WorldWideScience

Sample records for hiv provider endorsement

  1. 8th Circuit endorses segregation of HIV-positive inmates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-11-01

    The 8th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals in Missouri dismissed claims by prison inmate [name removed] that special HIV housing units automatically reveal his serostatus to other inmates and corrections officers. The court cited precedents that inmates had little expectation of privacy and that segregating HIV-positive inmates served a legitimate government interest. The 8th Circuit Court endorsement of 3 precedents brings the total number of States that allow prisoner segregation to 15. The 8th Circuit Court rejected the inmate's claims that his confinement violated his Eighth Amendment right to be free of cruel and unusual punishment.

  2. Variation in patient perceptions of healthcare provider endorsement of cardiac rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Courtney Kwan-Yee; Shanmugasegaram, Shamila; Jamnik, Veronica; Wu, Gilbert; Grace, Sherry L

    2012-01-01

    Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is significantly underutilized. However, physician endorsement promotes greater patient utilization. This study examined perceptions of provider endorsement by patients (1) of sociodemographic groups who are often less represented in CR and by clinical indication and (2) by type of healthcare provider and place of referral. Referred cardiac (N = 1156) inpatients from 11 hospitals across Ontario completed a sociodemographic survey inhospital and a mailed followup survey 1 year later. Respondents self-reported perceived healthcare provider endorsement of CR on a 5-point Likert scale, type of referring healthcare provider, and where the referral was initiated. The overall perceived strength of healthcare provider endorsement to CR was 3.75 ± 1.15. Patients who perceived greater endorsement were significantly more likely to enrol (OR = 2.07) and attend a greater percentage of CR sessions (P endorsement of CR than their respective counterparts. Perception of CR endorsement did not differ significantly on the basis of location of referral initiation (P ≥ .05), but those who discussed CR with family doctors (P endorsement than those discussing CR with nurses. Given the proven benefits of CR, all healthcare providers are recommended to universally and strongly encourage CR participation among their patients in order to optimize utilization and subsequent recovery.

  3. Aspects of No Endorsement of Annulment Provided Without Granting the Union Stable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Franco Fulgencio Fonseca

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Given the importance of the endorsement in corporate economic activities, the study has the scope to analysis of change brought about by the Civil Code of 2002, which caused expressed spousal authorization requirement to validate guarantee provided by the other, except for cases of separation regime total assets. Innovation led an intense doctrinal discussion, given that the norm has brought significant changes to the guarantor and institute such a levy was not provided for in the Civil Code of 1916. It is a critical analysis of art. 1647, III of the Civil Code on the context of the general theory of debt securities and its principles, calling for the dynamism and simplicity of credit flowing. Clarify to the approval of the consequences provided without granting the marriage scope and stable, as well as the applicability or inapplicability of such a charge against the securities. The study underpins that, besides being unnecessary to grant the guarantee provided by the cohabitant in a stable relationship, even if it were necessary, would not occur invalidity of endorsement (as stipulated by the Civil Code of 2002, but the ineffectiveness have no effect before one who did not attend the act.

  4. Find Ryan White HIV/AIDS Medical Care Providers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Find Ryan White HIV/AIDS Medical Care Providers tool is a locator that helps people living with HIV/AIDS access medical care and related services. Users can...

  5. Transdisciplinary collaboration and endorsement of pharmacological and psychosocial evidence-based practices by medical and psychosocial substance abuse treatment providers in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Rogério M; Spector, Anya Y; Yu, Gary; Campbell, Aimee N C

    To examine the relative contribution of providers' professional affiliation (medical vs. non-medical), involvement in research, and training needs for associations with endorsement of the following evidence-based practices (EBPs): (1) pharmacological - buprenorphine treatment and (2) psychosocial - Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT). Secondary analysis from a 2008 survey of a national sample (n = 571) of substance abuse treatment providers (medical, social workers, psychologists and counsellors) affiliated with the United States National Institute on Drug Abuse's National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network. Multivariate linear regression models to analyze cross-sectional survey data. Results demonstrated that medical providers and providers with previous research involvement more strongly endorsed the effectiveness of buprenorphine over CBT. Compared to medical providers, psychosocial providers more strongly endorsed CBT. There was a positive association between needing training in rapport with patients and endorsement of buprenorphine and a negative association with CBT. There was a positive association between needing training in behavioural management and needs assessment and endorsement of CBT. Results underscore the importance of providers' involvement in research and the need for training medical and non-medical providers in practice areas that can purposely enhance their use of pharmacological and psychosocial EBPs.

  6. Patient satisfaction with health care services provided at HIV clinics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Since the establishment of free HIV/AIDS care and treatment services in Tanzania a lot of research has been done to assess how health care providers discharge their duties in these clinics. Little research however has been done regarding satisfaction of HIV patients with free health care services provided.

  7. Celebrity endorsements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollensen, Svend; Schimmelpfennig, Christian

    2014-01-01

    : Endorsements are promising meons to counter limitations of conventional product differentiotion. The process that companies pursue until an endorsement deal is signed may be emotional or rotional. In this paper, the authors shed some light on endorser selection from a brand perspective and look into how brands...... arrive at being represented by a celebrity, the stakeholders that are involved in the process and whether the decision-making process is objective or intuitive. Reat-life case studies depicting how Lindt ond Roger Federer as well as OMV/BP and Hansi Hinterseer teamed up are presented for illustration....

  8. Location of development NGOs providing HIV and AIDS services to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Development Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) have been crucial players in HIV and AIDS from the onset of the epidemic in South Africa. We examined development NGOs that provide HIV and AIDS services to young people within the Cape Metropole District of the Western Cape Province, with a view to analyse ...

  9. Do health care providers discuss HIV with older female patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to determine whether older women could recall receiving HIV-related information from health care providers. ... difference (p = 0.003; odds ratio [OR]: 0.26; 95% CI: 0.09–0.69) between their age stratification of 50 to 59 years and 60 to 80 years with respect to receiving information regarding HIV.

  10. Knowledge, attitudes and acceptability to provider-initiated HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: Provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling (PITC) is referred to as routine .... Unstructured Data Indexing and Theorizing (NUDIST) software and manual .... initiation of treatment and care, and introduction of risk-reduction strategies.

  11. Barriers to communication between HIV care providers (HCPs) and women living with HIV about child bearing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ddumba-Nyanzi, Ismael; Kaawa-Mafigiri, David; Johannessen, Helle

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: In the context of HIV clinical care, open discussion regarding sexual health and reproductive plans has become increasingly relevant. The aim of this paper is to explore barriers to communication between providers and women living with HIV regarding childbearing. Methods: In-depth int......Objectives: In the context of HIV clinical care, open discussion regarding sexual health and reproductive plans has become increasingly relevant. The aim of this paper is to explore barriers to communication between providers and women living with HIV regarding childbearing. Methods: In....... Results: Four themes emerged describing barriers to communication, from the HIV-positive women’s point of view: (i) provider indifference or opposition to childbearing post HIV diagnosis, (ii) anticipation of negative response from provider, (iii) provider’s emphasis on ‘scientific’ facts, (iv...

  12. HIV/AIDS EDUCATION OF HEALTH CARE PROVIDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljaljević Agima

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to determine perceptions of service providers in the healthcare on their awareness and knowledge about HIV/AIDS, as well as the relationship of the above parameters and the existence of stigma and discrimination against people with HIV/AIDS. Method: The type of the study was a behavioral cross sectional study. The survey was conducted in 2012, on a representative sample of health workers in Montenegro. The main survey instrument was specifically designed questionnaire that consisted of six parts, out of which one was related to knowledge about HIV and AIDS. Data were analyzed by methods of inferential statistics. Results: More than four out of ten respondents have never attended educational workshops on HIV/AIDS. Research has shown that there is a highly significant statistical correlation between estimates of their own knowledge about HIV / AIDS and previous educations. Almost two-thirds of respondents, who attended some type of education in the field of HIV/AIDS, believe to have a satisfactory level of knowledge in the area. Conclusion: Health care service providers evaluate their knowledge of HIV/AIDS as insufficient.

  13. Keeping confidence: HIV and the criminal law from HIV service providers' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodds, Catherine; Weait, Matthew; Bourne, Adam; Egede, Siri

    2015-08-08

    We present qualitative research findings about how perceptions of criminal prosecutions for the transmission of HIV interact with the provision of high-quality HIV health and social care in England and Wales. Seven focus groups were undertaken with a total of 75 diverse professionals working in clinical and community-based services for people with HIV. Participants' understanding of the law in this area was varied, with many knowing the basic requirements for a prosecution, yet lacking confidence in the best way to communicate key details with those using their service. Prosecutions for HIV transmission have influenced, and in some instances, disrupted the provision of HIV services, creating ambivalence and concern among many providers about their new role as providers of legal information. The way that participants approached the topic with service users was influenced by their personal views on individual and shared responsibility for health, their concerns about professional liability and their degree of trust in non-coercive health promotion approaches to managing public health. These findings reveal an underlying ambivalence among many providers about how they regard the interface between criminal law, coercion and public health. It is also apparent that in most HIV service environments, meaningful exploration of practical ethical issues is relatively rare. The data presented here will additionally be of use to managers and providers of HIV services in order that they can provide consistent and confident support and advice to people with HIV.

  14. Using Health Provider Insights to Inform Pediatric HIV Disclosure: A Qualitative Study and Practice Framework from Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    John-Stewart, Grace; Shah, Brandi; Wamalwa, Dalton; Maleche-Obimbo, Elizabeth; Kelley, Maureen

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Optimal pediatric HIV disclosure impacts illness and developmental experiences while improving access to timely treatment. However, disclosure rates in high HIV prevalence countries remain low and there are limited data on best practices. We conducted a qualitative study of disclosure practices and interviewed healthcare providers from five pediatric HIV clinics in Kenya. We identified themes central to disclosure practices, rationale for approaches, barriers to implementing disclosure, and creative strategies to overcome challenges. We used these insights to develop a practice-based framework for disclosure that is sensitive to practical challenges. Overall, providers had limited training but extensive experience in disclosure, endorsed individualized disclosure practices, invested substantial time on disclosure despite clinical burden, and noted adverse outcomes associated with unplanned or abrupt disclosure. Providers advocated for an approach to disclosure that is child-centered but respects caregiver fears and values. Caregiver support was provided to enable caregivers to be the person who ultimately disclosed HIV status to children. Unplanned or abrupt disclosure to children was reported to have severe and persistent adverse impact and was a stimulus to accelerate disclosure in scenarios when providers believed children may be suspecting their diagnosis. Based on these expert insights, the framework we developed incorporates concurrent evaluation of child and caregiver readiness, identifies cues to prompt disclosure discussions, includes caregiver education and support, and utilizes a gradual approach of unveiling HIV diagnosis to the child. PMID:25216105

  15. 20 CFR 704.451 - NFIA endorsement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false NFIA endorsement. 704.451 Section 704.451... Fund Instrumentalities Act § 704.451 NFIA endorsement. The following form of endorsement applicable to..., modified, or reversed by appropriate appellate authority as provided for by said Acts. This endorsement...

  16. 20 CFR 704.251 - DCCA endorsement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false DCCA endorsement. 704.251 Section 704.251... Columbia Workmen's Compensation Act § 704.251 DCCA endorsement. The following form of endorsement... reversed by appropriate appellate authority as provided for by said Act. This endorsement shall not be...

  17. 20 CFR 704.151 - DBA endorsement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false DBA endorsement. 704.151 Section 704.151... § 704.151 DBA endorsement. The following form of endorsement applicable to the standard workmen's... provided for by said Acts. This endorsement shall not be canceled prior to the date specified in this...

  18. Problems experienced by professional nurses providing care for HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to describe the problems experienced by professional nurses providing health care to patients living with HIV and AIDS in the public hospitals of Polokwane municipality, Limpopo province. A qualitative descriptive, contextual and phenomenology design was used to described the problems ...

  19. Does provider-initiated HIV testing and counselling lead to higher HIV testing rate and HIV case finding in Rwandan clinics?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kayigamba, Felix R.; van Santen, Daniëla; Bakker, Mirjam I.; Lammers, Judith; Mugisha, Veronicah; Bagiruwigize, Emmanuel; de Naeyer, Ludwig; Asiimwe, Anita; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F.

    2016-01-01

    Provider-initiated HIV testing and counselling (PITC) is promoted as a means to increase HIV case finding. We assessed the effectiveness of PITC to increase HIV testing rate and HIV case finding among outpatients in Rwandan health facilities (HF). PITC was introduced in six HFs in 2009-2010. HIV

  20. Consumers' Online Brand Endorsements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernritter, S.F.; Verlegh, P.W.J.; Smit, E.G.; De Pelsmacker, P.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose and Approach This Chapter has three central goals: First, it aims to introduce the concept of consumers’ online brand endorsements, which we define as consumers’ intentional, public, and positive online affiliations with brands (e.g., liking a brand page on Facebook). Second, it provides an

  1. Endorsing good quality assurance practices in molecular pathology: risks and recommendations for diagnostic laboratories and external quality assessment providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tembuyser, Lien; Dequeker, Elisabeth M C

    2016-01-01

    Quality assurance is an indispensable element in a molecular diagnostic laboratory. The ultimate goal is to warrant patient safety. Several risks that can compromise high quality procedures are at stake, from sample collection to the test performed by the laboratory, the reporting of test results to clinicians, and the organization of effective external quality assessment schemes. Quality assurance should therefore be safeguarded at each level and should imply a holistic multidisciplinary approach. This review aims to provide an overview of good quality assurance practices and discusses certain risks and recommendations to promote and improve quality assurance for both diagnostic laboratories and for external quality assessment providers. The number of molecular targets is continuously rising, and new technologies are evolving. As this poses challenges for clinical implementation and increases the demand for external quality assessment, the formation of an international association for improving quality assurance in molecular pathology is called for.

  2. Provider-Initiated HIV Testing for Migrants in Spain: A Qualitative Study with Health Care Workers and Foreign-Born Sexual Minorities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Navaza

    Full Text Available Provider-initiated HIV testing (PITC is increasingly adopted in Europe. The success of the approach at identifying new HIV cases relies on its effectiveness at testing individuals most at risk. However, its suitability to reach populations facing overlapping vulnerabilities is under researched. This qualitative study examined HIV testing experiences and perceptions amongst Latin-American migrant men who have sex with men and transgender females in Spain, as well as health professionals' experiences offering HIV tests to migrants in Barcelona and Madrid.We conducted 32 in-depth interviews and 8 discussion groups with 38 Latin-American migrants and 21 health professionals. We imported verbatim transcripts and detailed field work notes into the qualitative software package Nvivo-10 and applied to all data a coding framework to examine systematically different HIV testing dimensions and modalities. The dimensions analysed were based on the World Health Organization "5 Cs" principles: Consent, Counselling, Connection to treatment, Correctness of results and Confidentiality.Health professionals reported that PITC was conceptually acceptable for them, although their perceived inability to adequately communicate HIV+ results and resulting bottle necks in the flow of care were recurrent concerns. Endorsement and adherence to the principles underpinning the rights-based response to HIV varied widely across health settings. The offer of an HIV test during routine consultations was generally appreciated by users as a way of avoiding the embarrassment of asking for it. Several participants deemed compulsory testing as acceptable on public health grounds. In spite of--and sometimes because of--partial endorsement of rights-based approaches, PITC was acceptable in a population with high levels of internalised stigma.PITC is a promising approach to reach sexual minority migrants who hold high levels of internalised stigma but explicit extra efforts are needed

  3. Provider-Initiated HIV Testing for Migrants in Spain: A Qualitative Study with Health Care Workers and Foreign-Born Sexual Minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navaza, Barbara; Abarca, Bruno; Bisoffi, Federico; Pool, Robert; Roura, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Provider-initiated HIV testing (PITC) is increasingly adopted in Europe. The success of the approach at identifying new HIV cases relies on its effectiveness at testing individuals most at risk. However, its suitability to reach populations facing overlapping vulnerabilities is under researched. This qualitative study examined HIV testing experiences and perceptions amongst Latin-American migrant men who have sex with men and transgender females in Spain, as well as health professionals' experiences offering HIV tests to migrants in Barcelona and Madrid. We conducted 32 in-depth interviews and 8 discussion groups with 38 Latin-American migrants and 21 health professionals. We imported verbatim transcripts and detailed field work notes into the qualitative software package Nvivo-10 and applied to all data a coding framework to examine systematically different HIV testing dimensions and modalities. The dimensions analysed were based on the World Health Organization "5 Cs" principles: Consent, Counselling, Connection to treatment, Correctness of results and Confidentiality. Health professionals reported that PITC was conceptually acceptable for them, although their perceived inability to adequately communicate HIV+ results and resulting bottle necks in the flow of care were recurrent concerns. Endorsement and adherence to the principles underpinning the rights-based response to HIV varied widely across health settings. The offer of an HIV test during routine consultations was generally appreciated by users as a way of avoiding the embarrassment of asking for it. Several participants deemed compulsory testing as acceptable on public health grounds. In spite of--and sometimes because of--partial endorsement of rights-based approaches, PITC was acceptable in a population with high levels of internalised stigma. PITC is a promising approach to reach sexual minority migrants who hold high levels of internalised stigma but explicit extra efforts are needed to safeguard the

  4. What Makes or Breaks Provider--Researcher Collaborations in HIV Research? A Mixed Method Analysis of Providers' Willingness to Partner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Rogerio M.

    2013-01-01

    Research is lacking about what makes or breaks collaboration between researchers and HIV services providers. This study identified factors that influence providers' levels of willingness to collaborate in HIV prevention scientific research. Survey measures were grounded in in-depth interview data and included providers' "willingness to…

  5. Do health care providers discuss HIV with older female patients?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-03-08

    Mar 8, 2010 ... Background: The World Health Organization expressed concern that older people in Africa who are ignored and excluded from HIV-prevention programmes are increasingly being infected with HIV. Studies show an inadequate awareness of the risks of HIV in the older female population. Older women are ...

  6. FY 10 Multifamily Initial Endorsements

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — In FY 2010, HUD's Multifamily's 18 Hubs initially endorsed 1011 loans totaling $11.3 billion and providing 170,672 units/ beds. FY 10's $11.3 billion is the highest...

  7. Improved Prevention Counseling by HIV Care Providers in a Multisite, Clinic-Based Intervention: Positive STEPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrun, Mark; Cook, Paul F.; Bradley-Springer, Lucy A.; Gardner, Lytt; Marks, Gary; Wright, Julie; Wilson, Tracey E.; Quinlivan, E. Byrd; O'Daniels, Christine; Raffanti, Stephen; Thompson, Melanie; Golin, Carol

    2009-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have recommended that HIV care clinics incorporate prevention into clinical practice. This report summarizes HIV care providers' attitudes and counseling practices before and after they received training to deliver a counseling intervention to patients. Providers at seven HIV clinics received training…

  8. HIV serostatus disclosure: Experiences and perceptions of people living with HIV/AIDS and their service providers in Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangita V Patel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV disclosure offers important benefits to people living with HIV/AIDS. However, fear of discrimination, blame, and disruption of family relationships can make disclosure a difficult decision. Barriers to HIV disclosure are influenced by the particular culture within which the individuals live. Although many studies have assessed such barriers in the U.S., very few studies have explored the factors that facilitate or prevent HIV disclosure in India. Understanding these factors is critical to the refinement, development, and implementation of a counseling intervention to facilitate disclosure. Materials and Methods: To explore these factors, we conducted 30 in-depth interviews in the local language with HIV- positive individuals from the Integrated Counselling and Testing Centre in Gujarat, India, assessing the experiences, perceived barriers, and facilitators to disclosure. To triangulate the findings, we conducted two focus group discussions with HIV medical and non-medical service providers, respectively. Results: Perceived HIV-associated stigma, fear of discrimination, and fear of family breakdown acted as barriers to HIV disclosure. Most people living with HIV/AIDS came to know of their HIV status due to poor physical health, spousal HIV-positive status, or a positive HIV test during pregnancy. Some wives only learned of their husbands′ HIV positive status after their husbands died. The focus group participants confirmed similar findings. Disclosure had serious implications for individuals living with HIV, such as divorce, maltreatment, ostracism, and decisions regarding child bearing. Interpretation and Conclusion: The identified barriers and facilitators in the present study can be used to augment training of HIV service providers working in voluntary counseling and testing centers in India.

  9. Exploring intentions to discriminate against patients living with HIV/AIDS among future healthcare providers in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earnshaw, Valerie A; Jin, Harry; Wickersham, Jeffrey; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; John, Jacob; Altice, Frederick L

    2014-06-01

    Stigma towards people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) is strong in Malaysia. Although stigma has been understudied, it may be a barrier to treating the approximately 81 000 Malaysian PLWHA. The current study explores correlates of intentions to discriminate against PLWHA among medical and dental students, the future healthcare providers of Malaysia. An online, cross-sectional survey of 1296 medical and dental students was conducted in 2012 at seven Malaysian universities; 1165 (89.9%) completed the survey and were analysed. Socio-demographic characteristics, stigma-related constructs and intentions to discriminate against PLWHA were measured. Linear mixed models were conducted, controlling for clustering by university. The final multivariate model demonstrated that students who intended to discriminate more against PLWHA were female, less advanced in their training, and studying dentistry. They further endorsed more negative attitudes towards PLWHA, internalised greater HIV-related shame, reported more HIV-related fear and disagreed more strongly that PLWHA deserve good care. The final model accounted for 38% of the variance in discrimination intent, with 10% accounted for by socio-demographic characteristics and 28% accounted for by stigma-related constructs. It is critical to reduce stigma among medical and dental students to eliminate intentions to discriminate and achieve equitable care for Malaysian PLWHA. Stigma-reduction interventions should be multipronged, addressing attitudes, internalised shame, fear and perceptions of deservingness of care. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Problems of providing services to people affected by HIV/AIDS: service providers and recipients perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, G; Mohraz, M; Gouya, M M; Dejman, M; Alinaghi, S S; Rahmani, K; Malekafzali-Ardakani, H

    2015-02-25

    This qualitative study aimed to identify the health-care problems of people living with HIV (PLHIV) in 2 large cities: Tehran and Kermanshah. Two main groups of stakeholders - service providers (policy-makers, managers, physicians and counsellors) and service recipients (PLHIV and their relatives) - participated in focus group discussions and in-depth interviews. We identified 24 themes covering the major health problems of PLHIV, including: incomplete and inadequate coverage of health-care services; patients' substance abuse; patients' fear of stigma; occupational burnout of certain service providers; patients' dissatisfaction with some of the services provided by counselling centres/clinics; medical staff's failure to observe confidentiality; and patients' lack of access to required specialized services. The problems and needs identified can inform the design and implementation of health programmes in our country and elsewhere in the Eastern Mediterranean Region.

  11. HIV testing among pregnant women living with HIV in India: are private healthcare providers routinely violating women's human rights?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhivanan, Purnima; Krupp, Karl; Kulkarni, Vinay; Kulkarni, Sanjeevani; Vaidya, Neha; Shaheen, Reshma; Philpott, Sean; Fisher, Celia

    2014-03-24

    In India, approximately 49,000 women living with HIV become pregnant and deliver each year. While the government of India has made progress increasing the availability of prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) services, only about one quarter of pregnant women received an HIV test in 2010, and about one-in-five that were found positive for HIV received interventions to prevent vertical transmission of HIV. Between February 2012 to March 2013, 14 HIV-positive women who had recently delivered a baby were recruited from HIV positive women support groups, Government of India Integrated Counseling and Testing Centers, and nongovernmental organizations in Mysore and Pune, India. In-depth interviews were conducted to examine their general experiences with antenatal healthcare; specific experiences around HIV counseling and testing; and perceptions about their care and follow-up treatment. Data were analyzed thematically using the human rights framework for HIV testing adopted by the United Nations and India's National AIDS Control Organization. While all of the HIV-positive women in the study received HIV and PMTCT services at a government hospital or antiretroviral therapy center, almost all reported attending a private clinic or hospital at some point in their pregnancy. According to the participants, HIV testing often occurred without consent; there was little privacy; breaches of confidentiality were commonplace; and denial of medical treatment occurred routinely. Among women living with HIV in this study, violations of their human rights occurred more commonly in private rather than public healthcare settings. There is an urgent need for capacity building among private healthcare providers to improve standards of practice with regard to informed consent process, HIV testing, patient confidentiality, treatment, and referral of pregnant women living with HIV.

  12. Providers caring for adolescents with perinatally-acquired HIV: Current practices and barriers to communication about sexual and reproductive health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, Jamie N; Fair, Cynthia D

    2014-11-01

    The population of adolescents and young adults (AYA) with perinatally-acquired HIV (PHIV) present challenges to HIV healthcare providers (HHCPs). Originally not expected to survive childhood, they are now living well into young adulthood. Little is known about the type of sexual and reproductive (SRH) information/services offered to AYA with PHIV by HHCPs. HHCPs (n=67) were recruited using snowball sampling, and completed an online survey. Providers' most frequently endorsed SRH topics discussed with both male and female patients included condom use (77.3%), STD prevention (73.1%), and screening (62.1%). Providers' reports indicated that females received significantly more education about SRH topics overall. The most frequently noted barriers to SRH communication included more pressing health concerns (53.0%), parent/guardian not receptive (43.9%), and lack of time during appointment (43.9%). Provider-reported SRH conversations with HHCPs were highly focused on horizontal transmission and pregnancy prevention. Salient social aspects of SRH promotion for AYAs with PHIV (e.g., managing disclosure and romantic relationships) were less commonly discussed, though such conversations may serve to reduce secondary transmission and enhance the overall well-being of AYA with PHIV. Findings indicated that further work must be done to identify strategies to address unmet SRH needs of the aging population of AYA with PHIV.

  13. A clinical audit of provider-initiated HIV counselling and testing in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Early initiation of antiretroviral therapy reduces transmission of HIV and prolongs life. Expansion of HIV testing is therefore pivotal in overcoming the HIV pandemic. Provider-initiated counselling and testing (PICT) at first clinical contact is one way of increasing the number of individuals tested. Our impression is ...

  14. HIV Testing and HIV/AIDS Treatment Services in Rural Counties in 10 Southern States: Service Provider Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Madeline; Anthony, Monique-Nicole; Vila, Christie; McLellan-Lemal, Eleanor; Weidle, Paul J.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Forty percent of AIDS cases are reported in the southern United States, the region with the largest proportion of HIV/AIDS cases from rural areas. Data are limited regarding provider perspectives of the accessibility and availability of HIV testing and treatment services in southern rural counties. Purpose: We surveyed providers in the…

  15. "I understand just a little…" Perspectives of HIV/AIDS service providers in South Africa of providing mental health care for people living with HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mall, Sumaya; Sorsdahl, Katherine; Swartz, Leslie; Joska, John

    2012-01-01

    Research conducted in South Africa and other parts of the world has revealed that people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) are more at risk of developing a mental disorder than the general population. It makes sense to explore means of integrating HIV/AIDS and mental health care thereby facilitating access of PLWHA to prompt mental health care. We conducted qualitative interviews with 22 HIV/AIDS service providers of three occupational categories (10 nurses, six adherence counsellors and six patient advocates) at three primary health care clinics in the Western Cape, South Africa. We explored the issues of knowledge and practice in mental health care as well as the role of nurses and lay health workers in providing mental health care to PLWHA thereby attempting to integrate mental health and HIV/AIDS care. Although the majority of participants were in favour of mental health screening for PLWHA, they lacked confidence to conduct the screening themselves. Most participants displayed poor knowledge of mental disorders and reported that they referred to colleagues or to an external mental health service if they suspected a possible mental disorder in a patient. Integration of mental health and HIV/AIDS care has potential benefit to the public HIV/AIDS care system. Mental health training should be provided to HIV/AIDS service providers in this regard.

  16. Patient and provider perspectives on improving the linkage of HIV-positive pregnant women to long-term HIV care and treatment in eastern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Haneefa; Kyeyagalire, Robert; Lunsford, Sarah Smith

    2014-01-01

    Despite strong evidence that antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduces the risk of mother-to-child transmission of HIV and improves the health of HIV-positive mothers, many HIV-positive pregnant women do not enrol into long-term HIV care and treatment. This study examined barriers and facilitators to the linkage of HIV-positive pregnant women from antenatal care (ANC) to long-term HIV care from patient and provider perspectives, following the implementation of a collaborative quality improvement project in Eastern Uganda. It also solicited recommendations for improving linkages to HIV care. Structured interviews were conducted with 11 health providers and 48 HIV-positive mothers enrolled in HIV care. Facilitators to linking HIV-positive pregnant women to long-term HIV care identified included support from expert clients, escorted referrals, same-day HIV care registration, and coordination between ANC and HIV services. Barriers reported included shortages in HIV testing kits and fear of social, physical and medical consequences. Participants recommended integration of ANC and HIV services, reduction in waiting times, HIV counselling by expert clients, and community-based approaches for improving linkages to HIV care. Linking HIV-positive pregnant women to HIV care can be improved through deliberate implementation of quality improvement interventions in facilities to address barriers to access and provide stronger support and community mobilisation.

  17. Practicing provider-initiated HIV testing in high prevalence settings: consent concerns and missed preventive opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Shayo Elizabeth H; Blystad Astrid; Njeru Mercy K; Nyamongo Isaac K; Fylkesnes Knut

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Counselling is considered a prerequisite for the proper handling of testing and for ensuring effective HIV preventive efforts. HIV testing services have recently been scaled up substantially with a particular focus on provider-initiated models. Increasing HIV test rates have been attributed to the rapid scale-up of the provider-initiated testing model, but there is limited documentation of experiences with this new service model. The aim of this study was to determine the ...

  18. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Provider-initiated HIV testing increases ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stephen D Lawn, BMedSci, MB BS, MRCP, MD, DTM&H, Dip HIV Med. Anna Fraenzel, BSc, MSc. Katharina Kranzer, MB ... Stephen D Lawn, Anna Fraenzel, Katharina Kranzer, Judy Caldwell, Linda-Gail Bekker, Robin Wood. Background. Timely initiation of ..... Golub JE, Durovni B, King BS, et al. Recurrent tuberculosis in ...

  19. Patient and provider attitudes to emergency department-based HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The national South African HIV Counselling and Testing (HCT) guidelines mandate that voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) should be offered in all healthcare facilities. Emergency departments (EDs) are at the forefront of many healthcare facilities, yet VCT is not routinely implemented in this setting.

  20. Treatment as prevention: are Argentinean HIV care providers willing to adopt earlier antiretroviral therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socías, María Eugenia; Sued, Omar; Pryluka, Daniel; Patterson, Patricia; Fink, Valeria; Cesar, Carina; Cahn, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    HIV guidelines increasingly recommend antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation at a higher CD4 levels. The extent to which these evolving standards are translated into routine clinical care has not been evaluated in Argentina. During October 2012, we conducted an online survey among Argentinean HIV clinicians to assess their attitudes and practices toward ART initiation and its potential use for HIV prevention. Of the 280 physicians included, 61% would prescribe ART at CD4 ≤ 500 cells/µL for asymptomatic patients. Although, only 11% would recommend ART irrespective of CD4 cell count, 72% would do it for serodiscordant couples, and 75% for sex workers. Most participants agreed that they would consider earlier initiation of ART if transmission risk exists, and that expansion of ART could help decrease HIV incidence. These results suggest that a large proportion of Argentinean HIV care providers are willing to adopt the recently updated Argentinean guidelines recommending earlier ART, especially when high HIV transmission risk exists.

  1. Perspectives of Never-in-Care HIV-Positive Patients and Providers in Rakai, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gertrude Nakigozi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Early entry into HIV care is low in Sub-Saharan Africa. In Rakai, about a third (31.5% of HIV-positive clients who knew their serostatus did not enroll into free care services. This qualitative study explored barriers to entry into care from HIV-positive clients who had never enrolled in care and HIV care providers. Methods. We conducted 48 in-depth interviews among HIV-infected individuals aged 15–49 years, who had not entered care within six months of result receipt and referral for free care. Key-informant interviews were conducted with 12 providers. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcripts subjected to thematic content analysis based on the health belief model. Results. Barriers to using HIV care included fear of stigma and HIV disclosure, women’s lack of support from male partners, demanding work schedules, and high transport costs. Programmatic barriers included fear of antiretroviral drug side effects, long waiting and travel times, and inadequate staff respect for patients. Denial of HIV status, belief in spiritual healing, and absence of AIDS symptoms were also barriers. Conclusion. Targeted interventions to combat stigma, strengthen couple counseling and health education programs, address gender inequalities, and implement patient-friendly and flexible clinic service hours are needed to address barriers to HIV care.

  2. "It Is Not Easy": Challenges for Provider-Initiated HIV Testing and Counseling in Flanders, Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manirankunda, Lazare; Loos, Jasna; Debackaere, Pieterjan; Nostlinger, Christiana

    2012-01-01

    This study identified physicians' HIV testing practices and their barriers toward implementing provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling (PITC) for Sub-Saharan African migrants (SAM) in Flanders, Belgium. In-depth interviews were conducted on a purposive sample of 20 physicians (ten GPs and ten internists). GPs performed mainly…

  3. Understanding HIV Care Provider Attitudes Regarding Intentions to Prescribe PrEP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castel, Amanda D.; Feaster, Daniel J.; Tang, Wenze; Willis, Sarah; Jordan, Heather; Villamizar, Kira; Kharfen, Michael; Kolber, Michael A.; Rodriguez, Allan; Metsch, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a promising approach to reducing HIV incidence. Thus garnering the support of HIV providers, who are most familiar with antiretrovirals and likely to encounter patients in HIV serodiscordant relationships, to scale-up PrEP implementation is essential. We sought to determine whether certain subgroups of HIV providers were more likely to intend to prescribe PrEP. Methods Surveys were administered to HIV providers in Miami, Florida and Washington, DC. Composite scores were developed to measure PrEP knowledge, experience, and likelihood of prescribing. Latent class analysis (LCA) was used to stratify provider attitudes toward PrEP. Results Among 142 HIV providers, 73.2% had cared for more than 20 HIV-infected patients in the prior 3 months; 17% had ever prescribed PrEP. LCA identified two classes of providers (entropy 0.904); Class 1 (n=95) found PrEP less effective and perceived barriers to prescribing it; Class 2 (n=47) perceived PrEP as moderately effective and perceived fewer barriers to prescribing it. Compared to Class 2, Class 1 had significantly less experience with PrEP delivery (t(22.7)=2.88, p=0.009) and was significantly less likely to intend to prescribe to patients with multiple sex partners (20% vs. 43%, p=0.04) and those with a drug use history (7% vs. 24%, p=0.001). Conclusions While most HIV providers found PrEP to be effective, those considering it less effective had limited knowledge and experience with PrEP and had lesser intentions to prescribe. Provider training regarding whom should receive PrEP and addressing potential barriers to PrEP provision are needed if this HIV prevention method is to be optimized. PMID:26247895

  4. Selection of Celebrity Endorsers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollensen, Svend; Schimmelpfennig, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Purpose - This research aims at shedding some light on the various avenues marketers can undertake until finally an endorsement contract is signed. The focus of the study lies on verifying the generally held assumption that endorser selection is usually taken care of by creative agencies, vetting....... Practical implications – Conducted case studies indicate that there are various avenues how brands come to their endorser. We could not find evidence of a best practice strategy.......Purpose - This research aims at shedding some light on the various avenues marketers can undertake until finally an endorsement contract is signed. The focus of the study lies on verifying the generally held assumption that endorser selection is usually taken care of by creative agencies, vetting...... several candidates by means of subtle evaluation procedures. Design/methodology/approach – A case study research has been carried out among companies experienced in celebrity endorsements to learn more about the endorser selection process in practise. Based on these cases theory is inductively developed...

  5. "Notify your partners--it's the law": HIV providers and mandatory disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenstein, Bronwen; Whetten, Kathryn; Rubenstein, Casey

    2014-01-01

    HIV care providers in the United States must counsel clients about disclosure to sexual partners and report anyone who is suspected of noncompliance. This study compared provider attitudes and practices in relation to counseling clients about mandatory disclosure in North Carolina and Alabama, the 2 states with similar HIV epidemiology but different laws for HIV control. Personal interviews were conducted with 20 providers in each state (n = 40). The results were analyzed in a qualitative, cross-comparison method to identify patterns of convergence or difference. Providers in both states believed that clients often failed to notify sexual partners and were secretive if questioned about disclosure. Differences in counseling styles and procedures for each state were noteworthy. Compared to Alabama, North Carolina had harsher penalties for nondisclosure, stricter and more standardized procedures for counseling, and providers expressed greater support for HIV criminalization. Although most North Carolina providers viewed the stricter standards as beneficial for HIV care and control, Alabama providers were likely to view such standards as a barrier to patient care. These results indicated a direct relation between state HIV law, provider attitudes, and counseling procedures for mandatory disclosure.

  6. Mistrust and Endorsement of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Conspiracy Theories Among Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected African American Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattocks, Kristin M; Gibert, Cynthia; Fiellin, David; Fiellin, Lynn E; Jamison, Annah; Brown, Amber; Justice, Amy C

    2017-11-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has taken a disproportionate toll on the lives of African Americans, and many previous studies suggest HIV conspiracy beliefs and physician mistrust play important roles in this racial disparity. Because many HIV conspiracy theories tie government involvement with the origin and potential cure for HIV, an area for further examination is HIV+ African American veterans in Veterans Health Administration (VHA) care. In addition to HIV conspiracy beliefs, veterans may already be mistrustful of the VHA as a government healthcare provider. This mistrust is significantly associated with poor health outcomes, among both minority and nonminority persons living with HIV. We conducted interviews with 32 African American veterans at three VHA hospitals to assess HIV conspiracy beliefs and mistrust in physicians providing HIV care. A semistructured interview format allowed respondents to talk freely about their personal history with HIV, their perceptions about living with HIV, and their views on HIV conspiracy beliefs. Five major themes arose from these interviews, including that the government uses HIV to control minority populations; the Veterans Affairs healthcare providers may play a role in withholding HIV treatment, and many HIV-infected veterans are suspicious of HIV treatment regimens. Additionally, several HIV-infected veterans in our study disclosed that they did not follow the prescribed treatment recommendations to ensure adherence. A veteran's beliefs drive views of the healthcare system and trust of HIV-infected veterans' healthcare providers, and impact HIV-infected veterans' willingness to accept treatment for their medical conditions. Further research should continue to examine the impact of mistrust and endorsement of conspiracy beliefs among veterans receiving care in VHA. Reprint & Copyright © 2017 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  7. Provider fatalism reduces the likelihood of HIV-prevention counseling in primary care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steward, Wayne T; Koester, Kimberly A; Myers, Janet J; Morin, Stephen F

    2006-01-01

    We examined the relationship between provider fatalism, a belief that behavior change among HIV-infected patients is unlikely, and HIV-prevention counseling in 16 publicly funded clinics. HIV-seropositive patients (N = 618) completed surveys assessing prevention counseling in the past 6 months. Additionally, 144 interviews were conducted with providers, administrators, and patients to examine beliefs about prevention counseling. We summed the number of fatalistic comments made by providers and administrators in each clinic, and assigned these counts as clinic-level fatalism scores to survey participants. Patients in high fatalism clinics were less likely to report prevention counseling than patients in low fatalism clinics. This difference remained significant even after controlling for clinic characteristics or patients' sexual risk and health status. However, clients in high fatalism clinics were more likely to be White, gay, educated, and older. Provider fatalism is a barrier that must be addressed when implementing HIV-prevention counseling in primary care settings.

  8. Provider perceptions on HIV risk and prevention services within permanent supportive housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, Suzanne L; Henwood, Benjamin; Harris, Taylor; Winetrobe, Hailey; Rhoades, Harmony

    2017-10-01

    Permanent supportive housing (PSH) is an evidence-based solution to homelessness for persons experiencing chronic or long-term homelessness and one or more physical or behavioral health problems. Health services through PSH typically focus on physical and behavioral health. With the exception of programs specifically designed for persons living with HIV/AIDS, little attention has focused on services through PSH to prevent transmission of HIV or other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), yet sexual risk behavior continues after homeless persons move into PSH. The purpose of this study was to investigate how PSH providers approach HIV prevention and the challenges they perceive surrounding HIV prevention in PSH. Results serve as a critical first step toward addressing the acceptability and feasibility of providing HIV/STI prevention services to PSH residents. As part of a longitudinal mixed methods study examining HIV risk and prevention behavior among homeless unaccompanied adults moving into PSH in Los Angeles, we conducted eleven focus groups with a total of 60 frontline staff across 10 PSH agencies. Thirty-three percent of focus group participants were African American, 32% were Hispanic, and 55% were women. Results suggest that provider awareness and knowledge of PrEP is very limited, and provision of formal HIV prevention programing for residents is perceived as challenging. Informal, ad hoc conversations with residents about sexual risk and HIV prevention do occur when providers have rapport with clients and perceive risk. There are significant gaps in HIV prevention services through PSH but also opportunities to enhance providers' efforts to promote the health of residents through prevention.

  9. CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT STRATEGY

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    CHIOSA ANA RALUCA

    2012-01-01

    .... Celebrity endorsement has become one of the communication strategies used in marketing to buildcongruence between brand image and consumers. Famous persons exert their influence on consumer throughperceived attributes such as expertise, trustworthiness, attractiveness, familiarty and likeability.

  10. CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT STRATEGY

    OpenAIRE

    CHIOSA ANA RALUCA

    2012-01-01

    Brands ofen use celebrities to get impact, because they are seen by the public as credible source of information about product or company. People aspire to the values and lifestyles of celebrities. Consumers selectively integrate perceived values and behavior of celebrities they admire, to build and communicate their own identity. Celebrity endorser is a person who enjoys high reputation and prestige, beeing known to most people. Celebrity endorsement is a relevant strategy for the product ca...

  11. Adolescent and Adult HIV Providers' Definitions of HIV-Infected Youths' Successful Transition to Adult Care in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philbin, Morgan M; Tanner, Amanda E; Ma, Alice; Chambers, Brittany D; Ware, Samuella; Kinnard, Elizabeth N; Hussen, Sophia A; Lee, Sonia; Fortenberry, J Dennis

    2017-10-01

    It is important for both individual- and population-level health that HIV-infected individuals progress through the Care Continuum. However, HIV-infected youth frequently disengage from care during transition from pediatric/adolescent to adult care; only 50% remain in adult care after 1 year. Understanding how providers define and approach a successful healthcare transition can improve the delivery of HIV-related services during critical years of HIV treatment. We conducted 58 staff interviews across 14 Adolescent Trials Network clinics (n = 30) and 20 adult clinics (n = 28). We used the constant comparative method to examine how providers defined and approached youths' successful transition. Providers identified four components critical to successful transition: (1) clinical outcomes (e.g., medication adherence and viral suppression); (2) youth knowing how to complete treatment-related activities (e.g., refilling prescriptions and making appointments); (3) youth taking responsibility for treatment-related activities and their overall health (e.g., "when they stop reaching out to the adolescent [clinic] to solve all their problems."); and (4) youth feeling a connection and trust toward the adult clinic (e.g., "they feel safe here"), with some providers even prioritizing connectedness over clinical outcomes (e.g., "Even if they're not taking meds but are connected [to care], …that's a success."). The identification of key components of successful transition can guide focused interventions and resources to improve youth maintenance in the HIV Care Continuum as they transition to adult care. Identifying what facilitates successful transitions, and the gaps that interventions can target, will help to ensure HIV-infected youth remain healthy across their lifespan.

  12. Delivering safer conception services to HIV serodiscordant couples in Kenya: perspectives from healthcare providers and HIV serodiscordant couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Ngure

    2017-02-01

    Conclusions: Antiretroviral-based HIV prevention is acceptable and accessible to meet the growing demand for safer conception services in Kenya, since medically assisted interventions are currently cost prohibitive. Cross-disciplinary training for health providers would expand confidence in all prevention options and foster the tailoring of counselling to couples’ preferences.

  13. Challenges to HIV prevention in psychiatric settings: Perceptions of South African mental health care providers

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, Pamela Y.

    2006-01-01

    Mental health services in South Africa increasingly feel the brunt of the AIDS epidemic. Despite the high prevalence of infection in the psychiatric setting, HIV risk reduction interventions targeting South Africans with psychiatric illness remain few and far between. The attitudes of mental health care providers about sexual relations and HIV among people with mental illness continue to influence the extent to which these issues are addressed in care settings. This study examines these attit...

  14. Estimating the national cost of treating people with HIV disease: patient, payer, and provider data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellinger, F J; Fleishman, J A

    2000-06-01

    Existing estimates of the national cost of treating all people with HIV disease use data from a sample of people with HIV disease to extrapolate the cost of treating all people with HIV disease (patient-based approach). This study derives estimates using two novel approaches (i.e., payer-based and provider-based) and compares these with existing estimates. These include the Health Insurance Association of American and the American Council of Life Insurance 1996 HIV survey, the 1996 State Inpatient Databases (SID) maintained by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, and the IMS America Ltd. survey of independent and chain drugstores. The cost of treating all people with HIV disease in 1996 was between $6.7 and $7.8 billion U.S., and the average annual cost of treating a person with HIV disease was between $20,000 and $24,700 U.S. Analysts should derive estimates of the cost of treating people with HIV disease using several different approaches. K

  15. A Qualitative Study of Providers' Perception of Adherence of Women Living with HIV/AIDS in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivero-Mendez, Marta; Dawson-Rose, Carol S.; Solis-Baez, Solymar S.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines healthcare providers' perceptions regarding experiences and factors that contribute to adherent and non-adherent behaviors to HIV treatment among women living with HIV infection in Puerto Rico and describes strategies implemented to improve adherence. Providers' accounts revealed that women with HIV infection are living…

  16. Provider training and experience for people living with HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rackal, Julia M; Tynan, Anne-Marie; Handford, Curtis D; Rzeznikiewiz, Damian; Agha, Ayda; Glazier, Richard

    2011-06-15

    The complexity of HIV/AIDS raises challenges for the effective delivery of care. It is important to ensure that the expertise and experience of care providers is of high quality. Training and experience of HIV/AIDS providers may impact not only individual patient outcomes but increasingly on health care costs as well. The objective of this review is to assess the effects of provider training and experience on people living with HIV/AIDS on the following outcomes: immunological (ie. viral load, CD4 count), medical (ie. mortality, proportion on antiretrovirals), psychosocial (ie. quality of life measures) and economic outcomes (ie health care costs). We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Dissertation Abstracts International (DAI), CINAHL, HealthStar, PsycInfo, PsycLit, Social Sciences Abstracts, and Sociological Abstracts from January 1, 1980 through May 29, 2009.  Electronic searches were performed for abstracts from major international AIDS conferences. Reference lists from pertinent articles, books and review articles were retrieved and reviewed. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), controlled clinical trials, cohort, case control, cross-sectional studies and controlled before and after designs that examined the qualifications/training and patient volume of HIV/AIDS care of providers caring for persons known to be infected with HIV/AIDS were included. At least two authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Study authors were contacted for further information as required. Assessment of confounding factors was undertaken independently by two reviewers. A total of four studies (one randomized controlled trial, three non- randomized studies) involving 8488 people living with HIV/AIDS were included. The main findings of this review demonstrated a trend to improved outcomes when treated by a provider with more training/expertise in HIV/AIDS care in the outpatient (clinic) setting. Due to the heterogeneity of the included studies, we could not perform a

  17. 24 CFR 203.552 - Fees and charges after endorsement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fees and charges after endorsement....552 Fees and charges after endorsement. (a) The mortgagee may collect reasonable and customary fees and charges from the mortgagor after insurance endorsement only as provided below. The mortgagee may...

  18. Opioid-prescribing practices and provider confidence recognizing opioid analgesic abuse in HIV primary care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Paula J; Little, Sherri; Botsko, Michael; Hersh, David; Thawley, Robert E; Egan, James E; Mitty, Jennifer; Boverman, Joshua; Fiellin, David A

    2011-03-01

    Pain syndromes are common in HIV-infected patients, who also are commonly affected by opioid-use disorders. Although opioids can treat pain, prescribers must consider the consequences of iatrogenic or missed addiction diagnoses. In an anonymous online survey, we asked a national sample of HIV providers about their demographics, experience, and patients, and their practices and attitudes about chronic opioid therapy, addiction, and confidence recognizing opioid analgesic abuse. One hundred six providers reported 28% of their patients had chronic pain; 21% received opioid analgesics; 37% were HIV infected by injecting drug use; and 12% were addicted to prescription opioids. Few providers followed recommended guidelines for chronic opioid therapy in nonmalignant pain. Mean provider confidence was 6.3 on a scale of 10. Higher confidence was associated with provider sex (P opioids (P = 0.005), and prescribing buprenorphine (P = 0.009). HIV providers seldom follow recommended guidelines for opioid prescribing and have limited confidence in their ability to recognize opioid analgesic abuse. Clinical practices developed to reduce misuse and increase early detection and treatment of opioid dependence are associated with higher confidence. The implementation of guidelines to improve the quality of opioid prescribing in HIV clinics may aid in the diagnosis of addictive disorders and prevent their adverse outcomes.

  19. Providing sensitive care for adult HIV-infected women with a history of childhood sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron, Erika; Criniti, Shannon; Bonacquisti, Alexa; Geller, Pamela A

    2013-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is a serious public health issue. Women with HIV who have a history of CSA are at increased risk for sporadic medical treatment, nonadherence to HIV medications, and HIV risk behaviors. These associations pose a challenge to providing health care for this population and are complicated by the possible psychological sequelae of CSA, such as anxiety, depression, dissociation, and posttraumatic stress disorder. This article reviews the effects of CSA on the health status of women with HIV, barriers to treatment adherence, suggested components of trauma-sensitive medical care, and mental health approaches. A trauma-informed, trauma-sensitive care model that addresses barriers associated with health care for women with a history of CSA is suggested. Specific recommendations are offered for the provision of effective clinical care for women with HIV who also have a history of CSA to help HIV care providers better recognize and appreciate the distinct needs of this patient population. Copyright © 2013 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. HIV health-care providers' burnout: can organizational culture make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginossar, Tamar; Oetzel, John; Hill, Ricky; Avila, Magdalena; Archiopoli, Ashley; Wilcox, Bryan

    2014-01-01

    One of the major challenges facing those working with people living with HIV (PLWH) is the increased potential for burnout, which results in increased turnover and reduces quality of care provided for PLWH. The goal of this study was to examine the relationship among HIV health-care providers' burnout (emotional exhaustion and depersonalization) and organizational culture including teamwork, involvement in decision-making, and critical appraisal. Health-care providers for PLWH (N = 47) in federally funded clinics in a southwestern state completed a cross-sectional survey questionnaire about their perceptions of organizational culture and burnout. The results of multiple regression analysis indicated that positive organizational culture (i.e., teamwork) was negatively related to emotional burnout (p organizational culture (i.e., critical appraisal) was positively related to depersonalization (p organizational communication interventions might protect HIV health-care providers from burnout.

  1. Understanding the drivers of interprofessional collaborative practice among HIV primary care providers and case managers in HIV care programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavronicolas, Heather A; Laraque, Fabienne; Shankar, Arti; Campbell, Claudia

    2017-05-01

    Care coordination programmes are an important aspect of HIV management whose success depends largely on HIV primary care provider (PCP) and case manager collaboration. Factors influencing collaboration among HIV PCPs and case managers remain to be studied. The study objective was to test an existing theoretical model of interprofessional collaborative practice and determine which factors play the most important role in facilitating collaboration. A self-administered, anonymous mail survey was sent to HIV PCPs and case managers in New York City. An adapted survey instrument elicited information on demographic, contextual, and perceived social exchange (trustworthiness, role specification, and relationship initiation) characteristics. The dependent variable, perceived interprofessional practice, was constructed from a validated scale. A sequential block wise regression model specifying variable entry order examined the relative importance of each group of factors and of individual variables. The analysis showed that social exchange factors were the dominant drivers of collaboration. Relationship initiation was the most important predictor of interprofessional collaboration. Additional influential factors included organisational leadership support of collaboration, practice settings, and frequency of interprofessional meetings. Addressing factors influencing collaboration among providers will help public health programmes optimally design their structural, hiring, and training strategies to foster effective social exchanges and promote collaborative working relationships.

  2. CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT IN ADVERTISING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad Roşca

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Being an individual sport, tennis often deals with a specific category of sponsoring: the endorsement. Tennis players and business organizations seek each other in order to sign partnerships from which both parties hope to win. Endorsements are among the most profitable income sources for professional athletes. By acting as ambassadors for their sponsors and by cedeing them the image usage rights, tennis players earn a lot. But, through the image association with the athlete, the sponsor also wins, by adding value to his image capital. This papers researches the particularities of tennis endorsements using the case of Roger Federer, one of the best tennis players in history and one of the best business partners in the world of sports for sponsoring companies. Thanks to his succes, Federer reached a level where not less than ten partners sponsor him yearly. The most interesting of these partnerships are presented in this paper.

  3. Should trained lay providers perform HIV testing? A systematic review to inform World Health Organization guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, C E; Yeh, P T; Johnson, C; Baggaley, R

    2017-12-01

    New strategies for HIV testing services (HTS) are needed to achieve UN 90-90-90 targets, including diagnosis of 90% of people living with HIV. Task-sharing HTS to trained lay providers may alleviate health worker shortages and better reach target groups. We conducted a systematic review of studies evaluating HTS by lay providers using rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs). Peer-reviewed articles were included if they compared HTS using RDTs performed by trained lay providers to HTS by health professionals, or to no intervention. We also reviewed data on end-users' values and preferences around lay providers preforming HTS. Searching was conducted through 10 online databases, reviewing reference lists, and contacting experts. Screening and data abstraction were conducted in duplicate using systematic methods. Of 6113 unique citations identified, 5 studies were included in the effectiveness review and 6 in the values and preferences review. One US-based randomized trial found patients' uptake of HTS doubled with lay providers (57% vs. 27%, percent difference: 30, 95% confidence interval: 27-32, p Cambodia, Malawi, and South Africa comparing testing quality between lay providers and laboratory staff found little discordance and high sensitivity and specificity (≥98%). Values and preferences studies generally found support for lay providers conducting HTS, particularly in non-hypothetical scenarios. Based on evidence supporting using trained lay providers, a WHO expert panel recommended lay providers be allowed to conduct HTS using HIV RDTs. Uptake of this recommendation could expand HIV testing to more people globally.

  4. Stigma and discrimination against people living with HIV by healthcare providers, Southwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feyissa Garumma T

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stigma and discrimination against people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV are obstacles in the way of effective responses to HIV. Understanding the extent of stigma / discrimination and the underlying causes is necessary for developing strategies to reduce them. This study was conducted to explore stigma and discrimination against PLHIV amongst healthcare providers in Jimma zone, Southwest Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study, employing quantitative and qualitative methods, was conducted in 18 healthcare institutions of Jimma zone, during March 14 to April 14, 2011. A total of 255 healthcare providers responded to questionnaires asking about sociodemographic characteristics, HIV knowledge, perceived institutional support and HIV-related stigma and discrimination. Factor analysis was employed to create measurement scales for stigma and factor scores were used in one way analysis of variance (ANOVA, T-tests, Pearson’s correlation and multiple linear regression analyses. Qualitative data collected using key-informant interviews and Focus Group Discussions (FGDs were employed to triangulate with the findings from the quantitative survey. Results Mean stigma scores (as the percentages of maximum scale scores were: 66.4 for the extra precaution scale, 52.3 for the fear of work-related HIV transmission, 49.4 for the lack of feelings of safety, 39.0 for the value-driven stigma, 37.4 for unethical treatment of PLHIV, 34.4 for discomfort around PLHIV and 31.1 for unofficial disclosure. Testing and disclosing test results without consent, designating HIV clients and unnecessary referral to other healthcare institutions and refusal to treat clients were identified. Having in-depth HIV knowledge, the perception of institutional support, attending training on stigma and discrimination, educational level of degree or higher, high HIV case loads, the presence of ART service in the healthcare facility and claiming to be

  5. Stigma and discrimination against people living with HIV by healthcare providers, Southwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyissa, Garumma T; Abebe, Lakew; Girma, Eshetu; Woldie, Mirkuzie

    2012-07-13

    Stigma and discrimination against people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are obstacles in the way of effective responses to HIV. Understanding the extent of stigma / discrimination and the underlying causes is necessary for developing strategies to reduce them. This study was conducted to explore stigma and discrimination against PLHIV amongst healthcare providers in Jimma zone, Southwest Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study, employing quantitative and qualitative methods, was conducted in 18 healthcare institutions of Jimma zone, during March 14 to April 14, 2011. A total of 255 healthcare providers responded to questionnaires asking about sociodemographic characteristics, HIV knowledge, perceived institutional support and HIV-related stigma and discrimination. Factor analysis was employed to create measurement scales for stigma and factor scores were used in one way analysis of variance (ANOVA), T-tests, Pearson's correlation and multiple linear regression analyses. Qualitative data collected using key-informant interviews and Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) were employed to triangulate with the findings from the quantitative survey. Mean stigma scores (as the percentages of maximum scale scores) were: 66.4 for the extra precaution scale, 52.3 for the fear of work-related HIV transmission, 49.4 for the lack of feelings of safety, 39.0 for the value-driven stigma, 37.4 for unethical treatment of PLHIV, 34.4 for discomfort around PLHIV and 31.1 for unofficial disclosure. Testing and disclosing test results without consent, designating HIV clients and unnecessary referral to other healthcare institutions and refusal to treat clients were identified. Having in-depth HIV knowledge, the perception of institutional support, attending training on stigma and discrimination, educational level of degree or higher, high HIV case loads, the presence of ART service in the healthcare facility and claiming to be non-religious were negative predictors of stigma and

  6. Punica granatum (Pomegranate juice provides an HIV-1 entry inhibitor and candidate topical microbicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yun-Yao

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For ≈ 24 years the AIDS pandemic has claimed ≈ 30 million lives, causing ≈ 14,000 new HIV-1 infections daily worldwide in 2003. About 80% of infections occur by heterosexual transmission. In the absence of vaccines, topical microbicides, expected to block virus transmission, offer hope for controlling the pandemic. Antiretroviral chemotherapeutics have decreased AIDS mortality in industrialized countries, but only minimally in developing countries. To prevent an analogous dichotomy, microbicides should be: acceptable; accessible; affordable; and accelerative in transition from development to marketing. Already marketed pharmaceutical excipients or foods, with established safety records and adequate anti-HIV-1 activity, may provide this option. Methods Fruit juices were screened for inhibitory activity against HIV-1 IIIB using CD4 and CXCR4 as cell receptors. The best juice was tested for inhibition of: (1 infection by HIV-1 BaL, utilizing CCR5 as the cellular coreceptor; and (2 binding of gp120 IIIB and gp120 BaL, respectively, to CXCR4 and CCR5. To remove most colored juice components, the adsorption of the effective ingredient(s to dispersible excipients and other foods was investigated. A selected complex was assayed for inhibition of infection by primary HIV-1 isolates. Results HIV-1 entry inhibitors from pomegranate juice adsorb onto corn starch. The resulting complex blocks virus binding to CD4 and CXCR4/CCR5 and inhibits infection by primary virus clades A to G and group O. Conclusion These results suggest the possibility of producing an anti-HIV-1 microbicide from inexpensive, widely available sources, whose safety has been established throughout centuries, provided that its quality is adequately standardized and monitored.

