1.07; 95% CI = 1.01, 1.14) of diagnosis. Integration of HIV surveillance, partner services, and care linkage efforts may improve the accuracy of HIV surveillance data and facilitate timely linkage to care.

  11. Privacy Implications of Surveillance Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thommesen, Jacob; Andersen, Henning Boje

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a model for assessing the privacy „cost‟ of a surveillance system. Surveillance systems collect and provide personal information or observations of people by means of surveillance technologies such as databases, video or location tracking. Such systems can be designed for vari......This paper presents a model for assessing the privacy „cost‟ of a surveillance system. Surveillance systems collect and provide personal information or observations of people by means of surveillance technologies such as databases, video or location tracking. Such systems can be designed...... for various purposes, even as a service for those being observed, but in any case they will to some degree invade their privacy. The model provided here can indicate how invasive any particular system may be – and be used to compare the invasiveness of different systems. Applying a functional approach......, the model is established by first considering the social function of privacy in everyday life, which in turn lets us determine which different domains will be considered as private, and finally identify the different types of privacy invasion. This underlying model (function – domain – invasion) then serves...

  12. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors six types of health-risk behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of death and disability among youth and adults, including— Behaviors that contribute ...

  13. National HIV surveillance - South Africa, 1990 - 1992

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    that a suitable central unit situated outside of it should ... initially by the World Health Organisation, provision ... clear that for national AIDS surveillance to focus exclu- ... The following were the strata identified: the four ..... distribution and time trend in South Africa. .... pants. The directors and/or heads of the following laborato-.

  14. Shifting Patterns of the HIV Epidemic in Southwest China: A Case Study Based on Sentinel Surveillance, 1995-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Eric P F; Gao, Liangmin; Chen, Liang; Jing, Jun; Zhang, Lei

    2015-06-01

    The HIV epidemic is experiencing a rapid shift in transmission profile in China. This study aims to examine the changes in magnitude, transmission pattern, and trend of the HIV epidemic in a typical Southwest Chinese prefecture over the period of 1995-2012. HIV surveillance data from the web-based reporting system were analyzed during this period. We investigated the temporal trends in the changing characteristics of HIV transmission, the HIV disease burden in key affected populations, and assessed the impacts on HIV disease progression due to scale-up of antiretroviral treatment. A total of 3556 HIV/AIDS cases were reported in Yuxi prefecture, Yunnan, over the study period. The number of HIV tests conducted has dramatically increased from 1041 in 1995 to 247,859 in 2012, resulting in a substantial increase in HIV diagnoses from 11 cases to 327 cases over the same period. Since 2005, cumulatively 1250 eligible people living with HIV (PLHIV) have received combination antiretroviral therapy which reduced AIDS disease progression from 9.0% (95% CI: 6.7-11.4%) in 1995 to 0.1% (0-0.3%) in 2012 (ptrend=0.0002). The primary mode of HIV transmission has been shifted from injection sharing (71.9% diagnoses in 1995-2004) to unsafe sexual contacts (82.6% diagnoses in 2012). Yuxi prefecture is experiencing a concentrated but shifting HIV epidemic. Scale-up of HIV testing is essential to effective sentinel surveillance and enhancing early diagnosis and treatment in PLHIV.

  15. Assessment of an outreach street-based HIV rapid testing programme as a strategy to promote early diagnosis: a comparison with two surveillance systems in Spain, 2008-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belza, M J; Hoyos, J; Fernández-Balbuena, S; Diaz, A; Bravo, M J; de la Fuente, L

    2015-04-09

    We assess the added value of a multisite, street-based HIV rapid testing programme by comparing its results to pre-existing services and assessing its potential to reduce ongoing transmission. Between 2008 and 2011, 8,923 individuals underwent testing. We compare outcomes with those of a network of 20 sexually transmitted infections (STI)/HIV clinics (EPI-VIH) and the Spanish National HIV Surveillance System (SNHSS); evaluate whether good visibility prompts testing and assess whether it reaches under-tested populations. 89.2% of the new infections were in men who have sex with men (MSM) vs 78.0% in EPI-VIH and 56.0% in SNHSS. 83.6% of the MSM were linked to care and 20.9% had VIH. 56.5% of the HIV-positive MSM tested because they happened to see the programme, 18.4% were previously untested and 26.3% had their last test ≥2 years ago. The programme provided linkage to care and early diagnosis mainly to MSM but attendees presented a lower HIV prevalence than EPI-VIH. From a cost perspective it would benefit from being implemented in locations highly frequented by MSM. Conversely, its good visibility led to reduced periods of undiagnosed infection in a high proportion of MSM who were not testing with the recommended frequency.

  16. Environmental health surveillance system; Kankyo hoken surveillance system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, M. [National Inst. for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1998-02-01

    The Central Environmental Pollution Prevention Council pointed out the necessity to establish an environmental health surveillance system (hereinafter referred to as System) in its report `on the first type district specified by the Environmental Pollution Caused Health Damages Compensation Act,` issued in 1986. A study team, established in Environment Agency, has been discussing to establish System since 1986. This paper outlines System, and some of the pilot surveillance results. It is not aimed at elucidation of the cause-effect relationships between health and air pollution but at discovery of problems, in which the above relationships in a district population are monitored periodically and continuously from long-term and prospective viewpoints, in order to help take necessary measures in the early stage. System is now collecting the data of the chronic obstructive lung diseases on a nation-wide scale through health examinations of 3-year-old and preschool children and daily air pollution monitoring. 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Estimating the cost to U.S. health departments to conduct HIV surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Ram K; Sansom, Stephanie L; Laffoon, Benjamin T; Farnham, Paul G; Shouse, R Luke; MacMaster, Karen; Hall, H Irene

    2014-01-01

    HIV case surveillance is a primary source of information for monitoring HIV burden in the United States and guiding the allocation of prevention and treatment funds. While the number of people living with HIV and the need for surveillance data have increased, little is known about the cost of surveillance. We estimated the economic cost to health departments of conducting high-quality HIV case surveillance. We collected primary data on the unit cost and quantity of resources used to operate the HIV case surveillance program in Michigan, where HIV burden (i.e., the number of HIV cases) is moderate to high (n=14,864 cases). Based on Michigan's data, we projected the expected annual HIV surveillance cost for U.S., state, local, and territorial health departments. We based our cost projection on the variation in the number of new and established cases, area-specific wages, and potential economies of scale. We estimated the annual total HIV surveillance cost to the Michigan health department to be $1,286,524 ($87/case), the annual total cost of new cases to be $108,657 ($133/case), and the annual total cost of established cases to be $1,177,867 ($84/case). Our projected median annual HIV surveillance cost per health department ranged from $210,600 in low-HIV burden sites to $1,835,000 in high-HIV burden sites. Our analysis shows that a systematic approach to costing HIV surveillance at the health department level is feasible. For HIV surveillance, a substantial portion of total surveillance costs is attributable to maintaining established cases.

  18. The social dynamics of consent and refusal in HIV surveillance in rural South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Lindsey; Cousins, Thomas; Newell, Marie-Louise; Imrie, John

    2013-01-01

    In the context of low rates of participation in a prospective, population-based HIV surveillance programme, researchers at a surveillance site in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, conducted an operational study from January 2009 to February 2010, with the aim of improving participation rates, particularly in the provision of dried blood spots for the surveillance. Findings suggest, firstly, that consent to participation in the HIV surveillance is informed by the dynamics of relationality in the HIV surveillance "consent encounter." Secondly, it emerged that both fieldworkers and participants found it difficult to differentiate between HIV surveillance and HIV testing in the surveillance procedure, and tended to understand and explain giving blood under the aegis of the surveillance as an HIV test. The conflation of surveillance and testing, we argue, is not merely a semantic confusion, but reveals an important tension inherent to global health research between individual risks and benefits and collective good, or between private morality and public good. Because of these structural tensions, we suggest, the HIV surveillance consent encounter activates multiple gift economies in the collection of blood samples. Thinking beyond the complex ethical dimensions provoked by new forms of long-term surveillance and health research, we therefore suggest that deepening relations between scientists, fieldworkers, and study participants in locality deserve more careful methodological consideration and descriptive attention. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Relationship between a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention expanded HIV testing initiative and past-year testing by race/ethnicity: a multilevel analysis of the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, Tommi L; Caldwell, Julia T; Ford, Chandra L; Mulatu, Mesfin S; Godette, Dionne C

    2016-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) expanded testing initiative (ETI) aims to bolster HIV testing among populations disproportionately affected by the HIV epidemic by providing additional funding to health departments serving these communities. ETI prioritizes testing in clinical settings; therefore, we examined the relationship between state-level ETI participation and past-year HIV testing among a racially/ethnically diverse sample of adult respondents to the 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System who accessed health services within the 12 months prior to being interviewed. Controlling for individual- and state-level characteristics in a multilevel logistic regression model, ETI participation was independently and positively associated with past-year testing, but this association varied by race/ethnicity. Hispanics had higher odds (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.49; 95% CI: 1.11-2.02) and American Indian/Alaska Natives had lower odds (AOR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.43-0.99) of testing if they resided in states with (vs. without) ETI participation. State-level ETI participation did not significantly alter past-year testing among other racial/ethnic groups. Prioritizing public health resources in states most affected by HIV can improve testing patterns, but other mechanisms likely influence which racial/ethnic groups undergo testing.

  20. SCORPIO - VVER core surveillance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zalesky, K.; Svarny, J.; Novak, L.; Rosol, J.; Horanes, A.

    1997-01-01

    The Halden Project has developed the core surveillance system SCORPIO which has two parallel modes of operation: the Core Follow Mode and the Predictive Mode. The main motivation behind the development of SCORPIO is to make a practical tool for reactor operators which can increase the quality and quantity of information presented on core status and dynamic behavior. This can first of all improve plant safety as undesired core conditions are detected and prevented. Secondly, more flexible and efficient plant operation is made possible. So far the system has only been implemented on western PWRs but the basic concept is applicable to a wide range of reactor including WWERs. The main differences between WWERs and typical western PWRs with respect to core surveillance requirements are outlined. The development of a WWER version of SCORPIO was initiated in cooperation with the Nuclear Research Institute at Rez and industry partners in the Czech Republic. The first system will be installed at the Dukovany NPP. (author)

  1. Use of surveillance data on HIV diagnoses with HIV-related symptoms to estimate the number of people living with undiagnosed HIV in need of antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodwick, Rebecca K; Nakagawa, Fumiyo; van Sighem, Ard; Sabin, Caroline A; Phillips, Andrew N

    2015-01-01

    It is important to have methods available to estimate the number of people who have undiagnosed HIV and are in need of antiretroviral therapy (ART). The method uses the concept that a predictable level of occurrence of AIDS or other HIV-related clinical symptoms which lead to presentation for care, and hence diagnosis of HIV, arises in undiagnosed people with a given CD4 count. The method requires surveillance data on numbers of new HIV diagnoses with HIV-related symptoms, and the CD4 count at diagnosis. The CD4 count-specific rate at which HIV-related symptoms develop are estimated from cohort data. 95% confidence intervals can be constructed using a simple simulation method. For example, if there were 13 HIV diagnoses with HIV-related symptoms made in one year with CD4 count at diagnosis between 150-199 cells/mm3, then since the CD4 count-specific rate of HIV-related symptoms is estimated as 0.216 per person-year, the estimated number of person years lived in people with undiagnosed HIV with CD4 count 150-199 cells/mm3 is 13/0.216 = 60 (95% confidence interval: 29-100), which is considered an estimate of the number of people living with undiagnosed HIV in this CD4 count stratum. The method is straightforward to implement within a short period once a surveillance system of all new HIV diagnoses, collecting data on HIV-related symptoms at diagnosis, is in place and is most suitable for estimating the number of undiagnosed people with CD4 count HIV-related symptoms at higher CD4 counts. A potential source of bias is under-diagnosis and under-reporting of diagnoses with HIV-related symptoms. Although this method has limitations as with all approaches, it is important for prompting increased efforts to identify undiagnosed people, particularly those with low CD4 count, and for informing levels of unmet need for ART.

  2. Next generation surveillance system (NGSS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aparo, Massimo

    2006-01-01

    Development of 'functional requirements' for transparency systems may offer a near-term mode of regional cooperation. New requirements under development at the IAEA may provide a foundation for this potential activity. The Next Generation Surveillance System (NGSS) will become the new IAEA remote monitoring system Under new requirements the NGSS would attempt to use more commercial components to reduce cost, increase radiation survivability and further increase reliability. The NGSS must be available in two years due to rapidly approaching obsolescence in the existing DCM family. (author)

  3. SCORPIO - WWER core surveillance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hornaes, Arne; Bodal, Terje; Sunde, Svein; Zalesky, K.; Lehman, M.; Pecka, M.; Svarny, J.; Krysl, V.; Juzova, Z.; Sedlak, A.; Semmler, M.

    1998-01-01

    The Institut for energiteknikk has developed the core surveillance system SCORPIO, which has two parallel modes of operation: the Core Follow Mode and the Predictive Mode. The main motivation behind the development of SCORPIO is to make a practical tool for reactor operators which can increase the quality and quantity of information presented on core status and dynamic behavior. This can first of all improve plant safety, as undesired core conditions are detected and prevented. Secondly, more flexible and efficient plant operation is made possible. The system has been implemented on western PWRs, but the basic concept is applicable to a wide range of reactors including WWERs. The main differences between WWERs and typical western PWRs with respect to core surveillance requirements are outlined. The development of a WWER version of SCORPIO has been done in co-operation with the Nuclear Research Institute Rez, and industry partners in the Czech Republic. The first system is installed at Dukovany NPP, where the Site Acceptance Test was completed 6. March 1998.(Authors)

  4. SCORPIO - VVER core surveillance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hornaes, A.; Bodal, T.; Sunde, S.

    1998-01-01

    The Institutt for energiteknikk has developed the core surveillance system SCORPIO, which has two parallel modes of operation: the Core Follow Mode and the Predictive Mode. The main motivation behind the development of SCORPIO is to make a practical tool for reactor operators, which can increase the quality and quantity of information presented on core status and dynamic behavior. This can first of all improve plant safety, as undesired core conditions are detected and prevented. Secondly, more flexible and efficient plant operation is made possible. The system has been implemented on western PWRs, but the basic concept is applicable to a wide range of reactors including VVERs. The main differences between VVERs and typical western PWRs with respect to core surveillance requirements are outlined. The development of a VVER version of SCORPIO has been done in co-operation with the Nuclear Research Institute Rez, and industry partners in the Czech Republic. The first system is installed at Dukovany NPP, where the Site Acceptance Test was completed 6. March 1998.(author)

  5. Five-year trends in epidemiology and prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission, St. Petersburg, Russia: results from perinatal HIV surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kissin Dmitry M

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The HIV epidemic in Russia has increasingly involved reproductive-aged women, which may increase perinatal HIV transmission. Methods Standard HIV case-reporting and enhanced perinatal HIV surveillance systems were used for prospective assessment of HIV-infected women giving birth in St. Petersburg, Russia, during 2004-2008. Trends in social, perinatal, and clinical factors influencing mother-to-child HIV transmission stratified by history of injection drug use, and rates of perinatal HIV transmission were assessed using two-sided χ2 or Cochran-Armitage tests. Results Among HIV-infected women who gave birth, the proportion of women who self-reported ever using injection drugs (IDUs decreased from 62% in 2004 to 41% in 2008 (P P P P for trend Conclusions Reduced proportion of IDUs and improved clinical services among HIV-infected women giving birth were accompanied by decreased perinatal HIV transmission, which can be further reduced by increasing outreach and HIV testing of women before and during pregnancy.

  6. Tuberculosis and HIV are the leading causes of adult death in northwest Ethiopia: evidence from verbal autopsy data of Dabat health and demographic surveillance system, 2007-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebede, Yigzaw; Andargie, Gashaw; Gebeyehu, Abebaw; Awoke, Tadesse; Yitayal, Mezgebu; Mekonnen, Solomon; Wubshet, Mamo; Azmeraw, Temesgen; Lakew, Yihunie; Alemu, Kassahun

    2017-07-17

    Reliable data on causes of death form the basis for building evidence on health policy, planning, monitoring, and evaluation. In Ethiopia, the majority of deaths occur at home and civil registration systems are not yet functional. The main objective of verbal autopsy (VA) is to describe the causes of death at the community or population level where civil registration and death certification systems are weak and where most people die at home without having had contact with the health system. Causes of death were classified and prepared based on the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). The cause of a death was ascertained based on an interview with next of kin or other caregivers using a standardized questionnaire that draws information on signs, symptoms, medical history, and circumstances preceding death. The cause of death, or the sequence of causes that led to death, is assigned based on the data collected by the questionnaire. The complete VA questionnaires were given to two blinded physicians and reviewed independently. A third physician was assigned to review the case when disagreements in diagnosis arose. Communicable diseases (519 deaths [48.0%]), non-communicable diseases (377 deaths [34.8%]), and external causes (113 deaths [10.4%]) were the main causes of death between 2007 and 2013. Of communicable diseases, tuberculosis (207 deaths [19.7%]), HIV/AIDS (96 deaths [8.9%]) and meningitis (76 deaths [7.0%]) were the most common causes of death. Tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS, and meningitis were the most common causes of deaths among adults. Death due to non-communicable diseases showed an increasing trend. Increasing community awareness of infections and their interrelationships, tuberculosis case finding, effective local TB programs, successful treatment, and interventions for HIV are supremely important.

  7. Unattended video surveillance systems for international safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.S.

    1979-01-01

    The use of unattended video surveillance systems places some unique requirements on the systems and their hardware. The systems have the traditional requirements of video imaging, video storage, and video playback but also have some special requirements such as tamper safing. The technology available to meet these requirements and how it is being applied to unattended video surveillance systems are discussed in this paper

  8. Comparing HIV prevalence estimates from prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission programme and the antenatal HIV surveillance in Addis Ababa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirkuzie Alemnesh H

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the absence of reliable data, antenatal HIV surveillance has been used to monitor the HIV epidemic since the late 1980s. Currently, routine data from Prevention of Mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT programmes are increasingly available. Evaluating whether the PMTCT programme reports provide comparable HIV prevalence estimates with the antenatal surveillance reports is important. In this study, we compared HIV prevalence estimates from routine PMTCT programme and antenatal surveillance in Addis Ababa with the aim to come up with evidence based recommendation. Methods Summary data were collected from PMTCT programmes and antenatal surveillance reports within the catchment of Addis Ababa. The PMTCT programme data were obtained from routine monthly reports from 2004 to 2009 and from published antenatal HIV surveillance reports from 2003 to 2009. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics. Results In Addis Ababa, PMTCT sites had increased from six in 2004 to 54 in 2009. The site expansion was accompanied by an increased number of women testing. There were marked increases in the rate of HIV testing following the introduction of routine opt-out HIV testing approach. Paralleling these increases, the HIV prevalence showed a steady decline from 10.0% in 2004 to 4.5% in 2009. There were five antenatal surveillance sites from 2003 to 2007 in Addis Ababa and they increased to seven by 2009. Four rounds of surveillance data from five sites showed a declining trend in HIV prevalence over the years. The overall antenatal surveillance data also showed that the HIV prevalence among antenatal attendees had declined from 12.4% in 2003 to 5.5% in 2009. The HIV prevalence estimates from PMTCT programme were 6.2% and 4.5% and from antenatal surveillance 6.1 and 5.5% in 2008 and 2009 respectively. Conclusions There were consistent HIV prevalence estimates from PMTCT programme and from antenatal surveillance reports. Both data sources

  9. Completeness of hepatitis, brucellosis, syphilis, measles and HIV/AIDS surveillance in Izmir, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karababa Ali O

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background According to the surveillance system in Turkey, most diseases are notified only by clinicians, without involving laboratory notification. It is assumed that a considerable inadequacy in notifications exists; however, this has not been quantified by any researcher. Our aim was to evaluate the completeness of communicable disease surveillance in the province of Izmir, Turkey for the year of 2003 by means of estimating the incidences of diseases. Methods Data on positive laboratory results for the notifiable and serologically detectable diseases hepatitis A, B, C, brucellosis, syphilis, measles and HIV detected in 2003 in Izmir (population 3.5 million were collected from serology laboratories according to WHO surveillance standards and compared to the notifications received by the Provincial Health Directorate. Data were checked for duplicates and matched. Incidences were estimated with the capture-recapture method. Sensitivities of both notifications and laboratory data were calculated according to these estimates. Results Among laboratories performing serologic tests (n = 158 in Izmir, 84.2% accepted to participate, from which 23,515 positive results were collected. Following the elimination of duplicate results as well as of cases residing outside of Izmir, the total number was 11,402. The total number of notifications was 1802. Notification rates of cases found in laboratories were 31.6% for hepatitis A, 12.1% for acute hepatitis B, 31.8% for brucellosis, 25.9% for syphilis and 100% for HIV confirmation. Conclusions It was discovered that for hepatitis A, B, C, brucellosis and syphilis, there is a considerable under-notification by clinicians and that laboratory data has the potential of contributing greatly to their surveillance. The inclusion of laboratories in the surveillance system of these diseases could help to achieve completeness of reporting.

  10. Revised surveillance case definition for HIV infection--United States, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-11

    Following extensive consultation and peer review, CDC and the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists have revised and combined the surveillance case definitions for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection into a single case definition for persons of all ages (i.e., adults and adolescents aged ≥13 years and children aged case now accommodate new multitest algorithms, including criteria for differentiating between HIV-1 and HIV-2 infection and for recognizing early HIV infection. A confirmed case can be classified in one of five HIV infection stages (0, 1, 2, 3, or unknown); early infection, recognized by a negative HIV test within 6 months of HIV diagnosis, is classified as stage 0, and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is classified as stage 3. Criteria for stage 3 have been simplified by eliminating the need to differentiate between definitive and presumptive diagnoses of opportunistic illnesses. Clinical (nonlaboratory) criteria for defining a case for surveillance purposes have been made more practical by eliminating the requirement for information about laboratory tests. The surveillance case definition is intended primarily for monitoring the HIV infection burden and planning for prevention and care on a population level, not as a basis for clinical decisions for individual patients. CDC and the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists recommend that all states and territories conduct case surveillance of HIV infection using this revised surveillance case definition.

  11. Post-tensioning system surveillance program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drew, G.E.

    1979-01-01

    Nuclear power plant containment structure post-tensioning system tendon surveillance program is described in detail. Data collected over three yearly post-tensioning system Surveillance Programs is presented and evaluated to correlate anticipated stress losses with actual losses. In addition corrosion protected system performance is analyzed

  12. Transitioning from antenatal surveillance surveys to routine HIV testing: a turning point in the mother-to-child transmission prevention programme for HIV surveillance in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Gerson Fernando Mendes; Sabidó, Meritxell; Caruso, Alessandro; Benzaken, Adele Schwartz

    2017-07-05

    In Brazil, due to the rapid increase in programmes for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT), routine programme data are widely available. The objective of this study was to assess the utility of programmatic data to replace HIV surveillance based on the antenatal care (ANC) surveillance survey (SS). We analysed ANC SS data from 219 maternity service clinics. PMTCT variables were extracted from the ANC SS data collection form, which allowed us to capture and compare the ANC SS data and PMTCT HIV test results for each pregnant woman who completed the ANC SS. Both the PMTCT programme and the ANC SS tested for HIV using sequential ELISA and western blot for confirmation. We assessed the completeness (% missing) of the PMTC data included in the ANC SS. Of the 36,713 pregnant women who had ANC SS HIV tests performed, 30,588 also underwent PMTCT HIV testing. The HIV prevalence rate from routine PMTCT testing was 0.36%, compared to 0.38% from the ANC SS testing (relative difference -0.05%; absolute difference -0.02%). The relative difference in prevalence rates between pregnant women in northern Brazil and pregnant women central-west Brazil was -0.98 and 0.66, respectively. Of the 29,856 women who had HIV test results from both the PMTCT and ANC SS, the positive percent agreement of the PMTCT versus the surveillance test was 84.1% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 74.8-91.0), and the negative percent agreement was 99.9% (95% CI: 99.9-100.0). The PMTCT HIV testing uptake was 86.4%. The ANC SS HIV prevalence was 0.33% among PMTCT non-refusers and 0.59% among refusers, with a percent bias of -10.80% and a differential prevalence ratio of 0.56. Syphilis and HIV testing results were complete in 98% and 97.6% of PMTCT reports, respectively. The reported HIV status for the women at clinic entry was missing. Although there were consistent HIV prevalence estimates from the PMTCT data and the ANC SS, the overall positive percent agreement of 84.1% falls below the

  13. CDC Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) is a state-based system of health surveys that collects information on health risk behaviors, preventive...

  14. Remote container monitoring and surveillance systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resnik, W.M.; Kadner, S.P.

    1995-01-01

    Aquila Technologies Group is developing a monitoring and surveillance system to monitor containers of nuclear materials. The system will both visually and physically monitor the containers. The system is based on the combination of Aquila's Gemini All-Digital Surveillance System and on Aquila's AssetLAN trademark asset tracking technology. This paper discusses the Gemini Digital Surveillance system as well as AssetLAN technology. The Gemini architecture with emphasis on anti-tamper security features is also described. The importance of all-digital surveillance versus other surveillance methods is also discussed. AssetLAN trademark technology is described, emphasizing the ability to continually track containers (as assets) by location utilizing touch memory technology. Touch memory technology provides unique container identification, as well as the ability to store and retrieve digital information on the container. This information may relate to container maintenance, inspection schedules, and other information. Finally, this paper describes the combination of the Gemini system with AssetLAN technology, yielding a self contained, container monitoring and area/container surveillance system. Secure container fixture design considerations are discussed. Basic surveillance review functions are also discussed

  15. Reliability demonstration of imaging surveillance systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheridan, T.F.; Henderson, J.T.; MacDiarmid, P.R.

    1979-01-01

    Security surveillance systems which employ closed circuit television are being deployed with increasing frequency for the protection of property and other valuable assets. A need exists to demonstrate the reliability of such systems before their installation to assure that the deployed systems will operate when needed with only the scheduled amount of maintenance and support costs. An approach to the reliability demonstration of imaging surveillance systems which employ closed circuit television is described. Failure definitions based on industry television standards and imaging alarm assessment criteria for surveillance systems are discussed. Test methods which allow 24 hour a day operation without the need for numerous test scenarios, test personnel and elaborate test facilities are presented. Existing reliability demonstration standards are shown to apply which obviate the need for elaborate statistical tests. The demonstration methods employed are shown to have applications in other types of imaging surveillance systems besides closed circuit television

  16. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors 6 types of health-risk behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of death and disability among...

  17. Science and engineering intelligent surveillance systems

    CERN Document Server

    Huihuan, Qian; Xu, Yangsheng

    2011-01-01

    As shortcomings such as high labor costs make intelligent surveillance systems more desirable, this practical book focuses on detecting abnormal behavior based on learning and the analysis of dangerous crowd behavior based on texture and optical flow.

  18. HIV Surveillance Among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinics: Evolution and Current Direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dee, Jacob; Garcia Calleja, Jesus M; Marsh, Kimberly; Zaidi, Irum; Murrill, Christopher; Swaminathan, Mahesh

    2017-12-05

    Since the late 1980s, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) sentinel serosurveillance among pregnant women attending select antenatal clinics (ANCs) based on unlinked anonymous testing (UAT) has provided invaluable information for tracking HIV prevalence and trends and informing global and national HIV models in most countries with generalized HIV epidemics. However, increased coverage of HIV testing, prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT), and antiretroviral therapy has heightened ethical concerns about UAT. PMTCT programs now routinely collect demographic and HIV testing information from the same pregnant women as serosurveillance and therefore present an alternative to UAT-based ANC serosurveillance. This paper reports on the evolution and current direction of the global approach to HIV surveillance among pregnant women attending ANCs, including the transition away from traditional UAT-based serosurveillance and toward new guidance from the World Health Organization and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS on the implementation of surveillance among pregnant women attending ANCs based on routine PMTCT program data. ©Jacob Dee, Jesus M Garcia Calleja, Kimberly Marsh, Irum Zaidi, Christopher Murrill, Mahesh Swaminathan. Originally published in JMIR Public Health and Surveillance (http://publichealth.jmir.org), 05.12.2017.

  19. Sharply rising prevalence of HIV infection in Bali: a critical assessment of the surveillance data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Januraga, P P; Wulandari, L P L; Muliawan, P; Sawitri, S; Causer, L; Wirawan, D N; Kaldor, J M

    2013-08-01

    This study critically examines serological survey data for HIV infection in selected populations in Bali, Indonesia. Sero-survey data reported by the Bali Health Office between 2000 and 2010 were collated, and provincial health staff were interviewed to gain a detailed understanding of survey methods. Analysis of time series restricted to districts that have used the same sampling methods and sites each year indicates that there has been a steady decline in HIV prevalence among prisoners, from 18.7% in 2000 to 4.3% in 2010. In contrast, HIV prevalence among women engaged in sex work increased sharply: from 0.62% in 2000 to 20.2% in 2010 (brothel based), and from 0% in 2000 to 7.2% in 2010 (non-brothel based). The highest prevalence was recorded among people who injected drugs. Recent surveys of gay men and transvestites also found high prevalences, at 18.7% and 40.9%, respectively. Review of the methodology used in the surveys identified inconsistencies in the sampling technique, sample numbers and sites over time, and incomplete recording of individual information about survey participants. Attention to methodological aspects and incorporation of additional information on behavioural factors will ensure that the surveillance system is in the best position to support prevention activities.

  20. Laser surveillance system for spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiarman, S.; Zucker, M.S.; Bieber, A.M. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    A laser surveillance system installed at spent fuel storage pools (SFSP's) will provide the safeguard inspector with specific knowledge of spent fuel movement that cannot be obtained with current surveillance systems. The laser system will allow for the division of the pool's spent fuel inventory into two populations - those assemblies which have been moved and those which haven't - which is essential for maximizing the efficiency and effectiveness of the inspection effort. We have designed, constructed, and tested a full size laser system operating in air and have used an array of 6 zircaloy BWR tubes to simulate an assembly. The reflective signal from the zircaloy rods is a strong function of position of the assembly, but in all cases is easily discernable from the reference scan of the background with no assembly. A design for a SFSP laser surveillance system incorporating laser ranging is discussed. 10 figures

  1. Intelligent video surveillance systems and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Yunqian

    2009-01-01

    From the streets of London to subway stations in New York City, hundreds of thousands of surveillance cameras ubiquitously collect hundreds of thousands of videos, often running 24/7. How can such vast volumes of video data be stored, analyzed, indexed, and searched? How can advanced video analysis and systems autonomously recognize people and detect targeted activities real-time? Collating and presenting the latest information Intelligent Video Surveillance: Systems and Technology explores these issues, from fundamentals principle to algorithmic design and system implementation.An Integrated

  2. A comprehensive review on intelligent surveillance systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutrisno Warsono Ibrahim

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Intelligent surveillance system (ISS has received growing attention due to the increasing demand on security and safety. ISS is able to automatically analyze image, video, audio or other type of surveillance data without or with limited human intervention. The recent developments in sensor devices, computer vision, and machine learning have an important role in enabling such intelligent system. This paper aims to provide general overview of intelligent surveillance system and discuss some possible sensor modalities and their fusion scenarios such as visible camera (CCTV, infrared camera, thermal camera and radar. This paper also discusses main processing steps in ISS: background-foreground segmentation, object detection and classification, tracking, and behavioral analysis.

  3. Surveillance system for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizeracki, M.T.

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes an integrated surveillance system for nuclear power plant application. The author explores an expanded role for closed circuit television, with remotely located cameras and infrared scanners as the basic elements. The video system, integrated with voice communication, can enhance the safe and efficient operation of the plant, by improving the operator's knowledge of plant conditions. 7 refs

  4. Multimodal surveillance sensors, algorithms, and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Zhigang

    2007-01-01

    From front-end sensors to systems and environmental issues, this practical resource guides you through the many facets of multimodal surveillance. The book examines thermal, vibration, video, and audio sensors in a broad context of civilian and military applications. This cutting-edge volume provides an in-depth treatment of data fusion algorithms that takes you to the core of multimodal surveillance, biometrics, and sentient computing. The book discusses such people and activity topics as tracking people and vehicles and identifying individuals by their speech.Systems designers benefit from d

  5. HIV incidence in sub-Saharan Africa: a review of available data with implications for surveillance and prevention planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braunstein, Sarah L.; van de Wijgert, Janneke H. H. M.; Nash, Denis

    2009-01-01

    HIV incidence estimation is increasingly being incorporated into HIV/AIDS surveillance activities in both resource-rich and developing countries. We conducted a systematic review to assess the availability of HIV incidence data from sub-Saharan Africa. We examined peer-reviewed articles, conference

  6. System specification for the integrated monitoring and surveillance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    This System Specification establishes the requirements for the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA) Integrated Monitoring and Surveillance System (IMSS). In this document, ''Integrated Monitoring and Surveillance System'' is used to describe the concept of integrated sensors, computers, personnel, and systems that perform the functions of sensing conditions, acquiring data, monitoring environmental safety and health, controlling and accounting for materials, monitoring material stability, monitoring container integrity, transferring data, and analyzing, reporting, and storing data. This concept encompasses systems (e.g. sensors, personnel, databases, etc.) that are already in place at the sites but may require modifications or additions to meet all identified surveillance requirements. The purpose of this System Specification is to provide Department of Energy (DOE) sites that store plutonium materials with a consolidation of all known requirements for the storage and surveillance of 3013 packages of stabilized plutonium metals and oxides. This compilation may be used (1) as a baseline for surveillance system design specifications where 3013 packages of stabilized plutonium metals and oxides will be stored and monitored; (2) as a checklist for evaluating existing surveillance systems to ensure that all requirements are met for the storage and surveillance of 3013 packages of stabilized plutonium metals and oxides; and (3) as a baseline for preparing procurement specifications tailored for site specific storage and surveillance of 3013 packages of stabilized plutonium metals and oxides

  7. Integration of HIV testing in tuberculosis drug resistance surveillance in Kazakhstan and Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klinkenberg, E.; van den Hof, S.; Tursynbayeva, A.; Kipruto, H.; Wahogo, J.; Pak, S.; Kutwa, A.; L'Herminez, R.

    2012-01-01

    In Kenya and Kazakhstan, integration of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing results into the routine surveillance of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) proved feasible and useful. The integration process improved overall data quality and data validation capacity, and integrated data

  8. Surveyor mobile surveillance system for hazardous environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silverman, E.B.; Simmons, R.K.; Kniazewycz, B.G.; Darvish, A.R.; Irving, T.L.

    1987-01-01

    A successful program was recently conducted to test and evaluate a commercial-ready, wireless, remotely operated surveillance system for use in nuclear power plants. This evaluation of the Surveyor mobile surveillance system took place at Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation's Nine Mile Point Nuclear Power Station. The remotely operated vehicle measures radiation, temperature and relative humidity and provides optical inspection capability. The vehicle is readily maneuvered in 36-inch wide passageways and labyrinth entries and can climb stairs, negotiating 180-degree turns on stair landings. The system consists of a supervisory control station and a rugged, remotely-operated, battery-powered vehicle. The surveyor system is specifically designed to decrease personnel radiation exposure by supplementing the functions of an auxiliary operator or wealth physics technician to perform periodic component inspections inside particular areas within a nuclear power plant

  9. Laser surveillance system for spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiarman, S.; Zucker, M.S.; Bieber, A.M. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    A laser surveillance system installed at spent fuel storage pools will provide the safeguard inspector with specific knowledge of spent fuel movement that cannot be obtained with current surveillance systems. The laser system will allow for the division of the pool's spent fuel inventory into two populations - those assemblies which have been moved and those which haven't - which is essential for maximizing the efficiency and effectiveness of the inspection effort. We have designed, constructed, and tested a laser system and have used it with a simulated BWR assembly. The reflected signal from the zircaloy rods depends on the position of the assembly, but in all cases is easily discernable from the reference scan of background with no assembly

  10. Sentinel surveillance of HIV-1 transmitted drug resistance, acute infection and recent infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Ha M Truong

    Full Text Available HIV-1 acute infection, recent infection and transmitted drug resistance screening was integrated into voluntary HIV counseling and testing (VCT services to enhance the existing surveillance program in San Francisco. This study describes newly-diagnosed HIV cases and characterizes correlates associated with infection.A consecutive sample of persons presenting for HIV VCT at the municipal sexually transmitted infections (STI clinic from 2004 to 2006 (N = 9,868 were evaluated by standard enzyme-linked immunoassays (EIA. HIV antibody-positive specimens were characterized as recent infections using a less-sensitive EIA. HIV-RNA pooled testing was performed on HIV antibody-negative specimens to identify acute infections. HIV antibody-positive and acute infection specimens were evaluated for drug resistance by sequence analysis. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to evaluate associations. The 380 newly-diagnosed HIV cases included 29 acute infections, 128 recent infections, and 47 drug-resistant cases, with no significant increases or decreases in prevalence over the three years studied. HIV-1 transmitted drug resistance prevalence was 11.0% in 2004, 13.4% in 2005 and 14.9% in 2006 (p = 0.36. Resistance to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI was the most common pattern detected, present in 28 cases of resistance (59.6%. Among MSM, recent infection was associated with amphetamine use (AOR = 2.67; p<0.001, unprotected anal intercourse (AOR = 2.27; p<0.001, sex with a known HIV-infected partner (AOR = 1.64; p = 0.02, and history of gonorrhea (AOR = 1.62; p = 0.03.New HIV diagnoses, recent infections, acute infections and transmitted drug resistance prevalence remained stable between 2004 and 2006. Resistance to NNRTI comprised more than half of the drug-resistant cases, a worrisome finding given its role as the backbone of first-line antiretroviral therapy in San Francisco as well as worldwide. The integration of HIV-1 drug

  11. Surveillance systems for intermodal transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakovlev, Sergej; Voznak, Miroslav; Andziulis, Arunas

    2015-05-01

    Intermodal container monitoring is considered a major security issue in many major logistic companies and countries worldwide. Current representation of the problem, we face today, originated in 2002, right after the 9/11 attacks. Then, a new worldwide Container Security Initiative (CSI, 2002) was considered that shaped the perception of the transportation operations. Now more than 80 larger ports all over the world contribute to its further development and integration into everyday transportation operations and improve the regulations for the developing regions. Although, these new improvements allow us to feel safer and secure, constant management of transportation operations has become a very difficult problem for conventional data analysis methods and information systems. The paper deals with a proposal of a whole new concept for the improvement of the Containers Security Initiative (CSI) by virtually connecting safety, security processes and systems. A conceptual middleware approach with deployable intelligent agent modules is proposed to be used with possible scenarios and a testbed is used to test the solution. Middleware examples are visually programmed using National Instruments LabView software packages and Wireless sensor network hardware modules. An experimental software is used to evaluate he solution. This research is a contribution to the intermodal transportation and is intended to be used as a means or the development of intelligent transport systems.

  12. HIV surveillance in needlestick accidents with health workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janete Lane Amadei

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To characterize the occurrence of needlestick accidents with health professionals submitted to rapid HIV tests. Methods: A descriptive, epidemiological study, carried out by notification of the occurrence of needlestick accidents in the Epidemiology Sector of the State Health Secretariat, in 2008. The following variables were assessed: gender, age, exposed biological material, type of exposure, source patient, and injured patient, progression of the case, accident situation, and use of personal protective equipment (PPE, 180 days serology and occupational area. Results: There have been reports of 143 accidents, prevailing in nursing, female, 20 to 30 years, involving the blood and biological material by percutaneous puncture. We found no standardization in the use of PPE. The HIV test revealed no positive cases. Conclusion: This study helped to characterize the occurrence of accidents reported in health care professionals and evaluate the protocol of care given. It also revealed non-contamination by HIV.

  13. The Argentine remote monitoring and surveillance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonino, A.; Roca, J.L.; Perez, A.; Pizarro, L.; Krimer, M.; Teira, R.; Higa, Z.; Saettone, S.; Monzon, J.; Moroni, D.

    1996-01-01

    The Scientific and Technical Support Department of the Argentine National Board of Nuclear Regulation (ENREN) has developed a Remote Monitoring and Surveillance System (RMSS) that provides a media to verify state of variables related to the monitoring and surveillance activities of nuclear facilities, mainly safeguard applications. RMSS includes a variety of on site installed sensors, an authenticated radiofrequency communication link, a receiver processing unit, an active vision set and a user friendly personal computer interface to collect, view and store pertinent histories of events. A real time data base allows consulting, maintenance, updating and checking activities. RMSS could be integrated into a LAN or WAN via modem for use in a remote operation scheme. In this paper a description of the RMSS is provided. Also, an overview of the RMSS operation at one facility under safeguards belonging to the National Commission of Atomic Energy (CNEA) is presented. Results and conclusions of the system associated with this facility are given. (author). 37 figs

  14. The Argentine remote monitoring and surveillance system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonino, A; Roca, J L; Perez, A; Pizarro, L; Krimer, M; Teira, R; Higa, Z; Saettone, S; Monzon, J; Moroni, D [Ente Nacional Regulador Nuclear, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Dept. Apoyo Cientifico y Tecnico

    1997-12-31

    The Scientific and Technical Support Department of the Argentine National Board of Nuclear Regulation (ENREN) has developed a Remote Monitoring and Surveillance System (RMSS) that provides a media to verify state of variables related to the monitoring and surveillance activities of nuclear facilities, mainly safeguard applications. RMSS includes a variety of on site installed sensors, an authenticated radiofrequency communication link, a receiver processing unit, an active vision set and a user friendly personal computer interface to collect, view and store pertinent histories of events. A real time data base allows consulting, maintenance, updating and checking activities. RMSS could be integrated into a LAN or WAN via modem for use in a remote operation scheme. In this paper a description of the RMSS is provided. Also, an overview of the RMSS operation at one facility under safeguards belonging to the National Commission of Atomic Energy (CNEA) is presented. Results and conclusions of the system associated with this facility are given. (author). 37 figs.

  15. HIV behavioural surveillance among refugees and surrounding host ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We used a standardised behavioural surveillance survey (BSS), modified to be directly relevant to populations in conflict and post-conflict settings as well as to their surrounding host populations, to survey the populations of a refugee settlement in south-western Uganda and its surrounding area. Two-stage probability ...

  16. Mass HIV Treatment and Sex Disparities in Life Expectancy: Demographic Surveillance in Rural South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Bor

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Women have better patient outcomes in HIV care and treatment than men in sub-Saharan Africa. We assessed--at the population level--whether and to what extent mass HIV treatment is associated with changes in sex disparities in adult life expectancy, a summary metric of survival capturing mortality across the full cascade of HIV care. We also determined sex-specific trends in HIV mortality and the distribution of HIV-related deaths in men and women prior to and at each stage of the clinical cascade.Data were collected on all deaths occurring from 2001 to 2011 in a large population-based surveillance cohort (52,964 women and 45,688 men, ages 15 y and older in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Cause of death was ascertained by verbal autopsy (93% response rate. Demographic data were linked at the individual level to clinical records from the public sector HIV treatment and care program that serves the region. Annual rates of HIV-related mortality were assessed for men and women separately, and female-to-male rate ratios were estimated in exponential hazard models. Sex-specific trends in adult life expectancy and HIV-cause-deleted adult life expectancy were calculated. The proportions of HIV deaths that accrued to men and women at different stages in the HIV cascade of care were estimated annually. Following the beginning of HIV treatment scale-up in 2004, HIV mortality declined among both men and women. Female adult life expectancy increased from 51.3 y (95% CI 49.7, 52.8 in 2003 to 64.5 y (95% CI 62.7, 66.4 in 2011, a gain of 13.2 y. Male adult life expectancy increased from 46.9 y (95% CI 45.6, 48.2 in 2003 to 55.9 y (95% CI 54.3, 57.5 in 2011, a gain of 9.0 y. The gap between female and male adult life expectancy doubled, from 4.4 y in 2003 to 8.6 y in 2011, a difference of 4.3 y (95% CI 0.9, 7.6. For women, HIV mortality declined from 1.60 deaths per 100 person-years (95% CI 1.46, 1.75 in 2003 to 0.56 per 100 person-years (95% CI 0.48, 0.65 in

  17. [Survey adaptation for bio-behavioural surveillance of HIV in Chilean female sex workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal, Bielka; Stuardo, Valeria; Manríquez, José Manuel; Belmar, Julieta; Folch, Cinta

    To adapt a behavioural questionnaire for second-generation HIV/AIDS surveillance in female sex workers (FSWs) in the Metropolitan Region, Chile. Qualitative study of instruments validation. A Spanish instrument adapted in Catalonia was validated through a translation and back-translation of the original version. The content validity was determined through a modified Delphi method, via FSW and HIV experts representing community, political and institutional levels. Applicability aspects were determined by the application of the questionnaire to FSW in the Metropolitan Region. The questionnaire, drafted in Spain, was successfully adapted to Chilean Spanish. The content validity process enabled sections to be created that address HIV in FSWs. The adapted questionnaire takes less than 15minutes to complete, which makes it usable in fieldwork. The 61 women surveyed came from different countries (all were Latin Americans) and had different educational levels; all this enabled potential applicability problems to be detected. The adapted questionnaire for Chile contains all the UNAIDS indicators for FSWs, as well as the recommended indicators of Family Health International for bio-behavioural surveillance. Said questionnaire serves as a tool for second-generation HIV/other STD surveillance and further contributes to preventive policies in Chilean FSWs. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Laser surveillance systems for fuel storage pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeck, H.

    1985-06-01

    A Laser Surveillance System (LASSY) as a new safeguards device has been developed under the IAEA research contract No. 3458/RB at the Atominstitut Wien using earlier results by S. Fiarman. This system is designed to act as a sheet of light covering spent fuel assemblies in spent fuel storage pools. When movement of assemblies takes place, LASSY detects and locates the position of the movement in the pool and when interrogated, presents a list of pool positions and times of movement to the safeguards inspector. A complete prototype system was developed and built. Full scale tests showed the principal working capabilities of a LASSY underwater

  19. Recording and surveillance systems for periodontal diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltrán-Aguilar, Eugenio D; Eke, Paul I; Thornton-Evans, Gina

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes tools used to measure periodontal diseases and the integration of these tools into surveillance systems. Tools to measure periodontal diseases at the surveillance level have focussed on current manifestations of disease (e.g. gingival inflammation) or disease sequelae (e.......g. periodontal pocket depth or loss of attachment). All tools reviewed in this paper were developed based on the state of the science of the pathophysiology of periodontal disease at the time of their design and the need to provide valid and reliable measurements of the presence and severity of periodontal...... diseases. Therefore, some of these tools are no longer valid. Others, such as loss of periodontal attachment, are the current de-facto tools but demand many resources to undertake periodical assessment of the periodontal health of populations. Less complex tools such as the Community Periodontal Index...

  20. An integrated national mortality surveillance system for death registration and mortality surveillance, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shiwei; Wu, Xiaoling; Lopez, Alan D; Wang, Lijun; Cai, Yue; Page, Andrew; Yin, Peng; Liu, Yunning; Li, Yichong; Liu, Jiangmei; You, Jinling; Zhou, Maigeng

    2016-01-01

    In China, sample-based mortality surveillance systems, such as the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention's disease surveillance points system and the Ministry of Health's vital registration system, have been used for decades to provide nationally representative data on health status for health-care decision-making and performance evaluation. However, neither system provided representative mortality and cause-of-death data at the provincial level to inform regional health service needs and policy priorities. Moreover, the systems overlapped to a considerable extent, thereby entailing a duplication of effort. In 2013, the Chinese Government combined these two systems into an integrated national mortality surveillance system to provide a provincially representative picture of total and cause-specific mortality and to accelerate the development of a comprehensive vital registration and mortality surveillance system for the whole country. This new system increased the surveillance population from 6 to 24% of the Chinese population. The number of surveillance points, each of which covered a district or county, increased from 161 to 605. To ensure representativeness at the provincial level, the 605 surveillance points were selected to cover China's 31 provinces using an iterative method involving multistage stratification that took into account the sociodemographic characteristics of the population. This paper describes the development and operation of the new national mortality surveillance system, which is expected to yield representative provincial estimates of mortality in China for the first time.

  1. Strengthening Injury Surveillance System in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motevalian Seyed Abbas

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: To strengthen the current Injury Surveillance System (IS System in order to better monitor injury conditions, improve protection ways and promote safety. Methods: At first we carried out a study to evaluate the frameworks of IS System in the developed countries. Then all the available documents from World Health Organization, Eastern Mediterranean Regional Organization, as well as Minister of Health and Medical Education concerning Iran were reviewed. Later a national stakeholder抯 consultation was held to collect opinions and views. A national workshop was also intended for provincial representatives from 41 universities to identify the barriers and limitations of the existing program and further to strengthen injury surveillance. Results: The evaluation of the current IS System revealed many problems, mainly presented as lack of accurate pre- and post-hospital death registry, need of precise injury data registry in outpatient medical centers, incomplete injury data registry in hospitals and lack of accuracy in definition of variables in injury registry. The five main characteristics of current IS System including flexibility, acceptability, simplicity, usefulness and timeliness were evaluated as moderate by experts. Conclusions: Major revisions must be considered in the current IS System in Iran. The following elements should be added to the questionnaire: identifier, manner of arrival to the hospital, situation of the injured patient, consumption of alcohol and opioids, other involved participants in the accident, intention, severity and site of injury, side effects of surgery and medication, as well as one month follow-up results. Data should be collected from 10% of all hospitals in Iran and analyzed every 3 months. Simultaneously data should be online to be retrieved by researches. Key words: Wounds and injuries; Population surveillance; Registries; Iran

  2. MATSurv: multisensor air traffic surveillance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeddanapudi, Murali; Bar-Shalom, Yaakov; Pattipati, Krishna R.; Gassner, Richard R.

    1995-09-01

    This paper deals with the design and implementation of MATSurv 1--an experimental Multisensor Air Traffic Surveillance system. The proposed system consists of a Kalman filter based state estimator used in conjunction with a 2D sliding window assignment algorithm. Real data from two FAA radars is used to evaluate the performance of this algorithm. The results indicate that the proposed algorithm provides a superior classification of the measurements into tracks (i.e., the most likely aircraft trajectories) when compared to the aircraft trajectories obtained using the measurement IDs (squawk or IFF code).

  3. Functional requirements for core surveillance systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, T.

    2000-01-01

    Operating experience at Ringhals-2 has demonstrated the feasibility of a mixed core surveillance system comprised of fixed in-core detectors combined with the original movable detector system. A small number of fixed in-core detectors provide continuous measurement of the thermal margins while the movable detectors are used mainly at start-up to verify the expected power distribution. Reactor noise diagnostics and neural networks can further improve the monitoring system. The reliability of the movable detector system can be improved by mechanical simplification. Wear and maintenance costs are lowered if the required flux-mapping frequency is reduced. Improved computer codes make the measurement uncertainties less dependent on the number of instrumented positions. A mixed system requires new types of technical specifications. (author)

  4. Video auto stitching in multicamera surveillance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Bin; Zhao, Gang; Liu, Qifang; Li, Yangyang

    2012-01-01

    This paper concerns the problem of video stitching automatically in a multi-camera surveillance system. Previous approaches have used multiple calibrated cameras for video mosaic in large scale monitoring application. In this work, we formulate video stitching as a multi-image registration and blending problem, and not all cameras are needed to be calibrated except a few selected master cameras. SURF is used to find matched pairs of image key points from different cameras, and then camera pose is estimated and refined. Homography matrix is employed to calculate overlapping pixels and finally implement boundary resample algorithm to blend images. The result of simulation demonstrates the efficiency of our method.

  5. Real-time wideband holographic surveillance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheen, D.M.; Collins, H.D.; Hall, T.E.; McMakin, D.L.; Gribble, R.P.; Severtsen, R.H.; Prince, J.M.; Reid, L.D.

    1996-09-17

    A wideband holographic surveillance system including a transceiver for generating a plurality of electromagnetic waves; antenna for transmitting the electromagnetic waves toward a target at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; the transceiver also receiving and converting electromagnetic waves reflected from the target to electrical signals at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; a computer for processing the electrical signals to obtain signals corresponding to a holographic reconstruction of the target; and a display for displaying the processed information to determine nature of the target. The computer has instructions to apply a three dimensional backward wave algorithm. 28 figs.

  6. Epidemiological HIV infection surveillance among subjects with risk behaviours in the city of Messina (Sicily) from 1992 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visalli, G; Avventuroso, E; Laganà, P; Spataro, P; Di Pietro, A; Bertuccio, M P; Picerno, I

    2017-09-01

    Epidemiological studies are a key element in determining the evolution and spread of HIV infection among the world population. Knowledge of the epidemiological dynamics improves strategies for prevention and monitoring. We examined 2,272 subjects who voluntarily underwent HIV testing from January 1992 to December 2015. For each subject, an anonymous form was completed to obtain information on personal data, sexual habits and exposure to risk factors. The number of subjects undergoing the screening test has increased over the years and the average age of the tested subjects has decreased over time. The main motivation for undergoing HIV testing is unprotected sex. Although heterosexual subjects taking the test were more numerous than homosexuals in this study, an increase in the latter over time should be highlighted. Although the number of tests performed has increased over the years, the persistence of unprotected sex shows an inadequate perception of risk. Therefore, it is necessary to implement programmes to increase the general awareness of HIV infection. It is also essential to undertake constant monitoring of behaviour, risk perception and the application of the screening test via surveillance systems in order to implement effective and efficient prevention.

  7. Automated intelligent video surveillance system for ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hai; Nguyen, Hieu; Ramu, Prakash; Raju, Chaitanya; Liu, Xiaoqing; Yadegar, Jacob

    2009-05-01

    To protect naval and commercial ships from attack by terrorists and pirates, it is important to have automatic surveillance systems able to detect, identify, track and alert the crew on small watercrafts that might pursue malicious intentions, while ruling out non-threat entities. Radar systems have limitations on the minimum detectable range and lack high-level classification power. In this paper, we present an innovative Automated Intelligent Video Surveillance System for Ships (AIVS3) as a vision-based solution for ship security. Capitalizing on advanced computer vision algorithms and practical machine learning methodologies, the developed AIVS3 is not only capable of efficiently and robustly detecting, classifying, and tracking various maritime targets, but also able to fuse heterogeneous target information to interpret scene activities, associate targets with levels of threat, and issue the corresponding alerts/recommendations to the man-in- the-loop (MITL). AIVS3 has been tested in various maritime scenarios and shown accurate and effective threat detection performance. By reducing the reliance on human eyes to monitor cluttered scenes, AIVS3 will save the manpower while increasing the accuracy in detection and identification of asymmetric attacks for ship protection.

  8. SCORPIO: a framework for core surveillance systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, Oe.; Tsuiki, Makoto

    1999-01-01

    The first version of the core surveillance system SCORPIO was installed at Unit 2, Ringhals, in 1984. It was implemented on Norsk Data mini-computers with a fully graphical user-interface. The main purpose was to provide a practical tool for reactor operators and reactor physicists for on-line monitoring and predictive analysis of core behaviour. A second version of SCORPIO was developed in 1993-1995 and implemented on Unix workstations. In addition to upgrading the system at Ringhals, the system was installed by Duke Power, USA, on 7 reactors. SCORPIO was also installed on the Sizewell B reactor. Recently a new framework has been developed which further enhances the flexibility and capabilities for implementing core surveillance systems in different types of nuclear power plants. Modules can be added and replaced in an easy manner. It allows fast and reliable communication of data between modules based on the Software Bus tool developed by IFE. Further, the Picasso-3 user interface management system supports efficient implementation of different user interfaces. Both Unix and Windows NT platforms are supported. The new framework has been applied in development and installation of a SCORPIO-VVER version for the Dukovany NPP, Czech Republic. Here it was of particular importance to provide a flexible system for integration of modules originating from different companies. Development of a BWR version is now in progress. This means that SCORPIO will be available for all the major reactor types, and synergy is obtained by application of a common framework both with respect to system implementation and maintenance. By using the SCORPIO framework, the development time is reduced and the maintenance work is carried out more efficiently, compared to developing systems with lower-level tools. For instance, the MMI can be developed and tested independently of the physics modules

  9. ACP Facility Safety Surveillance System Installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, Gil Sung; Kook, D. H.; Choung, W. M.; Ku, J. H.; Cho, I. J.; You, G. S.; Kwon, K. C.; Lee, W. K.; Lee, E. P.

    2006-10-01

    The Advanced spent fuel Conditioning Process is under development for effective management of spent fuel by converting UO 2 into U-metal. For demonstration of this process, α-γ type new hotcell was built in the IMEF basement. All facilities which treat radioactive materials must manage CCTV system which is under control of Health Physics department. Three main points (including hotcell rear door area) have each camera, but operators who are in charge of facility management need to check the safety of the facility immediately through the network in his office. This needs introduce additional network cameras installation and this new surveillance system is expected to update the whole safety control ability with existing system

  10. Evaluation of a radioactive aerosol surveillance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scripsick, R.C.; Stafford, R.G.; Beckman, R.J.; Tillery, M.I.; Romero, P.O.

    Measurements of the dilution of air contaminants between worker breathing zone and area air samplers were made by releasing a test aerosol in a workroom equipped with an aerosol surveillance system. The data were used to evaluate performance, and suggest improvements in design of the workroom's alarming air monitor system. It was found that a breathing zone concentration of 960 times the maximum permissible concentration in air (MPC/sub a/) for a half-hour was required to trigger alarms of the existing monitoring system under some release conditions. Alternative air monitor placement, suggested from dilution measurements, would reduce this average triggering concentration to 354 MPC/sub a/. Deployment of additional air monitors could further reduce the average triggering concentration to 241 MPC/sub a/. The relation between number of monitors and triggering concentration was studied. No significant decrease in average triggering concentration was noted for arrays containing greater than five monitors

  11. Surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtslund, Anders; Coeckelbergh, Mark; Matzner, Tobias

    Studying surveillance involves raising questions about the very nature of concepts such as information, technology, identity, space and power. Besides the maybe all too obvious ethical issues often discussed with regard to surveillance, there are several other angles and approaches that we should...... like to encourage. Therefore, our panel will focus on the philosophical, yet non-ethical issues of surveillance in order to stimulate an intense debate with the audience on the ethical implications of our enquiries. We also hope to provide a broader and deeper understanding of surveillance....

  12. Strengthening Injury Surveillance System in Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seyed Abbas Motevalian; Mashyaneh Haddadi; Hesam Akbari; Reza Khorramirouz; Soheil Saadat; Arash Tehrani; Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To strengthen the current Injury Surveillance System (IS System) in order to better monitor injury conditions,improve protection ways and promote safety.Methods:At first we carried out a study to evaluate the frameworks of IS System in the developed countries.Then all the available documents from World Health OrganizationEastern Mediterranean Regional Organization,as well as Minister of Health and Medical Education concerning Iran were reviewed.Later a national stakeholder's consultation was held to collect opinions and views.A national workshop was also intended for provincial representatives from 41 universities to identify the barriers and limitations of the existing program and further to strengthen injury surveillance.Results:The evaluation of the current IS System revealed many problems,mainly presented as lack of accurate pre- and post-hospital death registry,need of precise injury data registry in outpatient medical centers,incomplete injury data registry in hospitals and lack of accuracy in definition of variables in injury registry.The five main characteristics of current IS System including flexibility,acceptability,simplicity,usefulness and timeliness were evaluated as moderate by experts.Contusions:Major revisions must be considered in the current IS System in Iran.The following elements should be added to the questionnaire:identifier,manner of arrival to the hospital,situation of the injured patient,consumption of alcohol and opioids,other involved participants in the accident,intention,severity and site of injury,side effects of surgery and medication,as well as one month follow-up results.Data should be collected from 10% of all hospitals in Iran and analyzed every 3 months.Simultaneously data should be online to be retrieved by researches.

