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Sample records for hiv prevalence survey

  1. University students and HIV in Namibia: an HIV prevalence survey and a knowledge and attitude survey.

    de Beer, Ingrid H; Gelderblom, Huub C; Schellekens, Onno; Gaeb, Esegiel; van Rooy, Gert; McNally, Alta; Wit, Ferdinand W; Tobias, Rinke de Wit F

    2012-02-22

    With an overall adult HIV prevalence of 15.3%, Namibia is facing one of the largest HIV epidemics in Africa. Young people aged 20 to 34 years constitute one of the groups at highest risk of HIV infection in Namibia. However, little is known about the impact of HIV on this group and its access to healthcare. The purpose of this study was to estimate HIV prevalence, to assess the knowledge of and attitudes towards HIV/AIDS, and to assess access to healthcare among university students in Namibia. We assessed HIV/AIDS knowledge and attitudes, HIV prevalence and access to healthcare among students at the Polytechnic of Namibia and the University of Namibia. HIV prevalence was tested through anonymous oral fluid-based tests. Half (n = 2790/5568) of the university students and 45% (n = 2807/6302) of the Polytechnic students participated in the knowledge and attitudes surveys. HIV/AIDS knowledge was reasonable, except for misperceptions about transmission. Awareness of one's own HIV status and risks was low. In all, 55% (n = 3055/5568) of university students and 58% (n = 3680/6302) of Polytechnic students participated in the HIV prevalence survey; 54 (1.8%) university students and 103 (2.8%) Polytechnic students tested HIV positive. Campus clinics were not the major providers of healthcare to the students. Meaningful strategies addressing the gap between knowledge, attitude and young people's perception of risk of HIV acquisition should be implemented. HIV prevalence among Namibian university students appears relatively low. Voluntary counselling and testing should be stimulated. Efforts should be made to increase access to healthcare through the campus clinics.

  2. University students and HIV in Namibia: an HIV prevalence survey and a knowledge and attitude survey

    de Beer, Ingrid H.; Gelderblom, Huub C.; Schellekens, Onno; Gaeb, Esegiel; van Rooy, Gert; McNally, Alta; Wit, Ferdinand W.; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F.

    2012-01-01

    Background: With an overall adult HIV prevalence of 15.3%, Namibia is facing one of the largest HIV epidemics in Africa. Young people aged 20 to 34 years constitute one of the groups at highest risk of HIV infection in Namibia. However, little is known about the impact of HIV on this group and its

  3. Factors Associated with HIV Prevalence and HIV Testing in Sierra Leone: Findings from the 2008 Demographic Health Survey.

    Nataliya Brima

    Full Text Available The Sierra Leone Demographic Health Survey 2008 found an HIV prevalence of 1.5%. This study investigates associations with HIV infection and HIV testing.Households were selected using stratified multi-stage sampling. In all selected households women aged 15-49 were eligible. In every second household men aged 15-59 were also eligible. Participants were asked to consent for anonymous HIV testing. All participants interviewed and tested were analysed. Multiple logistic regression identified associations with HIV infection, undiagnosed infection and with ever having a voluntary HIV test among sexually active participants.Of 7495 invited 86% (6,475 agreed to an interview and HIV test. Among 96 HIV positive participants, 78% had never taken a voluntary HIV test so were unaware of their serostatus, and 86% were sexually active in the last 12 months among whom 96% did not use a condom at last intercourse. 11% of all participants had previously voluntarily tested. Among women who had tested, 60% did so in antenatal care. We found that those living in an urban area, and those previously married, were more likely to be HIV infected. Voluntary HIV testing was more common in those aged 25-44, living in an urban area, females, having secondary or higher education, having first sexual intercourse at age 17 years or older, and using condoms at last sex. Although 82% of men and 69% of women had heard of HIV, only 35% and 29% respectively had heard of antiretroviral therapy.The HIV prevalence in Sierra Leone has been stable. HIV testing, however, is uncommon and most infected individuals are unaware of their serostatus. This could allow the epidemic to escalate as individuals with undiagnosed infection are unlikely to change their behaviour or access treatment. Improving knowledge and increasing testing need to remain central to HIV prevention interventions in Sierra Leone.

  4. A behavioral and serological survey on HIV prevalence among prisoners in Benin

    S. Hessou

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Cases of HIV are common in Benin, with infection rates varying according to socioeconomic and cultural factors, and by region. Certain segments of the population, such as prison inmates, sex worker clients and truck drivers are at high risk for HIV/AIDS. The aim of this study is to identify which behavioral and serological indicators contribute to the spread of HIV among prisoners. A total of 496 inmates from prisons located in all major cities in Benin were surveyed. Data was collected through interview sessions carried out using a questionnaire and through blood samples. The results show that most inmates are Beninese (83.5%, and the average age is 33 years (range: 14-80 years. No prisoner reported using a condom the last time they engaged in sexual intercourse. Blood exposure was found in 14.6% of inmates and HIV was detected in 1.4% of cases. Our analysis indicates that the length of detention and gender are factors that influence HIV status. However, age, education, nationality and HIV awareness had no significant effect on HIV prevalence among inmates. The results highlight the need to raise awareness in prisons about HIV. This can be achieved by strengthening communication strategies and by organizing HIV and sexually transmitted diseases information sessions for both prison officers and inmates.

  5. Changing drug use and HIV prevalence among injecting drug users in Ukraine: evidence from biobehavioral surveys

    Dumchev, Kostyantyn

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Integrated biobehavioral surveys (IBBS have been used to evaluate the impact of HIV prevention efforts among most-at-risk groups in Ukraine since 2007. Harm reduction program coverage among injecting-drug users (IDUs increased substantially from 96,000 in 2008 to 170,000 in 2010 with support from the Global Fund, and IBBS have shown declining HIV prevalence. Aim of the study was to examine the changes in HIV prevalence, drug use patterns and risky behaviors in IDUs on national and city level.METHODS: For this analysis, three IDU-IBBS datasets were combined – 2008 (N=3711, 2009 (N=3962, and 2011 (N=9069. The analysis included 25 cities that participated in either 2008 or 2009, and 2011. Changes in HIV prevalence, drug use, and risk behaviors were compared between 2008/9 and 2011.RESULTS: The surveyed IDU population in 2011 was older than in 2008/9 (31.0 vs. 32.8 years; p<.0001, and included more females (23.5% vs. 25.5%; p=.0038, with substantial variation across cities.Overall HIV prevalence in the sample declined slightly (22.9% to 21.6%; p=.05. In eight cities, HIV prevalence decreased significantly (-5% to -18%, while significant increases were seen in five cities (8% to 15%. Prevalence among IDUs younger than 25 years declined (9.9% to 7.2%; p=.0078.The combined dataset showed no difference in opioid or stimulant past-30-day use, with variation at city level. Clean needle/syringe use during last injection increased significantly (88.8% to 97.0%; p<.0001, with no opposing trend in any city. Three cities had an increase in past-30-day needle/syringe sharing; nine – in container sharing; twelve – in use of preloaded syringes. Changes in condom use were not significant (54.1% to 54.9%, p=.32.CONCLUSIONS: IDUs in Ukraine are ageing and HIV seroprevalence among IDUs continues to decline, especially among young IDUs. However, prevention programming needs to respond to significant regional variations in risk behaviors and HIV

  6. Trends in HIV & syphilis prevalence and correlates of HIV infection: results from cross-sectional surveys among women attending ante-natal clinics in Northern Tanzania

    Kumogola Yusufu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sentinel surveillance for HIV in ante-natal clinics (ANC remains the primary method for collecting timely trend data on HIV prevalence in most of sub-Saharan Africa. We describe prevalence of HIV and syphilis infection and trends over time in HIV prevalence among women attending ante-natal clinics (ANC in Magu district and Mwanza city, part of Mwanza region in Northern Tanzania. HIV prevalence from ANC surveys in 2000 and 2002 was 10.5% and 10.8% respectively. In previous rounds urban residence, residential mobility, the length of time sexually active before marriage, time since marriage and age of the partner were associated with HIV infection. Methods A third round of HIV sentinel surveillance was conducted at ante-natal clinics in Mwanza region, Tanzania during 2006. We interviewed women attending 27 ante-natal clinics. In 15 clinics we also anonymously tested women for syphilis and HIV infection and linked these results to the questionnaire data. Results HIV prevalence was 7.6% overall in 2006 and 7.4% at the 11 clinics used in previous rounds. Geographical variations in HIV prevalence, apparent in previous rounds, have largely disappeared but syphilis prevalence is still higher in rural clinics. HIV prevalence has declined in urban clinics and is stable in rural clinics. The correlates of HIV infection have changed over time. In this round older age, lower gravidity, remarriage, duration of marriage, sexual activity before marriage, long interval between last birth and pregnancy and child death were all associated with infection. Conclusions HIV prevalence trends concur with results from a community-based cohort in the region. Correlates of HIV infection have also changed and more proximate, individual level factors are now more important, in line with the changing epidemiology of infection in this population.

  7. Does marital status matter in an HIV hyperendemic country? Findings from the 2012 South African National HIV Prevalence, Incidence and Behaviour Survey.