  7. Client and provider perspectives on new HIV prevention tools for MSM in the Americas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheri A Lippman

    Full Text Available Men who have sex with men (MSM in the Americas require targeted, combination HIV prevention approaches. We solicited client and provider perspectives on emerging prevention interventions including HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP and HIV self-tests through focus groups and in-depth interviews with 130 MSM and 41 providers across four sites: New York, San Francisco, Lima, and Rio de Janeiro. Among the MSM participants, we identified three prevention typologies: non-condom users, inconsistent condom users, and consistent condom users. Northern and Southern MSM differed in the variety of harm reduction strategies utilized: where U.S. MSM relied on condom use as well as disclosure and seroadaptive behaviors for prevention, condom use without disclosure or serostatus discussions was the norm in South America. Interest in new prevention technologies was shaped by the social context. U.S. MSM preferences differed by typology, such that non-condom users were interested in taking PrEP and using home HIV tests. MSM in Brazil, regardless of typology, were interested in exploring new prevention options. MSM in Peru demonstrated moderate interest but were less comfortable with adopting new strategies. MSM and providers' opinions differed substantially with respect to new prevention options. Across sites, most providers were reticent to engage with new prevention options, though some NGO-based providers were more supportive of exploring new prevention tools. Both clients and providers will need to be engaged in developing integrated prevention strategies for MSM.

  8. How Do We Get Partners to Test for HIV?: Predictors of Uptake of Partner HIV Testing Following Individual Outpatient Provider Initiated HIV Testing in Rural Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiene, Susan M; Gbenro, Olumide; Sileo, Katelyn M; Lule, Haruna; Wanyenze, Rhoda K

    2017-08-01

    In a sample of outpatients (152 females, 152 males) receiving individual provider-initiated HIV testing and counselling (PITC) we aimed to identify factors associated with subsequent uptake of partner HIV testing. Purposively sampled outpatients receiving PITC at a Ugandan hospital completed a questionnaire immediately prior to testing for HIV, and then at 3 and 6 months post-test. By 6-month follow-up 96% of participants reported disclosing their HIV test results to their partner and 96.4% reported asking their partner to test. 38.8% of women and 78.9% of men reported that their partner tested and they knew their results. Recent (men AOR 5.84, 95.0% CI 1.90-17.99; women AOR 6.19, 95.0% CI 2.74-13.59) or any previous testing by the partner (women AOR 4.01, 95% CI 1.06-15.10) predicted uptake of partner testing by the 6-month follow-up. Among women, perceiving greater social support from their partner, which perhaps reflects better relationship quality, was predictive of their male partner testing for HIV (AOR 2.37, 95% CI 1.22-4.58). Notably intimate partner violence showed no negative association with partner testing. Our findings demonstrate that women are at a disadvantage compared to men in their ability to influence their partner to test for HIV, and that improving social support in intimate relationships should be a focus of HIV partner testing interventions. However, more research on interventions to improve partner testing is needed, particularly in identifying effective ways to support women in engaging their partners to test.

  9. System and Patient Barriers to Care among People Living with HIV/AIDS in Houston/Harris County, Texas: HIV Medical Care Providers' Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mgbere, Osaro; Khuwaja, Salma; Bell, Tanvir K; Rodriguez-Barradas, Maria C; Arafat, Raouf; Essien, Ekere James; Singh, Mamta; Aguilar, Jonathan; Roland, Eric

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, a considerable number of people diagnosed with HIV are not receiving HIV medical care due to some barriers. Using data from the Medical Monitoring Project survey of HIV medical care providers in Houston/Harris County, Texas, we assessed the HIV medical care providers' perspectives of the system and patient barriers to HIV care experienced by people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). The study findings indicate that of the 14 HIV care barriers identified, only 1 system barrier and 7 patient barriers were considered of significant (P ≤ .05) importance, with the proportion of HIV medical care providers' agreement to these barriers ranging from 73.9% (cost of health care) to 100% (lack of social support systems and drug abuse problems). Providers' perception of important system and patient barriers varied significantly (P ≤ .05) by profession, race/ethnicity, and years of experience in HIV care. To improve access to and for consistent engagement in HIV care, effective intervention programs are needed to address the barriers identified especially in the context of the new health care delivery system. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Rapid paediatric fluid resuscitation: a randomised controlled trial comparing the efficiency of two provider-endorsed manual paediatric fluid resuscitation techniques in a simulated setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Evan T; Harvey, Greg; Urbanski, Sara; Foster, Gary; Thabane, Lehana; Parker, Melissa J

    2014-07-03

    Manual techniques of intravascular fluid administration are commonly used during paediatric resuscitation, although it is unclear which technique is most efficient in the hands of typical healthcare providers. We compared the rate of fluid administration achieved with the disconnect-reconnect and push-pull manual syringe techniques for paediatric fluid resuscitation in a simulated setting. This study utilised a randomised crossover trial design and enrolled 16 consenting healthcare provider participants from a Canadian paediatric tertiary care centre. The study was conducted in a non-clinical setting using a model simulating a 15 kg child in decompensated shock. Participants administered 900 mL (60 mL/kg) of normal saline to the simulated patient using each of the two techniques under study. The primary outcome was the rate of fluid administration, as determined by two blinded independent video reviewers. We also collected participant demographic data and evaluated other secondary outcomes including total volume administered, number of catheter dislodgements, number of technical errors, and subjective and objective measures of provider fatigue. All 16 participants completed the trial. The mean (SD) rate of fluid administration (mL/s) was greater for the disconnect-reconnect technique at 1.77 (0.145) than it was for the push-pull technique at 1.62 (0.226), with a mean difference of 0.15 (95% CI 0.055 to 0.251; p=0.005). There was no difference in mean volume administered (p=0.778) or participant self-reported fatigue (p=0.736) between techniques. No catheter dislodgement events occurred. The disconnect-reconnect technique allowed for the fastest rate of fluid administration, suggesting that use of this technique may be preferable in situations requiring rapid resuscitation. These findings may help to inform future iterations of paediatric resuscitation guidelines. This trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov [NCT01774214] prior to enrolling the first

  11. Linking and retaining HIV patients in care: the importance of provider attitudes and behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnus, Manya; Herwehe, Jane; Murtaza-Rossini, Michelli; Reine, Petera; Cuffie, Damien; Gruber, DeAnn; Kaiser, Michael

    2013-05-01

    Retention in HIV treatment may reduce morbidity and mortality, as well as slow the epidemic. Myriad barriers to retention include stigma, homophobia, structural barriers, transportation, and insurance. The purpose of this study was to evaluate patient perceptions of provider attitudes among HIV-infected persons within a state-wide public hospital system in Louisiana. A convenience sample of patients attending HIV clinics throughout the state participated in an anonymous interview. Factors associated with negative perceptions of care were evaluated in conjunction with a validated stigma measure. Factors associated with having a delayed entry into or break in care were evaluated in conjunction with perceived stigma. Between 2/1/09 and 7/31/11, 479 participants were interviewed and had sufficient data available, of whom 53.4% were male, 79.3% were African American, and 29.4% reported a break or delayed entry into HIV care of >1 year. A break in care was associated with perceiving that the doctor or health professionals do not listen carefully most or all of the time (p<0.01), having an elevated stigma score (p<0.05), and indicating that providers dislike caring for HIV-infected people (p<0.01). Women were more likely to have an elevated stigma score than men (p<0.01), as were participants over 30 (p<0.01); those with a gay/bisexual orientation (p<0.05) were less likely to have an elevated stigma score. Those with a break in care were less likely to have Medicaid (p<0.05). Providers play a key role in the retention of HIV-infected persons in care and are critical to improving outcomes and slowing the epidemic. Development of novel approaches to reduce stigma are imperative in improving retention.

  12. Providing high-quality HIV care in a deeply rural setting – the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Providing high-quality HIV care in a deeply rural setting – the Zithulele experience. C Young, B Gaunt. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.7196/sajhivmed.1035 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO ...

  13. Factors informing HIV providers' decisions to start antiretroviral therapy for young people living with behaviorally acquired HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lana; Rand, Cynthia S; Ellen, Jonathan M; Agwu, Allison L

    2014-09-01

    Young people with behaviorally acquired HIV (BHIV) are less likely than adults to initiate antiretroviral therapy (ART) despite meeting treatment criteria. We explored critical factors involved in healthcare providers' decision making regarding ART initiation for young people with BHIV (aged 12-24 years). Semistructured interviews were conducted with 23 HIV providers from diverse training backgrounds caring for youth with BHIV at four adult clinics and one pediatric clinic in a high prevalence urban city. Interview domains probed clinical and nonclinical patient characteristics, the role of adherence, and provider attitudes working with youth to establish decision-making priorities for ART initiation. The constant comparative approach was used to develop grounded theory on providers' decision making on ART initiation. Clinical criteria, particularly the CD4 count, and the public health implications of HIV transmission determined the urgency for ART initiation. However, patient-related concerns regarding treatment readiness and adherence hampered the decision to initiate, especially at higher CD4 counts. Providers who acknowledged developmental characteristics of youth (e.g., evolving adult identity and self-efficacy around health management) appeared more cautious in assessing future ART adherence and responded with intensive clinical support. Extensive involvement of multidisciplinary teams was identified as an important strategy to retain youth in care, whereas strengthening youth-targeted approaches may be an unmet need in adult clinics. Evaluation of providers' awareness of the developmental features of youth and characteristics of youth-targeted approaches in clinics caring for youth with BHIV may inform interventions to increase youth engagement in care and subsequent decisions to successfully initiate ART. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Epidemiology of tuberculosis in a high HIV prevalence population provided with enhanced diagnosis of symptomatic disease.

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    Elizabeth L Corbett

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Directly observed treatment short course (DOTS, the global control strategy aimed at controlling tuberculosis (TB transmission through prompt diagnosis of symptomatic smear-positive disease, has failed to prevent rising tuberculosis incidence rates in Africa brought about by the HIV epidemic. However, rising incidence does not necessarily imply failure to control tuberculosis transmission, which is primarily driven by prevalent infectious disease. We investigated the epidemiology of prevalent and incident TB in a high HIV prevalence population provided with enhanced primary health care.Twenty-two businesses in Harare, Zimbabwe, were provided with free smear- and culture-based investigation of TB symptoms through occupational clinics. Anonymised HIV tests were requested from all employees. After 2 y of follow-up for incident TB, a culture-based survey for undiagnosed prevalent TB was conducted. A total of 6,440 of 7,478 eligible employees participated. HIV prevalence was 19%. For HIV-positive and -negative participants, the incidence of culture-positive tuberculosis was 25.3 and 1.3 per 1,000 person-years, respectively (adjusted incidence rate ratio = 18.8; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 10.3 to 34.5: population attributable fraction = 78%, and point prevalence after 2 y was 5.7 and 2.6 per 1,000 population (adjusted odds ratio = 1.7; 95% CI = 0.5 to 6.8: population attributable fraction = 14%. Most patients with prevalent culture-positive TB had subclinical disease when first detected.Strategies based on prompt investigation of TB symptoms, such as DOTS, may be an effective way of controlling prevalent TB in high HIV prevalence populations. This may translate into effective control of TB transmission despite high TB incidence rates and a period of subclinical infectiousness in some patients.

  15. CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT STRATEGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHIOSA ANA RALUCA

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Brands ofen use celebrities to get impact, because they are seen by the public as credible source of informationabout product or company. People aspire to the values and lifestyles of celebrities. Consumers selectively integrateperceived values and behavior of celebrities they admire, to build and communicate their own identity.Celebrity endorser is a person who enjoys high reputation and prestige, beeing known to most people. Celebrityendorsement is a relevant strategy for the product categories which improve the image (such as fashion, perfumes orcosmetics.This paper presents types, techniques and models of analysing celebrities’ efficiency in endorsingbrands/products. Celebrity endorsement has become one of the communication strategies used in marketing to buildcongruence between brand image and consumers. Famous persons exert their influence on consumer throughperceived attributes such as expertise, trustworthiness, attractiveness, familiarty and likeability.

  16. Experience of family members providing care for HIV-exposed children: beginning of the trajectory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willyane de Andrade Alvarenga

    Full Text Available During and after pregnancy, mothers with HIV can undergo treatment that is capable of preventing vertical transmission (VT to their babies. The purpose of this study was to analyze the experience of family members that provide care for children whose mothers have HIV, to reduce the risk of VT, with emphasis on the beginning of this trajectory. This study was based on the qualitative approach and Symbolic Interactionism was adopted as a theoretical framework. A total of 36 family members participated in the study, all of whom were carers of children aged up to 18 months and waiting for confirmation of the HIV diagnosis. Data were collected in a hospital in north-eastern Brazil, between December 2012 and February 2013, and examined by means of content analysis. Child care began during pregnancy, when the possibility of the child having HIV was expected. Some had previous experience in providing care for exposed children. Understanding the early trajectory of care will help find ways to provide better support for carers during the trajectory of diagnosis confirmation.

  17. Attitudes of women and men living with HIV and their healthcare providers towards pregnancy and abortion by HIV-positive women in Nigeria and Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Ann M; Bankole, Akinrinola; Awolude, Olutoin; Audam, Suzette; Oladokun, Adesina; Adewole, Isaac

    2015-01-01

    Fertility decisions among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) are complicated by disease progression, the health of their existing children and possible antiretroviral therapy (ART) use, among other factors. Using a sample of HIV-positive women (n = 353) and men (n = 299) from Nigeria and Zambia and their healthcare providers (n = 179), we examined attitudes towards childbearing and abortion by HIV-positive women. To measure childbearing and abortion attitudes, we used individual indicators and a composite measure (an index). Support for an HIV-positive woman to have a child was greatest if she was nulliparous or if her desire to have a child was not conditioned on parity and lowest if she already had an HIV-positive child. Such support was found to be lower among HIV-positive women than among HIV-positive men, both of which were lower than reported support from their healthcare providers. There was wider variation in support for abortion depending on the measure than there was for support for childbearing. Half of all respondents indicated no or low support for abortion on the index measure while between 2 and 4 in 10 respondents were supportive of HIV-positive women being able to terminate a pregnancy. The overall low levels of support for abortion indicate that most respondents did not see HIV as a medical condition which justifies abortion. Respondents in Nigeria and those who live in urban areas were more likely to support HIV-positive women's childbearing. About a fifth of HIV-positive respondents reported being counselled to end childbearing after their diagnosis. In summary, respondents from both Nigeria and Zambia demonstrate tempered support of (continued) childbearing among HIV-positive women while anti-abortion attitudes remain strong. Access to ART did not impart a strong effect on these attitudes. Therefore, pronatalist attitudes remain in place in the face of HIV infection.

  18. Harm reduction interventions in HIV care: a qualitative exploration of patient and provider perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Carlberg-Racich

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. A culture of stringent drug policy, one-size-fits-all treatment approaches, and drug-related stigma has clouded clinical HIV practice in the United States. The result is a series of missed opportunities in the HIV care environment. An approach which may address the broken relationship between patient and provider is harm reduction—which removes judgment and operates at the patient’s stage of readiness. Harm reduction is not a routine part of care; rather, it exists outside clinic walls, exacerbating the divide between compassionate, stigma-free services and the medical system. Methods. Qualitative, phenomenological, semi-structured, individual interviews with patients and providers were conducted in three publicly-funded clinics in Chicago, located in areas of high HIV prevalence and drug use and serving African-American patients (N = 38. A deductive thematic analysis guided the process, including: the creation of an index code list, transcription and verification of interviews, manual coding, notation of emerging themes and refinement of code definitions, two more rounds of coding within AtlasTi, calculation of Cohen’s Kappa for interrater reliability, queries of major codes and analysis of additional common themes. Results. Thematic analysis of findings indicated that the majority of patients felt receptive to harm reduction interventions (safer injection counseling, safer stimulant use counseling, overdose prevention information, supply provision from their provider, and expressed anticipated gratitude for harm reduction information and/or supplies within the HIV care visit, although some were reluctant to talk openly about their drug use. Provider results were mixed, with more receptivity reported by advanced practice nurses, and more barriers cited by physicians. Notable barriers included: role-perceptions, limited time, inadequate training, and the patients themselves. Discussion. Patients are willing to receive harm

  19. Patient-provider perceptions on engagement in HIV care in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bofill, Lina Margarita; Lopez, Maria; Dorigo, Analia; Bordato, Alejandra; Lucas, Mar; Cabanillas, Graciela Fernandez; Sued, Omar; Cahn, Pedro; Cassetti, Isabel; Weiss, Stephen; Jones, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 30% of patients participating in the national antiretroviral therapy (ART) program in Argentina fail to achieve an undetectable viral load, and approximately 25% are not retained in care. This qualitative study was designed to explore and identify factors associated with engagement and retention in public and private health care in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Qualitative data from key informants (n = 12) and focus groups (n = 4 groups) of patients and providers from private and public HIV treatment facilities were recorded and transcribed. Predetermined and arising themes related to adherence, engagement, and retention in care were coded and analyzed using qualitative data analysis software. Reasons identified for patients' lack of adherence or engagement in care differed between patients and providers, and patients attributed limitations to low self-efficacy, fear and concerns about HIV, and lack of provider involvement in treatment. In contrast, providers viewed themselves as decision-makers in patient care and patients as responsible for their own nonadherence due to lack of commitment to their own health or due to medication side effects. Patients reported health care system limitations and HIV concerns contributed to a lack of engagement, and providers identified limited HIV literacy and stigma as additional problems. Both agreed that chronic illness and substance addiction impacted adherence and retention, and agreed on the importance of trust, honesty, and communication in the patient-provider relationship. Results support the incorporation of system-, provider-, and patient-focused components into interventions to facilitate patient engagement, adherence, and retention in public and private settings in Argentina.

  20. Patient–provider perceptions on engagement in HIV care in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bofill, Lina Margarita; Lopez, Maria; Dorigo, Analia; Bordato, Alejandra; Lucas, Mar; Cabanillas, Graciela Fernandez; Sued, Omar; Cahn, Pedro; Cassetti, Isabel; Weiss, Stephen; Jones, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 30% of patients participating in the national antiretroviral therapy (ART) program in Argentina fail to achieve an undetectable viral load, and approximately 25% are not retained in care. This qualitative study was designed to explore and identify factors associated with engagement and retention in public and private health care in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Qualitative data from key informants (n = 12) and focus groups (n = 4 groups) of patients and providers from private and public HIV treatment facilities were recorded and transcribed. Predetermined and arising themes related to adherence, engagement, and retention in care were coded and analyzed using qualitative data analysis software. Reasons identified for patients’ lack of adherence or engagement in care differed between patients and providers, and patients attributed limitations to low self-efficacy, fear and concerns about HIV, and lack of provider involvement in treatment. In contrast, providers viewed themselves as decision-makers in patient care and patients as responsible for their own nonadherence due to lack of commitment to their own health or due to medication side effects. Patients reported health care system limitations and HIV concerns contributed to a lack of engagement, and providers identified limited HIV literacy and stigma as additional problems. Both agreed that chronic illness and substance addiction impacted adherence and retention, and agreed on the importance of trust, honesty, and communication in the patient–provider relationship. Results support the incorporation of system-, provider-, and patient-focused components into interventions to facilitate patient engagement, adherence, and retention in public and private settings in Argentina. PMID:24138788

  1. Identifying the HIV Testing Beliefs of Healthcare Provider Staff at a University Student Health Center: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Cornelia A.

    2012-01-01

    This research project examined the views and perceptions of healthcare provider staff regarding HIV testing and the implementation of HIV testing as a routine part of medical practice in a university student health center at a Historically Black College or University (HBCU). This study further explored whether healthcare provider staff promoted…

  2. Initiation of antiretroviral therapy in youth with HIV: a U.S.-based provider survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliardo, Christina; Murray, Meghan; Saiman, Lisa; Neu, Natalie

    2013-09-01

    In 2009, the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) recommended initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) for youth with HIV at higher CD4 counts (≤500 cells/mm³) than previously recommended (≤350 cells/mm³). Barriers experienced by providers regarding ART initiation in this population have not been assessed. From 12/2011-01/2012, we asked providers from the American Academy of HIV Medicine (AAHIVM) [corrected] listserv who prescribed ART to youth (ages 13-25 years) with behaviorally-acquired HIV to complete a web-based survey. We presented a clinical vignette to explore potential barriers for initiating ART. Overall, 274/290 (94%) respondents completed the survey. Most felt confident that evidence supported initiating ART at higher CD4 counts (94%), and that benefits outweighed the risks of long-term toxicity (98%) or developing resistance (88%). Most (96%) initiated ART in the patient vignette (age 19 years, CD4 count ~400). Patient characteristics (e.g., unstable housing or drug use) were perceived as large barriers to ART initiation. Low response rate (13%) was a limitation. Respondents were knowledgeable about relevant DHHS guidelines, believed sufficient evidence supported ART initiation at higher CD4 counts, and would provide treatment to those with CD4 counts ≤500cells/mm³. Understanding and overcoming barriers to initiation of ART perceived by providers is important to ensure implementation of ART treatment guidelines.

  3. "Inside These Fences Is Our Own Little World": Prison-Based HIV Testing and HIV-Related Stigma Among Incarcerated Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muessig, Kathryn E; Rosen, David L; Farel, Claire E; White, Becky L; Filene, Eliza J; Wohl, David A

    2016-04-01

    Correctional facilities offer opportunities to provide comprehensive HIV services including education, testing, treatment, and coordination of post- release care. However, these services may be undermined by unaddressed HIV stigma. As part of a prison-based HIV testing study, we interviewed 76 incarcerated men and women from the North Carolina State prison system. The sample was 72% men, median age 31.5 years (range: 19 to 60). Thematic analysis revealed high levels of HIV-related fear and stigma, homophobia, incomplete HIV transmission knowledge, beliefs that HIV is highly contagious within prisons ("HIV miasma"), and the View of HIV testing as protective. Interviewees described social distancing behaviors and coping mechanisms they perceived to be protective, including knowing their HIV status and avoiding contact with others and shared objects. Interviewees endorsed universal testing, public HIV status disclosure, and segregation of HIV-positive inmates. Intensified education and counseling efforts are needed to ameliorate entrenched HIV-transmission fears and stigmatizing beliefs.

  4. Refusal to provide health care to people with HIV in France.

    OpenAIRE

    Douay, Caroline; Toullier, Adeline; Benayoun, Sarah; Castro, Daniela Rojas; Chauvin, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Refusals to provide care to people with HIV have been reported in the USA, the UK and elsewhere in Europe but their frequency remains poorly documented. In 2015, the French parliament examined a law that includes an article on non-discrimination in access to health care and the possibility of doing tests to determine the extent and nature of the discrimination. During the legislative debates, AIDES did a situation testing survey4 to ascertain the frequency and nature o...

  5. Stigmatized Attitude of Healthcare Providers: A Barrier for Delivering Health Services to HIV Positive Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nooshin Zarei

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Despite the success of developed countries in preventing the spread of HIV/AIDS, the disease is expanding in developing countries where an unfavorable attitude exists among people, health professionals and employees. This study aimed to assess the stigmatized attitude among health care providers toward people living with HIV (PLWHA. Methods: The study is a cross-sectional survey. The data were gathered using a structured questionnaire. The study sample included 575 health care providers of public and private hospitals in Shiraz. The data were gathered using a structured questionnaire in spring 2014. Data analysis was carried out using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 21. Results: The most dominant attitude of the health care providers toward HIV/AIDS patients was related to fear (42.42%. According to the results of this study, there was a significant relationship between stigmatized attitude of the health care providers and their religious beliefs, society stigmatized attitude, and knowledge of transmission routes. The relationship between social stigmatized attitude of health care providers and their knowledge of transmission routes, with their willingness to provide services to patients is significant, as well (P<0.05. 39.6% and 46.2% of the respondents preferred not to provide services to the prostitutes and homosexual patients. Conclusion: Fear of contamination and social stigmatized attitude are the main impediments to dealing with patients and providing services to them. Hence, it seems that creating an effective knowledge about transmission and correcting the socio-cultural beliefs of health providers are two key strategies to tackle this problem.

  6. Athlete endorsements in food marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg, Marie A; Yanamadala, Swati; Roberto, Christina A; Harris, Jennifer L; Brownell, Kelly D

    2013-11-01

    This study quantified professional athletes' endorsement of food and beverages, evaluated the nutritional quality of endorsed products, and determined the number of television commercial exposures of athlete-endorsement commercials for children, adolescents, and adults. One hundred professional athletes were selected on the basis of Bloomberg Businessweek's 2010 Power 100 rankings, which ranks athletes according to their endorsement value and prominence in their sport. Endorsement information was gathered from the Power 100 list and the advertisement database AdScope. Endorsements were sorted into 11 endorsement categories (eg, food/beverages, sports apparel). The nutritional quality of the foods featured in athlete-endorsement advertisements was assessed by using a Nutrient Profiling Index, whereas beverages were evaluated on the basis of the percentage of calories from added sugar. Marketing data were collected from AdScope and Nielsen. Of 512 brands endorsed by 100 different athletes, sporting goods/apparel represented the largest category (28.3%), followed by food/beverages (23.8%) and consumer goods (10.9%). Professional athletes in this sample were associated with 44 different food or beverage brands during 2010. Seventy-nine percent of the 62 food products in athlete-endorsed advertisements were energy-dense and nutrient-poor, and 93.4% of the 46 advertised beverages had 100% of calories from added sugar. Peyton Manning (professional American football player) and LeBron James (professional basketball player) had the most endorsements for energy-dense, nutrient-poor products. Adolescents saw the most television commercials that featured athlete endorsements of food. Youth are exposed to professional athlete endorsements of food products that are energy-dense and nutrient-poor.

  7. Barriers to provider-initiated testing and counselling for children in a high HIV prevalence setting: a mixed methods study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Kranzer

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available There is a substantial burden of HIV infection among older children in sub-Saharan Africa, the majority of whom are diagnosed after presentation with advanced disease. We investigated the provision and uptake of provider-initiated HIV testing and counselling (PITC among children in primary health care facilities, and explored health care worker (HCW perspectives on providing HIV testing to children.Children aged 6 to 15 y attending six primary care clinics in Harare, Zimbabwe, were offered PITC, with guardian consent and child assent. The reasons why testing did not occur in eligible children were recorded, and factors associated with HCWs offering and children/guardians refusing HIV testing were investigated using multivariable logistic regression. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with clinic nurses and counsellors to explore these factors. Among 2,831 eligible children, 2,151 (76% were offered PITC, of whom 1,534 (54.2% consented to HIV testing. The main reasons HCWs gave for not offering PITC were the perceived unsuitability of the accompanying guardian to provide consent for HIV testing on behalf of the child and lack of availability of staff or HIV testing kits. Children who were asymptomatic, older, or attending with a male or a younger guardian had significantly lower odds of being offered HIV testing. Male guardians were less likely to consent to their child being tested. 82 (5.3% children tested HIV-positive, with 95% linking to care. Of the 940 guardians who tested with the child, 186 (19.8% were HIV-positive.The HIV prevalence among children tested was high, highlighting the need for PITC. For PITC to be successfully implemented, clear legislation about consent and guardianship needs to be developed, and structural issues addressed. HCWs require training on counselling children and guardians, particularly male guardians, who are less likely to engage with health care services. Increased awareness of the risk of HIV infection

  8. Attitudes and Training Needs of New England HIV Care and Addiction Treatment Providers: Opportunities for Better Integration of HIV and Alcohol Treatment Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montague, Brian T; Kahler, Christopher W; Colby, Suzanne M; McHugh, R Kathryn; Squires, Daniel; Fitzgerald, Brianne; Operario, Don; Gallagher, Donna; Monti, Peter M; Mayer, Kenneth H

    2015-03-01

    Unhealthy alcohol use is common among HIV-infected patients and contributes to co-morbidities, cognitive decline, unprotected sex, and poor medication adherence. Studies consistently show missed opportunities to address unhealthy alcohol use as part of care. Although treatment of other drug use has been integrated into HIV care in some settings, more information is needed regarding provider attitudes regarding the need for integration of alcohol treatment and HIV care. We surveyed 119 HIV and 159 addiction providers regarding the following domains: existing knowledge, desire for new knowledge (with subdomains relative advantage, compatibility, and complexity of integrating knowledge), and individual and program development needs. Scale scores for each domain were correlated with demographics to identify factors associated with training need. Both HIV and addiction providers reported agreement with statements of existing knowledge and the need for additional skills. The priority attributed to training, however, was low for both groups. Knowledge and perceived prevalence of HIV and unhealthy alcohol use increased with years of experience. Perceived prevalence correlated with compatibility but not the relative advantage of training. Though addressing alcohol use and HIV was acknowledged to be important, the priority of this was low, particularly early career providers. These providers may be important targets for training focusing on motivating coordination of care and skills related to assessment and counseling.

  9. Willingness by people living with HIV/AIDS to utilize HIV services provided by Village Health team workers in Kalungu district, central Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubogo, Mutaawe; Anguzu, Ronald; Wanzira, Humphrey; Namugwanya, Irene; Namuddu, Oliver; Ssali, Denis; Nanyonga, Sylivia; Ssentongo, Josephine; Seeley, Janet

    2017-03-01

    Less than one quarter of people in need have access to HIV services in Uganda. This study assessed willingness of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs) to utilize HIV services provided by Village Health Teams (VHTs) in Kalungu district, central Uganda. A cross-sectional study conducted in two health facilities providing anti-retroviral therapy enrolled 312 PLWHAs. Pre-tested semi-structured questionnaires were administered to participants at household level. A forward fitting logistic regression model computed the predictors of willingness of PLWHAs to utilize services provided by VHTs. Overall, 49% were willing to utilize HIV services provided by VHTs increasing to 75.6% if the VHT member was HIV positive. PLWHAs who resided in urban areas were more likely to utilize HIV services provided by VHTs (AOR 0.24, 95%CI 0.06-0.87). Barriers to utilizing HIV services provided by VHTs were: income level > 40 USD (AOR 6.43 95%CI 1.19-34.68), being a business person (AOR 8.71 95%CI 1.23-61.72), peasant (AOR 7.95 95%CI 1.37-46.19), lack of encouragement from: peers (AOR 6.33 95%CI 1.43-28.09), spouses (AOR 4.93 95%CI 1.23-19.82) and community leader (AOR 9.67 95%CI 3.35-27.92). Social support could improve willingness by PLWHAs to utilize HIV services provided by VHTs for increased access to HIV services by PLWHA.

  10. Community burden of undiagnosed HIV infection among adolescents in Zimbabwe following primary healthcare-based provider-initiated HIV testing and counselling: A cross-sectional survey.

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    Victoria Simms

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Children living with HIV who are not diagnosed in infancy often remain undiagnosed until they present with advanced disease. Provider-initiated testing and counselling (PITC in health facilities is recommended for high-HIV-prevalence settings, but it is unclear whether this approach is sufficient to achieve universal coverage of HIV testing. We aimed to investigate the change in community burden of undiagnosed HIV infection among older children and adolescents following implementation of PITC in Harare, Zimbabwe.Over the course of 2 years (January 2013-January 2015, 7 primary health clinics (PHCs in southwestern Harare implemented optimised, opt-out PITC for all attendees aged 6-15 years. In February 2015-December 2015, we conducted a representative cross-sectional survey of 8-17-year-olds living in the 7 communities served by the study PHCs, who would have had 2 years of exposure to PITC. Knowledge of HIV status was ascertained through a caregiver questionnaire, and anonymised HIV testing was carried out using oral mucosal transudate (OMT tests. After 1 participant taking antiretroviral therapy was observed to have a false negative OMT result, from July 2015 urine samples were obtained from all participants providing OMTs and tested for antiretroviral drugs to confirm HIV status. Children who tested positive through PITC were identified from among survey participants using gender, birthdate, and location. Of 7,146 children in 4,251 eligible households, 5,486 (76.8% children in 3,397 households agreed to participate in the survey, and 141 were HIV positive. HIV prevalence was 2.6% (95% CI 2.2%-3.1%, and over a third of participants with HIV were undiagnosed (37.7%; 95% CI 29.8%-46.2%. Similarly, among the subsample of 2,643 (48.2% participants with a urine test result, 34.7% of those living with HIV were undiagnosed (95% CI 23.5%-47.9%. Based on extrapolation from the survey sample to the community, we estimated that PITC over 2 years identified

  11. Role of ethical beliefs and attitudes of dental students in providing care for HIV/AIDS patients

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    Saad Ahmed Khan

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Dental students’ ethical beliefs about HIV/AIDS were not consistent with the ethical principles as stated in the code of ethics and they held negative attitudes towards PLWHAs. Ethical beliefs were found to be a determinant that may influence future attitudes of these students towards individuals with HIV/AIDS when providing care.

  12. Institutionalizing provider-initiated HIV testing and counselling for children: an observational case study from Zambia.

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    Jane N Mutanga

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Provider-initiated testing and counselling (PITC is a priority strategy for increasing access for HIV-exposed children to prevention measures, and infected children to treatment and care interventions. This article examines efforts to scale-up paediatric PITC at a second-level hospital located in Zambia's Southern Province, and serving a catchment area of 1.2 million people. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our retrospective case study examined best practices and enabling factors for rapid institutionalization of PITC in Livingstone General Hospital. Methods included clinical observations, key informant interviews with programme management, and a desk review of hospital management information systems (HMIS uptake data following the introduction of PITC. After PITC roll-out, the hospital experienced considerably higher testing uptake. In a 36-month period following PITC institutionalization, of total inpatient children eligible for PITC (n = 5074, 98.5% of children were counselled, and 98.2% were tested. Of children tested (n = 4983, 15.5% were determined HIV-infected; 77.6% of these results were determined by DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR testing in children under the age of 18 months. Of children identified as HIV-infected in the hospital's inpatient and outpatient departments (n = 1342, 99.3% were enrolled in HIV care, including initiation on co-trimoxazole prophylaxis. A number of good operational practices and enabling factors in the Livingstone General Hospital experience can inform rapid PITC institutionalization for inpatient and outpatient children. These include the placement of full-time nurse counsellors at key areas of paediatric intake, who interface with patients immediately and conduct testing and counselling. They are reinforced through task-shifting to peer counsellors in the wards. Nurse counsellor capacity to draw specimen for DNA PCR for children under 18 months has significantly enhanced early

  13. Counselor- versus provider-based HIV screening in the emergency department: results from the universal screening for HIV infection in the emergency room (USHER) randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walensky, Rochelle P; Reichmann, William M; Arbelaez, Christian; Wright, Elizabeth; Katz, Jeffrey N; Seage, George R; Safren, Steven A; Hare, Anna Q; Novais, Anna; Losina, Elena

    2011-07-01

    We compare rates of rapid HIV testing, test offer, and acceptance in an urban emergency department (ED) when conducted by dedicated HIV counselors versus current members of the ED staff. The Universal Screening for HIV Infection in the Emergency Room [USHER] trial is a prospective randomized controlled trial that implemented an HIV screening program in the ED of an urban tertiary medical center. ED patients were screened and consented for trial enrollment by an USHER research assistant. Eligible subjects were randomized to rapid HIV testing (oral OraQuick) offered by a dedicated counselor (counselor arm) or by an ED provider (provider arm). In the counselor arm, counselors-without other clinical responsibilities-assumed nearly all testing-related activities (consent, counseling, delivery of test results). In the provider arm, trained ED emergency service assistants (nursing assistants) consented and tested the participant in the context of other ED-related responsibilities. In this arm, ED house officers, physician assistants, or attending physicians provided HIV test results to trial participants. Outcome measures were rates of HIV testing and test offer among individuals consenting for study participation. Among individuals offered the test, test acceptance was also measured. From February 2007 through July 2008, 8,187 eligible patients were approached in the ED, and 4,855 (59%) consented and were randomized to trial participation. The mean age was 37 years, 65% were women, and 42% were white. The overall testing rate favored the counselor arm (57% versus 27%; P<.001); 80% (1,959/2,446) of subjects in the counselor arm were offered an HIV test compared with 36% (861/2,409) in the provider arm (P<.001). HIV test acceptance was slightly higher in the provider arm (counselor arm 71% versus provider arm 75%; P = .025). Routine rapid HIV testing in the ED was accomplished more frequently by dedicated HIV counselors than by ED staff in the course of routine clinical

  14. Managing uncertainty around HIV/AIDS in an urban setting: private medical providers and their patients in Pune, India.

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    Kielmann, Karina; Deshmukh, Deepali; Deshpande, Sucheta; Datye, Vinita; Porter, John; Rangan, Sheela

    2005-10-01

    Changing epidemiological patterns and the advent of new rapid diagnostic technologies and therapies have created considerable uncertainty for providers working in HIV. In India, the demand for HIV care is increasingly being met by private practitioners (PPs), yet little is known about how they deal with the challenges of managing HIV patients. To explore HIV management practices in the private medical sector, a survey was conducted with 215PPs in Pune, India, followed by in-depth interviews focusing on the social context of practice among a sub-set of 27PPs. Drawing primarily on interview data, this paper illustrates a number of uncertainties that underlie the reported actions of providers in a competitive medical market. PPs perceive HIV as a 'new' and challenging disease for which they lack adequate knowledge and skills. Combined with the perceived high cost and complexity of antiretroviral treatment, preconceptions about HIV patients' social, financial and mental capacity lead to highly individualistic management practices. While these fall short of clinical 'best practice' guidelines, they reflect adaptive responses to the wider uncertainties surrounding HIV care in urban India. By highlighting contextual issues in PPs' management of HIV patients, the paper suggests the need to explicitly acknowledge the social, moral and economic bases of uncertainty beyond the clinical setting.

  15. Effect of using HIV and infant feeding counselling cards on the quality of counselling provided to HIV positive mothers: a cluster randomized controlled trial

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    Babaniyi Olusegun

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Counselling human immunodeficiency virus (HIV positive mothers on safer infant and young child feeding (IYCF options is an important component of programmes to prevent mother to child transmission of HIV, but the quality of counselling is often inadequate. The aim of this study was to determine the effect the World Health Organization HIV and infant feeding cards on the quality of counselling provided to HIV positive mothers by health workers about safer infant feeding options. Method This was a un-blinded cluster-randomized controlled field trial in which 36 primary health facilities in Kafue and Lusaka districts in Zambia were randomized to intervention (IYCF counselling with counselling cards or non- intervention arm (IYCF counselling without counselling cards. Counselling sessions with 10 HIV positive women attending each facility were observed and exit interviews were conducted by research assistants. Results Totals of 180 women in the intervention group and 180 women in the control group were attended to by health care providers and interviewed upon exiting the health facility. The health care providers in the intervention facilities more often discussed the advantages of disclosing their HIV status to a household member (RR = 1.46, 95% CI [1.11, 1.92]; used visual aids in explaining the risk of HIV transmission through breast milk (RR = 4.65, 95% CI [2.28, 9.46]; and discussed the advantages and disadvantages of infant feeding options for HIV positive mothers (all p values Conclusion The addition of counselling cards to the IYCF counselling session for HIV positive mothers were a valuable aid to counselling and significantly improved the quality of the counselling session.

  16. A partnership approach to providing on-site HIV services for probationers and parolees: a pilot study from Alabama, USA

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    Bronwen Lichtenstein

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: HIV in the United States is concentrated in the South, an impoverished region with marked health disparities and high rates of incarceration, particularly among African Americans. In the Deep South state of Alabama, a policy directive to reduce prison overcrowding has diverted large numbers of convicted felons to community supervision. Probation and parole offices have yet to provide the HIV education and testing services that are offered in state prisons. This study sought to implement on-site HIV services for probationers and parolees through an intersectoral programme involving law enforcement, university and HIV agency employees. The three main objectives were to (1 involve probation/parole officers in planning, execution and assessment of the programme, (2 provide HIV education to the officers and (3 offer voluntary pretest HIV counselling and testing to probationers and parolees. Methods: The partnered programme was conducted between October and December 2015. Offenders who were recently sentenced to probation (“new offenders”, received HIV education during orientation. Offenders already under supervision prior to the programme (“current offenders” learned about the on-site services during scheduled office visits. Outcomes were measured through officer assessments, informal feedback and uptake of HIV services among offenders. Results: A total of 86 new and 249 current offenders reported during the programme (N=335. Almost one-third (31.4% of new offenders sought HIV testing, while only 3.2% of current offenders were screened for HIV. Refusals among current offenders invoked monogamy, time pressures, being tested in prison, fear of positive test results and concerns about being labelled as gay or unfaithful to women partners. Officers rated the programme as worthwhile and feasible to implement at other offices. Conclusions: The partnership approach ensured support from law enforcement and intersectoral cooperation

  17. A partnership approach to providing on-site HIV services for probationers and parolees: a pilot study from Alabama, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenstein, Bronwen; Barber, Brad Wayne

    2016-01-01

    HIV in the United States is concentrated in the South, an impoverished region with marked health disparities and high rates of incarceration, particularly among African Americans. In the Deep South state of Alabama, a policy directive to reduce prison overcrowding has diverted large numbers of convicted felons to community supervision. Probation and parole offices have yet to provide the HIV education and testing services that are offered in state prisons. This study sought to implement on-site HIV services for probationers and parolees through an intersectoral programme involving law enforcement, university and HIV agency employees. The three main objectives were to (1) involve probation/parole officers in planning, execution and assessment of the programme, (2) provide HIV education to the officers and (3) offer voluntary pretest HIV counselling and testing to probationers and parolees. The partnered programme was conducted between October and December 2015. Offenders who were recently sentenced to probation ("new offenders"), received HIV education during orientation. Offenders already under supervision prior to the programme ("current offenders") learned about the on-site services during scheduled office visits. Outcomes were measured through officer assessments, informal feedback and uptake of HIV services among offenders. A total of 86 new and 249 current offenders reported during the programme (N=335). Almost one-third (31.4%) of new offenders sought HIV testing, while only 3.2% of current offenders were screened for HIV. Refusals among current offenders invoked monogamy, time pressures, being tested in prison, fear of positive test results and concerns about being labelled as gay or unfaithful to women partners. Officers rated the programme as worthwhile and feasible to implement at other offices. The partnership approach ensured support from law enforcement and intersectoral cooperation throughout the programme. HIV training for officers reduced discomfort

  18. Rewards and challenges of providing HIV testing and counselling services: health worker perspectives from Burkina Faso, Kenya and Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bott, Sarah; Neuman, Melissa; Helleringer, Stephane; Desclaux, Alice; Asmar, Khalil El; Obermeyer, Carla Makhlouf

    2015-10-01

    The rapid scale-up of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing, counselling and treatment throughout sub-Saharan Africa has raised questions about how to protect patients' rights to consent, confidentiality, counselling and care in resource-constrained settings. The Multi-country African Testing and Counselling for HIV (MATCH) study investigated client and provider experiences with different modes of testing in sub-Saharan Africa. One component of that study was a survey of 275 HIV service providers in Burkina Faso, Kenya and Uganda that gathered quantifiable indicators and qualitative descriptions using a standardized instrument. This article presents provider perspectives on the challenges of obtaining consent, protecting confidentiality, providing counselling and helping clients manage disclosure. It also explores health workers' fear of infection within the workplace and their reports on discrimination against HIV clients within health facilities. HIV care providers in Burkina Faso, Kenya and Uganda experienced substantial rewards from their work, including satisfaction from saving lives and gaining professional skills. They also faced serious resource constraints, including staff shortages, high workloads, lack of supplies and inadequate infrastructure, and they expressed concerns about accidental exposure. Health workers described heavy emotional demands from observing clients suffer emotional, social and health consequences of being diagnosed with HIV, and also from difficult ethical dilemmas related to clients who do not disclose their HIV status to those around them, including partners. These findings suggest that providers of HIV testing and counselling need more resources and support, including better protections against HIV exposure in the workplace. The findings also suggest that health facilities could improve care by increasing attention to consent, privacy and confidentiality and that health policy makers and ethicists need to address some

  19. Students Perceptions about Celebrity Endorsement

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    Mersid Poturak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The instrument of celebrity endorsement has nowadays become a pervasive element in advertising and communication management. It is unanimously accepted that celebrity endorsement can grant extraordinary characteristics to a product or service that may have lacked otherwise. The great number of celebrities endorsing brands has been increasing over the past decades. The purpose of this study is to examine perceptions of the student population in Bosnia and Herzegovina (hereafter named BiH about the celebrity endorsement. Questionnaire is designed and used to survey a randomly selected sample of university students and 125 usable responses were obtained. During the research, five hypotheses have been tested. Data were analyzed by performing descriptive statistics and Chi-Square test. Chi-Square test was used to analyze relationship between nationality of respondents and factors that influence decision of choosing celebrity endorser by firm. Findings show that students perceive celebrities as a very important factor in advertisements.

  20. 24 CFR 266.612 - Insurance endorsement.

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    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance endorsement. 266.612... Rights and Obligations Insurance Endorsement § 266.612 Insurance endorsement. (a) Initial endorsement... instrument. (b) Final endorsement. When all advances of mortgage proceeds have been made and all other...

  1. Lost opportunities to identify and treat HIV-positive patients: results from a baseline assessment of provider-initiated HIV testing and counselling (PITC) in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Saeed; Schwarz, Monica; Flick, Robert J; Rees, Chris A; Harawa, Mwelura; Simon, Katie; Robison, Jeff A; Kazembe, Peter N; Kim, Maria H

    2016-04-01

    To assess implementation of provider-initiated testing and counselling (PITC) for HIV in Malawi. A review of PITC practices within 118 departments in 12 Ministry of Health (MoH) facilities across Malawi was conducted. Information on PITC practices was collected via a health facility survey. Data describing patient visits and HIV tests were abstracted from routinely collected programme data. Reported PITC practices were highly variable. Most providers practiced symptom-based PITC. Antenatal clinics and maternity wards reported widespread use of routine opt-out PITC. In 2014, there was approximately 1 HIV test for every 15 clinic visits. HIV status was ascertained in 94.3% (5293/5615) of patients at tuberculosis clinics, 92.6% (30,675/33,142) of patients at antenatal clinics and 49.4% (6871/13,914) of patients at sexually transmitted infection clinics. Reported challenges to delivering PITC included test kit shortages (71/71 providers), insufficient physical space (58/71) and inadequate number of HIV counsellors (32/71) while providers from inpatient units cited the inability to test on weekends. Various models of PITC currently exist at MoH facilities in Malawi. Only antenatal and maternity clinics demonstrated high rates of routine opt-out PITC. The low ratio of facility visits to HIV tests suggests missed opportunities for HIV testing. However, the high proportion of patients at TB and antenatal clinics with known HIV status suggests that routine PITC is feasible. These results underscore the need to develop clear, standardised PITC policy and protocols, and to address obstacles of limited health commodities, infrastructure and human resources. © 2016 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling of TB patients--Livingstone District, Zambia, September 2004-December 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-21

    Tuberculosis (TB) is the second most common cause of death from infectious disease in the world after human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS). Immunosuppressed HIV-infected persons are highly susceptible to TB disease, and countries in sub-Saharan Africa have the highest TB incidence rates, primarily because of the HIV epidemic. In Zambia, the TB rate increased during 1984-2005 from approximately 100 cases per 100,000 population to 580 cases per 100,000 population. Much of this increase has been attributed to the high rate of coinfection with HIV; currently, an estimated 50%-70% of TB patients are infected with HIV (N. Kapata, Ministry of Health, Zambia, personal communication, 2008). In 2007, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended that countries with high coinfection rates develop TB/HIV collaborative activities, including routine provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling (PITC) of TB patients in TB clinical settings, using an "opt-out" approach. This report summarizes results from a PITC pilot study conducted by the Zambian Ministry of Health, with assistance from the CDC Global AIDS Program Zambia, during September 2004-December 2006 with TB patients at three clinics in the Livingstone District in the Southern Province of Zambia. The results indicated that, among 4,148 persons who had TB diagnosed, 2,072 (50%) were tested for HIV; of these, 1,497 (72%) tested positive. These findings demonstrate the practicality and acceptance of PITC and HIV rapid testing and support the need to expand this program to TB clinical settings in Zambia and other countries with high rates of TB and HIV.

  3. Use of electronic personal health record systems to encourage HIV screening: an exploratory study of patient and provider perspectives

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    McInnes D Keith

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When detected, HIV can be effectively treated with antiretroviral therapy. Nevertheless in the U.S. approximately 25% of those who are HIV-infected do not know it. Much remains unknown about how to increase HIV testing rates. New Internet outreach methods have the potential to increase disease awareness and screening among patients, especially as electronic personal health records (PHRs become more widely available. In the US Department of Veterans' Affairs medical care system, 900,000 veterans have indicated an interest in receiving electronic health-related communications through the PHR. Therefore we sought to evaluate the optimal circumstances and conditions for outreach about HIV screening. In an exploratory, qualitative research study we examined patient and provider perceptions of Internet-based outreach to increase HIV screening among veterans who use the Veterans Health Administration (VHA health care system. Findings We conducted two rounds of focus groups with veterans and healthcare providers at VHA medical centers. The study's first phase elicited general perceptions of an electronic outreach program to increase screening for HIV, diabetes, and high cholesterol. Using phase 1 results, outreach message texts were drafted and then presented to participants in the second phase. Analysis followed modified grounded theory. Patients and providers indicated that electronic outreach through a PHR would provide useful information and would motivate patients to be screened for HIV. Patients believed that electronic information would be more convenient and understandable than information provided verbally. Patients saw little difference between messages about HIV versus about diabetes and cholesterol. Providers, however, felt patients would disapprove of HIV-related messages due to stigma. Providers expected increased workload from the electronic outreach, and thus suggested adding primary care resources and devising

  4. Use of electronic personal health record systems to encourage HIV screening: an exploratory study of patient and provider perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInnes, D Keith; Solomon, Jeffrey L; Bokhour, Barbara G; Asch, Steven M; Ross, David; Nazi, Kim M; Gifford, Allen L

    2011-08-15

    When detected, HIV can be effectively treated with antiretroviral therapy. Nevertheless in the U.S. approximately 25% of those who are HIV-infected do not know it. Much remains unknown about how to increase HIV testing rates. New Internet outreach methods have the potential to increase disease awareness and screening among patients, especially as electronic personal health records (PHRs) become more widely available. In the US Department of Veterans' Affairs medical care system, 900,000 veterans have indicated an interest in receiving electronic health-related communications through the PHR. Therefore we sought to evaluate the optimal circumstances and conditions for outreach about HIV screening. In an exploratory, qualitative research study we examined patient and provider perceptions of Internet-based outreach to increase HIV screening among veterans who use the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) health care system. We conducted two rounds of focus groups with veterans and healthcare providers at VHA medical centers. The study's first phase elicited general perceptions of an electronic outreach program to increase screening for HIV, diabetes, and high cholesterol. Using phase 1 results, outreach message texts were drafted and then presented to participants in the second phase. Analysis followed modified grounded theory.Patients and providers indicated that electronic outreach through a PHR would provide useful information and would motivate patients to be screened for HIV. Patients believed that electronic information would be more convenient and understandable than information provided verbally. Patients saw little difference between messages about HIV versus about diabetes and cholesterol. Providers, however, felt patients would disapprove of HIV-related messages due to stigma. Providers expected increased workload from the electronic outreach, and thus suggested adding primary care resources and devising methods to smooth the flow of patients getting

  5. Validation of an HIV-related stigma scale among health care providers in a resource-poor Ethiopian setting

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    Feyissa GT

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Garumma Tolu Feyissa1, Lakew Abebe1, Eshetu Girma1, Mirkuzie Woldie21Department of Health Education and Behavioral Sciences, 2Department of Health Services Management, Jimma University, Jimma, EthiopiaBackground: Stigma and discrimination (SAD against people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV are barriers affecting effective responses to HIV. Understanding the causes and extent of SAD requires the use of a psychometrically reliable and valid scale. The objective of this study was to validate an HIV-related stigma scale among health care providers in a resource-poor setting.Methods: A cross-sectional validation study was conducted in 18 health care institutions in southwest Ethiopia, from March 14, 2011 to April 14, 2011. A total of 255 health care providers responded to questionnaires asking about sociodemographic characteristics, HIV knowledge, perceived institutional support (PIS and HIV-related SAD. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA with principal component extraction and varimax with Kaiser normalization rotation were employed to develop scales for SAD. Eigenvalues greater than 1 were used as a criterion of extraction. Items with item-factor loadings less than 0.4 and items loading onto more than one factor were dropped. The convergent validity of the scales was tested by assessing the association with HIV knowledge, PIS, training on topics related to SAD, educational status, HIV case load, presence of an antiretroviral therapy (ART service in the health care facility, and perceived religiosity.Results: Seven factors emerged from the four dimensions of SAD during the EFA. The factor loadings of the items ranged from 0.58 to 0.93. Cronbach's alphas of the scales ranged from 0.80 to 0.95. An in-depth knowledge of HIV, perceptions of institutional support, attendance of training on topics related to SAD, degree or higher education levels, high HIV case loads, the availability of ART in the health care facility and claiming oneself as

  6. HIV and cancer in Africa: mutual collaboration between HIV and cancer programs may provide timely research and public health data

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    Mbulaiteye Sam M

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The eruption of Kaposi sarcoma (KS and aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL in young homosexual men in 1981 in the West heralded the onset of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection epidemic, which remains one of the biggest challenges to global public health and science ever. Because KS and NHL were increased >10,000 and 50-600 times, respectively, with HIV, they were designated AIDS defining cancers (ADC. Cervical cancer (CC, increased 5-10 times was also designated as an ADC. A few other cancers are elevated with HIV, including Hodgkin lymphoma (10 times, anal cancer (15-30 times, and lung cancer (4 times are designated as non-AIDS defining cancers (NADCs. Since 1996 when combination antiretroviral therapy (cART became widely available in the West, dramatic decreases in HIV mortality have been observed and substantial decrease in the incidence of ADCs. Coincidentally, the burden of NADCs has increased as people with HIV age with chronic HIV infection. The impact of HIV infection on cancer in sub-Saharan Africa, where two thirds of the epidemic is concentrated, remains poorly understood. The few studies conducted indicate that risks for ADCs are also increased, but quantitatively less so than in the West. The risks for many cancers with established viral associations, including liver and nasopharynx, which are found in Africa, do not appear to be increased. These data are limited because of competing mortality, and cancer is under diagnosed, pathological confirmation is rare, and cancer registration not widely practiced. The expansion of access to life-extending cART in sub-Saharan Africa, through programs such as the Global Fund for AIDS, Malaria, and Tuberculosis and the US President's Emergency Program for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR, is leading to dramatic lengthening of life of HIV patients, which will likely influence the spectrum and burden of cancer in patients with HIV. In this paper, we review current literature and explore

  7. HIV and cancer in Africa: mutual collaboration between HIV and cancer programs may provide timely research and public health data.

