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Sample records for hiv seropositive individuals

  1. A comparative study of anxiety among HIV seropositive individuals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Musumali

    University of Zambia, Psychology Department. Lusaka, Zambia ... behaviour patterns. In view of the negative influence of long standing anxiety, the present study attempts to find an answer regarding the possible differences between the prevalence and ... illness behavior among HIV seropositive individuals. • To find an ...

  2. Increasing trend of HIV seropositivity in a sexually transmitted diseases centre and epidemiology of HIV seropositive individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, K; Ramesh, V; Karmakar, S N; Misra, R S

    1996-01-01

    11,539 STD clinic attenders and 20,897 antenatal clinic (ANC) attenders at a New Delhi hospital were screened for HIV antibodies by ELISA over a 3-year period. Results were confirmed by Western Blot. A low HIV seropositivity rate (1 per 1000) with an increasing trend in 1993 (4 per 1000) was observed in the STD attenders as against 0.1 per 1000 in the normal control populations. Most of the STD attenders including all the HIV seropositives had heterosexual contact with female sex workers. Both the HIV seropositive ANC attenders acquired the infection through blood transfusion. Thirteen of 23 HIV positive STD attenders had genital lesions, 5 having ulcerative and 8 having nonulcerative STD. Their clinical presentation did not differ from the HIV negative cases but the therapeutic response in 4 was altered. None had signs of symptoms of ARC/AIDS. Two out of 6 spouses and a 2-year-old child of HIV seropositive patients were seropositive. Increasing HIV seropositivity observed in this study reflects the changing situation in the country and highlights the importance of improvement of surveillance, early diagnosis and combined approaches to the management and control of STDs and HIV.

  3. MicroRNA profile changes in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 seropositive individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Stephen M

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract MicroRNAs (miRNAs play diverse roles in regulating cellular and developmental functions. We have profiled the miRNA expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 36 HIV-1 seropositive individuals and 12 normal controls. The HIV-1-positive individuals were categorized operationally into four classes based on their CD4+ T-cell counts and their viral loads. We report that specific miRNA signatures can be observed for each of the four classes.

  4. A comparative study of anxiety among HIV seropositive individuals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Kara Counseling - Hope house, Mother Theresa Hospice and Network of Zambian people living with HIV (NZP+). In India the sample was drawn from. Snehandan, Karnataka network for people living with HIV (KNP+), and Kidwai Hospital. The technique of assessment used was the Symptoms Questionnaire developed 1 ...

  5. 110 HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS (HIV) SEROPOSITIVITY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    patients with ocular disorders and who are otherwise healthy looking may infact be HIV seropositive and as such it may be necessary to observe all rules relating to HIV transmission so as to prevent ... from the tear fluid, conjunctiva of HIV positive but asymptomatic individuals (5). There have also been reports of health care ...

  6. Mycobacterium avium and purified protein derivative-specific cytotoxicity mediated by CD4+ lymphocytes from healthy HIV-seropositive and-seronegative individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, P; Pedersen, B K

    1996-01-01

    HIV is the greatest single risk factor for the development of tuberculosis. Diseases caused by M. tuberculosis and mycobacteria are the most common opportunistic infections in HIV-infected persons, which may stem from a functional defect of the CD4+ T-cell-mediated killing of macrophages harboring...... with no history of previous or active mycobacterial infection. Antigen-specific killing of macrophages presenting mycobacterial antigens (purified protein derivative or M. avium culture filtrate) was conducted. The phenotype of the killer cells was determined by a fluorescence-activated cell sorter after antigen...... mycobacteria. Our objective was to investigate the M.tuberculosis-and M. avium-specific cytotoxic capacity of T cells from healthy, bacille Calmette-Guérin-vaccinated, HIV-seropositive individuals. Blood mononuclear cells were obtained from 10 healthy HIV-seropositive and 10 healthy seronegative persons...

  7. Mycobacterium avium and purified protein derivative-specific cytotoxicity mediated by CD4+ lymphocytes from healthy HIV-seropositive and-seronegative individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, P; Pedersen, B K

    1996-01-01

    HIV is the greatest single risk factor for the development of tuberculosis. Diseases caused by M. tuberculosis and mycobacteria are the most common opportunistic infections in HIV-infected persons, which may stem from a functional defect of the CD4+ T-cell-mediated killing of macrophages harboring...... mycobacteria. Our objective was to investigate the M.tuberculosis-and M. avium-specific cytotoxic capacity of T cells from healthy, bacille Calmette-Guérin-vaccinated, HIV-seropositive individuals. Blood mononuclear cells were obtained from 10 healthy HIV-seropositive and 10 healthy seronegative persons...... with no history of previous or active mycobacterial infection. Antigen-specific killing of macrophages presenting mycobacterial antigens (purified protein derivative or M. avium culture filtrate) was conducted. The phenotype of the killer cells was determined by a fluorescence-activated cell sorter after antigen...

  8. Frequency of CCR5 Delta-32 Mutation in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV-seropositive and HIV-exposed Seronegative Individuals and in General Population of Medellin, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J Díaz

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Repeated exposure to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV does not always result in seroconversion. Modifications in coreceptors for HIV entrance to target cells are one of the factors that block the infection. We studied the frequency of Delta-32 mutation in ccr5 gene in Medellin, Colombia. Two hundred and eighteen individuals distributed in three different groups were analyzed for Delta-32 mutation in ccr5 gene by polymerase chain reaction (PCR: 29 HIV seropositive (SP, 39 exposed seronegative (ESN and 150 individuals as a general population sample (GPS. The frequency of the Delta-32 mutant allele was 3.8% for ESN, 2.7% for GPS and 1.7% for SP. Only one homozygous mutant genotype (Delta-32/Delta-32 was found among the ESN (2.6%. The heterozygous genotype (ccr5/Delta-32 was found in eight GPS (5.3%, in one SP (3.4% and in one ESN (2.6%. The differences in the allelic and genotypic frequencies among the three groups were not statistically significant. A comparison between the expected and the observed genotypic frequencies showed that these frequencies were significantly different for the ESN group, which indirectly suggests a protective effect of the mutant genotype (Delta-32/Delta-32. Since this mutant genotype explained the resistance of infection in only one of our ESN persons, different mechanisms of protection must be playing a more important role in this population.

  9. Proposed ratios and cutoffs for the assessment of lipodystrophy in HIV-seropositive individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beraldo, R A; Vassimon, H S; Aragon, D C; Navarro, A M; Albuquerque de Paula, F J; Foss-Freitas, M C

    2015-02-01

    To propose objective ratios using anthropometry and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and to suggest cutoff points for them in order to classify lipodystrophy in male patients. It is a cross-sectional study. DXA was applied and anthropometric measurements were performed in 100 men on highly active antiretroviral therapy. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to propose cutoffs. Individuals were divided in without (lipo-) or with (lipo+) lipodystrophy and their metabolic parameters were compared. The following ratios were proposed: fat mass ratio by DXA (FMR), waist thigh ratio (WTR), waist calf ratio (WCR), and arm to trunk ratio (ATR). The best cutoffs observed for FMR, WTR and ATR were 1.26, 1.74 and 2.08, respectively. Using the proposed cutoff for FMR, we observed worse metabolic profile, with increased tryglicerides, fasting serum glucose and more hypercholesterolemia in the lipo+ group. WTR and ATR showed a significant correlation with FMR. Anthropometric ratios (WTR/ATR) and FMR can be used to aid the diagnosis of lipodystrophy in order to contribute to a more accurate and earlier diagnosis permitting intervention and even preventing metabolic disturbances.

  10. Heterozygosity for a deletion in the CKR-5 gene leads to prolonged AIDS-free survival and slower CD4 T-cell decline in a cohort of HIV-seropositive individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eugen-Olsen, J; Iversen, Anton; Garred, P

    1997-01-01

    Recently, it has been shown that a homozygous 32 base-pair deletion in the gene encoding CKR-5, a major coreceptor for HIV-1, leads to resistance to infection with HIV-1. We have investigated whether HIV-seropositive individuals who were heterozygous for the CKR-5 deletion had a different course...

  11. Association Between Unplanned Pregnancy and HIV Seropositivity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    66.7% of those that reported that their partners had worries, depression or sadness after disclosure had unplanned pregnancies whereas 83.3% of those that expressed no emotions had planned pregnancies. Conclusions: Possibility of antenatal HIV seropositivity disclosure to partner is the same whether the pregnancy is ...

  12. Strongyloides stercoralis infestation in HIV seropositive patients in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: A contemporary surge in diarrhoeal illnesses due to parasitic infestations is believed to be a synergy between endemicity and HIV seropositivity. Aim: To determine the prevalence of Strongyloides stercoralis infestation among HIV seropositive patients at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital.

  13. Frequencies of CCR5-D32, CCR2-64I and SDF1-3’A mutations in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV seropositive subjects and seronegative individuals from the state of Pará in Brazilian Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Andreza de Pinho Lott Carvalhaes

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of genetic polymorphisms of chemokine receptors CCR5-delta32, CCR2-64I and chemokine (SDF1-3’A mutations were studied in 110 Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1 seropositive individuals (seropositive group and 139 seronegative individuals (seronegative group from the population of the northern Brazilian city of Belém which is the capital of the state of Pará in the Brazilian Amazon. The CCR5-delta32 mutation was found in the two groups at similar frequencies, i.e. 2.2% for the seronegative group and 2.7% for the seropositive group. The frequencies of the SDF1-3’A mutation were 21.0% for the seronegative group and 15.4% for the seropositive group, and the CCR2-64I allele was found at frequencies of 12.5% for the seronegative group and 5.4% for the seropositive group. Genotype distributions were consistent with Hardy-Weinberg expectations in both groups, suggesting that none of the three mutations has a detectable selective effect. Difference in the allelic and genotypic frequencies was statistically significant for the CCR2 locus, the frequency in the seronegative group being twice that found in the seropositive group. This finding may indicate a protective effect of the CCR2-64I mutation in relation to HIV transmission. However, considering that the CCR2-64I mutation has been more strongly associated with a decreased risk for progression for AIDS than to the resistance to the HIV infection, this could reflect an aspect of population structure or a Type I error.

  14. Serotonin modulates immune function in T cells from HIV-seropositive subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eugen-Olsen, J; Afzelius, P; Andresen, L

    1997-01-01

    We have shown earlier increased intracellular levels of cAMP in peripheral lymphocytes from HIV-seropositive subjects and that a chemically induced decrease in this level increases cell proliferation and cytotoxicity. Others have shown that serotonin indirectly decreases intracellular cAMP levels...... in normal peripheral lymphocytes. In this study, we show that addition of serotonin decreases intracellular levels of cAMP in lymphocytes from HIV-seropositive subjects and significantly increases the proliferative capacity in vitro. However, the effect of serotonin varies with the initial proliferative...... enhancing effect on cell proliferation in some HIV-seropositive individuals than in others....

  15. Tuberculin skin testing in intravenous drug users: differences between HIV-seropositive and HIV-seronegative subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portu, José J; Aldamiz-Etxebarria, Mikel; Agud, José M; Arévalo, José M; Almaraz, María J; Ayensa, Cándido

    2002-04-01

    The prevalence of tuberculin skin test reactions among intravenous drug abusers and differences in tuberculin skin test positivity between HIV-seropositive and HIV-seronegative subjects were evaluated in a cross-sectional study of 1131 subjects. They were recruited from a therapeutic community, from those who attended the centre for the treatment of drug addiction and from those who visited for any reason an acute tertiary-care hospital in Vitoria-Gasteiz, Basque Country (Spain). All subjects underwent skin testing with purified protein derivative (PPD) tuberculin and testing for HIV antibodies. CD4(+) T-lymphocyte count was determined in HIV-seropositive individuals. Positive PPD tests were recorded in 35% of drug users who were HIV-seropositive and in 65% in those who were HIV-seronegative. In the HIV-infected group, there was a significant association between results of the tuberculin test and CD4(+) T-lymphocyte count. When the CD4(+) T-lymphocyte count was > or = 500 cells/mm(3), percentages of positive PPD tests were similar in HIV-seropositives and HIV-seronegatives (47% versus 65%) but when the CD4(+) count was < 500 cells/mm(3), positive PPD tests occurred in only 21% of HIV-seropositives. The PPD test showed a decreased sensitivity for detecting tuberculosis infection in HIV-infected intravenous drug users with CD4(+) T-lymphocyte counts fewer than 500 cells/mm(3).

  16. (hiv) seropositivity in african patients presenting to the eye clinic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    %) patient each. These findings suggest that, patients with ocular disorders and who are otherwise healthy looking may infact be HIV seropositive and as such it may be necessary to observe all rules relating to HIV transmission so as to prevent ...

  17. 110 HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS (HIV) SEROPOSITIVITY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. A seroprevalence study of Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in new patients attending the eye clinic of LAUTECH. Teaching Hospital in Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria showed that twenty-nine patients 2.7%) were positive to HIV1. No patient was positive to HIV 2. There were 21 males (72.4%) and 8 ...

  18. Isoniazid prophylactic therapy for tuberculosis in HIV-seropositive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    therapy for tuberculosis in. HIV-seropositive patients. - a least-cost analysis. P. Masobe, T. Lee, M. Price. The expected upsurge in the number of new cases of tuberculosis resulting from the HIVlAIDS epidemic prompted an examination of the feasibility of prevention strategies to limit the increase in clinical tuberculosis.

  19. Haematological profile of HIV seropositive HAART naive clients in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of the study was to assess the haematological profile of HIV seropositive HAART naive patients who attended Kogi State University Teaching Hospital, Anyigba, Kogi State, Nigeria between January 1, 2014 and December 31, 2014. The study was prospective experimental research. Ethical clearance was ...

  20. Maternal HIV seropositivity and perinatal/neonatal outcome at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    %) and neonatal death of 3/66 (4.5%). Conclusion: High HIV seropositive prevalence rate, high rate of loss to follow up (abscondment), high positive rate in young mothers with adverse perinatal/neonatal outcome call for cost effective measures ...

  1. Isoniazid prophylactic therapy for tuberculosis in HIV-seropositive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A computer spreadsheet model was developed to estimate the costs and benefits that would result from isoniazid chemoprophylaxis for tuberculosis in a hypothetical cohort of 100 000 HIV-seropositive people in South Africa over a period of 8 years. At a 50% prevalence of tuberculosis infection among those at high ...

  2. Prevalence of HIV seropositivity in paediatric surgical patients at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... a hernia and severe cachexia. Conclusion: Prevalence of HIV seropositivity is very low among paediatric surgical patients at NAUTH. Routine screening of patients is not necessary and should not form part of the policy. We recommend routine counselling of parents and provision of facilities for precautionary measures as ...

  3. 110 HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS (HIV) SEROPOSITIVITY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    INTRODUCTION. An estimated 42 million people worldwide are now infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. (HIV), (1) the causative agent of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome compared with. 30million people that were infected in 1997(2). Ninety per cent (90%) of these live in developing countries.

  4. Emotional And Behavioural Disorders In HIV Seropositive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: HIV/AIDS infection in adolescence was associated with considerable psychological problems and the presence of major psychiatric disorders. With the current increasing availability of effective antiretroviral therapy, many of these children are surviving into adolescence, thus calling for the development of ...

  5. Group psychotherapy for HIV-seropositive patients with major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, S H; Bystritsky, A; Baron, D; Jones, L D

    1991-07-01

    Patients were recruited from the UCLA AIDS Research Center who had previously been referred to psychiatry for participation in an open-label pilot treating patients with major depression with fluoxetine. They chose to participate in group therapy for continuing distress in coping with their HIV-seropositive status, dissolution of their support system, "accepting patienthood," and on being placed on an experimental medical protocol. The group was a closed, twenty-session, homogeneous (for patient characteristics), psychoeducational, supportive, and cognitively oriented psychotherapy group. We found this to be a successful intervention in helping patients manage HIV illness and in providing the coping skills and social support necessary to function at home, work, and in their interaction with their health care providers.

  6. Enteric viruses in HIV-1 seropositive and HIV-1 seronegative children with diarrheal diseases in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Monica Simões; Fumian, Tulio Machado; Maranhão, Adriana Gonçalves; de Assis, Rosane Maria; Xavier, Maria da Penha Trindade Pinheiro; Rocha, Myrna Santos; Miagostovich, Marize Pereira; Leite, José Paulo Gagliardi; Volotão, Eduardo de Mello

    2017-01-01

    Diarrheal diseases (DD) have distinct etiological profiles in immune-deficient and immune-competent patients. This study compares detection rates, genotype distribution and viral loads of different enteric viral agents in HIV-1 seropositive (n = 200) and HIV-1 seronegative (n = 125) children hospitalized with DD in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Except for group A rotavirus (RVA), which were detected through enzyme immunoassay, the other enteric viruses (norovirus [NoV], astrovirus [HAstV], adenovirus [HAdV] and bocavirus [HBoV]) were detected through PCR or RT-PCR. A quantitative PCR was performed for RVA, NoV, HAstV, HAdV and HBoV. Infections with NoV (19% vs. 9.6%; p<0.001), HBoV (14% vs. 7.2%; p = 0.042) and HAdV (30.5% vs. 14.4%; p<0.001) were significantly more frequent among HIV-1 seropositive children. RVA was significantly less frequent among HIV-1 seropositive patients (6.5% vs. 20%; p<0.001). Similarly, frequency of infection with HAstV was lower among HIV-1 seropositive children (5.5% vs. 12.8%; p = 0.018). Among HIV-1 seropositive children 33 (16.5%) had co-infections, including three enteric viruses, such as NoV, HBoV and HAdV (n = 2) and NoV, HAstV and HAdV (n = 2). The frequency of infection with more than one virus was 17 (13.6%) in the HIV-1 negative group, triple infection (NoV + HAstV + HBoV) being observed in only one patient. The median viral load of HAstV in feces was significantly higher among HIV-1 positive children compared to HIV-1 negative children. Concerning children infected with RVA, NoV, HBoV and HAdV, no statistically significant differences were observed in the medians of viral loads in feces, comparing HIV-1 seropositive and HIV-1 seronegative children. Similar detection rates were observed for RVA, HAstV and HAdV, whilst NoV and HBoV were significantly more prevalent among children with CD4+ T lymphocyte count below 200 cells/mm3. Enteric viruses should be considered an important cause of DD in HIV-1 seropositive children, along with

  7. Enteric viruses in HIV-1 seropositive and HIV-1 seronegative children with diarrheal diseases in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Augusta Rodrigues Portes

    Full Text Available Diarrheal diseases (DD have distinct etiological profiles in immune-deficient and immune-competent patients. This study compares detection rates, genotype distribution and viral loads of different enteric viral agents in HIV-1 seropositive (n = 200 and HIV-1 seronegative (n = 125 children hospitalized with DD in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Except for group A rotavirus (RVA, which were detected through enzyme immunoassay, the other enteric viruses (norovirus [NoV], astrovirus [HAstV], adenovirus [HAdV] and bocavirus [HBoV] were detected through PCR or RT-PCR. A quantitative PCR was performed for RVA, NoV, HAstV, HAdV and HBoV. Infections with NoV (19% vs. 9.6%; p<0.001, HBoV (14% vs. 7.2%; p = 0.042 and HAdV (30.5% vs. 14.4%; p<0.001 were significantly more frequent among HIV-1 seropositive children. RVA was significantly less frequent among HIV-1 seropositive patients (6.5% vs. 20%; p<0.001. Similarly, frequency of infection with HAstV was lower among HIV-1 seropositive children (5.5% vs. 12.8%; p = 0.018. Among HIV-1 seropositive children 33 (16.5% had co-infections, including three enteric viruses, such as NoV, HBoV and HAdV (n = 2 and NoV, HAstV and HAdV (n = 2. The frequency of infection with more than one virus was 17 (13.6% in the HIV-1 negative group, triple infection (NoV + HAstV + HBoV being observed in only one patient. The median viral load of HAstV in feces was significantly higher among HIV-1 positive children compared to HIV-1 negative children. Concerning children infected with RVA, NoV, HBoV and HAdV, no statistically significant differences were observed in the medians of viral loads in feces, comparing HIV-1 seropositive and HIV-1 seronegative children. Similar detection rates were observed for RVA, HAstV and HAdV, whilst NoV and HBoV were significantly more prevalent among children with CD4+ T lymphocyte count below 200 cells/mm3. Enteric viruses should be considered an important cause of DD in HIV-1 seropositive children, along

  8. Restricting access of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-seropositive patients to infertility services: a legal analysis of the rights of reproductive endocrinologists and of HIV-seropositive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, John Y

    2007-12-01

    To discuss the legal rights of reproductive endocrinologists and HIV-seropositive patients seeking infertility services. Westlaw and LexisNexis commercial legal search engines were used to perform a legal review of statutes and cases pertaining to HIV-seropositive patients seeking health care services. Human immunodeficiency virus antidiscrimination laws apply to healthcare providers whether they practice in private clinics or a university setting. Patients infected with HIV cannot be denied access to health services solely on the basis of their HIV status. If proof exists that HIV-seropositive patients will medically benefit by a referral to another provider with more expertise, it is legally permissible to refer these patients to another provider who has more expertise in providing infertility services to HIV-seropositive patients. However, the burden will be on the reproductive endocrinologist to demonstrate that he or she lacks the capability to care for HIV-seropositive patients and that the referral was for the medical benefit of the patient and of the patient's potential offspring.

  9. Incidence of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in HIV seropositive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Viral agents especially retroviruses play either an aetiologic or contributory role in autoimmune diseases. Aim: To determine the rate of occurrence of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in already confirmed HIV positive individuals. Methods: Subjects comprised of already diagnosed patients with HIV and ...

  10. Thoughts of Death and Suicidal Ideation in Nonpsychiatric Human Immunodeficiency Virus Seropositive Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Kevin; Parsons, Thomas D.; van der Horst, Charles; Hall, Colin

    2006-01-01

    The present study examines the prevalence of death thoughts and suicidality in HIV infection. Subjects (n=246) were examined for psychiatric morbidity and suicidality. Compared to high risk HIV seronegatives, HIV seropositives (HIV+) had significantly increased frequency and severity of both suicidal ideation and death thoughts. Two-thirds of…

  11. Clinical presentation and opportunistic infections in HIV-1, HIV-2 and HIV-1/2 dual seropositive patients in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Allan; Jespersen, Sanne; Katzenstein, Terese L

    2016-01-01

    HIV-2 is prevalent. In this study, we aimed to characterize the clinical presentations among HIV-1, HIV-2 and HIV-1/2 dual seropositive patients. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, newly diagnosed HIV patients attending the HIV outpatient clinic at Hospital Nacional Sim~ao Mendes in Guinea...... seropositive patients had a lower BMI and a higher prevalence of weight loss, skin rash and productive cough than HIV-2 seropositive patients (p value 0.03, 0.002, 0.03 and 0.04). Only four cases (2%) of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) were diagnosed. One patient (1/96, 1%) was tested positive for cryptococcal...

  12. Assessment of Lipid Profile in HIV Seropositive Pregnant Women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Undesirable changes in lipid metabolism have been reported among HIV-infected individuals undergoing anti-retroviral therapy. Considering the peculiarity of pregnant women who are also faced with similar metabolic changes, it becomes necessary to ascertain lipid changes that occur in them, and assess ...

  13. Increased risk of wound complications and poor healing following laparotomy in HIV-seropositive and AIDS patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, P A; Corless, D J; Gazzard, B G; Wastell, C

    1999-01-01

    The number of individuals in the UK who are HIV seropositive is increasing as is their presentation with abdominal complications. Poor wound healing following anorectal surgery in HIV-positive patients has been well reported. This study reviews the incidence of wound complications following laparotomy. The hospital records of all HIV-positive patients who underwent laparotomy at a London teaching hospital over a 10-year period were reviewed and compared to an equal number of matched non-HIV patients. Between April 1986 and April 1996, 64 laparotomies were carried out on 53 patients. There was a significantly greater incidence of wound complications (chi2 = 12.75, 1 d.f., p = 0.0003) and wound breakdown (chi2 = 10.45, 1 d.f., p = 0.012) in the HIV group following laparotomy than in the non-HIV control group.

  14. cd4 cells profile of haart naive hiv seropositive clients in kogi state

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    2014-07-15

    Jul 15, 2014 ... reproductive life, characterized by risky behavior such as unprotected sex, multiple sexual partners, alcoholism, smoking, intravenous drug addiction and body tattoo practices which predisposes to HIV infection. The finding of this survey on the age group distribution of HIV sero-positive HAART naive.

  15. Suicidal ideation in seropositive patients seen at a South African HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Suicidal behaviour and HIV/AIDS are significant public health concerns. The aim of this study was to investigate suicidal ideation in patients who were referred to a voluntary HIV counselling and testing (VCT) clinic and who were found to be seropositive. This in order to improve suicide prevention and intervention ...

  16. Conventional Pap Smear Screening in HIV Seropositive Women in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabha Devi, Kodey; Bindhu Priya, Narigapalli

    2013-03-01

    To assess the prevalence of Pap smear abnormalities and to characterize the associated risk factors in HIV seropositive women. We conducted a cross-sectional study on 252 HIV seropositive women in and around Krishna district, Andhra Pradesh, India by screening them for cervical cytological abnormalities by means of conventional Pap smear screening and the abnormalities reported as per modified Bethesda system. The prevalence of Pap smear abnormalities in HIV seropositive women was found to be 7.17 % which was a twofold increased risk as compared to the general population. On analysis of the risk factors like younger age for abnormal pap smears, mean CD4 count, duration of disease, and ART/HAART therapy the difference between the two groups of HIV seropositive women with normal pap smears and seropositive women with abnormal pap smears was found to be not statistically significant. HIV/AIDS is associated with a twofold increased risk for cervical cytological abnormalities, and hence the need for periodic pap smear screening in this high risk group to reduce the global burden of cervical cancer.

  17. Cervical Dysplasia In Hiv Seropositive Women In Nigeria | Tanko ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... times higher in HIV- infected women than HIV- negative women in Jos. Socioeconomic factors such as poverty and social insecurity are risk factors for HIV infection as well are predictors of cervical dysplasia. Keywords: HIV infection, cervix, dysplasia, Nigeria Highland Medical Research Journal Vol. 4 (2) 2006 pp. 21-26 ...

  18. Vaccine-induced HIV seropositivity/reactivity in noninfected HIV vaccine recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Cristine J; Metch, Barbara; Dragavon, Joan; Coombs, Robert W; Baden, Lindsey R

    2010-07-21

    Induction of protective anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) immune responses is the goal of an HIV vaccine. However, this may cause a reactive result in routine HIV testing in the absence of HIV infection. To evaluate the frequency of vaccine-induced seropositivity/reactivity (VISP) in HIV vaccine trial participants. Three common US Food and Drug Administration-approved enzyme immunoassay (EIA) HIV antibody kits were used to determine VISP, and a routine diagnostic HIV algorithm was used to evaluate VISP frequency in healthy, HIV-seronegative adults who completed phase 1 (n = 25) and phase 2a (n = 2) vaccine trials conducted from 2000-2010 in the United States, South America, Thailand, and Africa. Vaccine-induced seropositivity/reactivity, defined as reactive on 1 or more EIA tests and either Western blot-negative or Western blot-indeterminate/atypical positive (profile consistent with vaccine product) and HIV-1-negative by nucleic acid testing. Among 2176 participants free of HIV infection who received a vaccine product, 908 (41.7%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 39.6%-43.8%) had VISP, but the occurrence of VISP varied substantially across different HIV vaccine product types: 399 of 460 (86.7%; 95% CI, 83.3%-89.7%) adenovirus 5 product recipients, 295 of 552 (53.4%; 95% CI, 49.2%-57.7%) recipients of poxvirus alone or as a boost, and 35 of 555 (6.3%; 95% CI, 4.4%-8.7%) of DNA-alone product recipients developed VISP. Overall, the highest proportion of VISP (891/2176 tested [40.9%]) occurred with the HIV 1/2 (rDNA) EIA kit compared with the rLAV EIA (150/700 tested [21.4%]), HIV-1 Plus O Microelisa System (193/1309 tested [14.7%]), and HIV 1/2 Peptide and HIV 1/2 Plus O (189/2150 tested [8.8%]) kits. Only 17 of the 908 participants (1.9%) with VISP tested nonreactive using the HIV 1/2 (rDNA) kit. All recipients of a glycoprotein 140 vaccine (n = 70) had VISP, with 94.3% testing reactive with all 3 EIA kits tested. Among 901 participants with VISP and a Western

  19. Pyrosequencing of the genital microbiotas of HIV-seropositive and -seronegative women reveals Lactobacillus iners as the predominant Lactobacillus Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spear, Gregory T; Gilbert, Douglas; Landay, Alan L; Zariffard, Reza; French, Audrey L; Patel, Pranjal; Gillevet, Patrick M

    2011-01-01

    The species of vaginal lactobacilli in HIV-seropositive and -seronegative women were determined by 16S gene pyrosequencing. Lactobacillus iners sequences were the predominant lactobacillus sequences in 66% of HIV(+) women and 90% of HIV(-) women. This has implications for resistance of HIV(+) and HIV(-) women to genital colonization by pathogenic organisms.

  20. Pregnancy outcome in HIV seropositive women in Abakaliki, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To study the seroprevalence and the effect of HIV infection on pregnancy outcome. Methods: From January 2000 to December 2004, 231 HIV seropositve women and 200 HIV seronegative matched groups from Abakaliki, Nigeria were recruited into a prospective study and followed until delivery. Results: The HIV ...

  1. A multilevel analysis of the determinants and cross-national variations of HIV seropositivity in sub-Saharan Africa: evidence from the DHS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magadi, Monica; Desta, Muluye

    2011-09-01

    This paper applies multilevel logistic regression models to Demographic and Health Survey data collected during 2003-2008 from 20 countries of sub-Saharan Africa to examine the determinants and cross-national variations in the risk of HIV seropositivity in the region. The models include individual-level and contextual region/country-level risk factors. Simultaneous confidence intervals of country-level residuals are used to compare the risk of being HIV seropositive across countries. The study reveals interesting general patterns in the risk of HIV seropositivity in sub-Saharan Africa. In particular, the findings highlight the gender disparity in socio-economic risk factors, partly explained by sexual behaviour factors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A multilevel analysis of the determinants and cross-national variations of HIV seropositivity in sub-Saharan Africa: Evidence from the DHS☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magadi, Monica; Desta, Muluye

    2011-01-01

    This paper applies multilevel logistic regression models to Demographic and Health Survey data collected during 2003–2008 from 20 countries of sub-Saharan Africa to examine the determinants and cross-national variations in the risk of HIV seropositivity in the region. The models include individual-level and contextual region/country-level risk factors. Simultaneous confidence intervals of country-level residuals are used to compare the risk of being HIV seropositive across countries. The study reveals interesting general patterns in the risk of HIV seropositivity in sub-Saharan Africa. In particular, the findings highlight the gender disparity in socio-economic risk factors, partly explained by sexual behaviour factors. PMID:21741295

  3. Risk factors for HIV seropositivity among first-time blood donors in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, W; Mvere, D; Shamu, R; Katzenstein, D

    1998-03-01

    Factors associated with an increased likelihood of HIV infection among newly recruited blood donors in Zimbabwe are identified. Their feasibility as criteria for exclusion from donation is assessed. A self-administered survey including demographic and behavioral questions was completed by 1199 first-time, volunteer blood donors in Harare, Zimbabwe. Methods for subject recruitment and laboratory screening followed usual blood bank protocols. Fifteen percent of subjects were HIV positive. Factors significantly associated with HIV seropositivity at the pblood safety and reducing operating costs worldwide. Identification of efficient donor selection criteria requires knowledge of the local epidemiology of HIV infection and the asking of questions that are likely to be answered accurately.

  4. Prevalence of intestinal parasites seen in HIV sero-positive subjects ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Age-group < 10 years (41.7%) and rig Engineers (20%) were the greatest risk bearers. The effect of antiretroviral drugs, compromised immunity, standard of living, awareness are discussed in the paper. Keywords: HIV sero-positive, intestinal parasites, Niger Delta. Nigerian Journal of Parasitology Vol. 29 (2) 2008: pp. 115- ...

  5. Prevention for HIV-Seropositive Persons: Successive Approximation Toward a New Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightfoot, Marguerita; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Milburn, Norweeta G.; Swendeman, Dallas

    2005-01-01

    This article presents a three-module intervention based on social action theory that focuses on health promotion and social identity formation for seropositive youth. The modules are designed to reduce transmission of HIV by reducing sexual and substance abuse acts, increasing healthy acts and adherence to care, and maintaining positive behavioral…

  6. Suicidal ideation in seropositive patients seen at a South African HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Suicidal ideation in seropositive patients seen at a South African HIV voluntary counselling and testing clinic. RD Govender1, L Schlebusch2. 1Department of Family Medicine, University of Kwa-Zulu Natal, Nelson R Mandela School of Medicine, Durban, South Africa. 2Department of Behavioural Medicine, University of ...

  7. Serotonin modulates immune function in T cells from HIV-seropositive subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eugen-Olsen, J; Afzelius, P; Andresen, L

    1997-01-01

    We have shown earlier increased intracellular levels of cAMP in peripheral lymphocytes from HIV-seropositive subjects and that a chemically induced decrease in this level increases cell proliferation and cytotoxicity. Others have shown that serotonin indirectly decreases intracellular cAMP levels...

  8. Aichi Virus Positivity in HIV-1 Seropositive Children Hospitalized with Diarrheal Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portes, Silvana Augusta Rodrigues; de Mello Volotao, Eduardo; Rose, Tatiana Lundgren; Rocha, Monica Simoes; Trindade Pinheiro Xavier, Maria da Penha; de Assis, Rosane Maria; Fialho, Alexandre Madi; Rocha, Myrna Santos; Miagostovich, Marize Pereira; Gagliardi Leite, Jose Paulo; Carvalho-Costa, Filipe Anibal

    2015-01-01

    Aichi viruses (AiV) have been detected in patients with diarrheal diseases (DD). The aim of this study was to assess AiV infection rates in hospitalized children with DD, including 123 HIV-1 seropositive and 125 HIV-1 seronegative patients, in two public pediatric hospitals in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. AiV was investigated by nested RT-PCR. The AiV-positive samples were also tested for specie A rotavirus, norovirus, astrovirus, enteric adenovirus and bocavirus in order to assess co-infections. AiV parcial genome sequencing and phylogenetic analyses were performed. AiV were detected in 9/123 (7.32%) of the HIV-1 seropositive subjects and 1/125 (0.8%) of the HIV seronegative patients with DD (p = 0.019). The phylogenetic analysis of positive samples disclosed that: i) 13 samples were characterized as genotype A, with one of them being from the HIV-1 seronegative patient; ii) one sample from a HIV-1 seropositive patient was characterized as genotype B. AiV genotype A was grouped into 3 genetic clusters. Data suggest that AiV may be an opportunistic pathogen infecting children with AIDS and DD.

  9. Pregnancy Outcome in HIV Seropositive Women Booked at a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) pandemic remains a major public health issue in developing countries with the prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) being a key challenge. Various reports have been published on the effect of HIV on pregnancy with conflicting results. Objective: This ...

  10. Prevalence of abnormalities in vestibular function and balance among HIV-seropositive and HIV-seronegative women and men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen S Cohen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Most HIV-seropositive subjects in western countries receive highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART. Although many aspects of their health have been studied, little is known about their vestibular and balance function. The goals of this study were to determine the prevalences of vestibular and balance impairments among HIV-seropositive and comparable seronegative men and women and to determine if those groups differed. METHODS: Standard screening tests of vestibular and balance function, including head thrusts, Dix-Hallpike maneuvers, and Romberg balance tests on compliant foam were performed during semiannual study visits of participants who were enrolled in the Baltimore and Washington, D. C. sites of the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study and the Women's Interagency HIV Study. RESULTS: No significant differences by HIV status were found on most tests, but HIV-seropositive subjects who were using HAART had a lower frequency of abnormal Dix-Hallpike nystagmus than HIV-seronegative subjects. A significant number of nonclassical Dix-Hallpike responses were found. Age was associated with Romberg scores on foam with eyes closed. Sex was not associated with any of the test scores. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that HAART-treated HIV infection has no harmful association with vestibular function in community-dwelling, ambulatory men and women. The association with age was expected, but the lack of association with sex was unexpected. The presence of nonclassical Dix-Hallpike responses might be consistent with central nervous system lesions.

  11. Heat shock protein of Mycoplasma salivarium and Mycoplasma orale strains isolated from HIV-seropositive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattin-Kacouris, Blanca Rosa; Ishihara, Kazuyuki; Miura, Tadashi; Okuda, Katsuji; Ikeda, Masakazu; Ishikawa, Tatsuya; Rowland, Randal

    2002-11-01

    It has been suggested that infection by some mycoplasma species can act as possible cofactors in the acceleration of immunodeficiency in HIV-infected patients. The present study was designed to examine infections by oral mycoplasma species in HIV-seropositive (HIV(+)) patients. Mycoplasma salivarium and Mycoplasma orale were isolated from 59.5% and 16.7% of 42 HIV(+) patients, respectively. Non-M. salivarium and non-M. orale species were isolated from 40.5% of saliva samples from the HIV(+) group and 20.8% of those from 24 HIV-seronegative (HIV(-)) subjects, respectively. Although the production of superantigen by human peripheral lymphocytes in the isolated mycoplasma species from HIV(+) and HIV(-) subjects was evaluated, none of the examined mycoplasma strains, including ATCC strains of M. salivarium, M. orale, Mycoplasma buccae and Mycoplasma penetrans, were found to produce superantigen. Production of heat shock proteins (HSPs) by isolated mycoplasma strains was examined by immunoblotting using monoclonal antibodies against Helicobacter pylori HSP60. It was found that all the strains of M. salivarium, M. orale, and unidentified mycoplasma species isolated from HIV(+) and HIV(-) groups produced heat shock proteins. HSP production by oral mycoplasma may play a role in the immunomodulation of HIV(+) patients.

  12. a survey of opportunistic infections in hiv seropositive patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    virginal swab, endocervical swab and wound swab. The samples were analyzed immediately using standard laboratory procedures. Blood Screening for HIV Infection. The 3ml of blood samples collection from each was quickly transferred into a clean dry test tube each for clotting to take place. The sera were then separated.

  13. Investigation of Leishmania infantum seropositivity in HIV/AIDS patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozkan, Ayşegül Taylan; Yalçinkaya, Tülay; Kiliç, Selçuk; Babür, Cahit; Schallig, Henk D. F. H.

    2008-01-01

    In recent years an increase in the rate of detection of HIV and Leishmania co-infections has been reported from many countries especially countries in Southern Europe. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is sporadically detected in some parts of Turkey. Although the natural transmission is via sandfly

  14. Prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen seropositivity among HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was tested for using a one step lateral flow rapid chromatographic immunoassay (Acumen labs and diagnostic centre, Bangalore, India) and HIV 1/2 was tested using two kits, Determine (made by Abbot, Japan for Inverness Medical, Japan). Results: A total of 2018 subjects were studied ...

  15. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seropositivity and hepatitis B ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Method: A total of 130 donors comprising 120 commercial donors and 10 voluntary donors were tested for antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis B surface antigen in Benin city using Immunocomb HIV - 1 and 2 Biospot kit and Quimica Clinica Aplicada direct latex agglutination method respectively.

  16. Ethical Dilemma and Management of Infertility in HIV Seropositive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    families are still the norm, and, in fact, remain the backbone of the social system in Nigeria. Grandparents ... Keywords: Confidentiality, Disclosure, Ethics, Family, HIV/AIDS, Infertility. Access this article online. Quick Response Code: ... career has been severely compromised. Seven months after the surgery, Mr. EC who was ...

  17. Ethical Dilemma and Management of Infertility in HIV Seropositive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The traditional African society places an invaluable premium on procreation and, in some communities, a womanfs place in her matrimony is only confirmed on positive reproductive outcome. Infertility is rife in Nigeria, and HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) infection is a global pandemic, which has led to a ...

  18. Interferon-γ +874A/T polymorphism associated with Toxoplasma gondii seropositivity in HIV patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Haryati

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the association of polymorphisms in genes that code for interferon-γ (IFN-γ and interleukin-10 (IL-10, which play important roles in Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii infection, with the occurrence of T. gondii co-infection in HIV patients. Methods: The IFN-γ +874A/T and IL-10 -1082A/G polymorphism statuses of 306 HIV seropositive samples were characterized using PCR. The polymorphism statuses were analyzed together with the clinical data for each patient. Results: Immunoglobulin M anti-T. gondii seropositivity was associated with high IL-10 levels [adjusted odds ratio (OR: 0.4, 95% confidence intervals (CI: 0.181–0.825; P = 0.014], but not with either the IL-10 -1082A/G or IFN-γ +874A/T polymorphism. In addition, the IFN-γ +874A allele was associated with immunoglobulin G (IgG anti-T. gondii seropositivity (OR: 1.5, 95% CI: 1.043–2.193; P = 0.029. In patients with CD4+ T cell levels ≥ 200 cells/µL, the IFN-γ +874 AA genotype was associated with IgG anti-T. gondii seropositivity (adjusted OR: 2.5, 95% CI: 1.278–4.950; P = 0.008. Conclusions: The IFN-γ +874A/T polymorphism is associated with IgG anti-T. gondii seropositivity. This polymorphism might be useful to predict the susceptibility of HIV patients to toxoplasmosis.

  19. Co-infection rate of HIV, HBV and Syphilis among HCV seropositive identified blood donors in Kathmandu, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Chandra Shrestha

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: HIV, HBV, Syphilis and HCV share common modes of transmission. Objective: The study was aimed to determine the co-infection rate of HIV, HBV and Syphilis among HCV seropositive identified blood donors. Methods: The study was conducted on blood samples screened as HCV seropositive at Nepal Red Cross Society, Central Blood Transfusion Service, Kathmandu, Nepal. HCV seropositive samples were further tested for HIV, HBV and Syphilis. Results: Eight co-infections were observed in 139 HCV seropositives with total co-infection rate of 5.75% (95% CI = 2.52-11.03. Conclusion: Co-infection of HIV, HBV and Syphilis with HCV is prevalent in the healthy looking blood donors of Kathmandu, Nepal.

  20. Pyrosequencing of the Genital Microbiotas of HIV-Seropositive and -Seronegative Women Reveals Lactobacillus iners as the Predominant Lactobacillus Species▿

    OpenAIRE

    Spear, Gregory T.; Gilbert, Douglas; Landay, Alan L.; Zariffard, Reza; French, Audrey L.; Patel, Pranjal; Gillevet, Patrick M.

    2010-01-01

    The species of vaginal lactobacilli in HIV-seropositive and -seronegative women were determined by 16S gene pyrosequencing. Lactobacillus iners sequences were the predominant lactobacillus sequences in 66% of HIV+ women and 90% of HIV− women. This has implications for resistance of HIV+ and HIV− women to genital colonization by pathogenic organisms.

  1. CLINICAL AND LABORATORY PROFILE OF SPUTUM POSITIVE PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS AMONG HIV SEROPOSITIVE AND HIV SERONEGATIVE PATIENTS- A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Govind Kamat

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The global impact of the converging dual epidemics of TB and HIV is one of the major public health challenges. The increasing rate of HIV infection in many countries has had an impact on TB epidemiology. As the prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis is increasing among HIV seropositive patients with a wide range of immune status and clinical presentations, the present study was undertaken to assess the clinical and laboratory profile of sputum positive pulmonary tuberculosis among HIV seropositive and HIV seronegative patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present one year cross-sectional study was conducted in the Department of Medicine, KLES Dr. Prabhakar Kore Hospital and Medical Research Centre, Belgaum on 104 patients with sputum positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients during the period of January 2009 to December 2009. Routine investigations such as blood group, haemogram that is haemoglobin, total count, differential count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, sputum smears for AFB and chest x-ray were done. RESULTS Seroprevalence of HIV among pulmonary tuberculosis patients was 23.08%. On examination anaemia, undernourishment, lymphadenopathy and the presence of opportunistic infections like oral candidiasis, herpes zoster stain and genital lesions were more predominant among HIV seropositives compared to HIV seronegatives. Mean Hb and TLC were significantly low among HIV seropositives compared to HIV seronegatives. Chest x-ray showed varied presentation. Upper zone infiltration, cavitation and fibrosis were more commonly involved among HIV seronegatives compared to HIV seropositives. CONCLUSION HIV seropositive PTB patients commonly present with fever, weight loss and loss of appetite, while cough with expectoration, haemoptysis, breathlessness were more common with HIV seronegative patients. Cavitation, fibrosis and fibrocavitary lesions were predominantly seen among HIV seronegatives, while infiltration and miliary mottling was

  2. Omega 3 Fatty Acids Supplementation and Oxidative Stress in HIV-Seropositive Patients. A Clinical Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Amador-Licona

    Full Text Available HIV-seropositive patients show high incidence of coronary heart disease and oxidative stress has been described as relevant key in atherosclerosis development. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of omega 3 fatty acids on different markers of oxidative stress in HIV-seropositive patients. We performed a randomized parallel controlled clinical trial in The Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, a public health hospital. 70 HIV-seropositive patients aged 20 to 55 on clinical score A1, A2, B1 or B2 receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART were studied. They were randomly assigned to receive omega 3 fatty acids 2.4 g (Zonelabs, Marblehead MA or placebo for 6 months. At baseline and at the end of the study, anthropometric measurements, lipid profile, glucose and stress oxidative levels [nitric oxide catabolites, lipoperoxides (malondialdehyde plus 4-hydroxialkenals, and glutathione] were evaluated. Principal HAART therapy was EFV/TDF/FTC (55% and AZT/3TC/EFV (15% without difference between groups. Treatment with omega 3 fatty acids as compared with placebo decreased triglycerides (-0.32 vs. 0.54 mmol/L; p = 0.04, but oxidative stress markers were not different between groups.

  3. Peru-15 (Choleragarde(®)), a live attenuated oral cholera vaccine, is safe and immunogenic in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-seropositive adults in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratanasuwan, W; Kim, Y H; Sah, B K; Suwanagool, S; Kim, D R; Anekthananon, A; Lopez, A L; Techasathit, W; Grahek, S L; Clemens, J D; Wierzba, T F

    2015-09-11

    Many areas with endemic and epidemic cholera report significant levels of HIV transmission. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), over 95% of reported cholera cases occur in Africa, which also accounts for nearly 70% of people living with HIV/AIDS globally. Peru-15, a promising single dose live attenuated oral cholera vaccine (LA-OCV), was previously found to be safe and immunogenic in cholera endemic areas. However, no data on the vaccine's safety among HIV-seropositive adults had been collected. This study was a double-blinded, individually randomized, placebo-controlled trial enrolling HIV-seropositive adults, 18-45 years of age, conducted in Bangkok, Thailand, to assess the safety of Peru-15 in a HIV-seropositive cohort. 32 HIV infected subjects were randomized to receive either a single oral dose of the Peru-15 vaccine with a buffer or a placebo (buffer only). No serious adverse events were reported during the follow-up period in either group. The geometric mean fold (GMF) rise in V. cholerae O1 El Tor specific antibody titers between baseline and 7 days after dosing was 32.0 (pcholerae was isolated from the stool of one vaccinee, and found to be genetically identical to the Peru-15 vaccine strain. There were no significant changes in HIV viral load or CD4 T-cell counts between vaccine and placebo groups. Peru-15 was shown to be safe and immunogenic in HIV-seropositive Thai adults. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A literature review: HIV seropositivity in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkle, K L

    1991-10-01

    1. AIDS affects all segments of the population, including the elderly. Elders at risk are recipients of blood products prior to 1985 and their spouses; and persons having unprotected anal or vaginal intercourse outside of a mutually monogamous relationship. 2. Because of stereotyping and lack of awareness, health-care professionals have underserved the needs of the elderly for AIDS care. 3. Elderly persons experience the manifestations of HIV in unique ways, and the consequences of the infection are particularly destructive to their lifestyles and support systems. 4. There is an acute need for nursing intervention in the area of AIDS education targeted to the elderly population. In addition, nurses should be at the forefront of development of a comprehensive home health plan geared specifically for the elderly AIDS client.

  5. Incidence of Malaria: a comparative study among HIV sero-positive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    saharan Africa, an increased prevalence of malaria and increased parasite density in HIV- infected individuals could lead to increased malaria transmission affecting both HIV- positive and – negative individuals. The study aimed to determine ...

  6. Impact of perceived HIV stigma within men who have sex with men community on mental health of seropositive MSM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Eddie S K; Mak, Winnie W S; Tam, Terence C Y; Zhu, Chen; Chung, Rita W Y

    2017-01-01

    Emerging evidence has suggested that seropositive men who have sex with men (MSM) do not only face biased treatment from the general public but also from members of the MSM community. We conceptualized such biases perpetuated within the MSM community as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in-group stigma. This study examined the pathways by which perceived HIV in-group stigma impacted the mental health of seropositive MSM in Hong Kong. Internalized HIV stigma, serostatus disclosure concerns, and negative reactions towards HIV stigma were hypothesized as intermediate factors. Based on 100 Chinese seropositive MSM who were on antiretroviral therapy, results of a path analysis partially supported our hypotheses. Only negative reactions towards HIV stigma within the MSM community was a significant intermediate factor. The findings highlight the importance of understanding seropositive MSM's different reactions to HIV stigma perpetuated within the MSM community. On top of stigma reduction research, further research may explore ways that help seropositive MSM cope with HIV in-group stigma and foster resilience.

  7. Individual and environmental risk factors for dengue and chikungunya seropositivity in North-Eastern Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kajeguka, Debora C.; Msonga, Maulid; Schiøler, Karin L.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Dengue and chikungunya are mosquito-borne viral diseases of major global health concern. In Tanzania, information on risk factors for dengue and chikungunya is limited. We investigated individual, household, socio-economic, demographic and environmental risk factors for dengue...... and chikungunya seropositivity. Methods: A cross sectional study was undertaken which included a total of 1003 participants from North-Eastern Tanzania, to determine the sero-prevalence of dengue and chikungunya and to investigate associated risk factors. Logistic regression models were used to determine the risk...... factors for dengue and chikungunya seropositivity. Results: Environmental factors such as living in a house with uncovered containers within the compound had higher odds of being chikungunya IgM seropositive (OR = 2.89; 95% CI: 1.76–4.76). Also, participants who kept hoofed animals in their home and who...

  8. Gastrointestinal and urinary tract pathogenic infections among HIV seropositive patients at the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boaitey Yaw

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gastrointestinal and urinary tract pathogenic infections are aggravating the incidence and progression of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV infection into Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS more especially in the developing countries. This study was conducted to assess the common gastrointestinal and urinary infections among HIV/AIDS patients at the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH in Ghana between April and December 2008. Findings This work reports on gastrointestinal and urinary tract pathogenic infections among 500 HIV seropositive and 300 HIV seronegative patients. There was a 35% (175/500 prevalence of intestinal parasites among HIV seropositive patients compared to 4.3% (13/300 in HIV seronegative patients. Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium accounted for 19% (95/500 and 14% (70/500 respectively, while Schistosoma mansoni, Strongyloides stercoralis and hookworm together accounted for 2% (10/500 of intestinal parasitic infections among the HIV seropositive patients. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05 in urinary parasitic infection between HIV seropositive 1% (2/500 and seronegative patients 0.7% (2/300. Most, 60 (86% out of 70, of the urinary tract infection among the HIV seropositive patients was due to bacteria with E. coli being the most predominant isolate, 28 (47% out of 60. There was no significant difference in infections based on age and gender. Conclusion G. lamblia and Cryptosporidium were the most common gastrointestinal parasites detected while bacteria accounted for majority of the urinary tract infections among the HIV seropositive patients at the hospital.

  9. Perceived HIV-associated stigma among HIV-seropositive men: psychometric study of HIV stigma scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian eValle

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the internal consistency and factor structure of the abridged Spanish version of the Berger HIV Stigma Scale (HSS-21, provide evidence for its convergent and discriminant validity, and describe perceived stigma in an urban population from northeast Mexico. Methods: Seventy five HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM were recruited. Participants answered the Spanish versions of three Likert-type scales: HSS-21, Robsenberg’s self-esteem scale, and the abbreviated version of the Zung’s Depression Scale.Results: HSS-21 showed high reliability and validity; its factor structure included four components: concern with public attitudes; negative self-image; disclosure concerns; and enacted stigma. The level of stigma was high in 27 out of 75 (36% participants; nevertheless, the score found in the component related to disclosure concerns indicated high level of stigma in 68% of participants. The score of HSS-21 was positively correlated with the score of depression and negatively correlated with the score of self-esteem. Conclusion: Results demonstrated high reliability for the HSS-21; correlations with other scales supported its validity. This scale demonstrated to be a practical tool for assessing stigma among Mexican HIV-positive MSM. High level of stigma was found only in the factor related to disclosure concerns. Policy Implications: Identifying HIV-associated stigma through a short, reliable and validated instrument will allow the development of interventions that cope and manage stigma in HIV-positive MSM. HSS-21 distinguishes between different dimensions of stigma and will contribute to a better understanding of this phenomenon.

  10. Prospective study of human herpesvirus 8 oral shedding, viremia, and serological status among human immunodeficiency virus seropositive and seronegative individuals in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braz-Silva, Paulo H; Tozetto-Mendoza, Tania R; Sumita, Laura M; Freire, Wilton; Palmieri, Michelle; do Canto, Alan M; Avelino-Silva, Vivian I; Gallottini, Marina; Mayaud, Philippe; Pannuti, Claudio S

    2017-01-01

    Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) is a gamma-herpesvirus and etiological agent of all forms of Kaposi sarcoma (KS). Saliva may play an important role in HHV-8 transmission in specific populations. Little is known about HHV-8 oral shedding pattern and the possible correlation with the HHV-8 serological profile and viremia. A prospective study was conducted of HHV-8 salivary excretion among human immunodeficiency virus HIV-seronegative (n = 47) and -seropositive (n = 44) homosexual men and HIV-seropositive women (n = 32) over a 6-month period with monthly HHV-8 serologies (immunofluorescence assays to identify antibodies to latent and lytic HHV-8 viral proteins, and a whole-virus HHV-8 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA]), monthly HHV-8 DNA serum/plasma detection, and daily self-collected oral rinses for HHV-8-DNA detection using real-time polymerase chain reaction. HHV-8 seropositivity was 51.1%, 63.6%, and 37.5%, in the three studied groups. There was no case of HHV-8 DNA detection in serum/plasma. Intermittent detection of oral HHV-8 DNA was observed during 5.1% (110/2,160) of visits among 28% (18/64) of HHV-8-seropositive individuals, all of whom were males and HHV-8 ELISA seropositive. In immunologically controlled populations of Brazil, HHV-8 oral shedding was limited to HHV-8-seropositive men, occurred infrequently and intermittently, and was not linked to HHV-8 viremia, suggesting a limited potential for oral or blood transmission.

  11. Prevalence and predictors of kaposi sarcoma herpes virus seropositivity: a cross-sectional analysis of HIV-infected adults initiating ART in Johannesburg, South Africa

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    Maskew Mhairi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kaposi sarcoma (KS is the most common AIDS-defining tumour in HIV-infected individuals in Africa. Kaposi sarcoma herpes virus (KSHV infection precedes development of KS. KSHV co-infection may be associated with worse outcomes in HIV disease and elevated KSHV viral load may be an early marker for advanced HIV disease among untreated patients. We examined the prevalence of KSHV among adults initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART and compared immunological, demographic and clinical factors between patients seropositive and seronegative for KSHV. Results We analyzed cross-sectional data collected from 404 HIV-infected treatment-naïve adults initiating ART at the Themba Lethu Clinic, Johannesburg, South Africa between November 2008 and March 2009. Subjects were screened at ART initiation for antibodies to KSHV lytic K8.1 and latent Orf73 antigens. Seropositivity to KSHV was defined as positive to either lytic KSHV K8.1 or latent KSHV Orf73 antibodies. KSHV viremia was determined by quantitative PCR and CD3, 4 and 8 lymphocyte counts were determined with flow cytometry. Of the 404 participants, 193 (48% tested positive for KSHV at ART initiation; with 76 (39% reactive to lytic K8.1, 35 (18% to latent Orf73 and 82 (42% to both. One individual presented with clinical KS at ART initiation. The KSHV infected group was similar to those without KSHV in terms of age, race, gender, ethnicity, smoking and alcohol use. KSHV infected individuals presented with slightly higher median CD3 (817 vs. 726 cells/mm3 and CD4 (90 vs. 80 cells/mm3 counts than KSHV negative subjects. We found no associations between KSHV seropositivity and body mass index, tuberculosis status, WHO stage, HIV RNA levels, full blood count or liver function tests at initiation. Those with detectable KSHV viremia (n = 19, however, appeared to present with signs of more advanced HIV disease including anemia and WHO stage 3 or 4 defining conditions compared to those in whom

  12. Diffuse Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in an HIV Sero-Positive Patient - A Diagnostic Dilemma

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    Kumar U Mahesh

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous leishmaniasis is caused by an intracellular protozoan parasite belonging to the genus leishmania and is transmitted by the bite of a female sandfly. Diffuse cutaneous forms of leishmaniasis are rare. We report a case of HIV Sero-positive patient presenting with diffuse skin lesions with initial skin biopsy reported as inadequate and later fine needle aspiration cytology was advised which revealed clusters of macrophages with amastigotes of leishmania and a repeat skin biopsy showed the amastigotes. To conclude, cutaneous leishmaniasis should also be suspected in non-endemic areas, as in our case especially in HIV infected patients and fine needle aspiration should be advised for early diagnosis and treatment. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2012; 1(1.000: 45-47

  13. Periodontal disease and oral hygiene benefits in HIV seropositive and AIDS patients.

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    Lemos, Silvinha S S; Oliveira, Flávia A; Vencio, Eneida F

    2010-03-01

    The frequency of gingival and periodontal disease in HIV-seropositive and AIDS patients was investigated in order to evaluate the oral hygiene benefits of using mechanical therapy. thirty-two consenting HIV-positive patients were examined. Their gingival and periodontal status were evaluated using the Gingival Index and the Simplified Oral Hygiene Index. The data were assessed at baseline, after three months and after six months. Subjects received mechanical therapy, which included calculus removal, scaling and root planning, tooth polishing and oral hygiene instructions. The maintenance of oral hygiene was performed weekly. HIV staging and CD4 counts were also investigated. At the baseline, gingival and periodontal disease was present in 71.9% of all subjects. Chronic gingivitis (43.8%) was the most frequent in all subjects. A clear improvement in gingival health was registered in 78.2% of subjects after six months of mechanical therapy. No association was registered between CD4 count and gingival/periodontal status or attachment loss with HIV staging. Chronic gingivitis was the most frequent disease in HIV infected and AIDS patients. Oral hygiene using mechanical therapy improves the gingival condition, suggesting that it is an important step in the maintenance of periodontal health.

  14. Issues surrounding HIV status disclosure: Experiences of seropositive women in Lagos, Nigeria

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    Oluwaseun E Oseni

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Disclosure of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV seropositivity by infected women is crucial in HIV control. To determine the rates, patterns, effects, and determinants of disclosure of status among HIV-positive women in Lagos, Nigeria. Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study. Simple random sampling method was used to select 364 HIV-positive women accessing care in HIV treatment centers in Lagos Island. Data were collected using interviewer-administered questionnaires and analyzed with Epi Info (version 3.5.3. Inferential statistics done was Chi-square test and level of statistical significance was set at <5%. Results: Mean age of respondents was 37.3 ± 3 years, and most were married or cohabiting in monogamous families. The disclosure rates were 81.9% to anyone (excluding a health care professional; 60.4% to spouse/sexual partners; and 67.7% disclosed on the same day of diagnosis. Main reasons for disclosure were failing health (49.3% and a sense of responsibility to the spouse/sexual partner (33.6%. Major reasons for nondisclosure were negative public opinion (84.8% and fear of losing relationships (40.3%. Positive reactions following disclosure were mostly acceptance: 75.2% (family member and 72.3% (spouse/sexual partner while blame was the main negative outcome. Longer duration of diagnosis significantly improved disclosure to anyone (P < 0.001. Older age (P < 0.001 and awareness of spouse/sexual partner's HIV status (P < 0.001 significantly improved disclosure to spouse/sexual partner. Conclusions: Many respondents had not disclosed their status and require support and counseling to do so. Community education regarding stigmatization should be intensified.

  15. Anal, penile, and oral high-risk HPV infections and HPV seropositivity in HIV-positive and HIV-negative men who have sex with men.

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    Vera M van Rijn

    Full Text Available The effects of single or multiple concordant HPV infections at various anatomical sites on type-specific HPV seropositivity are currently unknown. In this cross-sectional study we assessed whether high-risk HPV infections at various anatomical sites (i.e., anal canal, penile shaft, and oral cavity, as well as concordant infections at multiple anatomical sites, were associated with type-specific seropositivity in HIV-positive and HIV-negative MSM. MSM aged ≥ 18 years were recruited in Amsterdam, the Netherlands (2010-2011. Baseline anal, penile, and oral samples were analyzed for HPV DNA and genotyped using a highly sensitive PCR and reverse line blot assay. Virus-like particle (VLP based multiplex immunoassay was used to asses HPV-specific serum antibodies against L1 VLPs. The associations between HPV infections and type-specific seropositivity of seven high-risk HPV types (7-hrHPV: types 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, 58 were estimated using logistic regression analyses with generalized estimating equations. We found that 86% of 306 HIV-positive MSM and 62% of 441 HIV-negative MSM were seropositive for at least one 7-hrHPV type. 69% of HIV-positive and 41% of HIV-negative MSM were infected with at least one 7-hrHPV type at the anus, penis, or oral cavity. In multivariable analyses, 7-hrHPV seropositivity was associated with type-specific anal (and not penile 7-hrHPV infection, and did not significantly increase with a higher number of infected anatomical sites. Oral 7-hrHPV infection showed a positive, albeit non-significant, association with seropositivity. In conclusion, seropositivity among MSM appears to be largely associated with anal HPV infection, irrespective of additionally infected anatomical sites.

  16. Efeitos da condição sorológica sobre as escolhas reprodutivas de mulheres HIV positivas Effects of seropositivity in reproductive choices of women living with HIV/Aids

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    Ana Carolina Cunha Sant'Anna

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O estudo investigou a percepção de mulheres vivendo com HIV/Aids quanto aos efeitos da soropositividade sobre suas escolhas reprodutivas. Optou-se pelo delineamento qualitativo com uso de entrevista individual semi-estruturada com trinta mulheres HIV positivas em idade reprodutiva. A maior parte delas (n=18 afirmou que a soropositividade modificou o desejo de ter filhos. As categorias de motivos mais freqüentes foram o receio do risco de transmissão do HIV para o bebê e soropositividade como sinônimo de morte. Os resultados sinalizam a necessidade de que os serviços atuem em consonância com os programas de atenção integral à saúde da mulher e os princípios do Sistema Único de Saúde, acolhendo e respeitando as decisões reprodutivas de mulheres soropositivas.AIDS epidemiological profile indicates a feminine trend particularly among those in the reproductive age. The study investigated the HIV positive women perception of the seropositivity effects on their reproductive choices. It was chosen a qualitative research design with the use of semi-structured individual interviews with thirty HIV positive women in their reproductive age. As the most frequent categories of reasons, most women reported they did not wish to have children, showing the fear of HIV transmission to the baby and seropositivity as a synonym of death. The findings indicate the need for the services in HIV/AIDS to act in line with the programs of comprehensive health care of women and the principles of Brazilian Health System, respecting the reproductive decisions of seropositive women.

  17. Prevalence of HCV, HBV, and HIV Seropositivity among Cadavers Referred to Autopsy Hall of Legal Medicine Bureau of Tehran, Iran

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    Jaber Gharehdaghi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A large number of dead bodies are referred to forensic autopsy halls for medicolegal examination. They can be a source of transmission of infectious diseases through direct contact or autopsy tools. The main aim of this study was to estimate the virus infection rates in the dead bodies. One thousand consecutive dead bodies that had been referred to autopsy hall of Legal Medicine Bureau of Tehran, Iran, during 2016, were included. The blood samples were analyzed in the laboratory for detection of HBs Ag, HBs Ab, HIV Ab, and HCV Ab, after providing informed consent from legal next of kin of the dead bodies. The general characteristics of the dead bodies were also collected by a checklist. Forty-seven cases of HIV seropositivity, 80 cases of HBs Ag seropositivity, and 97 cases for HCV Ab seropositivity were found. Among them, 27 cases of HIV, 40 cases of anti-HBC positive, and 94 cases of RIBA testing positive for HCV were proved through confirmatory tests. In other words, 2.6% of the dead bodies were infected with HIV, 3.8% with HBV, and 9% with HCV. The total infection rate was 15.5%. This is a worrying risk for pathologist and autopsy technicians.

  18. Characteristics of HIV-2 and HIV-1/HIV-2 Dually Seropositive Adults in West Africa Presenting for Care and Antiretroviral Therapy: The IeDEA-West Africa HIV-2 Cohort Study.

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    Didier K Ekouevi

    Full Text Available HIV-2 is endemic in West Africa. There is a lack of evidence-based guidelines on the diagnosis, management and antiretroviral therapy (ART for HIV-2 or HIV-1/HIV-2 dual infections. Because of these issues, we designed a West African collaborative cohort for HIV-2 infection within the framework of the International epidemiological Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA.We collected data on all HIV-2 and HIV-1/HIV-2 dually seropositive patients (both ARV-naive and starting ART and followed-up in clinical centres in the IeDEA-WA network including a total of 13 clinics in five countries: Benin, Burkina-Faso Côte d'Ivoire, Mali, and Senegal, in the West Africa region.Data was merged for 1,754 patients (56% female, including 1,021 HIV-2 infected patients (551 on ART and 733 dually seropositive for both HIV-1 and HIV 2 (463 on ART. At ART initiation, the median age of HIV-2 patients was 45.3 years, IQR: (38.3-51.7 and 42.4 years, IQR (37.0-47.3 for dually seropositive patients (p = 0.048. Overall, 16.7% of HIV-2 patients on ART had an advanced clinical stage (WHO IV or CDC-C. The median CD4 count at the ART initiation is 166 cells/mm(3, IQR (83-247 among HIV-2 infected patients and 146 cells/mm(3, IQR (55-249 among dually seropositive patients. Overall, in ART-treated patients, the CD4 count increased 126 cells/mm(3 after 24 months on ART for HIV-2 patients and 169 cells/mm(3 for dually seropositive patients. Of 551 HIV-2 patients on ART, 5.8% died and 10.2% were lost to follow-up during the median time on ART of 2.4 years, IQR (0.7-4.3.This large multi-country study of HIV-2 and HIV-1/HIV-2 dual infection in West Africa suggests that routine clinical care is less than optimal and that management and treatment of HIV-2 could be further informed by ongoing studies and randomized clinical trials in this population.

  19. Assessing Nutrient Intake and Nutrient Status of HIV Seropositive Patients Attending Clinic at Chulaimbo Sub-District Hospital, Kenya

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    Agatha Christine Onyango

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Nutritional status is an important determinant of HIV outcomes. Objective. To assess the nutrient intake and nutrient status of HIV seropositive patients attending an AIDS outpatient clinic, to improve the nutritional management of HIV-infected patients. Design. Prospective cohort study. Setting. Comprehensive care clinic in Chulaimbo Sub-District Hospital, Kenya. Subjects. 497 HIV sero-positive adults attending the clinic. Main Outcome Measures. Evaluation of nutrient intake using 24-hour recall, food frequency checklist, and nutrient status using biochemical assessment indicators (haemoglobin, creatinine, serum glutamate pyruvate (SGPT and mean corpuscular volume (MCV. Results. Among the 497 patients recruited (M : F sex ratio: 1.4, mean age: 39 years ± 10.5 y, Generally there was inadequate nutrient intake reported among the HIV patients, except iron (10.49 ± 3.49 mg. All the biochemical assessment indicators were within normal range except for haemoglobin 11.2 g/dL (11.4 ± 2.60 male and 11.2 ± 4.25 female. Conclusions. Given its high frequency, malnutrition should be prevented, detected, monitored, and treated from the early stages of HIV infection among patients attending AIDS clinics in order to improve survival and quality of life.

  20. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seropositivity and hepatitis B surface antigenemia (HBSAG) among blood donors in Benin city, Edo state, Nigeria.

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    Umolu, Patience Idia; Okoror, Lawrence Ehis; Orhue, Philip

    2005-03-01

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis B virus are blood borne pathogens that can be transmitted through blood transfusion and could pose a huge problem in areas where mechanisms of ensuring blood safety are suspect. This study became necessary in a population where most of the blood for transfusion is from commercial blood donors. A total of 130 donors comprising 120 commercial donors and 10 voluntary donors were tested for antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis B surface antigen in Benin city using Immunocomb HIV - 1 and 2 Biospot kit and Quimica Clinica Aplicada direct latex agglutination method respectively. Thirteen (10%) samples were HIV seropositive and 7(5.8%) were HBsAg positive. The age bracket 18 - 25years had the highest numbers of donors and also had the highest number of HBsAg positive cases (7.8%) while the age group 29 - 38years had highest number of HIV seropositive cases. High prevalence of HIV antibodies and Hepatitis B surface antigen was found among commercial blood donors. Appropriate and compulsory screening of blood donors using sensitive methods, must be ensured to prevent post transfusion hepatitis and HIV.

  1. [Experiences of adolescents seropositive for HIV/AIDS: a qualitative study].

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    Galano, Eliana; Turato, Egberto Ribeiro; Delmas, Philippe; Côté, José; Gouvea, Aida de Fátima Thomé Barbosa; Succi, Regina Célia de Menezes; Machado, Daisy Maria

    2016-06-01

    Explore the meanings attributed by young individuals about "living as an adolescent with HIV" in a group of patients that acquired the infection at birth and the elements involved with the adherence to antiretroviral treatment. Qualitative study, involving 20 subjects (aged 13-20 years), followed at services specialized in the treatment of pediatric Aids in São Paulo, Brazil. Semi-structured interviews were carried out of which script consisted of questions about their personal histories, experiences and difficulties they must face while living with HIV/Aids. Being "normal" and "different" were central issues voiced by the participants. However, a normal life situation is guaranteed by being responsible with one's health, the condition that the diagnosis be kept secret and concerns about HIV transmission and dissemination to a sexual partner. The answers about treatment show that adherence is a dynamic process and involves moments of greater or lesser interest in relation to care for one's health. The adolescents have plans and projects and although HIV is considered a stressor, positive perspectives for the future prevailed. To live as an adolescent with HIV involves subtle dimensions that need to be recognized and legitimized by professionals who follow the trajectory of these young individuals. It is necessary to allow a space in which the adolescents can reflect and find support regarding issues related to the construction of their sexuality and care of one's own body. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  2. Experiences of adolescents seropositive for HIV/AIDS: a qualitative study

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    Eliana Galano

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: Explore the meanings attributed by young individuals about "living as an adolescent with HIV" in a group of patients that acquired the infection at birth and the elements involved with the adherence to antiretroviral treatment. Methods: Qualitative study, involving 20 subjects (aged 13-20 years, followed at services specialized in the treatment of pediatric AIDS in São Paulo, Brazil. Semi-structured interviews were carried out of which script consisted of questions about their personal histories, experiences and difficulties they must face while living with HIV/AIDS. Results: Being "normal" and "different" were central issues voiced by the participants. However, a normal life situation is guaranteed by being responsible with one's health, the condition that the diagnosis be kept secret and concerns about HIV transmission and dissemination to a sexual partner. The answers about treatment show that adherence is a dynamic process and involves moments of greater or lesser interest in relation to care for one's health. The adolescents have plans and projects and although HIV is considered a stressor, positive perspectives for the future prevailed. Conclusions: To live as an adolescent with HIV involves subtle dimensions that need to be recognized and legitimized by professionals who follow the trajectory of these young individuals. It is necessary to allow a space in which the adolescents can reflect and find support regarding issues related to the construction of their sexuality and care of one's own body.