    Shisana, Olive; Risher, Kathryn; Celentano, David D; Zungu, Nompumelelo; Rehle, Thomas; Ngcaweni, Busani; Evans, Meredith G B

    2016-01-01

    South Africa has experienced declining marriage rates and the increasing practice of cohabitation without marriage. This study aims to improve the understanding of the relationship between marital status and HIV in South Africa, an HIV hyperendemic country, through an analysis of findings from the 2012 South African National HIV Prevalence, Incidence and Behaviour Survey. The nationally representative population-based cross-sectional survey collected data on HIV and socio-demographic and behavioural determinants in South Africa. This analysis considered respondents aged 16 years and older who consented to participate in the survey and provided dried blood spot specimens for HIV testing (N = 17,356). After controlling for age, race, having multiple sexual partners, condom use at last sex, urban/rural dwelling and level of household income, those who were married living with their spouse had significantly reduced odds of being HIV-positive compared to all other marital spouses groups. HIV incidence was 0.27% among respondents who were married living with their spouses; the highest HIV incidence was found in the cohabiting group (2.91%). Later marriage (after age 24) was associated with increased odds of HIV prevalence. Our analysis suggests an association between marital status and HIV prevalence and incidence in contemporary South Africa, where odds of being HIV-positive were found to be lower among married individuals who lived with their spouses compared to all other marital status groups. HIV prevention messages therefore need to be targeted to unmarried populations, especially cohabitating populations. As low socio-economic status, low social cohesion and the resulting destabilization of sexual relationships may explain the increased risk of HIV among unmarried populations, it is necessary to address structural issues including poverty that create an environment unfavourable to stable sexual relationships.

  8. A Cross-Sectional Survey of HIV Testing and Prevalence in Twelve Brazilian Correctional Facilities.

    Renata Viebrantz Enne Sgarbi

    Full Text Available Prior studies have reported higher HIV prevalence among prisoners than the general population in Brazil, but data have been derived from single prisons. The aim of this study was to evaluate HIV testing practices, prevalence and linkage to care among inmates in a network of 12 prisons.We administered a questionnaire to a population-based sample of inmates from 12 prisons in Central-West Brazil and collected sera for HIV and syphilis testing from January to December 2013. We evaluated factors associated with HIV testing and infection using multivariable logistic regression models. Six months after HIV testing, we assessed whether each HIV-infected prisoner was engaged in clinical care and whether they had started antiretroviral therapy.We recruited 3,362 inmates, of whom 2,843 (85% were men from 8 prisons, and 519 (15% were women from 4 prisons. Forty-five percent of participants reported never having been tested for HIV previously. In multivariable analysis, the variables associated with previous HIV testing were lack of a stable partner (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.38; 95% CI: 1.18-1.60, completed more than four years of schooling (AOR 1.40; 95% CI: 1.20-1.64, history of previous incarceration (AOR: 1.68; 95% CI: 1.43-1.98, history of mental illness (AOR 1.52; 95% CI: 1.31-1.78 and previous surgery (AOR 1.31; 95% CI: 1.12-1.52. Fifty-four (1.6% of all participants tested positive for HIV; this included 44 (1.54% men and 10 (1.92% women. Among male inmates, HIV infection was associated with homosexuality (AOR 6.20, 95% CI: 1.73-22.22, self-report of mental illness (AOR 2.18, 95% CI: 1.13-4.18, history of sexually transmitted infections (AOR 3.28, 95% CI: 1.64-6.56, and syphilis sero-positivity (AOR 2.54, 95% CI: 1.20-5.39. Among HIV-infected individuals, 34 (63% were unaware of their HIV status; only 23 of these 34 (68% newly diagnosed participants could be reached at six month follow-up, and 21 of 23 (91% were engaged in HIV care.HIV testing

  9. Are slum dwellers at heightened risk of HIV infection than other urban residents? Evidence from population-based HIV prevalence surveys in Kenya.

    Madise, Nyovani J; Ziraba, Abdhalah K; Inungu, Joseph; Khamadi, Samoel A; Ezeh, Alex; Zulu, Eliya M; Kebaso, John; Okoth, Vincent; Mwau, Matilu

    2012-09-01

    In 2008, the global urban population surpassed the rural population and by 2050 more than 6 billion will be living in urban centres. A growing body of research has reported on poor health outcomes among the urban poor but not much is known about HIV prevalence among this group. A survey of nearly 3000 men and women was conducted in two Nairobi slums in Kenya between 2006 and 2007, where respondents were tested for HIV status. In addition, data from the 2008/2009 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey were used to compare HIV prevalence between slum residents and those living in other urban and rural areas. The results showed strong intra-urban differences. HIV was 12% among slum residents compared with 5% and 6% among non-slum urban and rural residents, respectively. Generally, men had lower HIV prevalence than women although in the slums the gap was narrower. Among women, sexual experience before the age of 15 compared with after 19 years was associated with 62% higher odds of being HIV positive. There was ethnic variation in patterns of HIV infection although the effect depended on the current place of residence. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Socioeconomic inequalities in HIV/AIDS prevalence in sub-Saharan African countries: evidence from the Demographic Health Surveys

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Extant studies universally document a positive gradient between socioeconomic status (SES) and health. A notable exception is the apparent concentration of HIV/AIDS among wealthier individuals. This paper uses data from the Demographic Health Surveys and AIDS Indicator Surveys to examine socioeconomic inequalities in HIV/AIDS prevalence in 24 sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries, the region that accounts for two-thirds of the global HIV/AIDS burden. Methods The relative and generalized concentration indices (RC and GC) were used to quantify wealth-based socioeconomic inequalities in HIV/AIDS prevalence for the total adult population (aged 15-49), for men and women, and in urban and rural areas in each country. Further, we decomposed the RC and GC indices to identify the determinants of socioeconomic inequalities in HIV/AIDS prevalence in each country. Results Our findings demonstrated that HIV/AIDS was concentrated among higher SES individuals in the majority of SSA countries. Swaziland and Senegal were the only countries in the region where HIV/AIDS was concentrated among individuals living in poorer households. Stratified analyses by gender showed HIV/AIDS was generally concentrated among wealthier men and women. In some countries, including Kenya, Lesotho Uganda, and Zambia, HIV/AIDS was concentrated among the poor in urban areas but among wealthier adults in rural areas. Decomposition analyses indicated that, besides wealth itself (median = 49%, interquartile range [IQR] = 90%), urban residence (median = 54%, IQR = 81%) was the most important factor contributing to the concentration of HIV/AIDS among wealthier participants in SSA countries. Conclusions Further work is needed to understand the mechanisms explaining the concentration of HIV/AIDS among wealthier individuals and urban residents in SSA. Higher prevalence of HIV/AIDS could be indicative of better care and survival among wealthier individuals and urban adults, or reflect

  11. Prevalence of risk factors for HIV infection among Mexican migrants and immigrants: probability survey in the north border of Mexico

    Gudelia Rangel M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of risk factors for HIV infection among Mexican migrants and immigrants (MMIs in different geographic contexts, including the sending communities in Mexico, the receiving communities in the United States (US, and the Mexican North border region. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a probability survey among MMIs traveling through key border crossing sites in the Tijuana (Baja California, Mexico-San Diego (California, US border region (N=1 429. RESULTS: The survey revealed substantial rates of reported sexually transmitted infections, needle-sharing and sexual risk practices in all migration contexts. CONCLUSIONS: The estimated levels of HIV risk call for further binational research and preventive interventions in all key geographic contexts of the migration experience to identify and tackle the different personal, environmental, and structural determinants of HIV risk in each of these contexts.

  12. Prevalence of HIV among MSM in Europe: comparison of self-reported diagnoses from a large scale internet survey and existing national estimates

    Marcus Ulrich

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Country level comparisons of HIV prevalence among men having sex with men (MSM is challenging for a variety of reasons, including differences in the definition and measurement of the denominator group, recruitment strategies and the HIV detection methods. To assess their comparability, self-reported data on HIV diagnoses in a 2010 pan-European MSM internet survey (EMIS were compared with pre-existing estimates of HIV prevalence in MSM from a variety of European countries. Methods The first pan-European survey of MSM recruited more than 180,000 men from 38 countries across Europe and included questions on the year and result of last HIV test. HIV prevalence as measured in EMIS was compared with national estimates of HIV prevalence based on studies using biological measurements or modelling approaches to explore the degree of agreement between different methods. Existing estimates were taken from Dublin Declaration Monitoring Reports or UNAIDS country fact sheets, and were verified by contacting the nominated contact points for HIV surveillance in EU/EEA countries. Results The EMIS self-reported measurements of HIV prevalence were strongly correlated with existing estimates based on biological measurement and modelling studies using surveillance data (R2=0.70 resp. 0.72. In most countries HIV positive MSM appeared disproportionately likely to participate in EMIS, and prevalences as measured in EMIS are approximately twice the estimates based on existing estimates. Conclusions Comparison of diagnosed HIV prevalence as measured in EMIS with pre-existing estimates based on biological measurements using varied sampling frames (e.g. Respondent Driven Sampling, Time and Location Sampling demonstrates a high correlation and suggests similar selection biases from both types of studies. For comparison with modelled estimates the self-selection bias of the Internet survey with increased participation of men diagnosed with HIV has to be

  13. What explains gender inequalities in HIV/AIDS prevalence in sub-Saharan Africa? Evidence from the demographic and health surveys

    Drissa Sia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Women are disproportionally affected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA. The determinants of gender inequality in HIV/AIDS may vary across countries and require country-specific interventions to address them. This study aimed to identify the socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics underlying gender inequalities in HIV/AIDS in 21 SSA countries. Methods We applied an extension of the Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition approach to data from Demographic and Health Surveys and AIDS Indicator Surveys to quantify the differences in HIV/AIDS prevalence between women and men attributable to socio-demographic factors, sexual behaviours, and awareness of HIV/AIDS. We decomposed gender inequalities into two components: the percentage attributable to different levels of the risk factors between women and men (the “composition effect” and the percentage attributable to risk factors having differential effects on HIV/AIDS prevalence in women and men (the “response effect”. Results Descriptive analyses showed that the difference between women and men in HIV/AIDS prevalence varied from a low of 0.68 % (P = 0.008 in Liberia to a high of 11.5 % (P < 0.001 in Swaziland. The decomposition analysis showed that 84 % (P < 0.001 and 92 % (P < 0.001 of the higher prevalence of HIV/AIDS among women in Uganda and Ghana, respectively, was explained by the different distributions of HIV/AIDS risk factors, particularly age at first sex between women and men. In the majority of countries, however, observed gender inequalities in HIV/AIDS were chiefly explained by differences in the responses to risk factors; the differential effects of age, marital status and occupation on prevalence of HIV/AIDS for women and men were among the significant contributors to this component. In Cameroon, Guinea, Malawi and Swaziland, a combination of the composition and response

  14. What explains gender inequalities in HIV/AIDS prevalence in sub-Saharan Africa? Evidence from the demographic and health surveys.