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    Mbulaiteye, Sam M; Bhatia, Kishor; Adebamowo, Clement; Sasco, Annie J

    2011-10-17

    The eruption of Kaposi sarcoma (KS) and aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) in young homosexual men in 1981 in the West heralded the onset of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection epidemic, which remains one of the biggest challenges to global public health and science ever. Because KS and NHL were increased >10,000 and 50-600 times, respectively, with HIV, they were designated AIDS defining cancers (ADC). Cervical cancer (CC), increased 5-10 times was also designated as an ADC. A few other cancers are elevated with HIV, including Hodgkin lymphoma (10 times), anal cancer (15-30 times), and lung cancer (4 times) are designated as non-AIDS defining cancers (NADCs). Since 1996 when combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) became widely available in the West, dramatic decreases in HIV mortality have been observed and substantial decrease in the incidence of ADCs. Coincidentally, the burden of NADCs has increased as people with HIV age with chronic HIV infection. The impact of HIV infection on cancer in sub-Saharan Africa, where two thirds of the epidemic is concentrated, remains poorly understood. The few studies conducted indicate that risks for ADCs are also increased, but quantitatively less so than in the West. The risks for many cancers with established viral associations, including liver and nasopharynx, which are found in Africa, do not appear to be increased. These data are limited because of competing mortality, and cancer is under diagnosed, pathological confirmation is rare, and cancer registration not widely practiced. The expansion of access to life-extending cART in sub-Saharan Africa, through programs such as the Global Fund for AIDS, Malaria, and Tuberculosis and the US President's Emergency Program for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), is leading to dramatic lengthening of life of HIV patients, which will likely influence the spectrum and burden of cancer in patients with HIV. In this paper, we review current literature and explore merits for

  8. HIV and cancer in Africa: mutual collaboration between HIV and cancer programs may provide timely research and public health data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The eruption of Kaposi sarcoma (KS) and aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) in young homosexual men in 1981 in the West heralded the onset of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection epidemic, which remains one of the biggest challenges to global public health and science ever. Because KS and NHL were increased >10,000 and 50-600 times, respectively, with HIV, they were designated AIDS defining cancers (ADC). Cervical cancer (CC), increased 5-10 times was also designated as an ADC. A few other cancers are elevated with HIV, including Hodgkin lymphoma (10 times), anal cancer (15-30 times), and lung cancer (4 times) are designated as non-AIDS defining cancers (NADCs). Since 1996 when combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) became widely available in the West, dramatic decreases in HIV mortality have been observed and substantial decrease in the incidence of ADCs. Coincidentally, the burden of NADCs has increased as people with HIV age with chronic HIV infection. The impact of HIV infection on cancer in sub-Saharan Africa, where two thirds of the epidemic is concentrated, remains poorly understood. The few studies conducted indicate that risks for ADCs are also increased, but quantitatively less so than in the West. The risks for many cancers with established viral associations, including liver and nasopharynx, which are found in Africa, do not appear to be increased. These data are limited because of competing mortality, and cancer is under diagnosed, pathological confirmation is rare, and cancer registration not widely practiced. The expansion of access to life-extending cART in sub-Saharan Africa, through programs such as the Global Fund for AIDS, Malaria, and Tuberculosis and the US President's Emergency Program for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), is leading to dramatic lengthening of life of HIV patients, which will likely influence the spectrum and burden of cancer in patients with HIV. In this paper, we review current literature and explore merits for

  9. HIV and cancer in Africa: mutual collaboration between HIV and cancer programs may provide timely research and public health data

    OpenAIRE

    Mbulaiteye Sam M; Bhatia Kishor; Adebamowo Clement; Sasco Annie J

    2011-01-01

    International audience; ABSTRACT: The eruption of Kaposi sarcoma (KS) and aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) in young homosexual men in 1981 in the West heralded the onset of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection epidemic, which remains one of the biggest challenges to global public health and science ever. Because KS and NHL were increased >10,000 and 50-600 times, respectively, with HIV, they were designated AIDS defining cancers (ADC). Cervical cancer (CC), increased 5-10 tim...

  10. 46 CFR 67.511 - Application for trade endorsement(s).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application for trade endorsement(s). 67.511 Section 67... VESSELS DOCUMENTATION OF VESSELS Fees § 67.511 Application for trade endorsement(s). (a) Coastwise endorsement. An application fee is charged for a coastwise endorsement, in accordance with subpart B of this...

  11. Building Trust and Relationships Between Patients and Providers: An Essential Complement to Health Literacy in HIV Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson-Rose, Carol; Cuca, Yvette P; Webel, Allison R; Solís Báez, Solymar S; Holzemer, William L; Rivero-Méndez, Marta; Sanzero Eller, Lucille; Reid, Paula; Johnson, Mallory O; Kemppainen, Jeanne; Reyes, Darcel; Nokes, Kathleen; Nicholas, Patrice K; Matshediso, Ellah; Mogobe, Keitshokile Dintle; Sabone, Motshedisi B; Ntsayagae, Esther I; Shaibu, Sheila; Corless, Inge B; Wantland, Dean; Lindgren, Teri

    2016-01-01

    Health literacy is important for access to and quality of HIV care. While most models of health literacy acknowledge the importance of the patient-provider relationship to disease management, a more nuanced understanding of this relationship is needed. Thematic analysis from 28 focus groups with HIV-experienced patients (n = 135) and providers (n = 71) identified a long-term and trusting relationship as an essential part of HIV treatment over the continuum of HIV care. We found that trust and relationship building over time were important for patients with HIV as well as for their providers. An expanded definition of health literacy that includes gaining a patient's trust and engaging in a process of health education and information sharing over time could improve HIV care. Expanding clinical perspectives to include trust and the importance of the patient-provider relationship to a shared understanding of health literacy may improve patient experiences and engagement in care. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Celebrity endorsement in fashion print advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Raluca Chiosa

    2013-01-01

    Brands ofen use celebrities to get impact. Celebrity endorsement has become a marketing communication strategy used to build a congruence between brand image and consumers. Objectives. Research attempts to analyse celebrity endorser-product congruency and to measure the effectiveness of celebrity endorsement compared with a non-celebrity endorsement (fashion models). Prior Work. Research conducted to date have reached topics as: the effectiveness of celebrity endorsement; celebrity endorsers ...

  13. Health care provider communication training in rural Tanzania empowers HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy to discuss adherence problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erb, S; Letang, E; Glass, T R; Natamatungiro, A; Mnzava, D; Mapesi, H; Haschke, M; Duthaler, U; Berger, B; Muri, L; Bader, J; Marzolini, C; Elzi, L; Klimkait, T; Langewitz, W; Battegay, M

    2017-10-01

    Self-reported adherence assessment in HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) is challenging and may overestimate adherence. The aim of this study was to improve the ability of health care providers to elicit patients' reports of nonadherence using a "patient-centred" approach in a rural sub-Saharan African setting. A prospective interventional cohort study of HIV-infected patients on ART for ≥ 6 months attending an HIV clinic in rural Tanzania was carried out. The intervention consisted of a 2-day workshop for health care providers on patient-centred communication and the provision of an adherence assessment checklist for use in the consultations. Patients' self-reports of nonadherence (≥ 1 missed ART dose/4 weeks), subtherapeutic plasma ART concentrations (communication can successfully be implemented with a simple intervention in rural Africa. It increases the likelihood of HIV-infected patients reporting problems with adherence to ART; however, sustainability remains a challenge. © 2017 The Authors HIV Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British HIV Association.

  14. Psychosocial correlates of patient–provider family planning discussions among HIV-infected pregnant women in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodriguez VJ

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Violeta J Rodriguez,1 Ryan R Cook,1 Stephen M Weiss,1 Karl Peltzer,2–4 Deborah L Jones1 1Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA; 2HIV/AIDS/STIs and TB (HAST Research Programme, Human Sciences Research Council, Pretoria, South Africa; 3ASEAN Institute for Health Development, Mahidol University, Salaya, Thailand; 4Department of Psychology, University of Limpopo, Turfloop, South Africa Abstract: Patient–provider family planning discussions and preconception counseling can reduce maternal and neonatal risks by increasing adherence to provider recommendations and antiretroviral medication. However, HIV-infected women may not discuss reproductive intentions with providers due to anticipation of negative reactions and stigma. This study aimed to identify correlates of patient–provider family planning discussions among HIV-infected women in rural South Africa, an area with high rates of antenatal HIV and suboptimal rates of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT of HIV. Participants were N=673 pregnant HIV-infected women who completed measures of family planning discussions and knowledge, depression, stigma, intimate partner violence, and male involvement. Participants were, on average, 28 ± 6 years old, and half of them had completed at least 10–11 years of education. Most women were unemployed and had a monthly income of less than ~US$76. Fewer than half of the women reported having family planning discussions with providers. Correlates of patient–provider family planning discussions included younger age, discussions about PMTCT of HIV, male involvement, and decreased stigma (p < 0.05. Depression was indirectly associated with patient–provider family planning discussions through male involvement (b = −0.010, bias-corrected 95% confidence interval [bCI] [−0.019, −0.005]. That is, depression decreased male involvement, and in turn, male involvement

  15. A compensatory mutation provides resistance to disparate HIV fusion inhibitor peptides and enhances membrane fusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew P Wood

    Full Text Available Fusion inhibitors are a class of antiretroviral drugs used to prevent entry of HIV into host cells. Many of the fusion inhibitors being developed, including the drug enfuvirtide, are peptides designed to competitively inhibit the viral fusion protein gp41. With the emergence of drug resistance, there is an increased need for effective and unique alternatives within this class of antivirals. One such alternative is a class of cyclic, cationic, antimicrobial peptides known as θ-defensins, which are produced by many non-human primates and exhibit broad-spectrum antiviral and antibacterial activity. Currently, the θ-defensin analog RC-101 is being developed as a microbicide due to its specific antiviral activity, lack of toxicity to cells and tissues, and safety in animals. Understanding potential RC-101 resistance, and how resistance to other fusion inhibitors affects RC-101 susceptibility, is critical for future development. In previous studies, we identified a mutant, R5-tropic virus that had evolved partial resistance to RC-101 during in vitro selection. Here, we report that a secondary mutation in gp41 was found to restore replicative fitness, membrane fusion, and the rate of viral entry, which were compromised by an initial mutation providing partial RC-101 resistance. Interestingly, we show that RC-101 is effective against two enfuvirtide-resistant mutants, demonstrating the clinical importance of RC-101 as a unique fusion inhibitor. These findings both expand our understanding of HIV drug-resistance to diverse peptide fusion inhibitors and emphasize the significance of compensatory gp41 mutations.

  16. 75 FR 95 - Endorsement and Payment of Checks Drawn on the United States Treasury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-04

    ... Endorsement and Payment of Checks Drawn on the United States Treasury AGENCY: Financial Management Service... governing the endorsement and payment of checks drawn on the United States Treasury, to provide that...), governing the endorsement and payment of checks drawn on the United States Treasury. The rules in Part 240...

  17. Challenges to Providing a Support Group for HIV-Positive Prisoners in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohleder, Poul

    2008-01-01

    In prison populations around the world, the prevalence of HIV is often higher than that of the general population. The prison population is at high risk for HIV infection, particularly through the sharing of contaminated needles and high-risk sexual activity. Counselling is regarded as a key element in the prevention and treatment of HIV…

  18. 16 CFR 255.3 - Expert endorsements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... in fact have found such superiority. Example 1: An endorsement of a particular automobile by one... is well acquainted with the design and performance of automobiles. If the endorser's field is, for example, chemical engineering, the endorsement would be deceptive. Example 2: An endorser of a hearing aid...

  19. 46 CFR 67.23 - Recreational endorsement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Recreational endorsement. 67.23 Section 67.23 Shipping... DOCUMENTATION OF VESSELS Forms of Documentation; Endorsements; Eligibility of Vessel § 67.23 Recreational endorsement. (a) A recreational endorsement entitles a vessel to pleasure use only. (b) Any vessel eligible...

  20. 24 CFR 242.39 - Insurance endorsement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance endorsement. 242.39... MORTGAGE INSURANCE FOR HOSPITALS Endorsement for Insurance § 242.39 Insurance endorsement. Initial endorsement of the mortgage note shall occur before any mortgage proceeds are insured, and the time of final...

  1. 46 CFR 67.21 - Fishery endorsement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fishery endorsement. 67.21 Section 67.21 Shipping COAST... DOCUMENTATION OF VESSELS Forms of Documentation; Endorsements; Eligibility of Vessel § 67.21 Fishery endorsement. (a) A fishery endorsement entitles a vessel to employment in the fisheries as defined in § 67.3...

  2. 46 CFR 67.17 - Registry endorsement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Registry endorsement. 67.17 Section 67.17 Shipping COAST... DOCUMENTATION OF VESSELS Forms of Documentation; Endorsements; Eligibility of Vessel § 67.17 Registry endorsement. (a) A registry endorsement entitles a vessel to employment in the foreign trade; trade with Guam...

  3. 24 CFR 241.570 - Insurance endorsement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance endorsement. 241.570... § 241.570 Insurance endorsement. (a) Initial endorsement. The Commissioner shall indicate his/her... endorsement. When all advances of mortgage proceeds have been made and all the terms and conditions of the...

  4. 24 CFR 200.100 - Insurance endorsement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance endorsement. 200.100... Endorsement Generally Applicable to Multifamily and Health Care Facility Mortgage Insurance Programs; and Continuing Eligibility Requirements for Existing Projects Endorsement § 200.100 Insurance endorsement. The...

  5. 24 CFR 241.1245 - Insurance endorsement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance endorsement. 241.1245... Rights and Obligations § 241.1245 Insurance endorsement. (a) Endorsement. The Commissioner shall indicate... insurance. (b) Endorsement of phased loan. In the event the loan is phased, the Commissioner shall indicate...

  6. Use of Endorsers in Magazine Advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, Patricia A.; Moon, Young Sook

    1990-01-01

    Analyzes full-page advertisements in four national magazines for the years 1980 to 1986. Finds (1) endorsements occurred in about half of the advertisements; (2) endorsers most used were celebrities; (3) advertisements with endorsers contain less information; and (4) celebrities most often endorsed personal care or apparel products. (RS)

  7. Preventing HIV transmission among Iranian prisoners: Initial support for providing education on the benefits of harm reduction practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshrati, Babak; Asl, Rahim Taghizadeh; Dell, Colleen Anne; Afshar, Parviz; Millson, Peggy Margaret E; Kamali, Mohammad; Weekes, John

    2008-01-01

    Background Harm reduction is a health-centred approach that seeks to reduce the health and social harms associated with high-risk behaviors, such as illicit drug use. The objective of this study is to determine the association between the beliefs of a group of adult, male prisoners in Iran about the transmission of HIV and their high-risk practices while in prison. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2004. The study population was a random selection of 100 men incarcerated at Rajaei-Shahr prison. The data were collected through a self-administered questionnaire. Focus group discussions were held at the prison to guide the design of the questionnaire. The relationship between components of the Health Belief Model (HBM) and prisoners' risky HIV-related behaviors was examined. Results Calculating Pearson's correlation coefficient, a significant, positive association was found between the benefit component of the HBM and prisoners not engaging in HIV high-risk behaviors. Conclusion Educational harm reduction initiatives that promote the effectiveness of strategies designed to reduce the risk of HIV transmission may decrease prisoners' high-risk behaviors. This finding provides initial support for the Iran prison system's current offering of HIV/AIDS harm reduction programming and suggests the need to offer increased education about the effectiveness of HIV prevention practices. PMID:18541032

  8. Preventing HIV transmission among Iranian prisoners: Initial support for providing education on the benefits of harm reduction practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Millson Peggy

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Harm reduction is a health-centred approach that seeks to reduce the health and social harms associated with high-risk behaviors, such as illicit drug use. The objective of this study is to determine the association between the beliefs of a group of adult, male prisoners in Iran about the transmission of HIV and their high-risk practices while in prison. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2004. The study population was a random selection of 100 men incarcerated at Rajaei-Shahr prison. The data were collected through a self-administered questionnaire. Focus group discussions were held at the prison to guide the design of the questionnaire. The relationship between components of the Health Belief Model (HBM and prisoners' risky HIV-related behaviors was examined. Results Calculating Pearson's correlation coefficient, a significant, positive association was found between the benefit component of the HBM and prisoners not engaging in HIV high-risk behaviors. Conclusion Educational harm reduction initiatives that promote the effectiveness of strategies designed to reduce the risk of HIV transmission may decrease prisoners' high-risk behaviors. This finding provides initial support for the Iran prison system's current offering of HIV/AIDS harm reduction programming and suggests the need to offer increased education about the effectiveness of HIV prevention practices.

  9. Fragmentation of maternal, child and HIV services: A missed opportunity to provide comprehensive care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyn J. Haskins

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In South Africa, coverage of services for mothers and babies in the first year of life is suboptimal despite high immunisation coverage over the same time period. Integration of services could improve accessibility of services, uptake of interventions and retention in care.Aim: This study describes provision of services for mothers and babies aged under 1 year.Setting: Primary healthcare clinics in one rural district in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.Methods: All healthcare workers on duty and mothers exiting the clinic after attending well-child services were interviewed. Clinics were mapped to show the route through the clinic taken by mother–baby pairs receiving well-child services, where these services were provided and by whom.Results: Twelve clinics were visited; 116 health workers and 211 mothers were interviewed. Most clinics did not provide comprehensive services for mothers and children. Challenges of structural layout and deployment of equipment led to fragmented services provided by several different health workers in different rooms. Well-child services were frequently provided in public areas of the clinic or with other mothers present. In some clinics mothers and babies did not routinely see a professional nurse. In all clinics HIV-positive mothers followed a different route. Enrolled nurses led the provision of well-child services but did not have skills and training to provide comprehensive care.Conclusions: Fragmentation of clinic services created barriers in accessing a comprehensive package of care resulting in missed opportunities to provide services. Greater integration of services alongside immunisation services is needed.

  10. What Factors Are Associated With Receiving a Recommendation to Get Tested for HIV by Health Care Providers Among Men Who Have Sex With Men?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Wilson; McFarland, Willi; Raymond, H Fisher

    2017-07-01

    The approach of treatment as prevention for reducing HIV incidence and prevalence hinges on early detection of HIV infection and treatment to achieve viral suppression and, thus, to reduce HIV transmissibility. However, men who have sex with men (MSM), who are at greater risk of HIV infection than the average adult in the United States, are often not tested because many providers do not provide routine opt-out testing or even recommend HIV testing. In a sample of 244 MSM in San Francisco, CA, this study examined whether (1) sociodemographic characteristics (ie, youth, education, employment status, being African American, being Latino), (2) health care access and utilization, and (3) participants disclosing their sexual orientation to their health care providers were associated with their odds of having received a recommendation from a health care provider for HIV testing. Results showed that none of the sociodemographic or health care-related factors were associated with whether a health care provider recommended HIV testing, but MSM disclosing their sexual orientation to their health care providers was associated with an over 8 times greater odds of MSM receiving a recommendation for HIV testing. The study findings underscore the need for routine opt-out HIV testing to screen members of high-risk populations who may not enter the HIV continuum of care and for health care providers to be able to ask patients about HIV risk behavior and sexual orientation and behavior.

  11. Mobile technology intervention to improve care coordination between HIV and substance use treatment providers: development, training, and evaluation protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claborn, Kasey; Becker, Sara; Ramsey, Susan; Rich, Josiah; Friedmann, Peter D

    2017-03-14

    People living with HIV (PLWH) with a substance use disorder (SUD) tend to receive inadequate medical care in part because of a siloed healthcare system in which HIV and substance use services are delivered separately. Ideal treatment requires an interdisciplinary, team-based coordinated care approach, but many structural and systemic barriers impede the integration of HIV and SUD services. The current protocol describes the development and preliminary evaluation of a care coordination intervention (CCI), consisting of a tablet-based mobile platform for HIV and SUD treatment providers, an interagency communication protocol, and a training protocol. We hypothesize that HIV and SUD treatment providers will find the CCI to be acceptable, and that after receipt of the CCI, providers will: exhibit higher retention in dual care among patients, report increased frequency and quality of communication, and report increased rates of relational coordination. A three phase approach is used to refine and evaluate the CCI. Phase 1 consists of in-depth qualitative interviews with 8 key stakeholders as well as clinical audits of participating HIV and SUD treatment agencies. Phase 2 contains functionality testing of the mobile platform with frontline HIV and SUD treatment providers, followed by refinement of the CCI. Phase 3 consists of a pre-, post-test trial with 30 SUD and 30 HIV treatment providers. Data will be collected at the provider, organization, and patient levels. Providers will complete assessments at baseline, immediately post-training, and at 1-, 3-, and 6-months post-training. Organizational data will be collected at baseline, 1-, 3-, and 6-months post training, while patient data will be collected at baseline and 6-months post training. This study will develop and evaluate a CCI consisting of a tablet-based mobile platform for treatment providers, an interagency communication protocol, and a training protocol as a means of improving the integration of care for PLWH

  12. Brief Training of HIV Medical Providers Increases Their Frequency of Delivering Prevention Counselling to Patients at Risk of Transmitting HIV to Others

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Shilpa N.; Marks, Gary; Gardner, Lytt; Golin, Carol E.; Shinde, Sanjyot; O'Daniels, Christine; Wilson, Tracey E.; Quinlivan, E. Byrd; Banderas, Julie W.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to examine whether brief training of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) medical providers increased the frequency with which they routinely delivered prevention counselling to patients, and whether patient characteristics were associated with receipt of that counselling. Design: Longitudinal. Setting: Seven HIV…

  13. Stereotype Knowledge and Endorsement in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelli, Luigi; D'Alpaos, Francesca; Carraro, Luciana; Pavan, Florencia; Galfano, Giovanni; Forti, Bruno

    2017-09-07

    Social cognition is severely impaired in schizophrenia. Emotion processing, attributional biases, and theory of mind are often impaired, as well as the understanding of shared social knowledge. So far, little is known about stereotype knowledge and endorsement in schizophrenia. White patients with schizophrenia and matched healthy respondents reported both their personal beliefs and the predicted beliefs of other people toward Black (study 1) and Gypsy individuals (study 2). Results showed that respondents in the clinical sample displayed less stereotype endorsement as compared to the matched healthy respondents. Most importantly, the contents of the responses provided by the 2 samples were strongly overlapped. Findings indicate that individuals with schizophrenia tend to hold less negative attitudes toward stigmatized outgroups and, most notably, that knowledge about culturally transmitted stereotypes is relatively preserved in schizophrenia. Future research should address the generalizability of the findings in relation to the perception of other stigmatized social groups. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. HIV prevention among street-based sex workers (SSWs) in Chongqing, China: interviews with SSWs, clients and healthcare providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huan; Zhang, Lei; Zhao, Yong; Liu, Hui; Guo, Hang; Wang, Yang; Zhang, Zhen; Mao, Limin

    2016-11-01

    Street-based female sex workers (SSWs) are subjected to a relatively high risk of HIV transmission, even higher than establishment-based female sex workers in China. However, very few HIV intervention programmes have targeted this particular group to date. Based in Southwest China, this study aims to identify perceived barriers, demands and suggestions on HIV prevention from the perspectives of SSWs, clients and healthcare providers in Chongqing. Face-to-face, in-depth interviews were conducted in July 2008 with 23 participants. They were recruited by purposive, convenience sampling and included 12 SSWs, 5 male clients, 4 government healthcare providers and 2 outreach workers from a community-based non-governmental organisation. Thematic analysis was used. SSWs were largely rural-to-urban migrants with a low socioeconomic status. Most of their clients shared a similar background. Both SSWs and their clients demonstrated a low awareness of HIV infection and a lack of understanding of effective preventive strategies. Financial hardships, lack of family support, fear of police arrest and stigma in relation to sex work were identified as SSWs' major barriers for accessing healthcare services. Both SSWs and their clients indicated an urgent demand for accessing adequate HIV prevention and care programmes. On the other hand, government organisations trying to provide services to this group have also encountered obstacles, specifically their limited ability to establish mutual trust. Programmes provided by community-based non-governmental organisation, however, were perceived to be more attractive. In conclusion, there remains a substantial gap between the need of adequate HIV prevention services for SSWs and their clients and what is currently available. Strengthening inter-sectoral collaboration, providing specifically tailored health services, actively involving SSW peers and their clients, and reducing stigma in the society are keys to meet this urgent demand by SSWs

  15. HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination among health-care providers in a tertiary health facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Justin S Doka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was aimed at assessing dispositions, attitudes, and behavioral tendencies for HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination among health-care providers in Specialist Hospital Gombe, Northern Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Out of a total of 397 health personnel of the hospital, a sample of 201 health-care providers of various professional backgrounds was drawn using quota sampling technique. A descriptive exploratory survey method was adopted. Using a structured questionnaire, relevant data were collected from the subjects. Reliability test on key segments of the instrument yielded alpha Cronbach's internal consistency test values of not 0.05. If given the choice, 34 (16.9% of the personnel would not treat a patient with HIV. Conclusion: A prevalence rate of HIV/AIDS-related stigma of 15.4% among the health personnel is quite worrisome. Stigma reduction seminars and workshops would go a long way toward mitigating this trend.

  16. MMPI-2 Item Endorsements in Dissociative Identity Disorder vs. Simulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Bethany L; Chasson, Gregory S; Palermo, Cori A; Donato, Frank M; Rhodes, Kyle P; Voorhees, Emily F

    2016-03-01

    Elevated scores on some MMPI-2 (Minnesota Multiphasic Inventory-2) validity scales are common among patients with dissociative identity disorder (DID), which raises questions about the validity of their responses. Such patients show elevated scores on atypical answers (F), F-psychopathology (Fp), atypical answers in the second half of the test (FB), schizophrenia (Sc), and depression (D) scales, with Fp showing the greatest utility in distinguishing them from coached and uncoached DID simulators. In the current study, we investigated the items on the MMPI-2 F, Fp, FB, Sc, and D scales that were most and least commonly endorsed by participants with DID in our 2014 study and compared these responses with those of coached and uncoached DID simulators. The comparisons revealed that patients with DID most frequently endorsed items related to dissociation, trauma, depression, fearfulness, conflict within family, and self-destructiveness. The coached group more successfully imitated item endorsements of the DID group than did the uncoached group. However, both simulating groups, especially the uncoached group, frequently endorsed items that were uncommonly endorsed by the DID group. The uncoached group endorsed items consistent with popular media portrayals of people with DID being violent, delusional, and unlawful. These results suggest that item endorsement patterns can provide useful information to clinicians making determinations about whether an individual is presenting with DID or feigning. © 2016 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  17. Perceptions of vaginal microbicides as an HIV prevention method among health care providers in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mantell Joanne E

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The promise of microbicides as an HIV prevention method will not be realized if not supported by health care providers. They are the primary source of sexual health information for potential users, in both the public and private health sectors. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine perceptions of vaginal microbicides as a potential HIV prevention method among health care providers in Durban and Hlabisa, South Africa, using a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods. Results During 2004, semi structured interviews with 149 health care providers were conducted. Fifty seven percent of hospital managers, 40% of pharmacists and 35% of nurses possessed some basic knowledge of microbicides, such as the product being used intra-vaginally before sex to prevent HIV infection. The majority of them were positive about microbicides and were willing to counsel users regarding potential use. Providers from both public and private sectors felt that an effective microbicide should be available to all people, regardless of HIV status. Providers felt that the product should be accessed over-the-counter in pharmacies and in retail stores. They also felt a need for potential microbicides to be available free of charge, and packaged with clear instructions. The media was seen by health care providers as being an effective strategy for promoting microbicides. Conclusion Overall, health care providers were very positive about the possible introduction of an effective microbicide for HIV prevention. The findings generated by this study illustrated the need for training health care providers prior to making the product accessible, as well as the importance of addressing the potential barriers to use of the product by women. These are important concerns in the health care community, and this study also served to educate them for the day when research becomes reality.

  18. Outcome of challenging HIV case consultations provided via teleconference by the Clinician Consultation Center to the Federal Bureau of Prisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Betty J; Williams, Michelle R; Bingham, J Tyler; Tokumoto, Jason; Allen, Jeffery D

    To describe the collaboration and prospective outcome of challenging human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) cases presented by Board of Prisons (BOP) pharmacists in consultation with Clinician Consultation Center (CCC) clinical pharmacists and physicians to improve correctional patient care. Federal correctional facilities. Pharmacists improve care of incarcerated persons infected with HIV. Pharmacists evaluate, implement, and provide successful oversight of HIV/hepatitis C virus (HCV) care. Retrospective review of the clinical outcomes of HIV and HCV coinfected cases implemented by BOP pharmacists following CCC clinical consultations from 2010 through 2012. Most cases focused on selecting optimal antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens in patients experiencing treatment failure by interpreting resistance tests, limiting ART toxicity, identifying adherence strategies, and managing HIV/HCV coinfection. In 32 of the 34 cases presented, 87.5% (28/32) of CCC recommendations were implemented, resulting in 89% of those patients (25/28) achieving optimal virologic or clinical outcome. Complete virologic suppression occurred in 64% (18/28), and significant viral load reductions in 25% (7/28) of the cases. No changes occurred in 2 patients, and data were not available in 2 others lost to follow-up. BOP participation has increased since its inception from 6 to 12-15 pharmacists per call. Discussions also included updates in antiretroviral guidelines, screening and management of patients coinfected with HIV and HCV, and implications for BOP guidelines. BOP clinical consultant pharmacists can successfully implement CCC recommendations to achieve desired clinical outcomes. Consultations and educational efforts from CCC experts assist BOP pharmacists in ensuring excellence in management of complex HIV/HCV issues and medication regimens to achieve desired outcomes. CCC collaboration and BOP pharmacist involvement have improved patient care. Using a team approach to include BOP

  19. Preventing HIV by providing support for orphan girls to stay in school: does religion matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallfors, Denise D; Cho, Hyunsan; Iritani, Bonita J; Mapfumo, John; Mpofu, Elias; Luseno, Winnie K; January, James

    2013-01-01

    The paper examines the influence of religion on attitudes, behaviors, and HIV infection among rural adolescent women in Zimbabwe. We analyzed data from a 2007 to 2010 randomized controlled trial in rural eastern Zimbabwe testing whether school support can prevent HIV risk behaviors and related attitudes among rural adolescent orphan girls; supplementary data from the 2006 Zimbabwe Demographic and Health Survey (ZDHS) were also analyzed. The present study design is largely cross-sectional, using the most recent available survey data from the clinical trial to examine the association between religious affiliation and religiosity on school dropout, marriage, and related attitudes, controlling for intervention condition, age and orphan type. The ZDHS data examined the effect of religious denomination on marriage and HIV status among young rural women, controlling for age. Apostolic Church affiliation greatly increased the likelihood of early marriage compared to reference Methodist Church affiliation (odds ratio = 4.5). Greater religiosity independently reduced the likelihood of school dropout, increased gender equity attitudes and disagreement with early sex, and marginally reduced early marriage. Young rural Apostolic women in the ZDHS were nearly four times as likely to marry as teenagers compared to Protestants, and marriage doubled the likelihood of HIV infection. Findings contradict an earlier seminal study that Apostolics are relatively protected from HIV compared to other Christian denominations. Young Apostolic women are at increased risk of HIV infection through early marriage. The Apostolic Church is a large and growing denomination in sub-Saharan Africa and many Apostolic sects discourage medical testing and treatment in favor of faith healing. Since this can increase the risk of undiagnosed HIV infection for young married women and their infants in high prevalence areas, further study is urgently needed to confirm this emerging public health problem

  20. Visualizing the Immune System: Providing Key Insights into HIV/SIV Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob D. Estes

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Immunological inductive tissues, such as secondary lymphoid organs, are composed of distinct anatomical microenvironments for the generation of immune responses to pathogens and immunogens. These microenvironments are characterized by the compartmentalization of highly specialized immune and stromal cell populations, as well as the presence of a complex network of soluble factors and chemokines that direct the intra-tissue trafficking of naïve and effector cell populations. Imaging platforms have provided critical contextual information regarding the molecular and cellular interactions that orchestrate the spatial microanatomy of relevant cells and the development of immune responses against pathogens. Particularly in HIV/SIV disease, imaging technologies are of great importance in the investigation of the local interplay between the virus and host cells, with respect to understanding viral dynamics and persistence, immune responses (i.e., adaptive and innate inflammatory responses, tissue structure and pathologies, and changes to the surrounding milieu and function of immune cells. Merging imaging platforms with other cutting-edge technologies could lead to novel findings regarding the phenotype, function, and molecular signatures of particular immune cell targets, further promoting the development of new antiviral treatments and vaccination strategies.

  1. Moral character effects in endorser perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Joseph W.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This research consists of two experimental studies investigating the influence of moral character on endorser perception, and the influence of perceiver characteristics on tarnished endorser perception and brand evaluations. Perceiver characteristics are discussed from the perspectives of dispositional tendency, innate moral intuitions and self-location. The first study compared the influences of moral character and warmth on endorser perception. The second study examined the impact of perceiver characteristics on tarnished endorsers and brand evaluations. The findings reveal that moral character is more influential than warmth on endorser evaluations. Tarnished endorsers with immoral character exert more negative influence than tarnished endorsers with coldness character on brand evaluations. Innate moral intuitions and self-location moderate brand evaluations. High-morality consumers and heart-locators are more vulnerable than low-morality and brain-locators to the brands endorsed by tarnished endorsers, respectively.

  2. Celebrity endorsement in fashion print advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Chiosa

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Brands ofen use celebrities to get impact. Celebrity endorsement has become a marketing communication strategy used to build a congruence between brand image and consumers. Objectives. Research attempts to analyse celebrity endorser-product congruency and to measure the effectiveness of celebrity endorsement compared with a non-celebrity endorsement (fashion models. Prior Work. Research conducted to date have reached topics as: the effectiveness of celebrity endorsement; celebrity endorsers and purchase intention, added-value of the endorsement; positive or negative effects of celebrity endorsement, congruence between product/brand and endorser, consumer association with the endorser, attractiveness, credibility and trust in celebrities. Approach. A marketing experiment was used in order to mesure the impactul of endorser type and endorser-product match on Aad, Ab, and Pi. Results. Research has confirmed that attractive endorsers fit clothing products, whether they are celebrities or models. Also, the more consumer likes advertising, the more likely it creates a favorable attitude towards the brand. Results suggest ads using celebrities increase the likelihood of consumers to buy an endorsed product. Value. Study shows what celebrities are considered credible and perceived fit to promote classical suit. A fashion brand can select a celebrity for advertising campaign, due to it’s influence on consumers’ purchase intention.

  3. PrEP Awareness, Familiarity, Comfort, and Prescribing Experience among US Primary Care Providers and HIV Specialists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petroll, Andrew E; Walsh, Jennifer L; Owczarzak, Jill L; McAuliffe, Timothy L; Bogart, Laura M; Kelly, Jeffrey A

    2017-05-01

    HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) was FDA approved in 2012, but uptake remains low. To characterize what would facilitate health care providers' increased PrEP prescribing, we conducted a 10-city, online survey of 525 primary care providers (PCPs) and HIV providers (HIVPs) to assess awareness, knowledge, and experience with prescribing PrEP; and, comfort with and barriers to PrEP-related activities. Fewer PCPs than HIVPs had heard of PrEP (76 vs 98%), felt familiar with prescribing PrEP (28 vs. 76%), or had prescribed it (17 vs. 64%). PCPs were less comfortable than HIVPs with PrEP-related activities such as discussing sexual activities (75 vs. 94%), testing for acute HIV (83 vs. 98%), or delivering a new HIV diagnosis (80 vs. 95%). PCPs most frequently identified limited knowledge about PrEP and concerns about insurance coverage as prescribing barriers. PCPs and HIVPs differ in needs that will facilitate their PrEP prescribing. Efforts to increase PrEP uptake will require interventions to increase the knowledge, comfort, and skills of providers to prescribe PrEP.

  4. Review of Food and Nutrition Services Provided by Community-based Organizations Serving People with HIV in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Joyce; Qadar, Zeeshan; Bewza, Jennifer

    2015-06-01

    To assess the status of food and nutrition programming in community-based HIV organizations in Canada. A telephone survey was administered to 80 community-based HIV organizations asking about characteristics of food and nutrition programs and the perceived program gaps. The majority of organizations had programs directed at improving food access through meals, food banks, community kitchens or cooking classes, food vouchers, gardens, and street vans. Almost half of the organizations (n = 39) provided nutrition counselling by a registered dietitian or nurse, and the majority also provided referrals to other food and nutrition services in the community. Most organizations would like to have more food-related programming, including: more frequent provision of nutritious and fresh food options, methods to make better use of available food, transportation and grocery vouchers, more staff dedicated to food programs, and improved food preparation and storage infrastructure. Although community-based HIV organizations provide a range of food and nutrition programs, they face challenges due to inadequate resources. Decision makers should provide more funding for these programs; however, they must be augmented with other supports such as adequate housing, income, and addiction counselling. Dietitians can help organizations maximize the impact of their limited resources and can advocate for systemic changes to enhance determinants of health for people living with HIV.

  5. Experiences of lay counsellors who provide VCT for PMTCT of HIV and AIDS in the Capricorn district, Limpopo Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. N. Malema

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Human Immune Deficiency Virus (HIV and Acquired Immune-Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS still carry a stigma in the community. Many people do not know their status and they are still reluctant to be tested including pregnant women despite the fact that Voluntary Counselling and Testing (VCT is offered for free in South Africa. In South Africa VCT for HIV and AIDS is offered by lay counsellors in public hospitals and clinics. The study conducted by Mate, Bennet, Mphatswe, Barker and Rollins (2009:5483 outlined that in South Africa the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT of HIV guidelines have raised hope that the national goal of reducing perinatal HIV transmission rates to less than 5% can be attained. A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual study was conducted in 15 public clinics of the Polokwane Municipality in the Capricorn District, Limpopo Province. The purpose of the study was to determine the experiences of the lay counsellors who provide VCT for the PMTCT of HIV and AIDS in the Capricorn District, Limpopo Province. Data were collected through one-to-one interviews using a semi-structured guide (De Vos et al, 2006:296. The findings of the study reflected the following: the content of training and counselling skills received by lay counsellors were satisfactory, there was lack of counsellor support and in-service education. A program for in-service education and support for all lay counsellors who have had VCT training should be conceptualised and implemented.

  6. Experiences of lay counsellors who provide VCT for PMTCT of HIV and AIDS in the Capricorn district, Limpopo Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.N. Malema

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Human Immune Deficiency Virus (HIV and Acquired Immune-Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS still carry a stigma in the community. Many people do not know their status and they are still reluctant to be tested including pregnant women despite the fact that Voluntary Counselling and Testing (VCT is offered for free in South Africa. In South Africa VCT for HIV and AIDS is offered by lay counsellors in public hospitals and clinics. The study conducted by Mate, Bennet, Mphatswe, Barker and Rollins (2009:5483 outlined that in South Africa the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT of HIV guidelines have raised hope that the national goal of reducing perinatal HIV transmission rates to less than 5% can be attained. A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual study was conducted in 15 public clinics of the Polokwane Municipality in the Capricorn District, Limpopo Province. The purpose of the study was to determine the experiences of the lay counsellors who provide VCT for the PMTCT of HIV and AIDS in the Capricorn District, Limpopo Province. Data were collected through one-to-one interviews using a semi-structured guide (De Vos et al, 2006:296. The findings of the study reflected the following: the content of training and counselling skills received by lay counsellors were satisfactory, there was lack of counsellor support and in-service education. A program for in-service education and support for all lay counsellors who have had VCT training should be conceptualised and implemented.

  7. Patient-provider relationship predicts mental and physical health indicators for HIV-positive men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankoff, Sarah M; McCullough, Mary B; Pantalone, David W

    2013-06-01

    We used secondary data analysis to examine associations among aspects of patient-provider relationships and mental and physical health indicators. Positive patient perceptions of patient-provider relationships were associated with fewer mental health symptoms in this outpatient sample of HIV-positive men who have sex with men (N = 171). Regression analyses revealed the role of anxiety and depression in explaining associations between two aspects of patient-provider relationships (i.e. quality of information offered and provider interactional style) and health-related quality of life. The findings demonstrated the importance of patient-provider relationships to improving physical health and functioning and maintaining engagement in care, among HIV-positive men who have sex with men.

  8. Tracking working status of HIV/AIDS-trained service providers by means of a training information monitoring system in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadew Mesrak

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Federal Ministry of Health of Ethiopia is implementing an ambitious and rapid scale-up of health care services for the prevention, care and treatment of HIV/AIDS in public facilities. With support from the United States President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief, 38 830 service providers were trained, from early 2005 until December 2007, in HIV-related topics. Anecdotal evidence suggested high attrition rates of providers, but reliable quantitative data have been limited. Methods With that funding, Jhpiego supports a Training Information Monitoring System, which stores training information for all HIV/AIDS training events supported by the same funding source. Data forms were developed to capture information on providers' working status and were given to eight partners who collected data during routine site visits on individual providers about working status; if not working at the facility, date of and reason for leaving; and source of information. Results Data were collected on 1744 providers (59% males in 53 hospitals and 45 health centres in 10 regional and administrative states. The project found that 32.6% of the providers were no longer at the site, 57.6% are still working on HIV/AIDS services at the same facility where they were trained and 10.4% are at the facility, but not providing HIV/AIDS services. Of the providers not at the facility, the two largest groups were those who had left for further study (27.6% and those who had gone to another public facility (17.6%. Of all physicians trained, 49.2% had left the facility. Regional and cadre variation was found, for example Gambella had the highest percent of providers no longer at the site (53.7% while Harari had the highest percentage of providers still working on HIV/AIDS (71.6%. Conclusion Overall, the project found that the information in the Training Information Monitoring System can be used to track the working status of trained providers. Data generated from

  9. Cultural adaptation of a survey to assess medical providers' knowledge of and attitudes towards HIV/AIDS in Albania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Shane D; Rashidi, Vania; Banushi, Vilson H; Barbhaiya, Namrata J; Gashi, Valbona H; Sarnquist, Clea; Maldonado, Yvonne; Harxhi, Arjan

    2013-01-01

    Though the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Southeastern Europe is one of low reported prevalence, numerous studies have described the pervasiveness of medical providers' lack of knowledge of HIV/AIDS in the Balkans. This study sought to culturally adapt an instrument to assess medical providers' knowledge of and attitudes towards HIV/AIDS in Albania. Cultural adaptation was completed through development of a survey from previously validated instruments, translation of the survey into Albanian, blinded back translation, expert committee review of the draft instrument, focus group pre-testing with community- and University Hospital Center of Tirana-based physicians and nurses, and test-retest reliability testing. Blinded back translation of the instrument supported the initial translation with slight changes to the idiomatic and conceptual equivalences. Focus group pre-testing generally supported the instrument, yet some experiential and idiomatic changes were implemented. Based on unweighted kappa and/or prevalence adjusted bias adjusted kappa (PABAK), 20 of the 43 questions were deemed statistically significant at kappa and/or PABAK ≥0.5, while 12 others did not cross zero on the 95% confidence interval for kappa, indicating their probable significance. Subsequently, an instrument to assess medical providers' knowledge of and attitudes toward HIV/AIDS for an Albanian population was developed which can be expanded within Albania and potentially to other countries within the Balkans, which have an Albanian-speaking population.

  10. Cultural adaptation of a survey to assess medical providers' knowledge of and attitudes towards HIV/AIDS in Albania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shane D Morrison

    Full Text Available Though the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Southeastern Europe is one of low reported prevalence, numerous studies have described the pervasiveness of medical providers' lack of knowledge of HIV/AIDS in the Balkans. This study sought to culturally adapt an instrument to assess medical providers' knowledge of and attitudes towards HIV/AIDS in Albania. Cultural adaptation was completed through development of a survey from previously validated instruments, translation of the survey into Albanian, blinded back translation, expert committee review of the draft instrument, focus group pre-testing with community- and University Hospital Center of Tirana-based physicians and nurses, and test-retest reliability testing. Blinded back translation of the instrument supported the initial translation with slight changes to the idiomatic and conceptual equivalences. Focus group pre-testing generally supported the instrument, yet some experiential and idiomatic changes were implemented. Based on unweighted kappa and/or prevalence adjusted bias adjusted kappa (PABAK, 20 of the 43 questions were deemed statistically significant at kappa and/or PABAK ≥0.5, while 12 others did not cross zero on the 95% confidence interval for kappa, indicating their probable significance. Subsequently, an instrument to assess medical providers' knowledge of and attitudes toward HIV/AIDS for an Albanian population was developed which can be expanded within Albania and potentially to other countries within the Balkans, which have an Albanian-speaking population.

  11. A cluster-randomized trial of provider-initiated (opt-out) HIV counseling and testing of tuberculosis patients in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Diana S; Deluca, Andrea N; Kali, Paula; Hausler, Harry; Sheard, Carol; Hoosain, Ebrahim; Chaudhary, Mohammad A; Celentano, David D; Chaisson, Richard E

    2008-06-01

    To determine whether implementation of provider-initiated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) counseling would increase the proportion of tuberculosis (TB) patients who received HIV counseling and testing. Cluster-randomized trial with clinic as the unit of randomization. Twenty, medium-sized primary care TB clinics in the Nelson Mandela Metropolitan Municipality, Port Elizabeth, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. A total of 754 adults (18 years and older) newly registered as TB patients in the 20 study clinics. Implementation of provider-initiated HIV counseling and testing. Percentage of TB patients HIV counseled and tested. SECONDARY: Percentage of patients with HIV test positive, and percentage of those who received cotrimoxazole and who were referred for HIV care. : A total of 754 adults newly registered as TB patients were enrolled. In clinics randomly assigned to implement provider-initiated HIV counseling and testing, 20.7% (73/352) patients were counseled versus 7.7% (31/402) in the control clinics (P = 0.011), and 20.2% (n = 71) versus 6.5% (n = 26) underwent HIV testing (P = 0.009). Of those patients counseled, 97% in the intervention clinics accepted testing versus 79% in control clinics (P = 0.12). The proportion of patients identified as HIV infected in intervention clinics was 8.5% versus 2.5% in control clinics (P = 0.044). Fewer than 40% of patients with a positive HIV test were prescribed cotrimoxazole or referred for HIV care in either study arm. Provider-initiated HIV counseling significantly increased the proportion of adult TB patients who received HIV counseling and testing, but the magnitude of the effect was small. Additional interventions to optimize HIV testing for TB patients urgently need to be evaluated.

  12. A cluster randomized trial of provider-initiated (Opt-out) HIV counseling and testing of tuberculosis patients in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Diana S.; DeLuca, Andrea N.; Kali, Paula; Hausler, Harry; Sheard, Carol; Hoosain, Ebrahim; Chaudhary, Mohammed A.; Celentano, David D.; Chaisson, Richard E.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To determine whether implementation of provider-initiated HIV counseling would increase the proportion of tuberculosis patients that received HIV counseling and testing. Design Cluster-randomized trial with clinic as unit of randomization Setting Twenty, medium-sized primary care TB clinics in the Nelson Mandela Metropolitan Municipality, Port Elizabeth, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa Subjects A total of 754 adults (≥ 18 years) newly registered as tuberculosis patients the twenty study clinics Intervention Implementation of provider-initiated HIV counseling and testing. Main outcome measures Percentage of TB patients HIV counseled and tested. Secondary Percentage of patients HIV test positive and percentage of those that received cotrimoxazole and who were referred for HIV care. Results A total of 754 adults newly registered as tuberculosis patients were enrolled. In clinics randomly assigned to implement provider-initiated HIV counseling and testing, 20.7% (73/352) patients were counseled versus 7.7% (31/402) in the control clinics (p = 0.011), and 20.2 % (n = 71) versus 6.5% (n = 26) underwent HIV testing (p = 0.009). Of those patients counseled, 97% in the intervention clinics accepted testing versus 79% in control clinics (p =0.12). The proportion of patients identified as HIV-infected in intervention clinics was 8.5% versus 2.5% in control clinics (p=0.044). Fewer than 40% of patients with a positive HIV test were prescribed cotrimoxazole or referred for HIV care in either study arm. Conclusions Provider-initiated HIV counseling significantly increased the proportion of adult TB patients that received HIV counseling and testing, but the magnitude of the effect was small. Additional interventions to optimize HIV testing for TB patients urgently need to be evaluated. PMID:18520677

  13. “Experiences with disclosure of HIV-positive status to the infected child”: Perspectives of healthcare providers in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adellah Sariah

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The specific age to which an HIV infected child can be disclosed to is stipulated to begin between ages 4 and 6 years. It has also been documented that before disclosure of HIV positive status to the infected child. Health care providers should consider children’s cognitive-developmental ability. However, observation and situation analysis show that, health care providers still feel uncomfortable disclosing the HIV positive status to the infected child. The aim of the study was to explore healthcare providers’ experiences in disclosure of HIV-positive status to the infected child. Methods A qualitative study involving 20 health care providers who attend HIV-positive children was conducted in September, 2014 in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Participants were selected from ten HIV care and treatment clinics (CTC by purposive sampling. An interview guide, translated into participants’ national language (Kiswahili was used during in-depth interviews. Sampling followed the principle of data saturation. The interviews focused on perspectives of health-care providers regarding their experience with paediatric HIV disclosure. Data from in-depth interviews were transcribed into text; data analysis followed qualitative content analysis. Results The results show how complex the process of disclosure to children living with HIV can be to healthcare providers. Confusion was noted among healthcare providers about their role and responsibility in the process of disclosing to the HIV infected child. This was reported to be largely due to unclear guidelines and lack of standardized training in paediatric HIV disclosure. Furthermore, healthcare providers were concerned about parental hesitancy to disclose early to the child due to lack of disclosure skills and fear of stigma. In order to improve the disclosure process in HIV infected children, healthcare providers recommended further standardized training on paediatric HIV disclosure with

  14. Integrated opioid substitution therapy and HIV care: a qualitative systematic review and synthesis of client and provider experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guise, Andy; Seguin, Maureen; Mburu, Gitau; McLean, Susie; Grenfell, Pippa; Islam, Zahed; Filippovych, Sergii; Assan, Happy; Low, Andrea; Vickerman, Peter; Rhodes, Tim

    2017-09-01

    People who use drugs in many contexts have limited access to opioid substitution therapy and HIV care. Service integration is one strategy identified to support increased access. We reviewed and synthesized literature exploring client and provider experiences of integrated opioid substitution therapy and HIV care to identify acceptable approaches to care delivery. We systematically reviewed qualitative literature. We searched nine bibliographic databases, supplemented by manual searches of reference lists of articles from the database search, relevant journals, conferences, key organizations and consultation with experts. Thematic synthesis was used to develop descriptive themes in client and provider experiences. The search yielded 11 articles for inclusion, along with 8 expert and policy reports. We identify five descriptive themes: the convenience and comprehensive nature of co-located care, contrasting care philosophies and their role in shaping integration, the limits to disclosure and communication between clients and providers, opioid substitution therapy enabling HIV care access and engagement, and health system challenges to delivering integrated services. The discussion explores how integrated opioid substitution therapy and HIV care needs to adapt to specific social conditions, rather than following universal approaches. We identify priorities for future research. Acceptable integrated opioid substitution therapy and HIV care for people who use drugs and providers is most likely through co-located care and relies upon attention to stigma, supportive relationships and client centred cultures of delivery. Further research is needed to understand experiences of integrated care, particularly delivery in low and middle income settings and models of care focused on community and non-clinic based delivery.

  15. Understanding Care Linkage and Engagement Across 15 Adolescent Clinics: Provider Perspectives and Implications for Newly HIV-Infected Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philbin, Morgan M; Tanner, Amanda E; DuVal, Anna; Ellen, Jonathan M; Kapogiannis, Bill; Fortenberry, J Dennis

    2017-04-01

    The National HIV/AIDS Strategy emphasizes rapid care linkage and engagement for HIV-infected individuals, though many adolescents are never tested, delay entering care, and frequently drop out. We conducted 183 staff interviews at 15 adolescent medicine clinics (baseline, n = 64; Year 1, n = 60; Year 2, = 59). We used a constant comparative thematic method to examine how providers approached and discussed care linkage/engagement. Qualitative analyses revealed differences in providers' conceptualizations of linkage and engagement. Providers saw linkage as mechanistic and health system driven. It was defined by number of clinic visits and involved relatively little youth agency. In contrast, providers defined engagement by youths' responsibility and participation in their own care. Linkage and engagement are related but distinct aspects of care that require different resources and levels of staff involvement. Integrating an understanding of these differences into future interventions will allow clinic staff to help youth improve long-term health outcomes.

  16. Moral distress among Ugandan nurses providing HIV care: a critical ethnography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrowing, Jean N; Mill, Judy

    2010-06-01

    The phenomenon of moral distress among nurses has been described in a variety of high-income countries and practice settings. Defined as the biopsychosocial, cognitive, and behavioural effects experienced by clinicians when their values are compromised by internal or external constraints, it results from the inability to provide the desired care to patients. No research has been reported that addresses moral distress in severely resource-challenged regions such as sub-Saharan Africa. To describe the manifestation and impact of moral distress as it was experienced by Ugandan nurses who provided care to HIV-infected or -affected people. A critical ethnography was conducted with 24 acute care and public health nurses at a large referral centre in Uganda. Data were collected through interviews, observation, and focus group discussions. Participants described their passion for nursing and commitment to patients. They experienced moral distress when a lack of resources put patients' wellbeing at risk. The trauma imposed by systemic challenges on the nursing profession was acknowledged, as was the perception that the public blamed nurses for poor patient outcomes. However, participants were determined to serve to the best of their abilities and to take satisfaction from any contributions they were able to make. They cited the importance of education in the development of their capacity to provide care with a positive attitude, and demonstrated a collective resilience as they discussed strategies for addressing issues that affected them and their colleagues. The experience of moral distress among nurses in Uganda differed somewhat from the experience of nurses in high-income countries. Constraints imposed by the inability to implement skills and knowledge to their fullest extent, as well as a lack of resources and infrastructure may result in the omission of care for patients. Moral distress appears to manifest within a relational and contextual environment and

  17. Preventing HIV Among U.S. Women of Color With Severe Mental Illness: Perceptions of Mental Health Care Providers Working in Urban Community Clinics

    OpenAIRE

    Agénor, Madina; Collins, Pamela Y.

    2013-01-01

    Given their knowledge of the behavioral issues related to psychiatric illness, mental health care providers are in a unique position to help prevent HIV among women with severe mental illness (SMI). We conducted in-depth interviews with providers at two New York City community clinics. We identified three major, interrelated themes pertaining to HIV prevention among women of color with SMI. Interventions that address the barriers that clinicians face in discussing sex, sexuality, and HIV with...

  18. Preventing HIV among U.S. women of color with severe mental illness: perceptions of mental health care providers working in urban community clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agénor, Madina; Collins, Pamela Y

    2013-01-01

    Given their knowledge of the behavioral issues related to psychiatric illness, mental health care providers are in a unique position to help prevent HIV among women with severe mental illness (SMI). We conducted in-depth interviews with providers at two New York City community clinics. We identified three major, interrelated themes pertaining to HIV prevention among women of color with SMI. Interventions that address the barriers that clinicians face in discussing sex, sexuality, and HIV with patients and train providers in the cultural considerations of cross-cultural mental health care are needed to help prevent HIV among women of color with SMI.

  19. Preventing HIV Among U.S. Women of Color With Severe Mental Illness: Perceptions of Mental Health Care Providers Working in Urban Community Clinics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agénor, Madina; Collins, Pamela Y.

    2013-01-01

    Given their knowledge of the behavioral issues related to psychiatric illness, mental health care providers are in a unique position to help prevent HIV among women with severe mental illness (SMI). We conducted in-depth interviews with providers at two New York City community clinics. We identified three major, interrelated themes pertaining to HIV prevention among women of color with SMI. Interventions that address the barriers that clinicians face in discussing sex, sexuality, and HIV with patients and train providers in the cultural considerations of cross-cultural mental health care are needed to help prevent HIV among women of color with SMI. PMID:23394326

  20. HIV-1 Viral RNA Dynamics at the Plasma Membrane May Provide Insight into Viral Assembly | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many aspects of how infectious viruses assemble in cells have yet to be completely deciphered. However, as reported in a recent Journal of Virology paper, researchers may be one step closer to understanding how HIV-1, the virus that causes AIDS, assembles and replicates.

  1. Provider-initiated HIV counselling and testing (PICT) in the mentally ill

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    homelessness), resulting in no money for condoms and no privacy for safer sex negotiation. • hospitalisation, which impedes long-term relationships and the formation of social support structures. • substance use. Mental health problems are associated with an increased risk of acquiring and transmitting HIV and may also ...

  2. Provider-initiated HIV counselling and testing (PICT) in the mentally ill

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and testing (CICT); and (ii) PICT. In CICT, also referred to as voluntary counselling and testing (VCT), individuals actively seek. HIV testing and counselling at a facility that offers these services, as well as pre-test information. The process is voluntary and the. 'three Cs' (informed consent, counselling and confidentiality) are.

  3. The patient-provider relationship as experienced by a diverse sample of highly adherent HIV-infected people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brion, John

    2014-01-01

    Qualitative interviews with 23 HIV-infected people who self-reported high-level adherence to antiretroviral therapy were used to examine the process by which they came to accept their HIV infection and engage in high-level adherence behaviors. A major theme that emerged during data analysis was the importance of the patient-provider relationship. The quality of the relationship between patient and provider emerged as an important component of working through early struggles with diagnosis and the on-going struggles of living with a chronic illness. A variety of factors impacting the patient-provider relationship emerged as subthemes. What can be taken from this study is the importance of the patient-provider relationship in the effective self-management of HIV infection. Additionally, several specific behaviors can enhance the patient-provider relationship and help assure movement toward patient acceptance of the illness and engagement in high-level adherence behaviors. Copyright © 2014 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Key findings: a qualitative assessment of provider and patient perceptions of HIV/AIDS in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, James; Johnson, Anton F

    2009-01-01

    In 1997, at the Davos International Economic Forum, Nelson Mandela stated that "the poor, the vulnerable, the unschooled, the socially marginalized, the women, and the children, those who bear the burden of colonial legacy-these are the sectors of society which bear the burden of AIDS" (Richter, 2001). Nearly a decade later, that statement still holds true, especially in Mr. Mandela's home country. South Africa continues to have one of the world's highest prevalence ratios of HIV infection (UNAIDS, 2002). This paper explores the significance of perceptions, knowledge, practices, and attitudes toward HIV/AIDS in two important groups in South Africa: health care providers based in public health clinics and their patients. This paper will assess the provider-patient interaction from the perspective of members of the South African HIV/AIDS treatment and prevention community. The analysis will examine the results of in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with providers and patients, respectively, in two of South Africa's nine provinces. Between December 2002 and April 2003 in Guateng and KwaZulu-Natal provinces, we conducted (1) in-depth interviews of a spectrum of health care providers at five local public health clinics and (2) focus groups of patients who patronize those clinics. The results show that there are gaps in the HIV/AIDS knowledge of some of the health care providers and that the participants' health beliefs and practices are embedded in the social conditions in which they live and work, which has a ripple effect on their risk behaviors and trumps any intervention messages from their health care providers and larger public health intervention messages.