  3. Treatment of cervical cancer in HIV-seropositive women from developing countries: a protocol for a systematic review.

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    Mapanga, Witness; Chipato, Tsungai; Feresu, Shingairai A

    2018-01-25

    Cervical cancer has become the most common cancer affecting women in Africa. Significantly, 85% of these annual deaths occur in the developing world, with the majority being middle-aged women. Research has shown that in sub-Saharan Africa, cervical cancer trends are on the rise in the past two decades because of HIV and this has resulted in an increase in cervical cancer cases among young women. However, little or no information exists that has shown that any of the available treatment methods are more effective than others when it comes to treating cervical cancer in HIV-seropositive women. The aim of this protocol is to offer a plan on how to systematically review cervical cancer treatment methods available for HIV-seropositive women in developing countries. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Protocols (PRISMA-P) statement was used to develop the protocol for the systematic review which will be reported in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines. A number of databases, Embase, MEDLINE, PubMed, CINAHL and Cochrane Library, will be searched for relevant studies, and citation and reference list tracking will be used to search for additional studies. Prospective and retrospective cohort studies, case-control, randomised controlled trials and cross-sectional studies that were carried out in and for the developing world will be eligible for inclusion. Peer-reviewed studies and grey literature examining cervical cancer treatment modalities in HIV-seropositive women will be included. Descriptive statistics and tables will be used to summarise results, and meta-analysis will be used where appropriate. The review findings will provide the current picture of the existing treatment methods being used to treat cervical cancer in HIV-seropositive women in developing countries. The findings might be used for the establishment of evidence-based guidelines for treatment of cervical cancer in seropositive women as well as prompt policy-makers and

  4. The Association between Trichomonas Infection and Incarceration in HIV-seropositive and at-risk HIV-seronegative Women

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    Nijhawan, AE; DeLong, AK; Celentano, DD; Klein, RS; Sobel, JD; Jamieson, DJ; Cu-Uvin, S

    2013-01-01

    Background The prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis is higher among incarcerated women than in the general community. We sought to determine whether a history of incarceration itself was independently associated with trichomoniasis. Methods The HIV Epidemiology Research Study (HERS) is a prospective cohort study of 871 HIV-seropositive and 439 high-risk seronegative women in 4 urban centers (Bronx, NY; Detroit, MI; Providence, RI; Baltimore, MD). All participants enrolled between April 1993 and January 1995, with interviews and physical exams conducted at baseline and at follow-up visits every 6 months up to 7 years. Results Of 1310 subjects, 427 (33%) reported being incarcerated on at least one occasion. In addition, 724 (55%) were found to have an STI on at least one occasion during the study; baseline rates were 21% for T. vaginalis, 4.3% for C. trachomatis, 0.6% for N. gonorrhea, and 8% for syphilis. Incarceration was associated with the detection of trichomonas infection (between-subject OR 2.4, 95%CI 1.85 to 3.14, p<0.01; within-subject OR 1.56, 95%CI 1.26 to 1.92, p<0.01). The association with incarceration remained significant after adjusting for age, race, HIV status, enrollment risk group, number of sexual partners, marital status, education, bacterial vaginosis (BV), vaginal candidiasis, drug use (crack, cocaine, heroin), alcohol use, health insurance, receipt of public assistance, employment status, visit number and study site. Conclusions A history of incarceration was independently associated with the detection of trichomonas infection in a cohort of high-risk women. These data have implications for increased STI prevention, screening and treatment upon entry to jail as well as in the communities most affected by incarceration. PMID:22082718

  5. The Relationship between Cocaine Use and Human Papillomavirus Infections in HIV-Seropositive and HIV-Seronegative Women

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    Howard Minkoff

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Animal data suggest that cocaine has an immunosuppressive effect, but no human studies have been conducted to assess the relation of cocaine use with human papillomavirus (HPV infection, the viral cause of cervical cancer. Since both cocaine use and HPV infection are common among HIV-positive women, we sought to determine whether use of cocaine and/or crack influences the natural history of HPV among women with or at high risk of HIV. Methods. Women enrolled in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (2278 HIV-seropositive and 826 high-risk seronegative women were examined every six months for up to 9.5 years with Pap smear, collection of cervicovaginal lavage (CVL samples, and detailed questionnaires regarding health and behavior, including use of crack and cocaine (crack/cocaine. CVLs were tested for HPV DNA by PCR, with genotyping for over forty HPV types. Results. In multivariate logistic regression models, censoring women treated for cervical neoplasia, crack/cocaine use within the last six months was associated with prevalent detection of oncogenic HPV DNA (odds ratio [OR] = 1.30 (1.09–1.55, and with oncogenic HPV-positive squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL (OR = 1.70 (1.27–2.27, following adjustment for age, race, HIV-serostatus, and CD4+ T-cell count, the number of sexual partners in the past six months, and smoking. In multivariate Cox models crack/cocaine use was also associated with a trend that approached significance in regard to incident detection of oncogenic HPV-positive SIL (HR = 1.51, 95% CI 0.99–2.30, and while the rate of oncogenic HPV clearance was not related to cocaine use, the clearance of any SIL was significantly lower in those with versus those without recent crack/cocaine use (HR = 0.57, 95% CI 0.34–0.97. Conclusions. Cocaine use is associated with an increased risk of detection of both prevalent and incident oncogenic HPV infection, as well as an increased risk of HPV-positive SIL over time.

  6. Candida Species Prevalence Profile in HIV Seropositive Patients from a Major Tertiary Care Hospital in New Delhi, India

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    Monika Maheshwari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Candida is a common opportunistic pathogen during the course of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV disease progression. Changes in the clinical severity of candidiasis and the Candida species prevalence profile may be a reflection of immunological changes in HIV positive patients. The aim of this study was to document the changing pattern of Candida species prevalence profile in HIV seropositive patients from a tertiary care hospital in North India. One hundred and twenty HIV seropositive subjects were recruited for Candida microbial screening. Clinical specimens including blood, oral swabs, expectorated or induced sputum/bronchoalveolar lavage specimens, and urine were collected depending on the patient’s symptoms. A total of 128 Candida isolates were obtained from 88 cases and 7 different Candida species were identified. C. albicans (50% was the most common species isolated followed by C. glabrata (17% and C. dubliniensis (12.5%. Other species isolated were C. parapsilosis (7.8%, C. krusei, C. tropicalis (4.6% each, and C. kefyr (3%. Strong clinical suspicion along with optimal sampling of an accurate diagnosis of Candida species involved would go a long way in decreasing the morbidity associated with non-albicans Candida species.

  7. Costs and benefits of secrecy: the dilemma experienced by adolescents seropositive for HIV.

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    Galano, Eliana; Turato, Egberto Ribeiro; Succi, Regina Célia; de Souza Marques, Heloisa Helena; Della Negra, Marinella; da Silva, Mariliza Henrique; do Carmo, Fabiana Bononi; Gouvea, Aida de Fátima Barbosa; Delmas, Philippe; Côté, José; Machado, Daisy Maria

    2017-03-01

    This study explored the experiences of the first generation of adolescents who acquired HIV through vertical transmission when disclosing their diagnosis to friends and romantic partners. The study sample was selected by convenience, with 20 patients (13-20 years old) participating in a qualitative investigation using individual interviews (language: Portuguese; duration: 45 minutes). The participants were followed in specialized clinics for the treatment of pediatric AIDS in São Paulo, Brazil. The results suggest that families who live with HIV tend to keep it a secret, and such behavior is learned and accepted unquestioningly as natural. Respect for privacy and the fear of rejection, coupled with the belief that information about their disease will be spread, are the main beliefs with which participants justify their secrecy. In terms of romantic relationships, adolescents were aware that their HIV status should at some point be shared with current or future sexual partners. However, the decision to reveal an HIV diagnosis in romantic relationships is permeated by anxieties, uncertainties about the right time, and fear of abandonment. In any case, telling the truth requires trust, guarantees of the other's love, and, in some cases, probing romantic partners beforehand to learn their perceptions about the disease. Participants who had experiences disclosing their HIV status shared positive and negative results, including emotional support, acceptance, and understanding, along with ostracism, discrimination, and abandonment by family members. The findings of this paper reinforce the challenges of revealing an HIV diagnosis to third parties. It requires understanding the meaning and importance of the secret for each patient, along with the conflict between the right to confidentiality and the responsibility of treating others exposed to the disease. All these aspects should be discussed extensively with this population and incorporated into clinical practice.

  8. Síndrome de Parsonage-Turner em paciente HIV positivo Parsonage-Turner syndrome in HIV seropositive patient

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    Acir Rachid

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available A síndrome de Parsonage-Turner é uma desordem rara de etiologia ainda indeterminada, contudo com fortes evidências de associação a infecções virais inclusive pelo vírus HIV, que afeta a cintura escapular e desencadeia dor e fraqueza da musculatura do ombro e da extremidade superior. O diagnóstico raramente é feito no início do quadro e poucos exames laboratoriais podem ser úteis, com destaque para a eletroneuromiografia. Seu tratamento é basicamente observacional e de controle dos sintomas e a recuperação é esperada na maioria dos pacientes. Por se tratar de uma enfermidade rara e de difícil diagnóstico clínico, os autores relatam o caso de um paciente com quadro clínico laboratorial compatível com a síndrome de Parsonage-Turner associada à soropositividade ao vírus da imunodeficiência adquirida.Parsonage-Turner syndrome is a rare disorder of unknown etiology, nevertheless with high evidences of association with viral infections, including HIV, which affects the shoulder girdle and unleash pain and weakness of the shoulder and upper extremity. The diagnosis is rarely made in acute setting and few diagnostic tests are helpful, except for electroneuromyography. The treatment is basically supportive and full recovery is expected in most patients. For being a rare ailment allied with difficult diagnosis, the authors report a case of a patient with clinical and laboratorial findings of Parsonage-Turner syndrome associated with acquired immunodeficiency virus seropositivity.

  9. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in HIV-infected individuals and their relationship with immune status

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    K Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Intestinal parasitic infection is a common entity in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. These infections may lead to fatal complications in the immuno suppressed individuals. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in HIV sero-positive patients and their relationship with the immune status of individuals. Materials and Method s: Fecal samples from 100 HIV sero-positive and an equal number of HIV sero-negative individuals were collected and examined for enteric parasites by direct microscopy. CD4 counts were carried out in only HIV sero-positive patients. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in patients with CD4 count 200 cells/μl (P < 0.01. Prevalence of coccidian parasites was significantly (P < 0.01 higher (14% in HIV sero-positive subjects compared with HIV sero-negative subjects (2%. Isospora belli (25% was the most common parasite with CD4 count <200 cells/μl, followed by Cryptosporidium parvum (12.5%. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections was significantly higher in patients with diarrhea, 73.6% than without diarrhea, 25.9%, (P < 0.05. The mean CD4 count of HIV sero-positive patients presenting with diarrhea was significantly (P < 0.01 lower (181.26 ± 135.14 than without diarrhea (352.02 ± 204.03. Conclusion: This study emphasizes the need for routine screening of parasites especially in patients with lower CD4 count so as to decrease the morbidity by ensuring the early treatment of the cases.

  10. The correlation between HIV seropositivity, cervical dysplasia, and HPV subtypes 6/11, 16/18, 31/33/35

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tweddel, G; Heller, P; Cunnane, M

    1994-01-01

    Twenty-one human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seropositive patients were studied to determine the prevalence of cervical dysplasia, the distribution of human papilloma virus (HPV) subtypes, and the utility of cytologic diagnosis in this population. The patients ranged in age from 18 to 41 years...... abnormalities. In 14 patients there was sufficient tissue for HPV typing by in situ hybridization; the HPV subtypes identified were 6/11 (10 patients), 16/18 (9 patients), and 31/33/35 (9 patients). Dysplasia was present in 11/14 (79%) of the specimens submitted for subtyping. The absolute CD4 cell counts were...

  11. Cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders in HIV-infected individuals in Rakai, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abassi, Mahsa; Morawski, Bozena M; Nakigozi, Gertrude; Nakasujja, Noeline; Kong, Xiangrong; Meya, David B; Robertson, Kevin; Gray, Ronald; Wawer, Maria J; Sacktor, Ned; Boulware, David R

    2017-06-01

    In the USA, increased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) inflammatory cytokines have been observed in antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naive, HIV-seropositive individuals with HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND). We characterized the relationship between HAND and CSF biomarker expression in ART-naive, HIV-seropositive individuals in Rakai, Uganda. We analyzed CSF of 78 HIV-seropositive, ART-naive Ugandan adults for 17 cytokines and 20 neurodegenerative biomarkers via Luminex multiplex assay. These adults underwent neurocognitive assessment to determine their degree of HAND. We compared biomarker concentrations between high and low CD4 groups and across HAND classifications, adjusting for multiple comparisons. Individuals with CD4 dementia (n = 15) compared with normal function (n = 30) or asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment (n = 11). Increased levels of interferon (IFN)-γ were associated with increased odds of mild neurocognitive impairment or HIV-associated dementia relative to normal or asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment. Proinflammatory CSF cytokines, chemokines, and neurodegenerative biomarkers were present in increasing concentrations with advanced immunosuppression and may play a role in the development of HAND. The presence of select CNS biomarkers may also play a protective role in the development of HAND.

  12. An exploratory investigation of dietary intake and weight in human immunodeficiency virus-seropositive individuals in Accra, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiig, Kristen; Smith, Chery

    2007-06-01

    In Africa, the human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) complex is commonly referred to as "slim disease" because, as the disease progresses, food intake and metabolism are altered, leading to visible body weight loss. In this descriptive, cross-sectional pilot study, 50 HIV-seropositive adults attending the Korle Bu Teaching Hospital in Accra, Ghana, were interviewed during the late spring of 2003. Demographics, medical HIV history and current status of their HIV disease, food safety, and food security information were collected. One 24-hour dietary recall was completed, height and weight were measured, and body mass index (BMI) was calculated for each participant. Results show that women participants had a higher mean BMI and maintained it through disease progression compared with men (Penergy intake were fried fish, white rice, kenkey, white bread, and fufu. In fighting the global HIV/AIDS epidemic, registered dietitians must consider barriers to achieving optimal nutritional status in a cultural context to enhance feasibility and ensure the effectiveness of dietary interventions.

  13. Association of CCR5-59029 A/G and CCL3L1 copy number polymorphism with HIV type 1 transmission/progression among HIV type 1-seropositive and repeatedly sexually exposed HIV type 1-seronegative North Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathore, Anurag; Chatterjee, Animesh; Sivarama, P; Yamamoto, Naohiko; Singhal, Pradeep K; Dhole, Tapan N

    2009-11-01

    The CCR5Delta32 mutation does not account for HIV-1 resistance in the majority of persons who are repeatedly exposed to HIV-1 by high-risk activities but remain seronegative and uninfected. Therefore, we investigated the impact of CCR5 59029 A/G and CCL3L1 copy number polymorphism on HIV-1 disease susceptibility and progression among HIV-1-infected and HIV-1-exposed seronegative North Indians. HIV-1-seropositive (HSP, n = 196) patients, stratified on the basis of disease severity (Stages I, II, and III) and HIV-1-exposed seronegative (HES, n = 47) individuals were genotyped for CCR5-59029 A/G polymorphism by PCR-RFLP and CCL3L1 copy number by the real-time TaqMan PCR method. A group of ethnically matched HIV-1-seronegative (HSN, n = 315) healthy volunteers were also genotyped as controls. Statistical analysis was done by SPSS software. The CCR5-59029 AG genotype was significantly higher in the HES compared with the HSP group (57.44% vs. 37.24%, p = 0.014). The CCL3L1 mean copy number of HES was higher compared with the HSP groups (3.148 +/- 0.291 vs. 2.795 +/- 0.122, p = 0.212), but was not significant when compared with independent samples t test. Possession of CCL3L1 copies 2 was not associated with enhanced or reduced risk of HIV-1 acquisition. Gene-gene interaction studies showed enrichment of the CCR5-59029AG*CCL3L1>2 genotype in the HES group when compared with the HSP group (31.91% vs. 15.81%, p = 0.021, OR = 0.401, CI = 0.194-0.826). The increased frequency of the CCR5-59029AG*CCL3L1>2 genotype among HES individuals led us to conclude that the CCR5-59029 AG genotype and CCL3L1 gene dose appeared to have synergistic or interactive effects and are expected to be involved in the host innate resistance to HIV-1 infection.

  14. Clinical presentation and aetiologies of acute or complicated headache among HIV-seropositive patients in a Ugandan clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katwere Michael

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We set out to define the relative prevalence and common presentations of the various aetiologies of headache within an ambulant HIV-seropositive adult population in Kampala, Uganda. Methods We conducted a prospective study of adult HIV-1-seropositive ambulatory patients consecutively presenting with new onset headaches. Patients were classified as focal-febrile, focal-afebrile, non-focal-febrile or non-focal-afebrile, depending on presence or absence of fever and localizing neurological signs. Further management followed along a pre-defined diagnostic algorithm to an endpoint of a diagnosis. We assessed outcomes during four months of follow up. Results One hundred and eighty patients were enrolled (72% women. Most subjects presented at WHO clinical stages III and IV of HIV disease, with a median Karnofsky performance rating of 70% (IQR 60-80. The most common diagnoses were cryptococcal meningitis (28%, n = 50 and bacterial sinusitis (31%, n = 56. Less frequent diagnoses included cerebral toxoplasmosis (4%, n = 7, and tuberculous meningitis (4%, n = 7. Thirty-two (18% had other diagnoses (malaria, bacteraemia, etc.. No aetiology could be elucidated in 28 persons (15%. Overall mortality was 13.3% (24 of 180 after four months of follow up. Those without an established headache aetiology had good clinical outcomes, with only one death (4% mortality, and 86% were ambulatory at four months. Conclusion In an African HIV-infected ambulatory population presenting with new onset headache, aetiology was found in at least 70%. Cryptococcal meningitis and sinusitis accounted for more than half of the cases.

  15. The Prevalence of Malaria Antigen In The Serum of HIV Seropositive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alasia Datonye

    seropositive patients with malaria antigen. Methodology: ... distribution and clinical presentations . Malaria is .... The red blood cells are lysed by the diluents, releasing the malaria parasite antigens, which react with the antibody that was embedded on the well. A positive result gives two colored lines (for test and control);.

  16. trend of hiv sero-positivity among blood donors over the six years

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The data were cleaned edited and entered in to computer and analysis was done using SPSS version 7.5. Results: A total of 3394 subjects donated blood over the last six years, 3020 were male and 360 were female. The prevalence of seropositivity tended to decrease from 1995 some how until 1999 and started to rise in ...

  17. Trajectories of Marijuana Use among HIV-seropositive and HIV-seronegative MSM in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS), 1984-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okafor, Chukwuemeka N; Cook, Robert L; Chen, Xinguang; Surkan, Pamela J; Becker, James T; Shoptaw, Steve; Martin, Eileen; Plankey, Michael W

    2017-04-01

    To construct longitudinal trajectories of marijuana use in a sample of men who have sex with men living with or at-risk for HIV infection. We determined factors associated with distinct trajectories of use as well as those that serve to modify the course of the trajectory. Data were from 3658 [1439 HIV-seropositive (HIV+) and 2219 HIV-seronegative (HIV-)] participants of the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study. Frequency of marijuana use was obtained semiannually over a 29-year period (1984-2013). Group-based trajectory models were used to identify the trajectories and to determine predictors and modifiers of the trajectories over time. Four distinct trajectories of marijuana use were identified: abstainer/infrequent (65 %), decreaser (13 %), increaser (12 %) and chronic high (10 %) use groups. HIV+ status was significantly associated with increased odds of membership in the decreaser, increaser and chronic high use groups. Alcohol, smoking, stimulant and other recreational drug use were associated with increasing marijuana use across all four trajectory groups. Antiretroviral therapy use over time was associated with decreasing marijuana use in the abstainer/infrequent and increaser trajectory groups. Having a detectable HIV viral load was associated with increasing marijuana use in the increaser group only. Future investigations are needed to determine whether long-term patterns of use are associated with adverse consequences especially among HIV+ persons.

  18. Ethical Dilemma and Management of Infertility in HIV Seropositive Discordant Couples: A Case Study in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeora, Ouj; Chukwuneke, Fn

    2013-01-01

    The traditional African society places an invaluable premium on procreation and, in some communities, a woman's place in her matrimony is only confirmed on positive reproductive outcome. Infertility is rife in Nigeria, and HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) infection is a global pandemic, which has led to a drop in life expectancy across the world. In Nigeria, a number of cultural norms relating to gender roles and power dynamics constitute a serious barrier to issues of sexuality and infertility. Couples are concerned about their infertility diagnostic test being disclosed to each other, especially before marriage. This concern is understandable, especially in an environment that lacks the modern concepts and attitude toward sexual matters. This is complicated by the advent of HIV/AIDS infection and the societal mind-set that look at seropostive individuals as transgressors. At present, sexual and reproductive health rights are currently not in place because ethical issues are not given prominence by many physicians in Nigeria. A case of an infertile and seropostive discordant couple, which raised a lot of medical and ethical concerns, is presented here to awaken the consciousness of Nigerian physicians and stimulate discussions on the ethical matters such as this in clinical practice.

  19. HIV sero-positivity in recently admitted and long-term psychiatric in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: The overall HIV prevalence at Weskoppies Hospital remains lower than the national average, but has increased since a previous local study. The rapid test for HIV had a lower sensitivity than was expected, and it is recommended that HIV ELISA testing be performed as a first line test in the setting of hospitalised ...

  20. Role of homozygous DC-SIGNR 5/5 tandem repeat polymorphism in HIV-1 exposed seronegative North Indian individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathore, Anurag; Chatterjee, Animesh; Sivarama, P; Yamamoto, Naohiko; Dhole, Tapan N

    2008-01-01

    Despite multiple sexual exposures to HIV-1 virus, some individuals remain HIV-1 seronegative. Although several genetic factors have been related to HIV-1 resistance, the homozygosity for a mutation in CCR5 gene (the 32-bp deletion, i.e., CCR5-Delta32 allele) is presently considered the most relevant one. The C-type lectins, DC-SIGN (present on dendritic cells and macrophages) and DC-SIGNR (present on endothelial cells in liver and lymph nodes) efficiently bind and transmit HIV-1 to susceptible cell in trans, thereby augmenting the infection. A potential association of the DC-SIGN and DC-SIGNR neck domain repeat polymorphism and risk of HIV-1 infection is currently under debate. To determine the influence of host genetic factors on HIV-1 resistance, we conducted genetic risk association study in HIV-1-exposed seronegative (n = 47) individuals, HIV-1 seronegative (n = 262) healthy control, and HIV-1-infected seropositive patients (n = 168) for polymorphism in neck domain of DC-SIGN and DC-SIGNR genes. The DC-SIGN and DC-SIGNR genotypes were identified by polymerase chain reaction method in DNA extracted from peripheral blood and confirmed by sequencing. Fisher exact or chi (2) test was used for static analysis. DC-SIGN genotype and allele distribution was fairly similar in HIV-1-exposed seronegative, HIV-1 seropositive, and HIV-1 seronegative control. There was no statistical significance in the differences in the distribution of DC-SIGN genotypes. A total of 13 genotypes were found in DC-SIGNR neck repeat region polymorphism. Among all the genotypes, only 5/5 homozygous showed significant reduced risk of HIV-1 infection in HIV-1-exposed seronegative individuals (p = 0.009). A unique genotype 8/5 heterozygous was also found in HIV-1 seropositive individual, which is not reported elsewhere.

  1. Trend of HIV-seropositivity among children in a tertiary health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the study was to investigate the recent trends and magnitude of pediatric HIV-infection in the Niger Delta of Nigeria. It is a descriptive study of 1,559 consecutively recruited children (0-16 years), in whom laboratory requests for HIV screening were made, and seen in the Pediatrics Department of the ...

  2. Confirmation of HIV seropositivity: comparison of a novel radioimmunoprecipitation assay to immunoblotting and virus culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tersmette, M.; Lelie, P. N.; van der Poel, C. L.; Wester, M. R.; de Goede, R. E.; Lange, J. M.; Miedema, F.; Huisman, J. G.

    1988-01-01

    A recently developed radioimmunoprecipitation assay, using 125I-labeled human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) viral proteins enriched for glycoproteins gp120env, gp41env (GRIPA), was compared to the immunoblot assay with respect to sensitivity and specificity for the detection of antibodies to HIV.

  3. Pattern of serum amylase activity in HIV seropositive subjects on anti ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ART) combinations of Nevirepine, Lamivudine and stavudine on the pancrease using serum amylase activity as indicator for pancreatic impairment. For this study 20 symptomatic HIV subjects (female =12, male=8) were recruited prior to ART and ...

  4. Low tetanus, diphtheria and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccination coverage among HIV infected individuals in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabmeier-Pfistershammer, K; Herkner, H; Touzeau-Roemer, V; Rieger, A; Burgmann, H; Poeppl, W

    2015-07-31

    Current management guidelines of HIV infected adults include recommendation to immunization against common vaccine preventable diseases. This effort is hindered by the scarce knowledge regarding the immunization status of this especially vulnerable patient group. This study analyzed the serostatus for pertussis, diphtheria and tetanus of more than 700 HIV infected individuals residing in Austria. These individuals were representative for the Austrian HIV cohort regarding sex, age, transmission risk and HIV progression markers. Overall, 73.6% were on suppressive HAART, mean CD4 cell count was 603c/μl. Seropositivity was 84% for diphtheria, 51% for tetanus and 1% for pertussis. Migrants had a lower chance of tetanus seropositivity (OR 0.30 (CI 0.21 to 0.43)). Increase in CDC classification were associated with increased diphtheria seropositivity (OR 1.42 (CI 1.02 to 1.98)) and a CD4 nadir200c/μl, 95% lacked seroprotection to at least one of the antigens included in the triple vaccine Tdap and could be vaccinated. Thus, a proactive approach would largely reduce the number of patients at risk for these vaccine-preventable diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Incidence of multiple Herpesvirus infection in HIV seropositive patients, a big concern for Eastern Indian scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guha Shubhasish K

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection is associated with an increased risk for human herpes viruses (HHVs and their related diseases and they frequently cause disease deterioration and therapeutic failures. Methods for limiting the transmission of HHVs require a better understanding of the incidence and infectivity of oral HHVs in HIV-infected patients. This study was designed to determine the seroprevalence of human herpes viruses (CMV, HSV 2, EBV-1, VZV antibodies and to evaluate their association with age, sex as well as other demographic and behavioral factors. Results A study of 200 HIV positive patients from Eastern India attending the Calcutta Medical College Hospital, Kolkata, West Bengal, Apex Clinic, Calcutta Medical College Hospital and ART Center, School of Tropical Medicine, Kolkata, West Bengal was done. Serum samples were screened for antibodies to the respective viruses using the indirect ELISA in triplicates. CytoMegalo virus (CMV, Herpes Simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2, Varicella Zoster virus (VZV, and Epstein Barr virus (EBV-1 were detected in 49%, 47%, 32.5%, and 26% respectively. Conclusion This study has contributed baseline data and provided insights in viral OI and HIV co-infection in Eastern India. This would undoubtedly serve as a basis for further studies on this topic.

  6. CD4 cells profile of HAART naive HIV seropositive clients in Kogi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CD4 lymphocyte cells are the primary targets of Human immune-deficiency virus (HIV). Enumeration of CD4 T lymphocytes in the peripheral blood is used in the assessment of disease clinical stage, risk of opportunistic infections, evaluation of prognosis and guide decision on the commencement of antiretroviral therapy.

  7. Trend of HIV-seropositivity among children in a tertiary health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Children with clinical diagnosis of bronchopneumonia, neonatal sepsis, septicemia and pulmonary tuberculosis had ... live [7]. With less than 5% of pregnant women in resource-poor countries in sub-Saharan. Africa having access to prenatal testing and preventive treatment, the, burden of pediatric. HIV infection is likely to ...

  8. Retrospective analysis of the clinical behavior of oral hairy leukoplakia in 215 HIV-seropositive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Assis do VALE

    Full Text Available Abstract Oral manifestations are common findings in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infected patients and frequently influence the overall health. Oral hairy leukoplakia (OHL is strongly associated with HIV infection demonstrating its relationship with the individual’s immune status and progression of immunosuppression. This study aims to retrospectively evaluate OHL in HIV patients, analyzing its incidence, demographic aspects and possible changes in clinical and epidemiological profile of the disease over 17 years. The records of 1600 HIV-infected patients were reviewed. The data were correlated and analyzed, considering HIV exposure category, age, gender, harmful habits, CD4 level, use and type of antiretroviral. OHL was observed in 215 (13.4% patients. Most were men in the fourth decade of life, 171 (79.5% and 112 (52,1% respectively, but an increase in the incidence of OHL among female patients and those in the fifth decade of life was observed. Tobacco smoking was the most frequent harmful habit reported by 114 (68% patients. OHL occurred mostly in patients with CD4 counts between 200 and 500 cells/mm3 35 (55.5%. The lower incidence of OHL was found among patients using at least one non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI. OHL is related to CD4 count, use of ARVT and tobacco smoking and is also more prevalent in men in the fourth decade of life. These characteristics were recognized in absolute values, but when verifying the behavior over the years we noticed that the incidence of OHL is decreasing and its epidemiological characteristics changing.

  9. Sumatriptan increases the proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from HIV-infected individuals and healthy blood donors in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afzelius, P; Nielsen, Jens Ole

    2000-01-01

    responsible for regulation of the intracellular levels of cAMP. In a preliminary study sumatriptan increased the proliferative responses of PBMC to a polyclonal activator in vitro in 9 of 10 HIV-seropositive individuals (p=0.007), and in 7 of 9 healthy blood donors (p=0.05). This was probably due...

  10. Seropositivity of HBsAg, anti-HCV and anti-HIV in preoperative patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berrin Karaayak Uzun

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The infections caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, hepatitis B (HBV and C (HCV viruses pose a serious occupational risk for the healthcare workers especially those in emergency services, laboratories and surgery wards. Vaccination and establishment of the strict biosafety procedures are the main principles to prevent blood-borne infections in healthcare workers. Additionally, serological screening of the preoperative patients could decrease the risk for exposure. In this study, we aimed to determine the seroprevalence of HBsAg, anti-HCV, anti-HIV 1/2 in preoperative patients. Methods: Hospital automation records were evaluated retrospectively for 4.367 patients who were scheduled for surgery and scanned for anti-HIV 1/2, HBsAg and anti-HCV as preoperative procedures in the preparation period of operation between January 2012 and December 2012. Results: HBsAg positivity rate was found in 7.7% (n=336, anti-HCV positivity rate was found in 2.3% (n=101. A two (0.05% of five patients were positive for anti-HIV 1/2 was found positive verification test and the other three samples were accepted as false positive test results. Conclusion: All healthcare workers must be trained about occupational diseases and vaccinated against Hepatitis B. Universal precautions must be strictly followed particularly in the operating room. In addition, all patients should be considered as potential carriers regarded as a carrier of the potential for infection. J Clin Exp Invest 2013; 4 (4: 449-452

  11. Risk factors for delayed antiretroviral therapy initiation among HIV-seropositive patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terra V Fatukasi

    Full Text Available Prompt initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy (ART is important to reduce comorbidity and mortality among people living with HIV, especially for those with a low CD4 cell count. However there is evidence that not everyone receives prompt initiation of ART after enrolling into HIV care. The current study investigated factors associated with failure to initiate ART within two years of entering into care among those with a CD4 count at or below 350 cells/mm3. The sample included 4,907 ART-naive patients with a CD4 count at or below 350 cells/mm3 enrolled between January 1, 2003 and December 31, 2012 at any of eight clinical sites in the Center for AIDS Research Network of Integrated Clinical Systems (CNICS. The two-year risk of delayed ART initiation was estimated using a log-binomial regression model with stabilized inverse probability of censoring weights for those lost to follow-up. Adjusting for other factors, an earlier enrollment date was the sole demographic characteristic associated with an increased risk of delayed ART initiation. Higher CD4 count, lower viral load, and a prevalent AIDS diagnosis were clinical characteristics associated with delayed ART initiation. Gender, age, race/ethnicity and HIV risk factors such as reported male-to-male sexual contact and injection drug use were not associated with delayed ART initiation. This study identified characteristics of patients for whom treatment was strongly to moderately recommended but who did not initiate ART within two years of entering care. Despite the known benefits of early antiretroviral therapy initiation, a lower viral load measurement may continue to be an important clinical characteristic in the more recent era with current ART initiation guidelines. These findings provide a target for closer monitoring and intervention to reduce disparities in HIV care.

  12. [Prevalence for seropositivity for HIV, hepatitis B and hepatitis C in blood donors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-López, María Rebeca F; Zavala-Méndez, Celia; Arenas-Esqueda, Alfonso

    2004-01-01

    Despite utilizing different actions to render blood safe for transfusions, we continue to have the risk of transmitting some viral infections. For this reason, it is important to determine prevalence of infections due to HIV and hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses in blood donors. Previous studies from Mexico indicate that HIV prevalence is 0.01 to 0.13%, while it is 0.11 to 1.22% for hepatitis B, and for hepatitis C, prevalence is 0.47 to 1.47%. We are checking the results of the screening tests (ELISA 3rd generation and chemiluminescent immunoassays) from blood donors studied at the Central Blood Bank (Banco Central de Sangre) at the Mexican Institute of Social Security's (IMSS) Twentieth First Century National Medical Center in Mexico City from 1995 to 2002. Reactive results were studied by confirmatory tests, Western Blot for HIV, AgHBs neutralization test for hepatitis B, and RIBA-HCV3.0 for hepatitis C. Reactive results from 513,062 blood donors confirmed for HV were 0.07%, reactive results and confirmation of hepatitis B from 511,733 blood donors were 0.13%, and reactive results and confirmation of hepatitis C from 511,115 blood donors were 0.31%. Rates obtained are low when compared with results of previous studies in Mexico for HIV, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C. It may be possible than these low rates indicate the positive impact obtained from preventive actions, better strategies of detection of blood donors with high risk, and the advantage of working with a fully automated test system with state-of-the-art technology.

  13. The pharmacokinetics and safety profile of oral ganciclovir in combination with trimethoprim in HIV- and CMV-seropositive patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Donald; AbdelHameed, Magdy H; Hunter, John; Teitelbaum, Philip; Dorr, Albert; Griffy, Kay

    1999-01-01

    Aims We investigated the pharmacokinetics and safety profile of oral ganciclovir coadministered with trimethoprim in HIV-and CMV-seropositive patients. Methods In an open-label, randomized, 3-way crossover study, 12 adult males received oral ganciclovir 1000 mg every 8h, oral trimethoprim 200 mg once daily, or both drugs concomitantly in a sequence of three 7-day treatment periods. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined and adverse events recorded for each treatment. Results The presence of trimethoprim significantly decreased CLr (12.9%, P = 0.0068) and increased t1/2 (18.1%, P = 0.0378) of ganciclovir. However, these changes are unlikely to be clinically meaningful. There were no statistically significant changes in trimethoprim pharmacokinetic parameters in the presence of ganciclovir, with the exception of a 12.7% increase in Cmin. Ganciclovir was well tolerated when administered alone or in combination with trimethoprim. Conclusions There was no clinically significant pharmacokinetic interaction between oral ganciclovir and trimethoprim when coadministered. PMID:10215748

  14. HIV seropositivity and sexuality: cessation of sexual relations among men and women living with HIV in five countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernier, Adeline; Lefèvre, Marie; Henry, Emilie; Verdes, Ludmila; Acosta, Maria-Elena; Benmoussa, Amal; Mukumbi, Henri; Cissé, Mamadou; Otis, Joanne; Préau, Marie

    2016-01-01

    The sexuality of people living with HIV (PLHIV) is a key issue in the fight against HIV, as it influences both the dynamic of the epidemic and the quality of life of PLHIV. The present study examined the factors associated with cessation of sexual relations after HIV diagnosis among men and women in five countries: Mali, Morocco, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Romania and Ecuador. A community-based cross-sectional study was implemented by a mixed consortium [researchers/community-based organizations (CBO)]. Trained CBO members interviewed 1500 PLHIV in contact with CBOs using a 125-item questionnaire. A weighted multivariate logistic regression and a separate gender analysis were performed. Among the 1413 participants, 471 (33%) declared that they stopped having sexual relations after their HIV diagnosis, including 318 women (42%) and 153 men (23%) (p sexual relations in the final multivariate model were mainly related with relational factors and the possibility of getting social support (e.g., needing help to disclose HIV serostatus, feeling lonely every day, not finding support in CBOs, not being in a couple). Men's sexual activity was more associated with their representations and their perception of the infection (e.g., thinking they will have their HIV infection for the rest of their life, perceiving the HIV infection as a mystery, perceiving the infection as serious). Furthermore, the following variables were associated with both men and women sexual behaviours: being older, having suffered from serious social consequences after serostatus disclosure and not being able to regularly discuss about HIV with their steady partner. Results suggested clear differences between men and women regarding cessation of sexual relations and highlighted the importance of implementing gender-based tailored interventions that promote safe and satisfying sexuality, as it is known to have a positive impact on the overall well-being of PLHIV.

  15. Family mechanisms of structural ecosystems therapy for HIV-seropositive women in drug recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrani, Victoria B; McCabe, Brian E; Burns, Myron J; Feaster, Daniel J

    2012-09-01

    Examined the effects of Structural Ecosystems Therapy (SET), a family intervention for women living with HIV or AIDS, compared to a psycho-educational health group (HG) intervention, and reciprocal relationships between women and family members. Women (n = 126) and their family members (n = 269) were randomized to one of two conditions and assessed every 4 months for 12 months. Family functioning, drug use, and psychological distress was reported by multiple family members. Multilevel growth curve modeling showed a different family functioning trajectory between SET and HG, B = -0.05, SE = 0.02, p family-level drug abstinence or psychological distress, but there was a significant difference in the trajectory of psychological distress after controlling for change in family functioning, B = -0.28, SE = 0.13, p family functioning to change in psychological distress, B = 0.29, SE = 0.12, p family drug abstinence significantly predicted women's abstinence 4 months later, B = 0.22, SE = 0.06, p family members and the impact of family in relapse prevention and partially supported SET's potential for maintaining family functioning and well-being for women living with HIV or AIDS in drug recovery. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. Changes and stagnation in a social representation of an HIV seropositive women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Celia Chapa Romero

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available At 30 years of the onset of the first case of Human Immunodeficiency Syndrome in Mexico, the disease has changed during these decades, including its current status as a chronic illness and the spread of it in non-risk groups such as women. From the theory of social representations this disease has been a privileged object of study, but the experience of living with the disease and the condition of gender in the construction of such representations have been addressed to a lesser extent. The aim of this research was to determine the social representation women living with HIV has developed on their health conditions, placing change and permanence, from a diagnosis. There were carried out 12 in-depth interviews with participants from two primary care centers, and it was conduced a categorical content analysis using N Vivo software. The results were classified in 12categories which were grouped into three meta categories 2 types of representational content in the sample: hegemonic (death, illicit sexuality and emancipated (chronicity.The findings revealed the prevalence of traditional norms and values about gender and sexuality rooted in social thinking despite the scientific advances in the field of health. Furthermore, it was found a negotiation of meaning based on experience. Further research is recommended to carry out comparisons between groups of women with HIV in order to be able to establish more precise differences in social position and representational content, in order to develop effective and relevant in both primary prevention and positive strategies

  17. A randomized clinical trial comparing cervical dysplasia treatment with cryotherapy vs loop electrosurgical excision procedure in HIV-seropositive women from Johannesburg, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jennifer S; Sanusi, Busola; Swarts, Avril; Faesen, Mark; Levin, Simon; Goeieman, Bridgette; Ramotshela, Sibongile; Rakhombe, Ntombiyenkosi; Williamson, Anna L; Michelow, Pam; Omar, Tanvier; Hudgens, Michael G; Firnhaber, Cynthia

    2017-08-01

    Mortality associated with cervical cancer is a public health concern for women, particularly in HIV-seropositive women in resource-limited countries. HIV-seropositive women are at a higher risk of high-grade cervical precancer, which can eventually progress to invasive carcinoma as compared to HIV-seronegative women. It is imperative to identify effective treatment methods for high-grade cervical precursors among HIV-seropositive women. Randomized controlled trial data are needed comparing cryotherapy vs loop electrosurgical excision procedure treatment efficacy in HIV-seropositive women. Our primary aim was to compare the difference in the efficacy of loop electrosurgical excision procedure vs cryotherapy for the treatment of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (grade ≥2) among HIV-seropositive women by conducting a randomized clinical trial. HIV-seropositive women (n = 166) aged 18-65 years with histology-proven cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade ≥2 were randomized (1:1) to cryotherapy or loop electrosurgical excision procedure treatment at a government hospital in Johannesburg. Treatment efficacy was compared using 6- and 12-month cumulative incidence posttreatment of: (1) cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade ≥2; (2) secondary endpoints of histologic cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade ≥3 and grade ≥1; and (3) high-grade and low-grade cervical cytology. The study was registered (ClinicalTrials.govNCT01723956). From January 2010 through August 2014, 166 participants were randomized (86 loop electrosurgical excision procedure; 80 cryotherapy). Cumulative cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade ≥2 incidence was higher for cryotherapy (24.3%; 95% confidence interval, 16.1-35.8) than loop electrosurgical excision procedure at 6 months (10.8%; 95% confidence interval, 5.7-19.8) (P = .02), although by 12 months, the difference was not significant (27.2%; 95% confidence interval, 18.5-38.9 vs 18.5%; 95% confidence interval, 11

  18. Understanding how adherence goals promote adherence behaviours: a repeated measure observational study with HIV seropositive patients

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    Jones Gareth

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The extent to which patients follow treatments as prescribed is pivotal to treatment success. An exceptionally high level (> 95% of HIV medication adherence is required to suppress viral replication and protect the immune system and a similarly high level (> 80% of adherence has also been suggested in order to benefit from prescribed exercise programmes. However, in clinical practice, adherence to both often falls below the desirable level. This project aims to investigate a wide range of psychological and personality factors that may lead to adherence/non-adherence to medical treatment and exercise programmes. Methods HIV positive patients who are referred to the physiotherapist-led 10-week exercise programme as part of the standard care are continuously recruited. Data on social cognitive variables (attitude, intention, subjective norms, self-efficacy, and outcome beliefs about the goal and specific behaviours, selected personality factors, perceived quality of life, physical activity, self-reported adherence and physical assessment are collected at baseline, at the end of the exercise programme and again 3 months later. The project incorporates objective measures of both exercise (attendance log and improvement in physical measures such as improved fitness level, weight loss, improved circumferential anthropometric measures and medication adherence (verified by non-invasive hair analysis. Discussion The novelty of this project comes from two key aspects, complemented with objective information on exercise and medication adherence. The project assesses beliefs about both the underlying goal such as following prescribed treatment; and about the specific behaviours such as undertaking the exercise or taking the medication, using both implicit and explicit assessments of patients’ beliefs and attitudes. We predict that i the way people think about the underlying goal of their treatments explains medication and exercise

  19. The prevalence of HIV seropositivity and associated cytopenias in full blood counts processed at an academic laboratory in Soweto, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, J L; Wiggill, T M; Alli, N; Hodkinson, K

    2017-02-27

    The HIV epidemic in South Africa (SA) has had a substantial impact on laboratory services, at least partially owing to the well-described propensity to cytopenias in HIV-positive patients. (i) To formally gauge the impact of HIV infection on the state sector haematology services in SA by determining the HIV seropositivity rate among full blood counts (FBCs) performed at a large academic state sector laboratory; and (ii) to document the prevalence of cytopenias among HIV-positive patients in this setting. Randomly selected FBCs submitted to the National Health Laboratory Service laboratory at Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospital, Johannesburg, were extracted from the laboratory information system (LIS) and retrospectively reviewed. HIV test results and other pertinent information in the LIS were documented, as was the presence of any cytopenias. HIV status was documented in 561 of 1 006 samples (55.8%), with 307 (54.7%) of these being HIV-positive. Of the HIV-positive patients, 63.2% had one or more cytopenia/s. Anaemia was present in 183/307 (59.6%) of the HIV-positive patients, and was severe (haemoglobin <8 g/dL) in 32/307 (10.4%). Multivariate linear regression analysis showed significant independent associations between the presence of anaemia and both immunological AIDS (iAIDS) (p<0.0001) and male sex (p<0.025), but not HIV viral load (VL) (p=0.33) or antiretroviral therapy (ART) exposure (p=0.70). Thrombocytopenia and neutropenia were present in 37/307 (12.1%) and 11/51 (21.6%) of the HIV-positive patients, respectively, with no statistically significant association between either of these cytopenias and iAIDS, exposure to ART or VL. The findings reflect the substantial impact of the HIV epidemic on state sector laboratory resources, particularly the haematology service.

  20. [Ethical considerations of a public health intervention aimed at reducing the risk of HIV transmission in HIV-seropositive-populations who are unwilling to take precautions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrien, Alix; Roy, David J

    2009-01-01

    1) To describe a public health intervention aimed at reducing the risk of HIV transmission by seropositive people who are unwilling or unable to take precautions to counter HIV transmission; 2) To document ethical principles that help front-line health care professionals arrive at justifiable decisions and actions. Front-line health care professionals dealing with these cases. Intervention developed by la Direction de la santé publique de l'Agence de la santé et des services sociaux de Montreal. A comité d'aide aux intervenants (CAI) was struck to advise health care professionals. To document the ethical principles that help front-line health care professionals in these situations, we undertook a multiple case study based on the committee's approach to counselling care providers for each of the 26 cases dealt with by the CAI between November 1996 and January 2003. We identified 7 ethical pitfalls: expecting immediate ideal results; simplification of complex situations; generalizing uncritically from a particular case; uncritical ethical bias against coercive measures; inability or refusal to recognize and accept limits; failure to anticipate unintended consequences of an action; acting on incomplete, unvalidated, or unverifiable information. A process of mutually exercised critical reflection can help health care professionals to identify and avoid ethical pitfalls and arrive at justifiable decisions and actions.

  1. Characteristics of HIV-2 and HIV-1/HIV-2 Dually Seropositive Adults in West Africa Presenting for Care and Antiretroviral Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekouevi, Didier K; Balestre, Eric; Coffie, Patrick A

    2013-01-01

    HIV-2 is endemic in West Africa. There is a lack of evidence-based guidelines on the diagnosis, management and antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV-2 or HIV-1/HIV-2 dual infections. Because of these issues, we designed a West African collaborative cohort for HIV-2 infection within the framework o...

  2. Partial protective effect of CCR5-Delta 32 heterozygosity in a cohort of heterosexual Italian HIV-1 exposed uninfected individuals

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    Cauda Roberto

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Despite multiple sexual exposure to HIV-1 virus, some individuals remain HIV-1 seronegative (exposed seronegative, ESN. The mechanisms underlying this resistance remain still unclear, although a multifactorial pathogenesis can be hypothesised. Although several genetic factors have been related to HIV-1 resistance, the homozigosity for a mutation in CCR5 gene (the 32 bp deletion, i.e. CCR5-Delta32 allele is presently considered the most relevant one. In the present study we analysed the genotype at CCR5 locus of 30 Italian ESN individuals (case group who referred multiple unprotected heterosexual intercourse with HIV-1 seropositive partner(s, for at least two years. One hundred and twenty HIV-1 infected patients and 120 individuals representative of the general population were included as control groups. Twenty percent of ESN individuals had heterozygous CCR5-Delta 32 genotype, compared to 7.5% of HIV-1 seropositive and 10% of individuals from the general population, respectively. None of the analysed individuals had CCR5-Delta 32 homozygous genotype. Sequence analysis of the entire open reading frame of CCR5 was performed in all ESN subjects and no polymorphisms or mutations were identified. Moreover, we determined the distribution of C77G variant in CD45 gene, which has been previously related to HIV-1 infection susceptibility. The frequency of the C77G variant showed no significant difference between ESN subjects and the two control groups. In conclusion, our data show a significantly higher frequency of CCR5-Delta 32 heterozygous genotype (p = 0.04 among the Italian heterosexual ESN individuals compared to HIV-1 seropositive patients, suggesting a partial protective role of CCR5-Delta 32 heterozygosity in this cohort.

  3. Correlation of CD4 count with cariogenic oral flora indicators and dental caries in HIV-seropositive children undergoing antiretroviral therapy in Mangaluru, South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraleedharan, Soumya; Panchmal, Ganesh Shenoy; Shenoy, Rekha P; Jodalli, Praveen; Sonde, Laxminarayan; Pasha, Imran

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the association of CD4 count with cariogenic oral flora indicators and dental caries in HIV-seropositive children receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). A descriptive study was conducted among HIV-seropositive children receiving ART at Snehasadan Camillian Care and Support Center HIV/AIDS in Mangaluru, India. Demographic details and r recent CD4 counts were recorded. For dental caries, the Decayed, Missing, Filled Teeth (DMFT)/decayed, missing, filled/decayed, extracted, filled index was used. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 22. Spearman's correlation was used to correlate CD4 count with dental caries and cariogenic oral flora indicators (mutans streptococci and lactobacilli). The study population comprised 35 patients. Dental caries prevalence was 54.1% in deciduous teeth and 41.2% in permanent teeth. Age and DMFT showed a significant, positive correlation; age and dmft showed a negative correlation (P Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans), and also CD4 count; S. mutans and CD4 count and dmft were not found to be statistically significant (P dental care being given to HIV-positive patients. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  4. Enteric parasitic infection among antiretroviral therapy Naïve HIV-seropositive people: Infection begets infection-experience from Eastern India

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    Suman Mitra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Parasitic opportunistic infections (POIs frequently occur in HIV/AIDS patients and affect the quality of life. Aims: This study assessing the standard organisms in the stool of HIV-positive patients, their comparison with HIV-negative controls, their relation with various factors, is the first of its kind in the eastern part of India. Settings and Design: hospital-based case-control study. Materials and Methods: A total of 194 antiretroviral therapy naïve HIV-positive patients (18-60 years were taken as cases and 98 age- and sex-matched HIV-negative family members as controls. Demographical, clinical, biochemical, and microbiological parameters were studied. Statistical Analysis Used: Odds ratio, 95% confidence interval, and P (350 cells/μl Cryptosporidium was the most common POI. Mean CD4 count was significantly (P < 0.001 lower among people having multiple infections. Male sex, hemoglobin <10 g/dl, WHO Clinical Stage 3 or 4, tuberculosis, absolute eosinophil count of more than 540/dl, CD4 count <350 cells/μl, and seroconcordance of spouses were significantly associated with HIV-seropositive cases having POI (P < 0.05. Conclusions: Physicians should advise HIV-infected patients to undergo routine evaluation for POI, and provision of chemoprophylaxis should be made in appropriate settings.

  5. Cross-sectional and longitudinal investigation of human herpesvirus 8 seroprevalence in HIV-1-infected individuals in Osaka, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Dai; Yamamoto, Yudai; Suzuki, Sachiko; Ashida, Misa; Matsumoto, Erina; Yukawa, Satomi; Hirota, Kazuyuki; Ikuma, Motoko; Ueji, Takashi; Kasai, Daisuke; Nishida, Yasuharu; Uehira, Tomoko; Shirasaka, Takuma

    2017-04-01

    High human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) seroprevalence has been reported in men who have sex with men (MSM) and are infected with HIV-1. However, it is unclear when they become infected with HHV-8. Thus, we conducted cross-sectional and longitudinal investigations of HHV-8 seroprevalence in HIV-1-infected individuals in Osaka, Japan. Plasma was collected from 121 individuals infected with HIV-1 and the anti-HHV-8 antibody titer was measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with whole virus lysate. Subjects were classified into those with and without a past medical history of HHV-8-associated disease; the latter group was then classified into 3 subgroups based on the assumed route of HIV-1 infection: blood products, homosexual contact, and other routes. HHV-8 seroprevalence was compared among the groups and measured again approximately 3 years after the baseline measurement. The relationship between HHV-8 seropositivity and possible associated factors was also investigated. All 15 subjects with HHV-8-associated disease were seropositive, and all 11 subjects in the blood product group were seronegative. In the MSM group, 25 (30%) of 79 subjects were HHV-8 seropositive and, in the non-MSM group, 1 (6%) of 16 subjects was (p HIV-1-infected MSM, suggesting that, currently, HHV-8 is an epidemic pathogen in this population. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Síndrome de Parsonage-Turner: relato de caso em paciente HIV soropositivo Parsonage-Turner Syndrome: case report of a HIV seropositive patient

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    Saulo Gomes de Oliveira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A síndrome de Parsonage-Turner é uma doença rara que acomete a musculatura da cintura escapular levando à hipotrofia muscular e grande déficit motor. A etiologia é indeterminada; acredita-se que existam fatores infecciosos e autoimunes envolvidos. O diagnóstico é de exceção, e os principais diagnósticos diferenciais são hérnias discais cervicais, lesões do manguito rotador e doenças reumáticas. Na investigação diagnóstica realizamos exames laboratoriais, radiografias e ressonância magnética dos ombros e da coluna cervical com destaque para a eletroneuromiografia auxiliando no diagnóstico definitivo. Por se tratar de uma doença raramente associada à soropositividade do vírus HIV e pela importância do diagnóstico precoce para o melhor tratamento destes pacientes é que relatamos este caso.The Parsonage-Turner Syndrome is a rare disease that affects the muscles of the scapular girdle, leading to muscular atrophy and a large motor deficit. The etiology is unknown, but it is believed that infectious and autoimmune factors are involved. The diagnosis is made by exclusion, and the main differential diagnoses are cervical disc hernias, rotator cuff injuries and rheumatic diseases. During diagnostic research, we conducted laboratory tests, radiographs and MRI of the shoulder and cervical spine, with particular reference to electroneuromyography to help generate a definitive diagnosis. This case report is presented because it shows a disease that is rarely associated with HIV seropositivity and the importance of early diagnosis for better treatment of these patients.

  7. HIV Testing in Urban Transgender Individuals: A Descriptive Study

    OpenAIRE

    Juarez-Cuellar, Adrian; Chang, Yu-Ping

    2017-01-01

    Abstract HIV testing is considered the initial component of HIV eradication strategies. This study aimed to describe HIV testing in urban, transgender individuals in western New York. The study uses HIV testing intake data from a sample of self-identified transgender males and females volunteering for an HIV test at a community-based healthcare organization. Transgender individuals with some characteristics were found to have more HIV tests including female gender, black, HIV status (positive...

  8. Quantitative analysis of differentially expressed saliva proteins in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infected individuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Nawei; Zhang, Zhenyu [Beijing Chaoyang Hospital Affiliated Capital Medical University, Beijing (China); Feng, Shan [MOE Key Laboratory of Bioinformatics, School of Life Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); Wang, Qingtao [Beijing Chaoyang Hospital Affiliated Capital Medical University, Beijing (China); Malamud, Daniel [NYU College of Dentistry, 345 East 24th Street, New York, NY 10010 (United States); Deng, Haiteng, E-mail: dht@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [MOE Key Laboratory of Bioinformatics, School of Life Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China)

    2013-04-24

    Highlights: ► A high-throughput method for profiling and quantification of the differentially expressed proteins in saliva samples was developed. ► Identified that DMBT1, S100A7, S100A8, S100A9 and alpha defensin were up-regulated in saliva from HIV-1 seropositive patients. ► Established analytical strategies are translatable to the clinical setting. -- Abstract: In the present study, we have established a new methodology to analyze saliva proteins from HIV-1-seropositive patients before highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and seronegative controls. A total of 593 and 601 proteins were identified in the pooled saliva samples from 5 HIV-1 subjects and 5 controls, respectively. Forty-one proteins were found to be differentially expressed. Bioinformatic analysis of differentially expressed salivary proteins showed an increase of antimicrobial proteins and decrease of protease inhibitors upon HIV-1 infection. To validate some of these differentially expressed proteins, a high-throughput quantitation method was established to determine concentrations of 10 salivary proteins in 40 individual saliva samples from 20 seropositive patients before HAART and 20 seronegative subjects. This method was based on limited protein separation within the zone of the stacking gel of the 1D SDS PAGE and using isotope-coded synthetic peptides as internal standards. The results demonstrated that a combination of protein profiling and targeted quantitation is an efficient method to identify and validate differentially expressed salivary proteins. Expression levels of members of the calcium-binding S100 protein family and deleted in malignant brain tumors 1 protein (DMBT1) were up-regulated while that of Mucin 5B was down-regulated in HIV-1 seropositive saliva samples, which may provide new perspectives for monitoring HIV-infection and understanding the mechanism of HIV-1 infectivity.

  9. Prognostic value of immunologic abnormalities and HIV antigenemia in asymptomatic HIV-infected individuals: proposal of immunologic staging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofmann, B; Bygbjerg, Ib Christian; Dickmeiss, E

    1989-01-01

    The prognostic value of various immunologic tests was investigated in 150 HIV-seropositive homosexual men, who were initially without HIV-related symptoms or AIDS and who were followed for a median of 12 months (range 3-28 months). The laboratory investigations included HIV antigen in serum, total...

  10. Polymerase chain reaction genotyping of Epstein-Barr virus in scraping samples of the tongue lateral border in HIV-1 seropositive patients

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    TF Robaina

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV is the etiological agent of oral hairy leukoplakia (OHL, an oral lesion with important diagnostic and prognostic value in acquired immunodeficiency disease syndrome. The two EBV genotypes, EBV-1 and EBV-2, can be distinguished by divergent gene sequences encoding the EBNA-2, 3A, 3B, and 3C proteins. The purpose of this study was to identify the EBV genotype prevalent in 53 samples of scrapings from the lateral border of the tongue of HIV-1 seropositive patients, with and without OHL, and to correlate the genotypes with presence of clinical or subclinical OHL with the clinic data collected. EBV-1 and EBV-2 were identified through PCR and Nested-PCR based on sequence differences of the EBNA-2 gene. EBV-1 was identified in the 31 samples (15 without OHL, 7 with clinical OHL and 9 with subclinical OHL, EBV-2 in 12 samples (10 without OHL, 1 with clinical and 1 subclinical OHL, and a mixed infection in 10 samples (2 without OHL, 3 with clinical and 5 with subclinical OHL. The presence of EBV-1 was higher in women, but a significant statistical result relating one the EBV genotypes to the development of OHL was not found. We conclude that the oral epithelium in HIV-1 seropositive patients can be infected by EBV-1, EBV-2 or by a mixed viral population.

  11. Cross-border injection drug use and HIV and hepatitis C virus seropositivity among people who inject drugs in San Diego, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horyniak, Danielle; Wagner, Karla D; Armenta, Richard F; Cuevas-Mota, Jazmine; Hendrickson, Erik; Garfein, Richard S

    2017-09-01

    The prevalence of HIV and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) are significantly lower among people who inject drugs (PWID) in San Diego, CA, USA compared with PWID in Tijuana, Mexico, located directly across the border. We investigated associations between cross-border injection drug use (IDU), HIV and HCV seroprevalence and engagement in injecting risk behaviours while on each side of the border. Using baseline interviews and serologic testing data from STAHR II, a longitudinal cohort study of PWID in San Diego, bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses examined associations between recent (past six months) cross-border IDU and HIV and HCV antibody seropositivity, socio-demographics, drug use characteristics, and participants' connections to, and perceptions about Mexico. Chi-squared tests and McNemar tests examined associations between cross-border IDU and injecting risk behaviours. Of the 567 participants (93% U.S.-born, 73% male, median age 45 years), 86 (15%) reported recent cross-border IDU. Cross-border IDU was not associated with HIV (OR: 0.85, 95% CI: 0.37-1.95) or HCV seropositivity (OR: 1.01, 95% CI: 0.62-1.65). Age, identifying as Hispanic or Latino/a, and being concerned about risk of violence when travelling to Mexico were independently associated with decreased odds of recent cross-border IDU. Injecting cocaine at least weekly, having ever lived in Mexico and knowing PWID who reside in Mexico were associated with increased odds of recent cross-border IDU. PWID who reported cross-border IDU were significantly less likely to engage in receptive needle sharing, equipment sharing, and public injection while in Mexico compared with in San Diego (all pMexico, possibly due to practising safer injecting while in Mexico. Research is needed to elucidate contextual factors enabling U.S. PWID to inject safely while in Mexico. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Preditores de soropositividade para HIV em indivíduos não abusadores de drogas que buscam centros de testagem e aconselhamento de Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Predictors of HIV seropositive status in non-IV drug users at testing and counseling centers in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Pechansky

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo descreve comportamentos de risco para HIV, obtidos através de questionário, em 570 indivíduos de Porto Alegre que não usavam drogas regularmente. A idade média foi 30,3, 51,1 % eram homens, e a maioria tinha baixa renda (59,1%. A soropositividade foi de 9,9% (13,1% entre homens e 6,9% entre mulheres, associada a sexo masculino, ter mais de 30 anos e baixa renda. Mulheres reportaram mais sexo desprotegido (86,4% do que homens (74,4% e mais sexo com usuários de droga injetável (11,6% versus 2,1%; homens relataram mais sexo homossexual desprotegido (18,7% versus 1,4% e mais relações com profissionais de sexo (19,0% versus 0,4%. Não houve associação entre uso eventual de drogas e soropositividade. A idade associada à soropositividade confirma achados anteriores, indicando maior exposição a riscos durante a vida. O estudo confirma a pauperização da epidemia, com indivíduos pobres apresentando maior soropositividade. Homens e mulheres apresentaram diferentes comportamentos associados à soropositividade, confirmando a necessidade de prevenção específica e distinta para cada grupo.This study describes HIV-related behaviors recorded through a questionnaire applied to 570 individuals in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, who were not regular drug users. Mean age was 30.3 years, 51.1 % were male, and most were low-income (59.1%. The HIV seropositive rate was 9.9% (13.1% for males, 6.9% for females, and there was a positive association with male gender, age over 30 years, and low income. Women reported more unprotected sex (86.4% than men (74.4% and more sex involving drugs (11.6% vs. 2.1%; men reported more unprotected homosexual sex (18.7% vs. 1.4% and more sex with sex workers (19.0% vs. 0.4%. There was no association between sporadic drug use and seropositive status. The association between age and seropositive status confirms previous findings, indicating more lifetime risk exposure. The study confirms the so

  13. GB Virus C (GBV-C Infection in Hepatitis C Virus (HCV Seropositive Women with or at Risk for HIV Infection.

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    Jason T Blackard

    Full Text Available GB virus C (GBV-C may have a beneficial impact on HIV disease progression; however, the epidemiologic characteristics of this virus are not well characterized. Behavioral factors and gender may lead to differential rates of GBV-C infection; yet, studies have rarely addressed GBV-C infections in women or racial/ethnic minorities. Therefore, we evaluated GBV-C RNA prevalence and genotype distribution in a large prospective study of high-risk women in the US.438 hepatitis C virus (HCV seropositive women, including 306 HIV-infected and 132 HIV-uninfected women, from the HIV Epidemiologic Research Study were evaluated for GBV-C RNA. 347 (79.2% women were GBV-C RNA negative, while 91 (20.8% were GBV-C RNA positive. GBV-C positive women were younger than GBV-C negative women. Among 306 HIV-infected women, 70 (22.9% women were HIV/GBV-C co-infected. Among HIV-infected women, the only significant difference between GBV-negative and GBV-positive women was age (mean 38.4 vs. 35.1 years; p<0.001. Median baseline CD4 cell counts and plasma HIV RNA levels were similar. The GBV-C genotypes were 1 (n = 31; 44.3%, 2 (n = 36; 51.4%, and 3 (n = 3; 4.3%. The distribution of GBV-C genotypes in co-infected women differed significantly by race/ethnicity. However, median CD4 cell counts and log10 HIV RNA levels did not differ by GBV-C genotype. GBV-C incidence was 2.7% over a median follow-up of 2.9 (IQR: 1.5, 4.9 years, while GBV-C clearance was 35.7% over a median follow-up of 2.44 (1.4, 3.5 years. 4 women switched genotypes.Age, injection drug use, a history of sex for money or drugs, and number of recent male sex partners were associated with GBV-C infection among all women in this analysis. However, CD4 cell count and HIV viral load of HIV/HCV/GBV-C co-infected women were not different although race was associated with GBV-C genotype.

  14. Detection of hydrogen peroxide-producing Lactobacillus species in the vagina: a comparison of culture and quantitative PCR among HIV-1 seropositive women

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    Balkus Jennifer E

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 producing Lactobacillus in the vagina may play a role in controlling genital HIV-1 shedding. Sensitive molecular methods improve our ability to characterize the vaginal microbiota; however, they cannot characterize phenotype. We assessed the concordance of H2O2-producing Lactobacillus detected by culture with quantitative PCR (qPCR detection of Lactobacillus species commonly assumed to be H2O2-producers. Methods Samples were collected as part of a prospective cohort study of HIV-1 seropositive US women. Cervicovaginal lavage specimens were tested for L. crispatus and L. jensenii using 16S rRNA gene qPCR assays. Vaginal swabs were cultured for Lactobacillus and tested for H2O2-production. We calculated a kappa statistic to assess concordance between culture and qPCR. Results Culture and qPCR results were available for 376 visits from 57 women. Lactobacilli were detected by culture at 308 (82% visits, of which 233 of 308 (76% produced H2O2. L. crispatus and/or L. jensenii were detected at 215 (57% visits. Concordance between detection of L. crispatus and/or L. jensenii by qPCR and H2O2-producing Lactobacillus by culture was 75% (kappa = 0.45. Conclusions Among HIV-1 seropositive women, there was a moderate level of concordance between H2O2-producing Lactobacillus detected by culture and the presence of L. crispatus and/or L. jensenii by qPCR. However, one-quarter of samples with growth of H2O2-producing lactobacilli did not have L. crispatus or L. jensenii detected by qPCR. This discordance may be due to the presence of other H2O2-producing Lactobacillus species.

  15. Distinct changes in HIV type 1 RNA versus p24 antigen levels in serum during short-term zidovudine therapy in asymptomatic individuals with and without progression to AIDS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jurriaans, S.; Weverling, G. J.; Goudsmit, J.; Boogaard, J.; Brok, M.; van Strijp, D.; Lange, J.; Koot, M.; van Gemen, B.

    1995-01-01

    Serum HIV-1 RNA and p24 antigen levels were examined in 28 seropositive asymptomatic individuals participating in a trial on the efficacy of zidovudine. Sixteen individuals remained asymptomatic until 4 years after the onset of the trial, whereas 12 individuals were diagnosed with an AIDS-defining

  16. GB Virus C (GBV-C) Infection in Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Seropositive Women with or at Risk for HIV Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackard, Jason T; Ma, Gang; Welge, Jeffrey A; King, Caroline C; Taylor, Lynn E; Mayer, Kenneth H; Klein, Robert S; Celentano, David D; Sobel, Jack D; Jamieson, Denise J; Gardner, Lytt

    2014-01-01

    GB virus C (GBV-C) may have a beneficial impact on HIV disease progression; however, the epidemiologic characteristics of this virus are not well characterized. Behavioral factors and gender may lead to differential rates of GBV-C infection; yet, studies have rarely addressed GBV-C infections in women or racial/ethnic minorities. Therefore, we evaluated GBV-C RNA prevalence and genotype distribution in a large prospective study of high-risk women in the US. 438 hepatitis C virus (HCV) seropositive women, including 306 HIV-infected and 132 HIV-uninfected women, from the HIV Epidemiologic Research Study were evaluated for GBV-C RNA. 347 (79.2%) women were GBV-C RNA negative, while 91 (20.8%) were GBV-C RNA positive. GBV-C positive women were younger than GBV-C negative women. Among 306 HIV-infected women, 70 (22.9%) women were HIV/GBV-C co-infected. Among HIV-infected women, the only significant difference between GBV-negative and GBV-positive women was age (mean 38.4 vs. 35.1 years; pGBV-C genotypes were 1 (n = 31; 44.3%), 2 (n = 36; 51.4%), and 3 (n = 3; 4.3%). The distribution of GBV-C genotypes in co-infected women differed significantly by race/ethnicity. However, median CD4 cell counts and log10 HIV RNA levels did not differ by GBV-C genotype. GBV-C incidence was 2.7% over a median follow-up of 2.9 (IQR: 1.5, 4.9) years, while GBV-C clearance was 35.7% over a median follow-up of 2.44 (1.4, 3.5) years. 4 women switched genotypes. Age, injection drug use, a history of sex for money or drugs, and number of recent male sex partners were associated with GBV-C infection among all women in this analysis. However, CD4 cell count and HIV viral load of HIV/HCV/GBV-C co-infected women were not different although race was associated with GBV-C genotype.