    Sia, Drissa; Onadja, Yentéma; Hajizadeh, Mohammad; Heymann, S Jody; Brewer, Timothy F; Nandi, Arijit

    2016-11-03

    Women are disproportionally affected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The determinants of gender inequality in HIV/AIDS may vary across countries and require country-specific interventions to address them. This study aimed to identify the socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics underlying gender inequalities in HIV/AIDS in 21 SSA countries. We applied an extension of the Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition approach to data from Demographic and Health Surveys and AIDS Indicator Surveys to quantify the differences in HIV/AIDS prevalence between women and men attributable to socio-demographic factors, sexual behaviours, and awareness of HIV/AIDS. We decomposed gender inequalities into two components: the percentage attributable to different levels of the risk factors between women and men (the "composition effect") and the percentage attributable to risk factors having differential effects on HIV/AIDS prevalence in women and men (the "response effect"). Descriptive analyses showed that the difference between women and men in HIV/AIDS prevalence varied from a low of 0.68 % (P = 0.008) in Liberia to a high of 11.5 % (P distributions of HIV/AIDS risk factors, particularly age at first sex between women and men. In the majority of countries, however, observed gender inequalities in HIV/AIDS were chiefly explained by differences in the responses to risk factors; the differential effects of age, marital status and occupation on prevalence of HIV/AIDS for women and men were among the significant contributors to this component. In Cameroon, Guinea, Malawi and Swaziland, a combination of the composition and response effects explained gender inequalities in HIV/AIDS prevalence. The factors that explain gender inequality in HIV/AIDS in SSA vary by country, suggesting that country-specific interventions are needed. Unmeasured factors also contributed substantially to the difference in HIV

  15. Prevalence of HIV, HSV-2 and pregnancy among high school students in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: a bio-behavioural cross-sectional survey.

    Abdool Karim, Quarraisha; Kharsany, Ayesha B M; Leask, Kerry; Ntombela, Fanelisibonge; Humphries, Hilton; Frohlich, Janet A; Samsunder, Natasha; Grobler, Anneke; Dellar, Rachael; Abdool Karim, Salim S

    2014-12-01

    Adolescents in southern African high schools are a key population for HIV prevention interventions. We report on the prevalence of HIV, HSV-2 and pregnancy as indicators of high-risk sexual behaviour among high school students in rural KwaZulu-Natal. Bio-behavioural cross-sectional survey. Students completed a self-administered structured, standardised demographic and sexual behavioural questionnaire. Dried blood spot specimens were collected for HIV and HSV-2 testing. Urine specimens were used for pregnancy testing in female students. A total of 2675 (1423 females, 1252 males) consenting students were enrolled from 14 high schools between September and November 2010. The median age of students was 16 years (IQR 15-18). HIV prevalence was 1.4% (95% CI 0.9 to 1.9) in males and 6.4% (95% CI 4.6 to 8.3) in females (pPregnancy prevalence was 3.6% (95% CI 2.6 to 4.5). Risk factors for prevalent HIV infection in female students included being over 18 years of age (adjusted OR (aOR)=2.67, 95% CI 1.67 to 4.27; ppregnancy (aOR=1.66, 95% CI 1.10 to 2.51; p=0.016) and experience of two or more deaths in the household in the previous year (aOR=1.97, 95% CI 1.13 to 3.44; p=0.016). The high prevalence of HIV, HSV-2 and pregnancy underscore the need for school-based sexual and reproductive health services, and provide further impetus for the inclusion of adolescents in behavioural and biomedical trials with HIV incidence endpoints. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. HIV prevalence and factors associated with HIV infection among transgender women in Cambodia: results from a national Integrated Biological and Behavioral Survey.

    Chhim, Srean; Ngin, Chanrith; Chhoun, Pheak; Tuot, Sovannary; Ly, Cheaty; Mun, Phalkun; Pal, Khondyla; Macom, John; Dousset, Jean-Philippe; Mburu, Gitau; Yi, Siyan

    2017-08-11

    To examine factors associated with HIV infection among transgender women in Cambodia. Cross-sectional study. HIV high-burden sites including the capital city and 12 provinces. This study included 1375 sexually active transgender women with a mean age of 25.9 years (SD 7.1), recruited by using respondent-driven sampling for structured questionnaire interviews and rapid finger-prick HIV testing. HIV infection detected by using Determine antibody test. HIV prevalence among this population was 5.9%. After adjustment for other covariates, participants living in urban areas were twice as likely to be HIV infected as those living in rural areas. Participants with primary education were 1.7 times as likely to be infected compared with those with high school education. HIV infection increased with age; compared with those aged 18-24 years, the odds of being HIV infected were twice as high among transgender women aged 25-34 years and 2.8 times higher among those aged ≥35 years. Self-injection of gender affirming hormones was associated with a fourfold increase in the odds of HIV infection. A history of genital sores over the previous 12 months increased the odds of HIV infection by threefold. Transgender women with stronger feminine identity, dressing as a woman all the time, were twice as likely to be HIV infected compared with those who did not dress as a woman all the time. Having never used online services developed for transgender women in the past six months was also associated with higher odds of being HIV infected. Transgender women in Cambodia are at high risk of HIV. To achieve the goal of eliminating HIV in Cambodia, effective combination prevention strategies addressing the above risk factors among transgender women should be strengthened. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. Refusal bias in the estimation of HIV prevalence

    Janssens, Wendy; van der Gaag, Jacques; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F.; Tanović, Zlata

    2014-01-01

    In 2007, UNAIDS corrected estimates of global HIV prevalence downward from 40 million to 33 million based on a methodological shift from sentinel surveillance to population-based surveys. Since then, population-based surveys are considered the gold standard for estimating HIV prevalence. However,

  18. HIV prevalence and related risk behaviours in female seasonal farm workers in Souss Massa Draa, Morocco: results from a cross-sectional survey using cluster-based sampling.

    Bozicevic, Ivana; Guezzar, Fatiha; Stulhofer, Aleksandar; Bennani, Aziza; Handanagic, Senad; Barbaric, Jelena; El Rhilani, Houssine; Alami, Kamal; Khattabi, Hamida; Riedner, Gabriele; Maaroufi, Abderrahmane

    2017-06-08

    To determine prevalence of HIV and HIV-related behaviours in female seasonal farm workers (FSFWs) in two provinces of Souss Massa Draa (SMD) region in Morocco. SMD has a higher burden of HIV compared with other parts of Morocco and is characterised by a substantial aggregation of FSFW. We carried out a cross-sectional HIV biobehavioural survey using cluster-based sampling of farms in the provinces Chtouka Aït Baha and Taroudant Ouled Teïma in 2014. HIV testing was done using the Determine HIV-1/2 rapid test and reactive specimens were tested using ELISA and western blot. Collected data were post hoc weighted for region-based stratification and adjusted for clustering effects using complex survey functions of SPSS (V.21). Among those eligible to participate, the response rate was 92.8%. HIV prevalence was 0.9% (95% CI 0.4% to 2.4%) among 520 recruited participants. A high proportion of respondents (67.7%) had no education. Ever having sex was reported by 79.8% and among these, 12.7% ever exchanged sex for money or goods. Sixty-one per cent reported condom use at most recent commercial vaginal sex in the past 12 months. STI symptom recognition was found to be low because 62.4% and 46.8% of FSFW could not report any STI symptoms in men and women, respectively. Twenty-seven per cent of respondents had an HIV test in the past 12 months. In multivariable analysis, those with primary or higher education (adjusted OR (aOR)=2.38, 95% CI 1.33 to 4.27) and those who participated in an HIV educational session at their workplace (aOR=11.00, 95% CI 3.99 to 30.31) had higher odds of ever been tested for HIV. Although we found a relatively low HIV prevalence among FSFW in SMD, HIV interventions should be intensified, in particular, in a subgroup of women who are involved in sex work. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  19. Prevalence of HIV at the Kokoyo informal gold mining site: what lies behind the glitter of gold with regard to HIV epidemics in Mali? A community-based approach (the ANRS-12339 Sanu Gundo cross-sectional survey).