  13. Optimizing the response to surveillance alerts in automated surveillance systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izadi, Masoumeh; Buckeridge, David L

    2011-02-28

    Although much research effort has been directed toward refining algorithms for disease outbreak alerting, considerably less attention has been given to the response to alerts generated from statistical detection algorithms. Given the inherent inaccuracy in alerting, it is imperative to develop methods that help public health personnel identify optimal policies in response to alerts. This study evaluates the application of dynamic decision making models to the problem of responding to outbreak detection methods, using anthrax surveillance as an example. Adaptive optimization through approximate dynamic programming is used to generate a policy for decision making following outbreak detection. We investigate the degree to which the model can tolerate noise theoretically, in order to keep near optimal behavior. We also evaluate the policy from our model empirically and compare it with current approaches in routine public health practice for investigating alerts. Timeliness of outbreak confirmation and total costs associated with the decisions made are used as performance measures. Using our approach, on average, 80 per cent of outbreaks were confirmed prior to the fifth day of post-attack with considerably less cost compared to response strategies currently in use. Experimental results are also provided to illustrate the robustness of the adaptive optimization approach and to show the realization of the derived error bounds in practice. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Unattended digital video surveillance: A system prototype for EURATOM safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chare, P.; Goerten, J.; Wagner, H.; Rodriguez, C.; Brown, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    Ever increasing capabilities in video and computer technology have changed the face of video surveillance. From yesterday's film and analog video tape-based systems, we now emerge into the digital era with surveillance systems capable of digital image processing, image analysis, decision control logic, and random data access features -- all of which provide greater versatility with the potential for increased effectiveness in video surveillance. Digital systems also offer other advantages such as the ability to ''compress'' data, providing increased storage capacities and the potential for allowing longer surveillance Periods. Remote surveillance and system to system communications are also a benefit that can be derived from digital surveillance systems. All of these features are extremely important in today's climate Of increasing safeguards activity and decreasing budgets -- Los Alamos National Laboratory's Safeguards Systems Group and the EURATOM Safeguards Directorate have teamed to design and implement a period surveillance system that will take advantage of the versatility of digital video for facility surveillance system that will take advantage of the versatility of digital video for facility surveillance and data review. In this Paper we will familiarize you with system components and features and report on progress in developmental areas such as image compression and region of interest processing

  15. Low-cost panoramic infrared surveillance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kecskes, Ian; Engel, Ezra; Wolfe, Christopher M.; Thomson, George

    2017-05-01

    A nighttime surveillance concept consisting of a single surface omnidirectional mirror assembly and an uncooled Vanadium Oxide (VOx) longwave infrared (LWIR) camera has been developed. This configuration provides a continuous field of view spanning 360° in azimuth and more than 110° in elevation. Both the camera and the mirror are readily available, off-the-shelf, inexpensive products. The mirror assembly is marketed for use in the visible spectrum and requires only minor modifications to function in the LWIR spectrum. The compactness and portability of this optical package offers significant advantages over many existing infrared surveillance systems. The developed system was evaluated on its ability to detect moving, human-sized heat sources at ranges between 10 m and 70 m. Raw camera images captured by the system are converted from rectangular coordinates in the camera focal plane to polar coordinates and then unwrapped into the users azimuth and elevation system. Digital background subtraction and color mapping are applied to the images to increase the users ability to extract moving items from background clutter. A second optical system consisting of a commercially available 50 mm f/1.2 ATHERM lens and a second LWIR camera is used to examine the details of objects of interest identified using the panoramic imager. A description of the components of the proof of concept is given, followed by a presentation of raw images taken by the panoramic LWIR imager. A description of the method by which these images are analyzed is given, along with a presentation of these results side-by-side with the output of the 50 mm LWIR imager and a panoramic visible light imager. Finally, a discussion of the concept and its future development are given.

  16. Evaluation of the National Human Immunodeficiency Virus Surveillance System for the 2011 diagnosis year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karch, Debra L; Chen, Mi; Tang, Tian

    2014-01-01

    In 2009, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention completed migration of all 59 surveillance project areas (PAs) from the case-based HIV/AIDS Reporting System to the document-based Enhanced HIV/AIDS Reporting System. We conducted a PA-level assessment of Enhanced HIV/AIDS Reporting System process and outcome standards for HIV infection cases. Process standards were reported by PAs and outcome standards were calculated using standardized Centers for Disease Control and Prevention SAS code. A total of 59 PAs including 50 US states, the District of Columbia, 6 separately funded cities (Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles County, New York City, Philadelphia, and San Francisco), and 2 territories (Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands). Cases diagnosed or reported to the PA surveillance system between January 1, 2011, and December 31, 2011, using data collected through December 2012. Process standards for death ascertainment and intra- and interstate case de-duplication; outcome standards for completeness and timeliness of case reporting, data quality, intrastate duplication rate, risk factor ascertainment, and completeness of initial CD4 and viral load reporting. Fifty-five of 59 PAs (93%) reported linking cases to state vital records death certificates during 2012, 76% to the Social Security Death Master File, and 59% to the National Death Index. Seventy percent completed monthly intrastate, and 63% completed semiannual interstate de-duplication. Eighty-three percent met the 85% or more case ascertainment standard, and 92% met the 66% or more timeliness standard; 75% met the 97% or more data quality standard; all PAs met the 5% or less intrastate duplication rate; 41% met the 85% or more risk factor ascertainment standard; 90% met the 50% or more standard for initial CD4; and 93% met the same standard for viral load reporting. Overall, 7% of PAs met all 11 process and outcome standards. Findings support the need for continued improvement in HIV surveillance activities

  17. Automated Safety Incident Surveillance and Tracking System (ASISTS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Automated Safety Incident Surveillance and Tracking System (ASISTS) is a repository of Veterans Health Administration (VHA) employee accident data. Many types of...

  18. Traffic Flow Wide-Area Surveillance system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allgood, G.O.; Ferrell, R.K.; Kercel, S.W.; Abston, R.A.

    1994-09-01

    Traffic management can be thought of as a stochastic queuing process where the serving time at one of its control points is dynamically linked to the global traffic pattern, which is, in turn, dynamically linked to the control point. For this closed-loop system to be effective, the traffic management system must sense and interpret a large spatial projection of data originating from multiple sensor suites. This concept is the basis for the development of a Traffic Flow Wide-Area Surveillance (TFWAS) system. This paper presents the results of a study by Oak Ridge National Laboratory to define the operational specifications and characteristics, to determine the constraints, and to examine the state of technology of a TFWAS system in terms of traffic management and control. In doing so, the functions and attributes of a TFWAS system are mapped into an operational structure consistent with the Intelligent Vehicle Highway System (IVHS) concept and the existing highway infrastructure. This mapping includes identifying candidate sensor suites and establishing criteria, requirements, and performance measures by which these systems can be graded in their ability and practicality to meet the operational requirements of a TFWAS system. In light of this, issues such as system integration, applicable technologies, impact on traffic management and control, and public acceptance are addressed.

  19. Traffic flow wide-area surveillance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allgood, Glenn O.; Ferrell, Regina K.; Kercel, Stephen W.; Abston, Ruth A.

    1995-01-01

    Traffic management can be thought of as a stochastic queuing process where the serving time at one of its control points is dynamically linked to the global traffic pattern, which is, in turn, dynamically linked to the control point. For this closed-loop system to be effective, the traffic management system must sense and interpret a large spatial projection of data originating from multiple sensor suites. This concept is the basis for the development of a traffic flow wide-area surveillance (TFWAS) system. This paper presents the results of a study by Oak Ridge National Laboratory to define the operational specifications and characteristics, to determine the constraints, and to examine the state of technology of a TFWAS system in terms of traffic management and control. In doing so, the functions and attributes of a TFWAS system are mapped into an operational structure consistent with the Intelligent Vehicle Highway System (IVHS) concept and the existing highway infrastructure. This mapping includes identifying candidate sensor suites and establishing criteria, requirements, and performance measures by which these systems can be graded in their ability and practicality to meet the operational requirements of a TFWAS system. In light of this, issues such as system integration, applicable technologies, impact on traffic management and control, and public acceptance are addressed.

  20. Influence of socio-demographic factors on distances travelled to access HIV services: enhanced surveillance of HIV patients in north west England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tocque Karen

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patient choice and access to health care is compromised by many barriers including travel distance. Individuals with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV can seek free specialist care in Britain, without a referral, providing flexible access to care services. Willingness to travel beyond local services for preferred care has funding and service implications. Data from an enhanced HIV surveillance system were used to explore geodemographic and clinical factors associated with accessing treatment services. Methods We extracted data on the location, type and frequency of care services utilized by HIV positive persons (n = 3983 accessing treatment in north west England between January 1st 2005 and June 30th 2006. Individuals were allocated a deprivation score and grouped by urban/rural residence, and distance to care services was calculated. Analysis identified independent predictors of distance travelled (general linear modelling and, for those bypassing their nearest clinic, the probability of accessing a specialist service (logistic regression, SPSS ver 14. Inter-relationships between variables and distance travelled were visualised using detrended correspondence analysis (PC-ORD ver 4.1. Results HIV infected persons travelled an average of 4.8 km (95% confidence intervals (CI 4.6–4.9 per trip and had on average 6 visits (95% CI 5.9–6.2 annually for care. Longer trips were made by males (4.8 km vs 4.5 km, white people (6.2 km, the young (>15 years, 6.8 km and elderly (60+ years, 6.3 km, those on multiple therapy (5.3 km vs 4.0 km, and the more affluent living in rural areas (16.1 km, P Conclusion Distance travelled, and type of HIV services used, were associated with socioeconomic status, even after accounting for ethnicity, route of infection and age. Thus despite offering an 'equitable' service, travel costs may advantage those with higher income.

  1. 32 CFR 637.20 - Security surveillance systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Security surveillance systems. 637.20 Section 637... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.20 Security surveillance systems. Closed circuit video recording systems, to include those with an audio capability, may be...

  2. European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies (ESSCA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uter, W; Amario-Hita, J C; Balato, A

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Contact allergy is a common condition and can severely interfere with daily life or professional activities. Due to changes in exposures, such as introduction of new substances, new products or formulations and regulatory intervention, the spectrum of contact sensitization changes....... OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the current spectrum of contact allergy to allergens present in the European baseline series (EBS) across Europe. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of data collected by the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies (ESSCA, www.essca-dc.org) in consecutively patch-tested patients......, 2013/14, in 46 departments in 12 European countries. RESULTS: Altogether, 31 689 patients were included in the analysis. Compared to a similar analysis in 2004, the prevalence of contact allergy to methylisothiazolinone went up to around 20% in several departments. In comparison, contact allergy...

  3. Containment and surveillance systems for international safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ney, J.F.

    1978-01-01

    Important criteria in measuring the effectiveness of IAEA safeguards include timeliness of detection of diversion, timeliness of reporting such detections, and confidence in determining the amount of material diverted. Optimum use of IAEA inspectors, combined with adequate instrumentation, can provide a practical means for achieving these criteria. System studies are being carried out for different types of facilities that may come under IAEA safeguards to determine the proper balance between inspector's efforts and the use of safeguards instrumentation. A description of a typical study is presented. Based on the results of these studies, the program undertaken to develop those containment and surveillance subsystems for which the technical feasibility and operational acceptability need to be established is described

  4. HIV epidemic and human rights among men who have sex with men in sub-Saharan Africa: Implications for HIV prevention, care, and surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abara, Winston E; Garba, Ibrahim

    2017-04-01

    Recent research has presented evidence that men who have sex with men (MSM) bear a disproportionate burden of HIV and are at increased risk for HIV in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). However, many countries in SSA have failed to address the needs of MSM in national HIV/AIDS programmes. Furthermore, many MSM face structural barriers to HIV prevention and care, the most significant of which include laws that criminalise male-to-male sexual contact and facilitate stigma and discrimination. This in turn increases the vulnerability of MSM to acquiring HIV and presents barriers to HIV prevention, care, and surveillance. This relationship illustrates the link between human rights, social justice, and health outcomes and presents considerable challenges to addressing the HIV epidemic among MSM in SSA. The response to the HIV epidemic in SSA requires a non-discriminatory human rights approach to all at-risk groups, including MSM. Existing international human rights treaties, to which many SSA countries are signatories, and a 'health in all policies' approach provides a strong basis to reduce structural barriers to HIV prevention, care, surveillance, and research, and to ensure that all populations in SSA, including MSM, have access to the full range of rights that help ensure equal opportunities for health and wellness.

  5. SCORPION II persistent surveillance system update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coster, Michael; Chambers, Jon

    2010-04-01

    This paper updates the improvements and benefits demonstrated in the next generation Northrop Grumman SCORPION II family of persistent surveillance and target recognition systems produced by the Xetron Campus in Cincinnati, Ohio. SCORPION II reduces the size, weight, and cost of all SCORPION components in a flexible, field programmable system that is easier to conceal and enables integration of over fifty different Unattended Ground Sensor (UGS) and camera types from a variety of manufacturers, with a modular approach to supporting multiple Line of Sight (LOS) and Beyond Line of Sight (BLOS) communications interfaces. Since 1998 Northrop Grumman has been integrating best in class sensors with its proven universal modular Gateway to provide encrypted data exfiltration to Common Operational Picture (COP) systems and remote sensor command and control. In addition to feeding COP systems, SCORPION and SCORPION II data can be directly processed using a common sensor status graphical user interface (GUI) that allows for viewing and analysis of images and sensor data from up to seven hundred SCORPION system gateways on single or multiple displays. This GUI enables a large amount of sensor data and imagery to be used for actionable intelligence as well as remote sensor command and control by a minimum number of analysts.

  6. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System and Pathogen Asset Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom G. Wahl

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System (EIDSS has been used to strengthen and support monitoring and prevention of dangerous diseases within One Health concept by integrating veterinary and human surveillance, passive and active approaches, case-based records including disease-specific clinical data based on standardised case definitions and aggregated data, laboratory data including sample tracking linked to each case and event with test results and epidemiological investigations. Information was collected and shared in secure way by different means: through the distributed nodes which are continuously synchronised amongst each other, through the web service, through the handheld devices. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System provided near real time information flow that has been then disseminated to the appropriate organisations in a timely manner. It has been used for comprehensive analysis and visualisation capabilities including real time mapping of case events as these unfold enhancing decision making. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System facilitated countries to comply with the IHR 2005 requirements through a data transfer module reporting diseases electronically to the World Health Organisation (WHO data center as well as establish authorised data exchange with other electronic system using Open Architecture approach. Pathogen Asset Control System (PACS has been used for accounting, management and control of biological agent stocks. Information on samples and strains of any kind throughout their entire lifecycle has been tracked in a comprehensive and flexible solution PACS. Both systems have been used in a combination and individually. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System and PACS are currently deployed in the Republics of Kazakhstan, Georgia and Azerbaijan as a part of the Cooperative Biological Engagement Program (CBEP sponsored by the US Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA.

  7. Electronic integrated disease surveillance system and pathogen asset control system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Tom G; Burdakov, Aleksey V; Oukharov, Andrey O; Zhilokov, Azamat K

    2012-06-20

    Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System (EIDSS) has been used to strengthen and support monitoring and prevention of dangerous diseases within One Health concept by integrating veterinary and human surveillance, passive and active approaches, case-based records including disease-specific clinical data based on standardised case definitions and aggregated data, laboratory data including sample tracking linked to each case and event with test results and epidemiological investigations. Information was collected and shared in secure way by different means: through the distributed nodes which are continuously synchronised amongst each other, through the web service, through the handheld devices. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System provided near real time information flow that has been then disseminated to the appropriate organisations in a timely manner. It has been used for comprehensive analysis and visualisation capabilities including real time mapping of case events as these unfold enhancing decision making. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System facilitated countries to comply with the IHR 2005 requirements through a data transfer module reporting diseases electronically to the World Health Organisation (WHO) data center as well as establish authorised data exchange with other electronic system using Open Architecture approach. Pathogen Asset Control System (PACS) has been used for accounting, management and control of biological agent stocks. Information on samples and strains of any kind throughout their entire lifecycle has been tracked in a comprehensive and flexible solution PACS.Both systems have been used in a combination and individually. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System and PACS are currently deployed in the Republics of Kazakhstan, Georgia and Azerbaijan as a part of the Cooperative Biological Engagement Program (CBEP) sponsored by the US Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA).

  8. Survey of Clostridium difficile infection surveillance systems in Europe, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kola, Axel; Wiuff, Camilla; Akerlund, Thomas; van Benthem, Birgit H; Coignard, Bruno; Lyytikäinen, Outi; Weitzel-Kage, Doris; Suetens, Carl; Wilcox, Mark H; Kuijper, Ed J; Gastmeier, Petra

    2016-07-21

    To develop a European surveillance protocol for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), existing national CDI surveillance systems were assessed in 2011. A web-based electronic form was provided for all national coordinators of the European CDI Surveillance Network (ECDIS-Net). Of 35 national coordinators approached, 33 from 31 European countries replied. Surveillance of CDI was in place in 14 of the 31 countries, comprising 18 different nationwide systems. Three of 14 countries with CDI surveillance used public health notification of cases as the route of reporting, and in another three, reporting was limited to public health notification of cases of severe CDI. The CDI definitions published by the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID) and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) were widely used, but there were differing definitions to distinguish between community- and healthcare-associated cases. All CDI surveillance systems except one reported annual national CDI rates (calculated as number of cases per patient-days). Only four surveillance systems regularly integrated microbiological data (typing and susceptibility testing results). Surveillance methods varied considerably between countries, which emphasises the need for a harmonised European protocol to allow consistent monitoring of the CDI epidemiology at European level. The results of this survey were used to develop a harmonised EU-wide hospital-based CDI surveillance protocol. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2016.

  9. Risk analysis of a video-surveillance system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rothkrantz, L.; Lefter, I.

    2011-01-01

    The paper describes a surveillance system of cameras installed at lamppost of a military area. The surveillance system has been designed to detect unwanted visitors or suspicious behaviors. The area is composed of streets, building blocks and surrounded by gates and water. The video recordings are

  10. Surveillance System for Infectious Diseases of Pets, Santiago, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Javier; Abarca, Katia; Valenzuela, Berta; Lorca, Lilia; Olea, Andrea; Aguilera, Ximena

    2009-01-01

    Pet diseases may pose risks to human health but are rarely included in surveillance systems. A pilot surveillance system of pet infectious diseases in Santiago, Chile, found that 4 canine and 3 feline diseases accounted for 90.1% and 98.4% of notifications, respectively. Data also suggested association between poverty and pet diseases. PMID:19861073

  11. Profile: Agincourt Health and Socio-demographic Surveillance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Kathleen; Collinson, Mark A; Gómez-Olivé, F Xavier; Mokoena, Obed; Twine, Rhian; Mee, Paul; Afolabi, Sulaimon A; Clark, Benjamin D; Kabudula, Chodziwadziwa W; Khosa, Audrey; Khoza, Simon; Shabangu, Mildred G; Silaule, Bernard; Tibane, Jeffrey B; Wagner, Ryan G; Garenne, Michel L; Clark, Samuel J; Tollman, Stephen M

    2012-01-01

    The Agincourt health and socio-demographic surveillance system (HDSS), located in rural northeast South Africa close to the Mozambique border, was established in 1992 to support district health systems development led by the post-apartheid ministry of health. The HDSS (90 000 people), based on an annual update of resident status and vital events, now supports multiple investigations into the causes and consequences of complex health, population and social transitions. Observational work includes cohorts focusing on different stages along the life course, evaluation of national policy at population, household and individual levels and examination of household responses to shocks and stresses and the resulting pathways influencing health and well-being. Trials target children and adolescents, including promoting psycho-social well-being, preventing HIV transmission and reducing metabolic disease risk. Efforts to enhance the research platform include using automated measurement techniques to estimate cause of death by verbal autopsy, full ‘reconciliation’ of in- and out-migrations, follow-up of migrants departing the study area, recording of extra-household social connections and linkage of individual HDSS records with those from sub-district clinics. Fostering effective collaborations (including INDEPTH multi-centre work in adult health and ageing and migration and urbanization), ensuring cross-site compatibility of common variables and optimizing public access to HDSS data are priorities. PMID:22933647

  12. Secure Video Surveillance System (SVSS) for unannounced safeguards inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galdoz, Erwin G.; Pinkalla, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The Secure Video Surveillance System (SVSS) is a collaborative effort between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC). The joint project addresses specific requirements of redundant surveillance systems installed in two South American nuclear facilities as a tool to support unannounced inspections conducted by ABACC and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The surveillance covers the critical time (as much as a few hours) between the notification of an inspection and the access of inspectors to the location in facility where surveillance equipment is installed. ABACC and the IAEA currently use the EURATOM Multiple Optical Surveillance System (EMOSS). This outdated system is no longer available or supported by the manufacturer. The current EMOSS system has met the project objective; however, the lack of available replacement parts and system support has made this system unsustainable and has increased the risk of an inoperable system. A new system that utilizes current technology and is maintainable is required to replace the aging EMOSS system. ABACC intends to replace one of the existing ABACC EMOSS systems by the Secure Video Surveillance System. SVSS utilizes commercial off-the shelf (COTS) technologies for all individual components. Sandia National Laboratories supported the system design for SVSS to meet Safeguards requirements, i.e. tamper indication, data authentication, etc. The SVSS consists of two video surveillance cameras linked securely to a data collection unit. The collection unit is capable of retaining historical surveillance data for at least three hours with picture intervals as short as 1sec. Images in .jpg format are available to inspectors using various software review tools. SNL has delivered two SVSS systems for test and evaluation at the ABACC Safeguards Laboratory. An additional 'proto-type' system remains

  13. Surveillance of transmitted HIV drug resistance in antiretroviral-naive patients aged less than 25 years, in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sungkanuparph, Somnuek; Pasomsub, Ekawat; Chantratita, Wasun

    2014-01-01

    Emergence of transmitted HIV drug resistance (TDR) is a concern after global scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART). World Health Organization had developed threshold survey method for surveillance of TDR in resource-limited countries. ART in Thailand has been scaling up for >10 years. To evaluate the current TDR in Thailand, a cross-sectional study was conducted among antiretroviral-naive HIV-infected patients aged Thailand after a decade of rapid scale-up of ART. Interventions to prevent TDR at the population level are essentially needed in Thailand. Surveillance for TDR in Thailand has to be regularly performed.

  14. HIV incidence in sub-Saharan Africa: a review of available data with implications for surveillance and prevention planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunstein, Sarah L; van de Wijgert, Janneke H H M; Nash, Denis

    2009-01-01

    HIV incidence estimation is increasingly being incorporated into HIV/AIDS surveillance activities in both resource-rich and developing countries. We conducted a systematic review to assess the availability of HIV incidence data from sub-Saharan Africa. We examined peer-reviewed articles, conference proceedings and technical reports published from 1987-2008. Incidence estimates were classified by country, year, population group, and estimation method (prospective study or the serologic testing algorithm for recent HIV seroconversion; STARHS). Our search yielded HIV incidence estimates for 15 of 44 sub-Saharan African countries, with 57 studies generating 264 unique estimates. Of these, 239 (91%) were obtained via prospective studies, and 25 (9%) via the STARHS method (24 using the BED-CEIA assay). Only five countries reported population-based estimates, and less than two-thirds of studies reported risk factor information. STARHS use increased over time, comprising 20% of estimates since 2006. However, studies that compared STARHS estimates with prospectively observed or modeled estimates often found substantial levels of disagreement, with STARHS often overestimating HIV incidence. Population-based HIV incidence estimates and risk factor information in sub-Saharan Africa remain scant but increasingly available. Regional STARHS data suggest a need for further validation prior to widespread use and incorporation into routine surveillance activities. In the meantime, prevalence and behavioral risk factor data remain important for HIV prevention planning.

  15. Comparing national infectious disease surveillance systems: China and the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlieg, Willemijn L; Fanoy, Ewout B; van Asten, Liselotte; Liu, Xiaobo; Yang, Jun; Pilot, Eva; Bijkerk, Paul; van der Hoek, Wim; Krafft, Thomas; van der Sande, Marianne A; Liu, Qi-Yong

    2017-01-01

    Risk assessment and early warning (RAEW) are essential components of any infectious disease surveillance system. In light of the International Health Regulations (IHR)(2005), this study compares the organisation of RAEW in China and the Netherlands. The respective approaches towards surveillance of

  16. Mobile phone-based syndromic surveillance system, Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosewell, Alexander; Ropa, Berry; Randall, Heather; Dagina, Rosheila; Hurim, Samuel; Bieb, Sibauk; Datta, Siddhartha; Ramamurthy, Sundar; Mola, Glen; Zwi, Anthony B; Ray, Pradeep; MacIntyre, C Raina

    2013-11-01

    The health care system in Papua New Guinea is fragile, and surveillance systems infrequently meet international standards. To strengthen outbreak identification, health authorities piloted a mobile phone-based syndromic surveillance system and used established frameworks to evaluate whether the system was meeting objectives. Stakeholder experience was investigated by using standardized questionnaires and focus groups. Nine sites reported data that included 7 outbreaks and 92 cases of acute watery diarrhea. The new system was more timely (2.4 vs. 84 days), complete (70% vs. 40%), and sensitive (95% vs. 26%) than existing systems. The system was simple, stable, useful, and acceptable; however, feedback and subnational involvement were weak. A simple syndromic surveillance system implemented in a fragile state enabled more timely, complete, and sensitive data reporting for disease risk assessment. Feedback and provincial involvement require improvement. Use of mobile phone technology might improve the timeliness and efficiency of public health surveillance.

  17. Mobile Phone–based Syndromic Surveillance System, Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropa, Berry; Randall, Heather; Dagina, Rosheila; Hurim, Samuel; Bieb, Sibauk; Datta, Siddhartha; Ramamurthy, Sundar; Mola, Glen; Zwi, Anthony B.; Ray, Pradeep; MacIntyre, C. Raina

    2013-01-01

    The health care system in Papua New Guinea is fragile, and surveillance systems infrequently meet international standards. To strengthen outbreak identification, health authorities piloted a mobile phone–based syndromic surveillance system and used established frameworks to evaluate whether the system was meeting objectives. Stakeholder experience was investigated by using standardized questionnaires and focus groups. Nine sites reported data that included 7 outbreaks and 92 cases of acute watery diarrhea. The new system was more timely (2.4 vs. 84 days), complete (70% vs. 40%), and sensitive (95% vs. 26%) than existing systems. The system was simple, stable, useful, and acceptable; however, feedback and subnational involvement were weak. A simple syndromic surveillance system implemented in a fragile state enabled more timely, complete, and sensitive data reporting for disease risk assessment. Feedback and provincial involvement require improvement. Use of mobile phone technology might improve the timeliness and efficiency of public health surveillance. PMID:24188144

  18. Surveillance Analysis Computer System (SACS) software requirements specification (SRS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasscock, J.A.; Flanagan, M.J.

    1995-09-01

    This document is the primary document establishing requirements for the Surveillance Analysis Computer System (SACS) Database, an Impact Level 3Q system. The purpose is to provide the customer and the performing organization with the requirements for the SACS Project

  19. Real Time Wide Area Radiation Surveillance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biafore, M.

    2012-04-01

    We present the REWARD project, financed within the FP7 programme, theme SEC-2011.1.5-1 (Development of detection capabilities of difficult to detect radioactive sources and nuclear materials - Capability Project). Within this project, we propose a novel mobile system for real time, wide area radiation surveillance. The system is based on the integration of new miniaturized solid-state radiation sensors: a CdZnTe detector for gamma radiation and a high efficiency neutron detector based on novel silicon technologies. The sensing unit will include a wireless communication interface to send the data remotely to a monitoring base station which also uses a GPS system to calculate the position of the tag. The system will also incorporate middleware and high level software to provide web-service interfaces for the exchange of information, and that will offer top level functionalities as management of users, mobile tags and environment data and alarms, database storage and management and a web-based graphical user interface. Effort will be spent to ensure that the software is modular and re-usable across as many architectural levels as possible. Finally, an expert system will continuously analyze the information from the radiation sensor and correlate it with historical data from the tag location in order to generate an alarm when an abnormal situation is detected. The system will be useful for many different scenarios, including such lost radioactive sources and radioactive contamination. It will be possible to deploy in emergency units and in general in any type of mobile or static equipment. The sensing units will be highly portable thanks to their low size and low energy consumption. The complete system will be scalable in terms of complexity and cost and will offer very high precision on both the measurement and the location of the radiation. The modularity and flexibility of the system will allow for a realistic introduction to the market. Authorities may start with a

  20. HIV reservoirs and immune surveillance evasion cause the failure of structured treatment interruptions: a computational study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliano Mancini

    Full Text Available Continuous antiretroviral therapy is currently the most effective way to treat HIV infection. Unstructured interruptions are quite common due to side effects and toxicity, among others, and cannot be prevented. Several attempts to structure these interruptions failed due to an increased morbidity compared to continuous treatment. The cause of this failure is poorly understood and often attributed to drug resistance. Here we show that structured treatment interruptions would fail regardless of the emergence of drug resistance. Our computational model of the HIV infection dynamics in lymphoid tissue inside lymph nodes, demonstrates that HIV reservoirs and evasion from immune surveillance themselves are sufficient to cause the failure of structured interruptions. We validate our model with data from a clinical trial and show that it is possible to optimize the schedule of interruptions to perform as well as the continuous treatment in the absence of drug resistance. Our methodology enables studying the problem of treatment optimization without having impact on human beings. We anticipate that it is feasible to steer new clinical trials using computational models.

  1. Monitoring temporal changes in the specificity of an oral HIV test: a novel application for use in postmarketing surveillance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph R Egger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Postmarketing surveillance is routinely conducted to monitor performance of pharmaceuticals and testing devices in the marketplace. However, these surveillance methods are often done retrospectively and, as a result, are not designed to detect issues with performance in real-time. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Using HIV antibody screening test data from New York City STD clinics, we developed a formal, statistical method of prospectively detecting temporal clusters of poor performance of a screening test. From 2005 to 2008, New York City, as well as other states, observed unexpectedly high false-positive (FP rates in an oral fluid-based rapid test used for screening HIV. We attempted to formally assess whether the performance of this HIV screening test statistically deviated from both local expectation and the manufacturer's claim for the test. Results indicate that there were two significant temporal clusters in the FP rate of the oral HIV test, both of which exceeded the manufacturer's upper limit of the 95% CI for the product. Furthermore, the FP rate of the test varied significantly by both STD clinic and test lot, though not by test operator. CONCLUSIONS: Continuous monitoring of surveillance data has the benefit of providing information regarding test performance, and if conducted in real-time, it can enable programs to examine reasons for poor test performance in close proximity to the occurrence. Techniques used in this study could be a valuable addition for postmarketing surveillance of test performance and may become particularly important with the increase in rapid testing methods.

  2. An Autonomous Mobile Robotic System for Surveillance of Indoor Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donato Di Paola

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of intelligent surveillance systems is an active research area. In this context, mobile and multi-functional robots are generally adopted as means to reduce the environment structuring and the number of devices needed to cover a given area. Nevertheless, the number of different sensors mounted on the robot, and the number of complex tasks related to exploration, monitoring, and surveillance make the design of the overall system extremely challenging. In this paper, we present our autonomous mobile robot for surveillance of indoor environments. We propose a system able to handle autonomously general-purpose tasks and complex surveillance issues simultaneously. It is shown that the proposed robotic surveillance scheme successfully addresses a number of basic problems related to environment mapping, localization and autonomous navigation, as well as surveillance tasks, like scene processing to detect abandoned or removed objects and people detection and following. The feasibility of the approach is demonstrated through experimental tests using a multisensor platform equipped with a monocular camera, a laser scanner, and an RFID device. Real world applications of the proposed system include surveillance of wide areas (e.g. airports and museums and buildings, and monitoring of safety equipment.

  3. An Autonomous Mobile Robotic System for Surveillance of Indoor Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donato Di Paola

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of intelligent surveillance systems is an active research area. In this context, mobile and multi-functional robots are generally adopted as means to reduce the environment structuring and the number of devices needed to cover a given area. Nevertheless, the number of different sensors mounted on the robot, and the number of complex tasks related to exploration, monitoring, and surveillance make the design of the overall system extremely challenging. In this paper, we present our autonomous mobile robot for surveillance of indoor environments. We propose a system able to handle autonomously general-purpose tasks and complex surveillance issues simultaneously. It is shown that the proposed robotic surveillance scheme successfully addresses a number of basic problems related to environment mapping, localization and autonomous navigation, as well as surveillance tasks, like scene processing to detect abandoned or removed objects and people detection and following. The feasibility of the approach is demonstrated through experimental tests using a multisensor platform equipped with a monocular camera, a laser scanner, and an RFID device. Real world applications of the proposed system include surveillance of wide areas (e.g. airports and museums and buildings, and monitoring of safety equipment.

  4. Global Tobacco Surveillance System (GTSS) - Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2008-2012. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Office on Smoking and Health (OSH) – Global Tobacco Surveillance System (GTSS) - Global Adult Tobacco...

  5. DASH - Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS): High School

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1991-2015. High School Dataset. The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors six categories of priority health behaviors among youth and young...

  6. Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity - Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset includes data on adult's diet, physical activity, and weight status from Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. This data is used for DNPAO's Data,...

  7. DASH - Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS): Middle School

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1991-2015. Middle School Dataset. The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors six categories of priority health behaviors among youth and young...

  8. Integrated design of intelligent surveillance systems and their user interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.

    2005-01-01

    Modern complex surveillance systems consisting of multiple and heterogeneous sensors, automatic information registration and data analysis techniques, and decision support tools should provide the human operator an integrated, transparent and easily comprehensible view of the surveyed scene.

  9. CPSC’s National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Consumer Product Safety Commission — CPSC’s National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) is a national probability sample of hospitals in the U.S. and its territories. Patient information is...

  10. Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity - Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset includes data on adolescent's diet, physical activity, and weight status from Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS). This data is used for...

  11. Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) Historical Questions

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1984-2016. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). BRFSS Survey Data. The BRFSS is a continuous, state-based surveillance system that collects information...

  12. Increasing HIV-1 Drug Resistance Between 2010 and 2012 in Adults Participating in Population-Based HIV Surveillance in Rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manasa, Justen; Danaviah, Siva; Lessells, Richard; Elshareef, Muna; Tanser, Frank; Wilkinson, Eduan; Pillay, Sureshnee; Mthiyane, Hloniphile; Mwambi, Henry; Pillay, Deenan; de Oliveira, Tulio

    2016-08-01

    As more human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients access combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), higher proportions of newly infected patients may be infected with drug-resistant viruses. Regular surveillance of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) is required in southern Africa where high rates of transmission persist despite rapid expansion of ART. Dried blood spot samples from cART-naive participants from two rounds of an annual population-based HIV surveillance program in rural KwaZulu-Natal were tested for HIV RNA, and samples with HIV RNA >10,000 copies/ml were genotyped for drug resistance. The 2009 surveillance of drug resistance mutation (SDRM) list was used for drug resistance interpretation. The data were added to previously published data from the same program, and the χ(2) test for trend was used to test for trend in estimated prevalence of any TDR. Seven hundred and one participants' data were analyzed: 67 (2010), 381 (2011), and 253 (2012). No TDR was detected in 2010. Years 2011 and 2012 had 18 participants with SDRMs 4.7% and 7.1%, respectively (p = .02, χ(2) test for trend). The nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor mutation, K103N, was the most common mutation, occurring in 27 (3.8%) of the participants, while nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) SDRMs were detected in 10 (1.4%) of the participants, of whom eight had only a single NRTI SDRM. The increase in levels of drug resistance observed in this population could be a signal of increasing transmission of drug-resistant HIV. Thus, continued surveillance is critical to inform public health policies around HIV treatment and prevention.

  13. Multilevel Analysis of the Predictors of HIV Prevalence among Pregnant Women Enrolled in Annual HIV Sentinel Surveillance in Four States in Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thamattoor, Usha; Thomas, Tinku; Banandur, Pradeep; Rajaram, S; Duchesne, Thierry; Abdous, Belkacem; Washington, Reynold; Ramesh, B M; Moses, Stephen; Alary, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Heterogeneity of the HIV epidemic across districts of south India is reflected in HIV positivity among antenatal clinic (ANC) attendees. Along with individual factors, contextual factors also need consideration for effective HIV interventions. Thus, identifying district and individual level factors that influence ANC HIV positivity assumes importance to intervene effectively. Data on HIV sentinel surveillance among the ANC population were obtained from the National AIDS Control Organization (NACO) between years 2004 and 2007. Data from serial cross-sectional studies among female sex workers (FSWs) conducted during this time period in 24 districts were used to generate district level variables corresponding to parameters concerning this high risk population. Other district level data were obtained from various official/governmental agencies. Multilevel logistic regression was used to identify individual and district level factors associated with ANC-HIV positivity. The average ANC-HIV prevalence from 2004 to 2007 in the 24 integrated biological and behavioural assessments (IBBA) districts ranged from 0.25 to 3.25%. HIV positivity was significantly higher among ANC women with age ≥ 25 years [adjusted odds ratio (AOR):1.49; 95% confidence interval (95%CI):1.27 to 1.76] compared to those with ageIlliteracy of the woman, higher HIV prevalence among FSWs and early marriage were associated with HIV positivity among pregnant women in southern India. In addition to targeted HIV preventive interventions among FSWs, studying and changing the behavior of FSW clients and addressing structural drivers of the epidemic might indirectly help reduce HIV infection among women in southern India.

  14. Building up a collaborative network for the surveillance of HIV genetic diversity in Italy: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunzia Sanarico

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Prevalence of infection with HIV-1 non-B subtypes in Italy has been reported to raise, due to increased migration flows and travels. HIV-1 variants show different biological and immunological properties that impact on disease progression rate, response to antiretroviral therapy (ART and sensitivity of diagnostic tests with important implications for public health. Therefore, a constant surveillance of the dynamics of HIV variants in Italy should be a high public health priority. Organization of surveillance studies requires building up a platform constituted of a network of clinical centers, laboratories and institutional agencies, able to properly collect samples for the investigation of HIV subtypes heterogeneity and to provide a database with reliable demographic, clinical, immunological and virological data. AIM: We here report our experience in building up such a platform, co-ordinated by the National AIDS Center of the Istituto Superiore di Sanita, taking advantage of a pilot study aimed at evaluating HIV subtypes diversity in populations of HIV-infected migrant people in Italy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four hundred and thirty four HIV-infected migrants were enrolled in 9 Italian clinical centers located throughout the Italian territory. Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs for sample collection were provided by the National AIDS Center to each clinical center. In addition, clinical centers were required to fill up a case report form (crf for each patient, which included demographic, clinical, immunological and virological information. RESULTS: All centers properly collected and stored samples from each enrolled individual. Overall, the required information was correctly provided for more than 90% of the patients. However, some fields of the crf, particularly those including information on the last HIV-negative antibody test and presence of co-infections, were properly filled up in less than 80% of the enrolled migrants. Centers

  15. Feasibility of using pedometers in a state-based surveillance system: 2014 Arizona Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Flórez-Pregonero

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: The feasibility of using pedometers in a state-based surveillance system is modest at best. Feasibility may potentially be improved with easy-to-use pedometers where data can be electronically downloaded.

  16. Internet-based surveillance systems for monitoring emerging infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milinovich, Gabriel J; Williams, Gail M; Clements, Archie C A; Hu, Wenbiao

    2014-02-01

    Emerging infectious diseases present a complex challenge to public health officials and governments; these challenges have been compounded by rapidly shifting patterns of human behaviour and globalisation. The increase in emerging infectious diseases has led to calls for new technologies and approaches for detection, tracking, reporting, and response. Internet-based surveillance systems offer a novel and developing means of monitoring conditions of public health concern, including emerging infectious diseases. We review studies that have exploited internet use and search trends to monitor two such diseases: influenza and dengue. Internet-based surveillance systems have good congruence with traditional surveillance approaches. Additionally, internet-based approaches are logistically and economically appealing. However, they do not have the capacity to replace traditional surveillance systems; they should not be viewed as an alternative, but rather an extension. Future research should focus on using data generated through internet-based surveillance and response systems to bolster the capacity of traditional surveillance systems for emerging infectious diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Next Generation Space Surveillance System-of-Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McShane, B.

    2014-09-01

    International economic and military dependence on space assets is pervasive and ever-growing in an environment that is now congested, contested, and competitive. There are a number of natural and man-made risks that need to be monitored and characterized to protect and preserve the space environment and the assets within it. Unfortunately, today's space surveillance network (SSN) has gaps in coverage, is not resilient, and has a growing number of objects that get lost. Risks can be efficiently and effectively mitigated, gaps closed, resiliency improved, and performance increased within a next generation space surveillance network implemented as a system-of-systems with modern information architectures and analytic techniques. This also includes consideration for the newest SSN sensors (e.g. Space Fence) which are born Net-Centric out-of-the-box and able to seamlessly interface with the JSpOC Mission System, global information grid, and future unanticipated users. Significant opportunity exists to integrate legacy, traditional, and non-traditional sensors into a larger space system-of-systems (including command and control centers) for multiple clients through low cost sustainment, modification, and modernization efforts. Clients include operations centers (e.g. JSpOC, USSTRATCOM, CANSPOC), Intelligence centers (e.g. NASIC), space surveillance sensor sites (e.g. AMOS, GEODSS), international governments (e.g. Germany, UK), space agencies (e.g. NASA), and academic institutions. Each has differing priorities, networks, data needs, timeliness, security, accuracy requirements and formats. Enabling processes and technologies include: Standardized and type accredited methods for secure connections to multiple networks, machine-to-machine interfaces for near real-time data sharing and tip-and-queue activities, common data models for analytical processing across multiple radar and optical sensor types, an efficient way to automatically translate between differing client and

  18. A New Molecular Surveillance System for Leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Kishor; Pandey, Basu Dev; Mallik, Arun Kumar; Acharya, Jyoti; Kato, Kentaro; Kaneko, Osamu; Ferreira, Pedro Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Presently, global efforts are being made to control and eradicate the deadliest tropical diseases through the improvement of adequate interventions. A critical point for programs to succeed is the prompt and accurate diagnosis in endemic regions. Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are being massively deployed and used to improve diagnosis in tropical countries. In the present report, we evaluated the hypothesis of, after use for diagnosis, the reuse of the Leishmania RDT kit as a DNA source, which can be used downstream as a molecular surveillance and/or quality control tool. As a proof of principle, a polymerase chain reaction-based method was used to detect Leishmania spp. minicircle kinetoplast DNA from leishmaniasis RDT kits. Our results show that Leishmania spp. DNA can be extracted from used RDTs and may constitute an important, reliable, and affordable tool to assist in future leishmaniasis molecular surveillance methods. PMID:24752687

  19. Opportunities for Enhanced Strategic Use of Surveys, Medical Records, and Program Data for HIV Surveillance of Key Populations: Scoping Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baral, Stefan D; Edwards, Jessie K; Zadrozny, Sabrina; Hargreaves, James; Zhao, Jinkou; Sabin, Keith

    2018-01-01

    Background Normative guidelines from the World Health Organization recommend tracking strategic information indicators among key populations. Monitoring progress in the global response to the HIV epidemic uses indicators put forward by the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS. These include the 90-90-90 targets that require a realignment of surveillance data, routinely collected program data, and medical record data, which historically have developed separately. Objective The aim of this study was to describe current challenges for monitoring HIV-related strategic information indicators among key populations ((men who have sex with men [MSM], people in prisons and other closed settings, people who inject drugs, sex workers, and transgender people) and identify future opportunities to enhance the use of surveillance data, programmatic data, and medical record data to describe the HIV epidemic among key populations and measure the coverage of HIV prevention, care, and treatment programs. Methods To provide a historical perspective, we completed a scoping review of the expansion of HIV surveillance among key populations over the past three decades. To describe current efforts, we conducted a review of the literature to identify published examples of SI indicator estimates among key populations. To describe anticipated challenges and future opportunities to improve measurement of strategic information indicators, particularly from routine program and health data, we consulted participants of the Third Global HIV Surveillance Meeting in Bangkok, where the 2015 World Health Organization strategic information guidelines were launched. Results There remains suboptimal alignment of surveillance and programmatic data, as well as routinely collected medical records to facilitate the reporting of the 90-90-90 indicators for HIV among key populations. Studies (n=3) with estimates of all three 90-90-90 indicators rely on cross-sectional survey data. Programmatic data and

  20. Suboptimal processor for anomaly detection for system surveillance and diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciftcioglu, Oe.; Hoogenboom, J.E.; Dam, H. van

    1989-06-01

    Anomaly detection for nuclear reactor surveillance and diagnosis is described. The residual noise obtained as a result of autoregressive (AR) modelling is essential to obtain high sensitivity for anomaly detection. By means of the method of hypothesis testing a suboptimal anomaly detection processor is devised for system surveillance and diagnosis. Experiments are carried out to investigate the performance of the processor, which is in particular of interest for on-line and real-time applications.

  1. Descriptive review of tuberculosis surveillance systems across the circumpolar regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie-Claude Bourgeois

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tuberculosis is highly prevalent in many Arctic areas. Members of the International Circumpolar Surveillance Tuberculosis (ICS-TB Working Group collaborate to increase knowledge about tuberculosis in Arctic regions. Objective: To establish baseline knowledge of tuberculosis surveillance systems used by ICS-TB member jurisdictions. Design: Three questionnaires were developed to reflect the different surveillance levels (local, regional and national; all 3 were forwarded to the official representative of each of the 15 ICS-TB member jurisdictions in 2013. Respondents self-identified the level of surveillance conducted in their region and completed the applicable questionnaire. Information collected included surveillance system objectives, case definitions, data collection methodology, storage and dissemination. Results: Thirteen ICS-TB jurisdictions [Canada (Labrador, Northwest Territories, Nunavik, Nunavut, Yukon, Finland, Greenland, Norway, Sweden, Russian Federation (Arkhangelsk, Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug, Yakutia (Sakha Republic, United States (Alaska] voluntarily completed the survey – representing 2 local, 7 regional and 4 national levels. Tuberculosis reporting is mandatory in all jurisdictions, and case definitions are comparable across regions. The common objectives across systems are to detect outbreaks, and inform the evaluation/planning of public health programmes and policies. All jurisdictions collect data on confirmed active tuberculosis cases and treatment outcomes; 11 collect contact tracing results. Faxing of standardized case reporting forms is the most common reporting method. Similar core data elements are collected; 8 regions report genotyping results. Data are stored using customized programmes (n=7 and commercial software (n=6. Nine jurisdictions provide monthly, bi-annual or annual reports to principally government and/or scientific/medical audiences. Conclusion: This review successfully establishes

  2. Formal and informal surveillance systems: how to build links

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Desvaux

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI surveillance in Vietnam, interviews were carried out with poultry farmers and local animal health operators in two municipalities of the Red River delta with a view to documenting the circulation of health information concerning poultry (content of the information; method, scope and speed of circulation; actors involved; actions triggered as a result of the information received; economic and social incentives for disseminating or withholding information. The main results show that (i active informal surveillance networks exist, (ii the alert levels vary and the measures applied by the poultry farmers are myriad and often far-removed from the official recommendations, and (iii the municipal veterinarian is at the interface between the formal and the informal surveillance systems. The conclusions emphasize the need for the authorities to separate distinctly surveillance and control activities, and to regionalize control strategies, taking into account epidemiological specificities and social dynamics at local level.

  3. Tamper Detection for Active Surveillance Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theodore, Tsesmelis; Christensen, Lars; Fihl, Preben

    2013-01-01

    If surveillance data are corrupted they are of no use to neither manually post-investigation nor automatic video analysis. It is therefore critical to automatically be able to detect tampering events such as defocusing, occlusion and displacement. In this work we for the first time ad- dress...... of different tampering events. In order to assess the developed methods we have collected a large data set, which contains sequences from different active cameras at different scenarios. We evaluate our sys- tem on these data and the results are encouraging with a very high detecting rate and relatively few...

  4. Post-marketing surveillance of OraQuick whole blood and oral fluid rapid HIV testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesolowski, Laura G; MacKellar, Duncan A; Facente, Shelley N; Dowling, Teri; Ethridge, Steven F; Zhu, Julia H; Sullivan, Patrick S

    2006-08-01

    Post-marketing surveillance was conducted to monitor the performance of the OraQuick Advance rapid HIV-1/2 antibody test (OraQuick) on whole blood and oral fluid. Surveillance of routinely collected data on clients tested with OraQuick in 368 testing sites affiliated with 17 state and city health departments between 11 August 2004 and 30 June 2005. For whole blood and oral fluid, we report the median (range) health department OraQuick specificity and positive predictive value (PPV), and the number of clients with discordant results (e.g. who had a reactive rapid test not confirmed positive by Western blot or indirect immunofluorescence). At one site with lower than expected oral-fluid specificity, we evaluated whether device expiration, manufacturing lot, operator practices, or device-storage or testing-area temperatures were associated with false-positive tests. During the surveillance period, 135 724 whole blood and 26 066 oral fluid rapid tests were conducted. The median health department whole blood OraQuick specificity was 99.98% (range: 99.73-100%) and PPV was 99.24% (range: 66.67-100%); the median oral fluid specificity was 99.89% (range: 99.44-100%) and PPV was 90.00% (range: 50.00-100%). A total of 124 discordant results were reported from 68 (0.05%) whole blood and 56 (0.22%) oral fluid rapid tests. The oral fluid specificity at the site with excess oral fluid false-positive tests was 98.7% (95% confidence interval: 98.18-99.11%). The increase in false-positive tests at that site was not associated with any specific device characteristic, operator procedure or temperature condition. The specificity of OraQuick performed on whole blood and oral fluid during post-marketing surveillance was compatible with the manufacturer's claim within the package insert. However, one site experienced lower than expected oral fluid specificity. Sites that observe that the specificity of OraQuick is lower than the range indicated in the package insert should notify the

  5. The multi-camera optical surveillance system (MOS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, P.; Wagner, H.; Richter, B.; Gaertner, K.J.; Laszlo, G.; Neumann, G.

    1991-01-01

    The transition from film camera to video surveillance systems, in particular the implementation of high capacity multi-camera video systems, results in a large increase in the amount of recorded scenes. Consequently, there is a substantial increase in the manpower requirements for review. Moreover, modern microprocessor controlled equipment facilitates the collection of additional data associated with each scene. Both the scene and the annotated information have to be evaluated by the inspector. The design of video surveillance systems for safeguards necessarily has to account for both appropriate recording and reviewing techniques. An aspect of principal importance is that the video information is stored on tape. Under the German Support Programme to the Agency a technical concept has been developed which aims at optimizing the capabilities of a multi-camera optical surveillance (MOS) system including the reviewing technique. This concept is presented in the following paper including a discussion of reviewing and reliability

  6. Multilevel Analysis of the Predictors of HIV Prevalence among Pregnant Women Enrolled in Annual HIV Sentinel Surveillance in Four States in Southern India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usha Thamattoor

    Full Text Available Heterogeneity of the HIV epidemic across districts of south India is reflected in HIV positivity among antenatal clinic (ANC attendees. Along with individual factors, contextual factors also need consideration for effective HIV interventions. Thus, identifying district and individual level factors that influence ANC HIV positivity assumes importance to intervene effectively.Data on HIV sentinel surveillance among the ANC population were obtained from the National AIDS Control Organization (NACO between years 2004 and 2007. Data from serial cross-sectional studies among female sex workers (FSWs conducted during this time period in 24 districts were used to generate district level variables corresponding to parameters concerning this high risk population. Other district level data were obtained from various official/governmental agencies. Multilevel logistic regression was used to identify individual and district level factors associated with ANC-HIV positivity.The average ANC-HIV prevalence from 2004 to 2007 in the 24 integrated biological and behavioural assessments (IBBA districts ranged from 0.25 to 3.25%. HIV positivity was significantly higher among ANC women with age ≥ 25 years [adjusted odds ratio (AOR:1.49; 95% confidence interval (95%CI:1.27 to 1.76] compared to those with age<25 years; illiterate (AOR:1.62; 95%CI:1.03 to 2.54 compared to literate; employed in agriculture (AOR:1.34; 95%CI:1.11 to 1.62 or with occupations like driver/helper/industry/factory workers/hotel staff (AOR:1.59; 95%CI:1.26 to 2.01 compared to unemployed. District level HIV prevalence among FSWs (AOR:1.03; 95%CI:1.0 to 1.05 and percentage women marrying under 18 years were significantly associated with ANC-HIV positivity (AOR:1.02; 95%CI:1.00 to 1.04.Illiteracy of the woman, higher HIV prevalence among FSWs and early marriage were associated with HIV positivity among pregnant women in southern India. In addition to targeted HIV preventive interventions among

  7. Information Systems to Support Surveillance for Malaria Elimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohrt, Colin; Roberts, Kathryn W.; Sturrock, Hugh J. W.; Wegbreit, Jennifer; Lee, Bruce Y.; Gosling, Roly D.

    2015-01-01

    Robust and responsive surveillance systems are critical for malaria elimination. The ideal information system that supports malaria elimination includes: rapid and complete case reporting, incorporation of related data, such as census or health survey information, central data storage and management, automated and expert data analysis, and customized outputs and feedback that lead to timely and targeted responses. Spatial information enhances such a system, ensuring cases are tracked and mapped over time. Data sharing and coordination across borders are vital and new technologies can improve data speed, accuracy, and quality. Parts of this ideal information system exist and are in use, but have yet to be linked together coherently. Malaria elimination programs should support the implementation and refinement of information systems to support surveillance and response and ensure political and financial commitment to maintain the systems and the human resources needed to run them. National malaria programs should strive to improve the access and utility of these information systems and establish cross-border data sharing mechanisms through the use of standard indicators for malaria surveillance. Ultimately, investment in the information technologies that support a timely and targeted surveillance and response system is essential for malaria elimination. PMID:26013378

  8. Information systems to support surveillance for malaria elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohrt, Colin; Roberts, Kathryn W; Sturrock, Hugh J W; Wegbreit, Jennifer; Lee, Bruce Y; Gosling, Roly D

    2015-07-01

    Robust and responsive surveillance systems are critical for malaria elimination. The ideal information system that supports malaria elimination includes: rapid and complete case reporting, incorporation of related data, such as census or health survey information, central data storage and management, automated and expert data analysis, and customized outputs and feedback that lead to timely and targeted responses. Spatial information enhances such a system, ensuring cases are tracked and mapped over time. Data sharing and coordination across borders are vital and new technologies can improve data speed, accuracy, and quality. Parts of this ideal information system exist and are in use, but have yet to be linked together coherently. Malaria elimination programs should support the implementation and refinement of information systems to support surveillance and response and ensure political and financial commitment to maintain the systems and the human resources needed to run them. National malaria programs should strive to improve the access and utility of these information systems and establish cross-border data sharing mechanisms through the use of standard indicators for malaria surveillance. Ultimately, investment in the information technologies that support a timely and targeted surveillance and response system is essential for malaria elimination. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  9. Comparing national infectious disease surveillance systems: China and the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlieg, Willemijn L; Fanoy, Ewout B; van Asten, Liselotte; Liu, Xiaobo; Yang, Jun; Pilot, Eva; Bijkerk, Paul; van der Hoek, Wim; Krafft, Thomas; van der Sande, Marianne A; Liu, Qi-Yong

    2017-05-08

    Risk assessment and early warning (RAEW) are essential components of any infectious disease surveillance system. In light of the International Health Regulations (IHR)(2005), this study compares the organisation of RAEW in China and the Netherlands. The respective approaches towards surveillance of arboviral disease and unexplained pneumonia were analysed to gain a better understanding of the RAEW mode of operation. This study may be used to explore options for further strengthening of global collaboration and timely detection and surveillance of infectious disease outbreaks. A qualitative study design was used, combining data retrieved from the literature and from semi-structured interviews with Chinese (5 national-level and 6 provincial-level) and Dutch (5 national-level) experts. The results show that some differences exist such as in the use of automated electronic components of the early warning system in China ('CIDARS'), compared to a more limited automated component in the Netherlands ('barometer'). Moreover, RAEW units in the Netherlands focus exclusively on infectious diseases, while China has a broader 'all hazard' approach (including for example chemical incidents). In the Netherlands, veterinary specialists take part at the RAEW meetings, to enable a structured exchange/assessment of zoonotic signals. Despite these differences, the main conclusion is that for the two infections studied, the early warning system in China and the Netherlands are remarkably similar considering their large differences in infectious disease history, population size and geographical setting. Our main recommendations are continued emphasis on international corporation that requires insight into national infectious disease surveillance systems, the usage of a One Health approach in infectious disease surveillance, and further exploration/strengthening of a combined syndromic and laboratory surveillance system.

  10. Health & demographic surveillance system profile: the Nahuche Health and Demographic Surveillance System, Northern Nigeria (Nahuche HDSS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabi, Olatunji; Doctor, Henry V; Jumare, Abdulazeez; Sahabi, Nasiru; Abdulwahab, Ahmad; Findley, Sally E; Abubakar, Sani D

    2014-12-01

    The Nahuche Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) study site, established in 2009 with 137 823 individuals is located in Zamfara State, north western Nigeria. North-West Nigeria is a region with one of the worst maternal and child health indicators in Nigeria. For example, the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey estimated an under-five mortality rate of 185 deaths per 1000 live births for the north-west geo-political zone compared with a national average of 128 deaths per 1000 live births. The site comprises over 100 villages under the leadership of six district heads. Virtually all the residents of the catchment population are Hausa by ethnicity. After a baseline census in 2010, regular update rounds of data collection are conducted every 6 months. Data collection on births, deaths, migration events, pregnancies, marriages and marriage termination events are routinely conducted. Verbal autopsy (VA) data are collected on all deaths reported during routine data collection. Annual update data on antenatal care and household characteristics are also collected. Opportunities for collaborations are available at Nahuche HDSS. The Director of Nahuche HDSS, M.O. Oche at [ochedr@hotmail.com] is the contact person for all forms of collaboration. © The Author 2014; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  11. Health & Demographic Surveillance System profile: the Muzaffarpur-TMRC Health and Demographic Surveillance System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaviya, Paritosh; Picado, Albert; Hasker, Epco; Ostyn, Bart; Kansal, Sangeeta; Singh, Rudra Pratap; Shankar, Ravi; Boelaert, Marleen; Sundar, Shyam

    2014-10-01

    The Muzaffarpur-TMRC Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS), established in 2007, was developed as an enlargement of the scope of a research collaboration on the project Visceral Leishmaniasis in Bihar, which had been ongoing since 2005. The HDSS is located in a visceral leishmaniasis (VL)-endemic area in the Muzaffarpur district of Bihar state in India. It is the only HDSS conducting research on VL, which is a vector-borne infectious disease transmitted by female phlebotomine sandflies and is fatal if left untreated. Currently the HDSS serves a population of over 105,000 in 66 villages. The HDSS collects data on vital events including pregnancies, births, deaths, migration and marriages, as well as other socio-economic indicators, at regular intervals. Incident VL cases are identified. The HDSS team is experienced in conducting both qualitative and quantitative studies, sample collection and rapid diagnostic tests in the field. In each village, volunteers connect the HDSS team with the community members. The Muzaffarpur-TMRC HDSS provides opportunities for studies on VL and other neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) and their interaction with demographic events such as migration. Queries related to research collaborations and data sharing can be sent to Dr Shyam Sundar at [drshyamsundar@hotmail.com]. © The Author 2014; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  12. Introduction to surveillance studies

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, JK

    2012-01-01

    Introduction & OverviewIntroduction Brief History of Surveillance Technologies & TechniquesOptical SurveillanceAerial Surveillance Audio Surveillance Radio-Wave SurveillanceGlobal Positioning Systems Sensors Computers & the Internet Data Cards Biochemical Surveillance Animal Surveillance Biometrics Genetics Practical ConsiderationsPrevalence of Surveillance Effectiveness of Surveillance Freedom & Privacy IssuesConstitutional Freedoms Privacy Safeguards & Intrusions ResourcesReferences Glossary Index

  13. Will smart surveillance systems listen, understand and speak Slovene?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Dobrišek

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the spoken language technologies that could enable the so-called smart (intelligent surveillance systems to listen, understand and speak Slovenian in the near future. Advanced computational methods of artificial perception and pattern recognition enable such systems to be at least to some extent aware of the environment, the presence of people and other phenomena that could be subject to surveillance. Speech is one such phenomenon that has the potential to be a key source of information in certain security situations. Technologies that enable automatic speech and speaker recognition as well as their psychophysical state by computer analysis of acoustic speech signals provide an entirely new dimension to the development of smart surveillance systems. Automatic recognition of spoken threats, screaming and crying for help, as well as a suspicious psycho-physical state of a speaker provide such systems to some extent with intelligent behaviour. The paper investigates the current state of development of these technologies and the requirements and possibilities of these systems to be used for the Slovenian spoken language, as well as different possible security application scenarios. It also addresses the broader legal and ethical issues raised by the development and use of such technologies, especially as audio surveillance is one of the most sensitive issues of privacy protection.