  17. Prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis C virus, hepatitis B virus and syphilis among individuals attending anonymous testing for HIV in Luanda, Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães Nebenzahl, H; Lopes, A; Castro, R; Pereira, F

    2013-01-24

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and syphilis remain major infections around the world. In Angola there are about 166 000 individuals living with HIV, representing a prevalence of 1.98% in adults between 15 and 49 years of age. In a 2003 study in Luanda, 4.5% of pregnant women had antibodies to HIV and 8.1% to HBV, and 5.4% were infected with Treponema pallidum. Objectives. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of HIV-1 and 2, HBV, HCV and T. pallidum serological markers, and hence the prevalence of these infections, in individuals attending a sexually transmitted disease clinic in Luanda, Angola, and the burden of these infections in the Angolan population. Methods. Individuals attending a centre for anonymous testing for HIV were randomly included in the study. All samples were tested for HBV surface antigen (HBsAg), anti-HCV and anti-HIV-1 and 2 antibodies and antibodies to T. pallidum. Results. A total of 431 individuals (262 women and 169 men) were studied, of whom 10.0% (43/431) were seropositive for T. pallidum and 4.6% had active syphilis; 8.8% (38/431) were seropositive for HIV-1 and/or HIV-2 (of these, 78.9% were HIV-1-positive, 2.6% HIV-2-positive and 18.4% co-infected); 9.3% (40/431) were HBsAg-positive, while 8.1% (35/431) had antibodies to HCV. Of 102 patients with positive results, 26 (25.5%, or 6.0% of the total of 431 patients) were positive for more than one of the organisms studied. Rates of co-infection were as follows: 2.3% (10/431) for HIV/HBV, 0.9% (4/431) for HIV/HCV, and 0.9% (4/431) for HCV/HBV. Three individuals with active syphilis had viral co-infection, hepatitis B in 1 case and HIV in 2. Five individuals (1.2% of the total) were seropositive for three infections, HIV, hepatitis B and hepatitis C in 3 cases and HIV, hepatitis C and syphilis in 2. Conclusions. A high prevalence of co-infection with the infections studied was found in this population, including HIV

  18. Erythrocyte inosine triphosphatase activity is decreased in hiv-seropositive individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Bierau (Jörgen); J.A. Bakker (Jaap); J.A. Schippers (Jolanda ); J.A.C. Grashorn (Janine); M. Lindhout (Martijn); S.H. Lowe (Selwyn ); A.D.C. Paulussen (Aimée); A. Verbon (Annelies)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Inosine triphosphatase (ITPase) is encoded by the polymorphic gene ITPA and maintains low intracellular levels of the inosine nucleotides ITP and dITP. The most frequently reported polymorphisms are ITPA c.94C

  19. Lower Cognitive Reserve Among Individuals with Syndromic HIV-associated Neurocognitive Disorders (HAND)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Erin E.; Woods, Steven Paul; Smith, Christine; Weber, Erica; Scott, J. Cobb; Grant, Igor

    2012-01-01

    HIV-seropositive individuals with low cognitive reserve are at high risk for developing HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). The present study evaluated the hypothesis that cognitive reserve would also play a unique role in the expression of everyday functioning complications among those with HAND (i.e., syndromic versus subsyndromic impairment). Eighty-six individuals with HIV infection were evaluated; 53 individuals evidenced normal neurocognitive performance, 16 had subsyndromic HAND (i.e., Asymptomatic Neurocognitive Impairment), and 17 were diagnosed with a syndromic HAND based on a comprehensive neurobehavioral evaluation. Cognitive reserve represented a combined score including years of education, estimated verbal IQ, and highest occupational attainment. The groups were comparable (e.g. demographics), and the HAND groups had similar rates of global neurocognitive impairment. The Syndromic HAND group evidenced lower reserve scores relative to both other groups, suggesting that HIV-infected individuals with high cognitive reserve more effectively counteract their neurocognitive impairment to maintain independence in daily living activities. PMID:22677976

  20. Oral lesions associated with HIV/AIDS in HIV-seropositive patients attending a counselling and treatment centre in Dar es Salaam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwangosi, Ibrahim E A T; Tillya, Jackline

    2012-08-01

     To assess the prevalences and patterns of oral lesions occurring in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).  A cross-sectional study was conducted among 200 people living with HIV/AIDS (PlwHA) who regularly attended a counselling and treatment centre in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. A questionnaire-guided interview and clinical oral assessment were used. Strict confidentiality and adherence to ethical codes were observed. The mean age of participants was 38.91 years (standard deviation: 10.424; mode: 35 years; median: 37.0 years; range: 15-76 years). Most participants (58.5%) were aware of predispositions towards the occurrence of oral lesions such as oral candidiasis (60.0%) in HIV/AIDS and most of these (72.0%) were aware that the lesions are treatable. Some participants reported occurrences of oral thrush (22.5%) and lip ulcerations (28.5%), although only 47.0% of these had sought medical advice. Examinations revealed that 29.0% of participants had at least one oral lesion associated with HIV/AIDS. Prevalences of the various types of lesion were: 11.5% for herpes simplex; 7.5% for oral candidiasis; 4.0% for oral hairy leukoplakia; 3.5% for Kaposi's sarcoma; 1.5% for dry mouth; 0.5% for angular cheilitis, and 0.5% for acute necrotising ulcerative gingivitis. Herpes simplex and Kaposi's sarcoma were more frequently observed in males (56.5% and 71.4%, respectively), whereas oral candidiasis and dry mouth were observed more often in females (86.7% and 66.7%, respectively) (χ(2) = 16.692, P = 0.016).   Prevalences of oral lesions associated with HIV/AIDS in PlwHA and using antiretroviral therapy are persistent, of moderate intensity and vary according to individual immune status. These patients' level of awareness about oral lesions was satisfactory, but formal medicodental lines of management were not prioritised. Contemporary protocol for the management of oral lesions should be understood and disseminated to the

  1. High seropositivity of IgG and IgM antibodies against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    bodies to their developing foetus, if pregnant. This may be due to the fact that IgG antibody is unique among the major immunoglobulin classes for its active transfer across maternal placenta25,31. Transmission of CMV is sexual24. Among the 59. (32.8%) HIV-1 seropositive individuals with single sex- ual partners, 5(8.5%) ...

  2. Action audio-visual for the promotion of between mother attachment seropositivity for HIV and his son

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Nayane de Carvalho Lima

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at evaluating the effects of the educational video use to promote the attachment between HIV positive mother and her son after six months of contact between them.This is an exploratory-descriptive study with a qualitative approach. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews. The sampling was intentional. The plan of analysis consisted of the following steps: the constitution of the corpus, definition of unit analysis, data categorization and analysis through categories. This study showed that, despite the difficulties and obstacles imposed by HIV / AIDS, by the treatment and the doubts present in daily life, HIV mothers develop strategies that enable them to live and better deal with the disease, without forgetting their role as a mother.

  3. Ex-vivo recognition of late-lytic CD8 epitopes specific for Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) by HIV/KSHV-coinfected individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robey, Rebecca C; Mletzko, Salvinia; Bower, Mark; Meys, Rhonda; Boffito, Marta; Nelson, Mark; Bunker, Christopher B; Gotch, Frances M

    2011-06-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the etiological agent of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), the most common cancer in individuals with untreated HIV/AIDS. Host control of KSHV infection and KS oncogenesis by CD8 T cells remains underexplored. Although KSHV CD8 epitopes have been identified, the responses they elicit are weak and little is known about their relative importance. We sought to make a direct comparison of the recognition of a selection of the best-described known epitopes by a cohort of KSHV-seropositive, HIV-co-infected individuals, in order to assess the relative dominance of these epitopes. We further sought to identify novel epitopes from within a candidate immunogenic protein encoded by KSHV ORF28. MHC binding and denaturation assays identified putative novel A*0201-restricted epitopes from within the late-lytic glycoprotein ORF28. Recognition of these candidate epitopes was tested in a cohort of KSHV-seropositive, HIV-1-seropositive, A*0201-positive individuals by ex vivo ELISPOT, and compared with recognition of nine previously described epitopes. One novel late-lytic epitope from ORF28 was recognized by 7.1% of individuals, and was used for further investigation of KSHV-specific T cells using multimer technology. One known late-lytic epitope from the glycoprotein-encoding K8.1 was recognized by 71.4% of individuals, and represented an immunodominant KSHV epitope, but was too hydrophobic for multimer synthesis. This study identifies two KSHV CD8 epitopes derived from late-lytic antigens that are recognized by KSHV-seropositive, HIV co-infected individuals, and will be useful in future immunological studies into the CD8 response against KSHV in similar patient cohorts.

  4. [Validation of an educational video for the promotion of attachment between seropositive HIV mother and her child].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Régia Moura; Bezerra, Ana Karina

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this research was to build an educational video to promote the attachment of HIV-positive mother and her child. That was a randomized clinical trial. The phases of the study was constituted by the development of the script, followed by the assessment, recording and editing of video, data collection, and validation and filming of the binomial. The roadmap has been assessed by technical experts and content. Data collection occurred between May and October 2008. 24 women attending HIV in the period, 12 of the control group and 12 in the intervention group took part of the study. We validated the video with the Protocol for Observation of mother-infant interaction. The mothers in the intervention group obtained more favorable results than the control one, showing the effectiveness of the video.

  5. Increased risk for Entamoeba histolytica infection and invasive amebiasis in HIV seropositive men who have sex with men in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Ching Hung

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Incidence of Entamoeba histolytica infection and clinical manifestations and treatment response of invasive amebiasis (IA in HIV-infected patients have rarely been investigated before. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: At the National Taiwan University Hospital, medical records of HIV-infected patients who received a diagnosis of IA between 1994 and 2005 were reviewed. The incidence of amebiasis was investigated in serial blood and stool samples from 670 and 264 HIV-infected patients, respectively, using serological and specific amebic antigen assays. DNA extracted from stool samples containing E. histolytica were analyzed by PCR, sequenced, and compared. Sixty-four (5.8% of 1,109 HIV-infected patients had 67 episodes of IA, and 89.1% of them were men having sex with men (MSM. The CD4 count at diagnosis of IA was significantly higher than that of the whole cohort (215 cells/microL vs. 96 cells/microL. Forty episodes (59.7% were liver abscesses, 52 (77.6% colitis, and 25 (37.3% both liver abscesses and colitis. Fever resolved after 3.5 days of metronidazole therapy (range, 1-11 days. None of the patients died. The incidence of E. histolytica infection in MSM was higher than that in other risk groups assessed by serological assays (1.99 per 100 person-years [PY] vs. 0 per 100 PY; p<0.0001 and amebic antigen assays (3.16 per 100 PY vs. 0.68 per 100 PY; p = 0.12. In multiple logistic regression analysis, only MSM was significantly associated with acquisition of E. histolytica infection (adjusted odds ratio, 14.809; p = 0.01. Clustering of E. histolytica isolates by sequencing analyses from geographically-unrelated patients suggested person-to-person transmission. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: HIV-infected MSM were at significantly higher risk of amebiasis than patients from other risk groups. Despite immunosuppression, amebic liver abscesses and colitis responded favorably to treatment.

  6. Discoid lupus erythematosus-related squamous cell carcinoma of the lip in an HIV-seropositive black male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molomo, Edward M; Bouckaert, Michael; Khammissa, Razia A G; Motswaledi, Hendrick M; Lemmer, Johan; Feller, Liviu

    2015-01-01

    Discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE) is an autoimmune disease commonly affecting sun-exposed areas of the skin. Subjects with DLE have high-levels of plasmacytoid dendritic cells -derived interferon-α, which mediates both loss of immune tolerance to self-antigens and exaggerated inflammatory state, and supports proliferation and differentiation of hyperactive B-cells. In a few cases, DLE of the lips, scalp, ears or nose may eventually progress to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Photosensitivity and the long-standing immune-mediated chronic inflammation and dysregulated healing characterized by atrophy, hypopigmentation or scarring inherent to DLE are risk factors for progression to SCC. We review some aspects of the pathogenesis of DLE and the possible roles of inflammation and photosensitivity in the carcinomatous transformation of DLE keratinocytes, and present an illustrative case of DLE of the lower lip in an HIV-tuberculosis co-infected black person, that progressed to SCC.

  7. Clinical correlates of suicidality among individuals with HIV infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper describes clinical risk factors for suicidality among individuals with HIV infection and AIDS disease in Mbarara, Uganda. In this study, suicidality includes both suicidal ideation and suicidal attempts. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 543 HIV-positive individuals aged 15 years and above, recruited from ...

  8. Resistance to HIV-1 infection in caucasian individuals bearing mutant alleles of the CCR-5 chemokine receptor gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, M; Libert, F; Doranz, B J; Rucker, J; Liesnard, C; Farber, C M; Saragosti, S; Lapoumeroulie, C; Cognaux, J; Forceille, C; Muyldermans, G; Verhofstede, C; Burtonboy, G; Georges, M; Imai, T; Rana, S; Yi, Y; Smyth, R J; Collman, R G; Doms, R W; Vassart, G; Parmentier, M

    1996-08-22

    HIV-1 and related viruses require co-receptors, in addition to CD4, to infect target cells. The chemokine receptor CCR-5 (ref.1) was recently demonstrated to be a co-receptor for macrophage-tropic (M-tropic) HIV-1 strains, and the orphan receptor LESTR (also called fusin) allows infection by strains adapted for growth in transformed T-cell lines (T-tropic strains). Here we show that a mutant allele of CCR-5 is present at a high frequency in caucasian populations (allele frequency, 0.092), but is absent in black populations from Western and Central Africa and Japanese populations. A 32-base-pair deletion within the coding region results in a frame shift, and generates a non-functional receptor that does not support membrane fusion or infection by macrophage- and dual-tropic HIV-1 strains. In a cohort of HIV-1 infected caucasian subjects, no individual homozygous for the mutation was found, and the frequency of heterozygotes was 35% lower than in the general population. White blood cells from an individual homozygous for the null allele were found to be highly resistant to infection by M-tropic HIV-1 viruses, confirming that CCR-5 is the major co-receptor for primary HIV-1 strains. The lower frequency of heterozygotes in seropositive patients may indicate partial resistance.

  9. LTR real-time PCR for HIV-1 DNA quantitation in blood cells for early diagnosis in infants born to seropositive mothers treated in HAART area (ANRS CO 01).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avettand-Fènoël, Véronique; Chaix, Marie-Laure; Blanche, Stéphane; Burgard, Marianne; Floch, Corinne; Toure, Kadidia; Allemon, Marie-Christine; Warszawski, Josiane; Rouzioux, Christine

    2009-02-01

    HIV-1 diagnosis in babies born to seropositive mothers is one of the challenges of HIV epidemics in children. A simple, rapid protocol was developed for quantifying HIV-1 DNA in whole blood samples and was used in the ANRS French pediatric cohort in conditions of prevention of mother-to-child transmission. A quantitative HIV-1 DNA protocol (LTR real-time PCR) requiring small blood volumes was developed. First, analytical reproducibility was evaluated on 172 samples. Results obtained on blood cell pellets and Ficoll-Hypaque separated mononuclear cells were compared in 48 adult HIV-1 samples. Second, the protocol was applied to HIV-1 diagnosis in infants in parallel with plasma HIV-RNA quantitation. This prospective study was performed in children born between May 2005 and April 2007 included in the ANRS cohort. The assay showed good reproducibility. The 95% detection cut-off value was 6 copies/PCR, that is, 40 copies/10(6) leukocytes. HIV-DNA levels in whole blood were highly correlated with those obtained after Ficoll-Hypaque separation (r = 0.900, P mothers have received HAART. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Current cigarette smoking among HIV-positive current and former drug users: associations with individual and social characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacek, Lauren R; Latkin, Carl; Crum, Rosa M; Stuart, Elizabeth A; Knowlton, Amy R

    2014-07-01

    Cigarette smoking is endemic among HIV-positive populations and is related to substantial morbidity and mortality. Research has largely focused on individual-level characteristics associated with smoking, with less attention to social factors. We aimed to explore individual- and social-level characteristics associated with current cigarette smoking among people living with HIV. Data came from 358 individuals on antiretroviral therapy interviewed in a study on informal HIV caregiving, conducted in Baltimore, MD, USA. Most participants (75 %) were current smokers and 45 % reported current illegal drug use. In adjusted logistic regression analyses, current drug use (aOR 2.90, 95 % CI 1.58-5.30), 12-step program participation (aOR 1.74, 95 % CI 1.02-2.97), and having a main Supporter who is a current smoker (aOR 1.93, 95 % CI 1.12-3.33) were associated with current smoking. Findings suggest the importance of social-level factors in cigarette smoking among HIV seropositive drug users and have implications for developing targeted smoking cessation interventions for smokers living with HIV.

  11. Management of sexually transmitted infections in HIV positive individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilleece, Yvonne; Sullivan, Ann

    2005-02-01

    This review aims to summarize recent developments in the epidemiology and management of sexually transmitted infections in HIV positive individuals. It will also discuss briefly the legal aspects of disclosure in relation to HIV transmission. There has been a dramatic increase in the reported number of cases of syphilis globally in recent years. In the United Kingdom this has mainly been observed among HIV positive men who have sex with men (MSM). Since 2003 there have been a series of outbreaks of lymphogranuloma venereum reported in several European cities occurring mostly in HIV positive MSM. Sexual transmission of hepatitis C is increasing and appears to be more common in HIV positive MSM. Legal issues regarding HIV transmission have also come to the fore, becoming an important part of the discussion of sexual health with an HIV positive patient. Increases in sexually transmitted infection among HIV positive individuals suggest a worrying lack of adherence to safe sex guidelines and needs to be addressed urgently. The transmission of HIV is facilitated by the presence of certain sexually transmitted infections. Management of sexual health is an essential part of HIV care.

  12. Absence of seroreversion in 80 HAART-treated HIV-1 seropositive patients with at least five-years undetectable plasma HIV-1 viral load

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, M.; Jurriaans, S.; Prins, J.M.; Bakker, M.; van der Kuyl, A.C.

    2006-01-01

    Partial or complete seroreversion for HIV-1, or incomplete antibody evolution are relatively rare events that have so far only been described in patients treated with HAART early after virus infection. Whether seroreversion is seen in patients treated effectively with HAART years after their acute

  13. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Anemia among HIV Infected Individuals Taking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-01-01

    Jan 1, 2018 ... DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ejhs.v28i1.9. 73. ORIGINAL ARTICLE. Anemia among HIV Infected Individuals ... Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and its treatment (1, 2). Depending on the study setting, ... information system computer records at baseline. (before ART initiation), after six months and 12.

  14. Risky sexual behaviours among HIV Sero-discordant individuals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Backgound: HIV/AIDS pandemic is a great public health concern hence the need to identify interventions to prevent new infections among risk groups. Objective: To determine risky sexual behaviours among HIV sero-discordant individuals attending Defence Forces Memorial Hospital (DFMH). Design: A descriptive ...

  15. Auditory impairments in HIV-infected individuals in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maro, Isaac I; Moshi, Ndeserua; Clavier, Odile H; MacKenzie, Todd A; Kline-Schoder, Robert J; Wilbur, Jed C; Chambers, Robert D; Fellows, Abigail M; Jastrzembski, Benjamin G; Mascari, John E; Bakari, Muhammad; Matee, Mecky; Musiek, Frank E; Waddell, Richard D; von Reyn, C Fordham; Buckey, Jay C

    2014-01-01

    Abnormal hearing tests have been noted in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients in several studies, but the nature of the hearing deficit has not been clearly defined. The authors performed a cross-sectional study of both HIV+ and HIV- individuals in Tanzania by using an audiological test battery. The authors hypothesized that HIV+ adults would have a higher prevalence of abnormal central and peripheral hearing test results compared with HIV- controls. In addition, they anticipated that the prevalence of abnormal hearing assessments would increase with antiretroviral therapy (ART) use and treatment for tuberculosis (TB). Pure-tone thresholds, distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs), tympanometry, and a gap-detection test were performed using a laptop-based hearing testing system on 751 subjects (100 HIV- in the United States, plus 651 in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, including 449 HIV+ [130 ART- and 319 ART+], and 202 HIV-, subjects. No U.S. subjects had a history of TB treatment. In Tanzania, 204 of the HIV+ and 23 of the HIV- subjects had a history of TB treatment. Subjects completed a video and audio questionnaire about their hearing, as well as a health history questionnaire. HIV+ subjects had reduced DPOAE levels compared with HIV- subjects, but their hearing thresholds, tympanometry results, and gap-detection thresholds were similar. Within the HIV+ group, those on ART reported significantly greater difficulties understanding speech in noise, and were significantly more likely to report that they had difficulty understanding speech than the ART- group. The ART+ group had a significantly higher mean gap-detection threshold compared with the ART- group. No effects of TB treatment were seen. The fact that the ART+/ART- groups did not differ in measures of peripheral hearing ability (DPOAEs, thresholds), or middle ear measures (tympanometry), but that the ART+ group had significantly more trouble understanding speech and had higher gap

  16. SOCIAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL FEATURES OF HIV-INFECTED INDIVIDUALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliya Anatolyevna Kudrich

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available By 2020 the prevalence of HIV in the Russian Federation may increase by 250%, unless we provide appropriate treatment to as many HIV-infected people as possible (V.I. Skvortsova, 2015. Previous research in this field shows that the psychotraumatic character of the disease lowers the psychological resource of HIV-infected individuals. In most cases, they are not psychologically prepared for the negative life events, unable to find an optimal behavioral pattern when their life stereotypes are being destroyed. In fact, being HIV-infected is an example of an acute event (V.V. Pokrovsky, 1993. The ability to overcome the life crisis and effectiveness of using adaptation and compensatory mechanisms to fight the disease depend on the level of adaptation to the fact of being infected and resistance to stress. The aim of the current study was to determine social and psychological features of HIV-infected individuals and assess their influence on the stress resistance and adaptation abilities of HIV+ patients. We observed men and women aged 21-30 who had been HIV+ for 1-5 years. Investigation methods included the following diagnostic tools: The Cattel Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (Form C, The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (conducted by Spielberger, adapted for use in Russia by Hanin, The Social Readjustment Rating Scale (The Holmes-Rahe Stress Inventory, The Social and Psychological Adaptation Questionnaire (by C. Rogers and R. Diamond, methods of mathematical statistics. As a result of the study, we have developed comparative factor profiles of individual psychological features of HIV-infected individuals that show their dependence on the social environment and form certain behavioral patterns. We have revealed significant difference in state and trait anxiety between HIV-infected and non-HIV-infected individuals. Self-blame, inadequate self-esteem and level of aspiration indicate low cognitive assessment of the condition by the patients

  17. Factors associated with abnormal spirometry among HIV-infected individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, M Bradley; Huang, Laurence; Diaz, Philip T; Kirk, Gregory D; Kleerup, Eric C; Morris, Alison; Rom, William; Weiden, Michael D; Zhao, Enxu; Thompson, Bruce; Crothers, Kristina

    2015-08-24

    HIV-infected individuals are susceptible to development of chronic lung diseases, but little is known regarding the prevalence and risk factors associated with different spirometric abnormalities in this population. We sought to determine the prevalence, risk factors and performance characteristics of risk factors for spirometric abnormalities among HIV-infected individuals. Cross-sectional cohort study. We analyzed cross-sectional US data from the NHLBI-funded Lung-HIV consortium - a multicenter observational study of heterogeneous groups of HIV-infected participants in diverse geographic sites. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine factors statistically significantly associated with spirometry patterns. A total of 908 HIV-infected individuals were included. The median age of the cohort was 50 years, 78% were men and 68% current smokers. An abnormal spirometry pattern was present in 37% of the cohort: 27% had obstructed and 10% had restricted spirometry patterns. Overall, age, smoking status and intensity, history of Pneumocystis infection, asthma diagnosis and presence of respiratory symptoms were independently associated with an abnormal spirometry pattern. Regardless of the presence of respiratory symptoms, five HIV-infected participants would need to be screened with spirometry to diagnose two individuals with any abnormal spirometry pattern. Nearly 40% of a diverse US cohort of HIV-infected individuals had an abnormal spirometry pattern. Specific characteristics including age, smoking status, respiratory infection history and respiratory symptoms can identify those at risk for abnormal spirometry. The high prevalence of abnormal spirometry and the poor predictive capability of respiratory symptoms to identify abnormal spirometry should prompt clinicians to consider screening spirometry in HIV-infected populations.

  18. Oral epithelial changes in HIV-positive individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elia C S, Almeida; Renata M, Etchebehere; Benito A S, Miranzi; Vitorino M, Santos; Maria G, Reis

    2013-07-01

    HIV infections frequently affect the oral cavity, and local changes may be utilized as indicators of immunosuppression in HIV-positive patients. Morphometric and morphological features of the lining, masticatory, and specialized epithelium of the oral mucosa were studied in 12 HIV-positive and 12 HIV-negative patients autopsied from 2007 to 2010. Mucosal samples from the cheek, gingival, and tongue of 24 individuals were fixed in Carnoy solution and stained with hematoxylin-eosin. Various morphometric characteristics (epithelial thickness, number of cell layers, mean cell diameter) and morphological parameters (basal layer hyperplasia, exocytosis of inflammatory cells, glycogenic acanthosis, cell ballooning degeneration) were then measured. The HIV-positive group had a greater epithelial thickness (mean: 304.4μm) and a higher mean cell diameter (11.84μm), whereas the HIV-negative group had more epithelial layers (26.7). Basal layer hyperplasia did not differ significantly between the two groups, but exocytosis of inflammatory cells, glycogenic acanthosis, cell ballooning, and spongiosis were more prevalent in the HIV-positive group. Our findings demonstrate that HIV infection causes diverse epithelial changes in the oral cavity, including thickening, increased cell diameter, increased migration of inflammatory cells, and inter- and intra-cellular edema. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Mortality attributable to smoking among HIV-1-infected individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helleberg, Marie; Afzal, Shoaib; Kronborg, Gitte

    2013-01-01

    and with HIV among current and nonsmoking individuals from a population-based, nationwide HIV cohort and a cohort of matched HIV-negative individuals.Results. A total of 2921 HIV patients and 10 642 controls were followed for 14 281 and 45 122 person-years, respectively. All-cause and non......Background. We assessed mortality attributable to smoking among patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).Methods. We estimated mortality rates (MRs), mortality rate ratios (MRRs), life expectancies, life-years lost, and population-attributable risk of death associated with smoking......-AIDS-related mortality was substantially increased among smoking compared to nonsmoking HIV patients (MRR, 4.4 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 3.0-6.7] and 5.3 [95% CI, 3.2-8.8], respectively). Excess MR per 1000 person-years among current vs nonsmokers was 17.6 (95% CI, 13.3-21.9) for HIV patients and 4.8 (95% CI, 3...

  20. Is phototherapy safe for HIV-infected individuals?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, M.L.; Houpt, K.R.; Cruz, P.D. Jr. [Texas Univ., Dallas, TX (United States). Southwestern Medical Center

    1996-08-01

    Patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have a high prevalence of UV radiation-responsive skin diseases including psoriasis, pruitus, eosinophillic folliculitis and eczemas. On the other hand, UV has been shown to suppress T cell-mediated immune responses and to induce activation and replication of HIV. These developments have prompted clinicians and investigators to question whether phototherapy is safe for HIV-infected individuals. We have reviewed these issues and hereby provide a summary and critique of relevant laboratory and clinical evidence. (Author).

  1. Species distribution & antifungal susceptibility pattern of oropharyngeal Candida isolates from human immunodeficiency virus infected individuals

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    Partha Pratim Das

    2016-01-01

    Results: From the 59 culture positive HIV seropositive cases, 61 Candida isolates were recovered; Candidaalbicans (n=47, 77.0%, C. dubliniensis (n=9, 14.7%, C. parapsilosis (n=2, 3.2%, C. glabrata (n=2, 3.2%, and C. famata (n=1, 1.6%. Candida colonization in HIV-seropositive individuals was significantly higher than that of HIV-seronegative (control group. Antifungal susceptibility testing revealed (n=6, 9.3% C. albicans isolates resistant to voriconazole and fluconazole by disk-diffusion method whereas no resistance was seen by Fungitest method. Interpretation & conclusions: C. albicans was the commonest Candida species infecting or colonizing HIV seropositive individuals. Oropharyngeal Candida isolates had high level susceptibility to all the major antifungals commonly in use. Increased level of immunosuppression in HIV-seropositives and drug resistance of non-albicans Candida species makes identification and susceptibility testing of Candida species necessary in different geographical areas of the country.

  2. Relationship satisfaction of HIV-positive Ugandan individuals with HIV-negative partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasipanodya, Elizabeth C; Heatherington, Laurie

    2015-01-01

    Challenges of relational coping are well documented in the literature on couples and chronic illnesses, but there is significantly less research on the psychological aspects of couple relationships and HIV, particularly in international contexts. Coping with the uncertainty of illness progression, family planning, disclosure to friends and family, social isolation and stigma, fear of transmission, sexual intimacy, changes to social and physical functioning, and receiving and providing care pose special challenges for couples with discordant HIV statuses. This study examined the correlates of relationship satisfaction in Ugandan HIV-positive individuals seeking treatment at a community clinic. Relationship satisfaction of HIV-positive individuals was uniquely predicted by their couple identity and depression, underscoring the importance of mental and relational health in HIV/AIDS.

  3. Detection of Individuals with Acute HIV-1 Infection using the ARCHITECT® HIV Ag/Ab Combo Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshleman, Susan H.; Khaki, Leila; Laeyendecker, Oliver; Piwowar-Manning, Estelle; Johnson-Lewis, LeTanya; Husnik, Marla; Koblin, Beryl; Coates, Thomas; Chesney, Margaret; Vallari, Ana; Devare, Sushil G.; John Hackett, John

    2009-01-01

    Background We evaluated use of the ARCHITECT® HIV Ag/Ab Combo assay (HIV Combo; Abbott Diagnostics; available for sale outside of the U.S. only) for detection of acute HIV infection. Methods Samples were obtained from a behavioral intervention study (EXPLORE). HIV-uninfected men who have sex with men were enrolled and tested for HIV infection every 6 months. Samples from seroconverters collected at their last seronegative visit (n=217) were tested individually using two HIV RNA assays. Samples with detectable HIV RNA were classified as acute and were tested with HIV Combo. Samples from the enrollment visit (n=83) and the time of HIV seroconversion (n=219) were tested with HIV Combo as controls. Results Twenty-one (9.7%) samples from the last seronegative visit had detectable HIV RNA and were classified as acute. HIV Combo was positive for 13 (61.9%) of the acute samples. Samples not detected by HIV Combo had viral loads of 724 to 15,130 copies/ml. Expected results were obtained for positive and negative controls tested with HIV Combo. Conclusions HIV Combo detected nearly two-thirds of acute HIV infections identified in this high-risk population by non-pooled, HIV RNA assays. HIV Combo may be useful for high-throughput screening to identify individuals with acute HIV infection. PMID:19506484

  4. Quantifying Ongoing HIV-1 Exposure in HIV-1–Serodiscordant Couples to Identify Individuals With Potential Host Resistance to HIV-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackelprang, Romel D.; Baeten, Jared M.; Donnell, Deborah; Celum, Connie; Farquhar, Carey; de Bruyn, Guy; Essex, Max; McElrath, M. Juliana; Nakku-Joloba, Edith; Lingappa, Jairam R.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Immunogenetic correlates of resistance to HIV-1 in HIV-1–exposed seronegative (HESN) individuals with consistently high exposure may inform HIV-1 prevention strategies. We developed a novel approach for quantifying HIV-1 exposure to identify individuals remaining HIV-1 uninfected despite persistent high exposure. Methods. We used longitudinal predictors of HIV-1 transmission in HIV-1 serodiscordant couples to score HIV-1 exposure and define HESN clusters with persistently high, low, and decreasing risk trajectories. The model was validated in an independent cohort of serodiscordant couples. We describe a statistical tool that can be applied to other HESN cohorts to identify individuals with high exposure to HIV-1. Results. HIV-1 exposure was best quantified by frequency of unprotected sex with, plasma HIV-1 RNA levels among, and presence of genital ulcer disease among HIV-1–infected partners and by age, pregnancy status, herpes simplex virus 2 serostatus, and male circumcision status among HESN participants. Overall, 14% of HESN individuals persistently had high HIV-1 exposure and exhibited a declining incidence of HIV-1 infection over time. Conclusions. A minority of HESN individuals from HIV-1–discordant couples had persistent high HIV-1 exposure over time. Decreasing incidence of infection in this group suggests these individuals were selected for resistance to HIV-1 and may be most appropriate for identifying biological correlates of natural host resistance to HIV-1 infection. PMID:22926009

  5. Associations between Cognition, Gender and Monocyte Activation among HIV Infected Individuals in Nigeria.

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    Walter Royal

    Full Text Available The potential role of gender in the occurrence of HIV-related neurocognitive impairment (NCI and associations with markers of HIV-related immune activity has not been previously examined. In this study 149 antiretroviral-naïve seropositive subjects in Nigeria (SP, 92 women and 57 men and 58 seronegative (SN, 38 women and 20 men were administered neuropsychological testing that assessed 7 ability domains. From the neuropsychological test scores was calculated a global deficit score (GDS, a measure of overall NCI. Percentages of circulating monocytes and plasma HIV RNA, soluble CD163 and soluble CD14 levels were also assessed. HIV SP women were found to be younger, more educated and had higher CD4+ T cell counts and borderline higher viral load measures than SP men. On the neuropsychological testing, SP women were more impaired in speed of information processing and verbal fluency and had a higher mean GDS than SN women. Compared to SP men, SP women were also more impaired in speed of information processing and verbal fluency as well as on tests of learning and memory. Numbers of circulating monocytes and plasma sCD14 and sCD163 levels were significantly higher for all SP versus all SN individuals and were also higher for SP women and for SP men versus their SN counterparts. Among SP women, soluble CD14 levels were slightly higher than for SP men, and SP women had higher viral load measurements and were more likely to have detectable virus than SP men. Higher sCD14 levels among SP women correlated with more severe global impairment, and higher viral load measurements correlated with higher monocyte numbers and sCD14 and sCD14 levels, associations that were not observed for SP men. These studies suggest that the risk of developing NCI differ for HIV infected women and men in Nigeria and, for women, may be linked to effects from higher plasma levels of HIV driving activation of circulating monocytes.

  6. Glutathione synthesis is compromised in erythrocytes from individuals with HIV

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    Vishwanath eVenketaraman

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrated that the levels of enzymes responsible for the synthesis of glutathione (GSH such as glutathione synthase (GSS, glutamate-cysteine ligase-catalytic subunit (GCLC and glutathione reductase (GSR were significantly reduced in the red blood cells (RBCs isolated from individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection and this reduction correlated with decreased levels of intracellular GSH. GSH content in RBCs can be used as a marker for increased overall oxidative stress and immune dysfunctions caused by HIV infection. Our data supports our hypothesis that compromised levels of GSH in HIV infected individuals’ is due to decreased levels of GSH-synthetic enzymes. The role of GSH in combating oxidative stress and improving the functions of immune cells in HIV patients’ indicates the benefit of an antioxidant supplement which can reduce the cellular damage and promote the functions of immune cells.

  7. Cytokine expression during syphilis infection in HIV-1-infected individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Andreas; Benfield, Thomas; Kofoed, Kristian

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about cytokine responses to syphilis infection in HIV-1-infected individuals. METHODS: We retrospectively identified patients with HIV-1 and Treponema pallidum coinfection. Plasma samples from before, during, and after coinfection were analyzed for interleukin (IL)-2, IL...... syphilis.IL-10 and TNF-alpha levels correlated positively with plasma HIV RNA values at the time of diagnosis (r = 0.38, P = 0.023, and r = 0.64, P HIV-1 and early...... infection to 46.7 pg/mL (IQR, 28.4-78.9) at the time of diagnosis (P = 0.027) and decreased to 13.0 pg/mL (IQR, 6.2-19.4) after treatment of syphilis (P

  8. Renal Impairment and Cardiovascular Disease in HIV-Positive Individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lene Ryom; Lundgren, Jens D; Ross, Mike

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: While the association between renal impairment and cardiovascular disease (CVD) is well established in the general population, the association remains poorly understood in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive individuals. METHODS: Individuals with ≥2 estimated glomerular...... relation between confirmed impaired eGFR and CVD was observed. This finding highlights the need for renal preventive measures and intensified monitoring for emerging CVD, particularly in older individuals with continuously low eGFRs....

  9. Some hematological parameters and the prognostic values of CD4, CD8 and total lymphocyte counts and CD4/CD8 cell count ratio in healthy HIV sero-negative, healthy HIV sero-positive and AIDS subjects in Port Harcourt, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blessing Didia

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The present study attempts to determine normal values of CD4, CD8, CD4/CD8 ratio, total WBC and differential counts, hematocrit and total lymphocyte count (TLC in healthy HIV sero-negative and sero-positive subjects, and to assess the prognostic significance of these parameters in these subjects as compared to AIDS subjects.METHODS: A total of 300 subjects (147 M, 153 F aged between 17 and 71 years were recruited into the study. Subjects were separated according to sex and divided into three groups: Group A: healthy HIV sero-negative subjects; Group B: healthy HIV sero-positive newly diagnosed ART-naïve subjects; and Group C: AIDS subjects. CD4 and CD8 counts were determined by flow cytometry; hematocrit was determined using Hawksley micro-capillary tubes; total WBC and differential counts were determined manually with the improved Neubauer counting chamber; and TLC was obtained by multiplying the percentage of lymphocytes by the total WBC count.RESULTS: For male subjects, significant differences were found in CD4 count, CD4/CD8 count ratio, hematocrit, total WBC and TLC, whereas for female subjects, significant differences were found only in CD4 and CD4/CD8 count ratio in the three groups of subjects. In both sexes, however, these parameters were found to be highest in healthy HIV sero-negative subjects and lowest in AIDS subjects, with HIV sero-positive subjects having intermediate values. CONCLUSION: The results confirm previous reports that the CD4 count and CD4/CD8 count ratio are fairly reliable indicators of the progression of HIV infection. In addition, the results also apparently suggest that the prognostic value of CD8 count is limited and that of TLC possibly sex-dependent. The results could be of importance in our environment since previous reports have been relatively scarce.

  10. Social Wellbeing Predictor of illness behavior among HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The objective of the present study was to compare the social wellbeing of HIV seropositive individuals and individuals the normative population who are not HIV positive to find out how social support affects physical well-being. Design: Amultiple group design was used to assess the intensity and impact of social ...

  11. The financial impact of employment decisions for individuals with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Elizabeth; Chan, Kee

    2013-01-01

    Individuals living with HIV face challenging employment decisions that have personal, financial, and health impacts. The decision to stay or to leave the work force is much more complicated for an individual with HIV because the financial choices related to potential health benefits are not clearly understood. To assist in the decision-making process for an individual with HIV, we propose to develop a decision model that compares the potential costs and benefits of staying in or leaving the work force. A hypothetical cohort of HIV-infected individuals was simulated in our decision model. Characteristics of these individuals over a one-year period were extracted from the medical literature and publicly available national surveys. Men and women between the ages of 18 and 59 were included in our simulated cohort. A decision tree model was created to estimate the financial impact of an individual's decision on employment. The outcomes were presented as the cost-savings associated with the following employment statuses over a one-year period: 1) staying full-time, 2) switching from full-to part-time, 3) transitioning from full-time to unemployment, and 4) staying unemployed. CD4 T cell counts and employment statuses were stratified by earned income. Employment probabilities were calculated from national databases on employment trends in the United States. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to test the robustness of the effects of the variables on the outcomes. Overall, the decision outcome that resulted in the least financial loss for individuals with HIV was to remain at work. For an individual with CD4 T cell count > 350, the cost difference between staying employed full-time and switching from full-time to part-time status was a maximum of $2,970. For an individual with a CD4 T cell count between 200 and 350, the cost difference was as low as $126 and as great as $2,492. For an individual with a CD4 T cell count 350 to stay employed full-time because it resulted in

  12. HIV-1 molecular epidemiology among newly diagnosed HIV-1 individuals in Hebei, a low HIV prevalence province in China.

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    Xinli Lu

    Full Text Available New human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 diagnoses are increasing rapidly in Hebei. The aim of this study presents the most extensive HIV-1 molecular epidemiology investigation in Hebei province in China thus far. We have carried out the most extensive systematic cross-sectional study based on newly diagnosed HIV-1 positive individuals in 2013, and characterized the molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 based on full length gag-partial pol gene sequences in the whole of Hebei. Nine HIV-1 genotypes based on full length gag-partial pol gene sequence were identified among 610 newly diagnosed naïve individuals. The four main genotypes were circulating recombinant form (CRF01_AE (53.4%, CRF07_BC (23.4%, subtype B (15.9%, and unique recombinant forms URFs (4.9%. Within 1 year, three new genotypes (subtype A1, CRF55_01B, CRF65_cpx, unknown before in Hebei, were first found among men who have sex with men (MSM. All nine genotypes were identified in the sexually contracted HIV-1 population. Among 30 URFs, six recombinant patterns were revealed, including CRF01_AE/BC (40.0%, CRF01_AE/B (23.3%, B/C (16.7%, CRF01_AE/C (13.3%, CRF01_AE/B/A2 (3.3% and CRF01_AE/BC/A2 (3.3%, plus two potential CRFs. This study elucidated the complicated characteristics of HIV-1 molecular epidemiology in a low HIV-1 prevalence northern province of China and revealed the high level of HIV-1 genetic diversity. All nine HIV-1 genotypes circulating in Hebei have spread out of their initial risk groups into the general population through sexual contact, especially through MSM. This highlights the urgency of HIV prevention and control in China.

  13. lon-beam analysis of plasma of HIV-Aids positive individual patients and comparison to CD4 counts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mars, J.A.; Kunsevi-Kilola, C. [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Cape Peninsula University of Technology, PO Box 1906. Bellville, 7535 (South Africa); Maqutu, M.L.; Kunsevi-Kilola, C; Mohammed, A. [HIV-Aids Unit, Cape Peninsula Universily of Technology, PO Box 1906, Bellville, 7535, (South Africa); Tarr, S. [National Health Training College, Private Bag A18, Maseru, Lesotho (South Africa)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: HIV-Aids related diseases have claimed the lives of many individuals, especially those that are economically active. This economic burden has crippled many economies since many of the lives claimed are those of individuals with special skills. However, the pathogenesis of human immuno-deficiency virus (HIV) infection is until present not fully understood. Elements such as Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn and Se are incorporated into the structure of many enzymes and are therefore essential to the enzyme function. The focus of this study is the correlation of trace element concentrations, determined by IBA, and the CD4 count. Blood obtained from 100 HIV sero-positive males and females attending clinics at the National Health Training College in Maseru metropolis, Lesotho. The CD4 cells of the samples were determined by flow cytometry (Cytoflow SL - S using CD4/CD45 monoclonal antibody and SSC/F12 getting strategy). Afterwards the plasma specimens were freeze dried and then pulverized into palettes. The palettes were coated with carbon and then irradiated with a proton beam of 3 MeV energy. X-ray emission and backscattering data were obtained and then quantified with various computational software. (author)

  14. Prevalence and determinants of unemployment among ageing HIV-1-infected and HIV-uninfected individuals

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    P Reiss

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the study: People living with HIV (PLWH appear to be at increased risk for earlier onset of age-associated non-communicable co-morbidity (AANCC and declines in physical and mental capacities, compared to the general population [1]. This earlier onset of AANCC in the setting of HIV infection is likely to negatively affect work participation and quality of life. Present study investigates prevalence and determinants of unemployment among older HIV-1-infected and HIV-uninfected participants of the AGEhIV Cohort Study. Methods: Data were collected (Oct. 2010–Jan. 2012 within the ongoing prospective AGEhIV Cohort Study, recruiting HIV-1-infected patients >45 years from a tertiary care HIV outpatient clinic, and HIV-uninfected Public Health Service attendants, comparable regarding age, gender and ethnicity. Data on socio-demographics, lifestyle, quality of life, AANCC and unemployment were collected, using a self-administered questionnaire and through medical examination. Current analysis was restricted to participants in the working age (45–65 years. Logistic regression analysis was used to study determinants of unemployment. Summary of results: The majority from the first enrolled 277 HIV-1-infected and 251 HIV-uninfected subjects was male (88%, Dutch (76% and homosexual (74%. About 50% was highly educated and the median age was 52 [IQR: 48–57]. Almost all (94% HIV-1-infected individuals were on cART, median time since first ART was 11 years [IQR: 4–15], median time since HIV-diagnosis was 12 years [IQR: 7–18] and they had been diagnosed with more AANCC than HIV-uninfected individuals (p<0.01. Unemployment was higher among HIV-1-infected (36.5% compared to HIV-uninfected participants (21.9% (p<0.01. In multivariate analysis, being HIV-infected (ORadj 2.0 [95% CI: 1.3–3.3], experiencing >2 AANCC (ORadj 3.1 [95% CI: 1.4–6.8], lower physical health status (ORadj 2.0 [95% CI: 1.6–2.6], being unmarried (ORadj 2.1 [95% CI: 1.3

  15. Changes in HIV RNA and CD4 cell count after acute HCV infection in chronically HIV-infected individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gras, Luuk; de Wolf, Frank; Smit, Colette; Prins, Maria; van der Meer, Jan T. M.; Vanhommerig, Joost W.; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.; Schinkel, Janke; Geskus, Ronald B.; Kuijpers, T. W.; Scherpbier, H. J.; Godfried, M. H.; Reiss, P.; van der Poll, T.; Nellen, F. J. B.; Lange, J. M. A.; Geerlings, S. E.; van Vugt, M.; Pajkrt, D.; Bos, J. C.; van der Valk, M.; Wiersinga, W. J.; Goorhuis, A.; Hovius, J. W. R.; Lowe, S.; Oude Lashof, A.; Posthouwer, D.; Pronk, M. J. H.; Ammerlaan, H. S. M.; van der Ende, M. E.; de Vries-Sluijs, T. E. M. S.; Schurink, C. A. M.; Nouwen, J. L.; Verbon, A.; Rijnders, B. J. A.; van Gorp, E. C. M.; van der Feltz, M.; Driessen, G. J. A.; van Rossum, A. M. C.; Branger, J.; Schippers, E. F.; van Nieuwkoop, C.; van Elzakker, E. P.; Groeneveld, H. P.; Bouwhuis, J. W.; Soetekouw, R.; ten Kate, R. W.; Kroon, F. P.; van Dissel, J. T.; Arend, S. M.; de Boer, M. G. J.; Jolink, H.; Vollaard, A. M.; Bauer, M. P.; den Hollander, J. G.; Pogany, K.; van Twillert, G.; Kortmann, W.; Cohen Stuart, J. W. T.; Diederen, B. M. W.; Leyten, E. M. S.; Gelinck, L. B. S.; Kootstra, G. J.; Delsing, C. E.; Brinkman, K.; Blok, W. L.; Frissen, P. H. J.; Schouten, W. E. M.; van den Berk, G. E. L.; van Kasteren, M. E. E.; Brouwer, A. E.; Veenstra, J.; Lettinga, K. D.; Mulder, J. W.; Vrouenraets, S. M. E.; Lauw, F. N.; van Eeden, A.; Verhagen, D. W. M.; Sprenger, H. G.; Scholvinck, E. H.; van Assen, S.; Bierman, W. F. W.; Wilting, K. R.; Stienstra, Y.; Koopmans, P. P.; Keuter, M.; van der Ven, A. J. A. M.; ter Hofstede, H. J. M.; Dofferhoff, A. S. M.; Warris, A.; van Crevel, R.; Hoepelman, A. I. M.; Mudrikova, T.; Schneider, M. M. E.; Ellerbroek, P. M.; Oosterheert, J. J.; Arends, J. E.; Wassenberg, W. W. M.; Barth, R. E.; van Agtmael, M. A.; Perenboom, R. M.; Claessen, F. A. P.; Bomers, M.; Peters, E. J. G.; Geelen, S. P. M.; Wolfs, T. F. W.; Bont, L. J.; Richter, C.; van der Berg, J. P.; Gisolf, E. H.; van den Berge, M.; Stegeman, A.; van Vonderen, M. G. A.; van Houte, D. P. F.; Weijer, S.; el Moussaoui, R.; Winkel, C.; Muskiet, F.; Durand, N. N.; Voigt, R.

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the impact of acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infection on HIV-1 disease progression. We investigated CD4 cell count and HIV RNA concentration changes after HCV infection in individuals chronically infected with HIV-1. We selected individuals that had the last negative and

  16. Sentimentos de mulheres soropositivas para HIV diante da impossibilidade de amamentar Sentimientos de mujeres seropositivas para VIH delante la imposibilidad de amamantar Feelings of the HIV seropositives women face the impossibility of breast feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Barbosa Batista

    2007-06-01

    , sociales y culturales que circundan la mujer, para le presentar una ayuda calificada.Descriptive research with qualitative approach, that aimed to analyze the feelings of the HIV seropositive pregnant woman, in a conjoined lodging, faces the impossibility of breast feeding. For such, was carried trough recorded interviews in magnet tapes in the period from January trough may of 2006 with 12 women interned in a conjoined lodging from two hospitals of the City of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil. The interviews, after its transcription, allowed the creation of five categories which comprehended feelings as: deny, envy, sadness, inutility, fear, impotence and acceptance. By analysis of these feelings it was observed that the HIV positive woman, impossibilited of breast feeding, experiences a very painful reality that influences her way of life, her health and of her child. Therefore, the Nursing needs to comprehend and incorporate in its care, besides the biological aspects, the emotional, social and cultural ones that enclose the woman, to make possible a better assistance.

  17. Representações sociais do cuidado prestado aos pacientes soropositivos ao HIV Representaciones sociales de la atención prestada a los pacientes seropositivos al VIH Social representations of the care provided to HIV seropositive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gláucia Alexandre Formozo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de pesquisa qualitativa cujos objetivos foram identificar e comparar as representações sociais do cuidado de enfermagem ao paciente soropositivo ao HIV para profissionais de enfermagem. O cenário foi um hospital público universitário da cidade do Rio de Janeiro e os sujeitos 20 auxiliares de enfermagem e 20 enfermeiros. A coleta de dados deu-se através de entrevista semi-estruturada e a análise utilizou o software ALCESTE 4.7. Entre os auxiliares de enfermagem foram caracterizados conteúdos do cotidiano do cuidado de enfermagem prestado ao paciente com HIV/AIDS, enquanto os enfermeiros trouxeram conteúdos voltados a qualidade de vida. Concluiu-se que a representação social dos auxiliares de enfermagem encontra-se ancorada em elementos práticos do cotidiano do cuidado, enquanto os enfermeiros ancoram-se no conhecimento reificado.Esta es una investigación cualitativa cuyos objetivos son identificar y comparar las representaciones sociales de los cuidados de enfermería a pacientes con VIH seropositivos para profesionales de enfermería. El escenario fue un hospital universitario público en Río de Janeiro y los sujetos 20 auxiliares de enfermería y 20 enfermeras. La recogida de datos se llevó a cabo a través de entrevistas semi-estructuradas y utilizados su software de análisis ALCESTE 4.7. Entre los auxiliares de enfermería se caracteriza contenidos sobre el diario de atención de enfermería a pacientes con VIH/SIDA, mientras que el enfermeiros contenido de vuelta a su calidad de vida. Se llegó a la conclusión de que la representación social de los auxiliares de enfermería, se basa en los asuntos del cotidiano de la atención, mientras las enfermeras ancoram en el conocimiento recficado.This is a qualitative research whose objectives were to identify and compare the social representations of nursing care to patients with HIV seropositive to professionals of nursing. The scenario was a public university hospital in

  18. The neuromyelitis optica presentation and the aquaporin-4 antibody in HIV-seropositive and seronegative patients in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed I. Bhigjee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The association of the anti-aquaporin-4 (AQP-4 water channel antibody with neuromyelitis optica (NMO syndrome has been described from various parts of the world. There has been no large study describing this association from southern Africa, an HIV endemic area. HIV patients often present with visual disturbance or features of a myelopathy but seldom both either simultaneously or consecutively. We report our experience of NMO in the era of AQP-4 testing in HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients seen in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.Methods: A retrospective chart review was undertaken of NMO cases seen from January 2005 to April 2016 in two neurology units serving a population of 7.1 million adults. The clinical, radiological and relevant laboratory data were extracted from the files and analysed.Results: There were 12 HIV-positive patients (mean age 33 years, 9 (75% were women and all 12 were black patients. Of the 17 HIV-negative patients (mean age 32 years, 15 (88% were women and 10 (59% were black people. The clinical features in the two groups ranged from isolated optic neuritis, isolated longitudinally extensive myelitis or combinations. Recurrent attacks were noted in six HIV-positive patients and six HIV-negative patients. The AQP-4 antibody was positive in 4/10 (40% HIV-positive patients and 11/13 (85% HIV-negative patients. The radiological changes ranged from longitudinal hyperintense spinal cord lesions and long segment enhancing lesions of the optic nerves. Three patients, all HIV-positive, had tumefactive lesions with incomplete ring enhancement.Conclusion: This study confirms the presence of AQP-4-positive NMO in southern Africa in both HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients. The simultaneous or consecutive occurrence of optic neuritis and myelitis in an HIV-positive patient should alert the clinician to test for the AQP-4 antibody. It is important to recognise this clinical syndrome as specific therapy is available. We

  19. Myocardial infarction among Danish HIV-infected individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Line D; Helleberg, Marie; May, Margaret T

    2015-01-01

    -attributable fractions (PAF) of MI associated with smoking. RESULTS: In never smokers, HIV was not associated with an increased risk of MI (aIRR, 1.01; 95% confidence interval [CI], .41-2.54). In previous and current smokers, HIV was associated with a substantially increased risk of MI (aIRR, 1.78; 95% CI, .75......-4.24 and aIRR, 2.83; 95% CI, 1.71-4.70). The PAF associated with ever smoking (previous or current) was 72% (95% CI, 55%-82%) for HIV-infected individuals and 24% (95% CI, 3%-40%) for population controls. If all current smokers stopped smoking, 42% (95% CI, 21%-57%) and 21% (95% CI, 12%-28%) of all MIs could...

  20. In-home mental health treatment for individuals with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reif, Susan S; Pence, Brian W; LeGrand, Sara; Wilson, Elena S; Swartz, Marvin; Ellington, Terry; Whetten, Kathryn

    2012-11-01

    Mental health problems are highly prevalent among individuals with HIV and are consistently associated with negative health outcomes. However, mental illness often remains untreated due to significant psychosocial and physical barriers to treatment participation. The Collaborative HIV/AIDS Mental Health Program (CHAMP) assessed the outcomes associated with providing 9 months of in-home mental health counseling for 40 individuals with HIV and a Major Axis I mental disorder. The evidence-based Illness Management and Recovery Model was adapted for use with HIV-positive individuals for the study using a community-based participatory research approach. Study participants were surveyed at baseline, 5 and 9 months to assess for changes in health outcomes. Thirty-five percent of study participants were female, 80% African American, 33% self-identified as MSM and the average participant age was 43. Forty percent of participants were on psychotropic medication at baseline. Participants had an average of 8 counseling visits (median 9). Statistically significant decreases in the global Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) score and a number of BSI symptoms dimensions including anxiety, depression, obsessive compulsive, phobic anxiety and hostility were detected, indicating a reduction of psychiatric symptoms. Statistically significant improvement was also identified for the SF-12 mental health scale, adaptive coping, overall social support and emotional support. No differences in psychiatric outcomes were identified by gender, race/ethnicity, or sexual preference. Findings from the CHAMP Study suggest that the use of in-home mental health treatment may be beneficial in engaging and treating HIV-positive individuals with comorbid mental health disorders.

  1. [Elements of adolescents' individual vulnerability to HIV/AIDS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, Melina Mafra; Takahashi, Renata Ferreira; De-La-Torre-Ugarte-Guanilo, Mónica Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    Adolescence is characterized by experimentation and discovery, the development of autonomy and close search of sexuality. The objective of this study was to identify the scientific evidences of literature on the elements of the individual dimension of adolescents' vulnerability of to the HIV/AIDS. Through the integrative review, in electronic data bases (Cinahl PubMed, Scopus, LILACS, Adolec, Dedalus, Digital Library of Brazilian of Teses and Dissertações (BDTD) and Portal of Thesis of University of São Paulo), works published between 1996 and 2006 were tracked. 41 studies compose the final sample. The most frequent element of individual vulnerability in the studies was the degree and quality of the knowledge on HI V/AIDS. The revision allowed identifying excellent scientific evidences of the individual vulnerability for the planning of the actions of prevention to the infection for the HIV in adolescents.

  2. Problematic alcohol use among individuals with HIV: relations with everyday memory functioning and HIV symptom severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, Adrienne J; Fogler, Kethera A; Newcomb, Michael E; Trafton, Jodie A; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O

    2014-07-01

    Problematic alcohol use has been shown to negatively impact cognitive functions germane to achieving optimal HIV health outcomes. The present study, a secondary data analysis, examined the impact of problematic alcohol use on aspects of everyday memory functioning in a sample of 172 HIV-infected individuals (22 % female; Mage = 48.37 years, SD = 8.64; 39 % Black/non-Hispanic). Additionally, we tested whether self-reported memory functioning explained the relation between problematic alcohol use and HIV symptom severity. Results indicated that problematic patterns of alcohol use were associated with lower total memory functioning, retrieval (e.g., recall-difficulty) and memory for activity (e.g., what you did yesterday) and greater HIV symptom severity. Memory functioning mediated the relation between problematic alcohol use and HIV symptom severity. However, the direction of this relation was unclear as HIV symptom severity also mediated the relation between problematic alcohol use and memory functioning. Findings highlight the importance of integrated care for HIV and alcohol use disorders and suggest that routine alcohol and cognitive screenings may bolster health outcomes among this vulnerable population.

  3. Is arterial stiffness in HIV-infected individuals associated with HIV-related factors?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Monteiro

    Full Text Available We investigated the association between pulse wave velocity (PWV and HIV infection, antiretroviral treatment-related characteristics, viral load, immune status, and metabolic changes in a cross-sectional study nested in a cohort of HIV/AIDS patients who have been followed for metabolic and cardiovascular changes since 2007. The study included patients recruited from the cohort (N = 261 and a comparison group (N = 82 of uninfected individuals, all enrolled from April to November 2009. Aortic stiffness was estimated using the carotid-femoral PWV (Complior-Artech, Paris, France. The groups were similar with respect to age, metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, Framingham score, and use of antihypertensive and hypolipidemic medications. Hypertension was more frequent among the controls. Individuals with HIV had higher triglyceride, glucose and HDL cholesterol levels. Among individuals with HIV/AIDS, those with a nadir CD4+ T-cell count <200 cells/mm³ had a higher PWV (P = 0.01. There was no statistically significant difference when subjects were stratified by gender. Heart rate, age, male gender, and blood pressure were independently correlated with PWV. Nadir CD4+ T-cell count did not remain in the final model. There was no significance difference in PWV between HIV-infected individuals and uninfected controls. PWV was correlated with age, gender, and blood pressure across the entire population and among those infected with HIV. We recommend cohort studies to further explore the association between inflammation related to HIV infection and/or immune reconstitution and antiretroviral use and PWV.

  4. Is arterial stiffness in HIV-infected individuals associated with HIV-related factors?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, P. [Serviço de Doenças Infecciosas, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil); Miranda-Filho, D.B. [Departamento de Medicina Clínica, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil); Bandeira, F. [Serviço de Endocrinologia, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil); Lacerda, H.R. [Departamento de Medicina Clínica, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil); Departamento de Medicina Tropical, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil); Chaves, H. [Departamento de Cardiologia, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil); Albuquerque, M.F.P.M. [Centro de Pesquisa Aggeu Magalhães,FIOCRUZ, Recife, PE (Brazil); Montarroyos, U.R. [Departamento de Medicina Tropical, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil); Ximenes, R.A.A. [Departamento de Medicina Clínica, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil); Departamento de Medicina Tropical, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2012-07-13

    We investigated the association between pulse wave velocity (PWV) and HIV infection, antiretroviral treatment-related characteristics, viral load, immune status, and metabolic changes in a cross-sectional study nested in a cohort of HIV/AIDS patients who have been followed for metabolic and cardiovascular changes since 2007. The study included patients recruited from the cohort (N = 261) and a comparison group (N = 82) of uninfected individuals, all enrolled from April to November 2009. Aortic stiffness was estimated using the carotid-femoral PWV (Complior-Artech, Paris, France). The groups were similar with respect to age, metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, Framingham score, and use of antihypertensive and hypolipidemic medications. Hypertension was more frequent among the controls. Individuals with HIV had higher triglyceride, glucose and HDL cholesterol levels. Among individuals with HIV/AIDS, those with a nadir CD4{sup +} T-cell count <200 cells/mm{sup 3} had a higher PWV (P = 0.01). There was no statistically significant difference when subjects were stratified by gender. Heart rate, age, male gender, and blood pressure were independently correlated with PWV. Nadir CD4{sup +} T-cell count did not remain in the final model. There was no significance difference in PWV between HIV-infected individuals and uninfected controls. PWV was correlated with age, gender, and blood pressure across the entire population and among those infected with HIV. We recommend cohort studies to further explore the association between inflammation related to HIV infection and/or immune reconstitution and antiretroviral use and PWV.

  5. A Comparative study of Personality as a common pathway in HIV Sero-positive and Alcohol dependent cases on Five Factor Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Kalpana; Singh, Amool R; Chaudhury, Suprakash

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the personality traits of alcohol and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients and to compare them with normal controls. This cross-sectional study included 100 consecutive patients with alcohol dependence and HIV each and a control group of 100 normal cases without any physical or psychiatric illness. A score of 2 or less on the General Health Questionnaire was taken as cutoff, and the participants were included in the study with written informed consent. All participants were assessed with the NEO personality inventory revised and sensation-seeking scale (SSS). There were significant differences among the study group on all the five factors, i.e., neuroticism (N), extraversion (E), conscientiousness (C), openness to experience (O), and agreeableness (A). On factor "N," HIV and alcohol group scored significantly more as compared to normal group. Odds ratio revealed high neuroticism to be a risk factor in alcohol-dependent and HIV cases (P factor "E" as compared to HIV and alcohol cases. High scores on factor "E" and "C" have a protective. Odds ratio found low score of factor "C" as a risk factor; however, "O" did not emerge as a risk factor. The logistic regression revealed that high scores on "N" and "E" and low "A" score had a significant association with alcohol dependence (P < 0.05). Among HIV cases, high score on "N" and "E" and low "C" score emerged significant. Alcohol cases scored significantly more on boredom susceptibility (BS) on SSS as compared to HIV and normal controls. On disinhibition (DIS), HIV cases and alcohol cases scored significantly higher as compared to normal group (P < 0.05). High "N" scores on NEO personality inventory are significantly associated with alcohol dependence and HIV while high scores on "E" and "C" have a protective effect. On SSS, HIV-positive cases are characterized by high DIS scores while alcohol dependence is associated with high scores on BS and DIS.

  6. Hepatitis C Viremia and the Risk of Chronic Kidney Disease in HIV-Infected Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Gregory M.; Jing, Yuezhou; Sulkowski, Mark; Abraham, Alison G.; Estrella, Michelle M.; Atta, Mohamed G.; Fine, Derek M.; Klein, Marina B.; Silverberg, Michael J.; Gill, M. John; Moore, Richard D.; Gebo, Kelly A.; Sterling, Timothy R.; Butt, Adeel A.; Kirk, Gregory D.; Benson, Constance A.; Bosch, Ronald J.; Collier, Ann C.; Boswell, Stephen; Grasso, Chris; Mayer, Ken; Hogg, Robert S.; Harrigan, Richard; Montaner, Julio; Cescon, Angela; Brooks, John T.; Buchacz, Kate; Gebo, Kelly A.; Moore, Richard D.; Carey, John T.; Rodriguez, Benigno; Horberg, Michael A.; Silverberg, Michael J.; Horberg, Michael A.; Thorne, Jennifer E.; Goedert, James J.; Jacobson, Lisa P.; Klein, Marina B.; Rourke, Sean B.; Burchell, Ann; Rachlis, Anita R.; Rico, Puerto; Hunter-Mellado, Robert F.; Mayor, Angel M.; Gill, M. John; Deeks, Steven G.; Martin, Jeffrey N.; Patel, Pragna; Brooks, John T.; Saag, Michael S.; Mugavero, Michael J.; Willig, James; Eron, Joseph J.; Napravnik, Sonia; Kitahata, Mari M.; Crane, Heidi M.; Justice, Amy C.; Dubrow, Robert; Fiellin, David; Sterling, Timothy R.; Haas, David; Bebawy, Sally; Turner, Megan; Gange, Stephen J.; Anastos, Kathryn; Moore, Richard D.; Saag, Michael S.; Gange, Stephen J.; Kitahata, Mari M.; McKaig, Rosemary G.; Justice, Amy C.; Freeman, Aimee M.; Moore, Richard D.; Freeman, Aimee M.; Lent, Carol; Kitahata, Mari M.; Van Rompaey, Stephen E.; Crane, Heidi M.; Webster, Eric; Morton, Liz; Simon, Brenda; Gange, Stephen J.; Althoff, Keri N.; Abraham, Alison G.; Lau, Bryan; Zhang, Jinbing; Jing, Jerry; Golub, Elizabeth; Modur, Shari; Hanna, David B.; Rebeiro, Peter; Wong, Cherise; Mendes, Adell

    2013-01-01

    Background. The role of active hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication in chronic kidney disease (CKD) risk has not been clarified. Methods. We compared CKD incidence in a large cohort of HIV-infected subjects who were HCV seronegative, HCV viremic (detectable HCV RNA), or HCV aviremic (HCV seropositive, undetectable HCV RNA). Stages 3 and 5 CKD were defined according to standard criteria. Progressive CKD was defined as a sustained 25% glomerular filtration rate (GFR) decrease from baseline to a GFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2. We used Cox models to calculate adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results. A total of 52 602 HCV seronegative, 9508 HCV viremic, and 913 HCV aviremic subjects were included. Compared with HCV seronegative subjects, HCV viremic subjects were at increased risk for stage 3 CKD (adjusted HR 1.36 [95% CI, 1.26, 1.46]), stage 5 CKD (1.95 [1.64, 2.31]), and progressive CKD (1.31 [1.19, 1.44]), while HCV aviremic subjects were also at increased risk for stage 3 CKD (1.19 [0.98, 1.45]), stage 5 CKD (1.69 [1.07, 2.65]), and progressive CKD (1.31 [1.02, 1.68]). Conclusions. Compared with HIV-infected subjects who were HCV seronegative, both HCV viremic and HCV aviremic individuals were at increased risk for moderate and advanced CKD. PMID:23904290

  7. Nutritional status of persons with HIV infection, persons with HIV infection and tuberculosis, and HIV-negative individuals from southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaminathan, Soumya; Padmapriyadarsini, C; Sukumar, B; Iliayas, Sheikh; Kumar, S Ramesh; Triveni, C; Gomathy, P; Thomas, Beena; Mathew, Minnie; Narayanan, P R

    2008-03-15

    We compared the nutritional status of individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection alone, individuals with HIV infection and tuberculosis (after completion of antituberculosis treatment), and HIV-negative individuals and found that malnutrition, anemia, and hypoalbuminemia were most pronounced among HIV-positive patients with tuberculosis. Weight loss was associated with loss of fat in female patients and with loss of body cell mass in male patients.

  8. Apathy correlates with cognitive performance, functional disability, and HIV RNA plasma levels in HIV-positive individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Mjriam E.; Mahoney, Jeannette R.; Zingman, Barry S.; Pogge, David L.; Verghese, Joe

    2014-01-01

    We examined the relationship of apathy with neurocognitive performance, age, disease markers, and functional disability in 61-HIV-infected individuals. Apathy was assessed with the Apathy Evaluation Scale and was significantly associated with highest HIV plasma level, functional disability, and neurocognitive performance. individuals with higher apathy levels demonstrated a stronger association between age and processing speed performance. Our findings suggest that apathy is related to poor neuropsychological functioning, HIV plasma levels, and increased functional disability in individuals with HIV Additionally, to our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate an interactive effect of age and apathy on neuropsychological performance in HIV. PMID:24090038

  9. Association between individual and combined SNPs in genes related to innate immunity and incidence of CMV infection in seropositive kidney transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Ruiz, M; Corrales, I; Arias, M; Campistol, J M; Giménez, E; Crespo, J; López-Oliva, M O; Beneyto, I; Martín-Moreno, P L; Llamas-Fuente, F; Gutiérrez, A; García-Álvarez, T; Guerra-Rodríguez, R; Calvo, N; Fernández-Rodríguez, A; Tabernero-Romo, J M; Navarro, M D; Ramos-Verde, A; Aguado, J M; Navarro, D

    2015-05-01

    In this study, we assessed the association between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in seven candidate genes involved in orchestrating the immune response against cytomegalovirus (CMV) and the 12-month incidence of CMV infection in 315 CMV-seropositive kidney transplant (KT) recipients. Patients were managed either by antiviral prophylaxis or preemptive therapy. CMV infection occurred in 140 patients (44.4%), including 13 episodes of disease. After adjusting for various clinical covariates, patients harboring T-allele genotypes of interleukin-28B (IL28B) (rs12979860) SNP had lower incidence of CMV infection (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR]: 0.66; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.46-0.96; p-value = 0.029). In the analysis restricted to patients not receiving prophylaxis, carriers of the TT genotype of toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) (rs5743836) SNP had lower incidence of infection (aHR: 0.61; 95% CI: 0.38-0.96; p-value = 0.035), whereas the GG genotype of dendritic cell-specific ICAM 3-grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN) (rs735240) SNP exerted the opposite effect (aHR: 1.86; 95% CI: 1.18-2.94; p-value = 0.008). An independent association was found between the number of unfavorable SNP genotypes carried by the patient and the incidence of CMV infection. In conclusion, specific SNPs in IL28B, TLR9 and DC-SIGN genes may play a role in modulating the susceptibility to CMV infection in CMV-seropositive KT recipients. © Copyright 2015 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  10. Social Wellbeing Predictor of illness behavior among HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    do, most people do not know what it takes to lead a quality life or add life to years. Social Wellbeing Predictor of illness behavior among. HIV seropositive individuals. Department of Psychology, University of Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia email: imasikumwiya@gmail.com. Keywords: Social support, somatic symptoms, HIV.

  11. INTRACRANIAL MASS LESIONS IN HIV-POSITIVE PATIENTS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    m. INTRACRANIAL MASS LESIONS IN. HIV-POSITIVE PATIENTS - THE. KwAZuLU/NATAL EXPERIENCE. A I Bhigjee, K Naidoo, V B Patel, D Govender, for the. Neuroscience AIDS Research Group. Background. Neurological disease heralds the develop1l).~tof. AIDS in 10 - 20% of HIV-seropositive individuals. In over half.

  12. An autoreactive antibody from an SLE/HIV-1 individual broadly neutralizes HIV-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonsignori, Mattia; Wiehe, Kevin; Grimm, Sebastian K.; Lynch, Rebecca; Yang, Guang; Kozink, Daniel M.; Perrin, Florence; Cooper, Abby J.; Hwang, Kwan-Ki; Chen, Xi; Liu, Mengfei; McKee, Krisha; Parks, Robert J.; Eudailey, Joshua; Wang, Minyue; Clowse, Megan; Criscione-Schreiber, Lisa G.; Moody, M. Anthony; Ackerman, Margaret E.; Boyd, Scott D.; Gao, Feng; Kelsoe, Garnett; Verkoczy, Laurent; Tomaras, Georgia D.; Liao, Hua-Xin; Kepler, Thomas B.; Montefiori, David C.; Mascola, John R.; Haynes, Barton F.

    2014-01-01

    Broadly HIV-1–neutralizing antibodies (BnAbs) display one or more unusual traits, including a long heavy chain complementarity-determining region 3 (HCDR3), polyreactivity, and high levels of somatic mutations. These shared characteristics suggest that BnAb development might be limited by immune tolerance controls. It has been postulated that HIV-1–infected individuals with autoimmune disease and defective immune tolerance mechanisms may produce BnAbs more readily than those without autoimmune diseases. In this study, we identified an HIV-1–infected individual with SLE who exhibited controlled viral load (<5,000 copies/ml) in the absence of controlling HLA phenotypes and developed plasma HIV-1 neutralization breadth. We collected memory B cells from this individual and isolated a BnAb, CH98, that targets the CD4 binding site (CD4bs) of HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein 120 (gp120). CH98 bound to human antigens including dsDNA, which is specifically associated with SLE. Anti-dsDNA reactivity was also present in the patient’s plasma. CH98 had a mutation frequency of 25% and 15% nt somatic mutations in the heavy and light chain variable domains, respectively, a long HCDR3, and a deletion in the light chain CDR1. The occurrence of anti-dsDNA reactivity by a HIV-1 CD4bs BnAb in an individual with SLE raises the possibility that some BnAbs and SLE-associated autoantibodies arise from similar pools of B cells. PMID:24614107

  13. Associated Factors of Suicidal Thoughts in HIV-Positive Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Dabaghzadeh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available  Objective: As a first study, suicidal ideation and its correlates have been evaluated in Iranian HIV positive population .  Methods:One hundred and fifty HIV-positive individuals were recruited in this cross-sectional study. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, Positive and Negative Suicide Ideation (PANSI, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Inventory (PSQI and Somatization subscale of Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL 90 as self- reported questionnaires were used to assess the patients’ anxiety and depression status, suicidal thoughts, sleep quality and physiological factors, respectively . Results:Antiretroviral therapy and efavirenz intake did not show any significant effects on the patients’ suicidal ideation. Anxiety (p<0.001, depression (p<0.001, poor physical activity (P<0.001 and sleep quality (p<0.001 were significantly associated with the patients’ negative suicidal ideation. From the patients’ demographic data, unemployment (p = 0.04, living alone (p = 0.01, and lack of family support (p = 0.01 were correlated with the patients’ negative suicidal thoughts . Conclusion:Although hospitals are the main referral centers for providing care for HIV-positive individuals in Tehran, Iran, conducting a multi-center study with sufficient sample size from different areas of our country that include individuals with different behaviors and cultures is essential to confirm the results of this study.