  5. 76 FR 50929 - Catastrophic Risk Protection Endorsement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-17

    ... Protection Endorsement AGENCY: Federal Crop Insurance Corporation, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The Federal Crop Insurance Corporation (FCIC) proposes to amend the Catastrophic Risk Protection Endorsement... Catastrophic Risk Protection Endorsement (7 CFR part 402), to be effective for the 2013 and succeeding crop...

  6. 78 FR 52832 - Catastrophic Risk Protection Endorsement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-27

    ... Federal Crop Insurance Corporation 7 CFR Part 402 RIN 0563-AC31 Catastrophic Risk Protection Endorsement... Corporation (FCIC) finalizes the Catastrophic Risk Protection Endorsement. The intended effect of this action... Protection Endorsement that were published by FCIC on August 17, 2011, as a notice of proposed rulemaking in...

  7. HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pain Fatigue HIV/AIDS Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  8. The views and experiences of nurses and midwives in the provision and management of provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling: a systematic review of qualitative evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Catrin; Nalubega, Sylivia; McLuskey, John; Darlington, Nicola; Croston, Michelle; Bath-Hextall, Fiona

    2016-01-15

    Global progress towards HIV prevention and care is contingent upon increasing the number of those aware of their status through HIV testing. Provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling is recommended globally as a strategy to enhance uptake of HIV testing and is primarily conducted by nurses and midwives. Research shows that provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling implementation is sub-optimal. The reasons for this are unclear. The review aimed to explore nurses' and midwives' views and experiences of the provision and management of provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling. All cadres of nurses and midwives were considered, including those who undertake routine HIV testing as part of a diverse role and those who are specifically trained as HIV counselors. Types of phenomenon of interest: The review sought to understand the views and experiences of the provision and management of provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling (including perceptions, opinions, beliefs, practices and strategies related to HIV testing and its implementation in practice). The review included only provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling. It excluded all other models of HIV testing. The review included all countries and all healthcare settings. Types of studies: This review considered all forms of qualitative study design and methodology. Qualitative elements of a mixed method study were included if they were presented separately within the publication. A three-step search strategy was utilized. Eight databases were searched for papers published from 1996 to October 2014, followed by hand searching of reference lists. Only studies published in the English language were considered. Methodological quality was assessed using the Qualitative Assessment and Review Instrument developed by the Joanna Briggs Institute. Qualitative findings were extracted using the Joanna Briggs Institute Qualitative Assessment and Review Instrument. Qualitative research findings were pooled

  9. Explaining perceived ability among older people to provide care as a result of HIV and AIDS in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Boon, Hermien; James, Shamagonam; Ruiter, Robert A.C.; Van Den Borne, Bart; Esu-Williams, Eka; Reddy, Priscilla

    2010-01-01

    Abstract In South Africa, older people have become the primary caregivers of children and grandchildren infected or affected by HIV and AIDS. This study explores the determinants of the perceived ability to care for children and grandchildren in the domains of providing nursing care, communicating with (grand) children, generating income, and to relax. Structured one-on-one interviews were conducted among 409 isiXhosa speaking older people in two sites in the Eastern Cape Province ...

  10. VISION: a regional performance improvement initiative for HIV health care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Theodore O; Hicks, Charles B; Naggie, Susanna; Wohl, David A; Albrecht, Helmut; Thielman, Nathan M; Rabin, Daniel U; Layton, Sherry; Subramaniam, Chitra; Grichnik, Katherine P; Shlien, Amanda; Weyer, Dianne

    2014-01-01

    VISION (HIV Integrated Learning ModuleS: Achieving Performance Improvement through CollaboratiON) was a regional performance improvement (PI) continuing medical education (CME) initiative designed to increase guideline-conforming practice of clinicians who manage patients with HIV infection. The 3-part activity consisted of (1) clinical practice assessment and development of an action plan for practice change, (2) completion of relevant education, and (3) reassessment. The activity did not change practitioners' performance in clinical status monitoring and in patient treatment, in large part because guidelines were being appropriately implemented at baseline as well as after the educational intervention. There was a trend toward improvement, however, in practitioner performance in the area of patient medication adherence (increased from 66% to 74%). Results observed in the VISION initiative were consistent with HIVQUAL metrics. Ongoing education in HIV is important, and VISION demonstrated performance improvement in medication adherence, a critical aspect of health care. © 2014 The Alliance for Continuing Education in the Health Professions, the Society for Academic Continuing Medical Education, and the Council on Continuing Medical Education, Association for Hospital Medical Education.

  11. Role of culture in celebrity endorsement: Brand endorsement by celebrities in Indian context

    OpenAIRE

    De, Abhishek; Sahay, Arvind

    2013-01-01

    Celebrity endorsement is a big market in India and continues to grow bigger. However, inspite of prevalent use of celebrities for endorsement, not all celebrity endorsements have been successful. The list of unsuccessful examples suggest that it will be wrong to consider celebrity endorsement as an effective response to media clutter in all situations inspite of the intensity of involvement people have with celebrities in India. In absence of existing celebrity endorsement theories to satisfa...

  12. STD patients’ preferences for HIV prevention strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castro JG

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Jose G Castro,1 Deborah L Jones,2 Stephen M Weiss2 1Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, 2Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA Abstract: The objective of this pilot study was to explore the knowledge of and preferences regarding effective biomedical interventions among high risk individuals attending a sexually transmitted diseases clinic, and to examine the effect of a brief information intervention on preference. Participants completed a baseline assessment, attended a presentation on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV prevention methods, and completed a postintervention assessment. Outcome measures included: demographics and sexual risk factors, self-perceived HIV risk, and knowledge and attitudes regarding new biomedical methods of HIV prevention. After the baseline evaluation, participants were provided with information on new biomedical prevention strategies. Participants were given the option to review the information by reading a pamphlet or by viewing a brief video containing the same information. Participants (n=97 were female (n=51 and male (n=46. At baseline, only a small minority of participants were aware of the newer biomedical strategies to prevent HIV infection. Postintervention, 40% endorsed having heard about the use of HIV medications to prevent HIV infection; 72% had heard that male circumcision can decrease the risk of acquiring HIV infection in men; and 73% endorsed knowledge of the potential role of microbicides in decreasing the risk of acquiring HIV. Following the intervention, the most preferred prevention method was male condoms, followed by preexposure prophylaxis, and microbicides. The least preferred methods were male circumcision and female condoms. This study provides preliminary information on knowledge and attitudes regarding newer biomedical interventions to protect against HIV infection. Keywords: STD clinic, biomedical HIV prevention, PrEP, male

  13. Routine inpatient provider-initiated HIV testing in Malawi, compared with client-initiated community-based testing, identifies younger children at higher risk of early mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preidis, Geoffrey A; McCollum, Eric D; Kamiyango, William; Garbino, Alejandro; Hosseinipour, Mina C; Kazembe, Peter N; Schutze, Gordon E; Kline, Mark W

    2013-05-01

    To determine how routine inpatient provider-initiated HIV testing differs from traditional community-based client-initiated testing with respect to clinical characteristics of children identified and outcomes of outpatient HIV care. Prospective observational cohort. Routine clinical data were collected from children identified as HIV-infected by either testing modality in Lilongwe, Malawi, in 2008. After 1 year of outpatient HIV care at the Baylor College of Medicine Clinical Center of Excellence, outcomes were assessed. Of 742 newly identified HIV-infected children enrolling into outpatient HIV care, 20.9% were identified by routine inpatient HIV testing. Compared with community-identified children, hospital-identified patients were younger (median 25.0 vs 53.5 months), with more severe disease (22.2% vs 7.8% WHO stage IV). Of 466 children with known outcomes, 15.0% died within the first year of HIV care; median time to death was 15.0 weeks for community-identified children vs 6.0 weeks for hospital-identified children. The strongest predictors of early mortality were severe malnutrition (hazard ratio, 4.3; 95% confidence interval, 2.2-8.3), moderate malnutrition (hazard ratio, 3.2; confidence interval, 1.6-6.6), age mortality. Routine inpatient HIV testing identifies a subset of younger HIV-infected children with more severe, rapidly progressing disease that traditional community-based testing modalities are currently missing.

  14. Reproductive rights and options available to women infected with HIV in Ghana: perspectives of service providers from three Ghanaian health facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laar, Amos Kankponang

    2013-03-15

    Owing to improved management of HIV and its associated opportunistic infections, many HIV-positive persons of reproductive age are choosing to exercise their right of parenthood. This study explored the knowledge of health workers from two Ghanaian districts on the reproductive rights and options available to HIV-positive women who wish to conceive. Facility-based cross-sectional in design, the study involved the entire population of nurse counselors (32) and medical officers (3) who provide counseling and testing services to clients infected with HIV. Both structured and in-depth interviews were conducted after informed consent. Two main perspectives were revealed. There was an overwhelmingly high level of approbation by the providers on HIV-positive women's right to reproduction (94.3%). At the same time, the providers demonstrated a lack of knowledge regarding the various reproductive options available to women infected with HIV. Site of facility, and being younger were associated with practices that violated client's right to contraceptive counseling (p problems that service providers face as HIV counselors. Both service providers and policy makers need to recognize these realities and incorporate reproductive health issues of HIV-persons into the existing guidelines.

  15. Patient-Provider Engagement and Chronic Pain in Drug-Using, Primarily African American Persons Living with HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Mary M; Nguyen, Trang Q; Maragh-Bass, Allysha C; Isenberg, Sarina R; Beach, Mary Catherine; Knowlton, Amy R

    2017-06-01

    Among disadvantaged persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV), patient-provider engagement, which has been defined as patient-provider relationships that promote the use of health care services and are characterized by active listening and supportive decision making, has been associated with antiretroviral therapy (ART) maintenance and viral suppression. However, chronic pain, depression, and substance use, all of which are prevalent in this population, can reduce the quality of patient-provider engagement. We hypothesized a model in which chronic pain, depression, and substance use would be associated with poorer patient-provider engagement, which would be positively associated with adherence, with the latter associated positively with viral suppression. We analyzed data from the BEACON study, which included surveys from 383 PLHIV who were primarily African American, on ART, and had histories of drug use. Due to six missing cases on the chronic pain variable, we used data from 377 respondents in a structural equation model. Chronic pain and depressive symptoms were significantly associated with poorer patient-provider engagement, while substance use was associated with better engagement. Patient-provider engagement in turn was associated with better ART adherence, which was associated with higher viral suppression. Results suggest the role of chronic pain in poor patient-physician engagement in this population, which has potential implications for quality of HIV patient care and health outcomes. Findings suggest the need for attention to patient-provider engagement in PLHIV.

  16. Experiences of health care providers with integrated HIV and reproductive health services in Kenya: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutemwa, Richard; Mayhew, Susannah; Colombini, Manuela; Busza, Joanna; Kivunaga, Jackline; Ndwiga, Charity

    2013-01-11

    There is broad consensus on the value of integration of HIV services and reproductive health services in regions of the world with generalised HIV/AIDS epidemics and high reproductive morbidity. Integration is thought to increase access to and uptake of health services; and improves their efficiency and cost-effectiveness through better use of available resources. However, there is still very limited empirical literature on health service providers and how they experience and operationalize integration. This qualitative study was conducted among frontline health workers to explore provider experiences with integration in order to ascertain their significance to the performance of integrated health facilities. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 32 frontline clinical officers, registered nurses, and enrolled nurses in Kitui district (Eastern province) and Thika and Nyeri districts (Central province) in Kenya. The study was conducted in health facilities providing integrated HIV and reproductive health services (post-natal care and family planning). All interviews were conducted in English, transcribed and analysed using Nvivo 8 qualitative data analysis software. Providers reported delivering services in provider-level and unit-level integration, as well as a combination of both. Provider experiences of actual integration were mixed. At personal level, providers valued skills enhancement, more variety and challenge in their work, better job satisfaction through increased client-satisfaction. However, they also felt that their salaries were poor, they faced increased occupational stress from: increased workload, treating very sick/poor clients, and less quality time with clients. At operational level, providers reported increased service uptake, increased willingness among clients to take an HIV test, and reduced loss of clients. But the majority also reported infrastructural and logistic deficiencies (insufficient physical room space, equipment

  17. Celebrity endorsements versus created spokespersons in advertising: a survey among students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delarey Van der Waldt

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study the use of endorsements in advertising was investigated.  Endorsements can either be in the form of a celebrity acting as a spokesperson for an organisation or the organisation can create a spokesperson to act as an endorser.  The problem that faces marketers is that little scientific proof exists if students perceive celebrity endorsements and creative spokespersons differently with regard to their expertise and trustworthiness.  The aim of this study was to determine the attitudes of respondents with regard to expertise, trustworthiness and attractiveness of created spokesperson and celebrity endorsements in advertisements. This knowledge will provide marketing professionals with the strategic advantage of how and when to make use of an endorser. Ohanian’s (1990 measurement scale of perceived expertise, trustworthiness and attractiveness was adopted in a self-administrative questionnaire for this article.  Respondents (n=185 were exposed to six visual images of endorsers namely:  three celebrities and three created spokespersons.  It was found that attractiveness should not be used as a factor when comparing created endorsers with celebrity endorsers.  The respondents perceived both endorsement applications as highly credible and professionals need to consider each application’s advantages and disadvantages when deciding which application will be more effective for their advertising strategy.  In the long term the organisation might find it more cost effective to create its own spokesperson due to the risk of possible characteristics changes or negative associations of celebrity endorsers.  Revoking advertisements after celebrity endorsers have received negative publicity or changed character can lead to great financial losses.  Created endorsers, on the other hand, provide the organisation with greater control and the ability to change to adapt to the organisations market and advertising needs.

  18. Provider-Initiated HIV Testing for Migrants in Spain : A Qualitative Study with Health Care Workers and Foreign-Born Sexual Minorities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Navaza, B.; Abarca, H.; Bisoffi, F.; Pool, R.; Roura, M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Provider-initiated HIV testing (PITC) is increasingly adopted in Europe. The success of the approach at identifying new HIV cases relies on its effectiveness at testing individuals most at risk. However, its suitability to reach populations facing overlapping vulnerabilities is under

  19. Why not Commercial Assistance for Suicide? On the Question of Argumentative Coherence of Endorsing Assisted Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipke, Roland

    2015-09-01

    Most people who endorse physician-assisted suicide are against commercially assisted suicide - a suicide assisted by professional non-medical providers against payment. The article questions if this position - endorsement of physician-assisted suicide on the one hand and rejection of commercially assisted suicide on the other hand - is a coherent ethical position. To this end the article first discusses some obvious advantages of commercially assisted suicide and then scrutinizes six types of argument about whether they can justify the rejection of commercially assisted suicide while simultaneously endorsing physician-assisted suicide. The conclusion is that they cannot provide this justification and that the mentioned position is not coherent. People who endorse physician-assisted suicide have to endorse commercially assisted suicide as well, or they have to revise their endorsement of physician-assisted suicide. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Correlated Electrostatic Mutations Provide a Reservoir of Stability in HIV Protease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haq, Omar; Andrec, Michael; Morozov, Alexandre V.; Levy, Ronald M.

    2012-01-01

    HIV protease, an aspartyl protease crucial to the life cycle of HIV, is the target of many drug development programs. Though many protease inhibitors are on the market, protease eventually evades these drugs by mutating at a rapid pace and building drug resistance. The drug resistance mutations, called primary mutations, are often destabilizing to the enzyme and this loss of stability has to be compensated for. Using a coarse-grained biophysical energy model together with statistical inference methods, we observe that accessory mutations of charged residues increase protein stability, playing a key role in compensating for destabilizing primary drug resistance mutations. Increased stability is intimately related to correlations between electrostatic mutations – uncorrelated mutations would strongly destabilize the enzyme. Additionally, statistical modeling indicates that the network of correlated electrostatic mutations has a simple topology and has evolved to minimize frustrated interactions. The model's statistical coupling parameters reflect this lack of frustration and strongly distinguish like-charge electrostatic interactions from unlike-charge interactions for of the most significantly correlated double mutants. Finally, we demonstrate that our model has considerable predictive power and can be used to predict complex mutation patterns, that have not yet been observed due to finite sample size effects, and which are likely to exist within the larger patient population whose virus has not yet been sequenced. PMID:22969420

  1. Language and Culture in Health Literacy for People Living with HIV: Perspectives of Health Care Providers and Professional Care Team Members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keitshokile Dintle Mogobe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Low health literacy has been linked to inadequate engagement in care and may serve as a contributor to poor health outcomes among people living with HIV and AIDS. The purpose of this paper was to examine the perspectives of health care providers and professional care team members regarding health literacy in HIV disease. A secondary data analysis was conducted from a qualitative study aimed at understanding factors that help an HIV positive person to manage their HIV disease. Data were collected from sites in Botswana, the US, and Puerto Rico. In the parent study, data were collected through focus group discussions with 135 people living with HIV, 32 HIV health care providers (HCPs, and 39 HIV professional care team members (PCTMs. SPSS was used to analyze quantitative data while ATLAS.ti was used to analyze qualitative data. The findings from analyses of the perspectives of HCPs/PCTMs suggested that linguistic and cultural factors were important themes in the exchange of HIV information between health care providers and PLHIV. These themes included ineffective communication, health seeking behavior, cultural facilitators, and complementary and alternative/traditional healing methods. Thus, this study suggests that language and culture have a major role in health literacy for PLHIV.

  2. Language and Culture in Health Literacy for People Living with HIV: Perspectives of Health Care Providers and Professional Care Team Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogobe, Keitshokile Dintle; Shaibu, Sheila; Matshediso, Ellah; Sabone, Motshedisi; Ntsayagae, Esther; Nicholas, Patrice K; Portillo, Carmen J; Corless, Inge B; Rose, Carol Dawson; Johnson, Mallory O; Webel, Allison; Cuca, Yvette; Rivero-Méndez, Marta; Solís Báez, Solymar S; Nokes, Kathleen; Reyes, Darcel; Kemppainen, Jeanne; Reid, Paula; Sanzero Eller, Lucille; Lindgren, Teri; Holzemer, William L; Wantland, Dean

    2016-01-01

    Low health literacy has been linked to inadequate engagement in care and may serve as a contributor to poor health outcomes among people living with HIV and AIDS. The purpose of this paper was to examine the perspectives of health care providers and professional care team members regarding health literacy in HIV disease. A secondary data analysis was conducted from a qualitative study aimed at understanding factors that help an HIV positive person to manage their HIV disease. Data were collected from sites in Botswana, the US, and Puerto Rico. In the parent study, data were collected through focus group discussions with 135 people living with HIV, 32 HIV health care providers (HCPs), and 39 HIV professional care team members (PCTMs). SPSS was used to analyze quantitative data while ATLAS.ti was used to analyze qualitative data. The findings from analyses of the perspectives of HCPs/PCTMs suggested that linguistic and cultural factors were important themes in the exchange of HIV information between health care providers and PLHIV. These themes included ineffective communication, health seeking behavior, cultural facilitators, and complementary and alternative/traditional healing methods. Thus, this study suggests that language and culture have a major role in health literacy for PLHIV.

  3. Will circumcision provide even more protection from HIV to women and men? New estimates of the population impact of circumcision interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallett, Timothy B; Alsallaq, Ramzi A; Baeten, Jared M; Weiss, Helen; Celum, Connie; Gray, Ron; Abu-Raddad, Laith

    2011-03-01

    Mathematical modelling has indicated that expansion of male circumcision services in high HIV prevalence settings can substantially reduce population-level HIV transmission. However, these projections need revision to incorporate new data on the effect of male circumcision on the risk of acquiring and transmitting HIV. Recent data on the effect of male circumcision during wound healing and the risk of HIV transmission to women were synthesised based on four trials of circumcision among adults and new observational data of HIV transmission rates in stable partnerships from men circumcised at younger ages. New estimates were generated for the impact of circumcision interventions in two mathematical models, representing the HIV epidemics in Zimbabwe and Kisumu, Kenya. The models did not capture the interaction between circumcision, HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. An increase in the risk of HIV acquisition and transmission during wound healing is unlikely to have a major impact of circumcision interventions. However, it was estimated that circumcision confers a 46% reduction in the rate of male-to-female HIV transmission. If this reduction begins 2 years after the procedure, the impact of circumcision is substantially enhanced and accelerated compared with previous projections with no such effect-increasing by 40% the infections averted by the intervention overall and doubling the number of infections averted among women. Communities, and especially women, may benefit much more from circumcision interventions than had previously been predicted, and these results provide an even greater imperative to increase scale-up of safe male circumcision services.

  4. Comprehensiveness of HIV care provided at global HIV treatment sites in the IeDEA consortium: 2009 and 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristin Q Fritz

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: The availability of viral load monitoring remains suboptimal and should be a focus for site capacity, particularly in East and Southern Africa, where the majority of those initiating on ART reside. However, the comprehensiveness of care provided increased over the past 5 years and was related to type of funding received (publicly funded and PEPFAR supported.

  5. What Health Service Provider Factors Are Associated with Low Delivery of HIV Testing to Children with Acute Malnutrition in Dowa District of Malawi?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lusungu Chitete

    Full Text Available The Community-based Management of Acute Malnutrition is the national program for treating acute malnutrition in Malawi. Under this program's guidelines all children enrolled should undergo an HIV test, so that those infected can receive appropriate treatment and care. However, the national data of 2012 shows a low delivery of testing. Prior studies have investigated client-related factors affecting uptake of HIV testing in Community-based Management of Acute Malnutrition program. Lacking is the information on the service provider factors that are associated with the delivery of testing. This study investigated service provider factors that affect delivery of HIV testing among children enrolled in the program and explored ways in which this could be improved.A descriptive study that used qualitative methods of data collection. Client registers were reviewed to obtain the number of children enrolled in Community-based Management of Acute Malnutrition and the number of children who were tested for HIV over a 12-month period. In-depth interviews were conducted with Community-based Management of Acute Malnutrition and HIV Testing and Counselling focal persons to investigate factors affecting HIV test delivery. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze data from client registers. Information from interviews was analyzed using a thematic approach.Quantitative data revealed that 1738 (58% of 2981 children enrolled in Community-based Management of Acute Malnutrition were tested for HIV. From in-depth interviews four themes emerged, that is, lack of resources for HIV tests; shortage of staff skilled in HIV testing and counseling; lack of commitment among staff in referring children for HIV testing; and inadequately trained staff.There is a need for a functioning health system to help reduce child mortality resulting from HIV related conditions.

  6. What Health Service Provider Factors Are Associated with Low Delivery of HIV Testing to Children with Acute Malnutrition in Dowa District of Malawi?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitete, Lusungu; Puoane, Thandi

    2015-01-01

    The Community-based Management of Acute Malnutrition is the national program for treating acute malnutrition in Malawi. Under this program's guidelines all children enrolled should undergo an HIV test, so that those infected can receive appropriate treatment and care. However, the national data of 2012 shows a low delivery of testing. Prior studies have investigated client-related factors affecting uptake of HIV testing in Community-based Management of Acute Malnutrition program. Lacking is the information on the service provider factors that are associated with the delivery of testing. This study investigated service provider factors that affect delivery of HIV testing among children enrolled in the program and explored ways in which this could be improved. A descriptive study that used qualitative methods of data collection. Client registers were reviewed to obtain the number of children enrolled in Community-based Management of Acute Malnutrition and the number of children who were tested for HIV over a 12-month period. In-depth interviews were conducted with Community-based Management of Acute Malnutrition and HIV Testing and Counselling focal persons to investigate factors affecting HIV test delivery. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze data from client registers. Information from interviews was analyzed using a thematic approach. Quantitative data revealed that 1738 (58%) of 2981 children enrolled in Community-based Management of Acute Malnutrition were tested for HIV. From in-depth interviews four themes emerged, that is, lack of resources for HIV tests; shortage of staff skilled in HIV testing and counseling; lack of commitment among staff in referring children for HIV testing; and inadequately trained staff. There is a need for a functioning health system to help reduce child mortality resulting from HIV related conditions.

  7. Celebrity Endorsement : Hidden factors to success

    OpenAIRE

    Saouma, Joulyana; Chabo, Dimed

    2005-01-01

    Abstract The use of celebrity endorsement strategy is nowadays more frequently used by marketers in order to increase their sales and thereby extend their market shares. Many celebrities are used in various marketing campaigns and in most cases; the use of celebrities as endorsers is seen from mainly positive aspects. This made the authors curious whether the negative aspects, that also exists when using celebrities as endorsers, affects consumers in their purchasing decisions when a celebrit...

  8. Changes in ADHD symptom endorsement: preschool to school age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curchack-Lichtin, Jocelyn T; Chacko, Anil; Halperin, Jeffrey M

    2014-08-01

    To investigate endorsement patterns among the 18 DSM-IV symptoms of ADHD in a longitudinal sample of children with and without ADHD (n = 144), as assessed at ages 4-5, 5-6, and 6-7 years. Symptom endorsements and diagnoses were determined at all time-points via K-SADS-PL interview administered to parents and supplemented by teacher questionnaires and clinician observations. Changes in endorsement patterns over time for each of the 18 DSM-IV symptoms were ascertained. Several symptoms, particularly those of inattention, were infrequently endorsed and of apparently limited diagnostic utility at ages 4-5; hyperactive/impulsive symptoms were more frequently endorsed among young children with ADHD than were inattentive symptoms. However, by ages 6-7, inattention items were somewhat superior at discriminating ADHD from Non-ADHD children. Several DSM-IV and now DSM-V symptoms provide limited diagnostic differentiation prior to school-age, particularly those most commonly observed in the context of formal schooling. Consideration should be made in future iterations of the DSM that account for such developmental and contextual differences.

  9. HIV

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction. The·human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) can be transmiHed from one person to onother through the use of non-sterile nee- dles, syringes, and other skin-piercing and invasive instruments. Proper .sterilization of all such instruments is therefore important to prevent its transmission. HIV is very sensitive to ...

  10. hiv

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-03-31

    Mar 31, 2016 ... Indexed By: African Journal Online (AJOL); Texila American University; Genamics; Scholarsteer; EIJASR; CAS-American Chemical. Society; and IRMS Informatics India (J-Gate). ABSTRACT. This study evaluated the effect of HIV infection on CD4 T-lymphocyte depletion in people living with HIV/AIDS.

  11. 20 CFR 703.109 - Longshoremen's endorsement; see succeeding parts for endorsements for extensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Longshoremen's endorsement; see succeeding parts for endorsements for extensions. 703.109 Section 703.109 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT STANDARDS... INSURANCE REGULATIONS Authorization of Insurance Carriers § 703.109 Longshoremen's endorsement; see...

  12. Stereotype Endorsement And Mathematics-Related Behaviour ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stereotype Endorsement And Mathematics-Related Behaviour Among Female Secondary School Students In The Kingdom Of Lesotho. ... The results of appropriate data analyses to test thirteen research hypotheses showed a low level of stereotype endorsement of Mathematics as a male-only subject among the girls but ...

  13. 20 CFR 704.351 - OCSLA endorsement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... disability or death sustained by an employee during the life of the policy. The company agrees to abide by... Shelf Lands Act § 704.351 OCSLA endorsement. The following form of endorsement applicable to the... Act, as extended by the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act, and all the laws amendatory thereof or...

  14. Protestant Ethic Endorsement, Personality, and General Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, Andrew N.; Furnham, Adrian; Batey, Mark; Martin, G. Neil; Koenig, Cynthia S.; Doty, Kristin

    2010-01-01

    To learn if Protestant ethic endorsement predicted intelligence controlling for the big five personality factors, 364 college students from England and the United States completed a 65-item multifaceted work ethic endorsement measure, the 50-item Wonderlic Personnel Test, and a 60-item measure of the big five personality factors. A hierarchical…

  15. Gold Seal Vocational Endorsement and Scholarship Program, 1993-94. Information Booklet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Vocational, Adult, and Community Education.

    This revised edition provides information about Florida's Gold Seal Vocational Endorsement and Scholarship program. The booklet includes the following: (1) general program information, including information on eligible vocational program areas, program eligibility requirements, Gold Seal endorsement program requirements, competency testing, course…

  16. Decliners of provider-initiated HIV testing and counselling: Characteristics of participants who refused HIV testing in a population survey in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascalina Chanda-Kapata

    2015-08-01

    Conclusions: Strategies to improve HIV testing acceptance are necessary. Qualitative research is recommended to understand the reasons for testing refusals so that remedial interventions can be implemented.

  17. Perceived Empathy of Service Providers Mediates the Association between Perceived Discrimination and Behavioral Intention to Take Up HIV Antibody Testing Again among Men Who Have Sex with Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jing; Lau, Joseph T. F.; Wang, Zixin; Wu, Anise M. S.; Tan, Xuhui

    2015-01-01

    HIV antibody testing is a key measure of HIV prevention for men who have sex with men (MSM). The World Health Organization recommends sexually active and at-risk MSM to take up HIV antibody testing regularly. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of behavioral intention to take up HIV antibody testing in the next six months among Hong Kong MSM who were ever-testers. An anonymous cross-sectional survey recruited 326 MSM who had taken up HIV antibody testing from gay-friendly venues and internet in Hong Kong. Of the participants, 40.8% had had unprotected anal intercourse with regular or non-regular male sex partners in the last six months; they were at risk of HIV transmission despite experience in HIV antibody testing. Only 37.2% showed a strong intention to take up HIV antibody testing again in the next six months. Adjusted analysis showed that both perceived discrimination toward Hong Kong MSM (AOR = .60, 95% CI: .36–.98) and the CARE Measure assessing perceived empathy of service providers (AOR = 1.05, 95% CI: 1.02–1.08) were significantly associated with intention for retesting. Perceived discrimination, however, became statistically non-significant (AOR = .68, 95% CI: .41–1.14), when both CARE Measure and perceived discrimination entered into the adjusted model. It is warranted to increase HIV retesting rate by removing perceived discrimination and reducing the negative effect of perceived discrimination through enhancement of empathy of service providers. PMID:25693179

  18. Providing HIV care to men who have sex with men in South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    health programming for this population group. South Africa's enabling constitution and government's (SAG's) commitment to providing appropriate care to key populations, including MSM, has provided an opportunity to gather data and develop and implement evidence-based health services. Anova Health Institute, in ...

  19. Acceptance of Provider Initiated HIV Testing and Counseling among Tuberculosis Patients in East Wollega Administrative Zone, Oromia Regional State, Western Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wakjira Kebede

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV is a powerful risk factor for the development of tuberculosis. This study assessed the acceptance and associated factors that can affect provider initiated HIV testing and counseling (PITC among tuberculosis patients at the East Wollega administrative zone, Oromia regional state, western Ethiopia, from January to August, 2010. A single population proportion formula is used to calculate the total sample size of 406 and the cluster sampling technique was used to select 13 health centers that provide PITC services. The sample size was proportionally allocated to each health center. The study participants were selected using a simple random sampling technique using the lottery method. Structured questionnaire was used for collection of sociodemographic data. From the total of study subjects, 399 (98.2% TB patients were initiated for HIV test and 369 (92.5% patients accepted the initiation. Of those, 353 (95.5% patients had taken HIV test and received their results. According to the reviewed documents, the prevalence of HIV among tuberculosis (TB patients in the study area was 137 (33.7%. The logistic regression result showed the PITC was significantly associated with their knowledge about HIV (AOR = 3.22, 95% CI: 1.3–7.97, self-perceived risk (AOR = 2.93, 95% CI: 1.12–7.66, educational status (AOR = 3.51, 95% CI: 1.13–10.91, and knowledge on transmission of HIV/AIDS (AOR = 7.56, 95% CI: 1.14–40.35 which were significantly associated with the acceptance of PITC among TB patients. Therefore, this study’s results showed, the prevalence of HIV among TB patient was high; to enhance the acceptance of PITC among TB patients, health extension workers must provide health education during home-to-home visiting. TB treatment supervisors also provide counseling intensively for all forms of TB patients during their first clinical encounter.

  20. Fertility and contraceptive decision-making and support for HIV infected individuals: client and provider experiences and perceptions at two HIV clinics in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanyenze Rhoda K

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV want to have children while others want to prevent pregnancies; this calls for comprehensive services to address both needs. This study explored decisions to have or not to have children and contraceptive preferences among PLHIV at two clinics in Uganda. Methods This was a qualitative cross-sectional study. We conducted seventeen focus group discussions and 14 in-depth interviews with sexually active adult men and women and adolescent girls and boys, and eight key informant interviews with providers. Overall, 106 individuals participated in the interviews; including 84 clients through focus group discussions. Qualitative latent content analysis technique was used, guided by key study questions and objectives. A coding system was developed before the transcripts were examined. Codes were grouped into categories and then themes and subthemes further identified. Results In terms of contraceptive preferences, clients had a wide range of preferences; whereas some did not like condoms, pills and injectables, others preferred these methods. Fears of complications were raised mainly about pills and injectables while cost of the methods was a major issue for the injectables, implants and intrauterine devices. Other than HIV sero-discordance and ill health (which was cited as transient, the decision to have children or not was largely influenced by socio-cultural factors. All adult men, women and adolescents noted the need to have children, preferably more than one. The major reasons for wanting more children for those who already had some were; the sex of the children (wanting to have both girls and boys and especially boys, desire for large families, pressure from family, and getting new partners. Providers were supportive of the decision to have children, especially for those who did not have any child at all, but some clients cited negative experiences with providers and information gaps for

  1. HIV Testing Among Teens Attending Therapeutic Schools: Having a Personal Source of Information About HIV/AIDS Matters!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, Rebecca R; Houck, Christopher; Sarfati, David; Emerson, Erin; Donenberg, Geri; Brown, Larry K

    2015-06-01

    Being informed and using positive coping strategies are associated with engaging in health-promoting behaviors. We assessed whether the type of information source about HIV (personal or impersonal) and coping strategies (optimism, avoidance, or emotion-focused) are associated with HIV testing among adolescents attending therapeutic schools. Participants were 417 adolescents, ages 13-19, who attended one of 20 therapeutic day schools for emotionally/behaviorally disordered youth in two US cities (Providence, RI and Chicago, IL) and completed a baseline assessment for an HIV prevention study. Among adolescents in the study, 29% reported having been tested for HIV. Adolescents were more likely to have been tested if they were older, female, Hispanic, identified as non-heterosexual, came from lower SES households, and had recently had unprotected sex. Additionally, youth who endorsed greater use of optimistic thinking and emotion-focused coping, and who reported having been informed about HIV by more personal sources, were also more likely to have been tested for HIV. In a multivariate analysis, having had recent unprotected sex and having more personal sources of information about HIV/AIDS were independently associated with HIV testing. Study findings suggest that, controlling for sociodemographic background, sexual risk behavior, and coping strategy, HIV testing among adolescents with emotional and behavioral problems may be increased when adolescents learn about HIV/AIDS from personal sources such as their healthcare providers, family, and friends.

  2. Same-sex attraction disclosure to health care providers among New York City men who have sex with men: implications for HIV testing approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Kyle T; Liu, Kai-Lih; Begier, Elizabeth M; Koblin, Beryl; Karpati, Adam; Murrill, Christopher

    2008-07-14

    While the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends at least annual human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) screening for men who have sex with men (MSM), a large number of HIV infections among this population go unrecognized. We examined the association between disclosing to their medical providers (eg, physicians, nurses, physician assistants) same-sex attraction and self-reported HIV testing among MSM in New York City, New York. All men recruited from the New York City National HIV Behavioral Surveillance (NHBS) project who reported at least 1 male sex partner in the past year and self-reported as HIV seronegative were included in the analysis. The primary outcome of interest was a participant having told his health care provider that he is attracted to or has sex with other men. Sociodemographic and behavioral factors were examined in relation to disclosure of same-sex attraction. Among the 452 MSM respondents, 175 (39%) did not disclose to their health care providers. Black and Hispanic MSM (adjusted odds ratios, 0.28 [95% confidence interval, 0.14-0.53] and 0.46 [95% confidence interval, 0.24-0.85], respectively) were less likely than white MSM to have disclosed to their health care providers. No MSM who identified themselves as bisexual had disclosed to their health care providers. Those who had ever been tested for HIV were more likely to have disclosed to their health care providers (adjusted odds ratio, 2.10; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-4.38). These data suggest that risk-based HIV testing, which is contingent on health care providers being aware of their patients' risks, could miss these high-risk persons.

  3. Patterns of patient and healthcare provider viewpoints regarding participation in HIV cure-related clinical trials. Findings from a multicentre French survey using Q methodology (ANRS-APSEC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christel Protière

    Full Text Available Despite huge advances in the fight against HIV concerning diagnosis, clinical efficacy of antiretroviral treatments (ART, patient survival and quality of life, there is still no cure. Recent developments in HIV cure research have opened the way for clinical trials which could lead to a temporary or definitive end to ART. However, ethical questions exist about related trial-participation risks. The main goal of the ANRS-APSEC survey was, using Q-methodology, to investigate the viewpoints of people living with HIV (PLWH and HIV healthcare providers (HHP regarding motivations for and barriers to participation in HIV Cure-related clinical trials (HCRCT.Thirty-three statements were defined encompassing seven dimensions: treatment and follow-up; risks; benefits; patient-physician relationship; beliefs and attitudes; information; target population. Forty-one PLWH and 41 HHP from five French HIV services were asked to rank-order the statements.Five main viewpoints were elicited from "the most motivated" to "the most reluctant" vis-à-vis HCRCT participation. All placed importance on the wish to participate in HIV research. This result is in line with the HIV-specific culture of joint mobilization. For some viewpoints, the motivation to participate in/propose HCRCT was primarily conditioned by side-effects and/or by constraints, which overall were more accepted by PLWH than HHP. Some viewpoints placed particular importance on HCRCT recruitment strategies. Finally, some expressed a high acceptance of risks and constraints but emphasized the need for information.HIV cure research clinical trials (HCRCT constitute a risky yet unavoidable step towards the goal of finding a cure. To improve future HCRCT and informed consent designs, based on PLWH and HHP preferences and expectations, we need greater knowledge about how these populations perceive the risks and the benefits of HCRCT. Our results confirmed the importance of careful, studied HCRCT design

  4. Individual attitudes and perceived social norms: Reports on HIV/AIDS-related stigma among service providers in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Liang, Li-Jung; Wu, Zunyou; Lin, Chunqing; Wen, Yi

    2009-01-01

    This study examined HIV/AIDS-related stigma among Chinese service providers by comparing their personal attitudes toward people living with HIV/AIDS with their perception of social norms related to people living with HIV/AIDS. We randomly selected three provincial hospitals, four city/prefecture hospitals, 10 county hospitals, 18 township health clinics, and 54 village clinics from Yunnan, China. Doctors and nurses were randomly sampled proportionally to the doctor-nurse ratio of each hospital or clinic. Lab technicians were over-sampled in order to include an adequate representation in the analysis. A total of 1,101 service providers participated in a voluntary, anonymous survey where demographic characteristics, individual attitude and perceived social norms toward people living with HIV/AIDS, discrimination intent at work, general prejudicial attitude and knowledge on HIV/AIDS were measured. A majority of the sample demonstrated a similarity between their personal views and what they thought most people in society believe. Multiple logistic regressions revealed that participants who were younger or reported personal contact with people living with HIV/AIDS were significantly more likely to report personal attitudes toward the population that were more liberal than their perceived social norms. Holding a more liberal personal attitude toward people living with HIV/AIDS than perceived social norms was significantly and negatively related to the level of discrimination intent at work, perceived discrimination at interpersonal level and the level of general prejudicial attitude toward people living with HIV/AIDS. Results underscored the importance of understanding social norms and personal attitudes in studying HIV-related stigma and called for the incorporation of existing human capital into future HIV stigma reduction programs. Cette étude a examiné le VIH/SIDA lié à stigmatisation parmi les agences chinoises fournissant des soins en comparant leurs attitudes

  5. Endorsement liability: putting your good name at risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aicher, R H

    2001-07-01

    Endorsements designed to sell products are most effective when the endorser is a celebrity or an expert. If such endorsements contain misrepresentations, the endorser risks personal liability. For products related to health and safety, endorsements are subject to evaluation by reliable independent sources. In a number of high-profile cases, the Federal Trade Commission determined that endorsers must have a reasonable basis for their representations. (Aesthetic Surg J 2001;21:373-374.).

  6. A new model of how celebrity endorsements work: attitude toward the endorsement as a mediator of celebrity source and endorsement effects

    OpenAIRE

    Bergkvist, Lars; Hjalmarson, Hanna; Mägi, Anne W.

    2015-01-01

    This research introduces attitude towards the endorsement as a mediating variable in the relationships between celebrity source and endorsement factors and brand attitude. It also includes perceived celebrity motive, a variable rarely studied in the previous literature, as an endorsement factor. In a survey study, respondents evaluated four celebrity endorsement campaigns. Mediation analyses show that attitude towards the endorsement mediates the effects of three variables on brand attitude; ...

  7. A new model of how celebrity endorsements work : attitude toward the endorsement as a mediator of celebrity source and endorsement effects

    OpenAIRE

    Bergkvist, Lars; Hjalmarson, Hanna; Mägi, Anne W.

    2016-01-01

    This research introduces attitude towards the endorsement as a mediating variable in the relationships between celebrity source and endorsement factors and brand attitude. It also includes perceived celebrity motive, a variable rarely studied in the previous literature, as an endorsement factor. In a survey study, respondents evaluated four celebrity endorsement campaigns. Mediation analyses show that attitude towards the endorsement mediates the effects of three variables on brand attitude; ...

  8. Multifamily Hubs' Initial Endorsements FY12

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Describes the program, geographic & lender distribution of multifamily loans initially endorsed for FHA insurance or risk sharing in FY 12. A loan is initially...

  9. “Inside These Fences is Our Own Little World”: Prison-Based HIV Testing and HIV-Related Stigma Among Incarcerated Men and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muessig, Kathryn E.; Rosen, David L.; Farel, Claire E.; White, Becky L.; Filene, Eliza J.; Wohl, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Correctional facilities offer opportunities to provide comprehensive HIV services including education, testing, treatment, and coordination of post-release care. However, these services may be undermined by unaddressed HIV stigma. As part of a prison-based HIV testing study, we interviewed 76 incarcerated men and women from the North Carolina State prison system. The sample was 72% men, median age 31.5 years (range: 19 to 60). Thematic analysis revealed high levels of HIV-related fear and stigma, homophobia, incomplete HIV transmission knowledge, beliefs that HIV is highly contagious within prisons (“HIV miasma”), and the view of HIV testing as protective. Interviewees described social distancing behaviors and coping mechanisms they perceived to be protective, including knowing their HIV status and avoiding contact with others and shared objects. Interviewees endorsed universal testing, public HIV status disclosure, and segregation of HIV-positive inmates. Intensified education and counseling efforts are needed to ameliorate entrenched HIV-transmission fears and stigmatizing beliefs. PMID:27459162

  10. A theoretical reflection of celebrity endorsement in Nigeria

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Milford I Udo; Nwulu; Chinyere Stella

    2015-01-01

    .... This instigated the researchers to theoretically examine what celebrity endorsement is all about, celebrity-worship relationship and endorser effects, risks associated with the use of celebrity...

  11. The Effectiveness of Celebrity Endorsement in India

    OpenAIRE

    Surana, Rajni

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The practice of celebrities being used for rendering services other than performing their actual job as either an actor or an athlete, such as endorsements has proliferated over time. Despite the cost and the risks involved with this technique of advertising, it is been used quite extensively in the present era. The instrument of celebrity endorsement has nowadays become a pervasive element in advertising and communication management. India as a country is known for loving its ...

  12. [Acceptability of HIV testing provided to infants in pediatric services in Cote d'Ivoire, meanings for pediatric diagnostic coverage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oga, Maxime; Brou, Hermann; Dago-Akribi, Hortense; Coffie, Patrick; Amani-Bossé, Clarisse; Ekouévi, Didier; Yapo, Vincent; Menan, Hervé; Ndondoki, Camille; Timité-Konan, M; Leroy, Valériane

    2014-01-01

    HIV testing in children had rarely been a central concern for researchers. When pediatric tracking retained the attention, it was more to inform on the diagnosis tools' performances rather than the fact the pediatric test can be accepted or refused. This article highlights the parents' reasons which explain why pediatric HIV test is accepted or refused. To study among parents, the explanatory factors of the acceptability of pediatric HIV testing among infant less than six months. Semi-structured interview with repeated passages in the parents of infants less than six months attending in health care facilities for the pediatric weighing/vaccination and consultations. We highlight that the parents' acceptance of the pediatric HIV screening is based on three elements. Firstly, the health care workers by his speech (which indicates its own knowledge and perceptions on the infection) directed towards mothers' influences their acceptance or not of the HIV test. Secondly, the mother who by her knowledge and perceptions on HIV, whose particular status, give an impression of her own wellbeing for her and her child influences any acceptance of the pediatric HIV test. Thirdly, the marital environment of the mother, particularly characterized by the ease of communication within the couple, to speak about the HIV test and its realization for the parents or the mother only are many factors which influence the effective realization of the pediatric HIV testing. The preventive principle of HIV transmission and the desire to realize the test in the newborn are not enough alone to lead to its effective realization, according to certain mothers confronted with the father's refusal. On the other hand, the other mothers refusing the realization of the pediatric test told to be opposed to it; of course, even if their partner would accept it. The mothers are the principal facing the pediatric HIV question and fear the reprimands and stigma. The father, the partner could be an obstacle

  13. Challenges in Providing HIV and Sexuality Education to Learners with Disabilities in South Africa: The Voice of Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Reus, Liset; Hanass-Hancock, Jill; Henken, Sophie; van Brakel, Wim

    2015-01-01

    People with disabilities are at increased risk of exposure to HIV, yet they lack access to HIV prevention, treatment care and support including sexuality education. Lack of knowledge, skills and confidence of educators teaching sexuality education to learners with disabilities is related to this increased vulnerability. This study identifies…

  14. Prevalence and predictors of HIV among Chinese tuberculosis patients by provider-initiated HIV testing and counselling (PITC: a multisite study in South Central of China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjie Xu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB and HIV are two worldwide public health concerns. Co-infection of these two diseases has been considered to be a major obstacle for the global efforts in reaching the goals for the prevention of HIV and TB. METHOD: A comprehensive cross-sectional study was conducted to recruit TB patients in three provinces (Guangxi, Henan and Sichuan of China between April 1 and September 30, 2010. RESULTS: A total of 1,032 consenting TB patients attended this survey during the study period. Among the participants, 3.30% were HIV positive; about one quarter had opportunistic infections. Nearly half of the participants were 50 years or older, the majority were male and about one third were from minority ethnic groups. After adjusting for site, gender and areas of residence (using the partial/selective Model 1, former commercial plasma donors (adjusted OR [aOR] = 33.71 and injecting drug users(aOR = 15.86 were found to have significantly higher risk of being HIV-positivity. In addition, having extramarital sexual relationship (aOR = 307.16, being engaged in commercial sex (aOR = 252.37, suffering from opportunistic infections in the past six months (aOR = 2.79, losing 10% or more of the body weight in the past six months (aOR = 5.90 and having abnormal chest X-ray findings (aOR = 20.40 were all significantly associated with HIV seropositivity (each p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: HIV prevalence among TB patients was high in the study areas of China. To control the dual epidemic, intervention strategies targeting socio-demographic and behavioral factors associated with higher risk of TB-HIV co-infection are urgently called for.

  15. Indonesian prisons and HIV: part of the problem, part of the solution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelwan, Erni Juwita; Diana, Aly; van Crevel, Reinout; Alam, Nisaa Nur; Alisjahbana, Bachti; Pohan, Herdiman T; van der Ven, Andre; Djaya, Ilham

    2009-07-01

    Around the world, HIV-prevalence rates among prisoners are high compared to the general population. This is due to overrepresentation of injecting drug users (IDUs) in prison and possible HIV-transmission inside prison. Limited health services in penitentiary institutes, stigma, policy issues, and budgetary constraints may hamper delivery of appropriate services for HIV in prison. Prisons may, on the other hand, enable the access to a high risk population for HIV-prevention and -care. IDUs are namely hard to reach outside prisons, while in prison targeted interventions for IDUs can be used repeatedly and economically. Also, harm reduction and HIV-treatment can be supervised and monitored carefully. This paper reviews HIV-prevention and care in prison, and describes the experience in one particular prison in West Java, Indonesia. Based on the literature and local experience, one can conclude that effective and widespread HIV-testing and treatment can be established in prisons if there is commitment from prison authorities, endorsement of services by prison staff and inmates, and collaboration with health care providers from outside prison. Essential components of HIV-services in prison include appropriate health care services, a suitable environment for HIV-counseling and -testing and tailored services for injecting drug use. By partner counseling and linking HIV-services in prison with continued care afterwards, prisons may contribute significantly to HIV-control in the general population, especially in settings where HIV is often due to injecting drug use.

  16. Improving sexual health for HIV patients by providing a combination of integrated public health and hospital care services; a one-group pre- and post test intervention comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dukers-Muijrers Nicole HTM

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hospital HIV care and public sexual health care (a Sexual Health Care Centre services were integrated to provide sexual health counselling and sexually transmitted infections (STIs testing and treatment (sexual health care to larger numbers of HIV patients. Services, need and usage were assessed using a patient perspective, which is a key factor for the success of service integration. Methods The study design was a one-group pre-test and post-test comparison of 447 HIV-infected heterosexual individuals and men who have sex with men (MSM attending a hospital-based HIV centre serving the southern region of the Netherlands. The intervention offered comprehensive sexual health care using an integrated care approach. The main outcomes were intervention uptake, patients’ pre-test care needs (n=254, and quality rating. Results Pre intervention, 43% of the patients wanted to discuss sexual health (51% MSM; 30% heterosexuals. Of these patients, 12% to 35% reported regular coverage, and up to 25% never discussed sexual health topics at their HIV care visits. Of the patients, 24% used our intervention. Usage was higher among patients who previously expressed a need to discuss sexual health. Most patients who used the integrated services were new users of public health services. STIs were detected in 13% of MSM and in none of the heterosexuals. The quality of care was rated good. Conclusions The HIV patients in our study generally considered sexual health important, but the regular counselling and testing at the HIV care visit was insufficient. The integration of public health and hospital services benefited both care sectors and their patients by addressing sexual health questions, detecting STIs, and conducting partner notification. Successful sexual health care uptake requires increased awareness among patients about their care options as well as a cultural shift among care providers.

  17. HIV provider-patient communication regarding cardiovascular risk: results from the AIDS Treatment for Life International Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherer, Renslow; Solomon, Suniti; Schechter, Mauro; Nachega, Jean B; Rockstroh, Jurgen; Zuniga, José M

    2014-01-01

    Few global studies have assessed HIV clinician-patient communication regarding cardiovascular disease (CVD) risks. We conducted a multicountry, comparative, cross-sectional survey of HIV-infected individuals in 12 countries on 5 continents in 2010, with 100 to 200 enrollees per country. HIV-infected adults >17 years and on antiretroviral therapy were recruited in clinics and community organizations and surveyed via direct interview, telephone encounter, or online. Chi-square analyses were performed with an 80% power to detect a difference of >20%. Of 2035 participants, 37% were women. Prevalence of self-reported CVD risk factors was 28% overall, and greater CVD risk was present in 55% of patients in North America, 12% in Africa, and 26% to 28% on other continents. Only 19% of patients ever discussed CVD with their physician, and 31% had ever discussed hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, family history of CVD, or smoking; these findings were true for HIV clinicians in all regions of the world. Forty-four percent of smokers reported never discussing smoking with their HIV clinician. We found that HIV clinicians worldwide are not sufficiently addressing CVD risk factors with their patients. Expanded training and education for HIV clinicians should include effective approaches to the mitigation of CV risk factors.

  18. Challenges faced by health-care providers offering infant-feeding counseling to HIV-positive women in sub-Saharan Africa: a review of current research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuthill, Emily L; Chan, Jessica; Butler, Lisa M

    2015-01-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) has been identified as the optimal nutrition and critical behavior in attaining human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-free infant survival in resource-limited settings. Health-care providers (HCPs) in clinic- and community-settings throughout sub-Saharan Africa (sSA) provide infant-feeding counseling. However, rates of EBF at 6 months of age are suboptimal. HCPs are uniquely positioned to educate HIV-positive mothers and provide support by addressing known barriers to EBF. However, limited evidence exists on the experiences faced by HCPs in providing counseling on infant feeding to HIV-positive women. Our objective is to describe experiences faced by HCPs when delivering infant-feeding counseling in the context of HIV in program settings in sSA. We searched a range of electronic databases, including PubMed, CINAHL, and PsycINFO from January 1990 to February 2013, in addition to hand-searching, cross-reference searching, and personal communications. The search was limited to publications in English. Empirical studies of HCP experiences providing infant-feeding counseling in the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV programs in sSA were selected. We identified 10 peer-reviewed articles reporting HCP challenges in infant-feeding counseling that met inclusion criteria. Articles included qualitative, cross-sectional and mixed-method studies, and cumulatively reported 31 challenges faced by HCPs. Among the challenges identified, the most commonly reported were personal beliefs held by the HCPs toward infant feeding in the context of HIV, contradictory messages, staff workload, directive counseling styles, and a lack of practical strategies to offer mothers, often leading to improvised counseling approaches. Counseling strategies need to be developed that are relevant, meaningful, and responsive to the needs of both HCPs and mothers.

  19. Knowledge of tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and perception about provider initiated HIV testing and counselling among TB patients attending health facilities in Harar town, Eastern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis (TB) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) co-infection is one of the major health problems in Ethiopia. The national TB and HIV control guideline in Ethiopia recommends provider initiated HIV testing and counselling (PITC) as a routine care for TB patients. However, the impact of this approach on the treatment seeking of TB patients has not been well studied. In this study, we assessed knowledge of TB and HIV, and perception about PITC among TB patients attending health facilities in Harar town, Eastern Ethiopia. Methods In a health facilities based cross-sectional study, a total of 415 study participants were interviewed about knowledge of TB and HIV as well as the impact of HIV testing on their treatment seeking behavior using a semi-structured questionnaires. Results Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed the association of distance > 10 km from health facility [adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=0.48, 95% CI: 0.24 - 0.97, P=0.042] with low knowledge of TB. Distance > 10 km from health facility (AOR= 0.12, 95% CI: 0.06 -0.23, P .001) was also associated with low knowledge of HIV testing. Delay in treatment seeking was associated with female participants (AOR = 0.11, 95% CI: 0.05-0.25, .001), single marital status (AOR =0.001, 95% CI: 0.00 - 0.01, P.001) and distance > 10 km from health facility (AOR =0.46, 95% CI: 0.28 - 0.75, P=0.002). Most of the study participants (70%) believed that there is no association between TB and HIV/AIDS. On the other hand, two thirds (66.5%) of the participants thought that HIV testing has importance for TB patients. However, the majority (81.6%) of the study participants in the age category less than 21 years believed that fear of PITC could cause delay in treatment seeking. Conclusion The study showed the association of low knowledge of the study participants about TB and HIV testing with distance > 10 km from health facility. Study participants in the age category less than 21 years thought that fear

  20. 31 CFR 328.5 - Forms of endorsement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Forms of endorsement. 328.5 Section..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT RESTRICTIVE ENDORSEMENTS OF U.S. BEARER SECURITIES § 328.5 Forms of endorsement. (a) When presented by banks—(1) For payment or exchange. The endorsement...

  1. 31 CFR 330.3 - Special endorsement of securities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special endorsement of securities... SPECIAL ENDORSEMENT OF UNITED STATES SAVINGS BONDS AND UNITED STATES SAVINGS NOTES (FREEDOM SHARES) § 330.3 Special endorsement of securities. (a) Form of endorsement. Each security processed under the...

  2. 46 CFR 151.10-15 - Certificate endorsement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Certificate endorsement. 151.10-15 Section 151.10-15... Certificate endorsement. (a)-(b) (c) Certificate endorsement. The following information shall be submitted, and upon approval of calculations shall form part of the endorsement on the Certificate of Inspection...

  3. 31 CFR 328.6 - Requirements for endorsement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements for endorsement. 328.6... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT RESTRICTIVE ENDORSEMENTS OF U.S. BEARER SECURITIES § 328.6 Requirements for endorsement. (a) On bearer securities. The endorsement must be imprinted...

  4. 46 CFR 153.30 - Special area endorsement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special area endorsement. 153.30 Section 153.30 Shipping... endorsement. The Coast Guard endorses the Certificate of Inspection of a United States ship allowing it to operate in special areas if the ship owner— (a) Requests the endorsement following the procedures in § 153...

  5. 49 CFR 383.117 - Requirements for passenger endorsement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for passenger endorsement. 383.117... Requirements for passenger endorsement. An applicant for the passenger endorsement must satisfy both of the... passenger endorsement must have knowledge covering at least the following topics: (1) Proper procedures for...