  14. Comparing national infectious disease surveillance systems : China and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlieg, Willemijn L; Fanoy, Ewout B; van Asten, Liselotte; Liu, Xiaobo; Yang, Jun; Pilot, Eva; Bijkerk, Paul; van der Hoek, Wim; Krafft, Thomas; van der Sande, Marianne A; Liu, Qi-Yong

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Risk assessment and early warning (RAEW) are essential components of any infectious disease surveillance system. In light of the International Health Regulations (IHR)(2005), this study compares the organisation of RAEW in China and the Netherlands. The respective approaches towards

  15. Results of EMC market surveillance tests for UPS systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajamaeki, J. [Safety Technology Authority, Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    This paper reports the first wide electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) market surveillance project in Finland in which the uninterruptible power systems (UPS) on the Finnish market are monitored. Altogether 11 UPS units are EMC tested and the results of these tests are described in this paper. The effect of basic characters of UPS on the level of electromagnetic interference are analysed. (orig.) 3 refs.

  16. Considerations on a VXI based digital image surveillance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaertner, K.J.; Neumann, G.; Richter, B.

    1995-01-01

    In 1992 the International Atomic Energy Agency established the IAEA Integrated Safeguards Instrumentation Programme (I 2 SIP) which provides a conceptual framework to guide new equipment development activities. One of the main goals of I 2 SIP is to define the optimum structure of future safeguards equipment inventory that would enable the integration of containment, surveillance and unattended radiation monitoring modules for application in facilities with complex safeguards systems. This approach implies a modular equipment structure in both hardware and software. In December 1993, a Consultants Meeting concluded that the VXI instrument bus (VXIbus) standard does not appear to have any technical limitations that will inhibit the use of I 2 SIP and should be considered the first choice for future safeguards equipment. The Agency's development plan for Digital Image Surveillance (DIS) is part of the I 2 SIP and has defined the need for 'distributed systems', i.e. for multichannel surveillance systems, which should accommodate the integration aspect and meet requirements for both mail-in of recorded information to the Agency and remote surveillance. The paper describes the basic considerations that have led to the selection of the VXI bus to be used for such a system including the different modules emphasizing the integration issue

  17. INVIS : Integrated night vision surveillance and observation system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.; Hogervorst, M.A.; Dijk, J.; Son, R. van

    2010-01-01

    We present the design and first field trial results of the all-day all-weather INVIS Integrated Night Vision surveillance and observation System. The INVIS augments a dynamic three-band false-color nightvision image with synthetic 3D imagery in a real-time display. The night vision sensor suite

  18. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis in the HIV infection and compartmentalization of HIV in the central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Monteiro de Almeida

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The nervous system plays an important role in HIV infection. The purpose of this review is to discuss the indications for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF analysis in HIV infection in clinical practice. CSF analysis in HIV infection is indicated for the diagnosis of opportunistic infections and co-infections, diagnosis of meningitis caused by HIV, quantification of HIV viral load, and analysis of CNS HIV compartmentalization. Although several CSF biomarkers have been investigated, none are clinically applicable. The capacity of HIV to generate genetic diversity, in association with the constitutional characteristics of the CNS, facilitates the generation of HIV quasispecies in the CNS that are distinct from HIV in the systemic circulation. CSF analysis has a well-defined and valuable role in the diagnosis of CNS infections in HIV/AIDS patients. Further research is necessary to establish a clinically applicable biomarker for the diagnosis of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders.

  19. Surveillance systems (PWR) - loose parts monitoring - vibration monitoring - leakage detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuette, A.; Blaesig, H.

    1982-01-01

    The contribution is engaged in the task and the results of the loose parts monitoring and the vibration monitoring following from the practice at the PWR of Biblis. First a description of both systems - location and type of the sensors used, the treatment of the measurements and the indications - is given. The results of the analysis of some events picked up by the surveillance systems are presented showing applicabilty and benefit of such systems. (orig.)

  20. Inexpensive remote video surveillance system with microcomputer and solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guevara Betancourt, Edder

    2013-01-01

    A low-cost prototype is developed with a RPI plate for remote video surveillance. Additionally, the theoretical basis to provide energy independence have developed through solar cells and a battery bank. Some existing commercial monitoring systems are studied and analyzed, components such as: cameras, communication devices (WiFi and 3G), free software packages for video surveillance, control mechanisms and theory remote photovoltaic systems. A number of steps are developed to implement the module and install, configure and test each of the elements of hardware and software that make up the module, exploring the feasibility of providing intelligence to the system using the software chosen. Events that have been generated by motion detection have been simple, intuitive way to view, archive and extract. The implementation of the module by a microcomputer video surveillance and motion detection software (Zoneminder) has been an option for a lot of potential; as the platform for monitoring and recording data has provided all the tools to make a robust and secure surveillance. (author) [es

  1. Low-cost ultra-wide genotyping using Roche/454 pyrosequencing for surveillance of HIV drug resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawn M Dudley

    Full Text Available Great efforts have been made to increase accessibility of HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART in low and middle-income countries. The threat of wide-scale emergence of drug resistance could severely hamper ART scale-up efforts. Population-based surveillance of transmitted HIV drug resistance ensures the use of appropriate first-line regimens to maximize efficacy of ART programs where drug options are limited. However, traditional HIV genotyping is extremely expensive, providing a cost barrier to wide-scale and frequent HIV drug resistance surveillance.We have developed a low-cost laboratory-scale next-generation sequencing-based genotyping method to monitor drug resistance. We designed primers specifically to amplify protease and reverse transcriptase from Brazilian HIV subtypes and developed a multiplexing scheme using multiplex identifier tags to minimize cost while providing more robust data than traditional genotyping techniques. Using this approach, we characterized drug resistance from plasma in 81 HIV infected individuals collected in São Paulo, Brazil. We describe the complexities of analyzing next-generation sequencing data and present a simplified open-source workflow to analyze drug resistance data. From this data, we identified drug resistance mutations in 20% of treatment naïve individuals in our cohort, which is similar to frequencies identified using traditional genotyping in Brazilian patient samples.The developed ultra-wide sequencing approach described here allows multiplexing of at least 48 patient samples per sequencing run, 4 times more than the current genotyping method. This method is also 4-fold more sensitive (5% minimal detection frequency vs. 20% at a cost 3-5× less than the traditional Sanger-based genotyping method. Lastly, by using a benchtop next-generation sequencer (Roche/454 GS Junior, this approach can be more easily implemented in low-resource settings. This data provides proof-of-concept that next

  2. Active surveillance for influenza vaccine adverse events: the integrated vaccine surveillance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newes-Adeyi, Gabriella; Greece, Jacey; Bozeman, Sam; Walker, Deborah Klein; Lewis, Faith; Gidudu, Jane

    2012-02-01

    We conducted a pilot study of the Integrated Vaccine Surveillance System (IVSS), a novel active surveillance system for monitoring influenza vaccine adverse events that could be used in mass vaccination settings. We recruited 605 adult vaccinees from a convenience sample of 12 influenza vaccine clinics conducted by public health departments of two U.S. metropolitan regions. Vaccinees provided daily reports on adverse reactions following immunization (AEFI) using an interactive voice response system (IVR) or the internet for 14 consecutive days following immunization. Followup with nonrespondents was conducted through computer-assisted telephone interviewing (CATI). Data on vaccinee reports were available real-time through a dedicated secure website. 90% (545) of vaccinees made at least one daily report and 49% (299) reported consecutively for the full 14-day period. 58% (315) used internet, 20% (110) IVR, 6% (31) CATI, and 16% (89) used a combination for daily reports. Of the 545 reporters, 339 (62%) reported one or more AEFI, for a total of 594 AEFIs reported. The majority (505 or 85%) of these AEFIs were mild symptoms. It is feasible to develop a system to obtain real-time data on vaccine adverse events. Vaccinees are willing to provide daily reports for a considerable time post vaccination. Offering multiple modes of reporting encourages high response rates. Study findings on AEFIs showed that the IVSS was able to exhibit the emerging safety profile of the 2008 seasonal influenza vaccine. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A review of occupational disease surveillance systems in Modernet countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carder, M; Bensefa-Colas, L; Mattioli, S; Noone, P; Stikova, E; Valenty, M; Telle-Lamberton, M

    2015-11-01

    To improve occupational health public policies and to facilitate coordinated research within the European Union to reduce the incidence of occupational diseases (ODs), it is important to know what OD surveillance systems exist and how they compare. Monitoring trends in occupational diseases and tracing new and emerging risks in a network (Modernet) participants are well placed to provide this information as most either contribute data to and/or are involved in the management of OD systems. To identify and describe OD surveillance systems in Modernet countries with the longer-term objective of identifying a core template to be used on a large scale. A questionnaire sent to Modernet participants, seeking structured information about the OD surveillance system(s) in their country. Overall 14 countries (70%) provided information for 33 OD systems, among them 11 compensation-based (CB) systems. Six countries provided information for non-CB systems reporting for any type of OD. The other systems reported either only ODs from a prescribed list, or specific diagnoses or diagnostic groups, with reports to most schemes being physician-based. Data collected varied but all systems collected diagnosis, age, gender, date reported and occupation (and/or industry) and most collected information on exposure. This review provides information beneficial to both policy makers and researchers by identifying data sources useable to measure OD trends in European countries and opening the way to future work, both on trend comparisons within Europe and on the definition of a core template to extend OD surveillance on a larger scale. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Design and implementation of distributed multimedia surveillance system based on object-oriented middleware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xuesong; Jiang, Ling; Hu, Ruimin

    2006-10-01

    Currently, the applications of surveillance system have been increasingly widespread. But there are few surveillance platforms that can meet the requirement of large-scale, cross-regional, and flexible surveillance business. In the paper, we present a distributed surveillance system platform to improve safety and security of the society. The system is constructed by an object-oriented middleware called as Internet Communications Engine (ICE). This middleware helps our platform to integrate a lot of surveillance resource of the society and accommodate diverse range of surveillance industry requirements. In the follow sections, we will describe in detail the design concepts of system and introduce traits of ICE.

  5. Designing and evaluating risk-based surveillance systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willeberg, Preben; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Salman, Mo

    2012-01-01

    Risk-based surveillance systems reveal occurrence of disease or infection in a sample of population units, which are selected on the basis of risk factors for the condition under study. The purpose of such systems for supporting practical animal disease policy formulations and management decisions...... with prudent use of resources while maintaining acceptable system performance. High-risk category units are selected for testing by identification of the presence of specific high-risk factor(s), while disregarding other factors that might also influence the risk. On this basis we argue that the most...... applicable risk estimate for use in designing and evaluating a risk-based surveillance system would be a crude (unadjusted) relative risk, odds ratio or apparent prevalence. Risk estimates found in the published literature, however, are often the results of multivariable analyses implicitly adjusting...

  6. Design and Implementation of an Embedded Smart Intruder Surveillance System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabri Naseer

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Remote and scattered valuable and sensitive locations such as labs and offices inside university campus need efficient monitoring and warning system. As well as scattered area and belonging. This research presents a Real-Time intruder Surveillance System based on a single board computer (SBC. Thus the design and development of a cost effective surveillance management system based SBC that can be deployed efficiently in remote and scattered locations such as universities belonging. The fusion of embedded Python codes with SBC that attached to cameras, Long distance sensors, alerting circuitry and wireless module presents a novel integration based effective cost solution and enhances SBC of much flexibility of improvement and development for pervasive remote locations. The system proves the high integrity of smooth working with web application, it’s cost effective and thus can be deployed as many of units to seize and concisely covered remote and scattered area as well as university belonging and departments. The system can be administrated by a remote user sparsely or geographically away from any networked workstation. The proposed solution offers efficient stand alone, flexibility to upgrade and cheap development and installation as well as cost effective ubiquitous surveillance solution. In conclusion, the system acceptable boundaries of successful intruder recognition and warning alert are computed between 1m and 3m distance of intruder from system camera. Recognition rate of 95% and 83% are achieved and the successful warning alert were in the range of 86-97%.

  7. A Pilot Study to Increase the Efficiency of HIV Outreach Testing Through the Use of Timely and Geolocated HIV Viral Load Surveillance Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Jacky M.; Schumacher, Christina; Perin, Jamie; Myers, Tanya; Fields, Nathan; Greiner Safi, Amelia; Chaulk, Patrick

    2018-01-01

    Background Eliminating HIV transmission in a population necessitates identifying population reservoirs of HIV infection and subgroups most likely to transmit. HIV viral load is the single most important predictor of HIV transmission. The objective of this analysis was to evaluate whether a public health practice pilot project based on community viral load resulted in increases in the proportion of time spent testing in high viral load areas (process measure) and 3 outcome measures—the number and percent of overall HIV diagnoses, new diagnoses, and high viral load positives—in one mid-Atlantic US city with a severe HIV epidemic. Methods The evaluation was conducted during three, 3-month periods for 3 years and included the use of community viral load, global positioning system tracking data, and statistical testing to evaluate the effectiveness of the pilot project. Results The proportion of time spent outreach testing in high viral load areas (69%–84%, P the overall number and percent of HIV positives ((60 (3%) to 127 (6%), P The number and percent of new diagnoses (3 (0.1%) to 6 (0.2%)) and high viral load positives (5 (0.2%) to 9 (0.4%)) increased, but the numbers were too small for statistical testing. Discussion These results suggest that using community viral load to increase the efficiency of HIV outreach testing is feasible and may be effective in identifying more HIV positives. The pilot project provides a model for other public health practice demonstration projects. PMID:29420450

  8. Wireless sensor network for mobile surveillance systems; 2005BU1-TRSP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maris, M.G.; Dijk, G.J.A. van

    2005-01-01

    Guarding safety and security within industrial, commercial and military areas is an important issue nowadays. A specific challenge lies in the design of portable surveillance systems that can be rapidly deployed, installed and easily operated. Conventional surveillance systems typically employ

  9. Parallel Computational Intelligence-Based Multi-Camera Surveillance System

    OpenAIRE

    Orts-Escolano, Sergio; Garcia-Rodriguez, Jose; Morell, Vicente; Cazorla, Miguel; Azorin-Lopez, Jorge; García-Chamizo, Juan Manuel

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we present a multi-camera surveillance system based on the use of self-organizing neural networks to represent events on video. The system processes several tasks in parallel using GPUs (graphic processor units). It addresses multiple vision tasks at various levels, such as segmentation, representation or characterization, analysis and monitoring of the movement. These features allow the construction of a robust representation of the environment and interpret the behavior of mob...

  10. A GIS-driven integrated real-time surveillance pilot system for national West Nile virus dead bird surveillance in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aramini Jeff

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An extensive West Nile virus surveillance program of dead birds, mosquitoes, horses, and human infection has been launched as a result of West Nile virus first being reported in Canada in 2001. Some desktop and web GIS have been applied to West Nile virus dead bird surveillance. There have been urgent needs for a comprehensive GIS services and real-time surveillance. Results A pilot system was developed to integrate real-time surveillance, real-time GIS, and Open GIS technology in order to enhance West Nile virus dead bird surveillance in Canada. Driven and linked by the newly developed real-time web GIS technology, this integrated real-time surveillance system includes conventional real-time web-based surveillance components, integrated real-time GIS components, and integrated Open GIS components. The pilot system identified the major GIS functions and capacities that may be important to public health surveillance. The six web GIS clients provide a wide range of GIS tools for public health surveillance. The pilot system has been serving Canadian national West Nile virus dead bird surveillance since 2005 and is adaptable to serve other disease surveillance. Conclusion This pilot system has streamlined, enriched and enhanced national West Nile virus dead bird surveillance in Canada, improved productivity, and reduced operation cost. Its real-time GIS technology, static map technology, WMS integration, and its integration with non-GIS real-time surveillance system made this pilot system unique in surveillance and public health GIS.

  11. Present status of metrology of electro-optical surveillance systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrzanowski, K.

    2017-10-01

    There has been a significant progress in equipment for testing electro-optical surveillance systems over the last decade. Modern test systems are increasingly computerized, employ advanced image processing and offer software support in measurement process. However, one great challenge, in form of relative low accuracy, still remains not solved. It is quite common that different test stations, when testing the same device, produce different results. It can even happen that two testing teams, while working on the same test station, with the same tested device, produce different results. Rapid growth of electro-optical technology, poor standardization, limited metrology infrastructure, subjective nature of some measurements, fundamental limitations from laws of physics, tendering rules and advances in artificial intelligence are major factors responsible for such situation. Regardless, next decade should bring significant improvements, since improvement in measurement accuracy is needed to sustain fast growth of electro-optical surveillance technology.

  12. A Novel Surveillance System Applied in Civil Airport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Hua Bo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional security monitoring of civil airport usually uses a fixed camera to acquire images. There are several problems with performance including difficulties introduced in the information transmission, storage, and analysis of the process. Insect compound eyes offer unique advantages for moving target capture and these have attracted the attention of many researchers in recent years. This paper contributes to this research by proposing a new surveillance system applied in civil airport. We discuss the finished bionic structure of the system, the development of the bionic control circuit, and introduce the proposed mathematical model of bionic compound eyes for data acquisition and image mosaic. Image matching for large view is also illustrated with different conditions. This mode and algorithm effectively achieve safety surveillance of airport with large field of view and high real-time processing.

  13. Surveillance for travel-related disease--GeoSentinel Surveillance System, United States, 1997-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Kira; Esposito, Douglas H; Han, Pauline; Kozarsky, Phyllis; Freedman, David O; Plier, D Adam; Sotir, Mark J

    2013-07-19

    In 2012, the number of international tourist arrivals worldwide was projected to reach a new high of 1 billion arrivals, a 48% increase from 674 million arrivals in 2000. International travel also is increasing among U.S. residents. In 2009, U.S. residents made approximately 61 million trips outside the country, a 5% increase from 1999. Travel-related morbidity can occur during or after travel. Worldwide, 8% of travelers from industrialized to developing countries report becoming ill enough to seek health care during or after travel. Travelers have contributed to the global spread of infectious diseases, including novel and emerging pathogens. Therefore, surveillance of travel-related morbidity is an essential component of global public health surveillance and will be of greater importance as international travel increases worldwide. September 1997-December 2011. GeoSentinel is a clinic-based global surveillance system that tracks infectious diseases and other adverse health outcomes in returned travelers, foreign visitors, and immigrants. GeoSentinel comprises 54 travel/tropical medicine clinics worldwide that electronically submit demographic, travel, and clinical diagnosis data for all patients evaluated for an illness or other health condition that is presumed to be related to international travel. Clinical information is collected by physicians with expertise or experience in travel/tropical medicine. Data collected at all sites are entered electronically into a database, which is housed at and maintained by CDC. The GeoSentinel network membership program comprises 235 additional clinics in 40 countries on six continents. Although these network members do not report surveillance data systematically, they can report unusual or concerning diagnoses in travelers and might be asked to perform enhanced surveillance in response to specific health events or concerns. During September 1997-December 2011, data were collected on 141,789 patients with confirmed or

  14. High Prevalence of HIV Drug Resistance Among Newly Diagnosed Infants Aged <18 Months: Results From a Nationwide Surveillance in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inzaule, Seth C; Osi, Samuels J; Akinbiyi, Gbenga; Emeka, Asadu; Khamofu, Hadiza; Mpazanje, Rex; Ilesanmi, Oluwafunke; Ndembi, Nicaise; Odafe, Solomon; Sigaloff, Kim C E; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F; Akanmu, Sulaimon

    2018-01-01

    WHO recommends protease-inhibitor-based first-line regimen in infants because of risk of drug resistance from failed prophylaxis used in prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT). However, cost and logistics impede implementation in sub-Saharan Africa, and >75% of children still receive nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based regimen (NNRTI) used in PMTCT. We assessed the national pretreatment drug resistance prevalence of HIV-infected children aged resistance surveillance protocol. We used remnant dried blood spots collected between June 2014 and July 2015 from 15 early infant diagnosis facilities spread across all the 6 geopolitical regions of Nigeria. Sampling was through a probability proportional-to-size approach. HIV drug resistance was determined by population-based sequencing. Overall, in 48% of infants (205 of 430) drug resistance mutations (DRM) were detected, conferring resistance to predominantly NNRTIs (45%). NRTI and multiclass NRTI/NNRTI resistance were present at 22% and 20%, respectively, while resistance to protease inhibitors was at 2%. Among 204 infants with exposure to drugs for PMTCT, 57% had DRMs, conferring NNRTI resistance in 54% and multiclass NRTI/NNRTI resistance in 29%. DRMs were also detected in 34% of 132 PMTCT unexposed infants. A high frequency of PDR, mainly NNRTI-associated, was observed in a nationwide surveillance among newly diagnosed HIV-infected children in Nigeria. PDR prevalence was equally high in PMTCT-unexposed infants. Our results support the use of protease inhibitor-based first-line regimens in HIV-infected young children regardless of PMTCT history and underscore the need to accelerate implementation of the newly disseminated guideline in Nigeria.

  15. Food and water radioactivity surveillance system in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cucu, A.; Gheorghe, R.; May, C.; Barbu, R.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Justification: Food and water radioactivity content are closely related both to natural radioactivity and also generated by contamination due to anthropic nuclear activities. Consequently, in accordance with the European Union acquis and World Health Organization recommendation, surveillance systems were operationalized in many European countries. According to the national Romanian derived legislation the public health authorities are responsible for organizing and coordination of the national surveillance system for water and food radioactivity and their health related effects. Objectives: Description of the levels and type of radioactivity of drinking water and main foodstuffs and their contribution to the Romanian population exposure in order to elaborate appropriate public health interventions. Method: The gross parameters, alpha and beta, have been used for screening surveillance of drinking water sources indeed for potable purposes in order to identify those that could exceed the total indicative dose of 0.1 mSv/year. The food surveillance was focused on the main foodstuffs including milk, meat, fish, eggs, bread, potatoes, root vegetables (mainly carrots), leafy vegetables (mainly cabbage), fruits, and canteen menu, controlled for presence and level of radioactivity for 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 226 Ra, 210 Po and 40 K. Nuclear facility related monitoring for areas as nuclear power plant Cernavoda (type HWR-CANDU) and for regions with activities of extraction and fabrication of uranium fuel includes monitoring of radioactivity for: environmental deposit levels, surface waters, spontaneous vegetation, drinking water and foodstuffs. Results: 1) The water radioactivity surveillance results, mapped by administrative borders of the national territory, reveal that parameters of drinking water complies both with Drinking Water Directive 98/83 EC and WHO recommandation/2004; 2) For food stuff radioactivity: a) Mean registered values fully comply with reference for

  16. Final report : mobile surveillance and wireless communication systems field operational test. Volume 1, Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-03-01

    This study focused on assessing the application of traffic monitoring and management systems which use transportable surveillance and ramp meter trailers, video image processors, and wireless communications. The mobile surveillance and wireless commu...

  17. Expert system for surveillance and diagnosis of breach fuel elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Kenny C.

    1989-01-01

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for surveillance and diagnosis of breached fuel elements in a nuclear reactor. A delayed neutron monitoring system provides output signals indicating the delayed neutron activity and age and the equivalent recoil areas of a breached fuel element. Sensors are used to provide outputs indicating the status of each component of the delayed neutron monitoring system. Detectors also generate output signals indicating the reactor power level and the primary coolant flow rate of the reactor. The outputs from the detectors and sensors are interfaced with an artificial intelligence-based knowledge system which implements predetermined logic and generates output signals indicating the operability of the reactor.

  18. Expert system for surveillance and diagnosis of breach fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, K.C.

    1989-01-01

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for surveillance and diagnosis of breached fuel elements in a nuclear reactor. A delayed neutron monitoring system provides output signals indicating the delayed neutron activity and age and the equivalent recoil areas of a breached fuel element. Sensors are used to provide outputs indicating the status of each component of the delayed neutron monitoring system. Detectors also generate output signals indicating the reactor power level and the primary coolant flow rate of the reactor. The outputs from the detectors and sensors are interfaced with an artificial intelligence-based knowledge system which implements predetermined logic and generates output signals indicating the operability of the reactor

  19. Development of a unified web-based national HIV/AIDS information system in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yurong; Wu, Zunyou; Poundstone, Katharine; Wang, Changhe; Qin, Qianqian; Ma, Ye; Ma, Wei

    2010-12-01

    In the past, many data collection systems were in operation for different HIV/AIDS projects in China. We describe the creation of a unified, web-based national HIV/AIDS information system designed to streamline data collection and facilitate data use. Integration of separate HIV/AIDS data systems was carried out in three phases. Phase 1, from January 2006 to December 2007, involved creating a set of unified data collection forms that took into account existing program needs and the reporting requirements of various international organizations. Phase 2, from January to October 2007, involved creating a web-based platform to host the integrated HIV/AIDS data collection system. Phase 3, from November to December 2007, involved pilot testing the new, integrated system prior to nationwide application. Eight web-based data collection subsystems based on one platform began operation on 1 January 2008. These eight subsystems cover: (i) HIV/AIDS case reporting; (ii) HIV testing and counselling; (iii) antiretroviral treatment (ART) for adults; (iv) ART for children; (v) behavioural interventions for high-risk groups; (vi) methadone maintenance treatment; (vii) sentinel and behavioural surveillance; and (viii) local county background information. The system provides real-time data to monitor HIV testing, prevention and treatment programs across the country. China's new unified, web-based HIV/AIDS information system has improved the efficiency of data collection, reporting, analysis and use, as well as data quality and security. It is a powerful tool to support policy making, program evaluation and implementation of the national HIV/AIDS program and, thus, may serve a model for other countries.

  20. Violence Against Children Surveys (VACS): towards a global surveillance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Laura F; Kress, Howard; Sumner, Steven A; Gleckel, Jessie; Kawemama, Philbert; Gordon, Rebecca N

    2016-04-01

    To describe the Violence Against Children Surveys (VACS). The survey is a national, household survey that systematically measures the prevalence, nature and consequences of sexual, physical and emotional violence against children. This report provides information about the history, implementation, ethical protections, utility, results, limitations, and future directions of the VACS work. The study has been implemented in 11 countries in Africa, Asia and the Caribbean, providing each of these countries with baseline data and momentum to address violence against children as a public health and human rights priority. These data are novel in each country, and VACS is well poised to contribute to an existing surveillance system or be used as the basis of a periodic surveillance system. Without ongoing surveillance to assess prevalence and the impact of policy, prevention and response programming, violence will likely continue to be overlooked as the linchpin public health crisis that it is, globally and in individual countries. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  1. HIV incidence in rural South Africa: comparison of estimates from longitudinal surveillance and cross-sectional cBED assay testing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Till Bärnighausen

    Full Text Available The BED IgG-Capture Enzyme Immunoassay (cBED assay, a test of recent HIV infection, has been used to estimate HIV incidence in cross-sectional HIV surveys. However, there has been concern that the assay overestimates HIV incidence to an unknown extent because it falsely classifies some individuals with non-recent HIV infections as recently infected. We used data from a longitudinal HIV surveillance in rural South Africa to measure the fraction of people with non-recent HIV infection who are falsely classified as recently HIV-infected by the cBED assay (the long-term false-positive ratio (FPR and compared cBED assay-based HIV incidence estimates to longitudinally measured HIV incidence.We measured the long-term FPR in individuals with two positive HIV tests (in the HIV surveillance, 2003-2006 more than 306 days apart (sample size n = 1,065. We implemented four different formulae to calculate HIV incidence using cBED assay testing (n = 11,755 and obtained confidence intervals (CIs by directly calculating the central 95(th percentile of incidence values. We observed 4,869 individuals over 7,685 person-years for longitudinal HIV incidence estimation. The long-term FPR was 0.0169 (95% CI 0.0100-0.0266. Using this FPR, the cross-sectional cBED-based HIV incidence estimates (per 100 people per year varied between 3.03 (95% CI 2.44-3.63 and 3.19 (95% CI 2.57-3.82, depending on the incidence formula. Using a long-term FPR of 0.0560 based on previous studies, HIV incidence estimates varied between 0.65 (95% CI 0.00-1.32 and 0.71 (95% CI 0.00-1.43. The longitudinally measured HIV incidence was 3.09 per 100 people per year (95% CI 2.69-3.52, after adjustment to the sex-age distribution of the sample used in cBED assay-based estimation.In a rural community in South Africa with high HIV prevalence, the long-term FPR of the cBED assay is substantially lower than previous estimates. The cBED assay performs well in HIV incidence estimation if the locally

  2. Development of Compact Surveillance and Monitoring System `COSMOS`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Hironobu; Mukaiyama, Takehiko [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1999-03-01

    The Compact Surveillance and Monitoring System (COSMOS) was developed by the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) for the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) as a safeguards surveillance system under the JASPAS (Japan Support Programme for Agency Safeguards) with the collaboration of the Sony Corporation. It was intended as a direct replacement to the Twin Minolta film camera system. The COSMOS system can operate with a self-contained battery, record 30,000 scenes with an 8 mm video cassette tape and operate continuously for three months without human intervention. It can also operate by AC power supply for more than three months, and record 45,000 scenes in an 8 mm video cassette tape. The COSMOS system consists of two units, one is the Recording Unit and the other is the Setup/Review Unit. The Recording Unit consists of a main frame, four modules and a tamperproof housing. The four modules are a small CCD (Charge Coupled Device) camera with an auto-iris lens and a specific VTR (Video Tape Recorder), a video frame memory module, a system control module, and a DC or an AC power module. Currently, the COSMOS is the only safeguards video surveillance system without the need of external power supply for three months. In 1992 thirteen COSMOS units were successfully tested for the reliability by both the IAEA and the JAERI. None of mechanical failure was observed. On the one hand, the battery operation tests using four units were successfully carried out with 5 minutes time interval for three months. Three units were also tested in the field and no failure was observed. The COSMOS was accepted as the routine-use device for international safeguards by the IAEA in August 1993. The total of 90 units were purchased by the IAEA from the manufacturer, SONY, and also several units were purchased by the Science and Technology Agency (STA) of Japan for the STA/IAEA joint-use in Japan. (author)

  3. Development of Compact Surveillance and Monitoring System 'COSMOS'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Hironobu; Mukaiyama, Takehiko

    1999-03-01

    The Compact Surveillance and Monitoring System (COSMOS) was developed by the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) for the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) as a safeguards surveillance system under the JASPAS (Japan Support Programme for Agency Safeguards) with the collaboration of the Sony Corporation. It was intended as a direct replacement to the Twin Minolta film camera system. The COSMOS system can operate with a self-contained battery, record 30,000 scenes with an 8 mm video cassette tape and operate continuously for three months without human intervention. It can also operate by AC power supply for more than three months, and record 45,000 scenes in an 8 mm video cassette tape. The COSMOS system consists of two units, one is the Recording Unit and the other is the Setup/Review Unit. The Recording Unit consists of a main frame, four modules and a tamperproof housing. The four modules are a small CCD (Charge Coupled Device) camera with an auto-iris lens and a specific VTR (Video Tape Recorder), a video frame memory module, a system control module, and a DC or an AC power module. Currently, the COSMOS is the only safeguards video surveillance system without the need of external power supply for three months. In 1992 thirteen COSMOS units were successfully tested for the reliability by both the IAEA and the JAERI. None of mechanical failure was observed. On the one hand, the battery operation tests using four units were successfully carried out with 5 minutes time interval for three months. Three units were also tested in the field and no failure was observed. The COSMOS was accepted as the routine-use device for international safeguards by the IAEA in August 1993. The total of 90 units were purchased by the IAEA from the manufacturer, SONY, and also several units were purchased by the Science and Technology Agency (STA) of Japan for the STA/IAEA joint-use in Japan. (author)

  4. Autonomous mobile robotic system for supporting counterterrorist and surveillance operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, Marek; Bulandra, Kazimierz; Moczulski, Wojciech

    2017-10-01

    Contemporary research on mobile robots concerns applications to counterterrorist and surveillance operations. The goal is to develop systems that are capable of supporting the police and special forces by carrying out such operations. The paper deals with a dedicated robotic system for surveillance of large objects such as airports, factories, military bases, and many others. The goal is to trace unauthorised persons who try to enter to the guarded area, document the intrusion and report it to the surveillance centre, and then warn the intruder by sound messages and eventually subdue him/her by stunning through acoustic effect of great power. The system consists of several parts. An armoured four-wheeled robot assures required mobility of the system. The robot is equipped with a set of sensors including 3D mapping system, IR and video cameras, and microphones. It communicates with the central control station (CCS) by means of a wideband wireless encrypted system. A control system of the robot can operate autonomously, and under remote control. In the autonomous mode the robot follows the path planned by the CCS. Once an intruder has been detected, the robot can adopt its plan to allow tracking him/her. Furthermore, special procedures of treatment of the intruder are applied including warning about the breach of the border of the protected area, and incapacitation of an appropriately selected very loud sound until a patrol of guards arrives. Once getting stuck the robot can contact the operator who can remotely solve the problem the robot is faced with.

  5. Surveillance of transmitted HIV drug resistance using matched plasma and dried blood spot specimens from voluntary counseling and testing sites in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, 2007-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duc, Nguyen Bui; Hien, Bui Thu; Wagar, Nick; Tram, Tran Hong; Giang, Le Truong; Yang, Chunfu; Wolfe, Mitchell I; Hien, Nguyen Tran; Tuan, Nguyen Anh

    2012-05-01

    During 2007-2008, surveillance of transmitted human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance (TDR) was performed following World Health Organization guidance among clients with newly diagnosed HIV infection attending voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) sites in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam. Moderate (5%-15%) TDR to nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) was observed among VCT clients aged 18-21 years. Follow-up surveillance of TDR in HCMC and other geographic regions of Vietnam is warranted. Data generated will guide the national HIV drug resistance surveillance strategy and support selection of current and future first-line antiretroviral therapy and HIV prevention programs.

  6. Sunglass detection method for automation of video surveillance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikandar, Tasriva; Samsudin, Wan Nur Azhani W.; Hawari Ghazali, Kamarul; Mohd, Izzeldin I.; Fazle Rabbi, Mohammad

    2018-04-01

    Wearing sunglass to hide face from surveillance camera is a common activity in criminal incidences. Therefore, sunglass detection from surveillance video has become a demanding issue in automation of security systems. In this paper we propose an image processing method to detect sunglass from surveillance images. Specifically, a unique feature using facial height and width has been employed to identify the covered region of the face. The presence of covered area by sunglass is evaluated using facial height-width ratio. Threshold value of covered area percentage is used to classify the glass wearing face. Two different types of glasses have been considered i.e. eye glass and sunglass. The results of this study demonstrate that the proposed method is able to detect sunglasses in two different illumination conditions such as, room illumination as well as in the presence of sunlight. In addition, due to the multi-level checking in facial region, this method has 100% accuracy of detecting sunglass. However, in an exceptional case where fabric surrounding the face has similar color as skin, the correct detection rate was found 93.33% for eye glass.

  7. Was the French clinical surveillance system of bovine brucellosis influenced by the occurrence and surveillance of other abortive diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronner, Anne; Morignat, Eric; Touratier, Anne; Gache, Kristel; Sala, Carole; Calavas, Didier

    2015-03-01

    The bovine brucellosis clinical surveillance system implemented in France aims to detect early any case of bovine brucellosis, a disease of which the country has been declared free since 2005. It relies on the mandatory notification of every bovine abortion. Following the spread of the Schmallenberg virus (SBV) in France in 2012 and 2013, and the implementation in 2012 of a clinical surveillance programme of Q fever based on abortion notifications in ten pilot départements, our objective was to study whether these two events influenced the brucellosis clinical surveillance system. The proportion of notifying farmers was analyzed over each semester from June 1, 2009 to June 30, 2013 according to the size and production type of herds, SBV status of départements and the implementation of the Q fever surveillance. Our analysis showed a slight increase in the proportion of notifying farmers as départements became infected by SBV, and after the implementation of Q fever surveillance (during the first semester of 2013). These variations might be explained by an increase in abortion occurrence (congenital deformities in newborns, due to SBV) and/or by an increase in farmers' and veterinarians' awareness (due to the spread of SBV and the implementation of the Q fever surveillance). These results highlight the difficulties in interpreting variations in the proportion of notifying farmers as a consequence of an increase in abortion occurrence. As bovine abortion surveillance can play an important role in the early warning for several diseases, there is a need to explore other ways to monitor abortions in cattle, such as syndromic surveillance using the dates of artificial insemination or calving data. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Wide area surveillance real-time motion detection systems

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    The book describes a system for visual surveillance using intelligent cameras. The camera uses robust techniques for detecting and tracking moving objects. The real time capture of the objects is then stored int he database. The tracking data stored in the database is analysed to study the camera view, detect and track objects, and study object behavior. These set of models provide a robust framework for coordinating the tracking of objects between overlapping and non-overlapping cameras, and recording the activity of objects detected by the system.

  9. Location-based HIV behavioural surveillance among MSM in Auckland, New Zealand 2002-2011: condom use stable and more HIV testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxton, Peter J W; Dickson, Nigel P; Hughes, Anthony J

    2014-03-01

    Over the last decade, annual HIV diagnoses among men who have sex with men (MSM) in New Zealand increased, then stabilised in 2006 and have not increased further. The aim was to examine trends in behaviours in order to better understand this pattern and inform community-based prevention. From 2002 to 2011, we conducted five repeat cross-sectional behavioural surveillance surveys among MSM at community locations in Auckland (fair day, gay bars, sex-on-site venues; n=6091). Participation was anonymous and self-completed. Recruitment methods were consistent at each round. Overall, the samples became more ethnically diverse and less gay community attached over time. Condom use during anal intercourse was stable across three partnering contexts (casual, current regular fuckbuddy, current regular boyfriend), with a drop among casual contacts in 2011 only. In the 6 months prior to surveys, there was a gradual decline over time in the proportion reporting >20 male partners, an increase in acquiring partners from the internet and increases in engagement in anal intercourse in some partnering contexts. HIV testing in the 12 months prior to surveys rose from 35.1% in 2002 to 50.4% in 2011, mostly from 2008. This first indepth examination of trends in HIV-related behaviours among five consecutive large and diverse samples of MSM in New Zealand does not suggest condom use is declining. However, subtle changes in sexual networks and partnering may be altering the epidemic determinants in this population and increasing exposure.

  10. The Health and Occupation Research Network: An Evolving Surveillance System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carder, Melanie; Hussey, Louise; Money, Annemarie; Gittins, Matthew; McNamee, Roseanne; Stocks, Susan Jill; Sen, Dil; Agius, Raymond M

    2017-09-01

    Vital to the prevention of work-related ill-health (WRIH) is the availability of good quality data regarding WRIH burden and risks. Physician-based surveillance systems such as The Health and Occupation Research (THOR) network in the UK are often established in response to limitations of statutory, compensation-based systems for addressing certain epidemiological aspects of disease surveillance. However, to fulfil their purpose, THOR and others need to have methodologic rigor in capturing and ascertaining cases. This article describes how data collected by THOR and analogous systems can inform WRIH incidence, trends, and other determinants. An overview of the different strands of THOR research is provided, including methodologic advancements facilitated by increased data quantity/quality over time and the value of the research outputs for informing Government and other policy makers. In doing so, the utility of data collected by systems such as THOR to address a wide range of research questions, both in relation to WRIH and to wider issues of public and social health, is demonstrated.

  11. Improvements for optical surveillance systems in international safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, B.; Stein, G.; Neumann, G.; Gaertner, K.J.; Whichello, J.N.

    1988-01-01

    Within the next few years, a transition from film camera systems to video surveillance systems will take place in international safeguards. In order to maintain the indispensable requirements of reliability and authentication, development and tests continued under the Federal Republic of Germany Support Programme of video components for IAEA safeguards applications. The prototype of a tamper resistant TV-link was developed under Task D.12/4/. A field test of the TV-link is in preparation using a production model suitable for multiplexed TV applications. The test will utilize an Agency owned, multiplexed TV system. An evaluation of the tamper resistant TV-link is given. After a successful field trial of the prototype Solid State Video Memory (SSVM-516) under task D.14 a production model has been developed under Task D.17. Several operating modes are envisaged, depending on whether it will be used in an on-site video surveillance system or in a video review station. The concept and technical features, including an explanation of the function of the video memory, are discussed

  12. The Health and Occupation Research Network: An Evolving Surveillance System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Carder

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Vital to the prevention of work-related ill-health (WRIH is the availability of good quality data regarding WRIH burden and risks. Physician-based surveillance systems such as The Health and Occupation Research (THOR network in the UK are often established in response to limitations of statutory, compensation-based systems for addressing certain epidemiological aspects of disease surveillance. However, to fulfil their purpose, THOR and others need to have methodologic rigor in capturing and ascertaining cases. This article describes how data collected by THOR and analogous systems can inform WRIH incidence, trends, and other determinants. An overview of the different strands of THOR research is provided, including methodologic advancements facilitated by increased data quantity/quality over time and the value of the research outputs for informing Government and other policy makers. In doing so, the utility of data collected by systems such as THOR to address a wide range of research questions, both in relation to WRIH and to wider issues of public and social health, is demonstrated.

  13. Neuro-HIV: Nervous System Manifestations of HIV Infection- A Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Neuro-HIV: Nervous System Manifestations of HIV Infection- A Review. ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or Fee Access ... The early detection of neurological disease due to HIV infection is of paramount importance to the clinician as there are implications not just for management but also for prognosis.

  14. The utility of information collected by occupational disease surveillance systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Money, A; Carder, M; Hussey, L; Agius, R M

    2015-11-01

    The Health and Occupation Research (THOR) network in the UK and the Republic of Ireland (ROI) is an integrated system of surveillance schemes collecting work-related ill-health (WRIH) data since 1989. In addition to providing information about disease incidence, trends in incidence and the identification of new hazards, THOR also operates an ad hoc data enquiry service enabling interested parties to request information about cases of WRIH reported to THOR. To examine requests for information made to a network of surveillance schemes for WRIH in the UK. Analysis via SPSS of data requests received by THOR between 2002 and 2014. A total of 631 requests were received by THOR between 2002 and 2014. Requests were predominantly submitted by participating THOR physicians (34%) and the main THOR funder-the UK Health & Safety Executive (HSE) (31%). The majority (67%) of requests were for information about work-related respiratory or skin disease with relatively few requests for other diagnoses, such as musculoskeletal or mental ill-health. Requests frequently related to a specific industry and/or occupation (42%) and/or a specific causal agent (58%). Data collected by occupational disease surveillance systems such as THOR are an extremely useful source of information, the use of which extends beyond informing government on disease incidence and trends in incidence. The data collected provide a framework that can assist a wide range of enquirers with clinical diagnoses, identification of suspected causative agents/exposures and to highlight growing risks in particular industrial and occupational sectors. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Situation exploration in a persistent surveillance system with multidimensional data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Mohammad S.

    2013-03-01

    There is an emerging need for fusing hard and soft sensor data in an efficient surveillance system to provide accurate estimation of situation awareness. These mostly abstract, multi-dimensional and multi-sensor data pose a great challenge to the user in performing analysis of multi-threaded events efficiently and cohesively. To address this concern an interactive Visual Analytics (VA) application is developed for rapid assessment and evaluation of different hypotheses based on context-sensitive ontology spawn from taxonomies describing human/human and human/vehicle/object interactions. A methodology is described here for generating relevant ontology in a Persistent Surveillance System (PSS) and demonstrates how they can be utilized in the context of PSS to track and identify group activities pertaining to potential threats. The proposed VA system allows for visual analysis of raw data as well as metadata that have spatiotemporal representation and content-based implications. Additionally in this paper, a technique for rapid search of tagged information contingent to ranking and confidence is explained for analysis of multi-dimensional data. Lastly the issue of uncertainty associated with processing and interpretation of heterogeneous data is also addressed.

  16. Integrated Monitoring and Surveillance System demonstration project. Phase 2 accomplishments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aumeier, S.E.; Walters, B.G.; Singleterry, R.C.

    1997-01-01

    The paper presents the results of the Integrated Monitoring and Surveillance System (IMSS) demonstration project Phase 2 efforts. the rationale behind IMSS development is reviewed and progress in each of the 5 basic tasks is detailed. Significant results include further development of the data acquisition system and procurement of necessary hardware/software, options and associated costs for plutonium canning systems and gloveboxes, initiation of facility modifications, determination of possibly affected facility documentation, results from sensor system trade study, and preliminary storage configuration designs. Resources invested during Phase 1 and Phase 2 are summarized and budgetary requirements for completion of Phase 3 presented. The results show that the IMSS demonstration project team has met and in many cases exceeded the commitments made for Phase 2 deliverables

  17. Current French system of post-marketing drug surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albengres, E; Gauthier, F; Tillement, J P

    1990-07-01

    The French system of drug surveillance is characterized by several original features: thirty regional centres are selected to cover all of France to collect, analyze and enter the adverse drug events in the national data bank. The system is based on a bank of well documented files submitted to a decision of imputation; the report of severe events by prescribers is mandatory; cases are collected either by spontaneous reporting (routine) or by direct request (intensive validation study); the system is being involved in studies of epidemiological type as carried out by the national system of health or a few societies of medicine as well as by the centres themselves in cooperative works on defined populations.

  18. SCHISTOSOMIASIS: GEOSPATIAL SURVEILLANCE AND RESPONSE SYSTEMS IN SOUTHEAST ASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Malone

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Geographic information system (GIS and remote sensing (RS from Earth-observing satellites offer opportunities for rapid assessment of areas endemic for vector-borne diseases including estimates of populations at risk and guidance to intervention strategies. This presentation deals with GIS and RS applications for the control of schistosomiasis in China and the Philippines. It includes large-scale risk mapping including identification of suitable habitats for Oncomelania hupensis, the intermediate host snail of Schistosoma japonicum. Predictions of infection risk are discussed with reference to ecological transformations and the potential impact of climate change and the potential for long-term temperature increases in the North as well as the impact on rivers, lakes and water resource developments. Potential integration of geospatial mapping and modeling in schistosomiasis surveillance and response systems in Asia within Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS guidelines in the health societal benefit area is discussed.

  19. Canadian CANDU plant data systems for technical surveillance and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deverno, M.; Pothier, H.; Xian, C.; Grosbois, J. De; Bosnich, M.

    1996-01-01

    Plant data systems are emerging as a critical plant support system technology. In particular, plant-wide Historical Data Systems (HDS) are pivotal to the successful implementation of technical surveillance and analysis programs supporting plant operations, maintenance, safety, and licensing activities. In partnership with Canadian CANDU utility and design organizations, AECL has conducted a review of current Canadian CANDU HDS approaches with emphasis on understanding the existing functionality and uses of plant historical data systems, their future needs and benefits. The results is a vision of a plant-wide HDS providing seamless access to both near real-time and historical data, user tool-kits for data visualization and analysis, and data management of the large volume of data acquired during the life of a plant. The successful implementation of the HDS vision will lead to higher capability and capacity factors while minimizing Operations, Maintenance, and Administration (OM and A) costs. (author). 5 refs, 3 figs

  20. Canadian CANDU plant data systems for technical surveillance and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deverno, M; Pothier, H; Xian, C [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Control Centre Technology Branch, Fredericton, NB (Canada); Grosbois, J De; Bosnich, M [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Control Centre Technology Branch, Chalk River, ON (Canada). Chalk River Labs.

    1997-12-31

    Plant data systems are emerging as a critical plant support system technology. In particular, plant-wide Historical Data Systems (HDS) are pivotal to the successful implementation of technical surveillance and analysis programs supporting plant operations, maintenance, safety, and licensing activities. In partnership with Canadian CANDU utility and design organizations, AECL has conducted a review of current Canadian CANDU HDS approaches with emphasis on understanding the existing functionality and uses of plant historical data systems, their future needs and benefits. The results is a vision of a plant-wide HDS providing seamless access to both near real-time and historical data, user tool-kits for data visualization and analysis, and data management of the large volume of data acquired during the life of a plant. The successful implementation of the HDS vision will lead to higher capability and capacity factors while minimizing Operations, Maintenance, and Administration (OM and A) costs. (author). 5 refs, 3 figs.

  1. The Nigerian health care system: Need for integrating adequate medical intelligence and surveillance systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menizibeya Osain Welcome

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : As an important element of national security, public health not only functions to provide adequate and timely medical care but also track, monitor, and control disease outbreak. The Nigerian health care had suffered several infectious disease outbreaks year after year. Hence, there is need to tackle the problem. This study aims to review the state of the Nigerian health care system and to provide possible recommendations to the worsening state of health care in the country. To give up-to-date recommendations for the Nigerian health care system, this study also aims at reviewing the dynamics of health care in the United States, Britain, and Europe with regards to methods of medical intelligence/surveillance. Materials and Methods : Databases were searched for relevant literatures using the following keywords: Nigerian health care, Nigerian health care system, and Nigerian primary health care system. Additional keywords used in the search were as follows: United States (OR Europe health care dynamics, Medical Intelligence, Medical Intelligence systems, Public health surveillance systems, Nigerian medical intelligence, Nigerian surveillance systems, and Nigerian health information system. Literatures were searched in scientific databases Pubmed and African Journals OnLine. Internet searches were based on Google and Search Nigeria. Results : Medical intelligence and surveillance represent a very useful component in the health care system and control diseases outbreak, bioattack, etc. There is increasing role of automated-based medical intelligence and surveillance systems, in addition to the traditional manual pattern of document retrieval in advanced medical setting such as those in western and European countries. Conclusion : The Nigerian health care system is poorly developed. No adequate and functional surveillance systems are developed. To achieve success in health care in this modern era, a system well grounded in routine

  2. Web-based infectious disease surveillance systems and public health perspectives: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihye Choi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases are a significant public health concern, and early detection and immediate response is crucial for disease control. These challenges have led to the need for new approaches and technologies to reinforce the capacity of traditional surveillance systems for detecting emerging infectious diseases. In the last few years, the availability of novel web-based data sources has contributed substantially to infectious disease surveillance. This study explores the burgeoning field of web-based infectious disease surveillance systems by examining their current status, importance, and potential challenges. Methods A systematic review framework was applied to the search, screening, and analysis of web-based infectious disease surveillance systems. We searched PubMed, Web of Science, and Embase databases to extensively review the English literature published between 2000 and 2015. Eleven surveillance systems were chosen for evaluation according to their high frequency of application. Relevant terms, including newly coined terms, development and classification of the surveillance systems, and various characteristics associated with the systems were studied. Results Based on a detailed and informative review of the 11 web-based infectious disease surveillance systems, it was evident that these systems exhibited clear strengths, as compared to traditional surveillance systems, but with some limitations yet to be overcome. The major strengths of the newly emerging surveillance systems are that they are intuitive, adaptable, low-cost, and operated in real-time, all of which are necessary features of an effective public health tool. The most apparent potential challenges of the web-based systems are those of inaccurate interpretation and prediction of health status, and privacy issues, based on an individual’s internet activity. Conclusion Despite being in a nascent stage with further modification

  3. Transmitted antiretroviral drug resistance in New York State, 2006-2008: results from a new surveillance system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam C Readhead

    Full Text Available HIV transmitted drug resistance (TDR is a public health concern because it has the potential to compromise antiretroviral therapy (ART at the population level. In New York State, high prevalence of TDR in a local cohort and a multiclass resistant case cluster led to the development and implementation of a statewide resistance surveillance system.We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of the 13,109 cases of HIV infection that were newly diagnosed and reported in New York State between 2006 and 2008, including 4,155 with HIV genotypes drawn within 3 months of initial diagnosis and electronically reported to the new resistance surveillance system. We assessed compliance with DHHS recommendations for genotypic resistance testing and estimated TDR among new HIV diagnoses.Of 13,109 new HIV diagnoses, 9,785 (75% had laboratory evidence of utilization of HIV-related medical care, and 4,155 (43% had a genotype performed within 3 months of initial diagnosis. Of these, 11.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 10.2%-12.1% had any evidence of TDR. The proportion with mutations associated with any antiretroviral agent in the NNRTI, NRTI or PI class was 6.3% (5.5%-7.0%, 4.3% (3.6%-4.9% and 2.9% (2.4%-3.4%, respectively. Multiclass resistance was observed in <1%. TDR did not increase significantly over time (p for trend = 0.204. Men who have sex with men were not more likely to have TDR than persons with heterosexual risk factor (OR 1.0 (0.77-1.30. TDR to EFV+TDF+FTC and LPV/r+TDF+FTC regimens was 7.1% (6.3%-7.9% and 1.4% (1.0%-1.8%, respectively.TDR appears to be evenly distributed and stable among new HIV diagnoses in New York State; multiclass TDR is rare. Less than half of new diagnoses initiating care received a genotype per DHHS guidelines.

  4. Radiation protection in nuclear facilities. The Caise environmental surveillance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witt, H. de; Voelz, E.

    1995-01-01

    The Computer Aided Surveillance System for the Environment of Nuclear Installations (Caise) has been designed for permanent surveillance of the environment of nuclear installations under normal operating conditions and for unusual events on the basis of radiological and meteorological measured data. In normal operation, the data measured on line are fed to the system by way of a defined interface, while off-line data can be entered manually in the dialog mode. Subsequently, the measured data are stored, filed away, and secured. Short-time dispersion factors can be calculated permanently in the on-line mode, while the off-line mode allows short-term and long-term dispersions to be calculated for randomly selectable periods of time under the General Administrative Rule of Sec. 45 of the German Radiation Protection Ordinance. The corresponding dose distributions in the environment of the plant can be determined next. Under conditions of increased emissions (accidents, failures), Caise assists in quick decision-making by its capacity for real-time dispersion calculations including current on-line and off-line emission sample measurements. In this way, the contributions by various different exposure pathways to the calculated dose can be determined more accurately. (orig.) [de

  5. Weather-enabled future onboard surveillance and navigation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutuel, L.; Baillon, B.; Barnetche, B.; Delpy, P.

    2009-09-01

    With the increasing traffic and the development of business trajectories, there is a widespread need to anticipate any adverse weather conditions that could impact the performance of the flight or to use of atmospheric parameters to optimize trajectories. Current sensors onboard air transport are challenged to provide the required service, while new products for business jets and general aviation open the door to innovative assimilation of weather information in onboard surveillance and navigation. The paper aims at surveying current technology available to air transport aircraft and pointing out their shortcomings in view of the modernization proposed in SESAR and NextGen implementation plans. Foreseen innovations are then illustrated via results of ongoing research like FLYSAFE or standardization efforts, in particular meteorological datalink services and impact on Human-Machine Interface. The paper covers the operational need to avoid adverse weather like thunderstorm, icing, turbulence, windshear and volcanic ash, but also the requirement to control in 4D the trajectory through the integration of wind and temperature grids in the flight management. The former will lead to enhanced surveillance systems onboard the aircraft with new displays and new alerting schemes, ranging from targeted information supporting better re-planning to auto-escape strategies. The latter will be standard in next generation flight management systems. Finally both will rely on ATM products that will also assimilate weather information so that situational awareness is shared and decision is collaborative.

  6. Validation of an electronic surveillance system for acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herasevich, Vitaly; Yilmaz, Murat; Khan, Hasrat; Hubmayr, Rolf D; Gajic, Ognjen

    2009-06-01

    Early detection of acute lung injury (ALI) is essential for timely implementation of evidence-based therapies and enrollment into clinical trials. We aimed to determine the accuracy of computerized syndrome surveillance for detection of ALI in hospitalized patients and compare it with routine clinical assessment. Using a near-real time copy of the electronic medical records, we developed and validated a custom ALI electronic alert (ALI "sniffer") based on the European-American Consensus Conference Definition and compared its performance against provider-derived documentation. A total of 3,795 consecutive critically ill patients admitted to nine multidisciplinary intensive care units (ICUs) of a tertiary care teaching institution were included. ALI developed in 325 patients and was recognized by bedside clinicians in only 86 (26.5%). Under-recognition of ALI was associated with not implementing protective mechanical ventilation (median tidal volumes of 9.2 vs. 8.0 ml/kg predicted body weight, P sniffer" demonstrated excellent sensitivity of 96% (95% CI 94-98) and moderate specificity of 89% (95% CI 88-90) with a positive predictive value ranging from 24% (95% CI 13-40) in the heart-lung transplant ICU to 64% (95% CI 55-71) in the medical ICU. The computerized surveillance system accurately identifies critically ill patients who develop ALI syndrome. Since the lack of ALI recognition is a barrier to the timely implementation of best practices and enrollment into research studies, computerized syndrome surveillance could be a useful tool to enhance patient safety and clinical research.

  7. Integrated monitoring and surveillance system demonstration project: Phase I accomplishments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aumeier, S.E.; Walters, B.G.; Crawford, D.C.

    1997-01-01

    The authors present the results of the Integrated Monitoring and Surveillance System (IMSS) demonstration project Phase I efforts. The rationale behind IMSS development is reviewed and progress in each of the 5 basic tasks is detailed. Significant results include decisions to use Echelon LonWorks networking protocol and Microsoft Access for the data system needs, a preliminary design for the plutonium canning system glovebox, identification of facilities and materials available for the demonstration, determination of possibly affected facility documentation, and a preliminary list of available sensor technologies. Recently imposed changes in the overall project schedule and scope are also discussed and budgetary requirements for competition of Phase II presented. The results show that the IMSS demonstration project team has met and in many cases exceeded the commitments made for Phase I deliverables

  8. Prototyping of a Situation Awareness System in the Maritime Surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handayani, D O D; Shah, A; Sediono, W

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses about the design of a Situation Awareness (SA) system to support vessel crews and control room operators in improving the decision making process. The architecture of the system is ontology based. The vessel crews and control room operators may face a loss of SA. They may have limited cognitive abilities which make it difficult to make a decision in a high stress level, short time availability and continuously evolving situation with incomplete information. In this work, we describe the application of Semantic Web Rule Language to represent corresponding knowledge in the maritime surveillance domain. The result of this research will demonstrate that an ontology based system can be used to remodel the information into a meaningful and valuable form to predict the future states of SA and improve the decision making process

  9. Establishment, test and evaluation of a prototype volcano surveillance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, P. L.; Eaton, J. P.; Endo, E.; Harlow, D.; Marquez, D.; Allen, R.