  14. A Comparative study of Personality as a common pathway in HIV Sero-positive and Alcohol dependent cases on Five Factor Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalpana Srivastava

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to identify the personality traits of alcohol and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-positive patients and to compare them with normal controls. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study included 100 consecutive patients with alcohol dependence and HIV each and a control group of 100 normal cases without any physical or psychiatric illness. A score of 2 or less on the General Health Questionnaire was taken as cutoff, and the participants were included in the study with written informed consent. All participants were assessed with the NEO personality inventory revised and sensation-seeking scale (SSS. Results: There were significant differences among the study group on all the five factors, i.e., neuroticism (N, extraversion (E, conscientiousness (C, openness to experience (O, and agreeableness (A. On factor “N,” HIV and alcohol group scored significantly more as compared to normal group. Odds ratio revealed high neuroticism to be a risk factor in alcohol-dependent and HIV cases (P < 0.05. The normal group scored significantly higher on factor “E” as compared to HIV and alcohol cases. High scores on factor “E” and “C” have a protective. Odds ratio found low score of factor “C” as a risk factor; however, “O” did not emerge as a risk factor. The logistic regression revealed that high scores on “N” and “E” and low “A” score had a significant association with alcohol dependence (P < 0.05. Among HIV cases, high score on “N” and “E” and low “C” score emerged significant. Alcohol cases scored significantly more on boredom susceptibility (BS on SSS as compared to HIV and normal controls. On disinhibition (DIS, HIV cases and alcohol cases scored significantly higher as compared to normal group (P < 0.05. Conclusion: High “N” scores on NEO personality inventory are significantly associated with alcohol dependence and HIV while high scores on “E” and “C” have a

  15. Cross-Reactivity of Anti-HIV-1 T Cell Immune Responses among the Major HIV-1 Clades in HIV-1-Positive Individuals from 4 Continents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Paul M. Coplan; Swati B. Gupta; Sheri A. Dubey; Punnee Pitisuttithum; Alex Nikas; Bernard Mbewe; Efthyia Vardas; Mauro Schechter; Esper G. Kallas; Dan C. Freed; Tong-Ming Fu; Christopher T. Mast; Pilaipan Puthavathana; James Kublin; Kelly Brown Collins; John Chisi; Richard Pendame; Scott J. Thaler; Glenda Gray; James Mcintyre; Walter L. Straus; Jon H. Condra; Devan V. Mehrotra; Harry A. Guess; Emilio A. Emini; John W. Shiver

    2005-01-01

    .... Therefore, we quantified the cross-clade reactivity, among unvaccinated individuals, of anti-HIV-1 T cell responses to the infecting HIV-1 clade relative to other major circulating clades. Methods...

  16. The HIV Care Cascade Among Individuals Under Community Supervision in Baltimore, Maryland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaller, Nickolas; Gordon, Michael; Bazerman, Lauri; Kuo, Irene; Beckwith, Curt

    2017-07-01

    An estimated one in seven HIV-infected individuals pass through U.S. correctional facilities each year. Transitioning from correctional to community settings may increase HIV treatment interruptions and increase the risk of continued HIV transmission in the community. This study assessed access to HIV providers in the community, antiretroviral treatment, and viral suppression to inform the development of interventions to improve HIV treatment outcomes among individuals involved in community corrections. The sample included 100 individuals under community supervision (probation or parole) in Baltimore, Maryland. While a large proportion of the study sample had undetectable HIV viral loads, 39% did not, and this represents a significant HIV transmission risk. Given the large proportion of individuals involved in the criminal justice system who are under community supervision, community corrections may be an important point of intervention to engage or reengage HIV-positive individuals who are currently out of care.

  17. Nutritional status of HIV-positive individuals on free HAART treatment in a developing nation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obi, Samuel Nnamdi; Ifebunandu, Ngozi Appolonia; Onyebuchi, Azubuike K

    2010-11-24

    HIV positive individuals are prone to malnutrition due to inadequate dietary intake. Additionally, in low-income countries, including Nigeria, stigmatization and discrimination result in a lack of support for HIV-positive individuals ultimately contributing to even further reduced food availability and inadequate dietary intake. This study aimed to determine the nutrirional status of HIV-positive individuals on free, highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in Abakaliki, southeast Nigeria. Subjective global assessment (SGA) technique was used to survey the nutritional status of 120 HIV-positive individuals and a control group over a one-year period. All the HIV-positive individuals and their control group were physically active, with a third of them belonging to the lower socioeconomic status. There were significantly more malnourished individuals among the HIV-positive group than in the control group (P HIV-positive patients in southeast Nigeria.  

  18. HIV-1 drug resistance in antiretroviral-naive individuals with HIV-1-associated tuberculous meningitis initiating antiretroviral therapy in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thao, Vu P.; Le, Thuy; Török, Estee M.; Yen, Nguyen T. B.; Chau, Tran T. H.; Jurriaans, Suzanne; van Doorn, Rogier H.; de Jong, Menno D.; Farrar, Jeremy J.; Dunstan, Sarah J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV-infected individuals in Vietnam is rapidly expanding, but there are limited data on HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) to guide ART strategies. Methods: We retrospectively conducted HIVDR testing in 220 ART-naive individuals recruited to a

  19. Profile of hematological abnormalities of Indian HIV infected individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Aman

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hematological abnormalities are a common complication of HIV infection. These abnormalities increase as the disease advances. Bone marrow abnormalities occur in all stages of HIV infection. Methods Two hundred HIV infected individual were screened for hematological abnormalities from March 2007–March 2008. Absolute CD4 cell count analysis was carried out by flowcytometry. Depending on the results of the primary screening further investigations were performed, like iron studies, hemolytic work up, PNH work up and bone marrow evaluation. Other investigations included coagulation profile, urine analysis, blood culture (bacterial, fungal, mycobacterial, serology for Epstein Barr virus (EBV, Cytomegalovirus (CMV, Hepatitis B and C, and Parvo B19 infection. Results The most common hematological abnormality was anemia, seen in 65.5% (131/200 patients. Iron deficiency anemia was seen in 49.2% (/200 cases while anemia of chronic disease occurred in 50.7% (/200 cases. Bone marrow evaluation was carried out in 14 patients out of which staging marrow was performed in 2 cases of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL and did not show any bone marrow infiltration. In remaining12 cases bone marrow was done for evaluation of pancytopenia. Among patients with pancytopenia 50% (6/12 showed granulomas (4 were positive for AFB, 2 were positive for fungal cryptococci, 25% (3/12 showed hemophagocytosis. There was a strong negative correlation between anemia and CD4 counts in this study. Thrombocytopenia was seen in 7% (14/200 cases and had no significant correlation with CD4 counts. No patient had absolute neutrophil count (ANC Conclusion Anemia in HIV patients can be a good clinical indicator to predict and access the underlying immune status. Patients should be investigated for hematological manifestations and appropriate steps should be taken to identify and treat the reversible factors.

  20. Hepatitis delta in HIV-infected individuals in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano, Vincent; Grint, Daniel; d'Arminio Monforte, Antonella; Horban, Andrzej; Leen, Clifford; Poveda, Eva; Antunes, Francisco; de Wit, Stephane; Lundgren, Jens; Rockstroh, Juergen; Peters, Lars

    2011-10-23

    Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) infection results in the most aggressive form of chronic viral hepatitis. There is scarce information about the prevalence, epidemiology, virological profile and natural history of hepatitis delta in HIV patients. From 16,597 HIV patients enrolled in EuroSIDA, 1319 (7.9%) have ever reported serum hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive. At last follow-up, 1084 (6.5%) patients were HBsAg-positive. The HDV substudy was carried out in 422 individuals for whom stored sera were available at the time they were HBsAg-positive. Anti-HDV immunoglobulin G was assessed using a commercial enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and serum HDV-RNA was quantified using a real-time PCR method. A total of 61 of 422 HBsAg-positive carriers were anti-HDV-positive (prevalence: 14.5%). Hepatitis delta predominated in intravenous drug users and for this reason in south and/or east Europe. Serum HDV-RNA was detectable in 87% of tested anti-HDV-positive patients, with a median titer of 1.76×10(7) copies/ml. Overall, delta hepatitis patients showed lower serum HBV-DNA than the rest of HBsAg-positive carriers, although the inhibitory effect of HDV on HBV replication was not recognized in HBV genotype D patients. Whereas HDV was not associated with progression to AIDS, it significantly influenced the risk of death. The prevalence of anti-HDV in chronic HBsAg-positive/HIV carriers in EuroSIDA is 14.5%. Most of these patients exhibit detectable HDV viraemia. Viral interference between HBV and HDV is manifested in all but HBV genotype D carriers in whom overt coreplication of both viruses occurs which might result in enhanced liver damage. Overall, delta hepatitis increases the risk of liver-related deaths and overall mortality in HIV patients.

  1. Distinctiveness of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Genotypes from Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1-Seropositive and -Seronegative Patients in Lima, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Niyaz; Caviedes, Luz; Alam, Mahfooz; Rao, K. Rajender; Sangal, Vartul; Sheen, Patricia; Gilman, Robert H.; Hasnain, Seyed E.

    2003-01-01

    Genotypic analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates obtained from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-seropositive (n = 80) and -seronegative (n = 25) patients from Lima, Peru, revealed two distinct genotypes correlating with the host immune status. While the level of intrastrain diversity of DNA fingerprints of HIV-seropositive isolates was less pronounced, these isolates showed many clonal groupings. PMID:12682166

  2. [Retrospective evaluation of HBsAg, anti-HCV, anti-HIV and syphilis reagin antibody seropositivity in blood donors at the Trabzon Farabi Hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Faruk; Cubukçu, Kivanç; Yetişkul, Serpil; Yazici, Yelda; Kaklikkaya, Neşe

    2002-01-01

    Transfusion of blood and blood products is a widely used method for therapy in medicine, however it may result with the transmission of infectious agents from donor to recipient. In order to achieve safe blood transfusions and to minimize post-transfusion infections, several screening tests for infectious agents are routinely done all around the world as well as in our country. In this study, HBsAg, anti-HCV, anti-HIV and syphilis reagin antibody tests results have been retrospectively evaluated for 33.766 blood donors during January 1, 1997 to December 31, 2000 in Blood Center of Farabi Hospital, Black Sea Technical University. Testing for HBsAg, anti-HIV and anti-HCV has been done by using commercially available micro and/or macro enzyme immunoassays, and syphilis reagin antibody test by latex agglutination (RPR) method. The indeterminate results were confirmed by retesting of sera with microparticle enzyme immunoassay and Western blot methods. As a result, in 1331 (3.94%) subjects HBsAg, in 250 (0.74%) subjects anti-HCV, and in 161 (0.47%) subjects RPR were found positive. Twenty samples which have had the results in gray-zone for anti-HIV, have been found negative with the confirmation tests.

  3. Immune perturbations in HIV-1-infected individuals who make broadly neutralizing antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, M Anthony; Pedroza-Pacheco, Isabela; Vandergrift, Nathan A; Chui, Cecilia; Lloyd, Krissey E; Parks, Robert; Soderberg, Kelly A; Ogbe, Ane T; Cohen, Myron S; Liao, Hua-Xin; Gao, Feng; McMichael, Andrew J; Montefiori, David C; Verkoczy, Laurent; Kelsoe, Garnett; Huang, Jinghe; Shea, Patrick R; Connors, Mark; Borrow, Persephone; Haynes, Barton F

    2016-07-29

    Induction of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) is a goal of HIV-1 vaccine development. bnAbs occur in some HIV-1-infected individuals and frequently have characteristics of autoantibodies. We have studied cohorts of HIV-1-infected individuals who made bnAbs and compared them with those who did not do so, and determined immune traits associated with the ability to produce bnAbs. HIV-1-infected individuals with bnAbs had a higher frequency of blood autoantibodies, a lower frequency of regulatory CD4+ T cells, a higher frequency of circulating memory T follicular helper CD4+ cells, and a higher T regulatory cell level of programmed cell death-1 expression compared with HIV-1-infected individuals without bnAbs. Thus, induction of HIV-1 bnAbs may require vaccination regimens that transiently mimic immunologic perturbations in HIV-1-infected individuals. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  4. Does hepatitis C viremia or genotype predict the risk of mortality in individuals co-infected with HIV?

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    Rockstroh, Jürgen K; Peters, Lars; Grint, Daniel; Soriano, Vincent; Reiss, Peter; Monforte, Antonella d'Arminio; Beniowski, Marek; Losso, Marcelo H; Kirk, Ole; Kupfer, Bernd; Mocroft, Amanda

    2013-08-01

    The influence of HCV-RNA levels and genotype on HCV disease progression is not well studied. The prognostic value of these markers was investigated in HIV/HCV co-infected individuals from the EuroSIDA cohort. EuroSIDA is a prospective cohort of 18,295 HIV-1 infected patients in 105 centres across Europe, Israel, and Argentina. All subjects with known HCV antibody (HCVAb) status (n=13,025) were enrolled in the present study. 4044 (31.0%) patients had detectable HCVAb. After adjustment, HCVAb+ patients had an increased incidence of liver-related death (LRD) compared to HCVAb- individuals (IRR 8.90; 95% CI 5.60-14.14, p<0.0001). Information on HCV-RNA was available for 2709 (67.0%) HCVAb+ patients and 2010 (74.2%) were HCV-RNA+. Of 1907 patients with measured HCV genotype, 1008 (52.9%), 62 (3.3%), 567 (29.7%), and 270 (14.2%) were infected with genotype 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. Patients with detectable HCV-RNA had similar incidence of non-LRD, but higher incidence of LRD compared to HCVAb+ aviremic patients (adjusted IRR 1.18; 95% CI 0.93-1.50, p=0.17) and (adjusted IRR 2.11; 95% CI 1.30-3.42, p=0.0025), respectively. In patients with HCV viremia, HCV-RNA levels and HCV genotype did not influence the risk of non-LRD or LRD. HCV seropositive HIV patients had a 9-fold increased risk of LRD compared to patients who were HCV seronegative. Risk of death from any cause or LRD was not influenced by level of HCV viremia or HCV genotype. Copyright © 2013 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Herpes simplex virus 2 infection: A risk factor for HIV infection in heterosexuals

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    Anuradha K

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Genital ulcerative disease is one of the risk factors for acquisition of HIV. As HSV-2 infection is currently the most common cause of genital ulcerative disease, it acts as a potential risk factor for HIV infection. The present study was undertaken to know the seroprevalence of antibodies to HSV-2 in HIV seropositive individuals and in the general population, and to ascertain if HSV-2 is a risk factor for developing HIV infection. Methods: The study group included one hundred new HIV seropositive persons irrespective of active genital herpes or history of genital herpes. Fifty age- and sex- matched healthy volunteers were included as controls. In all patients and controls, diagnostic serology was done for HSV-2 using HSV-2-specific glycoprotein IgG2 by indirect immunoassay using the ELISA test. Statistical value ′P′ was calculated using the Chi-squared test. Results: Out of the 100 HIV seropositives, 66 were males and 34 were females with an age range of 20-54 years. In only 22 (19 males and 3 females of these, positive history of genital herpes was obtained. In 49 out of the 100 HIV seropositives, IgG2 antibodies against HSV-2 were detected. In the control group, 11 out of 50 controls were seropositive for HSV-2 IgG2 antibody. There was a statistically significant association between HSV-2 and HIV seropositivity with ′P′ value < 0.005. Conclusion: The high prevalence of HSV-2 seropositivity in the HIV-infected group (49% as compared to normal controls (22% was statistically significant. Prior HSV-2 infection could be an important risk factor for acquisition of HIV in our patients.

  6. Clinicopathological correlates in HIV seropositive tuberculosis cases presenting with jaundice after initiating antiretroviral therapy with a structured review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, David A; Ramdial, Pravistadevi K

    2012-10-14

    The development of jaundice after initiation of HAART in HIV-TB co-infected patients is a challenging presentation in resource constrained settings, and is often attributed to drug induced liver injury (DILI).Some investigators have described hepatic tuberculosis Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome (TB-IRIS) as a cause of liver disease in patients initiating HAART, which could also cause jaundice. We report the clinical and histopathological features of five HIV-TB co-infected patients presenting with a syndrome of jaundice, tender hepatomegaly, bile canalicular enzyme rise and return of constitutional symptoms within 8 weeks of initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for advanced HIV infection at a rural clinic in KwaZulu Natal, South Africa.All five patients had been diagnosed with tuberculosis infection prior to HAART initiation and were on antituberculous medication at time of developing jaundice. There was evidence of multiple aetiologies of liver injury in all patients. However, based on clinical course and pathological findings, predominant hepatic injury was thought to be drug induced in one case and hepatic tuberculosis associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (TB-IRIS) in the other four.In these later 4 patients, liver biopsy findings included necrotising and non-necrotising granulomatous inflammation in the lobules and portal tracts. The granulomas demonstrated - in addition to epithelioid histiocytes and Langhans giant cells - neutrophils, plasma cells and large numbers of lymphocytes, which are not features of a conventional untreated tuberculous response. In this high TB prevalent, low resource setting, TB-IRIS may be an important cause of jaundice post-HAART initiation. Clinicopathological correlation is essential for optimal diagnosis. Further multi-organ based histopathological studies in the context of immune reconstitution would be useful to clinicians in low resource settings dealing with this challenging

  7. Clinicopathological correlates in HIV seropositive tuberculosis cases presenting with jaundice after initiating antiretroviral therapy with a structured review of the literature

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    Barr David A

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The development of jaundice after initiation of HAART in HIV-TB co-infected patients is a challenging presentation in resource constrained settings, and is often attributed to drug induced liver injury (DILI.Some investigators have described hepatic tuberculosis Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome (TB-IRIS as a cause of liver disease in patients initiating HAART, which could also cause jaundice. Case presentations We report the clinical and histopathological features of five HIV-TB co-infected patients presenting with a syndrome of jaundice, tender hepatomegaly, bile canalicular enzyme rise and return of constitutional symptoms within 8 weeks of initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART for advanced HIV infection at a rural clinic in KwaZulu Natal, South Africa. All five patients had been diagnosed with tuberculosis infection prior to HAART initiation and were on antituberculous medication at time of developing jaundice. There was evidence of multiple aetiologies of liver injury in all patients. However, based on clinical course and pathological findings, predominant hepatic injury was thought to be drug induced in one case and hepatic tuberculosis associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (TB-IRIS in the other four. In these later 4 patients, liver biopsy findings included necrotising and non-necrotising granulomatous inflammation in the lobules and portal tracts. The granulomas demonstrated – in addition to epithelioid histiocytes and Langhans giant cells – neutrophils, plasma cells and large numbers of lymphocytes, which are not features of a conventional untreated tuberculous response. Conclusion In this high TB prevalent, low resource setting, TB-IRIS may be an important cause of jaundice post-HAART initiation. Clinicopathological correlation is essential for optimal diagnosis. Further multi-organ based histopathological studies in the context of immune reconstitution would be

  8. Sexual behaviors and HIV/syphilis testing among transgender individuals in China: implications for expanding HIV testing services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, John; Tang, Weiming; Zhang, Ye; Han, Larry; Liu, Fengying; Huang, Shujie; Yang, Bin; Wei, Chongyi; Tucker, Joseph D

    2015-05-01

    HIV and syphilis are disproportionately common among transgender individuals globally, yet few studies have investigated transgender HIV/syphilis risk and testing in low- and middle-income nations. We conducted an online survey of men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender individuals to examine sexual behaviors and HIV/syphilis testing in China. We recruited MSM and transgender individuals from 2 major Chinese lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender Web platforms. χ Test and logistic regression were used to compare risk behaviors, HIV and syphilis testing history, and prevalence between transgender individuals and other MSM. Among the 1320 participants, 52 (3.9%) self-identified as transgender. Demographics, including education, employment, and marital status, were similar between both groups, whereas transgender individuals were older. Condomless anal intercourse rate was comparable between the groups. Transgender individuals were less likely to report ever testing for HIV (34.6% vs. 62.0%) and syphilis (15.7% vs. 31.2%) with adjusted odds ratios of 0.36 (95% confidence interval, 0.20-0.65) and 0.42 (95% confidence interval, 0.20-0.91), respectively. We found a trend toward a higher HIV prevalence among transgender individuals (11.1% vs. 5.7%, P = 0.12). Transgender individuals have suboptimal HIV and syphilis testing rates in China. Given the substantial risk behaviors and burden of HIV/STI in the general Chinese MSM population and a lack of knowledge about transgender individuals, enhanced HIV/syphilis testing programs for transgender individuals in China are needed.

  9. Risk of spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage in HIV-infected individuals: a population-based cohort study.

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    Durand, Madeleine; Sheehy, Odile; Baril, Jean-Guy; LeLorier, Jacques; Tremblay, Cécile L

    2013-10-01

    We studied the association between HIV infection, antiretroviral medications, and the risk of spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage. We performed a cohort and nested case control study in an administrative database. We selected all HIV-positive individuals presenting between 1985 and 2007. Each HIV-positive subject was matched with 4 HIV-negative individuals. We used a Poisson regression model to calculate rates of intracranial hemorrhage according to HIV status. We conducted a case -control study nested within the cohort of HIV-positive individuals to look at the effect of antiretroviral medications. Odds ratios for antiretroviral exposure were obtained using conditional logistic regression. There were 7,053 HIV-positive and 27,681 HIV-negative subjects, representing 138,704 person-years. There were 49 incident intracranial hemorrhages, 29 in HIV-positive and 20 in HIV-negative individuals. The adjusted hazard ratio for intracranial hemorrhage in HIV-positive compared to HIV-negative patients was 3.28 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.75-6.12). The effect was reduced to 1.99 (95% CI 0.92-4.31) in the absence of AIDS-defining conditions, and increased to 7.64 (95% CI 3.78-15.43) in subjects with AIDS-defining conditions. Hepatitis C infection, illicit drug or alcohol abuse, intracranial lesions, and coagulopathy were all strongly associated with intracranial hemorrhage (all P < .001). In the case control study, 29 cases of ICH in HIV-positive individuals were matched to 228 HIV-positive controls. None of the antiretroviral classes were associated with an increase in the odds ratio of intracranial hemorrhage. The risk of intracranial hemorrhage in HIV-positive individuals seems to be mostly associated with AIDS-defining conditions, other comorbidities, or lifestyle factors. No association was found between use of antiretroviral medications and intracranial hemorrhage. Copyright © 2013 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Facial Emotion Recognition Impairments are Associated with Brain Volume Abnormalities in Individuals with HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Uraina S.; Walker, Keenan A.; Cohen, Ronald A.; Devlin, Kathryn N.; Folkers, Anna M.; Pina, Mathew M.; Tashima, Karen T.

    2015-01-01

    Impaired facial emotion recognition abilities in HIV+ patients are well documented, but little is known about the neural etiology of these difficulties. We examined the relation of facial emotion recognition abilities to regional brain volumes in 44 HIV-positive (HIV+) and 44 HIV-negative control (HC) adults. Volumes of structures implicated in HIV− associated neuropathology and emotion recognition were measured on MRI using an automated segmentation tool. Relative to HC, HIV+ patients demonstrated emotion recognition impairments for fearful expressions, reduced anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) volumes, and increased amygdala volumes. In the HIV+ group, fear recognition impairments correlated significantly with ACC, but not amygdala volumes. ACC reductions were also associated with lower nadir CD4 levels (i.e., greater HIV-disease severity). These findings extend our understanding of the neurobiological substrates underlying an essential social function, facial emotion recognition, in HIV+ individuals and implicate HIV-related ACC atrophy in the impairment of these abilities. PMID:25744868

  11. The Psychosocial Integration of Seropositive Persons

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    Matei Raluca

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We can assume without fail that the psychosocial implications in case of HIV/AIDS are as overwhelming as the medical aspects. For the positive person as well as for those who assist the seropositive people, the uncertainty frames the medical prognosis. All the effects that occur are entirely funded: the loss of self-trust as well as mistrusting others, stigmatization, isolation, getting abandoned by the family, friends, neighbors and school mates or coworkers. The current study aims to evaluate this aspect, the fact that the living environment of the seropositive person does not lead to significant differences as far as adjusting to HIV/AIDS diagnosis is concerned, but the adjusting differences are more related to the personality structure of the infected person, to the way this person identifies strategies of coping with the new situations he / she has to deal with (cognitive, emotional and behavioral strategies. In the applicative part of the study, we analyze the adjustment to the diagnosis, as well as the adherence to the treatment, by applying certain specific work instruments.

  12. Setting of methods for analysis of mucosal antibodies in seminal and vaginal fluids of HIV seropositive subjects from Cambodian and Italian cohorts.

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    Carla Donadoni

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Genital mucosae play a key role in protection from STD and HIV infection, due to their involvement in both horizontal and vertical disease transmission. High variability of published observations concerning IgA isolation and quantification underlies the strong requirement of specific methods able to maximize investigation on HIV-specific IgA.Genital fluids from 109 subjects, including male and female cohorts from Italy and Cambodia, were collected, aliquoted and processed with different techniques, to assess optimal conditions maximizing mucosal antibody recovery. Three sampling techniques, up to sixteen preservation conditions, six ELISA methods and four purifications protocols were compared.The optimal method here described took advantage of Weck-Cel sampling of female mucosal fluids. Immediate processing of genital fluids, with the addition of antibiotics and EDTA, improved recovery of vaginal IgA, while the triple addition of EDTA, antibiotics and protease inhibitors provided the highest amount of seminal IgA. Due to low amount of IgA in mucosal fluids, a high sensitive sandwich ELISA assay was set; sensitivity was enhanced by milk-based overcoating buffer and by a two-step biotin-streptavidin signal amplification. Indeed, commercial antisera to detect human immunoglobulins showed weak cross-reactivity to different antibody types. Three-step affinity purification provided reproducible immunoglobulin recovery from genital specimens, while conventional immuno-affinity IgA purification was found poorly manageable. Affinity columns were suitable to isolate mucosal IgA, which are ten-fold less concentrated than IgG in genital specimens, and provided effective separation of IgA monomers, dimers, and J-chains. Jacalin-bound resin successfully separated IgA1 from IgA2 subfraction.Specific, effective and reliable methods to study local immunity are key items in understanding host mucosal response. The sequence of methods here described is effective

  13. Profile and prevalence of HBV among HIV affected individuals attending the largest public HIV care center in India.

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    Koli, Suneeta; Girish Kumar, C P; Selvaraj, V; Prabu, R; Chandrasekar, C; Valan, A S; Suria Kumar, J; Raja, K

    2016-09-01

    A large number of people living with HIV/AIDS residing in HBV endemic regions such as in India are highly susceptible to acquire co-infections like HBV but also transmit them to other due to their high risk behaviours. The present study aimed to estimate HBV prevalence and distribution of various HBV serological markers among HIV infected individuals. This cross sectional survey covered HIV infected individuals attending the largest HIV care center in India. Socio-demographic details and blood samples to screen for HBV seromarkers using commercial ELISA kits were collected. Among 1160 HIV infected patients, prevalence of HBcAb, HBsAb, HBsAg and HBeAg was 66, 29.4, 16.6 and 5.8 % respectively. Overall, 28.9 % individuals had no evidence of any of the four markers, indicating lack of previous exposure and future risk of acquiring HBV infection. Presence of anti-HBsAg in a mere 0.9 % of individuals reflected low levels HBV vaccine conferred immunity which could be due to poor HBV vaccine coverage in this high risk population. With high prevalence and evidence of exposure to HBV as well as considering the growing literature on increase in hepatic complications in HIV-HBV co-infected individuals, the need for mandatory HBV screening of all HIV infected individuals cannot be over-emphasised. The policy makers and HIV programme managers must consider HBV vaccination for newly detected HBV naive HIV infected individuals and also focus on creating public awareness on HBV and HIV prevention.

  14. HIV subtype is not associated with dementia among individuals with moderate and advanced immunosuppression in Kampala, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacktor, Ned; Nakasujja, Noeline; Redd, Andrew D; Manucci, Jordyn; Laeyendecker, Oliver; Wendel, Sarah K; Porcella, Stephen F; Martens, Craig; Bruno, Daniel; Skolasky, Richard L; Okonkwo, Ozioma C; Robertson, Kevin; Musisi, Seggane; Katabira, Elly; Quinn, Thomas C

    2014-06-01

    HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are a common neurological manifestation of HIV infection. A previous study suggested that HIV dementia may be more common among patients with subtype D virus than among those with subtype A virus among HIV+ individuals with advanced immunosuppression. We conducted a study to evaluate the frequency of HIV dementia, and the association of HIV dementia with HIV subtype and compartmentalization among HIV+ individuals with moderate and advanced immunosuppression (CD4 lymphocyte count >150 cells/μL and Uganda. HIV+ individuals received neurological, neuropsychological testing, and functional assessments, and gag and gp41 regions were subtyped. Subjects were considered infected with a specific subtype if both regions analyzed were from the same subtype. 41% of the HIV+ individuals had HIV dementia (mean CD4 lymphocyte count = 233 cells/μL). 67 individuals had subtype A, 25 individuals had subtype D, 24 individuals were classified as A/D recombinants, and one individual had subtype C. There was no difference in the frequency of HIV dementia when stratified by HIV subtype A and D and no association with compartmentalization between the cerebrospinal fluid and peripheral blood. These results suggest that HIV dementia is common in HIV+ individuals in Uganda. There was no association between HIV subtype and dementia among HIV+ individuals with moderate and advanced immunosuppression. Future studies should be performed to confirm these results.

  15. PCR detection of multiple human herpesvirus DNA in saliva from HIV-infected individuals in Teresina, State of Piauí, Brazil Detecção por PCR do DNA de vários herpesvírus humanos na saliva de indivíduos infectados pelo HIV em Teresina, Estado do Piauí, Brasil

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    Kátia Silene Sousa Carvalho

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Human herpesviruses are frequently associated with orofacial diseases in humans (HSV-1, EBV, CMV and HHV-8, some can also cause systemic disease (CMV and HHV-8. The transmission of these viruses occurs by contact with infected secretions, especially saliva. Human immunodeficiency virus infection is associated with an increased risk of HHVs and related diseases. METHODS: This work aimed to detect HSV-1, EBV, CMV and HHV-8 DNA in saliva of HIV-infected patients from Teresina, northeast Brazil, by PCR and compare these findings with age and sex matched HIV-seronegative individuals. RESULTS: No difference in prevalence was verified between HHV detection in the saliva of HIV-seropositive individuals and controls. The individual frequencies of these viruses in these two populations were different. HIV seropositivity correlated positively with the presence of CMV (OR: 18.2, p= 0.00032 and EBV (OR: 3.44, p= 0.0081. No association between CD4 counts and the prevalence of HHVs in the saliva was observed; however, a strong association was determined between seropositivity and the presence of multiple HHV DNAs in saliva (OR: 4.83, p = 0.0028. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest the asymptomatic salivary shedding of HHVs is a common event between HIV-seropositive and seronegative individuals from Teresina, Piauí, Brazil, and, especially for HIV-seropositive patients, saliva is a risk factor for the acquisition/transmission of multiple HHVs.INTRODUÇÃO: Alguns herpesvírus humanos são frequentemente associados a doenças orofaciais em humanos. A transmissão destes vírus ocorre através do contato com secreções contaminadas, especialmente a saliva. A infecção pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana é considerada um fator de risco para a aquisição de HHVs e doenças correlatas. MÉTODOS: Este trabalho teve como objetivo detectar por PCR o DNA de HSV-1, EBV, CMV e HHV-8 na saliva de pacientes infectados com HIV em Teresina, nordeste do

  16. High Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii Antibody in HIV/AIDS Individuals from North of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    RAHIMI, Mohammad Taghi; MAHDAVI, Seif Ali; JAVADIAN, Behzad; REZAEI, Rozita; MOOSAZADEH, Mahmood; KHADEMLOU, Mehri; SEYEDPOUR, Seyed Hosein; SYADATPANAH, Abolghasem

    2015-01-01

    Background: Toxoplasmosis in immunocompetent people is generally asymptomatic but in immunocompromised patients including HIV/AIDS, cancer patients, and organ transplant recipients, etc. it can lead to serious pathological problems. The objective of current study was to determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii IgG and IgM antibodies in HIV/AIDS patients using ELISA technique in Mazandaran Province, northern Iran. Methods: Overall, 82 serum samples (61 males and 21 females) were collected from HIV/AIDS patients in Mazandaran Provinces, in 2013. Sera were surveyed employing ELISA assay. Data were analyzed using Chi-Square or Fisher exact test. In addition, before sampling a questionnaire was filled out for each subject. Results: Overall seroprevalence of examined sera was 96.3% for IgG antibody but none of the sera shown IgM antibody against T. gondii. The seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in males and females was 96.7% and 95.2%, respectively. An antibody titer of >1 IU/ml was considered as positive. Furthermore, none of the included variables statistically was significant. Conclusions: Seroprevalence of chronic (latent) toxoplasmosis in HIV/AIDS patients in Mazandaran Province is high compared to toxoplasmosis in general population. Consequently, the risk of acquiring Toxoplasma encephalitis in examined seropositive HIV/AIDS patients of Toxoplasma is high. PMID:26811725

  17. Molecular Detection and Clinical Implications of HTLV-1 Infections among Antiretroviral Therapy-Naïve HIV-1-Infected Individuals in Abuja, Nigeria

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    Idris Abdullahi Nasir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Individuals with human T-cell lymphotrophic virus type-1 (HTLV-1/HIV-1 coinfection have been demonstrated to undergo CD4+ lymphocytosis even in the face of immunodeficiency and increased vulnerability to opportunistic pathogens that can lead to poor prognosis. Objective This study investigated the prevalence as well as the effects of HIV-1/HTLV-1 coinfection on CD4+ cell counts, routine hematology, and biochemical parameters of study participants. Materials and Methods This prospective cross-sectional study involved 184 blood samples collected from HIV-1-seropositive individuals attending HIV-special clinic of the University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Gwagwalada, Nigeria. These samples were analyzed for anti-HTLV-1/2 IgM antibodies using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, CD4+ cell counts, and some routine hematological and biochemical parameters. All samples were also tested for HTLV-1 provirus DNA using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay. Results Of the 184 subjects studied, 9 (4.9% were anti-HTLV-1/2 IgM seropositive; however, upon real-time PCR testing, 12 (6.5% had detectable HTLV-1 provirus DNA. The CD4+ cell count was significantly high in HTLV-1-positive (742 ± 40.2 subjects compared to their HTLV-1-negative (380 ± 28.5 counterpart ( P -value = 0.025. However, there was no significant association between HTLV-1 positivity with other hematology and biochemical parameters studied ( P > 0.05. Conclusion All subjects (100% who were HTLV-1/HIV-1-coinfected had normal CD4+ counts. This gives contrasting finding on the true extent of immunodeficiency of subjects. So it is suggested to be very careful in using only CD4+ counts to monitor disease progression and as indicators for antiretroviral therapy (ART in resource-limited settings. In such conditions, there may be a need to test for HTLV-1 alongside HIV viral loads in order to begin appropriate ART regimens that contain both pathogens.

  18. Patterns of human herpesvirus-8 oral shedding among diverse cohorts of human herpesvirus-8 seropositive persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender Ignacio, Rachel A; Goldman, Jason D; Magaret, Amalia S; Selke, Stacy; Huang, Meei-Li; Gantt, Soren; Johnston, Christine; Phipps, Warren T; Schiffer, Joshua T; Zuckerman, Richard A; McClelland, R Scott; Celum, Connie; Corey, Larry; Wald, Anna; Casper, Corey

    2016-01-01

    Human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8), the etiologic agent of Kaposi sarcoma (KS), establishes lifelong latent infection with periodic lytic replication ("shedding") at mucosal sites, especially the oropharynx. Patterns of HHV-8 shedding are not well understood, and require elucidation to better predict risk of HHV-8 related malignancies in those infected. We sought to characterize patterns of HHV-8 oropharyngeal shedding among diverse cohorts that enrolled HHV-8 seropositive persons. We quantified HHV-8 oral shedding using PCR among HHV-8 seropositive persons who collected at least 14 days of oral swabs in 22 studies on 3 continents. We excluded persons taking antivirals during sampling or any prior use of antiretrovirals in those who were HIV-infected. 248 participants were enrolled from the US, Peru, Cameroon, Uganda, and Kenya; 61 % were men, 58 % were HIV seropositive, and 16 % had KS. Overall, 3,123 of 10,557 samples (29.6 %) had HHV-8 detected. Quantity of virus shed was highly correlated with shedding rate, (ρ = 0.72, p < 0.0001). HHV-8 was detected in ≥1 sample in 55 % of participants with a median of 7 % of days in the US and Kenya, 0 % in Uganda and Peru, and 18 % in Cameroon. Median episode duration was three days, and episodes with high median quantity lasted longer (42 vs 3 days, p < 0.0001). In persons with multiple observations over time, 66 % of shedding rate variance was attributable to differences between individuals. In HHV-8 infected individuals from diverse settings, oral mucosal shedding rate, quantity, and duration were correlated; individual shedding was highly variable. Studies are needed to determine factors accounting for between-person variation and the relationship of HHV-8 shedding to development of associated diseases.

  19. Chemokine receptor CCR2b 64I polymorphism and its relation to CD4 T-cell counts and disease progression in a Danish cohort of HIV-infected individuals. Copenhagen AIDS cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eugen-Olsen, J; Iversen, Anton; Benfield, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    We have investigated the role of the recently described mutation in CCR2b named 64I in relation to HIV resistance, CD4 T-cell counts, and disease progression in Danish individuals by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods as well as sequenced full-length CXCR4 and CCR5 genes from HIV......-infected long-term nonprogressors for possible mutations. In total, 215 Danish individuals were analyzed for 64I allele frequency; disease progression was followed in 105 HIV-1-positive homosexual Danish men from their first known positive HIV-1 test result and up to 11 years. In 87 individuals, the CD4 T-cell...... count was monitored closely. We found no significant difference in 64I allele frequency between HIV-1-seropositive persons (0.08), high-risk HIV-1-seronegative persons (0.11), and blood donors (0.06). No significant difference was observed in annual CD4 T-cell decline, CD4 T-cell counts at the time...

  20. Seropositivity rates for toxoplasmosis, rubella, syphilis, cytomegalovirus, hepatitis and HIV among pregnant women receiving care at a public health service, São Paulo state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Aparecida dos Santos Gonçalves

    Full Text Available Infectious and parasitic diseases affecting women during their reproductive age may result in vertical transmission. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence for TORSCH among pregnant women receiving care at a university hospital. Records of 574 pregnant women who received medical attention from January 2006 to December 2007 were assessed. The mean age was 27.2 ± 6.5 years ranging from 13 to 44. The results of the immunodiagnostic tests were: 62.0% (345/556 for IgG and 3.4% (19/556 for IgM anti-T. gondii; 93.1% (433/465 for IgG and 0.6% (3/465 for IgM anti-rubella; 0.9% (5/561 for VDRL; 1.8% (10/554 for HBsAg; 0.7% (4/545 for anti-HCV and 2.1% (11/531 for HIV. In conclusion, the results of immunodiagnostic tests for the TORSCH panel among pregnant women attending a perinatal service of a university hospital are in agreement with those reported by previous studies and by governmental sources.

  1. HIV DNA and Dementia in Treatment-Naïve HIV-1-Infected Individuals in Bangkok, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiramizu, Bruce; Ratto-Kim, Silvia; Sithinamsuwan, Pasiri; Nidhinandana, Samart; Thitivichianlert, Sataporn; Watt, George; deSouza, Mark; Chuenchitra, Thippawan; Sukwit, Suchitra; Chitpatima, Suwicha; Robertson, Kevin; Paul, Robert; Shikuma, Cecilia; Valcour, Victor

    2007-01-01

    High HIV-1 DNA (HIV DNA) levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) correlate with HIV-1-associated dementia (HAD) in patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). If this relationship also exists among HAART-naïve patients, then HIV DNA may be implicated in the pathogenesis of HAD. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between HIV DNA and cognition in subjects naïve to HAART in a neuro AIDS cohort in Bangkok, Thailand. Subjects with and without HAD were recruited and matched for age, gender, education, and CD4 cell count. PBMC and cellular subsets were analyzed for HIV DNA using real-time PCR. The median log10 HIV DNA copies per 106 PBMC for subjects with HAD (n=15) was 4.27, which was higher than that found in subjects without dementia (ND; n=15), 2.28, p<0.001. This finding was unchanged in a multivariate model adjusting for plasma HIV-1 RNA levels. From a small subset of individuals, in which adequate number of cells were available, more HIV DNA was in monocytes/macrophages from those with HAD compared to those with ND. These results are consistent with a previous report among HAART-experienced subjects, thus further implicating HIV DNA in the pathogenesis of HAD. PMID:17211496

  2. SPIRITUALITY AND RELIGION AMONG HIV-INFECTED INDIVIDUALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szaflarski, Magdalena

    2017-01-01

    Spirituality and religion are important to many people living with HIV (PLWH). Recent research has focused on special populations (ethnic-minorities, women, and youth), spirituality/religion measurement, mediating/moderating mechanisms, and individual and community-level interventions. Spirituality/religion in PLWH has been refined as a multidimensional phenomenon which improves health/quality of life directly and through mediating factors (healthy behaviors, optimism, social support). Spirituality/religion helps people to cope with stressors, especially stigma/discrimination. Spiritual interventions utilizing the power of prayer and meditation and addressing spiritual struggle are under way. Faith-based community interventions have focused on stigma and could improve individual outcomes through access to spiritual/social support and care/treatment for PLWA. Community engagement is necessary to design/implement effective and sustainable programs. Future efforts should focus on vulnerable populations; utilize state-of the art methods (randomized clinical trials, community-based participatory research); and, address population-specific interventions at individual and community levels. Clinical and policy implications across geographic settings also need attention. PMID:23996649

  3. Spirituality and religion among HIV-infected individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szaflarski, Magdalena

    2013-12-01

    Spirituality and religion are important to many people living with HIV (PLWH). Recent research has focused on special populations (ethnic-minorities, women, and youth), spirituality/religion measurement, mediating/moderating mechanisms, and individual and community-level interventions. Spirituality/religion in PLWH has been refined as a multidimensional phenomenon, which improves health/quality of life directly and through mediating factors (healthy behaviors, optimism, social support). Spirituality/religion helps people to cope with stressors, especially stigma/discrimination. Spiritual interventions utilizing the power of prayer and meditation and addressing spiritual struggle are under way. Faith-based community interventions have focused on stigma and could improve individual outcomes through access to spiritual/social support and care/treatment for PLWA. Community engagement is necessary to design/implement effective and sustainable programs. Future efforts should focus on vulnerable populations; utilize state-of-the-art methods (randomized clinical trials, community-based participatory research); and, address population-specific interventions at individual and community levels. Clinical and policy implications across geographic settings also need attention.

  4. Optimism, well-being, and perceived stigma in individuals living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammirati, Rachel J; Lamis, Dorian A; Campos, Peter E; Farber, Eugene W

    2015-01-01

    Given the significant psychological challenges posed by HIV-related stigma for individuals living with HIV, investigating psychological resource factors for coping with HIV-related stigma is important. Optimism, which refers to generalized expectations regarding favorable outcomes, has been associated with enhanced psychological adaptation to health conditions, including HIV. Therefore, this cross-sectional study investigated associations among optimism, psychological well-being, and HIV stigma in a sample of 116 adults living with HIV and seeking mental health services. Consistent with study hypotheses, optimism was positively associated with psychological well-being, and psychological well-being was negatively associated with HIV-related stigma. Moreover, results of a full structural equation model suggested a mediation pattern such that as optimism increases, psychological well-being increases, and perceived HIV-related stigma decreases. The implications of these findings for clinical interventions and future research are discussed.

  5. Examining Sexual Function Among Individuals With HIV in a Midwestern US Urban Outpatient Clinic Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shacham, E; López, Julia D; Souza, P; Overton, E Turner

    The role of sexual function and its impact on HIV management have been inadequately evaluated. A cross-sectional study in 2009 of 202 patients with HIV were recruited to examine sexual function and psychosocial/HIV management factors. Analyses assessed the relationship between sexual function, sociodemographic factors, biomedical markers, and depressive symptomology. The M-Estimator compared differences in the means of the HIV, cancer survivors, and the normative cohorts. More than 75% were on combination antiretroviral therapy, of which 70% had suppressed HIV viral loads. Patients with unsuppressed HIV viral loads reported lower rates of arousal. Better overall health was associated with higher rates of overall sexual function, arousal, and interest. Compared to the normative and cancer survivor cohorts, mean sexual function was significantly lower in the HIV-infected cohort in all subscales, except for masturbation. These findings suggest lower sexual function impacts individuals with HIV in ways related to negative biomedical and psychosocial factors.

  6. The Association Between Body Image and Smoking Cessation Among Individuals Living with HIV/AIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Fingeret, Michelle Cororve; Vidrine, Damon J.; Arduino, Roberto C.; Gritz, Ellen R.

    2007-01-01

    Lower smoking cessation rates are associated with body image concerns in the general population. This relationship is particularly important to study in individuals living with HIV/AIDS due to alarmingly high smoking rates and considerable bodily changes experienced with HIV disease progression and treatment. The association between body image and smoking cessation rates was examined among individuals living with HIV/AIDS participating in a smoking cessation intervention. Body image concerns ...

  7. Immunodeficiency, AIDS-related pneumonia, and risk of lung cancer among HIV-infected individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Julia L; Leyden, Wendy A; Chao, Chun R; Horberg, Michael A; Klein, Daniel B; Quesenberry, Charles P; Towner, William J; Silverberg, Michael J

    2017-04-24

    The objective is to clarify the role of immunodeficiency and pneumonia in elevated lung cancer risk among HIV-infected individuals. Cohort study of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected adults in a large integrated healthcare system in California during 1996-2011. We used Poisson models to obtain rate ratios for lung cancer associated with HIV infection, overall and stratified by recent CD4 cells/μl (HIV-uninfected as reference group), with χ tests for trends across CD4 strata. Fully adjusted models included demographics, cancer risk factors (smoking, drug/alcohol abuse, overweight/obesity), and prior pneumonia. Among 24 768 HIV-infected and 257 600 HIV-uninfected individuals, the lung cancer rate per 100 000 person-years was 66 (n = 80 events) for HIV-infected and 33 (n = 506 events) for HIV-uninfected individuals [rate ratio 2.0, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.7-2.2]. Overall, HIV-infected individuals were at increased risk of lung cancer after adjustment for demographics and cancer risk factors (rate ratio 1.4, 95% CI: 1.1-1.7), but not after additional adjustment for pneumonia (rate ratio 1.2, 95% CI: 0.9-1.6). Lower CD4 cell counts were associated with higher risk of lung cancer in unadjusted and demographics-adjusted models (P HIV-uninfected individuals, HIV-infected individuals with CD4 less than 200 cells/μl were not at increased risk of lung cancer in fully adjusted models. The increased lung cancer risk among HIV patients is attributable to differences in demographics, risk factors such as smoking, and history of pneumonia. Immunodeficiency does not appear to have an independent effect on lung cancer risk.

  8. Toll-Like Receptor 7 Agonist GS-9620 Induces HIV Expression and HIV-Specific Immunity in Cells from HIV-Infected Individuals on Suppressive Antiretroviral Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Angela; Irrinki, Alivelu; Kaur, Jasmine; Cihlar, Tomas; Kukolj, George; Sloan, Derek D; Murry, Jeffrey P

    2017-04-15

    Antiretroviral therapy can suppress HIV replication to undetectable levels but does not eliminate latent HIV, thus necessitating lifelong therapy. Recent efforts to target this persistent reservoir have focused on inducing the expression of latent HIV so that infected cells may be recognized and eliminated by the immune system. Toll-like receptor (TLR) activation stimulates antiviral immunity and has been shown to induce HIV from latently infected cells. Activation of TLR7 leads to the production of several stimulatory cytokines, including type I interferons (IFNs). In this study, we show that the selective TLR7 agonist GS-9620 induced HIV in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from HIV-infected individuals on suppressive antiretroviral therapy. GS-9620 increased extracellular HIV RNA 1.5- to 2-fold through a mechanism that required type I IFN signaling. GS-9620 also activated HIV-specific T cells and enhanced antibody-mediated clearance of HIV-infected cells. Activation by GS-9620 in combination with HIV peptide stimulation increased CD8 T cell degranulation, production of intracellular cytokines, and cytolytic activity. T cell activation was again dependent on type I IFNs produced by plasmacytoid dendritic cells. GS-9620 induced phagocytic cell maturation and improved effector-mediated killing of HIV-infected CD4 T cells by the HIV envelope-specific broadly neutralizing antibody PGT121. Collectively, these data show that GS-9620 can activate HIV production and improve the effector functions that target latently infected cells. GS-9620 may effectively complement orthogonal therapies designed to stimulate antiviral immunity, such as therapeutic vaccines or broadly neutralizing antibodies. Clinical studies are under way to determine if GS-9620 can target HIV reservoirs. IMPORTANCE Though antiretroviral therapies effectively suppress viral replication, they do not eliminate integrated proviral DNA. This stable intermediate of viral infection is persistently

  9. HIV Testing among Adolescents in Ndola, Zambia: How Individual, Relational, and Environmental Factors Relate to Demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denison, Julie A.; McCauley, Ann P.; Dunnett-Dagg, Wendy A.; Lungu, Nalakwanji; Sweat, Michael D.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined how individual, relational and environmental factors related to adolescent demand for HIV voluntary counseling and testing (VCT). A cross-sectional survey among randomly selected 16-19-year-olds in Ndola, Zambia, covered individual (e.g., HIV knowledge), environmental (e.g., distance), and relational factors (e.g., discussed…

  10. Characteristics and outcomes of individuals enrolled for HIV care in a rural clinic in Coastal Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassan, A.S.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the scale up of HIV/AIDS care and treatment services in sub-Saharan Africa (sSA), characteristics of individuals enrolled for care and the continuum of care remains less well described. This thesis aimed to describe the characteristics and outcomes of individuals enrolled for HIV/AIDS care

  11. Depression symptoms and cognitive function among individuals with advanced HIV infection initiating HAART in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Allan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among patients with HIV infection, depression is the most frequently observed psychiatric disorder. The presence of depressive symptoms and cognitive dysfunction among HIV patients has not been well studied in Sub-Saharan Africa. Initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART may have an effect on the prevalence and the change over time of depression symptoms and cognitive impairment among HIV-positive individuals. Methods We recruited 102 HIV-positive individuals at risk of cognitive impairment who were initiating HAART and 25 HIV-negative individuals matched for age and education. Depression was assessed using the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D. Neurocognitive assessment included the International HIV Dementia Scale (IHDS, an 8 test neuropsychological battery and the Memorial Sloan Kettering scale. Assessments were carried out at 0, 3 and 6 months. Results The HIV-positive group had more respondents with CES-D score > 16 than the HIV-negative group at all 3 clinic visits (54%Vs 28%; 36% Vs 13%; and 30% Vs 24% respectively; all p Conclusion Depression symptomatology is distinct and common among cognitively impaired HIV patients. Therefore individuals in HIV care should be screened and treated for depression.

  12. Ranitidine improves certain cellular immune responses in asymptomatic HIV-infected individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsøn, H J; Svenningsen, A; Moesgaard, F

    1991-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is characterized by a progressive impairment in immunocompetence leading to severe opportunistic infections and malignancies. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study, the potential impact of immunomodulation by oral ranitidine, 600 mg daily, for 28...... days was studied in 18 HIV-positive patients (CDC group II). All were without clinical signs of infections and were not treated with other known immunomodulating agents. Several immunological parameters related to HIV infection were studied and confirmed to be impaired early in HIV infection...... shown in this study is small, the present result indicates the need for further trials with immunomodulation by ranitidine in HIV-infected individuals....

  13. CTL escape and increased viremia irrespective of HIV-specific CD4+ T-helper responses in two HIV-infected individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geels, Mark J.; Jansen, Christine A.; Baan, Elly; de Cuyper, Iris M.; van Schijndel, Gijs J. M.; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Goudsmit, Jaap; Pollakis, Georgios; Miedema, Frank; Paxton, William A.; van Baarle, Debbie

    2006-01-01

    We investigated whether development of mutations leads to loss of CD8 T-cell recognition in HIV-1 infection and is possibly linked to alterations in HIV-1-specific CD4(+) T-cell responses in 2 HIV-infected individuals. In patient, H434 full genome sequencing of HIV-1 biological clones at early and

  14. Review of cytomegalovirus coinfection in HIV-infected individuals in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grønborg, Helene Ladefoged; Jespersen, Sanne; Hønge, Bo Langhoff; Jensen-Fangel, Søren; Wejse, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection among HIV-infected individuals may cause end-organ disease, which is an AIDS-defining condition. Evidence from high-income countries suggests that CMV may alter the outcome of HIV infection, other than causing end-organ diseases. We reviewed literature on HIV and CMV coinfection in Africa. Systematic review of published studies on HIV and CMV coinfection in Africa using the PubMed database. High CMV seroprevalence was found throughout Africa, exceeding 90% in most populations. Retinitis, pneumonia, and colitis were the most commonly reported CMV manifestations in HIV-infected individuals. Among patients with pulmonary symptoms, the prevalence of CMV pneumonitis varied from 20% to over 60%, whereas CMV was found in 0% to 14% of patients with gastrointestinal manifestations. Cytomegalovirus retinitis was found in 0% to 2.6% of examined HIV-infected individuals. The diagnostics of CMV end-organ diseases were found complex and difficult to interpret in African settings. Cytomegalovirus viremia was correlated with significantly lower CD4 cell count and increase in activated and apoptosis vulnerable T-lymphocytes. Also, CMV coinfection was found to be associated with increased transmission and progression of HIV infection. Moreover, detectable CMV DNA was an independent predictor of HIV transmission and mortality among HIV-infected individuals. Cytomegalovirus is highly prevalent in Africa and a common cause of disease manifestations in HIV-infected individuals among all age groups. Cytomegalovirus coinfection in HIV-infected individuals in Africa is associated with increased transmission and mortality of HIV, but it is a neglected area of research. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Individual- and contextual-level factors associated with client-initiated HIV testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Renata dos Santos Barros

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Background: Knowing the reasons for seeking HIV testing is central for HIV prevention. Despite the availability of free HIV counseling and testing in Brazil, coverage remains lacking. Methods: Survey of 4,760 respondents from urban areas was analyzed. Individual-level variables included sociodemographic characteristics; sexual and reproductive health; HIV/AIDS treatment knowledge and beliefs; being personally acquainted with a person with HIV/AIDS; and holding discriminatory ideas about people living with HIV. Contextual-level variables included the Human Development Index (HDI of the municipality; prevalence of HIV/AIDS; and availability of local HIV counseling and testing (CT services. The dependent variable was client-initiated testing. Multilevel Poisson regression models with random intercepts were used to assess associated factors. Results: Common individual-level variables among men and women included being personally acquainted with a person with HIV/AIDS and age; whereas discordant variables included those related to sexual and reproductive health and experiencing sexual violence. Among contextual-level factors, availability of CT services was variable associated with client-initiated testing among women only. The contextual-level variable “HDI of the municipality” was associated with client-initiated testing among women. Conclusion: Thus, marked gender differences in HIV testing were found, with a lack of HIV testing among married women and heterosexual men, groups that do not spontaneously seek testing.

  16. Determinants of Smoking and Quitting in HIV-Infected Individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Regan

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking is widespread among HIV-infected patients, who confront increased risk of smoking-related co-morbidities. The effects of HIV infection and HIV-related variables on smoking and smoking cessation are incompletely understood. We investigated the correlates of smoking and quitting in an HIV-infected cohort using a validated natural language processor to determine smoking status.We developed and validated an algorithm using natural language processing (NLP to ascertain smoking status from electronic health record data. The algorithm was applied to records for a cohort of 3487 HIV-infected from a large health care system in Boston, USA, and 9446 uninfected control patients matched 3:1 on age, gender, race and clinical encounters. NLP was used to identify and classify smoking-related portions of free-text notes. These classifications were combined into patient-year smoking status and used to classify patients as ever versus never smokers and current smokers versus non-smokers. Generalized linear models were used to assess associations of HIV with 3 outcomes, ever smoking, current smoking, and current smoking in analyses limited to ever smokers (persistent smoking, while adjusting for demographics, cardiovascular risk factors, and psychiatric illness. Analyses were repeated within the HIV cohort, with the addition of CD4 cell count and HIV viral load to assess associations of these HIV-related factors with the smoking outcomes.Using the natural language processing algorithm to assign annual smoking status yielded sensitivity of 92.4, specificity of 86.2, and AUC of 0.89 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.88-0.91. Ever and current smoking were more common in HIV-infected patients than controls (54% vs. 44% and 42% vs. 30%, respectively, both P<0.001. In multivariate models HIV was independently associated with ever smoking (adjusted rate ratio [ARR] 1.18, 95% CI 1.13-1.24, P <0.001, current smoking (ARR 1.33, 95% CI 1.25-1.40, P<0.001, and

  17. Depression symptoms and cognitive function among individuals with advanced HIV infection initiating HAART in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakasujja, Noeline; Skolasky, Richard L; Musisi, Seggane; Allebeck, Peter; Robertson, Kevin; Ronald, Allan; Katabira, Elly; Clifford, David B; Sacktor, Ned

    2010-06-10

    Among patients with HIV infection, depression is the most frequently observed psychiatric disorder. The presence of depressive symptoms and cognitive dysfunction among HIV patients has not been well studied in Sub-Saharan Africa. Initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) may have an effect on the prevalence and the change over time of depression symptoms and cognitive impairment among HIV-positive individuals. We recruited 102 HIV-positive individuals at risk of cognitive impairment who were initiating HAART and 25 HIV-negative individuals matched for age and education. Depression was assessed using the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Neurocognitive assessment included the International HIV Dementia Scale (IHDS), an 8 test neuropsychological battery and the Memorial Sloan Kettering scale. Assessments were carried out at 0, 3 and 6 months. The HIV-positive group had more respondents with CES-D score > 16 than the HIV-negative group at all 3 clinic visits (54%Vs 28%; 36% Vs 13%; and 30% Vs 24% respectively; all p < 0.050 OR 2.86, 95% CI: 1.03, 7.95, p = 0.044). The HIV positive group had higher likelihood for cognitive impairment (OR 8.88, 95% CI 2.64, 29.89, p < 0.001). A significant decrease in the mean scores on the CES-D (p = 0.002) and IHDS (p = 0.001) occurred more in the HIV-positive group when compared to the HIV-negative group. There was no association between clinical Memorial Sloan Kettering score and depression symptoms (p = 0.310) at baseline. Depression symptomatology is distinct and common among cognitively impaired HIV patients. Therefore individuals in HIV care should be screened and treated for depression.

  18. Understanding fatalism in HIV/AIDS protection: the individual in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many people remain at risk of becoming HIV-infected despite large-scale prevention efforts. An exploratory study was conducted to investigate the determinants of a fatalistic attitude towards protecting the self from HIV/AIDS. The study utilised the Human Sciences Research Council\\'s national, representative EPOP-survey ...

  19. Plasma Lipidomic Profiling of Treated HIV-Positive Individuals and the Implications for Cardiovascular Risk Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Gerard; Trevillyan, Janine M.; Fatou, Benoit; Cinel, Michelle; Weir, Jacquelyn M.; Hoy, Jennifer F.; Meikle, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Background The increased risk of coronary artery disease in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive patients is collectively contributed to by the human immunodeficiency virus and antiretroviral-associated dyslipidaemia. In this study, we investigate the characterisation of the plasma lipid profiles of treated HIV patients and the relationship of 316 plasma lipid species across multiple lipid classes with the risk of future cardiovascular events in HIV- positive patients. Methods In a retrospective case-control study, we analysed plasma lipid profiles of 113 subjects. Cases (n = 23) were HIV-positive individuals with a stored blood sample available 12 months prior to their diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD). They were age and sex matched to HIV-positive individuals without a diagnosis of CAD (n = 45) and with healthy HIV-negative volunteers (n = 45). Results Association of plasma lipid species and classes with HIV infection and cardiovascular risk in HIV were determined. In multiple logistic regression, we identified 83 lipids species and 7 lipid classes significantly associated with HIV infection and a further identified 74 lipid species and 8 lipid classes significantly associated with future cardiovascular events in HIV-positive subjects. Risk prediction models incorporating lipid species attained an area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.78 (0.775, 0.785)) and outperformed all other tested markers and risk scores in the identification of HIV-positive subjects with increased risk of cardiovascular events. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that HIV-positive patients have significant differences in their plasma lipid profiles compared with healthy HIV-negative controls and that numerous lipid species were significantly associated with elevated cardiovascular risk. This suggests a potential novel application for plasma lipids in cardiovascular risk screening of HIV-positive patients. PMID:24733512

  20. Plasma lipidomic profiling of treated HIV-positive individuals and the implications for cardiovascular risk prediction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Wong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The increased risk of coronary artery disease in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV positive patients is collectively contributed to by the human immunodeficiency virus and antiretroviral-associated dyslipidaemia. In this study, we investigate the characterisation of the plasma lipid profiles of treated HIV patients and the relationship of 316 plasma lipid species across multiple lipid classes with the risk of future cardiovascular events in HIV-positive patients. METHODS: In a retrospective case-control study, we analysed plasma lipid profiles of 113 subjects. Cases (n = 23 were HIV-positive individuals with a stored blood sample available 12 months prior to their diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD. They were age and sex matched to HIV-positive individuals without a diagnosis of CAD (n = 45 and with healthy HIV-negative volunteers (n = 45. RESULTS: Association of plasma lipid species and classes with HIV infection and cardiovascular risk in HIV were determined. In multiple logistic regression, we identified 83 lipids species and 7 lipid classes significantly associated with HIV infection and a further identified 74 lipid species and 8 lipid classes significantly associated with future cardiovascular events in HIV-positive subjects. Risk prediction models incorporating lipid species attained an area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC of 0.78 (0.775, 0.785 and outperformed all other tested markers and risk scores in the identification of HIV-positive subjects with increased risk of cardiovascular events. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that HIV-positive patients have significant differences in their plasma lipid profiles compared with healthy HIV-negative controls and that numerous lipid species were significantly associated with elevated cardiovascular risk. This suggests a potential novel application for plasma lipids in cardiovascular risk screening of HIV-positive patients.

  1. Plasma lipidomic profiling of treated HIV-positive individuals and the implications for cardiovascular risk prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Gerard; Trevillyan, Janine M; Fatou, Benoit; Cinel, Michelle; Weir, Jacquelyn M; Hoy, Jennifer F; Meikle, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    The increased risk of coronary artery disease in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive patients is collectively contributed to by the human immunodeficiency virus and antiretroviral-associated dyslipidaemia. In this study, we investigate the characterisation of the plasma lipid profiles of treated HIV patients and the relationship of 316 plasma lipid species across multiple lipid classes with the risk of future cardiovascular events in HIV-positive patients. In a retrospective case-control study, we analysed plasma lipid profiles of 113 subjects. Cases (n = 23) were HIV-positive individuals with a stored blood sample available 12 months prior to their diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD). They were age and sex matched to HIV-positive individuals without a diagnosis of CAD (n = 45) and with healthy HIV-negative volunteers (n = 45). Association of plasma lipid species and classes with HIV infection and cardiovascular risk in HIV were determined. In multiple logistic regression, we identified 83 lipids species and 7 lipid classes significantly associated with HIV infection and a further identified 74 lipid species and 8 lipid classes significantly associated with future cardiovascular events in HIV-positive subjects. Risk prediction models incorporating lipid species attained an area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.78 (0.775, 0.785)) and outperformed all other tested markers and risk scores in the identification of HIV-positive subjects with increased risk of cardiovascular events. Our results demonstrate that HIV-positive patients have significant differences in their plasma lipid profiles compared with healthy HIV-negative controls and that numerous lipid species were significantly associated with elevated cardiovascular risk. This suggests a potential novel application for plasma lipids in cardiovascular risk screening of HIV-positive patients.

  2. Factors Associated with Delayed Enrollment in HIV Medical Care among HIV-Positive Individuals in Odessa Region, Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neduzhko, Oleksandr; Postnov, Oleksandr; Perehinets, Ihor; DeHovitz, Jack; Joseph, Michael; Odegaard, David; Kaplan, Robert; Kiriazova, Tetiana

    In Ukraine, about one-third of identified HIV-positive individuals are not connected to care. We conducted a cross-sectional survey (n = 200) among patients registered at Odessa AIDS centers in October to December 2011. Factors associated with delayed enrollment in HIV care (>3 months since positive HIV test) were evaluated using logistic regression. Among study participants (mean age 35 ± 8.2 years, 47.5% female, 42.5% reported history of injecting drugs), 55% delayed HIV care enrollment. Odds of delayed enrollment were higher for those with lower educational attainment (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 2.65, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.04-6.76), not feeling ill (aOR: 2.98, 95% CI: 1.50-5.93), or not having time to go to the AIDS center (aOR: 3.89, 95% CI: 1.39-10.89); injection drug use was not associated with delayed enrollment. Programs linking HIV-positive individuals to specialized care should address enrollment barriers and include education on HIV care benefits and case management for direct linkage to care. HIV testing and treatment should be coupled to ensure a continuum of care.

  3. Preserved MHC class II antigen processing in monocytes from HIV-infected individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laila Woc-Colburn

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available MHC-II restricted CD4+ T cells are dependent on antigen presenting cells (APC for their activation. APC dysfunction in HIV-infected individuals could accelerate or exacerbate CD4+ T cell dysfunction and may contribute to increased levels of immunodeficiency seen in some patients regardless of their CD4+ T cell numbers. Here we test the hypothesis that APC from HIV-infected individuals have diminished antigen processing and presentation capacity.Monocytes (MN were purified by immuno-magnetic bead isolation techniques from HLA-DR1.01+ or DR15.01+ HIV-infected and uninfected individuals. MN were analyzed for surface MHC-II expression and for antigen processing and presentation capacity after overnight incubation with soluble antigen or peptide and HLA-DR matched T cell hybridomas. Surface expression of HLA-DR was 20% reduced (p<0.03 on MN from HIV-infected individuals. In spite of this, there was no significant difference in antigen processing and presentation by MN from 14 HIV-infected donors (8 HLA-DR1.01+ and 6 HLA-DR15.01+ compared to 24 HIV-uninfected HLA-matched subjects.We demonstrated that MHC class II antigen processing and presentation is preserved in MN from HIV-infected individuals. This further supports the concept that this aspect of APC function does not further contribute to CD4+ T cell dysfunction in HIV disease.

  4. Evaluation of virulence factors of Candida albicans isolated from HIV-positive individuals using HAART.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula Menezes, Ralciane; de Melo Riceto, Érika Bezerra; Borges, Aércio Sebastião; de Brito Röder, Denise Von Dolingër; dos Santos Pedroso, Reginaldo

    2016-06-01

    The colonization by Candida species is one of the most important factors related to the development of oral candidiasis in HIV-infected individuals. The aim of the study was to evaluate and discuss the phospholipase, proteinase, DNAse and haemolytic activities of Candida albicans isolated from the oral cavity of HIV individuals with high efficiency antiretroviral therapy. Seventy-five isolates of C. albicans obtained from saliva samples of patients with HIV and 41 isolates from HIV-negative individuals were studied. Haemolytic activity was determined in Sabouraud dextrose agar plates containing 3% glucose and 7% sheep red cells. Culture medium containing DNA base-agar, egg yolk, and bovine albumin were used to determine DNase, phospholipase and proteinase activities, respectively. All isolates from the HIV patients group had haemolytic activity, 98% showed phospholipase activity, 92% were positive for proteinase and 32% DNAse activity. Regarding the group of indivídios HIV negative, all 41 isolates presented hemolytic activity, 90.2% showed phospholipase and proteinase activity and 12.2% were positive for DNAse. The phospholipase activity was more intense for the group of HIV positive individuals. DNase production was more frequently observed in the group of HIV-positive individuals. The percentage of isolates having DNAse activity was also significantly different between the groups of patients not using any antiretroviral therapy, those using transcriptase inhibitors and those using transcriptase inhibitor and protease inhibitor in combination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Estimating HIV incidence and number of undiagnosed individuals living with HIV in the European Union/European Economic Area, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pharris, Anastasia; Quinten, Chantal; Noori, Teymur; Amato-Gauci, Andrew J; van Sighem, Ard

    2016-12-01

    Since 2011, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) incidence appears unchanged in the European Union/European Economic Area with between 29,000 and 33,000 new cases reported annually up to 2015. Despite evidence that HIV diagnosis is occurring earlier post-infection, the estimated number of people living with HIV (PLHIV) who were unaware of being infected in 2015 was 122,000, or 15% of all PLHIV (n=810,000). This is concerning as such individuals cannot benefit from highly effective treatment and may unknowingly sustain transmission. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2016.

  6. The spectrum of liver diseases in HIV infected individuals at an HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Liver diseases are common in patients with HIV due to viral hepatitis B and C co-infections, opportunistic infections or malignancies, antiretroviral drugs and drugs for opportunistic infections. Objective: To describe the spectrum of liver diseases in HIV-infected patients attending an HIV clinic in Kampala, ...

  7. Increasing support for contraception as HIV prevention: stakeholder mapping to identify influential individuals and their perceptions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tricia Petruney

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Voluntary contraceptive use by HIV-positive women currently prevents more HIV-positive births, at a lower cost, than anti-retroviral drug (ARV regimens. Despite this evidence, most prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT programs focus solely on providing ARV prophylaxis to pregnant women and rarely include the prevention of unintended pregnancies among HIV-positive women. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To strengthen support for family planning as HIV prevention, we systematically identified key individuals in the field of international HIV/AIDS-those who could potentially influence the issue-and sought to determine their perceptions of barriers to and facilitators for implementing this PMTCT strategy. We used a criteria-based approach to determine which HIV/AIDS stakeholders have the most significant impact on HIV/AIDS research, programs, funding and policy and stratified purposive sampling to conduct interviews with a subset of these individuals. The interview findings pointed to obstacles to strengthening linkages between family planning and HIV/AIDS, including the need for: resources to integrate family planning and HIV services, infrastructure or capacity to provide integrated services at the facility level, national leadership and coordination, and targeted advocacy to key decision-makers. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The individuals we identified as having regional or international influence in the field of HIV/AIDS have the ability to leverage an increasingly conducive funding environment and a growing evidence base to address the policy, programmatic and operational challenges to integrating family planning with HIV/AIDS. Fostering greater support for implementing contraception for HIV prevention will require the dedication, collaboration and coordination of many such actors. Our findings can inform a targeted advocacy campaign.