  6. 46 CFR 13.119 - Expiration of endorsement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Expiration of endorsement. 13.119 Section 13.119... TANKERMEN General § 13.119 Expiration of endorsement. An endorsement as tankerman is valid for the duration of the merchant mariner's document or merchant mariner credential on which the endorsement appears. ...

  7. 46 CFR 11.544 - Endorsement as assistant engineer (MODU).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Endorsement as assistant engineer (MODU). 11.544 Section... REQUIREMENTS FOR OFFICER ENDORSEMENTS Professional Requirements for Engineer Officer § 11.544 Endorsement as assistant engineer (MODU). To qualify for an endorsement as assistant engineer (MODU) an applicant must: (a...

  8. 46 CFR 11.542 - Endorsement as chief engineer (MODU).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Endorsement as chief engineer (MODU). 11.542 Section 11... REQUIREMENTS FOR OFFICER ENDORSEMENTS Professional Requirements for Engineer Officer § 11.542 Endorsement as chief engineer (MODU). To qualify for an endorsement as chief engineer (MODU) an applicant must: (a...

  9. 7 CFR 457.163 - Nursery peak inventory endorsement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nursery peak inventory endorsement. 457.163 Section... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.163 Nursery peak inventory endorsement. Nursery Crop Insurance Peak Inventory Endorsement This endorsement is not continuous and must be...

  10. 7 CFR 457.164 - Nursery rehabilitation endorsement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nursery rehabilitation endorsement. 457.164 Section... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.164 Nursery rehabilitation endorsement. Nursery Crop Insurance Rehabilitation Endorsement If you elect this endorsement and pay the...

  11. Development and pilot testing of HIV screening program integration within public/primary health centers providing antenatal care services in Maharashtra, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindoria, Suchitra V; Devkar, Ramesh; Gupta, Indrani; Ranebennur, Virupax; Saggurti, Niranjan; Ramesh, Sowmya; Deshmukh, Dilip; Gaikwad, Sanjeevsingh

    2014-03-26

    The objectives of this paper are: (1) to study the feasibility and relative benefits of integrating the prevention of parent-to-child transmission (PPTCT) component of the National AIDS Control Program with the maternal and child health component of the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) by offering HIV screening at the primary healthcare level; and (2) to estimate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio to understand whether the costs are commensurate with the benefits. The intervention included advocacy with political, administrative/health heads, and capacity building of health staff in Satara district, Maharashtra, India. The intervention also conducted biannual outreach activities at primary health centers (PHCs)/sub-centers (SCs); initiated facility-based integrated counseling and testing centers (FICTCs) at all round-the-clock PHCs; made the existing FICTCs functional and trained PHC nurses in HIV screening. All "functional" FICTCs were equipped to screen for HIV and trained staff provided counseling and conducted HIV testing as per the national protocol. Data were collected pre- and post- integration on the number of pregnant women screened for HIV, the number of functional FICTCs and intervention costs. Trend analyses on various outcome measures were conducted. Further, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio per pregnant woman screened was calculated. An additional 27% of HIV-infected women were detected during the intervention period as the annual HIV screening increased from pre- to post-intervention (55% to 79%, p < 0.001) among antenatal care (ANC) attendees under the NRHM. A greater increase in HIV screening was observed in PHCs/SCs. The proportions of functional FICTCs increased from 47% to 97% (p < 0.001). Additionally, 93% of HIV-infected pregnant women were linked to anti-retroviral therapy centers; 92% of mother-baby pairs received Nevirapine; and 89% of exposed babies were enrolled for early infant diagnosis. The incremental cost

  12. Consumers' online brand endorsements: a study into intentions to endorse different types of brands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernritter, S.F.

    2014-01-01

    Advertisers increasingly motivate people to endorse brands as a tactic to overcome people’s resistance against traditional persuasion attempts. In the present paper we introduce the concept of consumer endorsement, which we define as people’s intentional public and positive affiliations with brands.

  13. Appraisal of HIV Counseling and Testing Services Provided for Pregnant Women in Selected Government Hospitals in Ibadan Metropolis, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olanipekun Asiyanbola

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available HIV counseling and testing (HCT is a critical gateway to treatment, care, and support services. For pregnant women, it is to access prevention of mother-to-child-transmission (PMTCT services. However, not much has been done to appraise this service from the perspective of the recipients in Nigeria. This study documents the appraisal of the HCT services received at the antenatal care (ANC services in three government hospitals in Ibadan, Nigeria, from the perspectives of pregnant women. Data were collected using focus group discussion guide among purposively selected 40 (21 primigravida and 19 multigravida pregnant women. Observation and inventory checklists were used to collect data on procedures and basic requirements of HCT. Content analysis was used to analyze the data. Participants were neither counseled nor given opportunity to voluntarily participate in HCT services as it was made compulsory before accessing ANC. Test results were reportedly handed over directly to participants without post-test counseling. Observation of HCT procedure showed that guidelines for counseling were not strictly adhered to. Inventory of facilities, staff, and materials revealed inadequate staffing, lack of a dedicated counseling room, and inadequate antiretroviral drugs and test kits. The HCT services as provided for pregnant women are fraught with procedural inadequacies. Training and supervision of health care workers as well as provision of resources are needed to address the situation.

  14. Traditional herbal medicine use among people living with HIV/AIDS in Gondar, Ethiopia: Do their health care providers know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haile, Kaleab Taye; Ayele, Asnakew Achaw; Mekuria, Abebe Basazn; Demeke, Chilot Abiyu; Gebresillassie, Begashaw Melaku; Erku, Daniel Asfaw

    2017-12-01

    People living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) are increasingly using herbal remedies due to the chronic nature of the disease, the complexities of treatment modalities and the difficulty in adhering to the therapeutic regimens. Yet, research on herbal medicine use in this patient population is scarce in Ethiopia. The present study aimed at investigating the prevalence and factors associated with the use of traditional herbal medicine among PLWHA in Gondar, Ethiopia. A cross sectional survey was conducted on 360 PLWHA attending the outpatient clinic of University of Gondar referral and teaching hospital from September 1 to 30, 2016. A questionnaire about the socio-demographic, disease characteristics as well as traditional herbal medicine use was filled by the respondents. Descriptive statistics, univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to determine prevalence and correlates of herbal medicine use. Out of 360 respondents, 255 (70.8%) used traditional herbal medicine. The most common herbal preparations used by PLWHA were Ginger (Zingiber officinale) (47%), Garlic (Allium sativum L.) (40.8%) and Moringa (Moringa stenopetala) (31.4%). Majority of herbal medicine users rarely disclose their use of herbal medicines to their health care providers (61.2%). Only lower educational status was found to be strong predictors of herbal medicine use in the multivariate logistic regression. The use of herbal medicine among PLWHA is a routine practice and associated with a lower educational status. Patients also rarely disclose their use of herbal medicines to their health care providers. From the stand point of high prevalence and low disclosure rate, health care providers should often consult patients regarding herbal medicine use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Knowledge of tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and perception about provider initiated HIV testing and counselling among TB patients attending health facilities in Harar town, Eastern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyoum, Ayichew; Legesse, Mengistu

    2013-02-08

    Tuberculosis (TB) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) co-infection is one of the major health problems in Ethiopia. The national TB and HIV control guideline in Ethiopia recommends provider initiated HIV testing and counselling (PITC) as a routine care for TB patients. However, the impact of this approach on the treatment seeking of TB patients has not been well studied. In this study, we assessed knowledge of TB and HIV, and perception about PITC among TB patients attending health facilities in Harar town, Eastern Ethiopia. In a health facilities based cross-sectional study, a total of 415 study participants were interviewed about knowledge of TB and HIV as well as the impact of HIV testing on their treatment seeking behavior using a semi-structured questionnaires. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed the association of distance > 10 km from health facility [adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=0.48, 95% CI: 0.24 - 0.97, P=0.042] with low knowledge of TB. Distance > 10 km from health facility (AOR= 0.12, 95% CI: 0.06 -0.23, P 10 km from health facility (AOR =0.46, 95% CI: 0.28 - 0.75, P=0.002). Most of the study participants (70%) believed that there is no association between TB and HIV/AIDS. On the other hand, two thirds (66.5%) of the participants thought that HIV testing has importance for TB patients. However, the majority (81.6%) of the study participants in the age category less than 21 years believed that fear of PITC could cause delay in treatment seeking. The study showed the association of low knowledge of the study participants about TB and HIV testing with distance > 10 km from health facility. Study participants in the age category less than 21 years thought that fear of PITC could cause treatment delay of TB patients. Hence, emphasis should be given to improve knowledge of TB and HIV among residents far away from health facility, and attention also needs to be given to improve the perception of individuals in the age group less than 21 years

  16. Perspectives and Practice of HIV Disclosure to Children and Adolescents by Healthcare Providers and Caregivers in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluyemisi Aderomilehin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest prevalence of HIV globally, and this is due to persistent new HIV infections and decline in HIV/AIDS-related mortality from improved access to antiretroviral therapy. There is a limited body of work on perspectives of healthcare providers concerning disclosing outcomes of HIV investigations to children and adolescents in Sub-Saharan Africa. Most studies are country-specific, indicating a need for a regional scope. Objective: To review the current literature on the perspectives of healthcare providers and caregivers of children and adolescents on age group-specific and culture-sensitive HIV disclosure practice. Methods: Electronic database search in PubMed, Google scholar and the University of South Florida (USF Library Discovery Tool (January 2006 up to February 2016. Further internet search was conducted using the Journal Author Name Estimator (JANE search engine and extracting bibliographies of relevant articles. Search terms included ‘disclosure*’, ‘HIV guidelines’, ‘Sub-Saharan Africa’, ‘clinical staff’, ‘ART’, ‘antiretroviral adherence’, ‘People living with HIV’, ‘pediatric HIV’, ‘HIV’, ‘AIDS’, ‘healthcare provider’ (HCP, ‘caregiver’, ‘adolescent’, ‘primary care physicians’, ‘nurses’, ‘patients’. Only studies related to HIV/AIDS disclosure, healthcare providers, caregivers that clearly described perspectives and interactions during disclosure of HIV/AIDS sero-status to affected children and adolescents were included. Independent extraction of articles was conducted by reviewers using predefined criteria. Nineteen articles met inclusion criteria. Most studies were convenience samples consisting of combinations of children, adolescents, HCPs and caregivers. Key findings were categorized into disclosure types, prevalence, facilitators, timing, process, persons best to disclose, disclosure setting, barriers and outcomes of disclosure

  17. Helping the Helpers: An International Training Program for Professionals Providing Social Services for HIV-Positive Children and Their Families in Southern Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartakovsky, Eugene

    2011-01-01

    Over one hundred children and some of their parents were infected with HIV in state hospitals in the Chimkent region in Southern Kazakhstan. After this tragedy, the Regional Department of Public Health organized social services for these families and asked the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee (JDC) to provide them with training and…

  18. Response rates for providing a blood specimen for HIV testing in a population-based survey of young adults in Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dube Hazel M

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine differences among persons who provided blood specimens for HIV testing compared with those who did not among those interviewed for the population-based Zimbabwe Young Adult Survey (YAS. Methods Chi-square analysis of weighted data to compare demographic and behavioral data of persons interviewed who provided specimens for anonymous testing with those who did not. Prevalence estimation to determine the impact if persons not providing specimens had higher prevalence rates than those who did. Results Comparing those who provided specimens with those who did not, there was no significant difference by age, residence, education, marital status, perceived risk, sexual experience or number of sex partners for women. A significant difference by sexual experience was found for men. Prevalence estimates did not change substantially when prevalence was assumed to be two times higher for persons not providing specimens. Conclusion When comparing persons who provided specimens for HIV testing with those who did not, few significant differences were found. If those who did not provide specimens had prevalence rates twice that of those who did, overall prevalence would not be substantially affected. Refusal to provide blood specimens does not appear to have contributed to an underestimation of HIV prevalence.

  19. Development of internalized and personal stigma among patients with and without HIV infection and occupational stigma among health care providers in Southern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li J

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Jing Li,1,2,* Sawitri Assanangkornchai,1,* Lin Lu,3 Manhong Jia,3,* Edward B McNeil,1,* Jing You,4,* Virasakdi Chongsuvivatwong1,* 1Epidemiology Unit, Faculty of Medicine, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla, Thailand; 2School of Public Health, Kunming Medical University, 3Yunnan Center for Disease Prevention and Control, 4Infectious Diseases Department, The First Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University, Kunming, Yunnan Province, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: HIV/AIDS-related stigma is a major barrier of access to care for those infected with HIV. The aim of this study was to examine, validate, and adapt measuring scales of internalized, personal, and occupational stigma developed in Africa into a Chinese context. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from January to September 2015 in Kunming, People’s Republic of China. Various scales were constructed on the basis of the previous studies with modifications by experts using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses (EFA + CFA. Validation of the new scales was done using multiple linear regression models and hypothesis testing of the factorial structure invariance. Results: The numbers of subjects recruited for the development/validation samples were 696/667 HIV-positive patients, 699/667 non-HIV patients, and 157/155 health care providers. EFA revealed a two-factor solution for internalized and personal stigma scales (guilt/blaming and being refused/refusing service, which were confirmed by CFA with reliability coefficients (r of 0.869 and 0.853, respectively. The occupational stigma scale was found to have a three-factor structure (blaming, professionalism, and egalitarianism with a reliability coefficient (r of 0.839. Higher correlations of factors in the HIV patients (r=0.537 and non-HIV patients (r=0.703 were observed in contrast to low-level correlations (r=0.231, 0.286, and 0.266 among factors

  20. Celebrity endorsement in marketing communications

    OpenAIRE

    Aspa, Jukka Kimmo Antero

    2009-01-01

    This master thesis will discuss elements of using celebrity in marketing communication. Theory will cover basic communication process, Elaboration Likelihood Model, and meaning transfer model but main focus will be in discussing various celebrity selection theories, identifying different risks involved in using celebrities in marketing communication and investigating ways how to utilize celebrities to enhance the communication. Several examples are included to provide connection to real life ...

  1. Investigating sport celebrity endorsement and sport event ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    When detailed product information is not available to consumers inferences are made using product cues to reduce uncertainty and to form perceptions of products. Advertisers can make use of sport sponsorship and sport celebrity endorsement as extrinsic cues to influence consumers\\' pre-purchase attitudes. These cues ...

  2. Adolescents' Responses to Sports Figure Product Endorsement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Steven T.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Reports a survey of sixth, eighth, and tenth graders to assess the relationship between exposure to television advertisements containing sports celebrity endorsements of smokeless tobacco products with attitudes, beliefs, and perceptions about the use of smokeless tobacco. Reports that a simple exposure model does not explain the effects of…

  3. Challenges in the delivery of public HIV testing and counselling (HTC) in Douala, Cameroon: providers perspectives and implications on quality of HTC services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngangue, Patrice; Gagnon, Marie-Pierre; Bedard, Emmanuelle

    2017-04-08

    The Cameroon government has made HIV testing and counselling (HTC) a priority in its HIV/AIDS strategic plan. However, there is a dearth of literature on the perspectives of providers on the quality of HTC services. The aim of this study was to explore challenges in the provision of HTC services and their implications on quality of HTC services in Douala's district hospitals. Two primary data collection methods supported by the Donabedian's model of healthcare were used to explain the challenges in the provision of HTC services and their implications on quality of HTC services. This consisted of semi-structured individual interviews with 6 nurses and 16 lay counsellors and a non-participant observation of the physical environment for HTC by site. The study sites were the prevention and voluntary testing and counselling centre (PVTCC) of the six district hospitals of the city of Douala. The study reveals concerns about confidentiality and privacy during the counselling sessions due to inadequate and limited space. An absence of consent, even verbal, was reported in one PVTCC. There is no specific accredited training curriculum that leads to a formal registration as a PVTCC staff, and some lay counsellors work without training. Lay counsellors carry the burden of HIV counselling, but the majority of them work for many years without remuneration and recognition. Another quality challenge is the high workload in the district hospitals' lab, which leads to long waiting times for HIV test results, thus contributing to failure to return for results. The findings of this study highlighted some issues such as lack of adequate space and equipment for HIV testing and counselling that hinder the quality of HTC services and should challenge the health authorities of Cameroon on the need to reorganize HTC services and create a national HIV quality assurance program.

  4. The nursing implications of routine provider-initiated HIV testing and counselling in sub-Saharan Africa: a critical review of new policy guidance from WHO/UNAIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Catrin; Ndirangu, Eunice

    2009-05-01

    In 2007 WHO/UNAIDS issued new HIV testing guidelines recommending 'provider-initiated HIV testing and counselling' (PITC). In contrast to existing 'voluntary counselling and testing' guidelines (whereby individuals self refer for testing), the PITC guidance recommends that, in countries with generalised epidemics, all patients are routinely offered an HIV test during clinical encounters. In sub-Saharan Africa, PITC aims to dramatically increase HIV testing rates so that PITC becomes a vehicle to increase access to HIV prevention and care. Nurses in this region work on the frontlines of HIV testing but have been neglected in related policy development. To provide an overview of the PITC policy guidance and to critically consider its implications for the nursing profession in sub-Saharan Africa. Policy documents and published and unpublished research were identified from organisational websites, electronic databases and conference proceedings. PITC has generated widespread debate about whether it is the right approach in a context of HIV-related stigma and lack of human/material resources. Key concerns are whether/how informed consent, privacy and confidentiality will be upheld in overstretched health care settings, and whether appropriate post-test counselling, treatment and support can be provided. Limited available evidence suggests that health systems factors and organisational/professional culture may create obstacles to effective PITC implementation. Specific findings are that: PITC greatly increases nurses' workload and work-related stress. Nurses are generally positive about PITC, but express the need for more training and managerial support. Health system constraints (lack of staff, lack of space) mean that nurses do not always have time to provide adequate counselling. A hierarchical and didactic nursing culture affects counselling quality and the boundaries between voluntary informed consent and coercion can become rather blurred. Nurses are particularly

  5. Messages on pregnancy and family planning that providers give women living with HIV in the context of a Positive Health, Dignity, and Prevention intervention in Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilliard S

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Starr Hilliard, Sarah A Gutin, Carol Dawson Rose Department of Community Health Systems, School of Nursing, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA Background: Family planning is an important HIV prevention tool for women living with HIV (WLHIV. In Mozambique, the prevalence of HIV among women of reproductive age is 13.1% and the average fertility rate is high. However, family planning and reproductive health for WLHIV are under-addressed in Mozambique. This study explores provider descriptions of reproductive health messages in order to identify possible barriers and facilitators to successfully addressing family planning and pregnancy concerns of WLHIV. Methods: In 2006, a Positive Health, Dignity, and Prevention program was introduced in Mozambique focused on training health care providers to work with patients to reduce their transmission risks. Providers received training on multiple components, including family planning and prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT. In-depth interviews were conducted with 31 providers who participated in the training in five rural clinics in three provinces. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results: Analysis showed that providers' clinical messages on family planning, pregnancy, and PMTCT for WLHIV could be arranged along a continuum. Provider statements ranged from saying that WLHIV should not become pregnant and condoms are the only valid form of family planning for WLHIV, to suggesting that WLHIV can have safe pregnancies. Conclusion: These data indicate that many providers continue to believe that WLHIV should not have children and this represents a challenge for integrating family planning into the care of WLHIV. Also, not offering WLHIV a full selection of family planning methods severely limits their ability to protect themselves from unintended pregnancies and to fully exercise their reproductive rights. Responding to the reproductive health

  6. A reduced factor structure for the PROQOL-HIV questionnaire provided reliable indicators of health-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalanne, Christophe; Chassany, Olivier; Carrieri, Patrizia; Marcellin, Fabienne; Armstrong, Andrew R; Lert, France; Spire, Bruno; Dray-Spira, Rosemary; Duracinsky, Martin

    2016-04-01

    To identify a simplified factor structure for the PROQOL-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) questionnaire to improve the measurement of the health-related quality of life (HRQL) of HIV-positive patients in clinical care and research settings. HRQL data were collected using the eight-dimension PROQOL-HIV questionnaire from 2,537 patients (VESPA2 study). Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) validated a simpler four-factor structure and assessed measurement invariance (MI). Multigroup analysis assessed the effect of sex, age, and antiretroviral therapy (ART) on the resulting factor scores. Correlations with symptom and Short Form (SF)-12 self-reports assessed convergent validity. Item analysis, EFA, and CFAs confirmed the validity [comparative fit index (CFI), 0.948; root mean square error of approximation, 0.064] and reliability (α's ≥ 0.8) of four dimensions: physical health and symptoms, health concerns and mental distress, social and intimate relationships, and treatment-related impact. Strong MI was demonstrated across sex and age (decrease in CFI indicator model indicated that HRQL correlated as expected with sex, age, and the ART status. Correlations of HRQL, symptom reports, and SF-12 scores evidenced convergent validity criterion. The simplified factor structure and scoring scheme for PROQOL-HIV will allow clinicians to monitor with greater reliability the HRQL of patients in clinical care and research settings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Costs of providing food assistance to HIV/AIDS patients in Sofala province, Mozambique: a retrospective analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Posse, M.E.; Baltussen, R.M.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As care and antiretroviral treatment (ART) for people living with HIV/AIDS become widely available, the number of people accessing these resources also increases. Despite this exceptional progress, the estimated coverage in low- and middle-income countries is still less than half of all

  8. Curcumin-loaded apotransferrin nanoparticles provide efficient cellular uptake and effectively inhibit HIV-1 replication in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upendhar Gandapu

    Full Text Available Curcumin (diferuloylmethane shows significant activity across a wide spectrum of conditions, but its usefulness is rather limited because of its low bioavailability. Use of nanoparticle formulations to enhance curcumin bioavailability is an emerging area of research.In the present study, curcumin-loaded apotransferrin nanoparticles (nano-curcumin prepared by sol-oil chemistry and were characterized by electron and atomic force microscopy. Confocal studies and fluorimetric analysis revealed that these particles enter T cells through transferrin-mediated endocytosis. Nano-curcumin releases significant quantities of drug gradually over a fairly long period, ∼50% of curcumin still remaining at 6 h of time. In contrast, intracellular soluble curcumin (sol-curcumin reaches a maximum at 2 h followed by its complete elimination by 4 h. While sol-curcumin (GI(50 = 15.6 µM is twice more toxic than nano-curcumin (GI(50 = 32.5 µM, nano-curcumin (IC(50<1.75 µM shows a higher anti-HIV activity compared to sol-curcumin (IC(50 = 5.1 µM. Studies in vitro showed that nano-curcumin prominently inhibited the HIV-1 induced expression of Topo II α, IL-1β and COX-2, an effect not seen with sol-curcumin. Nano-curcumin did not affect the expression of Topoisomerase II β and TNF α. This point out that nano-curcumin affects the HIV-1 induced inflammatory responses through pathways downstream or independent of TNF α. Furthermore, nano-curcumin completely blocks the synthesis of viral cDNA in the gag region suggesting that the nano-curcumin mediated inhibition of HIV-1 replication is targeted to viral cDNA synthesis.Curcumin-loaded apotransferrin nanoparticles are highly efficacious inhibitors of HIV-1 replication in vitro and promise a high potential for clinical usefulness.

  9. Locomotion concerns with moral usefulness: When liberals endorse binding moral foundations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornwell, James F M; Higgins, E Tory

    2014-01-01

    Moral Foundations Theory has provided a framework for understanding the endorsement of different moral beliefs. Our research investigated whether there are other reasons to endorse moral foundations in addition to epistemic concerns; specifically, the perceived social usefulness of moral foundations. In Study 1, we demonstrate that those showing stronger locomotion concerns for controlling movement tend toward a higher endorsement of binding foundations, and that this effect is stronger among political liberals who otherwise do not typically endorse these foundations. In Study 2, we show that priming participants with assessment concerns (emphasizing truth) rather than locomotion concerns (emphasizing control) reduces the response variance among liberals and also removes the association between locomotion and the binding foundations. In Study 3, we directly ask participants to focus on moral truth versus moral usefulness, with moral truth replicating the Study 2 effect of assessment priming, and moral usefulness replicating the effect of locomotion priming.

  10. Evaluating the utility of provider-recorded clinical status in the medical records of HIV-positive adults in a limited-resource setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonbraker, Samantha; Befus, Montina; Nadal, Leonel Lerebours; Halpern, Mina; Larson, Elaine

    2016-01-01

    Provider-reported summaries of clinical status may assist with clinical management of HIV in resource poor settings if they reflect underlying biological processes associated with HIV disease progression. However, their ability to do so is rarely evaluated. Therefore, we aimed to assess the relationship between a provider-recorded summary of clinical status and indicators of HIV progression. Data were abstracted from 201 randomly selected medical records at a large HIV clinic in the Dominican Republic. Multivariable logistic regressions were used to examine the relationship between provider-assigned clinical status and demographic (gender, age, nationality, education) and clinical factors (reported medication adherence, CD4 cell count, viral load). The mean age of patients was 41.2 (SD = ±10.9) years and most were female (n = 115, 57%). None of the examined characteristics were significantly associated with provider-recorded clinical status. Higher CD4 cell counts were more likely for females (OR = 2.2 CI: 1.12–4.31) and less likely for those with higher viral loads (OR = 0.33 CI: 0.15–0.72). Poorer adherence and lower CD4 cell counts were significantly associated with higher viral loads (OR = 4.46 CI: 1.11–20.29 and 6.84 CI: 1.47–37.23, respectively). Clinics using provider-reported summaries of clinical status should evaluate the performance of these assessments to ensure they are associated with biologic indicators of disease progression. PMID:27495146

  11. Treatment Outcomes and Costs of Providing Antiretroviral Therapy at a Primary Health Clinic versus a Hospital-Based HIV Clinic in South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence C Long

    Full Text Available In 2010 South Africa revised its HIV treatment guidelines to allow the initiation and management of patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART by nurses, rather than solely doctors, under a program called NIMART (Nurse Initiated and Managed Antiretroviral Therapy. We compared the outcomes and costs of NIMART between the two major public sector HIV treatment delivery models in use in South Africa today, primary health clinics and hospital-based HIV clinics.The study was conducted at one hospital-based outpatient HIV clinic and one primary health clinic (PHC in Gauteng Province. A retrospective cohort of adult patients initiated on ART at the PHC was propensity-score matched to patients initiated at the hospital outpatient clinic. Each patient was assigned a 12-month outcome of alive and in care or died/lost to follow up. Costs were estimated from the provider perspective for the 12 months after ART initiation. The proportion of patients alive and in care at 12 months did not differ between the PHC (76.5% and the hospital-based site (74.2%. The average annual cost per patient alive and in care at 12 months after ART initiation was significantly lower at the PHC (US$238 than at the hospital outpatient clinic (US$428.Initiating and managing ART patients at PHCs under NIMART is producing equally good outcomes as hospital-based HIV clinic care at much lower cost. Evolution of hospital-based clinics into referral facilities that serve complicated patients, while investing most program expansion resources into PHCs, may be a preferred strategy for achieving treatment coverage targets.

  12. Do clinical decision-support reminders for medical providers improve isoniazid preventative therapy prescription rates among HIV-positive adults? Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Eric P; Catalani, Caricia; Diero, Lameck; Carter, E Jane; Gardner, Adrian; Ndwiga, Charity; Keny, Aggrey; Owiti, Philip; Israelski, Dennis; Biondich, Paul

    2015-04-09

    This document describes a research protocol for a study designed to estimate the impact of implementing a reminder system for medical providers on the use of isoniazid preventative therapy (IPT) for adults living with HIV in western Kenya. People living with HIV have a 5% to 10% annual risk of developing active tuberculosis (TB) once infected with TB bacilli, compared to a 5% lifetime risk in HIV-negative people with latent TB infection. Moreover, people living with HIV have a 20-fold higher risk of dying from TB. A growing body of literature suggests that IPT reduces overall TB incidence and is therefore of considerable benefit to patients and the larger community. However, in 2009, of the estimated 33 million people living with HIV, only 1.7 million (5%) were screened for TB, and about 85,000 (0.2%) were offered IPT. This study will examine the use of clinical decision-support reminders to improve rates of initiation of preventative treatment in a TB/HIV co-morbid population living in a TB endemic area. This will be a pragmatic, parallel-group, cluster-randomized superiority trial with a 1:1 allocation to treatment ratio. For the trial, 20 public medical facilities that use clinical summary sheets generated from an electronic medical records system will participate as clusters. All HIV-positive adult patients who complete an initial encounter at a study cluster and at least one return encounter during the study period will be included in the study cohort. The primary endpoint will be IPT prescription at 3 months post the initial encounter. We will conduct both individual-level and cluster-level analyses. Due to the nature of the intervention, the trial will not be blinded. This study will contribute to the growing evidence base for the use of electronic health interventions in low-resource settings to promote high-quality clinical care, health system optimization and positive patient outcomes. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01934309, registered 29

  13. 24 CFR 203.5 - Direct Endorsement process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Direct Endorsement process. 203.5... SINGLE FAMILY MORTGAGE INSURANCE Eligibility Requirements and Underwriting Procedures Direct Endorsement, Lender Insurance, and Commitments § 203.5 Direct Endorsement process. (a) General. Under the Direct...

  14. 46 CFR 13.111 - Restricted tankerman endorsement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Restricted tankerman endorsement. 13.111 Section 13.111... TANKERMEN General § 13.111 Restricted tankerman endorsement. (a) An applicant may apply at an REC listed in § 10.217 of this chapter for a tankerman endorsement restricted to specific cargoes, specific vessels...

  15. 46 CFR 67.163 - Renewal of endorsement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Renewal of endorsement. 67.163 Section 67.163 Shipping... DOCUMENTATION OF VESSELS Validity of Certificates of Documentation; Renewal of Endorsement; Requirement for Exchange, Replacement, Deletion, Cancellation § 67.163 Renewal of endorsement. (a) Requirement for renewal...

  16. 19 CFR 144.23 - Endorsement in blank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Endorsement in blank. 144.23 Section 144.23 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE... Merchandise from Warehouse § 144.23 Endorsement in blank. If the transferor wishes to do so, he may endorse...

  17. 7 CFR 1788.5 - RUS endorsement required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false RUS endorsement required. 1788.5 Section 1788.5... Borrower Insurance Requirements § 1788.5 RUS endorsement required. In the case of a cooperative or mutual organization, RUS requires that the following: Endorsement Waiving Immunity From Tort Liability” be included as...

  18. 24 CFR 213.253 - Premiums upon initial endorsement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Premiums upon initial endorsement... upon initial endorsement. (a) Management and Sales Types and Investor Sponsored Projects. The mortgagee, upon the initial endorsement of the mortgage for insurance, shall pay to the Commissioner a first...

  19. 46 CFR 68.111 - Invalidation of a coastwise endorsement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Invalidation of a coastwise endorsement. 68.111 Section... Coastwise Endorsement Issued Before August 9, 2004, and Their Replacements That Are Demised Chartered to Coastwise-Qualified Citizens § 68.111 Invalidation of a coastwise endorsement. (a) In addition to the events...

  20. 7 CFR 402.4 - Catastrophic Risk Protection Endorsement Provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Catastrophic Risk Protection Endorsement Provisions... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CATASTROPHIC RISK PROTECTION ENDORSEMENT § 402.4 Catastrophic Risk Protection Endorsement Provisions. Department of Agriculture Federal Crop Insurance...

  1. 46 CFR 153.904 - Limitations in the endorsement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Limitations in the endorsement. 153.904 Section 153.904... Information § 153.904 Limitations in the endorsement. No person may operate a tankship unless that person complies with all limitations in the endorsement on the tankship's Certificate of Inspection or Certificate...

  2. 42 CFR 60.17 - Security and endorsement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Security and endorsement. 60.17 Section 60.17... ASSISTANCE LOAN PROGRAM The Loan § 60.17 Security and endorsement. (a) A HEAL loan must be made without security. (b) With one exception, it must also be made without endorsement. If a borrower is a minor and...

  3. 46 CFR 154.1808 - Limitations in the endorsement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Limitations in the endorsement. 154.1808 Section 154... Limitations in the endorsement. No person may operate a vessel unless that person complies with all limitations in the endorsement on the vessel's Certificate of Inspection or Certificate of Compliance. ...

  4. 31 CFR 330.6 - Securities eligible for special endorsement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... endorsement. 330.6 Section 330.6 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... PAYMENT UNDER SPECIAL ENDORSEMENT OF UNITED STATES SAVINGS BONDS AND UNITED STATES SAVINGS NOTES (FREEDOM SHARES) § 330.6 Securities eligible for special endorsement. (a) General authority. A qualified agent is...

  5. 24 CFR 220.803 - Effect of insurance endorsement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effect of insurance endorsement. 220.803 Section 220.803 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... insurance endorsement. From the date of initial endorsement, the Commissioner and the lender shall be bound...

  6. 12 CFR 615.5462 - Restrictive endorsement of bearer securities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restrictive endorsement of bearer securities... Credit Securities § 615.5462 Restrictive endorsement of bearer securities. When consolidated and... restrictive endorsement shall be placed thereon in substantially the same manner and with the same effects as...

  7. 46 CFR 13.109 - Tankerman endorsement: Authorized cargoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tankerman endorsement: Authorized cargoes. 13.109... CERTIFICATION OF TANKERMEN General § 13.109 Tankerman endorsement: Authorized cargoes. (a) Each tankerman endorsement described in § 13.107 will expressly limit the holder's service under it to transfers involving...

  8. 24 CFR 220.801 - Initial insurance endorsement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Initial insurance endorsement. 220.801 Section 220.801 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... insurance endorsement. The Commissioner shall indicate his insurance of the loan by endorsing the original...

  9. 49 CFR 383.119 - Requirements for tank vehicle endorsement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for tank vehicle endorsement. 383.119 Section 383.119 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR... Requirements for tank vehicle endorsement. In order to obtain a Tank Vehicle Endorsement, each applicant must...

  10. 46 CFR 13.107 - Tankerman endorsement: General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tankerman endorsement: General. 13.107 Section 13.107... TANKERMEN General § 13.107 Tankerman endorsement: General. (a) If an applicant meets the requirements of... appropriate cargo classification or classifications. A person holding this endorsement and meeting the other...

  11. 46 CFR 68.80 - Invalidation of a coastwise endorsement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Invalidation of a coastwise endorsement. 68.80 Section... Endorsement Issued on or After August 9, 2004, That Are Demised Chartered to Coastwise Qualified Citizens § 68.80 Invalidation of a coastwise endorsement. In addition to the events in § 67.167(c)(1) through (c)(9...

  12. 46 CFR 13.120 - Renewal of tankerman endorsement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Renewal of tankerman endorsement. 13.120 Section 13.120... TANKERMEN General § 13.120 Renewal of tankerman endorsement. An applicant wishing to renew a tankerman's endorsement shall meet the requirements of § 10.227 of this chapter for renewing an MMC and prove either...

  13. 24 CFR 213.267 - Effect of insurance endorsement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effect of insurance endorsement. 213.267 Section 213.267 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... of insurance endorsement. From the date of initial endorsement, the Commissioner and the mortgagee or...

  14. 46 CFR 153.9 - Foreign flag vessel endorsement application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Foreign flag vessel endorsement application. 153.9... Foreign flag vessel endorsement application. (a) Application for a vessel whose flag administration is... endorsement from the cognizant Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection and have aboard the vessel copies of IMO...

  15. 46 CFR 11.502 - Additional requirements for engineer endorsements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional requirements for engineer endorsements. 11... SEAMEN REQUIREMENTS FOR OFFICER ENDORSEMENTS Professional Requirements for Engineer Officer § 11.502 Additional requirements for engineer endorsements. (a) For all original and raise of grade of engineer...

  16. 46 CFR 15.915 - Engineer Officer Endorsements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Engineer Officer Endorsements. 15.915 Section 15.915... REQUIREMENTS Equivalents § 15.915 Engineer Officer Endorsements. The following licenses and MMC officer... designated duty engineer license or endorsement authorizes service as chief or assistant engineer on vessels...

  17. 21 CFR 1305.23 - Endorsing electronic orders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Endorsing electronic orders. 1305.23 Section 1305.23 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORDERS FOR SCHEDULE I AND II CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Electronic Orders § 1305.23 Endorsing electronic orders. A supplier may not endorse an...

  18. Factors affecting acceptance of provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling services among outpatient clients in selected health facilities in Harar Town, Eastern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdurahman S

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Sami Abdurahman,1 Berhanu Seyoum,2 Lemessa Oljira,2 Fitsum Weldegebreal2 1Harari Regional Health Bureau, 2Haramaya University, College of Health and Medical Sciences, Harar, Ethiopia Purpose: To improve the slow uptake of HIV counseling and testing, the World Health Organization (WHO and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS have developed draft guidelines on provider-initiated testing and counseling (PITC. Both in low- and high-income countries, mainly from outpatient clinics and tuberculosis settings, indicates that the direct offer of HIV testing by health providers can result in significant improvements in test uptake. In Ethiopia, there were limited numbers of studies conducted regarding PITC in outpatient clinics. Therefore, in this study, we have assessed the factors affecting the acceptance of PITC among outpatient clients in selected health facilities in Harar, Harari Region State, Ethiopia. Materials and methods: Institutional-based, cross-sectional quantitative and qualitative studies were conducted from February 12–30, 2011 in selected health facilities in Harar town, Harari Region State, Ethiopia. The study participants were recruited from the selected health facilities of Harar using a systematic random sampling technique. The collected data were double entered into a data entry file using Epi Info version 3.5.1. The data were transferred to SPSS software version 16 and analyzed according to the different variables. Results: A total of 362 (70.6% clients accepted PITC, and only 39.4% of clients had heard of PITC in the outpatient department service. Age, occupation, marital status, anyone who wanted to check their HIV status, and the importance of PITC were the variables that showed significant associations with the acceptance of PITC upon bivariate and multivariate analyses. The main reasons given for not accepting the tests were self-trust, not being at risk for HIV, not being ready, needing to consult their

  19. "That is why I stopped the ART": Patients' & providers' perspectives on barriers to and enablers of HIV treatment adherence in a South African workplace programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kielmann Karina

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As ART programmes in African settings expand beyond the pilot stages, adherence to treatment may become an increasing challenge. This qualitative study examines potential barriers to, and facilitators of, adherence to ART in a workplace programme in South Africa. Methods We conducted key informant interviews with 12 participants: six ART patients, five health service providers (HSPs and one human resources manager. Results The main reported barriers were denial of existence of HIV or of one's own positive status, use of traditional medicines, speaking a different language from the HSP, alcohol use, being away from home, perceived severity of side-effects, feeling better on treatment and long waiting times at the clinic. The key facilitators were social support, belief in the value of treatment, belief in the importance of one's own life to the survival of one's family, and the ability to fit ART into daily life schedules. Conclusion Given the reported uncertainty about the existence of HIV disease and the use of traditional medicines while on ART, despite a programme emphasising ART counselling, there is a need to find effective ways to support adherence to ART even if the individual does not accept biomedical concepts of HIV disease or decides to use traditional medicines. Additionally, providers should identify ways to minimize barriers in communication with patients with whom they have no common language. Finally, dissatisfaction with clinical services, due to long waiting times, should be addressed.

  20. 46 CFR 11.603 - Requirements for radio officers' endorsements and STCW endorsements for GMDSS radio operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for radio officers' endorsements and STCW endorsements for GMDSS radio operators. 11.603 Section 11.603 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS AND SEAMEN REQUIREMENTS FOR OFFICER ENDORSEMENTS Credentialing of Radio...

  1. A theoretical reflection of celebrity endorsement in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milford I Udo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of celebrities such as movie stars, sports heroes, entertainers, music experts and all the likes as endorsers by marketers in promoting brand awareness, recognition, and preferences, has become the order of the day in advertising practices both in developed and developing economies. It therefore behooves on marketing professionals to design possible techniques to enhance its effective use by companies. This instigated the researchers to theoretically examine what celebrity endorsement is all about, celebrity-worship relationship and endorser effects, risks associated with the use of celebrity endorsement and celebrity endorsement selection criteria. A critical review of extant literature revealed that celebrity endorsement makes advertisement more memorable and the company in the short-run generates high brand awareness as well as an increase in market share. There are certain risks associated with celebrity endorsement such as negative publicity, overshadowing, multiple endorsement, over-endorsement, extinction and cost implications. The study indicated that, successful celebrity endorsement is a combination of attributes such as trustworthiness, expertise, similarity, familiarity, likeability, and a match between the celebrity and the message (brand,. To ensure the effective use of celebrity endorsement, the paper highlighted some strategic options.

  2. FOODSTAGRAM ENDORSEMENT AND BUYING INTEREST IN CAFÉ / RESTAURANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwee Nadia Vercellia King

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Numbers of food businesses exist in contemporary time. They make the businessmen engaged in the same field have to be creative in the marketing to be more attractive to public. One creative idea is through endorser in foodstagram Instagram. The study aimed to determine the influence of endorser foodstagram (Ty-pical-person endorser toward customers buying interest. The dimensions of the endorser were used in this study consisted of the visibility, credibility, attractiveness, and power. It used 125 respondents and multiple regressions to determine the effect of each dimension used. The endorser foodstagram (Typical-person en-dorser effected on buying interest. However, when the endorser dimensions were tested individually, there were only two dimensions that influence the buying interest, which were attractiveness and power.

  3. Mapping the complete glycoproteome of virion-derived HIV-1 gp120 provides insights into broadly neutralizing antibody binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panico, Maria; Bouché, Laura; Binet, Daniel; O'Connor, Michael-John; Rahman, Dinah; Pang, Poh-Choo; Canis, Kevin; North, Simon J; Desrosiers, Ronald C; Chertova, Elena; Keele, Brandon F; Bess, Julian W; Lifson, Jeffrey D; Haslam, Stuart M; Dell, Anne; Morris, Howard R

    2016-09-08

    The surface envelope glycoprotein (SU) of Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), gp120(SU) plays an essential role in virus binding to target CD4+ T-cells and is a major vaccine target. Gp120 has remarkably high levels of N-linked glycosylation and there is considerable evidence that this "glycan shield" can help protect the virus from antibody-mediated neutralization. In recent years, however, it has become clear that gp120 glycosylation can also be included in the targets of recognition by some of the most potent broadly neutralizing antibodies. Knowing the site-specific glycosylation of gp120 can facilitate the rational design of glycopeptide antigens for HIV vaccine development. While most prior studies have focused on glycan analysis of recombinant forms of gp120, here we report the first systematic glycosylation site analysis of gp120 derived from virions produced by infected T lymphoid cells and show that a single site is exclusively substituted with complex glycans. These results should help guide the design of vaccine immunogens.

  4. Impact of a computer-assisted, provider-delivered intervention on sexual risk behaviors in HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) in a primary care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Laura H; Grimley, Diane M; Gao, Hongjiang; Aban, Inmaculada; Chen, Huey; Raper, James L; Saag, Michael S; Rhodes, Scott D; Hook, Edward W

    2013-04-01

    Innovative strategies are needed to assist providers with delivering secondary HIV prevention in the primary care setting. This longitudinal HIV clinic-based study conducted from 2004-2007 in a Birmingham, Alabama HIV primary care clinic tested a computer-assisted, provider-delivered intervention designed to increase condom use with oral, anal and vaginal sex, decrease numbers of sexual partners and increase HIV disclosure among HIV-positive men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM). Significant declines were found for the number of unprotected insertive anal intercourse acts with HIV+ male partners during the intervention period (p = 0.0003) and with HIV-/UK male partners (p = 0.0007), as well as a 47% reduction in the number of male sexual partners within the preceding 6 months compared with baseline (p = 0.0008). These findings confirm and extend prior reports by demonstrating the effectiveness of computer-assisted, provider-delivered messaging to accomplish risk reduction in patients in the HIV primary care setting.

  5. HIV

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Syndrome with the now universally dreaded acronym of AIDS' .... neuropathy, Guillain-Barre syndrome and cranial nerve palsy. ..... diagnosis. In Durban, oral clindamycin and pyrimethamine therapy provide rapid clinical and radiographic improvement with 72% of patients responding on day seven of treatment. Steroids are.

  6. Catching the missing million: experiences in enhancing TB & DR-TB detection by providing upfront Xpert MTB/RIF testing for people living with HIV in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raizada, Neeraj; Sachdeva, Kuldeep Singh; Sreenivas, Achuthan; Kulsange, Shubhangi; Gupta, Radhey Shyam; Thakur, Rahul; Dewan, Puneet; Boehme, Catharina; Paramsivan, Chinnambedu Nainarappan

    2015-01-01

    A critical challenge in providing TB care to People Living with HIV (PLHIV) is establishing an accurate bacteriological diagnosis. Xpert MTB/RIF, a highly sensitive and specific rapid tool, offers a promising solution in addressing these challenges. This study presents results from PLHIV taking part in a large demonstration study across India wherein upfront Xpert MTB/RIF testing was offered to all presumptive PTB cases in public health facilities. The study covered a population of 8.8 million across 18 sub-district level tuberculosis units (TU), with one Xpert MTB/RIF platform established at each TU. All HIV-infected patients suspected of TB (both TB and Drug Resistant TB (DR-TB)) accessing public health facilities in study area were prospectively enrolled and provided upfront Xpert MTB/RIF testing. 2,787 HIV-infected presumptive pulmonary TB cases were enrolled and 867 (31.1%, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 29.4‒32.8) HIV-infected TB cases were diagnosed under the study. Overall 27.6% (CI 25.9-29.3) of HIV-infected presumptive PTB cases were positive by Xpert MTB/RIF, compared with 12.9% (CI 11.6-14.1) who had positive sputum smears. Upfront Xpert MTB/RIF testing of presumptive PTB and DR-TB cases resulted in diagnosis of 73 (9.5%, CI 7.6‒11.8) and 16 (11.2%, CI 6.7‒17.1) rifampicin resistance cases, respectively. Positive predictive value (PPV) for rifampicin resistance detection was high 97.7% (CI 89.3‒99.8), with no significant difference with or without prior history of TB treatment. The study results strongly demonstrate limitations of using smear microscopy for TB diagnosis in PLHIV, leading to low TB and DR-TB detection which can potentially lead to either delayed or sub-optimal TB treatment. Our findings demonstrate the usefulness and feasibility of addressing this diagnostic gap with upfront of Xpert MTB/RIF testing, leading to overall strengthening of care and support package for PLHIV.

  7. HIV Care Providers' Attitudes regarding Mobile Phone Applications and Web-Based Dashboards to support Patient Self-Management and Care Coordination: Results from a Qualitative Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swendeman, Dallas; Farmer, Shu; Mindry, Deborah; Lee, Sung-Jae; Medich, Melissa

    2016-10-01

    In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with healthcare providers (HCPs) from five HIV medical care coordination teams in a large Los Angeles County HIV clinic, including physicians, nurses, and psychosocial services providers. HCPs reported on the potential utility, acceptability, and barriers for patient self-monitoring and notifications via mobile phones, and web-based dashboards for HCPs. Potential benefits included: 1) enhancing patient engagement, motivation, adherence, and self-management; and 2) improving provider-patient relationships and HCP care coordination. Newly diagnosed and patients with co-morbidities were highest priorities for mobile application support. Facilitators included universal mobile phone ownership and use of smartphones or text messaging. Patient-level barriers included concerns about low motivation and financial instability for consistent use by some patients. Organizational barriers, cited primarily by physicians, included concerns about privacy protections, easy dashboard access, non-integrated electronic records, and competing burdens in limited appointment times. Psychosocial services providers were most supportive of the proposed mobile tools.

  8. Follow YOUR Heart: development of an evidence-based campaign empowering older women with HIV to participate in a large-scale cardiovascular disease prevention trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanni, Markella V; Fitch, Kathleen; Rivard, Corinne; Sanchez, Laura; Douglas, Pamela S; Grinspoon, Steven; Smeaton, Laura; Currier, Judith S; Looby, Sara E

    2017-03-01

    Women's under-representation in HIV and cardiovascular disease (CVD) research suggests a need for novel strategies to ensure robust representation of women in HIV-associated CVD research. To elicit perspectives on CVD research participation among a community-sample of women with or at risk for HIV, and to apply acquired insights toward the development of an evidence-based campaign empowering older women with HIV to participate in a large-scale CVD prevention trial. In a community-based setting, we surveyed 40 women with or at risk for HIV about factors which might facilitate or impede engagement in CVD research. We applied insights derived from these surveys into the development of the Follow YOUR Heart campaign, educating women about HIV-associated CVD and empowering them to learn more about a multi-site HIV-associated CVD prevention trial: REPRIEVE. Endorsed best methods for learning about a CVD research study included peer-to-peer communication (54%), provider communication (46%) and video-based communication (39%). Top endorsed non-monetary reasons for participating in research related to gaining information (63%) and helping others (47%). Top endorsed reasons for not participating related to lack of knowledge about studies (29%) and lack of request to participate (29%). Based on survey results, the REPRIEVE Follow YOUR Heart campaign was developed. Interwoven campaign components (print materials, video, web presence) offer provider-based information/knowledge, peer-to-peer communication, and empowerment to learn more. Campaign components reflect women's self-identified motivations for research participation - education and altruism. Investigation of factors influencing women's participation in HIV-associated CVD research may be usefully applied to develop evidence-based strategies for enhancing women's enrollment in disease-specific large-scale trials. If proven efficacious, such strategies may enhance conduct of large-scale research studies across disciplines.

  9. The experiences of clients and healthcare providers regarding the provision of reproductive health services including the prevention of HIV and AIDS in an informal settlement in Tshwane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L.S. Mataboge

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Globally challenges regarding healthcare provision are sometimes related to a failure to estimate client numbers in peri-urban areas due to rapid population growth. About one-sixth of the world's population live in informal settlements which are mostly characterised by poor healthcare service provision. Poor access to primary healthcare may expose residents of informal settlement more to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS than their rural and urban counterparts due to a lack of access to information on prevention, early diagnosis and treatment. The objective of this study was to explore and describe the experiences of both the reproductive health services' clients and the healthcare providers with regard to the provision of reproductive health services including the prevention of HIV and AIDS in a primary healthcare setting in Tshwane. A qualitative, exploratory and contextual design using a phenomenological approach to enquire about the participants' experiences was implemented. Purposive sampling resulted in the selection of 23 clients who used the reproductive healthcare services and ten healthcare providers who were interviewed during individual and focus group interviews respectively. Tesch's method for qualitative data analysis was used. Ethical principles guided the study, and certain strategies were followed to ensure trustworthiness. The findings revealed that females who lived in informal settlements were aware of the inability of the PHC setting to provide adequate reproductive healthcare to meet their needs. The HCPs acknowledged that healthcare provision was negatively affected by policies. It was found that the community members could be taught how to coach teenagers and support each other in order to bridge staff shortages and increase health outcomes including HIV/AIDS prevention.

  10. The experiences of clients and healthcare providers regarding the provision of reproductive health services including the prevention of HIV and AIDS in an informal settlement in Tshwane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L.S. Mataboge

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Globally challenges regarding healthcare provision are sometimes related to a failure to estimate client numbers in peri-urban areas due to rapid population growth. About one-sixth of the world's population live in informal settlements which are mostly characterised by poor healthcare service provision. Poor access to primary healthcare may expose residents of informal settlement more to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS than their rural and urban counterparts due to a lack of access to information on prevention, early diagnosis and treatment. The objective of this study was to explore and describe the experiences of both the reproductive health services' clients and the healthcare providers with regard to the provision of reproductive health services including the prevention of HIV and AIDS in a primary healthcare setting in Tshwane. A qualitative, exploratory and contextual design using a phenomenological approach to enquire about the participants' experiences was implemented. Purposive sampling resulted in the selection of 23 clients who used the reproductive healthcare services and ten healthcare providers who were interviewed during individual and focus group interviews respectively. Tesch's method for qualitative data analysis was used. Ethical principles guided the study, and certain strategies were followed to ensure trustworthiness. The findings revealed that females who lived in informal settlements were aware of the inability of the PHC setting to provide adequate reproductive healthcare to meet their needs. The HCPs acknowledged that healthcare provision was negatively affected by policies. It was found that the community members could be taught how to coach teenagers and support each other in order to bridge staff shortages and increase health outcomes including HIV/AIDS prevention.

  11. Putting PrEP into Practice: Lessons Learned from Early-Adopting U.S. Providers’ Firsthand Experiences Providing HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis and Associated Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Sarah K.; Magnus, Manya; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Krakower, Douglas S.; Eldahan, Adam I.; Gaston Hawkins, Lauren A.; Hansen, Nathan B.; Kershaw, Trace S.; Underhill, Kristen; Betancourt, Joseph R.; Dovidio, John F.