    1973-01-01

    A volcano-surveillance system utilizing 23 multilevel earthquake counters and 6 biaxial borehole tiltmeters is being installed and tested on 15 volcanoes in 4 States and 4 foreign countries. The purpose of this system is to give early warning when apparently dormant volcanoes are becoming active. The data are relayed through the ERTS-Data Collection System to Menlo Park for analysis. Installation was completed in 1972 on the volcanoes St. Augustine and Iliamna in Alaska, Kilauea in Hawaii, Baker, Rainier and St. Helens in Washington, Lassen in California, and at a site near Reykjavik, Iceland. Installation continues and should be completed in April 1973 on the volcanoes Santiaguito, Fuego, Agua and Pacaya in Guatemala, Izalco in El Salvador and San Cristobal, Telica and Cerro Negro in Nicaragua.

  10. Surveillance and early warning systems of infectious disease in China: From 2012 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Honglong; Wang, Liping; Lai, Shengjie; Li, Zhongjie; Sun, Qiao; Zhang, Peng

    2017-07-01

    Appropriate surveillance and early warning of infectious diseases have very useful roles in disease control and prevention. In 2004, China established the National Notifiable Infectious Disease Surveillance System and the Public Health Emergency Event Surveillance System to report disease surveillance and events on the basis of data sources from the National Notifiable Infectious Disease Surveillance System, China Infectious Disease Automated-alert and Response System in this country. This study provided a descriptive summary and a data analysis, from 2012 to 2014, of these 3 key surveillance and early warning systems of infectious disease in China with the intent to provide suggestions for system improvement and perfection. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Developing a new syndromic surveillance system for the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harcourt, S E; Fletcher, J; Loveridge, P; Bains, A; Morbey, R; Yeates, A; McCloskey, B; Smyth, B; Ibbotson, S; Smith, G E; Elliot, A J

    2012-12-01

    Syndromic surveillance is vital for monitoring public health during mass gatherings. The London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games represents a major challenge to health protection services and community surveillance. In response to this challenge the Health Protection Agency has developed a new syndromic surveillance system that monitors daily general practitioner out-of-hours and unscheduled care attendances. This new national system will fill a gap identified in the existing general practice-based syndromic surveillance systems by providing surveillance capability of general practice activity during evenings/nights, over weekends and public holidays. The system will complement and supplement the existing tele-health phone line, general practitioner and emergency department syndromic surveillance systems. This new national system will contribute to improving public health reassurance, especially to meet the challenges of the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games.

  12. FCA containment and surveillance (C/S) system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Hironobu; Mukaiyama, Takehiko; Yokota, Yasuhiro.

    1994-11-01

    The Fast Critical Assembly (FCA) facility of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst. (JAERI) is internationally recognized as one of the most sensitive facility in the world from the viewpoint of international safeguards, because the facility possesses a large amount of metallic uranium and metallic plutonium, which are needed to perform various physical experiments. These material are subject to frequent verifications by the inspectorate, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the domestic authority (Science and Technology Agency of Japan, STA). Those verifications require inspectors to access to these materials for measurements and applications of seals. Human resources increase of irradiations and restrictions on the freedom of physical experiments, that are inevitably associated with these inspection activities, have been a serious problem that causes significant burdens for all relating parties. To decrease these burdens without any confliction with the inspection goals, an advanced comprehensive system of containment and surveillance has been developed. The FCA Containment and Surveillance (C/S) System consists of tow independent subsystems, i. e. Portal Monitor (P/M) and Penetration Monitor(PN/M). In this system the internal wall of the reactor building is used as a part of containment for the safeguards purpose, which enables the portal, that is installed at the internal wall of the reactor building, to be used as an area for monitoring of any removal of nuclear material. A metal detector of high sensitivity has been selected for the system since all nuclear materials possessed by the FCA has metallic forms. The internal wall has several penetrations for utility purposes, which should also be monitored for the purpose of detecting any removal of nuclear material from the reactor core area. A penetration monitor system has been developed for this purpose. This report describes functions of the system and their operation procedures. (author)

  13. The integrated proactive surveillance system for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haibin; Yatawara, Mahendra; Huang, Shao-Chi; Dudley, Kevin; Szekely, Christine; Holden, Stuart; Piantadosi, Steven

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present the design and implementation of the integrated proactive surveillance system for prostate cancer (PASS-PC). The integrated PASS-PC is a multi-institutional web-based system aimed at collecting a variety of data on prostate cancer patients in a standardized and efficient way. The integrated PASS-PC was commissioned by the Prostate Cancer Foundation (PCF) and built through the joint of efforts by a group of experts in medical oncology, genetics, pathology, nutrition, and cancer research informatics. Their main goal is facilitating the efficient and uniform collection of critical demographic, lifestyle, nutritional, dietary and clinical information to be used in developing new strategies in diagnosing, preventing and treating prostate cancer.The integrated PASS-PC is designed based on common industry standards - a three tiered architecture and a Service- Oriented Architecture (SOA). It utilizes open source software and programming languages such as HTML, PHP, CSS, JQuery, Drupal and MySQL. We also use a commercial database management system - Oracle 11g. The integrated PASS-PC project uses a "confederation model" that encourages participation of any interested center, irrespective of its size or location. The integrated PASS-PC utilizes a standardized approach to data collection and reporting, and uses extensive validation procedures to prevent entering erroneous data. The integrated PASS-PC controlled vocabulary is harmonized with the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Thesaurus. Currently, two cancer centers in the USA are participating in the integrated PASS-PC project.THE FINAL SYSTEM HAS THREE MAIN COMPONENTS: 1. National Prostate Surveillance Network (NPSN) website; 2. NPSN myConnect portal; 3. Proactive Surveillance System for Prostate Cancer (PASS-PC). PASS-PC is a cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid (caBIG) compatible product. The integrated PASS-PC provides a foundation for collaborative prostate cancer research. It has been built to

  14. Complement: a key system for immune surveillance and homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricklin, Daniel; Hajishengallis, George; Yang, Kun; Lambris, John D

    2010-09-01

    Nearly a century after the significance of the human complement system was recognized, we have come to realize that its functions extend far beyond the elimination of microbes. Complement acts as a rapid and efficient immune surveillance system that has distinct effects on healthy and altered host cells and foreign intruders. By eliminating cellular debris and infectious microbes, orchestrating immune responses and sending 'danger' signals, complement contributes substantially to homeostasis, but it can also take action against healthy cells if not properly controlled. This review describes our updated view of the function, structure and dynamics of the complement network, highlights its interconnection with immunity at large and with other endogenous pathways, and illustrates its multiple roles in homeostasis and disease.

  15. Information management in Iranian Maternal Mortality Surveillance System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadoughi, Farahnaz; Karimi, Afsaneh; Erfannia, Leila

    2017-07-01

    Maternal mortality is preventable by proper information management and is the main target of the Maternal Mortality Surveillance System (MMSS). This study aimed to determine the status of information management in the Iranian Maternal Mortality Surveillance System (IMMSS). The population of this descriptive and analytical study, which was conducted in 2016, included 96 administrative staff of health and treatment deputies of universities of medical sciences and the Ministry of Health in Iran. Data were gathered by a five-part questionnaire with confirmed validity and reliability. A total of 76 questionnaires were completed, and data were analyzed using SPSS software, version 19, by descriptive and inferential statistics. The relationship between variables "organizational unit" and the four studied axes was studied using Kendall's correlation coefficient test. The status of information management in IMMSS was desirable. Data gathering and storage axis and data processing and compilation axis achieved the highest (2.7±0.46) and the lowest (2.4±0.49) mean scores, respectively. The data-gathering method, control of a sample of women deaths in reproductive age in the universities of medical sciences, use of international classification of disease, and use of this system information by management teams to set resources allocation achieved the lowest mean scores in studied axes. Treatment deputy staff had a more positive attitude toward the status of information management of IMMSS than the health deputy staff (p=0.004). Although the status of information management in IMMSS was desirable, it could be improved by modification of the data-gathering method; creating communication links between different data resources; a periodic sample control of women deaths in reproductive age in the universities of medical sciences; and implementing ICD-MM and integration of its rules on a unified system of death.

  16. Bootstrap confidence intervals and bias correction in the estimation of HIV incidence from surveillance data with testing for recent infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnegie, Nicole Bohme

    2011-04-15

    The incidence of new infections is a key measure of the status of the HIV epidemic, but accurate measurement of incidence is often constrained by limited data. Karon et al. (Statist. Med. 2008; 27:4617–4633) developed a model to estimate the incidence of HIV infection from surveillance data with biologic testing for recent infection for newly diagnosed cases. This method has been implemented by public health departments across the United States and is behind the new national incidence estimates, which are about 40 per cent higher than previous estimates. We show that the delta method approximation given for the variance of the estimator is incomplete, leading to an inflated variance estimate. This contributes to the generation of overly conservative confidence intervals, potentially obscuring important differences between populations. We demonstrate via simulation that an innovative model-based bootstrap method using the specified model for the infection and surveillance process improves confidence interval coverage and adjusts for the bias in the point estimate. Confidence interval coverage is about 94–97 per cent after correction, compared with 96–99 per cent before. The simulated bias in the estimate of incidence ranges from −6.3 to +14.6 per cent under the original model but is consistently under 1 per cent after correction by the model-based bootstrap. In an application to data from King County, Washington in 2007 we observe correction of 7.2 per cent relative bias in the incidence estimate and a 66 per cent reduction in the width of the 95 per cent confidence interval using this method. We provide open-source software to implement the method that can also be extended for alternate models.

  17. Enhanced HIV-1 surveillance using molecular epidemiology to study and monitor HIV-1 outbreaks among intravenous drug users (IDUs) in Athens and Bucharest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraskevis, Dimitrios; Paraschiv, Simona; Sypsa, Vana; Nikolopoulos, Georgios; Tsiara, Chryssa; Magiorkinis, Gkikas; Psichogiou, Mina; Flampouris, Andreas; Mardarescu, Mariana; Niculescu, Iulia; Batan, Ionelia; Malliori, Meni; Otelea, Dan; Hatzakis, Angelos

    2015-10-01

    A significant increase in HIV-1 diagnoses was reported among Injecting Drug Users (IDUs) in the Athens (17-fold) and Bucharest (9-fold) metropolitan areas starting 2011. Molecular analyses were conducted on HIV-1 sequences from IDUs comprising 51% and 20% of the diagnosed cases among IDUs during 2011-2013 for Greece and Romania, respectively. Phylodynamic analyses were performed using the newly developed birth-death serial skyline model which allows estimating of important epidemiological parameters, as implemented in BEAST programme. Most infections (>90%) occurred within four and three IDU local transmission networks in Athens and Bucharest, respectively. For all Romanian clusters, the viral strains originated from local circulating strains, whereas in Athens, the local strains seeded only two of the four sub-outbreaks. Birth-death skyline plots suggest a more explosive nature for sub-outbreaks in Bucharest than in Athens. In Athens, two sub-outbreaks had been controlled (Re1.0) and two had been controlled (Re<1.0). The lead times were shorter for the outbreak in Athens than in Bucharest. Enhanced molecular surveillance proved useful to gain information about the origin, causal pathways, dispersal patterns and transmission dynamics of the outbreaks that can be useful in a public health setting. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. HIV surveillance in needlestick accidents with health workers - doi: 10.5020/18061230.2010.p325

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janete Lane Amadei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To characterize the occurrence of needlestick accidents with health professionals submitted to rapid HIV tests. Methods: A descriptive, epidemiological study, carried out by notification of the occurrence of needlestick accidents in the Epidemiology Sector of the State Health Secretariat, in 2008. The following variables were assessed: gender, age, exposed biological material, type of exposure, source patient, and injured patient, progression of the case, accident situation, and use of personal protective equipment (PPE, 180 days serology and occupational area. Results: There have been reports of 143 accidents, prevailing in nursing, female, 20 to 30 years, involving the blood and biological material by percutaneous puncture. We found no standardization in the use of PPE. The HIV test revealed no positive cases. Conclusion: This study helped to characterize the occurrence of accidents reported in health care professionals and evaluate the protocol of care given. It also revealed non-contamination by HIV.

  19. HIV-1 drug resistance surveillance in antiretroviral treatment-naive individuals from a reference hospital in Guatemala, 2010-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila-Ríos, Santiago; García-Morales, Claudia; Garrido-Rodríguez, Daniela; Tapia-Trejo, Daniela; Girón-Callejas, Amalia Carolina; Mendizábal-Burastero, Ricardo; Escobar-Urias, Ingrid Yessenia; García-González, Blanca Leticia; Navas-Castillo, Sabrina; Pinzón-Meza, Rodolfo; Mejía-Villatoro, Carlos Rodolfo; Reyes-Terán, Gustavo

    2015-04-01

    The recent expansion of antiretroviral treatment (ART) coverage in middle/low-income countries has been associated with increasing prevalence of HIV pre-ART drug resistance (PDR). We assessed PDR prevalence, patterns, and trends in Guatemala. Blood samples from 1,084 ART-naive individuals, enrolled from October 2010 to December 2013 at the Roosevelt Hospital in Guatemala City, were obtained. PDR was evaluated using the WHO mutation list for transmitted drug resistance (TDR) surveillance. An overall PDR prevalence of 7.3% (95% CI 5.8-9.0%) was observed for the whole study period. TDR to nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI) was the highest (4.9%, p500 and 350-500 CD4(+) T cells/μl (7.4% and 8.7%, respectively) compared to individuals with Guatemala remains at an intermediate level. Nevertheless, we have shown evidence suggesting increasing trends in NNRTI PDR, which need to be taken into account in national HIV management policies.

  20. Surveillance of systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases using administrative data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernatsky, S; Lix, L; Hanly, J G; Hudson, M; Badley, E; Peschken, C; Pineau, C A; Clarke, A E; Fortin, P R; Smith, M; Bélisle, P; Lagace, C; Bergeron, L; Joseph, L

    2011-04-01

    There is growing interest in developing tools and methods for the surveillance of chronic rheumatic diseases, using existing resources such as administrative health databases. To illustrate how this might work, we used population-based administrative data to estimate and compare the prevalence of systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases (SARDs) across three Canadian provinces, assessing for regional differences and the effects of demographic factors. Cases of SARDs (systemic lupus erythematosus, scleroderma, primary Sjogren's, polymyositis/dermatomyositis) were ascertained from provincial physician billing and hospitalization data. We combined information from three case definitions, using hierarchical Bayesian latent class regression models that account for the imperfect nature of each case definition. Using methods that account for the imperfect nature of both billing and hospitalization databases, we estimated the over-all prevalence of SARDs to be approximately 2-3 cases per 1,000 residents. Stratified prevalence estimates suggested similar demographic trends across provinces (i.e. greater prevalence in females-versus-males, and in persons of older age). The prevalence in older females approached or exceeded 1 in 100, which may reflect the high burden of primary Sjogren's syndrome in this group. Adjusting for demographics, there was a greater prevalence in urban-versus-rural settings. In our work, prevalence estimates had good face validity and provided useful information about potential regional and demographic variations. Our results suggest that surveillance of some rheumatic diseases using administrative data may indeed be feasible. Our work highlights the usefulness of using multiple data sources, adjusting for the error in each.

  1. Smart Telerobotic Surveillance System via Internet with Reduced Time Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashesh Vasalya

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This work provides an imperial solution to the problems faced by man while enduring hazardous tasks like handling and disposal of nuclear wastes, monitoring nuclear power plants, mining operations etc .which have to be aborted if expertise group running it is unavailable or on a run. This paper presents a distributed platform that allows the special group of user to control a gadget (possibly a robot through internet as a medium. An advanced version of this technology is capable of transmitting graphic images and other surrounding information as required, via internet back to the user to facilitate the effective monitoring of the existent situation using appropriate software tools. The project uses the SRV-1 Mobile Surveillance Robot which is a fully integrated system standard designed and other related technology for surveillance purposes. It is driven via web browser using JAVA based control applications with live video feeds. Specialised user group will be given separate account from where they can control and monitor the system even when they are not present at the site. End user will be connected to the gadget (robot through a central server which acts as a single channel for both sending and receiving information. But the subject of remote control over the internet has some possible anomalies namely network freezing, delay between host and recipient, congested network and many others. This system enables asynchronous object passing so that network bandwidth is used effectively and such parameters as the network condition and server states have less effect on the system. To resolve this issue, a fuzzy logic controller is used to control the robot’s motion along a predefined path with the necessary manipulation of the normal course. The robot was first modelled in Matlab Simulink and the fuzzy logic rules were optimized for the best results possible. In accordance with the fuzzy rules developed the fuzzy interference system generates the

  2. SCORPION II persistent surveillance system with universal gateway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coster, Michael; Chambers, Jonathan; Brunck, Albert

    2009-05-01

    This paper addresses improvements and benefits derived from the next generation Northrop Grumman SCORPION II family of persistent surveillance and target recognition systems produced by the Xetron campus in Cincinnati, Ohio. SCORPION II reduces the size, weight, and cost of all SCORPION components in a flexible, field programmable system that is easier to conceal, backward compatible, and enables integration of over forty Unattended Ground Sensor (UGS) and camera types from a variety of manufacturers, with a modular approach to supporting multiple Line of Sight (LOS) and Beyond Line of Sight (BLOS) communications interfaces. Since 1998 Northrop Grumman has been integrating best in class sensors with its proven universal modular Gateway to provide encrypted data exfiltration to Common Operational Picture (COP) systems and remote sensor command and control. In addition to being fed to COP systems, SCORPION and SCORPION II data can be directly processed using a common sensor status graphical user interface (GUI) that allows for viewing and analysis of images and sensor data from up to seven hundred SCORPION system Gateways on single or multiple displays. This GUI enables a large amount of sensor data and imagery to be used for actionable intelligence as well as remote sensor command and control by a minimum number of analysts.

  3. Parallel Computational Intelligence-Based Multi-Camera Surveillance System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Orts-Escolano

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we present a multi-camera surveillance system based on the use of self-organizing neural networks to represent events on video. The system processes several tasks in parallel using GPUs (graphic processor units. It addresses multiple vision tasks at various levels, such as segmentation, representation or characterization, analysis and monitoring of the movement. These features allow the construction of a robust representation of the environment and interpret the behavior of mobile agents in the scene. It is also necessary to integrate the vision module into a global system that operates in a complex environment by receiving images from multiple acquisition devices at video frequency. Offering relevant information to higher level systems, monitoring and making decisions in real time, it must accomplish a set of requirements, such as: time constraints, high availability, robustness, high processing speed and re-configurability. We have built a system able to represent and analyze the motion in video acquired by a multi-camera network and to process multi-source data in parallel on a multi-GPU architecture.

  4. Commercial-off-the-shelf digital surveillance systems for safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neufing, C.; Tschritter, C.; Meylemans, P.; Vandaele, R.; Heppleston, M.; Chare, P.; Kloeckner, W.

    2001-01-01

    The reasons why safeguards authorities are from time to time looking for Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (C.O.T.S.) equipment for safeguards purposes are for the following reasons: Equipment that is designed from scratch to satisfy specific safeguards requirements is very likely to go through a period of teething problems. If these problems are only discovered once the equipment is deployed for routine use, this will be accompanied with large overhead costs for the safeguards authorities to maintain and repair such equipment. The overhead costs are much higher if unattended equipment is concerned that is permanently installed on-site. In that case an extra mission has to be organised to return the faulty equipment to our headquarters before it can be repaired. Using C.O.T.S. equipment that is also used by others reduces the risk of teething problems. At least the burden of going through such kind of problem period is shared with other customers of the concerned equipment. It is clear that safeguards is not a big market on its own. The non-negligible cost of the development of equipment that only fits safeguards requirements will therefore have to be recovered on the expected sales. If the market is small, if the expected number of units that can be sold is small, a large part of the unit cost will depend on the initial development costs. Going for C.O.T.S. equipment that is also sold in other markets, would in that respect lower the equipment cost. That not any safeguards equipment can be obtained commercially off the shelf is clear, but in certain domains like digital surveillance, the functionality of C.O.T.S. equipment has been approaching the one needed for safeguards. That is why in 1998 the Euratom Safeguards Office published an open call for tender for the purchase of a digital surveillance system that is able to support up to 64 colour camera channels. In response to a successful bid for this call for tender a contract for the delivery of 3 prototype systems and 6

  5. Application of robust face recognition in video surveillance systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, De-xin; An, Peng; Zhang, Hao-xiang

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a video searching system that utilizes face recognition as searching indexing feature. As the applications of video cameras have great increase in recent years, face recognition makes a perfect fit for searching targeted individuals within the vast amount of video data. However, the performance of such searching depends on the quality of face images recorded in the video signals. Since the surveillance video cameras record videos without fixed postures for the object, face occlusion is very common in everyday video. The proposed system builds a model for occluded faces using fuzzy principal component analysis (FPCA), and reconstructs the human faces with the available information. Experimental results show that the system has very high efficiency in processing the real life videos, and it is very robust to various kinds of face occlusions. Hence it can relieve people reviewers from the front of the monitors and greatly enhances the efficiency as well. The proposed system has been installed and applied in various environments and has already demonstrated its power by helping solving real cases.

  6. Success Factors of European Syndromic Surveillance Systems: A Worked Example of Applying Qualitative Comparative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemann, Alexandra; Fouillet, Anne; Brand, Helmut; Krafft, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Syndromic surveillance aims at augmenting traditional public health surveillance with timely information. To gain a head start, it mainly analyses existing data such as from web searches or patient records. Despite the setup of many syndromic surveillance systems, there is still much doubt about the benefit of the approach. There are diverse interactions between performance indicators such as timeliness and various system characteristics. This makes the performance assessment of syndromic surveillance systems a complex endeavour. We assessed if the comparison of several syndromic surveillance systems through Qualitative Comparative Analysis helps to evaluate performance and identify key success factors. We compiled case-based, mixed data on performance and characteristics of 19 syndromic surveillance systems in Europe from scientific and grey literature and from site visits. We identified success factors by applying crisp-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis. We focused on two main areas of syndromic surveillance application: seasonal influenza surveillance and situational awareness during different types of potentially health threatening events. We found that syndromic surveillance systems might detect the onset or peak of seasonal influenza earlier if they analyse non-clinical data sources. Timely situational awareness during different types of events is supported by an automated syndromic surveillance system capable of analysing multiple syndromes. To our surprise, the analysis of multiple data sources was no key success factor for situational awareness. We suggest to consider these key success factors when designing or further developing syndromic surveillance systems. Qualitative Comparative Analysis helped interpreting complex, mixed data on small-N cases and resulted in concrete and practically relevant findings.

  7. Context-based object-of-interest detection for a generic traffic surveillance analysis system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bao, X.; Javanbakhti, S.; Zinger, S.; Wijnhoven, R.G.J.; With, de P.H.N.

    2014-01-01

    We present a new traffic surveillance video analysis system, focusing on building a framework with robust and generic techniques, based on both scene understanding and moving object-of-interest detection. Since traffic surveillance is widely applied, we want to design a single system that can be

  8. Low-Cost National Media-Based Surveillance System for Public Health Events, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ao, Trong T.; Rahman, Mahmudur; Haque, Farhana; Chakraborty, Apurba; Hossain, M. Jahangir; Haider, Sabbir; Alamgir, A.S.M.; Sobel, Jeremy; Luby, Stephen P.

    2016-01-01

    We assessed a media-based public health surveillance system in Bangladesh during 2010–2011. The system is a highly effective, low-cost, locally appropriate, and sustainable outbreak detection tool that could be used in other low-income, resource-poor settings to meet the capacity for surveillance outlined in the International Health Regulations 2005. PMID:26981877

  9. 77 FR 52317 - Record of Decision for Surveillance Towed Array Sensor System Low Frequency Active Sonar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Navy Record of Decision for Surveillance Towed Array Sensor System Low Frequency Active Sonar AGENCY: Department of the Navy, DoD. ACTION: Notice of decision... to employ up to four Surveillance Towed Array Sensor System Low Frequency Active (SURTASS LFA) sonar...

  10. Digitized video subject positioning and surveillance system for PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picard, Y.; Thompson, C.J.

    1995-01-01

    Head motion is a significant contribution to the degradation of image quality of Positron Emission Tomography (PET) studies. Images from different studies must also be realigned digitally to be correlated when the subject position has changed. These constraints could be eliminated if the subject's head position could be monitored accurately. The authors have developed a video camera-based surveillance system to monitor the head position and motion of subjects undergoing PET studies. The system consists of two CCD (charge-coupled device) cameras placed orthogonally such that both face and profile views of the subject's head are displayed side by side on an RGB video monitor. Digitized images overlay the live images in contrasting colors on the monitor. Such a system can be used to (1) position the subject in the field of view (FOV) by displaying the position of the scanner's slices on the monitor along with the current subject position, (2) monitor head motion and alert the operator of any motion during the study and (3) reposition the subject accurately for subsequent studies by displaying the previous position along with the current position in a contrasting color

  11. Traffic flow wide-area surveillance system definition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allgood, G.O.; Ferrell, R.K.; Kercel, S.W.; Abston, R.A.; Carnal, C.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Moynihan, P.I. [Jet Propulsion Lab., Pasadena, CA (United States)

    1994-11-01

    Traffic Flow Wide-Area Surveillance (TFWAS) is a system for assessing the state of traffic flow over a wide area for enhanced traffic control and improved traffic management and planning. The primary purpose of a TFWAS system is to provide a detailed traffic flow description and context description to sophisticated traffic management and control systems being developed or envisioned for the future. A successful TFWAS system must possess the attributes of safety, reconfigurability, reliability, and expandability. The primary safety premise of TFWAS is to ensure that no action or failure of the TFWAS system or its components can result in risk of injury to humans. A wide variety of communication techniques is available for use with TFWAS systems. These communication techniques can be broken down into two categories, landlines and wireless. Currently used and possible future traffic sensing technologies have been examined. Important criteria for selecting TFWAS sensors include sensor capabilities, costs, operational constraints, sensor compatibility with the infrastructure, and extent. TFWAS is a concept that can take advantage of the strengths of different traffic sensing technologies, can readily adapt to newly developed technologies, and can grow with the development of new traffic control strategies. By developing innovative algorithms that will take information from a variety of sensor types and develop descriptions of traffic flows over a wide area, a more comprehensive understanding of the traffic state can be provided to the control system to perform the most reasonable control actions over the entire wide area. The capability of characterizing the state of traffic over an entire region should revolutionize developments in traffic control strategies.

  12. HIV Drug Resistance Surveillance in Honduras after a Decade of Widespread Antiretroviral Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila-Ríos, Santiago; García-Morales, Claudia; Tapia-Trejo, Daniela; Meza, Rita I; Nuñez, Sandra M; Parham, Leda; Flores, Norma A; Valladares, Diana; Pineda, Luisa M; Flores, Dixiana; Motiño, Roxana; Umanzor, Víctor; Carbajal, Candy; Murillo, Wendy; Lorenzana, Ivette; Palou, Elsa Y; Reyes-Terán, Gustavo

    2015-01-01

    We assessed HIV drug resistance (DR) in individuals failing ART (acquired DR, ADR) and in ART-naïve individuals (pre-ART DR, PDR) in Honduras, after 10 years of widespread availability of ART. 365 HIV-infected, ART-naïve, and 381 ART-experienced Honduran individuals were enrolled in 5 reference centres in Tegucigalpa, San Pedro Sula, La Ceiba, and Choluteca between April 2013 and April 2015. Plasma HIV protease-RT sequences were obtained. HIVDR was assessed using the WHO HIVDR mutation list and the Stanford algorithm. Recently infected (RI) individuals were identified using a multi-assay algorithm. PDR to any ARV drug was 11.5% (95% CI 8.4-15.2%). NNRTI PDR prevalence (8.2%) was higher than NRTI (2.2%) and PI (1.9%, p500 vs. Honduras remains at the intermediate level, after 10 years of widespread availability of ART. Evidence of ADR influencing the presence of PDR was observed by phylogenetic analyses and ADR/PDR mutation frequency correlations.

  13. Viral immune surveillance: Toward a TH17/TH9 gate to the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkhordarian, Andre; Thames, April D; Du, Angela M; Jan, Allison L; Nahcivan, Melissa; Nguyen, Mia T; Sama, Nateli; Chiappelli, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Viral cellular immune surveillance is a dynamic and fluid system that is driven by finely regulated cellular processes including cytokines and other factors locally in the microenvironment and systemically throughout the body. It is questionable as to what extent the central nervous system (CNS) is an immune-privileged organ protected by the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Recent evidence suggests converging pathways through which viral infection, and its associated immune surveillance processes, may alter the integrity of the blood-brain barrier, and lead to inflammation, swelling of the brain parenchyma and associated neurological syndromes. Here, we expand upon the recent "gateway theory", by which viral infection and other immune activation states may disrupt the specialized tight junctions of the BBB endothelium making it permeable to immune cells and factors. The model we outline here builds upon the proposition that this process may actually be initiated by cytokines of the IL-17 family, and recognizing the intimate balance between TH17 and TH9 cytokine profiles systemically. We argue that immune surveillance events, in response to viruses such as the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), cause a TH17/TH9 induced gateway through blood brain barrier, and thus lead to characteristic neuroimmune pathology. It is possible and even probable that the novel TH17/TH9 induced gateway, which we describe here, opens as a consequence of any state of immune activation and sustained chronic inflammation, whether associated with viral infection or any other cause of peripheral or central neuroinflammation. This view could lead to new, timely and critical patient-centered therapies for patients with neuroimmune pathologies across a variety of etiologies. BBB - blood brain barrier, BDV - Borna disease virus, CARD - caspase activation and recruitment domains, CD - clusters of differentiation, CNS - central nervous system, DAMP - damage-associated molecular patterns, DENV - Dengue

  14. Evolution of Mosquito-Based Arbovirus Surveillance Systems in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew F. van den Hurk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Control of arboviral disease is dependent on the sensitive and timely detection of elevated virus activity or the identification of emergent or exotic viruses. The emergence of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV in northern Australia revealed numerous problems with performing arbovirus surveillance in remote locations. A sentinel pig programme detected JEV activity, although there were a number of financial, logistical, diagnostic and ethical limitations. A system was developed which detected viral RNA in mosquitoes collected by solar or propane powered CO2-baited traps. However, this method was hampered by trap-component malfunction, microbial contamination and large mosquito numbers which overwhelmed diagnostic capabilities. A novel approach involves allowing mosquitoes within a box trap to probe a sugar-baited nucleic-acid preservation card that is processed for expectorated arboviruses. In a longitudinal field trial, both Ross River and Barmah Forest viruses were detected numerous times from multiple traps over different weeks. Further refinements, including the development of unpowered traps and use of yeast-generated CO2, could enhance the applicability of this system to remote locations. New diagnostic technology, such as next generation sequencing and biosensors, will increase the capacity for recognizing emergent or exotic viruses, while cloud computing platforms will facilitate rapid dissemination of data.

  15. A methodological framework for the evaluation of syndromic surveillance systems: a case study of England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colón-González, Felipe J; Lake, Iain R; Morbey, Roger A; Elliot, Alex J; Pebody, Richard; Smith, Gillian E

    2018-04-24

    Syndromic surveillance complements traditional public health surveillance by collecting and analysing health indicators in near real time. The rationale of syndromic surveillance is that it may detect health threats faster than traditional surveillance systems permitting more timely, and hence potentially more effective public health action. The effectiveness of syndromic surveillance largely relies on the methods used to detect aberrations. Very few studies have evaluated the performance of syndromic surveillance systems and consequently little is known about the types of events that such systems can and cannot detect. We introduce a framework for the evaluation of syndromic surveillance systems that can be used in any setting based upon the use of simulated scenarios. For a range of scenarios this allows the time and probability of detection to be determined and uncertainty is fully incorporated. In addition, we demonstrate how such a framework can model the benefits of increases in the number of centres reporting syndromic data and also determine the minimum size of outbreaks that can or cannot be detected. Here, we demonstrate its utility using simulations of national influenza outbreaks and localised outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis. Influenza outbreaks are consistently detected with larger outbreaks being detected in a more timely manner. Small cryptosporidiosis outbreaks (framework constitutes a useful tool for public health emergency preparedness in multiple settings. The proposed framework allows the exhaustive evaluation of any syndromic surveillance system and constitutes a useful tool for emergency preparedness and response.

  16. Surveillance system using the CCTV at the fuel transfer pond in the Tokai reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, T.; Fukuhara, J.; Ochiai, K.; Ohnishi, T.; Ogata, Y.; Okamoto, H.

    1991-01-01

    The Fuel Transfer Pond (FTP) in the Tokai Reprocessing Plant (TRP) is a strategic point for safeguards. Spent fuels, therefore, in the FTP have been surveyed by the surveillance system using the underwater CCTV. This system was developed through the improvement of devices composed of cameras and VCRs and the provision of tamper resistance function as one of the JASPAS (Japan Support Program for Agency Safeguards) program. The purpose of this program is to realize the continuous surveillance of the slanted tunnel through which the spent fuel on the conveyor is moved from the FTP to the Mechanical Processing Cell (MPC). This paper reports that, when this surveillance system is applied to an inspection device, the following requirements are needed: To have the ability of continuous and unattended surveillance of the spent fuel on the conveyor path from the FTP to the MPC; To have the tamper resistance function for continuous and unattended surveillance of the spent fuel

  17. Using Surveillance Camera Systems to Monitor Public Domains: Can Abuse Be Prevented

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    relationship with a 16-year old girl failed. The incident was captured by a New York City Police Department surveillance camera. Although the image...administrators stated that the images recorded were “…nothing more than images of a few bras and panties .”17 The use of CCTV surveillance systems for

  18. Designing a Low-Resolution Face Recognition System for Long-Range Surveillance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peng, Y.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    2016-01-01

    Most face recognition systems deal well with high-resolution facial images, but perform much worse on low-resolution facial images. In low-resolution face recognition, there is a specific but realistic surveillance scenario: a surveillance camera monitoring a large area. In this scenario, usually

  19. Functions and Requirements and Specifications for Replacement of the Computer Automated Surveillance System (CASS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SCAIEF, C.C.

    1999-01-01

    This functions, requirements and specifications document defines the baseline requirements and criteria for the design, purchase, fabrication, construction, installation, and operation of the system to replace the Computer Automated Surveillance System (CASS) alarm monitoring

  20. Using a data fusion-based activity recognition framework to determine surveillance system requirements

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Le Roux, WH

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available A technique is proposed to extract system requirements for a maritime area surveillance system, based on an activity recognition framework originally intended for the characterisation, prediction and recognition of intentional actions for threat...

  1. A Public Health Model for the Molecular Surveillance of HIV Transmission in San Diego, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Susanne; Tweeten, Samantha; Drumright, Lydia; Pacold, Mary E.; Kosakovsky Pond, Sergei L.; Pesano, Rick L.; Lie, Yolanda S.; Richman, Douglas D.; Frost, Simon D.W.; Woelk, Christopher H.; Little, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Current public health efforts often use molecular technologies to identify and contain communicable disease networks, but not for HIV. Here, we investigate how molecular epidemiology can be used to identify highly-related HIV networks within a population and how voluntary contact tracing of sexual partners can be used to selectively target these networks. Methods We evaluated the use of HIV-1 pol sequences obtained from participants of a community-recruited cohort (n=268) and a primary infection research cohort (n=369) to define highly related transmission clusters and the use of contact tracing to link other individuals (n=36) within these clusters. The presence of transmitted drug resistance was interpreted from the pol sequences (Calibrated Population Resistance v3.0). Results Phylogenetic clustering was conservatively defined when the genetic distance between any two pol sequences was <1%, which identified 34 distinct transmission clusters within the combined community-recruited and primary infection research cohorts containing 160 individuals. Although sequences from the epidemiologically-linked partners represented approximately 5% of the total sequences, they clustered with 60% of the sequences that clustered from the combined cohorts (O.R. 21.7; p=<0.01). Major resistance to at least one class of antiretroviral medication was found in 19% of clustering sequences. Conclusions Phylogenetic methods can be used to identify individuals who are within highly related transmission groups, and contact tracing of epidemiologically-linked partners of recently infected individuals can be used to link into previously-defined transmission groups. These methods could be used to implement selectively targeted prevention interventions. PMID:19098493

  2. Implementation of nuclear material surveillance system based on the digital video capture card and counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Yoon; Song, Dae Yong; Ko, Won Il; Ha, Jang Ho; Kim, Ho Dong

    2003-07-01

    In this paper, the implementation techniques of nuclear material surveillance system based on the digital video capture board and digital counter was described. The surveillance system that is to be developed is consist of CCD cameras, neutron monitors, and PC for data acquisition. To develop the system, the properties of the PCI based capture board and counter was investigated, and the characteristics of related SDK library was summarized. This report could be used for the developers who want to develop the surveillance system for various experimental environments based on the DVR and sensors using Borland C++ Builder

  3. Candid camera : video surveillance system can help protect assets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, L.

    2009-11-15

    By combining closed-circuit cameras with sophisticated video analytics to create video sensors for use in remote areas, Calgary-based IntelliView Technologies Inc.'s explosion-proof video surveillance system can help the oil and gas sector monitor its assets. This article discussed the benefits, features, and applications of IntelliView's technology. Some of the benefits include a reduced need for on-site security and operating personnel and its patented analytics product known as the SmrtDVR, where the camera's images are stored. The technology can be used in temperatures as cold as minus 50 degrees Celsius and as high as 50 degrees Celsius. The product was commercialized in 2006 when it was used by Nexen Inc. It was concluded that false alarms set off by natural occurrences such as rain, snow, glare and shadows were a huge problem with analytics in the past, but that problem has been solved by IntelliView, which has its own source code, and re-programmed code. 1 fig.

  4. Surveillance of hazardous substances releases due to system interruptions, 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Maureen F; Ruckart, Perri Zeitz

    2007-04-11

    The Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance (HSEES) system collected information on 9014 acute hazardous substance releases in 15 participating states in 2002. There were 3749 fixed-facility manufacturing events, of which 2100 involved "interruptions" to normal processing and 1649 "comparisons" that did not involve interruption. Equipment failure (69%) or intentional acts (20%) were the main root factor. Many events occurred in October and November in three states (Texas, Louisiana, and New Jersey), in three manufacturing industries (industrial and miscellaneous chemicals; petroleum refining; and plastics, synthetics, and resins). In interruption events, the substance categories most often released were mixtures, other inorganic substances, and volatile organic compounds and those most often causing injury were acids, chlorine, bases, and ammonia. Comparison events resulted in more acutely injured persons (408 versus 59) and more evacuees (11,318 versus 335) than interruption events and therefore may receive more public health attention. Because of the large number of interruption events, targeted prevention activities, including management of change procedures, lessons-learned implementation, process hazards analysis, and appropriate protection for workers could be economically advantageous and improve environmental quality. Efforts should focus on the identified areas of greater occurrence. The relationship of weather and equipment failure with interruption events needs further investigation.

  5. Rotating machinery surveillance system reduces plant downtime and radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohanick, J.S.; Robinson, J.C.; Allen, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    A rotating machinery surveillance system (RMSS) was permanently installed at Grand Gulf nuclear station (GGNS) as part of a program sponsored by the US Department of Energy whose goal was to reduce radiation exposure to power plant personnel resulting from the inspection, maintenance, and repair of rotating machinery. The RMSS was installed at GGNS in 1983 to continuously monitor 173 analog vibration signals from proximity probes mounted on 26 machine trains and ∼450 process data points via a computer data link. Vibration frequency spectra, i.e., the vibration amplitude versus frequency of vibration, and various characterizations of these spectra are the fundamental data collected by the RMSS for performing machinery diagnostics. The RMSS collects vibration frequency spectra on a daily basis for all the monitored rotating equipment and automatically stores the collected spectra for review by the vibration engineer. Vibration spectra automatically stored by the RMSS fall into categories that include the last normal, alarm, minimum and maximum, past three-day data set, baseline, current, and user-saved spectra. During first and second fuel-cycle operation at GGNS, several significant vibration problems were detected by the RMSS. Two of these are presented in this paper: recirculation pumps and turbine-generator bearing degradation. The total reduction in personnel radiation exposure at GGNS from 1985 to 1987 due to the presence of the RMSS was estimated to be in the range from 49 to 54 person-rem

  6. Limited immune surveillance in lymphoid tissue by cytolytic CD4+ T cells during health and HIV disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLane, Laura M.; Steblyanko, Maria; Anikeeva, Nadia; Ablanedo-Terrazas, Yuria; Demers, Korey; Eller, Michael A.; Streeck, Hendrik; Jansson, Marianne; Sönnerborg, Anders; Canaday, David H.; Naji, Ali; Wherry, E. John; Robb, Merlin L.; Reyes-Teran, Gustavo; Sykulev, Yuri; Betts, Michael R.

    2018-01-01

    CD4+ T cells subsets have a wide range of important helper and regulatory functions in the immune system. Several studies have specifically suggested that circulating effector CD4+ T cells may play a direct role in control of HIV replication through cytolytic activity or autocrine β-chemokine production. However, it remains unclear whether effector CD4+ T cells expressing cytolytic molecules and β-chemokines are present within lymph nodes (LNs), a major site of HIV replication. Here, we report that expression of β-chemokines and cytolytic molecules are enriched within a CD4+ T cell population with high levels of the T-box transcription factors T-bet and eomesodermin (Eomes). This effector population is predominately found in peripheral blood and is limited in LNs regardless of HIV infection or treatment status. As a result, CD4+ T cells generally lack effector functions in LNs, including cytolytic capacity and IFNγ and β-chemokine expression, even in HIV elite controllers and during acute/early HIV infection. While we do find the presence of degranulating CD4+ T cells in LNs, these cells do not bear functional or transcriptional effector T cell properties and are inherently poor to form stable immunological synapses compared to their peripheral blood counterparts. We demonstrate that CD4+ T cell cytolytic function, phenotype, and programming in the peripheral blood is dissociated from those characteristics found in lymphoid tissues. Together, these data challenge our current models based on blood and suggest spatially and temporally dissociated mechanisms of viral control in lymphoid tissues. PMID:29652923

  7. Next Generation Surveillance System (NGSS): Field Implementation & Associated Developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadfi, G.; John, M.; Liguori, C.; Moeslinger, M.; Murray, J.; Rocchi, S.

    2015-01-01

    The NGSS is the product of more than five years of development between the IAEA, other Inspectorates, Member State Support Programmes, and commercial vendors. The product of these efforts has now matured into the field implementation stage. This paper details the goals, achievements and challenges experienced during the implementation phase and associated developments of the project. NGSS procurement was subject to the IAEA's stringent procurement policies involving independent third party assessments to assure supplier reliability and competitive pricing controls. More than 1200 surveillance cameras currently installed in facilities worldwide will be replaced by NGSS within the next 4 to 5 years. Joint use procedures have been established taking advantage of the technical capabilities integrated within the design of the NGSS which allow for multiple inspectorates and States to securely and independently share and review data. Utilization of outdated facility infrastructure poses many challenges to implementation efforts; these were met with innovative technical solutions to take advantage of cost benefits allowed in its re-utilization. New partnerships were established with Member States, regulatory bodies and nuclear power plant operators for new nuclear facilities under construction, to address infrastructural requirements spanning the next half century. The utilization of the IAEA's well-established PKI infrastructure enhances data security features and usability with regard to data sharing, key management and joint use of the NGSS system data. Embedded inventory reporting capability aids electronic inventory verification of safeguards equipment, simplifying accountability, configuration control and troubleshooting of installed systems. Current developments ongoing within the project include the design of hardware and software components for use of the system in special applications (e.g., underwater and outdoor installations, mechanism to

  8. A video imaging system and related control hardware for nuclear safeguards surveillance applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whichello, J.V.

    1987-03-01

    A novel video surveillance system has been developed for safeguards applications in nuclear installations. The hardware was tested at a small experimental enrichment facility located at the Lucas Heights Research Laboratories. The system uses digital video techniques to store, encode and transmit still television pictures over the public telephone network to a receiver located in the Australian Safeguards Office at Kings Cross, Sydney. A decoded, reconstructed picture is then obtained using a second video frame store. A computer-controlled video cassette recorder is used automatically to archive the surveillance pictures. The design of the surveillance system is described with examples of its operation

  9. Central nervous system manifestations of HIV infection in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, Reena; Andronikou, Savvas; Plessis, Jaco du; Plessis, Anne-Marie du; Maydell, Arthur; Toorn, Ronald van

    2009-01-01

    Vertically transmitted HIV infection is a major problem in the developing world due to the poor availability of antiretroviral agents to pregnant women. HIV is a neurotrophic virus and causes devastating neurological insults to the immature brain. The effects of the virus are further compounded by the opportunistic infections and neoplasms that occur as a result of the associated immune suppression. This review focuses on the imaging features of HIV infection and its complications in the central nervous system. (orig.)

  10. Central nervous system manifestations of HIV infection in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, Reena; Andronikou, Savvas; Plessis, Jaco du; Plessis, Anne-Marie du; Maydell, Arthur [University of Stellenbosch, Department of Radiology, Tygerberg Academic Hospital, Cape Town (South Africa); Toorn, Ronald van [University of Stellenbosch, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Tygerberg Academic Hospital, Cape Town (South Africa)

    2009-06-15

    Vertically transmitted HIV infection is a major problem in the developing world due to the poor availability of antiretroviral agents to pregnant women. HIV is a neurotrophic virus and causes devastating neurological insults to the immature brain. The effects of the virus are further compounded by the opportunistic infections and neoplasms that occur as a result of the associated immune suppression. This review focuses on the imaging features of HIV infection and its complications in the central nervous system. (orig.)

  11. Cost analysis of an integrated vaccine-preventable disease surveillance system in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toscano, C M; Vijayaraghavan, M; Salazar-Bolaños, H M; Bolaños-Acuña, H M; Ruiz-González, A I; Barrantes-Solis, T; Fernández-Vargas, I; Panero, M S; de Oliveira, L H; Hyde, T B

    2013-07-02

    Following World Health Organization recommendations set forth in the Global Framework for Immunization Monitoring and Surveillance, Costa Rica in 2009 became the first country to implement integrated vaccine-preventable disease (iVPD) surveillance, with support from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO). As surveillance for diseases prevented by new vaccines is integrated into existing surveillance systems, these systems could cost more than routine surveillance for VPDs targeted by the Expanded Program on Immunization. We estimate the costs associated with establishing and subsequently operating the iVPD surveillance system at a pilot site in Costa Rica. We retrospectively collected data on costs incurred by the institutions supporting iVPD surveillance during the preparatory (January 2007 through August 2009) and implementation (September 2009 through August 2010) phases of the iVPD surveillance project in Costa Rica. These data were used to estimate costs for personnel, meetings, infrastructure, office equipment and supplies, transportation, and laboratory facilities. Costs incurred by each of the collaborating institutions were also estimated. During the preparatory phase, the estimated total cost was 128,000 U.S. dollars (US$), including 64% for personnel costs. The preparatory phase was supported by CDC and PAHO. The estimated cost for 1 year of implementation was US$ 420,000, including 58% for personnel costs, 28% for laboratory costs, and 14% for meeting, infrastructure, office, and transportation costs combined. The national reference laboratory and the PAHO Costa Rica office incurred 64% of total costs, and other local institutions supporting iVPD surveillance incurred the remaining 36%. Countries planning to implement iVPD surveillance will require adequate investments in human resources, laboratories, data management, reporting, and investigation. Our findings will be valuable for

  12. Repeat confirmatory testing for persons with discordant whole blood and oral fluid rapid HIV test results: findings from post marketing surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesolowski, Laura G; Mackellar, Duncan A; Ethridge, Steven F; Zhu, Julia H; Owen, S Michele; Sullivan, Patrick S

    2008-02-06

    Reactive oral fluid and whole blood rapid HIV tests must be followed with a confirmatory test (Western blot (WB), immunofluorescent assay (IFA) or approved nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT)). When the confirmatory result is negative or indeterminate (i.e. discordant with rapid result), repeat confirmatory testing should be conducted using a follow-up specimen. Previous reports have not described whether repeat testing adequately resolves the HIV-infection status of persons with discordant results. Post-marketing surveillance was conducted in 368 testing sites affiliated with 14 state and 2 city health departments from August 11, 2004 to June 30, 2005 and one health department through December 31, 2005. For persons with discordant results, data were collected on demographics, risk behaviors, HIV test results and specimen types. Persons with repeat confirmatory results were classified as HIV-infected or uninfected. Regression models were created to assess risk factors for not having repeat testing. Of 167,371 rapid tests conducted, 2589 (1.6%) were reactive: of these, 2417 (93%) had positive WB/IFA, 172 (7%) had negative or indeterminate WB/IFA. Of 89/172 (52%) persons with a repeat confirmatory test: 17 (19%) were HIV-infected, including 3 with indeterminate WB and positive NAAT; 72 (81%) were uninfected, including 12 with repeat indeterminate WB. Factors associated with HIV-infection included having an initial indeterminate WB/IFA (vs. negative) (ptest [adjusted OR 2.6, 95% CI (1.3, 4.9)]. Though only half of persons with discordant results had repeat confirmatory testing, of those who did, nearly one in five were HIV-infected. These findings underscore the need for rapid HIV testing programs to increase repeat confirmatory testing for persons with discordant results. Because of the lower sensitivity of oral fluid WBs, confirmatory testing following a reactive rapid test should be conducted using serum or plasma, when possible.

  13. Risk Factor Detection as a Metric of STARHS Performance for HIV Incidence Surveillance Among Female Sex Workers in Kigali, Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braunstein, Sarah L.; van de Wijgert, Janneke H.; Vyankandondera, Joseph; Kestelyn, Evelyne; Ntirushwa, Justin; Nash, Denis

    2012-01-01

    The epidemiologic utility of STARHS hinges not only on producing accurate estimates of HIV incidence, but also on identifying risk factors for recent HIV infection. As part of an HIV seroincidence study, 800 Rwandan female sex workers (FSW) were HIV tested, with those testing positive further tested

  14. Surveillance and Measurement System (SAMS). Innovative Technology Summary Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) continually seeks safer and more cost-effective technologies for the decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of nuclear facilities. The Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA) of the DOE's Office of Science and Technology sponsors large-scale demonstration and deployment projects (LSDDPs) to identify and demonstrate technologies that will be safer and more cost-effective. At these LSDDPs, developers and vendors of improved or innovative technologies showcase products that are potentially beneficial to the DOE's projects as well as others in the D and D community. Benefits sought include decreased health and safety risks to personnel and the environment, increased productivity, and decreased cost of operation. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) LSDDP generated a list of need statements defining specific needs or problems where improved technologies could be incorporated into ongoing D and D tasks. Advances in characterization technologies are continuously being sought to decrease the cost of sampling and increase the speed of obtaining results. Currently it can take as long as 90 days to receive isotopic analysis of radioactive samples from laboratories on soil, liquid, and paint samples. The cost to analyze these types of samples for radionuclides is about $150 per sample. This demonstration investigated the feasibility of using the Surveillance and Measurement System (SAMS) (innovative technology) to make in situ isotopic radiation measurements in paint and soil. Sample collection and on-site laboratory analysis (baseline technology) is currently being used on D and D sampling activities. Benefits expected from using the innovative technology include: Significant decrease in time to receive results on radiological samples; Decrease in cost associated with sample collection, preparation, analysis, and disposal; Equivalent data quality to laboratory analysis; and Fewer

  15. Surveillance and Datalink Communication Performance Analysis for Distributed Separation Assurance System Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, William W.; Linse, Dennis J.; Alaverdi, Omeed; Ifarraguerri, Carlos; Seifert, Scott C.; Salvano, Dan; Calender, Dale

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of two technical enablers: Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Broadcast (ADS-B) and digital datalink communication, of the Federal Aviation Administration s Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) under two separation assurance (SA) system architectures: ground-based SA and airborne SA, on overall separation assurance performance. Datalink performance such as successful reception probability in both surveillance and communication messages, and surveillance accuracy are examined in various operational conditions. Required SA performance is evaluated as a function of subsystem performance, using availability, continuity, and integrity metrics to establish overall required separation assurance performance, under normal and off-nominal conditions.

  16. Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) Age-Adjusted Prevalence Data (2011 to present)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2011 to present. BRFSS combined land line and cell phone age-adjusted prevalence data. The BRFSS is a continuous, state-based surveillance system that collects...

  17. Work-Related Lung Disease Surveillance System (eWoRLD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A surveillance system that provides morbidity, mortality, and workplace exposure data on work-related respiratory diseases by geographic region, industry and...

  18. Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) Prevalence Data (2011 to present)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2011 to present. BRFSS combined land line and cell phone prevalence data. BRFSS is a continuous, state-based surveillance system that collects information about...

  19. Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) Prevalence Data (2010 and prior)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2010. BRFSS land line only prevalence data. BRFSS is a continuous, state-based surveillance system that collects information about modifiable risk factors for...

  20. DASH - Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS): High School - Excluding Sexual Identity

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1991-2015. High School Dataset. The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors six categories of priority health behaviors among youth and young...

  1. Applied learning-based color tone mapping for face recognition in video surveillance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yew, Chuu Tian; Suandi, Shahrel Azmin

    2012-04-01

    In this paper, we present an applied learning-based color tone mapping technique for video surveillance system. This technique can be applied onto both color and grayscale surveillance images. The basic idea is to learn the color or intensity statistics from a training dataset of photorealistic images of the candidates appeared in the surveillance images, and remap the color or intensity of the input image so that the color or intensity statistics match those in the training dataset. It is well known that the difference in commercial surveillance cameras models, and signal processing chipsets used by different manufacturers will cause the color and intensity of the images to differ from one another, thus creating additional challenges for face recognition in video surveillance system. Using Multi-Class Support Vector Machines as the classifier on a publicly available video surveillance camera database, namely SCface database, this approach is validated and compared to the results of using holistic approach on grayscale images. The results show that this technique is suitable to improve the color or intensity quality of video surveillance system for face recognition.

  2. Cost analysis of various low pathogenic avian influenza surveillance systems in the Dutch egg layer sector.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Rutten

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: As low pathogenic avian influenza viruses can mutate into high pathogenic viruses the Dutch poultry sector implemented a surveillance system for low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI based on blood samples. It has been suggested that egg yolk samples could be sampled instead of blood samples to survey egg layer farms. To support future decision making about AI surveillance economic criteria are important. Therefore a cost analysis is performed on systems that use either blood or eggs as sampled material. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The effectiveness of surveillance using egg or blood samples was evaluated using scenario tree models. Then an economic model was developed that calculates the total costs for eight surveillance systems that have equal effectiveness. The model considers costs for sampling, sample preparation, sample transport, testing, communication of test results and for the confirmation test on false positive results. The surveillance systems varied in sampled material (eggs or blood, sampling location (farm or packing station and location of sample preparation (laboratory or packing station. It is shown that a hypothetical system in which eggs are sampled at the packing station and samples prepared in a laboratory had the lowest total costs (i.e. € 273,393 a year. Compared to this a hypothetical system in which eggs are sampled at the farm and samples prepared at a laboratory, and the currently implemented system in which blood is sampled at the farm and samples prepared at a laboratory have 6% and 39% higher costs respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study shows that surveillance for avian influenza on egg yolk samples can be done at lower costs than surveillance based on blood samples. The model can be used in future comparison of surveillance systems for different pathogens and hazards.

  3. Evaluation of an Electronic Smart-Card Based School Absenteeism Surveillance System

    OpenAIRE

    So, HC; Lam, CK; Tam, YH; Cowling, BJ; Leung, GM; Lau, EHY; Ip, DKM

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the performance of an electronic smart-card based school absenteeism surveillance system which was initiated in 2008 in Hong Kong. The result demonstrated the feasibility and potential benefit of employing electronic school absenteeism data as captured automatically by a smart card system as an alternative data stream for monitoring influenza activities, and flexibility in establishing surveillance for emerging diseases. The increasing popularity of usage of smart card technology...

  4. Infectious Disease Surveillance in the Big Data Era: Towards Faster and Locally Relevant Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsen, Lone; Gog, Julia R.; Olson, Don; Viboud, Cécile

    2016-01-01

    While big data have proven immensely useful in fields such as marketing and earth sciences, public health is still relying on more traditional surveillance systems and awaiting the fruits of a big data revolution. A new generation of big data surveillance systems is needed to achieve rapid, flexible, and local tracking of infectious diseases, especially for emerging pathogens. In this opinion piece, we reflect on the long and distinguished history of disease surveillance and discuss recent developments related to use of big data. We start with a brief review of traditional systems relying on clinical and laboratory reports. We then examine how large-volume medical claims data can, with great spatiotemporal resolution, help elucidate local disease patterns. Finally, we review efforts to develop surveillance systems based on digital and social data streams, including the recent rise and fall of Google Flu Trends. We conclude by advocating for increased use of hybrid systems combining information from traditional surveillance and big data sources, which seems the most promising option moving forward. Throughout the article, we use influenza as an exemplar of an emerging and reemerging infection which has traditionally been considered a model system for surveillance and modeling. PMID:28830112

  5. Infectious Disease Surveillance in the Big Data Era: Towards Faster and Locally Relevant Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsen, Lone; Gog, Julia R; Olson, Don; Viboud, Cécile

    2016-12-01

    While big data have proven immensely useful in fields such as marketing and earth sciences, public health is still relying on more traditional surveillance systems and awaiting the fruits of a big data revolution. A new generation of big data surveillance systems is needed to achieve rapid, flexible, and local tracking of infectious diseases, especially for emerging pathogens. In this opinion piece, we reflect on the long and distinguished history of disease surveillance and discuss recent developments related to use of big data. We start with a brief review of traditional systems relying on clinical and laboratory reports. We then examine how large-volume medical claims data can, with great spatiotemporal resolution, help elucidate local disease patterns. Finally, we review efforts to develop surveillance systems based on digital and social data streams, including the recent rise and fall of Google Flu Trends. We conclude by advocating for increased use of hybrid systems combining information from traditional surveillance and big data sources, which seems the most promising option moving forward. Throughout the article, we use influenza as an exemplar of an emerging and reemerging infection which has traditionally been considered a model system for surveillance and modeling. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  6. The Establishment and Function of Schistosomiasis Surveillance System Towards Elimination in The People's Republic of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L-J; Li, S-Z; Wen, L-Y; Lin, D-D; Abe, E M; Zhu, R; Du, Y; Lv, S; Xu, J; Webster, B L; Rollinson, D; Zhou, X-N

    2016-01-01

    Schistosoma japonicum is the main schistosome species in The People's Republic of China, causing intestinal schistosomiasis, a debilitating disease of public health importance. The People's Republic of China used to be heavily endemic with schistosomiasis, but great progress has been made through the vigorous efforts of the national control programmes in the last six decades. Presently, efforts are geared towards eliminating schistosomiasis from The People's Republic of China by the end of 2025 through effective schistosomiasis surveillance, an important component in the drive towards schistosomiasis elimination. Therefore, this article explicitly outlines the development and progress made in schistosomiasis surveillance since 1990 with a special focus on the new surveillance system in use. Although the surveillance system has steadily improved over the years, it is faced with many challenges. Hence, more efforts are needed to establish an effective and sensitive evaluation system for the national schistosomiasis elimination programme in The People's Republic of China. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Systems mapping of HIV-1 infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hou Wei

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mathematical models of viral dynamics in vivo provide incredible insights into the mechanisms for the nonlinear interaction between virus and host cell populations, the dynamics of viral drug resistance, and the way to eliminate virus infection from individual patients by drug treatment. The integration of these mathematical models with high-throughput genetic and genomic data within a statistical framework will raise a hope for effective treatment of infections with HIV virus through developing potent antiviral drugs based on individual patients’ genetic makeup. In this opinion article, we will show a conceptual model for mapping and dictating a comprehensive picture of genetic control mechanisms for viral dynamics through incorporating a group of differential equations that quantify the emergent properties of a system.