  8. Increasing support for contraception as HIV prevention: stakeholder mapping to identify influential individuals and their perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruney, Tricia; Harlan, Sarah V; Lanham, Michele; Robinson, Elizabeth T

    2010-05-24

    Voluntary contraceptive use by HIV-positive women currently prevents more HIV-positive births, at a lower cost, than anti-retroviral drug (ARV) regimens. Despite this evidence, most prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) programs focus solely on providing ARV prophylaxis to pregnant women and rarely include the prevention of unintended pregnancies among HIV-positive women. To strengthen support for family planning as HIV prevention, we systematically identified key individuals in the field of international HIV/AIDS-those who could potentially influence the issue-and sought to determine their perceptions of barriers to and facilitators for implementing this PMTCT strategy. We used a criteria-based approach to determine which HIV/AIDS stakeholders have the most significant impact on HIV/AIDS research, programs, funding and policy and stratified purposive sampling to conduct interviews with a subset of these individuals. The interview findings pointed to obstacles to strengthening linkages between family planning and HIV/AIDS, including the need for: resources to integrate family planning and HIV services, infrastructure or capacity to provide integrated services at the facility level, national leadership and coordination, and targeted advocacy to key decision-makers. The individuals we identified as having regional or international influence in the field of HIV/AIDS have the ability to leverage an increasingly conducive funding environment and a growing evidence base to address the policy, programmatic and operational challenges to integrating family planning with HIV/AIDS. Fostering greater support for implementing contraception for HIV prevention will require the dedication, collaboration and coordination of many such actors. Our findings can inform a targeted advocacy campaign.

  9. Tryptophan Metabolism and Its Relationship with Depression and Cognitive Impairment among HIV-infected Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R. Keegan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective Cognitive impairment (CI and major depressive disorder (MDD remain prevalent in treated HIV-1 disease; however, the pathogenesis remains elusive. A possible contributing mechanism is immune-mediated degradation of tryptophan (TRP via the kynurenine (KYN pathway, resulting in decreased production of serotonin and accumulation of TRP degradation products. We explored the association of these biochemical pathways and their relationship with CI and MDD in HIV-positive (HIV+ individuals. Methods In a cross-sectional analysis, concentrations of neopterin (NEO, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, TRP, KYN, KYN/TRP ratio, phenylalanine (PHE, tyrosine (TYR, PHE/TYR ratio, and nitrite were assessed in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and plasma of HIV+( n = 91 and HIV-negative (HIV- individuals ( n = 66. CI and MDD were assessed via a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery. A Global Deficit Score ≥0.5 was defined as CI. Nonparametric statistical analyses included Kruskal–Wallis and Mann–Whitney U tests, and multivariate logistic regression. Results Following Bonferroni correction, NEO concentrations were found to be greater in CSF and TRP concentration was found to be lower in the plasma of HIV+ versus HIV– individuals, including a subgroup of aviremic (defined as HIV-1 RNA <50 cps/mL HIV+ participants receiving antiretroviral therapy ( n = 44. There was a nonsignificant trend toward higher KYN/TRP ratios in plasma in the HIV+ group ( P = 0.027; Bonferroni corrected α = 0.0027. In a logistic regression model, lower KYN/TRP ratios in plasma were associated with CI and MDD in the overall HIV+ group ( P = 0.038 and P = 0.063, respectively and the aviremic subgroup ( P = 0.066 and P = 0.027, respectively, though this observation was not statistically significant following Bonferroni correction (Bonferroni corrected α = 0.0031. Conclusions We observed a trend toward lower KYN/TRP ratios in aviremic HIV+ patients with CI and MDD.

  10. T-cell dynamics in healthy and HIV-infected individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrisekoop, N.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis focuses on T-cell dynamics in healthy and both treated and untreated HIV-infected individuals. Although the progressive decline in CD4+ T-cell numbers is the hallmark of HIV infection, the mechanisms behind this depletion remain controversial. Currently the most prevailing ideas include

  11. The effect of combined antiretroviral therapy on the overall mortality of HIV-infected individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phillips, A. N.; Gilson, R.; Easterbrook, P.; Fisher, M.; Gazzard, B.; Johnson, M.; Walsh, J.; Leen, C.; Orkin, C.; Anderson, J.; Pillay, D.; Delpech, V.; Schwenk, A.; Dunn, D.; Gompels, M.; Hill, T.; Porter, K.; Babiker, A.; Sabin, C.; Waters, A.; Crates, D.; Mohamed-Saad, S.; Perry, N.; Pullin, A.; Churchill, D.; Harris, W.; Nelson, M.; Asboe, D.; Bulbeck, S.; Mandalia, S.; Clarke, J.; Dodds, J.; Rider, A.; Youle, M.; Lampe, F.; Smith, C.; Gumley, H.; Chaloner, C.; Ismajani, D.; Weber, J.; Cashin, S.; Kemble, C.; Mackie, N.; Thomas, R.; Jones, K.; Gann, S.; Wilson, A.; Ainsworth, J.; de Wolf, F.; Bezemer, D. O.; Gras, L. A. J.; Kesselring, A. M.; van Sighem, A. I.; Smit, C.; Zhang, S.; Zaheri, S.; Prins, J. M.; Bos, J. C.; Eeftinck-Schattenkerk, J. K. M.; Geerlings, S. E.; Godfried, M. H.; Lange, J. M. A.; van der Meer, J. T. M.; Nellen, F. J. B.; Olszyna, D. P.; van der Poll, M.; Reiss, P.; Sankatsing, S. U. C.; Steingrover, R.; van der Valk, M.; Vermeulen, J. N.; Vrouenraets, S. M. E.; van Vugt, M.; Wit, F. W. M. N.; Schreij, G.; van der Geest, S.; Oude Lashof, A.; Lowe, S.; Verbon, A.; Kuijpers, T. W.; Pajkrt, D.; Scherpbier, H. J.; van der Ende, M. E.; Bax, H.; van der Feltz, M.; Gelinck, L. B. S.; Nouwen, J. L.; Rijnders, B. J. A.; de Ruiter, E. D.; Slobbe, L.; Schurink, C. A. M.; de Vries, T. E. M. S.; Driessen, G.; van der Flier, M.; Hartwig, N. G.; Branger, J.; Kauffmann, R. H.; Schippers, E. F.; Groeneveld, P. H. P.; Alleman, M. A.; ten Kate, R. W.; Soetekouw, R.; Kroon, F. P.; Arend, S. M.; de Boer, M. G. J.; van den Broek, P. J.; van Dissel, J. T.; van Nieuwkoop, C.; den Hollander, J. G.; Bronsveld, W.; Vriesendorp, R.; Jeurissen, F. J. F.; Leyten, E. M. S.; van Houte, D.; Polée, M. B.; ten Napel, C. H. H.; Kootstra, G. J.; Brinkman, K.; van den Berk, G. E. L.; Blok, W. L.; Frissen, P. H. J.; Schouten, W. E. M.; van Eeden, A.; Verhagen, D. W. M.; Mulder, J. W.; van Gorp, E. C. M.; Mairuhu, A. T. A.; Wagenaar, J.; Juttmann, J. R.; van Kasteren, M. E. E.; Veenstra, J.; Vasmel, W. L. E.; Koopmans, P. P.; Brouwer, A. M.; Dofferhoff, A. S. M.; de Groot, R.; ter Hofstede, H. J. M.; Keuter, M.; van der Ven, A. J. A. M.; Sprenger, H. G.; van Assen, S.; van Leeuwen, J. T. M.; Stek, C. J.; Doedens, R.; Scholvinck, E. H.; Hoepelman, I. M.; Schneider, M. M. E.; Bonten, M. J. M.; Ellerbroek, P. M.; Jaspers, C. A. J. J.; Maarschalk-Ellerbroek, L. J.; Oosterheert, J. J.; Peters, E. J. G.; Mudrikova, T.; Wassenberg, M. W. M.; Weijer, S.; Geelen, S. P. M.; Wolfs, T. F. W.; Danner, S. A.; van Agtmael, M. A.; Bierman, W. F. W.; Claessen, F. A. P.; Hillebrand, M. E.; de Jong, E. V.; Kortmann, W.; Perenboom, R. M.; bij de Vaate, E. A.; Richter, C.; van der Berg, J.; Gisolf, E. H.; Tanis, A. A.; Duits, A. J.; Winkel, K.; Elisabeth, S. T.; Abgrall, S.; Barin, F.; Bentata, M.; Billaud, E.; Boué, F.; Burty, C.; Cabié, A.; Costagliola, D.; Cotte, L.; de Truchis, P.; Duval, X.; Duvivier, C.; Enel, P.; Fredouille-Heripret, L.; Gasnault, J.; Gaud, C.; Gilquin, J.; Grabar, S.; Katlama, C.; Khuong, M. A.; Lang, J. M.; Lascaux, A. S.; Launay, O.; Mahamat, A.; Mary-Krause, M.; Matheron, S.; Meynard, J. L.; Pavie, J.; Pialoux, G.; Pilorgé, F.; Poizot-Martin, I.; Pradier, C.; Reynes, J.; Rouveix, E.; Simon, A.; Tattevin, P.; Tissot-Dupont, H.; Viard, J. P.; Viget, N.; Salomon, Valérie; Jacquemet, N.; Guiguet, M.; Lanoy, E.; Liévre, L.; Selinger-Leneman, H.; Lacombe, J. M.; Potard, V.; Bricaire, F.; Herson, S.; Desplanque, N.; Girard, P. M.; Meyohas, M. C.; Picard, O.; Cadranel, J.; Mayaud, C.; Clauvel, J. P.; Decazes, J. M.; Gerard, L.; Molina, J. M.; Diemer, M.; Sellier, P.; Honoré, P.; Jeantils, V.; Tassi, S.; Mechali, D.; Taverne, B.; Berthé, H.; Dupont, C.; Chandemerle, C.; Mortier, E.; Tisne-Dessus, D.; Weiss, L.; Salmon, D.; Auperin, I.; Roudière, L.; Fior, R.; Delfraissy, J. F.; Goujard, C.; Jung, C.; Lesprit, P. H.; Vittecoq, D.; Fraisse, P.; Rey, D.; Beck-Wirth, G.; Stahl, J. P.; Lecercq, P.; Gourdon, F.; Laurichesse, H.; Fresard, A.; Lucht, F.; Bazin, C.; Verdon, R.; Chavanet, P.; Arvieux, C.; Michelet, C.; Choutet, P.; Goudeau, A.; Maître, M. F.; Hoen, B.; Eglinger, P.; Faller, J. P.; Borsa-Lebas, F.; Caron, F.; Daures, J. P.; May, T.; Rabaud, C.; Berger, J. L.; Rémy, G.; Arlet-Suau, E.; Cuzin, L.; Massip, P.; Legrand, M. F. Thiercelin; Pontonnier, G.; Yasdanpanah, Y.; Dellamonica, P.; Pugliese, P.; Aleksandrowicz, K.; Quinsat, D.; Ravaux, I.; Delmont, J. P.; Moreau, J.; Gastaut, J. A.; Retornaz, F.; Soubeyrand, J.; Galinier, A.; Ruiz, J. M.; Allegre, T.; Blanc, P. A.; Bonnet-Montchardon, D.; Lepeu, G.; Granet-Brunello, P.; Esterni, J. P.; Pelissier, L.; Cohen-Valensi, R.; Nezri, M.; Chadapaud, S.; Laffeuillade, A.; Raffi, F.; Boibieux, A.; Peyramond, D.; Livrozet, J. M.; Touraine, J. L.; Trepo, C.; Strobel, M.; Bissuel, F.; Pradinaud, R.; Sobesky, M.; Contant, M.; Aebi, C.; Battegay, M.; Bernasconi, E.; Böni, J.; Brazzola, P.; Bucher, H. C.; Bürgisser, P. H.; Calmy, A.; Cattacin, S.; Cavassini, M.; Cheseaux, J.-J.; Drack, G.; Dubs, R.; Egger, M.; Elzi, L.; Fischer, M.; Flepp, M.; Fontana, A.; Francioli, P.; Furrer, H. J.; Fux, C.; Gayet-Ageron, A.; Gerber, S.; Gorgievski, M.; Günthard, H.; Gyr, T. H.; Hirsch, H.; Hirschel, B.; Hösli, I.; Hüsler, M.; Kaiser, L.; Kahlert, C. H.; Karrer, U.; Kind, C.; Klimkait, T. H.; Ledergerber, B.; Martinetti, G.; Martinez, B.; Müller, N.; Nadal, D.; Paccaud, F.; Pantaleo, G.; Raio, L.; Rauch, A.; Regenass, S.; Rickenbach, M.; Rudin, C.; Schmid, P.; Schultze, D.; Schüpbach, J.; Speck, R.; Taffé, P.; Telenti, A.; Trkola, A.; Vernazza, P.; Weber, R.; Wyler, C.-A.; Yerly, S.; Casabona, J.; Miró, J. M.; Alquézar, A.; Isern, V.; Esteve, A.; Podzamczer, D.; Murillas, J.; Gatell, J. M.; Agüero, F.; Tural, C.; Clotet, B.; Ferrer, E.; Riera, M.; Segura, F.; Navarro, G.; Force, L.; Vilaró, J.; Masabeu, A.; García, I.; Guadarrama, M.; Romero, A.; Agustí, C.; Montoliu, A.; Ortega, N.; Lazzari, E.; Puchol, E.; Sanchez, M.; Blanco, J. L.; Garcia-Alcaide, F.; Martínez, E.; López-Dieguez, M.; García-Goez, J. F.; Sirera, G.; Romeu, J.; Jou, A.; Negredo, E.; Miranda, C.; Capitan, M. C.; Olmo, M.; Barragan, P.; Saumoy, M.; Bolao, F.; Cabellos, C.; Peña, C.; Sala, M.; Cervantes, M.; Amengual, M. J.; Navarro, M.; Penelo, E.; Berenguer, J.; del Amo, J.; García, F.; Gutiérrez, F.; Labarga, P.; Moreno, S.; Muñoz, M. A.; Caro-Murillo, A. M.; Sobrino, P.; Jarrín, I.; Sirvent, J. L. Gómez; Rodríguez, P.; Alemán, M. R.; Alonso, M. M.; López, A. M.; Hernández, M. I.; Soriano, V.; Barreiro, P.; Medrano, J.; Rivas, P.; Herrero, D.; Blanco, F.; Vispo, M. E.; Martín, L.; Ramírez, G.; de Diego, M.; Rubio, R.; Pulido, F.; Moreno, V.; Cepeda, C.; Hervás, R. I.; Iribarren, J. A.; Arrizabalaga, J.; Aramburu, M. J.; Camino, X.; Rodríguez-Arrondo, F.; von Wichmann, M. A.; Pascual, L.; Goenaga, M. A.; Masiá, M.; Ramos, J. M.; Padilla, S.; Sánchez-Hellín, V.; Bernal, E.; Escolano, C.; Montolio, F.; Peral, Y.; López, J. C.; Miralles, P.; Cosín, J.; Sánchez, M.; Gutiérrez, I.; Ramírez, M.; Padilla, B.; Vidal, F.; Sanjuan, M.; Peraire, J.; Veloso, S.; Viladés, C.; López-Dupla, M.; Olona, M.; Vargas, M.; Aldeguer, J. L.; Blanes, M.; Lacruz, J.; Salavert, M.; Montero, M.; Cuéllar, S.; de los Santos, I.; Sanz, J.; Oteo, J. A.; Blanco, J. R.; Ibarra, V.; Metola, L.; Sanz, M.; Pérez-Martínez, L.; Sola, J.; Uriz, J.; Castiello, J.; Reparaz, J.; Arriaza, M. J.; Irigoyen, C.; Antela, A.; Casado, J. L.; Dronda, F.; Moreno, A.; Pérez, M. J.; López, D.; Gutiérrez, C.; Hernández, B.; Pumares, M.; Martí, P.; García, L.; Page, C.; Hernández, J.; Peña, A.; Muñoz, L.; Parra, J.; Viciana, P.; Leal, M.; López-Cortés, L. F.; Trastoy, M.; Mata, R.; Justice, A. C.; Fiellin, D. A.; Rimland, D.; Jones-Taylor, C.; Oursler, K. A.; Titanji, R.; Brown, S.; Garrison, S.; Rodriguez-Barradas, M.; Masozera, N.; Goetz, M.; Leaf, D.; Simberkoff, M.; Blumenthal, D.; Leung, J.; Butt, A.; Hoffman, E.; Gibert, C.; Peck, R.; Mattocks, K.; Braithwaite, S.; Brandt, C.; Bryant, K.; Cook, R.; Conigliaro, J.; Crothers, K.; Chang, J.; Crystal, S.; Day, N.; Erdos, J.; Freiberg, M.; Kozal, M.; Gandhi, N.; Gaziano, M.; Gerschenson, M.; Good, B.; Gordon, A.; Goulet, J. L.; Hernán, M. A.; Kraemer, K.; Lim, J.; Maisto, S.; Miller, P.; Mole, L.; O'Connor, P.; Papas, R.; Robins, J. M.; Rinaldo, C.; Roberts, M.; Samet, J.; Tierney, B.; Whittle, J.; Phillips, A.; Brettle, R.; Darbyshire, J.; Fidler, S.; Goldberg, D.; Hawkins, D.; Jaffe, H.; McLean, K.; Porter, Kholoud; Cursley, Adam; Ewings, Fiona; Fairbrother, Keith; Gnatiuc, Louisa; Lodi, Sara; Murphy, Brendan; Douglas, G.; Kennedy, N.; Pritchard, J.; Andrady, U.; Gwynedd, Ysbyty; Rajda, N.; Maw, R.; McKernan, S.; Drake, S.; Gilleran, G.; White, D.; Ross, J.; Toomer, S.; Hewart, R.; Wilding, H.; Woodward, R.; Dean, G.; Heald, L.; Horner, P.; Glover, S.; Bansaal, D.; Eduards, S.; Carne, C.; Browing, M.; Das, R.; Stanley, B.; Estreich, S.; Magdy, A.; O'Mahony, C.; Fraser, P.; Hayman, B.; Jebakumar, S. P. R.; Joshi, U.; Ralph, S.; Wade, A.; Mette, R.; Lalik, J.; Summerfield, H.; El-Dalil, A.; France, A. J.; White, C.; Robertson, R.; Gordon, S.; McMillan, S.; Morris, S.; Lean, C.; Vithayathil, K.; McLean, L.; Winter, A.; Gale, D.; Jacobs, S.; Tayal, S.; Short, L.; Green, S.; Williams, G.; Sivakumar, K.; Bhattacharyya, D. N.; Monteiro, E.; Minton, J.; Dhar, J.; Nye, F.; DeSouza, C. B.; Isaksen, A.; McDonald, L.; Franca, A.; William, L.; Jendrulek, I.; Shaunak, S.; El-Gadi, S.; Easterbrook, P. J.; Mazhude, C.; Johnstone, R.; Fakoya, A.; Mchale, J.; Kegg, S.; Mitchell, S.; Byrne, P.; Rice, P.; Mullaney, S. A.; McCormack, S.; David, D.; Melville, R.; Phillip, K.; Balachandran, T.; Mabey-Puttock, S.; Sukthankar, A.; Murphy, C.; Wilkins, E.; Ahmad, S.; Haynes, J.; Evans, E.; Ong, E.; Grey, R.; Meaden, J.; Bignell, C.; Loay, D.; Peacock, K.; Girgis, M. R.; Morgan, B.; Palfreeman, A.; Wilcox, J.; Tobin, J.; Tucker, L.; Saeed, A. M.; Chen, F.; Deheragada, A.; Williams, O.; Lacey, H.; Herman, S.; Kinghorn, D.; Devendra, S. V.; Wither, J.; Dawson, S.; Rowen, D.; Harvey, J.; Bridgwood, A.; Singh, G.; Chauhan, M.; Kellock, D.; Young, S.; Dannino, S.; Kathir, Y.; Rooney, G.; Currie, J.; Fitzgerald, M.; Devendra, S.; Keane, F.; Booth, G.; Green, T.; Arumainayyagam, J.; Chandramani, S.; Rajamanoharan, S.; Robinson, T.; Curless, E.; Gokhale, R.; Tariq, A.; Luzzi, G.; Fairley, I.; Wallis, F.; Smit, E.; Ward, F.; Morlat, P.; Bonarek, M.; Bonnet, F.; Nouts, C.; Louis, J.; Reliquet, V.; Sauser, F.; Biron, C.; Mounoury, O.; Hue, H.; Brosseau, D.; Ghosn, J.; Rannou, M. T.; Bergmann, J. F.; Badsi, E.; Rami, A.; Parrinello, M.; Samanon-Bollens, D.; Campa, P.; Tourneur, M.; Desplanques, N.; Jeanblanc, F.; Chiarello, P.; Makhloufi, D.; Blanc, A. P.; Allègre, T.; Baillat, V.; Lemoing, V.; de Boever, C. Merle; Tramoni, C.; Sobesky, G.; Abel, S.; Beaujolais, V.; Slama, L.; Chakvetadze, C.; Berrebi, V.; Yeni, P.; Bouvet, E.; Fournier, I.; Gerbe, J.; Koffi, K.; Augustin-Normand, C.; Miailhes, P.; Thoirain, V.; Brochier, C.; Souala, F.; Ratajczak, M.; Beytoux, J.; Jacomet, C.; Morelon, S.; Olivier, C.; Lortholary, O.; Dupont, B.; Maignan, A.; Ragnaud, J. M.; Raymond, I.; Leport, C.; Jadand, C.; Jestin, C.; Longuet, P.; Boucherit, S.; Sereni, D.; Lascoux, C.; Prevoteau, F.; Sobel, A.; Levy, Y.; Lelièvre, J. D.; Dominguez, S.; Dumont, C.; Aumaître, H.; Delmas, B.; Saada, M.; Medus, M.; Guillevin, L.; Tahi, T.; Yazdanpanah, Y.; Pavel, S.; Marien, M. C.; Drenou, B.; Beck, C.; Benomar, M.; Tubiana, R.; Mohand, H. Ait; Chermak, A.; Abdallah, S. Ben; Touam, F.; Drobacheff, C.; Folzer, A.; Obadia, M.; Prudhomme, L.; Bonnet, E.; Balzarin, F.; Pichard, E.; Chennebault, J. M.; Fialaire, P.; Loison, J.; Galanaud, P.; Bornarel, D.; Six, M.; Ferret, P.; Batisse, D.; Gonzales-Canali, G.; Devidas, A.; Chevojon, P.; Turpault, I.; Lafeuillade, A.; Cheret, A.; Philip, G.; Morel, P.; Timsit, J.; Amirat, N.; Brancion, C.; Cabane, J.; Tredup, J.; Stein, A.; Ravault, I.; Chavanet, C.; Buisson, M.; Treuvetot, S.; Nau, P.; Bastides, F.; Boyer, L.; Wassoumbou, S.; Oksenhendeler, E.; Gérard, L.; Bernard, L.; Domart, Y.; Merrien, D.; Belan, A. Greder; Gayraud, M.; Bodard, L.; Meudec, A.; Beuscart, C.; Daniel, C.; Pape, E.; Vinceneux, P.; Simonpoli, A. M.; Zeng, A.; Fournier, L.; Fuzibet, J. G.; Sohn, C.; Rosenthal, E.; Quaranta, M.; Chaillou, S.; Sabah, M.; Audhuy, B.; Schieber, A.; Moreau, P.; Niault, M.; Vaillant, O.; Huchon, G.; Compagnucci, A.; Szmania, I. De Lacroix; Richier, L.; Lamaury, I.; Saint-Dizier, F.; Garipuy, D.; Drogoul, M. P.; Martin, I. Poizot; Fabre, G.; de Cursay, G. Lambert; Abraham, B.; Perino, C.; Lagarde, P.; David, F.; Roche-Sicot, J.; Saraux, J. L.; Leprêtre, A.; Fampin, B.; Uludag, A.; Morin, A. S.; Bletry, O.; Zucman, D.; Regnier, A.; Girard, J. J.; Quinsat, D. T.; Heripret, L.; Grihon, F.; Houlbert, D.; Ruel, M.; Chemlal, K.; Debab, Y.; Tremollieres, F.; Perronne, V.; Slama, B.; Perré, P.; Miodovski, C.; Guermonprez, G.; Dulioust, A.; Boudon, P.; Malbec, D.; Patey, O.; Semaille, C.; Deville, J.; Remy, G.; Béguinot, I.; Boue, F.; Chambrin, V.; Pignon, C.; Estocq, G. A.; Levy, A.; Duracinsky, M.; Le Bras, P.; Ngussan, M. S.; Peretti, D.; Medintzeff, N.; Lambert, T.; Segeral, O.; Lezeau, P.; Laurian, Y.; Piketty, C.; Karmochkine, M.; Eliaszewitch, M.; Jayle, D.; Tisne- Dessus, D.; Kazatchkine, M.; Colasante, U.; Nouaouia, W.; Vilde, J. L.; Bollens, D.; Binet, D.; Diallo, B.; Fonquernie, L.; Lagneau, J. L.; Pietrie, M. P.; Sicard, D.; Stieltjes, N.; Michot, J.; Bourdillon, F.; Lelievre, J. D.; Obenga, G.; Escaut, L.; Bolliot, C.; Schneider, L.; Iguertsira, M.; Tomei, C.; Dhiver, C.; Dupont, H. Tissot; Vallon, A.; Gallais, J.; Gallais, H.; Durant, J.; Mondain, V.; Perbost, I.; Cassuto, J. P.; Karsenti, J. M.; Venti, H.; Ceppi, C.; Krivitsky, J. A.; Bouchaud, O.; Honore, P.; Delgado, J.; Rouzioux, C.; Burgard, M.; Boufassa, L.; Peynet, J.; Hoyos, S. Pérez; Ferreros, I.; Hurtado, I.; González, C.; Caro, A. M.; Muga, R.; Sanvicens, A.; Tor, J.; del Romero, J.; Raposo, P.; Rodríguez, C.; García, Soledad; Alastrue, I.; Belda, J.; Trullen, P.; Fernández, E.; Santos, C.; Tasa, T.; Zafra, T.; Guerrero, R.; Marco, A.; Quintana, M.; Ruiz, I.; Nuñez, R.; Pérez, R.; Castilla, J.; Guevara, M.; de Mendoza, C.; Zahonero, N.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the effect of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) on mortality among HIV-infected individuals after appropriate adjustment for time-varying confounding by indication. DESIGN: A collaboration of 12 prospective cohort studies from Europe and the United States (the HIV-CAUSAL

  12. Plasma Soluble CD163 Level Independently Predicts All-Cause Mortality in HIV-1-Infected Individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Troels Bygum; Ertner, Gideon; Petersen, Janne

    2016-01-01

    immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV). METHODS: Plasma sCD163 levels were measured in 933 HIV-infected individuals. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) associated with mortality were computed by Cox proportional hazards regression. RESULTS: At baseline, 86% were receiving antiretroviral treatment...

  13. Changes in depression in a cohort of Danish HIV-positive individuals: time for routine screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodkjaer, Lotte; Laursen, Tinne; Christensen, Nils B

    2011-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to follow a cohort of HIV-positive individuals for 3 years in order to assess changes in depression, adherence, unsafe sex and emotional strains from living with HIV. Methods: Participants were assessed for depression, adherence, emotional strain and unsafe s...

  14. Selective in vitro expansion of HLA class I-restricted HIV-1 gag-specific CD8+ T cells: cytotoxic T-lymphocyte epitopes and precursor frequencies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.A. van Baalen (Carel); M.R. Klein (Michèl); A.M. Geretti (Anna Maria); R.I.P.M. Keet; F. Miedema (Frank); C.A.C.M. van Els (Cécile); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: To identify HIV-1 Gag cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes and HLA restriction of their recognition, and to define precursor frequencies of HIV-1 Gag-specific CTL in the blood of seropositive individuals. METHODS: B-lymphoblastoid cell lines (B-LCL) infected with recombinant

  15. Delays in antiretroviral therapy initiation among HIV-positive individuals: results of the positive living with HIV study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna C. Poudel

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lack of early initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART remains a major health concern due to increased risk of premature mortality and further HIV transmission. This study explored CD4+ cell count monitoring in relation to delays in ART initiation among HIV-positive individuals in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal, where ART coverage was only 23.7% in 2011. Design: We recruited a total of 87 ART-naïve, HIV-positive individuals aged 18 to 60 years through the networks of five non-government organizations working with HIV-positive individuals. We collected data on the history of ART initiation, CD4+ cell count monitoring, socio-demographic variables, perceived family support (measured with 10-item Nepali Family Support and Difficulty Scale, depression, and HIV symptom burden. Correlates of ART eligibility were examined using multivariable logistic regression analysis. Results: A total of 72 of the 87 ART-naïve participants (82.8% had monitored their CD4+ cell count in the past 6 months. Of these, 36 (50% participants were eligible for ART initiation with CD4+ cell count <350 cells/mm3. A total of 12 participants had CD4+ cell count <200 cells/mm3. Lower level of perceived family support was associated with 6.05-fold higher odds (95% confidence interval =1.95 to 18.73 of being ART eligible with a CD4+ cell count <350 cells/mm3. Conclusions: High rate of delays in ART initiation and the strong association of low perceived family support with ART eligibility in our study participants suggest that HIV service providers should consider the role and impact of family support in influencing individual decisions to initiate ART among eligible HIV-positive individuals.

  16. Quantifying sexual exposure to HIV within an HIV-serodiscordant relationship: development of an algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Julie; White, Peter J; Weber, Jonathan; Garnett, Geoff P; Ward, Helen; Fidler, Sarah

    2011-05-15

    The risk of acquiring HIV from a single sexual contact varies enormously reflecting biological and behavioural characteristics of both infected and uninfected partners. Accurate information on HIV transmission risk is required to construct evidence-based risk reduction practices for individuals, to direct the provision of prevention strategies at the population level, and enable the definition, quantification and comparison of true exposure in individuals termed 'exposed uninfected' within clinical trials. Following a systematic review of current literature on HIV transmission estimates, an HIV risk score was developed, incorporating weighted risk factors into a Bernoulli mathematical model, allowing quantification of overall risk of HIV acquisition within HIV-serodiscordant partnerships. The HIV risk score enumerates the relative risk of HIV acquisition from HIV-positive partners incorporating the type and frequency of specific sex acts, the index case HIV plasma viral load and stage of disease, and the presence of genital ulcer disease in either partner and pregnancy, HSV-2 seropositivity, and circumcision status (men only) in the HIV-negative partner. Key determinants of HIV exposure risk can be incorporated into a mathematical model in order to quantify individual relative risks of HIV acquisition. Such a model can facilitate comparisons within clinical trials of exposed uninfected individuals and facilitate interventions to reduce HIV transmission.

  17. Prevalence of HIV infection in seronegative high-risk individuals examined by virus isolation and PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, C; Teglbjærg, Lars Stubbe; Pedersen, C

    1991-01-01

    HIV seronegative individuals with high-risk behavior were tested for HIV infection by sensitive virus isolation techniques using T4 lymphocytes and monocyte/macrophages, and by detection of proviral DNA using PCR with three different sets of nested primers. No evidence of HIV infection was found...... among the 31 seronegative high-risk subjects, either by virus isolation of by PCR (97.5% confidence limits, 0-11). Our results indicate that ongoing HIV infection in seronegative persons at high risk of infection is a rare event....

  18. 110 HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS (HIV) SEROPOSITIVITY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    medical device manufacturers market devices with safety features, no standard criteria exist for ...... solution was added with 2 drops of gold conjugate. Then an additional 5 drops of buffer ...... the research which made more progress . Also wish to thank Sigma Aldrich and S.D Fine chemicals for providing the chemicals.

  19. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Seropositivity In African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and corneal abscess were responsible for 3 (10.35%) of cases each; presbyopia, bacterial conjunctivtis 2 (6.89%) while maculopathy, orbital cellulitis and adherent leucoma were found in 1 (3.45%) patient each. These findings suggest that, patients with ocular disorders and who are otherwise healthy looking may infact be ...

  20. Correlates of previous couples' HIV counseling and testing uptake among married individuals in three HIV prevalence strata in Rakai, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matovu, Joseph K B; Todd, Jim; Wanyenze, Rhoda K; Wabwire-Mangen, Fred; Serwadda, David

    2015-01-01

    Studies show that uptake of couples' HIV counseling and testing (couples' HCT) can be affected by individual, relationship, and socioeconomic factors. However, while couples' HCT uptake can also be affected by background HIV prevalence and awareness of the existence of couples' HCT services, this is yet to be documented. We explored the correlates of previous couples' HCT uptake among married individuals in a rural Ugandan district with differing HIV prevalence levels. This was a cross-sectional study conducted among 2,135 married individuals resident in the three HIV prevalence strata (low HIV prevalence: 9.7-11.2%; middle HIV prevalence: 11.4-16.4%; and high HIV prevalence: 20.5-43%) in Rakai district, southwestern Uganda, between November 2013 and February 2014. Data were collected on sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics, including previous receipt of couples' HCT. HIV testing data were obtained from the Rakai Community Cohort Study. We conducted multivariable logistic regression analysis to identify correlates that are independently associated with previous receipt of couples' HCT. Data analysis was conducted using STATA (statistical software, version 11.2). Of the 2,135 married individuals enrolled, the majority (n=1,783, 83.5%) had been married for five or more years while (n=1,460, 66%) were in the first-order of marriage. Ever receipt of HCT was almost universal (n=2,020, 95%); of those ever tested, (n=846, 41.9%) reported that they had ever received couples' HCT. There was no significant difference in previous receipt of couples' HCT between low (n=309, 43.9%), middle (n=295, 41.7%), and high (n=242, 39.7%) HIV prevalence settings (p=0.61). Marital order was not significantly associated with previous receipt of couples' HCT. However, marital duration [five or more years vis-à-vis 1-2 years: adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 1.06; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.04-1.08] and awareness about the existence of couples' HCT services within the Rakai

  1. Correlates of previous couples’ HIV counseling and testing uptake among married individuals in three HIV prevalence strata in Rakai, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph K. B. Matovu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies show that uptake of couples’ HIV counseling and testing (couples’ HCT can be affected by individual, relationship, and socioeconomic factors. However, while couples’ HCT uptake can also be affected by background HIV prevalence and awareness of the existence of couples’ HCT services, this is yet to be documented. We explored the correlates of previous couples’ HCT uptake among married individuals in a rural Ugandan district with differing HIV prevalence levels. Design: This was a cross-sectional study conducted among 2,135 married individuals resident in the three HIV prevalence strata (low HIV prevalence: 9.7–11.2%; middle HIV prevalence: 11.4–16.4%; and high HIV prevalence: 20.5–43% in Rakai district, southwestern Uganda, between November 2013 and February 2014. Data were collected on sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics, including previous receipt of couples’ HCT. HIV testing data were obtained from the Rakai Community Cohort Study. We conducted multivariable logistic regression analysis to identify correlates that are independently associated with previous receipt of couples’ HCT. Data analysis was conducted using STATA (statistical software, version 11.2. Results: Of the 2,135 married individuals enrolled, the majority (n=1,783, 83.5% had been married for five or more years while (n=1,460, 66% were in the first-order of marriage. Ever receipt of HCT was almost universal (n=2,020, 95%; of those ever tested, (n=846, 41.9% reported that they had ever received couples’ HCT. There was no significant difference in previous receipt of couples’ HCT between low (n=309, 43.9%, middle (n=295, 41.7%, and high (n=242, 39.7% HIV prevalence settings (p=0.61. Marital order was not significantly associated with previous receipt of couples’ HCT. However, marital duration [five or more years vis-à-vis 1–2 years: adjusted odds ratio (aOR: 1.06; 95% confidence interval (95% CI: 1.04–1.08] and

  2. HIV Seroprevalence and Confirmatory Rate In Enugu Urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This sentinel study determined the occurrence of HIV infection and confirmation rate of seropositive individuals among diverse Enugu Urban population. A seroprevalcne rate of 25.55 percent was obtained for September - December 1999 and a confirmatory rate of 10.57 percent (P<0.05) while seroprevalence rate for the ...

  3. Immunological changes in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals during HIV-specific protease inhibitor treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullum, H; Katzenstein, T; Aladdin, H

    1999-01-01

    The present study examines the influence of effective anti-retroviral treatment on immune function, evaluated by a broad array of immunological tests. We followed 12 individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) for 6 months after initiation of combination anti-retroviral treatment...... Vaccinia virus was increased after 3-6 months, whereas the specific HIV-directed CTL activity and the concentration and lytic activity of natural killer (NK) cells were unchanged during follow-up. These results demonstrate that the initiation of a treatment including an HIV protease inhibitor is followed...... count increased mainly due to increases in numbers of CD4+ CD28+ and CD4+ CD45RO+ cells, whereas increases in numbers of CD4+ CD45RA+ cells contributed little to the increase in CD4+ cell count. The total cytotoxic T-cell (CTL) killing of autologous B cells infected with HIV-encoding recombinant...

  4. Alcohol Drinking Pattern: A Comparison between HIV-Infected Patients and Individuals from the General Population

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ikeda, Maria Leticia R; Barcellos, Nemora T; Alencastro, Paulo R; Wolff, Fernando H; Moreira, Leila B; Gus, Miguel; Brandão, Ajacio B M; Fuchs, Flavio D; Fuchs, Sandra C

    2016-01-01

    .... This study aimed to compare the pattern of alcohol consumption and to describe characteristics associated with heavy alcohol consumption in individuals from the general population with patients infected with HIV...

  5. The association between body image and smoking cessation among individuals living with HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fingeret, Michelle Cororve; Vidrine, Damon J; Arduino, Roberto C; Gritz, Ellen R

    2007-06-01

    Lower smoking cessation rates are associated with body image concerns in the general population. This relationship is particularly important to study in individuals living with HIV/AIDS due to alarmingly high smoking rates and considerable bodily changes experienced with HIV disease progression and treatment. The association between body image and smoking cessation rates was examined among individuals living with HIV/AIDS participating in a smoking cessation intervention. Body image concerns were significantly associated with depression, anxiety, stress, and social support, all variables known to affect cessation rates. However, reduced quit rates were found among individuals reporting elevated and low levels of body image concerns at the end of treatment. These findings suggest a unique relationship between smoking and body image among individuals living with HIV/AIDS. Further research is needed to examine these effects and whether moderate levels of body image concerns in this population reflect realistic body perceptions associated with positive mental health.

  6. Review of cytomegalovirus coinfection in HIV-infected individuals in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønborg, Helene Ladefoged; Jespersen, Sanne; Hønge, Bo Langhoff

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection among HIV‐infected individuals may cause end‐organ disease, which is an AIDS‐defining condition. Evidence from high‐income countries suggests that CMV may alter the outcome of HIV infection, other than causing end‐organ diseases. We reviewed literature...... on HIV and CMV coinfection in Africa. Methods: Systematic review of published studies on HIV and CMV coinfection in Africa using the PubMed database. Results: High CMV seroprevalence was found throughout Africa, exceeding 90% in most populations. Retinitis, pneumonia, and colitis were the most commonly...... was found to be associated with increased transmission and progression of HIV infection. Moreover, detectable CMV DNA was an independent predictor of HIV transmission and mortality among HIV‐infected individuals. Conclusions: Cytomegalovirus is highly prevalent in Africa and a common cause of disease...

  7. Malária em usuários de drogas de administração endovenosa associada à soropositividade para HIV The association of malaria, HIV seropositivity and intravenous administration in drug users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Shiang Lo

    1991-02-01

    Full Text Available Infecções induzidas de malária têm sido verificadas nos últimos anos no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil concomitantemente com o aumento de casos importados procedentes da região endêmica do país. Destaca-se o registro de um caso em 1988 e onze casos em 1989 de malária induzida por Plasmodium vivax, em indivíduos residentes na cidade de Presidente Prudente, situada a oeste do Estado e considerada uma das "portas de entrada" de pessoas procedentes da Região Amazônica. Os pacientes afirmaram não terem se deslocado recentemente ou negaram deslocamentos para áreas com possibilidade de transmissão de malária. Todos fizeram uso de drogas injetáveis, participando de círculos de conhecidos afins e geralmente dividiam a mesma agulha e seringa no uso da cocaína. Foi detectado o doente de malária que transmitiu inicialmente a doença ao caso de 1988, e a um primeiro grupo de três indivíduos em 1989. Destes três casos, um transmitiu a doença a outro grupo de dois indivíduos em 1989. A partir destas primeiras infecções e do uso continuado das drogas injetáveis entre grupos, surgiram dois novos casos e houve reinfecção em dois indivíduos (um destes apresentou duas reinfecções. O exame para detecção de HIV foi positivo em cinco indivíduos, um apresentou resultado negativo e não foi realizado em outros três indivíduos. São analisadas as informações desses casos e discutida a importância de sua ocorrência no momento atual.Cases of induced malaria have been notified in S. Paulo State, Brazil, in recent years. At the same time the number of cases imported from endemic regions of Brazil has been increasing. One case of induced malaria by Plasmodium vivax was registered in Presidente Prudente, located in the west of the State, in 1988 and a further eleven cases in 1989. This city is considered to be one of the main transit ports for people who come into the State from the Amazonian region. The patients declared that they had

  8. Characterization of the longitudinal HIV-1 quasispecies evolution in HIV-1 infected individuals co-infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Leulebirhan, Tsigereda Biru

    2010-01-01

    One of the earliest and most striking observations made about HIV is the extensive genetic variation that the virus has within individual hosts, particularly in the hypervariable regions of the env gene which is divided into 5 variable regions (V1-V5) and 5 more constant (C1-C5) regions. HIV evolves at any time over the course of an individual’s infection and infected individuals harbours a population of genetically related but non-identical viruses that are under constant change and ready to...

  9. Outcome and reinfection after Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia in individuals with and without HIV-1 infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stammler Jaliff, Bianca; Dahl-Knudsen, Jenny; Petersen, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Individuals infected with HIV-1 are at an increased risk of Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia (SAB). The aim of this study was to investigate mortality rate and risk of reinfection associated with SAB in HIV-1-infected individuals compared to individuals without HIV-1 infection. SETTI...... and Pitt score predicted outcome. For patients infected with HIV, neither CD4 T-lymphocyte counts nor plasma HIV RNA levels were associated with 30-day outcome. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: The study was approved by the Danish Data Protection Agency (record no. 2007-41-1196)....... not associate to mortality. During follow-up, there were 43 episodes of reinfection; in individuals with HIV infection at an incidence rate of 7.8 (95% CI 4.7 to 10.9)/100 person-years compared with 2.2 (95% CI 1.2 to 3.2)/100 person-years for individuals without HIV. In multivariate analysis, HIV status (OR 2...

  10. Tuberculosis and non-tuberculous mycobacteria among HIV-infected individuals in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrrum, Stephanie; Oliver-Commey, Joseph; Kenu, Ernest

    2016-01-01

    cell count, BMI, prolonged fever and ART initiation. CONCLUSIONS: Intensified mycobacterial screening of HIV-infected individuals revealed a high burden of unrecognised pulmonary TB before ART initiation, which increased risk of death within six months. NTM were frequently isolated and associated......OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence and clinical importance of previously unrecognised tuberculosis (TB) and isolation of non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) among HIV-infected individuals in a teaching hospital in Ghana. METHODS: Intensified mycobacterial case finding was conducted among HIV...

  11. Strategies to improve HIV treatment adherence in developed countries: clinical management at the individual level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enriquez M

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Maithe Enriquez¹, David S McKinsey²¹School of Nursing, University of Missouri-Kansas City and Division of Infectious Diseases, Truman Medical Center Hospital Hill, ²School of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Kansas and Division of Infectious Diseases, Research Medical Center, Kansas City, MO, USAAbstract: Remarkable advances in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV disease have been blunted by widespread suboptimal adherence (ie, nonadherence, which has emerged as a major barrier to achieving the primary goal of antiretroviral (ARV therapy: suppression of HIV viral load. Nonsuppressed HIV viral load is associated with drug resistance, increased morbidity and mortality, and a higher risk of person-to-person HIV transmission. For HIV-infected individuals who are failing HIV treatment due to nonadherence, becoming adherent is a life-saving behavior change. However, overcoming nonadherence is one of the most daunting challenges in the successful management of HIV disease. The purpose of this paper is to provide clinicians with a better understanding of nonadherence to ARV treatment and to review the various factors that have been associated with either adherence or nonadherence. Strategies are presented that may help the nonadherent individual become ready to take HIV medications as prescribed.Keywords: noncompliance, treatment failure, AIDS

  12. Criminal law and HIV testing: empirical analysis of how at-risk individuals respond to the law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun Goo

    2014-01-01

    This Note assesses the effect of laws that specifically criminalize behaviors that expose others to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This Note examines the relationship between HIV testing decisions by high-risk individuals and the existence of these HIV-specific statutes, as well as the amount of media coverage related to them. One of the main reasons public health experts criticize criminalization of HIV-exposing behavior is that it may discourage at-risk individuals from undergoing HIV testing. This argument, however, remains empirically untested to date. This study quantitatively examines whether at-risk individuals living in jurisdictions with HIV-specific statutes are less likely to report having been tested for HIV in the past year compared to those living in jurisdictions without HIV-specific statutes. Regression analysis is conducted using data collected in the United States over a seven-year span. The results show that at-risk individuals residing in states with HIV-specific statutes are no less likely to report having been tested for HIV than those who live in other states. However, the number of people who reported that they had been tested for HIV is inversely correlated with the frequency of newspaper coverage of criminalization of HIV-exposing behavior. These findings imply that at-risk individuals' HIV testing is associated with media coverage of criminalizing HIV-exposing behavior. The negative impact that criminal law has on HIV testing rates could be a serious public health threat. Testing is often the initial step in public health interventions that most effectively modify the risky behavior of HIV-positive individuals. The adverse consequence of criminalization should weigh heavily in the design and application of criminal sanctions for HIV-exposing behavior. In addition, future research should further explore the relationships between criminalization, media coverage of criminalization, and HIV testing decisions for a more nuanced

  13. Plasma Soluble CD163 Level Independently Predicts All-Cause Mortality in HIV-1-Infected Individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Troels Bygum; Ertner, Gideon; Petersen, Janne

    2016-01-01

    .35 [95% CI, 1.13-1.63], respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Plasma sCD163 was an independent marker of all-cause mortality in a cohort of HIV-infected individuals, suggesting that monocyte/macrophage activation may play a role in HIV pathogenesis and be a target of intervention.......BACKGROUND: CD163, a monocyte- and macrophage-specific scavenger receptor, is shed as soluble CD163 (sCD163) during the proinflammatory response. Here, we assessed the association between plasma sCD163 levels and progression to AIDS and all-cause mortality among individuals infected with human...... immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV). METHODS: Plasma sCD163 levels were measured in 933 HIV-infected individuals. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) associated with mortality were computed by Cox proportional hazards regression. RESULTS: At baseline, 86% were receiving antiretroviral treatment...

  14. Prevalence of intestinal protozoan infections among individuals living with HIV/AIDS at Felegehiwot Referral Hospital, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habtom Kiros

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: A relatively high prevalence of enteric protozoan infection was observed among individuals living with HIV/AIDS. Routine stool and CD4+ T-cell examinations should be conducted to monitor the status of HIV/AIDS patients.

  15. Intensified tuberculosis case finding among hiv-infected individuals

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-10-02

    Oct 2, 2011 ... developed several policies and guidelines to reduce TB-associated morbidity and mortality in people living with HIV. Within these policies the four core prevention strategies are intensified case finding; isoniazid preventive therapy; infection control (also known as the three Is); and antiretroviral therapy.8,9.

  16. Cigarette Smoking and Inflammation, Monocyte Activation, and Coagulation in HIV-Infected Individuals Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy, Compared With Uninfected Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooij, Katherine W; Wit, Ferdinand W N M; Booiman, Thijs; van der Valk, Marc; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F; Kootstra, Neeltje A; Reiss, Peter

    2016-12-15

    Smoking may affect cardiovascular disease risk more strongly in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals than HIV-uninfected individuals. We hypothesized that an interaction at the level of the immune system may contribute to this increased risk. We assessed soluble markers of inflammation (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein [hsCRP]), immune activation (soluble [s]CD14 and sCD163), and coagulation (D-dimer) in HIV-infected and uninfected never, former, and current smokers. Smoking was independently associated with higher hsCRP levels and lower sCD163 levels and was borderline significantly associated with higher sCD14 and D-dimer levels. We found no evidence of a differential effect of smoking in HIV-infected individuals as compared to uninfected individuals. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Antiretroviral therapy improves cognitive impairment in HIV+ individuals in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacktor, N; Nakasujja, N; Skolasky, R; Robertson, K; Wong, M; Musisi, S; Ronald, A; Katabira, E

    2006-07-25

    Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) can improve cognitive performance in some patients with HIV-associated cognitive impairment in the United States. The effect of HAART on HIV dementia in sub-Saharan Africa is largely unknown. To evaluate neuropsychological test and functional performance in HIV+ individuals after 3 and 6 months of HAART in Uganda. Twenty-three HIV+ individuals receiving HAART also received a detailed clinical history, neuropsychological testing, and a functional assessment. Follow-up evaluations were performed at 3 and 6 months after baseline. Longitudinal changes in the HIV dementia stage, the mean Z score for each neuropsychological test, and the Karnofsky Functional Performance Scale were evaluated at 3 and 6 months. The mean (SD) CD4 cell count improved from 71 (15) at baseline to 161 (30) at 3 months (p = 0.005) and 222 (46) at 6 months (p dementia stage and in tests of verbal memory, psychomotor speed, and executive functioning after 3 and 6 months of HAART (p < 0.001 at 6 months for each neuropsychological test). There was also improvement in the Karnofsky Functional Performance Scale at both 3 and 6 months after the initiation of HAART (p < 0.001). Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) can be associated with improvement in neurocognitive and functional performance in HIV+ individuals in sub-Saharan Africa. These results suggest that HAART, if available in areas with limited resources in sub-Saharan Africa, should be provided for patients with HIV-associated cognitive impairment.

  18. Latent and Active Tuberculosis Infection Increase Immune Activation in Individuals Co-Infected with HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuri A. Sullivan

    2015-04-01

    Significance: Latent tuberculosis, which affects an estimated 1/3 of the world's population, has long been thought to be a relatively benign, quiescent state of M. tuberculosis infection. While HIV co-infection is known to exacerbate M. tuberculosis infection and increase the risk of developing active TB, little is known about the potential effect of latent TB infection on HIV disease. This study shows that HIV-infected individuals with both active and latent TB have elevated levels of inflammation and immune activation, biomarkers of HIV disease progression and elevated risk of mortality. These results suggest that, in the context of HIV, latent TB infection may be associated with increased risk of progression to AIDS and mortality.

  19. Plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 predicts myocardial infarction in HIV-1-infected individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Andreas; Katzenstein, Terese L; Benfield, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    of seven biomarkers with first-time myocardial infarction (MI) in an HIV-1-infected population. DESIGN: A matched case-control study of 54 cases and 54 controls. METHODS: We compared 54 HIV-1-infected patients with verified first-time MI and 54 HIV-1-infected controls matched for age, duration...... of antiretroviral therapy, sex, smoking and no known cardiovascular disease. Levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, soluble endothelial selectin, soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule, matrix metalloprotease 9, myeloperoxidase, and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1...... levels of PAI-1 were associated with risk of first-time MI in HIV-1-infected individuals independently of cardiovascular risk factors, HIV parameters and antiretroviral therapy. Therefore PAI-1 may be used for risk stratification and prediction of CHD, but further studies are needed....

  20. The Cancer-Associated Virus Landscape in HIV Patients with Oral Hairy Leukoplakia, Kaposi's Sarcoma, and Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter D. Burbelo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although HIV-positive patients are at higher risk for developing a variety of infection-related cancers, the prevalence of infections with the seven known cancer-associated viruses has not been studied. Luciferase immunoprecipitation systems were used to evaluate antiviral antibodies in four 23-person groups: healthy blood donors and HIV-infected patients with oral hairy leukoplakia (OLP, Kaposi's sarcoma (KS, or non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL. Antibody profiling revealed that all HIV-positive individuals were strongly seropositive for anti-gp41 and antireverse transcriptase antibodies. However, anti-p24 HIV antibody levels were highly variable and some OLP and KS patients demonstrated weak or negative responses. Profiling two EBV antigens revealed no statistical difference in antibody levels among the three HIV-infected groups. A high frequency of KSHV infection was detected in HIV patients including 100% of KS, 78% of OLP, and 57% of NHL patients. Most HIV-infected subjects (84% showed anti-HBV core antibodies, but only a few showed antibodies against HCV. MCV seropositivity was also common (94% in the HIV-infected individuals and KS patients showed statistically higher antibody levels compared to the OLP and NHL patients. Overall, 68% of the HIV-infected patients showed seropositivity with at least four cancer-associated viruses. Antibody profiles against these and other infectious agents could be useful for enhancing the clinical management of HIV patients.

  1. Examining HIV Viral Load in a Matched Cohort of HIV Positive Individuals With and Without Psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jashin J; Gilbert, Kathleen E; Batech, Michael; Manalo, Iviensan F; Towner, William J; Raposo, Rui André Saraiva; Nixon, Douglas F; Liao, Wilson

    2017-04-01

    BACKGROUND: HIV-associated psoriasis is well-documented. Genetic, cellular, and cytokine profiles have been used as evidence to suggest psoriasis activates antiviral pathways. There has been a lack of epidemiologic evidence investigating whether psoriasis patients have lower HIV viral counts compared to non-psoriasis patients. OBJECTIVE: Compare the viral load set point of HIV positive patients with and without psoriasis. METHODS: A retrospective matched cohort study of HIV positive patients with and without psoriasis using the Kaiser Permanente Southern California Health Plan database. RESULTS: We identified 101 HIV-positive psoriasis cases; 19 met inclusion criteria and were matched with 3-5 control patients; 94 total patients were analyzed. The mean age was 41.4 (12.07) years and 83% were male. Overall, the median log of the viral load of cases was slightly higher than controls (4.3 vs 4.2; P less than 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The serum viral load set point of patients with HIV and psoriasis was slightly higher than the viral load set point of HIV patients without psoriasis. J Drugs Dermatol. 2017;16(4):372-377..

  2. Time trends for risk of severe age-related diseases in individuals with and without HIV infection in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Line D; May, Margaret T; Kronborg, Gitte

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Whether the reported high risk of age-related diseases in HIV-infected people is caused by biological ageing or HIV-associated risk factors such as chronic immune activation and low-grade inflammation is unknown. We assessed time trends in age-standardised and relative risks of nine...... serious age-related diseases in a nationwide cohort study of HIV-infected individuals and population controls. METHODS: We identified all HIV-infected individuals in the Danish HIV Cohort Study who had received HIV care in Denmark between Jan 1, 1995, and June 1, 2014. Population controls were identified...... from the Danish Civil Registration System and individually matched in a ratio of nine to one to the HIV-infected individuals for year of birth, sex, and date of study inclusion. Individuals were included in the study if they had a Danish personal identification number, were aged 16 years or older...

  3. Inflammation, coagulation and cardiovascular disease in HIV-infected individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duprez, Daniel A; Neuhaus, Jacqueline; Kuller, Lewis H

    2012-01-01

    The SMART study was a trial of intermittent use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) (drug conservation [DC]) versus continuous use of ART (viral suppression [VS]) as a strategy to reduce toxicities, including cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. We studied the predictive value of high sensitivity C-rea......-reactive protein (hsCRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and D-dimer with CVD morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected patients who were enrolled in SMART beyond other measured CVD risk factors....

  4. Relationship of plasma cytokines and clinical biomarkers to memory performance in HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Stephen; Cohen, Ronald; Gongvatana, Assawin; Ross, Skye; Olchowski, James; Devlin, Kathryn; Tashima, Karen; Navia, Bradford; Delamonte, Suzanne

    2013-12-15

    Chronic systemic immune activation and inflammatory processes have been linked to brain dysfunction in medically stable HIV-infected people. We investigated the association between verbal memory performance and plasma concentrations of 13 cytokines measured using multiplexed bead array immunoassay in 74 HIV-seropositive individuals and 50 HIV-seronegative controls. Memory performance was positively related to levels of IL-8 and IFN-γ, and negatively related to IL-10 and IL-18 and to hepatitis C infection. Memory performance was not significantly related to HIV disease markers. The results indicate the importance of systemic immune and inflammatory markers to neurocognitive function in chronic and stable HIV disease. © 2013.

  5. Altered metabolism of gut microbiota contributes to chronic immune activation in HIV-infected individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Castellanos, J F; Serrano-Villar, S; Latorre, A; Artacho, A; Ferrús, M L; Madrid, N; Vallejo, A; Sainz, T; Martínez-Botas, J; Ferrando-Martínez, S; Vera, M; Dronda, F; Leal, M; Del Romero, J; Moreno, S; Estrada, V; Gosalbes, M J; Moya, A

    2015-07-01

    Altered interplay between gut mucosa and microbiota during treated HIV infection may possibly contribute to increased bacterial translocation and chronic immune activation, both of which are predictors of morbidity and mortality. Although a dysbiotic gut microbiota has recently been reported in HIV+ individuals, the metagenome gene pool associated with HIV infection remains unknown. The aim of this study is to characterize the functional gene content of gut microbiota in HIV+ patients and to define the metabolic pathways of this bacterial community, which is potentially associated with immune dysfunction. We determined systemic markers of innate and adaptive immunity in a cohort of HIV-infected individuals on successful antiretroviral therapy without comorbidities and in healthy non-HIV-infected subjects. Metagenome sequencing revealed an altered functional profile, with enrichment of the genes involved in various pathogenic processes, lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis, bacterial translocation, and other inflammatory pathways. In contrast, we observed depletion of genes involved in amino acid metabolism and energy processes. Bayesian networks showed significant interactions between the bacterial community, their altered metabolic pathways, and systemic markers of immune dysfunction. This study reveals altered metabolic activity of microbiota and provides novel insight into the potential host-microbiota interactions driving the sustained inflammatory state in successfully treated HIV-infected patients.

  6. Plasma HHV8 DNA predicts relapse in individuals with HIV-associated multicentric Castleman disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebbing, Justin; Adams, Caroline; Sanitt, Adam; Mletzko, Salvinia; Nelson, Mark; Gazzard, Brian; Newsom-Davis, Tom; Bower, Mark

    2011-07-14

    HIV-associated multicentric Castleman disease (HIV-MCD) is a rare lymphoproliferative disorder caused by infection with human herpesvirus-8. The disease follows a relapsing and remitting clinical course, with marked systemic symptoms during an active attack, which can prove fatal. Its incidence is rising, and new data indicate the utility of the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab at inducing remissions in both first- and second-line settings, although biomarkers associated with relapse have not been previously identified. In 52 individuals with a histologic diagnosis of HIV-MCD, we performed univariate and multivariate analyses to predict factors associated with an HIV-MCD attack. Although a younger age (< 50 years) was associated with an attack, the strongest association was observed with plasma levels of human herpesvirus-8 DNA. Rising levels predicted an attack (hazard ratio = 2.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-6.7), and maintenance therapy with rituximab should be considered in these individuals.

  7. Factors Associated With Receiving Rapid HIV Testing Among Individuals on Probation or Parole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Michael S; Carswell, Steven B; Wilson, Monique; Kinlock, Timothy W; Restivo, Lauren; McKenzie, Michelle; Rich, Josiah D

    2016-10-01

    Despite the strong correlation between HIV and corrections, testing and prevention efforts have largely been ignored among community corrections populations. The current study is a secondary analysis to compare characteristics of individuals under community corrections supervision who completed rapid HIV testing with those who refused such testing (N = 2,382) in Baltimore, Maryland, and Providence, Rhode Island. Results indicate that the following variables were significantly associated with the receipt of rapid HIV testing: being female (p = .024), Black race (p = .004), homeless (p = .016), early age of crime onset (p = .001), more drug use during the past 90 days (p = .033), and previously tested for hepatitis C virus/hepatitis B virus (p = .024). Such findings make it especially important that individuals under community supervision be linked with services in the community to ensure that HIV testing and health care planning occur simultaneously. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. The role of micronutrients in the diet of HIV-1-infected individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunnari, Giuseppe; Coco, Christian; Pinzone, Marilia Rita; Pavone, Piero; Berretta, Massimiliano; Di Rosa, Michelino; Schnell, Matthias; Calabrese, Giorgio; Cacopardo, Bruno

    2012-06-01

    Vitamins, zinc and selenium are important micronutrients that play crucial functions at the cellular and molecular level. Immune response of several different cell types can be modulated by these micronutrients. Deficiency in micronutrients has been extensively reported in HIV-1-infected individuals and further correlated with CD4+ T-cell count, HIV-1 plasma viral load, disease progression and mortality. Supplementation by micronutrients has had controversial effects. Thorough future investigations and trials are certainly needed to strategically plan evidence-based interventions. Here, we review the available data on use of micronutrients during the course of HIV-1 infection.

  9. Immunological changes in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals during HIV-specific protease inhibitor treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullum, H; Katzenstein, T; Aladdin, H

    1999-01-01

    Vaccinia virus was increased after 3-6 months, whereas the specific HIV-directed CTL activity and the concentration and lytic activity of natural killer (NK) cells were unchanged during follow-up. These results demonstrate that the initiation of a treatment including an HIV protease inhibitor is followed......The present study examines the influence of effective anti-retroviral treatment on immune function, evaluated by a broad array of immunological tests. We followed 12 individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) for 6 months after initiation of combination anti-retroviral treatment...... including a protease inhibitor. Unstimulated and pokeweed mitogen (PWM)-, interleukin (IL)-2- and phytohaemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated lymphocyte proliferative responses increased during follow-up reaching average levels from 1.3-fold (PHA) to 3.7-fold (PWM) above baseline values. The total CD4+ lymphocyte...

  10. diagnóstico da infecção pelo HPV em lesões do colo do útero em mulheres HIV+: acuidade da histopatologia Histopathology accuracy for the diagnosis of HPV in cervical lesions of HIV-seropositive women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Néli Sueli Teixeira de Souza

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: comparar a acurácia do estudo histopatológico e da reação em cadeia por polimerase (PCR no diagnóstico da infecção pelo papilomavírus humano (HPV em lesões do colo uterino de mulheres infectadas pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana (HIV. Métodos: foram estudadas 52 mulheres soropositivas para o HIV com lesões cervicais clinicamente suspeitas de HPV nas quais se realizou raspado ectocervical para a PCR e biópsia dirigida pela colposcopia, para o estudo histopatológico. As amostras de três pacientes se mostraram sem qualidade para a PCR, reduzindo a população estudada para 49. Resultados: a prevalência de HPV foi de 53% pela histopatologia e de 85,7% pela PCR. Dentre as 42 pacientes com HPV detectado pela PCR, 26 foram confirmadas pela histopatologia (sensibilidade = 61,9%. Esta, por sua vez, não demonstrou nenhum resultado falso-positivo (especificidade = 100%, com predição positiva de 100%. Comparando-se os dois resultados, encontrou-se para a histopatologia: valor preditivo positivo = 100% e valor preditivo negativo = 30,4%. Das 26 pacientes com histopatologia positiva para HPV, 15 (57,6% apresentaram neoplasias intra-epiteliais cervicais (NIC. O risco relativo de uma paciente com HPV apresentar NIC foi de 13,3. Conclusão: a histopatologia mostrou 100% de acerto para o diagnóstico de HPV, o que significa dizer que, quando a biópsia for positiva o HPV certamente estará presente, confirmando a suspeita clínica. No entanto, a baixa sensibilidade retira da histopatologia o valor como exame de rastreamento nesse grupo de mulheres.Purpose: to compare histopathology and polymerase chain reaction (PCR for the diagnosis of human papillomavirus (HPV in cervical lesions of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-seropositive women. Methods: fifty-two HIV-seropositive women with suspected HPV cervical lesions were studied. Cervical scrapes were collected for PCR and colposcopy-guided biopsy was made for the histopathologic

  11. Schistosomiasis and HIV in rural Zimbabwe: efficacy of treatment of schistosomiasis in individuals with HIV coinfection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallestrup, Per; Zinyama, Rutendo; Gomo, Exnevia

    2006-01-01

    There is evidence from experimental models that the praziquantel-induced clearance of schistosomiasis is dependent on the host's immune response. Consequently, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related immunodeficiency may impair the effect of praziquantel treatment.......There is evidence from experimental models that the praziquantel-induced clearance of schistosomiasis is dependent on the host's immune response. Consequently, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related immunodeficiency may impair the effect of praziquantel treatment....

  12. Alcohol Drinking Pattern: A Comparison between HIV-Infected Patients and Individuals from the General Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Leticia R Ikeda

    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption is highly prevalent in the general population and among HIV-infected population. This study aimed to compare the pattern of alcohol consumption and to describe characteristics associated with heavy alcohol consumption in individuals from the general population with patients infected with HIV.Participants for this analysis came from a population-based cross-sectional study and from a consecutive sampling of patients infected with HIV. Participants aged 18 years or older were interviewed using similar questionnaires with questions pertaining to socio-demographic characteristics, alcohol consumption, smoking, physical activity, and HIV-related characteristics, among others. Blood pressure and anthropometric measures were measured using standardized procedures.Weekly alcohol consumption was more prevalent among individuals from the general population than HIV-infected patients: 57.0 vs. 31.1%, P<0.001. The prevalence of heavy episodic drinking was higher in the population sample as well: 46.1 vs. 17.0%, P<0.001. In the general population, heavy alcohol consumption was more prevalent in men. Cigarette smoking was independently associated with heavy alcohol consumption among HIV infected (Prevalence Ratio; PR = 5.9; 95%CI 2.6-13.9; P<0,001 and general population (PR = 2.6; 95%CI 1.9-3.0; P<0.001. Years at school were inversely associated with heavy alcohol consumption among HIV-infected patients and directly associated among participants from the general population, even after controlling for sex, age, skin color, and smoking.Heavy alcohol consumption is more prevalent in the general population than among HIV-infected patients. Individuals aware about their disease may reduce the amount of alcoholic beverages consumption comparatively to healthy individuals from the general population.

  13. Alcohol Drinking Pattern: A Comparison between HIV-Infected Patients and Individuals from the General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Maria Leticia R; Barcellos, Nemora T; Alencastro, Paulo R; Wolff, Fernando H; Moreira, Leila B; Gus, Miguel; Brandão, Ajacio B M; Fuchs, Flavio D; Fuchs, Sandra C

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is highly prevalent in the general population and among HIV-infected population. This study aimed to compare the pattern of alcohol consumption and to describe characteristics associated with heavy alcohol consumption in individuals from the general population with patients infected with HIV. Participants for this analysis came from a population-based cross-sectional study and from a consecutive sampling of patients infected with HIV. Participants aged 18 years or older were interviewed using similar questionnaires with questions pertaining to socio-demographic characteristics, alcohol consumption, smoking, physical activity, and HIV-related characteristics, among others. Blood pressure and anthropometric measures were measured using standardized procedures. Weekly alcohol consumption was more prevalent among individuals from the general population than HIV-infected patients: 57.0 vs. 31.1%, Pdrinking was higher in the population sample as well: 46.1 vs. 17.0%, P<0.001. In the general population, heavy alcohol consumption was more prevalent in men. Cigarette smoking was independently associated with heavy alcohol consumption among HIV infected (Prevalence Ratio; PR = 5.9; 95%CI 2.6-13.9; P<0,001) and general population (PR = 2.6; 95%CI 1.9-3.0; P<0.001). Years at school were inversely associated with heavy alcohol consumption among HIV-infected patients and directly associated among participants from the general population, even after controlling for sex, age, skin color, and smoking. Heavy alcohol consumption is more prevalent in the general population than among HIV-infected patients. Individuals aware about their disease may reduce the amount of alcoholic beverages consumption comparatively to healthy individuals from the general population.

  14. Frequency of and risk factors for HIV dementia in an HIV clinic in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, M H; Robertson, K; Nakasujja, N; Skolasky, R; Musisi, S; Katabira, E; McArthur, J C; Ronald, A; Sacktor, N

    2007-01-30

    To measure the frequency and associated risk factors of HIV dementia in an HIV clinic in Kampala, Uganda. We systematically sampled 78 HIV-seropositive (HIV+) patients from an ambulatory HIV clinic. Participants underwent detailed sociodemographic, medical history, functional, neurologic, and neuropsychological evaluations. One hundred HIV-negative patients were recruited to provide normative data for the neuropsychological tests. A logistic regression model was constructed to determine risk factors associated with the diagnosis of HIV dementia. Thirty-one percent (24 of 78) of the HIV+ patients had HIV dementia. Advanced age and low CD4(+) T-lymphocyte count (CD4 count) were the only variables identified as significant risk factors in the logistic regression model. Each additional 10 years of age conferred a greater than twofold risk of HIV dementia (OR 2.06, 95% CI: 1.05 to 4.07; p dementia (OR 1.6, 95% CI: 1.04 to 2.33; p dementia is common in HIV-seropositive Ugandan individuals attending an AIDS clinic. It is more frequently associated with patients of advanced age and decreased CD4 count.

  15. Risk of Cataract Surgery in HIV-Infected Individuals: A Danish Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Line D; Kessel, Line; Molander, Laleh D

    2011-01-01

    analogue reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) were estimated by Poisson regression analyses and adjusted for age, sex, and calendar year. Results. HIV-infected individuals had a higher risk of cataract surgery than the comparison cohort (adjusted IRR, 1.87; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1...... assessed the risk of cataract surgery in HIV-infected individuals compared with the general population. Methods. We identified 5315 HIV-infected individuals from a Danish national cohort of HIV-infected individuals and a population-based age- and sex-matched comparison cohort of 53¿150 individuals. Data...

  16. Risk of Cataract Surgery in HIV-Infected Individuals: A Danish Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Line D; Kessel, Line; Molander, Laleh D

    2011-01-01

    analogue reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) were estimated by Poisson regression analyses and adjusted for age, sex, and calendar year.Results. HIV-infected individuals had a higher risk of cataract surgery than the comparison cohort (adjusted IRR, 1.87; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1...... assessed the risk of cataract surgery in HIV-infected individuals compared with the general population.Methods. We identified 5315 HIV-infected individuals from a Danish national cohort of HIV-infected individuals and a population-based age- and sex-matched comparison cohort of 53 150 individuals. Data...

  17. HIV prevalence and associated risk factors among individuals aged 13-34 years in Rural Western Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauli N Amornkul

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To estimate HIV prevalence and characterize risk factors among young adults in Asembo, rural western Kenya. DESIGN: Community-based cross-sectional survey. METHODS: From a demographic surveillance system, we selected a random sample of residents aged 13-34 years, who were contacted at home and invited to a nearby mobile study site. Consent procedures for non-emancipated minors required assent and parental consent. From October 2003 - April 2004, consenting participants were interviewed on risk behavior and tested for HIV and HSV-2. HIV voluntary counseling and testing was offered. RESULTS: Of 2606 eligible residents, 1822 (70% enrolled. Primary reasons for refusal included not wanting blood taken, not wanting to learn HIV status, and partner/parental objection. Females comprised 53% of 1762 participants providing blood. Adjusted HIV prevalence was 15.4% overall: 20.5% among females and 10.2% among males. HIV prevalence was highest in women aged 25-29 years (36.5% and men aged 30-34 years (41.1%. HSV-2 prevalence was 40.0% overall: 53% among females, 25.8% among males. In multivariate models stratified by gender and marital status, HIV infection was strongly associated with age, higher number of sex partners, widowhood, and HSV-2 seropositivity. CONCLUSIONS: Asembo has extremely high HIV and HSV-2 prevalence, and probable high incidence, among young adults. Further research on circumstances around HIV acquisition in young women and novel prevention strategies (vaccines, microbicides, pre-exposure prophylaxis, HSV-2 prevention, etc. are urgently needed.