    Sagaon-Teyssier, Luis; Balique, Hubert; Diallo, Fodié; Kalampalikis, Nikos; Mora, Marion; Bourrelly, Michel; Suzan-Monti, Marie; Spire, Bruno; Dembélé Keita, Bintou

    2017-08-03

    The aim of this article was to estimate HIV prevalence and the factors associated with HIV seropositivity in the population living and working at the informal artisanal small-scale gold mining (IASGM) site of Kokoyo in Mali, using data from the Sanu Gundo survey. Our main hypothesis was that HIV prevalence is higher in the context of IASGM than in the country as a whole. The ANRS-12339 Sanu Gundo was a cross-sectional survey conducted in December 2015. The quantitative survey consisted of face-to-face administration of questionnaires. Five focus groups were conducted for the qualitative survey. HIV prevalence was calculated for the sample, and according to the type of activity performed in IASGM. The IASGM site of Kokoyo, one of the largest sites in Mali (between 6000 and 1000 people). 224 respondents: 37.5% were gold-diggers, 33% retail traders, 6.7% tombolomas (ie, traditional guards) and 9% female sex workers. The remaining 13.8% reported another activity (mainly street vending). HIV prevalence and HIV prevalence according to subgroup, as defined by their activity at the Kokoyo IASGM. A probit logistic regression was implemented to estimate the characteristics associated with HIV seropositivity. HIV prevalence for the total sample was 8% (95% CI 7.7% to 8.3%), which is much higher than the 2015 national prevalence of 1.3%Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS). The probability of HIV seropositivity was 7.8% (p=0.037) higher for female non-sex workers than for any other category, and this probability increased significantly with age. Qualitative data revealed the non-systematic use of condoms with sex workers; and long distance from health services was the main barrier to accessing care. Integrated policymaking should pay special attention to infectious diseases among populations in IASGM zones. Bringing information/prevention activities closer to people working in gold mining zones is an urgent public health action. © Article author(s) (or their

  20. HIV decline associated with changes in risk behaviours among young key populations in Nepal: analysis of population-based HIV prevalence surveys between 2001 and 2012.

    Deuba, Keshab; Ekström, Anna Mia; Tomson, Göran; Shrestha, Rachana; Marrone, Gaetano

    2017-08-01

    We assessed changes in HIV prevalence and risk behaviours among young key populations in Nepal. A total of 7505 participants (aged 16-24 years) from key populations who were at increased risk of HIV infection (2767 people who inject drugs (PWID); 852 men who have sex with men/transgender (MSM/TG); 2851 female sex workers (FSW) and 1035 male labour migrants) were recruited randomly over a 12-year period, 2001-2012. Local epidemic zones of Nepal (Kathmandu valley, Pokhara valley, Terai Highway and West to Far West hills) were analysed separately. We found a very strong and consistent decline in HIV prevalence over the past decade in different epidemic zones among PWID and MSM/TG in Kathmandu, the capital city, most likely due to a parallel increase in safe needle and syringe use and increased condom use. A decrease in HIV prevalence in 22 Terai highway districts, sharing an open border with India, was also consistent with increased condom use among FSW. Among male labour migrants, HIV prevalence was low throughout the period in the West to Far West hilly regions. Condom use by migrant workers involved with FSW abroad increased while their condom use with Nepalese FSW declined. Other risk determinants such as mean age at starting first injection, injection frequency, place of commercial sex solicitation, their mean age when leaving to work abroad did not change consistently across epidemic zones among the young key populations under study. In Nepal, the decline in HIV prevalence over the past decade was remarkably significant and consistent with an increase in condom use and safer use of clean needles and syringes. However, diverging trends in risk behaviours across local epidemic zones of Nepal suggest a varying degree of implementation of national HIV prevention policies. This calls for continued preventive efforts as well as surveillance to sustain the observed downward trend.

  1. HIV prevalence, risky behaviors, and discrimination experiences among transgender women in Cambodia: descriptive findings from a national integrated biological and behavioral survey.

    Yi, Siyan; Ngin, Chanrith; Tuot, Sovannary; Chhoun, Pheak; Chhim, Srean; Pal, Khuondyla; Mun, Phalkun; Mburu, Gitau

    2017-05-23

    Transgender people are disproportionately affected by HIV. Despite their high vulnerability to HIV, lack of adequate epidemiological and surveillance data related to this population in many countries prevents provision of appropriate services. This paper summarizes descriptive findings from a national integrated biological and behavioral survey and discusses policy implications of the findings on HIV prevention among transgender women in Cambodia. This cross-sectional study was conducted between December 2015 and February 2016. Participants were recruited from 20 sites in the capital city and 12 provinces of Cambodia using Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS) method. Behavioral data were collected through structured questionnaire interviews, and rapid finger-prick HIV testing was performed. Descriptive data analyses were conducted using STATA. This study included 1,375 transgender women with a mean age of 25.9 years (SD = 7.1). The overall prevalence of HIV was 5.9%. The prevalence of HIV was significantly higher among urban participants compared to their rural counterparts (6.5 vs. 2.6%, p = 0.02). Almost one in five (19.6%) had never been tested for HIV prior to the study. Overall, 45.0% reported ever using gender affirming hormones. More than one-third (39.1%) reported not using condoms in their last sex, 29.8% had engaged in sex in exchange for money/gifts, and 14.0% reported that they had experienced at least one symptom of sexually transmitted infections (STI) in the past year. About one in ten (10.1%) reported having used some form of amphetamine-type stimulant drugs, while 6.5% reported having sex during or after using illicit drugs. A significant number of participants experienced sexual abuse (39.2%), losing a job (24.3%), or physical abuse (23.6%) because of their transgender identity. In addition, 82.9 and 88.9% would be willing to use the HIV self-test and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), respectively, if they become available. The high prevalence

  2. Prevalence of hepatitis B and delta according to HIV-type: a multi-country cross-sectional survey in West Africa.

    Coffie, Patrick A; Tchounga, Boris K; Bado, Guillaume; Kabran, Mathieu; Minta, Daouda K; Wandeler, Gilles; Gottlieb, Geoffrey S; Dabis, François; Eholie, Serge P; Ekouevi, Didier K

    2017-07-04

    In West Africa where HIV-1 and HIV-2 co-circulate, the co-infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis Delta virus (HDV) is not well described. This study aimed at estimating the prevalence of HBV and HBV/HDV co-infection according to HIV types and risk factors for HBV infection among West African HIV-infected patients. A cross-sectional survey was conducted within the IeDEA West Africa cohort from March to December 2012 in Côte d'Ivoire (three sites), Burkina Faso and Mali (one site each). All HIV-infected adult patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) or not who attended one of the participating HIV clinics during the study period and agreed to participate were included. Blood samples were collected and re-tested for HIV type discrimination, HBV and HDV serology as well as HBV viral load. Logistic regression was used to identify risk factors for HBV infection. A total of 791 patients were included: 192 HIV-1, 447 HIV-2 and 152 HIV-1&2 dually reactive. At time of sampling, 555 (70.2%) were on ART and median CD4+ cell count was 472/mm 3 (inter-quartile range [IQR]: IQR: 294-644). Sixty-seven (8.5%, 95% CI 6.6-10.6) patients were HBsAg positive without any difference according to HIV type (7.9% in HIV-1, 7.2% in HIV-1&2 dually reactive and 9.4% in HIV-2; p = 0.61). In multivariate logistic analysis, age ≤ 30 years old (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 5.00, 95% CI 1.96-12.76), age between 31 and 49 years old (aOR 1.78, 95% CI 1.00-2.21) and male gender (aOR 2.15, 95% CI 1.25-3.69) were associated with HBsAg positivity. HBV DNA testing was performed in 36 patients with blood sample available (25 on ART) and 8 (22.2%) had detectable HBV DNA. Among the HBsAg-positive individuals, 14.9% (95% CI 7.4-25.7) were also positive for anti-HDV antibody without any difference according to HIV type (28.6% in HIV-1, 14.3% in HIV-2 and 0.0% in HIV-1&2 dually reactive; p = 0.15). HBV and HBV/HDV co-infection are common in West Africa, irrespective of HIV type. Therefore

  3. Increasing HIV and decreasing syphilis prevalence in a context of persistently high unprotected anal intercourse, six consecutive annual surveys among men who have sex with men in Guangzhou, China, 2008 to 2013.

    Zhong, Fei; Liang, Boheng; Xu, Huifang; Cheng, Weibin; Fan, Lirui; Han, Zhigang; Liang, Caiyun; Gao, Kai; Mai, Huixia; Qin, Faju; Zhao, Jinkou; Ling, Li

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have reported a possibly increasing HIV prevalence among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China. However there have been limited systematic analyses of existing surveillance data to learn the trend of HIV prevalence and factors driving the trend. The aims of this study were to examine the trend of HIV prevalence among MSM in Guangzhou and to explore the role of unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) in the trend. Snow-ball sampling was applied in the subject recruitment for the annual serological and behavioral surveys among MSM from 2008 to 2013. Data collected in the behavioral survey include demographic information, HIV related sexual behavior with men and women, access to HIV prevention services, and symptoms of sexually transmitted infections. Chi-square test was used to analyze the trend of HIV prevalence. Multivariate logistic regression was conducted to test the factors associated with HIV infection. HIV prevalence increased significantly from 5.0% in 2008 to 11.4% in 2013 while syphilis prevalence decreased from 17.4% to 3.3% in the same period. UAI rates were high and stable in every single year, ranging from 54.5% to 62.0%. Those who were having UAI (OR = 1.80, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.26-2.58), being migrants, having more than 10 partners, and infected with syphilis had higher risk for HIV infection. HIV epidemic is expanding in Guangzhou. The persistently high UAI may have played a major role in the increasing trend of HIV prevalence. Targeted prevention program should be conducted among MSM who are migrants, low educational level, syphilis infected, or having multiple partners to encourage HIV test and change UAI behavior. The general high UAI calls for tailored intervention program to promote healthy culture and form a safe sex social norm in the MSM community.