  8. HIV/tuberculosis co-infection: a request for a better surveillance Co-infecção HIV/tuberculose: necessidade de uma vigilância mais efetiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica M. Lima

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The increasing endemicity of tuberculosis resulting from causes such as immigration, poverty, a declining public health infrastructure and co-infection by HIV/Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is leading to a change in tuberculosis control programmes. One of the main reasons for the resurgence of tuberculosis is HIV infection - the risk of tuberculosis is greater in HIV patients than in the majority of the population as can be seen from numerous research projects. The need for systematic testing for HIV infection in all tuberculosis patients by undertaking confidential HIV tests on admission to a tuberculosis programme is brought out. This measure would increase the number of cases diagnosed and provide data for better surveillance of the co-infection.O agravamento da endemia tuberculosa tem induzido à reformulação dos programas antituberculose em inúmeros países. Entre as causas deste recrudescimento estão a imigração, a pobreza, a diminuição de recursos para os programas de controle e a associação HIV/Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Inúmeros estudos demonstram que um indivíduo infectado pelo HIV tem risco de adoecimento muito maior que a população geral mas, a despeito desta evidência, a busca sistemática por soropositivos entre os tuberculosos não é realizada. Discute-se a realização de teste anti-HIV rotineiramente por ocasião do diagnóstico de tuberculose, desde que mantido o sigilo da informação, com vistas a incrementar a descoberta de casos e fornecer maior subsídio à vigilância da co-infecção.

  9. The Prevalence of Transmitted Drug Resistance in Newly Diagnosed HIV-Infected Individuals in Croatia: The Role of Transmission Clusters of Men Who Have Sex with Men Carrying the T215S Surveillance Drug Resistance Mutation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grgic, Ivana; Lunar, Maja M.; Poljak, Mario; Vince, Adriana; Vrakela, Ivana Baca; Planinic, Ana; Seme, Katja; Begovac, Josip

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) in newly diagnosed and treatment-naive HIV-infected patients from Croatia and evaluate a possible contribution of transmission clusters to the spread of resistant virus. The study enrolled treatment-naive HIV-infected patients that entered clinical care at the Croatian Reference Center for HIV/AIDS between 2006 and 2008. The protease gene and a part of the reverse transcriptase gene of the HIV-1 genome were sequenced by using the Trugene HIV-1 Genotyping System. The prevalence of transmitted drug resistance was analyzed by using the surveillance drug resistance mutations (SDRM) list recommended by the WHO in 2009. We report findings for 118 of 180 eligible patients (65.6% coverage). SDRM were detected in 26 of 118 patients (22.0%) who were infected with subtype B and belonged mostly to the men having sex with men (MSM). The majority of patients with primary resistance carried SDRM associated with resistance to nucleoside analogues reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs, 23 of 118 patients, 19.5%). The most frequently found NRTI SDRM was T215S (17 of 118 patients, 14.4%). SDRM associated with resistance to nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors were detected in three (2.5%) patients and primary resistance to protease inhibitors was not detected. Non-B subtypes were detected in 13/118 patients (11%). A total of 12 transmission pairs and eight distinct transmission clusters were identified with the largest cluster harboring sequences from 19 patients; among them all but two were carrying the T215S mutation. This study showed a high prevalence of TDR in newly diagnosed MSM from Croatia and is an important contribution concerning the relationship between local transmission clusters and the spread of resistant virus. PMID:22906365

  10. Kalman Filter Based Tracking in an Video Surveillance System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SULIMAN, C.

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we have developed a Matlab/Simulink based model for monitoring a contact in a video surveillance sequence. For the segmentation process and corect identification of a contact in a surveillance video, we have used the Horn-Schunk optical flow algorithm. The position and the behavior of the correctly detected contact were monitored with the help of the traditional Kalman filter. After that we have compared the results obtained from the optical flow method with the ones obtained from the Kalman filter, and we show the correct functionality of the Kalman filter based tracking. The tests were performed using video data taken with the help of a fix camera. The tested algorithm has shown promising results.

  11. Development of the Diabetes Technology Society Blood Glucose Monitor System Surveillance Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klonoff, David C; Lias, Courtney; Beck, Stayce; Parkes, Joan Lee; Kovatchev, Boris; Vigersky, Robert A; Arreaza-Rubin, Guillermo; Burk, Robert D; Kowalski, Aaron; Little, Randie; Nichols, James; Petersen, Matt; Rawlings, Kelly; Sacks, David B; Sampson, Eric; Scott, Steve; Seley, Jane Jeffrie; Slingerland, Robbert; Vesper, Hubert W

    2016-05-01

    Inaccurate blood glucsoe monitoring systems (BGMSs) can lead to adverse health effects. The Diabetes Technology Society (DTS) Surveillance Program for cleared BGMSs is intended to protect people with diabetes from inaccurate, unreliable BGMS products that are currently on the market in the United States. The Surveillance Program will provide an independent assessment of the analytical performance of cleared BGMSs. The DTS BGMS Surveillance Program Steering Committee included experts in glucose monitoring, surveillance testing, and regulatory science. Over one year, the committee engaged in meetings and teleconferences aiming to describe how to conduct BGMS surveillance studies in a scientifically sound manner that is in compliance with good clinical practice and all relevant regulations. A clinical surveillance protocol was created that contains performance targets and analytical accuracy-testing studies with marketed BGMS products conducted by qualified clinical and laboratory sites. This protocol entitled "Protocol for the Diabetes Technology Society Blood Glucose Monitor System Surveillance Program" is attached as supplementary material. This program is needed because currently once a BGMS product has been cleared for use by the FDA, no systematic postmarket Surveillance Program exists that can monitor analytical performance and detect potential problems. This protocol will allow identification of inaccurate and unreliable BGMSs currently available on the US market. The DTS Surveillance Program will provide BGMS manufacturers a benchmark to understand the postmarket analytical performance of their products. Furthermore, patients, health care professionals, payers, and regulatory agencies will be able to use the results of the study to make informed decisions to, respectively, select, prescribe, finance, and regulate BGMSs on the market. © 2015 Diabetes Technology Society.

  12. Development of the Diabetes Technology Society Blood Glucose Monitor System Surveillance Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klonoff, David C.; Lias, Courtney; Beck, Stayce; Parkes, Joan Lee; Kovatchev, Boris; Vigersky, Robert A.; Arreaza-Rubin, Guillermo; Burk, Robert D.; Kowalski, Aaron; Little, Randie; Nichols, James; Petersen, Matt; Rawlings, Kelly; Sacks, David B.; Sampson, Eric; Scott, Steve; Seley, Jane Jeffrie; Slingerland, Robbert; Vesper, Hubert W.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Inaccurate blood glucsoe monitoring systems (BGMSs) can lead to adverse health effects. The Diabetes Technology Society (DTS) Surveillance Program for cleared BGMSs is intended to protect people with diabetes from inaccurate, unreliable BGMS products that are currently on the market in the United States. The Surveillance Program will provide an independent assessment of the analytical performance of cleared BGMSs. Methods: The DTS BGMS Surveillance Program Steering Committee included experts in glucose monitoring, surveillance testing, and regulatory science. Over one year, the committee engaged in meetings and teleconferences aiming to describe how to conduct BGMS surveillance studies in a scientifically sound manner that is in compliance with good clinical practice and all relevant regulations. Results: A clinical surveillance protocol was created that contains performance targets and analytical accuracy-testing studies with marketed BGMS products conducted by qualified clinical and laboratory sites. This protocol entitled “Protocol for the Diabetes Technology Society Blood Glucose Monitor System Surveillance Program” is attached as supplementary material. Conclusion: This program is needed because currently once a BGMS product has been cleared for use by the FDA, no systematic postmarket Surveillance Program exists that can monitor analytical performance and detect potential problems. This protocol will allow identification of inaccurate and unreliable BGMSs currently available on the US market. The DTS Surveillance Program will provide BGMS manufacturers a benchmark to understand the postmarket analytical performance of their products. Furthermore, patients, health care professionals, payers, and regulatory agencies will be able to use the results of the study to make informed decisions to, respectively, select, prescribe, finance, and regulate BGMSs on the market. PMID:26481642

  13. Environmental Surveillance System To Track Wild Poliovirus Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Jagadish M.; Shetty, Sushmitha J.; Siddiqui, Zaeem A.

    2003-01-01

    Eradication of poliomyelitis from large metropolis cities in India has been difficult due to high population density and the presence of large urban slums. Three paralytic poliomyelitis cases were reported in Mumbai, India, in 1999 and 2000 in spite of high immunization coverage and good-quality supplementary immunization activities. We therefore established a systematic environmental surveillance study by weekly screening of sewage samples from three high-risk slum areas to detect the silent transmission of wild poliovirus. In 2001, from among the 137 sewage samples tested, wild poliovirus type 1 was isolated from 35 and wild poliovirus type 3 was isolated from 1. Acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance indicated one case of paralytic poliomyelitis from the city. Phylogenetic analysis with complete VP1 sequences revealed that the isolates from environmental samples belonged to four lineages of wild polioviruses recently isolated from poliomyelitis cases in Uttar Pradesh and not to those previously isolated from AFP cases in Mumbai. Wild poliovirus thus introduced caused one case of paralytic poliomyelitis. The virus was detected in environmental samples 3 months before. It was found that wild polioviruses introduced several times during the year circulated in Mumbai for a limited period before being eliminated. Environmental surveillance was found to be sensitive for the detection of wild poliovirus silent transmission. Nucleotide sequence analysis helped identify wild poliovirus reservoir areas. PMID:12732567

  14. Seroprevalence of Herpes Simplex Virus type-2 (HSV-2) among pregnant women who participated in a national HIV surveillance activity in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domercant, Jean Wysler; Jean Louis, Frantz; Hulland, Erin; Griswold, Mark; Andre-Alboth, Jocelyne; Ye, Tun; Marston, Barbara J

    2017-08-18

    Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), one the most common causes of genital ulcers, appears to increase both the risk of HIV acquisition and HIV transmission. HSV-2/HIV co-infection among pregnant women may increase the risk of perinatal transmission of HIV. This study describes rates of HSV-2 among pregnant women in Haiti and HSV-2 test performance in this population. Unlinked residual serum specimens from the 2012 National HIV and Syphilis Sentinel Surveillance Survey among pregnant women in Haiti were tested using two commercial kits (Focus HerpeSelect, Kalon) for HSV-2 antibodies. We evaluated rates of HSV-2 seropositivity and HSV-2/HIV co-infection, associations between HSV-2 and demographic characteristics using multivariable Cox proportional hazards modeling, and HSV-2 test performance in this population. Serum samples from 1000 pregnant women (all 164 HIV positive and 836 random HIV negative) were selected. The overall weighted prevalence of HSV-2 was 31.4% (95% CI: 27.7-35.4) and the prevalence of HIV-positivity among HSV-2 positive pregnant women was five times higher than the prevalence among HSV-2 negative women (4.8% [95% CI: 3.9-6.0] vs. 0.9% [95% CI: 0.6-1.3], respectively). Factors significantly associated with HSV-2 positivity were HIV-positivity (PR: 2.27 [95% CI: 1.94-2.65]) and older age (PRs: 1.41 [95% CI: 1.05-1.91] for 20-24 years, 1.71 [95% CI:1.13-2.60] for 30-34 years, and 1.55 [95% CI: 1.10-2.19] for 35 years or greater]), while rural residence was negatively associated with HSV-2 positivity (PR 0.83 [95% CI: 0.69-1.00]), after controlling for other covariables. For this study a conservative Focus index cutoff of 3.5 was used, but among samples with a Focus index value ≥2.5, 98.4% had positive Kalon tests. The prevalence of HSV-2 is relatively high among pregnant women in Haiti. Public health interventions to increase access to HSV-2 screening in antenatal services are warranted.

  15. Comparing Measures of Late HIV Diagnosis in Washington State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Saganic

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As more US HIV surveillance programs routinely use late HIV diagnosis to monitor and characterize HIV testing patterns, there is an increasing need to standardize how late HIV diagnosis is measured. In this study, we compared two measures of late HIV diagnosis, one based on time between HIV and AIDS, the other based on initial CD4+ results. Using data from Washington's HIV/AIDS Reporting System, we used multivariate logistic regression to identify predictors of late HIV diagnosis. We also conducted tests for trend to determine whether the proportion of cases diagnosed late has changed over time. Both measures lead us to similar conclusions about late HIV diagnosis, suggesting that being male, older, foreign-born, or heterosexual increase the likelihood of late HIV diagnosis. Our findings reaffirm the validity of a time-based definition of late HIV diagnosis, while at the same time demonstrating the potential value of a lab-based measure.

  16. VigilAgent for the development of agent-based multi-robot surveillance systems

    OpenAIRE

    Gascueña Noheda, José Manuel; Navarro Martínez, Elena María; Fernández Caballero, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Usually, surveillance applications are developed following an ad-hoc approach instead of using a methodology to guide stakeholders in achieving quality standards expected from commercial software. To solve this gap, our conjecture is that surveillance applications can be fully developed from their initial design stages by means of agent-based methodologies. Specifically, this paper describes the experience and the results of using a multi-agent systems approach according to the process provid...

  17. The Marine Corps Needs a Targeting, Sensors, and Surveillance Systems Operational Integration and Support Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-02

    triggerman is probably still close ; lately all IEDs in the area have been initiated via command-wire. The squad leader sets a cordon, ensures an IED 9...Operational Surveillance System (G-BOSS) with a Class IIIb laser pointer. This class of laser requires users to receive a laser safety class...2) The Keyhole kit of surveillance equipment. Designed to provide “snipers with an increased capability to visually detect the enemy emplacing IEDs

  18. Evaluation of Syndromic Surveillance Systems in 6 US State and Local Health Departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Mathew J; Yoon, Paula W; Collins, James M; Davidson, Arthur J; Mac Kenzie, William R

    Evaluating public health surveillance systems is critical to ensuring that conditions of public health importance are appropriately monitored. Our objectives were to qualitatively evaluate 6 state and local health departments that were early adopters of syndromic surveillance in order to (1) understand the characteristics and current uses, (2) identify the most and least useful syndromes to monitor, (3) gauge the utility for early warning and outbreak detection, and (4) assess how syndromic surveillance impacted their daily decision making. We adapted evaluation guidelines from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and gathered input from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention subject matter experts in public health surveillance to develop a questionnaire. We interviewed staff members from a convenience sample of 6 local and state health departments with syndromic surveillance programs that had been in operation for more than 10 years. Three of the 6 interviewees provided an example of using syndromic surveillance to identify an outbreak (ie, cluster of foodborne illness in 1 jurisdiction) or detect a surge in cases for seasonal conditions (eg, influenza in 2 jurisdictions) prior to traditional, disease-specific systems. Although all interviewees noted that syndromic surveillance has not been routinely useful or efficient for early outbreak detection or case finding in their jurisdictions, all agreed that the information can be used to improve their understanding of dynamic disease control environments and conditions (eg, situational awareness) in their communities. In the jurisdictions studied, syndromic surveillance may be useful for monitoring the spread and intensity of large outbreaks of disease, especially influenza; enhancing public health awareness of mass gatherings and natural disasters; and assessing new, otherwise unmonitored conditions when real-time alternatives are unavailable. Future studies should explore opportunities to

  19. ISS--an electronic syndromic surveillance system for infectious disease in rural China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weirong Yan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Syndromic surveillance system has great advantages in promoting the early detection of epidemics and reducing the necessities of disease confirmation, and it is especially effective for surveillance in resource poor settings. However, most current syndromic surveillance systems are established in developed countries, and there are very few reports on the development of an electronic syndromic surveillance system in resource-constrained settings. OBJECTIVE: This study describes the design and pilot implementation of an electronic surveillance system (ISS for the early detection of infectious disease epidemics in rural China, complementing the conventional case report surveillance system. METHODS: ISS was developed based on an existing platform 'Crisis Information Sharing Platform' (CRISP, combining with modern communication and GIS technology. ISS has four interconnected functions: 1 work group and communication group; 2 data source and collection; 3 data visualization; and 4 outbreak detection and alerting. RESULTS: As of Jan. 31(st 2012, ISS has been installed and pilot tested for six months in four counties in rural China. 95 health facilities, 14 pharmacies and 24 primary schools participated in the pilot study, entering respectively 74,256, 79,701, and 2330 daily records into the central database. More than 90% of surveillance units at the study sites are able to send daily information into the system. In the paper, we also presented the pilot data from health facilities in the two counties, which showed the ISS system had the potential to identify the change of disease patterns at the community level. CONCLUSIONS: The ISS platform may facilitate the early detection of infectious disease epidemic as it provides near real-time syndromic data collection, interactive visualization, and automated aberration detection. However, several constraints and challenges were encountered during the pilot implementation of ISS in rural China.

  20. Strengthening Routine Data Systems to Track the HIV Epidemic and Guide the Response in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Brian; Boulle, Andrew; Baral, Stefan; Egger, Matthias; Mee, Paul; Fearon, Elizabeth; Reniers, Georges; Todd, Jim; Schwarcz, Sandra; Weir, Sharon; Rutherford, George; Hargreaves, James

    2018-04-03

    The global HIV response has entered a new phase with the recommendation of treating all persons living with HIV with antiretroviral therapy, and with the goals of reducing new infections and AIDS-related deaths to fewer than 500,000 by 2020. This new phase has intensive data requirements that will need to utilize routine data collected through service delivery platforms to monitor progress toward these goals. With a focus on sub-Saharan African, we present the following priorities to improve the demand, supply, and use of routine HIV data: (1) strengthening patient-level HIV data systems that support continuity of clinical care and document sentinel events; (2) leveraging data from HIV testing programs; (3) using targeting data collection in communities and among clients; and (4) building capacity and promoting a culture of HIV data quality assessment and use. When fully leveraged, routine data can efficiently provide timely information at a local level to inform action, as well as provide information at scale with wide geographic coverage to strengthen estimation efforts. ©Brian Rice, Andrew Boulle, Stefan Baral, Matthias Egger, Paul Mee, Elizabeth Fearon, Georges Reniers, Jim Todd, Sandra Schwarcz, Sharon Weir, George Rutherford, James Hargreaves. Originally published in JMIR Public Health and Surveillance (http://publichealth.jmir.org), 03.04.2018.

  1. Predictors of Bisexual Behaviour among MSM Attending Intervention Sites May Help in Prevention Interventions for This Bridge to the Heterosexual Epidemic in India: Data from HIV Sentinel Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godbole, Sheela; Sane, Suvarna; Kamble, Pranil; Raj, Yujwal; Dulhani, Nisha; Venkatesh, Srinivasan; Reddy, D. C. S.; Chavan, Laxmikant; Bhattacharya, Madhulekha; Bindoria, Suchitra; Kadam, Dilip; Thakur, Savita; Narwani, Prakash; Pereira, Elmira; Paranjape, Ramesh; Risbud, Arun

    2014-01-01

    Background Indian cultural tradition demanding marriage, many MSM howsoever they self-identify are likely to be married or have sex with women. To consolidate India's HIV prevention gains, it is important to understand and address the interaction between the MSM and heterosexual epidemics in India and create specific interventions for bisexual MSM. The challenge is to identify and intervene this hard to reach population. Data from HIV Sentinel Surveillance 2011 among MSM in four Indian states were analyzed to assess predictors and prevalence of bisexual behaviour in MSM. Methods Between March-May 2011, 4682 men (15–49 years) who had anal/oral sex with a male partner in the past month, attending intervention sites and consenting for an un-linked anonymous survey answered an 11- item questionnaire and provided blood for HIV test by finger stick at 19 designated surveillance sites. Results Of 4682 MSM tested overall, 5% were illiterate, 51% reported only receptive anal intercourse, 21% only penetrative and 28% both. 36% MSM had ever received money for sex. Overall 6.8% were HIV infected. 44% MSM were bisexual in the last six months. On multivariate analysis, ‘being bisexual’ was found to be independently associated with ‘older age’: 26–30 years [AOR = 3.1, 95% CI(2.7, 3.7)], >30 years [AOR = 6.5, 95% CI(5.5, 7.7)]; ‘reporting penetrative behaviour alone’ with other men [AOR = 5.8, 95% CI(4.8, 7.0), pbehaviour’ [AOR = 2.7, 95% CI(2.3, 3.1) pbehaviour with other men, could help in reaching this population. PMID:25211511

  2. Application of digital compression techniques to optical surveillance systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.S.

    1991-01-01

    There are many benefits to handling video images electronically, however, the amount of digital data in a normal video image is a major obstacle. The solution is to remove the high frequency and redundant information in a process that is referred to as compression. Compression allows the number of digital bits required for a given image to be reduced for more efficient storage or transmission of images. The next question is how much compression can be done without impairing the image quality beyond its usefulness for a given application. This paper discusses image compression that might be applied to provide useful images in unattended nuclear facility surveillance applications

  3. Testing a symptom-based surveillance system at high-profile gatherings as a preparatory measure for bioterrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaka, K; Takahashi, H; Ohyama, T

    2002-12-01

    We tested symptom-based surveillance during the G8 conference in 2000 as a means of detecting outbreaks, including bio-terrorism attacks, promptly. Five categories of symptoms (skin and haemorrhagic, respiratory, gastrointestinal, neurological and unexplained) were adopted for the case definition of the surveillance. The surveillance began I week before the conference, and continued until 1 week after the conference ended. We could not detect any outbreaks during this surveillance. Compared to the existing diagnosis-based surveillance system, symptom-based surveillance has the advantages of timeliness and simplicity. However, poor specificity and difficulties in determining epidemic threshold were important limitations of this system. To increase the specificity of surveillance, it is essential to incorporate rapid laboratory diagnoses into the system.

  4. Design, Implementation, and Evaluation of the Adolescents and Surveillance System for the Obesity Prevention Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabacchi, Garden; Bianco, Antonino; Alessi, Nicola; Filippi, Anna Rita; Napoli, Giuseppe; Jemni, Monèm; Censi, Laura; Breda, João; Schumann, Nathali Lehmann; Firenze, Alberto; Vitale, Francesco; Mammina, Caterina

    2016-03-01

    The Adolescents Surveillance System for Obesity prevention (ASSO) Project aimed at developing standardized and web-based tools for collecting data on adolescents' obesity and its potential determinants. This has been implemented and piloted in the local area of Palermo city, Italy. The aim of the present study is to provide an overview of the Project's design, implementation, and evaluation, highlighting all the aspects for a potential scale-up of the surveillance system on the whole national territory and abroad, as a sustainable and effective source of data.The overall structure and management, the ASSO-toolkit, the ASSO-NutFit software, and all developed and used procedures for recruiting, training, and data collecting/analyzing are addressed. An interim evaluation has been performed through a feasibility study; a final Project evaluation has been performed reporting the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) and the attributes that a surveillance system should have.This article provides a detailed overview of the Project and highlights that ASSO can be considered a valid, logical, coherent, efficient, and sustainable surveillance system that is consistent with countries' needs and priorities.The system developed by the ASSO Project provides high-quality data and complies with several characteristics typical of a suitable surveillance system. It has a potential of being adopted within the National Health Service and other countries' Health Services for monitoring adolescents' obesity and its determinants, such as food intakes, behaviors, physical activity, and fitness profiles.

  5. SCORPIO-VVER core monitoring and surveillance system with advanced capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molnar, J.; Vocka, R.

    2010-01-01

    In this work authors present 12 years of operation experience of core monitoring and surveillance system with advanced capabilities on nuclear power plants on 6 unit of VVER-440 type of reactors at two different NPPs. The original version of the SCORPIO (Surveillance of reactor CORe by PIcture On-line display) system was developed for the western type of PWR reactors. The first version of the SCORPIO-VVER Core Monitoring System for Dukovany NPP (VVER-440 type of reactor, Czech Republic) was developed in 1998. For SCORPIO-VVER implementation at Bohunice NPP in Slovakia (2001) the system was enhanced with startup module KRITEX.

  6. The process monitoring computer system an integrated operations and safeguards surveillance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liester, N.A.

    1995-01-01

    The use of the Process Monitoring Computer System (PMCS) at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) relating to Operations and Safeguards concerns is discussed. Measures taken to assure the reliability of the system data are outlined along with the measures taken to assure the continuous availability of that data for use within the ICPP. The integration of process and safeguards information for use by the differing organizations is discussed. The PMCS successfully demonstrates the idea of remote Safeguards surveillance and the need for sharing of common information between different support organizations in an operating plant

  7. The installation and performance test of the surveillance system for DUPIC facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Young; Kim, Ho Dong; Cha, Hong Ryul

    2000-07-01

    We have developed the real time surveillance system, named by DSSS, for DUPIC test facility. The system acquires data from He-3 neutron monitors(DSNM) and CCD cameras to automatically diagnose the transportation status of nuclear material. This technical report shortly illustrates important features of hardware and software of the system

  8. The installation and performance test of the surveillance system for DUPIC facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Young; Kim, Ho Dong; Cha, Hong Ryul

    2000-07-01

    We have developed the real time surveillance system, named by DSSS, for DUPIC test facility. The system acquires data from He-3 neutron monitors(DSNM) and CCD cameras to automatically diagnose the transportation status of nuclear material. This technical report shortly illustrates important features of hardware and software of the system.

  9. Barriers to control syphilis and HIV vertical transmission in the health care system in the city of Sao Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdete Maria Ramos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to identify possible barriers to control vertical transmission of syphilis and HIV through the analysis of the orientation process of pregnant women from prenatal care to the obstetric center at an university hospital in Sao Paulo (Reference and their return (with their exposed babies for follow-up after hospital discharge (counter-reference. METHODS: It is a retrospective cross-sectional study including interviews with healthcare personnel. Pregnant women with syphilis and/or HIV-infection admitted for labor or miscarriage were identified from August 2006 to August 2007. Routine care for mothers and babies were analyzed. RESULTS: 56 pregnant women were identified: 43 were HIV-infected, 11 had syphilis and two were coinfected (syphilis/HIV; 22 health care professionals were interviewed. Prenatal care was identified in 91.1% of these women: 7/11 (63.6% with syphilis; 44/45 (97.8% HIV-infected or coinfected. The reference for delivery was satisfactory for 57.7% of the syphilis-infected women and 97.7% of the HIV-infected ones. The counter-reference was satisfactory for all babies and mothers at hospital discharge, besides the non-adherence to this recommendation. Interviews with health care professionals showed there are better routines for assisting and following-up pregnant women, puerperal women and HIV-infected or exposed babies than for those infected with syphilis. The epidemiological report and surveillance system are also better for HIV-infected patients. CONCLUSION: The difficulties in the reference and counter-reference system of these women and their babies are evident barriers to control the vertical transmission of these infectious diseases.

  10. Involving private healthcare practitioners in an urban NCD sentinel surveillance system: lessons learned from Pune, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, Mareike; Phalkey, Revati; Dutta, Sayani; Shukla, Sharvari; Butsch, Carsten; Bharucha, Erach; Kraas, Frauke

    2016-01-01

    Despite the rising impact of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) on public health in India, lack of quality data and routine surveillance hampers the planning process for NCD prevention and control. Current surveillance programs focus largely on communicable diseases and do not adequately include the private healthcare sector as a major source of care in cities. The objective of the study was to conceptualize, implement, and evaluate a prototype for an urban NCD sentinel surveillance system among private healthcare practitioners providing primary care in Pune, India. We mapped all private healthcare providers in three selected areas of the city, conducted a knowledge, attitude, and practice survey with regard to surveillance among 258 consenting practitioners, and assessed their willingness to participate in a routine NCD surveillance system. In total, 127 practitioners agreed and were included in a 6-month surveillance study. Data on first-time diagnoses of 10 selected NCDs alongside basic demographic and socioeconomic patient information were collected onsite on a monthly basis using a paper-based register. Descriptive and regression analyses were performed. In total, 1,532 incident cases were recorded that mainly included hypertension ( n =622, 41%) and diabetes ( n =460, 30%). Dropout rate was 10% ( n =13). The monthly reporting consistency was quite constant, with the majority ( n =63, 50%) submitting 1-10 cases in 6 months. Average number of submitted cases was highest among allopathic practitioners (17.4). A majority of the participants ( n =104, 91%) agreed that the surveillance design could be scaled up to cover the entire city. The study indicates that private primary healthcare providers (allopathic and alternate medicine practitioners) play an important role in the diagnosis and treatment of NCDs and can be involved in NCD surveillance, if certain barriers are addressed. Main barriers observed were lack of regulation of the private sector, cross

  11. FPGA-Based Real-Time Motion Detection for Automated Video Surveillance Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Singh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Design of automated video surveillance systems is one of the exigent missions in computer vision community because of their ability to automatically select frames of interest in incoming video streams based on motion detection. This research paper focuses on the real-time hardware implementation of a motion detection algorithm for such vision based automated surveillance systems. A dedicated VLSI architecture has been proposed and designed for clustering-based motion detection scheme. The working prototype of a complete standalone automated video surveillance system, including input camera interface, designed motion detection VLSI architecture, and output display interface, with real-time relevant motion detection capabilities, has been implemented on Xilinx ML510 (Virtex-5 FX130T FPGA platform. The prototyped system robustly detects the relevant motion in real-time in live PAL (720 × 576 resolution video streams directly coming from the camera.

  12. The systems engineering design of a smart Forward Operating Base surveillance system for forward operating base protection

    OpenAIRE

    Craft, Timothy L.

    2013-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Forward operating bases are vulnerable to terrorist activity due to their location and limited resources. Threat awareness under these conditions is paramount to the safety of the personnel and to mission accomplishment. In the absence of the manpower required to maintain complete and continuous monitoring of the FOBs surroundings, an automated surveillance system is needed. The Smart FOB Surveillance System (SFSS) employs a multi-agen...

  13. On-line surveillance system for Borssele nuclear power plant monitoring and diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuerkcan, E.; Ciftcioglu, Oe.

    1993-08-01

    An operating on-line surveillance and diagnostic system is described where information processing for monitoring and fault diagnosis and plant maintenance are addressed. The surveillance system by means of its realtime multiprocessing, multitasking execution capabilities can perform plant-wide and wide-range monitoring for enhanced plant safety and operational reliability as well as enhanced maintenance. At the same time the system provides the possibilities for goal-oriented research and development such as estimation, filtering, verification and validation and neural networks. (orig./HP)

  14. Evaluating the electronic tuberculosis register surveillance system in Eden District, Western Cape, South Africa, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlotshwa, Mandla; Smit, Sandra; Williams, Seymour; Reddy, Carl; Medina-Marino, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) surveillance data are crucial to the effectiveness of National TB Control Programs. In South Africa, few surveillance system evaluations have been undertaken to provide a rigorous assessment of the platform from which the national and district health systems draws data to inform programs and policies. Evaluate the attributes of Eden District's TB surveillance system, Western Cape Province, South Africa. Data quality, sensitivity and positive predictive value were assessed using secondary data from 40,033 TB cases entered in Eden District's ETR.Net from 2007 to 2013, and 79 purposively selected TB Blue Cards (TBCs), a medical patient file and source document for data entered into ETR.Net. Simplicity, flexibility, acceptability, stability and usefulness of the ETR.Net were assessed qualitatively through interviews with TB nurses, information health officers, sub-district and district coordinators involved in the TB surveillance. TB surveillance system stakeholders report that Eden District's ETR.Net system was simple, acceptable, flexible and stable, and achieves its objective of informing TB control program, policies and activities. Data were less complete in the ETR.Net (66-100%) than in the TBCs (76-100%), and concordant for most variables except pre-treatment smear results, antiretroviral therapy (ART) and treatment outcome. The sensitivity of recorded variables in ETR.Net was 98% for gender, 97% for patient category, 93% for ART, 92% for treatment outcome and 90% for pre-treatment smear grading. Our results reveal that the system provides useful information to guide TB control program activities in Eden District. However, urgent attention is needed to address gaps in clinical recording on the TBC and data capturing into the ETR.Net system. We recommend continuous training and support of TB personnel involved with TB care, management and surveillance on TB data recording into the TBCs and ETR.Net as well as the implementation of a well

  15. Sampling Key Populations for HIV Surveillance: Results From Eight Cross-Sectional Studies Using Respondent-Driven Sampling and Venue-Based Snowball Sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Amrita; Stahlman, Shauna; Hargreaves, James; Weir, Sharon; Edwards, Jessie; Rice, Brian; Kochelani, Duncan; Mavimbela, Mpumelelo; Baral, Stefan

    2017-10-20

    In using regularly collected or existing surveillance data to characterize engagement in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) services among marginalized populations, differences in sampling methods may produce different pictures of the target population and may therefore result in different priorities for response. The objective of this study was to use existing data to evaluate the sample distribution of eight studies of female sex workers (FSW) and men who have sex with men (MSM), who were recruited using different sampling approaches in two locations within Sub-Saharan Africa: Manzini, Swaziland and Yaoundé, Cameroon. MSM and FSW participants were recruited using either respondent-driven sampling (RDS) or venue-based snowball sampling. Recruitment took place between 2011 and 2016. Participants at each study site were administered a face-to-face survey to assess sociodemographics, along with the prevalence of self-reported HIV status, frequency of HIV testing, stigma, and other HIV-related characteristics. Crude and RDS-adjusted prevalence estimates were calculated. Crude prevalence estimates from the venue-based snowball samples were compared with the overlap of the RDS-adjusted prevalence estimates, between both FSW and MSM in Cameroon and Swaziland. RDS samples tended to be younger (MSM aged 18-21 years in Swaziland: 47.6% [139/310] in RDS vs 24.3% [42/173] in Snowball, in Cameroon: 47.9% [99/306] in RDS vs 20.1% [52/259] in Snowball; FSW aged 18-21 years in Swaziland 42.5% [82/325] in RDS vs 8.0% [20/249] in Snowball; in Cameroon 15.6% [75/576] in RDS vs 8.1% [25/306] in Snowball). They were less educated (MSM: primary school completed or less in Swaziland 42.6% [109/310] in RDS vs 4.0% [7/173] in Snowball, in Cameroon 46.2% [138/306] in RDS vs 14.3% [37/259] in Snowball; FSW: primary school completed or less in Swaziland 86.6% [281/325] in RDS vs 23.9% [59/247] in Snowball, in Cameroon 87.4% [520/576] in RDS vs 77.5% [238/307] in Snowball) than the snowball

  16. Repeat confirmatory testing for persons with discordant whole blood and oral fluid rapid HIV test results: findings from post marketing surveillance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura G Wesolowski

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Reactive oral fluid and whole blood rapid HIV tests must be followed with a confirmatory test (Western blot (WB, immunofluorescent assay (IFA or approved nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT. When the confirmatory result is negative or indeterminate (i.e. discordant with rapid result, repeat confirmatory testing should be conducted using a follow-up specimen. Previous reports have not described whether repeat testing adequately resolves the HIV-infection status of persons with discordant results. METHODOLOGY: Post-marketing surveillance was conducted in 368 testing sites affiliated with 14 state and 2 city health departments from August 11, 2004 to June 30, 2005 and one health department through December 31, 2005. For persons with discordant results, data were collected on demographics, risk behaviors, HIV test results and specimen types. Persons with repeat confirmatory results were classified as HIV-infected or uninfected. Regression models were created to assess risk factors for not having repeat testing. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Of 167,371 rapid tests conducted, 2589 (1.6% were reactive: of these, 2417 (93% had positive WB/IFA, 172 (7% had negative or indeterminate WB/IFA. Of 89/172 (52% persons with a repeat confirmatory test: 17 (19% were HIV-infected, including 3 with indeterminate WB and positive NAAT; 72 (81% were uninfected, including 12 with repeat indeterminate WB. Factors associated with HIV-infection included having an initial indeterminate WB/IFA (vs. negative (p<0.001 and having an initial oral fluid WB (vs. serum (p<0.001. Persons who had male-female sex (vs. male-male sex were at increased risk for not having a repeat test [adjusted OR 2.6, 95% CI (1.3, 4.9]. CONCLUSIONS: Though only half of persons with discordant results had repeat confirmatory testing, of those who did, nearly one in five were HIV-infected. These findings underscore the need for rapid HIV testing programs to increase repeat confirmatory testing for

  17. Evaluation of a Spotted Fever Group Rickettsia Public Health Surveillance System in Tennessee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fill, Mary-Margaret A; Moncayo, Abelardo C; Bloch, Karen C; Dunn, John R; Schaffner, William; Jones, Timothy F

    2017-09-01

    Spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsioses are endemic in Tennessee, with ∼2,500 cases reported during 2000-2012. Because of this substantial burden of disease, we performed a three-part evaluation of Tennessee's routine surveillance for SFG rickettsioses cases and deaths to assess the system's effectiveness. Tennessee Department of Health (TDH) SFG rickettsioses surveillance records were matched to three patient series: 1) patients with positive serologic specimens from a commercial reference laboratory during 2010-2011, 2) tertiary medical center patients with positive serologic tests during 2007-2013, and 3) patients identified from death certificates issued during 1995-2014 with SFG rickettsiosis-related causes of death. Chart reviews were performed and patients were classified according to the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists' case definition. Of 254 SFG Rickettsia -positive serologic specimens from the reference laboratory, 129 (51%) met the case definition for confirmed or probable cases of rickettsial disease after chart review. The sensitivity of the TDH surveillance system to detect cases was 45%. Of the 98 confirmed or probable cases identified from the medical center, the sensitivity of the TDH surveillance system to detect cases was 34%. Of 27 patients identified by death certificates, 12 (44%) were classified as confirmed or probable cases; four (33%) were reported to TDH, but none were correctly identified as deceased. Cases of SFG rickettsioses were underreported and fatalities not correctly identified. Efforts are needed to improve SFG rickettsiosis surveillance in Tennessee.

  18. Extracting foreground ensemble features to detect abnormal crowd behavior in intelligent video-surveillance systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yi-Tung; Wang, Shuenn-Jyi; Tsai, Chung-Hsien

    2017-09-01

    Public safety is a matter of national security and people's livelihoods. In recent years, intelligent video-surveillance systems have become important active-protection systems. A surveillance system that provides early detection and threat assessment could protect people from crowd-related disasters and ensure public safety. Image processing is commonly used to extract features, e.g., people, from a surveillance video. However, little research has been conducted on the relationship between foreground detection and feature extraction. Most current video-surveillance research has been developed for restricted environments, in which the extracted features are limited by having information from a single foreground; they do not effectively represent the diversity of crowd behavior. This paper presents a general framework based on extracting ensemble features from the foreground of a surveillance video to analyze a crowd. The proposed method can flexibly integrate different foreground-detection technologies to adapt to various monitored environments. Furthermore, the extractable representative features depend on the heterogeneous foreground data. Finally, a classification algorithm is applied to these features to automatically model crowd behavior and distinguish an abnormal event from normal patterns. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method's performance is both comparable to that of state-of-the-art methods and satisfies the requirements of real-time applications.

  19. Twitter web-service for soft agent reporting in persistent surveillance systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rababaah, Haroun; Shirkhodaie, Amir

    2010-04-01

    Persistent surveillance is an intricate process requiring monitoring, gathering, processing, tracking, and characterization of many spatiotemporal events occurring concurrently. Data associated with events can be readily attained by networking of hard (physical) sensors. Sensors may have homogeneous or heterogeneous (hybrid) sensing modalities with different communication bandwidth requirements. Complimentary to hard sensors are human observers or "soft sensors" that can report occurrences of evolving events via different communication devices (e.g., texting, cell phones, emails, instant messaging, etc.) to the command control center. However, networking of human observers in ad-hoc way is rather a difficult task. In this paper, we present a Twitter web-service for soft agent reporting in persistent surveillance systems (called Web-STARS). The objective of this web-service is to aggregate multi-source human observations in hybrid sensor networks rapidly. With availability of Twitter social network, such a human networking concept can not only be realized for large scale persistent surveillance systems (PSS), but also, it can be employed with proper interfaces to expedite rapid events reporting by human observers. The proposed technique is particularly suitable for large-scale persistent surveillance systems with distributed soft and hard sensor networks. The efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed technique is measured experimentally by conducting several simulated persistent surveillance scenarios. It is demonstrated that by fusion of information from hard and soft agents improves understanding of common operating picture and enhances situational awareness.

  20. Remote-Reading Safety and Safeguards Surveillance System for 3013 Containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lechelt, W. M.; Skorpik, J. R.; Silvers, K. L.; Szempruch, R. W.; Douglas, D. G.; Fein, K. O.

    2002-01-01

    At Hanford's Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP), plutonium oxide is being loaded into stainless steel containers for long-term storage on the Hanford Site. These containers consist of two weld-sealed stainless steel cylinders nested one within the other. A third container holds the plutonium within the inner cylinder. This design meets the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) storage standard, DOE-STD- 3013-2000, which anticipates a 50-year storage lifetime. The 3013 standard also requires a container surveillance program to continuously monitor pressure and to assure safeguards are adequate. However, the configuration of the container system makes using conventional measurement and monitoring methods difficult. To better meet the 3013 monitoring requirements, a team from Fluor Hanford (who manages the PFP), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and Vista Engineering Technologies, LLC, developed a safer, cost-efficient, remote PFP 3013 container surveillance system. This new surveillance system is a combination of two successfully deployed technologies: (1) a magnetically coupled pressure gauge developed by Vista Engineering and (2) a radio frequency (RF) tagging device developed by PNNL. This system provides continuous, 100% monitoring of critical parameters with the containers in place, as well as inventory controls. The 3013 container surveillance system consists of three main elements: (1) an internal magnetic pressure sensor package, (2) an instrument pod (external electronics package), and (3) a data acquisition storage and display computer. The surveillance system described in this paper has many benefits for PFP and DOE in terms of cost savings and reduced personnel exposure. In addition, continuous safety monitoring (i.e., internal container pressure and temperature) of every container is responsible nuclear material stewardship and fully meets and exceeds DOE's Integrated Surveillance Program requirements

  1. 75 FR 81512 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Aviation Communication & Surveillance Systems (ACSS) Traffic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-28

    ... units. This proposed AD would require upgrading software. This proposed AD results from reports of anomalies with TCAS units during a flight test over a high density airport. The TCAS units dropped several... & Surveillance Systems (ACSS) Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System (TCAS) units during a flight test over...

  2. A Framework for People Re-Identification in Multi-Camera Surveillance Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar, Sirine; Zaghden, Nizar; Neji, Mahmoud

    2017-01-01

    People re-identification has been a very active research topic recently in computer vision. It is an important application in surveillance system with disjoint cameras. This paper is focused on the implementation of a human re-identification system. First the face of detected people is divided into three parts and some soft-biometric traits are…

  3. Euratom multi-camera optical surveillance system (EMOSS) - a digital solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, P.; Wagner, H.G.; Taillade, B.; Pryck, C. de.

    1991-01-01

    In 1989 the Euratom Safeguards Directorate of the Commission of the European Communities drew up functional and draft technical specifications for a new fully digital multi-camera optical surveillance system. HYMATOM of Castries designed and built a prototype unit for laboratory and field tests. This paper reports and system design and first test results

  4. Survey of surveillance systems and select prevention activities for hepatitis B and C, European Union/European Economic Area, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffell, E F; van de Laar, M J

    2015-04-02

    Hepatitis B and C viral infections are leading causes of hepatic cirrhosis and cancer. The incidence and prevalence of both hepatitis B and C varies across European countries. European wide surveillance data help to understand the dynamic epidemiology of hepatitis B and C, which is important for the implementation and effectiveness of prevention and control activities.Comparison of surveillance data between countries in Europe is hampered by the differences in national healthcare and reporting systems. This report presents the results of a survey in 2009 which was undertaken to collect baseline information on surveillance systems and core prevention programmes for hepatitis B and C in individual European Union/ European Economic Area countries. The results provide key information to aid the interpretation of surveillance data, and while indicating heterogeneity in national surveillance systems and programmes, they highlight the potential of these systems. This resource has supported the implementation of a standardised European enhanced surveillance programme.

  5. Nadzor vazdušnog prostora pasivnim multisenzorskim sistemima / Air surveillance by passive multisensor systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miljko Erić

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Za sprovođenje savremenih operacija, kako na operativno-strategijskom, tako i na taktič kom nivou, izuzetno je važno da se obezbedi kontinuirani nadzor vazdušnog prostora. Poznato je da su aktivni radarski sistemi, na kojima se kod nas trenutno zasniva nadzor vazdušnog prostora, u ratnim uslovima veoma ranjivi i podložni elektronskim i borbenim dejstvima protivnika, što je u toku rata 1999. godine i praktično potvrđeno. Kao alternativa aktivnim radarskim sistemima nameće se koncept pasivnog nadzora vazdušnog prostora korišćenjem distribuiranih multisenzorskih sistema. Predmet širih istraživanja predstavljaju tehnička rešenja integrisanog multisenzorskog sistema za pasivan nadzor vazdušnog prostora, koji se sastoji od sledećih podsistema za nadzor vazdušnog prostora: na radio-gonimetarskom principu u frekvencijskom opsegu 20-3000 MHz, na zvukometrijskom principu, na principu vizuelnih osmatračkih stanica, na termovizijskom i televizijskom principu. U ovom radu analizirani su opšti principi pasivnog nadzora vazdušnog prostora multisenzorskim sistemima i predložena je tehnička koncepcija radio-goniometarskog i zvukometrijskog podsistema. / It is very important to provide continuous air surveillance in to realize modern operations on the operational-strategic level and tactical, as well. It is well known that active radar systems, on which air surveillance is based in our country, are very vulnerable in war times and susceptible to the electronic counter and combat attacks of the enemy, what is shown practically in 1999 war. Air surveillance by passive multi-sensor systems is a possible alternative to the air surveillance by the active radar systems. Subjects of our wider research are technical solutions of integrated multi-sensor systems for passive air surveillance which consists of the following subsystems: a subsystem for the air communication intelligence within the frequency range 20-3000 MHz based on intercept

  6. R and D study on on-line criticality surveillance system (V)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Sumasu

    2001-02-01

    In view of necessity and importance of criticality surveillance systems for ensuring the safety of nuclear fuel manufacturing and reprocessing plants, 5-year basic studies and 4 year R and D studies on an on-line criticality surveillance system were carried out since 1991. This report is a summary of these series of studies. Noticing that the signal from a neutron detector is random in principle, these series of studies aimed to accumulate knowledge for developing an inexpensive criticality surveillance system with quick response based on the Auto-Regressive Moving Average (ARMA) model identification algorithm. During five-year basic studies on criticality surveillance system since 1991, we obtained knowledge required for developing a criticality surveillance system based on the ARMA model identification algorithm through 1) studies on recursive ARMA model identification algorithms most appropriate for estimating subcriticality form time series data under a steady state condition, 2) studies on pre-processing of signal from neutron detectors, 3) developing a new recursive ARMA model identification algorithm with small time delay to estimate time-dependent subcriticality, 4) proposing a basic concept for the elements required for an on-line criticality surveillance system, and 5) numerical analysis of data from the DCA experiments. During next four-year R and D studies on a criticality surveillance system since 1996, we 1) proposed modules required for a no-line criticality surveillance system, 2) revealed effectiveness of a adaptive digital filter (ADF) algorithm, as an important redundancy to the recursive ARMA model identification algorithm to be used in the signal processing module through numerical analysis of real data, 3) proposed a module of the Feynman-α method over γ ray signal and a fast signal processing module for γ ray signal, 4) developed a line-noise removal filter(Notch filter) and revealed its effectiveness for the DCA data corrupted with power

  7. Novel use of surveillance data to detect HIV-infected persons with sustained high viral load and durable virologic suppression in New York City.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpi S Terzian

    Full Text Available Monitoring of the uptake and efficacy of ART in a population often relies on cross-sectional data, providing limited information that could be used to design specific targeted intervention programs. Using repeated measures of viral load (VL surveillance data, we aimed to estimate and characterize the proportion of persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA in New York City (NYC with sustained high VL (SHVL and durably suppressed VL (DSVL.Retrospective cohort study of all persons reported to the NYC HIV Surveillance Registry who were alive and ≥12 years old by the end of 2005 and who had ≥2 VL tests in 2006 and 2007. SHVL and DSVL were defined as PLWHA with 2 consecutive VLs ≥100,000 copies/mL and PLWHA with all VLs ≤400 copies/mL, respectively. Logistic regression models using generalized estimating equations were used to model the association between SHVL and covariates. There were 56,836 PLWHA, of whom 7% had SHVL and 38% had DSVL. Compared to those without SHVL, persons with SHVL were more likely to be younger, black and have injection drug use (IDU risk. PLWHA with SHVL were more likely to die by 2007 and be younger by nearly ten years, on average.Nearly 60% of PLWHA in 2005 had multiple VLs, of whom almost 40% had DSVL, suggesting successful ART uptake. A small proportion had SHVL, representing groups known to have suboptimal engagement in care. This group should be targeted for additional outreach to reduce morbidity and secondary transmission. Measures based on longitudinal analyses of surveillance data in conjunction with cross-sectional measures such as community viral load represent more precise and powerful tools for monitoring ART effectiveness and potential impact on disease transmission than cross-sectional measures alone.

  8. Monitoring influenza activity in the United States: a comparison of traditional surveillance systems with Google Flu Trends.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin R Ortiz

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Google Flu Trends was developed to estimate US influenza-like illness (ILI rates from internet searches; however ILI does not necessarily correlate with actual influenza virus infections.Influenza activity data from 2003-04 through 2007-08 were obtained from three US surveillance systems: Google Flu Trends, CDC Outpatient ILI Surveillance Network (CDC ILI Surveillance, and US Influenza Virologic Surveillance System (CDC Virus Surveillance. Pearson's correlation coefficients with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI were calculated to compare surveillance data. An analysis was performed to investigate outlier observations and determine the extent to which they affected the correlations between surveillance data. Pearson's correlation coefficient describing Google Flu Trends and CDC Virus Surveillance over the study period was 0.72 (95% CI: 0.64, 0.79. The correlation between CDC ILI Surveillance and CDC Virus Surveillance over the same period was 0.85 (95% CI: 0.81, 0.89. Most of the outlier observations in both comparisons were from the 2003-04 influenza season. Exclusion of the outlier observations did not substantially improve the correlation between Google Flu Trends and CDC Virus Surveillance (0.82; 95% CI: 0.76, 0.87 or CDC ILI Surveillance and CDC Virus Surveillance (0.86; 95%CI: 0.82, 0.90.This analysis demonstrates that while Google Flu Trends is highly correlated with rates of ILI, it has a lower correlation with surveillance for laboratory-confirmed influenza. Most of the outlier observations occurred during the 2003-04 influenza season that was characterized by early and intense influenza activity, which potentially altered health care seeking behavior, physician testing practices, and internet search behavior.

  9. Monitoring Influenza Activity in the United States: A Comparison of Traditional Surveillance Systems with Google Flu Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Justin R.; Zhou, Hong; Shay, David K.; Neuzil, Kathleen M.; Fowlkes, Ashley L.; Goss, Christopher H.

    2011-01-01

    Background Google Flu Trends was developed to estimate US influenza-like illness (ILI) rates from internet searches; however ILI does not necessarily correlate with actual influenza virus infections. Methods and Findings Influenza activity data from 2003–04 through 2007–08 were obtained from three US surveillance systems: Google Flu Trends, CDC Outpatient ILI Surveillance Network (CDC ILI Surveillance), and US Influenza Virologic Surveillance System (CDC Virus Surveillance). Pearson's correlation coefficients with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated to compare surveillance data. An analysis was performed to investigate outlier observations and determine the extent to which they affected the correlations between surveillance data. Pearson's correlation coefficient describing Google Flu Trends and CDC Virus Surveillance over the study period was 0.72 (95% CI: 0.64, 0.79). The correlation between CDC ILI Surveillance and CDC Virus Surveillance over the same period was 0.85 (95% CI: 0.81, 0.89). Most of the outlier observations in both comparisons were from the 2003–04 influenza season. Exclusion of the outlier observations did not substantially improve the correlation between Google Flu Trends and CDC Virus Surveillance (0.82; 95% CI: 0.76, 0.87) or CDC ILI Surveillance and CDC Virus Surveillance (0.86; 95%CI: 0.82, 0.90). Conclusions This analysis demonstrates that while Google Flu Trends is highly correlated with rates of ILI, it has a lower correlation with surveillance for laboratory-confirmed influenza. Most of the outlier observations occurred during the 2003–04 influenza season that was characterized by early and intense influenza activity, which potentially altered health care seeking behavior, physician testing practices, and internet search behavior. PMID:21556151

  10. A Radiation-Triggered Surveillance System for UF6 Cylinder Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, Michael M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Myjak, Mitchell J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-09-23

    This report provides background information and representative scenarios for testing a prototype radiation-triggered surveillance system at an operating facility that handles uranium hexafluoride (UF6) cylinders. The safeguards objective is to trigger cameras using radiation, or radiation and motion, rather than motion alone, to reduce significantly the number of image files generated by a motion-triggered system. The authors recommend the use of radiation-triggered surveillance at all facilities where cylinder paths are heavily traversed by personnel. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has begun using surveillance cameras in the feed and withdrawal areas of gas centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs). The cameras generate imagery using elapsed time or motion, but this creates problems in areas occupied 24/7 by personnel. Either motion-or-interval-based triggering generates thousands of review files over the course of a month. Since inspectors must review the files to verify operator material-flow-declarations, a plethora of files significantly extends the review process. The primary advantage of radiation-triggered surveillance is the opportunity to obtain full-time cylinder throughput verification versus what presently amounts to part-time verification. Cost savings should be substantial, as the IAEA presently uses frequent unannounced inspections to verify cylinder-throughput declarations. The use of radiation-triggered surveillance allows the IAEA to implement less frequent unannounced inspections for the purpose of flow verification, but its principal advantage is significantly shorter and more effective inspector video reviews.

  11. Experiences with the Twitter Health Surveillance (THS) System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Martínez, Manuel

    2017-06-01

    Social media has become an important platform to gauge public opinion on topics related to our daily lives. In practice, processing these posts requires big data analytics tools since the volume of data and the speed of production overwhelm single-server solutions. Building an application to capture and analyze posts from social media can be a challenge simply because it requires combining a set of complex software tools that often times are tricky to configure, tune, and maintain. In many instances, the application ends up being an assorted collection of Java/Scala programs or Python scripts that developers cobble together to generate the data products they need. In this paper, we present the Twitter Health Surveillance (THS) application framework. THS is designed as a platform to allow end-users to monitor a stream of tweets, and process the stream with a combination of built-in functionality and their own user-defined functions. We discuss the architecture of THS, and describe its implementation atop the Apache Hadoop Ecosystem. We also present several lessons learned while developing our current prototype.

  12. Experiences with the Twitter Health Surveillance (THS) System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Martínez, Manuel

    2018-01-01

    Social media has become an important platform to gauge public opinion on topics related to our daily lives. In practice, processing these posts requires big data analytics tools since the volume of data and the speed of production overwhelm single-server solutions. Building an application to capture and analyze posts from social media can be a challenge simply because it requires combining a set of complex software tools that often times are tricky to configure, tune, and maintain. In many instances, the application ends up being an assorted collection of Java/Scala programs or Python scripts that developers cobble together to generate the data products they need. In this paper, we present the Twitter Health Surveillance (THS) application framework. THS is designed as a platform to allow end-users to monitor a stream of tweets, and process the stream with a combination of built-in functionality and their own user-defined functions. We discuss the architecture of THS, and describe its implementation atop the Apache Hadoop Ecosystem. We also present several lessons learned while developing our current prototype. PMID:29607412

  13. Framework for evaluating public health surveillance systems for early detection of outbreaks: recommendations from the CDC Working Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehler, James W; Hopkins, Richard S; Overhage, J Marc; Sosin, Daniel M; Tong, Van

    2004-05-07

    The threat of terrorism and high-profile disease outbreaks has drawn attention to public health surveillance systems for early detection of outbreaks. State and local health departments are enhancing existing surveillance systems and developing new systems to better detect outbreaks through public health surveillance. However, information is limited about the usefulness of surveillance systems for outbreak detection or the best ways to support this function. This report supplements previous guidelines for evaluating public health surveillance systems. Use of this framework is intended to improve decision-making regarding the implementation of surveillance for outbreak detection. Use of a standardized evaluation methodology, including description of system design and operation, also will enhance the exchange of information regarding methods to improve early detection of outbreaks. The framework directs particular attention to the measurement of timeliness and validity for outbreak detection. The evaluation framework is designed to support assessment and description of all surveillance approaches to early detection, whether through traditional disease reporting, specialized analytic routines for aberration detection, or surveillance using early indicators of disease outbreaks, such as syndromic surveillance.

  14. A generic flexible and robust approach for intelligent real-time video-surveillance systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desurmont, Xavier; Delaigle, Jean-Francois; Bastide, Arnaud; Macq, Benoit

    2004-05-01

    In this article we present a generic, flexible and robust approach for an intelligent real-time video-surveillance system. A previous version of the system was presented in [1]. The goal of these advanced tools is to provide help to operators by detecting events of interest in visual scenes and highlighting alarms and compute statistics. The proposed system is a multi-camera platform able to handle different standards of video inputs (composite, IP, IEEE1394 ) and which can basically compress (MPEG4), store and display them. This platform also integrates advanced video analysis tools, such as motion detection, segmentation, tracking and interpretation. The design of the architecture is optimised to playback, display, and process video flows in an efficient way for video-surveillance application. The implementation is distributed on a scalable computer cluster based on Linux and IP network. It relies on POSIX threads for multitasking scheduling. Data flows are transmitted between the different modules using multicast technology and under control of a TCP-based command network (e.g. for bandwidth occupation control). We report here some results and we show the potential use of such a flexible system in third generation video surveillance system. We illustrate the interest of the system in a real case study, which is the indoor surveillance.

  15. Evaluation of the influenza sentinel surveillance system in Madagascar, 2009-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakotoarisoa, Alain; Randrianasolo, Laurence; Tempia, Stefano; Guillebaud, Julia; Razanajatovo, Norosoa; Randriamampionona, Lea; Piola, Patrice; Halm, Ariane; Heraud, Jean-Michel

    2017-05-01

    Evaluation of influenza surveillance systems is poor, especially in Africa. In 2007, the Institut Pasteur de Madagascar and the Malagasy Ministry of Public Health implemented a countrywide system for the prospective syndromic and virological surveillance of influenza-like illnesses. In assessing this system's performance, we identified gaps and ways to promote the best use of resources. We investigated acceptability, data quality, flexibility, representativeness, simplicity, stability, timeliness and usefulness and developed qualitative and/or quantitative indicators for each of these attributes. Until 2007, the influenza surveillance system in Madagascar was only operational in Antananarivo and the observations made could not be extrapolated to the entire country. By 2014, the system covered 34 sentinel sites across the country. At 12 sites, nasopharyngeal and/or oropharyngeal samples were collected and tested for influenza virus. Between 2009 and 2014, 177 718 fever cases were detected, 25 809 (14.5%) of these fever cases were classified as cases of influenza-like illness. Of the 9192 samples from patients with influenza-like illness that were tested for influenza viruses, 3573 (38.9%) tested positive. Data quality for all evaluated indicators was categorized as above 90% and the system also appeared to be strong in terms of its acceptability, simplicity and stability. However, sample collection needed improvement. The influenza surveillance system in Madagascar performed well and provided reliable and timely data for public health interventions. Given its flexibility and overall moderate cost, this system may become a useful platform for syndromic and laboratory-based surveillance in other low-resource settings.