  18. Absence of transmission from HIV-infected individuals with HAART to their heterosexual serodiscordant partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Romero, Jorge; Río, Isabel; Castilla, Jesús; Baza, Begoña; Paredes, Vanessa; Vera, Mar; Rodríguez, Carmen

    2015-12-01

    Further studies are needed to evaluate the level of effectiveness and durability of HAART to reduce the risk of HIV sexual transmission in serodiscordant couples having unprotected sexual practices. A cross-sectional study was conducted with prospective cohort of heterosexual HIV serodiscordant couples where the only risk factor for HIV transmission to the uninfected partner (sexual partner) was the sexual relationship with the infected partner (index case). HIV prevalence in sexual partners at enrolment and seroconversions in follow-up were compared by antiretroviral treatment in the index partner, HIV plasma viral load in index cases and sexual risk exposures in sexual partners. In each visit, an evaluation of the risks for HIV transmission, preventive counselling and screening for genitourinary infections in the sexual partner was performed, as well as the determination of the immunological and virological situation and antiretroviral treatment in the index case. At enrolment no HIV infection was detected in 202 couples where the index case was taking HAART. HIV prevalence in sexual partners was 9.6% in 491 couples where the index case was not taking antiretroviral treatment (ptreatment, over 13,000 risky sexual exposures and 5 HIV seroconversions of sexual partners were recorded. The percentage of seroconversion among couples having risky sexual intercourse was 2.5 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1-5.6) when the index case did not undergo antiretroviral treatment and zero (95% CI: 0-3.2) when the index case received HAART. The risk of sexual transmission of HIV from individuals with HAART to their heterosexual partners can become extremely low. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  19. Nocardia beijingensis brain abscesses in an HIV-infected individual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolie Guevara Keenan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a case of a 50-year-old Hispanic man diagnosed with HIV/AIDS who presented with a generalized tonic clonic seizure and ring enhancing cerebral lesions on imaging. He was initially treated for CNS toxoplasmosis but presented to the hospital with another tonic clonic seizure despite prescribed therapy. Brain biopsy was performed which revealed Nocardia beijingensis. He was treated with intravenous meropenem and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole for six weeks followed by long term oral trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole with radiographic and clinical improvement.

  20. Neutralizing Antibody Response and Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity in HIV-1-Infected Individuals from Guinea-Bissau and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borggren, Marie; Jensen, Sanne Skov; Heyndrickx, Leo

    2016-01-01

    The development of therapeutic and prophylactic HIV vaccines for African countries is urgently needed, but the question of what immunogens to use needs to be answered. One approach is to include HIV envelope immunogens derived from HIV-positive individuals from a geographically concentrated epide...

  1. Prevalence and risk factors of Hepatitis C among individuals presenting to HIV testing centers, Hawassa city, Southern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sisay Zufan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV, either alone or in combination with Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV, constitutes a major public health concern. This study was conducted to describe the prevalence and risk factors for HCV infection in people with and without HIV infection. Methods Blood samples and data on socio-demographic and risk factors for HCV infection were collected from consecutive 400 HIV- positive and 400 HIV- negative individuals attending HIV testing centers in Hawassa city, from October to December, 2008. All sera were tested for antibody to HCV infection (anti-HCV using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Sera positive for anti-HCV were further tested for viral ribonucleic acid (RNA levels using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results The rate of anti-HCV positivity was 10.5% in the HIV- infected individuals compared with 6% in the HIV negative group (p = 0.002. HCV-RNA was detected in 9.1% of anti-HCV positive samples and rates were comparable between HIV- infected and HIV- non-infected individuals. There was no significant difference in odds of HCV infection in participants with and without HCV risk factors in either HIV sero-group. Conclusion HIV infected individuals had significantly higher rate of anti-HCV although most of them showed no evidence of viraemia. Hence, while priority should be given for HIV infected patients, testing those with anti-HCV for HCV-RNA remains important.

  2. A brief individualized computer-delivered sexual risk reduction intervention increases HIV/AIDS preventive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiene, Susan M; Barta, William D

    2006-09-01

    One objective of translational science is to identify elements of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk-reduction interventions that have been shown to be effective and find new ways of delivering these interventions to the community to ensure that they reach the widest possible audience of at-risk individuals. The current study reports the development and evaluation of a computer-delivered, theory-based, individually tailored HIV risk-reduction intervention. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a custom computerized HIV/AIDS risk reduction intervention at increasing HIV/AIDS preventive behaviors in a randomized trial with 157 college students. The intervention content and delivery were based on the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills Model of Health Behavior Change and used Motivational Interviewing techniques. Participants completed a baseline assessment of HIV prevention information, motivation, behavioral skills and behavior, attended two brief computer-delivered intervention sessions, and completed a follow-up assessment. As compared to the control group (a nutrition education tutorial), participants who interacted with the computer-delivered HIV/AIDS risk reduction intervention exhibited a significant increase in risk reduction behavior. Specifically, participants reported a greater frequency of keeping condoms available and displayed greater condom-related knowledge at a four-week follow-up session; among sexually active participants, there was a significant increase in self-reported condom use. Delivery of brief individually tailored HIV/AIDS risk reduction interventions via computer may be an effective HIV/AIDS prevention approach for adolescents. More research is needed to further support the effectiveness of this type of intervention and determine the generalizability of these findings to economically and educationally disadvantaged adolescents.

  3. Hepatitis delta in HIV-infected individuals in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soriano, Vincent; Grint, Daniel; Monforte, Antonellad'arminio

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND:: Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) infection results in the most aggressive form of chronic viral hepatitis. There is scarce information about the prevalence, epidemiology, virological profile and natural historyof hepatitis delta in HIV patients. METHODS:: From 16,597 HIV patients enrolled......-RNA was quantified using a real-time PCR method. RESULTS:: A total of 61/422 HBsAg+ carriers were anti-HDV+ (prevalence: 14.5%). Hepatitis delta predominated in intravenous drug users and for this reason in South and/or East Europe. Serum HDV-RNA was detectable in 87% of tested anti-HDV+ patients, with a median...... titer of 1.76x10¿copies/ml. Overall, delta hepatitis patients showed lower serum HBV-DNA than the rest of HBsAg+ carriers, although the inhibitory effect of HDV on HBV replication was not recognized in HBV genotype D patients.Whereas HDV was not associated with progression to AIDS, it significantly...

  4. Relationship between xerostomia and salivary flow rates in HIV-infected individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nittayananta, Wipawee; Chanowanna, Nilnara; Pruphetkaew, Nannapat; Nauntofte, Birgitte

    2013-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the relationship between self-reported xerostomia and salivary flow rates among HIV-infected individuals. A cross-sectional study was performed on 173 individuals (81 HIV-infected individuals, mean age: 32 years, and 92 non-HIV controls, mean age: 30 years). Subjective complaints of dry mouth, based on a self-report of xerostomia questions, and dry mouth, based on a visual analogue scale (VAS), were recorded along with measurements of salivary flow rate of both unstimulated and wax-stimulated whole saliva. The relationship between subjective responses to the xerostomia questions, the VAS of dry mouth, and objective measurements of salivary flow rates were analyzed. Responses to the questions--Do you carry water or a saliva substitute? and Have you had taste disturbance?--were significantly different between HIV-infected and non-HIV individuals (P hyposalivation, especially at a resting stage. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  5. Toxocara seropositivity, atopy and asthma: a study in Cuban schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanobana, K; Vereecken, K; Junco Diaz, R; Sariego, I; Rojas, L; Bonet Gorbea, M; Polman, K

    2013-04-01

    Evidence suggests that human toxocariasis (HT) could stimulate the onset of allergic diseases such as asthma. More specifically, in subjects having a hypothetical 'atopic genotype', HT could boost preexistent allergy symptoms. We tested the latter hypothesis in Cuba, a country where both asthma and HT are prevalent. In a group of Cuban school-aged children (n = 958), we investigated the association of Toxocara seropositivity and atopic status with asthma. Toxocara seropositivity was diagnosed with ELISA and atopy by allergen skin prick test. Both physician-diagnosed asthma and current wheeze, as determined by International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire, were considered. Associations were assessed using multivariable logistic regression analyses, with either 'physician-diagnosed asthma' or 'current wheeze' as outcome variable. 40.1% of the children were Toxocara seropositive. Prevalences were 21.7% for current wheeze and 32.7% for physician-diagnosed asthma. The odds of having asthma were almost two times higher in atopic children, but only reached borderline significance (OR=1.90, CI 95%: 0.95-3.80 for physician-diagnosed asthma and OR=1.94, CI 95%: 0.98-3.85 for current wheeze). Toxocara seropositivity and physician-diagnosed asthma were associated (OR=1.51, CI 95%: 1.01-2.26). Moreover, in children without antibodies to Toxocara, being atopic was significantly associated with having physician-diagnosed asthma (OR=2.53, CI 95%: 1.63-3.90), while this association was not present in Toxocara positives (OR=1.38, CI 95%: 0.82-2.37). Our data confirm previous observations of higher Toxocara seropositivity rates in asthmatic children. Toxocara seropositivity appeared to abrogate the apparent association between atopy and asthma in Cuban children. Although this observation was limited to physician-diagnosed asthma, it challenges the hypothesis that HT stimulates the onset of allergic diseases such as asthma in atopic individuals.

  6. HIV serostatus disclosure among gay and bisexual men in four American cities: general patterns and relation to sexual practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolitski, R J; Rietmeijer, C A; Goldbaum, G M; Wilson, R M

    1998-10-01

    The present study examined patterns of serostatus disclosure among previously untested HIV-seropositive and HIV-seronegative gay and bisexual men recruited from four American cities (n = 701). Six months after learning their HIV serostatus, 97% of study participants had disclosed their test results to at least one other individual. Consistent with earlier studies, test results were most frequently shared with friends and the respondent's primary partner. HIV serostatus was disclosed less frequently to family members, co-workers, and non-primary sex partners. Compared with HIV-seronegative men, HIV-seropositive men were more likely to have disclosed their status to a health care provider and less likely to have shared this information with family members. Of seropositive men, 11% did not disclose their serostatus to their primary partner and 66% did not disclose to a non-primary sex partner. Of HIV-seropositive men with one or more non-primary partners, 16% of those who did not disclose their serostatus reported inconsistent condom use during anal intercourse with these partners. No significant differences in self-reported sexual practices were observed for HIV-seropositive disclosers versus non-disclosers. Compared with HIV-seronegative men who did not disclose, seronegative men who shared information about their serostatus were more likely to have had receptive anal intercourse with their primary partner (p mutual masturbation (p < 0.005), receptive oral sex (p < 0.005) and insertive anal intercourse (p < 0.05) with non-primary partners. No significant differences were observed between disclosers and non-disclosers with regard to condom use. Implications of the findings for future research and HIV prevention programmes are discussed.

  7. Mandibular osteonecrosis and teeth exfoliation after herpes zoster infection in an HIV-inflicted individual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Chawla Arora

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Herpes zoster (HZ infection of the maxillary and mandibular divisions of the trigeminal nerve manifests orally as unilateral vesicular eruption localized to the skin and mucus membrane of the dermatome innervated by the trigeminal nerve. Herpes zoster infection has been observed in immunocompromised states like uncontrolled diabetes, cancer chemotherapy, lymphoproliferative diseases, and recently in HIV-positive patients. There are only a few case reports of osteonecrosis due to HZ in an HIV-positive patient in an Indian population, this being the first in a North Indian population. We propose that osteonecrosis should be considered as a strong indicator of HIV infection, especially in a developing country like India. The present case highlights the complexities which can arise in an HIV-inflicted individual suffering from HZ infection. Early diagnosis of such infections can lead to effective treatment and prevention of complications.

  8. Factors associated with D-dimer levels in HIV-infected individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borges, Alvaro H; O'Connor, Jemma L; Phillips, Andrew N

    2014-01-01

    with measured D-dimer levels were included (N = 9,848). Factors associated with D-dimer were identified by linear regression. Covariates investigated were: age, gender, race, body mass index, nadir and baseline CD4+ count, plasma HIV RNA levels, markers of inflammation (C-reactive protein [CRP], interleukin-6......BACKGROUND: Higher plasma D-dimer levels are strong predictors of mortality in HIV+ individuals. The factors associated with D-dimer levels during HIV infection, however, remain poorly understood. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, participants in three randomized controlled trials...... viruses, was positively correlated with D-dimer. Other factors independently associated with higher D-dimer levels were black race, higher plasma HIV RNA levels, being off ART at baseline, and increased levels of CRP, IL-6 and cystatin C. In contrast, higher baseline CD4+ counts and higher high...

  9. Rapid assay for simultaneous detection and differentiation of immunoglobulin G antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) group M, HIV-1 group O, and HIV-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallari, A S; Hickman, R K; Hackett, J R; Brennan, C A; Varitek, V A; Devare, S G

    1998-12-01

    A rapid immunodiagnostic test that detects and discriminates human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections on the basis of viral type, HIV type 1 (HIV-1) group M, HIV-1 group O, or HIV-2, was developed. The rapid assay for the detection of HIV (HIV rapid assay) was designed as an instrument-free chromatographic immunoassay that detects immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to HIV. To assess the performance of the HIV rapid assay, 470 HIV-positive plasma samples were tested by PCR and/or Western blotting to confirm the genotype of the infecting virus. These samples were infected with strains that represented a wide variety of HIV strains including HIV-1 group M (subtypes A through G), HIV-1 group O, and HIV-2 (subtypes A and B). The results showed that the HIV genotype identity established by the rapid assay reliably (469 of 470 samples) correlates with the HIV genotype identity established by PCR or Western blotting. A total of 879 plasma samples were tested for IgG to HIV by a licensed enzyme immunoassay (EIA) (470 HIV-positive samples and 409 HIV-negative samples). When they were tested by the rapid assay, 469 samples were positive and 410 were negative (99.88% agreement). Twelve seroconversion panels were tested by both the rapid assay and a licensed EIA. For nine panels identical results were obtained by the two assays. For the remaining three panels, the rapid assay was positive one bleed later in comparison to the bleed at which the EIA was positive. One hundred three urine samples, including 93 urine samples from HIV-seropositive individuals and 10 urine samples from seronegative individuals, were tested by the rapid assay. Ninety-one of the ninety-three urine samples from HIV-seropositive individuals were found to be positive by the rapid assay. There were no false-positive results (98.05% agreement). Virus in all urine samples tested were typed as HIV-1 group M. These results suggest that a rapid assay based on the detection of IgG specific for selected

  10. Use of non-antiretroviral drugs among individuals with and without HIV-infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Line D; Kronborg, Gitte; Larsen, Carsten S

    2017-01-01

    no injection drug abuse or hepatitis C infection. Population controls were identified from The Danish Civil Registration System and matched on age and gender (5:1). We analyzed the proportion of individuals who redeemed 0-1, 2-4, 5-9, or 10 or more non-antiretroviral drugs. Data were analyzed according...... considerably. Thus, use in the HIV-infected population only differed marginally from that of the background population in recent years. This difference was most pronounced in men who have sex with men (MSM). CONCLUSION: Compared to the background population, HIV infected individuals have increased use of non...

  11. Intracranial mass lesions in HIV-positive patients – the Kwazulu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Neurological disease heralds the development of AIDS in 10 - 20% of HIV-seropositive individuals. In over half of these cases the presentation will be that of an intracranial mass lesion (IML). In developed countries toxoplasmosis is the most frequent cause of IML in a positive patient, followed by primary central ...

  12. Regional adipose tissue and elevations in serum aminotransferases in HIV-infected individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tien, Phyllis C; Kotler, Donald P; Overton, E Turner; Lewis, Cora E; Rimland, David; Bacchetti, Peter; Scherzer, Rebecca; Gripshover, Barbara

    2008-06-01

    The association of fat distribution with alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) elevations is not well-defined in HIV-infected individuals. Obesity is associated with hepatic steatosis, and ALT is a marker of steatosis in the general population. Cross-sectional analysis of 1119 HIV-infected and 284 control subjects. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA testing determined HCV infection. Magnetic resonance imaging measured regional adipose tissue volume. After adjustment for demographic and lifestyle factors, visceral adipose tissue (VAT) was positively associated with ALT in HIV/HCV-coinfected subjects (+9.8%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.8 to 17.6), HIV-monoinfected subjects (+8.0%, 95% CI: 4.2 to 12.1), and controls (+5.9%, 95% CI: 2.0 to 10.1). In contrast, lower trunk subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) was negatively associated with ALT in HIV/HCV-coinfected subjects (-14.3%, 95% CI: -24.7 to -4.2) and HIV-monoinfected subjects (-11.9%, 95% CI: -18.4 to -5.3); there was a trend toward an association in controls (-7.1%, 95% CI: -22.7 to 5.9). Estimated associations between regional adipose tissue and AST were small and did not reach statistical significance. More VAT and less lower trunk SAT are associated with elevated ALT, which likely reflects the presence of steatosis. There was little association with AST. HCV infection and having more VAT or less lower trunk SAT are independently associated with elevated ALT in HIV infection. Study regarding the association between VAT, trunk SAT, HCV, and progression of steatosis and fibrosis is needed in HIV-infected individuals.

  13. Mulheres soropositivas para o HIV e seus companheiros frente à decisão pela gestação Mujeres seropositivas para el VIH y sus parejas frente a la decisión del embarazo HIV seropositive women and their partners facing the decision of a pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Peixoto Cordova

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Estudo exploratório descritivo, com abordagem qualitativa, que objetivou investigar os motivos que levam mulheres soropositivas para o HIV e seus companheiros a decidirem engravidar, tendo em vista o risco da transmissão vertical e da contaminação ou reinfecção do parceiro. Participaram do estudo seis gestantes. A coleta de dados foi realizada por questionário semiestruturado, sendo os dados organizados no software NVivo 2.0 e interpretados por meio da análise de conteúdo do tipo temática. Da análise emergiram três temas: Planejamento da Gravidez; Conhecimento sobre Transmissão e Tratamento do HIV/AIDS; Vivendo no Contexto HIV/AIDS. A importância do estudo reside no fato de que, apesar do risco da transmissão vertical e da contaminação do parceiro ser conhecido pelo casal, isto não interfere no desejo de serem pais.Estudio exploratorio descriptivo con abordaje de tipo cualitativo, cuyo objetivo fue investigar las razones por qué las mujeres VIH positivas y sus parejas deciden por el embarazo dado el riesgo de transmisión vertical, infección o reinfección de la pareja. Los participantes fueron seis mujeres embarazadas. La recolección de datos se realizó mediante un cuestionario semi-estructurado, con datos organizados en el software NVivo 2,0 y interpretados por intermedio del análisis de contenido temático. El análisis reveló tres temas: Planificación del embarazo; Conocimiento sobre la transmisión y tratamiento del VIH / SIDA; Vivir en el contexto del VIH/SIDA. La importancia del estudio radica en el hecho de que a pesar del riesgo de transmisión vertical y la contaminación de la pareja ser conocida por la pareja, esto no interfiera con el deseo de ser padres.The purpose of this qualitative, descriptive exploratory study is to investigate the reasons why HIV seropositive women and their partners make the decision of becoming pregnant despite the risk of vertical transmission, contamination or reinfection of the

  14. Ser gestante soropositivo para o Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana: uma leitura à luz do Interacionismo Simbólico Ser gestante seropositiva para el Virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana-HIV: una lectura bajo el marco teórico del Interaccionismo Simbólico Being pregnant seropositive and having acquired the human immunodeficiency Virus (HIV: a theoretical interpretation under the Symbolic Interactionism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilene Lins de Moura

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever o contexto do cotidiano vivido por mulheres grávidas soropositivas para o Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana (HIV, com enfoque na experiência de tornar-se grávida e assumir a gravidez. MÉTODOS: Os dados foram coletados por meio de entrevista gravada, com 14 gestantes sabidamente soropositivas para o HIV, que vivenciavam o terceiro trimestre de gravidez. O estudo fez uma leitura de dados brutos sobre expectativas e ações de gestantes soropositivas para o HIV, à luz do Interacionismo Simbólico. RESULTADOS: um dos aspectos encontrados mostrou que as mulheres HIV positivo assumem a gravidez, ainda que esta seja inesperada. CONCLUSÕES: os dados são um alerta para os profissionais de enfermagem que devem promover ações educativas para atender às demandas dessa mulher.OBJETIVO: Describir el contexto cotidiano vivido por mujeres embarazadas y seropositivas para el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (HIV, con enfoque en la experiencia de estar embarazada y aceptar ese estado. MÉTODOS: Los datos fueron recolectados por medio de entrevista grabada, con 14 gestantes sabidamente seropositivas para el HIV, que se encontraban en el tercer trimestre de embarazo. El estudio hizo una lectura de los datos brutos sobre expectativas y acciones de las gestantes seropositivas para el HIV, bajo el marco teórico del Interaccionismo Simbólico. RESULTADOS: Uno de los aspectos encontrados mostró que las mujeres infectadas con Sida aceptan el embarazo, inclusive cuando ocurre inesperadamente. CONCLUSIONES: Los datos sirven de para los profesionales de enfermería para que promuevan acciones educativas que atiendan las necesidades de esas mujeres.OBJECTIVE: To describe the context of everyday life experienced by pregnant women seropositive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, focusing on the experience of becoming pregnant and accepting that condition. METHODS: Data were collected recording interviews with 14 pregnant women known to

  15. The Relationship of Social Support and Neighborhood Perceptions among Individuals with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shacham, Enbal; López, Julia D; Önen, Nur F; Overton, Edgar T

    Social support has been noted to improve health outcomes for individuals with HIV. Understanding how neighborhoods contribute to feelings of social support is beneficial to create environments where populations with HIV can be supported. This study assessed the relationship between neighborhood perceptions and social support with HIV management. A total of 201 individuals were recruited; individuals with HIV, 18 years or older, who were eligible to participate in the 2-hour interview. Psychiatric diagnostic interviews were conducted alongside assessments of social support and neighborhood perceptions; biomedical markers were abstracted from medical records. Correlations and linear regression analyses were performed to assess relationships between social support and neighborhood perceptions with HIV management biomarkers. The majority of the sample was male (68.8%) and African American (72.3%), with a mean age of 43.1 years. Overall, 78% were receiving combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) prescriptions, with 69% being virally suppressed. Fear of neighborhood activities was independently associated with receiving current cART. Reports of social support and neighborhood perceptions were highly correlated. Findings suggest that supportive home environments likely would improve perceptions of social support.

  16. Restoring Cytokine Balance in HIV-Positive Individuals with Low CD4 T Cell Counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdivia, Anddre; Ly, Judy; Gonzalez, Leslie; Hussain, Parveen; Saing, Tommy; Islamoglu, Hicret; Pearce, Daniel; Ochoa, Cesar

    2017-01-01

    Abstract HIV infects and destroys CD4+ T cells leading to a compromised immune system. In a double-blinded study, a group of HIV-infected individuals with CD4+ T cell counts below 350 cells/mm3 were given either an empty liposomal supplement or a liposomal glutathione (L-GSH) supplement to take over a 3-month period. Baseline measurements in HIV-positive subjects show a significant decrease in levels of interleukin (IL)-12, IL-2, and interferon (IFN)-γ, along with a substantial increase in the levels of IL-6, IL-10, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, and free radicals, compared to healthy individuals. Supplementation of HIV-positive subjects with L-GSH for 3 months resulted in a notable increase in the levels of IL-12, IL-2, and IFN-γ, with a concomitant decrease in the levels of IL-6, IL-10, and free radicals, and stabilization in the levels of TGF-β, IL-1, and IL-17, compared to their placebo counterparts. Levels of free radicals in CD4+ T cells stabilized, while GSH levels increased in the treatment group. Those in the placebo group showed no significant difference throughout the study. In summary, supplementation with L-GSH in HIV-infected individuals with CD4+ T cell counts below 350 cells/mm3 can help restore redox homeostasis and cytokine balance, therefore aiding the immune system to control opportunistic infections. PMID:28398068

  17. HIV-Associated Neurocysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Kuljeet Singh; Wadhwa, Ankur; Garg, Jyoti; Mahajan, Rakesh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Few cases of HIV and neurocysticercosis co-infection have been reported till date. The symptomatic manifestation of cysticercosis may be further reduced by interactions between the 2 disease processes. In patients with HIV, the diagnosis of neurocysticercosis is challenging and management must be individualized depending on the stage and the coexistent opportunistic conditions. We present 2 such cases. First was a 35-year-old driver seropositive for HIV-1 presented with complex partial seizures and a CD4 count of 530 cells/mm(3). The second case was a 40-year-old businessman with a CD4 count of 350 cells/mm(3). Both of them had multiple parenchymal lesions, with 1 being a large cystic lesion. Relatively high CD4 count and a positive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay increased the likelihood for diagnosis and treatment. Both of our patients received cysticidal therapy, and none of them deteriorated with treatment. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for preventing HIV in high-risk individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okwundu, Charles I; Okoromah, Christy A N

    2009-01-21

    Twenty-five years into the global HIV/AIDS epidemic, infection rates remain alarmingly high, with over 4 million people becoming infected every year. There is a need for HIV prevention strategies that are more effective. Oral antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in high-risk individuals may be a reliable tool in preventing the transmission of HIV. To evaluate the risk reduction and side effects of antiretroviral chemoprophylaxis in preventing HIV infection in high-risk individuals We conducted electronic searches of MEDLINE (1980 through June 2008); the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (March 2008); EMBASE (June 2008); and AIDSearch (June 2008). We also searched the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform in June 2008 for ongoing or prospective trials. Randomized controlled trials that evaluated the effects of any antiretroviral agent in preventing HIV infection in high-risk individuals Data concerning outcomes, details of the interventions, and other study characteristics were extracted by two independent authors using a standardized data extraction form. The information gathered from each included trial were location of the trial, date, publication status, demographics of participants (e.g. age, gender, risk behaviour), exposure modality, type of antiretroviral drug used, duration of drug use, and outcomes. Relative risk with a 95% confidence interval (CI) was used as the measure of effect. Only one trial met our inclusion criteria, so we did not perform a meta-analysis. One randomised controlled trial met the criteria for the review, although it was not completed as planned. The trial did not have the statistical power to answer questions about the efficacy of antiretroviral PrEP for HIV prevention in the assessed risk group. Presently there is no reliable evidence to support the use of any antiretroviral agent for HIV chemoprophylaxis.The value of chemoprophylaxis for HIV prevention cannot be assessed on the basis of the

  19. How Do We Get Partners to Test for HIV?: Predictors of Uptake of Partner HIV Testing Following Individual Outpatient Provider Initiated HIV Testing in Rural Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiene, Susan M; Gbenro, Olumide; Sileo, Katelyn M; Lule, Haruna; Wanyenze, Rhoda K

    2017-08-01

    In a sample of outpatients (152 females, 152 males) receiving individual provider-initiated HIV testing and counselling (PITC) we aimed to identify factors associated with subsequent uptake of partner HIV testing. Purposively sampled outpatients receiving PITC at a Ugandan hospital completed a questionnaire immediately prior to testing for HIV, and then at 3 and 6 months post-test. By 6-month follow-up 96% of participants reported disclosing their HIV test results to their partner and 96.4% reported asking their partner to test. 38.8% of women and 78.9% of men reported that their partner tested and they knew their results. Recent (men AOR 5.84, 95.0% CI 1.90-17.99; women AOR 6.19, 95.0% CI 2.74-13.59) or any previous testing by the partner (women AOR 4.01, 95% CI 1.06-15.10) predicted uptake of partner testing by the 6-month follow-up. Among women, perceiving greater social support from their partner, which perhaps reflects better relationship quality, was predictive of their male partner testing for HIV (AOR 2.37, 95% CI 1.22-4.58). Notably intimate partner violence showed no negative association with partner testing. Our findings demonstrate that women are at a disadvantage compared to men in their ability to influence their partner to test for HIV, and that improving social support in intimate relationships should be a focus of HIV partner testing interventions. However, more research on interventions to improve partner testing is needed, particularly in identifying effective ways to support women in engaging their partners to test.

  20. Pulmonary effects of immediate versus deferred antiretroviral therapy in HIV-positive individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kunisaki, Ken M; Niewoehner, Dennis E; Collins, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Institute, US National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Division of AIDS, Agence Nationale de Recherches sur le SIDA et les Hipatites Virales (France), Australian National Health and Medical Research Council, Danish National Research Foundation, European AIDS Treatment Network, German Ministry......BACKGROUND: Observational data have been conflicted regarding the potential role of HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART) as a causative factor for, or protective factor against, COPD. We therefore aimed to investigate the effect of immediate versus deferred ART on decline in lung function in HIV......-positive individuals. METHODS: We did a nested substudy within the randomised, controlled Strategic Timing of Antiretroviral Treatment (START) trial at 80 sites in multiple settings in 20 high-income and low-to-middle-income countries. Participants were HIV-1 infected individuals aged at least 25 years, naive to ART...

  1. Laboratory Diagnosis Of Dual Hiv-1/Hiv-2 Infection In Ghanaian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the true prevalence of HIV dual infections in a previously characterised HIV seropositive patient group due to inconsistencies between different diagnostic methods. Design: A cross-sectional study of an HIV seropositive group with different diagnostic methods. Setting: Three hospitals in the Northern, ...

  2. The prevalence of renal impairment in individuals seeking HIV testing in Urban Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Nicola; Phiri, Sam; Bruckner, Tom; Nsona, Dominic; Tweya, Hannock; Ahrenshop, Nomeda; Neuhann, Florian

    2016-11-22

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) poses a major health threat to people living in low- and middle-income countries, especially when it is combined with HIV, antiretroviral treatment (ART) or communicable and non-communicable diseases. Data about the prevalence of CKD and its association with other diseases is scarce, particularly in HIV-negative individuals. This study estimated the prevalence of CKD in individuals who were either HIV-positive (and ART-naïve) or HIV-negative in an urban Malawian population. This cross-sectional study was conducted at a HIV Testing and Counselling Centre in Lilongwe, Malawi. Consecutive clients who were ≥18 years and consented to participate were enrolled over a 3-month period. Clients were screened for potential renal disease and other conditions. Their blood pressure was measured, urine examined via dipstick and albumin/creatinine ratio and blood drawn for creatinine, cystatin C and sero-markers for schistosomiasis. Estimated glomerular filtration (eGFR) rate was calculated using a cystatin C-based formula and classified according to the matching CKD stages by K/DOQI (The National Kidney Foundation Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative). We performed a descriptive analysis and compared differences between HIV-positive (and ART naïve) and -negative participants. Out of 381 consecutive clients who were approached between January and March 2012, 366 consented and 363 (48% female; 32% HIV-positive) were included in the analysis. Reasons for exclusion were missing samples or previous use of ART. HIV-positive and negative clients did not differ significantly with regard to age, sex or medical history, but they did differ for BMI-21.3 (±3.4) vs. 24 (±5.1), respectively (p < 0.001). Participants also differed with regard to serum cystatin C levels, but not creatinine. Reduced kidney function (according to CKD stages 2-5) was significantly more frequent 15.5 vs. 3.6%, respectively (p < 0.001) among HIV-positive clients

  3. Replication of CMV in the gut of HIV-infected individuals and epithelial barrier dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maidji, Ekaterina; Somsouk, Ma; Rivera, Jose M; Hunt, Peter W; Stoddart, Cheryl A

    2017-02-01

    Although invasive cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease is uncommon in the era of antiretroviral therapy (ART), asymptomatic CMV coinfection is nearly ubiquitous in HIV infected individuals. While microbial translocation and gut epithelial barrier dysfunction may promote persistent immune activation in treated HIV infection, potentially contributing to morbidity and mortality, it has been unclear whether CMV replication in individuals with no symptoms of CMV disease might play a role in this process. We hypothesized that persistent CMV replication in the intestinal epithelium of HIV/CMV-coinfected individuals impairs gut epithelial barrier function. Using a combination of state-of-the-art in situ hybridization technology (RNAscope) and immunohistochemistry, we detected CMV DNA and proteins and evidence of intestinal damage in rectosigmoid samples from CMV-positive individuals with both untreated and ART-suppressed HIV infection. Two different model systems, primary human intestinal cells differentiated in vitro to form polarized monolayers and a humanized mouse model of human gut, together demonstrated that intestinal epithelial cells are fully permissive to CMV replication. Independent of HIV, CMV disrupted tight junctions of polarized intestinal cells, significantly reducing transepithelial electrical resistance, a measure of monolayer integrity, and enhancing transepithelial permeability. The effect of CMV infection on the intestinal epithelium is mediated, at least in part, by the CMV-induced proinflammatory cytokine IL-6. Furthermore, letermovir, a novel anti-CMV drug, dampened the effects of CMV on the epithelium. Together, our data strongly suggest that CMV can disrupt epithelial junctions, leading to bacterial translocation and chronic inflammation in the gut and that CMV could serve as a target for therapeutic intervention to prevent or treat gut epithelial barrier dysfunction during HIV infection.

  4. Replication of CMV in the gut of HIV-infected individuals and epithelial barrier dysfunction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Maidji

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Although invasive cytomegalovirus (CMV disease is uncommon in the era of antiretroviral therapy (ART, asymptomatic CMV coinfection is nearly ubiquitous in HIV infected individuals. While microbial translocation and gut epithelial barrier dysfunction may promote persistent immune activation in treated HIV infection, potentially contributing to morbidity and mortality, it has been unclear whether CMV replication in individuals with no symptoms of CMV disease might play a role in this process. We hypothesized that persistent CMV replication in the intestinal epithelium of HIV/CMV-coinfected individuals impairs gut epithelial barrier function. Using a combination of state-of-the-art in situ hybridization technology (RNAscope and immunohistochemistry, we detected CMV DNA and proteins and evidence of intestinal damage in rectosigmoid samples from CMV-positive individuals with both untreated and ART-suppressed HIV infection. Two different model systems, primary human intestinal cells differentiated in vitro to form polarized monolayers and a humanized mouse model of human gut, together demonstrated that intestinal epithelial cells are fully permissive to CMV replication. Independent of HIV, CMV disrupted tight junctions of polarized intestinal cells, significantly reducing transepithelial electrical resistance, a measure of monolayer integrity, and enhancing transepithelial permeability. The effect of CMV infection on the intestinal epithelium is mediated, at least in part, by the CMV-induced proinflammatory cytokine IL-6. Furthermore, letermovir, a novel anti-CMV drug, dampened the effects of CMV on the epithelium. Together, our data strongly suggest that CMV can disrupt epithelial junctions, leading to bacterial translocation and chronic inflammation in the gut and that CMV could serve as a target for therapeutic intervention to prevent or treat gut epithelial barrier dysfunction during HIV infection.

  5. The Impact of Married Individuals Learning HIV Status in Malawi: Divorce, Number of Sexual Partners, and Condom Use With Spouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedor, Theresa M; Kohler, Hans-Peter; Behrman, Jere R

    2015-02-01

    This article assesses how married individuals' knowledge of HIV status gained through HIV testing and counseling (HTC) affects divorce, the number of sexual partners, and the use of condoms within marriage. This study improves upon previous studies on this topic because the randomized incentives affecting the propensity to be tested for HIV permit control for selective testing. Instrumental variable probit and linear models are estimated, using a randomized experiment administered as part of the Malawi Longitudinal Study of Families and Health (MLSFH). The results indicate that knowledge of HIV status (1) does not affect chances of divorce for either HIV-negative or HIV-positive respondents; (2) reduces the number of reported sexual partners among HIV-positive respondents; and (3) increases reported condom use with spouses for both HIV-negative and HIV-positive respondents. These results imply that individuals actively respond to information about their HIV status that they learn during HTC, invoking protective behavior against future risk of HIV/AIDS for themselves and their actual and potential sexual partners. Some limitations of this study are a small sample size for those who are HIV-positive and dependence on self-reported sexual behaviors.

  6. Effect of Immediate Initiation of Antiretroviral Treatment in HIV-Positive Individuals Aged 50 Years or Older

    OpenAIRE

    Lodi, S.; Costagliola, D.; Sabin, C.; Del Amo, J.; Logan, R.; Abgrall, S.; Reiss, P.; van Sighem, A.; Jose, S.; Blanco, J-R; Hernando, V.; Bucher, H. C.; Kovari, H.; Segura, F.; Ambrosioni, J.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Clinical guidelines recommend immediate initiation of combined antiretroviral therapy for all HIV-positive individuals. However, those guidelines are based on trials of relatively young participants. METHODS: We included HIV-positive antiretroviral therapy-naive, AIDS-free individuals aged 50-70 years after 2004 in the HIV-CAUSAL Collaboration. We used the parametric g-formula to estimate the 5-year risk of all-cause and non-AIDS mortality under (1) immediate initiation at baselin...

  7. HIV prevalence and demographic determinants of condomless receptive anal intercourse among trans feminine individuals in Beirut, Lebanon

    OpenAIRE

    Rachel L Kaplan; Justine McGowan; Wagner, Glenn J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Growing evidence suggests increased HIV incidence in the Middle East and North Africa among “key populations.” To date, epidemiological data have not accurately included and measured HIV prevalence and risk among trans feminine individuals in the region. Through the lens of the Gender Affirmation Framework, we assessed demographic correlates of risk behaviour and the prevalence of HIV among trans feminine individuals in Lebanon. Methods: Long-chain referral sampling was used to ...

  8. HIV-infected individuals with high coping self-efficacy are less likely to report depressive symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodkjaer, L; Chesney, M A; Lomborg, K

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Having effective ways to cope helps HIV-infected individuals maintain good psychological and physical well-being. This study investigated the relationship between coping self-efficacy levels, as determined by the Coping Self-Efficacy Scale (CSE), HIV status disclosure, and depression...... in a Danish cohort. METHODS: In 2008, the CSE was administered to 304 HIV-infected individuals to measure their confidence in their ability to cope with HIV infection. HIV status disclosure was assessed on a three-point scale: living openly with the disease, partly openly, or secretly. The Beck Depression....... Disclosing HIV may constitute a social stressor, and a lack of coping self-efficacy may increase the likelihood of non-disclosure and depression. Interventions that enhance self-efficacy may help in managing the demands of daily life with HIV, increase disclosure, and reduce depression....

  9. p21(WAF1/CIP1 RNA expression in highly HIV-1 exposed, uninfected individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Herbeck

    Full Text Available Some individuals remain HIV-1 antibody and PCR negative after repeated exposures to the virus, and are referred to as HIV-exposed seronegatives (HESN. However, the causes of resistance to HIV-1 infection in cases other than those with a homozygous CCR5Δ32 deletion are unclear. We hypothesized that human p21WAF1/CIP1 (a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor could play a role in resistance to HIV-1 infection in HESN, as p21 expression has been associated with suppression of HIV-1 in elite controllers and reported to block HIV-1 integration in cell culture. We measured p21 RNA expression in PBMC from 40 HESN and 40 low exposure HIV-1 seroconverters (LESC prior to their infection using a real-time PCR assay. Comparing the 20 HESN with the highest exposure risk (median = 111 partners/2.5 years prior to the 20 LESC with the lowest exposure risk (median = 1 partner/2.5 years prior, p21 expression trended higher in HESN in only one of two experiments (P = 0.11 vs. P = 0.80. Additionally, comparison of p21 expression in the top 40 HESN (median = 73 partners/year and lowest 40 LESC (median = 2 partners/year showed no difference between the groups (P = 0.84. There was a weak linear trend between risk of infection after exposure and increasing p21 gene expression (R2 = 0.02, P = 0.12, but again only in one experiment. Hence, if p21 expression contributes to the resistance to viral infection in HESN, it likely plays a minor role evident only in those with extremely high levels of exposure to HIV-1.

  10. A Comparative Analysis of Intestinal Parasitic Infections between HIV+/AIDS Patients and Non-HIV Infected Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EB Kia

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to verify the occurrence of intestinal parasitic infections in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS patients in Iran in comparison with non-HIV individuals. Methods: A total of HIV+/AIDS patients (Group I and 1220 clinically healthy individuals (Group II were submitted to coproparasitological examination from 2003 to 2005. Results: The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites in group I and group II was 11.4% and 11.6%, respectively, without significant difference between two groups. The prevalence of infection for each helminth and pathogenic protozoan, in every group, was as follows: Group I: Blastocystis hominis (6.1%; Giardia lamblia (4.2%; Cryptosporidium spp. (0.9%; Isospora belli (0.26%; Strongyloides stercoralis (0.26%; Hymenolepis nana (0.13%; and Rhabditis axei (0.13%. Group II: Blastocystis hominis (6.5%; Giardia lamblia (4.1%; Strongyloides stercoralis (0.33%; Hymenolepis nana (0.16%; and Trichostrongylus sp. (0.16%. Although the prevalence of infection for extracellular parasites was not statistically different between two groups, however, the infection rates for enteric coccidians including Cryptosporidium spp. and I. belli were significantly higher in patients at AIDS stage than Group II. Conclusion: The results emphasize the needs for especial consideration of enteropathogenic intracellular coccidians in immunocompromised patients.

  11. HIV-related stigma and symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder and depression in HIV-infected individuals: does social support play a mediating or moderating role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breet, Elsie; Kagee, Ashraf; Seedat, Soraya

    2014-01-01

    HIV stigma plays a major role in the etiology of psychological distress among persons living with HIV, but may be ameliorated by social support. This cross-sectional study examined whether social support mediates or moderates the relationship between HIV stigma and psychological symptoms. We recruited a convenience sample of 210 individuals living with HIV in three peri-urban communities in the Western Cape, South Africa. People living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA) completed self-report questionnaires that assessed HIV-related stigma, social support, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. Product-term regression analyses showed that social support played a mediating role in the relationship between HIV-related stigma and symptoms of PTSD (not depression). Social support did not, however, moderate the relationship between HIV-related stigma and PTSD or depression. The results indicate that perceived HIV-related stigma may decrease PLWHA's perceived level of social support, which in turn may increase PTSD symptoms. Moreover, these findings suggest that despite the protective role of social support, there are other factors that affect the relationship between HIV-related stigma and mental health that hinder the buffering role of social support in this relationship. These findings may have implications for designing and implementing interventions that increase perceived social support and decrease perceived HIV-related stigma, which in turn may decrease symptoms of PTSD among PLWHA.

  12. Mortality of treated HIV-1 positive individuals according to viral subtype in Europe and Canada

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, Niels

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To estimate prognosis by viral subtype in HIV-1-infected individuals from start of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and after viral failure. DESIGN: Collaborative analysis of data from eight European and three Canadian cohorts. METHODS: Adults (N>20 000) who started triple ART between 199...

  13. The Function of CD3+CD56+ NKT-Like Cells in HIV-Infected Individuals

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    Yongjun Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available CD3+CD56+ NKT-like cells are one of the critical effectors in the immune response to viral infection and tumors, but the functional features of NKT-like cells in HIV infection have been rarely reported. In this study, we observed and described the state of NKT-like cell functions in primary HIV-infected individuals (PHIs, chronic HIV-infected individuals (CHIs, long-term nonprogressors (LTNPs, and HIV-negative controls (NCs. The results showed that the percentage of IFN-γ+CD3+CD56+ NKT-like cells was notably higher in LTNPs compared with CHIs, and the proportion of CD3+CD56+ NKT-like cells with dual function (IFN-γ+CD107a+ NKT-like cells in LTNPs was also much higher than in CHIs. Additionally, the percentages of IFN-γ+CD107a+ NKT-like cells negatively correlated with viral load. Taken together, our data demonstrated that good functions of CD3+CD56+ NKT-like cells in LTNPs likely occurred as a protective mechanism that slows down HIV disease progression.

  14. Outcomes of acutely HIV-1-infected individuals following rapid antiretroviral therapy initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girometti, Nicolò; Nwokolo, Nneka; McOwan, Alan; Whitlock, Gary

    2017-01-01

    Few data exist on the benefits and acceptability of rapid initiation of antiretroviral treatment in acute HIV infection (AHI). We analysed a large cohort of acutely infected HIV patients starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) to determine uptake, linkage into care and time to achieve viral suppression. Case notes of all individuals diagnosed with AHI between May 2014 and October 2015 at 56 Dean Street, a sexual health clinic in London, UK were reviewed. AHI was defined through documentation of plasma HIV RNA positivity only, plasma HIV RNA and p24 antigen positivity with a negative HIV enzyme immunoassay (EIA) test or HIV EIA test switching from negative to positive within 6 weeks. Between-group comparisons of time to viral suppression according to ART chosen were performed using the log-rank test. We identified 113 individuals with AHI. Linkage to care was 95%. 77% of patients started ART at first medical appointment: all men who have sex with men, median age 35 years, median viral load (VL) log10 6.45, median CD4+ T-cell count 483 cells/mm3. Median time from diagnosis to ART initiation was 20 days. At 24 weeks, no patients had discontinued ART; 99% of patients achieved viral suppression by 24 weeks, with a median time to documented VL suppression of 74 days. Viral suppression was more rapid with integrase inhibitors compared with other regimens (median 41 versus 88.5 days, PHIV infection, individuals demonstrated high ART uptake and rapid VL suppression suggesting that early treatment with antiretrovirals is acceptable and efficacious.

  15. Simple and practical screening approach to identify HIV-infected individuals with depression or at risk of developing depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodkjaer, L; Gabel, C; Laursen, T

    2016-01-01

    of depression. METHODS: The Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) was used to assess the prevalence and severity of depressive symptoms among HIV-infected individuals attending two out-patient clinics in Denmark. HIV-infected individuals with a BDI-II score ≥ 20 were offered a clinical evaluation......OBJECTIVES: Studies have shown that depression and other mental illnesses are under-diagnosed among HIV-infected individuals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of mental health history and questionnaire-based screening instruments to identify HIV-infected individuals at risk...... by a consultant psychiatrist. The BDI-II score was compared to the outcome of mental health history review, and to results obtained using the European AIDS Clinical Society (EACS) two-item depression screening tool. RESULTS: A total of 501 HIV-infected individuals were included in the study. Symptoms of moderate...

  16. Patterns and characteristics of hepatitis C transmission clusters among HIV-positive and HIV-negative individuals in the Australian trial in acute hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, G V; Pham, S T; Hellard, M; Grebely, J; Zhang, L; Oon, A; Marks, P; van Beek, I; Rawlinson, W; Kaldor, J M; Lloyd, A; Dore, G J; White, P A

    2011-03-15

    Injecting drug users remain the population at greatest risk of acquiring hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, although a recent increase in cases of sexually transmitted HCV infection has been observed among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. The extent to which these separate epidemics overlap is unknown. The Australian Trial in Acute Hepatitis C (ATAHC) enrolled 163 individuals (29% of whom were HIV infected) with recent HCV infection. E1/HVR1 sequences were used to construct phylogenetic trees demonstrating monophyletic clusters or pairs, and viral epidemic history and phylogeography were assessed using molecular clock analysis. Individual clusters were characterized by clinical and demographic characteristics. Transmission through injection drug use occurred for 73% of subjects, with sexual transmission occurring for 18% (92% of whom were HIV infected). Among 112 individuals with available E1/HVR1 sequences, 23 (20%) were infected with a strain of HCV identical to that of another subject, comprising 4 homologous clusters and 3 monophyletic pairs, the majority of which (78%) were HIV infected. Clusters contained individuals with both injection drug use-related and sex-related acquisition, and in all clusters (except for 1 female HIV-uninfected pair), individuals identified as men who have sex with men, irrespective of HIV status. This large unique study of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected individuals with recently acquired HCV infection demonstrates that clustering is common in the HIV-infected population and that it occurred almost invariably among men who have sex with men, irrespective of the actual mode of acquisition. These findings suggest the coexistence of both injection drug use and sexual risk behaviors for individuals in the same social networks and have implications for the development of public health messages. Clinical trial registration. NCT00192569.

  17. Qualitative study of the quality of sleep in marginalized individuals living with HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saberi P

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Parya Saberi,1 Megan Comfort,2 Nicolas Sheon,1 Mallory O Johnson1 1Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA; 2RTI International, San Francisco, CA, USA Abstract: Sleep disturbances have been reported to be higher in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-infected individuals compared to the general population. Despite the consequences of poor quality of sleep (QOS, research regarding sleep disturbances in HIV infection is lacking and many questions regarding correlates of poor QOS, especially in marginalized populations, remain unanswered. We conducted one-on-one qualitative interviews with 14 marginalized HIV-infected individuals who reported poor QOS to examine self-reported correlates of sleep quality and explore the relationship between QOS and antiretroviral adherence. Findings suggest a complex and multidimensional impact of mental health issues, structural factors, and physical conditions on QOS of these individuals. Those reporting poor QOS as a barrier to antiretroviral adherence reported lower adherence due to falling asleep or feeling too tired to take medications in comparison to those who did not express this adherence barrier. These interviews underscore the importance of inquiries into a patient's QOS as an opportunity to discuss topics such as adherence, depression, suicidal ideation and substance use. Keywords: adherence, HIV/AIDS, interviews, qualitative research, sleep

  18. HIV drug resistance in HIV positive individuals under antiretroviral treatment in Shandong Province, China.

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    Bin Lin

    Full Text Available The efficacy of antiretroviral drugs is limited by the development of drug resistance. Therefore, it is important to examine HIV drug resistance following the nationwide implementation of drug resistance testing in China since 2009. We conducted drug resistance testing in patients who were already on or new to HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART in Shandong Province, China, from 2011 to 2013, and grouped them based on the presence or absence of drug resistance to determine the effects of age, gender, ethnicity, marital status, educational level, route of transmission and treatment status on drug resistance. We then examined levels of drug resistance the following year. The drug resistance rates of HIV patients on ART in Shandong from 2011 to 2013 were 3.45% (21/608, 3.38% (31/916, and 4.29% (54/1259, per year, respectively. M184V was the most frequently found point mutation, conferring resistance to the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, while Y181C, G190A, K103N and V179D/E/F were the most frequent point mutations conferring resistance to the non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor. In addition, the protease inhibitor drug resistance mutations I54V and V82A were identified for the first time in Shandong Province. Primary resistance accounts for 20% of the impact factors for drug resistance. Furthermore, it was found that educational level and treatment regimen were high-risk factors for drug resistance in 2011 (P<0.05, while treatment regimen was a high risk factor for drug resistance in 2012 and 2013 (P<0.05. Among the 106 drug-resistant patients, 77 received immediate adjustment of treatment regimen following testing, and 69 (89.6% showed a reduction in drug resistance the following year. HIV drug resistance has a low prevalence in Shandong Province. However, patients on second line ART regimens and those with low educational level need continuous monitoring. Active drug resistance testing can effectively prevent the development

  19. HIV Maintains an Evolving and Dispersed Population in Multiple Tissues during Suppressive Combined Antiretroviral Therapy in Individuals with Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Rebecca; Lamers, Susanna L; Nolan, David J; Maidji, Ekaterina; Faria, N R; Pybus, Oliver G; Dollar, James J; Maruniak, Samuel A; McAvoy, Andrew C; Salemi, Marco; Stoddart, Cheryl A; Singer, Elyse J; McGrath, Michael S

    2016-10-15

    While combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) can result in undetectable plasma viral loads, it does not eradicate HIV infection. Furthermore, HIV-infected individuals while on cART remain at an increased risk of developing serious comorbidities, such as cancer, neurological disease, and atherosclerosis, suggesting that during cART, tissue-based HIV may contribute to such pathologies. We obtained DNA and RNA env, nef, and pol sequences using single-genome sequencing from postmortem tissues of three HIV(+) cART-treated (cART(+)) individuals with undetectable viral load and metastatic cancer at death and performed time-scaled Bayesian evolutionary analyses. We used a sensitive in situ hybridization technique to visualize HIV gag-pol mRNA transcripts in cerebellum and lymph node tissues from one patient. Tissue-associated virus evolved at similar rates in cART(+) and cART-naive (cART(-)) patients. Phylogenetic trees were characterized by two distinct features: (i) branching patterns consistent with constant viral evolution and dispersal among tissues and (ii) very recently derived clades containing both DNA and RNA sequences from multiple tissues. Rapid expansion of virus near death corresponded to wide-spread metastasis. HIV RNA(+) cells clustered in cerebellum tissue but were dispersed in lymph node tissue, mirroring the evolutionary patterns observed for that patient. Activated, infiltrating macrophages were associated with HIV RNA. Our data provide evidence that tissues serve as a sanctuary for wild-type HIV during cART and suggest the importance of macrophages as an alternative reservoir and mechanism of virus spread. Combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) reduces plasma HIV to undetectable levels; however, removal of cART results in plasma HIV rebound, thus highlighting its inability to entirely rid the body of infection. Additionally, HIV-infected individuals on cART remain at high risk of serious diseases, which suggests a contribution from residual HIV. In

  20. Intravaginal practices, bacterial vaginosis, and HIV infection in women: individual participant data meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Low

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Identifying modifiable factors that increase women's vulnerability to HIV is a critical step in developing effective female-initiated prevention interventions. The primary objective of this study was to pool individual participant data from prospective longitudinal studies to investigate the association between intravaginal practices and acquisition of HIV infection among women in sub-Saharan Africa. Secondary objectives were to investigate associations between intravaginal practices and disrupted vaginal flora; and between disrupted vaginal flora and HIV acquisition.We conducted a meta-analysis of individual participant data from 13 prospective cohort studies involving 14,874 women, of whom 791 acquired HIV infection during 21,218 woman years of follow-up. Data were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. The level of between-study heterogeneity was low in all analyses (I(2 values 0.0%-16.1%. Intravaginal use of cloth or paper (pooled adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 1.47, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18-1.83, insertion of products to dry or tighten the vagina (aHR 1.31, 95% CI 1.00-1.71, and intravaginal cleaning with soap (aHR 1.24, 95% CI 1.01-1.53 remained associated with HIV acquisition after controlling for age, marital status, and number of sex partners in the past 3 months. Intravaginal cleaning with soap was also associated with the development of intermediate vaginal flora and bacterial vaginosis in women with normal vaginal flora at baseline (pooled adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.24, 95% CI 1.04-1.47. Use of cloth or paper was not associated with the development of disrupted vaginal flora. Intermediate vaginal flora and bacterial vaginosis were each associated with HIV acquisition in multivariable models when measured at baseline (aHR 1.54 and 1.69, p<0.001 or at the visit before the estimated date of HIV infection (aHR 1.41 and 1.53, p<0.001, respectively.This study provides evidence to suggest that some intravaginal practices increase

  1. Search for the presence of six Mycoplasma species in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of subjects seropositive and seronegative for human immunodeficiency virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Kovacic, R; Launay, V; Tuppin, P; Lafeuillade, A; Feuillie, V; Montagnier, L; Grau, O

    1996-01-01

    The prevalence of Mycoplasma fermentans, Mycoplasma pirum, Mycoplasma genitalium, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Mycoplasma hominis, and Mycoplasma penetrans was investigated by using specific PCR assays with peripheral blood mononuclear cells from subjects infected or not infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Only M. fermentans was detected in 5.8% of 154 HIV-seropositive and 11.1% of 90 HIV-seronegative subjects.

  2. Racial differences in chronic kidney disease incidence and progression among individuals with HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crews, Deidra C; Jaar, Bernard G

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY This Practice Point commentary discusses the findings of Lucas et al.’s longitudinal cohort study of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in African American and white individuals with HIV. The study found that—compared with whites—African Americans had a slightly increased risk of incident CKD, but markedly increased rates of estimated glomerular filtration rate decline and progression to end-stage renal disease. This commentary details the clinical implications and limitations of these findings in the context of known racial differences in CKD prevalence and progression to end-stage renal disease in the general population and highlights the importance of screening high-risk HIV patients for kidney disease. CKD is common among HIV patients, and—as in the general population—has a more-aggressive course among African Americans than whites. PMID:18813233

  3. Serological Response to Treatment of Syphilis with Doxycycline Compared with Penicillin in HIV-infected Individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salado-Rasmussen, Kirsten; Hoffmann, Steen; Cowan, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Serological response to treatment of syphilis with orally administered doxycycline or intramuscularly administered penicillin was assessed in patients with concurrent HIV. All HIV-infected individuals diagnosed with syphilis attending 3 hospitals in Copenhagen, Denmark were included. Odds ratios......%) treated with doxycycline and in 8 cases (17%) treated with penicillin (OR 0.78 (95% CI 0.16-3.88), p = 0.76). The serological cure rate at 12 months was highest in patients with primary syphilis (100%), followed by patients with secondary (89%), early latent (71%) and late latent (67%) syphilis (p = 0.......006). In conclusion, this study provides evidence for the use of doxycycline as a treatment option when treating a HIV-infected population for syphilis....

  4. Pace of Coreceptor Tropism Switch in HIV-1-Infected Individuals after Recent Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, Muhammad Shoaib; Hunter, James; Léda, Ana Rachel; Zukurov, Jean Paulo Lopes; Samer, Sadia; Camargo, Michelle; Galinskas, Juliana; Kallás, Esper Georges; Komninakis, Shirley Vasconcelos; Janini, Luiz Mario; Sucupira, Maria Cecilia; Diaz, Ricardo Sobhie

    2017-10-01

    HIV-1 entry into target cells influences several aspects of HIV-1 pathogenesis, including viral tropism, HIV-1 transmission and disease progression, and response to entry inhibitors. The evolution from CCR5- to CXCR4-using strains in a given human host is still unpredictable. Here we analyzed timing and predictors for coreceptor evolution among recently HIV-1-infected individuals. Proviral DNA was longitudinally evaluated in 66 individuals using Geno2pheno[coreceptor] Demographics, viral load, CD4+ and CD8+ T cell counts, CCR5Δ32 polymorphisms, GB virus C (GBV-C) coinfection, and HLA profiles were also evaluated. Ultradeep sequencing was performed on initial samples from 11 selected individuals. A tropism switch from CCR5- to CXCR4-using strains was identified in 9/49 (18.4%) individuals. Only a low baseline false-positive rate (FPR) was found to be a significant tropism switch predictor. No minor CXCR4-using variants were identified in initial samples of 4 of 5 R5/non-R5 switchers. Logistic regression analysis showed that patients with an FPR of >40.6% at baseline presented a stable FPR over time whereas lower FPRs tend to progressively decay, leading to emergence of CXCR4-using strains, with a mean evolution time of 27.29 months (range, 8.90 to 64.62). An FPR threshold above 40.6% determined by logistic regression analysis may make it unnecessary to further determine tropism for prediction of disease progression related to emergence of X4 strains or use of CCR5 antagonists. The detection of variants with intermediate FPRs and progressive FPR decay over time not only strengthens the power of Geno2pheno in predicting HIV tropism but also indirectly confirms a continuous evolution from earlier R5 variants toward CXCR4-using strains.IMPORTANCE The introduction of CCR5 antagonists in the antiretroviral arsenal has sparked interest in coreceptors utilized by HIV-1. Despite concentrated efforts, viral and human host features predicting tropism switch are still poorly

  5. Forecast analysis of any opportunistic infection among HIV positive individuals on antiretroviral therapy in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubaihayo, John; Tumwesigye, Nazarius M; Konde-Lule, Joseph; Makumbi, Fredrick

    2016-08-11

    Predicting future prevalence of any opportunistic infection (OI) among persons infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in resource poor settings is important for proper planning, advocacy and resource allocation. We conducted a study to forecast 5-years prevalence of any OI among HIV-infected individuals on HAART in Uganda. Monthly observational data collected over a 10-years period (2004-2013) by the AIDS support organization (TASO) in Uganda were used to forecast 5-years annual prevalence of any OI covering the period 2014-2018. The OIs considered include 14 AIDS-defining OIs, two non-AIDS defining OIs (malaria & geohelminths) and HIV-associated Kaposi's sarcoma. Box-Jenkins autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) forecasting methodology was used. Between 2004 and 2013, a total of 36,133 HIV patients were enrolled on HAART of which two thirds (66 %) were female. Mean annual prevalence for any OI in 2004 was 57.6 % and in 2013 was 27.5 % (X(2) trend = 122, b = -0.0283, p forecasted mean annual prevalence of any OI was 26.1 % (95 % CI 21.1-31.0 %) in 2014 and 15.3 % (95 % CI 10.4-20.3 %) in 2018. While the prevalence of any OI among HIV positive individuals on HAART in Uganda is expected to decrease overall, it's unlikely that OIs will be completely eliminated in the foreseeable future. There is therefore need for continued efforts in prevention and control of opportunistic infections in all HIV/AIDS care programmes in these settings.

  6. HIV epidemiology and responses among men who have sex with men and transgender individuals in China: a scoping review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songyuan Tang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite global efforts to control HIV among key populations, new infections among men who have sex with men (MSM and transgender (TG individuals are still increasing. The increasing HIV epidemic among MSM/TG in China indicates that more effective services are urgently needed. However, policymakers and program managers must have a clear understanding of MSM/TG sexual health in China to improve service delivery. To meet this need, we undertook a scoping review to summarize HIV epidemiology and responses among MSM and TG individuals in China. Methods We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library for recent studies on MSM/TG HIV epidemiology and responses. We also included supplemental articles, grey literature, government reports, policy documents, and best practice guidelines. Results Overall, HIV prevalence among Chinese MSM was approximately 8 % in 2015 with a higher prevalence observed in Southwest China. TG are not captured in national HIV, STD, or other sexual health surveillance systems. There is limited data sharing between the public health authorities and community-based organizations (CBOs. Like other low and middle income countries, China is challenged by low rates of HIV testing, linkage, and retention. Several pilot interventions have been shown to be effective to increase HIV testing among MSM and TG individuals, but have not been widely scaled up. Data from two randomized controlled trials suggests that crowdsourcing contests can increase HIV testing, creating demand for services while engaging communities. Conclusion Improving HIV surveillance and expanding HIV interventions for Chinese MSM and TG individuals are essential. Further implementation research is needed to ensure high-quality HIV services for MSM and TG individuals in China.

  7. The tradition algorithm approach underestimates the prevalence of serodiagnosis of syphilis in HIV-infected individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin; Peng, Xiuming; Xie, Tiansheng; Jin, Changzhong; Liu, Fumin; Wu, Nanping

    2017-07-01

    Currently, there are three algorithms for screening of syphilis: traditional algorithm, reverse algorithm and European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) algorithm. To date, there is not a generally recognized diagnostic algorithm. When syphilis meets HIV, the situation is even more complex. To evaluate their screening performance and impact on the seroprevalence of syphilis in HIV-infected individuals, we conducted a cross-sectional study included 865 serum samples from HIV-infected patients in a tertiary hospital. Every sample (one per patient) was tested with toluidine red unheated serum test (TRUST), T. pallidum particle agglutination assay (TPPA), and Treponema pallidum enzyme immunoassay (TP-EIA) according to the manufacturer's instructions. The results of syphilis serological testing were interpreted following different algorithms respectively. We directly compared the traditional syphilis screening algorithm with the reverse syphilis screening algorithm in this unique population. The reverse algorithm achieved remarkable higher seroprevalence of syphilis than the traditional algorithm (24.9% vs. 14.2%, p syphilis in HIV-infected populations. In addition, our study demonstrated that screening of HIV-populations using different algorithms may result in a statistically different seroprevalence of syphilis.

  8. A CCL5 Haplotype Is Associated with Low Seropositivity Rate of HCV Infection in People Who Inject Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huik, Kristi; Avi, Radko; Pauskar, Merit; Kallas, Eveli; Jõgeda, Ene-Ly; Karki, Tõnis; Rüütel, Kristi; Talu, Ave; Abel-Ollo, Katri; Uusküla, Anneli; Carrillo, Andrew; Ahuja, Sunil K; He, Weijing; Lutsar, Irja

    2016-01-01

    The role of CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) and its ligand CCL5 on the pathogenesis of HIV infection has been well studied but not for HCV infection. Here, we investigated whether CCL5 haplotypes influence HIV and HCV seropositivity among 373 Caucasian people who inject drugs (PWID) from Estonia. Study included 373 PWID; 56% were HIV seropositive, 44% HCV seropositive and 47% co-infected. Four CCL5 haplotypes (A-D) were derived from three CCL5 polymorphisms (rs2107538/rs2280788/rs2280789) typed by Taqman allelic discrimination assays. The data of CCR5 haplotypes were used from our previous study. The association between CCL5 haplotypes with HIV and/or HCV seropositivity was determined using logistic regression analysis. Possessing CCL5 haplotype D (defined by rs2107538A/rs2280788G/rs2280789C) decreased the odds of HCV seropositivity compared to those not possessing it (OR = 0.19; 95% CI 0.09-0.40), which remained significant after adjustment to co-variates (OR = 0.08; 95% CI 0.02-0.29). An association of this haplotype with HIV seropositivity was not found. In step-wise logistic regression with backward elimination CCL5 haplotype D and CCR5 HHG*1 had reduced odds for HCV seropositivity (OR = 0.28 95% CI 0.09-0.92; OR = 0.23 95% CI 0.08-0.68, respectively) compared to those who did not possess these haplotypes, respectively. Our results suggest that among PWID CCL5 haplotype D and CCR5 HHG*1 independently protects against HCV. Our findings highlight the importance of CCL5 genetic variability and CCL5-CCR5 axis on the susceptibility to HCV.

  9. Suicidal Ideation Persists Among Individuals Engaged in HIV Care in the Era of Antiretroviral Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, J D; Shacham, E; Brown, T

    2017-01-06

    Little research has focused on suicidality in the era of successful antiretroviral therapy among those engaged in HIV care. We performed a study of 648 clinic patients who completed a psychological and behavioral annual assessment in 2012. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), suicidal ideation was measured by the last item of the scale. Anxiety symptoms were measured using the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 questionnaire (GAD-7). HIV biomedical markers were abstracted from medical records. Suicidal ideation was reported among 13% (n = 81) of the sample. Individuals endorsing suicidality were more likely to have unsuppressed viral loads, moderate to severe anxiety symptoms and consider themselves to be homeless (p < 0.01 for all). After adjusting for confounders, homeless individuals and those endorsing moderate to severe anxiety symptoms had higher odds of reporting suicidality. Results suggest basic needs must be met to complement HIV management efforts. Furthermore, better understanding of how psychological distress symptoms are expressed and how to manage them may better inform barriers to HIV management.

  10. Increasing trends in primary NNRTI resistance among newly HIV-1-diagnosed individuals in Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Rodrigues, Nahuel; Duran, Adriana; Bouzas, María Belen; Zapiola, Ines; Vila, Marcelo; Indyk, Debbie; Bissio, Emiliano; Salomon, Horacio; Dilernia, Dario A

    2013-01-01

    Objective Our objective was to estimate primary resistance in an urban setting in a developing country characterized by high antiretroviral (ARV) coverage over the diagnosed population and also by an important proportion of undiagnosed individuals, in order to determine whether any change in primary resistance occurred in the past five years. Design We carried out a multi-site resistance surveillance study according to WHO HIV resistance guidelines, using a weighted sampling technique based on annual HIV case reports per site. Methods Blood samples were collected from 197 drug-naive HIV-1-infected individuals diagnosed between March 2010 and August 2011 at 20 HIV voluntary counselling and testing centres in Buenos Aires. Clinical records of enrolled patients at the time of diagnosis were compiled. Viral load and CD4 counts were performed on all samples. The pol gene was sequenced and the resistance profile determined. Phylogenetic analysis was performed by neighbour-joining (NJ) trees and bootscanning analysis. Results We found that 12 (7.9%) of the 152 successfully sequenced samples harboured primary resistance mutations, of which K103N and G190A were the most prevalent. Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI) resistance mutations were largely the most prevalent (5.9%), accounting for 75% of all primary resistance and exhibiting a significant increase (p=0.0072) in prevalence during the past 10 years as compared to our previous study performed in 1997–2000 and in 2003–2005. Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) and protease inhibitor primary resistance were low and similar to the one previously reported. Conclusions Levels of primary NNRTI resistance in Buenos Aires appear to be increasing in the context of a sustained ARV coverage and a high proportion of undiagnosed HIV-positive individuals. PMID:24093951

  11. Hypertension, cardiovascular risk factors and antihypertensive medication utilisation among HIV-infected individuals in Rakai, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Laura D; Newell, Kevin; Ssebbowa, Paschal; Serwadda, David; Quinn, Thomas C; Gray, Ronald H; Wawer, Maria J; Mondo, George; Reynolds, Steven

    2015-03-01

    To assess the prevalence of hypertension, elevated blood pressure and cardiovascular risk factors among HIV-positive individuals in rural Rakai District, Uganda. We assessed 426 HIV-positive individuals in Rakai, Uganda from 2007 to 2010. Prevalence of hypertension and elevated blood pressure assessed by clinical measurement was compared to clinician-recorded hypertension in case report forms. Multiple logistic regression and z-tests were used to examine the association of hypertension and elevated blood pressure with age, sex, body mass index (BMI), CD4 cell count and antiretroviral treatment (ART) use. For individuals on antihypertensives, medication utilisation was reviewed. The prevalence of hypertension (two elevated blood pressure readings at different time points) was 8.0% (95% CI: 5.4-10.6%), and that of elevated blood pressure (one elevated blood pressure reading) was 26.3% (95% CI: 22.1-30.5%). Age ≥50 years and higher BMI were positively associated with elevated blood pressure. ART use, time on ART and CD4 cell count were not associated with hypertension. Eighty-three percent of subjects diagnosed with hypertension were on antihypertensive medications, most commonly beta-blockers and calcium channel blockers. Hypertension is common among HIV-positive individuals in rural Uganda. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Age, race/ethnicity, and behavioral risk factors associated with per contact risk of HIV infection among men who have sex with men in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Hyman M; Vittinghoff, Eric; Irvin, Risha; Sachdev, Darpun; Liu, Albert; Gurwith, Marc; Buchbinder, Susan P

    2014-01-01

    Young men who have sex with men (MSM) and MSM of color have the highest HIV incidence in the United States. To explore possible explanations for these disparities and known individual risk factors, we analyzed the per contact risk (PCR) of HIV seroconversion in the early highly active antiretroviral therapy era. Data from 3 longitudinal studies of MSM (HIV Network for Prevention Trials Vaccine Preparedness Study, EXPLORE behavioral efficacy trial, and VAX004 vaccine efficacy trial) were pooled. The analysis included visits where participants reported unprotected receptive anal intercourse (URA), protected receptive anal intercourse, or unprotected insertive anal intercourse (UIA) with an HIV seropositive, unknown HIV serostatus, or an HIV seronegative partner. We used regression standardization to estimate average PCRs for each type of contact, with bootstrap confidence intervals. The estimated PCR was highest for URA with an HIV seropositive partner (0.73%; 95% bootstrap confidence interval [BCI]: 0.45% to 0.98%) followed by URA with a partner of unknown HIV serostatus (0.49%; 95% BCI: 0.32% to 0.62%). The estimated PCR for protected receptive anal intercourse and UIA with an HIV seropositive partner was 0.08% (95% BCI: 0.0% to 0.19%) and 0.22% (95% BCI: 0.05% to 0.39%), respectively. Average PCRs for URA and UIA with HIV seropositive partners were higher by 0.14%-0.34% among younger participants and higher by 0.08% for UIA among Latino participants compared with white participants. Estimated PCRs increased with the increasing number of sexual partners, use of methamphetamines or poppers, and history of sexually transmitted infection. Susceptibility or partner factors may explain the higher HIV conversion risk for younger MSM, some MSM of color, and those reporting individual risk factors.

  13. HBV or HCV coinfections and risk of myocardial infarction in HIV-infected individuals: the D:A:D Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Rainer; Sabin, Caroline; Reiss, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Data on a link between HCV or HBV infection and the development of cardiovascular disease among HIV-negative and HIV-positive individuals are conflicting. We sought to investigate the association between HBV or HCV infection and myocardial infarction in HIV-infected individuals.......Data on a link between HCV or HBV infection and the development of cardiovascular disease among HIV-negative and HIV-positive individuals are conflicting. We sought to investigate the association between HBV or HCV infection and myocardial infarction in HIV-infected individuals....