  4. Prevalence of pain in patients with HIV/AIDS: A cross-sectional survey in a South Indian state

    Shoba N Nair

    2009-01-01

    Secondary - To assess the type, site, severity, management of pain and impact of pain on quality of life in these patients. Design: Multicentre cross-sectional survey (This paper is a pilot study. Settings: ART centre at St. John′s Medical College Hospital, Bangalore and Snehadan, A supportive and care centre for HIV/ AIDS patients at Bangalore. Materials and Methods: Data sheet, Brief pain inventory and Short - Form McGill pain questionnaire. Subjects: This is an ongoing study and the pilot study includes 140 HIV/AIDS patients in different stages of the disease. Results: About 66.7% (28/42 in-patients and 24.5% (24/98 out-patients complained of pain. Of the 52 patients who reported pain, 32% (14/52 reported neuropathic pain and 68% (38/52 reported noci-ceptive pain. Headache was most common followed by pain in the soles of feet and low back. Only 26.9% (17/52 received any form of analgesic. Pain severity significantly affects the quality of life. Conclusions: Pain is a common and debilitating symptom of HIV/AIDS. It is however, under-estimated and under treated.

  5. HIV / AIDS prevalence testing - merits, methodology and outcomes ...

    HIV / AIDS prevalence testing - merits, methodology and outcomes of a survey conducted at a large mining organisation in South Africa. ... These baseline prevalence data also provide an opportunity for monitoring of proposed interventions using cross-sectional surveys at designated intervals in the future. South African ...

  6. Prevalence of depressive symptoms in pregnant and postnatal HIV-positive women in Ukraine: a cross-sectional survey.

    Bailey, Heather; Malyuta, Ruslan; Semenenko, Igor; Townsend, Claire L; Cortina-Borja, Mario; Thorne, Claire

    2016-03-22

    Perinatal depression among HIV-positive women has negative implications for HIV-related and other maternal and infant outcomes. The aim of this study was to investigate the burden and correlates of perinatal depression among HIV-positive women in Ukraine, a lower middle income country with one of the largest HIV-positive populations in Europe. Cross-sectional surveys nested within the Ukraine European Collaborative Study were conducted of HIV-positive women at delivery and between 1 and 12 months postpartum. Depressive symptoms in the previous month were assessed using a self-report screening tool. Other data collected included demographics, antiretroviral therapy (ART)-related self-efficacy, and perceptions of risks/benefits of interventions to prevent mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT). Characteristics of women with and without a positive depression screening test result were compared using Fisher's exact test and χ2 test for categorical variables. A quarter (27% (49/180) antenatally and 25% (57/228) postnatally) of participants screened positive for depressive symptoms. Antenatal risk factors were living alone (58% (7/12) vs. 25% (42/167) p = 0.02), being somewhat/terribly bothered by ART side effects (40% (17/43) vs. 23% (30/129) not /only slightly bothered, p = 0.05) and having lower ART-related self-efficacy (43% (12/28) vs. 23% (25/110) with higher self-efficacy, p = 0.05). Postnatally, single mothers were more likely to screen positive (44% (20/45) vs. 21% (18/84) of cohabiting and 19% (19/99) of married women, p symptoms, 82% (37/45) postnatally but only 31% (12/39) antenatally were already accessing peer counselling, treatment adherence programmes, support groups or social services. A quarter of women screened positive for depression. Results highlight the need for proactive strategies to identify depressive symptoms, and an unmet need for provision of mental health support in the perinatal period for HIV-positive women in Ukraine.

  7. The geography of HIV/AIDS prevalence rates in Botswana.

    Kandala, Ngianga-Bakwin; Campbell, Eugene K; Rakgoasi, Serai Dan; Madi-Segwagwe, Banyana C; Fako, Thabo T

    2012-01-01

    Botswana has the second-highest human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection rate in the world, with one in three adults infected. However, there is significant geographic variation at the district level and HIV prevalence is heterogeneous with the highest prevalence recorded in Selebi-Phikwe and North East. There is a lack of age-and location-adjusted prevalence maps that could be used for targeting HIV educational programs and efficient allocation of resources to higher risk groups. We used a nationally representative household survey to investigate and explain district level inequalities in HIV rates. A Bayesian geoadditive mixed model based on Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques was applied to map the geographic distribution of HIV prevalence in the 26 districts, accounting simultaneously for individual, household, and area factors using the 2008 Botswana HIV Impact Survey. Overall, HIV prevalence was 17.6%, which was higher among females (20.4%) than males (14.3%). HIV prevalence was higher in cities and towns (20.3%) than in urban villages and rural areas (16.6% and 16.9%, respectively). We also observed an inverse U-shape association between age and prevalence of HIV, which had a different pattern in males and females. HIV prevalence was lowest among those aged 24 years or less and HIV affected over a third of those aged 25-35 years, before reaching a peak among the 36-49-year age group, after which the rate of HIV infection decreased by more than half among those aged 50 years and over. In a multivariate analysis, there was a statistically significant higher likelihood of HIV among females compared with males, and in clerical workers compared with professionals. The district-specific net spatial effects of HIV indicated a significantly higher HIV rate of 66% (posterior odds ratio of 1.66) in the northeast districts (Selebi-Phikwe, Sowa, and Francistown) and a reduced rate of 27% (posterior odds ratio of 0.73) in Kgalagadi North and Kweneng West districts

  8. Prevalence of condomless anal intercourse and recent HIV testing and their associated factors among men who have sex with men in Hangzhou, China: A respondent-driven sampling survey.

    Runhua Li

    Full Text Available Men who have sex with men (MSM are a large high-risk population for HIV infection in recent years in China. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Hangzhou, China, to determine rates of condomless anal intercourse (CAI, recent HIV testing (in the recent year and associated factors using respondent-driven sampling. Questionnaires using face-to-face interviews were employed to collect data on sexual risk behaviors and HIV testing. Five hundred eleven MSM were recruited, of which 459 (89.8% had anal intercourse in the past 6 months. Of these 459 participants, 457 (99.6% answered whether they had taken an HIV test in the recent year, so only their data were analyzed. Weighted data were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. The CAI rate with male partners in the past 6 months was 43.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 34.0-51.5%, while the rate of condomless vaginal intercourse (CVI was 21.6% (95% CI, 15.6-32.3%. The prevalence of recent HIV testing was 56.8% (95% CI, 48.7-66.5%, while the prevalence of HIV and syphilis were 8.8% and 6.5%, respectively. Multivariate analysis indicated that CAI was associated with earlier homosexual debut, suicidal inclinations, childhood sexual abuse, HIV testing in the recent year, and lower estimate of HIV prevalence. Recent HIV testing was associated with homosexual debut age, engaging in CAI with male partners in the past 6 months, having oral sex in the past 6 months, self-perceived higher likelihood of HIV infection, knowing about antiretroviral therapy for HIV/AIDS, receiving AIDS/sexually transmitted infection (STI interventions in the past year, and syphilis infection. Given high prevalence of HIV and syphilis, high levels of CAI and CVI, and low HIV testing rate, the results indicated high risk of HIV infection and transmission among MSM. HIV prevention interventions should target MSM with early homosexual debut and psychosocial health problems, while HIV/AIDS education

  9. Prevalence of condomless anal intercourse and recent HIV testing and their associated factors among men who have sex with men in Hangzhou, China: A respondent-driven sampling survey.

    Li, Runhua; Wang, Hui; Pan, Xiaohong; Ma, Qiaoqin; Chen, Lin; Zhou, Xin; Jiang, Tingting; He, Lin; Chen, Junfang; Zhang, Xingliang; Luo, Yan; Xi, Shengjun; Lv, Xin; Xia, Shichang

    2017-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) are a large high-risk population for HIV infection in recent years in China. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Hangzhou, China, to determine rates of condomless anal intercourse (CAI), recent HIV testing (in the recent year) and associated factors using respondent-driven sampling. Questionnaires using face-to-face interviews were employed to collect data on sexual risk behaviors and HIV testing. Five hundred eleven MSM were recruited, of which 459 (89.8%) had anal intercourse in the past 6 months. Of these 459 participants, 457 (99.6%) answered whether they had taken an HIV test in the recent year, so only their data were analyzed. Weighted data were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. The CAI rate with male partners in the past 6 months was 43.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 34.0-51.5%), while the rate of condomless vaginal intercourse (CVI) was 21.6% (95% CI, 15.6-32.3%). The prevalence of recent HIV testing was 56.8% (95% CI, 48.7-66.5%), while the prevalence of HIV and syphilis were 8.8% and 6.5%, respectively. Multivariate analysis indicated that CAI was associated with earlier homosexual debut, suicidal inclinations, childhood sexual abuse, HIV testing in the recent year, and lower estimate of HIV prevalence. Recent HIV testing was associated with homosexual debut age, engaging in CAI with male partners in the past 6 months, having oral sex in the past 6 months, self-perceived higher likelihood of HIV infection, knowing about antiretroviral therapy for HIV/AIDS, receiving AIDS/sexually transmitted infection (STI) interventions in the past year, and syphilis infection. Given high prevalence of HIV and syphilis, high levels of CAI and CVI, and low HIV testing rate, the results indicated high risk of HIV infection and transmission among MSM. HIV prevention interventions should target MSM with early homosexual debut and psychosocial health problems, while HIV/AIDS education among MSM

  10. HIV Prevalence and Risks Associated with HIV Infection among Transgender Individuals in Cambodia

    Weissman, Amy; Ngak, Song; Srean, Chhim; Sansothy, Neth; Mills, Stephen; Ferradini, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Recognizing transgender individuals have a high risk of HIV acquisition, and to inform policies and programming, we conducted an HIV prevalence and risk behaviors survey among transgender individuals in Cambodia. Methods Cross-sectional survey using a respondent driven sampling method with self-administered audio-computer assisted interviews. HIV testing was performed prior to the questionnaire with results available immediately after. Eligible participants were ?18 years, identi...