  16. Sensitivity of the Dengue Surveillance System in Brazil for Detecting Hospitalized Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the sensitivity of the dengue surveillance system in detecting hospitalized cases in ten capital cities in Brazil from 2008 to 2013 using a probabilistic record linkage of two independent information systems hospitalization (SIH-SUS) adopted as the gold standard and surveillance (SINAN). Sensitivity was defined as the proportion of cases reported to the surveillance system amid the suspected hospitalized cases registered in SIH-SUS. Of the 48,174 hospitalizations registered in SIH-SUS, 24,469 (50.7%) were reported and registered in SINAN, indicating an overall sensitivity of 50.8% (95%CI 50.3–51.2). The observed sensitivity for each of the municipalities included in the study ranged from 22.0% to 99.1%. The combination of the two data sources identified 71,161 hospitalizations, an increase of 97.0% over SINAN itself. Our results allowed establishing the proportion of underreported dengue hospitalizations in the public health system in Brazil, highlighting the use of probabilistic record linkage as a valuable tool for evaluating surveillance systems. PMID:27192405

  17. The Stevens Integrated Maritime Surveillance Forecast System: Expansion and Enhancement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bruno, Michael S; Blumberg, Alan F

    2006-01-01

    .... In the long-term, the observation and modeling systems will be linked in a unique fashion, whereby the model forecast system will be enhanced by data assimilation, and the observing system will...

  18. Quantitative and qualitative assessment of the bovine abortion surveillance system in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronner, Anne; Gay, Emilie; Fortané, Nicolas; Palussière, Mathilde; Hendrikx, Pascal; Hénaux, Viviane; Calavas, Didier

    2015-06-01

    Bovine abortion is the main clinical sign of bovine brucellosis, a disease of which France has been declared officially free since 2005. To ensure the early detection of any brucellosis outbreak, event-driven surveillance relies on the mandatory notification of bovine abortions and the brucellosis testing of aborting cows. However, the under-reporting of abortions appears frequent. Our objectives were to assess the aptitude of the bovine abortion surveillance system to detect each and every bovine abortion and to identify factors influencing the system's effectiveness. We evaluated five attributes defined by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control with a method suited to each attribute: (1) data quality was studied quantitatively and qualitatively, as this factor considerably influences data analysis and results; (2) sensitivity and representativeness were estimated using a unilist capture-recapture approach to quantify the surveillance system's effectiveness; (3) acceptability and simplicity were studied through qualitative interviews of actors in the field, given that the surveillance system relies heavily on abortion notifications by farmers and veterinarians. Our analysis showed that (1) data quality was generally satisfactory even though some errors might be due to actors' lack of awareness of the need to collect accurate data; (2) from 2006 to 2011, the mean annual sensitivity - i.e. the proportion of farmers who reported at least one abortion out of all those who detected such events - was around 34%, but was significantly higher in dairy than beef cattle herds (highlighting a lack of representativeness); (3) overall, the system's low sensitivity was related to its low acceptability and lack of simplicity. This study showed that, in contrast to policy-makers, most farmers and veterinarians perceived the risk of a brucellosis outbreak as negligible. They did not consider sporadic abortions as a suspected case of brucellosis and usually reported abortions only to

  19. Inventory of surveillance systems assessing dietary, physical activity and sedentary behaviours in Europe: a DEDIPAC study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bel-Serrat, Silvia; Huybrechts, Inge; Thumann, Barbara F; Hebestreit, Antje; Abuja, Peter M; de Henauw, Stefaan; Dubuisson, Carine; Heuer, Thorsten; Murrin, Celine M; Lazzeri, Giacomo; van Rossum, Caroline; Andersen, Lene F; Szeklicki, Robert; Vioque, Jesús; Berry, Rachel; van der Ploeg, Hidde P; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Slimani, Nadia

    2017-01-01

    There is a need for harmonized public health surveillance systems to monitor regional variations and temporal trends of health behaviours and health outcomes and to align policies, action plans and recommendations in terms of healthy diet and physical (in)activity within Europe. We provide an

  20. Reassessing the WIC Effect: Evidence from the Pregnancy Nutrition Surveillance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Ted; Racine, Andrew; Yunzal-Butler, Cristina

    2008-01-01

    Recent analyses differ on how effective the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) is at improving infant health. We use data from nine states that participate in the Pregnancy Nutrition Surveillance System to address limitations in previous work. With information on the mother's timing of WIC enrollment, we…

  1. Cost Analysis of Various Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza Surveillance Systems in the Dutch Egg Layer Sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, N.; Gonzales, J.L.; Elbers, A.R.; Velthuis, A.G.J.

    2012-01-01

    Background As low pathogenic avian influenza viruses can mutate into high pathogenic viruses the Dutch poultry sector implemented a surveillance system for low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) based on blood samples. It has been suggested that egg yolk samples could be sampled instead of blood

  2. A novel framework for intelligent surveillance system based on abnormal human activity detection in academic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Nawashi, Malek; Al-Hazaimeh, Obaida M; Saraee, Mohamad

    2017-01-01

    Abnormal activity detection plays a crucial role in surveillance applications, and a surveillance system that can perform robustly in an academic environment has become an urgent need. In this paper, we propose a novel framework for an automatic real-time video-based surveillance system which can simultaneously perform the tracking, semantic scene learning, and abnormality detection in an academic environment. To develop our system, we have divided the work into three phases: preprocessing phase, abnormal human activity detection phase, and content-based image retrieval phase. For motion object detection, we used the temporal-differencing algorithm and then located the motions region using the Gaussian function. Furthermore, the shape model based on OMEGA equation was used as a filter for the detected objects (i.e., human and non-human). For object activities analysis, we evaluated and analyzed the human activities of the detected objects. We classified the human activities into two groups: normal activities and abnormal activities based on the support vector machine. The machine then provides an automatic warning in case of abnormal human activities. It also embeds a method to retrieve the detected object from the database for object recognition and identification using content-based image retrieval. Finally, a software-based simulation using MATLAB was performed and the results of the conducted experiments showed an excellent surveillance system that can simultaneously perform the tracking, semantic scene learning, and abnormality detection in an academic environment with no human intervention.

  3. 77 FR 6000 - Airworthiness Directives; Aviation Communication & Surveillance Systems (ACSS) Traffic Alert and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-07

    ... reduced surveillance aircraft tracks because of interference limiting. This AD requires upgrading software... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Abby Malmir, Aerospace Engineer, Systems and Equipment Branch, ANM-130L, FAA..., 2010) proposed to require upgrading software. The SNPRM proposed to require new updated software for...

  4. Performance Assessment of a Communicable Disease Surveillance System in Response to the Twin Earthquakes of East Azerbaijan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaie, Javad; Ardalan, Ali; Vatandoost, Hasan; Goya, Mohammad Mehdi; Akbari Sari, Ali

    2015-08-01

    Following the twin earthquakes on August 11, 2012, in the East Azerbaijan province of Iran, the provincial health center set up a surveillance system to monitor communicable diseases. This study aimed to assess the performance of this surveillance system. In this quantitative-qualitative study, performance of the communicable diseases surveillance system was assessed by using the updated guidelines of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Qualitative data were collected through interviews with the surveillance system participants, and quantitative data were obtained from the surveillance system. The surveillance system was useful, simple, representative, timely, and flexible. The data quality, acceptability, and stability of the surveillance system were 65.6%, 10.63%, and 100%, respectively. The sensitivity and positive predictive value were not calculated owing to the absence of a gold standard. The surveillance system satisfactorily met the goals expected for its setup. The data obtained led to the control of communicable diseases in the affected areas. Required interventions based on the incidence of communicable disease were designed and implemented. The results also reassured health authorities and the public. However, data quality and acceptability should be taken into consideration and reviewed for implementation in future disasters.

  5. Developing a database management system to support birth defects surveillance in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salemi, Jason L; Hauser, Kimberlea W; Tanner, Jean Paul; Sampat, Diana; Correia, Jane A; Watkins, Sharon M; Kirby, Russell S

    2010-01-01

    The value of any public health surveillance program is derived from the ways in which data are managed and used to improve the public's health. Although birth defects surveillance programs vary in their case volume, budgets, staff, and objectives, the capacity to operate efficiently and maximize resources remains critical to long-term survival. The development of a fully-integrated relational database management system (DBMS) can enrich a surveillance program's data and improve efficiency. To build upon the Florida Birth Defects Registry--a statewide registry relying solely on linkage of administrative datasets and unconfirmed diagnosis codes-the Florida Department of Health provided funding to the University of South Florida to develop and pilot an enhanced surveillance system in targeted areas with a more comprehensive approach to case identification and diagnosis confirmation. To manage operational and administrative complexities, a DBMS was developed, capable of managing transmission of project data from multiple sources, tracking abstractor time during record reviews, offering tools for defect coding and case classification, and providing reports to DBMS users. Since its inception, the DBMS has been used as part of our surveillance projects to guide the receipt of over 200 case lists and review of 12,924 fetuses and infants (with associated maternal records) suspected of having selected birth defects in over 90 birthing and transfer facilities in Florida. The DBMS has provided both anticipated and unexpected benefits. Automation of the processes for managing incoming case lists has reduced clerical workload considerably, while improving accuracy of working lists for field abstraction. Data quality has improved through more effective use of internal edits and comparisons with values for other data elements, while simultaneously increasing abstractor efficiency in completion of case abstraction. We anticipate continual enhancement to the DBMS in the future

  6. Effectiveness of community participation in a surveillance system initiative to prevent drowning in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansiritaweesook, Getsara; Muangsom, Niramon; Kanato, Manop; Ratanasiri, Amornrat

    2015-03-01

    This study had a 2-group pre-post quasiexperimental design and was conducted in 2 selected areas of Ubon Ratchathani province, Thailand. The objective was to evaluate the extent to which the surveillance system that was developed helped in drowning prevention. The development process involved extensive participation from the community. System efficiency was evaluated, and the drowning rates were compared. The system demonstrated 82.8% system sensitivity and 87% positive-predictive value. There were 90.0% rescues with no injury during the study period. The relative risk of drowning injury suggests that the control area was at 5.6 times more at risk for drowning injury than the intervention area (95% CI = 1.58, 20.12). Local knowledge and participation from the community were found to be key issues in the success of the surveillance system, and such systems can be applied to other areas with similar problems. © 2013 APJPH.

  7. Developing Agent-Oriented Video Surveillance System through Agent-Oriented Methodology (AOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheah Wai Shiang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Agent-oriented methodology (AOM is a comprehensive and unified agent methodology for agent-oriented software development. Although AOM is claimed to be able to cope with a complex system development, it is still not yet determined up to what extent this may be true. Therefore, it is vital to conduct an investigation to validate this methodology. This paper presents the adoption of AOM in developing an agent-oriented video surveillance system (VSS. An intruder handling scenario is designed and implemented through AOM. AOM provides an alternative method to engineer a distributed security system in a systematic manner. It presents the security system at a holistic view; provides a better conceptualization of agent-oriented security system and supports rapid prototyping as well as simulation of video surveillance system.

  8. A comparison of four sampling methods among men having sex with men in China: implications for HIV/STD surveillance and prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yan; Li, Xiaoming; Fang, Xiaoyi; Lin, Xiuyun; Song, Yan; Jiang, Shuling; Stanton, Bonita

    2011-01-01

    Sample representativeness remains one of the challenges in effective HIV/STD surveillance and prevention targeting MSM worldwide. Although convenience samples are widely used in studies of MSM, previous studies suggested that these samples might not be representative of the broader MSM population. This issue becomes even more critical in many developing countries where needed resources for conducting probability sampling are limited. We examined variations in HIV and Syphilis infections and sociodemographic and behavioral factors among 307 young migrant MSM recruited using four different convenience sampling methods (peer outreach, informal social network, Internet, and venue-based) in Beijing, China in 2009. The participants completed a self-administered survey and provided blood specimens for HIV/STD testing. Among the four MSM samples using different recruitment methods, rates of HIV infections were 5.1%, 5.8%, 7.8%, and 3.4%; rates of Syphilis infection were 21.8%, 36.2%, 11.8%, and 13.8%; rates of inconsistent condom use were 57%, 52%, 58%, and 38%. Significant differences were found in various sociodemographic characteristics (e.g., age, migration history, education, income, places of employment) and risk behaviors (e.g., age at first sex, number of sex partners, involvement in commercial sex, and substance use) among samples recruited by different sampling methods. The results confirmed the challenges of obtaining representative MSM samples and underscored the importance of using multiple sampling methods to reach MSM from diverse backgrounds and in different social segments and to improve the representativeness of the MSM samples when the use of probability sampling approach is not feasible. PMID:21711162

  9. An Expert System And Simulation Approach For Sensor Management & Control In A Distributed Surveillance Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, Barbara D.; Heller, Paul R.

    1987-05-01

    A surveillance network is a group of multiplatform sensors cooperating to improve network performance. Network control is distributed as a measure to decrease vulnerability to enemy threat. The network may contain diverse sensor types such as radar, ESM (Electronic Support Measures), IRST (Infrared search and track) and E-0 (Electro-Optical). Each platform may contain a single sensor or suite of sensors. In a surveillance network it is desirable to control sensors to make the overall system more effective. This problem has come to be known as sensor management and control (SM&C). Two major facets of network performance are surveillance and survivability. In a netted environment, surveillance can be enhanced if information from all sensors is combined and sensor operating conditions are controlled to provide a synergistic effect. In contrast, when survivability is the main concern for the network, the best operating status for all sensors would be passive or off. Of course, improving survivability tends to degrade surveillance. Hence, the objective of SM&C is to optimize surveillance and survivability of the network. Too voluminous data of various formats and the quick response time are two characteristics of this problem which make it an ideal application for Artificial Intelligence. A solution to the SM&C problem, presented as a computer simulation, will be presented in this paper. The simulation is a hybrid production written in LISP and FORTRAN. It combines the latest conventional computer programming methods with Artificial Intelligence techniques to produce a flexible state-of-the-art tool to evaluate network performance. The event-driven simulation contains environment models coupled with an expert system. These environment models include sensor (track-while-scan and agile beam) and target models, local tracking, and system tracking. These models are used to generate the environment for the sensor management and control expert system. The expert system

  10. Video Surveillance using a Multi-Camera Tracking and Fusion System

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang , Zhong; Scanlon , Andrew; Yin , Weihong; Yu , Li; Venetianer , Péter L.

    2008-01-01

    International audience; Usage of intelligent video surveillance (IVS) systems is spreading rapidly. These systems are being utilized in a wide range of applications. In most cases, even in multi-camera installations, the video is processed independently in each feed. This paper describes a system that fuses tracking information from multiple cameras, thus vastly expanding its capabilities. The fusion relies on all cameras being calibrated to a site map, while the individual sensors remain lar...

  11. Wisconsin’s Environmental Public Health Tracking Network: Information Systems Design for Childhood Cancer Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanrahan, Lawrence P.; Anderson, Henry A.; Busby, Brian; Bekkedal, Marni; Sieger, Thomas; Stephenson, Laura; Knobeloch, Lynda; Werner, Mark; Imm, Pamela; Olson, Joseph

    2004-01-01

    In this article we describe the development of an information system for environmental childhood cancer surveillance. The Wisconsin Cancer Registry annually receives more than 25,000 incident case reports. Approximately 269 cases per year involve children. Over time, there has been considerable community interest in understanding the role the environment plays as a cause of these cancer cases. Wisconsin’s Public Health Information Network (WI-PHIN) is a robust web portal integrating both Health Alert Network and National Electronic Disease Surveillance System components. WI-PHIN is the information technology platform for all public health surveillance programs. Functions include the secure, automated exchange of cancer case data between public health–based and hospital-based cancer registrars; web-based supplemental data entry for environmental exposure confirmation and hypothesis testing; automated data analysis, visualization, and exposure–outcome record linkage; directories of public health and clinical personnel for role-based access control of sensitive surveillance information; public health information dissemination and alerting; and information technology security and critical infrastructure protection. For hypothesis generation, cancer case data are sent electronically to WI-PHIN and populate the integrated data repository. Environmental data are linked and the exposure–disease relationships are explored using statistical tools for ecologic exposure risk assessment. For hypothesis testing, case–control interviews collect exposure histories, including parental employment and residential histories. This information technology approach can thus serve as the basis for building a comprehensive system to assess environmental cancer etiology. PMID:15471739

  12. Establishing an emergency department syndromic surveillance system to support the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, Alex J; Hughes, Helen E; Hughes, Thomas C; Locker, Thomas E; Shannon, Tony; Heyworth, John; Wapling, Andy; Catchpole, Mike; Ibbotson, Sue; McCloskey, Brian; Smith, Gillian E

    2012-12-01

    The London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games is a mass gathering event that will present a major public health challenge. The Health Protection Agency, in collaboration with the College of Emergency Medicine, has established the Emergency Department Sentinel Syndromic Surveillance System (EDSSS) to support the public health surveillance requirements of the Games. This feasibility study assesses the usefulness of EDSSS in monitoring indicators of disease in the community. Daily counts of anonymised attendance data from six emergency departments across England were analysed by patient demographics (age, gender, partial postcode), triage coding and diagnosis codes. Generic and specific syndromic indicators were developed using aggregations of diagnosis codes recorded during each attendance. Over 339,000 attendances were recorded (26 July 2010 to 25 July 2011). The highest attendances recorded on weekdays between 10:00 and 11:00 and on weekends between 12:00 and 13:00. The mean daily attendance per emergency department was 257 (range 38-435). Syndromic indicators were developed including: respiratory, gastrointestinal, cardiac, acute respiratory infection, gastroenteritis and myocardial ischaemia. Respiratory and acute respiratory infection indicators peaked during December 2010, concomitant with national influenza activity, as monitored through other influenza surveillance systems. The EDSSS has been established to provide an enhanced surveillance system for the London 2012 Olympics. Further validation of the data will be required; however, the results from this initial descriptive study demonstrate the potential for identifying unusual and/or severe outbreaks of infectious disease, or other incidents with public health impact, within the community.

  13. Core state preconception health indicators - pregnancy risk assessment monitoring system and behavioral risk factor surveillance system, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Cheryl L; Zapata, Lauren B; Farr, Sherry L; Kroelinger, Charlan D; Morrow, Brian; Ahluwalia, Indu; D'Angelo, Denise V; Barradas, Danielle; Cox, Shanna; Goodman, David; Williams, Letitia; Grigorescu, Violanda; Barfield, Wanda D

    2014-04-25

    Promoting preconception health can potentially improve women's health and pregnancy outcomes. Evidence-based interventions exist to reduce many maternal behaviors and chronic conditions that are associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes such as tobacco use, alcohol use, inadequate folic acid intake, obesity, hypertension, and diabetes. The 2006 national recommendations to improve preconception health included monitoring improvements in preconception health by maximizing public health surveillance (CDC. Recommendations to improve preconception health and health care-United States: a report of the CDC/ATSDR Preconception Care Work Group and the Select Panel on Preconception Care. MMWR 2006;55[No. RR-6]). 2009 for 38 indicators; 2008 for one indicator. DESCRIPTION OF SURVEILLANCE SYSTEMS: The Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) is an ongoing state- and population-based surveillance system designed to monitor selected self-reported maternal behaviors, conditions, and experiences that occur shortly before, during, and after pregnancy among women who deliver live-born infants. The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) is an ongoing state-based telephone survey of noninstitutionalized adults aged ≥18 years in the United States that collects state-level data on health-related risk behaviors, chronic conditions, and preventive health services. This surveillance summary includes PRAMS data from 29 reporting areas (n = 40,388 respondents) and BRFSS data from 51 reporting areas (n = 62,875 respondents) for nonpregnant women of reproductive age (aged 18-44 years). To establish a comprehensive, nationally recognized set of indicators to be used for monitoring, evaluation, and response, a volunteer group of policy and program leaders and epidemiologists identified 45 core state preconception health indicators, of which 41 rely on PRAMS or BRFSS as data sources. This report includes 39 of the 41 core state preconception health indicators for which

  14. System for unattended surveillance of nuclear reactor behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, R.C.; Howington, L.C.

    1977-01-01

    A multivariate statistical pattern recognition system for reactor noise analysis is presented. The basis of the system is a transformation for decoupling correlated variables and algorithms for inferring probability density functions. The system is adaptable to a variety of statistical properties of the data, and it has learning, tracking, updating, and dimensionality reduction capabilities. System design emphasizes control of the false-alarm rate. Its abilities to learn normal patterns and to recognize deviations from these patterns were evaluated by experiments at the ORNL High-Flux Isotope Reactor. Power perturbations of less than 0.1% of the mean value in selected frequency ranges were readily detected by the pattern recognition system

  15. [Development of an index system for the comprehensive evaluation on public health emergency events surveillance system in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Zhiheng; Ni, Daxin; Cao, Yang; Meng, Ling; Tu, Wenxiao; Li, Leilei; Li, Qun; Jin, Lianmei

    2015-06-01

    To establish a comprehensive evaluation index system for the China Public Health Emergency Events Surveillance System (CPHEESS). A draft index system was built through literature review and under the consideration of the characteristics on CPHEESS. Delphi method was adapted to determine the final index system. The index system was divided into primary, secondary and tertiary levels. There were 4 primary indicators: System structure, Network platform, Surveillance implementation reports with Data analysis and utilization. There were 16 secondary and 70 tertiary indicators being set, with System structure including 14 tertiary indicators (accounted for 20.00%), 21 Network platforms (accounted for 30.00%). Twenty-four Surveillance implementation reports (accounted for 34.29%), 11 Data analysis and utilization (accounted for 15.71%). The average score of importance of each indicators was 4.29 (3.77-4.94), with an average coefficient variation as 0.14 (0.12-0.16). The mean Chronbach's α index was 0.84 (0.81-0.89). The adaptability of each related facilities indicator was specified. The primary indicators were set in accordance with the characteristics and goals of the surveillance systems. Secondary indicators provided key elements in the management and control of the system while the tertiary indicators were available and operative. The agreement rate of experts was high with good validity and reliability. This index system could be used for CPHEESS in future.

  16. Disturbance analysis and surveillance system scoping and feasibility system. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowling, E.F.; Benedict, B.J.; Snidow, N.L.

    1981-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of a disturbance analysis and surveillance system (DASS) scoping and feasibility study conducted by The Babcock and Wilcox Company, Burns and Roe, Incorporated, General Physics Corporation, and Duke Power Company for Sandia Laboratories and the US Department of Energy. The report addresses selection of DASS goals and functions, development of a design concept for a DASS based on monitoring the nuclear plant subsystem functions and states against predetermined targets, and creation of engineering procedures for the design and implementation of a DASS. The validity of the procedures is evaluated based on application to a subset of the DASS functions. It is concluded that the DASS design concept is a feasible, systematic, and modular approach to plant disturbance identification

  17. Replicas Strategy and Cache Optimization of Video Surveillance Systems Based on Cloud Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongheng Li

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of video surveillance technology, especially the popularity of cloud-based video surveillance applications, video data begins to grow explosively. However, in the cloud-based video surveillance system, replicas occupy an amount of storage space. Also, the slow response to video playback constrains the performance of the system. In this paper, considering the characteristics of video data comprehensively, we propose a dynamic redundant replicas mechanism based on security levels that can dynamically adjust the number of replicas. Based on the location correlation between cameras, this paper also proposes a data cache strategy to improve the response speed of data reading. Experiments illustrate that: (1 our dynamic redundant replicas mechanism can save storage space while ensuring data security; (2 the cache mechanism can predict the playback behaviors of the users in advance and improve the response speed of data reading according to the location and time correlation of the front-end cameras; and (3 in terms of cloud-based video surveillance, our proposed approaches significantly outperform existing methods.

  18. MORTICIA, a statistical analysis software package for determining optical surveillance system effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramkilowan, A.; Griffith, D. J.

    2017-10-01

    Surveillance modelling in terms of the standard Detect, Recognise and Identify (DRI) thresholds remains a key requirement for determining the effectiveness of surveillance sensors. With readily available computational resources it has become feasible to perform statistically representative evaluations of the effectiveness of these sensors. A new capability for performing this Monte-Carlo type analysis is demonstrated in the MORTICIA (Monte- Carlo Optical Rendering for Theatre Investigations of Capability under the Influence of the Atmosphere) software package developed at the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR). This first generation, python-based open-source integrated software package, currently in the alpha stage of development aims to provide all the functionality required to perform statistical investigations of the effectiveness of optical surveillance systems in specific or generic deployment theatres. This includes modelling of the mathematical and physical processes that govern amongst other components of a surveillance system; a sensor's detector and optical components, a target and its background as well as the intervening atmospheric influences. In this paper we discuss integral aspects of the bespoke framework that are critical to the longevity of all subsequent modelling efforts. Additionally, some preliminary results are presented.

  19. An optimal beam alignment method for large-scale distributed space surveillance radar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian; Wang, Dongya; Xia, Shuangzhi

    2018-06-01

    Large-scale distributed space surveillance radar is a very important ground-based equipment to maintain a complete catalogue for Low Earth Orbit (LEO) space debris. However, due to the thousands of kilometers distance between each sites of the distributed radar system, how to optimally implement the Transmitting/Receiving (T/R) beams alignment in a great space using the narrow beam, which proposed a special and considerable technical challenge in the space surveillance area. According to the common coordinate transformation model and the radar beam space model, we presented a two dimensional projection algorithm for T/R beam using the direction angles, which could visually describe and assess the beam alignment performance. Subsequently, the optimal mathematical models for the orientation angle of the antenna array, the site location and the T/R beam coverage are constructed, and also the beam alignment parameters are precisely solved. At last, we conducted the optimal beam alignment experiments base on the site parameters of Air Force Space Surveillance System (AFSSS). The simulation results demonstrate the correctness and effectiveness of our novel method, which can significantly stimulate the construction for the LEO space debris surveillance equipment.

  20. The California All-sky Meteor Surveillance (CAMS) System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gural, P. S.

    2011-01-01

    A unique next generation multi-camera, multi-site video meteor system is being developed and deployed in California to provide high accuracy orbits of simultaneously captured meteors. Included herein is a description of the goals, concept of operations, hardware, and software development progress. An appendix contains a meteor camera performance trade study made for video systems circa 2010.

  1. Postoperative Surgical Site Infections: Understanding the Discordance Between Surveillance Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali-Mucheru, Mariam N; Seville, Maria T; Miller, Vickie; Sampathkumar, Priya; Etzioni, David A

    2018-04-18

    To characterize agreement in the ascertainment of surgical site infections (SSIs) between the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP), National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN), and administrative data. The NSQIP, NHSN, and administrative data are the primary systems used to monitor and report SSIs for the purpose of quality control and benchmarking of hospitals and surgeons. These systems have different methods for identifying SSIs. We queried the NHSN, NSQIP, and administrative data systems for patients who had an operation at 1 of 4 hospitals within a single health system between January 2013 and September 2015. The detection of an SSI during a postoperative hospitalization was the outcome of analysis. Any SSI detected by one (or more) of these systems was analyzed by 2 reviewers to determine the presence of discrete elements of documentation constituting evidence of SSI. Concordance between the 3 systems (NHSN, NSQIP, and administrative data) was analyzed using Cohen's kappa. After application of appropriate exclusion criteria, a cohort of 9447 inpatient operations was analyzed. In total, 130 SSIs were detected by 1 or more of the 3 systems, with reported SSI rates of 0.5% (NHSN), 0.7% (administrative data), and 1.0% (NSQIP). Of these 130 SSIs, only 17 SSIs were reported by all 3 systems. The concordance between these 3 systems was moderate (kappa values NSQIP-NHSN = 0.50 [0.40-0.60], administrative-NHSN = 0.36 [0.24-0.47], and administrative-NSQIP = 0.47 [0.38-0.57]). Chart review found that reasons for discordance were related to issues of different criteria as well as inaccuracies. There is significant discordance in the determination of SSIs reported by the NHSN, NSQIP, and administrative data. The differences and limitations of each of these systems have to be recognized, especially when using these data for quality reports and pay for performance.

  2. A Master-Slave Surveillance System to Acquire Panoramic and Multiscale Videos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a master-slave visual surveillance system that uses stationary-dynamic camera assemblies to achieve wide field of view and selective focus of interest. In this system, the fish-eye panoramic camera is capable of monitoring a large area, and the PTZ dome camera has high mobility and zoom ability. In order to achieve the precise interaction, preprocessing spatial calibration between these two cameras is required. This paper introduces a novel calibration approach to automatically calculate a transformation matrix model between two coordinate systems by matching feature points. In addition, a distortion correction method based on Midpoint Circle Algorithm is proposed to handle obvious horizontal distortion in the captured panoramic image. Experimental results using realistic scenes have demonstrated the efficiency and applicability of the system with real-time surveillance.

  3. Infecção pelo HIV durante a gestação: estudo-Sentinela Parturiente, Brasil, 2002 HIV infection during pregnancy: the Sentinel Surveillance Project, Brazil, 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Borges de Souza Júnior

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a cobertura efetiva da detecção da infecção pelo HIV durante a gestação, em âmbito nacional. MÉTODOS: A cobertura efetiva do teste de HIV na gestação foi definida como a proporção de gestantes que teve atendimento pré-natal (pelo menos uma consulta, pedido de teste de HIV e conhecimento do resultado antes do parto, sendo estimada por processo de amostragem, utilizando-se as informações coletadas no Estudo-Sentinela Parturiente, 2002. As desigualdades da cobertura efetiva foram analisadas por: grande região; tamanho populacional do município de ocorrência do parto; e grau de instrução da mãe. RESULTADOS: A cobertura efetiva do teste de HIV durante a gestação foi estimada em 52%. As enormes desigualdades socioespaciais ficaram evidenciadas na comparação entre as regiões Nordeste (24% e Sul (72%; entre parturientes analfabetas (19% com as que têm o ensino fundamental completo (64%; entre as que realizaram o parto em municípios pequenos (36% com as que o realizaram em municípios com mais de 500 mil habitantes (66%. As recomendações do Ministério da Saúde foram atendidas, completamente, por somente 27% parturientes. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados estabelecem a necessidade de haver medidas voltadas para maior cobertura da detecção do HIV na gestação, e indicam que os programas do Programa Nacional de DST e Aids e os programas de saúde da mulher devem ser intensificados, com estratégias conjuntas entre eles.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the actual coverage of HIV infection detection during pregnancy at national level. METHODS: The actual coverage of HIV testing during pregnancy was defined as the proportion of women who attended prenatal care visits (at least one visit, ordering HIV testing and knowledge of test result before delivery. The coverage was estimated by sampling procedures based on the 2002 Sentinel Surveillance Study data. Actual coverage Inequalities were assessed by: country regions

  4. R and D study on on-line criticality surveillance system (IV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Sumasu

    2000-02-01

    Developing an inexpensive on-line criticality surveillance system is required for ensuring the safety of nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Based on the series of researches for five years, R and D study on On-line Criticality Surveillance system has been carried out since 1996. The concept of this Criticality Surveillance System is based on the Auto-Regressive Moving Average (ARMA) model identification algorithms to the time series of signal fluctuation of a neutron detector. We have proposed several new ideas of modification to the original design of the Criticality Surveillance System, and also reported some results of numerical analysis over the DCA experiments. In those days, DOS/V personal computers with Microsoft Windows have came into wide use instead of those based on the MS-DOS, which have been popular in Japan. NEC, a major maker of MS-DOS computers, stopped the production of MS-DOS computers and changed their management policy toward production of DOS/V personal computers. Our researches have been developed using MS-DOS computers. For the effective use of these important results, it became an urgent theme to transplant all programs developed on MS-DOS computers into computers with the OS, which is not easily affected by commercialism. Since the design concept should be based on high reliability, electromagnetic disturbance-free and high expandability, and also computers have achieved remarkably high performance as well as low price in these days, these computers should be used not only as a simple signal processing unit but also a totally integrated signal analyzing system along with conventional signal analyzing software in stead of IC chips with analyzing soft wares. This configuration enables us to easily introduce newly developed techniques and to provide supplement information. Then, this approach can enhance the reliability of the Criticality Surveillance System without addition of any special devices, and also provide the flexibility of the system

  5. SOA-surveillance Nederland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijlaarsdam J; Bosman A; Laar MJW van de; CIE

    2000-01-01

    In May 1999 a working group was started to evaluate the current surveillance systems for sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and to make suggestions for a renewed effective and efficient STD surveillance system in the Netherlands. The surveillance system has to provide insight into the prevalence

  6. The South African national non-natural mortality surveillance system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home > Vol 91, No 5 (2001) > ... Data entered into the system by mortuary staff were checked against a random sample of cases ... Lack of equipment, personnel resistance, and closure of some mortuaries prevented implementation in ...

  7. National Vital Statistics System (NVSS) - National Cardiovascular Disease Surveillance Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2000 forward. NVSS is a secure, web-based data management system that collects and disseminates the Nation's official vital statistics. Indicators from this data...

  8. Barriers and facilitators of the HIV care continuum in Southern New England for people with drug or alcohol use and living with HIV/AIDS: perspectives of HIV surveillance experts and service providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grau, Lauretta E; Griffiths-Kundishora, Abbie; Heimer, Robert; Hutcheson, Marguerite; Nunn, Amy; Towey, Caitlin; Stopka, Thomas J

    2017-10-02

    Contemporary studies about HIV care continuum (HCC) outcomes within substance using populations primarily focus on individual risk factors rather than provider- or systems-level influences. Over 25% of people living with HIV (PLWH) have substance use disorders that can alter their path through the HCC. As part of a study of HCC outcomes in nine small cities in Southern New England (population 100,000-200,000 and relatively high HIV prevalence particularly among substance users), this qualitative analysis sought to understand public health staff and HIV service providers' perspectives on how substance use may influence HCC outcomes. Interviews with 49 participants, collected between November 2015 and June 2016, were analyzed thematically using a modified social ecological model as the conceptual framework and codes for substance use, HCC barriers and facilitators, successes and failures of initiatives targeting the HCC, and criminal justice issues. Eight themes were identified concerning the impact of substance use on HCC outcomes. At the individual level, these included coping and satisfying basic needs and could influence all HCC steps (i.e., testing, treatment linkage, adherence, and retention, and viral load suppression). The interpersonal level themes included stigma issues and providers' cultural competence and treatment attitudes and primarily influenced treatment linkage, retention, and viral load suppression. These same HCC steps were influenced at the health care systems level by organizations' physical environment and resources as well as intra-/inter-agency communication. Testing and retention were the most likely steps to affect at the policy/society level, and the themes included opposition within an organization or community, and activities with unintended consequences. The most substantial HCC challenges for PLWH with substance use problems included linking and retaining in treatment those with multiple co-morbidities and meeting their basic living

  9. Strengthening health security at the Hajj mass gatherings: characteristics of the infectious diseases surveillance systems operational during the 2015 Hajj.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alotaibi, Badriah M; Yezli, Saber; Bin Saeed, Abdul-Aziz A; Turkestani, Abdulhafeez; Alawam, Amnah H; Bieh, Kingsley L

    2017-05-01

    Hajj is one of the largest and the most ethnically and culturally diverse mass gatherings worldwide. The use of appropriate surveillance systems ensures timely information management for effective planning and response to infectious diseases threats during the pilgrimage. The literature describes infectious diseases prevention and control strategies for Hajj but with limited information on the operations and characteristics of the existing Hajj infectious diseases surveillance systems. We reviewed documents, including guidelines and reports from the Saudi Ministry of Health's database, to describe the characteristics of the infectious diseases surveillance systems that were operational during the 2015 Hajj, highlighting best practices and gaps and proposing strategies for strengthening and improvement. Using Pubmed and Embase online search engines and a combination of search terms including, 'mass gatherings' 'Olympics' 'surveillance' 'Hajj' 'health security', we explored the existing literature and highlighted some lessons learnt from other international mass gatherings. A regular indicator-based infectious disease surveillance system generates routine reports from health facilities within the Kingdom to the regional and central public health directorates all year round. During Hajj, enhanced indicator-based notifiable diseases surveillance systems complement the existing surveillance tool to ensure timely reporting of event information for appropriate action by public health officials. There is need to integrate the existing Hajj surveillance data management systems and to implement syndromic surveillance as an early warning system for infectious disease control during Hajj. International engagement is important to strengthen Hajj infectious diseases surveillance and to prevent disease transmission and globalization of infectious agents which could undermine global health security. © International Society of Travel Medicine, 2017. Published by Oxford University

  10. Experiences From Developing and Upgrading a Web-Based Surveillance System for Malaria Elimination in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Clementine; Lopes, Sérgio; Mellor, Steve; Aryal, Siddhi; Sovannaroth, Siv; Roca-Feltrer, Arantxa

    2017-06-14

    Strengthening the surveillance component is key toward achieving country-wide malaria elimination in Cambodia. A Web-based upgraded malaria information system (MIS) was deemed to essentially act as the central component for surveillance strengthening. New functionality (eg, data visualization) and operational (eg, data quality) attributes of the system received particular attention. However, building from the lessons learned in previous systems' developments, other aspects unique to Cambodia were considered to be equally important; for instance, feasibility issues, particularly at the field level (eg, user acceptability at various health levels), and sustainability needs (eg, long-term system flexibility). The Cambodian process of identifying the essential changes and critical attributes for this new information system can provide a model for other countries at various stages of the disease control and elimination continuum. Sharing these experiences not only facilitates the establishment of "best practices" but also accelerates global and regional malaria elimination efforts. In this article, Cambodia's experience in developing and upgrading its MIS to remain responsive to country-specific needs demonstrates the necessity for considering functionality, operationalization, feasibility, and sustainability of an information system in the context of malaria elimination. ©Clementine Fu, Sérgio Lopes, Steve Mellor, Siddhi Aryal, Siv Sovannaroth, Arantxa Roca-Feltrer. Originally published in JMIR Public Health and Surveillance (http://publichealth.jmir.org), 14.06.2017.

  11. Maternal and foetal outcomes among 4118 women with HIV infection treated with lopinavir/ritonavir during pregnancy: analysis of population-based surveillance data from the national study of HIV in pregnancy and childhood in the United Kingdom and Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tookey, Pat A; Thorne, Claire; van Wyk, Jean; Norton, Michael

    2016-02-04

    The National Study of HIV in Pregnancy and Childhood (NSHPC) conducts comprehensive population-based surveillance of pregnancies in women with HIV infection in the United Kingdom/Ireland. Use of antepartum antiretroviral therapy (ART) for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) and to treat maternal infection, if required, is standard practise in this population; lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) is commonly used. The study objective was to examine the use of LPV/r among pregnant women with HIV infection to describe maternal and foetal outcomes. The NSHPC study collected maternal, perinatal and paediatric data through confidential and voluntary obstetric and paediatric reporting schemes. Pregnancies reported to the NSHPC by June 2013, due to deliver 2003-2012 and with LPV/r exposure were included in this analysis, using pregnancy as the unit of observation. Four thousand eight hundred sixty-four LPV/r-exposed pregnancies resulting in 4702 deliveries in 4118 women were identified. Maternal region of birth was primarily sub-Saharan Africa (77 %) or United Kingdom/Ireland (14 %). Median maternal age at conception was 30 years. LPV/r was initiated preconception in 980 (20 %) and postconception in 3884 (80 %) pregnancies; median duration of antepartum LPV/r exposure was 270 and 107 days, respectively. Viral load close to delivery was HIV infection in the United Kingdom and Ireland who received LPV/r-containing ART regimens demonstrate that these regimens have a good safety profile and are effective for viral suppression during pregnancy, with associated low rates of MTCT.

  12. A survey of core and support activities of communicable disease surveillance systems at operating-level CDCs in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Weiyi; Lv, Jun; Li, Liming

    2010-11-17

    In recent years, problems like insufficient coordination, low efficiency, and heavy working load in national communicable disease surveillance systems in China have been pointed out by many researchers. To strengthen the national communicable disease surveillance systems becomes an immediate concern. Since the World Health Organization has recommended that a structured approach to strengthen national communicable disease surveillance must include an evaluation to existing systems which usually begins with a systematic description, we conducted the first survey for communicable disease surveillance systems in China, in order to understand the situation of core and support surveillance activities at province-level and county-level centers for disease control and prevention (CDCs). A nationwide survey was conducted by mail between May and October 2006 to investigate the implementation of core and support activities of the Notifiable Disease Reporting System (NDRS) and disease-specific surveillance systems in all of the 31 province-level and selected 14 county-level CDCs in Mainland China The comments on the performance of communicable disease surveillance systems were also collected from the directors of CDCs in this survey. The core activities of NDRS such as confirmation, reporting and analysis and some support activities such as supervision and staff training were found sufficient in both province-level and county-level surveyed CDCs, but other support activities including information feedback, equipment and financial support need to be strengthened in most of the investigated CDCs. A total of 47 communicable diseases or syndromes were under surveillance at province level, and 20 diseases or syndromes at county level. The activities among different disease-specific surveillance systems varied widely. Acute flaccid paralysis (AFP), measles and tuberculosis (TB) surveillance systems got relatively high recognition both at province level and county level. China has

  13. Strengthening systems for communicable disease surveillance: creating a laboratory network in Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndihokubwayo Jean B

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The recent emergence of a novel strain of influenza virus with pandemic potential underscores the need for quality surveillance and laboratory services to contribute to the timely detection and confirmation of public health threats. To provide a framework for strengthening disease surveillance and response capacities in African countries, the World Health Organization Regional Headquarters for Africa (AFRO developed Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR aimed at improving national surveillance and laboratory systems. IDSR emphasizes the linkage of information provided by public health laboratories to the selection of relevant, appropriate and effective public health responses to disease outbreaks. Methods We reviewed the development of Rwanda's National Reference Laboratory (NRL to understand essential structures involved in creating a national public health laboratory network. We reviewed documents describing the NRL's organization and record of test results, conducted site visits, and interviewed health staff in the Ministry of Health and in partner agencies. Findings were developed by organizing thematic categories and grouping examples within them. We purposefully sought to identify success factors as well as challenges inherent in developing a national public health laboratory system. Results Among the identified success factors were: a structured governing framework for public health surveillance; political commitment to promote leadership for stronger laboratory capacities in Rwanda; defined roles and responsibilities for each level; coordinated approaches between technical and funding partners; collaboration with external laboratories; and use of performance results in advocacy with national stakeholders. Major challenges involved general infrastructure, human resources, and budgetary constraints. Conclusions Rwanda's experience with collaborative partnerships contributed to creation of a functional

  14. Evaluation of cholera surveillance system in Osu Klottey District, Accra, Ghana (2011-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjei, Eric Yirenkyi; Malm, Keziah Laurencia; Mensah, Kofi Nyarko; Sackey, Samuel Oko; Ameme, Donne; Kenu, Ernest; Abdulai, Marijanatu; Mills, Richael; Afari, Edwin

    2017-01-01

    Cholera is an acute illness characterized by profuse watery diarrhea. It is caused by vibrio cholera subgroup 01 and 0139. Rapid administration of fluid replacement therapy and supportive treatment can reduce mortality to around 1%. By the close of 2011, 10,628 cases and 100 deaths were reported in Ghana with a case fatality rate of 0.99. It is important to evaluate the cholera surveillance system in Ghana to determine if it is meeting its objective. The study was conducted in Osu Klottey district in the Accra Metropolitan area in January 2014. We assessed the operations (attributes and performance) of the surveillance system for cholera using CDC guidelines (2001). Surveillance data records at the district level from 2011-2013 were extracted and analyzed for frequency using Microsoft excel. Stakeholders and key informants were interviewed using structured questionnaire. Records were also reviewed at some health facilities and at district levels. In 2011 and 2012, case fatality rates (1.3% and 0.65%) respectively. Males were mostly affected. The most affected age group was 20-29. In 2011, Predictive value positive was 69.2% and 50% in 2012.Cholera peaked in March 2011 and April 2012. The Government of Ghana funded the system. The system is sensitive, simple, stable, flexible, acceptable and representative. It was also useful and data quality was relatively good. Predictive Value Positive was also good. The surveillance system is achieving its set out objectives. The system is sensitive, simple, stable, flexible, and acceptable. Predictive value positive was good.

  15. Surveillance Angels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rothkrantz, L.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The use of sensor networks has been proposed for military surveillance and environmental monitoring applications. Those systems are composed of a heterogeneous set of sensors to observe the environment. In centralised systems the observed data will be conveyed to the control room to process the

  16. Investigating the interface between health system reform and HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During the period in which the HIV/AIDS epidemic has taken hold in sub-Saharan Africa, health system reforms have and continue to be introduced throughout the region. In spite of the multidisciplinary research undertaken, it can be questioned whether the relationships between processes of reform and some of the critical ...

  17. Light Water Reactor-Pressure Vessel Surveillance project computer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merriman, S.H.

    1980-10-01

    A dedicated process control computer has been implemented for regulating the metallurgical Pressure Vessel Wall Benchmark Facility (PSF) at the Oak Ridge Research Reactor. The purpose of the PSF is to provide reliable standards and methods by which to judge the radiation damage to reactor pressure vessel specimens. Benchmark data gathered from the PSF will be used to improve and standardize procedures for assessing the remaining safe operating lifetime of aging reactors. The computer system controls the pressure vessel specimen environment in the presence of gamma heating so that in-vessel conditions are simulated. Instrumented irradiation capsules, in which the specimens are housed, contain temperature sensors and electrical heaters. The computer system regulates the amount of power delivered to the electrical heaters based on the temperature distribution within the capsules. Time-temperature profiles are recorded along with reactor conditions for later correlation with specimen metallurgical changes

  18. Expert system for online surveillance of nuclear reactor coolant pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, K.C.; Singer, R.M.; Humenik, K.E.

    1993-01-01

    An expert system for determining the operability of a specified pump is described comprising: a set of pumps of which the specified pump is a member; means for measuring physical parameters representative to the operations condition each pump of said set of pumps; means for acquiring data generated by said measuring means; an artificial-intelligence based inference engine coupled to said data acquiring means where said inference engine applies a sequential probability ratio test to statistically evaluate said acquired data to determine a status for the specified pump and its respective measuring means by continually monitoring and comparing changes in a specific operational parameter signal acquired from a plurality of measurement means; means for transferring said status generated by said interference engine to an output system

  19. Re-thinking global health sector efforts for HIV and tuberculosis epidemic control: promoting integration of programme activities within a strengthened health system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Dermot

    2010-07-05

    The global financial crisis threatens global health, particularly exacerbating diseases of inequality, e.g. HIV/AIDS, and diseases of poverty, e.g. tuberculosis. The aim of this paper is to reconsider established practices and policies for HIV and tuberculosis epidemic control, aiming at delivering better results and value for money. This may be achieved by promoting greater integration of HIV and tuberculosis control programme activities within a strengthened health system. HIV and tuberculosis share many similarities in terms of their disease burden and the recommended stratagems for their control. HIV and tuberculosis programmes implement similar sorts of control activities, e.g. case finding and treatment, which depend for success on generic health system issues, including vital registration, drug procurement and supply, laboratory network, human resources, and financing. However, the current health system approach to HIV and tuberculosis control often involves separate specialised services. Despite some recent progress, collaboration between the programmes remains inadequate, progress in obtaining synergies has been slow, and results remain far below those needed to achieve universal access to key interventions. A fundamental re-think of the current strategic approach involves promoting integrated delivery of HIV and tuberculosis programme activities as part of strengthened general health services: epidemiological surveillance, programme monitoring and evaluation, community awareness of health-seeking behavior, risk behaviour modification, infection control, treatment scale-up (first-line treatment regimens), drug-resistance surveillance, containing and countering drug-resistance (second-line treatment regimens), research and development, global advocacy and global partnership. Health agencies should review policies and progress in HIV and tuberculosis epidemic control, learn mutual lessons for policy development and scaling up interventions, and identify ways

  20. Re-thinking global health sector efforts for HIV and tuberculosis epidemic control: promoting integration of programme activities within a strengthened health system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher Dermot

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The global financial crisis threatens global health, particularly exacerbating diseases of inequality, e.g. HIV/AIDS, and diseases of poverty, e.g. tuberculosis. The aim of this paper is to reconsider established practices and policies for HIV and tuberculosis epidemic control, aiming at delivering better results and value for money. This may be achieved by promoting greater integration of HIV and tuberculosis control programme activities within a strengthened health system. Discussion HIV and tuberculosis share many similarities in terms of their disease burden and the recommended stratagems for their control. HIV and tuberculosis programmes implement similar sorts of control activities, e.g. case finding and treatment, which depend for success on generic health system issues, including vital registration, drug procurement and supply, laboratory network, human resources, and financing. However, the current health system approach to HIV and tuberculosis control often involves separate specialised services. Despite some recent progress, collaboration between the programmes remains inadequate, progress in obtaining synergies has been slow, and results remain far below those needed to achieve universal access to key interventions. A fundamental re-think of the current strategic approach involves promoting integrated delivery of HIV and tuberculosis programme activities as part of strengthened general health services: epidemiological surveillance, programme monitoring and evaluation, community awareness of health-seeking behavior, risk behaviour modification, infection control, treatment scale-up (first-line treatment regimens, drug-resistance surveillance, containing and countering drug-resistance (second-line treatment regimens, research and development, global advocacy and global partnership. Health agencies should review policies and progress in HIV and tuberculosis epidemic control, learn mutual lessons for policy

  1. S4HARA: System for HIV/AIDS resource allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carter Michael W

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV/AIDS resource allocation decisions are influenced by political, social, ethical and other factors that are difficult to quantify. Consequently, quantitative models of HIV/AIDS resource allocation have had limited impact on actual spending decisions. We propose a decision-support System for HIV/AIDS Resource Allocation (S4HARA that takes into consideration both principles of efficient resource allocation and the role of non-quantifiable influences on the decision-making process for resource allocation. Methods S4HARA is a four-step spreadsheet-based model. The first step serves to identify the factors currently influencing HIV/AIDS allocation decisions. The second step consists of prioritizing HIV/AIDS interventions. The third step involves allocating the budget to the HIV/AIDS interventions using a rational approach. Decision-makers can select from several rational models of resource allocation depending on availability of data and level of complexity. The last step combines the results of the first and third steps to highlight the influencing factors that act as barriers or facilitators to the results suggested by the rational resource allocation approach. Actionable recommendations are then made to improve the allocation. We illustrate S4HARA in the context of a primary healthcare clinic in South Africa. Results The clinic offers six types of HIV/AIDS interventions and spends US$750,000 annually on these programs. Current allocation decisions are influenced by donors, NGOs and the government as well as by ethical and religious factors. Without additional funding, an optimal allocation of the total budget suggests that the portion allotted to condom distribution be increased from 1% to 15% and the portion allotted to prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections be increased from 43% to 71%, while allocation to other interventions should decrease. Conclusion Condom uptake at the clinic should be increased by

  2. S4HARA: System for HIV/AIDS resource allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasry, Arielle; Carter, Michael W; Zaric, Gregory S

    2008-03-26

    HIV/AIDS resource allocation decisions are influenced by political, social, ethical and other factors that are difficult to quantify. Consequently, quantitative models of HIV/AIDS resource allocation have had limited impact on actual spending decisions. We propose a decision-support System for HIV/AIDS Resource Allocation (S4HARA) that takes into consideration both principles of efficient resource allocation and the role of non-quantifiable influences on the decision-making process for resource allocation. S4HARA is a four-step spreadsheet-based model. The first step serves to identify the factors currently influencing HIV/AIDS allocation decisions. The second step consists of prioritizing HIV/AIDS interventions. The third step involves allocating the budget to the HIV/AIDS interventions using a rational approach. Decision-makers can select from several rational models of resource allocation depending on availability of data and level of complexity. The last step combines the results of the first and third steps to highlight the influencing factors that act as barriers or facilitators to the results suggested by the rational resource allocation approach. Actionable recommendations are then made to improve the allocation. We illustrate S4HARA in the context of a primary healthcare clinic in South Africa. The clinic offers six types of HIV/AIDS interventions and spends US$750,000 annually on these programs. Current allocation decisions are influenced by donors, NGOs and the government as well as by ethical and religious factors. Without additional funding, an optimal allocation of the total budget suggests that the portion allotted to condom distribution be increased from 1% to 15% and the portion allotted to prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections be increased from 43% to 71%, while allocation to other interventions should decrease. Condom uptake at the clinic should be increased by changing the condom distribution policy from a pull system to a push

  3. TENTACLE Multi-Camera Immersive Surveillance System Phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-16

    variants available. For a video with 640x480 frame resolution the CPU CIEL*a*b* performs at 11 FPS (Frames Per Second) on a quad core Xeon processor ...running at 2.67 GHz. For the same video the GPU variant of CIEL*a*b* background model processing speed is 44 FPS on the same processor with an Nvidia...The model is also sometimes called HMAX (Hierarchical Model and X). The BIM tries to build a system that emulates object recognition in human cortex

  4. Evaluation of the enterovirus laboratory surveillance system in Denmark, 2010 to 2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Condell, Orla; Midgley, Sofie E; Christiansen, Claus Bohn

    2016-01-01

    The primary aim of the Danish enterovirus (EV) surveillance system is to document absence of poliovirus infection. The conflict in Syria has left many children unvaccinated and movement from areas with polio cases to Europe calls for increased awareness to detect and respond to virus-transmission......The primary aim of the Danish enterovirus (EV) surveillance system is to document absence of poliovirus infection. The conflict in Syria has left many children unvaccinated and movement from areas with polio cases to Europe calls for increased awareness to detect and respond to virus......-transmission in a timely manner. We evaluate the national EV laboratory surveillance, to generate recommendations for system strengthening. The system was analysed for completeness of viral typing analysis and clinical information and timeliness of specimen collection, laboratory results and reporting of clinical...... information. Of 23,720 specimens screened, 2,202 (9.3%) were EV-positive. Submission of cerebrospinal fluid and faecal specimens from primary diagnostic laboratories was 79.5% complete (845/1,063), and varied by laboratory and patient age. EV genotypes were determined in 68.5% (979/1,430) of laboratory...

  5. Falling-incident detection and throughput enhancement in a multi-camera video-surveillance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shieh, Wann-Yun; Huang, Ju-Chin

    2012-09-01

    For most elderly, unpredictable falling incidents may occur at the corner of stairs or a long corridor due to body frailty. If we delay to rescue a falling elder who is likely fainting, more serious consequent injury may occur. Traditional secure or video surveillance systems need caregivers to monitor a centralized screen continuously, or need an elder to wear sensors to detect falling incidents, which explicitly waste much human power or cause inconvenience for elders. In this paper, we propose an automatic falling-detection algorithm and implement this algorithm in a multi-camera video surveillance system. The algorithm uses each camera to fetch the images from the regions required to be monitored. It then uses a falling-pattern recognition algorithm to determine if a falling incident has occurred. If yes, system will send short messages to someone needs to be noticed. The algorithm has been implemented in a DSP-based hardware acceleration board for functionality proof. Simulation results show that the accuracy of falling detection can achieve at least 90% and the throughput of a four-camera surveillance system can be improved by about 2.1 times. Copyright © 2011 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Privacy as Invisibility: Pervasive Surveillance and the Privatization of Peer-to-Peer Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Musiani

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the ongoing, increasing privatization of peer-to-peer (P2P file sharing systems – the emergence of systems that users may only join by personal, friend-to-friend invitation. It argues that, within P2P systems, privacy is increasingly coinciding with “mere” invisibility vis-à-vis the rest of the Internet ecosystem because of a trend that has shaped the recent history of P2P technology: The alternation between forms of pervasive surveillance of such systems, and reactions by developers and users to such restrictive measures. Yet, it also suggests that the richness of today’s landscape of P2P technology development and use, mainly in the field of Internet-based services, opens up new dimensions to the conceptualization of privacy, and may give room to a more articulate definition of the concept as related to P2P technology; one that includes not only the need of protection from external attacks, and the temporary outcomes of the competition between surveillance and counter-surveillance measures, but also issues such as user empowerment through better control over personal information, reconfiguration of data management practices, and removal of intermediaries in sharing and communication activities.

  7. Increases in Recent HIV Testing Among Men Who Have Sex With Men Coincide With the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Expanded Testing Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, Laura A.; Wejnert, Cyprian; Rose, Charles E.; Paz-Bailey, Gabriela; Taussig, Jennifer; Gern, Robert; Hoyte, Tamika; Salazar, Laura; White, Jianglan; Todd, Jeff; Bautista, Greg; Flynn, Colin; Sifakis, Frangiscos; German, Danielle; Isenberg, Debbie; Driscoll, Maura; Hurwitz, Elizabeth; Doherty, Rose; Wittke, Chris; Prachand, Nikhil; Benbow, Nanette; Melville, Sharon; Pannala, Praveen; Yeager, Richard; Sayegh, Aaron; Dyer, Jim; Sheu, Shane; Novoa, Alicia; Thrun, Mark; Al-Tayyib, Alia; Wilmoth, Ralph; Higgins, Emily; Griffin, Vivian; Mokotoff, Eve; MacMaster, Karen; Wolverton, Marcia; Risser, Jan; Rehman, Hafeez; Padgett, Paige; Bingham, Trista; Sey, Ekow Kwa; LaLota, Marlene; Metsch, Lisa; Forrest, David; Beck, Dano; Cardenas, Gabriel; Nemeth, Chris; Anderson, Bridget J.; Watson, Carol-Ann; Smith, Lou; Robinson, William T.; Gruber, DeAnn; Barak, Narquis; Murrill, Chris; Neaigus, Alan; Jenness, Samuel; Hagan, Holly; Reilly, Kathleen H.; Wendel, Travis; Cross, Helene; Bolden, Barbara; D'Errico, Sally; Wogayehu, Afework; Godette, Henry; Brady, Kathleen A.; Kirkland, Althea; Sifferman, Andrea; Miguelino-Keasling, Vanessa; Velasco, Al; Tovar, Veronica; Raymond, H. Fisher; De León, Sandra Miranda; Rolón-Colón, Yadira; Marzan, Melissa; Courogen, Maria; Jaenicke, Tom; Thiede, Hanne; Burt, Richard; Jia, Yujiang; Opoku, Jenevieve; Sansone, Marie; West, Tiffany; Magnus, Manya; Kuo, Irene

    2015-01-01

    According to National HIV Behavioral Surveillance system data, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing increased among gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men from 2008 to 2011 in cities funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Expanded Testing Initiative, suggesting that focused HIV testing initiatives might have positive effects. PMID:25352589

  8. Adverse reactions to cosmetic products and the Notification System in Health Surveillance: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huf, Gisele; Rito, Priscila da Nobrega; Presgrave, Rosaura de Farias; Boas, Maria Helena Simoes Villas

    2013-12-01

    This paper is part of a study that investigates the quality of cosmetic products and evaluates the cosmetic surveillance system. This study presents the results of a research that aimed to describe the point of view of the population in terms of the prevalence of Adverse Reactions (AR) and information about the surveillance system. A structured questionnaire was applied to a random sample of 200 people from the administrative staff of the Municipal Guard of Rio de Janeiro. 38% of the participants declared AR to some cosmetic product used in the past two years. To our knowledge, this is an unpublished study in Brazil, which presents results regarding the estimated prevalence of AR similarly to international studies.

  9. Maintenance quality surveillance for nuclear reactor instrument and control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clement, T.M.