  14. Gliomas and brain lymphomas in HIV-1/AIDS patients: reflections from a 20-year follow up in Mexico and Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Filiberto Cedeno-Laurent; J. Roberto Trujillo

    2011-01-01

    Opportunistic infections and invasive primary tumors represent major causes of morbidity and mortality in HIV-1-infected individuals. HIV-1 involvement of the central nervous system (CNS) affects nearly half of seropositive patients, being the primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL) a hallmark neoplasia of this population. Interestingly, the incidence of other brain tumors (e.g. gliomas) is exceedingly rare in AIDS patients, and their co-morbidity has been limited to case reports. Here, we share our 20-...

  15. HLA-A02:01-Restricted Epitopes Identified from the Herpes Simplex Virus Tegument Protein VP11/12 Preferentially Recall Polyfunctional Effector Memory CD8+ T Cells from Seropositive Asymptomatic Individuals and Protect “Humanized” HLA-A*02:01 Transgenic Mice Against Ocular Herpes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Ruchi; Khan, Arif A.; Spencer, Doran; Vahed, Hawa; Lopes, Patricia P.; Thai, Nhi Thi Uyen; Wang, Christine; Pham, Thanh T.; Huang, Jiawei; Scarfone, Vanessa M.; Nesburn, Anthony B.; Wechsler, Steven L.; BenMohamed, Lbachir

    2014-01-01

    The Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 virion tegument phosphoprotein 11/12 (HSV-1 VP11/12) is a major antigen targeted by CD8+ T cells from HSV-seropositive individuals. However, whether and which VP11/12-epitope-specific CD8+ T cells play a role in the “natural” protection seen in seropositive healthy asymptomatic (ASYMP) individuals (who have never had clinical herpes disease) remain to be determined. In this study, we used multiple prediction computer-assisted algorithms to identify 10 potential HLA-A*02:01-restricted CD8+ T cell epitopes from the 716 amino acids sequence of VP11/12. Three out of ten epitopes exhibited high to moderate binding affinity to HLA-A*02:01 molecules. In ten sequentially studied HLA-A*02:01 positive and HSV-1-seropositive ASYMP individuals, the most frequent, robust and polyfunctional effector CD8+ T-cell responses, as assessed by a combination of tetramer frequency, granzyme B, granzyme K, perforin, CD107a/b cytotoxic degranulation, IFN-γ and multiplex cytokines assays, were predominantly directed against three epitopes: VP11/1266–74, VP11/12220–228 and VP11/12702–710. Interestingly, ASYMP individuals had significantly higher proportion of CD45RAlowCCR7lowCD44highCD62LlowCD27lowCD28lowCD8+ effector memory T cells (TEM) specific to the three epitopes, compared to symptomatic (SYMP) individuals (with a history of numerous episodes of recurrent ocular herpetic disease). Moreover, immunization of HLA-A*02:01 transgenic mice with the three ASYMP CD8+ TEM cell epitopes induced robust and polyfunctional epitope-specific CD8+ TEM cells that were associated with a strong protective immunity against ocular herpes infection and disease. Our findings outline phenotypic and functional features of protective HSV-specific CD8+ T cells that should guide the development of an effective T-cell-based herpes vaccine. PMID:25617474

  16. Determinants of developing widened spatial QRS-T angle in HIV-infected individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dawood, Farah Z; Roediger, Mollie P; Grandits, Greg

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A widened electrocardiographic spatial QRS-T angle has been shown to be predictive of cardiovascular disease in HIV-infected individuals. However, determinants and risk factors of developing widened QRS-T angle over time in this population remain unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: Spatial...... QRS-T angle was automatically measured from standard electrocardiogram of 1444 HIV-infected individuals without baseline widened spatial QRS-T angle from the Strategies for Management of Antiretroviral Therapy [SMART], a clinical trial comparing two antiretroviral treatment strategies [Drug...... widened angle at a rate of 7.8 per 100 person-years. In unadjusted models, female sex, black race (vs. white), DC treatment strategy, current and past smokers (vs. never), history of alcohol abuse, greater body mass index, history of diabetes and higher levels of hs-C-reactive protein were associated...

  17. HIV sero-discordance among Nigerian couples: challenges and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-demographic data of age, gender, occupation, risk group assessment and informed consent were obtained from all subjects. Hepatitis B status of the spouses, sero-positive for HIV was determined. Among the 100 couples tested for HIV sero-positivity, 52% were discordant while 48% were cordant. HIV-I was the ...

  18. Research On Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) In Malawi: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rates of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). The incidence of gonorrhoea, trichomoniasis, genital ulcers and genital warts among the cohort ofr644 HIV-I seropositive and 677 HIV-l seronegative women is shown in Table 3. The cumulative incidence of these diseases was significantly higher in HIV-l seropositive than in.

  19. Adenosine deaminase enhances the immunogenicity of human dendritic cells from healthy and HIV-infected individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Casanova

    Full Text Available ADA is an enzyme implicated in purine metabolism, and is critical to ensure normal immune function. Its congenital deficit leads to severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID. ADA binding to adenosine receptors on dendritic cell surface enables T-cell costimulation through CD26 crosslinking, which enhances T-cell activation and proliferation. Despite a large body of work on the actions of the ecto-enzyme ADA on T-cell activation, questions arise on whether ADA can also modulate dendritic cell maturation. To this end we investigated the effects of ADA on human monocyte derived dendritic cell biology. Our results show that both the enzymatic and non-enzymatic activities of ADA are implicated in the enhancement of CD80, CD83, CD86, CD40 and CCR7 expression on immature dendritic cells from healthy and HIV-infected individuals. These ADA-mediated increases in CD83 and costimulatory molecule expression is concomitant to an enhanced IL-12, IL-6, TNF-α, CXCL8(IL-8, CCL3(MIP1-α, CCL4(MIP-1β and CCL5(RANTES cytokine/chemokine secretion both in healthy and HIV-infected individuals and to an altered apoptotic death in cells from HIV-infected individuals. Consistently, ADA-mediated actions on iDCs are able to enhance allogeneic CD4 and CD8-T-cell proliferation, globally yielding increased iDC immunogenicity. Taken together, these findings suggest that ADA would promote enhanced and correctly polarized T-cell responses in strategies targeting asymptomatic HIV-infected individuals.

  20. HIV-1 viral DNA load in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from seroconverters and long-term infected individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jurriaans, S.; Dekker, J. T.; de Ronde, A.

    1992-01-01

    To determine viral DNA load in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from HIV-1-infected individuals. HIV-1 copy numbers were determined using a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the PCR-aided template titration assay (PATTY). PATTY utilizes an internal plasmid control DNA, which is

  1. Regional differences in AIDS and non-AIDS related mortality in HIV-positive individuals across Europe and Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reekie, Joanne; Kowalska, Justyna Dominika; Karpov, Igor

    2012-01-01

    Differences in access to care and treatment have been reported in Eastern Europe, a region with one of the fastest growing HIV epidemics, compared to the rest of Europe. This analysis aimed to establish whether there are regional differences in the mortality rate of HIV-positive individuals acros...

  2. Smoking and life expectancy among HIV-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy in Europe and North America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helleberg, Marie; May, Margaret T; Ingle, Suzanne M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease and non-AIDS malignancies have become major causes of death among HIV-infected individuals. The relative impact of lifestyle and HIV-related factors are debated. METHODS: We estimated associations of smoking with mortality more than 1 year after antiretroviral t...

  3. High exposure to nevirapine in plasma is associated with an improved virological response in HIV-1-infected individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, A. I.; Weverling, G. J.; Lange, J. M.; Montaner, J. S.; Reiss, P.; Cooper, D. A.; Vella, S.; Hall, D.; Beijnen, J. H.; Hoetelmans, R. M.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore relationships between exposure to nevirapine and the virological response in HIV-1-infected individuals participating in the INCAS trial. METHODS: The elimination rate constant of plasma HIV-1 RNA (k) was calculated during the first 2 weeks of treatment with nevirapine,

  4. Analysis of the prevalence of dyslipidemia in individuals with HIV and its association with antiretroviral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talita Gabriela de Limas

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Antiretroviral therapy (ART has been used to treat large numbers of patients living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection. Lipid disorders are often observed in these patients, and include elevations in total cholesterol (TC and triglycerides (TG. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed using 333 patient records from the Regional Hospital of São José Doutor Homero de Miranda Gomes (HRSJHMG. The study population consisted of patients with HIV who were under medical follow up, either on or off drug treatment. The data were entered into Excel and exported to SPSS 16.0 for analysis using chi-square testing. We used prevalence ratios as the measure of association. Results Lipid abnormalities were observed in 78.9% of individuals who received ART. Of the 308 subjects on ART, 59.1%, 41.9%, and 33.1% had TG, TC and low-density lipoprotein (LDL abnormalities, respectively. The prevalence of LDL changes was 2.57-fold higher in individuals who had been using ART for more than 12 months, compared to those using ART for 6 to 12 months. Conclusions HIV patients showed a significant increase in the association between TC and TG levels and the use of ART. In particular, changes in TC, LDL and TG were greater in individuals who had received ART for over more than 12 months.

  5. Gut Bacteria Metabolism Impacts Immune Recovery in HIV-infected Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Serrano-Villar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available While changes in gut microbial populations have been described in human immuno-deficiency virus (HIV-infected patients undergoing antiretroviral therapy (ART, the mechanisms underlying the contributions of gut bacteria and their molecular agents (metabolites and proteins to immune recovery remain unexplored. To study this, we examined the active fraction of the gut microbiome, through examining protein synthesis and accumulation of metabolites inside gut bacteria and in the bloodstream, in 8 healthy controls and 29 HIV-infected individuals (6 being longitudinally studied. We found that HIV infection is associated to dramatic changes in the active set of gut bacteria simultaneously altering the metabolic outcomes. Effects were accentuated among immunological ART responders, regardless diet, subject characteristics, clinical variables other than immune recovery, the duration and type of ART and sexual preferences. The effect was found at quantitative levels of several molecular agents and active bacteria which were herein identified and whose abundance correlated with HIV immune pathogenesis markers. Although, we cannot rule out the possibility that some changes are partially a random consequence of the disease status, our data suggest that most likely reduced inflammation and immune recovery is a joint solution orchestrated by both the active fraction of the gut microbiota and the host.

  6. Screening guidelines for non-AIDS defining cancers in HIV-infected individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Deepthi; Aboulafia, David M

    2013-09-01

    The growing burden of non-AIDS defining malignancies (non-ADMs) among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) highlights the need for cancer prevention and early detection. In this article, we propose screening guidelines for non-ADMs in PLWHA. A number of recent findings may help direct cancer screening guidelines in PLWHA. Screening for lung cancer with low-dose helical chest computerized tomography (LDCT) in the National Lung Screening Trial data demonstrated a decrease in lung cancer and all-cause mortality. Recent studies have demonstrated a favorable experience among PLWHA with liver transplantation. Overdiagnosis is common with breast and prostate cancer screening. Anal cancer rates were substantially higher for HIV-infected MSM, other men and women than for HIV-uninfected individuals. Screening recommendations for the general population can be applied to PLWHA patients for breast, colon and prostate cancer. Screening for lung cancer with LDCT could be considered in PLWHA at risk. American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases screening recommendations with biennial ultrasonography may be applied to at-risk PLWHA for hepatocellular carcinoma. All HIV-infected adults should be offered anal cancer screening as part of clinical care at specialized centres.

  7. [Survey on Blastocystis hominis infection in HIV positive individuals in Fuyang City, Anhui Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Li-Guang; Chen, Jia-Xu; Cheng, Guo-Jin; Wang, Feng-Feng; Guo, Jian; Yin, Xiao-Mei; Cai, Yu-Chun; Zhou, Li; Tong, Xiao-Mei; Wang, Zhen-Li; Wang, Tian-Ping; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2012-06-01

    To understand the epidemiological characteristics of co-infection of HIV and Blastocystis hominis and its risk factors. A total of 309 people with HIV positive in the development zone of Fuyang City were recruited, and the face to face questionnaires were conducted to collect the information of behavioral characteristics and sociodemographic data of the participants. Meanwhile, the samples of stool and blood were collected to test B. hominis, cytokines and CD4+/CD8+ T-lymphocyte. The influencing factors of co-infection of HIV and Blastocystis hominis were analyzed by the single factor analysis and Logistic regression analysis. Among the 309 people involved, 302 accepted feces examinations, 286 accepted the questionnaire investigation, and 263 accepted both of them. The infection rate of B. hominis was 17.11%, that of the female was 21.90%, which was significantly higher than that of the male (11.90%) (P hominis (OR = 0.263, 95% CI: 0.073, 0.945). The infection rate of B. hominis is high in people with HIV positive, and the nutrition situation of individuals may be one of the important risk factors associated with co-infection.

  8. Serial CD4 and CD8 T-lymphocyte counts and associated mortality in an HIV-2-infected population in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisse, I M; Poulsen, A G; Aaby, P

    1996-01-01

    In an urban community in Guinea-Bissau, we followed a cohort of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) seropositive individuals (N = 47) and seronegative controls (N = 82). T-lymphocyte subset determinations were done in 1988, 1990, and 1992. Serial determinations of CD4 percentages, CD8...

  9. Oral candidiasis in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV infected individuals in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Katiraee

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Oropharyngeal candidiasis is the most frequent fungal infection in HIV patients. The aims of this study were to appraise prevalence of oropharyngeal candidiasis and to determine factors associated with oropharyngeal candidiasis and oral yeast colonization among Iranian HIV patients."n"nMethods: The patients were composed 150 Iranian HIV positive individuals referred to Iranian Research Center for HIV & Aids (IRCHA, Imam Khomeini Hospital complex in Tehran, Iran. Oral samples were obtained and cultured on mycological media. TCD4 lymphocyte count/percentage was measured and patients were categorized. Patients evaluated for some risk factors for oropharyngeal candidiasis and oral candida colonization."n"nResults: Fifty nine percent of patients were presented with oropharyngeal candidiasis and the carriage rate of yeasts was 116 (77.2%. The most frequent isolated candida species were Candida albicans (102 50.2% and Candida glabrata (45 22%. Thrush in 57(38%, perleche in 30(20% and erythematous lesions in 7(4.7% of patients were observed. Significant differences in TCD4 count (p=0.01, gender (p=0.02, antifungal therapy (p=0.001, smoking (p=0.02, and intravenous drug use (p=0.03, between asymptomatic and

  10. The Relationship Between Individual Characteristics and Interest in Using a Mobile Phone App for HIV Self-Management: Observational Cohort Study of People Living With HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucero, Robert James; Frimpong, Jemima A; Fehlberg, Elizabeth A; Bjarnadottir, Ragnhildur I; Weaver, Michael T; Cook, Christa; Modave, Francois; Rathore, Mobeen H; Morano, Jamie P; Ibanez, Gladys; Cook, Robert L

    2017-07-27

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) continues to be a major health issue in the United States, and an estimated 1.2 million people in the United States are living with HIV. As part of Healthy People 2020, the Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion has targeted the persistent demographic and geographic disparities in HIV prevalence and management. Preliminary evidence suggests that mobile health technology (smartphone apps) may be a promising way to support HIV self-management among vulnerable populations of people living with HIV (PLWH) who lack access to appropriate health care services. This study examines the association between individual characteristics of PLWH and level of interest in using a free mobile phone app for HIV self-management. This study was conducted using cross-sectional survey data collected in the Florida Cohort Study between 2014 and 2016 (N=766). Associations between individual characteristics of PLWH and level of interest in using a free mobile phone app for HIV self-management were examined using bivariate analysis and logistic regression. Overall, 85.5% (655/766) of respondents were interested in using a free mobile phone app that supports HIV self-management. Participants expressed the highest interest in app functions that facilitate communication with health care providers (568/740, 76.8%) or help to identify relevant health care services (556/745 74.6%). Age (OR 0.959, 95% CI 0.936-0.982), education (OR 1.281, 95% CI 1.027-1.598) and disability or inability to work (OR 0.296, 95% CI 0.145-0.606) were all significantly associated with being interested in using a free mobile phone app for HIV self-management. This study indicates that a majority of PLWH are interested in using a free mobile phone app to self-manage their condition. The findings can inform the development of mobile phone apps that support effective HIV self-management.

  11. Absolute leukocyte telomere length in HIV-infected and uninfected individuals: evidence of accelerated cell senescence in HIV-associated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph C Y Liu

    Full Text Available Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART has extended the longevity of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-infected individuals. However, this has resulted in greater awareness of age-associated diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Accelerated cellular senescence may be responsible, but its magnitude as measured by leukocyte telomere length is unknown and its relationship to HIV-associated COPD has not yet been established. We measured absolute telomere length (aTL in peripheral leukocytes from 231 HIV-infected adults. Comparisons were made to 691 HIV-uninfected individuals from a population-based sample. Subject quartiles of aTL were assessed for relationships with measures of HIV disease severity, airflow obstruction, and emphysema severity on computed tomographic (CT imaging. Multivariable regression models identified factors associated with shortened aTL. Compared to HIV-uninfected subjects, the mean aTL in HIV-infected patients was markedly shorter by 27 kbp/genome (p<0.001; however, the slopes of aTL vs. age were not different (p=0.469. Patients with longer known durations of HIV infection (p=0.019 and lower nadir CD4 cell counts (p=0.023 had shorter aTL. Shorter aTL were also associated with older age (p=0.026, smoking (p=0.005, reduced forced expiratory volume in one second (p=0.030, and worse CT emphysema severity score (p=0.049. HIV-infected subjects demonstrate advanced cellular aging, yet in a cART-treated cohort, the relationship between aTL and age appears no different from that of HIV-uninfected subjects.

  12. The Canadian HIV and aging cohort study - determinants of increased risk of cardio-vascular diseases in HIV-infected individuals: rationale and study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Madeleine; Chartrand-Lefebvre, Carl; Baril, Jean-Guy; Trottier, Sylvie; Trottier, Benoit; Harris, Marianne; Walmsley, Sharon; Conway, Brian; Wong, Alexander; Routy, Jean-Pierre; Kovacs, Colin; MacPherson, Paul A; Monteith, Kenneth Marc; Mansour, Samer; Thanassoulis, George; Abrahamowicz, Michal; Zhu, Zhitong; Tsoukas, Christos; Ancuta, Petronela; Bernard, Nicole; Tremblay, Cécile L

    2017-09-11

    With potent antiretroviral drugs, HIV infection is becoming a chronic disease. Emergence of comorbidities, particularly cardiovascular disease (CVD) has become a leading concern for patients living with the infection. We hypothesized that the chronic and persistent inflammation and immune activation associated with HIV disease leads to accelerated aging, characterized by CVD. This will translate into higher incidence rates of CVD in HIV infected participants, when compared to HIV negative participants, after adjustment for traditional CVD risk factors. When characterized further using cardiovascular imaging, biomarkers, immunological and genetic profiles, CVD associated with HIV will show different characteristics compared to CVD in HIV-negative individuals. The Canadian HIV and Aging cohort is a prospective, controlled cohort study funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research. It will recruit patients living with HIV who are aged 40 years or older or have lived with HIV for 15 years or more. A control population, frequency matched for age, sex, and smoking status, will be recruited from the general population. Patients will attend study visits at baseline, year 1, 2, 5 and 8. At each study visit, data on complete medical and pharmaceutical history will be captured, along with anthropometric measures, a complete physical examination, routine blood tests and electrocardiogram. Consenting participants will also contribute blood samples to a research biobank. The primary outcome is incidence of a composite of: myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization, stroke, hospitalization for angina or congestive heart failure, revascularization or amputation for peripheral artery disease, or cardiovascular death. Preplanned secondary outcomes are all-cause mortality, incidence of the metabolic syndrome, incidence of type 2 diabetes, incidence of renal failure, incidence of abnormal bone mineral density and body fat distribution. Patients participating to the

  13. Ramifications of ostracism as a consequence of revelation of HIV positive status: its effect o individuals and families in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabitha T. Langeni

    2003-12-01

    the structure and composition of the family in Botswana. The study showed that the highest proportion of respondents who would abandon an HIV positive partner (58.4% occurs among young people aged 15 to 19 years; and that the propensity to abandon an HIV positive partner diminishes with advancement in age. In-depth inquiries on why HIV positive partners would be abandoned produced responses that revolved around fear of exposure, vulnerability and association with an HIV positive individual. The study showed that the highest proportion of respondents who would not reveal their HIV positive status occurs among those who have lost a relative or a friend to AIDS. Fear of being isolated, rejected, stigmatized and unwanted featured among the top reasons why respondents would not reveal their HIV positive status. Society’s reaction towards HIV positive individuals and families with HIV/AIDS patients appeared strong enough to drive individuals to hide their positive status and to go ahead and take the risk of onward transmission of the virus.

  14. Predictors of Complication after Percutaneous Ultrasound-Guided Kidney Biopsy in HIV-Infected Individuals: Possible Role of Hepatitis C and HIV Co-infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperati, C. John; Atta, Mohamed G.; Janjua, Kashif; Roxbury, Christopher; Lucas, Gregory M.; Fine, Derek M.

    2009-01-01

    Background and objectives: HIV-infected patients often undergo kidney biopsy. The risks of percutaneous ultrasound-guided kidney biopsy in this population are not well established. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: This was a case-control, single-center study of 1116 (243 with HIV infection and 873 without) consecutive ultrasound-guided biopsies from 1024 patients. The primary outcome was any major or minor complication. Major complications included biopsy-associated bleeding that required transfusion, angiography, or surgery; hypotension that required intervention; and death. Minor complications included development of a hematoma or gross hematuria. The odds of complication was assessed with logistic regression. Results: Overall complication rates (8.6 versus 7.2%) did not significantly differ between HIV-infected and noninfected individuals. HIV-positive status did not predict complication. In the entire cohort, hepatitis C infection was associated with a 2.08 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.47 to 2.93) increased odds of complication, and each 10,000-cells/mm3 decrease in prebiopsy platelet count a 1.05 (95% CI 1.02 to 1.08) increased odds of complication. In addition, prebiopsy hematocrit <30% and estimated GFR <30 ml/min per 1.73 m2 were associated with major complication. Whereas the association of prebiopsy platelet count was not modified by HIV infection, hepatitis C/HIV co-infection was associated with a 5.71 (95% CI 1.89 to 17.2) increased odds of complication as compared with 1.27 (95% CI 0.73 to 2.19) in hepatitis C–positive/HIV-negative individuals. Conclusions: Ultrasound-guided percutaneous kidney biopsy is a relatively safe, well-tolerated procedure in the HIV-infected population. HIV-infected individuals who are co-infected with hepatitis C seem to be at greatest risk. PMID:19808221

  15. Phylogenetic reconstruction of transmission events from individuals with acute HIV infection: toward more-rigorous epidemiological definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, Alison E.; Gifford, Robert J.; Clewley, Jonathan P.; Kucherer, Claudia; Masquelier, Bernard; Porter, Kholoud; Balotta, Claudia; Back, Nicole K. T.; Jorgensen, Louise Bruun; de Mendoza, Carmen; Bhaskaran, Krishnan; Gill, O. Noel; Johnson, Anne M.; Pillay, Deenan; del Amo, Julia; Meyer, Laurence; Bucher, Heiner; Chene, Genevieve; Prins, Maria; Rosinska, Magda; Sabin, Caroline; Touloumi, Giota; Lodi, Sara; Walker, Sarah; Babiker, Abdel; Darbyshire, Janet; de Luca, Andrea; Fisher, Martin; Muga, Roberto; Kaldor, John; Kelleher, Tony; Ramacciotti, Tim; Gelgor, Linda; Cooper, David; Smith, Don; Gill, John; Nielsen, Claus; Pedersen, Court; Lutsar, Irja; Dabis, Francois; Thiebaut, Rodolphe; Costagliola, Dominique; Guiguet, Marguerite; Vanhems, Philippe; Boufassa, Faroudy; Hamouda, Osamah; Pantazis, Nikos; Hatzakis, Angelos; Paraskevis, Dimitrios; Karafoulidou, Anastasia; Rezza, Giovanni; Dorrucci, Maria; Longo, Benedetta; van Asten, Liselotte; van der Bij, Akke; Geskus, Ronald; Coutinho, Roel; Sannes, Mette; Brubakk, Oddbjorn; Eskild, Anne; Bruun, Johan N.; Camacho, Ricardo; Smolskaya, Tatyana; Garcia de Olalla, Patricia; del Romero, Jorge; Perez-Hoyos, Santiago; Hernandez Aguado, Ildefonso; Rickenbach, Martin; Francioli, Patrick; Malyuta, Ruslan; Brettle, Ray; Delpech, Valerie; Lattimore, Sam; Murphy, Gary; Parry, John; Gill, Noel; Lee, Christine; Johnson, Anne; Phillips, Andrew; Jaffe, Harold

    2009-01-01

    Phylogenetic reconstructions of transmission events from individuals with acute human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are conducted to illustrate this group's heightened infectivity. Varied definitions of acute infection and assumptions about observed phylogenetic clusters may produce

  16. Does hepatitis C viremia or genotype predict the risk of mortality in individuals co-infected with HIV?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rockstroh, Jürgen K; Peters, Lars; Grint, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The influence of HCV-RNA levels and genotype on HCV disease progression is not well studied. The prognostic value of these markers was investigated in HIV/HCV co-infected individuals from the EuroSIDA cohort....

  17. Molecular phylogenetics of transmitted drug resistance in newly diagnosed HIV Type 1 individuals in Denmark: a nation-wide study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Audelin, Anne Margrethe; Gerstoft, Jan; Obel, Niels

    2011-01-01

    without resistance mutations. We observed no difference in progression of the infection between individuals infected with TDR and individuals infected with wild-type HIV-1. The prevalence of TDR is low in Denmark and transmission of dual-drug-resistant HIV-1 is infrequent. The TDR isolates were shown......Abstract Highly active antiretroviral treatment is compromised by viral resistance mutations. Transmitted drug resistance (TDR) is therefore monitored closely, but follow-up studies of these patients are limited. Virus from 1405 individuals diagnosed with HIV-1 in Denmark between 2001 and 2009...... was analyzed for TDR, and molecular-epidemiological links and progression of the infection were described based on data from standardized questionnaires, the prospective Danish HIV Cohort Study, and by phylogenetic analysis. Eighty-five individuals were found to be infected with virus harboring mutations...

  18. Molecular Phylogenetics of Transmitted Drug Resistance in Newly Diagnosed HIV Type 1 Individuals in Denmark, a Nation-Wide Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Audelin, Anne Margrethe; Gerstoft, Jan; Obel, Niels

    2011-01-01

    without resistance mutations. We observed no difference in progression of the infection between individuals infected with TDR and individuals infected with wild-type HIV-1. The prevalence of TDR is low in Denmark and transmission of dual-drug-resistant HIV-1 is infrequent. The TDR isolates were shown......Abstract Highly active antiretroviral treatment is compromised by viral resistance mutations. Transmitted drug resistance (TDR) is therefore monitored closely, but follow-up studies of these patients are limited. Virus from 1405 individuals diagnosed with HIV-1 in Denmark between 2001 and 2009...... was analyzed for TDR, and molecular-epidemiological links and progression of the infection were described based on data from standardized questionnaires, the prospective Danish HIV Cohort Study, and by phylogenetic analysis. Eighty-five individuals were found to be infected with virus harboring mutations...

  19. Associations between substance use, sexual risk taking and HIV treatment adherence among homeless people living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Mark S; Marshal, Michael P; Stall, Ron; Kidder, Daniel P; Henny, Kirk D; Courtenay-Quirk, Cari; Wolitski, Richard J; Aidala, Angela; Royal, Scott; Holtgrave, David R

    2009-06-01

    Prior research suggests that the interconnections between substance use, HIV risk and lack of adherence to HIV medications are especially strong among homeless individuals. Thus, study of these interconnections warrants public health attention. The objectives of this paper are to describe patterns of alcohol and drug use, associations between substance use and participation in high-risk sex, and associations between substance use and adherence to HIV treatment regimens among a sample of 602 homeless or unstably housed HIV-seropositive individuals who are part of a housing-based intervention--the Housing and Health Study. Participants experienced high levels of substance use. Significant associations were found between substance use and adherence to HIV treatment medications, and between substance use and high-risk sexual practices within the entire group. Group analyses by sexual orientation/gender show that the association between substance use and treatment adherence is found primarily among heterosexual males whereas the relationship between several drugs and high-risk sexual practices is strongest among gay and bisexual men. Health professionals working with HIV-seropositive individuals should routinely ascertain housing status and screen for substance use and risky sex.

  20. The tradition algorithm approach underestimates the prevalence of serodiagnosis of syphilis in HIV-infected individuals.

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    Bin Chen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Currently, there are three algorithms for screening of syphilis: traditional algorithm, reverse algorithm and European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC algorithm. To date, there is not a generally recognized diagnostic algorithm. When syphilis meets HIV, the situation is even more complex. To evaluate their screening performance and impact on the seroprevalence of syphilis in HIV-infected individuals, we conducted a cross-sectional study included 865 serum samples from HIV-infected patients in a tertiary hospital. Every sample (one per patient was tested with toluidine red unheated serum test (TRUST, T. pallidum particle agglutination assay (TPPA, and Treponema pallidum enzyme immunoassay (TP-EIA according to the manufacturer's instructions. The results of syphilis serological testing were interpreted following different algorithms respectively. We directly compared the traditional syphilis screening algorithm with the reverse syphilis screening algorithm in this unique population. The reverse algorithm achieved remarkable higher seroprevalence of syphilis than the traditional algorithm (24.9% vs. 14.2%, p < 0.0001. Compared to the reverse algorithm, the traditional algorithm also had a missed serodiagnosis rate of 42.8%. The total percentages of agreement and corresponding kappa values of tradition and ECDC algorithm compared with those of reverse algorithm were as follows: 89.4%,0.668; 99.8%, 0.994. There was a very good strength of agreement between the reverse and the ECDC algorithm. Our results supported the reverse (or ECDC algorithm in screening of syphilis in HIV-infected populations. In addition, our study demonstrated that screening of HIV-populations using different algorithms may result in a statistically different seroprevalence of syphilis.

  1. Relationship of emotional intelligence and adherence to combination antiretroviral medications by individuals living with HIV disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willard, Suzanne

    2006-01-01

    Medications are an intentional and purposeful means to the successful management of many chronic diseases. In the treatment of disease caused by HIV, adherence to medication is of particular concern because any level of nonadherence, often a few missed doses, will lead eventually to the development of drug resistance. Many predictors of poor adherence to HIV medications have been identified as significant factors in adherence. Among these is the emotional aspect. The purpose of this study was to examine emotional intelligence (EI) and adherence to combination antiretroviral therapy in individuals who are infected with HIV. EI is defined as the ability to perceive and express emotions, facilitate emotions, understand and reason with emotion, and manage emotions. EI has been correlated with various aspects of success in life. In this study, EI was measured by the Mayer, Salovey, Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test. Adherence to medications was measured by self-report and defined as less than 10% missed doses of medications. Eighty-two participants were recruited from an urban hospital-based HIV clinic. Pearson's r was used to analyze the data for significance, and no correlation was reported. This data set was not large enough to prove significance, statistically, of the research question. However, an unexpected result of this study was that the overall EI scores for this particular population were markedly lower than the test norms. Further study would be warranted and recommended to explore El measurement in people at risk for HIV disease or in those who have the disease to further understand the impact of emotions and EI in this specific population.

  2. Mitochondrial Haplogroup Influences Motor Function in Long-Term HIV-1-Infected Individuals.

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    Ashley Azar

    Full Text Available Evolutionary divergence of the mitochondrial genome has given rise to distinct haplogroups. These haplogroups have arisen in specific geographical locations and are responsible for subtle functional changes in the mitochondria that may provide an evolutionary advantage in a given environment. Based on these functional differences, haplogroups could define disease susceptibility in chronic settings. In this study, we undertook a detailed neuropsychological analysis of a cohort of long-term HIV-1-infected individuals in conjunction with sequencing of their mitochondrial genomes. Stepwise regression analysis showed that the best model for predicting both working memory and declarative memory were age and years since diagnosis. In contrast, years since diagnosis and sub-haplogroup were significantly predictive of psychomotor speed. Consistent with this, patients with haplogroup L3e obtained better scores on psychomotor speed and dexterity tasks when compared to the remainder of the cohort, suggesting that this haplogroup provides a protective advantage when faced with the combined stress of HIV-1 infection and long-term antiretroviral therapies. Differential performance on declarative memory tasks was noted for individuals with other sub-L haplogroups, but these differences were not as robust as the association between L3e and psychomotor speed and dexterity tasks. This work provides evidence that mitochondrial haplogroup is related to neuropsychological test performance among patients in chronic disease settings such as HIV-1 infection.

  3. Statin Therapy and Mortality in HIV-Infected Individuals; A Danish Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Line; Kronborg, Gitte; Larsen, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that statins possess diverse immune modulatory and anti-inflammatory properties. As statins might attenuate inflammation, statin therapy has been hypothesized to reduce mortality in HIV-infected individuals. We therefore used a Danish nationwide cohort of HIV......-infected individuals to estimate the impact of statin use on mortality before and after a diagnosis of cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease or diabetes....

  4. Factors associated with specific causes of death amongst HIV-positive individuals in the D:A:D Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Colette; Sabin, Caroline A; Lundgren, Jens D

    2010-01-01

    To investigate any emerging trends in causes of death amongst HIV-positive individuals in the current cART era, and to investigate the factors associated with each specific cause of death.......To investigate any emerging trends in causes of death amongst HIV-positive individuals in the current cART era, and to investigate the factors associated with each specific cause of death....

  5. Designing strategies for eliminating HIV in sub-Saharan Africa by mapping the geographic dispersion pattern of HIV-infected individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coburn, Brian J.; Okano, Justin T.; Blower, Sally

    2017-01-01

    UNAIDS, and the WHO, plan to use “treatment as prevention” (TasP) to eliminate HIV. The rationale is that treating HIV-infected individuals reduces their infectivity. We present a novel geostatistical framework for implementing the rollout of TasP in sub-Saharan Africa. We focus on Lesotho, because UNAIDS has identified their epidemic as a priority for elimination. Our framework is based on a density of infection (DoI) map that we generate by gridding high-resolution demographic data, and spatially smoothing georeferenced HIV-testing data. The map reveals the geographic dispersion pattern of HIV-infected individuals, both diagnosed and undiagnosed. We use the map to design a treatment allocation strategy that optimizes, under resource constraints, the efficiency of resource utilization. Using this strategy (rather than the current treatment allocation strategy) would make it easier to find, diagnose and treat individuals. We also use our framework to evaluate the feasibility of UNAIDS’ elimination plan. We show the feasibility of reaching specific treatment coverage levels depends upon the geographic dispersion pattern of HIV-infected individuals, and that this pattern reflects the spatial demographics of Lesotho. Only 20% of HIV-infected individuals live in urban areas; most live in rural settlements where the DoI is less than six infected individuals/km2. Given these conditions, it will be almost impossible to reach a very high coverage of treatment. Therefore, the UNAIDS elimination plan is unlikely to succeed in Lesotho. Taken together, our results show that the spatial demographics of populations will significantly hinder, and may even prevent, the elimination of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:28356504

  6. Microfinance: a general overview and implications for impoverished individuals living with HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldas, Adolfo; Arteaga, Fernando; Muñoz, Maribel; Zeladita, Jhon; Albujar, Mayler; Bayona, Jaime; Shin, Sonya

    2010-08-01

    Microfinance among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) faces some opposition and remains understudied. This literature review examines microfinance's evolution and impact on a variety of social and health indicators and its emerging implementation as a primary prevention tool for HIV and economic intervention for PLWHA. There is an abundance of literature supporting the apparent utility of microfinance. However, our understanding of the subject remains clouded by the heterogeneity and methodological limitations of existing impact studies, and access limitations to microfinance curbs our understanding of microfinance for this population. Existing literature suggests PLWHA could attain economic stability from microfinance and achieve successful repayment rates in some settings. The precarious socioeconomic and health issues of PLWHA pose unique challenges to minimizing loan default risk. Carefully-designed clinical studies are needed to assess whether PLWHA can be as successful with microfinance as healthy individuals.

  7. Guideline on safer conception in fertile HIV-infected individuals and couples

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    L-G Bekker

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Ninety years ago the isolation of insulin transformed the lives of people with type 1 diabetes. Now, models based on empirical data estimate that a 25-year-old person with HIV, when appropriately treated with antiretroviral therapy, can expect to enjoy a median survival of 35 years, remarkably similar to that for someone of the same age with type 1 diabetes. It is high time we normalised the lives of people living positively with HIV. This includes the basic human right to conceive and raise children. HIV-positive individuals may be in serodiscordant relationships or in seroconcordant relationships. As health care providers, it is our responsibility to ensure we understand the opportunities and risks of natural conception in these scenarios, so that we can help our patients to make informed decisions about their own lives. Most of all, it is our duty to make family planning in the setting of positive prevention as safe as we can. This includes informed decisions on contraception, adoption, fostering, conception and prevention of mother-to-child transmission. Some months ago a dedicated group of individuals, invited and sponsored by the Southern African HIV Clinicians Society, came together in Cape Town to devise guidance in this area, recognising that there are ideal strategies that may be outside the realm of the resource constraints of the public sector or health programmes in southern Africa. This guideline therefore attempts to provide a range of strategies for various resource settings. It is up to us, the providers, to familiarise ourselves with the merits/benefits and risks of each, and to then engage patients in meaningful discussions. All the above, however, is based on the premise and prerequisite that the subject of family planning is actively raised and frequently discussed in our patient encounters.Please find a link to the update of this guideline: http://sajhivmed.org.za/index.php/hivmed/article/view/399

  8. A Cross Section Study to Determine the Prevalence of Antibodies against HIV Infection among Hepatitis B and C Infected Individuals

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    Geane L. Flores

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: There are limited data regarding human immunodeficiency virus (HIV prevalence among hepatitis B virus (HBV or hepatitis C virus (HCV infected individuals. The aim of this cross-sectional study is to determine the prevalence of HBV and HCV infection among HIV individuals; (2 Methods: A total of 409 patients (126 HBV+ and 283 HCV+ referred to the Brazilian Reference Laboratory for Viral Hepatitis from 2010 to 2013 donated serum samples. Anti-HIV, HBsAg, anti-HBc, anti-HBs, anti-HBcIgM, anti-HBe, HBeAg, and anti-HCV antibodies were measured, and anti-HCV positive samples were tested for viral RNA and genotype; (3 Results: The anti-HIV antibody prevalence was 10.31% and 4.59% among HBV+ and HCV+ patients, respectively. The HCV mean (SD viral load was log 5.14 ± 1.64 IU/mL, and genotype I was most prevalent (163/283. Anti-HBs and anti-HBc were detected in 40% and 26% of HCV+ individuals, respectively. Among the HBV+ population, the presence of anti-HIV antibodies was associated with male gender, marital status (married, tattoo, sexual orientation, sexual practices (oral sex and anal sex, history of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs, history of viral hepatitis treatment, and a sexual partner with hepatitis or HIV. For the HCV+ group, the presence of anti-HIV antibodies was associated with female gender, marital status (married, anal intercourse, previous history of STDs, and number of sexual partners; (4 Conclusion: A high prevalence of anti-HIV antibodies was found among individuals with HBV and HCV, showing the importance of education programmes towards HIV infection among HBV- and HCV-infected individuals.

  9. A Cross Section Study to Determine the Prevalence of Antibodies against HIV Infection among Hepatitis B and C Infected Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Geane L; de Almeida, Adilson J; Miguel, Juliana C; Cruz, Helena M; Portilho, Moyra M; Scalioni, Letícia de P; Marques, Vanessa A; Lewis-Ximenez, Lia Laura; Lampe, Elisabeth; Villar, Livia Melo

    2016-03-11

    (1) BACKGROUND: There are limited data regarding human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence among hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) infected individuals. The aim of this cross-sectional study is to determine the prevalence of HBV and HCV infection among HIV individuals; (2) METHODS: A total of 409 patients (126 HBV+ and 283 HCV+) referred to the Brazilian Reference Laboratory for Viral Hepatitis from 2010 to 2013 donated serum samples. Anti-HIV, HBsAg, anti-HBc, anti-HBs, anti-HBcIgM, anti-HBe, HBeAg, and anti-HCV antibodies were measured, and anti-HCV positive samples were tested for viral RNA and genotype; (3) RESULTS: The anti-HIV antibody prevalence was 10.31% and 4.59% among HBV+ and HCV+ patients, respectively. The HCV mean (SD) viral load was log 5.14 ± 1.64 IU/mL, and genotype I was most prevalent (163/283). Anti-HBs and anti-HBc were detected in 40% and 26% of HCV+ individuals, respectively. Among the HBV+ population, the presence of anti-HIV antibodies was associated with male gender, marital status (married), tattoo, sexual orientation, sexual practices (oral sex and anal sex), history of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), history of viral hepatitis treatment, and a sexual partner with hepatitis or HIV. For the HCV+ group, the presence of anti-HIV antibodies was associated with female gender, marital status (married), anal intercourse, previous history of STDs, and number of sexual partners; (4) CONCLUSION: A high prevalence of anti-HIV antibodies was found among individuals with HBV and HCV, showing the importance of education programmes towards HIV infection among HBV- and HCV-infected individuals.

  10. Cytomegalovirus-specific T cells persist at very high levels during long-term antiretroviral treatment of HIV disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Naeger

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In healthy, HIV seronegative, CMV seropositive adults, a large proportion of T cells are CMV-specific. High-level CMV-specific T cell responses are associated with accelerated immunologic aging ("immunosenesence" in the elderly population. The impact of untreated and treated HIV infection on the frequency of these cells remains undefined.We measured the proportion of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells responding to CMV pp65 and IE proteins was measured using flow cytometry in 685 unique HIV seronegative and seropositive individuals. The proportion of CMV-specific CD8+ T cells was consistently higher in the HIV-seropositive subjects compared to the HIV-seronegative subjects. This HIV effect was observed even in patients who lacked measurable immunodeficiency. Among the HIV-seropositive subjects, CMV-specific CD8+ T cell responses were proportionately lower during recent infection, higher during chronic untreated infection and higher still during long-term antiretroviral treated infection. The CD8+ T cell response to just two CMV proteins (pp65 and IE was approximately 6% during long-term therapy, which was over twice that seen in HIV-seronegative persons. CMV-specific CD4+ T cell responses followed the same trends, but the magnitude of the effect was smaller.Long-term successfully treated HIV infected patients have remarkably high levels of CMV-specific effector cells. These levels are similar to that observed in the elderly, but occur at much younger ages. Future studies should focus on defining the potential role of the CMV-specific inflammatory response in non-AIDS morbidity and mortality, including immunosenescence.

  11. Stroke in HIV-infected individuals with and without HCV coinfection in Spain in the combination antiretroviral therapy era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvaro-Meca, Alejandro; Díaz, Asunción; Micheloud, Dariela; Aldámiz-Echevarría, Teresa; Fanciulli, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    The incidence of stroke in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected individuals has been well analyzed in recent epidemiological studies. However, little is known about the specific contribution of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection to stroke among HIV-infected individuals. The aims of this study were to analyze trends in the incidence rates of stroke in HIV-infected individuals during the combination antiretroviral (cART) era in Spain and to categorize them by the presence or absence of HCV coinfection. We analyzed hospital discharges with a diagnosis of stroke in Spain according to ICD-9-CM during 1997–2013. The study period was divided into four calendar periods (1997–1999, 2000–2003, 2004–2007, and 2008–2013). Patients were classified according to HCV serology. The number of HIV-infected patients was estimated based on data from the National Centre of Epidemiology. We calculated incidence rates (events per 10,000 patient-years) and in-hospital case fatality rates (CFR). The incidence of hemorrhagic stroke (HS) decreased in HIV-monoinfected patients (15.8 [1997–1999] to 6.5 [2008–2013]; P<0.001) and increased in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients (1.3 [1997–1999] to 5.5 [2008–2013]; P<0.001). The incidence of ischemic stroke (IS) decreased in HIV-monoinfected patients (27.4 [1997–1999] to 21.7 [2008–2013]; P = 0.005) and increased in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients (1.8 [1997–1999] to 11.9 [2008–2013]; P<0.001). The CFR was 3.3 times higher for HS than for IS for the whole study period. The CFR of HS in HIV-monoinfected patients decreased significantly (47.4% [1997–1999] to 30.6% [2008–2013]; P = 0.010) but did not change significantly among HIV/HCV-coinfected patients (41.4% [1997–1999] to 44.7% [2008–2013]; P = 0.784). The CFR of IS in the whole HIV-infected population decreased significantly (14.6% [1997–1999] to 10.9% [2008–2013]; P = 0.034), although no significant differences were found when each group was analyzed separately

  12. Mortality and its predictors among highly active antiretroviral therapy naive hiv-infected individuals: data from prospective cohort study in Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhyvytsia, D

    2014-01-01

    There is little information from Ukraine about the effect of Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on survival of HIV-infected patients. Our objective was to identify predictors of mortality in HIV-infected patients initiating HAART at the Zaporizhzhya AIDS Center, Ukraine. Prospective cohort study of HIV-infected patients from January 2005 to December 2008 in a Zaporizhzhya AIDS Center, and were tracked for 60 months after start HAART. Unvaried and multivariate analysis and constructed Kaplan-Meier curves to assess predictors. To identify predictors of mortality were used to build a regression Cox proportional hazards model.Two hundred and seventy two patients were studied (mean age 34 years, 42% female, median CD4 count 120 cell/μL). In 60 months of HAART 36 patients died. The probability of survival was 87%. In the univariate analysis, mortality was strongly associated with male gender (HR 6,28; 95% CI 2,22-17,78), IDU route of HIV transmission (HR 2,90; 95% CI 1,32-6,36), WHO clinical stage 4 (HR 3,45 95% CI 1,7-7,0). Mortality was also strongly associated with anemia (HR 2,24 95% CI 1,02-4,92) and HBsAg seropositivity (HR 6,26 95% CI 3,01-13,02). In the multivariate analysis independent factors associated with mortality were WHO clinical stage 4 (HR 2,66 95% CI 1,26-5,58) and HBsAg seropositivity (HR 4,35 95% CI 2,05-9,23). HAART significantly increased probability of survival and reduced the risk of death for HIV-infected patients in Ukraine. Simple clinical and laboratory data independently predict mortality and allow for risk stratification in HIV-infected patients in Ukraine.

  13. HIV prevalence and demographic determinants of condomless receptive anal intercourse among trans feminine individuals in Beirut, Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Rachel L; McGowan, Justine; Wagner, Glenn J

    2016-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests increased HIV incidence in the Middle East and North Africa among "key populations." To date, epidemiological data have not accurately included and measured HIV prevalence and risk among trans feminine individuals in the region. Through the lens of the Gender Affirmation Framework, we assessed demographic correlates of risk behaviour and the prevalence of HIV among trans feminine individuals in Lebanon. Long-chain referral sampling was used to recruit 53 participants for completion of a behavioural survey and optional free rapid HIV tests. Data were collected using interviewer-administered questionnaires. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to identify demographic determinants of HIV risk behaviour. Fifty-seven percent of participants reported condomless receptive anal intercourse (CRAI) with male partner(s) in the last three months, 40% of whom reported not knowing the HIV status of the partner(s). Of the participants tested for HIV as part of the study or via self-report, four (10%) were HIV positive; 13 declined HIV testing. Forty percent of the sample had no prior history of HIV testing. A history of trauma such as sexual abuse/assault was reported by almost half of the participants (49%). Sixty-eight percent reported experiencing physical violence and 32% police arrest, because of gender identity or presentation. A staggering 98% reported having experienced gender identity or gender presentation-related discrimination. Sixty-six percent of the sample reported current sex work; sex work was correlated with CRAI but was not significant in multivariate analysis. In regression analysis, "openness"/"outness" about transgender identity at work or school was significantly associated with CRAI. Surprisingly, a history of sexual abuse/assault was negatively correlated with CRAI, suggesting the need for further inquiry. The results of this study provide implications for how to address sexual health among trans feminine

  14. Association Between Educational Level and Risk of Cancer in HIV-infected Individuals and the Background Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legarth, Rebecca; Omland, Lars H; Dalton, Susanne O

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals have increased risk of cancer. To our knowledge, no previous study has examined the impact of socioeconomic position on risk and prognosis of cancer in HIV infection. METHODS: Population-based cohort-study, including HIV......-infected individuals diagnosed (without intravenous drug abuse or hepatitis C infection) (n = 3205), and a background population cohort matched by age, gender, and country of birth (n = 22 435) were analyzed. Educational level (low or high) and cancer events were identified in Danish national registers. Cumulative...... incidences, incidence rate ratios (IRRs), and survival using Kaplan-Meier methods were estimated. RESULTS: Low educational level was associated with increased risk of cancer among HIV-infected individuals compared to population controls: all (adjusted-IRRs: 1.4 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.1-1.7] vs 1...

  15. Food access and diet quality are associated with quality of life outcomes among HIV-infected individuals in Uganda.

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    Tia Palermo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Food insecurity is associated with poor nutritional and clinical outcomes among people living with HIV/AIDS. Few studies investigate the link between food insecurity, dietary diversity and health-related quality of life among people living with HIV/AIDS. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether household food access and individual dietary diversity are associated with health-related quality of life among people living with HIV/AIDS in Uganda. METHODS: We surveyed 902 people living with HIV/AIDS and their households from two clinics in Northern Uganda. Health-related quality of life outcomes were assessed using the Medical Outcomes Study (MOS-HIV Survey. We performed multivariate regressions to investigate the relationship between health-related quality of life, household food insecurity and individual dietary diversity. RESULTS: People living with HIV/AIDS from severe food insecurity households have mean mental health status scores that are 1.7 points lower (p<.001 and physical health status scores that are 1.5 points lower (p<.01. Individuals with high dietary diversity have mean mental health status scores that were 3.6 points higher (p<.001 and physical health status scores that were 2.8 points higher (p<.05. CONCLUSIONS: Food access and diet quality are associated with health-related quality of life and may be considered as part of comprehensive interventions designed to mitigate psychosocial consequences of HIV.

  16. Characteristics and treatment outcomes among HIV-infected individuals in the Australian Trial in Acute Hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, G V; Hellard, M; Haber, P; Yeung, B; Marks, P; Baker, D; McCaughan, G; Sasadeusz, J; White, P; Rawlinson, W; Lloyd, A; Kaldor, J; Dore, G J

    2009-03-01

    The Australian Trial in Acute Hepatitis C (ATAHC) is a National Institutes of Health-funded prospective cohort study of the natural history and efficacy of treatment in individuals with recently acquired hepatitis C. Enrollment is open to both human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected and -uninfected individuals. The aim of this article was to evaluate characteristics and virological outcomes among HIV-infected individuals enrolled in ATAHC. Eligibility criteria included the first positive result of testing for anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibody within 6 months and either clinical hepatitis diagnosed within the past 12 months or documented anti-HCV seroconversion within the past 24 months. Of the initial 103 patients enrolled, 27 (26%) were HIV infected. HIV-infected patients were more likely to be older, to have HCV genotype 1 infection and high levels of HCV RNA at baseline than were HCV-monoinfected patients. Sexual acquisition accounted for the majority (56%) of HCV infections among HIV-infected patients, compared with only 8% of HCV-monoinfected patients. The median duration from estimated HCV infection to treatment was 30 weeks. Treatment with 24 weeks of pegylated interferon and ribavirin resulted in rates of undetectability of HCV RNA of 95%, 90%, and 80% at weeks 12, 24, and 48, respectively. Undetectability at week 4 was achieved in 44% of patients and yielded positive and negative predictive values for sustained virological response of 100% and 33%, respectively. Significant differences were demonstrated between HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected individuals enrolled in ATAHC. Treatment responses among HIV-infected individuals with both acute and early chronic infection are encouraging and support regular HCV screening of high-risk individuals and early treatment for recently acquired HCV infection.

  17. The Burden of Image Based Emphysema and Bronchiolitis in HIV-Infected Individuals on Antiretroviral Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guaraldi, Giovanni; Besutti, Giulia; Scaglioni, Riccardo; Santoro, Antonella; Zona, Stefano; Guido, Ligabue; Marchioni, Alessandro; Orlando, Gabriella; Carli, Federica; Beghe, Bianca; Fabbri, Leonardo; Leipsic, Jonathon; Sin, Don D.; Man, S. F. Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background With the widespread use of anti-retroviral therapy (ART), individuals infected with human immune deficiency virus (HIV) are increasingly experiencing morbidity and mortality from respiratory disorders. However, the prevalence or the risk factors associated with emphysema and bronchiolitis are largely unknown. Methods Thoracic computed tomography (CT) scans were performed in 1,446 patients infected with HIV who were on ART and who attended a tertiary care metabolic clinic (average age 48 years and 29% females). Detailed history and physical examination including anthropometric measurements were performed. Complete pulmonary function tests were performed in a subset of these patients (n = 364). No subjects were acutely ill with a respiratory condition at the time of CT scanning. Findings Nearly 50% of the subjects had CT evidence for emphysema, bronchiolitis or both with 13% (n = 195) showing bronchiolitis, 19% (n = 274) showing emphysema and 16% (n = 238) revealing both. These phenotypes were synergistically associated with reduced regular physical activity (p for interaction bronchiolitis are extremely common in HIV-infected patients who are treated with ART and can be identified by use of thoracic CT scanning. PMID:25354261

  18. Multiple opportunistic fungal infections in an individual with severe HIV disease: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida-Silva, Fernando; Damasceno, Lisandra Serra; Serna, Maria Jose Buitrago; Valero, Clara; Quintella, Leonardo Pereira; Almeida-Paes, Rodrigo; Muniz, Mauro de Medeiros; Zancope-Oliveira, Rosely Maria

    2016-01-01

    Fungal infections have been commonly diagnosed in individuals with advanced HIV disease. Cryptococcosis, pneumocystosis, and histoplasmosis are the most frequent systemic mycoses in people suffering from HIV/AIDS. We report a case of multiple fungal infections in an advanced AIDS-patient. A 33-year-old HIV-positive man from Brazil was hospitalized due to diarrhea, dyspnea, emaciation, hypoxemia, extensive oral thrush, and a CD4+ T lymphocyte count of 20cells/mm(3). Honeycombed-structures consistent with Pneumocystis jirovecii were observed by direct immunofluorescence in induced sputum. Cryptococcus neoformans was recovered from respiratory secretion and cerebrospinal fluid cultures. Histopathology of the bone marrow also revealed the presence of Histoplasma capsulatum. Molecular assays were performed in a sputum sample. Nested-PCR confirmed the presence of P. jirovecii and H. capsulatum; qPCR multiplex was positive for C. neoformans and H. capsulatum. With the treatment of antifungal drugs the patient progressed satisfactorily. The diagnosis of several systemic mycoses demonstrates the vulnerability of advanced AIDS-patients. Thus, the detection of AIDS cases in the early stages of infection is necessary for a prompt and adequate introduction of HAART therapy, and the use of prophylaxis to control opportunistic infections. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Española de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. Polymorphisms in the interleukin-7 receptor α gene and mortality in untreated HIV-infected individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartling, Hans Jakob; Thørner, Lise W.; Erikstrup, Christian

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES:: Recently, polymorphisms in the gene encoding the Interleukin-7 receptor α (IL7RA) have been shown to influence the CD4 cell count in HIV-infected individuals. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in or in close proximity...... to the IL7RA on mortality among 152 untreated HIV-infected in a Zimbabwean cohort. METHODS:: Patients were followed prospectively, median time of follow-up 3.9 year. SNPs were genotyped using competitive allele-specific PCR. Cox regression was used for survival analyses. RESULTS:: We found an increased...... mortality among carriers of the IL7RA, rs6897932, T-allele (hazard ratio (HR): 2.56 (95% CI 1.22-5.35), P = 0.013). This association remained significant after adjusting for age, sex, baseline HIV-RNA and baseline CD4 cell count (HR = 2.36 (95% CI 1.06-2.58), P = 0.036). CONCLUSION:: The results suggest...

  20. Short-course TLR9 Agonist Treatment Impacts Innate Immunity and Plasma Viremia in Individuals with HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vibholm, Line; Schleimann, Mariane H; Højen, Jesper F

    2017-01-01

    Background: Treatment with latency reversing agents (LRA) enhances HIV-1 transcription in vivo but only leads to modest reductions in the size of the reservoir, possibly due to insufficient immune-mediated elimination of infected cells. We hypothesized that a single drug molecule - a novel toll......-like receptor 9 (TLR9) agonist, MGN1703 - could function as an enhancer of innate immunity and an LRA in vivo. Methods: We conducted a single-arm, open-label study, where 15 virologically suppressed HIV-1 infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy received 60 mg MGN1703 s.c. twice weekly for 4 weeks. We....... Conclusions: TLR9 agonist treatment in HIV infection has a dual potential by increasing HIV-1 transcription and enhancing cytotoxic NK cell activation, both of which are key outcomes in HIV-1 eradication therapy. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02443935....

  1. Cytokine profile and clinical metabolic alterations in HIV-1 infected individuals with and without lipodistrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. C. R. Pontes-Cardoso

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The extensive use of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART has transformed HIV infection into a chronic condition. Thus, metabolic alterations including lipodystrophy and dyslipidemia have been associated with the use of such medications. The objective of the present study was to analyze clinical metabolic alterations and the profile of TNF-alpha, IFN-Y, IL-2, IL-10, and TNF-alpha type II soluble receptor in serum of HIV-1 individuals with and without lipodystrophy. Eighty-four adults were evaluated, 42 males and 42 females, mean age 37 years, and HAART time of at least 15 months. Two groups were formed, G1: 42 individuals with lipodystrophy, and G2: 42 without lipodistropy. From the HAART used, stavudine was more associated with the lipodystrophy group and zidovudine with the non-lipodystrophy group. CD4 and CD8 values, viral load, glucose, albumin, and lipids were not different between groups, except for triglycerides, which were high in the lipodystrophy group, and HDL, whose concentration was reduced in G1. TNF-alpha, TNF-RII, and IL-10 profiles were high and had positive correlation; IL-2 and IFN-gamma had reduced levels in the lipodystrophy group. High TNF-alpha and its receptor levels seem to be associated with lipodystrophy development in individuals under HAART therapy.

  2. Combination antiretroviral therapy improves cognitive performance and functional connectivity in treatment-naïve HIV-infected individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Yuchuan; Qiu, Xing; Wang, Lu; Ma, Qing; Mapstone, Mark; Luque, Amneris; Weber, Miriam; Tivarus, Madalina; Miller, Eric; Arduino, Roberto C; Zhong, Jianhui; Schifitto, Giovanni

    2017-10-01

    Our study aimed to investigate the short-term effect of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) on cognitive performance and functional and structural connectivity and their relationship to plasma levels of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs. Seventeen ARV treatment-naïve HIV-infected individuals (baseline mean CD4 cell count, 479 ± 48 cells/mm3) were age matched with 17 HIV-uninfected individuals. All subjects underwent a detailed neurocognitive and functional assessment and magnetic resonance imaging. HIV-infected subjects were scanned before starting cART and 12 weeks after initiation of treatment. Uninfected subjects were assessed once at baseline. Functional connectivity (FC) was assessed within the default mode network while structural connectivity was assessed by voxel-wise analysis using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) and probabilistic tractography within the DMN. Tenofovir and emtricitabine blood concentration were measured at week 12 of cART. Prior to cART, HIV-infected individuals had significantly lower cognitive performance than control subjects as measured by the total Z-score from the neuropsychological tests assessing six cognitive domains (p = 0.020). After 12 weeks of cART treatment, there remained only a weak cognitive difference between HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected subjects (p = 0.057). Mean FC was lower in HIV-infected individuals compared with those uninfected (p = 0.008), but FC differences became non-significant after treatment (p = 0.197). There were no differences in DTI metrics between HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected individuals using the TBSS approach and limited evidence of decreased structural connectivity within the DMN in HIV-infected individuals. Tenofovir and emtricitabine plasma concentrations did not correlate with either cognitive performance or imaging metrics. Twelve weeks of cART improves cognitive performance and functional connectivity in ARV treatment-naïve HIV-infected individuals with relatively

  3. Research on psychoneuroimmunology: tai chi as a stress management approach for individuals with HIV disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robins, Jo Lynne W; McCain, Nancy L; Gray, D Patricia; Elswick, R K; Walter, Jeanne M; McDade, Elizabeth

    2006-02-01

    Psychoneuroimmunology is a framework for mind-body practice and research that combines cutting-edge scientific exploration with holistic philosophy to appreciate and understand stress responses. The rapidly growing research literature provides a foundation for building an integrative stress management model with the potential to positively influence the stress-disease relationship and, ultimately, health outcomes. This article introduces a novel tai chi intervention and provides quantitative and qualitative data from a randomized clinical trial indicating its effects on psychosocial variables in individuals living with various stages of HIV disease.

  4. Chronic Kidney Disease and Antiretroviral Therapy in HIV-Positive Individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achhra, Amit C; Nugent, Melinda; Mocroft, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has emerged as an important health concern in HIV-positive individuals. Preventing long-term kidney toxicity from an antiretroviral therapy is therefore critical. Selected antiretroviral agents, especially tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and some ritonavir...... require an intervention. Tenofovir alafenamide (TAF), a TDF alternative, promises to be safer in terms of TDF-associated kidney and bone toxicity. While the short-term data on TAF does indicate lower eGFR decline and lower risk of proteinuria (vs. TDF), long-term data on renal safety of TAF are still...

  5. Adverse Reactions of Trivalent Influenza Vaccine in HIV-Infected Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahboube Hajiabdolbaghi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we assessed the adverse reactions to influenza vaccination in HIV- infected individuals. From November 2006 to January 2007, a total of 203 HIV-infected persons were recruited. Demographic data were collected. Subjects were evaluated 48 h and 15 days after vaccination for symptoms and significant health events as possible side effects. Participants were instructed to measure their temperature in the morning and evening for 2 days post-immunization and to assess injection site and systemic adverse reactions. 80.3% of the subjects were male. The mean age of the subjects was 36.9±7.9 years. Local and systemic reactions were reported by 61 (30% and 62 (30.5% persons, respectively. The most common adverse reactions to the influenza vaccine included skin redness (37 cases, induration (32 cases, and pain (55 cases as local reac-tions, and fever (22 cases, myalgia (46 cases, headache (12 cases and weakness (35 cases as general reactions. 1.4 % of the subjects had fever over 38.5 ºC. There were significant associations between myalgia and flushing with CD4 counts (P<0.05. We found no relationship between ad-verse reactions and sex, history of smoking, allergy, alcohol, and drug usage, stage of HIV infec-tion, anti-retroviral therapies, anti-TB medication and previous vaccination. We concluded that inactivated influenza vaccine administered in HIV-infected adults did not result in potential ad-verse events in this study population.

  6. Continuous increase of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and non-HIV related cancers as causes of death in HIV-infected individuals in Brazil: an analysis of nationwide data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula, Adelzon A; Schechter, Mauro; Tuboi, Suely H; Faulhaber, José Claudio; Luz, Paula M; Veloso, Valdiléa G; Moreira, Ronaldo I; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Harrison, Lee H; Pacheco, Antonio G

    2014-01-01

    After antiretroviral therapy (ART) became available, there was a decline in the number of deaths in persons infected with HIV. Thereafter, there was a decrease in the proportion of deaths attributed to opportunistic infections and an increase in the proportion of deaths attributed to chronic comorbidities. Herein we extend previous observations from a nationwide survey on temporal trends in causes of death in HIV-infected patients in Brazil. We describe temporal trends in causes of death among adults who had HIV/AIDS listed in the death certificate to those who did not. All death certificates issued in Brazil from 1999 to 2011 and listed in the national mortality database were included. Generalized linear mixed-effects logistic models were used to study temporal trends in proportions. In the HIV-infected population, there was an annual adjusted average increase of 6.0%, 12.0%, 4.0% and 4.1% for cancer, external causes, cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and diabetes mellitus (DM), respectively, compared to 3.0%, 4.0%, 1.0% and 3.9%, in the non-HIV group. For tuberculosis (TB), there was an adjusted average increase of 0.3%/year and a decrease of 3.0%/year in the HIV and the non-HIV groups, respectively. Compared to 1999, the odds ratio (OR) for cancer, external causes, CVD, DM, or TB in the HIV group were, respectively, 2.31, 4.17, 1.76, 2.27 and 1.02, while for the non-HIV group, the corresponding OR were 1.31, 1.63, 1.14, 1.62 and 0.67. Interactions between year as a continuous or categorical variable and HIV were significant (pHIV-related co-morbidities continue to increase more rapidly as causes of death among HIV-infected individuals than in those without HIV infection, highlighting the need for targeting prevention measures and surveillance for chronic diseases among those patients.

  7. Continuous increase of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and non-HIV related cancers as causes of death in HIV-infected individuals in Brazil: an analysis of nationwide data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelzon A Paula

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: After antiretroviral therapy (ART became available, there was a decline in the number of deaths in persons infected with HIV. Thereafter, there was a decrease in the proportion of deaths attributed to opportunistic infections and an increase in the proportion of deaths attributed to chronic comorbidities. Herein we extend previous observations from a nationwide survey on temporal trends in causes of death in HIV-infected patients in Brazil. METHODS: We describe temporal trends in causes of death among adults who had HIV/AIDS listed in the death certificate to those who did not. All death certificates issued in Brazil from 1999 to 2011 and listed in the national mortality database were included. Generalized linear mixed-effects logistic models were used to study temporal trends in proportions. RESULTS: In the HIV-infected population, there was an annual adjusted average increase of 6.0%, 12.0%, 4.0% and 4.1% for cancer, external causes, cardiovascular diseases (CVD and diabetes mellitus (DM, respectively, compared to 3.0%, 4.0%, 1.0% and 3.9%, in the non-HIV group. For tuberculosis (TB, there was an adjusted average increase of 0.3%/year and a decrease of 3.0%/year in the HIV and the non-HIV groups, respectively. Compared to 1999, the odds ratio (OR for cancer, external causes, CVD, DM, or TB in the HIV group were, respectively, 2.31, 4.17, 1.76, 2.27 and 1.02, while for the non-HIV group, the corresponding OR were 1.31, 1.63, 1.14, 1.62 and 0.67. Interactions between year as a continuous or categorical variable and HIV were significant (p<0.001 for all conditions, except for DM when year was considered as a continuous variable (p = 0.76. CONCLUSIONS: Non HIV-related co-morbidities continue to increase more rapidly as causes of death among HIV-infected individuals than in those without HIV infection, highlighting the need for targeting prevention measures and surveillance for chronic diseases among those patients.

  8. Factors associated with specific causes of death amongst HIV-positive individuals in the D:A:D Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Colette; Sabin, Caroline A; Lundgren, Jens D; Thiebaut, Rodolphe; Weber, Rainer; Law, Matthew; Monforte, Antonella d'Arminio; Kirk, Ole; Friis-Moller, Nina; Phillips, Andrew; Reiss, Peter; El Sadr, Wafaa; Pradier, Christian; Worm, Signe W

    2010-06-19

    To investigate any emerging trends in causes of death amongst HIV-positive individuals in the current cART era, and to investigate the factors associated with each specific cause of death. An observational multicentre cohort study. All HIV-positive individuals included in one of the cohorts in the Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV drugs (D:A:D) Study were included. The association between HIV-specific and non HIV-specific risk factors and death were studied using multivariable Poisson regression. We observed 2482 deaths in 180,176 person-years (PY) on 33,308 individuals [rate/1000 PY = 13.8 (95% CI 13.2-14.3)]. Primary causes of death were: AIDS (n = 743; rate/1000 PY = 4.12), liver-related (341; 1.89), CVD-related (289; 1.60), non-AIDS malignancy (286; 1.59). The overall rate of death fell from 16.9 in 1999/2000 to 9.6/ 1000 PY in 2007/2008. Smoking was associated with CVD and non-AIDS cancers, HBV and HCV co-infection with liver-related deaths, and hypertension with liver-related and CVD deaths. Diabetes was a risk factor for all specific causes of death except non-AIDS cancers, and higher current HIV RNA for AIDS-related deaths. Lower CD4 cell counts were associated with a higher risk of death from all specific causes of death. Multiple potentially modifiable traditional and HIV-specific risk factors for death of HIV-infected persons were identified. The maximum reduction in mortality in HIV-infected populations will require that each of these factors be appropriately addressed. No trends in terms of emerging causes of unexpected deaths were observed, although monitoring will continue.

  9. In vitro separation and expansion of CD4 lymphocytes from HIV-infected individuals without activation of HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S D; Nielsen, Jens Ole; Hansen, J E

    1997-01-01

    In order to offer a gene therapy-based treatment against AIDS, it is likely to be necessary to harvest and culture CD4 cells from HIV-positive patients without activating the HIV infection. We have used a magnetic cell sorting (MACS) system to enrich CD4 cells. Using positive selection, CD4 cells...... expression and no loss of polyclonality. Only in two of six cultures were we able to detect HIV-antigen production, and using an LTR-PCR and an RT assay, we did not find activation of the HIV infection during the culture period. Thus, the method described separates and expands CD4 cells from HIV......-positive patients without activation of the HIV infection....

  10. Salvage surgery for residual primary and locally recurrent anal squamous cell carcinoma after chemoradiotherapy in HIV-positive individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunin, Laila; Alfa-Wali, M; Turner, J; Bower, M; Ion, L; Allen-Mersh, T

    2014-02-01

    The treatment of anal cancer in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients-as in the general population-is primarily with chemoradiotherapy (CRT), and abdominoperineal resection of residual or recurrent primary disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the extent of residual primary disease and local recurrence as well as the outcome of salvage surgery after CRT for anal carcinoma in HIV-positive individuals. We retrospectively studied HIV-positive anal carcinoma patients treated between February 1989 and November 2012 in a specialist London unit. Extent of residual primary disease, local recurrence after CRT, postoperative complications, and survival after salvage surgery were evaluated. Complete response was experienced in 44 of 53 (83%) of HIV patients treated with CRT for anal carcinoma. One patient (2.3%) developed local recurrence. Nine patients (eight residual primary disease after CRT and one local recurrence) underwent salvage surgery after CRT. There were no perioperative deaths, and perioperative CD4 counts were sustained. Complications occurred in five patients (55%). Median interval to complete perineal healing was 4 months (range 2-11 months), and median hospital stay was 29 days. Survival (median 16 months) was 25% at 2 years from salvage surgery. Results in HIV-positive patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) suggest that loss of HIV sensitivity to HAART can be avoided, but that there is increased postoperative morbidity that may be related to HIV disease. Survival was comparable to that for salvage therapy after optimal CRT in non-HIV anal carcinoma patients.