  11. Changes in Prevalence of HIV or Syphilis among Male Sex Workers and Non-Commercial Men Who Have Sex with Men in Shenzhen, China: Results of a Second Survey.

    Huang, Yuanwei; Zhang, Yanting; Li, Ke; Zhao, Jin

    2016-01-01

    A previous time-location sampling survey (TLS) was performed in 2008 to evaluate the HIV or syphilis infection rate among male sex workers (MSWs) and non-commercial men who have sex with men (ncMSM) in Shenzhen, China. This is a second TLS performed in 2014. This article describes the findings and changes in the prevalence of HIV and syphilis. TLS was used to collect information as a second cross-sectional survey to an earlier TLS assessment. Data on behavior (e.g., sexual history and sexual behavior) were analyzed. Blood specimens were drawn for HIV and syphilis testing. To determine the changes in the prevalence of HIV and syphilis, we analyzed these results and compared them to the results of our first survey. A total of 965 participants were recruited, including 489 MSWs and 476 ncMSM. Overall, the prevalence of HIV was 9.7%: 2.9% for MSWs and 16.8% for ncMSM (PHIV prevalence in MSWs decreased from 4.5% in 2008 to 2.9% in 2014 (P = 0.143) but increased in ncMSM (7.0% in 2008 vs 16.8% in 2014, PHIV and syphilis in MSWs but not in ncMSM. The study indicated the need for continued efforts to improve public health, particularly to counter the rising rate of HIV in ncMSM.

  12. How well do antenatal clinic (ANC) attendees represent the general population? A comparison of HIV prevalence from ANC sentinel surveillance sites with a population-based survey of women aged 15-49 in Cambodia.

    Saphonn, Vonthanak; Hor, Leng Bun; Ly, Sun Penh; Chhuon, Samrith; Saidel, Tobi; Detels, Roger

    2002-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether HIV-1 prevalence among antenatal clinic (ANC) attendees in Cambodia provided a reasonable estimate of HIV-1 prevalence among all women 15-49 years. METHODS Antenatal clinic attendees in five HIV sentinel surveillance sites (five provinces) were selected by consecutive sampling (n = 1695). The population survey of females by household was carried out in the same five areas. Household females aged 15-49 years were selected using a three-stage cluster sampling design (n = 3066). Serum-based HIV ELISA testing was done for both ANC attendees and household females. The HIV prevalence for ANC attendees and household females were compared by age group and urban versus rural location. The overall prevalence of HIV-1 infection among ANC attendees (1.62%, 95% CI : 1.26-1.98) was similar to the overall prevalence obtained from the general population of household females (1.24%, 95% CI : 0.92-1.55) in the same catchment areas in Cambodia. In the rural areas, the overall HIV prevalence among ANC attendees (2.18%, 95% CI : 1.59-2.77) was significantly higher than among the household females (0.86%, 95% CI : 0.49-1.23) after adjustment for age distribution and education level. In the 15-24 age group in rural areas, the HIV prevalence of ANC women was 2.71% (95% CI : 0.96-4.46) compared with 0.77% (95% CI : 0.02-1.53) in household females. Although ANC data can be used to estimate trends over time, it should be realized that ANC data may overestimate the actual prevalence in the younger age group in rural areas in Cambodia.

  13. Determinants of prevalent HIV infection and late HIV diagnosis among young women with two or more sexual partners in Beira, Mozambique

    Zango, Arlinda; Dubé, Karine; Kelbert, Sílvia; Meque, Ivete; Cumbe, Fidelina; Chen, Pai Lien; Ferro, Josefo J.; Feldblum, Paul J.; van de Wijgert, Janneke

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence and determinants of HIV and late diagnosis of HIV in young women in Beira, Mozambique, were estimated in preparation for HIV prevention trials. An HIV prevalence survey was conducted between December 2009 and October 2012 among 1,018 women aged 18-35 with two or more sexual partners

  14. A survey of risk behaviour for contracting HIV among adult ...

    and sex workers, for example) and substance abuse.2,5,8,9,10. A survey ... Objective: Various studies have reported increased prevalence of HIV infection among psychiatric patients. ... The study took the form of a cross-sectional quantitative.

  15. Determinants and prevalence of late HIV testing in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Carrizosa, Claudia M; Blumberg, Elaine J; Hovell, Melbourne F; Martinez-Donate, Ana P; Garcia-Gonzalez, Gregorio; Lozada, Remedios; Kelley, Norma J; Hofstetter, C Richard; Sipan, Carol L

    2010-05-01

    Timely diagnosis of HIV is essential to improve survival rates and reduce transmission of the virus. Insufficient progress has been made in effecting earlier HIV diagnoses. The Mexican border city of Tijuana has one of the highest AIDS incidence and mortality rates in all of Mexico. This study examined the prevalence and potential correlates of late HIV testing in Tijuana, Mexico. Late testers were defined as participants who had at least one of: (1) an AIDS-defining illness within 1 year of first positive HIV test; (2) a date of AIDS diagnosis within 1 year of first positive HIV test; or (3) an initial CD4 cell count below 200 cells per microliter within 1 year of first positive HIV test. Medical charts of 670 HIV-positive patients from two HIV/AIDS public clinics in Tijuana were reviewed and abstracted; 362 of these patients were interviewed using a cross-sectional survey. Using multivariate logistic regression, we explored potential correlates of late HIV testing based on the Behavioral Ecological Model. From 342 participants for whom late testing could be determined, the prevalence of late testing was 43.2%. Multivariate logistic regression results (n = 275) revealed five significant correlates of late testing: "I preferred not to know I had HIV" (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.78, 1.46-5.31); clinic (AOR = 1.90, 1.06-3.41); exposure to peers engaging in high-risk sexual behavior (AOR = 1.14, 1.02-1.27); stigma regarding HIV-infected individuals (AOR = 0.65, 0.47-0.92); and stigma regarding HIV testing (AOR = 0.66, 0.45-0.97). These findings may inform the design of interventions to increase timely HIV testing and help reduce HIV transmission in the community at large.

  16. Risk behaviors, prevalence of HIV and hepatitis C virus infection and population size of current injection drug users in a China-Myanmar border city: results from a Respondent-Driven Sampling Survey in 2012.

    Li, Lei; Assanangkornchai, Sawitri; Duo, Lin; McNeil, Edward; Li, Jianhua

    2014-01-01

    Injection drug use has been the major cause of HIV/AIDS in China in the past two decades. We measured the prevalences of HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) prevalence and their associated risk factors among current injection drug users (IDUs) in Ruili city, a border region connecting China with Myanmar that has been undergoing serious drug use and HIV spread problems. An estimate of the number of current IDUs is also presented. In 2012, Chinese IDUs who had injected within the past six months and aged ≥ 18 years were recruited using a respondent-driven sampling (RDS) technique. Participants underwent interviews and serological testing for HIV, HBV, HCV and syphilis. Logistic regression indentified factors associated with HIV and HCV infections. Multiplier method was used to obtain an estimate of the size of the current IDU population via combining available service data and findings from our survey. Among 370 IDUs recruited, the prevalence of HIV and HCV was 18.3% and 41.5%, respectively. 27.1% of participants had shared a needle/syringe in their lifetime. Consistent condom use rates were low among both regular (6.8%) and non-regular (30.4%) partners. Factors independently associated with being HIV positive included HCV infection, having a longer history of injection drug use and experience of needle/syringe sharing. Participants with HCV infection were more likely to be HIV positive, have injected more types of drugs, have shared other injection equipments and have unprotected sex with regular sex partners. The estimated number of current IDUs in Ruili city was 2,714 (95% CI: 1,617-5,846). IDUs may continue to be a critical subpopulation for transmission of HIV and other infections in this region because of the increasing population and persistent high risk of injection and sexual behaviours. Developing innovative strategies that can improve accessibility of current harm reduction services and incorporate more comprehensive contents is urgently needed.

  17. Ecological association between HIV and concurrency point-prevalence in South Africa's ethnic groups.

    Kenyon, Chris

    2013-11-01

    HIV prevalence between different ethnic groups within South Africa exhibits considerable variation. Numerous authors believe that elevated sexual partner concurrency rates are important in the spread of HIV. Few studies have, however, investigated if differential concurrency rates could explain differential HIV spread within ethnic groups in South Africa. This ecological analysis, explores how much of the variation in HIV prevalence by ethnic group is explained by differential concurrency rates. Using a nationally representative survey (the South African National HIV Prevalence, HIV Incidence, Behaviour and Communication Survey, 2005) the HIV prevalence in each of eight major ethnic groups was calculated. Linear regression analysis was used to assess the association between an ethnic group's HIV prevalence and the point-prevalence of concurrency. Results showed that HIV prevalence rates varied considerably between South Africa's ethnic groups. This applied to both different racial groups and to different ethnic groups within the black group. The point-prevalence of concurrency by ethnic group was strongly associated with HIV prevalence (R(2) = 0.83; p = 0.001). Tackling the key drivers of high HIV transmission in this population may benefit from more emphasis on partner reduction interventions.