    1976-01-01

    A description is given of a formal program of mandatory testing and inspection for assurance of reliability at the N-reactor. The techniques and procedures are called Equipment Maintenance Standards (EMS) and cover the nuclear plant systems which affect nuclear safety, environmental control, continuity of operation and reactor life. The scope of the program is such that all electrical, chemical, mechanical, and nuclear devices with interconnecting circuitry, linkages, and piping are functionally checked and/or inspected from sensors through actuating media necessary for carrying out the defined functions under startup, operating, and shutdown conditions and also under any credible accident condition. Records are kept of the AS FOUND results of the tests and inspections along with adjustments and repairs required to correct any out-of-limits conditions found. These records are accumulated and are used as a source for quantitative reliability information and for evaluating wear-out or design problems

  10. The Immune System of HIV-Exposed Uninfected Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Raya, Bahaa; Kollmann, Tobias R; Marchant, Arnaud; MacGillivray, Duncan M

    2016-01-01

    Infants born to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected women are HIV-exposed but the majority remains uninfected [i.e., HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU)]. HEU infants suffer greater morbidity and mortality from infections compared to HIV-unexposed (HU) peers. The reason(s) for these worse outcomes are uncertain, but could be related to an altered immune system state. This review comprehensively summarizes the current literature investigating the adaptive and innate immune system of HEU infants. HEU infants have altered cell-mediated immunity, including impaired T-cell maturation with documented hypo- as well as hyper-responsiveness to T-cell activation. And although prevaccination vaccine-specific antibody levels are often lower in HEU than HU, most HEU infants mount adequate humoral immune response following primary vaccination with diphtheria toxoid, haemophilus influenzae type b, whole cell pertussis, measles, hepatitis B, tetanus toxoid, and pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. However, HEU infants are often found to have lower absolute neutrophil counts as compared to HU infants. On the other hand, an increase of innate immune cytokine production and expression of co-stimulatory markers has been noted in HEU infants, but this increase appears to be restricted to the first few weeks of life. The immune system of HEU children beyond infancy remains largely unexplored.

  11. Letter to the editor: Pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV in Europe: The need for resistance surveillance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Van Tienen (Carla); D.A.M.C. van de Vijver (David); T. Noori (Teymur); A. Sonnerborg (Anders); C.A.B. Boucher (Charles)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstract__To the editor:__ In a recent paper by Hauser et al. in this journal, a prevalence of 10.8% of transmitted drugresistant viruses was reported among newly diagnosed HIV cases in Germany in 2013 and 2014. The authors conclude that genotypic resistance testing remains important for

  12. Insights from a Systematic Search for Information on Designs, Costs, and Effectiveness of Poliovirus Environmental Surveillance Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duintjer Tebbens, Radboud J; Zimmermann, Marita; Pallansch, Mark A; Thompson, Kimberly M

    2017-12-01

    Poliovirus surveillance plays a critical role in achieving and certifying eradication and will play a key role in the polio endgame. Environmental surveillance can provide an opportunity to detect circulating polioviruses prior to the observation of any acute flaccid paralysis cases. We completed a systematic review of peer-reviewed publications on environmental surveillance for polio including the search terms "environmental surveillance" or "sewage," and "polio," "poliovirus," or "poliomyelitis," and compared characteristics of the resulting studies. The review included 146 studies representing 101 environmental surveillance activities from 48 countries published between 1975 and 2016. Studies reported taking samples from sewage treatment facilities, surface waters, and various other environmental sources, although they generally did not present sufficient details to thoroughly evaluate the sewage systems and catchment areas. When reported, catchment areas varied from 50 to over 7.3 million people (median of 500,000 for the 25% of activities that reported catchment areas, notably with 60% of the studies not reporting this information and 16% reporting insufficient information to estimate the catchment area population size). While numerous studies reported the ability of environmental surveillance to detect polioviruses in the absence of clinical cases, the review revealed very limited information about the costs and limited information to support quantitative population effectiveness of conducting environmental surveillance. This review motivates future studies to better characterize poliovirus environmental surveillance systems and the potential value of information that they may provide in the polio endgame.

  13. Developing a Formal Specification for the Mission Systems of a Maritime Surveillance Aircraft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrucci, Laure; Billington, Jonathan; Kristensen, Lars Michael

    2003-01-01

    The mission system of an aircraft is a complex real-time distributed system consisting of a mission control computer, different kinds of devices interconnected by a number of serial data buses. The complexity and real-time requirements of mission systems have motivated research into the applicati...... system with Coloured Petri Nets and analysed the model using state spaces. Here, we describe how this model was refined and modified to obtain a Coloured Petri Net model for the AP-3C Orion maritime surveillance aircraft....

  14. Users manual data base MATSURV. Reactor pressure vessel material surveillance data management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenworthy, L.D.; Tether, C.D.

    1980-02-01

    This Users Guide to the data management system MATSURV has been prepared to assist the user in all facets of the task of processing data related to reactor pressure vessel materials surveillance; preparation of raw data for input, input of data, modification of existing data, retrieval and display of data, and the creation of data reports. MATSURV is structured upon the System 2000 data base management system which is maintained on the IBM 370/168 computer at National Institutes of Health. An overview of System 2000 is provided

  15. Development and piloting of the Fiji Injury Surveillance in Hospitals System (TRIP Project-1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainiqolo, I; Kafoa, B; McCaig, E; Kool, B; McIntyre, R; Ameratunga, S

    2013-01-01

    Whilst more than 90% of injury related deaths are estimated to occur in low-and-middle-income countries (LMICs), the epidemiology of fatal and hospitalised injuries in Pacific Island Countries has received scant attention. This study describes the development and piloting of a population-based trauma registry in Fiji to address this gap in knowledge. The Fiji Injury Surveillance in Hospitals (FISH) system was an active surveillance system designed to identify injuries resulting in death or a hospital admission in Viti Levu, Fiji. During the pilot conducted over five months in 2005, Accident and Emergency registers, admission folders and morgue registers from 8 of Viti Levu's 12 hospitals, and an additional 3 hospitals in other parts of the country were reviewed by hospital staff and medical students to identify cases and extract a minimum data set that included demographic factors; the mechanism, nature and context of injury; substance use; and discharge outcomes. The system was audited to identify and redress difficulties with data quality in a manner that also supported local capacity development and training in injury surveillance and data management. This pilot study demonstrated the potential to collect high quality data on injuries that can pose a significant threat to life in Fiji using a mechanism that also increased the capability of health professionals to recognise the significance of injury as a public health issue. The injury surveillance system piloted provides the opportunity to inform national injury control strategies in Fiji and increase the capacity for injury prevention and more focused research addressing risk factors in the local context. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Annual Surveillance Summary: Escherichia coli (E. coli) Infections in the Military Health System (MHS), 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Annual Surveillance Summary: Escherichia coli ( E . coli ) Infections in the Military Health System (MHS...or position of the Department of the Navy, Department of Defense, nor the U.S. Government. i i E . coli in the MHS: Annual Summary 2015 Prepared...March 2017 EpiData Center Department NMCPHC-EDC-TR-187-2017 ii ii E . coli in the MHS: Annual Summary 2015 Prepared March 2017 EpiData

  17. Recall bias in a case-control surveillance system on the use of medicine during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rockenbauer, M.; Olsen, Jørn; Czeizel, A.E.

    2001-01-01

    It is important to study possible teratogenic effects of drugs used during pregnancy. Many studies of this type rely upon case-control designs in which drug intake is recalled by the mothers after having given birth. Recall bias in this situation may lead to spurious associations. We looked...... study. A case-control surveillance system of this type may frequently cause spurious associations, with biased odds ratios up to a factor of 1.9....

  18. Cell Phone-Based System (Chaak) for Surveillance of Immatures of Dengue Virus Mosquito Vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    LOZANO–FUENTES, SAUL; WEDYAN, FADI; HERNANDEZ–GARCIA, EDGAR; SADHU, DEVADATTA; GHOSH, SUDIPTO; BIEMAN, JAMES M.; TEP-CHEL, DIANA; GARCÍA–REJÓN, JULIÁN E.; EISEN, LARS

    2014-01-01

    Capture of surveillance data on mobile devices and rapid transfer of such data from these devices into an electronic database or data management and decision support systems promote timely data analyses and public health response during disease outbreaks. Mobile data capture is used increasingly for malaria surveillance and holds great promise for surveillance of other neglected tropical diseases. We focused on mosquito-borne dengue, with the primary aims of: 1) developing and field-testing a cell phone-based system (called Chaak) for capture of data relating to the surveillance of the mosquito immature stages, and 2) assessing, in the dengue endemic setting of Mérida, México, the cost-effectiveness of this new technology versus paper-based data collection. Chaak includes a desktop component, where a manager selects premises to be surveyed for mosquito immatures, and a cell phone component, where the surveyor receives the assigned tasks and captures the data. Data collected on the cell phone can be transferred to a central database through different modes of transmission, including near-real time where data are transferred immediately (e.g., over the Internet) or by first storing data on the cell phone for future transmission. Spatial data are handled in a novel, semantically driven, geographic information system. Compared with a pen-and-paper-based method, use of Chaak improved the accuracy and increased the speed of data transcription into an electronic database. The cost-effectiveness of using the Chaak system will depend largely on the up-front cost of purchasing cell phones and the recurring cost of data transfer over a cellular network. PMID:23926788

  19. Overview of the software for the Telemation/Sandia unattended video surveillance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merillat, P.D.

    1979-10-01

    A microprocessor has been used to provide the major control functions in the Telemation/Sandia unattended video surveillance system. The software in the microprocessor provides control of the various hardware components and provides the capability of interactive communications with the operator. This document, in conjunction with the commented source listing, defines the philosophy and function of the software. It is assumed that the reader is familiar with the RCA 1802 COSMAC microprocessor and has a reasonable computer science background

  20. Comparison of 2 Disability Measures, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Stevens, Alissa C.; Courtney-Long, Elizabeth A.; Okoro, Catherine A.; Carroll, Dianna D.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Beginning in 2013, in addition to the 2-item disability question set asked since 2001, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) began using 5 of the 6 items from the US Department of Health and Human Services?recommended disability question set. We assess and compare disability prevalence using the 2-question and 5-question sets and describe characteristics of respondents who identified as having a disability using each question set. Methods We used data from the 2013 B...

  1. Pervasive surveillance-agent system based on wireless sensor networks: design and deployment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez, José F; Bravo, Sury; García, Ana B; Corredor, Iván; Familiar, Miguel S; López, Lourdes; Hernández, Vicente; Da Silva, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays, proliferation of embedded systems is enhancing the possibilities of gathering information by using wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Flexibility and ease of installation make these kinds of pervasive networks suitable for security and surveillance environments. Moreover, the risk for humans to be exposed to these functions is minimized when using these networks. In this paper, a virtual perimeter surveillance agent, which has been designed to detect any person crossing an invisible barrier around a marked perimeter and send an alarm notification to the security staff, is presented. This agent works in a state of 'low power consumption' until there is a crossing on the perimeter. In our approach, the 'intelligence' of the agent has been distributed by using mobile nodes in order to discern the cause of the event of presence. This feature contributes to saving both processing resources and power consumption since the required code that detects presence is the only system installed. The research work described in this paper illustrates our experience in the development of a surveillance system using WNSs for a practical application as well as its evaluation in real-world deployments. This mechanism plays an important role in providing confidence in ensuring safety to our environment

  2. Evaluation of the national Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System for dengue fever in Taiwan, 2010-2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caoimhe McKerr

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In Taiwan, around 1,500 cases of dengue fever are reported annually and incidence has been increasing over time. A national web-based Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NDSS has been in operation since 1997 to monitor incidence and trends and support case and outbreak management. We present the findings of an evaluation of the NDSS to ascertain the extent to which dengue fever surveillance objectives are being achieved.We extracted the NDSS data on all laboratory-confirmed dengue fever cases reported during 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2012 to assess and describe key system attributes based on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention surveillance evaluation guidelines. The system's structure and processes were delineated and operational staff interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. Crude and age-adjusted incidence rates were calculated and key demographic variables were summarised to describe reporting activity. Data completeness and validity were described across several variables.Of 5,072 laboratory-confirmed dengue fever cases reported during 2010-2012, 4,740 (93% were reported during July to December. The system was judged to be simple due to its minimal reporting steps. Data collected on key variables were correctly formatted and usable in > 90% of cases, demonstrating good data completeness and validity. The information collected was considered relevant by users with high acceptability. Adherence to guidelines for 24-hour reporting was 99%. Of 720 cases (14% recorded as travel-related, 111 (15% had an onset >14 days after return, highlighting the potential for misclassification. Information on hospitalization was missing for 22% of cases. The calculated PVP was 43%.The NDSS for dengue fever surveillance is a robust, well maintained and acceptable system that supports the collection of complete and valid data needed to achieve the surveillance objectives. The simplicity of the system engenders compliance leading to

  3. 2012 Sexually Transmitted Diseases Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data Appendix Tables A1 - A4 STD Surveillance Case Definitions Contributors Related Links STD Home STD Data & Statistics NCHHSTP Atlas Interactive STD Data - 1996-2013 STD Health Equity HIV/AIDS Surveillance & Statistics Follow STD STD on Twitter STD on Facebook File Formats Help: How do I view different ...

  4. Surveillance Analysis Computer System (SACS): Software requirements specification (SRS). Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasscock, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    This document is the primary document establishing requirements for the Surveillance Analysis Computer System (SACS) database, an Impact Level 3Q system. SACS stores information on tank temperatures, surface levels, and interstitial liquid levels. This information is retrieved by the customer through a PC-based interface and is then available to a number of other software tools. The software requirements specification (SRS) describes the system requirements for the SACS Project, and follows the Standard Engineering Practices (WHC-CM-6-1), Software Practices (WHC-CM-3-10) and Quality Assurance (WHC-CM-4-2, QR 19.0) policies

  5. An opportunity analysis system for space surveillance experiments with the MSX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridharan, Ramaswamy; Duff, Gary; Hayes, Tony; Wiseman, Andy

    1994-01-01

    The Mid-Course Space Experiment consists of a set of payloads on a satellite being designed and built under the sponsorship of Ballistic Missile Defense Office. The MSX satellite will conduct a series of measurements of phenomenology of backgrounds, missile targets, plumes and resident space objects (RSO's); and will engage in functional demonstrations in support of detection, acquisition and tracking for ballistic missile defense and space-based space surveillance missions. A complex satellite like the MSX has several constraints imposed on its operation by the sensors, the supporting instrumentation, power resources, data recording capability, communications and the environment in which all these operate. This paper describes the implementation of an opportunity and feasibility analysis system, developed at Lincoln Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, specifically to support the experiments of the Principal Investigator for space-based surveillance.

  6. Rapid prototyping of an automated video surveillance system: a hardware-software co-design approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Hau T.; Rakvic, Ryan N.; Broussard, Randy P.; Ives, Robert W.

    2011-06-01

    FPGA devices with embedded DSP and memory blocks, and high-speed interfaces are ideal for real-time video processing applications. In this work, a hardware-software co-design approach is proposed to effectively utilize FPGA features for a prototype of an automated video surveillance system. Time-critical steps of the video surveillance algorithm are designed and implemented in the FPGAs logic elements to maximize parallel processing. Other non timecritical tasks are achieved by executing a high level language program on an embedded Nios-II processor. Pre-tested and verified video and interface functions from a standard video framework are utilized to significantly reduce development and verification time. Custom and parallel processing modules are integrated into the video processing chain by Altera's Avalon Streaming video protocol. Other data control interfaces are achieved by connecting hardware controllers to a Nios-II processor using Altera's Avalon Memory Mapped protocol.

  7. A Home Integral Telecare System for HIV/AIDS Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caceres, Cesar; Gomez, Enrique J; Garcia, Felipe; Chausa, Paloma; Guzman, Jorge; Del Pozo, Francisco; Gatell, Jose Maria

    2005-01-01

    VIHrtual Hospital is a telemedicine web system for improving home integral care of chronic HIV patients through the Internet. Using the videoconference, chat or messaging tools included in the system, patients can visit their healthcare providers (physician, psychologist, nurse, psychiatrist, pharmacist, and social worker), having these access to the Electronic Patient Record. The system also provides a telepharmacy service that controls treatment adherence and side effects, sending the medication to the patient's home by courier. A virtual community has been created, facilitating communication between patients and improving the collaboration between professionals, creating a care plan for each patient. As a complement, there is a virtual library where users can find validated HIV/AIDS information helping to enhance prevention. This system has been developed using low cost technologies in order to extend the number of patients involved in its trial. Thus, VIHrtual Hospital is now on trial in the Hospital Clinic (Barcelona, Spain) involving a hundred patients and twenty healthcare professionals during two years.Although we are still waiting for the final results of the trial, we can already say that the use of telemedicine systems developed ad hoc for a chronic disease, like HIV/AIDS, improve the quality of care of the patients and their care team. The system described is a good example of the possibilities that technologies are offering to create new chronic patient care models based on telemedicine.

  8. [Study on smoking-attributed mortality by using all causes of death surveillance system in Tianjin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guohong; Zhang, Hui; Li, Wei; Wang, Dezheng; Xu, Zhongliang; Song, Guide; Zhang, Ying; Shen, Chengfeng; Zheng, Wenlong; Xue, Xiaodan; Shen, Wenda

    2016-03-01

    To understand the smoking-attributed mortality by inclusion of smoking information into all causes of death surveillance. Since 2010, the information about smoking status, smoking history and the number of cigarettes smoked daily had been added in death surveillance system. The measures of training, supervision, check, sampling survey and telephone verifying were taken to increase death reporting rate and reduce data missing rate and underreporting rate. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify risk factors for smoking-attributed mortality. During the study period (2010-2014), the annual death reporting rates ranged from 6.5‰ to 7.0‰. The reporting rates of smoking status, smoking history and the number of cigarettes smoked daily were 95.53%, 98.63% and 98.58%, respectively. Compared with the nonsmokers, the RR of males was 1.38 (1.33-1.43) for all causes of death and 3.07 (2.91-3.24) for lung cancer due to smoking, the RR of females was 1.46 (1.39-1.54) for all causes of death and 4.07 (3.81-4.35) for lung cancer due to smoking, respectively. The study of smoking attributed mortality can be developed with less investment by using the stable and effective all causes of death surveillance system in Tianjin.

  9. Automated surveillance system for hospital-acquired urinary tract infections in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Condell, Orla; Gubbels, Sophie; Nielsen, J

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Danish Hospital-Acquired Infections Database (HAIBA) is an automated surveillance system using hospital administrative, microbiological, and antibiotic medication data. AIM: To define and evaluate the case definition for hospital-acquired urinary tract infection (HA-UTI) and to de......BACKGROUND: The Danish Hospital-Acquired Infections Database (HAIBA) is an automated surveillance system using hospital administrative, microbiological, and antibiotic medication data. AIM: To define and evaluate the case definition for hospital-acquired urinary tract infection (HA-UTI......) and to describe surveillance data from 2010 to 2014. METHODS: The HA-UTI algorithm defined a laboratory-diagnosed UTI as a urine culture positive for no more than two micro-organisms with at least one at ≥10(4)cfu/mL, and a probable UTI as a negative urine culture and a relevant diagnosis code or antibiotic...... treatment. UTI was considered hospital-acquired if a urine sample was collected ≥48h after admission and UTI was calculated per 10,000 risk-days. For validation, prevalence was calculated for each day and compared to point prevalence survey (PPS) data. FINDINGS: HAIBA...

  10. R and D study on on-line criticality surveillance system (III)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Sumasu

    1999-02-01

    The Criticality Surveillance System should have high reliability and high expandability enable to apply new approaches. Under this basic concept, a basic design of the Criticality Surveillance System has been proposed in 1997. We propose here several new ideas of modification to the original design of the Criticality Surveillance System, and also reports some results of numerical analysis over the DCA experiments in 1996. In this report, first, we proposed the modification of the Criticality Surveillance System by adding a series of modules for the usage of the Feynman-α method over the γ-ray signal, because recent studies revealed that the statistical analysis of the γ-ray signal in time domain can provide very good information of the reactor decay constant even in the case of low count rate. This modification could increase the reliability of the Criticality Surveillance System over the wide range of amount of the reprocessed fuel in the tank. Last year we have developed an executable ADF program based on the Least Mean Squares, as the redundancy to the recursive ARMA model identification algorithm. However, this algorithm has a property that the convergence rate of parameter estimation becomes very slow when input data is corrupted with colored noise. To cope with this problem, we introduced a new ADF algorithm called Block ADF algorithm, which is developed to improve the convergence rate with less computational load to the computer. In Chapter 2, we showed the basic theory and a fast adaptive filter algorithm using eigenvalue reciprocals as stepsizes in Chapter 3. This new algorithm provides a stable parameter estimates with less computation as fast as the Recursive Least Squares Method. Thirdly, we introduced a notch filter for power line noise and a software. This filter has to be developed for each specific sampling frequency and specific power line frequency, however, this filter can remove not only the line spectrum of the power line frequency but also

  11. HIV/AIDS, Drug Abuse Treatment, and the Correctional System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipton, Douglas S.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses in-prison prevalence and transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). Focuses on epidemiology in prison settings, the role of ethnicity and gender in transmission, screening for HIV, segregating the HIV-positive inmate, condom distribution, medical treatment for HIV-positive inmates, HIV education and prevention, and tuberculosis…

  12. Practical experience with a local verification system for containment and surveillance sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauppe, W.D.; Richter, B.; Stein, G.

    1984-01-01

    With the growing number of nuclear facilities and a number of large commercial bulk handling facilities steadily coming into operation the International Atomic Energy Agency is faced with increasing requirements as to reducing its inspection efforts. One means of meeting these requirements will be to deploy facility based remote interrogation methods for its containment and surveillance instrumentation. Such a technical concept of remote interrogation was realized through the so-called LOVER system development, a local verification system for electronic safeguards seal systems. In the present investigations the application was extended to radiation monitoring by introducing an electronic interface between the electronic safeguards seal and the neutron detector electronics of a waste monitoring system. The paper discusses the safeguards motivation and background, the experimental setup of the safeguards system and the performance characteristics of this LOVER system. First conclusions can be drawn from the performance results with respect to the applicability in international safeguards. This comprises in particular the definition of design specifications for an integrated remote interrogation system for various types of containment and surveillance instruments and the specifications of safeguards applications employing such a system

  13. Central nervous system involvement in childhood HIV: CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muro, D.; Sanguesa, C.; Perez, A.; Otero, C.

    1997-01-01

    To determine the neuroradiological findings disclosed by CT on children infected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and to analyze the different radiological changes observed in the presence and absence of HIV encephalopathy. Fifty-one children with vertically transmitted HIV infection were divided into two groups according to the presence or absence of neurological changes (groups I and II, respectively). All the patients underwent cranial CT at different phases during the course of the disease. The presence of cerebral atrophy, calcifications of the basal ganglia, lesions involving white matter, opportunistic infections, vascular lesions and tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) was assessed. Neurological signs were observed in 17 patients (group I) and were absent in 34 (group II). Seventy percent of the patients in group I presented abnormal cranial CT findings, the most common of which were cerebral atrophy (58.8%) and calcifications of the basal ganglia (47%). One patient presented focal white matte lesions, another had hemorrhagic infarction and subdural hematoma and a third presented aneurysmal dilation of the intracerebral arteries. The rate of mortality in children with encephalopathy was 82.3%. Of the 34 patients in group II, Three (8.8%) presented an increase in the size of the ventricular system and of the subarachnoid space. Neuroradiological changes are frequently observed in children with HIV encephalopathy. Diffuse cerebral atrophy and calcification of the basal ganglia and periventricular white matter are the most common findings. Although cerebral atrophy can precede the development of encephalopathy, its presence generally coincides with neurological deterioration. The onset of neurological signs in HIV-infected patients indicates a very poor prognosis for the outcome of the disease. (Author) 32 refs

  14. Development and implementation of an HIV/AIDS trials management system: a geographical information systems approach

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Busgeeth, K

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available of randomised and clinically controlled trials of HIV/AIDS interventions can provide invaluable information to decision-making processes. Using the newly emerging geographical information systems (GIS) technology, researchers have developed a tool which assists...

  15. Containment and surveillance devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J.W.; Johnson, C.S.; Stieff, L.R.

    The growing acceptance of containment and surveillance as a means to increase safeguards effectiveness has provided impetus to the development of improved surveillance and containment devices. Five recently developed devices are described. The devices include one photographic and two television surveillance systems and two high security seals that can be verified while installed

  16. An estimate of the magnitude and trend of HIV/AIDS epidemic using data from the routine VCT services as an alternative data source to ANC sentinel surveillance in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getachew, Yehenew; Gotu, Butte; Enquselassie, Fikre

    2010-10-01

    Since early 1980s when AIDS was first recognized, there has been uncertainty about the future trend and the ultimate dimensions of the pandemic. This uncertainty persists because of difficulties in measuring HIV incidence and prevalence with a substantial degree of precision in a given population. One of the many factors for the lack of precision is the problem of obtaining representative data sources that can be extrapolated to the general population. National and regional HIV estimates for Ethiopia are derived from ANC based HIV surveillance data. Alternative data sources have not been exhaustively explored as potential tools to monitor the trend of HIV/ AIDS epidemic in the country. To estimate the magnitude and trend of HIV/AIDS epidemic using data from the routine VCT services as an alternative data source to ANC sentinel surveillance data. The study used secondary data sources from all government, private and NGO VCT centers, of the period of 2003-2005 in Addis Ababa. For the purpose of making comparative analysis of the VCT based estimations and projections, records of all five sentinel sites in Addis Ababa for the period 1983-2003 were reviewed. Both ANC and VCT data sources showed similar and regular trends from the beginning of the HIV epidemic till the year 1995 where the ANC showed a relatively higher prevalence rates than VCT data, with a maximum difference in HIV prevalence of 1.06% in 1993. However, a higher HIV prevalence was noted for the VCT than the ANC data source for the period of 1996-2002, with a maximum difference of 1.4% in 1998, the year when both the ANC and VCT modeled HIV prevalence reached the highest peak in Addis Ababa. On the contrary, the ANC based prevalence was higher than the VCT data for the period 2004-2010, with a maximum difference of 2.2%. This study suggests that VCT based HIV prevalence data closely approximates the ANC based data. Therefore VCT data source can be valuable to complement the ANC data in monitoring the HIV

  17. An Interfacing System for Radiation Surveillance Using a Radio Communication Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arunsiri, T.; Punnachaiya, S.; Pattarasumun, A.

    1998-01-01

    The development of an interfacing system for environmental radiation surveillance using radio communication network is aimed to improve a way by which environmental radiation measurement is transmitted and reported from the regional area monitoring station network. This also includes an automatic warning of beacon status via the radio link network to the center of environmental radiation control when an abnormal radiation level is detected. The interfacing system was developed by simulating the EGAT radio link network, the NT 2612, and can be separated into two parts. The first part was for a mobile station which can manage the output data from the radiation measurement system in the standard form of RS-232, IEEE-488, BCD and analog signal. This was accomplished by modulating the signal in selected baud rates ranging from 150 to 9600 bps using an economical radio packet capable of identifying and recalling the station code number. The other part is the linking system between the output data and the microcomputer equipped with a software to manage and evaluate the data from 10 surveillance stations for convenient handing of data output, statistical analysis and transmitting warning signal. Data transmission was tested using a baud rate of 1200 bps and was found to contain no detectable error when digital signal was transmitted while analog signal transmission resulted in deviations of less than ± 0.003%. The development of this radio link system provides a future trend for the environmental radiation monitoring network for countries with nuclear power plants or neighboring countries needed to continuously monitor for any abnormal radiation level in the environment. In case that the radiation surveillance system detects a high level of radiation, a warning signal will be transmitted and appropriate actions may be immediately exercised to control impacts of radiation on environment and living things according to international guidelines

  18. Vector Borne Infections in Italy: Results of the Integrated Surveillance System for West Nile Disease in 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Napoli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The epidemiology of West Nile disease (WND is influenced by multiple ecological factors and, therefore, integrated surveillance systems are needed for early detecting the infection and activating consequent control actions. As different animal species have different importance in the maintenance and in the spread of the infection, a multispecies surveillance approach is required. An integrated and comprehensive surveillance system is in place in Italy aiming at early detecting the virus introduction, monitoring the possible infection spread, and implementing preventive measures for human health. This paper describes the integrated surveillance system for WND in Italy, which incorporates data from veterinary and human side in order to evaluate the burden of infection in animals and humans and provide the public health authorities at regional and national levels with the information needed for a fine tune response.

  19. A method of determining where to target surveillance efforts in heterogeneous epidemiological systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander J Mastin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The spread of pathogens into new environments poses a considerable threat to human, animal, and plant health, and by extension, human and animal wellbeing, ecosystem function, and agricultural productivity, worldwide. Early detection through effective surveillance is a key strategy to reduce the risk of their establishment. Whilst it is well established that statistical and economic considerations are of vital importance when planning surveillance efforts, it is also important to consider epidemiological characteristics of the pathogen in question-including heterogeneities within the epidemiological system itself. One of the most pronounced realisations of this heterogeneity is seen in the case of vector-borne pathogens, which spread between 'hosts' and 'vectors'-with each group possessing distinct epidemiological characteristics. As a result, an important question when planning surveillance for emerging vector-borne pathogens is where to place sampling resources in order to detect the pathogen as early as possible. We answer this question by developing a statistical function which describes the probability distributions of the prevalences of infection at first detection in both hosts and vectors. We also show how this method can be adapted in order to maximise the probability of early detection of an emerging pathogen within imposed sample size and/or cost constraints, and demonstrate its application using two simple models of vector-borne citrus pathogens. Under the assumption of a linear cost function, we find that sampling costs are generally minimised when either hosts or vectors, but not both, are sampled.

  20. Detecting Ebola with limited laboratory access in the Democratic Republic of Congo: evaluation of a clinical passive surveillance reporting system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbaugh, Hayley R; Kuang, Brandon; Gadoth, Adva; Alfonso, Vivian H; Mukadi, Patrick; Doshi, Reena H; Hoff, Nicole A; Sinai, Cyrus; Mossoko, Mathias; Kebela, Benoit Ilunga; Muyembe, Jean-Jacques; Wemakoy, Emile Okitolonda; Rimoin, Anne W

    2017-09-01

    Ebola virus disease (EVD) can be clinically severe and highly fatal, making surveillance efforts for early disease detection of paramount importance. In areas with limited access to laboratory testing, the Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) strategy in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) may be a vital tool in improving outbreak response. Using DRC IDSR data from the nation's four EVD outbreak periods from 2007-2014, we assessed trends of Viral Hemorrhagic Fever (VHF) and EVD differential diagnoses reportable through IDSR. With official case counts from active surveillance of EVD outbreaks, we assessed accuracy of reporting through the IDSR passive surveillance system. Although the active and passive surveillance represent distinct sets of data, the two were correlated, suggesting that passive surveillance based only on clinical evaluation may be a useful predictor of true cases prior to laboratory confirmation. There were 438 suspect VHF cases reported through the IDSR system and 416 EVD cases officially recorded across the outbreaks examined. Although collected prior to official active surveillance cases, case reporting through the IDSR during the 2007, 2008 and 2012 outbreaks coincided with official EVD epidemic curves. Additionally, all outbreak areas experienced increases in suspected cases for both malaria and typhoid fever during EVD outbreaks, underscoring the importance of training health care workers in recognising EVD differential diagnoses and the potential for co-morbidities. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Epidemiological Surveillance of HIV-1 Transmitted Drug Resistance in Spain in 2004-2012: Relevance of Transmission Clusters in the Propagation of Resistance Mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Yolanda; Delgado, Elena; Fernández-García, Aurora; Cuevas, Maria Teresa; Thomson, Michael M; Montero, Vanessa; Sánchez, Monica; Sánchez, Ana Maria; Pérez-Álvarez, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    Our objectives were to carry out an epidemiological surveillance study on transmitted drug resistance (TDR) among individuals newly diagnosed of HIV-1 infection during a nine year period in Spain and to assess the role of transmission clusters (TC) in the propagation of resistant strains. An overall of 1614 newly diagnosed individuals were included in the study from January 2004 through December 2012. Individuals come from two different Spanish regions: Galicia and the Basque Country. Resistance mutations to reverse transcriptase inhibitors (RTI) and protease inhibitors (PI) were analyzed according to mutations included in the surveillance drug-resistance mutations list updated in 2009. TC were defined as those comprising viruses from five or more individuals whose sequences clustered in maximum likelihood phylogenetic trees with a bootstrap value ≥90%. The overall prevalence of TDR to any drug was 9.9%: 4.9% to nucleoside RTIs (NRTIs), 3.6% to non-nucleoside RTIs (NNRTIs), and 2.7% to PIs. A significant decrease of TDR to NRTIs over time was observed [from 10% in 2004 to 2% in 2012 (p=0.01)]. Sixty eight (42.2%) of 161 sequences with TDR were included in 25 TC composed of 5 or more individuals. Of them, 9 clusters harbored TDR associated with high level resistance to antiretroviral drugs. T215D revertant mutation was transmitted in a large cluster comprising 25 individuals. The impact of epidemiological networks on TDR frequency may explain its persistence in newly diagnosed individuals. The knowledge of the populations involved in TC would facilitate the design of prevention programs and public health interventions.

  2. Epidemiological Surveillance of HIV-1 Transmitted Drug Resistance in Spain in 2004-2012: Relevance of Transmission Clusters in the Propagation of Resistance Mutations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Vega

    Full Text Available Our objectives were to carry out an epidemiological surveillance study on transmitted drug resistance (TDR among individuals newly diagnosed of HIV-1 infection during a nine year period in Spain and to assess the role of transmission clusters (TC in the propagation of resistant strains. An overall of 1614 newly diagnosed individuals were included in the study from January 2004 through December 2012. Individuals come from two different Spanish regions: Galicia and the Basque Country. Resistance mutations to reverse transcriptase inhibitors (RTI and protease inhibitors (PI were analyzed according to mutations included in the surveillance drug-resistance mutations list updated in 2009. TC were defined as those comprising viruses from five or more individuals whose sequences clustered in maximum likelihood phylogenetic trees with a bootstrap value ≥90%. The overall prevalence of TDR to any drug was 9.9%: 4.9% to nucleoside RTIs (NRTIs, 3.6% to non-nucleoside RTIs (NNRTIs, and 2.7% to PIs. A significant decrease of TDR to NRTIs over time was observed [from 10% in 2004 to 2% in 2012 (p=0.01]. Sixty eight (42.2% of 161 sequences with TDR were included in 25 TC composed of 5 or more individuals. Of them, 9 clusters harbored TDR associated with high level resistance to antiretroviral drugs. T215D revertant mutation was transmitted in a large cluster comprising 25 individuals. The impact of epidemiological networks on TDR frequency may explain its persistence in newly diagnosed individuals. The knowledge of the populations involved in TC would facilitate the design of prevention programs and public health interventions.

  3. Requirements and concepts for a nuclear plant surveillance and diagnostic system (NPSDS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholson, P.J.; Lanning, D.D.

    1980-01-01

    An advanced plant surveillance and diagnostic system has been postulated for the purpose of aiding operator response to unanticipated plant upsets. The plant operator is described as an information processor that needs plant status information represented by symbolic outputs. These will be compatible with modern visual processing techniques, such as CRTs. Preferrred methods of estimating the state-of-the-plant and verifying measurements require on-line real-time models which are simple dynamical relationships based on energy and mass conservation laws. Implementation of on-line state estimation techniques using such models probably requires a distributed microcomputer system whose features are described. (auth)

  4. EpiScanGIS: an online geographic surveillance system for meningococcal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Jürgen

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surveillance of infectious diseases increasingly relies on Geographic Information Systems (GIS. The integration of pathogen fine typing data in dynamic systems and visualization of spatio-temporal clusters are a technical challenge for system development. Results An online geographic information system (EpiScanGIS based on open source components has been launched in Germany in May 2006 for real time provision of meningococcal typing data in conjunction with demographic information (age, incidence, population density. Spatio-temporal clusters of disease detected by computer assisted cluster analysis (SaTScan™ are visualized on maps. EpiScanGIS enables dynamic generation of animated maps. The system is based on open source components; its architecture is open for other infectious agents and geographic regions. EpiScanGIS is available at http://www.episcangis.org, and currently has 80 registered users, mostly from the public health service in Germany. At present more than 2,900 cases of invasive meningococcal disease are stored in the database (data as of June 3, 2008. Conclusion EpiScanGIS exemplifies GIS applications and early-warning systems in laboratory surveillance of infectious diseases.

  5. Habitual condom use across partner type and sexual position among younger gay and bisexual men: findings from New Zealand HIV behavioural surveillance 2006-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachowsky, N J; Dewey, C E; Dickson, N P; Saxton, P J W; Hughes, A J; Milhausen, R R; Summerlee, A J S

    2015-09-01

    Our objectives were to investigate demographic and behavioural factors associated with condom use and to examine how habitual condom use was across partner types and sexual positions among younger men who have sex with men (YMSM), aged 16-29, surveyed in New Zealand. We analysed the 2006-2011 national HIV behavioural surveillance data from YMSM who reported anal intercourse in four scenarios of partner type and sexual position: casual insertive, casual receptive, regular insertive and regular receptive. For each, respondents' condom use was classified as frequent (always/almost always) or otherwise, with associated factors identified with multivariate mixed-effect logistic regression. Habitual condom use across scenarios was examined using a latent variable technique that estimated the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Frequent condom use was reported for 63.6% of 5153 scenarios reported from 2412 YMSM. Frequent use increased from boyfriend to fuckbuddy to casual partners. Infrequent use was associated with online recruitment, Pacific ethnicity, less education, HIV positivity, sex with women, having ≥20 sexual partners versus 1 and reporting insertive and receptive sexual positions. Frequent condom use was associated with having two to five sexual partners versus one and shorter regular partnerships. The ICC=0.865 indicated highly habitual patterns of use; habitual infrequent condom use was most prevalent with regular partners (53.3%) and habitual frequent condom use was most prevalent with casual partners (70.2%) and for either sexual position (50.5% and 49.1%). Habitual condom use among YMSM highlights the value of early, engaging and sustained condom promotion. Public health should provide better and more compelling condom education, training and promotion for YMSM. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. Proposal of a framework for evaluating military surveillance systems for early detection of outbreaks on duty areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Webber Daniel

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years a wide variety of epidemiological surveillance systems have been developed to provide early identification of outbreaks of infectious disease. Each system has had its own strengths and weaknesses. In 2002 a Working Group of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC produced a framework for evaluation, which proved suitable for many public health surveillance systems. However this did not easily adapt to the military setting, where by necessity a variety of different parameters are assessed, different constraints placed on the systems, and different objectives required. This paper describes a proposed framework for evaluation of military syndromic surveillance systems designed to detect outbreaks of disease on operational deployments. Methods The new framework described in this paper was developed from the cumulative experience of British and French military syndromic surveillance systems. The methods included a general assessment framework (CDC, followed by more specific methods of conducting evaluation. These included Knowledge/Attitude/Practice surveys (KAP surveys, technical audits, ergonomic studies, simulations and multi-national exercises. A variety of military constraints required integration into the evaluation. Examples of these include the variability of geographical conditions in the field, deployment to areas without prior knowledge of naturally-occurring disease patterns, the differences in field sanitation between locations and over the length of deployment, the mobility of military forces, turnover of personnel, continuity of surveillance across different locations, integration with surveillance systems from other nations working alongside each other, compatibility with non-medical information systems, and security. Results A framework for evaluation has been developed that can be used for military surveillance systems in a staged manner consisting of initial, intermediate and final

  7. The development of a reliable multi-camera multiplexed CCTV system for safeguards surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, R.S.; Chiang, K.S.

    1986-01-01

    The background, requirements and system details for a simple reliable Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) system are described. The design of the system presented allows up to 8 CCTV cameras of different makes to be multiplexed and their out-put recorded by three Time Lapse Recorders (TLRs) operating in parallel. This multiplex or MUX-CCTV system is intended to be used by the IAEA for surveillance at several nuclear facilities. The system is unique in that it allows all of the cameras to be operated asynchronously and it provides high quality video during replay. It also incorporates video event counting logic which enables IAEA inspectors to take a very quick inventory of the events which are recorded during unattended operation. This paper discusses other phases of the development for the system and it presents some speculation about future changes which may enhance performance

  8. The temporal relationship between drug supply indicators: an audit of international government surveillance systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werb, Dan; Kerr, Thomas; Nosyk, Bohdan; Strathdee, Steffanie; Montaner, Julio; Wood, Evan

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Illegal drug use continues to be a major threat to community health and safety. We used international drug surveillance databases to assess the relationship between multiple long-term estimates of illegal drug price and purity. Design We systematically searched for longitudinal measures of illegal drug supply indicators to assess the long-term impact of enforcement-based supply reduction interventions. Setting Data from identified illegal drug surveillance systems were analysed using an a priori defined protocol in which we sought to present annual estimates beginning in 1990. Data were then subjected to trend analyses. Main outcome measures Data were obtained from government surveillance systems assessing price, purity and/or seizure quantities of illegal drugs; systems with at least 10 years of longitudinal data assessing price, purity/potency or seizures were included. Results We identified seven regional/international metasurveillance systems with longitudinal measures of price or purity/potency that met eligibility criteria. In the USA, the average inflation-adjusted and purity-adjusted prices of heroin, cocaine and cannabis decreased by 81%, 80% and 86%, respectively, between 1990 and 2007, whereas average purity increased by 60%, 11% and 161%, respectively. Similar trends were observed in Europe, where during the same period the average inflation-adjusted price of opiates and cocaine decreased by 74% and 51%, respectively. In Australia, the average inflation-adjusted price of cocaine decreased 14%, while the inflation-adjusted price of heroin and cannabis both decreased 49% between 2000 and 2010. During this time, seizures of these drugs in major production regions and major domestic markets generally increased. Conclusions With few exceptions and despite increasing investments in enforcement-based supply reduction efforts aimed at disrupting global drug supply, illegal drug prices have generally decreased while drug purity has generally

  9. The temporal relationship between drug supply indicators: an audit of international government surveillance systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werb, Dan; Kerr, Thomas; Nosyk, Bohdan; Strathdee, Steffanie; Montaner, Julio; Wood, Evan

    2013-09-30

    Illegal drug use continues to be a major threat to community health and safety. We used international drug surveillance databases to assess the relationship between multiple long-term estimates of illegal drug price and purity. We systematically searched for longitudinal measures of illegal drug supply indicators to assess the long-term impact of enforcement-based supply reduction interventions. Data from identified illegal drug surveillance systems were analysed using an a priori defined protocol in which we sought to present annual estimates beginning in 1990. Data were then subjected to trend analyses. Data were obtained from government surveillance systems assessing price, purity and/or seizure quantities of illegal drugs; systems with at least 10 years of longitudinal data assessing price, purity/potency or seizures were included. We identified seven regional/international metasurveillance systems with longitudinal measures of price or purity/potency that met eligibility criteria. In the USA, the average inflation-adjusted and purity-adjusted prices of heroin, cocaine and cannabis decreased by 81%, 80% and 86%, respectively, between 1990 and 2007, whereas average purity increased by 60%, 11% and 161%, respectively. Similar trends were observed in Europe, where during the same period the average inflation-adjusted price of opiates and cocaine decreased by 74% and 51%, respectively. In Australia, the average inflation-adjusted price of cocaine decreased 14%, while the inflation-adjusted price of heroin and cannabis both decreased 49% between 2000 and 2010. During this time, seizures of these drugs in major production regions and major domestic markets generally increased. With few exceptions and despite increasing investments in enforcement-based supply reduction efforts aimed at disrupting global drug supply, illegal drug prices have generally decreased while drug purity has generally increased since 1990. These findings suggest that expanding efforts at

  10. Development of integrated containment and surveillance system for fast critical facility FCA. Portal and penetration monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukaiyama, Takehiko; Ogawa, Hironobu; Yokota, Yasuhiro.

    1998-01-01

    Manpower and radiation exposure problems, accompanied by frequent Non Destructive Assay (NDA) based inspections at the Fast Critical Facility FCA of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), are a burden for both the inspectorates and the facility operator. In the hope of alleviating these burdens, the development of containment and surveillance measures for the FCA was initiated in 1979. The integrated containment and surveillance system consists of a portal monitor and a penetration monitor. The reactor building provides an ideal containment measure because of its explosion-proof, airtight structure and limited number of penetrations. The function of the portal monitor is to detect undeclared removal of nuclear material from the reactor building through the doorway. The penetration monitor is designed for surveillance of diversion routes through containment boundaries, and of safeguards related activities for bypassing the portal monitor. The combination of monitoring by the penetration monitor of containment boundaries and all their penetrations except for the doorway, and monitoring by the portal monitor, provides complete coverage of realistic diversion routes. The development of the system was completed in 1988 and the field trial test was conducted for the period of twelve running months. The final report on the field trial was concluded on January 1990. The major conclusion of the report was that the system is effective, reliable and efficient. Following this successful conclusion, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) accepted the system for meeting its safeguards goals at the FCA on condition that an independent IAEA authentication equipment is provided. The development of the authentication equipment is accomplished as an separate Japan Support Programme for Agency Safeguards (JASPAS) task. (author)

  11. REVIEW OF METHODS FOR THE SURVEILLANCE AND ACCESS CONTROL USING THE THERMAL IMAGING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mate Krišto

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents methods for human detection for application in the field of national security in the context of state border surveillance. Except in the context of state border security, the presented methods can be applied to monitor other protected object and infrastructure such as ports and airports, power plants, water supply systems, oil pipelines, etc. Presented methods are based on use of thermal imaging systems for the human detection, recognition and identification. In addition to methods for the detection of persons, are presented and methods for face recognition and identification of the person. The use of such systems has special significance in the context of national security in the domain of timely detection of illegal crossing of state border or illegal movement near buildings, which are of special importance for national security such as traffic infrastructure facilities, power plants, military bases, especially in mountain or forests areas. In this context, thermal imaging has significant advantages over the optical camera surveillance systems because thermal imaging is robust to weather conditions and due to such an infrared thermal system can successfully applied in any weather conditions, or the periods of the day. Featured are procedures that has human detection results as well as a brief survey of specific implementation in terms of the use of infrared thermal imagers mounted on autonomous vehicles (AV and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV. In addition to the above in this paper are described techniques and methods of face detection and human identification based on thermal image (thermogram.

  12. Experience and development of on-line BWR surveillance system at Onagawa nuclear power station unit-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishi, A.; Chiba, K.; Kato, K.; Ebata, S.; Ando, Y.; Sakamoto, H.

    1986-01-01

    ONAGAWA nuclear power station Unit-1 (Tohoku Electric Power Co.) is a BWR-4 nuclear power station of 524 MW electric power which started commercial operation in June 1984. To attain high reliability and applicability for ONAGAWA-1, Tohoku Electric Power Co. and Toshiba started a Research and Development project on plant surveillance and diagnosis from April 1982. Main purposes of this project are to: (1) Develop an on-line surveillance system and acquire its operating experience at a commercial BWR, (2) Assist in plant operation and maintenance by data acquisition and analysis, (3) Develop a new technique for plant surveillance and diagnosis. An outline of the project, operating experience gained from the on-line surveillance system and an introduction to new diagnosis techniques are reported in this paper. (author)

  13. The EUVAC-NET survey: national pertussis surveillance systems in the European Union, Switzerland, Norway, and Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, J E; Tozzi, A E; Rava, L; Glismann, S

    2001-06-01

    A questionnaire was mailed out to member states of the European Union (EU) plus Switzerland, Norway, and Iceland, to inquire about the type of information routinely recorded in national pertussis surveillance systems. Information was requested on surveillance methods, type of information recorded for cases of pertussis, vaccination schedule, type of vaccine used, and methods for estimating vaccination coverage. Local surveillance methods, vaccination strategies, and methods to estimate vaccination coverage were found to differ widely across the participating countries. The results of the questionnaire survey show, however, that there are comparable subsets of variables common to many countries. Future activities of the EUVAC-NET project will include defining the homogeneous elements in national systems and to group appropriately those countries with common surveillance features.

  14. Systemic Immune Activation and HIV Shedding in the Female Genital Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, LaShonda Y; Christiansen, Shawna; Wang, Chia-Hao H; Mack, Wendy J; Young, Mary; Strickler, Howard D; Anastos, Kathryn; Minkoff, Howard; Cohen, Mardge; Geenblatt, Ruth M; Karim, Roksana; Operskalski, Eva; Frederick, Toni; Homans, James D; Landay, Alan; Kovacs, Andrea

    2016-02-01

    Plasma HIV RNA is the most significant determinant of cervical HIV shedding. However, shedding is also associated with sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and cervical inflammation. The mechanism by which this occurs is poorly understood. There is evidence that systemic immune activation promotes viral entry, replication, and HIV disease progression. We hypothesized that systemic immune activation would be associated with an increase in HIV genital shedding. Clinical assessments, HIV RNA in plasma and genital secretions, and markers of immune activation (CD38(+)DR(+) and CD38(-)DR(-)) on CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells in blood were evaluated in 226 HIV+ women enrolled in the Women's Interagency HIV Study. There were 569 genital evaluations of which 159 (28%) exhibited HIV RNA shedding, defined as HIV viral load >80 copies per milliliter. We tested associations between immune activation and shedding using generalized estimating equations with logit link function. In the univariate model, higher levels of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell activation in blood were significantly associated with genital tract shedding. However, in the multivariate model adjusting for plasma HIV RNA, STIs, and genital tract infections, only higher levels of resting CD8(+) T cells (CD38(-)DR(-)) were significantly inversely associated with HIV shedding in the genital tract (odds ratios = 0.44, 95% confidence interval: 0.21 to 0.9, P = 0.02). The association of systemic immune activation with genital HIV shedding is multifactorial. Systemic T-cell activation is associated with genital tract shedding in univariate analysis but not when adjusting for plasma HIV RNA, STIs, and genital tract infections. In addition, women with high percentage of resting T cells are less likely to have HIV shedding compared with those with lower percentages. These findings suggest that a higher percentage of resting cells, as a result of maximal viral suppression with treatment, may decrease local genital activation, HIV

  15. An analysis of pregnancy-related mortality in the KEMRI/CDC health and demographic surveillance system in western Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghna Desai

    Full Text Available Pregnancy-related (PR deaths are often a result of direct obstetric complications occurring at childbirth.To estimate the burden of and characterize risk factors for PR mortality, we evaluated deaths that occurred between 2003 and 2008 among women of childbearing age (15 to 49 years using Health and Demographic Surveillance System data in rural western Kenya. WHO ICD definition of PR mortality was used: "the death of a woman while pregnant or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy, irrespective of the cause of death". In addition, symptoms and events at the time of death were examined using the WHO verbal autopsy methodology. Deaths were categorized as either (i directly PR: main cause of death was ascribed as obstetric, or (ii indirectly PR: main cause of death was non-obstetric. Of 3,223 deaths in women 15 to 49 years, 249 (7.7% were PR. One-third (34% of these were due to direct obstetric causes, predominantly postpartum hemorrhage, abortion complications and puerperal sepsis. Two-thirds were indirect; three-quarters were attributable to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis. Significantly more women who died in lower socio-economic groups sought care from traditional birth attendants (p = 0.034, while less impoverished women were more likely to seek hospital care (p = 0.001. The PR mortality ratio over the six years was 740 (95% CI 651-838 per 100,000 live births, with no evidence of reduction over time (χ(2 linear trend = 1.07; p = 0.3.These data supplement current scanty information on the relationship between infectious diseases and poor maternal outcomes in Africa. They indicate low uptake of maternal health interventions in women dying during pregnancy and postpartum, suggesting improved access to and increased uptake of skilled obstetric care, as well as preventive measures against HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis among all women of childbearing age may help to reduce pregnancy-related mortality.

  16. Creating a bridge between data collection and program planning: a technical assistance model to maximize the use of HIV/AIDS surveillance and service utilization data for planning purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Jennifer A; Beatty, Maile; Woliver, Renee; Rubinstein, Eric P; Averbach, Abigail R

    2005-12-01

    Over time, improvements in HIV/AIDS surveillance and service utilization data have increased their usefulness for planning programs, targeting resources, and otherwise informing HIV/AIDS policy. However, community planning groups, service providers, and health department staff often have difficulty in interpreting and applying the wide array of data now available. We describe the development of the Bridging Model, a technical assistance model for overcoming barriers to the use of data for program planning. Through the use of an iterative feedback loop in the model, HIV/AIDS data products constantly are evolving to better inform the decision-making tasks of their multiple users. Implementation of this model has led to improved data quality and data products and to a greater willingness and ability among stakeholders to use the data for planning purposes.

  17. Evaluating the feasibility and participants' representativeness of an online nationwide surveillance system for influenza in France.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Debin

    Full Text Available The increasing Internet coverage and the widespread use of digital devices offer the possibility to develop new digital surveillance systems potentially capable to provide important aid to epidemiological and public health monitoring and research. In France, a new nationwide surveillance system for influenza-like illness, GrippeNet.fr, was introduced since the 2011/2012 season based on an online participatory mechanism and open to the general population. We evaluate the recruitment and participation of users to the first pilot season with respect to similar efforts in Europe to assess the feasibility of establishing a participative network of surveillance in France. We further investigate the representativeness of the GrippeNet.fr population along a set of indicators on geographical, demographic, socio-economic and health aspects. Participation was widespread in the country and with rates comparable to other European countries with partnered projects running since a longer time. It was not representative of the general population in terms of age and gender, however all age classes were represented, including the older classes (65+ years old, generally less familiar with the digital world, but considered at high risk for influenza complications. Once adjusted on demographic indicators, the GrippeNet.fr population is found to be more frequently employed, with a higher education level and vaccination rate with respect to the general population. A similar propensity to commute for work to different regions was observed, and no significant difference was found for asthma and diabetes. Results show the feasibility of the system, provide indications to inform adjusted epidemic analyses, and highlight the presence of specific population groups that need to be addressed by targeted communication strategies to achieve a higher representativeness in the following seasons.

  18. Insights From Flutracking: Thirteen Tips to Growing a Web-Based Participatory Surveillance System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Craig; Carlson, Sandra; Butler, Michelle; Cassano, Daniel; Clarke, Stephen; Fejsa, John; Durrheim, David

    2017-08-17

    Flutracking is a weekly Web-based survey of influenza-like illness (ILI) in Australia that has grown from 400 participants in 2006 to over 26,000 participants every week in 2016. Flutracking monitors both the transmission and severity of ILI across Australia by documenting symptoms (cough, fever, and sore throat), time off work or normal duties, influenza vaccination status, laboratory testing for influenza, and health seeking behavior. Recruitment of Flutrackers commenced via health department and other organizational email systems, and then gradually incorporated social media promotion and invitations from existing Flutrackers to friends to enhance participation. Invitations from existing participants typically contribute to over 1000 new participants each year. The Flutracking survey link was emailed every Monday morning in winter and took less than 10 seconds to complete. To reduce the burden on respondents, we collected only a minimal amount of demographic and weekly data. Additionally, to optimize users' experiences, we maintained a strong focus on "obvious design" and repeated usability testing of naïve and current participants of the survey. In this paper, we share these and other insights on recruitment methods and user experience principles that have enabled Flutracking to become one of the largest online participatory surveillance systems in the world. There is still much that could be enhanced in Flutracking; however, we believe these principles could benefit others developing similar online surveillance systems. ©Craig Dalton, Sandra Carlson, Michelle Butler, Daniel Cassano, Stephen Clarke, John Fejsa, David Durrheim. Originally published in JMIR Public Health and Surveillance (http://publichealth.jmir.org), 17.08.2017.

  19. An Operational System for Surveillance and Ecological Forecasting of West Nile Virus Outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimberly, M. C.; Davis, J. K.; Vincent, G.; Hess, A.; Hildreth, M. B.

    2017-12-01

    Mosquito-borne disease surveillance has traditionally focused on tracking human cases along with the abundance and infection status of mosquito vectors. For many of these diseases, vector and host population dynamics are also sensitive to climatic factors, including temperature fluctuations and the availability of surface water for mosquito breeding. Thus, there is a potential to strengthen surveillance and predict future outbreaks by monitoring environmental risk factors using broad-scale sensor networks that include earth-observing satellites. The South Dakota Mosquito Information System (SDMIS) project combines entomological surveillance with gridded meteorological data from NASA's North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) to generate weekly risk maps for West Nile virus (WNV) in the north-central United States. Critical components include a mosquito infection model that smooths the noisy infection rate and compensates for unbalanced sampling, and a human infection model that combines the entomological risk estimates with lagged effects of meteorological variables from the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS). Two types of forecasts are generated: long-term forecasts of statewide risk extending through the entire WNV season, and short-term forecasts of the geographic pattern of WNV risk in the upcoming week. Model forecasts are connected to public health actions through decision support matrices that link predicted risk levels to a set of phased responses. In 2016, the SDMIS successfully forecast an early start to the WNV season and a large outbreak of WNV cases following several years of low transmission. An evaluation of the 2017 forecasts will also be presented. Our experiences with the SDMIS highlight several important lessons that can inform future efforts at disease early warning. These include the value of integrating climatic models with recent observations of infection, the critical role of automated workflows to facilitate

  20. Evaluation of the enterovirus laboratory surveillance system in Denmark, 2010 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condell, Orla; Midgley, Sofie; Christiansen, Claus Bohn; Chen, Ming; Chen Nielsen, Xiaohui; Ellermann-Eriksen, Svend; Mølvadgaard, Mette; Schønning, Kristian; Vermedal Hoegh, Silje; Andersen, Peter Henrik; Voldstedlund, Marianne; Fischer, Thea Kølsen

    2016-05-05

    The primary aim of the Danish enterovirus (EV) surveillance system is to document absence of poliovirus infection. The conflict in Syria has left many children unvaccinated and movement from areas with polio cases to Europe calls for increased awareness to detect and respond to virus-transmission in a timely manner. We evaluate the national EV laboratory surveillance, to generate recommendations for system strengthening. The system was analysed for completeness of viral typing analysis and clinical information and timeliness of specimen collection, laboratory results and reporting of clinical information. Of 23,720 specimens screened, 2,202 (9.3%) were EV-positive. Submission of cerebrospinal fluid and faecal specimens from primary diagnostic laboratories was 79.5% complete (845/1,063), and varied by laboratory and patient age. EV genotypes were determined in 68.5% (979/1,430) of laboratory-confirmed cases, clinical information was available for 63.1% (903/1,430). Primary diagnostic results were available after a median of 1.4 days, typing results after 17 days, detailed clinical information after 33 days. The large number of samples typed demonstrated continued monitoring of EV-circulation in Denmark. The system could be strengthened by increasing the collection of supplementary faecal specimens, improving communication with primary diagnostic laboratories, adapting the laboratory typing methodology and collecting clinical information with electronic forms.

  1. Development and Significance of the E-surveillance System for Contact Allergies in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugonik, Aleksandra; Kalač Pandurovič, Maja; Vok, Marko; Dugonik, Bogdan

    2017-07-01

    This paper describes the development and significance of online systems for the collection and analysis of medical data (patch test results) with a web application. Modern digital tools greatly aid in collecting, combining, and preserving the data in a way that is friendly, undemanding and time-efficient for the dermatologist. Creating a central database for the results of patch testing provides a better picture of contact sensitivity and characteristics of allergic contact dermatitis in Slovenia. An electronic database and connected network was started in Slovenia in 2010. Data from skin allergy units since 2000 has also been included retrospectively. At present (Oct 2016), the database contains the data of 19,772 patch tests performed by seven skin allergy units. Creating a central database of the results of patch testing provides a larger and therefore more credible collection of data. Immediate integration and data processing enable a current overview of contact sensitivity for each participating center as well as at the national level. Data can be easily transferred to other databases or edited with other software tools. This on-line register has worked flawlessly for more than five years. We have contributed data to the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies (ESSCA) network database since 2012, which, along with the Deutsche Kontaktallergie-Gruppe system of collecting patch test data for German-speaking countries, represents the only multicenter surveillance system of patch test results in Europe.