    2016-01-01

    Optimizing access to HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), an evidence-based HIV prevention resource, requires expanding healthcare providers’ adoption of PrEP into clinical practice. This qualitative study explored PrEP providers’ firsthand experiences relative to six commonly-cited barriers to prescription—financial coverage, implementation logistics, eligibility determination, adherence concerns, side effects, and anticipated behavior change (risk compensation)—as well as their recommendations for training PrEP-inexperienced providers. U.S.-based PrEP providers were recruited via direct outreach and referral from colleagues and other participants (2014–2015). One-on-one interviews were conducted in person or by phone, transcribed, and analyzed. The sample (n = 18) primarily practiced in the Northeastern (67%) or Southern (22%) U.S. Nearly all (94%) were medical doctors (MDs), most of whom self-identified as infectious disease specialists. Prior experience prescribing PrEP ranged from 2 to 325 patients. Overall, providers reported favorable experiences with PrEP implementation and indicated that commonly anticipated problems were minimal or manageable. PrEP was covered via insurance or other programs for most patients; however, pre-authorization requirements, laboratory/service provision costs, and high deductibles sometimes presented challenges. Various models of PrEP care and coordination with other providers were utilized, with several providers highlighting the value of clinical staff support. Eligibility was determined through joint decision-making with patients; CDC guidelines were commonly referenced but not considered absolute. Patient adherence was variable, with particularly strong adherence noted among patients who had actively sought PrEP (self-referred). Providers observed minimal adverse effects or increases in risk behavior. However, they identified several barriers with respect to accessing and engaging PrEP candidates. Providers offered

  12. A qualitative study of provider thoughts on implementing pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP in clinical settings to prevent HIV infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily A Arnold

    Full Text Available A recent clinical trial demonstrated that a daily dose tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and emtricitabrine (TDF-FTC can reduce HIV acquisition among men who have sex with men (MSM and transgender (TG women by 44%, and up to 90% if taken daily. We explored how medical and service providers understand research results and plan to develop clinical protocols to prescribe, support and monitor adherence for patients on PrEP in the United States.Using referrals from our community collaborators and snowball sampling, we recruited 22 healthcare providers in San Francisco, Oakland, and Los Angeles for in-depth interviews from May-December 2011. The providers included primary care physicians seeing high numbers of MSM and TG women, HIV specialists, community health clinic providers, and public health officials. We analyzed interviews thematically to produce recommendations for setting policy around implementing PrEP. Interview topics included: assessing clinician impressions of PrEP and CDC guidance, considerations of cost, office capacity, dosing schedules, and following patients over time.Little or no demand for PrEP from patients was reported at the time of the interviews. Providers did not agree on the most appropriate patients for PrEP and believed that current models of care, which do not involve routine frequent office visits, were not well suited for prescribing PrEP. Providers detailed the need to build capacity and were concerned about monitoring side effects and adherence. PrEP was seen as potentially having impact on the epidemic but providers also noted that community education campaigns needed to be tailored to effectively reach specific vulnerable populations.While PrEP may be a novel and clinically compelling prevention intervention for MSM and TG women, it raises a number of important implementation challenges that would need to be addressed. Nonetheless, most providers expressed optimism that they eventually could prescribe and monitor Pr

  13. Relation of completeness of reporting of health research to journals' endorsement of reporting guidelines: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Adrienne; Shamseer, Larissa; Weinstein, Erica; Yazdi, Fatemeh; Turner, Lucy; Thielman, Justin; Altman, Douglas G; Hirst, Allison; Hoey, John; Palepu, Anita; Schulz, Kenneth F; Moher, David

    2014-06-25

    To assess whether the completeness of reporting of health research is related to journals' endorsement of reporting guidelines. Systematic review. Reporting guidelines from a published systematic review and the EQUATOR Network (October 2011). Studies assessing the completeness of reporting by using an included reporting guideline (termed "evaluations") (1990 to October 2011; addendum searches in January 2012) from searches of either Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Methodology Register or Scopus, depending on reporting guideline name. English language reporting guidelines that provided explicit guidance for reporting, described the guidance development process, and indicated use of a consensus development process were included. The CONSORT statement was excluded, as evaluations of adherence to CONSORT had previously been reviewed. English or French language evaluations of included reporting guidelines were eligible if they assessed the completeness of reporting of studies as a primary intent and those included studies enabled the comparisons of interest (that is, after versus before journal endorsement and/or endorsing versus non-endorsing journals). Potentially eligible evaluations of included guidelines were screened initially by title and abstract and then as full text reports. If eligibility was unclear, authors of evaluations were contacted; journals' websites were consulted for endorsement information where needed. The completeness of reporting of reporting guidelines was analyzed in relation to endorsement by item and, where consistent with the authors' analysis, a mean summed score. 101 reporting guidelines were included. Of 15,249 records retrieved from the search for evaluations, 26 evaluations that assessed completeness of reporting in relation to endorsement for nine reporting guidelines were identified. Of those, 13 evaluations assessing seven reporting guidelines (BMJ economic checklist, CONSORT for harms, PRISMA, QUOROM, STARD, STRICTA, and STROBE

  14. Relation of completeness of reporting of health research to journals’ endorsement of reporting guidelines: systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Adrienne; Shamseer, Larissa; Weinstein, Erica; Yazdi, Fatemeh; Turner, Lucy; Thielman, Justin; Altman, Douglas G; Hirst, Allison; Hoey, John; Palepu, Anita; Schulz, Kenneth F

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess whether the completeness of reporting of health research is related to journals’ endorsement of reporting guidelines. Design Systematic review. Data sources Reporting guidelines from a published systematic review and the EQUATOR Network (October 2011). Studies assessing the completeness of reporting by using an included reporting guideline (termed “evaluations”) (1990 to October 2011; addendum searches in January 2012) from searches of either Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Methodology Register or Scopus, depending on reporting guideline name. Study selection English language reporting guidelines that provided explicit guidance for reporting, described the guidance development process, and indicated use of a consensus development process were included. The CONSORT statement was excluded, as evaluations of adherence to CONSORT had previously been reviewed. English or French language evaluations of included reporting guidelines were eligible if they assessed the completeness of reporting of studies as a primary intent and those included studies enabled the comparisons of interest (that is, after versus before journal endorsement and/or endorsing versus non-endorsing journals). Data extraction Potentially eligible evaluations of included guidelines were screened initially by title and abstract and then as full text reports. If eligibility was unclear, authors of evaluations were contacted; journals’ websites were consulted for endorsement information where needed. The completeness of reporting of reporting guidelines was analyzed in relation to endorsement by item and, where consistent with the authors’ analysis, a mean summed score. Results 101 reporting guidelines were included. Of 15 249 records retrieved from the search for evaluations, 26 evaluations that assessed completeness of reporting in relation to endorsement for nine reporting guidelines were identified. Of those, 13 evaluations assessing seven reporting guidelines (BMJ

  15. Engagement with Health Care Providers Affects Self- Efficacy, Self-Esteem, Medication Adherence and Quality of Life in People Living with HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Ti; Wantland, Dean; Reid, Paula; Corless, Inge B; Eller, Lucille S.; Iipinge, Scholastika; Holzemer, William L; Nokes, Kathleen; Sefcik, Elizbeth; Rivero-Mendez, Marta; Voss, Joachim; Nicholas, Patrice; Phillips, J. Craig; Brion, John M.; Rose, Caro Dawson; Portillo, Carmen J; Kirksey, Kenn; Sullivan, Kathleen M; Johnson, Mallory O; Tyer-Viola, Lynda; Webel, Allison R

    2014-01-01

    The engagement of patients with their health care providers (HCP) improves patients’ quality of life (QOL), adherence to antiretroviral therapy, and life satisfaction. Engagement with HCP includes access to HCP as needed, information sharing, involvement of client in decision making and self-care activities, respect and support of the HCP for the client’s choices, and management of client concerns. This study compares country-level differences in patients’ engagement with HCP and assesses statistical associations relative to adherence rates, self-efficacy, self-esteem, QOL, and symptom self-reporting by people living with HIV (PLHIV). A convenience sample of 2,182 PLHIV was enrolled in the United States, Canada, Puerto Rico, Namibia, and China. Cross-sectional data were collected between September 2009 and January 2011. Inclusion criteria were being at least 18 years of age, diagnosed with HIV, able to provide informed consent, and able to communicate in the local language with site researchers. In the HCP scale, a low score indicated greater provider engagement. Country comparisons showed that PLHIV in Namibia had the most HCP engagement (OR 2.80, p < 0.001) and that PLHIV in China had the least engagement (OR −7.03, p < 0.0001) compared to the PLHIV in the Western countries. Individuals having better HCP engagement showed better self-efficacy for adherence (t = −5.22, p < 0.0001), missed fewer medication doses (t = 1.92, p ≤ 0.05), had lower self-esteem ratings (t = 2.67, p < 0.01), fewer self-reported symptoms (t = 3.25, p < 0.0001), and better overall QOL physical condition (t = −3.39, p < 0.001). This study suggests that promoting engagement with the HCP is necessary to facilitate skills that help PLHIV manage their HIV. To improve ART adherence, HCPs should work on strategies to enhance self-efficacy and self-esteem, therefore, exhibiting fewer HIV-related symptoms and missing less medication doses to achieve better QOL. PMID:24575329

  16. AIDS-related stigma, HIV testing, and transmission risk among patrons of informal drinking places in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitpitan, Eileen V; Kalichman, Seth C; Eaton, Lisa A; Cain, Demetria; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Skinner, Donald; Watt, Melissa H; Pieterse, Desiree

    2012-06-01

    AIDS-related stigma as a barrier to HIV testing has not been examined within the context of high at risk environments such as drinking venues. Of particular importance is whether AIDS-related stigma is associated with HIV transmission risks among people who have never been tested for HIV. We examined: (1) AIDS-related stigma as a barrier to testing, controlling for other potential barriers, and (2) whether stigma is associated with HIV risks among HIV-untested individuals. We surveyed 2,572 individuals attending informal drinking establishments in Cape Town, South Africa to assess HIV testing status, AIDS-related stigma endorsement, and HIV transmission sexual risk behavior. Endorsement of AIDS-related stigma was negatively associated with HIV lifetime testing. In addition, stigma endorsement was associated with higher HIV transmission risks. AIDS-related stigma must be addressed in HIV prevention campaigns across South Africa. Antistigma messages should be integrated with risk reduction counseling and testing.

  17. Celebrity Endorsements: Influence and Effectiveness on consumers’ purchase intentions.

    OpenAIRE

    Devidasani, Neha

    2010-01-01

    In today’s world, celebrity endorsements have become one of the most popular marketing techniques that advertisers opt for. Consumers today are fascinated and mesmerized by celebrities. Advertisers take advantage of this fascination and rope in celebrities such as movie stars, singers, athletes etc in endorsing their brand or product in order to influence the purchase decisions of consumers. Although celebrity endorsements have become a highly used advertising technique these days, adver...

  18. The effects of system-justifying motives on endorsement of essentialist explanations for gender differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brescoll, Victoria L; Uhlmann, Eric Luis; Newman, George E

    2013-12-01

    People have a fundamental motive to view their social system as just, fair, and good and will engage in a number of strategies to rationalize the status quo (Jost & Banaji, 1994). We propose that one way in which individuals may "justify the system" is through endorsement of essentialist explanations, which attribute group differences to deep, essential causes. We suggest that system-justifying motives lead to greater endorsement of essentialist explanations because those explanations portray group differences as immutable. Study 1 employed an established system threat manipulation. We found that activating system-justifying motives increases both male and female participants' endorsement of essentialist explanations for gender differences and that this effect is mediated by beliefs in immutability. In Study 2, we used a goal contagion manipulation and found that both male and female participants primed with a system-justifying goal are significantly more likely to agree with essentialist explanations for gender differences. Study 3 demonstrated that providing an opportunity to explicitly reject a system threat (an alternative means of satisfying the goal to defend the system) attenuates system threat effects on endorsement of essentialist explanations, further suggesting that this process is motivated. Finally, Studies 4a and 4b dissociated the type of cause (biological vs. social) from whether group differences are portrayed as mutable versus immutable and found that system threat increases endorsement of immutable explanations, independent of the type of cause. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  19. Hormonal contraception and HIV/AIDS transmission: challenges for Zimbabwe’s reproductive health service providers in promoting informed contraception choices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Mafuva

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available None-barrier methods are the most predominant contraceptive methods of choice among Zimbabwean women, with the contraceptive pill being the most popular. The spread of HIV/AIDS is most prevalent in sub-Saharan African countries, Zimbabwe included. The prevalent mode of transmission is unprotected heterosexual sex. Although Zimbabwe boasts of a high literacy rate some women may still be vulnerable like in other parts of the world, as they may not understand the role of the Zimbabwe National Family Planning Council (ZNFPC and other reproductive health service providers. This is because some women at risk may expose themselves to unprotected sex while they are on hormonal contraceptives. This paper seeks to infer into pros and cons of hormonal contraceptive use among Zimbabwean women. There is also need to discuss the effectiveness of providers (ZNFPC clinics and the Ministry of Health in educating women about the risk of HIV transmission, which may be associated with some non-barrier methods of contraception. An understanding of women’s attitudes towards the different forms of contraception is of paramount importance as is that of the factors that could contribute to women in different social settings resorting to uninformed contraceptive choices.

  20. An examination of barriers to nurse practitioner endorsement in senior rural drug and alcohol nurses in New South Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linga, Stephen; Curtis, Janette; Brightond, Renee; Dunlopb, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    To examine barriers senior rural nurses in New South Wales drug and alcohol clinical settings perceive when considering endorsement to Nurse Practitioner (NP). A survey was designed to record views of senior alcohol and drug nurses in rural New South Wales about becoming a NP. Participants were identified by Area Health Service Directors of Drug and Alcohol Services for each Area Health Service in NSW excluding metropolitan Sydney. Forty eight surveys were distributed, with 17 (35%) completed surveys included in the results. Of the 17 participants, 12 (70.6%) expressed interest in becoming a NP. The majority (12, 70.6%) were unaware or unsure of endorsement processes. Lack of clarity about the NP role and processes and benefits to becoming a NP was found to be of most concern to all participants. Only 6 participants (35%) indicated they would consider seeking endorsement to NP. Despite agreeing that NP positions in alcohol and drug settings would improve patient access to treatment and care, senior nurses working in these settings in regional areas are unfamiliar with pathways to becoming endorsed. Barriers, such as a lack of internal support from management and colleagues, as well as the fact that respondents reported no foreseeable financial gain in endorsement, also need to be addressed, before more nurses will consider endorsement. Further evaluation of the views of senior nurses in metropolitan alcohol and other drug settings in the process to NP endorsement is needed before clients will benefit from the expertise and enhanced care that NP's may provide.

  1. Implementation of provider-based electronic medical records and improvement of the quality of data in a large HIV program in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Castelnuovo

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Starting in June 2010 the Infectious Diseases Institute (IDI clinic (a large urban HIV out-patient facility switched to provider-based Electronic Medical Records (EMR from paper EMR entered in the database by data-entry clerks. Standardized clinics forms were eliminated but providers still fill free text clinical notes in physical patients' files. The objective of this study was to compare the rate of errors in the database before and after the introduction of the provider-based EMR. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Data in the database pre and post provider-based EMR was compared with the information in the patients' files and classified as correct, incorrect, and missing. We calculated the proportion of incorrect, missing and total error for key variables (toxicities, opportunistic infections, reasons for treatment change and interruption. Proportions of total errors were compared using chi-square test. A survey of the users of the EMR was also conducted. We compared data from 2,382 visits (from 100 individuals of a retrospective validation conducted in 2007 with 34,957 visits (from 10,920 individuals of a prospective validation conducted in April-August 2011. The total proportion of errors decreased from 66.5% in 2007 to 2.1% in 2011 for opportunistic infections, from 51.9% to 3.5% for ART toxicity, from 82.8% to 12.5% for reasons for ART interruption and from 94.1% to 0.9% for reasons for ART switch (all P<0.0001. The survey showed that 83% of the providers agreed that provider-based EMR led to improvement of clinical care, 80% reported improved access to patients' records, and 80% appreciated the automation of providers' tasks. CONCLUSIONS: The introduction of provider-based EMR improved the quality of data collected with a significant reduction in missing and incorrect information. The majority of providers and clients expressed satisfaction with the new system. We recommend the use of provider-based EMR in large HIV programs in Sub

  2. Examining consumers’ online brand endorsements on social media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernritter, S.F.

    2016-01-01

    It has become common practice for brands to seek endorsements from other parties, such as celebrities or experts. With the emergence of social media, brands’ portfolio of endorsers has been extended to the consumer. For instance, consumers engage into positive electronic word of mouth about their

  3. 24 CFR 220.802 - Final insurance endorsement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Final insurance endorsement. 220.802 Section 220.802 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... insurance endorsement. When all advances of loan proceeds have been made, and all the terms and conditions...

  4. 46 CFR 5.521 - Verification of credential or endorsement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Verification of credential or endorsement. 5.521 Section 5.521 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC... endorsement. (a) The Administrative Law Judge shall require the respondent to produce and present at the...

  5. 24 CFR 241.1250 - Effect of endorsement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effect of endorsement. 241.1250 Section 241.1250 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... Rights and Obligations § 241.1250 Effect of endorsement. From the date that the equity or acquisition...

  6. 24 CFR 213.266 - Initial insurance endorsement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Initial insurance endorsement. 213.266 Section 213.266 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... insurance endorsement. The Commissioner shall indicate his insurance of the mortgage or supplementary loan...

  7. 46 CFR 67.325 - Violation of endorsement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Violation of endorsement. 67.325 Section 67.325 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DOCUMENTATION AND MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS DOCUMENTATION OF VESSELS Special Provisions § 67.325 Violation of endorsement. A vessel may not be employed in...

  8. 24 CFR 232.570 - Endorsement of credit instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Endorsement of credit instrument. 232.570 Section 232.570 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... of Fire Safety Equipment Eligible Security Instruments § 232.570 Endorsement of credit instrument...

  9. 19 CFR 111.41 - Endorsement of checks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Endorsement of checks. 111.41 Section 111.41 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS BROKERS Duties and Responsibilities of Customs Brokers § 111.41 Endorsement of checks. A...

  10. 24 CFR 213.269 - Endorsement of supplementary loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Endorsement of supplementary loans. 213.269 Section 213.269 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... Endorsement of supplementary loans. The provisions of §§ 213.266, 213.267, and 213.268 shall apply to...

  11. 24 CFR 213.268 - Final insurance endorsement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Final insurance endorsement. 213.268 Section 213.268 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... insurance endorsement. When all advances of mortgage or loan proceeds have been made and all the terms and...

  12. Keeping the faith: African American faith leaders' perspectives and recommendations for reducing racial disparities in HIV/AIDS infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunn, Amy; Cornwall, Alexandra; Chute, Nora; Sanders, Julia; Thomas, Gladys; James, George; Lally, Michelle; Trooskin, Stacey; Flanigan, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    In Philadelphia, 66% of new HIV infections are among African Americans and 2% of African Americans are living with HIV. The city of Philadelphia has among the largest numbers of faith institutions of any city in the country. Although faith-based institutions play an important role in the African American community, their response to the AIDS epidemic has historically been lacking. We convened 38 of Philadelphia's most influential African American faith leaders for in-depth interviews and focus groups examining the role of faith-based institutions in HIV prevention. Participants were asked to comment on barriers to engaging faith-based leaders in HIV prevention and were asked to provide normative recommendations for how African American faith institutions can enhance HIV/AIDS prevention and reduce racial disparities in HIV infection. Many faith leaders cited lack of knowledge about Philadelphia's racial disparities in HIV infection as a common reason for not previously engaging in HIV programs; others noted their congregations' existing HIV prevention and outreach programs and shared lessons learned. Barriers to engaging the faith community in HIV prevention included: concerns about tacitly endorsing extramarital sex by promoting condom use, lack of educational information appropriate for a faith-based audience, and fear of losing congregants and revenue as a result of discussing human sexuality and HIV/AIDS from the pulpit. However, many leaders expressed a moral imperative to respond to the AIDS epidemic, and believed clergy should play a greater role in HIV prevention. Many participants noted that controversy surrounding homosexuality has historically divided the faith community and prohibited an appropriate response to the epidemic; many expressed interest in balancing traditional theology with practical public health approaches to HIV prevention. Leaders suggested the faith community should: promote HIV testing, including during or after worship services and in

  13. Keeping the Faith: African American Faith Leaders’ Perspectives and Recommendations for Reducing Racial Disparities in HIV/AIDS Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunn, Amy; Cornwall, Alexandra; Chute, Nora; Sanders, Julia; Thomas, Gladys; James, George; Lally, Michelle; Trooskin, Stacey; Flanigan, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    In Philadelphia, 66% of new HIV infections are among African Americans and 2% of African Americans are living with HIV. The city of Philadelphia has among the largest numbers of faith institutions of any city in the country. Although faith-based institutions play an important role in the African American community, their response to the AIDS epidemic has historically been lacking. We convened 38 of Philadelphia’s most influential African American faith leaders for in-depth interviews and focus groups examining the role of faith-based institutions in HIV prevention. Participants were asked to comment on barriers to engaging faith-based leaders in HIV prevention and were asked to provide normative recommendations for how African American faith institutions can enhance HIV/AIDS prevention and reduce racial disparities in HIV infection. Many faith leaders cited lack of knowledge about Philadelphia’s racial disparities in HIV infection as a common reason for not previously engaging in HIV programs; others noted their congregations’ existing HIV prevention and outreach programs and shared lessons learned. Barriers to engaging the faith community in HIV prevention included: concerns about tacitly endorsing extramarital sex by promoting condom use, lack of educational information appropriate for a faith-based audience, and fear of losing congregants and revenue as a result of discussing human sexuality and HIV/AIDS from the pulpit. However, many leaders expressed a moral imperative to respond to the AIDS epidemic, and believed clergy should play a greater role in HIV prevention. Many participants noted that controversy surrounding homosexuality has historically divided the faith community and prohibited an appropriate response to the epidemic; many expressed interest in balancing traditional theology with practical public health approaches to HIV prevention. Leaders suggested the faith community should: promote HIV testing, including during or after worship services

  14. A controversial endorser for RH ad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the Philippines, a celebrity actress has been chosen to star in three public service commercials promoting the reproductive health program of the Department of Health (DOH). One of the commercials will influence adult men to take care of their own health and to support the reproductive health decisions of their wives, while the other two will raise women's consciousness about reproductive health rights and services. The Roman Catholic Church objected to the choice of the actress and charged that she would only encourage people to engage in illicit sex. The Church also objects to the use of celebrities to promote family planning because it believes this will encourage couples to engage in premarital sex as long as they use contraceptives. However, the DOH advertisements do not mention condoms or sex, and they reveal only the face of the famous actress. A comment on this article notes that the choice of this actress imposes responsibility on the sponsors of the advertisements to educate her on gender issues so that her comments in other arenas will not interfere with her effective endorsement of reproductive health.

  15. Evaluation of a Statewide HIV-HCV-STD Online Clinical Education Program by Healthcare Providers - A Comparison of Nursing and Other Disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongwen; Luque, Amneris E

    2016-01-01

    The New York State HIV-HCV-STD Clinical Education Initiative (CEI) has developed a large repository of online resources and disseminated them to a wide range of healthcare providers. To evaluate the CEI online education program and in particular to compare the self-reported measures by clinicians from different disciplines, we analyzed the data from 1,558 course completions in a study period of three months. The results have shown that the overall evaluations by the clinicians were very positive. Meanwhile, there were significant differences across the clinical disciplines. In particular, physicians and nurse practitioners were the most satisfied. In contrast, pharmacists and case/care managers recorded lower than average responses. Nurses and counselors had mixed results. Nurse practitioners' responses were very similar to physicians on most measures, but significantly different from nurses in many aspects. For more effective knowledge dissemination, online education programs should consider the unique needs by clinicians from specific disciplines.

  16. 24 CFR 203.3 - Approval of mortgagees for Direct Endorsement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Endorsement. 203.3 Section 203.3 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... Endorsement, Lender Insurance, and Commitments § 203.3 Approval of mortgagees for Direct Endorsement. (a) Direct Endorsement approval. To be approved for the Direct Endorsement program set forth in § 203.5, a...

  17. Access to healthcare, HIV/STI testing, and preferred pre-exposure prophylaxis providers among men who have sex with men and men who engage in street-based sex work in the US.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen Underhill

    Full Text Available Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP is a promising strategy for HIV prevention among men who have sex with men (MSM and men who engage in sex work. But access will require routine HIV testing and contacts with healthcare providers. This study investigated men's healthcare and HIV testing experiences to inform PrEP implementation.We conducted 8 focus groups (n = 38 in 2012 and 56 in-depth qualitative interviews in 2013-14 with male sex workers (MSWs (n = 31 and other MSM (n = 25 in Providence, RI. MSWs primarily met clients in street-based sex work venues. Facilitators asked participants about access to healthcare and HIV/STI testing, healthcare needs, and preferred PrEP providers.MSWs primarily accessed care in emergency rooms (ERs, substance use clinics, correctional institutions, and walk-in clinics. Rates of HIV testing were high, but MSWs reported low access to other STI testing, low insurance coverage, and unmet healthcare needs including primary care, substance use treatment, and mental health services. MSM not engaging in sex work were more likely to report access to primary and specialist care. Rates of HIV testing among these MSM were slightly lower, but they reported more STI testing, more insurance coverage, and fewer unmet needs. Preferred PrEP providers for both groups included primary care physicians, infectious disease specialists, and psychiatrists. MSWs were also willing to access PrEP in substance use treatment and ER settings.PrEP outreach efforts for MSWs and other MSM should engage diverse providers in many settings, including mental health and substance use treatment, ERs, needle exchanges, correctional institutions, and HIV testing centers. Access to PrEP will require financial assistance, but can build on existing healthcare contacts for both populations.

  18. Expectation and satisfaction of HIV/AIDS patients toward the pharmaceutical care provided at Gondar University Referral Hospital, Northwestern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abebe TB

    2016-10-01

    provided at Gondar University Referral Hospital was found to be low, while the overall respondents’ expectation from the pharmaceutical services were exceedingly high. The hospital should implement good dispensing practice systems in relation to the services and continuing professional development to professionals in order to improve the satisfaction of patients. Keywords: pharmaceutical care, Ethiopia, HIV/AIDS, antiretroviral therapy

  19. Psychosexual Correlates of Sexual Double Standard Endorsement in Adolescent Sexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmerink, Peggy M. J.; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine; van den Eijnden, Regina J. J. M.; ter Bogt, Tom F. M.

    2016-01-01

    Endorsement and enactment of the (hetero)sexual double standard (SDS), prescribing sexual modesty for girls and sexual prowess for boys, has been shown to be negatively related to sexual and mental health. To be able to challenge the SDS, more insight is needed into the conditions that shape gendered sexual attitudes. A survey was conducted among 465 heterosexual adolescents (aged 16–20 years), examining the relationship between a number of relevant demographic and psychosexual variables and SDS endorsement. SDS endorsement was assessed using a newly developed instrument, the Scale for the Assessment of Sexual Standards Among Youth (SASSY). Gender (being male) and religiousness were significantly associated with increased SDS endorsement. For both boys and girls, increased feelings of entitlement to self-induced sexual pleasure (e.g., masturbation) were significantly associated with reduced SDS endorsement, whereas higher gender investment was significantly associated with increased SDS endorsement. Furthermore, increased feelings of entitlement to partner-induced sexual pleasure and more frequent talking about sexuality with peers were associated with increased SDS endorsement among boys but not among girls. We conclude that future research should explore peer influence processes through peer communication about sex, gender investment, and feelings of entitlement to both self and partner-induced sexual pleasure. PMID:26327361

  20. Psychosexual Correlates of Sexual Double Standard Endorsement in Adolescent Sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmerink, Peggy M J; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine; van den Eijnden, Regina J J M; Ter Bogt, Tom F M

    2016-01-01

    Endorsement and enactment of the (hetero)sexual double standard (SDS), prescribing sexual modesty for girls and sexual prowess for boys, has been shown to be negatively related to sexual and mental health. To be able to challenge the SDS, more insight is needed into the conditions that shape gendered sexual attitudes. A survey was conducted among 465 heterosexual adolescents (aged 16-20 years), examining the relationship between a number of relevant demographic and psychosexual variables and SDS endorsement. SDS endorsement was assessed using a newly developed instrument, the Scale for the Assessment of Sexual Standards Among Youth (SASSY). Gender (being male) and religiousness were significantly associated with increased SDS endorsement. For both boys and girls, increased feelings of entitlement to self-induced sexual pleasure (e.g., masturbation) were significantly associated with reduced SDS endorsement, whereas higher gender investment was significantly associated with increased SDS endorsement. Furthermore, increased feelings of entitlement to partner-induced sexual pleasure and more frequent talking about sexuality with peers were associated with increased SDS endorsement among boys but not among girls. We conclude that future research should explore peer influence processes through peer communication about sex, gender investment, and feelings of entitlement to both self and partner-induced sexual pleasure.

  1. Developing a Web-Based Geolocated Directory of HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis-Providing Clinics: The PrEP Locator Protocol and Operating Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, Aaron J; Wirtz, Susan; Weber, Shannon; Sullivan, Patrick S

    2017-09-06

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is highly effective in preventing HIV transmission, yet patients interested in learning more about PrEP or in getting a PrEP prescription may not be able to find local medical providers willing to prescribe PrEP. We sought to create a national database of PrEP-providing clinics to allow for patients to have access to a unified, vetted source of PrEP providers in an easily accessible database. To develop the protocol and operating procedures for the PrEP Locator, we conducted a series of 7 key informant interviews with experts who had organized PrEP or other HIV service directories. We convened an external advisory committee and a collaborators board to gain expert and community-situated perspectives. At its public release in September 2016, the database included 1,272 PrEP-providing clinics, including clinics in all 50 states and in Puerto Rico. Web searches, referrals, and outreach to state health departments identified 58 unique lists of PrEP-providing clinics, with 33 from state health departments, 6 from government localities, 2 from professional medical organizations, and 19 from nongovernmental organizations. Out of the 2,420 clinics identified from the lists and Web searches, we removed 798 as duplicate entries, and we determined that 350 were ineligible for listing. The most common reasons for ineligibility were not having the appropriate medical licensure to prescribe PrEP (67/350) or not prescribing PrEP, based on self-report (192/350). Key informant interviews shaped important protocol decisions, such as listing clinics instead of individual clinicians as the primary data element and streamlining data collection to facilitate scalability. We developed a Web interface to provide public access to the data, with geolocated data display, search filter functionality, a webform for public suggestions of new clinics, and a publicly available directory Web tool that can be embedded in websites

  2. Expectation and satisfaction of HIV/AIDS patients toward the pharmaceutical care provided at Gondar University Referral Hospital, Northwestern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abebe, Tamrat Befekadu; Erku, Daniel Asfaw; Gebresillassie, Begashaw Melaku; Haile, Kaleab Taye; Mekuria, Abebe Basazn

    2016-01-01

    Measurements of patient satisfaction help to assess the performance of health service provision and predict treatment adherence and outcomes. This study aimed to assess human HIV/AIDS patients' expectation of and satisfaction with the pharmaceutical service delivered at Gondar University Referral Hospital, Ethiopia. An institution-based cross-sectional study was performed from May 11 to 25, 2015. A total of 291 patients living with HIV/AIDS were included using a simple random sampling method. Data were collected using structured questionnaires measuring expectation and satisfaction of respondents using a Likert scale of 1-5 through face-to-face interviews. The data collected were entered into and analyzed using Statistical Packages for Social Sciences. Comparison was made between those respondents who lived in and outside the town. The overall mean expectation and satisfaction of respondents toward pharmacy setting and services were 3.62 and 3.13, respectively. More than half (56.1%) of the participants were dissatisfied with the comfort and convenience of waiting area and private counseling room. Similarly, 69.3% of the respondents claimed that pharmacy professionals did not give information about side effects and drug-drug and drug-food interactions of antiretroviral medications. There was a statistically significant difference between respondents who live in and outside Gondar town in overall expectation (t=3.415, P=0.001) with the pharmacy setting and services. In this study, the overall satisfaction level of respondents with pharmaceutical service (pharmacy setting and services) provided at Gondar University Referral Hospital was found to be low, while the overall respondents' expectation from the pharmaceutical services were exceedingly high. The hospital should implement good dispensing practice systems in relation to the services and continuing professional development to professionals in order to improve the satisfaction of patients.

  3. Scaling up of HIV-TB collaborative activities: Achievements and challenges in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Rajesh; Shah, Amar; Sachdeva, K S; Sreenivas, A N; Gupta, R S; Khaparde, S D

    2016-01-01

    India has been implementing HIV/TB collaborative activities since 2001 with rapid scale-up of infrastructure across the country during past decade in National AIDS Control Programme and Revised National TB Control Programme. India has shown over 50% reduction in new infections and around 35% reduction in AIDS-related deaths, thereby being one of the success stories globally. Substantial progress in the implementation of collaborative TB/HIV activities has occurred in India and it is marching towards target set out in the Global Plan to Stop TB and endorsed by the UN General Assembly to halve HIV associated TB deaths by 2015. While the successful approaches have led to impressive gains in HIV/TB control in India, there are emerging challenges including newer pockets with rising HIV trends in North India, increasing drug resistance, high mortality among co-infected patients, low HIV testing rates among TB patients in northern and eastern states in India, treatment delays and drop-outs, stigma and discrimination, etc. In spite of these difficulties, established HIV/TB coordination mechanisms at different levels, rapid scale-up of facilities with decentralisation of treatment services, regular joint supervision and monitoring, newer initiatives like use of rapid diagnostics for early diagnosis of TB among people living with HIV, TB notification, etc. have led to success in combating the threat of HIV/TB in India. This article highlights the steps taken by India, one of the largest HIV/TB programmes in world, in scaling up of the joint HIV-TB collaborative activities, the achievements so far and discusses the emerging challenges which could provide important lessons for other countries in scaling up their programmes. Copyright © 2016 Tuberculosis Association of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. 75 FR 61165 - Credit Watch Termination Initiative Termination of Direct Endorsement (DE) Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-04

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Credit Watch Termination Initiative Termination of Direct Endorsement (DE) Approval.... SUMMARY: This notice advises of the cause and effect of termination of Direct Endorsement (DE) Approval... advised the extended procedures for ] terminating Underwriting Authority of Direct Endorsement mortgagees...

  5. 76 FR 38407 - Credit Watch Termination Initiative; Termination of Direct Endorsement (DE) Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-30

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Credit Watch Termination Initiative; Termination of Direct Endorsement (DE) Approval.... SUMMARY: This notice advises of the cause and effect of termination of Direct Endorsement (DE) Approval... advised the extended procedures for ] terminating Underwriting Authority of Direct Endorsement mortgagees...

  6. 77 FR 38817 - Credit Watch Termination Initiative; Termination of Direct Endorsement (DE) Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Credit Watch Termination Initiative; Termination of Direct Endorsement (DE) Approval.... SUMMARY: This notice advises of the cause and effect of termination of Direct Endorsement (DE) Approval... procedures for terminating Underwriting Authority of Direct Endorsement mortgagees. Termination of Direct...

  7. 77 FR 5262 - Credit Watch Termination Initiative Termination of Direct Endorsement (DE) Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-02

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Credit Watch Termination Initiative Termination of Direct Endorsement (DE) Approval.... SUMMARY: This notice advises of the cause and effect of termination of Direct Endorsement (DE) Approval... the extended procedures for terminating Underwriting Authority of Direct Endorsement (DE) mortgagees...

  8. 78 FR 4159 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Comment Request; Direct Endorsement Underwriter/HUD...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Comment Request; Direct Endorsement... Direct Endorsement Underwriters to maintain responsibility for the appraisal and the ] appraised value... Endorsement Underwriter/HUD Reviewer-- Analysis of Appraisal Report. OMB Control Number, if applicable: 2502...

  9. 76 FR 53148 - Credit Watch Termination Initiative; Termination of Direct Endorsement (DE) Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-25

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Credit Watch Termination Initiative; Termination of Direct Endorsement (DE) Approval.... SUMMARY: This notice advises of the cause and effect of termination of Direct Endorsement (DE) Approval... advised the extended procedures for terminating Underwriting Authority of Direct Endorsement mortgagees...

  10. Can biomedical and traditional health care providers work together? Zambian practitioners' experiences and attitudes towards collaboration in relation to STIs and HIV/AIDS care: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Höjer Bengt

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The World Health Organization's World health report 2006: Working together for health underscores the importance of human resources for health. The shortage of trained health professionals is among the main obstacles to strengthening low-income countries' health systems and to scaling up HIV/AIDS control efforts. Traditional health practitioners are increasingly depicted as key resources to HIV/AIDS prevention and care. An appropriate and effective response to the HIV/AIDS crisis requires reconsideration of the collaboration between traditional and biomedical health providers (THPs and BHPs. The aim of this paper is to explore biomedical and traditional health practitioners' experiences of and attitudes towards collaboration and to identify obstacles and potential opportunities for them to collaborate regarding care for patients with sexually transmitted infections (STIs and HIV/AIDS. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study in two Zambian urban sites, using structured questionnaires. We interviewed 152 biomedical health practitioners (BHPs and 144 traditional health practitioners (THPs who reported attending to patients with STIs and HIV/AIDS. Results The study showed a very low level of experience of collaboration, predominated by BHPs training THPs (mostly traditional birth attendants on issues of safe delivery. Intersectoral contacts addressing STIs and HIV/AIDS care issues were less common. However, both groups of providers overwhelmingly acknowledged the potential role of THPs in the fight against HIV/AIDS. Obstacles to collaboration were identified at the policy level in terms of legislation and logistics. Lack of trust in THPs by individual BHPs was also found to inhibit collaboration. Nevertheless, as many as 40% of BHPs expressed an interest in working more closely with THPs. Conclusion There is indication that practitioners from both sectors seem willing to strengthen collaboration with each other. However

  11. NGO-provided free HIV treatment and services in Burkina Faso: scarcity, therapeutic rationality and unfair process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridde Valéry

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Until 2010, Burkina Faso was an exception to the international trend of abolishing user fees for antiretroviral treatment (ART. Patients were still expected to pay 1,500F CFA (2 Euros per month for ART. Nevertheless, many non-governmental organizations (NGOs exempted patients from payment. The objective of this study was to investigate how NGOs selected the beneficiaries of payment exemptions for government-provided ART and rationed out complementary medical and psychosocial services. For this qualitative study, we conducted 13 individual interviews and three focus group discussions (n = 13 persons with program staff in nine NGOs (4,000 patients, two NGO coordinating structures and one national program. These encounters were recorded and transcribed, and their content was thematically analyzed. The results were presented to the NGOs for feedback. Results indicate that there are no concrete guidelines for identifying patients warranting payment exemptions. Formerly, ART was scarce in Burkina Faso and the primary criterion for treatment selection was clinical. Our results suggest that this scarcity, mediated by an approach we call sociotherapeutic rationality (i.e. maximization of clinical success, may have led to inequities in the provision of free ART. This approach may be detrimental to assuring equity since the most impoverished lack resources to pay for services that maximize clinical success (e.g. viral load that would increase their chances of being selected for treatment. However, once selected into treatment, attempts were made to ration-out complementary services more equitably. This study demonstrates the risks entailed by medication scarcity, which presents NGOs and health professionals with impossible choices that run counter to the philosophy of equity in access to treatment. Amid growing concerns of an international funding retreat for ART, it is important to learn from the past in order to better manage the potentially

  12. The STROBE extensions: protocol for a qualitative assessment of content and a survey of endorsement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Melissa K; Utrobičić, Ana; Gómez, Guadalupe; Cobo, Erik; Wager, Elizabeth; Hren, Darko

    2017-10-22

    The STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) Statement was developed in response to inadequate reporting of observational studies. In recent years, several extensions to STROBE have been created to provide more nuanced field-specific guidance for authors. The content and the prevalence of extension endorsement have not yet been assessed. Accordingly, there are two aims: (1) to classify changes made in the extensions to identify strengths and weaknesses of the original STROBE checklist and (2) to determine the prevalence and typology of endorsement by journals in fields related to extensions. Two independent researchers will assess additions in each extension. Additions will be coded as 'field specific' (FS) or 'not field specific' (NFS). FS is defined as particularly relevant information for a single field and guidance provided generally cannot be extrapolated beyond that field. NFS is defined as information that reflects epidemiological or methodological tenets and can be generalised to most, if not all, types of observational research studies. Intraclass correlation will be calculated to measure reviewers' concordance. On disagreement, consensus will be sought. Individual additions will be grouped by STROBE checklist items to identify the frequency and distribution of changes.Journals in fields related to extensions will be identified through National Library of Medicine PubMed Broad Subject Terms, screened for eligibility and further distilled via Ovid MEDLINE® search strategies for observational studies. Text describing endorsement will be extracted from each journal's website. A classification scheme will be created for endorsement types and the prevalence of endorsement will be estimated. Analyses will use NVivo V.11 and SAS University Edition. This study does not require ethical approval as it does not involve human participants. This study has been preregistered on Open Science Framework. © Article author(s) (or their

  13. 50 CFR 300.212 - Vessel permit endorsements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... applicant may at any time submit a new application for consideration. (f) Validity. A WCPFC Area Endorsement... of each special product or service. The fee is specified in the application form. The appropriate fee...

  14. A Caveat on "E and P" Poll on Newspaper Endorsements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gafke, Roger; Leuthold, David

    1979-01-01

    A comparison of the data from the 1976 "Editor and Publisher" poll regarding newspapers' editorial endorsements with data from a survey of the nation's voters suggests that the poll overstates the partisanship of the press and its Republican bias. (GT)

  15. The support needs of South African educators affected by HIV and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The term 'affected' refers to educators who have colleagues, learners or loved ones who are HIV-positive or who have died from HIV-related illnesses, or those who teach children orphaned by AIDS or learners who are vulnerable because of a parent's or caregiver's HIV status. Their responses endorse current theory ...

  16. The health literacy needs of women living with HIV/AIDS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Judy Thompson

    Available online xxx. Keywords: Health literacy. Women. HIV/AIDS. Needs abstract. Women in Sub-Saharan Africa are disproportionately affected by the virus and constitute. 60% of the total HIV/AIDS infections in this region. Current recommendations endorse the involvement of people living with HIV in the development of ...

  17. Effectiveness of Celebrity Endorsement Advertising in Chinese Marketplace

    OpenAIRE

    Gan, Wenqian

    2006-01-01

    Celebrity endorsement is as the most prevalent advertising technique and strategy nowadays used in Chinese marketing communication to create positive effects in the minds of Chinese consumers, since competition of Chinese market has rapidly and increasingly intensified. In the meantime, celebrity endorsement in advertising has managerial significance, as it can be an effective competitive weapon in mature and saturated markets in order to support brand image and differentiate products form co...

  18. Women's Endorsement of Models of Sexual Response: Correlates and Predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowosielski, Krzysztof; Wróbel, Beata; Kowalczyk, Robert

    2016-02-01

    Few studies have investigated endorsement of female sexual response models, and no single model has been accepted as a normative description of women's sexual response. The aim of the study was to establish how women from a population-based sample endorse current theoretical models of the female sexual response--the linear models and circular model (partial and composite Basson models)--as well as predictors of endorsement. Accordingly, 174 heterosexual women aged 18-55 years were included in a cross-sectional study: 74 women diagnosed with female sexual dysfunction (FSD) based on DSM-5 criteria and 100 non-dysfunctional women. The description of sexual response models was used to divide subjects into four subgroups: linear (Masters-Johnson and Kaplan models), circular (partial Basson model), mixed (linear and circular models in similar proportions, reflective of the composite Basson model), and a different model. Women were asked to choose which of the models best described their pattern of sexual response and how frequently they engaged in each model. Results showed that 28.7% of women endorsed the linear models, 19.5% the partial Basson model, 40.8% the composite Basson model, and 10.9% a different model. Women with FSD endorsed the partial Basson model and a different model more frequently than did non-dysfunctional controls. Individuals who were dissatisfied with a partner as a lover were more likely to endorse a different model. Based on the results, we concluded that the majority of women endorsed a mixed model combining the circular response with the possibility of an innate desire triggering a linear response. Further, relationship difficulties, not FSD, predicted model endorsement.

  19. Measuring online endorsement of prescription opioids abuse: an integrative methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNaughton, Emily C; Black, Ryan A; Zulueta, Mirella G; Budman, Simon H; Butler, Stephen F

    2012-10-01

    The ability to track prescription opioid abusers' endorsement of compounds may be valuable in forecasting abuser's preferences. We developed a metric, referred to as the Endorsement Ratio (ERo), to explore the feasibility of quantifying the sentiment expressed by opioid abusers who post online about prescription opioid products. Internet posts written between April 1, 2010 and March 31, 2011 and related to six prescription opioid compounds (oxycodone ER, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, oxymorphone, morphine ER, and tramadol) were identified and qualitatively coded. A mixed effects multinomial logistic regression was employed to model the probability of observing endorsing, discouraging, mixed, or unclear messages per compound. Endorsement-to-discouragement ratio (ERo) and ratio of endorsement-to-discouragement ratios (RERo) were estimated for each compound. In the study sample of 12 838 Internet posts, a ranking of endorsement could be established, with oxymorphone as most endorsed (ERo = 7.39), followed by hydromorphone (ERo = 5.02), hydrocodone (ERo = 3.53), oxycodone ER (ERo = 3.23), morphine ER (ERo = 2.71), and tramadol (ERo = 1.76). Relative rankings of products required that route of administration be considered. This study expands existing Internet monitoring approaches by developing a metric to estimate the endorsement of specific prescription opioid compounds as viewed through the lens of Internet communities. Route of administration must be taken into account when examining preferences of drug abusers for various products. This study did not assess whether the novel metric is valid with respect to classification of abuse rates of different drugs. Further studies examining external validation studies are warranted. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Pengaruhdaya Tarik Iklan Dan Kredibilitascelebrity Endorser Terhadapbrand Image

    OpenAIRE

    Anggraini, Ni Putu Nita; Adnyana, Dewa Md

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to determine whether the variable advertising appeal and credibility celebrity endorser affect the brand image Tolak Angin. The sample used in this study were 115 respondents, where the sampling technique used in this research is non probability sampling, the combination of purposive sampling and convenience sampling. Overall the data were analyzed with SPSS for windows 15. The results showed that the variables of the appeal of advertising and celebrity endorser credibility af...

  1. Celebrity Endorsement & Consumer Behavior : Gender Differences as a Marketing Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Junhem, Sanna; Adolfsson, Sophie

    2017-01-01

    Background - Celebrity endorsement is not a new phenomenon and it can be seen in advertisements around the world. Since the content of an advertisement easily can be screened out, it is important to target the right consumer. There has to be a fit between the consumer, the endorser and the product. Since gender plays a crucial part when understanding consumer behavior, knowledge about gender differences needs to be taken into account when creating a marketing strategy.      Purpose - Consumer...

  2. A theoretical reflection of celebrity endorsement in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Milford I Udo; Nwulu, Chinyere Stella

    2015-01-01

    The use of celebrities such as movie stars, sports heroes, entertainers, music experts and all the likes as endorsers by marketers in promoting brand awareness, recognition, and preferences, has become the order of the day in advertising practices both in developed and developing economies. It therefore behooves on marketing professionals to design possible techniques to enhance its effective use by companies. This instigated the researchers to theoretically examine what celebrity endorsement...

  3. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... HIV to their babies during pregnancy, delivery, and breastfeeding. HIV destroys a certain kind of white blood ... clinical trials, and other research information for health care providers, researchers, people affected by HIV/AIDS, and ...

  4. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... by HIV/AIDS, and the general public. U.S. National Library of Medicine HIV/AIDS Information : Specialized Information Services. VA National HIV/AIDS : This site provides information both for ...

  5. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... access to the latest, federally approved HIV/AIDS medical practice guidelines, HIV treatment and prevention clinical trials, and other research information for health care providers, researchers, people affected by HIV/AIDS, and ...

  6. Representações sociais do cuidado prestado aos pacientes soropositivos ao HIV Representaciones sociales de la atención prestada a los pacientes seropositivos al VIH Social representations of the care provided to HIV seropositive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gláucia Alexandre Formozo

    2010-04-01

    Rio de Janeiro and the subject 20 nursing assistants and 20 nurses. The data collection took place through semi-structured and used for its analysis software ALCESTE 4.7. Among the nursing assistants were characterized about the content of the daily nursing care provided to patients with HIV/AIDS, whereas the nurses have content back to their quality of life. Thus it was concluded that the social representation of nursing assistants is anchored in the practical elements of daily care, while nurses anchored in the knowledge reified.

  7. Motivational Interviewing among HIV Health Care Providers: Challenges and opportunities to enhance engagement and retention in care in Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bofill, Lina; Weiss, Stephen M; Lucas, Mar; Bordato, Alejandra; Dorigo, Analia; Fernandez-Cabanillas, Graciela; Aristegui, Ines; Lopez, Maria; Waldrop-Valverde, Drenna; Jones, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    Providers’ response to Motivational Interviewing (MI) to improve engagement and retention in care among challenging patients with HIV in Argentina were evaluated. 12 HIV care physicians participated and video recordings pre- and post-MI training were obtained. One week post-training 11/12 participants were committed to using MI strategies during consult session. 9/12 participants demonstrated appropriate utilization of MI techniques and increased adherence focused discussion and care (t = 3.59, p = .006). MI appears to be a viable strategy to enhance engagement and retention in challenging HIV patients. PMID:26056148

  8. Millennials’ attitude toward endorsers in the beauty industry : An investigation into Millennials’ perception and preferences regarding the qualities of endorsers

    OpenAIRE

    Ngnoubamdjum, Jeannette; Zahn, Katarina Sofia

    2016-01-01

    Using celebrities in advertising has become increasingly popular among brand managers and companies all over the world spend large amounts of money to convince celebrities to endorse their brands and products. Given the fact that Generation Y consumers are becoming an increasingly important target group for marketers it will be interesting to investigate if they perceive celebrities or non-celebrities as more important endorsers.

  9. Provider-Initiated HIV Testing for Migrants in Spain: A Qualitative Study with Health Care Workers and Foreign-Born Sexual Minorities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Navaza, B; Abarca, H; Bisoffi, F; Pool, R; Roura, M

    2016-01-01

    .... This qualitative study examined HIV testing experiences and perceptions amongst Latin-American migrant men who have sex with men and transgender females in Spain, as well as health professionals...

  10. Task shifting of triage to peer expert informal care providers at a tertiary referral HIV clinic in Malawi: a cross-sectional operational evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landes, Megan; Thompson, Courtney; Mwinjiwa, Edson; Thaulo, Edith; Gondwe, Chrissie; Akello, Harriet; Chan, Adrienne K

    2017-05-09

    HIV treatment models in Africa are labour intensive and require a high number of skilled staff. In this context, task-shifting is considered a feasible alternative for ART service delivery. In 2006, a lay health cadre of expert patients (EPs) at a tertiary referral HIV clinic in Zomba, Malawi was capacitated. There are few evaluations of EP program efficacy in this setting. Triage is the process of prioritizing patients in terms of the severity of their condition and ensures that no harmful delays occur to treatment and care. This study evaluates the safety of task-shifting triage, in an ambulatory low resource setting, to EPs. As a quality improvement exercise in April 2010, formal triage training was conducted by adapting the World Health Organization Emergency Triage Assessment and Treatment Triage Module Guidelines. A cross sectional observation study was conducted 2 years after the intervention. Triage assessments performed by EPs were repeated by a clinical officer (gold standard) to assess sensitivities, specificities, positive and negative predictive values for EP triage scores. Proportions were calculated for categories of disposition by stratifying by EP and clinician triage scores. A total of 467 patients were triaged by 7 EPs and re-triaged by clinical officers. With combined triage scores for emergency and priority patients we report a sensitivity of 85% and specificity of 74% for the EP scoring, with a low positive predictive value (41%) and a high negative predictive value (96%). We calculate a serious miss rate of EP scoring (i.e. missed priority or emergency patients) as 2.2%. Admission rates to hospital were highest among those patients triaged as emergency cases either by the EP's (21%) or the clinicians (83%). Fewer patients triaged as priority by either EPs (5%) or clinicians (15%) were admitted to hospital, however these patients had the highest prevalence of same day lab testing and/or specialty referral. Our study provides reassurance that

  11. Uptake and linkage into care over one year of providing HIV testing and counselling through community and health facility testing modalities in urban informal settlement of Kibera, Nairobi Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Muhula

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We examine the uptake of HIV Testing and Counselling (HTC and linkage into care over one year of providing HTC through community and health facility testing modalities among people living in Kibera informal urban settlement in Nairobi Kenya. Methods We analyzed program data on health facility-based HIV testing and counselling and community- based testing and counselling approaches for the period starting October 2013 to September 2014. Univariate and bivariate analysis methods were used to compare the two approaches with regard to uptake of HTC and subsequent linkage to care. The exact Confidence Intervals (CI to the proportions were approximated using simple normal approximation to binomial distribution method. Results Majority of the 18,591 clients were tested through health facility-based testing approaches 72.5 % (n = 13485 vs those tested through community-based testing comprised 27.5 % (n = 5106. More clients tested at health facilities were reached through Provider Initiated Testing and Counselling PITC 81.7 % (n = 11015 while 18.3 % were reached through Voluntary Counselling and Testing (VCT/Client Initiated Testing and Counselling (CITC services. All clients who tested positive during health facility-based testing were successfully linked to care either at the project sites or sites of client choice while not all who tested positive during community based testing were linked to care. The HIV prevalence among all those who were tested for HIV in the program was 5.2 % (n = 52, 95 % CI: 3.9 %–6.8 %. Key study limitation included use of aggregate data to report uptake of HTC through the two testing approaches and not being able to estimate the population in the catchment area likely to test for HIV. Conclusion Health facility-based HTC approach achieved more clients tested for HIV, and this method also resulted in identifying greater numbers of people who were HIV positive in Kibera slum within

  12. The Risk of Vampire Effect in Advertisements Using Celebrity Endorsement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetyana Kuvita

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the race to get the attention of the target audience, advertisers often use special attention-getting devices. This in turn exposes them to a higher risk of creating a vampire effect when the core message about the brand or a product is “eaten up” by such devices. The concept of a vampire effect in advertising appears to be under-researched in the current literature. Therefore, this paper provides deeper insights into the vampire effect occurrences in printed advertisements using celebrity endorsement. The paper is based on a qualitative study with an eye-tracking device with 12 participants and on the following experiment with 60 university students. The research found that a significantly higher risk of creating a vampire effect exists when using an unrelated celebrity as an attention-getting device than when using a related celebrity or no celebrity at all. Marketers are advised to use related celebrities if choosing to stick to this attention-getting approach. However, the concept of “relatedness” should be pre-tested prior to launching an advertising campaign.

  13. Community stigma endorsement and voluntary counseling and testing behavior and attitudes among female heads of household in Zambézia Province, Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukolo, Abraham; Blevins, Meridith; Victor, Bart; Paulin, Heather N; Vaz, Lara M E; Sidat, Mohsin; Vergara, Alfredo E

    2013-12-10

    Some aspects of HIV-related stigma have been shown to be a barrier to HIV services uptake and adherence to antiretroviral treatment (ART). Distinguishing which domains of stigma impact HIV services uptake can enhance the efficacy and efficiency of stigma-reduction interventions. The relationships between use of voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) services and two domains of community stigma identified through factor analysis, negative labeling/devaluation and social exclusion, were investigated among 3749 female heads of household. Data were from a general household survey conducted in rural Mozambique. Multivariable logistic regression outcomes were: lifetime VCT use, past-6-months VCT use and VCT endorsement. Thirteen percent (13%) of the participants reported lifetime VCT use, 10% reported past-6-months VCT use and 63% endorsed VCT. A 25-point decrease (from 50 to 25) in the score for negative labeling and devaluation stigma was associated with increased lifetime VCT use (adjusted OR: 1.6, 95% CI: 1.1-2.3) and past-6-months VCT use (adjusted OR: 1.6, 95% CI: 1.1-2.4). A decrease from 50 to 25-points in the score for social exclusion stigma was associated with 1.5 and 1.3-fold increase in odds for past-6-months VCT use and endorsing VCT use, respectively (p endorsement of VCT use was observed among testers who did not receive HIV test results (adjusted OR: 2.7, 95% CI: 1.6-4.6) and much higher among testers who received results (adjusted OR: 7.3, 95% CI: 4.9-11.0). Distance from health facilities was associated with lower VCT use, but not lower endorsement of VCT. VCT use and endorsement might differ by domains of stigma held by individuals in the community. Greater uptake and favorable disposition towards use of VCT services in rural settings might be achieved by addressing stigma via domain-specific interventions and by improving the proximity of services and the dissemination of HIV test results.

  14. 76 FR 22119 - Credit Watch Termination Initiative; Termination of Direct Endorsement (DE) Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-20

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Credit Watch Termination Initiative; Termination of Direct Endorsement (DE) Approval.... SUMMARY: This notice advises of the cause and effect of termination of Direct Endorsement (DE) Approval... Endorsement mortgagees. Termination of Direct Endorsement Approval: Approval of a DE mortgagee by HUD/FHA...

  15. 7 CFR 457.143 - Northern potato crop insurance-quality endorsement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Northern potato crop insurance-quality endorsement... Northern potato crop insurance—quality endorsement. The Northern Potato Crop Insurance Quality Endorsement...) Both FCIC and reinsured policies: Northern Potato Crop Insurance Quality Endorsement 1. Definitions...

  16. 7 CFR 457.145 - Potato crop insurance-certified seed endorsement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potato crop insurance-certified seed endorsement. 457... insurance—certified seed endorsement. The Potato Crop Insurance Certified Seed Endorsement Provisions for...) Both FCIC and reinsured policies: Potato Crop Insurance Certified Seed Endorsement 1. In return for...

  17. 46 CFR 11.501 - Grade and type of engineer endorsements issued.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Grade and type of engineer endorsements issued. 11.501... REQUIREMENTS FOR OFFICER ENDORSEMENTS Professional Requirements for Engineer Officer § 11.501 Grade and type of engineer endorsements issued. (a) Engineer endorsements are issued in the grades of: (1) Chief engineer; (2...

  18. Effect of provider-initiated testing and counselling and integration of ART services on access to HIV diagnosis and treatment for children in Lilongwe, Malawi: a pre- post comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phiri Sam

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The HIV prevalence in Malawi is 12% and Kamuzu Central Hospital (KCH, in the capital Lilongwe, is the main provider of adult and paediatric HIV services in the central region. The Lighthouse at KCH offers opt-in HIV testing and counselling (HTC for adults and children. In June 2004, Lighthouse was the first clinic to provide free antiretroviral treatment (ART in the public sector, but few children accessed the services. In response, provider-initiated HIV testing and counselling (PITC and an ART clinic were introduced at the paediatric department at KCH in Quarter 4 (Q4 2004. Methods We analysed prospectively collected, aggregated data of quarterly reports from Q1 2003 to Q4 2006 from HTC centre registers, ART registers and clinic registrations at the ART clinics of both Lighthouse and the paediatric department. By comparing data of both facilities before (Q1 2003 to Q3 2004, and after the introduction of the services at the paediatric department (Q4 2004 to Q4 2006, we assessed the effect of this intervention on the uptake of HIV services for children at KCH. Results Overall, 3971 children were tested for HIV, 2428 HIV-infected children were registered for care and 1218 started ART. Between the two periods, the median (IQR number of children being tested, registered and starting ART per quarter rose from 101 (53-109 to 358 (318-440, 56 (50-82 to 226 (192-234 and 18 (8-23 to 139 (115-150, respectively. The median proportion of tested clients per quarter that were children rose from 3.8% (2.7-4.3 to 9.6% (8.8 to 10.0 (p = 0.0009 and the proportion of ART starters that were children rose from 6.9% (4.9-9.3 to 21.1% (19.2-24.2 (p = 0.0036. The proportion of registered children and adults starting ART each quarter increased similarly, from 26% to 53%, and 20% to 52%, respectively. Conclusions Implementation of PITC and integration of ART services within the paediatric ward are likely to be the main reasons for improved access to

  19. The Pasadena Recommendations: Five Years After AAS Endorsement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knezek, Patricia; Frattare, L.; Ulvestad, J.

    2010-01-01

    It has been five years since the AAS Council unanimously endorsed the document, known as "Equity Now: The Pasadena Recommendations for Gender Equality in Astronomy," in January 2005. This document was the main product of the conference entitled "Women in Astronomy II: Ten Years After” (WIA II), held in June 2003 in Pasadena, CA. Participants of that 2003 meeting assessed the progress for women in science, offering insights into causes of the slower advancement of women, and discussed strategies to accelerate the achievement of equality. These insights and strategies were then incorporated into the "Pasadena Recommendations" by the CSWA. It was subsequently released to the entire AAS community for review and comments prior to its endorsement by the AAS. We will discuss the Recommendations and their impact since the endorsement by the AAS, including the process that is in place for organizations and departments to formally endorse the Pasadena Recommendations, thus making an organizational commitment to their implementation (see http://www.aas.org/cswa/pasadena_endorse.html).