  11. Cost-effectiveness of maraviroc for antiretroviral treatment-experienced HIV-infected individuals in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras-Hernandez, Iris; Becker, Debbie; Chancellor, Jeremy; Kühne, Felicitas; Mould-Quevedo, Joaquin; Vega, Gabriela; Marfatia, Shalaka

    2010-12-01

    Maraviroc is the first approved drug in a new class of antiretrovirals, the CCR5 antagonists. The objective of this study was to predict the long-term clinical impact and cost-effectiveness of maraviroc in treatment-experienced adults with HIV/AIDS in Mexico. The AntiRetroviral Analysis by Monte Carlo Individual Simulation (ARAMIS) model was adapted to the Mexican context to predict clinical and economic outcomes of treating with optimized background therapy (OBT) versus testing for viral tropism status and treating with OBT ± maraviroc accordingly in treatment-experienced adults in Mexico. Baseline characteristics and efficacy were from the MOTIVATE trials' screening cohort. Costs and population mortality data were specific to Mexico. Results were reported from the perspective of health care payers in 2008 Mexican pesos (converted to 2008 US$ in parentheses). Compared to treatment with OBT alone, treatment with OBT ± maraviroc contingent on tropism test result increased projected undiscounted life expectancy and discounted quality-adjusted life expectancy from 7.54 to 8.71 years and 4.42 to 4.92 quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), respectively, at an incremental cost of $228,215 (US$21,329). The resultant incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was $453,978 (US$42,429) per QALY gained. The ICER was somewhat lower when maraviroc was modeled in individuals susceptible to ≤ 2 components of OBT ($407,329; US$38,069), while the ICER was higher in individuals susceptible to ≥3 OBT components ($718,718; US$67,171). In treatment-experienced individuals with HIV/AIDS in Mexico, maraviroc may be cost-effective, particularly in individuals with limited options for active antiretroviral therapy (ART). © 2010, International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR).

  12. [Multiple myeloma in HIV infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbanera, M; Menicagli, V

    1990-10-01

    The Authors describe a case of multiple myeloma in a patient with HIV infection: this is an exceptional observation in young people and in HIV seropositive patients. The marked proliferation of lymphocyte B polyclones, typically found in the advanced stages of HIV infection, could be a determining factor in the appearance of a malignant clone, causing the onset of multiple myeloma.

  13. Helicobacter pylori Seropositivity in Children With Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Yousefichaijan; Mosayebi; Sharafkhah; Kahbazi; Heydarbagi; Rafiei

    2016-01-01

    Background Some studies have reported an association between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) colonization and the occurrence of asthma or other allergies. However, data are inconsistent, and few studies have been performed in children. Objectives The current study aimed to investigate H. pylori seropositivity in children with and without asthma. Patients and Methods This cross-sect...

  14. Distress tolerance and use of antiretroviral therapy among HIV-infected individuals in substance abuse treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magidson, Jessica F; Seitz-Brown, C J; Listhaus, Alyson; Lindberg, Briana; Anderson, Katelyn E; Daughters, Stacey B

    2013-09-01

    Despite recent clinical guidelines recommending early initiation and widespread use of antiretroviral therapy (ART), many HIV-infected individuals are not receiving ART-in particular low-income, minority substance users. Few studies have examined psychological, as opposed to structural, factors related to not receiving ART in this population. Perceived capacity to tolerate physical and psychological distress, known as distress tolerance (DT), may be a particularly relevant yet understudied factor. The current study tested the relationship between self-reported physical and psychological DT and ART receipt among predominantly low-income, minority HIV-infected substance users (n=77). Psychiatric disorders, biological indicators of health status, ART use, structural barriers to health care, and self-reported physical and psychological DT were assessed. 61% of participants were receiving ART. The only factors that distinguished individuals not on ART were greater avoidance of physical discomfort, higher psychological DT, and higher CD4 count. Both DT measures remained associated with ART use after controlling for CD4 count and were associated with almost a two-fold decrease in likelihood of ART receipt. Current findings suggest higher perceived capacity to tolerate psychological distress and greater avoidance of physical discomfort are important factors associated with lower ART use among substance users and may be important intervention targets.

  15. Liver-related death among HIV/hepatitis C virus-co-infected individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grint, Daniel; Peters, Lars; Rockstroh, Juergen K

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Potent, less toxic, directly acting antivirals (DAAs) for treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection promise to improve HCV cure rates among HIV/HCV-co-infected individuals. However, the costs of treatment will necessitate prioritization of those at greatest risk of liver-related ......BACKGROUND: Potent, less toxic, directly acting antivirals (DAAs) for treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection promise to improve HCV cure rates among HIV/HCV-co-infected individuals. However, the costs of treatment will necessitate prioritization of those at greatest risk of liver.......7-2.9), but substantial in those with F2/F3 and F4 fibrosis (sHR 10.3%, 95% CI 7.6-13.5; and sHR 14.0%, 95% CI 10.3-18.3, respectively). CONCLUSION: Treatment with DAAs should be prioritized for those with at least F2 fibrosis. Early initiation of cART with the aim of avoiding low CD4 cell counts should be considered...

  16. Psychoneuroimmunology and HIV-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoni, Michael H.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Presents evidence describing benefits of behavioral interventions such as aerobic exercise training on both psychological and immunological functioning among high risk human immunodeficiency virus-Type 1 (HIV-1) seronegative and very early stage seropositive homosexual men. HIV-1 infection is cast as chronic disease for which early…

  17. CD52 expression on CD4+ T cells in HIV-positive individuals on cART

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vojdeman, Fie Juhl; Gaardbo, Julie Christine; Hartling, Hans Jakob

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human immune defect virus (HIV) persists in a latent state in quiescent CD4+ T cells preventing eradication of HIV. CD52 is a surface molecule modulated by HIV. We aimed at examining factors related to CD52 expression on CD4+ T cells in HIV-positive individuals and the impact...... of initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). METHODS: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from 18 HIV-positive individuals and 10 uninfected age and gender matched controls were examined by flow cytometry for CD38 and CD52 expression on CD4+ T cells. Stimulation assays were performed on 8...... healthy blood donors to determine a cut-off for CD52 expression. RESULTS: All examined CD4+ T cells expressed CD52. However, both CD4+ T cells with higher (CD52++) and with lower CD52 expression (CD52dim) were found in HIV-positive individuals compared to uninfected controls. Two % CD52dim cells defined...

  18. HIV-1 Infection Is Associated with Depletion and Functional Impairment ofMycobacterium tuberculosis-Specific CD4 T Cells in Individuals with Latent Tuberculosis Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Cheryl L; Abrahams, Deborah A; Harris, Levelle D; van Rooyen, Michele; Stone, Lynnett; de Kock, Marwou; Hanekom, Willem A

    2017-09-15

    Coinfection with HIV is the single greatest risk factor for reactivation of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (LTBI) and progression to active tuberculosis disease. HIV-associated dysregulation of adaptive immunity by depletion of CD4 Th cells most likely contributes to loss of immune control of LTBI in HIV-infected individuals, although the precise mechanisms whereby HIV infection impedes successful T cell-mediated control of M. tuberculosis have not been well defined. To further delineate mechanisms whereby HIV impairs protective immunity to M. tuberculosis , we evaluated the frequency, phenotype, and functional capacity of M. tuberculosis -specific CD4 T cells in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected adults with LTBI. HIV infection was associated with a lower total frequency of cytokine-producing M. tuberculosis -specific CD4 T cells, and preferential depletion of a discrete subset of M. tuberculosis -specific IFN-γ + IL-2 - TNF-α + CD4 T cells. M. tuberculosis -specific CD4 T cells in HIV-infected individuals expressed significantly higher levels of Ki67, compared with HIV-uninfected individuals, thus indicating recent activation and turnover of these cells in vivo. The ex vivo proliferative capacity of M. tuberculosis -specific CD4 T cells was markedly impaired in HIV-infected individuals, compared with HIV-uninfected individuals. Moreover, HIV infection was associated with increased M. tuberculosis Ag-induced CD4 T cell death ex vivo, indicating a possible mechanism contributing to impaired proliferative capacity of M. tuberculosis -specific CD4 T cells in HIV-infected individuals. These data provide new insights into the parameters of M. tuberculosis -specific CD4 T cell immunity that are impaired in HIV-infected individuals with LTBI, which may contribute to their increased risk of developing active tuberculosis disease. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  19. Hospitalization for pneumonia among individuals with and without HIV infection, 1995-2007: a Danish population-based, nationwide cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sogaard, O.S.; Lohse, N.; Gerstoft, J.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals with high CD4(+) cell counts may have increased susceptibility to other infections. We compared incidence rates of pneumonia among individuals with and without HIV infection and explored risk factors for pneumonia in the HIV...... diagnoses from 1977 onward were obtained from nationwide administrative databases. Individuals without previous hospitalization for pneumonia were observed from the date of HIV diagnosis until the first hospitalization to treat pneumonia (excluding pneumonia attributable to Pneumocystis jiroveci). Risk...... factors were assessed by Poisson regression. RESULTS: The study included 3516 persons with HIV infection and 328,738 persons without HIV infection, which provided 23,677 person-years and 2,944,760 person-years of observation, respectively. Incidence rates of pneumonia in HIV-infected individuals decreased...

  20. Individuals motivated to participate in adherence, care and treatment (imPACT: development of a multi-component intervention to help HIV-infected recently incarcerated individuals link and adhere to HIV care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol E. Golin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Policy-makers promote a seek, test, treat and retain (STTR strategy to expand HIV testing, support linkage and engagement in care, and enhance the continuous use of antiretroviral therapy for those HIV-infected. This HIV prevention strategy is particularly appropriate in correctional settings where HIV screening and treatment are routinely available yet many HIV-infected individuals have difficulty sustaining sufficient linkage and engagement in care, disease management, and viral suppression after prison release. Methods/design Our research team developed Project imPACT (individuals motivated to Participate in Adherence, Care and Treatment, a multi-component approach for HIV-Infected recently incarcerated individuals that specifically targets their care linkage, retention, and medication adherence by addressing multiple barriers to care engagement after release. The ultimate goals of this intervention are to improve the health of HIV-infected individuals recently released from prison and reduce HIV transmission to their communities by maintaining viral suppression. This paper describes the intervention and technology development processes, based on best practices for intervention development and process evaluation. These processes included: 1 identifying the target population; 2 clarifying the theoretical basis for intervention design; 3 describing features of its foundational interventions; 4 conducting formative qualitative research; 5 integrating and adapting foundational interventions to create and refine intervention content based on target audience feedback. These stages along with the final intervention product are described in detail. The intervention is currently being evaluation and a two arm randomized, controlled trial in two US state prison systems. Discussion Based on a literature review, qualitative research, integration of proven interventions and behavioral theory, the final imPACT intervention focused on

  1. Mortality and causes of death among HIV-infected individuals in the country of Georgia: 1989-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chkhartishvili, Nikoloz; Sharvadze, Lali; Chokoshvili, Otar; Bolokadze, Natalia; Rukhadze, Nino; Kempker, Russell R; Gamkrelidze, Amiran; DeHovitz, Jack A; Del Rio, Carlos; Tsertsvadze, Tengiz

    2014-06-01

    Since 2004, the country of Georgia has provided antiretroviral therapy (ART) to all patients in need. A nationwide retrospective cohort study was conducted to assess the effect of universal access to ART on patterns of mortality and causes of death among HIV-infected individuals in Georgia. All known HIV-infected adult individuals (age ≥18 years) diagnosed from 1989 through 2012 were included. Rates and causes of death were determined using routinely collected data from the national HIV/AIDS database. Causes of death were classified according to the Coding of Death in HIV (CoDe) protocol. Between 1989 and 2012, 3,554 HIV-infected adults were registered in Georgia contributing to 13,572 person-years (PY) of follow-up. A total of 779 deaths were registered during follow-up. The mortality rate peaked in 2004 with 10.74 deaths per 100 PY (95% CI: 7.92-14.24) and significantly decreased after the universal availability of ART to 4.02 per 100 PY (95% CI: 3.28-4.87) in 2012. In multivariate analysis the strongest predictor of mortality was having AIDS at the time of HIV diagnosis (hazard ratio: 5.69, 95% CI: 4.72-6.85). AIDS-related diseases accounted for the majority of deaths (n=426, 54.7%). Tuberculosis (TB) was the leading cause of death accounting for 21% of the total deaths reported. Universal access to ART significantly reduced mortality among HIV-infected patients in Georgia. However, overall mortality rates remain high primarily due to late diagnosis, and TB remains a significant cause of death. Improving rates of early HIV diagnosis and ART initiation may further decrease mortality as well as prevent new HIV and TB infections.

  2. Spectrum of opportunistic and other parasites among HIV/AIDS patients attending a tertiary care hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonali Jain

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the spectrum of opportunistic as well as non-opportunistic parasitic infections in HIV/AIDS patients. Methods: A total of 250 HIV sero-positive individuals are included in study. Among them, 76 clinical cases of diarrhea and 8 clinically suspected cases of toxoplasmosis were identified. Fresh stool samples were collected in a suitable container on three consecutive days and processed immediately for identification of oocysts of Cryptosporidium parvum, Isospora belli and Cyclospora. Blood sample was collected from suspected cases of toxoplasmosis and tested for antitoxoplasma immunoglobulin M antibodies using immunoComb Toxo IgM test. Estimation of CD4 counts was also done by flow cytometry from these patients. Results: The opportunistic parasites identified in total HIV sero-positive patients were Cryptosporidium spp. (20.8% and Isospora belli (0.8%. While the non-opportunistic parasite identified were Entamoeba histolytica (4%, Giardia intestinalis (1.6% and Hymenolepis nana (0.8%. Toxoplasmosis was identified in 2.4% HIV sero-positive patients. Conclusions: Increasing prevalence of parasitic infections in HIV/AIDS patients suggests that simple steps such as drinking safe water, maintaining high level o=f environmental and personal hygiene and avoiding contact with contaminated soil are necessary to prevent the occurrence of these diseases in AIDS patients

  3. In vitro separation and expansion of CD4 lymphocytes from HIV-infected individuals without activation of HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S D; Nielsen, Jens Ole; Hansen, J E

    1997-01-01

    In order to offer a gene therapy-based treatment against AIDS, it is likely to be necessary to harvest and culture CD4 cells from HIV-positive patients without activating the HIV infection. We have used a magnetic cell sorting (MACS) system to enrich CD4 cells. Using positive selection, CD4 cells...

  4. Absence of XMRV in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of ARV-treatment naive HIV-1 infected and HIV-1/HCV coinfected individuals and blood donors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosmina Gingaras

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV has been found in the prostatic tissue of prostate cancer patients and in the blood of chronic fatigue syndrome patients. However, numerous studies have found little to no trace of XMRV in different human cohorts. Based on evidence suggesting common transmission routes between XMRV and HIV-1, HIV-1 infected individuals may represent a high-risk group for XMRV infection and spread. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: DNA was isolated from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs of 179 HIV-1 infected treatment naïve patients, 86 of which were coinfected with HCV, and 54 healthy blood donors. DNA was screened for XMRV provirus with two sensitive, published PCR assays targeting XMRV gag and env and one sensitive, published nested PCR assay targeting env. Detection of XMRV was confirmed by DNA sequencing. One of the 179 HIV-1 infected patients tested positive for gag by non-nested PCR whereas the two other assays did not detect XMRV in any specimen. All healthy blood donors were negative for XMRV proviral sequences. Sera from 23 HIV-1 infected patients (15 HCV(+ and 12 healthy donors were screened for the presence of XMRV-reactive antibodies by Western blot. Thirteen sera (57% from HIV-1(+ patients and 6 sera (50% from healthy donors showed reactivity to XMRV-infected cell lysate. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The virtual absence of XMRV in PBMCs suggests that XMRV is not associated with HIV-1 infected or HIV-1/HCV coinfected patients, or blood donors. Although we noted isolated incidents of serum reactivity to XMRV, we are unable to verify the antibodies as XMRV specific.

  5. Recreational drug use among individuals living with HIV in Europe: review of the prevalence, comparison with the general population and HIV guidelines recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noe eGarin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUNDAdherence problems, interactions and higher rate of risk activities have been observed in HIV individuals using recreational drugs. Our aim was to describe recreational drug use in both HIV individuals and general population in Europe, and to assess at what extent HIV guidelines address this issue.METHODSData on recreational drug use across Europe were obtained from the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction for the general population, and through Pubmed search. for HIV patients. We assessed the incorporation of recreational drug issues in HIV treatment guidelines for the following topics: a recreational drugs; b adherence to antiretrovirals; c interactions; d transmission risk. Guidelines included: World Health Organization; European Aids Clinical Society; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; International Antiviral Society-USA; and seven European national guidelines.RESULTS29 countries reported recreational drug use in general population. The highest prevalences were observed for Cannabis (i.e. 8-10% in Spain, France and Czech Republic followed by cocaine, amphetamines and ecstasy. The 13 studies selected in the systematic review showed a great variability in recreational drug use on the HIV population. Apart from classical recreational drugs, we found a relevant use of new drugs including sexual experience enhancers. Polydrug consumption was about 50% in some studies. Most guidelines included general information about recreational drugs, showing great variability on the inclusion of the evaluated topics. We found more specific, evidence-based recommendations on interactions, followed by medication adherence and transmission risk.CONCLUSIONSAvailable data on the people living with HIV suggest a higher use of recreational drugs than in the general population, which is already relevant. However, recreational drug issues should be included or addressed more thoroughly in most guidelines.

  6. Recreational drug use among individuals living with HIV in Europe: review of the prevalence, comparison with the general population and HIV guidelines recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garin, Noe; Velasco, Cesar; De Pourcq, Jan T; Lopez, Belen; Gutierrez, Maria Del Mar; Haro, Josep M; Feliu, Anna; Mangues, Maria A; Trilla, Antoni

    2015-01-01

    Adherence problems, interactions and higher rate of risk activities have been observed in HIV individuals using recreational drugs. Our aim was to describe recreational drug use in both HIV individuals and general population in Europe, and to assess at what extent HIV guidelines address this issue. Data on recreational drug use across Europe were obtained from the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction for the general population, and through Pubmed search. for HIV patients. We assessed the incorporation of recreational drug issues in HIV treatment guidelines for the following topics: (a) recreational drugs; (b) adherence to antiretrovirals; (c) interactions; (d) transmission risk. Guidelines included: World Health Organization; European Aids Clinical Society; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; International Antiviral Society-USA; and seven European national guidelines. 29 countries reported recreational drug use in general population. The highest prevalences were observed for Cannabis (i.e., 8-10% in Spain, France, and Czech Republic) followed by cocaine, amphetamines and ecstasy. The 13 studies selected in the systematic review showed a great variability in recreational drug use on the HIV population. Apart from classical recreational drugs, we found a relevant use of new drugs including sexual experience enhancers. Polydrug consumption was about 50% in some studies. Most guidelines included general information about recreational drugs, showing great variability on the inclusion of the evaluated topics. We found more specific, evidence-based recommendations on interactions, followed by medication adherence and transmission risk. Available data on the people living with HIV suggest a higher use of recreational drugs than in the general population, which is already relevant. However, recreational drug issues should be included or addressed more thoroughly in most guidelines.

  7. The immunologic effects of maraviroc intensification in treated HIV-infected individuals with incomplete CD4+ T-cell recovery: a randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hunt, P.W.; Shulman, N.S.; Hayes, T.L.; Dahl, V.; Somsouk, M.; Funderburg, N.T.; McLaughlin, B.; Landay, A.L.; Adeyemi, O.; Gilman, L.E.; Clagett, B.; Rodriguez, B.; Martin, J.N.; Schacker, T.W.; Shacklett, B.L.; Palmer, S.; Lederman, M.M.; Deeks, S.G.

    2013-01-01

    The CCR5 inhibitor maraviroc has been hypothesized to decrease T-cell activation in HIV-infected individuals, but its independent immunologic effects have not been established in a placebo-controlled trial. We randomized 45 HIV-infected subjects with CD4 counts <350 cells per mm(3) and plasma HIV

  8. HIV-1–Infected Individuals in Antiretroviral Therapy React Specifically With Polyfunctional T-Cell Responses to Gag p24

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Lea; Benfield, Thomas; Kronborg, Gitte

    2013-01-01

    Still no effective HIV-1 prophylactic or therapeutic vaccines are available. However, as the proportion of HIV-1-infected individuals on antiretroviral treatment is increasing, knowledge about the residual immune response is important for the possible development of an HIV-1 vaccine....

  9. Survey on attitudes toward HIV-infected individuals and infection control practices among dentists in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maupomé, G; Acosta-Gío, E; Borges-Yáñez, S A; Díez-de-Bonilla, F J

    2000-02-01

    The teaching of infection control is gradually being introduced at dental schools in Mexico. However, most practicing dentists have limited access to current infection control standards. Deficiencies of knowledge with regard to blood-borne pathogens such as HIV and hepatitis B virus may influence attitudes toward infected individuals and reduce compliance with infection control recommendations. The purpose of this study was to assess (1) attitudes toward HIV-infected patients and hepatitis B virus-infected patients and (2) infection control knowledge and practices among dental practitioners in Mexico City. A total of 196 dentists were interviewed by means of a questionnaire with Likert-type scales and open-ended questions (response rate, 86.1%). Most respondents had no previous social or professional contact with HIV-positive individuals. Nine percent indicated that they had knowingly treated HIV-positive patients. Perceived professional and moral obligations to treat HIV-positive patients were high. Thirty-five percent of the respondents perceived the risk of HIV infection as "considerable" to "very strong." The risk of hepatitis B infection was considered significantly higher than the risk of HIV infection (P personal protective equipment was high. Most respondents used dry heat sterilization. The principal disinfectants used were quaternary ammonium compounds, bleach, and glutaraldehyde. Fifty-four percent of the respondents acknowledged that clinical precautions reduced occupational risks. This survey revealed contradictory attitudes toward HIV-positive individuals and limited understanding of infection control recommendations. Educational and regulatory efforts are needed to promote better adherence to current infection control standards.

  10. HIV subtype D is associated with dementia, compared with subtype A, in immunosuppressed individuals at risk of cognitive impairment in Kampala, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacktor, Ned; Nakasujja, Noeline; Skolasky, Richard L; Rezapour, Mona; Robertson, Kevin; Musisi, Seggane; Katabira, Elly; Ronald, Allan; Clifford, David B; Laeyendecker, Oliver; Quinn, Thomas C

    2009-09-01

    In the United States, clade B is the predominant human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) subtype, whereas in sub-Saharan Africa, clades A, C, and D are the predominant subtypes. HIV subtype may have an impact on HIV disease progression. The effect of HIV subtype on the risk of dementia has, to our knowledge, not been examined. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between HIV subtype and the severity of HIV-associated cognitive impairment among individuals initiating antiretroviral therapy in Uganda. Sixty antiretroviral-naive HIV-infected individuals with advanced immunosuppression who were at risk of HIV-associated cognitive impairment underwent neurological, neuropsychological, and functional assessments, and gag and gp41 regions were subtyped. Subtype assignments were generated by sequence analysis using a portion of the gag and gp41 regions. Thirty-three HIV-infected individuals were infected with subtype A, 2 with subtype C, 9 with subtype D, and 16 with A/D recombinants. Eight (89%) of 9 HIV-infected individuals with subtype D had dementia, compared with 7 (24%) of 33 HIV-infected individuals with subtype A (P = .004). These results suggest that, in untreated HIV-infected individuals with advanced immunosuppression who are at risk of developing HIV-associated cognitive impairment, HIV dementia may be more common among patients infected with subtype D virus than among those infected with subtype A virus. These findings provide the first evidence, to our knowledge, to demonstrate that HIV subtypes may have a pathogenetic factor with respect to their capacity to cause cognitive impairment. Additional studies are needed to confirm this observation and to define the mechanism by which subtype D leads to an increased risk of neuropathogenesis.

  11. Generation and Characterization of a Defective HIV-1 Virus as an Immunogen for a Therapeutic Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Pérez, Javier; García, Felipe; Blanco, Julia; Escribà-García, Laura; Gatell, Jose Maria; Alcamí, Jose; Plana, Montserrat; Sánchez-Palomino, Sonsoles

    2012-01-01

    Background The generation of new immunogens able to elicit strong specific immune responses remains a major challenge in the attempts to obtain a prophylactic or therapeutic vaccine against HIV/AIDS. We designed and constructed a defective recombinant virus based on the HIV-1 genome generating infective but non-replicative virions able to elicit broad and strong cellular immune responses in HIV-1 seropositive individuals. Results Viral particles were generated through transient transfection in producer cells (293-T) of a full length HIV-1 DNA carrying a deletion of 892 base pairs (bp) in the pol gene encompassing the sequence that codes for the reverse transcriptase (NL4-3/ΔRT clone). The viral particles generated were able to enter target cells, but due to the absence of reverse transcriptase no replication was detected. The immunogenic capacity of these particles was assessed by ELISPOT to determine γ-interferon production in a cohort of 69 chronic asymptomatic HIV-1 seropositive individuals. Surprisingly, defective particles produced from NL4-3/ΔRT triggered stronger cellular responses than wild-type HIV-1 viruses inactivated with Aldrithiol-2 (AT-2) and in a larger proportion of individuals (55% versus 23% seropositive individuals tested). Electron microscopy showed that NL4-3/ΔRT virions display immature morphology. Interestingly, wild-type viruses treated with Amprenavir (APV) to induce defective core maturation also induced stronger responses than the same viral particles generated in the absence of protease inhibitors. Conclusions We propose that immature HIV-1 virions generated from NL4-3/ΔRT viral clones may represent new prototypes of immunogens with a safer profile and stronger capacity to induce cellular immune responses than wild-type inactivated viral particles. PMID:23144996

  12. Renal Impairment and Cardiovascular Disease in HIV-Positive Individuals: The D:A:D Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryom, Lene; Lundgren, Jens D; Ross, Mike; Kirk, Ole; Law, Matthew; Morlat, Philippe; Fontas, Eric; Smit, Colette; Fux, Christoph A; Hatleberg, Camilla I; de Wit, Stéphane; Sabin, Caroline A; Mocroft, Amanda

    2016-10-15

    While the association between renal impairment and cardiovascular disease (CVD) is well established in the general population, the association remains poorly understood in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive individuals. Individuals with ≥2 estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) measurements after 1 February 2004 were followed until CVD, death, last visit plus 6 months, or 1 February 2015. CVD was defined as the occurrence of centrally validated myocardial infarction, stroke, invasive cardiovascular procedures, or sudden cardiac death. During a median follow-up duration of 8.0 years (interquartile range, 5.4-8.9 years) 1357 of 35 357 individuals developed CVD (incidence rate, 5.2 cases/1000 person-years [95% confidence interval {CI}, 5.0-5.5]). Confirmed baseline eGFR and CVD were closely related with 1.8% of individuals (95% CI, 1.6%-2.0%) with an eGFR > 90 mL/minute/1.73 m(2) estimated to develop CVD at 5 years, increasing to 21.1% (95% CI, 6.6%-35.6%) among those with an eGFR ≤ 30 mL/minute/1.73 m(2) The strong univariate relationship between low current eGFR and CVD was primarily explained by increasing age in adjusted analyses, although all eGFRs ≤ 80 mL/minute/1.73 m(2) remained associated with 30%-40% increased CVD rates, and particularly high CVD rates among individuals with an eGFR ≤ 30 mL/minute/1.73 m(2) (incidence rate ratio, 3.08 [95% CI, 2.04-4.65]). Among HIV-positive individuals in a large contemporary cohort, a strong relation between confirmed impaired eGFR and CVD was observed. This finding highlights the need for renal preventive measures and intensified monitoring for emerging CVD, particularly in older individuals with continuously low eGFRs. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Seropositivity and Coinfection of Hepatitis B and C among Patients Seeking Hospital Care in Islamabad, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The undertaken study was conducted to find out the seroprevalence and coinfection of HBV and HCV infection among patients seeking hospital care. A total of 845 samples were received at tertiary care hospital of Islamabad and were screened for hepatitis B and C. The ELISA was used to detect antigen for HBV and antibodies for HCV in patient serum. Among 845 collected samples, 255 (30.1% were seropositive for HBV and HCV. Out of 255 seropositive samples, 45 (5.3% were positive for HBsAg while 199 (23.5% were positive for anti-HCV. Among 255, 11 (1.3% were seropositive for both HBsAg and anti-HCV (coinfection. Among the seropositive male, HBV was more prevalent (23.8% while female patients had a high incidence of HCV (52.2%. Among the age group variable, HBV, HCV, and coinfection were found to be more common in the age groups of 21–30 (29% and 30–40 (24% years. The seropositivity for HBsAg was higher in unmarried individuals (31.2% while anti-HCV was more prevalent in married individuals (84%. The present study provides the preliminary information about high HCV and HBV prevalence. Findings from the current study will be helpful for the better management and control of viral hepatitis among patients seeking hospital care.

  14. Tuberculosis and non-tuberculous mycobacteria among HIV-infected individuals in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerrum, Stephanie; Oliver-Commey, Joseph; Kenu, Ernest; Lartey, Margaret; Newman, Mercy Jemima; Addo, Kennedy Kwasi; Hilleman, Doris; Andersen, Aase Bengaard; Johansen, Isik Somuncu

    2016-09-01

    To assess the prevalence and clinical importance of previously unrecognised tuberculosis (TB) and isolation of non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) among HIV-infected individuals in a teaching hospital in Ghana. Intensified mycobacterial case finding was conducted among HIV-positive individuals before initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Data were collected on socio-demographic characteristics, medical history and TB-related signs and symptoms, and participants were followed for six months to determine treatment and vital status. Two sputum samples were obtained and examined for mycobacteria with smear microscopy, culture and Xpert MTB/RIF assay. NTM species were identified with the GenoType Mycobacterium CM/AS or sequence analysis of 16S rRNA gene. Of 473 participants, 60 (12.7%) had confirmed pulmonary TB, and 38 (8.0%) had positive cultures for NTM. Mycobacterium avium complex was identified in 9/38 (23.7%) of NTM isolates. Participants with NTM isolated were more likely to have CD4 cell count< 100 cells/μL (aOR 2.37; 95% CI: 1.10-5.14), BMI<18.5kg/m(2) (aOR 2.51; 95% CI: 1.15-5.51) and fever ≥2 weeks (aOR 2.76; 95% CI: 1.27-6.03) at baseline than participants with no mycobacteria. By six months, 76 (16.1%) participants had died; 20 (33.3%) with confirmed TB and 9 (23.7%) with NTM-positive culture. Mortality at six months was independently associated with TB diagnosis at enrolment (aHR 1.97; 95% CI 1.09-3.59), but not with NTM isolation after controlling for age, sex, CD4 cell count, BMI, prolonged fever and ART initiation. Intensified mycobacterial screening of HIV-infected individuals revealed a high burden of unrecognised pulmonary TB before ART initiation, which increased risk of death within six months. NTM were frequently isolated and associated with signs of poor clinical status but not with increased mortality. © 2016 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Armed conflict, homonegativity and forced internal displacement: implications for HIV among Colombian gay, bisexual and transgender individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zea, Maria Cecilia; Reisen, Carol A; Bianchi, Fernanda T; Gonzales, Felisa A; Betancourt, Fabián; Aguilar, Marcela; Poppen, Paul J

    2013-01-01

    Colombia has endured six decades of civil unrest, population displacement and violence. We examined the relationships between contextual conditions, displacement and HIV among gay, bisexual and transgender individuals in Bogotá, Colombia. A total of 19 key informants provided information about internal displacement of sexual minorities. Life-history interviews were conducted with 42 participants aged 18 to 48 years and included questions about displacement experiences, sexual behaviour, life prior to displacement and participants' economic and social situation in Bogotá. The interplay of a variety of factors - including internal conflict and violence, homonegativity and 'social cleansing', gender and sexual identity and poverty - strongly shaped the varied experiences of displacement. Migration, sexual violence, exchange sex and low rates of HIV testing were risk factors that increased vulnerability for HIV in this displaced sample. Although displacement and HIV in Colombia are major problems, both are understudied.

  16. Patterns and correlates of cannabis use among individuals with HIV/AIDS in Maritime Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Gregory E; Dupuis, Lise; Mugford, Gerald J; Johnston, Lynn; Haase, David; Page, Ginny; Haldane, Heather; Harris, Nicholas; Midodzi, William K; Dow, Gordon

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The prevalence of cannabis use in HIV-infected individuals is high and its long-term effects are unclear. METHODS: The prevalence, perceived benefits and consequences, and predictors of cannabis use were studied using a cross-sectional survey in two immunodeficiency clinics in Maritime Canada. RESULTS: Current cannabis use was identified in 38.5% (87 of 226) of participants. Almost all cannabis users (85 of 87 [97.7%]) acknowledged its use for recreational purposes, with 21.8% (19 of 87) reporting medicinal cannabis use. The majority of patients enrolled in the present study reported mild or no symptoms related to HIV (n=179). Overall, 80.5% (70 of 87) of the cannabis-using participants reported a symptom-relieving benefit, mostly for relief of stress, anorexia or pain. Participants consumed a mean (± SD) of 18.3±21.1 g of cannabis per month and spent an average of $105.15±109.87 on cannabis per month. Cannabis use was associated with rural residence, lower income level, driving under the influence of a substance, and consumption of ecstasy and tobacco. Income level, ecstasy use and tobacco use were retained as significant predictors in regression modelling. Cannabis use was not associated with adverse psychological outcomes. DISCUSSION: Prolonged previous cannabis consumption and the substantial overlap between recreational and medicinal cannabis use highlight the challenges in obtaining a tenable definition of medicinal cannabis therapy. PMID:24634690

  17. Genetic markers associated to dyslipidemia in HIV-infected individuals on HAART.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzaretti, Rosmeri K; Gasparotto, Aline S; Sassi, Marina G de M; Polanczyk, Carísi A; Kuhmmer, Regina; Silveira, Jussara M; Basso, Rossana P; Pinheiro, Cezar A T; Silveira, Mariângela F; Sprinz, Eduardo; Mattevi, Vanessa S

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the impact of 9 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 6 candidate genes (APOB, APOA5, APOE, APOC3, SCAP, and LDLR) over dyslipidemia in HIV-infected patients on stable antiretroviral therapy (ART) with undetectable viral loads. Blood samples were collected from 614 patients at reference services in the cities of Porto Alegre, Pelotas, and Rio Grande in Brazil. The SNPs were genotyped by conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time PCR. The prevalence of dyslipidemia was particularly high among the protease inhibitors-treated patients (79%). APOE (rs429358 and rs7412) genotypes and APOA5 -1131T>C (rs662799) were associated with plasma triglycerides (TG) and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol levels (LDL-C). The APOA5 -1131T>C (rs662799) and SCAP 2386A>G (rs12487736) polymorphisms were significantly associated with high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol levels. The mean values of the total cholesterol and LDL-C levels were associated with both the APOB SP Ins/Del (rs17240441) and APOB XbaI (rs693) polymorphisms. In conclusion, our data support the importance of genetic factors in the determination of lipid levels in HIV-infected individuals. Due to the relatively high number of carriers of these risk variants, studies to verify treatment implications of genotyping before HAART initiation may be advisable to guide the selection of an appropriate antiretroviral therapy regimen.

  18. Genetic Markers Associated to Dyslipidemia in HIV-Infected Individuals on HAART

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosmeri K. Lazzaretti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the impact of 9 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in 6 candidate genes (APOB, APOA5, APOE, APOC3, SCAP, and LDLR over dyslipidemia in HIV-infected patients on stable antiretroviral therapy (ART with undetectable viral loads. Blood samples were collected from 614 patients at reference services in the cities of Porto Alegre, Pelotas, and Rio Grande in Brazil. The SNPs were genotyped by conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR and real-time PCR. The prevalence of dyslipidemia was particularly high among the protease inhibitors-treated patients (79%. APOE (rs429358 and rs7412 genotypes and APOA5 −1131T>C (rs662799 were associated with plasma triglycerides (TG and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol levels (LDL-C. The APOA5 −1131T>C (rs662799 and SCAP 2386A>G (rs12487736 polymorphisms were significantly associated with high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol levels. The mean values of the total cholesterol and LDL-C levels were associated with both the APOB SP Ins/Del (rs17240441 and APOB XbaI (rs693 polymorphisms. In conclusion, our data support the importance of genetic factors in the determination of lipid levels in HIV-infected individuals. Due to the relatively high number of carriers of these risk variants, studies to verify treatment implications of genotyping before HAART initiation may be advisable to guide the selection of an appropriate antiretroviral therapy regimen.

  19. Smoking and life expectancy among HIV-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy in Europe and North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helleberg, Marie; May, Margaret T; Ingle, Suzanne M; Dabis, Francois; Reiss, Peter; Fätkenheuer, Gerd; Costagliola, Dominique; d'Arminio, Antonella; Cavassini, Matthias; Smith, Colette; Justice, Amy C; Gill, John; Sterne, Jonathan A C; Obel, Niels

    2015-01-14

    Cardiovascular disease and non-AIDS malignancies have become major causes of death among HIV-infected individuals. The relative impact of lifestyle and HIV-related factors are debated. We estimated associations of smoking with mortality more than 1 year after antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation among HIV-infected individuals enrolled in European and North American cohorts. IDUs were excluded. Causes of death were assigned using standardized procedures. We used abridged life tables to estimate life expectancies. Life-years lost to HIV were estimated by comparison with the French background population. Among 17,995 HIV-infected individuals followed for 79,760 person-years, the proportion of smokers was 60%. The mortality rate ratio (MRR) comparing smokers with nonsmokers was 1.94 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.56-2.41]. The MRRs comparing current and previous smokers with never smokers were 1.70 (95% CI 1.23-2.34) and 0.92 (95% CI 0.64-1.34), respectively. Smokers had substantially higher mortality from cardiovascular disease, non-AIDS malignancies than nonsmokers [MRR 6.28 (95% CI 2.19-18.0) and 3.31 (95% CI 1.80-5.45), respectively]. [corrected]. Among 35-year-old HIV-infected men, the loss of life-years associated with smoking and HIV was 7.9 (95% CI 7.1-8.7) and 5.9 (95% CI 4.9-6.9), respectively. The life expectancy of virally suppressed, never-smokers was 43.5 years (95% CI 41.7-45.3), compared with 44.4 years among 35-year-old men in the background population. Excess MRRs/1000 person-years associated with smoking increased from 0.6 (95% CI -1.3 to 2.6) at age 35 to 43.6 (95% CI 37.9-49.3) at age at least 65 years. Well treated HIV-infected individuals may lose more life years through smoking than through HIV. Excess mortality associated with smoking increases markedly with age. Therefore, increases in smoking-related mortality can be expected as the treated HIV-infected population ages. Interventions for smoking cessation should be prioritized.

  20. Individual and jurisdictional factors associated with voluntary HIV testing in Canada: Results of a national survey, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthington, Catherine A; Calzavara, Liviana M; White, Samantha J; Allman, Dan; Tyndall, Mark W

    2014-11-06

    HIV testing remains a central strategy for HIV prevention for its ability to link those who test positive to treatment and support. In Canada, national guidelines have recently changed as part of standard primary care to recommend voluntary HIV testing for those aged 16-64 years. Using results from a nationally representative survey, we examined individual and jurisdictional factors associated with voluntary testing. A total of 2,139 participants were sampled using a regionally stratified, two-stage recruitment process. English or French interviews (by phone or online) were conducted during May 2011. Voluntary testing was defined as testing at least once for reasons other than blood donation, insurance purposes, immigration screening or research participation. Weighted logistic regression analysis (including socio-demographic, sexual activity, HIV/AIDS knowledge and jurisdictional factors of HIV prevalence and anonymous testing availability) were conducted for the overall sample, and stratified by sex. Twenty-nine percent (29%) of survey participants reported at least one lifetime voluntary HIV test. For the full-sample model, the following were associated with increased odds of testing: age <60 years, female sex, sexual minority status, perceived HIV knowledge, casual sex partner in previous year, and living in a higher-prevalence jurisdiction. For men, the strongest factor related to testing was sexual minority status (OR = 5.15, p < 0.001); for women, it was having a casual sex partner in the previous year (OR = 2.57, p = 0.001). For both men and women, residing in a jurisdiction with lower HIV prevalence decreased odds of testing. Sex differences should be considered when designing interventions to increase testing uptake. Jurisdictional factors, including HIV prevalence and testing modality, should be investigated further.

  1. Seropositivity for Enterocytozoon bieneusi, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sak, Bohumil; Kučerová, Z.; Kváč, Martin; Květoňová, Dana; Rost, M.; Secor, W. E.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 2 (2010), s. 335-337 ISSN 1080-6040 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB500960701; GA ČR GP523/07/P117 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Enterocytozoon bieneusi * INTESTINAL MICROSPORIDIOSIS * seropositivity * human * DIARRHEA * SEROPREVALENCE Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 6.859, year: 2010

  2. The oral microbiome in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive individuals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kistler, James O; Arirachakaran, Pratanporn; Poovorawan, Yong; Dahlén, Gunnar; Wade, William G

    2015-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is associated with a range of oral conditions, and increased numbers of disease-associated microbial species have previously been found in HIV-positive subjects...

  3. Toward the integration of comprehensive mental health services in HIV care: an assessment of psychiatric morbidity among HIV-positive individuals in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olagunju, Andrew T; Ogundipe, Olasimbo A; Erinfolami, Adebayo R; Akinbode, Abiola A; Adeyemi, Joseph D

    2013-01-01

    Existing evidence from research supports the desirability of integration of mental health services into HIV care in order to mitigate the grave consequences of unattended mental health morbidity among People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). This study aims to find out the burden and pattern of psychiatric disorders that is prevalent among HIV-positive individuals attending a Nigerian-based HIV clinic. The study participants, consisting of 295 HIV-positive adults were recruited using systematic random sampling method. The participants were subjected to questionnaire to elicit demographic profile and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) to screen for probable psychiatric disorders. This was followed by Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Non patient (SCID-NP) to diagnose the presence of psychiatric morbidity in any of the participant with a GHQ-28 score ≥5 and 10% of those with GHQ-28 score mental disorder detected as 44 (14.9%) met the DSM-IV Axis 1 diagnosis of major depressive disorders. Anxiety disorders, concurrent Nicotine with Alcohol dependence and cannabis abuse were elicited in 24 (8.1%), 4 (1.3%), and 2 (0.7%) participants, respectively. This study finds a higher burden of psychiatric disorders in PLWHA in comparison to what is obtainable in the general population based on previous research works in similar context. Thus further underscores the need for integration of comprehensive psychiatric services into HIV care. We advocate the support and commitment of key stakeholders in HIV care to the translation of this research-based evidence into practice among PLWHA.

  4. Evaluation of three enzyme immunoassays for HIV-1 antigen detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, P B; Lisker, A; Folds, J D

    1989-01-01

    Three enzyme immunoassay (EIA) methods for the detection of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) were evaluated. Serum or plasma samples from 22 individuals seropositive for HIV-1 antibodies were tested with the Abbott, Coulter, and DuPont kits for presence of HIV-1 p24 antigen. Another 12 samples were tested with two kits only. Discordant results were obtained with 9 of 34 (26%) HIV-1-antibody-positive patient samples tested. Most of these discrepancies were found in samples containing less than 30 pg/ml of HIV-1 p24 core antigen. A sampling of sera from normal blood donors and patients with infectious or autoimmune diseases revealed a low level of false positive reactions, especially with sera containing antinuclear antibodies or rheumatoid factor. Noteworthy is the frequency of false positive reactions seen with the DuPont EIA for HIV-1 p24 antigen. 18/111 sera (16.2%) containing auto-antibodies tested positively with the DuPont HIV-1 p24 antigen EIA. The nonspecific nature of the test reactivity for 9/10 of these samples was confirmed using an HIV-1 p24 antigen inhibition assay. These findings are discussed in light of the need for HIV-1 antigen detection in the clinical laboratory and of other methods for HIV-1 detection: the polymerase chain reaction and measurements of reverse transcriptase activity.

  5. Hepatitis C virus treatment rates and outcomes in HIV/hepatitis C virus co-infected individuals at an urban HIV clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Melanie C M; Barrios, Rolando; Zhang, Wendy; Hull, Mark; Montessori, Valentina; Hogg, Robert S; Montaner, Julio S G

    2011-01-01

    The factors associated with hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment uptake and responses were assessed among HCV/HIV co-infected individuals referred for HCV therapy at an urban HIV clinic. Retrospective review of HIV/HCV patients enrolled in the HCV treatment program at the John Ruedy Immunodeficiency Clinic in Vancouver. The factors associated with treatment uptake were assessed using multivariate analysis. A total of 134 HCV/HIV co-infected individuals were recalled for assessment for HCV therapy. Overall 64 (48%) initiated treatment, and of those treated 49 (76.6%) attained end treatment response, whereas 35 (57.8%) achieved sustained virological response (SVR). When evaluated by genotype, 53% (17/32) of those with genotype 1, and 65% (20/31) of those with genotype 2 or 3 infections attained SVR. In treated individuals, alanine aminotransferase dropped significantly after treatment (P<0.001). During treatment, CD4 counts dropped significantly (P<0.001) in all patients. The counts recovered to baseline in patients who achieved SVR, but remained lower in patients who failed the therapy (P=0.015). On multivariate analysis, history of injection drug use (odds ratio: 3.48; 95% confidence interval: 1.37-8.79; P=0.009) and low hemoglobin levels (odds ratio: 4.23; 95% confidence interval: 1.36-13.10; P=0.013) were associated with those who did not enter the treatment. Only half of treatment-eligible co-infected patients referred for the therapy initiated treatment. Of those referred for the therapy, history of injection drug use was associated with lower rates of treatment uptake. Treated HIV/HCV co-infected individuals benefitted from both decreased alanine aminotransferase (independent of SVR), and rates of SVR similar to those described in HCV monoinfected patients.

  6. Cryptosporidium SP in HIV-infected individuals attending a Brazilian University Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Langoni-Júnior

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current work was to evaluate the occurrence of Cryptosporidium sp in AIDS patients in a region of São Paulo State, Brazil. Patients were divided into groups according to CD4+ T lymphocyte count and use of potent antiretroviral treatment. Two hundred and ten fecal samples from 105 patients were fixed in 10% formalin and subjected to centrifuge formol-ether sedimentation. Slides were stained with auramine and confirmed by modified Ziehl-Neelsen. Cryptosporidiosis occurrence was 10.5% with no relationship among gender, age or the presence of diarrhea. The number of oocysts in all samples was small, independent of CD4+ T lymphocyte count, HIV plasma viral load, and presence of diarrhea. These results may be due to the reduced prevalence of opportunistic infections in AIDS individuals after the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy.

  7. Emergent properties of HIV risk among injection drug users in Tallinn, Estonia: synthesis of individual and neighbourhood-level factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uusküla, A; McMahon, J M; Raag, M; Silm, S; Rüütel, K; Talu, A; Abel-Ollo, K; Ahas, R; Des Jarlais, D C

    2010-12-01

    HIV/AIDS risk is embodied within multiple levels including structural and social levels. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of neighbourhood characteristics on HIV prevalence among injection drug users (IDU) residing in the area of Tallinn, Estonia in 2007. A cross-sectional, multilevel design collecting individual-level data--a behaviour survey including data on self-reported residency and HIV antibody testing among 350 IDU and neighbourhood-level data--aggregate measures on socio-demo-economic residential characteristics from the 2000 Estonian census. Geocoding and multilevel modelling analysis was employed. Among the 350 IDU recruited, earlier age at first injection, fentanyl as the main injection drug, receptive syringe sharing, main income source other than legal employment and ever attended a syringe exchange programme remained significantly associated with increased odds of anti-HIV positivity in the multivariable analysis involving individual effects with no predictors at the neighbourhood level. In the multilevel model, individual (earlier at IDU initiation AOR 1.86, 95% CI 1.01 to 3.44; injecting opioids AOR 4.43, 95% CI 2.74 to 7.18; receptive syringe sharing AOR 2.51, 95% CI 1.86 to 3.37; main income source other than work AOR 2.04, 95% CI 1.32 to 3.14; ever attended a syringe exchange programme AOR 2.58, 95% CI 1.83 to 3.61) and neighbourhood level (higher unemployment rate AOR 5.95, 95% CI 2.47 to 14.31; greater residential change AOR 1.89, 95% CI 1.09 to 3.26) emerged as significant predictors of individual HIV-positive status. Our results indicate that both individual-level and emergent neighbourhood-level factors contribute to HIV risk among IDU and are amenable for preventive interventions.

  8. Spatial analysis of HIV infection and associated individual characteristics in Burundi: indications for effective prevention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barankanira, Emmanuel; Molinari, Nicolas; Niyongabo, Théodore; Laurent, Christian

    2016-01-01

    ... for country-specific, in-depth analyses of HIV epidemic features to tailor national prevention responses to the people most at risk [3]. Because half HIV cases only are diagnosed in sub-Saharan Africa [4], most countries rely on Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) to estimate HIV prevalence along with other data including social and behavio...

  9. HIV/AIDS reduces the relevance of the principle of individual medical confidentiality among the Bantu people of Southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndebele, Paul; Mfutso-Bengo, Joseph; Masiye, Francis

    2008-01-01

    The principle of individual medical confidentiality is one of the moral principles that Africa inherited unquestioningly from the West as part of Western medicine. The HIV/AIDS pandemic in Southern Africa has reduced the relevance of the principle of individual medical confidentiality. Individual medical confidentiality has especially presented challenges for practitioners among the Bantu communities that are well known for their social inter-connectedness and the way they value their extended family relations. Individual confidentiality has raised several unforeseen problems for persons living with HIV/AIDS, ranging from stigma and isolation to feelings of dejection as it drives them away from their families as a way of trying to keep information about their conditions confidential. The involvement of family members in treatment decisions is in line with the philosophy of Ubuntu and serves to respect patients' and families' autonomy while at the same time benefiting the individual patient.

  10. HIV prevalence and demographic determinants of condomless receptive anal intercourse among trans feminine individuals in Beirut, Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel L Kaplan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Growing evidence suggests increased HIV incidence in the Middle East and North Africa among “key populations.” To date, epidemiological data have not accurately included and measured HIV prevalence and risk among trans feminine individuals in the region. Through the lens of the Gender Affirmation Framework, we assessed demographic correlates of risk behaviour and the prevalence of HIV among trans feminine individuals in Lebanon. Methods: Long-chain referral sampling was used to recruit 53 participants for completion of a behavioural survey and optional free rapid HIV tests. Data were collected using interviewer-administered questionnaires. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to identify demographic determinants of HIV risk behaviour. Results: Fifty-seven percent of participants reported condomless receptive anal intercourse (CRAI with male partner(s in the last three months, 40% of whom reported not knowing the HIV status of the partner(s. Of the participants tested for HIV as part of the study or via self-report, four (10% were HIV positive; 13 declined HIV testing. Forty percent of the sample had no prior history of HIV testing. A history of trauma such as sexual abuse/assault was reported by almost half of the participants (49%. Sixty-eight percent reported experiencing physical violence and 32% police arrest, because of gender identity or presentation. A staggering 98% reported having experienced gender identity or gender presentation-related discrimination. Sixty-six percent of the sample reported current sex work; sex work was correlated with CRAI but was not significant in multivariate analysis. In regression analysis, “openness”/“outness” about transgender identity at work or school was significantly associated with CRAI. Surprisingly, a history of sexual abuse/assault was negatively correlated with CRAI, suggesting the need for further inquiry. Conclusions: The results of this study provide

  11. Prospective monitoring reveals dynamic levels of T cell immunity to Mycobacterium tuberculosis in HIV infected individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica E Mitchell

    Full Text Available Monitoring of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection may prevent disease. We tested an ESAT-6 and CFP-10-specific IFN-γ Elispot assay (RD1-Elispot on 163 HIV-infected individuals living in a TB-endemic setting. An RD1-Elispot was performed every 3 months for a period of 3-21 months. 62% of RD1-Elispot negative individuals were positive by cultured Elispot. Fluctuations in T cell response were observed with rates of change ranging from -150 to +153 spot-forming cells (SFC/200,000 PBMC in a 3-month period. To validate these responses we used an RD1-specific real time quantitative PCR assay for monokine-induced by IFN-γ (MIG and IFN-γ inducible protein-10 (IP10 (MIG: r=0.6527, p=0.0114; IP-10: r=0.6967, p=0.0056; IP-10+MIG: r=0.7055, p=0.0048. During follow-up 30 individuals were placed on ARVs and 4 progressed to active TB. Fluctuations in SFC did not correlate with CD4 count, viral load, treatment initiation, or progression to active TB. The RD1-Elispot appears to have limited value in this setting.

  12. Autopsy causes of death in HIV-positive individuals in sub-Saharan Africa and correlation with clinical diagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Janneke A; Lukande, Robert L; Lucas, Sebastian; Nelson, Ann M; Van Marck, Eric; Colebunders, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Despite the persistently high HIV-related mortality in sub-Saharan Africa, limited information on the causes of death is available. Pathological autopsies are the gold standard to establish causes of death. In this review we describe the autopsy series performed among HIV-infected individuals in sub-Saharan Africa over the last two decades. We identified nine complete and 11 partial or minimally invasive autopsy series. Complete autopsies were performed in 593 HIV-positive adults and 177 HIV-positive children. Postmortem diagnoses were mainly infectious diseases. Tuberculosis was the most frequent, present in 21-54% of HIV-positive adults and was considered the cause of death in 32-45%. Overall, pulmonary infections accounted for approximately 66% of pathology and central nervous system infections for approximately 20%. A high discordance between clinical and postmortem diagnoses was observed. This review emphasizes the need for reliable information on causes of death in order to improve HIV patient care, guide further research, and inform health policy.

  13. Can variation in HIV/STD-related risk be explained by individual SES? Findings from female sex workers in a rural Chinese county

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Xiaoyi; Li, Xiaoming; Yang, Hongmei; Hong, Yan; Stanton, Bonita; ZHAO, RAN; Dong, Baiqing; Liu, Wei; Zhou, Yuejiao; Liang, Shaoling

    2008-01-01

    Low socioeconomic status (SES) has been linked to HIV and sexually transmitted disease (STD) at a macro level because the majority of new cases of HIV infection in the world have been reported in underdeveloped or developing countries. However, empirical data on the relationship between individual SES and HIV/STD related risk have been mixed. Employing quantitative data from 454 female sex workers, this study was designed to examine the profile of the study sample in terms of their individual...

  14. Analysis of the Phenotype of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-Specific CD4+ T Cells to Discriminate Latent from Active Tuberculosis in HIV-Uninfected and HIV-Infected Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Riou

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Several immune-based assays have been suggested to differentiate latent from active tuberculosis (TB. However, their relative performance as well as their efficacy in HIV-infected persons, a highly at-risk population, remains unclear. In a study of 81 individuals, divided into four groups based on their HIV-1 status and TB disease activity, we compared the differentiation (CD27 and KLRG1, activation (HLA-DR, homing potential (CCR4, CCR6, CXCR3, and CD161 and functional profiles (IFNγ, IL-2, and TNFα of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb-specific CD4+ T cells using flow cytometry. Active TB disease induced major changes within the Mtb-responding CD4+ T cell population, promoting memory maturation, elevated activation and increased inflammatory potential when compared to individuals with latent TB infection. Moreover, the functional profile of Mtb-specific CD4+ T cells appeared to be inherently related to their degree of differentiation. While these specific cell features were all capable of discriminating latent from active TB, irrespective of HIV status, HLA-DR expression showed the best performance for TB diagnosis [area-under-the-curve (AUC = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.82–1.01, specificity: 82%, sensitivity: 84% for HIV− and AUC = 0.99, 95% CI: 0.98–1.01, specificity: 94%, sensitivity: 93% for HIV+]. In conclusion, these data support the idea that analysis of T cell phenotype can be diagnostically useful in TB.

  15. Evaluation of the automated 'Enzymen-Test Anti HIV-1 + 2' and 'Enzymen-Test Anti HIV-1/2 selective' for the combined detection and differentiation of anti-HIV-1 and anti-HIV-2 antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, B; Hess, G; Koberstein, R; Doerr, H W

    1993-10-01

    A new, modular automated ELISA (test 1) for HIV-1 and HIV-2 antibody detection and differentiation (Enzymun-Test Anti HIV-1 + 2; anti HIV 1/2 selective, Boehringer Mannheim) was compared with 3 alternative enzyme immunoassays (Abbott recombinant HIV-1/HIV-2 3rd generation EIA, Abbott (test 2); Enzygnost HIV 1 + 2, Behringwerke (test 3); and Wellcozyme HIV recombinant, Murex (test 4)) and Western blot (New LAV I Blot and New LAV II Blot; Diagnostics Pasteur). 380 serum samples from HIV-1 and HIV-2 seropositive patients at different stages of disease, high risk individuals, patients with conditions unrelated to AIDS and from healthy blood donors were used in this evaluation along with 6 seroconversion panels, 6 serum dilution series and 'tricky' sera (repeatedly positive results in ELISA, but negative or undeterminate in Western blot; n = 67). Using the Western blot as reference assay, the overall sensitivity of the four ELISAs was 100%. Test 4 showed the highest sensitivity for antibody detection in seroconversion and dilution series. A high specificity was achieved with test 1 (100%) and test 2 (99.4%). A relatively high rate of false positive results were obtained with test 2 (n = 12) and test 3 (n = 10) by testing 'tricky' sera or samples obtained from healthy blood donors. In comparison to Western blot, a clear differentiation between HIV-1 and HIV-2 antibody serum samples was achieved with the Enzymun-Test. The results of the present study show that the Enzymun-Test provides reliable selective HIV-1 and HIV-2 antibody detection at a cost which is significantly lower than the costs of Western blot tests. Furthermore, the evaluation of test 1 suggests, that it is a highly specific assay for HIV antibody detection.

  16. Rapid HIV testing for individuals on probation/parole: outcomes of an intervention trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Michael S; Kinlock, Timothy W; McKenzie, Michelle; Wilson, Monique E; Rich, Josiah D

    2013-07-01

    Many probationers and parolees do not receive HIV testing despite being at increased risk for obtaining and transmitting HIV. A two-group randomized controlled trial was conducted between April, 2011 and May, 2012 at probation/parole offices in Baltimore, Maryland and Providence/Pawtucket, Rhode Island. Male and female probationers/parolees were interviewed (n = 1,263) and then offered HIV testing based on random assignment to one of two conditions: (1) On-site rapid HIV testing conducted at the probation/parole office; or (2) Referral for rapid HIV testing off site at a community HIV testing clinic. Outcomes were: (1) undergoing HIV testing; and (2) receipt of HIV testing results. Participants were significantly more likely to be tested on-site at a probation/parole office versus off-site at a HIV testing clinic (p < 0.001). There was no difference between the two groups in terms of receiving HIV testing results. Findings indicate that probationers/parolees are willing to be tested on-site and, independent of testing location, are equally willing to receive their results. Implications for expanding rapid HIV testing to more criminal justice related locations and populations are discussed.

  17. Post-exercise heart rate recovery in HIV-positive individuals on highly active antiretroviral therapy. Early indicator of cardiovascular disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cade, WT; Reeds, DN; Lassa-Claxton, S; Davila-Roman, VG; Waggoner, AD; Powderly, WG; Yarasheski, KE

    2015-01-01

    Background HIV infection and its treatment, specifically protease inhibitor (PI) therapy, have been associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease. Heart rate recovery (HRR) following peak exercise is predictive of future cardiovascular events and mortality in the general population. Nothing is known regarding HRR in individuals infected with HIV on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Subjects and methods HIV-positive subjects on HAART that included a PI (HIV 1 PI, n = 19), HIV-positive subjects on HAART that did not include a PI (HIV 1 noPI, n = 19) and HIV-seronegative age, gender and body mass index (BMI) matched controls (Cntl, n = 15) underwent a graded maximal exercise test on a cycle ergometer to volitional exhaustion. A continuous electrocardiogram was recorded and HRR was monitored every 30 s for 2 min post exercise. Results HRR at 1.5 and 2 min was significantly delayed in HIV-positive subjects both on and not on PI-based HAART compared with controls (P<0.01). Conclusion HRR is impaired in HIV-positive individuals on HAART, whether or not the HAART includes a PI, compared with age, gender, BMI, and activity level matched HIV-seronegative controls. Abnormal HRR may reflect cardio-autonomic dysfunction and may be an independent risk factor for future cardiac events in HIV-positive individuals that receive HAART. PMID:18093131

  18. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Lisinopril to Decrease Lymphoid Fibrosis in Antiretroviral-Treated, HIV-infected Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Renee Cockerham

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: In HIV infection, lymphoid tissue is disrupted by fibrosis. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors have anti-fibrotic properties. We completed a pilot study to assess whether the addition of lisinopril to antiretroviral therapy (ART reverses fibrosis of gut tissue, and whether this leads to reduction of HIV RNA and DNA levels. Methods: Thirty HIV-infected individuals on ART were randomized to lisinopril at 20mg daily or matching placebo for 24 weeks. All participants underwent rectal biopsies prior to starting the study drug and at 22 weeks, and there were regular blood draws. The primary end point was the change in HIV RNA and DNA levels in rectal tissue. Secondary outcomes included the change in 1 HIV levels in blood; 2 Gag-specific T-cell responses; 3 levels of T-cell activation; and 4 collagen deposition. Results: The addition of lisinopril did not have a significant effect on the levels of HIV RNA or DNA in gut tissue or blood, Gag-specific responses, or levels of T-cell activation. Lisinopril also did not have a significant impact on lymphoid fibrosis in the rectum, as assessed by quantitative histology or heavy water labeling. Conclusions: Treatment with lisinopril for 24 weeks in HIV-infected adults did not have an effect on lymphoid fibrosis, immune activation, or gut tissue viral reservoirs. Further study is needed to see if other anti-fibrotic agents may be useful in reversing lymphoid fibrosis and reducing HIV levels. Clinical Trials Registration: NCT01535235

  19. Heroin use is associated with suppressed pro-inflammatory cytokine response after LPS exposure in HIV-infected individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hinta Meijerink

    Full Text Available Opioid use is associated with increased incidence of infectious diseases. Although experimental studies have shown that opioids affect various functions of immune cells, only limited data are available from human studies. Drug use is an important risk factor for HIV transmission; however no data are available whether heroin and/or methadone modulate immune response. Therefore, we examined the effect of heroin and methadone use among HIV-infected individuals on the production of cytokines after ex vivo stimulation with various pathogens.Treatment naïve HIV-infected individuals from Indonesia were recruited. Several cohorts of individuals were recruited: 1 using heroin 2 receiving methadone opioid substitution 3 using heroin over 1 year ago and 4 controls (never used opioids. Whole blood was stimulated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Candida albicans and LPS for 24 to 48 hours. Cytokine production (IL-1 β, IL-6, IL-10, IFN-α, IFN-γ and TNF-α was determined using multiplex beads assay.Among 82 individuals, the cytokine levels in unstimulated samples did not differ between groups. Overall, heroin users had significantly lower cytokine response after exposure to LPS (p<0.05. After stimulation with either M. tuberculosis or C. albicans the cytokine production of all groups were comparable.The cytokine production after exposure to LPS is significantly down-regulated in HIV-infected heroin users. Interesting, methadone use did not suppress cytokine response, which could have implications guidelines of opioid substitution.

  20. Mortality of treated HIV-1 positive individuals according to viral subtype in Europe and Canada: collaborative cohort analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boulle, Andrew; Stephan, Christoph; Miro, Jose M.; Cavassini, Matthias; Chêne, Geneviève; Costagliola, Dominique; Dabis, François; D'Arminio Monforte, Antonella; del Amo, Julia; van Sighem, Ard; Vehreschild, Jörg; Gill, John; Guest, Jodie; Haerry, David Hans-Ulrich; Hogg, Robert; Justice, Amy; Mocroft, Amanda; Obel, Niels; Crane, Heidi; Smith, Colette; Reiss, Peter; Saag, Michael; Sterling, Tim; Teira, Ramon; Williams, Matthew; Zangerle, Robert; Sterne, Jonathan; May, Margaret; Ingle, Suzanne; Trickey, Adam; Ainsworth, Jonathan; Anderson, Jane; Babiker, Abdel; Chadwick, David; Delpech, Valerie; Dunn, David; Fisher, Martin; Gazzard, Brian; Gilson, Richard; Hay, Phillip; Gompels, Mark; Hill, Teresa; Johnson, Margaret; Jose, Sophie; Kegg, Stephen; Leen, Clifford; Mackie, Nicky; Nelson, Mark; Orkin, Chloe; Palfreeman, Adrian; Phillips, Andrew; Pillay, Deenan; Post, Frank; Sabin, Caroline; Sachikonye, Memory; Schwenk, Achim; Walsh, John; Thornton, Alicia; Huntington, Susie; Glabay, Adam; Garrett, Nigel; Lynch, Janet; Hand, James; de Souza, Carl; Perry, Nicky; Tilbury, Stuart; Youssef, Elaney; Churchill, Duncan; Waxman, Matthew; Asboe, David; Mandalia, Sundhiya; Munshi, Sajid; Awosika, Damilola; Korat, Hardik; Taylor, Chris; Gleisner, Zachary; Ibrahim, Fowzia; Campbell, Lucy; Baillie, Kirsty; Cope, Emma; Gibney, Marie; Gibson, Jane; Brima, Nataliya; Williams, Ian; Miller, Sheila; Wood, Chris; Youle, Mike; Lampe, Fiona; Chaloner, Clinton; Winston, Alan; Weber, Jonathan; Ramzan, Farhan; Carder, Mark; Wilson, Alan; Morris, Sheila; Allan, Sue; Moore, Anne; Fox, Lynn; Bojanowski, Josef; Lewszuk, Adam; Main, Paul; Mitchell, N. N.; Hunter, N. N.; Dhillon, Mandip; Martin, Fabiola; Douglas, Sarah; Russell-Sharp, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    To estimate prognosis by viral subtype in HIV-1-infected individuals from start of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and after viral failure. Collaborative analysis of data from eight European and three Canadian cohorts. Adults (N>20 000) who started triple ART between 1996 and 2012 and had data on viral

  1. Long-term mortality in HIV-positive individuals virally suppressed for >3 years with incomplete CD4 recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engsig, Frederik N.; Zangerle, Robert; Katsarou, Olga; Dabis, Francois; Reiss, Peter; Gill, John; Porter, Kholoud; Sabin, Caroline; Riordan, Andrew; Fätkenheuer, Gerd; Gutiérrez, Félix; Raffi, Francois; Kirk, Ole; Mary-Krause, Murielle; Stephan, Christoph; de Olalla, Patricia Garcia; Guest, Jodie; Samji, Hasina; Castagna, Antonella; D'Arminio Monforte, Antonella; Skaletz-Rorowski, Adriane; Ramos, Jose; Lapadula, Giuseppe; Mussini, Cristina; Force, Lluís; Meyer, Laurence; Lampe, Fiona; Boufassa, Faroudy; Bucher, Heiner C.; de Wit, Stéphane; Burkholder, Greer A.; Teira, Ramon; Justice, Amy C.; Sterling, Tim R.; M Crane, Heidi; Gerstoft, Jan; Grarup, Jesper; May, Margaret; Chêne, Geneviève; Ingle, Suzanne M.; Sterne, Jonathan; Obel, Niels; Burkholder, Greer; Justice, Amy; R Sterling, Tim; Crane, Heidi M.; Boulle, Andrew; Brodt, Hans-Reinhard; Casabona, Jordi; Cavassini, Matthias; Costagliola, Dominique; Dabis, François; del Amo, Julia; van Sighem, Ard; Hans-Ulrich Haerry, David; Hogg, Robert; Mocroft, Amanda; Kitahata, Mari; Saag, Michael; Williams, Matthew; Ingle, Suzanne; Touloumi, Giota; Warszawski, Josiane; Krause, Murielle Mary; Ghosn, Jade; Leport, Catherine; Wit, Ferdinand; Prins, Maria; Gibb, Diana; Thorne, Claire; Pérez-Hoyos, Santiago; Hamouda, Osamah; Gussenheimer-Bartmeyer, Barbara; Noguera-Julian, Antoni; Antinori, Andrea; Brockmeyer, Norbert; Ramos, José; Battegay, Manuel; Rauch, Andri; Tookey, Pat; Miró, Jose M.; de Wit, Stephane; Goetghebuer, Tessa; Torti, Carlo; Garrido, Myriam; Judd, Ali; Conejo, Pablo Rojo; Haerry, David; Weller, Ian; D'Arminio-Monforte, Antonella; Colin, Céline; Schwimmer, Christine; Termote, Monique; Kjaer, Jesper; Campbell, Maria; Raben, Dorthe; Bohlius, Julia; Bouteloup, Vincent; Bucher, Heiner; Cozzi-Lepri, Alessandro; Dorrucci, Maria; Egger, Matthias; Engsig, Frederik; Furrer, Hansjakob; Lambotte, Olivier; Lewden, Charlotte; Lodi, Sara; Lodwick, Rebbeca; Matheron, Sophie; Miro, Jose; Monge, Susana; Nakagawa, Fumiyo; Paredes, Roger; Phillips, Andrew; Puoti, Massimo; Reekie, Joanne; Scherrer, Alexandra; Smit, Colette; Thiebaut, Rodolphe; Wittkop, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Some human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals initiating combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) with low CD4 counts achieve viral suppression but not CD4 cell recovery. We aimed to identify (1) risk factors for failure to achieve CD4 count >200 cells/µL after 3 years of sustained

  2. Steady-state pharmacokinetics of twice-daily dosing of saquinavir plus ritonavir in HIV-1-infected individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, A. I.; van Heeswijk, R. P.; Mulder, J. W.; Meenhorst, P. L.; Schreij, G.; van der Geest, S.; Lange, J. M.; Beijnen, J. H.; Hoetelmans, R. M.

    2001-01-01

    To compare the steady state plasma pharmacokinetics of 1000 mg of saquinavir (SQV) in a soft-gel capsule (SGC) formulation in combination with 100 mg of ritonavir (RTV) (capsules) in a twice-daily dosing regimen in HIV-1-infected individuals with historical controls who used 400 mg of SQV in a

  3. Hepatitis C viral load, genotype 3 and interleukin-28B CC genotype predict mortality in HIV and hepatitis C-coinfected individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen Nygaard, Louise; Astvad, Karen; Ladelund, Steen

    2012-01-01

    : We hypothesized that hepatitis C virus (HCV) load and genotype may influence all-cause mortality in HIV-HCV-coinfected individuals.......: We hypothesized that hepatitis C virus (HCV) load and genotype may influence all-cause mortality in HIV-HCV-coinfected individuals....

  4. Ischemic heart disease in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected individuals: a population-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, Niels; Thomsen, Henrik F; Kronborg, Gitte

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There are concerns about highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) causing a progressive increase in the risk of ischemic heart disease. We examined this issue in a nationwide cohort study of patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and a population-based control...... group. METHODS: We determined the rate of first hospitalization for ischemic heart disease in all Danish patients with HIV infection (3953 patients) from 1 January 1995 through 31 December 2004 and compared this rate with that for 373,856 subjects in a population-based control group. Data on first...... was not statistically significant, patients with HIV infection who had not initiated HAART were slightly more likely to be hospitalized for the first time with ischemic heart disease than were control subjects (adjusted relative risk, 1.39; 95% confidence interval, 0.81-2.33). After HAART initiation, the risk increase...

  5. Confirmation of Putative HIV-1 Group P in Cameroon▿

    OpenAIRE

    Vallari, Ana; Holzmayer, Vera; Harris, Barbara; Yamaguchi, Julie; Ngansop, Charlotte; Makamche, Florence; Mbanya, Dora; Kaptué, Lazare; Ndembi, Nicaise; Gürtler, Lutz; Devare, Sushil; Brennan, Catherine A.

    2010-01-01

    We report the second human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) belonging to the new HIV type 1 (HIV-1) group P lineage that is closely related to the simian immunodeficiency virus found in gorillas. This virus was identified in an HIV-seropositive male hospital patient in Cameroon, confirming that the group P virus is circulating in humans. Results from screening 1,736 HIV-seropositive specimens collected in Cameroon indicate that HIV-1 group P infections are rare, accounting for only 0.06% of HIV i...