  18. HIV+ deceased donor referrals: A national survey of organ procurement organizations.

    Cash, Ayla; Luo, Xun; Chow, Eric K H; Bowring, Mary Grace; Shaffer, Ashton A; Doby, Brianna; Wickliffe, Corey E; Alexander, Charles; McRann, Deborah; Tobian, Aaron A R; Segev, Dorry L; Durand, Christine M

    2018-02-01

    HIV-infected (HIV+) donor organs can be transplanted into HIV+ recipients under the HIV Organ Policy Equity (HOPE) Act. Quantifying HIV+ donor referrals received by organ procurement organizations (OPOs) is critical for HOPE Act implementation. We surveyed the 58 USA OPOs regarding HIV+ referral records and newly discovered HIV+ donors. Using data from OPOs that provided exact records and CDC HIV prevalence data, we projected a national estimate of HIV+ referrals. Fifty-five (95%) OPOs reported HIV+ referrals ranging from 0 to 276 and newly discovered HIV+ cases ranging from 0 to 10 annually. Six OPOs in areas of high HIV prevalence reported more than 100 HIV+ donor referrals. Twenty-seven (47%) OPOs provided exact HIV+ referral records and 28 (51%) OPOs provided exact records of discovered HIV+ cases, totaling 1450 HIV+ referrals and 39 discovered HIV+ donors in the prior year. These OPOs represented 67% and 59% of prevalent HIV cases in the USA; thus, we estimated 2164 HIV+ referrals and 66 discovered HIV+ cases nationally per year. OPOs reported a high volume of HIV+ referrals annually, of which a subset will be medically eligible for donation. Particularly in areas of high HIV prevalence, OPOs require ongoing support to implement the HOPE Act. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. HIV prevalence and trends among pregnant women in Abuja, Nigeria

    HIV prevalence and trends among pregnant women in Abuja, Nigeria: a 5-year ... trends in HIV prevalence to ascertain the current course of the HIV epidemic in ... Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of HIV and its ...

  20. [Consecutive cross-sectional survey of prevalence of HIV infection/STD and related factors in Vietnamese female sex workers at a China-Vietnam border area, 2014-2015].

    Zhu, J; Yuan, R; Hu, D; Zhu, Z B; Yang, X; Wang, N; Wang, B

    2017-05-10

    Objective: To investigate the prevalence of HIV infection/STD and related factors in Vietnamese female sex workers (FSWs). Methods: Consecutive cross-sectional surveys were conducted in June 2014, December 2014, May 2015 and November 2015 in Hekou, a county bordering Vietnam in Yunnan province. Convenience sampling were adopted to select 1 058 Vietnamese FSWs aged>16 years. Questionnaire interview were used to collect the information about their demographics, sexual behaviors and drug use. Serum and urine samples were collected for HIV infection/STD detection and drug use test. Trend χ (2) test was applied for HIV infection/STD and drug use trend analysis. Multivariate logistic regression model was used to identify the related factors. Results: The consecutive cross sectional surveys indicated that the prevalence of HIV infection in Vietnamese FSWs were 3.20 % (7/219), 2.04 % (5/245), 1.89 % (5/265) and 1.82 % (6/329) respectively; the HSV-2 positive rates were 57.08 % (125/219), 58.37 % (143/245), 38.11 % (101/265) and 51.06 % (168/329) respectively. In addition, the prevalence of syphilis were 0.91 % , 1.51 % , 0.75 % and 1.22 % respectively. HSV-2 infection prevalence showed a downward trend ( χ (2)=4.823, P =0.028). By logistic regression analysis, the related factors for HIV infection in Vietnamese FSWs were being amphetamine type stimulants (ATS) positive ( OR =10.18, 95 %CI : 4.33-23.92) and being HSV-2 positive ( OR =2.89, 95 %CI : 1.09-7.88); Age ( OR =1.88, 95 %CI : 1.32-2.61), no-paid sexual partner ( OR =1.59, 95 %CI : 1.26-2.01) and being ATS positive ( OR =2.48, 95 %CI : 1.10-5.57) were related factors for HSV-2 infection. Conclusions: Compared with the results of previous studies, the HIV infection prevalence declined in Vietnamese FSWs, but the HSV-2 infection prevalence was still high. The association between ATS use and HIV infection/STD suggested the necessity of strengthening AIDS intervention in Vietnamese FSWs, including the control of new

  1. Pregnancy wastage among HIV infected women in a high HIV prevalence district of India.

    Halli, Shiva S; Khan, C G Hussain; Shah, Iqbal; Washington, Reynold; Isac, Shajy; Moses, Stephen; Blanchard, James F

    2015-07-02

    Bagalkot district in Karnataka state is one of the highest HIV prevalence districts in India. A large proportion of the girls also marry at early age in the district and negative pregnancy outcomes among the HIV positive women likely to have large pregnancy wastages. Therefore, this study examined the pregnancy wastages and the associated factors among HIV positive women in a high prevalent district in India. We used data from a cross-sectional survey conducted recently among randomly selected currently married HIV positive women, 15-29 years of age, in one of the high HIV prevalence districts in India. The study used the experience of reported pregnancy wastage as an outcome variable, and both bi-variate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were carried out to understand the factors associated with the pregnancy wastage among HIV infected women. Overall, 17% of the respondents reported pregnancy wastage, of which 81% were due to spontaneous abortions. Respondents who became pregnant since testing HIV positive reported significantly higher level of pregnancy wastage as compared to those were pregnant before they were tested for HIV. (AOR = 1.9; p = 0.00). While a positive association between duration of marriage and pregnancy wastage was noticed (AOR = 7.4; p = 0.01), there was a negative association between number of living children and pregnancy wastage (AOR = 0.24; p = 0.00). Living in a joint family was associated with increased reporting of pregnancy wastage as compared to those living in nuclear families (AOR = 1.7; p = 0.03). HIV prevention and care programs need to consider the reproductive health needs of HIV infected married women as a priority area since large proportion of these women reported negative pregnancy outcomes. There is also a need to explore ways to raise the age at marriage in order to stop women getting married before the legal age at marriage.

  2. High HIV prevalence and associated risk factors among female sex workers in Rwanda.

    Mutagoma, Mwumvaneza; Samuel, Malamba S; Kayitesi, Catherine; Gasasira, Antoine R; Chitou, Bassirou; Boer, Kimberly; Hedt-Gauthier, Bethany; Gupta, Neil; Ntaganira, Joseph; Nsanzimana, Sabin

    2017-10-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence is often high among female sex workers (FSWs) in sub-Saharan Africa. Understanding the dynamics of HIV infection in this key population is critical to developing appropriate prevention strategies. We aimed to describe the prevalence and associated risk factors among a sample of FSWs in Rwanda from a survey conducted in 2010. A cross-sectional biological and behavioral survey was conducted among FSWs in Rwanda. Time-location sampling was used for participant recruitment from 4 to 18 February 2010. HIV testing was done using HIV rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) as per Rwandan national guidelines at the time of the survey. Elisa tests were simultaneously done on all samples tested HIV-positive on RDT. Proportions were used for sample description; multivariable logistic regression model was performed to analyze factors associated with HIV infection. Of 1338 women included in the study, 1112 consented to HIV testing, and the overall HIV prevalence was 51.0%. Sixty percent had been engaged in sex work for less than five years and 80% were street based. In multivariable logistic regression, HIV prevalence was higher in FSWs 25 years or older (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.83, 95% [confidence interval (CI): 1.42-2.37]), FSWs with consistent condom use in the last 30 days (aOR = 1.39, [95% CI: 1.05-1.82]), and FSWs experiencing at least one STI symptom in the last 12 months (aOR = 1.74 [95% CI: 1.34-2.26]). There was an inverse relationship between HIV prevalence and comprehensive HIV knowledge (aOR = 0.65, [95% CI: 0.48-0.88]). HIV prevalence was high among a sample of FSWs in Rwanda, and successful prevention strategies should focus on HIV education, treatment of sexually transmitted infections, and proper and consistent condom use using an outreach approach.

  3. Prevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi/HIV coinfection in southern Brazil

    Dulce Stauffert

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease reactivation has been a defining condition for acquired immune deficiency syndrome in Brazil for individuals coinfected with Trypanosoma cruzi and HIV since 2004. Although the first coinfection case was reported in the 1980s, its prevalence has not been firmly established. In order to know coinfection prevalence, a cross-sectional study of 200 HIV patients was performed between January and July 2013 in the city of Pelotas, in southern Rio Grande do Sul, an endemic area for Chagas disease. Ten subjects were found positive for T. cruzi infection by chemiluminescence microparticle immunoassay and indirect immunofluorescence. The survey showed 5% coinfection prevalence among HIV patients (95% CI: 2.0–8.0, which was 3.8 times as high as that estimated by the Ministry of Health of Brazil. Six individuals had a viral load higher than 100,000 copies per μL, a statistically significant difference for T. cruzi presence. These findings highlight the importance of screening HIV patients from Chagas disease endemic areas.