  20. California's "Bridge to Reform": identifying challenges and defining strategies for providers and policymakers implementing the Affordable Care Act in low-income HIV/AIDS care and treatment settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick T Hazelton

    Full Text Available In preparation for full Affordable Care Act implementation, California has instituted two healthcare initiatives that provide comprehensive coverage for previously uninsured or underinsured individuals. For many people living with HIV, this has required transition either from the HIV-specific coverage of the Ryan White program to the more comprehensive coverage provided by the county-run Low-Income Health Programs or from Medicaid fee-for-service to Medicaid managed care. Patient advocates have expressed concern that these transitions may present implementation challenges that will need to be addressed if ambitious HIV prevention and treatment goals are to be achieved.30 semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted between October, 2012, and February, 2013, with policymakers and providers in 10 urban, suburban, and rural California counties. Interview topics included: continuity of patient care, capacity to handle payer source transitions, and preparations for healthcare reform implementation. Study team members reviewed interview transcripts to produce emergent themes, develop a codebook, build inter-rater reliability, and conduct analyses.Respondents supported the goals of the ACA, but reported clinic and policy-level challenges to maintaining patient continuity of care during the payer source transitions. They also identified strategies for addressing these challenges. Areas of focus included: gaps in communication to reach patients and develop partnerships between providers and policymakers, perceived inadequacy in new provider networks for delivering quality HIV care, the potential for clinics to become financially insolvent due to lower reimbursement rates, and increased administrative burdens for clinic staff and patients.California's new healthcare initiatives represent ambitious attempts to expand and improve health coverage for low-income individuals. The state's challenges in maintaining quality care and treatment for people

  1. National nursing registration in Australia: a way forward for nurse practitioner endorsement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Andrea; Harvey, Clare; Green, Anna; Weatherby, Robert P; Liew, Danny; Prentice, David; Lord, Julie; Lee, Geraldine; Crellin, Dianne; Dobroff, Naomi; Heland, Melodie

    2012-03-01

    The move to national registration of health professionals and the creation of the Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia (NMBA) provides both challenges and opportunities for the regulation of nurse practitioners (NPs) in Australia. National and state health policy documents, accessible on the Internet, concerning the regulation and endorsement processes for NPs in Australia were examined. The similarities between two of the previous jurisdictional NP endorsement processes in New South Wales and Victoria provide a common ground on which to build a robust national system. However, there are also key differences between these two states. These differences were mainly in the evidence required to assess competency of NP applicants and the authority to prescribe medications. All Victorian NP applicants were required to complete an approved medication subject at a master's level. A consistent endorsement process that delivers NPs of the highest standard and allows for efficient use of their skills and expertise is vital. This needs to be performed with the aim of providing high-quality care in a regulatory environment that protects the public and clearly articulates the level of competence expected of all NPs. ©2012 The Author(s) Journal compilation ©2012 American Academy of Nurse Practitioners.

  2. Gender attitudes, sexual power, HIV risk: a model for understanding HIV risk behavior of South African men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Michelle R; Shefer, Tamara; Crawford, Mary; Simbayi, Leickness C; Kalichman, Seth C

    2008-04-01

    The Gender Attitudes-Power-Risk (GAPR) model of HIV risk behavior was tested using survey data collected from among 309 men who were attending STI services in a primary health care clinic in Cape Town, South Africa. Results showed that negative attitudes towards women were significantly positively associated with a high level of HIV risk behavior, and that endorsement of traditional male roles was negatively associated with HIV risk behavior. Endorsement of traditional male gender roles was also inversely related to relationship control but positively to a high degree of decision-making dominance in one's relationship. Sexual relationship power did not significantly mediate the relationships between gender attitudes and HIV risk behavior. A better understanding of gender roles and ideologies in combination with one's power in sexual relationships as they relate to HIV risk behavior among men could better inform future HIV prevention interventions.

  3. Advocating for schools to provide effective HIV and sexuality education: a case study in how social service organizations working in coalition can (and should) affect sustained policy change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogusky, Jeremy; Tenner, Adam

    2010-05-01

    Advocates believed that to slow an expanding HIV/ AIDS epidemic in Washington, D.C., a local effort could ensure that HIV prevention was brought to scale. Schools were chosen as the focus and a new coalition advocated for the city government to pass new academic standards for health education. HIV and sex education policies had not been revised in more than 12 years and HIV education in D.C. public schools varied greatly in quality. Metro TeenAIDS (MTA), a traditional social service organization with no real history of advocacy work, reached only 10% of D.C. adolescents with critical HIV/AIDS prevention information. Clearly, to make a sustained impact, system change was necessary. After deciding to pursue a campaign focused on updating health education policy and creating standards, MTA convened a variety of reproductive health, adolescent medicine, and other organizations to establish the DC Healthy Youth Coalition. The Coalition used three complementary strategies to achieve campaign goals: mobilizing grassroots community support, involving parents in the discussion, and educating city leaders. By building an alliance of social service organizations and influencing critical public policy, the coalition ensured that new educational standards were passed.

  4. HIV vaccine acceptability and culturally appropriate dissemination among sexually diverse Aboriginal peoples in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, P A; Woodford, M R; Logie, C

    2012-01-01

    This study explored HIV vaccine acceptability and strategies for culturally appropriate dissemination among sexually diverse Aboriginal peoples in Canada, among those at highest HIV risk. We conducted four focus groups (n=23) with Aboriginal male (1) and female (1) service users, peer educators (1) and service providers (1) in Ontario, Canada. Transcripts were analysed with narrative thematic techniques from grounded theory, using NVivo. Participants' mean age was 37 years; about half (52%) were female, half (48%) Two-spirit or lesbian, gay or bisexual (LGB)-identified, 48% had a high-school education or less and 57% were unemployed. Vaccine uptake was motivated by community survival; however, negative HIV vaccine perceptions, historically based mistrust of government and healthcare institutions, perceived conflict between western and traditional medicine, sexual prejudice and AIDS stigma within and outside of Aboriginal communities, and vaccine cost may present formidable obstacles to HIV vaccine acceptability. Culturally appropriate processes of engagement emerged on individual levels (i.e., respect for self-determination, explanations in Native languages, use of modelling and traditional healing concepts) and community levels (i.e., leadership by Aboriginal HIV advocates and political representatives, identification of gatekeepers, and procuring Elders' endorsements). Building on cultural strengths and acknowledging the history and context of mistrust and social exclusion are fundamental to effective HIV vaccine dissemination.

  5. Effect of Celebrity Endorsement in Advertising Activities by Product Type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karasiewicz Grzegorz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to answer two related questions: are celebrity endorsements more likely to be result in a higher evaluation of the product being advertised than use of an anonymous individual (e.g. a typical consumer; and, if present, do these positive effects vary by product category? To answer these two questions research was conducted on a 237 student sample employing a quasi-experiment consisting of four groups (two product categories and two types of endorsers using data collected through an online survey. The results indicate that celebrity endorsements do have a positive impact on the evaluation of durable goods, but do not affect the evaluation of frequently purchased products. This finding largely confirms the assumptions of the match-up model, the meaning transfer model, and the ELM model.

  6. Maintaining cost-effective access to antiretroviral drug therapy through a collaborative approach to drug procurement, consensus treatment guidelines and regular audit: the experience of London HIV commissioners and providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazzard, Brian; Johnson, Margaret; Sharott, Peter; Collins, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Background In the UK, meeting the £20 billion efficiency challenge in the NHS requires new approaches to protect quality and improve productivity. In London, clinicians, people living with HIV and commissioners are collaborating to reduce the cost of antiretrovirals as part of the Quality Innovation Productivity and Prevention agenda. Objectives To describe how collaboration in antiretroviral procurement in 2011/2012 aimed to significantly reduce drug acquisition costs, ensure equity of prescribing and protect the quality and experience of care and treatment for patients. Methods Greater clinical leadership and engagement and involvement of patient representatives enabled an approach to drug procurement focused on clinical outcomes at a patient and population level while reducing cost. Consensus guidelines for implementation were developed and agreed by all London lead clinicians while people living with HIV produced a patient information leaflet to explain the tender process and outcomes. A planned audit is underway at all services to monitor prescribing changes and outcomes for those on treatment. Results HIV clinicians, pharmacists and patient representatives were directly involved in this novel therapeutic tendering approach to antiretroviral drug procurement. Modelling indicates that £8–£10 million savings will be released through the process over 2 years. Conclusions Clinically led therapeutic tendering of antiretroviral drugs provides an opportunity to protect quality and improve productivity in HIV. The approach is novel in HIV in the UK, and the emergent learning has implications for quality and cost improvement in HIV spending in the UK and potentially in other countries. PMID:22345023

  7. Popular Music Celebrity Endorsements in Food and Nonalcoholic Beverage Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg, Marie A; Miller, Alysa N; Elizee, Juleen; Dighe, Shatabdi; Elbel, Brian D

    2016-07-01

    Food and beverage marketing has been associated with childhood obesity. We quantified the number and type of food or beverage brands promoted by music celebrities, assessed the nutritional quality of the products, and examined Teen Choice Award data to assess the celebrities' popularity among adolescents. This was a descriptive study. A list of music celebrities associated with the 2013 and 2014 Billboard Hot 100 Chart, which ranks songs according to sales and radio impressions, was compiled. Data on celebrity endorsements were gathered from official company Web sites, YouTube commercials, an advertising database, and media reports. Nutritional quality of foods was assessed according to the Nutrient Profile Index, whereas nonalcoholic beverages were evaluated based on calories from added sugar. Teen Choice Award nominations were used to measure the celebrities' popularity among adolescents. Of the 590 endorsements made by the 163 celebrities in the sample, consumer goods (eg, fragrances, makeup) represented the largest endorsement category (26%), followed by food and beverage (18%) and retail (11%). Sixty-five celebrities were collectively associated with 57 different food and beverage brands owned by 38 parent companies. Of these 65 celebrities, 53 (81.5%) had ≥1 Teen Choice Award nomination. Forty-nine (71%) of the 69 nonalcoholic beverage references promoted sugar-sweetened beverages. Twenty-one (80.8%) of the 26 endorsed foods were energy dense and nutrient poor. Baauer, will.i.am, Justin Timberlake, Maroon 5, and Britney Spears had the most food and beverage endorsements. This study demonstrates that music celebrities who are popular among adolescents endorse energy-dense, nutrient-poor products. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  8. Therapeutic HIV Peptide Vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fomsgaard, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Therapeutic vaccines aim to control chronic HIV infection and eliminate the need for lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART). Therapeutic HIV vaccine is being pursued as part of a functional cure for HIV/AIDS. We have outlined a basic protocol for inducing new T cell immunity during chronic HIV-1...... infection directed to subdominant conserved HIV-1 epitopes restricted to frequent HLA supertypes. The rationale for selecting HIV peptides and adjuvants are provided. Peptide subunit vaccines are regarded as safe due to the simplicity, quality, purity, and low toxicity. The caveat is reduced immunogenicity...

  9. Correlates in the Endorsement of Psychotic Symptoms and Services Use: Findings from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barragán, Armando; Yamada, Ann-Marie; Lee, Karen Kyeunghae; Barrio, Concepción

    2016-08-01

    Endorsement of psychotic symptoms serves as an indicator of significant health issues and interpersonal distress. Seeking services is the ultimate recourse for many individuals, yet few studies have assessed the help-seeking process in a nationally representative sample. This study, guided by Lewis-Fernández et al.'s (J Nerv Ment Dis 197(5):337-347, 2009) analyses, examined the association of lifetime endorsement of psychotic symptoms with demographic, clinical and support system variables and types of services received. Based on nationally weighted epidemiological data, 11.6 % of adults reported one or more psychotic symptoms. Psychotic symptoms were associated with poor physical and mental health, specifically depressive, anxiety, and substance use disorders. Respondents were more likely to receive services from both informal and mental health providers and were more likely to be hospitalized than those not endorsing psychotic symptoms. Study findings inform community efforts to develop comprehensive services for individuals experiencing psychotic symptoms.

  10. PERAN PERSEPSI NILAI DALAM MEMEDIASI PENGARUH KREDIBILITAS CELEBRITY ENDORSER TERHADAP NIAT BELI PRODUK KOSMETIK MAYBELLINE DI KOTA DENPASAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusti Ayu Pangastuti Arsinta

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The rapid growth and increasing competition in the business of cosmetic product and also the more selective consumer, makes cosmetic companies do efforts in providing information about the products and create a positive association to attract potential customers. The purpose of this study is to determine the role of perceived value in mediating the effect of celebrity endorser credibility on purchase intention of Maybelline cosmetics products in Denpasar. The sample size was 70 people, determined with non-probability sampling methods, especially incidental and purposive sampling. The analysis technique used was PLS (Partial Least Square. The results of this study indicate that the celebrity endorser credibility influence positively purchase intention and perceived value. Additionally, perceived value has positive impact on purchase intention. Perceived value emerges as variable which mediate partially the effect of celebrity endorser credibility on purchase intention.

  11. Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis to Prevent HIV Infection: Why Do We Need It, What Are the Limitations, and Can We Successfully Provide It Today?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karris, Maile Y

    2014-12-01

    This article reviews the current literature and represents the author's thoughts and opinions on pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), specifically in regards to the importance of this HIV prevention strategy, as well as the continued controversies and the unanswered questions.

  12. Update on the endorsement of CONSORT by high impact factor journals: a survey of journal "Instructions to Authors" in 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamseer, Larissa; Hopewell, Sally; Altman, Douglas G; Moher, David; Schulz, Kenneth F

    2016-06-24

    The CONsolidated Standards Of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) Statement provides a minimum standard set of items to be reported in published clinical trials; it has received widespread recognition within the biomedical publishing community. This research aims to provide an update on the endorsement of CONSORT by high impact medical journals. We performed a cross-sectional examination of the online "Instructions to Authors" of 168 high impact factor (2012) biomedical journals between July and December 2014. We assessed whether the text of the "Instructions to Authors" mentioned the CONSORT Statement and any CONSORT extensions, and we quantified the extent and nature of the journals' endorsements of these. These data were described by frequencies. We also determined whether journals mentioned trial registration and the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE; other than in regards to trial registration) and whether either of these was associated with CONSORT endorsement (relative risk and 95 % confidence interval). We compared our findings to the two previous iterations of this survey (in 2003 and 2007). We also identified the publishers of the included journals. Sixty-three percent (106/168) of the included journals mentioned CONSORT in their "Instructions to Authors." Forty-four endorsers (42 %) explicitly stated that authors "must" use CONSORT to prepare their trial manuscript, 38 % required an accompanying completed CONSORT checklist as a condition of submission, and 39 % explicitly requested the inclusion of a flow diagram with the submission. CONSORT extensions were endorsed by very few journals. One hundred and thirty journals (77 %) mentioned ICMJE, and 106 (63 %) mentioned trial registration. The endorsement of CONSORT by high impact journals has increased over time; however, specific instructions on how CONSORT should be used by authors are inconsistent across journals and publishers. Publishers and journals should encourage authors to

  13. Postoperative Radiation Therapy for Endometrial Cancer: American Society of Clinical Oncology Clinical Practice Guideline Endorsement of the American Society for Radiation Oncology Evidence-Based Guideline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Larissa A; Bohlke, Kari; Powell, Matthew A; Fader, Amanda N; Franklin, Gregg E; Lee, Larissa J; Matei, Daniela; Coallier, Lourie; Wright, Alexi A

    2015-09-10

    To provide guidance on the role of adjuvant radiation therapy in the treatment of endometrial cancer. "The Role of Postoperative Radiation Therapy for Endometrial Cancer: An ASTRO Evidence-Based Guideline" by Klopp et al, published in 2014 in Practical Radiation Oncology, was reviewed for developmental rigor by methodologists. The American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) guideline content and recommendations were further reviewed by the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Endorsement Panel. The ASCO Endorsement Panel determined that the recommendations from the ASTRO guideline are clear, thorough, and based on the most relevant scientific evidence. ASCO endorsed the ASTRO guideline with several qualifying statements. Surveillance without adjuvant radiation therapy is a reasonable option for women without residual disease in the hysterectomy specimen and for women with grade 1 or 2 cancer and Endorsement Panel added qualifying statements to the ASTRO recommendations to provide stronger statements in favor of chemotherapy (with or without radiation therapy). © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  14. Heterosexual anal sex reported by women receiving HIV prevention services in Los Angeles County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Grace L; Fisher, Dennis G; Napper, Lucy E; Fremming, Brent W; Jansen, Michael A

    2010-01-01

    This study examined reported heterosexual receptive anal intercourse (HRAI) in a sample of women recruited from HIV prevention providers in Los Angeles County. The majority of women surveyed were Latina and the modal age was 19 years. Women reporting HRAI were more likely to use both injected and non injected drugs and to have sexual partners who injected drugs. Factors associated with HRAI in a multivariate regression model included use of methamphetamine; use of alcohol before, during, or after sex; and use of dental services at the interview agency. Factors inversely associated with heterosexual anal sex were being African American (compared with Latina) and endorsing the use of condoms for episodes of vaginal sex from start to finish. HIV prevention providers in Los Angeles County should be aware of the need for basic prevention messages concerning condom use and injection behavior in young Latina women. Copyright © 2010 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. 'I Will Crawl Before You' Political endorsements, defections and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While public endorsement of presidential candidates is a relatively new phenomenon in Zambian politics, political defections have existed for a longer period. However, both of these political manoeuvres have increasingly become ubiquitous since Zambia's return to multiparty democracy in the 1990s. Often, defectors prey ...

  16. Psychosexual correlates of sexual double standard endorsement in adolescent sexuality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emmerink, Peggy; Vanwesenbeeck, Wilhelmina; van den Eijnden, Regina; ter Bogt, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Endorsement and enactment of the (hetero)sexual double standard (SDS), prescribing sexual modesty for girls and sexual prowess for boys, has been shown to be negatively related to sexual and mental health. To be able to challenge the sexual double standard, more insight is needed into the conditions

  17. License to fail..?!! Leader prototypicality, leader performance, and leadership endorsement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giessner, S.R.; van Knippenberg, D.; Sleebos, E.

    2009-01-01

    Leadership often serves as an explanatory category for performance outcomes (i.e., failure and success). This process can strengthen or weaken leadership effectiveness, because contingent on their performance leaders may gain or lose follower endorsement - the basis of leadership. Drawing on the

  18. The value of winning : endorsement returns in individual sports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, Dirk F.; van Rheenen, Saskia

    Using the results of 1068 different golf, tennis, and track and field (in particular: running) events, this paper examines the relation between athlete performance and stock returns of firms endorsed by athletes. We find that a tournament victory is associated with significant and positive

  19. Sport fans and athlete celebrity endorsers: Relationships between ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Celebrities are a common feature in contemporary marketing, often becoming the face or image of the products advertised and for organisations as well. Researchers have suggested that celebrities have likeable qualities who may add value to an endorsed product because of their status in society. This study investigates ...

  20. The value of winning: endorsement returns in individual sports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.F. Gerritsen (Dirk F.); van Rheenen, S. (Saskia)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractUsing the results of 1068 different golf, tennis, and track and field (in particular: running) events, this paper examines the relation between athlete performance and stock returns of firms endorsed by athletes. We find that a tournament victory is associated with significant and

  1. Effect of Endorsements on News Space in Texas Papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleneghan, J. Sean

    1978-01-01

    A content analysis of newspapers in 11 Texas cities between 1975 and 1977 suggests that only editorial page coverage favored mayoral candidates endorsed by the newspapers and that all serious candidates had an equal chance of receiving fair campaign coverage in their respective city newspapers. (GT)

  2. HIV Stigma and Substance Use Among HIV-Positive Russians with Risky Drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelman, E Jennifer; Lunze, Karsten; Cheng, Debbie M; Lioznov, Dmitry A; Quinn, Emily; Gnatienko, Natalia; Bridden, Carly; Chaisson, Christine E; Walley, Alexander Y; Krupitsky, Evgeny M; Raj, Anita; Samet, Jeffrey H

    2017-06-20

    The link between HIV stigma with substance use is understudied. We characterized individuals with high HIV stigma and examined whether HIV stigma contributes to substance use among HIV-positive Russians reporting risky alcohol use. We analyzed data from HERMITAGE, a randomized controlled trial of 700 people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) with past 6-month risky sex and risky alcohol use in St. Petersburg, Russia (2007-2011). Participants who were female and reported depressive symptoms and lower social support were more likely to endorse high HIV stigma (all p's < 0.001). In adjusted models, high HIV stigma was not significantly associated with the primary outcome unhealthy substance use and was not consistently associated with secondary substance use outcomes. Interventions to enhance social and mental health support for PLWHA, particularly women, may reduce stigma, though such reductions may not correspond to substantial decreases in substance use among this population.

  3. The costs of providing antiretroviral therapy services to HIV-infected individuals presenting with advanced HIV disease at public health centres in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: Findings from a randomised trial evaluating different health care strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godfather Dickson Kimaro

    Full Text Available Understanding the costs associated with health care delivery strategies is essential for planning. There are few data on health service resources used by patients and their associated costs within antiretroviral (ART programmes in Africa.The study was nested within a large trial, which evaluated screening for cryptococcal meningitis and tuberculosis and a short initial period of home-based adherence support for patients initiating ART with advanced HIV disease in Tanzania and Zambia. The economic evaluation was done in Tanzania alone. We estimated costs of providing routine ART services from the health service provider's perspective using a micro-costing approach. Incremental costs for the different novel components of service delivery were also estimated. All costs were converted into US dollars (US$ and based on 2012 prices.Of 870 individuals enrolled in Tanzania, 434 were enrolled in the intervention arm and 436 in the standard care/control arm. Overall, the median (IQR age and CD4 cell count at enrolment were 38 [31, 44] years and 52 [20, 89] cells/mm3, respectively. The mean per patient costs over the first three months and over a one year period of follow up following ART initiation in the standard care arm were US$ 107 (95%CI 101-112 and US$ 265 (95%CI 254-275 respectively. ART drugs, clinic visits and hospital admission constituted 50%, 19%, and 19% of the total cost per patient year, while diagnostic tests and non-ART drugs (co-trimoxazole accounted for 10% and 2% of total per patient year costs. The incremental costs of the intervention to the health service over the first three months was US$ 59 (p<0.001; 95%CI 52-67 and over a one year period was US$ 67(p<0.001; 95%CI 50-83. This is equivalent to an increase of 55% (95%CI 51%-59% in the mean cost of care over the first three months, and 25% (95%CI 20%-30% increase over one year of follow up.

  4. Perceptions regarding the ease of use and usefulness of health information exchange systems among medical providers, case managers and non-clinical staff members working in HIV care and community settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Janet J; Koester, Kimberly A; Chakravarty, Deepalika; Pearson, Charles; Maiorana, Andres; Shade, Starley B; Steward, Wayne T

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this paper is to describe how members of HIV patients' care teams perceived the usefulness and ease of use of newly implemented, innovative health information exchange systems (HIEs) in diverse HIV treatment settings. Five settings with existing electronic medical records (EMRs) received special funding to test enhancements to their systems. Participating clinics and community-based organizations added HIEs permitting bi-directional exchange of information across multiple provider sites serving the same HIV patient population. We conducted in-depth qualitative interviews and quantitative web-based surveys with case managers, medical providers, and non-clinical staff members to assess the systems' perceived usefulness and ease of use shortly after the HIEs were implemented. Our approach to data analysis was iterative. We first conducted a thematic analysis of the qualitative data and discovered that there were key differences in perceptions and actual use of HIEs across occupational groups. We used these results to guide our analysis of the quantitative survey data, stratifying by occupational group. We found differences in reports of how useful and how well-used HIEs were, by occupation. Medical providers were more likely to use HIEs if they provided easier access to clinical information than was present in existing EMRs. Case managers working inside medical clinics found HIEs to be less helpful because they already had access to the clinical data. In contrast, case managers working in community settings appreciated the new access to patient information that the HIEs provided. Non-clinical staff uniformly found the HIEs useful for a broad range of tasks including clinic administration, grant writing and generating reports for funders. Our study offers insights into the use and potential benefits of HIE in the context of HIV care across occupational groups. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to the latest, federally approved HIV/AIDS medical practice guidelines, HIV treatment and prevention clinical trials, and other research information for health care providers, researchers, people affected by HIV/AIDS, and the general public. U.S. National Library of Medicine HIV/AIDS Information : ...

  6. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in response to HIV/AIDS, as well as HIV/AIDS research and policies. AIDS.gov New Media Tools : These ... latest, federally approved HIV/AIDS medical practice guidelines, HIV treatment and prevention clinical trials, and other research information for health care providers, researchers, people affected ...

  7. HIV Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abroad Treatment Basic Statistics Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... on HIV Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV/AIDS HIV Transmission Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on ...

  8. Persistent misconceptions about HIV transmission among males and females in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Yujiro; Antabe, Roger; Atuoye, Kilian Nasung; Hussey, Lucia Kafui; Bayne, Jason; Galaa, Sylvester Zackaria; Mkandawire, Paul; Luginaah, Isaac

    2016-06-07

    The prevalence of HIV in Malawi is one of the highest in sub-Saharan Africa, and misconceptions about its mode of transmission are considered a major contributor to the continued spread of the virus. Using the 2010 Malawi Demographic and Health Survey, the current study explored factors associated with misconceptions about HIV transmission among males and females. We found that higher levels of ABC prevention knowledge were associated with lower likelihood of endorsing misconceptions among females and males (OR = 0.85, p misconceptions about HIV transmission. Moreover, marital status and ethnicity were significant predictors of HIV transmission misconceptions among females but not among males. Also, household wealth quintiles, education, religion, and urban-rural residence were significantly associated with endorsing misconceptions about HIV transmission. Based on our findings, we recommend that education on HIV transmission in Malawi should integrate cultural and ethnic considerations of HIV/AIDS.

  9. Key populations and human rights in the context of HIV services rendition in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laar, Amos; DeBruin, Debra

    2017-08-02

    In line with its half century old penal code, Ghana currently criminalizes and penalizes behaviors of some key populations - populations deemed to be at higher risk of acquiring or transmitting Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). Men who have sex with men (MSM), and sex workers (SWs) fit into this categorization. This paper provides an analysis of how enactment and implementation of rights-limiting laws not only limit rights, but also amplify risk and vulnerability to HIV in key and general populations. The paper derives from a project that assessed the ethics sensitivity of key documents guiding Ghana's response to its HIV epidemic. Assessment was guided by leading frameworks from public health ethics, and relevant articles from the international bill of rights. Ghana's response to her HIV epidemic does not adequately address the rights and needs of key populations. Even though the national response has achieved some public health successes, palpable efforts to address rights issues remain nascent. Ghana's guiding documents for HIV response include no advocacy for decriminalization, depenalization or harm reduction approaches for these key populations. The impact of rights-restricting codes on the nation's HIV epidemic is real: criminalization impedes key populations' access to HIV prevention and treatment services. Given that they are bridging populations, whatever affects the Ghanaian key populations directly, affects the general population indirectly. The right to the highest attainable standard of health, without qualification, is generally acknowledged as a fundamental human right. Unfortunately, this right currently eludes the Ghanaian SW and MSM. The paper endorses decriminalization as a means of promoting this right. In the face of opposition to decriminalization, the paper proposes specific harm reduction strategies as approaches to promote health and uplift the diminished rights of key populations. Thus the authors call on Ghana to remove impediments to

  10. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Library of Medicine HIV/AIDS Information : Specialized Information Services. VA National HIV/AIDS : This site provides information both for health care providers and for Veterans and the public. Send ...

  11. Evidence-based guidelines for universal counselling and offering of HIV testing in pregnancy in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, L; King, S

    1998-06-02

    To provide Canadian health care workers with evidence-based guidelines for universal counselling about HIV testing and the offering of such testing to all pregnant women. Universal counselling and offering of HIV testing to all pregnant women versus targeted testing of only pregnant women at high risk for HIV infection. Antiretroviral treatment protocols for HIV-positive mothers and their infants are discussed as the intervention to reduce mother-to-child transmission rates. Main outcomes are mother-to-child HIV transmission rates and consequences of HIV testing on the mother and infant. Articles published from January 1985 to March 1997 identified through a MEDLINE search; articles published in pertinent medical journals in 1996 and 1997 identified through a manual search; and abstracts presented at international HIV/AIDS conferences. Early diagnosis of HIV infection in a pregnant woman optimizes her medical and psychosocial care, decreases the incidence of mother-to-child transmission and decreases the risk of horizontal transmission to sexual partners. New, third-generation HIV tests have reduced false-positive rates and thus diminished the harm of screening. A screening strategy consisting of universal counselling and offering of HIV testing is recommended for all pregnant women in Canada (grade B recommendation). Targeted testing of only pregnant women at high risk for HIV infection fails to identify a substantial proportion of HIV-positive pregnant women and is therefore not recommended (grade D recommendation). Women who identify themselves as being at high risk and whose initial HIV test result is negative should be counselled about the reduction of high-risk behaviours and retested in 6 months (grade B recommendation). Treatment of seropositive women and infants with zidovudine to prevent mother-to-child transmission is recommended (grade A or B recommendation depending on gestational age and CD4 count). These guidelines are endorsed by the Canadian

  12. Age and Race Differences in Racial Stereotype Awareness and Endorsement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copping, Kristine E; Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Rowley, Stephanie J; Wood, Dana

    2013-05-01

    Age and race differences in race stereotype awareness and endorsement were examined in 382 Black and White fourth, sixth, and eighth graders. Youth reported their own beliefs and their perceptions of adults' beliefs about racial differences in ability in two domains: academics and sports. Children's own endorsement of race stereotypes was highly correlated with their perceptions of adults' race stereotypes. Blacks reported stronger traditional sports stereotypes than Whites, and fourth- and sixth-grade Blacks reported roughly egalitarian academic stereotypes. At every grade level, Whites reported academic stereotypes that favored Whites, and sixth and eighth grade Whites reported sports stereotypes that favored Blacks. Results support the tenets of status theory and have implications for identity development and achievement motivation in adolescents.

  13. Override the controversy: Analytic thinking predicts endorsement of evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervais, Will M

    2015-09-01

    Despite overwhelming scientific consensus, popular opinions regarding evolution are starkly divided. In the USA, for example, nearly one in three adults espouse a literal and recent divine creation account of human origins. Plausibly, resistance to scientific conclusions regarding the origins of species-like much resistance to other scientific conclusions (Bloom & Weisberg, 2007)-gains support from reliably developing intuitions. Intuitions about essentialism, teleology, agency, and order may combine to make creationism potentially more cognitively attractive than evolutionary concepts. However, dual process approaches to cognition recognize that people can often analytically override their intuitions. Two large studies (total N=1324) found consistent evidence that a tendency to engage analytic thinking predicted endorsement of evolution, even controlling for relevant demographic, attitudinal, and religious variables. Meanwhile, exposure to religion predicted reduced endorsement of evolution. Cognitive style is one factor among many affecting opinions on the origin of species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. How acceptable is it for HIV positive African, Caribbean and Black women to provide breast milk/fluid samples for research purposes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapiriri, L; Tharao, W; Muchenje, M; Khatundi, I M; Ongoiba, F

    2017-01-03

    The African, Caribbean and Black communities have been found to be reluctant to participate in health research in North America. This is partly attributed to historical experiences as well as their cultural beliefs. Cultural beliefs about the uses of breast milk/fluids could further hinder the participation of African, Caribbean, and Black communities in research involving the collection of breast milk/fluids samples. We conducted 17 in-depth interviews and three group interviews (n = 10) with HIV+ African, Caribbean and Black women living in Ontario, Canada to explore their cultural beliefs about breast milk/fluids and their acceptance of participating in research that involves the provision of breast fluid samples. Qualitative study involving in-depth interviews. Our respondents believed that breast milk/fluids should be used for infant feeding and for curative purposes for a variety of children's health ailments as well as ailments experienced by other family members. The cultural belief that breast milk/fluids could be used to bewitch the baby and mother and the perception that it is intrusive (equating breast milk/fluids research to DNA testing), could prevent African, Caribbean and Black women from participating in research involving the collection of breast milk/fluids. Despite these fears, some respondents expressed that they would participate if the research results would benefit them directly, for example, by finding a cure for HIV, enabling HIV+ mothers to breastfeed, or contributing to developing new drugs or vaccines for HIV. Women's recommendations to facilitate successful recruitment included giving incentives to participants, and employing a recruiter who was trustworthy, informed, and culturally sensitive. Cultural beliefs could present barriers to recruitment and participation of Africa, Caribbean and Black communities in health research involving breast milk/fluid samples. Successful recruitment for future studies would necessitate researchers

  15. The sport celebrity endorsement in promotion of products and services

    OpenAIRE

    Dugalić Sretenka; Ivić Jovana

    2015-01-01

    Celebrity endorsement which includes promotion with engagement of famous athlete is different from other promotional campaigns; the only similarity is in a strong, effective way that defines purchase. The purpose of this paper is to explain how achievements in sports (tennis) influence the formation of opinions, attitudes, and habits of individuals. The work is of theoretical and empirical character and consists of three parts. The first part explains theoretical aspects; and in the second pa...

  16. Study of Consumer Attitudes Toward Television Advertising Using Celebrity Endorser

    OpenAIRE

    Asmirandi Noor Hudha; Anas Hidayat

    2011-01-01

    This research analyzed how the attractiveness of a celebrity endorser is able to influ-ence customers’ brand choice behavior and how customers perceive celebrity-based television advertising. The study is based on an empirical research approach, which use a convenience sample of 150 students who lives in Yogyakarta. The respondents rate the attractiveness of ce-lebrity-based on television advertising and the influence of celebrity-based television advertis-ing on consumers’ brand choice behav...

  17. Study of Consumer Attitudes Toward Television Advertising Using Celebrity Endorser

    OpenAIRE

    Hudha, Asmirandi Noor; Hidayat, Anas

    2009-01-01

    This research analyzed how the attractiveness of a celebrity endorser is able to influ-ence customers' brand choice behavior and how customers perceive celebrity-based television advertising. The study is based on an empirical research approach, which use a convenience sample of 150 students who lives in Yogyakarta. The respondents rate the attractiveness of ce-lebrity-based on television advertising and the influence of celebrity-based television advertis-ing on consumers' brand choice behav...

  18. Mens rea in joint enterprise: a role for endorsement?

    OpenAIRE

    Krebs, Beatrice

    2015-01-01

    This paper argues that the problems commonly associated with the joint enterprise doctrine might be alleviated by supplementing the cognitive mens rea standard of foresight with a volitional element that looks to how the defendant related to the foreseen risk. A re-examination of the case law suggests that a mens rea conception of foresight plus endorsement might be within interpretative reach. The paper considers possible objections to such a development but ultimately rejects them. It concl...

  19. EFEKTIVITAS SOCIAL MEDIA ADVERTISING: PERAN BRAND FAMILIARITY DAN KONGRUENSI ENDORSER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sony Kusumasondjaja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the impact of brand familiarity and endorsers’ congruence with product being advertised on consumer responses to social media advertising in Twitter. Findings suggested that the product with a familiar brand endorsed by celebrity with high image congruence led to greater consumer trust, more positive attitude, and greater purchase intention than any other familiarity-congruence combinations. Interestingly, for unfamiliar brand, there is no significant difference between high and low endorsers’ congruence.

  20. Study of Consumer Attitudes Toward Television Advertising Using Celebrity Endorser

    OpenAIRE

    Asmirandi Noor Hudha; Anas Hidayat

    2009-01-01

    This research analyzed how the attractiveness of a celebrity endorser is able to influ-ence customers’ brand choice behavior and how customers perceive celebrity-based television advertising. The study is based on an empirical research approach, which use a convenience sample of 150 students who lives in Yogyakarta. The respondents rate the attractiveness of ce-lebrity-based on television advertising and the influence of celebrity-based television advertis-ing on consumers’ brand choice behav...

  1. Endorsement of universal health coverage financial principles in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agier, Isabelle; Ly, Antarou; Kadio, Kadidiatou; Kouanda, Seni; Ridde, Valéry

    2016-02-01

    In West Africa, health system funding rarely involves cross-subsidization among population segments. In some countries, a few community-based or professional health insurance programs are present, but coverage is very low. The financial principles underlying universal health coverage (UHC) sustainability and solidarity are threefold: 1) anticipation of potential health risks; 2) risk sharing and; 3) socio-economic status solidarity. In Burkina Faso, where decision-makers are favorable to national health insurance, we measured endorsement of these principles and discerned which management configurations would achieve the greatest adherence. We used a sequential exploratory design. In a qualitative step (9 interviews, 12 focus groups), we adapted an instrument proposed by Goudge et al. (2012) to the local context and addressed desirability bias. Then, in a quantitative step (1255 respondents from the general population), we measured endorsement. Thematic analysis (qualitative) and logistic regressions (quantitative) were used. High levels of endorsement were found for each principle. Actual practices showed that anticipation and risk sharing were not only intentions. Preferences were given to solidarity between socio-economic status (SES) levels and progressivity. Although respondents seemed to prefer the national level for implementation, their current solidarity practices were mainly focused on close family. Thus, contribution levels should be set so that the entire family benefits from healthcare. Some critical conditions must be met to make UHC financial principles a reality through health insurance in Burkina Faso: trust, fair and mandatory contributions, and education. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Study of Consumer Attitudes Toward Television Advertising Using Celebrity Endorser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmirandi Noor Hudha

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This research analyzed how the attractiveness of a celebrity endorser is able to influ-ence customers’ brand choice behavior and how customers perceive celebrity-based television advertising. The study is based on an empirical research approach, which use a convenience sample of 150 students who lives in Yogyakarta. The respondents rate the attractiveness of ce-lebrity-based on television advertising and the influence of celebrity-based television advertis-ing on consumers’ brand choice behavior. The sample of advertisement in this research is XL television advertising which is featuring Raffi Ahmad, a famous celebrity. The data evaluated by using several statistical techniques, including Descriptive analysis, and Analysis of Variance (One Sample t-Test Based on the research findings and the analysis, it is proved that the ce-lebrity-based television advertising has positively attracted the consumers. As a consequence, this response significantly influences the consumers’ brand choice behavior. It can be con-cluded that the attractiveness of celebrity-based on television advertising is likely to have a positive relationship to consumers and celebrity-based television advertising is likely to have a positive influence toward consumers’ brand choice behavior.Keywords:    celebrity concept, power of celebrity endorsement, attitude towards the ad and brand, endorser selection criteria

  3. The effect of engaging unpaid informal providers on case detection and treatment initiation rates for TB and HIV in rural Malawi (Triage Plus): A cluster randomised health system intervention trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, George; Faragher, Brian; Sanudi, Lifah; Namakhoma, Ireen; Banda, Hastings; Malmborg, Rasmus; Thomson, Rachael; Squire, S Bertel

    2017-01-01

    The poor face barriers in accessing services for tuberculosis (TB) and Human Immuno-deficiency Virus (HIV) disease. A cluster randomised trial was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of engaging unpaid informal providers (IPs) to promote access in a rural district. The intervention consisted of training unpaid IPs in TB and HIV disease recognition, sputum specimen collection, appropriate referrals, and raising community awareness. In total, six clusters were defined in the study areas. Through a pair-matched cluster randomization process, three clusters (average cluster population = 200,714) were allocated to receive the intervention in the Early arm. Eleven months later the intervention was rolled out to the remaining three clusters (average cluster population = 209,564)-the Delayed arm. Treatment initiation rates for TB and Anti-Retroviral Therapy (ART) were the primary outcome measures. Secondary outcome measures included testing rates for TB and HIV. We report the results of the comparisons between the Early and Delayed arms over the 23 month trial period. Data were obtained from patient registers. Poisson regression models with robust standard errors were used to express the effectiveness of the intervention as incidence rate ratios (IRR). The Early and Delayed clusters were well matched in terms of baseline monthly mean counts and incidence rate ratios for TB and ART treatment initiation. However there were fewer testing and treatment initiation facilities in the Early clusters (TB treatment n = 2, TB testing n = 7, ART initiation n = 3, HIV testing n = 20) than in the Delayed clusters (TB treatment n = 4, TB testing n = 9, ART initiation n = 6, HIV testing n = 18). Overall there were more HIV testing and treatment centres than TB testing and treatment centres. The IRR was 1.18 (95% CI: 0.903-1.533; p = 0.112) for TB treatment initiation and 1.347 (CI:1.00-1.694; p = 0.049) for ART initiation in the first 12 months and the IRR were 0.552 (95% CI:0

  4. 46 CFR 12.10-7 - General provisions respecting an MMC or MMD endorsed as lifeboatman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General provisions respecting an MMC or MMD endorsed as lifeboatman. 12.10-7 Section 12.10-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE... respecting an MMC or MMD endorsed as lifeboatman. An MMC or MMD endorsed as able seaman is the equivalent of...

  5. 46 CFR 11.470 - Officer endorsements as offshore installation manager.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Officer endorsements as offshore installation manager... Officer endorsements as offshore installation manager. (a) Officer endorsements as offshore installation manager (OIM) include: (1) OIM Unrestricted; (2) OIM Surface Units on Location; (3) OIM Surface Units...

  6. 24 CFR 206.207 - Allowable charges and fees after endorsement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... endorsement. 206.207 Section 206.207 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... and fees after endorsement. (a) Reasonable and customary charges. The mortgagee may collect reasonable and customary charges and fees from the mortgagor after insurance endorsement by adding them to the...

  7. 77 FR 45649 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Comment Request Direct Endorsement Underwriter/HUD...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    ...-23] Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Comment Request Direct Endorsement Underwriter/HUD.... This Notice also lists the following information: Title of Proposal: Direct Endorsement Underwriter/HUD... need for the information and proposed use: The Department requires Direct Endorsement Underwriters to...

  8. 31 CFR 330.2 - Qualification for use of special endorsement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... endorsement. 330.2 Section 330.2 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... PAYMENT UNDER SPECIAL ENDORSEMENT OF UNITED STATES SAVINGS BONDS AND UNITED STATES SAVINGS NOTES (FREEDOM SHARES) § 330.2 Qualification for use of special endorsement. (a) Application for authority. Any...

  9. 7 CFR 457.146 - Northern potato crop insurance-storage coverage endorsement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... endorsement. 457.146 Section 457.146 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... Northern potato crop insurance—storage coverage endorsement. The Northern Potato Crop Insurance Storage Coverage Endorsement Provisions for the 2008 and succeeding crop years are as follows: FCIC Policies United...

  10. 20 CFR 726.205 - Other forms of endorsement and policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Other forms of endorsement and policies. 726... MINE OPERATOR'S INSURANCE Insurance Contracts § 726.205 Other forms of endorsement and policies. Forms of endorsement or policies other than that described in § 726.203 may be entered into by operators to...

  11. 7 CFR 457.144 - Northern potato crop insurance-processing quality endorsement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... endorsement. 457.144 Section 457.144 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... Northern potato crop insurance—processing quality endorsement. The Northern Potato Crop Insurance Processing Quality Endorsement Provisions for the 2008 and succeeding crop years are as follows: 1...

  12. 14 CFR 61.421 - May I give myself an endorsement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false May I give myself an endorsement? 61.421... a Sport Pilot Rating § 61.421 May I give myself an endorsement? No. If you hold a flight instructor certificate with a sport pilot rating, you may not give yourself an endorsement for any certificate, privilege...

  13. 7 CFR 457.102 - Wheat or barley winter coverage endorsement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wheat or barley winter coverage endorsement. 457.102... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.102 Wheat or barley... Wheat or Barley Winter Coverage Endorsement (This is a continuous endorsement) 1. In return for payment...

  14. Food choice and overconsumption: effect of a premium sports celebrity endorser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyland, Emma J; Harrold, Joanne A; Dovey, Terence M; Allison, Maxine; Dobson, Sarah; Jacobs, Marie-Claire; Halford, Jason C G

    2013-08-01

    To determine whether exposure to celebrity endorsement in television (TV) food advertising and a nonfood context would affect ad libitum intake of the endorsed product and a perceived alternative brand. A total of 181 children from the UK aged 8-11 years viewed 1 of the following embedded within a cartoon: (1) a commercial for Walker's Crisps (potato chips), featuring a long-standing celebrity endorser; (2) a commercial for a savory food; (3) TV footage of the same endorser in his well-known role as a TV presenter; or (4) a commercial for a nonfood item. Children's ad libitum intake of potato chips labeled "Walker's" and "supermarket brand" was measured using ANOVA. Children who viewed the endorsed commercial or the TV footage of the endorser outside of a food context consumed significantly more of the Walker's chips compared with children in other groups. These children did not reduce their intake of the supermarket brand product to compensate; thus, the endorser effect contributed to overconsumption. The influence of a celebrity endorser on food intake in children extends beyond his or her role in the specific endorsed food commercial, prompting increased consumption of the endorsed brand even when the endorser has been viewed in a nonfood context. Our data suggest that the ubiquitous nature of celebrity media presence may reinforce unhealthy eating practices in children, although research with other endorsers is needed. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Health Services Use and HIV Prevalence Among Migrant and National Female Sex Workers in Portugal: Are We Providing the Services Needed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Sónia; Gama, Ana; Pingarilho, Marta; Simões, Daniel; Mendão, Luís

    2017-08-01

    This cross-sectional bio-behavioral survey conducted with 853 female sex workers (FSW) aimed to examine differences in use of HIV health services, testing and prevalence among migrant and national FSW. A quarter of undocumented FSW had never used National Health Service (NHS) and 15 % never tested for HIV, significantly more than nationals (p VIH, test y prevalencia entre TS migrantes y nacionales. Un cuarto de las TS indocumentadas nunca utilizaron el Servicio Nacional de Salud (SNS) y el 15 % nunca fueron testadas respecto al VIH, porcentajes significativamente superiores a las observadas para las nacionales (p VIH fue auto reportada por 11.9 % de las nacionales, 1.8 % de las migrantes documentadas y 0.8 % de las indocumentadas (p VIH fue reactivo para un 13.6 % de las indocumentadas, 8.0 % de las nacionales y 2.3 % de las documentadas. Una proporción mayor de migrantes desconocía su serostatus positivo en comparación con las nacionales. El test del VIH fue menos frecuente entre las indocumentadas, quien nunca utilizó el SNS y quien no sabía dónde recurrir si sospechaba estar infectada por el VIH. Promover un diagnóstico precoz en conexión con los cuidados en TS migrantes debe ser respaldado mientras se desarrollan servicios de salud mejor adaptados a sus necesidades.

  16. Challenges in Providing Treatment and Care for Viral Hepatitis among Individuals Co-Infected with HIV in Resource-Limited Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wirach Maek-a-Nantawat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B and C infections are prevalent among HIV-infected individuals with different epidemiologic profiles, modes of transmission, natural histories, and treatments. Southeast Asian countries are classified as “highly prevalent zones,” with a rate of hepatitis B and C coinfection in people living with HIV/AIDS of approximately 3.2–11%. Majority of hepatitis B coinfection is of genotype C. Most of the patients infected with hepatitis C in Thailand have genotype 3 which is significantly related to intravenous drug use whereas, in Vietnam, it is genotype 6. The options for antiretroviral drugs are limited and rely on global funds and research facilities. Only HBV treatment is available for free through the national health scheme. Screening tests for HBV and HCV prior to commencing antiretroviral treatment are low. Insufficient concern on hepatitis-virus-related liver malignancy and long-term hepatic morbidities is noted. Cost-effective HCV treatment can be incorporated into the national health program for those who need it by utilizing data obtained from clinical research studies. For example, patients infected with HCV genotype 2/3 with a certain IL-28B polymorphism can be treated with a shorter course of interferon and ribavirin which can also help reduce costs.

  17. effect of a mother-to-child hiv prevention programme on infant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    None reported any negative social effects of not breast-feeding. Most of the mothers endorsed ... not just on HIV-positive mothers but also the spillover effects on uninfected caregivers, and the constraints HIV-positive mothers .... advised mothers to drink ginger beer. Only 2 mentioned the need to increase the frequency of ...

  18. Celebrity Endorsement And Attitude A Study To Assess The Impact Of Celebrity Endorsement On Attitude Of Consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika Wadhera

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The term Celebrity refers to an individual who is known to the public actor sports figure entertainer etc. for his or her achievements in areas other than that of the product class endorsed Friedman and Friedman 1979. The objective of this research paper was to examine the celebrity endorsements impact on companies and buying behaviour of customer. In order to achieve objective of the present research an empirical study was designed. A large sample on convenient basis of customer was selected. A questionnaire was circulated among the rural and urban respondents and total 50 valid responses were collected. Questionnaire was classified into four sections. The test the significant difference between overall opinion of respondents Z-test was applied and further analysis percentage average and standard deviation was also applied.

  19. Promoting transparent and accurate reporting of research studies in rheumatology: endorsement of reporting guidelines in rheumatology journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marušić, Ana; Gasparyan, Armen Yuri; Kitas, George D

    2013-10-01

    To adequately translate research into practice, research results should be reported in a way that is useful to practicing clinicians and policymakers. Based on evidence from systematic reviews, the implementation of reporting guidelines, such as CONSORT for randomized controlled trials, may improve the quality of research reporting. We assessed the endorsement of reporting guidelines in rheumatology journals. We analyzed guidelines for authors of all (n = 28) journals indexed in the "Rheumatology" Subject Category of the Journal Citation Reports published in 2012. Journal websites were reviewed for information relevant to reporting guidelines. Out of 28 indexed journals, only about a third (n = 10) endorsed 1 or more reporting guidelines, most commonly CONSORT. General editorial policies, such as those from the International Committee of Medical Journal editors (ICMJE), were endorsed by 19 journals (all 10 journals with and 9 out of 18 without reporting guidelines). Two rheumatology journals introduced specific reporting guidelines about economic studies and genetic association studies. The endorsement of reporting guidelines is low in rheumatology journals. To continue to serve their research community, rheumatology journals should provide the platform for the discussion on most relevant reporting guidelines and adopt them as a group, especially those specific for rheumatology research. Coordinated action of journals and other stakeholders in rheumatology research in the promotion of accurate and transparent reporting of health research studies would be an important part of knowledge translation into practice and well-being of rheumatology patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Does journal endorsement of reporting guidelines influence the completeness of reporting of health research? A systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamseer, Larissa; Stevens, Adrienne; Skidmore, Becky; Turner, Lucy; Altman, Douglas G; Hirst, Allison; Hoey, John; Palepu, Anita; Simera, Iveta; Schulz, Kenneth; Moher, David

    2012-05-24

    Reporting of health research is often inadequate and incomplete. Complete and transparent reporting is imperative to enable readers to assess the validity of research findings for use in healthcare and policy decision-making. To this end, many guidelines, aimed at improving the quality of health research reports, have been developed for reporting a variety of research types. Despite efforts, many reporting guidelines are underused. In order to increase their uptake, evidence of their effectiveness is important and will provide authors, peer reviewers and editors with an important resource for use and implementation of pertinent guidance. The objective of this study was to assess whether endorsement of reporting guidelines by journals influences the completeness of reporting of health studies. Guidelines providing a minimum set of items to guide authors in reporting a specific type of research, developed with explicit methodology, and using a consensus process will be identified from an earlier systematic review and from the EQUATOR (Enhancing the QUAlity and Transparency Of health Research) Network's reporting guidelines library. MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Methodology Register and Scopus will be searched for evaluations of those reporting guidelines; relevant evaluations from the recently conducted CONSORT systematic review will also be included. Single data extraction with 10% verification of study characteristics, 20% of outcomes and complete verification of aspects of study validity will be carried out. We will include evaluations of reporting guidelines that assess the completeness of reporting: (1) before and after journal endorsement, and/or (2) between endorsing and non-endorsing journals. For a given guideline, analyses will be conducted for individual and the total sum of items. When possible, standard, pooled effects with 99% confidence intervals using random effects models will be calculated. Evidence on which guidelines have been evaluated and which

  1. Does journal endorsement of reporting guidelines influence the completeness of reporting of health research? A systematic review protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamseer Larissa

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reporting of health research is often inadequate and incomplete. Complete and transparent reporting is imperative to enable readers to assess the validity of research findings for use in healthcare and policy decision-making. To this end, many guidelines, aimed at improving the quality of health research reports, have been developed for reporting a variety of research types. Despite efforts, many reporting guidelines are underused. In order to increase their uptake, evidence of their effectiveness is important and will provide authors, peer reviewers and editors with an important resource for use and implementation of pertinent guidance. The objective of this study was to assess whether endorsement of reporting guidelines by journals influences the completeness of reporting of health studies. Methods Guidelines providing a minimum set of items to guide authors in reporting a specific type of research, developed with explicit methodology, and using a consensus process will be identified from an earlier systematic review and from the EQUATOR (Enhancing the QUAlity and Transparency Of health Research Network’s reporting guidelines library. MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Methodology Register and Scopus will be searched for evaluations of those reporting guidelines; relevant evaluations from the recently conducted CONSORT systematic review will also be included. Single data extraction with 10% verification of study characteristics, 20% of outcomes and complete verification of aspects of study validity will be carried out. We will include evaluations of reporting guidelines that assess the completeness of reporting: (1 before and after journal endorsement, and/or (2 between endorsing and non-endorsing journals. For a given guideline, analyses will be conducted for individual and the total sum of items. When possible, standard, pooled effects with 99% confidence intervals using random effects models will be calculated. Discussion

  2. Delivery of HIV care during the 2007 post-election crisis in Kenya: a case study analyzing the response of the Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare (AMPATH) program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, Suzanne; Ndege, Samson; Kimaiyo, Sylvester; Some, Hosea; Wachira, Juddy; Braitstein, Paula; Sidle, John E; Sitienei, Jackline; Owino, Regina; Chesoli, Cleophas; Gichunge, Catherine; Komen, Fanice; Ojwang, Claris; Sang, Edwin; Siika, Abraham; Wools-Kaloustian, Kara

    2013-12-01

    Widespread violence followed the 2007 presidential elections in Kenya resulting in the deaths of a reported 1,133 people and the displacement of approximately 660,000 others. At the time of the crisis the United States Agency for International Development-Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare (USAID-AMPATH) Partnership was operating 17 primary HIV clinics in western Kenya and treating 59,437 HIV positive patients (23,437 on antiretroviral therapy (ART)). This case study examines AMPATH's provision of care and maintenance of patients on ART throughout the period of disruption. This was accomplished by implementing immediate interventions including rapid information dissemination through the media, emergency hotlines and community liaisons; organization of a Crisis Response leadership team; the prompt assembly of multidisciplinary teams to address patient care, including psychological support staff (in clinics and in camps for internally displaced persons (IDP)); and the use of the AMPATH Medical Records System to identify patients on ART who had missed clinic appointments. These interventions resulted in the opening of all AMPATH clinics within five days of their scheduled post-holiday opening dates, 23,949 patient visits in January 2008 (23,259 previously scheduled), uninterrupted availability of antiretrovirals at all clinics, treatment of 1,420 HIV patients in IDP camps, distribution of basic provisions, mobilization of outreach services to locate missing AMPATH patients and delivery of psychosocial support to 300 staff members and 632 patients in IDP camps. Key lessons learned in maintaining the delivery of HIV care in a crisis situation include the importance of advance planning to develop programs that can function during a crisis, an emphasis on a rapid programmatic response, the ability of clinics to function autonomously, patient knowledge of their disease, the use of community and patient networks, addressing staff needs and developing effective

  3. Risk Factors for HIV Transmission and Barriers to HIV Disclosure: Metropolitan Atlanta Youth Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Camacho-Gonzalez, Andres F; Wallins, Amy; Toledo, Lauren; Murray, Ashley; Gaul, Zaneta; Sutton, Madeline Y.; Gillespie, Scott; Leong, Traci; Graves, Chanda; Chakraborty, Rana

    2016-01-01

    Youth carry the highest incidence of HIV infection in the United States. Understanding adolescent and young adult (AYA) perspectives on HIV transmission risk is important for targeted HIV prevention. We conducted a mixed methods study with HIV-infected and uninfected youth, ages 18–24 years, from Atlanta, GA. We provided self-administered surveys to HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected AYAs to identify risk factors for HIV acquisition. By means of computer-assisted thematic analyses, we examined t...