  2. Five-year decreased incidence of surgical site infections following gastrectomy and prosthetic joint replacement surgery through active surveillance by the Korean Nosocomial Infection Surveillance System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, H J; Adiyani, L; Sung, J; Choi, J Y; Kim, H B; Kim, Y K; Kwak, Y G; Yoo, H; Lee, Sang-Oh; Han, S H; Kim, S R; Kim, T H; Lee, H M; Chun, H K; Kim, J-S; Yoo, J D; Koo, H-S; Cho, E H; Lee, K W

    2016-08-01

    Surveillance of healthcare-associated infection has been associated with a reduction in surgical site infection (SSI). To evaluate the Korean Nosocomial Infection Surveillance System (KONIS) in order to assess its effects on SSI since it was introduced. SSI data after gastrectomy, total hip arthroplasty (THA), and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) between 2008 and 2012 were analysed. The pooled incidence of SSI was calculated for each year; the same analyses were also conducted from hospitals that had participated in KONIS for at least three consecutive years. Standardized SSI rates for each year were calculated by adjusting for SSI risk factors. SSI trends were analysed using the Cochran-Armitage test. The SSI rate following gastrectomy was 3.12% (522/16,918). There was a significant trend of decreased crude SSI rates over five years. This trend was also evident in analysis of hospitals that had participated for more than three years. The SSI rate for THA was 2.05% (157/7656), which decreased significantly from 2008 to 2012. The risk factors for SSI after THA included the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance risk index, trauma, reoperation, and age (60-69 years). The SSI rate for TKA was 1.90% (152/7648), which also decreased significantly during a period of five years. However, the risk-adjusted analysis of SSI did not show a significant decrease for all surgical procedures. The SSI incidence of gastrectomy and prosthetic joint replacement declined over five years as a result of active surveillance by KONIS. Copyright © 2016 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Integration of artificial intelligence systems for nuclear power plants surveillance and diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chetry, Moon K.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this program is to design, construct operate, test, and evaluate a prototype integrated monitoring and diagnostic system for a nuclear power plant. It is anticipated that this technology will have wide application to other complex systems (e.g., fossil power plants, chemical processing plants, and possibly air traffic control systems). Over the past decade, the University of Tennessee (UT) and others have carried out many projects utilizing various methodologies of artificial intelligence (expert systems, neural networks, fuzzy systems and genetic algorithms) to enhance the performance (safety, efficiency, reliability, and availability) of nuclear power plants. Investigations and studies have included a) instrumentation surveillance and calibration validation, b) inferential sensing to calibration of feed water venture flow during fouling, c) thermodynamic performance modeling with iterative improvement of plant heat rate, d) diagnosis of nuclear power plant transients

  4. Final report : mobile surveillance and wireless communication systems field operational test. Volume 2, FOT objectives, organization, system design, results, conclusions, and recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-03-01

    The Mobile Surveillance and Wireless Communication Systems Field Operational Test (FOT) evaluated the performance of wireless traffic detection and communications systems in areas where permanent detectors, electrical power, and landline communicatio...

  5. Risk factors of major noncommunicable diseases in Bahrain. The need for a surveillance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamadeh, Randah R

    2004-09-01

    Noncommunicable diseases NCDs are the major cause of morbidity and mortality in Bahrain. The review examines the prevalence of risk factors of major NCDs from the available literature and determines the impact of the rapid socio economic changes on their burden. It further recommends ways of improving their reporting and monitoring. Smoking, obesity, diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, physical activity and nutrition are considered. The review points out that data on some of the factors is available but deficient for others. The call for the establishment of an integrated surveillance system using the World Health Organization STEPwise approach is stressed.

  6. Syndromic surveillance system based on near real-time cattle mortality monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, G; Ciaravino, V; Ascaso, S; Flores, V; Romero, L; Simón, F

    2015-05-01

    Early detection of an infectious disease incursion will minimize the impact of outbreaks in livestock. Syndromic surveillance based on the analysis of readily available data can enhance traditional surveillance systems and allow veterinary authorities to react in a timely manner. This study was based on monitoring the number of cattle carcasses sent for rendering in the veterinary unit of Talavera de la Reina (Spain). The aim was to develop a system to detect deviations from expected values which would signal unexpected health events. Historical weekly collected dead cattle (WCDC) time series stabilized by the Box-Cox transformation and adjusted by the minimum least squares method were used to build the univariate cycling regression model based on a Fourier transformation. Three different models, according to type of production system, were built to estimate the baseline expected number of WCDC. Two types of risk signals were generated: point risk signals when the observed value was greater than the upper 95% confidence interval of the expected baseline, and cumulative risk signals, generated by a modified cumulative sum algorithm, when the cumulative sums of reported deaths were above the cumulative sum of expected deaths. Data from 2011 were used to prospectively validate the model generating seven risk signals. None of them were correlated to infectious disease events but some coincided, in time, with very high climatic temperatures recorded in the region. The harvest effect was also observed during the first week of the study year. Establishing appropriate risk signal thresholds is a limiting factor of predictive models; it needs to be adjusted based on experience gained during the use of the models. To increase the sensitivity and specificity of the predictions epidemiological interpretation of non-specific risk signals should be complemented by other sources of information. The methodology developed in this study can enhance other existing early detection

  7. Challenges and Specifications for Robust Face and Gait Recognition Systems for Surveillance Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BUCIU Ioan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Automated person recognition (APR based on biometric signals addresses the process of automatically recognize a person according to his physiological traits (face, voice, iris, fingerprint, ear shape, body odor, electroencephalogram – EEG, electrocardiogram, or hand geometry, or behavioural patterns (gait, signature, hand-grip, lip movement. The paper aims at briefly presenting the current challenges for two specific non-cooperative biometric approaches, namely face and gait biometrics as well as approaches that consider combination of the two in the attempt of a more robust system for accurate APR, in the context of surveillance application. Open problems from both sides are also pointed out.

  8. Assessment of the infectious diseases surveillance system of the Republic of Armenia: an example of surveillance in the Republics of the former Soviet Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mac Kenzie William R

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Before 1991, the infectious diseases surveillance systems (IDSS of the former Soviet Union (FSU were centrally planned in Moscow. The dissolution of the FSU resulted in economic stresses on public health infrastructure. At the request of seven FSU Ministries of Health, we performed assessments of the IDSS designed to guide reform. The assessment of the Armenian infectious diseases surveillance system (AIDSS is presented here as a prototype. Discussion We performed qualitative assessments using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC guidelines for evaluating surveillance systems. Until 1996, the AIDSS collected aggregate and case-based data on 64 infectious diseases. It collected information on diseases of low pathogenicity (e.g., pediculosis and those with no public health intervention (e.g., infectious mononucleosis. The specificity was poor because of the lack of case definitions. Most cases were investigated using a lengthy, non-disease-specific case-report form Armenian public health officials analyzed data descriptively and reported data upward from the local to national level, with little feedback. Information was not shared across vertical programs. Reform should focus on enhancing usefulness, efficiency, and effectiveness by reducing the quantity of data collected and revising reporting procedures and information types; improving the quality, analyses, and use of data at different levels; reducing system operations costs; and improving communications to reporting sources. These recommendations are generalizable to other FSU republics. Summary The AIDSS was complex and sensitive, yet costly and inefficient. The flexibility, representativeness, and timeliness were good because of a comprehensive health-care system and compulsory reporting. Some data were questionable and some had no utility.

  9. Enrichment of intersubtype HIV-1 recombinants in a dual infection system using HIV-1 strain-specific siRNAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Intersubtype HIV-1 recombinants in the form of unique or stable circulating recombinants forms (CRFs) are responsible for over 20% of infections in the worldwide epidemic. Mechanisms controlling the generation, selection, and transmission of these intersubtype HIV-1 recombinants still require further investigation. All intersubtype HIV-1 recombinants are generated and evolve from initial dual infections, but are difficult to identify in the human population. In vitro studies provide the most practical system to study mechanisms, but the recombination rates are usually very low in dual infections with primary HIV-1 isolates. This study describes the use of HIV-1 isolate-specific siRNAs to enrich intersubtype HIV-1 recombinants and inhibit the parental HIV-1 isolates from a dual infection. Results Following a dual infection with subtype A and D primary HIV-1 isolates and two rounds of siRNA treatment, nearly 100% of replicative virus was resistant to a siRNA specific for an upstream target sequence in the subtype A envelope (env) gene as well as a siRNA specific for a downstream target sequence in the subtype D env gene. Only 20% (10/50) of the replicating virus had nucleotide substitutions in the siRNA-target sequence whereas the remaining 78% (39/50) harbored a recombination breakpoint that removed both siRNA target sequences, and rendered the intersubtype D/A recombinant virus resistant to the dual siRNA treatment. Since siRNAs target the newly transcribed HIV-1 mRNA, the siRNAs only enrich intersubtype env recombinants and do not influence the recombination process during reverse transcription. Using this system, a strong bias is selected for recombination breakpoints in the C2 region, whereas other HIV-1 env regions, most notably the hypervariable regions, were nearly devoid of intersubtype recombination breakpoints. Sequence conservation plays an important role in selecting for recombination breakpoints, but the lack of breakpoints in many conserved

  10. Automated graphic image generation system for effective representation of infectious disease surveillance data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Masashi; Hasegawa, Shinsaku; Suyama, Akihiko; Meshitsuka, Shunsuke

    2003-11-01

    Infectious disease surveillance schemes have been established to detect infectious disease outbreak in the early stages, to identify the causative viral strains, and to rapidly assess related morbidity and mortality. To make a scheme function well, two things are required. Firstly, it must have sufficient sensitivity and be timely to guarantee as short a delay as possible from collection to redistribution of information. Secondly, it must provide a good representation of the results of the surveillance. To do this, we have developed a database system that can redistribute the information via the Internet. The feature of this system is to automatically generate the graphic images based on the numerical data stored in the database by using Hypertext Preprocessor (PHP) script and Graphics Drawing (GD) library. It dynamically displays the information as a map or bar chart as well as a numerical impression according to the real time demand of the users. This system will be a useful tool for medical personnel and researchers working on infectious disease problems and will save significant time in the redistribution of information.

  11. Surveillance of transmitted antiretroviral drug resistance among HIV-1 infected women attending antenatal clinics in Chitungwiza, Zimbabwe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mqondisi Tshabalala

    Full Text Available The rapid scale-up of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART and use of single dose Nevirapine (SD NVP for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (pMTCT have raised fears about the emergence of resistance to the first line antiretroviral drug regimens. A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of primary drug resistance (PDR in a cohort of young (<25 yrs HAART-naïve HIV pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in Chitungwiza, Zimbabwe. Whole blood was collected in EDTA for CD4 counts, viral load, serological estimation of duration of infection using the BED Calypte assay and genotyping for drug resistance. Four hundred and seventy-one women, mean age 21 years; SD: 2.1 were enrolled into the study between 2006 and 2007. Their median CD4 count was 371cells/µL; IQR: 255-511 cells/µL. Two hundred and thirty-six samples were genotyped for drug resistance. Based on the BED assay, 27% were recently infected (RI whilst 73% had long-term infection (LTI. Median CD4 count was higher (p<0.05 in RI than in women with LTI. Only 2 women had drug resistance mutations; protease I85V and reverse transcriptase Y181C. Prevalence of PDR in Chitungwiza, 4 years after commencement of the national ART program remained below WHO threshold limit (5%. Frequency of recent infection BED testing is consistent with high HIV acquisition during pregnancy. With the scale-up of long-term ART programs, maintenance of proper prescribing practices, continuous monitoring of patients and reinforcement of adherence may prevent the acquisition and transmission of PDR.

  12. Integrated Disease Investigations and Surveillance planning: a systems approach to strengthening national surveillance and detection of events of public health importance in support of the International Health Regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kennedy Sarah

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The international community continues to define common strategic themes of actions to improve global partnership and international collaborations in order to protect our populations. The International Health Regulations (IHR[2005] offer one of these strategic themes whereby World Health Organization (WHO Member States and global partners engaged in biosecurity, biosurveillance and public health can define commonalities and leverage their respective missions and resources to optimize interventions. The U.S. Defense Threat Reduction Agency’s Cooperative Biologica Engagement Program (CBEP works with partner countries across clinical, veterinary, epidemiological, and laboratory communities to enhance national disease surveillance, detection, diagnostic, and reporting capabilities. CBEP, like many other capacity building programs, has wrestled with ways to improve partner country buy-in and ownership and to develop sustainable solutions that impact integrated disease surveillance outcomes. Designing successful implementation strategies represents a complex and challenging exercise and requires robust and transparent collaboration at the country level. To address this challenge, the Laboratory Systems Development Branch of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC and CBEP have partnered to create a set of tools that brings together key leadership of the surveillance system into a deliberate system design process. This process takes into account strengths and limitations of the existing system, how the components inter-connect and relate to one another, and how they can be systematically refined within the local context. The planning tools encourage cross-disciplinary thinking, critical evaluation and analysis of existing capabilities, and discussions across organizational and departmental lines toward a shared course of action and purpose. The underlying concepts and methodology of these tools are presented here.

  13. Tanzania Health Information Technology (T-HIT) System: Pilot Test of a Tablet-Based System to Improve Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Sheana; Thomas, Deborah Sk; Nyanza, Elias C; Ngallaba, Sospatro E

    2018-01-15

    The prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV requires innovative solutions. Although routine monitoring is effective in some areas, standardized and easy-to-scale solutions to identify and monitor pregnant women, test them for HIV, and treat them and their children is still lacking. Mobile health (mHealth) offers opportunities for surveillance and reporting in rural areas of low- and middle-income countries. The aim of this study was to document the preliminary impacts of the Tanzania Health Information Technology (T-HIT) system mHealth intervention aimed at health workers for PMTCT care delivery and capacity building in a rural area of Tanzania. We developed T-HIT as a tablet-based system for an electronic data collection system designed to capture and report PMTCT data during antenatal, delivery, and postnatal visits in Misungwi, Tanzania. T-HIT was tested by health workers in a pilot randomized trial comparing seven sites using T-HIT assigned at random to seven control sites; all sites maintained standard paper record-keeping during the pilot intervention period. We compared numbers of antenatal visits, number of HIV tests administered, and women testing positive across all sites. Health workers recorded data from antenatal visits for 1530 women; of these, 695 (45.42%) were tested for HIV and 3.59% (55/1530) tested positive. Health workers were unable to conduct an HIV test for 103 women (6.73%, 103/1530) because of lack of reagent, which is not captured on paper logs. There was no difference in the activity level for testing when comparing sites T-HIT to non-T-HIT sites. We observed a significant postintervention increase in the numbers of women testing positive for HIV compared with the preintervention period (P=.04), but this was likely not attributable to the T-HIT system. T-HIT had a high degree of acceptability and feasibility and is perceived as useful by health workers, who documented more antenatal visits during the pilot intervention

  14. Tanzania Health Information Technology (T-HIT) System: Pilot Test of a Tablet-Based System to Improve Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Sheana; Nyanza, Elias C; Ngallaba, Sospatro E

    2018-01-01

    Background The prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV requires innovative solutions. Although routine monitoring is effective in some areas, standardized and easy-to-scale solutions to identify and monitor pregnant women, test them for HIV, and treat them and their children is still lacking. Mobile health (mHealth) offers opportunities for surveillance and reporting in rural areas of low- and middle-income countries. Objective The aim of this study was to document the preliminary impacts of the Tanzania Health Information Technology (T-HIT) system mHealth intervention aimed at health workers for PMTCT care delivery and capacity building in a rural area of Tanzania. Methods We developed T-HIT as a tablet-based system for an electronic data collection system designed to capture and report PMTCT data during antenatal, delivery, and postnatal visits in Misungwi, Tanzania. T-HIT was tested by health workers in a pilot randomized trial comparing seven sites using T-HIT assigned at random to seven control sites; all sites maintained standard paper record-keeping during the pilot intervention period. We compared numbers of antenatal visits, number of HIV tests administered, and women testing positive across all sites. Results Health workers recorded data from antenatal visits for 1530 women; of these, 695 (45.42%) were tested for HIV and 3.59% (55/1530) tested positive. Health workers were unable to conduct an HIV test for 103 women (6.73%, 103/1530) because of lack of reagent, which is not captured on paper logs. There was no difference in the activity level for testing when comparing sites T-HIT to non-T-HIT sites. We observed a significant postintervention increase in the numbers of women testing positive for HIV compared with the preintervention period (P=.04), but this was likely not attributable to the T-HIT system. Conclusions T-HIT had a high degree of acceptability and feasibility and is perceived as useful by health workers, who documented more

  15. Quality assurance procedures for the IAEA Department of Safeguards Twin Minolta Camera Surveillance System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geoffrion, R.R.; Bussolini, P.L.; Stark, W.A.; Ahlquist, A.J.; Sanders, K.E.; Rubinstein, G.

    1986-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards program provides assurance to the international community that nations are complying with nuclear safeguards treaties. In one aspect of the program, the Department of Safeguards has developed a twin Minolta camera photo surveillance systems program to assure itself and the international community that material handling is accomplished according to safeguards treaty regulations. The camera systems are positioned in strategic locations in facilities such that objective evidence can be obtained for material transactions. The films are then processed, reviewed, and used to substantiate the conclusions that nuclear material has not been diverted. Procedures have been developed to document and aid in: 1) the performance of activities involved in positioning of the camera system; 2) installation of the systems; 3) review and use of the film taken from the cameras

  16. Demonstration of an automated on-line surveillance system at a commercial nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.M.; Sweeney, F.J.

    1983-01-01

    As a first step in demonstrating the practicality of performing continuous on-line surveillance of the performance of nuclear steam supply systems using noise related techniques, Oak Ridge National Laboratory is operating a computerized noise signal data acquisition and processing system at the Sequoyah Unit 1 Nuclear Plant, an 1148 MWe four-loop Westinghouse pressurized water reactor (PWR) located near Chattanooga, Tennessee. The principal objective is to establish, with a degree of continuity and completeness not previously achieved, the long-term characteristics of signals from neutron detectors and process sensors in order to evaluate the feasibility of detecting and diagnosing anomalous reactor conditions by means of changes in these signals. The system is designed to automatically screen the gathered data, using a number of descriptors derived from the power spectra of the monitored signals, and thereby select for the noise analyst's perusal only those data which differ statistically from norms which the system has previously established

  17. A semantic autonomous video surveillance system for dense camera networks in Smart Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calavia, Lorena; Baladrón, Carlos; Aguiar, Javier M; Carro, Belén; Sánchez-Esguevillas, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a proposal of an intelligent video surveillance system able to detect and identify abnormal and alarming situations by analyzing object movement. The system is designed to minimize video processing and transmission, thus allowing a large number of cameras to be deployed on the system, and therefore making it suitable for its usage as an integrated safety and security solution in Smart Cities. Alarm detection is performed on the basis of parameters of the moving objects and their trajectories, and is performed using semantic reasoning and ontologies. This means that the system employs a high-level conceptual language easy to understand for human operators, capable of raising enriched alarms with descriptions of what is happening on the image, and to automate reactions to them such as alerting the appropriate emergency services using the Smart City safety network.

  18. A Semantic Autonomous Video Surveillance System for Dense Camera Networks in Smart Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Sánchez-Esguevillas

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a proposal of an intelligent video surveillance system able to detect and identify abnormal and alarming situations by analyzing object movement. The system is designed to minimize video processing and transmission, thus allowing a large number of cameras to be deployed on the system, and therefore making it suitable for its usage as an integrated safety and security solution in Smart Cities. Alarm detection is performed on the basis of parameters of the moving objects and their trajectories, and is performed using semantic reasoning and ontologies. This means that the system employs a high-level conceptual language easy to understand for human operators, capable of raising enriched alarms with descriptions of what is happening on the image, and to automate reactions to them such as alerting the appropriate emergency services using the Smart City safety network.

  19. How well do antenatal clinic (ANC) attendees represent the general population? A comparison of HIV prevalence from ANC sentinel surveillance sites with a population-based survey of women aged 15-49 in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saphonn, Vonthanak; Hor, Leng Bun; Ly, Sun Penh; Chhuon, Samrith; Saidel, Tobi; Detels, Roger

    2002-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether HIV-1 prevalence among antenatal clinic (ANC) attendees in Cambodia provided a reasonable estimate of HIV-1 prevalence among all women 15-49 years. METHODS Antenatal clinic attendees in five HIV sentinel surveillance sites (five provinces) were selected by consecutive sampling (n = 1695). The population survey of females by household was carried out in the same five areas. Household females aged 15-49 years were selected using a three-stage cluster sampling design (n = 3066). Serum-based HIV ELISA testing was done for both ANC attendees and household females. The HIV prevalence for ANC attendees and household females were compared by age group and urban versus rural location. The overall prevalence of HIV-1 infection among ANC attendees (1.62%, 95% CI : 1.26-1.98) was similar to the overall prevalence obtained from the general population of household females (1.24%, 95% CI : 0.92-1.55) in the same catchment areas in Cambodia. In the rural areas, the overall HIV prevalence among ANC attendees (2.18%, 95% CI : 1.59-2.77) was significantly higher than among the household females (0.86%, 95% CI : 0.49-1.23) after adjustment for age distribution and education level. In the 15-24 age group in rural areas, the HIV prevalence of ANC women was 2.71% (95% CI : 0.96-4.46) compared with 0.77% (95% CI : 0.02-1.53) in household females. Although ANC data can be used to estimate trends over time, it should be realized that ANC data may overestimate the actual prevalence in the younger age group in rural areas in Cambodia.

  20. The Evolving Demographic and Health Transition in Four Low- and Middle-Income Countries: Evidence from Four Sites in the INDEPTH Network of Longitudinal Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayaga Bawah

    Full Text Available This paper contributes evidence documenting the continued decline in all-cause mortality and changes in the cause of death distribution over time in four developing country populations in Africa and Asia. We present levels and trends in age-specific mortality (all-cause and cause-specific from four demographic surveillance sites: Agincourt (South Africa, Navrongo (Ghana in Africa; Filabavi (Vietnam, Matlab (Bangladesh in Asia. We model mortality using discrete time event history analysis. This study illustrates how data from INDEPTH Network centers can provide a comparative, longitudinal examination of mortality patterns and the epidemiological transition. Health care systems need to be reconfigured to deal simultaneously with continuing challenges of communicable disease and increasing incidence of non-communicable diseases that require long-term care. In populations with endemic HIV, long-term care of HIV patients on ART will add to the chronic care needs of the community.

  1. Integrating malaria surveillance with climate data for outbreak detection and forecasting: the EPIDEMIA system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkord, Christopher L; Liu, Yi; Mihretie, Abere; Gebrehiwot, Teklehaymanot; Awoke, Worku; Bayabil, Estifanos; Henebry, Geoffrey M; Kassa, Gebeyaw T; Lake, Mastewal; Wimberly, Michael C

    2017-02-23

    Early indication of an emerging malaria epidemic can provide an opportunity for proactive interventions. Challenges to the identification of nascent malaria epidemics include obtaining recent epidemiological surveillance data, spatially and temporally harmonizing this information with timely data on environmental precursors, applying models for early detection and early warning, and communicating results to public health officials. Automated web-based informatics systems can provide a solution to these problems, but their implementation in real-world settings has been limited. The Epidemic Prognosis Incorporating Disease and Environmental Monitoring for Integrated Assessment (EPIDEMIA) computer system was designed and implemented to integrate disease surveillance with environmental monitoring in support of operational malaria forecasting in the Amhara region of Ethiopia. A co-design workshop was held with computer scientists, epidemiological modelers, and public health partners to develop an initial list of system requirements. Subsequent updates to the system were based on feedback obtained from system evaluation workshops and assessments conducted by a steering committee of users in the public health sector. The system integrated epidemiological data uploaded weekly by the Amhara Regional Health Bureau with remotely-sensed environmental data freely available from online archives. Environmental data were acquired and processed automatically by the EASTWeb software program. Additional software was developed to implement a public health interface for data upload and download, harmonize the epidemiological and environmental data into a unified database, automatically update time series forecasting models, and generate formatted reports. Reporting features included district-level control charts and maps summarizing epidemiological indicators of emerging malaria outbreaks, environmental risk factors, and forecasts of future malaria risk. Successful implementation and

  2. Perceptions and acceptability of some stakeholders about the bovine tuberculosis surveillance system for wildlife (Sylvatub) in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a common disease of cattle and wildlife, with economic repercussions and implications for animal and human health. The surveillance of bTB in wildlife is particularly important, to shed light on the epidemiological role of wild species and for the adaptation of control measures. In France, a bTB surveillance system for free-ranging wildlife, the Sylvatub system, was launched in 2011 on wild boars, red deer, roe deer and badgers. It relies on active and passive surveillance activities, constrained by practical difficulties, such as the accessibility of wild animals, and regulatory rules for the trapping of badgers, for example. We report here the first assessment of stakeholders’ perceptions of the Sylvatub system and its acceptability, based on 20 individual semi-structured interviews with three types of stakeholder (collectors, coordinators, officers) in areas with different rates of bTB infection. With the caveat that these findings cannot be assumed to be representative of the national situation, we found that the Sylvatub system was considered useful by all the stakeholders interviewed. Those from the world of hunting participate in surveillance mostly to help livestock farmers, who are not systematically involved in bTB surveillance in wildlife. Many practical and regulatory constraints were raised, which could be offset by recognition of the work done by the “hunting community”, to maintain the willingness of these individuals to participate. We also identified a need for improvements in communication and information. Qualitative information, such as that collected here, is essential to improve our understanding of the reasons favoring and disfavoring participation in surveillance, and should be taken into account in the evaluation process. These results are relevant to hunters and to veterinary authorities wishing to identify the determinants of participation in the Sylvatub system. They could provide support for decision

  3. Real-time monitoring of school absenteeism to enhance disease surveillance: a pilot study of a mobile electronic reporting system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawpoolsri, Saranath; Khamsiriwatchara, Amnat; Liulark, Wongwat; Taweeseneepitch, Komchaluch; Sangvichean, Aumnuyphan; Thongprarong, Wiraporn; Kaewkungwal, Jaranit; Singhasivanon, Pratap

    2014-05-12

    School absenteeism is a common source of data used in syndromic surveillance, which can eventually be used for early outbreak detection. However, the absenteeism reporting system in most schools, especially in developing countries, relies on a paper-based method that limits its use for disease surveillance or outbreak detection. The objective of this study was to develop an electronic real-time reporting system on school absenteeism for syndromic surveillance. An electronic (Web-based) school absenteeism reporting system was developed to embed it within the normal routine process of absenteeism reporting. This electronic system allowed teachers to update students' attendance status via mobile tablets. The data from all classes and schools were then automatically sent to a centralized database for further analysis and presentation, and for monitoring temporal and spatial patterns of absent students. In addition, the system also had a disease investigation module, which provided a link between absenteeism data from schools and local health centers, to investigate causes of fever among sick students. The electronic school absenteeism reporting system was implemented in 7 primary schools in Bangkok, Thailand, with total participation of approximately 5000 students. During May-October 2012 (first semester), the percentage of absentees varied between 1% and 10%. The peak of school absenteeism (sick leave) was observed between July and September 2012, which coincided with the peak of dengue cases in children aged 6-12 years being reported to the disease surveillance system. The timeliness of a reporting system is a critical function in any surveillance system. Web-based application and mobile technology can potentially enhance the use of school absenteeism data for syndromic surveillance and outbreak detection. This study presents the factors that determine the implementation success of this reporting system.

  4. Use of Surveillance Systems in Detection of a Ciguatera Fish Poisoning Outbreak - Orange County, Florida, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klekamp, Benjamin G; Bodager, Dean; Matthews, Sarah D

    2015-10-16

    What is already known on this topic? Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP), caused by the ingestion of predatory reef-dwelling fish harboring ciguatoxins is one of the most commonly reported fish-associated marine intoxications. Ciguatoxin retains toxicity regardless of freezing or cooking. Prompt treatment can reduce debilitating neurologic symptoms that are associated with CFP.What is added by this report? Syndromic surveillance systems in Florida identified six adults with CFP following consumption of black grouper. Five patients sought medical attention; health care providers did not make a diagnosis of CFP or report the cases to public health authorities, and none of the patients received treatment. Close collaboration among several investigating agencies allowed traceback efforts to link black grouper consumed by all patients to a common international distributor.What are the implications for public health practice? Syndromic surveillance systems capable of detecting CFP are essential public health tools to identify outbreaks and enhance investigations. Medical and public health practitioners should be educated to inquire about recent fish consumption when evaluating patients with clinically compatible signs and symptoms to allow for prompt treatment, and report suspected CFP cases to public health authorities to facilitate source-food traceback efforts. Public education on avoidance of consumption of relatively large predatory reef fish species known to be from ciguatoxic-endemic areas might reduce the risk for CFP.

  5. Development Of A Surveillance System For Potability Of Water In Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gandotra V.K

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: Whether establishment of a water surveillance system in rural areas and concomitant action in event of detection of contamination will have an impact on diarrhoea related morbidity and mortality. Hypothesis: 1. It is possible to establish water testing laboratories in selected schools in rural areas. 2. If water samples are found contaminated, immediate corrective action will result in reduction of diarrhoea related morbidity and mortality. Objectives: 1. To study the feasibility of establishing water testing facility in the science laboratories of schools. 2. To study the impact of preventive measures in the community if immediate steps for household purification of water and treatment of diarrhoea cases are taken. Study design: Interventional study. Setting: A rural block. Participants: Science teachers of high schools and field workers. Interventions: 1. Training of schoolteachers for water testing and field workers for collection of water samples and diarrhoea control measures. 2. Establishing of water testing laboratories in schools. 3. In case of detection of water contamination, corrective action at different levels. 4. Propagation of ORS for management of diarrhoeas. Statistical analysis: Percentages, Paired ‘t’ test, Chi square test. Results: Reduction in diarrhoea related morbidity and mortality was observed. Conclusions: It is feasible to develop a water surveillance system in rural areas utilizing local resources. If combined with educational measures, it will significantly reduce diarrhoea related morbidity and mortality.

  6. Comparison of Statistical Algorithms for the Detection of Infectious Disease Outbreaks in Large Multiple Surveillance Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrington, C. Paddy; Noufaily, Angela; Andrews, Nick J.; Charlett, Andre

    2016-01-01

    A large-scale multiple surveillance system for infectious disease outbreaks has been in operation in England and Wales since the early 1990s. Changes to the statistical algorithm at the heart of the system were proposed and the purpose of this paper is to compare two new algorithms with the original algorithm. Test data to evaluate performance are created from weekly counts of the number of cases of each of more than 2000 diseases over a twenty-year period. The time series of each disease is separated into one series giving the baseline (background) disease incidence and a second series giving disease outbreaks. One series is shifted forward by twelve months and the two are then recombined, giving a realistic series in which it is known where outbreaks have been added. The metrics used to evaluate performance include a scoring rule that appropriately balances sensitivity against specificity and is sensitive to variation in probabilities near 1. In the context of disease surveillance, a scoring rule can be adapted to reflect the size of outbreaks and this was done. Results indicate that the two new algorithms are comparable to each other and better than the algorithm they were designed to replace. PMID:27513749

  7. Self-monitoring surveillance system for prestressing tendons. Phase I small business innovation research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabatabai, H.

    1995-12-01

    Assured safety and operational reliability of post-tensioned concrete components of nuclear power plants are of great significance to the public, electric utilities, and regulatory agencies. Prestressing tendons provide principal reinforcement for containment and other structures. In this phase of the research effort, the feasibility of developing a passive surveillance system for identification of ruptures in tendon wires was evaluated and verified. The concept offers high potential for greatly increasing effectiveness of presently-utilized periodic tendon condition surveillance programs. A one-tenth scale ring model of the Palo Verde nuclear containment structure was built inside the Structural Laboratory. Dynamic scaling (similitude) relationships were used to relate measured sensor responses recorded during controlled wire breakages to the expected prototype containment tendon response. Strong and recognizable signatures were detected by the accelerometers used. It was concluded that the unbonded prestressing tendons provide an excellent path for transmission of stress waves resulting from wire breaks. Accelerometers placed directly on the bearing plates at the ends of tendons recorded high-intensity waveforms. Accelerometers placed elsewhere on concrete surfaces of the containment model revealed substantial attenuation and reduced intensities of captured waveforms. Locations of wire breaks could be determined accurately through measurement of differences in arrival times of the signal at the sensors. Pattern recognition systems to be utilized in conjunction with the proposed concept will provide a basis for an integrated and automated tool for identification of wire breaks

  8. Leishmania Surveillance and Diagnostic Capability in Support of the Joint Biological Agent Identification and Diagnostic System (JBAIDS) and Leishmania Vector Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-07

    01-10-09 to 07-02-13 ’+. I II L~ J.\\NU :::OU~ Ill L~ :la. l-UI’I I 11J.\\l- I NUIVI~~I1 LEISHMANIA SURVEILLANCE AND DIAGNOSTIC CAPABILITY IN None...SUPPORT OF THE JOINT BIOLOGICAL AGENT IDENTIFICATION AND :lD. l:JI1J.\\NI NUIVI~~I1 DIAGNOSTIC SYSTEM (JBAIDS) None . ./ LEISHMANIA VECTOR...Field Station at Kisumu completed project activities through a resource sharing arrangement with the 59th MDW. Testing of the Leishmania epidemiology

  9. Mathematical models used to inform study design or surveillance systems in infectious diseases: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Sereina A; Blaizot, Stéphanie; Hens, Niel

    2017-12-18

    Mathematical models offer the possibility to investigate the infectious disease dynamics over time and may help in informing design of studies. A systematic review was performed in order to determine to what extent mathematical models have been incorporated into the process of planning studies and hence inform study design for infectious diseases transmitted between humans and/or animals. We searched Ovid Medline and two trial registry platforms (Cochrane, WHO) using search terms related to infection, mathematical model, and study design from the earliest dates to October 2016. Eligible publications and registered trials included mathematical models (compartmental, individual-based, or Markov) which were described and used to inform the design of infectious disease studies. We extracted information about the investigated infection, population, model characteristics, and study design. We identified 28 unique publications but no registered trials. Focusing on compartmental and individual-based models we found 12 observational/surveillance studies and 11 clinical trials. Infections studied were equally animal and human infectious diseases for the observational/surveillance studies, while all but one between humans for clinical trials. The mathematical models were used to inform, amongst other things, the required sample size (n = 16), the statistical power (n = 9), the frequency at which samples should be taken (n = 6), and from whom (n = 6). Despite the fact that mathematical models have been advocated to be used at the planning stage of studies or surveillance systems, they are used scarcely. With only one exception, the publications described theoretical studies, hence, not being utilised in real studies.

  10. Design and development of correlation techniques to maintain a space surveillance system catalogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmedo, E.; Sánchez Ortiz, Noelia; Lerate, Mercedes; Belló-Mora, Miguel; Klinkrad, H.

    2009-10-01

    A growing interest exists in a future, autonomous European Space Surveillance System (ESSS). Currently, most of the knowledge about Earth-orbiting space objects is based on information provided by the USASPACECOM. This paper presents the required initial orbit determination (IOD) and correlation techniques to process optical measurements. Former studies were focused on the handling of radar measurements, which are summarised with the aim of describing a global procedure for processing hybrid measurement types (combination of radar and optic data for catalogue maintenance). The introduction of manoeuvres are presented due to their importance in the space object catalogue maintenance. The detection of uncatalogued objects and the successful correlation of already catalogued objects involve two different tasks for telescopes: survey and tasking. Assumptions for both strategies are developed on the basis of the previous work developed at the University of Berne (see [T. Flohrer, T. Schildknecht, R. Musci, E. Stöveken, Performance estimation for GEO space surveillance, Advances in Space Research 35 (2005). [1]; T. Flohrer, T. Schildknecht, R. Musci, Proposed strategies for optical observations in a future European Space Surveillance Network, presented in the 36th COSPAR Scientific Assembly (2006). [2]; R. Musci, T. Schildknecht, M. Ploner, Orbit improvement for GEO objects using follow-up observations, Advances in Space Research 34 (2004). [3]; R. Musci, T. Schildknecht, M. Ploner, G. Beutler, Orbit improvement for GTO objects using follow-up observations, Advances in Space Research 35 (2005). [4]; R. Musci, T. Schildknecht, T. Flohrer, G. Beutler, Concept for a catalogue of space debris in GEO, Proceedings of the Fourth European Conference on Space Debris, (ESA SP-587, 2005). [5

  11. A new omni-directional multi-camera system for high resolution surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogal, Omer; Akin, Abdulkadir; Seyid, Kerem; Popovic, Vladan; Schmid, Alexandre; Ott, Beat; Wellig, Peter; Leblebici, Yusuf

    2014-05-01

    Omni-directional high resolution surveillance has a wide application range in defense and security fields. Early systems used for this purpose are based on parabolic mirror or fisheye lens where distortion due to the nature of the optical elements cannot be avoided. Moreover, in such systems, the image resolution is limited to a single image sensor's image resolution. Recently, the Panoptic camera approach that mimics the eyes of flying insects using multiple imagers has been presented. This approach features a novel solution for constructing a spherically arranged wide FOV plenoptic imaging system where the omni-directional image quality is limited by low-end sensors. In this paper, an overview of current Panoptic camera designs is provided. New results for a very-high resolution visible spectrum imaging and recording system inspired from the Panoptic approach are presented. The GigaEye-1 system, with 44 single cameras and 22 FPGAs, is capable of recording omni-directional video in a 360°×100° FOV at 9.5 fps with a resolution over (17,700×4,650) pixels (82.3MP). Real-time video capturing capability is also verified at 30 fps for a resolution over (9,000×2,400) pixels (21.6MP). The next generation system with significantly higher resolution and real-time processing capacity, called GigaEye-2, is currently under development. The important capacity of GigaEye-1 opens the door to various post-processing techniques in surveillance domain such as large perimeter object tracking, very-high resolution depth map estimation and high dynamicrange imaging which are beyond standard stitching and panorama generation methods.

  12. The HIV Airway

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    dren living with HIV/AIDS. Annual national antenatal surveil- lance shows an HIV prevalence of 26.5% among pregnant women. Anaesthetists are confronted with an increasing number of HIV infected patients, presenting for both emergency and elective sur- gery. They range from having asymptomatic infection to end stage.

  13. LoRaWAN-Based Energy-Efficient Surveillance by Drones for Intelligent Transportation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal Sharma

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Urban networks aim at facilitating users for better experience and services through smart platforms such as the Intelligent Transportation System (ITS. ITS focuses on information acquisition, sensing, contrivance control, data processing and forwarding to ground devices via user-specific application-interfaces. The utility of ITS is further improved via the Internet of Things (IoT, which supports “Connectivity to All”. One of the key applications of IoT-ITS is urban surveillance. Current surveillance in IoT-ITS is performed via fixed infrastructure-based sensing applications which consume an excessive amount of energy leading to several overheads and failures in the network. Such issues can be overcome by the utilization of on-demand nodes, such as drones, etc. However, drones-assisted surveillance requires efficient communication setup as drones are battery operated and any extemporaneous maneuver during monitoring may result in loss of drone or complete failure of the network. The novelty in terms of network layout can be procured by the utilization of drones with LoRaWAN, which is the protocol designated for Low-Power Wide Area Networks (LPWAN. However, even this architectural novelty alone cannot ascertain the formation of fail-safe, highly resilient, low-overhead, and non-redundant network, which is additionally the problem considered in this paper. To resolve such problem, this paper uses drones as LoRaWAN gateway and proposes a communication strategy based on the area stress, resilient factor, and energy consumption that avail in the efficient localization, improved coverage and energy-efficient surveillance with lower overheads, lower redundancy, and almost zero-isolations. The proposed approach is numerically simulated and the results show that the proposed approach can conserve a maximum of 39.2% and a minimum of 12.6% of the total network energy along with an improvement in the area stress between 89.7% and 53.0% for varying

  14. HIV after 40 in rural South Africa: A life course approach to HIV vulnerability among middle aged and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojola, Sanyu A; Williams, Jill; Angotti, Nicole; Gómez-Olivé, F Xavier

    2015-10-01

    South Africa has the highest number of people living with HIV in the world (over 6 million) as well as a rapidly aging population, with 15% of the population aged 50 and over. High HIV prevalence in rural former apartheid homeland areas suggests substantial aging with HIV and acquisition of HIV at older ages. We develop a life course approach to HIV vulnerability, highlighting the rise and fall of risk and protection as people age, as well as the role of contextual density in shaping HIV vulnerability. Using this approach, we draw on an innovative multi-method data set collected within the Agincourt Health and Demographic Surveillance System in South Africa, combining survey data with 60 nested life history interviews and 9 community focus group interviews. We examine HIV risk and protective factors among adults aged 40-80, as well as how and why these factors vary among people at older ages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A systemic review of tuberculosis with HIV coinfection in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naidoo, Jaishree; Mahomed, Nasreen; Moodley, Halvani

    2017-01-01

    The epidemiology of tuberculosis is adversely impacted by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection. HIV-infected patients are more prone to opportunistic infections, most commonly tuberculosis, and the risk of death in coinfected patients is higher than in those without HIV. Due to the impaired cellular immunity and reduced immunological response in HIV-infected patients, the classic imaging features of tuberculosis usually seen in patients without HIV may present differently. The aim of this review article is to highlight the imaging features that may assist in the diagnosis of tuberculosis in patients with HIV coinfection. (orig.)

  16. A systemic review of tuberculosis with HIV coinfection in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naidoo, Jaishree; Mahomed, Nasreen; Moodley, Halvani [University of the Witwatersrand, Department of Radiology, Johannesburg (South Africa)

    2017-09-15

    The epidemiology of tuberculosis is adversely impacted by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection. HIV-infected patients are more prone to opportunistic infections, most commonly tuberculosis, and the risk of death in coinfected patients is higher than in those without HIV. Due to the impaired cellular immunity and reduced immunological response in HIV-infected patients, the classic imaging features of tuberculosis usually seen in patients without HIV may present differently. The aim of this review article is to highlight the imaging features that may assist in the diagnosis of tuberculosis in patients with HIV coinfection. (orig.)

  17. Use of the Finnish Information System on Occupational Exposure (FINJEM) in epidemiologic, surveillance, and other applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppinen, Timo; Uuksulainen, Sanni; Saalo, Anja; Mäkinen, Ilpo; Pukkala, Eero

    2014-04-01

    This paper reviews the use of the Finnish Information System on Occupational Exposure (Finnish job-exposure matrix, FINJEM) in different applications in Finland and other countries. We describe and discuss studies on FINJEM and studies utilizing FINJEM in regard to the validity of exposure estimates, occupational epidemiology, hazard surveillance and prevention, the assessment of health risks and the burden of disease, the assessment of exposure trends and future hazards, and the construction of job-exposure matrices (JEMs) in countries other than Finland. FINJEM can be used as an exposure assessment tool in occupational epidemiology, particularly in large register-based studies. It also provides information for hazard surveillance at the national level. It is able to identify occupations with high average exposures to chemical agents and can therefore serve the priority setting of prevention. However, it has only limited use at the workplace level due to the variability of exposure between workplaces. The national estimates of exposure and their temporal trends may contribute to the assessment of both the recent and future burden of work-related health outcomes. FINJEM has also proved to be useful in the construction of other national JEMs, for example in the Nordic Occupational Cancer study in the Nordic countries. FINJEM is a quantitative JEM, which can serve many purposes and its comprehensive documentation also makes it potentially useful in countries other than Finland.

  18. A Web-Based, Hospital-Wide Health Care-Associated Bloodstream Infection Surveillance and Classification System: Development and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Yi-Ju; Wu, Jung-Hsuan; Lin, Hui-Chi; Chen, Ming-Yuan; Ping, Xiao-Ou; Sun, Chun-Chuan; Shang, Rung-Ji; Sheng, Wang-Huei; Chen, Yee-Chun; Lai, Feipei; Chang, Shan-Chwen

    2015-09-21

    Surveillance of health care-associated infections is an essential component of infection prevention programs, but conventional systems are labor intensive and performance dependent. To develop an automatic surveillance and classification system for health care-associated bloodstream infection (HABSI), and to evaluate its performance by comparing it with a conventional infection control personnel (ICP)-based surveillance system. We developed a Web-based system that was integrated into the medical information system of a 2200-bed teaching hospital in Taiwan. The system automatically detects and classifies HABSIs. In this study, the number of computer-detected HABSIs correlated closely with the number of HABSIs detected by ICP by department (n=20; r=.999 Psystem performed excellently with regard to sensitivity (98.16%), specificity (99.96%), positive predictive value (95.81%), and negative predictive value (99.98%). The system enabled decreasing the delay in confirmation of HABSI cases, on average, by 29 days. This system provides reliable and objective HABSI data for quality indicators, improving the delay caused by a conventional surveillance system.

  19. Development of the integrated core on-line monitoring and protection aid surveillance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Byung Oh; In, Wang Kee; Song, Jae Seung; Zee, Sung Quun

    1998-01-01

    The integrated Core On-line Monitoring and Protection Aid Surveillance System (COMPASS) is developed for the purpose of supporting the reactor operation, based on the three-dimensional nodal design code, MASTER. The heart of COMPASS is an adaptive nodal core simulator for the on-line calculation of three-dimensional assembly and pin power distributions which are used for the evaluation of the thermal margins and for the guide in operation. In this paper, the overall structures and the solution methods of COMPASS are described. The uncertainty of COMPASS for SMART core was also evaluated by comparing that of MASTER. The results showed that COMPASS uncertainty in power shape prediction is identical to that of the design code system, MASTER. The application of COMPASS to the analysis of peaking factor for SMART core resulted with about 4% gain in peaking factor margin when compared to COLSS

  20. A Retrieval Optimized Surveillance Video Storage System for Campus Application Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengcheng Ma

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates and analyzes the characteristics of video data and puts forward a campus surveillance video storage system with the university campus as the specific application environment. Aiming at the challenge that the content-based video retrieval response time is too long, the key-frame index subsystem is designed. The key frame of the video can reflect the main content of the video. Extracted from the video, key frames are associated with the metadata information to establish the storage index. The key-frame index is used in lookup operations while querying. This method can greatly reduce the amount of video data reading and effectively improves the query’s efficiency. From the above, we model the storage system by a stochastic Petri net (SPN and verify the promotion of query performance by quantitative analysis.

  1. Extracting 3d Semantic Information from Video Surveillance System Using Deep Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J. S.; Cao, J.; Mao, B.; Shen, D. Q.

    2018-04-01

    At present, intelligent video analysis technology has been widely used in various fields. Object tracking is one of the important part of intelligent video surveillance, but the traditional target tracking technology based on the pixel coordinate system in images still exists some unavoidable problems. Target tracking based on pixel can't reflect the real position information of targets, and it is difficult to track objects across scenes. Based on the analysis of Zhengyou Zhang's camera calibration method, this paper presents a method of target tracking based on the target's space coordinate system after converting the 2-D coordinate of the target into 3-D coordinate. It can be seen from the experimental results: Our method can restore the real position change information of targets well, and can also accurately get the trajectory of the target in space.

  2. The HIV-1 Rev/RRE system is required for HIV-1 5' UTR cis elements to augment encapsidation of heterologous RNA into HIV-1 viral particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Hong

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The process of HIV-1 genomic RNA (gRNA encapsidation is governed by a number of viral encoded components, most notably the Gag protein and gRNA cis elements in the canonical packaging signal (ψ. Also implicated in encapsidation are cis determinants in the R, U5, and PBS (primer binding site from the 5' untranslated region (UTR. Although conventionally associated with nuclear export of HIV-1 RNA, there is a burgeoning role for the Rev/RRE in the encapsidation process. Pleiotropic effects exhibited by these cis and trans viral components may confound the ability to examine their independent, and combined, impact on encapsidation of RNA into HIV-1 viral particles in their innate viral context. We systematically reconstructed the HIV-1 packaging system in the context of a heterologous murine leukemia virus (MLV vector RNA to elucidate a mechanism in which the Rev/RRE system is central to achieving efficient and specific encapsidation into HIV-1 viral particles. Results We show for the first time that the Rev/RRE system can augment RNA encapsidation independent of all cis elements from the 5' UTR (R, U5, PBS, and ψ. Incorporation of all the 5' UTR cis elements did not enhance RNA encapsidation in the absence of the Rev/RRE system. In fact, we demonstrate that the Rev/RRE system is required for specific and efficient encapsidation commonly associated with the canonical packaging signal. The mechanism of Rev/RRE-mediated encapsidation is not a general phenomenon, since the combination of the Rev/RRE system and 5' UTR cis elements did not enhance encapsidation into MLV-derived viral particles. Lastly, we show that heterologous MLV RNAs conform to transduction properties commonly associated with HIV-1 viral particles, including in vivo transduction of non-dividing cells (i.e. mouse neurons; however, the cDNA forms are episomes predominantly in the 1-LTR circle form. Conclusions Premised on encapsidation of a heterologous RNA into

  3. Monitoring the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines into West Africa: design and implementation of a population-based surveillance system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant A Mackenzie

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Routine use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs in developing countries is expected to lead to a significant reduction in childhood deaths. However, PCVs have been associated with replacement disease with non-vaccine serotypes. We established a population-based surveillance system to document the direct and indirect impact of PCVs on the incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD and radiological pneumonia in those aged 2 months and older in The Gambia, and to monitor changes in serotype-specific IPD. Here we describe how this surveillance system was set up and is being operated as a partnership between the Medical Research Council Unit and the Gambian Government. This surveillance system is expected to provide crucial information for immunisation policy and serves as a potential model for those introducing routine PCV vaccination in diverse settings.

  4. Road traffic related mortality in Vietnam: Evidence for policy from a national sample mortality surveillance system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngo Anh D

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Road traffic injuries (RTIs are among the leading causes of mortality in Vietnam. However, mortality data collection systems in Vietnam in general and for RTIs in particular, remain inconsistent and incomplete. Underlying distributions of external causes and body injuries are not available from routine data collection systems or from studies till date. This paper presents characteristics, user type pattern, seasonal distribution, and causes of 1,061 deaths attributable to road crashes ascertained from a national sample mortality surveillance system in Vietnam over a two-year period (2008 and 2009. Methods A sample mortality surveillance system was designed for Vietnam, comprising 192 communes in 16 provinces, accounting for approximately 3% of the Vietnamese population. Deaths were identified from commune level data sources, and followed up by verbal autopsy (VA based ascertainment of cause of death. Age-standardised mortality rates from RTIs were computed. VA questionnaires were analysed in depth to derive descriptive characteristics of RTI deaths in the sample. Results The age-standardized mortality rates from RTIs were 33.5 and 8.5 per 100,000 for males and females respectively. Majority of deaths were males (79%. Seventy three percent of all deaths were aged from 15 to 49 years and 58% were motorcycle users. As high as 80% of deaths occurred on the day of injury, 42% occurred prior to arrival at hospital, and a further 29% occurred on-site. Direct causes of death were identified for 446 deaths (42% with head injuries being the most common cause attributable to road traffic injuries overall (79% and to motorcycle crashes in particular (78%. Conclusion The VA method can provide a useful data source to analyse RTI mortality. The observed considerable mortality from head injuries among motorcycle users highlights the need to evaluate current practice and effectiveness of motorcycle helmet use in Vietnam. The high number of

  5. HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. It harms your immune system by destroying the white blood cells ... It is the final stage of infection with HIV. Not everyone with HIV develops AIDS. HIV most ...

  6. HIV and AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español HIV and AIDS KidsHealth / For Kids / HIV and AIDS ... actually the virus that causes the disease AIDS. HIV Hurts the Immune System People who are HIV ...

  7. Challenges in the implementation of an electronic surveillance system in a resource-limited setting: Alerta, in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soto Giselle

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infectious disease surveillance is a primary public health function in resource-limited settings. In 2003, an electronic disease surveillance system (Alerta was established in the Peruvian Navy with support from the U.S. Naval Medical Research Center Detachment (NMRCD. Many challenges arose during the implementation process, and a variety of solutions were applied. The purpose of this paper is to identify and discuss these issues. Methods This is a retrospective description of the Alerta implementation. After a thoughtful evaluation according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC guidelines, the main challenges to implementation were identified and solutions were devised in the context of a resource-limited setting, Peru. Results After four years of operation, we have identified a number of challenges in implementing and operating this electronic disease surveillance system. These can be divided into the following categories: (1 issues with personnel and stakeholders; (2 issues with resources in a developing setting; (3 issues with processes involved in the collection of data and operation of the system; and (4 issues with organization at the central hub. Some of the challenges are unique to resource-limited settings, but many are applicable for any surveillance system. For each of these challenges, we developed feasible solutions that are discussed. Conclusion There are many challenges to overcome when implementing an electronic disease surveillance system, not only related to technology issues. A comprehensive approach is required for success, including: technical support, personnel management, effective training, and cultural sensitivity in order to assure the effective deployment of an electronic disease surveillance system.

  8. A mobile field-work data collection system for the wireless era of health surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsell, Marianne; Sjögren, Petteri; Renard, Matthew; Johansson, Olle

    2011-03-01

    In many countries or regions the capacity of health care resources is below the needs of the population and new approaches for health surveillance are needed. Innovative projects, utilizing wireless communication technology, contribute to reliable methods for field-work data collection and reporting to databases. The objective was to describe a new version of a wireless IT-support system for field-work data collection and administration. The system requirements were drawn from the design objective and translated to system functions. The system architecture was based on fieldwork experiences and administrative requirements. The Smartphone devices were HTC Touch Diamond2s, while the system was based on a platform with Microsoft .NET components, and a SQL Server 2005 with Microsoft Windows Server 2003 operating system. The user interfaces were based on .NET programming, and Microsoft Windows Mobile operating system. A synchronization module enabled download of field data to the database, via a General Packet Radio Services (GPRS) to a Local Area Network (LAN) interface. The field-workers considered the here-described applications user-friendly and almost self-instructing. The office administrators considered that the back-office interface facilitated retrieval of health reports and invoice distribution. The current IT-support system facilitates short lead times from fieldwork data registration to analysis, and is suitable for various applications. The advantages of wireless technology, and paper-free data administration need to be increasingly emphasized in development programs, in order to facilitate reliable and transparent use of limited resources.

  9. The insertion of the environmental health surveillance in the unified health system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edenilo Baltazar Barreira Filho

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The integration of environmental monitoring activities in the Unified Health System (SUS shows some characteristics that differentiate it from the practice of epidemiological surveillance. This occurs mainly because much data on exposure to environmental factors is obtained outside the health sector and the adoption of actions that seek to control and/or prevent requires, in most cases, an intra andintersectoral understanding and articulation, since the health sector is not able, by itself, to provide answers to environmental health issues.In recent years, there has been an increasingly consolidation of the field of environmental health, which includes the area of public health, accustomed to scientific knowledge, to the formulation of public policies and the corresponding interventions (actions related to the interaction between human health and both natural and anthropic environmental factors, which determine, modulate and influence such interaction, in order to improve the quality of human life from the point of view of sustainability(1.As agreed at the Ist Seminar of the National Environmental Health, held in October 2005 and consolidated in the first National Conference on Environmental Health, held in December 2009, it is understood as an area of intersectoral and interdisciplinarypractice focused on the outcomes, in human health, of ecogeossocialrelations between man and environment(1.Accordingly, the Ministry of Health has been implementing, throughout the country, a Surveillance System in Environmental Health (SINVISA, seeking the improvement of this “model” of activities, establishing expertise into the three levels of government, aiming to consolidate the practice of Environmental Health within the SUS.Normative Instruction No. 1, March 7, 2005, creates SINVISA, establishes the area of action, the scope of the three levels of management within SUS and defines the Environmental Health Surveillance as a set of actions and services

  10. Intercomparison of auto- and cross-power spectral density surveillance systems for sodium boiling detection in fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrhardt, J.

    1979-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental investigations on detection systems for small narrow-band components in noise signals were conducted. These detectionn systems are based on the continuous surveillance of the power spectral density for characteristic peaks. Detection sensitivity for auto- and cross-correlation measurements was computed for signals with normally distributed amplitudes in dependence of signal coherence. The derived detection criteria allowed the comparison of auto- and cross-power spectral density surveillance. Theoretical results were confirmed in a number of experimental parameter studies. Special theoretical investigations were done for the optimal detection of local sodium boiling in liquid-metal fast breeder reactors

  11. [Surveillance system on drug abuse: Interest of the French national OPPIDUM program of French addictovigilance network].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frauger, Elisabeth; Pochard, Liselotte; Boucherie, Quentin; Giocanti, Adeline; Chevallier, Cécile; Daveluy, Amélie; Gibaja, Valérie; Caous, Anne-Sylvie; Eiden, Céline; Authier, Nicolas; Le Boisselier, Reynald; Guerlais, Marylène; Jouanjus, Émilie; Lepelley, Marion; Pizzoglio, Véronique; Pain, Stéphanie; Richard, Nathalie; Micallef, Joëlle

    2017-09-01

    It is important to assess drug abuse liability in 'real life' using different surveillance systems. OPPIDUM ('Observation of illegal drugs and misuse of psychotropic medications') surveillance system anonymously collects information on drug abuse and dependence observed in patients recruited in specialized care centers dedicated to drug dependence. The aim of this article is to demonstrate the utility of OPPIDUM system using 2015 data. OPPIDUM is a cross-sectional survey repeated each year since 1995. In 2015, 5003 patients described the modality of use of 10,159 psychoactive drugs. Among them, 77% received an opiate maintenance treatment: 68% methadone (half of them consumed capsule form) and 27% buprenorphine (39% consumed generic form). Brand-name buprenorphine is more often injected than generic buprenorphine (10% vs. 2%) and among methadone consumers 7% of methadone capsule consumers have illegally obtained methadone (vs. 9% for syrup form). The proportion of medications among psychoactive drugs injected is important (42%), with morphine representing 21% of the total psychoactive drugs injected and buprenorphine, 16%. OPPIDUM highlighted emergent behaviors of abuse with some analgesic opioids (like tramadol, oxycodone or fentanyl), pregabalin, or quetiapine. OPPIDUM highlighted variations of drugs use regarding geographic approaches or by drug dependence care centers (like in harm reduction centers). OPPIDUM clearly demonstrated that collection of valid and useful data on drug abuse is possible, these data have an interest at regional, national and international levels. Copyright © 2017 Société française de pharmacologie et de thérapeutique. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Implementing a Childhood Cancer Outcomes Surveillance System Within a Population-Based Cancer Registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Ramirez

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Approximately 80% of cases of childhood cancer occur in low- and middle-income countries and are associated with high mortality rates. Assessing outcomes is essential for designing effective strategies to improve outcomes equally worldwide. We implemented a real-time surveillance system, VIGICANCER, embedded in a population-based cancer registry (PBCR to assess childhood cancer outcomes. Methods: VIGICANCER was established in 2009 as an integral part of Cali’s PBCR to collect real-time data on outcomes of patients (age < 19 years with a new diagnosis of cancer treated in pediatric oncology units in Cali, Colombia. Baseline and follow-up data (death, relapse, treatment abandonment, second neoplasms were collected from medical records, hospital discharge logs, pathology reports, death certificates, and the National Public Health Insurance database. A quality assurance process was implemented for the system. Results: From 2009 to 2013, data from 1,242 patients were included in VIGICANCER: 32% of patients were younger than 5 years, 55% were male, and 15% were Afro-descendants. International Classification of Childhood Cancer group I diagnoses predominated in all age groups except children younger than 1 year old, in whom CNS tumors predominated. Five-year overall survival for all cancers was 51.7% (95% CI, 47.9% to 55.4% for children (< 15 years, and 39.4% (95% CI, 29.8% to 50.5% for adolescents (15 to 18.9 years. Five-year overall survival for acute lymphoblastic leukemia was 55.6% (95% CI, 48.5% to 62.2%. Conclusion: Our study demonstrates the feasibility of implementing a real-time childhood cancer outcomes surveillance system embedded in a PBCR that can guide interventions to improve clinical outcomes in low- and middle-income countries.

  13. HIV infection results in ventral-striatal reward system hypo-activation during cue processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plessis, Stéfan du; Vink, Matthijs; Joska, John A; Koutsilieri, Eleni; Bagadia, Asif; Stein, Dan J; Emsley, Robin

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Functional MRI has thus far demonstrated that HIV has an impact on frontal-striatal systems