  4. Marriage, like income and education, fails to provide shelter for women against HIV infection in sub-Saharan Africa: widowhood and divorce increase the risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Edward S

    2014-12-01

    Since HIV infection and its consequence, AIDS, were first described, many initial assumptions have proven to be wrong. In Africa, it is women who bear the greater burden of the disease. In many ways they are less visible than men, although at least as much at risk, often even more so. Marriage is no protection against infection, and widowhood and divorce leave them still more vulnerable. This is reflected in higher proportions of infection for bereaved and separated wives. Programmes of control, which depend on education, testing and access to treatment should be visible and accessible to all women in sub-Saharan Africa. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Dendritic cell targeted HIV-1 gag protein vaccine provides help to a recombinant Newcastle disease virus vectored vaccine including mobilization of protective CD8+T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngu, Loveline N; Nji, Nadesh N; Ambada, Georgia; Ngoh, Apeh A; Njambe Priso, Ghislain D; Tchadji, Jules C; Lissom, Abel; Magagoum, Suzanne H; Sake, Carol N; Tchouangueu, Thibau F; Chukwuma, George O; Okoli, Arinze S; Sagnia, Bertrand; Chukwuanukwu, Rebecca; Tebit, Denis M; Esimone, Charles O; Waffo, Alain B; Park, Chae G; Überla, Klaus; Nchinda, Godwin W

    2018-03-01

    Recombinant Newcastle Disease virus (rNDV) vectored vaccines are safe mucosal applicable vaccines with intrinsic immune-modulatory properties for the induction of efficient immunity. Like all viral vectored vaccines repeated inoculation via mucosal routes invariably results to immunity against viral vaccine vectors. To obviate immunity against viral vaccine vectors and improve the ability of rNDV vectored vaccines in inducing T cell immunity in murine air way we have directed dendritic cell targeted HIV-1 gag protein (DEC-Gag) vaccine; for the induction of helper CD4 + T cells to a Recombinant Newcastle disease virus expressing codon optimized HIV-1 Gag P55 (rNDV-L-Gag) vaccine. We do so through successive administration of anti-DEC205-gagP24 protein plus polyICLC (DEC-Gag) vaccine and rNDV-L-Gag. First strong gag specific helper CD4 + T cells are induced in mice by selected targeting of anti-DEC205-gagP24 protein vaccine to dendritic cells (DC) in situ together with polyICLC as adjuvant. This targeting helped T cell immunity develop to a subsequent rNDV-L-Gag vaccine and improved both systemic and mucosal gag specific immunity. This sequential DEC-Gag vaccine prime followed by an rNDV-L-gag boost results to improved viral vectored immunization in murine airway, including mobilization of protective CD8 + T cells to a pathogenic virus infection site. Thus, complementary prime boost vaccination, in which prime and boost favor distinct types of T cell immunity, improves viral vectored immunization, including mobilization of protective CD8 + T cells to a pathogenic virus infection site such as the murine airway. © 2017 The Authors. Immunity, Inflammation and DiseasePublished by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Prostate cancer survivorship care guideline: American Society of Clinical Oncology Clinical Practice Guideline endorsement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, Matthew J; Lacchetti, Christina; Bergman, Jonathan; Hauke, Ralph J; Hoffman, Karen E; Kungel, Terrence M; Morgans, Alicia K; Penson, David F

    2015-03-20

    The guideline aims to optimize health and quality of life for the post-treatment prostate cancer survivor by comprehensively addressing components of follow-up care, including health promotion, prostate cancer surveillance, screening for new cancers, long-term and late functional effects of the disease and its treatment, psychosocial issues, and coordination of care between the survivor's primary care physician and prostate cancer specialist. The American Cancer Society (ACS) Prostate Cancer Survivorship Care Guidelines were reviewed for developmental rigor by methodologists. The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Endorsement Panel reviewed the content and recommendations, offering modifications and/or qualifying statements when deemed necessary. The ASCO Endorsement Panel determined that the recommendations from the 2014 ACS Prostate Cancer Survivorship Care Guidelines are clear, thorough, and relevant, despite the limited availability of high-quality evidence to support many of the recommendations. ASCO endorses the ACS Prostate Cancer Survivorship Care Guidelines, with a number of qualifying statements and modifications. Assess information needs related to prostate cancer, prostate cancer treatment, adverse effects, and other health concerns and provide or refer survivors to appropriate resources. Measure prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level every 6 to 12 months for the first 5 years and then annually, considering more frequent evaluation in men at high risk for recurrence and in candidates for salvage therapy. Refer survivors with elevated or increasing PSA levels back to their primary treating physician for evaluation and management. Adhere to ACS guidelines for the early detection of cancer. Assess and manage physical and psychosocial effects of prostate cancer and its treatment. Annually assess for the presence of long-term or late effects of prostate cancer and its treatment. © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  7. Endorsement of CONSORT by Chinese medical journals: a survey of "instruction to authors".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Lu; Hu, Jing; Zhang, Li; Shang, Hong-cai

    2014-07-01

    To determine the extent to which Chinese medical (CM) journals incorporate Consolidated Standards for Reporting of Trials (CONSORT) into their "instruction to authors". We reviewed the latest "instruction to authors" of the CM journals in China which indexed by MEDLINE in 2010 or Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE) in 2012 and extracted all information of CONSORT, International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE), other reporting guidelines or clinical trial registration. By reading the instructions to authors and reviewing recent studies published in those journals, those that do not publish clinical trials were excluded. We also contacted each of journals by telephone on contributor's status to ask them whether mentioned CONSORT in their instructions and incorporated it into their editorial and peer-review process. Full-text papers of randomized controlled trials (RCTs, from January 2011 to March 2012) published in the journals which mentioned "CONSORT" in their instructions for authors were downloaded. Seven CM journals were included. Three of these journals mentioned CONSORT in its instructions. By telephone survey, all journals gave responses and all respondents knew CONSORT statement. Three of 7 journals required authors to comply with the CONSORT statement and provide the CONSORT checklist and a flow chart of the trial. The rest 4 journals recommended authors of RCTs to refer to the CONSORT statement. From January 2011 to March 2012, a total of 50 RCTs were obtained from the 3 journals endorsing the CONSORT statement; 17 (17/50, 34%) contained a flow diagram in their manuscript, and none of those RCTs had mentioned the trial registration information. The endorsement of CONSORT by CM journals' "instruction to authors" was not satisfactory. The spread of CONSORT endorsement should be wider in instructing the performance of CM clinical trials in the future. Chinese journals should introduce CONSORT to their authors and require authors to comply with

  8. Changing theories of change: strategic shifting in implicit theory endorsement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leith, Scott A; Ward, Cindy L P; Giacomin, Miranda; Landau, Enoch S; Ehrlinger, Joyce; Wilson, Anne E

    2014-10-01

    People differ in their implicit theories about the malleability of characteristics such as intelligence and personality. These relatively chronic theories can be experimentally altered, and can be affected by parent or teacher feedback. Little is known about whether people might selectively shift their implicit beliefs in response to salient situational goals. We predicted that, when motivated to reach a desired conclusion, people might subtly shift their implicit theories of change and stability to garner supporting evidence for their desired position. Any motivated context in which a particular lay theory would help people to reach a preferred directional conclusion could elicit shifts in theory endorsement. We examine a variety of motivated situational contexts across 7 studies, finding that people's theories of change shifted in line with goals to protect self and liked others and to cast aspersions on disliked others. Studies 1-3 demonstrate how people regulate their implicit theories to manage self-view by more strongly endorsing an incremental theory after threatening performance feedback or memories of failure. Studies 4-6 revealed that people regulate the implicit theories they hold about favored and reviled political candidates, endorsing an incremental theory to forgive preferred candidates for past gaffes but leaning toward an entity theory to ensure past failings "stick" to opponents. Finally, in Study 7, people who were most threatened by a previously convicted child sex offender (i.e., parents reading about the offender moving to their neighborhood) gravitated most to the entity view that others do not change. Although chronic implicit theories are undoubtedly meaningful, this research reveals a previously unexplored source of fluidity by highlighting the active role people play in managing their implicit theories in response to goals. 2014 APA, all rights reserved

  9. The synergy in green persuasion: Green celebrity endorsers in green advertising: A study of brand-endorser congruence effects in green advertising

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blasche, J.; Ketelaar, P.E.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines celebrity endorser-brand congruence effects in green advertising on the ads' effectiveness. In an experimental survey, Dutch participants (197) saw ads with a congruent or incongruent celebrity endorser. Extending the match-up hypothesis to a novel match-up factor, greenness, the

  10. Resourceful masculinities: exploring heterosexual Black men's vulnerability to HIV in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husbands, Winston; Oakes, Wesley; Mbulaheni, Tola; Ongoïba, Fanta; Pierre-Pierre, Valérie; Luyombya, Henry

    2017-10-29

    Heterosexually active Black men are alleged to endorse masculine norms that increase their and their female partners' vulnerability to HIV. These norms include Black men's inability or reluctance to productively engage their own health-related personal and interpersonal vulnerabilities. We draw on data from the iSpeak research study in Ontario, Canada, to assess whether and how heterosexual Black men cope with personal and inter-personal vulnerability, namely that heterosexual Black men: avoid emotionally supportive relationships with other men (and women), which diminishes their capacity to productively acknowledge and resolve their health-related challenges; are reticent to productively acknowledge and address HIV and health on a personal level; and are pathologically secretive about their health, which compounds their vulnerability and precipitates poor health outcomes. iSpeak was implemented in 2011 to 2013, and included two focus groups with HIV-positive and HIV-negative self-identified heterosexual men (N = 14) in Toronto and London, a focus group with community-based health promotion practitioners who provide HIV-related services to Black communities in Ontario (N = 6), and one-on-one interviews with four researchers distinguished for their scholarship with/among Black communities in Toronto. Participants in the men's focus group were recruited discretely through word-of-mouth. Focus groups were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Team members independently read the transcripts, and then met to identify, discuss and agree on the emerging themes. We demonstrate that iSpeak participants (a) engage their personal and interpersonal vulnerabilities creatively and strategically, (b) complicate and challenge familiar interpretations of Black men's allegedly transgressive masculinity through their emotional and practical investment in their health, and (c) demonstrate a form of resourceful masculinity that ambiguously aligns with patriarchy. We conclude

  11. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... clinical trials, and other research information for health care providers, researchers, people affected by HIV/AIDS, and the general public. U.S. National Library of Medicine HIV/AIDS Information : Specialized Information Services. VA National ...

  12. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with HIV is a key predictor of the development of AIDS. Because of their compromised immune system, ... also serve an important role in providing current information on HIV/AIDS and related diseases, counseling and ...

  13. Living with HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... serious. But thanks to better treatments, people with HIV/AIDS are now living longer, and have a better ... a health care provider has experience in treating HIV/AIDS If are on any medicines, make sure to ...

  14. Spirituality in HIV-infected adolescents and their families: FAmily CEntered (FACE) Advance Care Planning and medication adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Maureen E; Garvie, Patricia A; Kao, Ellin; Briggs, Linda; He, Jianping; Malow, Robert; D'Angelo, Lawrence J; McCarter, Robert

    2011-06-01

    To explore the effect of spirituality and religious beliefs on FAmily CEntered (FACE) Advance Care Planning and medication adherence among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive adolescents and their surrogate decision-makers. A sample of HIV-positive adolescents (n = 40) and their surrogates, aged ≥ 21 years, (n = 40), was randomized to an active Healthy Living Control group or the FACE Advance Care Planning intervention, guided by transactional stress and coping theory. Adolescents' spirituality and their belief that HIV is a punishment from God were assessed at baseline and 3 months after the intervention, using the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Spiritual Well Being Scale, Expanded, Version 4. Control adolescents increased faith and meaning/purpose more than FACE adolescents (p = .02). At baseline, more behaviorally infected adolescents (16%) believed that HIV was a punishment from God as compared with those who were infected perinatally (8%). Adolescents endorsing that HIV was a punishment scored lower on spirituality (p = .05) and adherence to Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) (p = .04). Surrogates were more spiritual than adolescents (p ≤ .0001). Providing family support in a friendly, facilitated environment enhanced spirituality among adolescents. Facilitated family conversations had an especially positive effect on medication adherence and spiritual beliefs among behaviorally infected adolescents. Copyright © 2011 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. THE POWER OF CAPTIONED ENGLISH IN ENDORSED ADVERTISEMENTS IN INSTAGRAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nindia Septina Prastiwi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2017 the global users of social media, exclusively Instagram have increased significantly reaching 700 million. Many of those users are not only sharing their pictures of themselves but also doing business and trading activities. The characteristics of Indonesian internet users lure advertisers to use social media, like Instagram, as marketing tools. They would endorse a product to celebgrams (celebrities of Instagram who have many online followers. In marketing the endorsed products, these celebgrams would use photo shots or videos with carefully designed captions in English or Bahasa Indonesia. This study investigates how the influence of captions in English compared to the captions using Bahasa Indonesia in attracting online customers in the vein on Fairclough‘s (1989 language and power. The data collection uses a participatory survey by interviewing both the selected celebgrams and their followers on Instagram. It hopes to see how much Instagram users would react to the use of English in terms of how much it invites and facilitates more productive comments in the off-stage commercial of goods and services. Understanding how power is being exercised with the use of English as medium of communication and its sociolinguistic and commercial consequences, in the new and powerful discourse that it online marketing using social media, especially Instagram.

  16. PERAN PERSEPSI NILAI DALAM MEMEDIASI PENGARUH KREDIBILITAS CELEBRITY ENDORSER TERHADAP NIAT BELI PRODUK KOSMETIK MAYBELLINE DI KOTA DENPASAR

    OpenAIRE

    Gusti Ayu Pangastuti Arsinta; Ni Made Purnami

    2015-01-01

    The rapid growth and increasing competition in the business of cosmetic product and also the more selective consumer, makes cosmetic companies do efforts in providing information about the products and create a positive association to attract potential customers. The purpose of this study is to determine the role of perceived value in mediating the effect of celebrity endorser credibility on purchase intention of Maybelline cosmetics products in Denpasar. The sample size was 70 people, determ...

  17. Genetic counselors’ attitudes towards individuals with schizophrenia: desire for social distance and endorsement of stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feret, Holly; Conway, Laura; Austin, Jehannine C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Psychiatric disorders are profoundly stigmatized conditions. Many groups of healthcare professionals harbor negative attitudes towards affected individuals, which may interfere with the healthcare relationship, but genetic counselors’ attitudes towards individuals with psychiatric disorders have not been investigated. Thus, we conducted an exploratory study to assess genetic counselors’ desire for social distance from individuals with schizophrenia, and the degree to which stereotypes about people with schizophrenia were endorsed. Methods Members of the National Society of Genetic Counselors were invited to complete an online survey, which included scales measuring: desire for social distance from individuals with schizophrenia, and endorsement of positive and negative stereotypes about these individuals. Results In total, 142 surveys were completed. Genetic counselors expressed greater desire for social distance from an individual with schizophrenia in more intimate proposed relationship scenarios, and felt negative stereotypes about affected individuals were more typifying than positive stereotypes. Experience with psychiatric disorders did not significantly affect desired social distance or stereotypical attitudes. Conclusions Genetic counselors express some negative attitudes toward individuals with schizophrenia, which may impede the counselor/client relationship. Future research in this area is suggested, and efforts should be made to promote positive attitudes, which would improve the ability of genetic counselors to provide optimal service for individuals with schizophrenia and their families. PMID:20211537

  18. HIV Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abroad Treatment Basic Statistics Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Collapse All Is abstinence the only 100% effective HIV prevention option? Yes. Abstinence means not having oral, ...

  19. HIV Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abroad Treatment Basic Statistics Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... All Collapse All Should I get tested for HIV? CDC recommends that everyone between the ages of ...

  20. The Impacts Of Celebrity Endorsement In Ads On Consumers Purchasing Intention A Case Of Facebook

    OpenAIRE

    Truong Hai Huyen Thanh

    2015-01-01

    The thesis will be focused on the study of celebrity endorsement and how it affects consumer purchase intention on Facebook. It is obvious that celebrity endorsement nowadays is considered as a powerful advertising instrument which does contribute to measure all elements of a marketing campaign. Also celebrity endorsement is one of the most effective strategies that make products to be different in the competitive market. The main goal of the study is identifying the influence of celebrity en...

  1. Perception of the Celebrity Endorser : A study of how age and gender influences the consumer perception

    OpenAIRE

    Hugosson, Olle; Matthys, Carolina; Phung, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Background The concept of celebrity endorsement is a constantly growing marketing communication tool. A recent example of when the usage of celebrities within advertising has been successful is the case of Zlatan Ibrahimovic endorsing Volvo. Because of the expansive usage of celebrities in advertising as well as the ongoing increase of competition, the development for further efficiency in celebrity endorsement is essential for creating efficient advertisements. The foundation of this thesis ...

  2. Multiple Brand Celebrity Endorsement: Případová studie David Beckham

    OpenAIRE

    Hiblerová, Adéla

    2017-01-01

    The Bachelor's Thesis on the topic of Multiple Brand Celebrity Endorsement: David Beckham Case Study focuses primarily on the issue of multiple endorsement of a number of brands by one celebrity. To be able to put this topic into perspective does this thesis begin with a description of celebrity endorsement as itself, defines 'celebrity', and also introduces various approaches towards cooperation of a celebrity and a brand in general. Consequently, reasons for and risks of such cooperation ar...

  3. The Impact of Celebrity Endorsement to Youth Consumer Purchase Decision on Adidas Apparel Product

    OpenAIRE

    Tielung, Maria V. J; Lombo, Victor Eko Prasetyo

    2014-01-01

    Celebrity endorsements are commonly used strategies for promoting various types of products, services or brands. The main purpose of using celebrity endorser is to influence consumer behaviour, especially purchase intention that will lead to consumer purchase decision, which is directly linked to the revenue of the company. This research is conduct in Manado, North Sulawesi. The objectives of this research are to know the influence of celebrity endorsement to consumers€™ purchase decision of ...

  4. A Single-Center, Adult Chronic Intestinal Failure Cohort Analyzed According to the ESPEN-Endorsed Recommendations, Definitions, and Classifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Christopher Filtenborg; Tribler, Siri; Hvistendahl, Mark

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: The objective of this study was to describe a clinically well-defined, single-center, intestinal failure (IF) cohort based on a template of definitions and classifications endorsed by the European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN). METHODS: A cross-sectional, ......BACKGROUND/AIMS: The objective of this study was to describe a clinically well-defined, single-center, intestinal failure (IF) cohort based on a template of definitions and classifications endorsed by the European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN). METHODS: A cross......-sectional, retrospective, adult IF cohort, receiving parenteral support (PS), was extracted from the Copenhagen IF database at the tertiary IF center, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Denmark. RESULTS: Rigshospitalet provided PS to 188 adult patients with IF on December 31, 2011. Six patients received only...

  5. El estigma asociado al VIH/SIDA: el caso de los prestadores de servicios de salud en México HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination: the case of health care providers in México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Infante

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analizar el estigma y la discriminación relacionados con el VIH/SIDA por parte de los prestadores de servicios de salud en tres estados de la República mexicana, con base en las percepciones que tienen sobre la infección y las personas que viven con VIH/SIDA (PVVS. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Descripción cualitativa y cuantitativa. Observación en nueve instituciones; entrevistas en profundidad (14 y encuestas (373 a proveedores de servicios de salud. RESULTADOS: El 75% de los proveedores recibió capacitación relacionada con el VIH/SIDA, pese a lo cual persiste la discriminación debida a clasificaciones en grupos de riesgo; la identificación de vivir con el virus, padecer el síndrome y morir; y el desconocimiento de las vías de transmisión. El 23% no compraría comida a una PVVS y 16% sugiere prohibir su ingreso a servicios públicos. Respecto a la confidencialidad, 89% opina que debe guardarse y 38% cree que los patrones tienen derecho a conocer la condición de sus empleados. El aislamiento, registro del VIH en expedientes, pruebas obligatorias y demora en procedimientos quirúrgicos de las PVVS fueron prácticas constantes. La percepción de que los hombres que tienen sexo con otros hombres y las personas que realizan trabajo sexual deciden sus prácticas sexuales establece la división entre víctimas inocentes y culpables e influye en la estigmatización y discriminación en los servicios. CONCLUSIONES: El diseño de medidas para disminuir el estigma y la discriminación relacionados con el VIH/SIDA exige la inclusión del debate ético sobre los derechos humanos y un enfoque estructural de las condiciones sociales que rebase la noción de comportamientos de riesgo.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the social construction of stigma and discrimination processes associated with HIV/AIDS and people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA, based on the perceptions of health care providers in three states of the Mexican Republic. MATERIAL AND METHODS

  6. Critical consciousness, racial and gender discrimination, and HIV disease markers in African American women with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelso, Gwendolyn A; Cohen, Mardge H; Weber, Kathleen M; Dale, Sannisha K; Cruise, Ruth C; Brody, Leslie R

    2014-07-01

    Critical consciousness, the awareness of social oppression, is important to investigate as a buffer against HIV disease progression in HIV-infected African American women in the context of experiences with discrimination. Critical consciousness comprises several dimensions, including social group identification, discontent with distribution of social power, rejection of social system legitimacy, and a collective action orientation. The current study investigated self-reported critical consciousness as a moderator of perceived gender and racial discrimination on HIV viral load and CD4+ cell count in 67 African American HIV-infected women. Higher critical consciousness was found to be related to higher likelihood of having CD4+ counts over 350 and lower likelihood of detectable viral load when perceived racial discrimination was high, as revealed by multiple logistic regressions that controlled for highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) adherence. Multiple linear regressions showed that at higher levels of perceived gender and racial discrimination, women endorsing high critical consciousness had a larger positive difference between nadir CD4+ (lowest pre-HAART) and current CD4+ count than women endorsing low critical consciousness. These findings suggest that raising awareness of social oppression to promote joining with others to enact social change may be an important intervention strategy to improve HIV outcomes in African American HIV-infected women who report experiencing high levels of gender and racial discrimination.

  7. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), offers access to the latest, federally approved HIV/AIDS medical practice guidelines, HIV treatment and prevention clinical trials, and other research information for health care providers, researchers, people affected by HIV/AIDS, and ...

  8. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... testing services, and referrals for medical and social services. Reference Marcondes, M.C. et al. “Methamphetamine increases brain ... HIV/AIDS, and the general public. U.S. National Library of Medicine HIV/AIDS ... Services. VA National HIV/AIDS : This site provides information ...

  9. Consumer use of health-related endorsements on food labels in the United Kingdom and Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner, M; Boaz, A; Higginson, C

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this research was to examine how consumers use health-related food endorsements on food labels. Three endorsement programs were examined: those of the two major retailers in the United Kingdom, Tesco and Sainsbury's, and the "Pick the Tick" program of the National Heart Foundation of Australia. The main methodology used was protocol analysis. This involves the subject "thinking aloud" while performing a task--in this case, (a) shopping normally and (b) shopping "healthily" for foods on a predetermined list--to generate a protocol. Each subject was also interviewed to investigate reported use of endorsements. Subjects were a quota sample (N = 44) of shoppers representative of the U.K. and Australian populations. Information about the subjects, the protocols, and interview data were analyzed quantitatively; the protocols were also analyzed qualitatively. Sainsbury's and Australian shoppers never used the endorsements when shopping but Tesco shoppers did, albeit rarely. Tesco shoppers used the endorsement in complex ways and not just as a trigger to food selection. They sometimes used the endorsement to reject endorsed foods. Subjects claimed to use the endorsements even though the protocol analysis revealed no actual use. There are features of the Tesco endorsement program that make it more helpful to consumers than the other programs.

  10. BRAND POSITIONING THROUGH CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT - A REVIEW CONTRIBUTION TO BRAND LITERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Malik

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of celebrities in marketing communications has become the practice of the major companies in the emplacement of the brand in the mind of consumers. Firms are making vast investments in hiring celebrities for positioning of brands by making organizations with endorser qualities such as trustworthiness, attractiveness and expertise. In the backdrop, this paper seeks to explore the variables of brand positioning through sports celebrity endorsement. Secondly, to propose the model through merging the sport celebrity endorsement constructs with brand positioning constructs by drawing together and to develop the scale for measuring brand positioning through celebrity endorsement based on existing literature

  11. Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Guideline Update: American Cancer Society Guideline Endorsement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saslow, Debbie; Andrews, Kimberly S.; Manassaram-Baptiste, Deana; Loomer, Lacey; Lam, Kristina E.; Fisher-Borne, Marcie; Smith, Robert A.; Fontham, Elizabeth T. H.

    2017-01-01

    The American Cancer Society (ACS) reviewed and updated its guideline on human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination based on a methodologic and content review of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) HPV vaccination recommendations. A literature review was performed to supplement the evidence considered by the ACIP and to address new vaccine formulations and recommendations as well as new data on population outcomes since publication of the 2007 ACS guideline. The ACS Guideline Development Group determined that the evidence supports ACS endorsement of the ACIP recommendations, with one qualifying statement related to late vaccination. The ACS recommends vaccination of all children at ages 11 and 12 years to protect against HPV infections that lead to several cancers and precancers. Late vaccination for those not vaccinated at the recommended ages should be completed as soon as possible, and individuals should be informed that vaccination may not be effective at older ages. PMID:27434803

  12. Phase transitions in thick branes endorsed by entropic information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.T. Cruz

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The so-called configurational entropy (CE framework has proved to be an efficient instrument to study nonlinear scalar field models featuring solutions with spatially-localised energy, since its proposal by Gleiser and Stamapoulos. Therefore, in this work, we apply this new physical quantity in order to investigate the properties of degenerate Bloch branes. We show that it is possible to construct a configurational entropy measure in functional space from the field configurations, where a complete set of exact solutions for the model studied displays both double and single-kink configurations. Our study shows a rich internal structure of the configurations, where we observe that the field configurations undergo a quick phase transition, which is endorsed by information entropy. Furthermore, the Bloch configurational entropy is employed to demonstrate a high organisational degree in the structure of the configurations of the system, stating that there is a best ordering for the solutions.

  13. Phase transitions in thick branes endorsed by entropic information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, W. T.; Dantas, D. M.; Correa, R. A. C.; Almeida, C. A. S.

    2017-09-01

    The so-called configurational entropy (CE) framework has proved to be an efficient instrument to study nonlinear scalar field models featuring solutions with spatially-localised energy, since its proposal by Gleiser and Stamapoulos. Therefore, in this work, we apply this new physical quantity in order to investigate the properties of degenerate Bloch branes. We show that it is possible to construct a configurational entropy measure in functional space from the field configurations, where a complete set of exact solutions for the model studied displays both double and single-kink configurations. Our study shows a rich internal structure of the configurations, where we observe that the field configurations undergo a quick phase transition, which is endorsed by information entropy. Furthermore, the Bloch configurational entropy is employed to demonstrate a high organisational degree in the structure of the configurations of the system, stating that there is a best ordering for the solutions.

  14. Supporting HIV prevention and reproductive goals in an HIV-endemic setting: taking safer conception services from policy to practice in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Natasha E C G; Matthews, Lynn T; Crankshaw, Tamaryn L; Cooper, Di; Schwartz, Sheree R

    2017-03-08

    Safer conception care encompasses HIV care, treatment and prevention for persons living with HIV and their partners who desire children. In 2012, South Africa endorsed a progressive safer conception policy supporting HIV-affected persons to safely meet reproductive goals. However, aside from select research-supported clinics, widespread implementation has not occurred. Using South Africa as a case study, we identify key obstacles to policy implementation and offer recommendations to catalyse expansion of these services throughout South Africa and further afield. Four key implementation barriers were identified by combining authors' safer conception service delivery experiences with available literature. First, strategic implementation frameworks stipulating where, and by whom, safer conception services should be provided are needed. Integrating safer conception services into universal test-and-treat (UTT) and elimination-of-mother-to-child-transmission (eMTCT) priority programmes would support HIV testing, ART initiation and management, viral suppression and early antenatal/eMTCT care engagement goals, reducing horizontal and vertical transmissions. Embedding measurable safer conception targets into these priority programmes would ensure accountability for implementation progress. Second, facing an organizational clinic culture that often undermines clients' reproductive rights, healthcare providers' (HCP) positive experiences with eMTCT and enthusiasm for UTT provide opportunities to shift facility-level and individual attitudes in favour of safer conception provision. Third, safer conception guidelines have not been incorporated into HCP training. Combining safer conception with "test-and-treat" training would efficiently ensure that providers are better equipped to discuss clients' reproductive goals and support safer conception practices. Lastly, HIV-affected couples remain largely unaware of safer conception strategies. HIV-affected populations need to be

  15. Increasing HIV testing among male partners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orne-Gliemann, Joanna; Balestre, Eric; Tchendjou, Patrice; Miric, Marija; Darak, Shrinivas; Butsashvili, Maia; Perez-Then, Eddy; Eboko, Fred; Plazy, Melanie; Kulkarni, Sanjeevani; du Lou, Annabel Desgrees; Dabis, Francois

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Couple-oriented posttest HIV counselling (COC) provides pregnant women with tools and strategies to invite her partner to HIV counselling and testing. We conducted a randomized trial of the efficacy of COC on partner HIV testing in low/medium HIV prevalence settings (Cameroon, Dominican

  16. How you get HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    How you get HIV/AIDS Which body fluids contain HIV? HIV is a virus that lives in blood and other fluids in the body. ... get answers to any questions you have about HIV/AIDS. Your public health department and health care provider ...

  17. Pengaruh Kredibilitas Celebrity Endorser Terhadap Keputusan Pembelian (Studi Kasus Artis Raisa Sebagai Celebrity Endorser Produk Ice Cream Magnum Pada Mahasiswa Undip)

    OpenAIRE

    Wijaya, Abdian Fredy; Saryadi, Saryadi

    2016-01-01

    Background of the study of this research is the development of manufacturing companies, especially tfor ice cream company. The most appropriateso that ads can be received positively by the society by choosing the celebrity endorser that had good and positive credibility. The purpose of this study is discovery to influence of credibility for celebrity endorser toward purchasing decisions for magnum ice cream product on student of Undipof the decision the purchase of products ice cream magnum o...

  18. Internalizing sexism within close relationships: Perceptions of intimate partners' benevolent sexism promote women's endorsement of benevolent sexism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Matthew D; Overall, Nickola C; Cross, Emily J

    2016-02-01

    The current research demonstrated that women's adoption of benevolent sexism is influenced by their perceptions of their intimate partners' agreement with benevolent sexism. In 2 dyadic longitudinal studies, committed heterosexual couples reported on their own sexism and perceptions of their partner's sexism twice across 9 months (Study 1) and 5 times across 1 year (Study 2). Women who perceived that their male partner more strongly endorsed benevolent sexism held greater and more stable benevolent sexism across time, whereas lower perceptions of partners' benevolent sexism predicted declines in women's benevolent sexism across time. Changes in men's endorsement of sexism were unrelated to perceptions of their partner's sexist attitudes. The naturalistic change in sexist attitudes shown in Studies 1 and 2 was supported by experimental evidence in Studies 3 and 4: Manipulations designed to increase perceptions of partner's benevolent sexism led women (but not men) to report greater benevolent sexism. Studies 3 and 4 also provided evidence that perceptions of partner's benevolent sexism fosters perceived regard and relationship security in women, but not men, and these relationship factors enhance attitude alignment. Discriminant analyses demonstrated that these effects were specific to women's perceptions of partner's, rather than societal, levels of sexism. In sum, these studies illustrate that women endorse benevolent sexism when they perceive that the reverence and security that benevolent sexism promises women are accessible in their relationships. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Is the bias for function-based explanations culturally universal? Children from China endorse teleological explanations of natural phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachner, Adena; Zhu, Liqi; Li, Jing; Kelemen, Deborah

    2017-05-01

    Young children in Western cultures tend to endorse teleological (function-based) explanations broadly across many domains, even when scientifically unwarranted. For instance, in contrast to Western adults, they explicitly endorse the idea that mountains were created for climbing, just like hats were created for warmth. Is this bias a product of culture or a product of universal aspects of human cognition? In two studies, we explored whether adults and children in Mainland China, a highly secular, non-Western culture, show a bias for teleological explanations. When explaining both object properties (Experiment 1) and origins (Experiment 2), we found evidence that they do. Whereas Chinese adults restricted teleological explanations to scientifically warranted cases, Chinese children endorsed them more broadly, extending them across different kinds of natural phenomena. This bias decreased with rising grade level across first, second, and fourth grades. Overall, these data provide evidence that children's bias for teleological explanations is not solely a product of Western Abrahamic cultures. Instead, it extends to other cultures, including the East Asian secular culture of modern-day China. This suggests that the bias for function-based explanations may be driven by universal aspects of human cognition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Supporting HIV prevention and reproductive goals in an HIV-endemic setting: taking safer conception services from policy to practice in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Natasha ECG; Matthews, Lynn T; Crankshaw, Tamaryn L; Cooper, Di; Schwartz, Sheree R

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Safer conception care encompasses HIV care, treatment and prevention for persons living with HIV and their partners who desire children. In 2012, South Africa endorsed a progressive safer conception policy supporting HIV-affected persons to safely meet reproductive goals. However, aside from select research-supported clinics, widespread implementation has not occurred. Using South Africa as a case study, we identify key obstacles to policy implementation and offer recommendations to catalyse expansion of these services throughout South Africa and further afield. Discussion: Four key implementation barriers were identified by combining authors’ safer conception service delivery experiences with available literature. First, strategic implementation frameworks stipulating where, and by whom, safer conception services should be provided are needed. Integrating safer conception services into universal test-and-treat (UTT) and elimination-of-mother-to-child-transmission (eMTCT) priority programmes would support HIV testing, ART initiation and management, viral suppression and early antenatal/eMTCT care engagement goals, reducing horizontal and vertical transmissions. Embedding measurable safer conception targets into these priority programmes would ensure accountability for implementation progress. Second, facing an organizational clinic culture that often undermines clients’ reproductive rights, healthcare providers’ (HCP) positive experiences with eMTCT and enthusiasm for UTT provide opportunities to shift facility-level and individual attitudes in favour of safer conception provision. Third, safer conception guidelines have not been incorporated into HCP training. Combining safer conception with “test-and-treat” training would efficiently ensure that providers are better equipped to discuss clients’ reproductive goals and support safer conception practices. Lastly, HIV-affected couples remain largely unaware of safer conception

  1. 21 CFR 26.41 - Exchange and endorsement of quality system evaluation reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exchange and endorsement of quality system... DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS, AND CERTAIN MEDICAL DEVICE PRODUCT EVALUATION REPORTS: UNITED STATES... endorsement of quality system evaluation reports. (a) Listed European Community (EC) conformity assessment...

  2. Cognitive Distraction and African American Women's Endorsement of Gender Role Stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kalynda; Craig-Henderson, Kellina

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of cognitive distraction on the endorsement of gender role stereotypes in one sample of African American female participants. Participants' awareness and endorsement of gender role stereotypes for male and females was assessed. Following random assignment to distraction or no distraction conditions, they…

  3. What's in a face? : the use and effects of types of endorsers with types of products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, E.

    2010-01-01

    In international literature, persons who recommend products or services in advertisements are often called ‘endorsers’. Also apparent from the literature is that the effectiveness of endorsers in advertisements particularly depends on two factors: the type of endorser and the type of product.

  4. Organizational structure and continuous improvement and learning: Moderating effects of cultural endorsement of participative leadership

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaowen Huang; Joseph C Rode; Roger G. Schroeder

    2011-01-01

    Building upon the culturally endorsed implicit theory of leadership, we investigated the moderating effects of national culture on the relationship between organizational structure and continuous improvement and learning. We propose that the relationship between organic organizations (characterized by flat, decentralized structures with a wide use of multifunctional employees) and continuous improvement and learning will be stronger when national cultural endorsement for participative leaders...

  5. Endorsement®: A National Tool for Workforce Development in Infant Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Sadie; Weatherston, Deborah J.; Warren, Mary G.; Schuren, Nicole R.; McCormick, Ashley; Paradis, Nichole; Van Horn, Jacqui

    2017-01-01

    The Endorsement for Culturally Sensitive, Relationship-Focused Practice Promoting Infant Mental Health® (Endorsement®) recognizes knowledge, skills, and reflective experiences that promote quality service when working with or on behalf of infants, toddlers, and families. Developed by the Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health, the…

  6. 46 CFR 13.301 - Original application for “Tankerman-PIC (Barge)” endorsement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Original application for âTankerman-PIC (Barge)â... OFFICERS AND SEAMEN CERTIFICATION OF TANKERMEN Requirements for âTankerman-PIC (Barge)â Endorsement § 13.301 Original application for “Tankerman-PIC (Barge)” endorsement. Each applicant for a “Tankerman-PIC...

  7. 46 CFR 67.15 - Form of document-all endorsements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., National Vessel Documentation Center, a Certificate of Documentation may be issued with a registry, coastwise, fishery, or recreational endorsement. (c) A Certificate of Documentation may bear simultaneous...—all endorsements. (a) The form of document is a Certificate of Documentation, form CG-1270. (b) Upon...

  8. Mere Exposure to Money Increases Endorsement of Free-Market Systems and Social Inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Eugene M.; Vohs, Kathleen D.; Baxter, Brittani; Waytz, Adam

    2013-01-01

    The present research tested whether incidental exposure to money affects people's endorsement of social systems that legitimize social inequality. We found that subtle reminders of the concept of money, relative to nonmoney concepts, led participants to endorse more strongly the existing social system in the United States in general (Experiment 1)…

  9. Why nonprofits are easier to endorse on social media: the roles of warmth and brand symbolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernritter, S.F.; Verlegh, P.W.J.; Smit, E.G.

    2016-01-01

    Brands often seek endorsements by consumers on social media (e.g., likes on Facebook). But is this marketing strategy feasible for all brands? To answer this question, this research investigates in seven studies the processes that underlie consumers' intention to endorse brands on social media. We

  10. Why Nonprofits Are Easier to Endorse on Social Media: The Roles of Warmth and Brand Symbolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernritter, S.F.; Verlegh, P.W.J.; Smit, E.G.

    Brands often seek endorsements by consumers on social media (e.g., likes on Facebook). But is this marketing strategy feasible for all brands? To answer this question, this research investigates in seven studies the processes that underlie consumers' intention to endorse brands on social media. We

  11. Signaling warmth: how brand warmth and symbolism affect consumers’ online brand endorsements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernritter, S.F.; Verlegh, P.; Voorveld, H.; Eisend, M.

    2016-01-01

    In their efforts to promote their brands, products and services, advertisers often enlist endorsement by other parties, such as celebrities or experts (e.g., Biswas, Biswas, and Das, 2006; Rice, Kelting, and Lutz, 2012). Increasingly, brands and organizations are also seeking endorsement by their

  12. 21 CFR 1305.14 - Procedure for endorsing DEA Forms 222.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procedure for endorsing DEA Forms 222. 1305.14... I AND II CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES DEA Form 222 § 1305.14 Procedure for endorsing DEA Forms 222. (a) A DEA Form 222, made out to any supplier who cannot fill all or a part of the order within the time...

  13. 78 FR 17303 - Federal Housing Administration (FHA): Direct Endorsement Program Solicitation of Comment on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-21

    ... insurance. The Direct Endorsement program has been designed to give the lender sufficient certainty of FHA... has been endorsed. Feedback is sought on whether the proposed change in review time would benefit the... at times. Feedback is also sought on whether the proposed change in review time would benefit the...

  14. 46 CFR 11.401 - Ocean and near-coastal officer or STCW endorsements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... master or mate on ocean waters qualifies the mariner to serve in the same grade on any waters, subject to... mate on near-coastal waters qualifies the mariner to serve in the same grade on near-coastal, Great Lakes, and inland waters, subject to the limitations of the endorsement. (c) Near-coastal endorsements...

  15. 46 CFR 11.530 - Endorsements for engineers of uninspected fishing industry vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ocean waters and with horsepower limitations in accordance with the provisions of § 11.503 of this part. (c) For an endorsement as chief engineer, the applicant must have served four years in the engineroom... supervisory position. (d) For an endorsement as assistant engineer, an applicant must have served three years...

  16. Beliefs, endorsement and application of homeopathy disclosed: a survey among ambulatory care physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markun, Stefan; Maeder, Marc; Rosemann, Thomas; Djalali, Sima

    2017-10-17

    Explanation models for the effectiveness of homeopathy are not supported by natural sciences and the aggregated evidence from clinical trials is unconvincing. From this standpoint, placebo effects seem the most obvious explanation for the therapeutic effects experienced in homeopathy. Still, many physicians continue to prescribe homeopathic treatments. Whether physicians who prescribe homeopathic treatments aim to achieve placebo effects or actually believe in specific effects is poorly understood. However, this distinction has important educational and ethical implications. Therefore, we aimed to describe the use of homeopathy among physicians working in outpatient care, factors associated with prescribing homeopathy, and the therapeutic intentions and attitudes involved. All physicians working in outpatient care in the Swiss Canton of Zurich in the year 2015 (n = 4072) were approached. Outcomes of the study were: association of prescribing homeopathy with medical specialties (odds ratios [OR] and 95% confidence intervals [95% CI] from multivariable logistic regression); intentions behind prescriptions (to induce specific or nonspecific/placebo effects); level of agreement with specific attitudes; and views towards homeopathy including explanatory models, rating of homeopathy's evidence base, the endorsement of indications, and reimbursement of homeopathic treatment by statutory health insurance providers. The participation rate was 38%, mean age 54 years, 61% male, and 40% specialised in general internal medicine. Homeopathy was prescribed at least once a year by 23% of the respondents. Medical specialisations associated with prescribing homeopathy were: no medical specialisation (OR 3.9; 95% CI 1.7-9.0), specialisation in paediatrics (OR 3.8 95% CI 1.8-8.0) and gynaecology/obstetrics (OR 3.1 95% CI 1.5-6.7). Among prescribers, only 50% clearly intended to induce specific homeopathic effects, only 27% strongly adhered to homeopathic prescription doctrines, and

  17. 'These people who dig roots in the forests cannot treat HIV': Women and men in Durban, South Africa, reflect on traditional medicine and antiretroviral drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weintraub, Amy; Mantell, Joanne E; Holt, Kelsey; Street, Renée A; Wilkey, Catriona; Dawad, Suraya; Masvawure, Tsitsi B; Hoffman, Susie

    2018-01-01

    Relatively few empirical investigations of the intersection of HIV biomedical and traditional medicine have been undertaken. As part of preliminary work for a longitudinal study investigating health-seeking behaviours among newly diagnosed individuals living with HIV, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 24 urban South Africans presenting for HIV testing or newly enrolled in HIV care; here we explored participants' views on African traditional medicine (TM) and biomedical HIV treatment. Notions of acceptance/non-acceptance were more nuanced than dichotomous, with participants expressing views ranging from favourable to reproachful, often referring to stories they had heard from others rather than drawing from personal experience. Respect for antiretrovirals and biomedicine was evident, but indigenous beliefs, particularly about the role of ancestors in healing, were common. Many endorsed the use of herbal remedies, which often were not considered TM. Given people's diverse health-seeking practices, biomedical providers need to recognise the cultural importance of traditional health practices and routinely initiate respectful discussion of TM use with patients.

  18. The Brand’s Effect on the Evaluation of Advertising Endorsed by Celebrities: an Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Aureliano-Silva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Celebrity endorsement aims to influence consumers to buy advertised products. In endorsing products, celebrities transfer their attributes to the objects, making them more desired by consumers. Celebrity endorsement is a promotional technique to better integrate brand, product and message, thus justifying the high investments by companies to engage celebrities. Although well established, the phenomenon lacks scientific studies that explain, based on the concept of celebrity congruence, the alignment between the celebrity’s profile and the product, also considering brand strength. After an extensive literature review, we performed three experiments, involving 713 respondents, to verify the effect of celebrity endorsement with different levels of congruence with the product, while manipulating the brands. The results of analysis of variance indicated a significant positive effect of celebrity endorsement with high congruence for unrecognized brands, but not for recognized brands.

  19. EXAMINING THE EFFECT OF ENDORSER CREDIBILITY ON THE CONSUMERS' BUYING INTENTIONS: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysegul Ermec Sertoglu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to test whether the source credibility affects buying intention and measure the perceived credibility differences between created spokesperson and celebrity endorser. The influence that endorser credibility dimensions (i.e. attractiveness, trustworthiness and expertise have on purchase intentions of 326 young consumers has been examined. The results showed that all of the three credibility dimensions for both celebrity endorser and created spokesperson have a positive relationship with purchase intention. Created spokesperson is perceived to be more trustworthy and competent whereas the celebrity endorser is found to be more attractive by the respondents. This study is unique in a way that it covers fairly new and rapidly growing Turkish market. One factor that makes this study unique in Turkey, in which the usage of celebrity endorsers holds significant part in the marketing of products, is the lack of studies that would measure the effectiveness of this method.

  20. HIV, sex, and social change: applying ESID principles to HIV prevention research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, M Isabel; Bowen, G Stephen; Gay, Caryl L; Mattson, Tiffany R; Bital, Evelyne; Kelly, Jeffrey A

    2003-12-01

    The HIV epidemic has been the most significant public health crisis of the last 2 decades. Although Experimental Social Innovation and Dissemination (ESID) principles have been used by many HIV prevention researchers, the clearest application is the series of model-building and replication experiments conducted by Kelly and colleagues. The model mobilized, trained, and engaged key opinion leaders to serve as behavior change and safe-sex endorsers in their social networks. This paper illustrates how ESID principles were used to develop, test, and disseminate an innovative social model and discusses the challenges of applying ESID methodology in the midst of a public health emergency.

  1. "I washed and fed my mother before going to school": Understanding the psychosocial well-being of children providing chronic care for adults affected by HIV/AIDS in Western Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skovdal Morten

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract With improved accessibility to life-prolonging antiretroviral therapy, the treatment and care requirements of people living with HIV and AIDS resembles that of more established chronic diseases. As an increasing number of people living with HIV and AIDS in Kenya have access to ART, the primary caregivers of poor resource settings, often children, face the challenge of meeting the requirements of rigid ART adherence schedules and frequent relapses. This, and the long-term duty of care, has an impact on the primary caregiver's experience of this highly stigmatised illness – an impact that is often described in relation to psychological deprivation. Reflecting the meanings attached to caregiving by 48 children in Western Kenya, articulated in writing, through photography and drawing, individual and group interviews, this paper presents three case studies of young caregiving. Although all the children involved in the study coped with their circumstances, some better than others, we found that the meanings they attach to their circumstances impact on how well they cope. Our findings suggest that only a minority of young caregivers attach either positive or negative meanings to their circumstances, whilst the majority attaches a mix of positive and negative meanings depending on the context they are referring to. Through a continuum of psychosocial coping, we conclude that to provide appropriate care for young carers, health professionals must align their understanding and responses to the psychosocial cost of chronic care, to a more nuanced and contextual understanding of children's social agency and the social and symbolic resources evident in many African communities.

  2. The role of HIV nursing consultants in the care of HIV-infected patients in Dutch hospital outpatient clinics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervoort, Sigrid C. J. M.; Dijkstra, Boukje M.; Hazelzet, Esther E. B.; Grypdonck, Mieke H. F.; Hoepelman, Andy I. M.; Borleffs, Jan C. C.

    Objective: In the Netherlands HIV nursing consultants have participated in HIV-care since 1985: their profession has changed with developments in HIV-treatment over time. The study goal was to gather information about their role in HIV-care and to provide an useful example to other (HIV-)care

  3. The sport celebrity endorsement in promotion of products and services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dugalić Sretenka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Celebrity endorsement which includes promotion with engagement of famous athlete is different from other promotional campaigns; the only similarity is in a strong, effective way that defines purchase. The purpose of this paper is to explain how achievements in sports (tennis influence the formation of opinions, attitudes, and habits of individuals. The work is of theoretical and empirical character and consists of three parts. The first part explains theoretical aspects; and in the second part of the methodology necessary for process analysis and obtaining research results that may have practical application in marketing through the transformation of sports results in tangible value. The third part sublimated research results as the basis for discussions and presentation of the conclusions that have been reached in the study. Case studies refer to sports, athletes, tennis players, as well as the creators of the sports experience, and their impact on the target groups that can be commercially exploited. In particular, it explored the impact of individual characteristics of Fame players via variable: experience, intelligence, professionalism and other personal qualities, as well as engagement and activities outside the scope of professional tennis.

  4. Human papillomavirus vaccination guideline update: American Cancer Society guideline endorsement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saslow, Debbie; Andrews, Kimberly S; Manassaram-Baptiste, Deana; Loomer, Lacey; Lam, Kristina E; Fisher-Borne, Marcie; Smith, Robert A; Fontham, Elizabeth T H

    2016-09-01

    Answer questions and earn CME/CNE The American Cancer Society (ACS) reviewed and updated its guideline on human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination based on a methodologic and content review of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) HPV vaccination recommendations. A literature review was performed to supplement the evidence considered by the ACIP and to address new vaccine formulations and recommendations as well as new data on population outcomes since publication of the 2007 ACS guideline. The ACS Guideline Development Group determined that the evidence supports ACS endorsement of the ACIP recommendations, with one qualifying statement related to late vaccination. The ACS recommends vaccination of all children at ages 11 and 12 years to protect against HPV infections that lead to several cancers and precancers. Late vaccination for those not vaccinated at the recommended ages should be completed as soon as possible, and individuals should be informed that vaccination may not be effective at older ages. CA Cancer J Clin 2016;66:375-385. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  5. HOSPITAL NUTRITIONAL CARE: PROPOSITIONS ENDORSED BY THE SCIENTIFIC COMMUNITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez-Garcia, Rosa Wanda; Zangiacomi Martinez, Edson; Penaforte, Fernanda Rodrigues de Oliveira; Japur, Camila Cremonezi

    2015-09-01

    the incidence of hospital undernutrition and its consequences for both the patient and the hospital has demanded procedures that ensure the delivery of good-quality hospital nutritional care. On the basis of literature reports, this study aimed to build a hospital nutritional care propositions that the scientific community later evaluated and endorsed. forty-one propositions concerning patient clinical nutritional care and hospital food service management by the Hospital Nutrition and Food Service were designed. One hundred professionals, researchers, and professors evaluated the propositions. Agreement with the propositions was analyzed by means of a five-point Likert scale (I strongly disagree; I partially disagree; I have no opinion; I partially agree; I totally agree) associated with each proposition. Agreement was considered to occur when 70% or more of the interviewees agreed (partially or totally) with the proposition. The procedure Proc Corresp of the software SAS 10, version 8, aided descriptive statistics and correspondence analysis. more than 90% of the interviewees completely or partially agreed with 85% (35) of the 41 propositions; between 80 and 90% of the interviewees totally or partially agreed with 15% (6) of the 41 propositions. All the proposed criteria had over 70% agreement (total and partial). The lowest value of total agreement was 70%, attributed to the proposition that suggested patient's participation in nutritional intervention. the scientific community presented high level of agreement with the hospital nutritional care propositions, which suggested an important consensus about it. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  6. Characterization of vaginal lactobacilli from HIV-negative and HIV-positive Indian women and their association with genital HIV-1 shedding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mane, Arati; Angadi, Mansa; Vidhate, Pallavi; Bembalkar, Shilpa; Khan, Ishrat; Bichare, Shubhangi; Ghate, Manisha; Thakar, Madhuri

    2017-10-01

    One of the crucial determinants for successful administration of lactobacilli to the vaginal niche is the use of appropriate Lactobacillus species. In this cross-sectional study 54 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative and 76 HIV-positive antiretroviral treatment-naïve women were evaluated for culturable vaginal lactobacilli and their association with genital HIV-1 shedding. Lactobacillus species were identified by 16S rDNA sequencing while cervical and plasma HIV-1 viral load was determined by Abbott real-time PCR. Lactobacilli were isolated in 77.8 % HIV-negative and 73.7 % HIV-positive women. The mean log10 plasma and cervical HIV-1 viral loads (RNA copies ml(-1)) were 3.73±1.02 and 2.85±0.32 respectively. We observed that presence of L. crispatus, L. gasseri or L. jensenii species was associated with undetectable cervical HIV-1 (P=0.046) and reduced genital HIV-1 shedding (P=0.048) compared to other species. Our findings endorse using Lactobacillus-based strategies to aid the prevention of HIV-1 transmission among Indian women, however confirmation by future prospective studies is indeed warranted.

  7. Implementation of Regional and International HIV and AIDS Prevention, Treatment, Care and Support Conventions and Declarations in Lesotho, Malawi and Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalanda, Boniface; Mamimine, Patrick; Taela, Katia; Chingandu, Louis; Musuka, Godfrey

    2010-01-01

    The governments across the world have endorsed numerous international Conventions and Declarations (C&Ds) that enhance interventions to reduce the impact of HIV and AIDS. The objective of this study was to assess the extent to which the governments of Lesotho, Malawi and Mozambique have implemented HIV and AIDS international and regional…

  8. Clinical profile of HIV infected patients attending a HIV referral clinic in Pune, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megha Antwal

    2014-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: Signs and symptoms associated with HIV positivity observed in this study can be used by health care providers to detect HIV infection early. Moreover, similar to HIV testing in patients with tuberculosis, strategies can be developed for considering Herpes zoster as a predictor of HIV infection.

  9. HIV-Associated Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kogieleum Naidoo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The intersecting HIV and Tuberculosis epidemics in countries with a high disease burden of both infections pose many challenges and opportunities. For patients infected with HIV in high TB burden countries, the diagnosis of TB, ARV drug choices in treating HIV-TB coinfected patients, when to initiate ARV treatment in relation to TB treatment, managing immune reconstitution, minimising risk of getting infected with TB and/or managing recurrent TB, minimizing airborne transmission, and infection control are key issues. In addition, given the disproportionate burden of HIV in women in these settings, sexual reproductive health issues and particular high mortality rates associated with TB during pregnancy are important. The scaleup and resource allocation to access antiretroviral treatment in these high HIV and TB settings provide a unique opportunity to strengthen both services and impact positively in meeting Millennium Development Goal 6.

  10. HIV Life Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... healthier lives. ART also reduces the risk of HIV transmission (the spread of HIV to others). HIV attacks and destroys ... lives. HIV medicines also reduce the risk of HIV transmission (the spread of HIV to others). What are the seven ...

  11. Women and HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumer Information by Audience For Women Women and HIV: Get the Facts on HIV Testing, Prevention, and Treatment Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... How can you lower your chance of HIV? HIV Quick Facts What is HIV? HIV is the ...

  12. Treatment for HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Public Home » Treatment » Treatment Decisions and HIV HIV/AIDS Menu Menu HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS Home ... here Enter ZIP code here Treatment Decisions and HIV for Veterans and the Public Treatment for HIV: ...

  13. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... prevention clinical trials, and other research information for health care providers, researchers, people affected by HIV/AIDS, and ... HIV/AIDS : This site provides information both for health care providers and for Veterans and the public. Send ...

  14. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... treatment and prevention clinical trials, and other research information for health care providers, researchers, people affected by HIV/AIDS, ... Services. VA National HIV/AIDS : This site provides information both for health care providers and for Veterans and the public. ...

  15. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... prevention clinical trials, and other research information for health care providers, researchers, people affected by HIV/AIDS, and ... HIV/AIDS : This site provides information both for health care providers and for Veterans and the public. Past ...

  16. An investigation into viewers’ trust in and response towards disclosed paid-for endorsements by YouTube lifestyle Vloggers.

    OpenAIRE

    Chapple, C; Cownie, Fiona

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates viewers’ trust in and response towards disclosed paid-for endorsements by YouTube lifestyle vloggers. With the law now enforcing disclosure of sponsorship within vlogger endorsements, this research is topical. This study explored the credibility of lifestyle vloggers, viewers’ attitudes towards paid-for endorsements and disclosure, and viewers’ responses towards endorsements. The research employed a qualitative method and found that lifestyle vloggers are considered by...

  17. Family physicians and HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, N; Crochette, N; Blanchi, S; Lavoix, A; Billaud, E; Baron, C; Abgueguen, P; Perré, P; Rabier, V

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to describe the current and desired involvement of family physicians (FPs) in the treatment of HIV patients (screening practices, potential training and patient follow-up) to reduce the duration and frequency of their hospital treatment. We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional survey between 2011 and 2012 with the support of COREVIH (Regional Coordinating Committee on HIV). We sent a self-assessment questionnaire to all FPs of the Pays de la Loire region to enquire about their HIV screening practices and expectations for the management of HIV patients. A total of 871 FPs completed the questionnaire (response rate: 30.4%). A total of 54.2% said to provide care to HIV patients; the mean number of HIV patients per FP was estimated at 1.4. With regard to HIV screening, 12.2% systematically suggest an HIV serology to their patients and 72.7% always suggest it to pregnant women. About 45.4% of responding FPs said to be willing to manage HIV patients (clinical and biological monitoring, compliance checks and prescription renewal). FPs mainly reported the lack of training and the low number of HIV patients as a barrier to their further involvement in the management of HIV patients. The responding FPs provide care to very few HIV patients. They are, however, willing to be more involved in the routine care of these patients. Medical training provided by COREVIH would help improve HIV screening. The management of HIV patients could thus be handed over to willing FPs. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  18. DSM-IV criteria endorsement patterns in alcohol dependence: relationship to severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Howard B; Chen, Chiung M; Yi, Hsiao-ye

    2008-02-01

    In DSM-IV, the diagnostic threshold for alcohol dependence (AD) is met when a patient presents with at least 3 of 7 criteria. We have computed the predictive value for each individual DSM-IV AD criterion, and examined subtypes of AD criteria endorsement patterns and their associated severity indicators for community-dwelling AD individuals. We utilized data from the 2001 to 2002 National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Positive predictive values (PPV) for DSM-IV AD were computed for each of the individual criteria. Patterns of criteria endorsements were identified by latent class analysis (LCA). Sociodemographic status, age of onset and duration of AD, patterns of drinking, and drinking treatment history, were conditional on DSM criteria endorsement clusters, as indicators of the respondents' clinical severity. At the individual criterion level, the single criterion with the greatest PPV was D7--"Activities given up" with approximately 95% of drinking individuals who endorsed this DSM criterion correctly diagnosed as having DSM-IV AD. In addition to D7, only D5--"Physical/Psychological problems", and D6--"Time spent" had a PPV for AD substantially >50%. The LCA of AD endorsement patterns yielded a 6-cluster solution. The most common response pattern (34.5% of those with AD) was endorsement of 5 criteria: D1--"Quit/Control," D2--"Larger/Longer," D3--"Tolerance," D4--"Withdrawal," and D5--"Physical/Psychological problems." The most severe cluster (14%) was comprised of those who were likely to endorse 7/7 criteria. Cluster 1 (8.3%) did not include an endorsement of withdrawal, despite a heavy pattern of alcohol consumption. Unmarried status was associated with more severe criteria endorsement patterns. The present findings indicate a Guttman-like scaling of endorsement which yielded associations with severity for some of the concurrent indicators included in the analysis. However, severity measures did not always increase with DSM

  19. Theory of Endorsements and Reasoning with Uncertainty, January 1984 - January 1986

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-11-01

    endorsements is mediated by rules that reflect what the endorsements in€<xn. rankAthtrrpdH|Phr^, emf I’ ^^ endorsements- A^ quantitative approaches can rank...performing an EKG? Q7: "What are the possible results of an angiogram?" Q8: "Does age have an effect on the criticality of colon cancer ?" MU answers these...of the expert knowledge used in speci- fying treatment plans for cancer therapy. Form filling is a viable knowledge acquisition technique because the

  20. 46 CFR 13.305 - Proof of service for “Tankerman-PIC (Barge)” endorsement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Proof of service for âTankerman-PIC (Barge)â endorsement... AND SEAMEN CERTIFICATION OF TANKERMEN Requirements for âTankerman-PIC (Barge)â Endorsement § 13.305 Proof of service for “Tankerman-PIC (Barge)” endorsement. Service must be proved by a letter on company...