  4. Schistosoma mansoni and HIV infection in a Ugandan population with high HIV and helminth prevalence.

    Sanya, Richard E; Muhangi, Lawrence; Nampijja, Margaret; Nannozi, Victoria; Nakawungu, Prossy Kabuubi; Abayo, Elson; Webb, Emily L; Elliott, Alison M

    2015-09-01

    Recent reports suggest that Schistosoma infection may increase the risk of acquiring human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We used data from a large cross-sectional study to investigate whether Schistosoma mansoni infection is associated with increased HIV prevalence. We conducted a household survey of residents in island fishing communities in Mukono district, Uganda, between October 2012 and July 2013. HIV status was assessed using rapid test kits. Kato-Katz (KK) stool tests and urine-circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) were used to test for Schistosoma infection. Multivariable logistic regression, allowing for the survey design, was used to investigate the association between S. mansoni infection and HIV infection. Data from 1412 participants aged 13 years and older were analysed (mean age 30.3 years, 45% female). The prevalence of HIV was 17.3%. Using the stool Kato-Katz technique on a single sample, S. mansoni infection was detected in 57.2% (719/1257) of participants; urine CCA was positive in 73.8% (478/650) of those tested. S. mansoni infection was not associated with HIV infection. [KK (aOR = 1.04; 95% CI: 0.74-1.47, P = 0.81), CCA (aOR = 1.53; 95% CI: 0.78-3.00, P = 0.19)]. The median S. mansoni egg count per gram was lower in the HIV-positive participants (P = 0.005). These results add to the evidence that S. mansoni has little effect on HIV transmission, but may influence egg excretion. © 2015 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Prevalence of psychological distress and its association with socio-demographic and HIV-risk factors in South Africa: Findings of the 2012 HIV prevalence, incidence and behaviour survey

    J.C. Mthembu

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: There is a need to develop strategies to alleviate psychological distress in the general population, with a particular focus on those who may be more vulnerable to distress such as females, the aged, excessive alcohol users, the unemployed, people living with HIV and those residing in urban areas as identified in the current findings.

  6. Clinical Profile and HIV/AIDS Prevalence of Patients with ...

    Background: Clinical features of HIV/AIDS and various malignancies are similar. Clinical profiles and HIV/AIDS prevalence in Nigerian cancer patients have been poorly documented. Aim: To identify the patterns of clinical presentations in patients with malignancies and to determine the prevalence of HIV infection in cancer ...

  7. Recent HIV prevalence trends among pregnant women and all women in sub-Saharan Africa: implications for HIV estimates.

    Eaton, Jeffrey W; Rehle, Thomas M; Jooste, Sean; Nkambule, Rejoice; Kim, Andrea A; Mahy, Mary; Hallett, Timothy B

    2014-11-01

    National population-wide HIV prevalence and incidence trends in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are indirectly estimated using HIV prevalence measured among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics (ANC), among other data. We evaluated whether recent HIV prevalence trends among pregnant women are representative of general population trends. Serial population-based household surveys in 13 SSA countries. We calculated HIV prevalence trends among all women aged 15-49 years and currently pregnant women between surveys conducted from 2003 to 2008 (period 1) and 2009 to 2012 (period 2). Log-binomial regression was used to test for a difference in prevalence trend between the two groups. Prevalence among pregnant women was age-standardized to represent the age distribution of all women. Pooling data for all countries, HIV prevalence declined among pregnant women from 6.5 [95% confidence interval (CI) 5.3-7.9%] to 5.3% (95% CI 4.2-6.6%) between periods 1 and 2, whereas it remained unchanged among all women at 8.4% (95% CI 8.0-8.9%) in period 1 and 8.3% (95% CI 7.9-8.8%) in period 2. Prevalence declined by 18% (95% CI -9-38%) more in pregnant women than nonpregnant women. Estimates were similar in Western, Eastern, and Southern regions of SSA; none were statistically significant (P>0.05). HIV prevalence decreased significantly among women aged 15-24 years while increasing significantly among women 35-49 years, who represented 29% of women but only 15% of pregnant women. Age-standardization of prevalence in pregnant women did not reconcile the discrepant trends because at older ages prevalence was lower among pregnant women than nonpregnant women. As HIV prevalence in SSA has shifted toward older, less-fertile women, HIV prevalence among pregnant women has declined more rapidly than prevalence in women overall. Interpretation of ANC prevalence data to inform national HIV estimates should account for both age-specific fertility patterns and HIV-related sub-fertility.

  8. No evidence of association between HIV-1 and malaria in populations with low HIV-1 prevalence.

    Diego F Cuadros

    Full Text Available The geographic overlap between HIV-1 and malaria has generated much interest in their potential interactions. A variety of studies have evidenced a complex HIV-malaria interaction within individuals and populations that may have dramatic effects, but the causes and implications of this co-infection at the population level are still unclear. In a previous publication, we showed that the prevalence of malaria caused by the parasite Plasmodium falciparum is associated with HIV infection in eastern sub-Saharan Africa. To complement our knowledge of the HIV-malaria co-infection, the objective of this work was to assess the relationship between malaria and HIV prevalence in the western region of sub-Saharan Africa.Population-based cross-sectional data were obtained from the HIV/AIDS Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in Burkina Faso, Ghana, Guinea, Mali, Liberia and Cameroon, and the malaria atlas project. Using generalized linear mixed models, we assessed the relationship between HIV-1 and Plasmodium falciparum parasite rate (PfPR adjusting for important socio-economic and biological cofactors. We found no evidence that individuals living in areas with stable malaria transmission (PfPR>0.46 have higher odds of being HIV-positive than individuals who live in areas with PfPR≤0.46 in western sub-Saharan Africa (estimated odds ratio 1.14, 95% confidence interval 0.86-1.50. In contrast, the results suggested that PfPR was associated with being infected with HIV in Cameroon (estimated odds ratio 1.56, 95% confidence interval 1.23-2.00.Contrary to our previous research on eastern sub-Saharan Africa, this study did not identify an association between PfPR and infection with HIV in western sub-Saharan Africa, which suggests that malaria might not play an important role in the spread of HIV in populations where the HIV prevalence is low. Our work highlights the importance of understanding the epidemiologic effect of co-infection and the relevant

  9. HIV Prevalence and Risk Behaviors in Male to Female (MTF) Transgender Persons in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Salas-Espinoza, Kristian Jesús; Menchaca-Diaz, Rufino; Patterson, Thomas L; Urada, Lianne A; Smith, Davey; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Pitpitan, Eileen V

    2017-12-01

    Compared to HIV research on men who have sex with men, less is known about the risks and vulnerabilities for HIV among Male to Female (MTF) transgender persons, particularly in different geographic regions like Mexico. In Tijuana, Mexico, a border city experiencing a dynamic HIV epidemic, no precedent data exists on the MTF transgender population. Our aims were to estimate HIV prevalence and examine the behaviors and characteristics of the population. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 100 MTF transgender persons recruited through time location sampling in 2012. Participants underwent interviewer-administered (paper and pen) surveys and rapid tests for HIV. Descriptive univariate analyses were conducted on various factors, including sociodemographics, substance use, accessing social services (requested vs. received), stigma, and sex behaviors. A total of 22% tested positive for HIV, a prevalence higher than other key populations at risk for HIV in Tijuana.

  10. Voluntary Counseling and Testing and Prevalence of HIV Infection ...

    Voluntary Counseling and Testing and Prevalence of HIV Infection Amongst Patients Booked for Surgical Operations. ... The effectiveness (yield) of lay counseling in HIV testing by resident doctors who have not ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  11. Prevalence and associated factors of unprotected anal intercourse with regular male sex partners among HIV negative men who have sex with men in China: a cross-sectional survey.

    Dongliang Li

    Full Text Available The HIV prevalence and incidence among men who have sex with men (MSM in China are high. Unprotected anal intercourse (UAI with a regular male sex partner (RP, a significant predictor of HIV sero-conversion, was high yet under-emphasized among MSM having RP (MSMRP. The present cross-sectional survey interviewed 307 HIV negative MSMRP recruited through convenient sampling from multiple sources, including venue-based outreaching, online recruitment, and referrals made by peers, in Beijing and Chengdu, China. Among MSMRP, the prevalence of UAI with RP in the last three months was 52.4%. The results of the multivariate analysis showed that trust and intimacy within the relationship with RP and presence of clinical depression symptoms were positively associated with UAI with RP in the last three months. Other associated scalar factors derived from the Theory of Planned Behavior were related to perceptions on condom use, including positive attitudes toward condom use (a negative association, subjective norm of the perception that MSM do not usually use condoms during anal intercourse with RP (a positive association, perceived behavioral control over condom use with RP (a negative association, and behavioral intention to use condoms with RP in the coming three months (a negative association. It is seen that MSMRP were at high risk of HIV/STD transmission. The associated factors hence involved those related to perceptions about condom use, mental health, and interpersonal relationship. Future interventions should take these multi-dimensional factors into account. In particular, future research to test the efficacy of couple-based interventions that include mental health elements needs to be conducted, as trust and intimacy within the relationship were associated with UAI among MSMRP, and mental health problems may exist for both the MSMRP and their RP.

  12. Symptom screening rules to identify active pulmonary tuberculosis: Findings from the Zambian South African Tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS Reduction (ZAMSTAR trial prevalence surveys.

    M M Claassens

    Full Text Available High tuberculosis (TB burden countries should consider systematic screening among adults in the general population. We identified symptom screening rules to be used in addition to cough ≥2 weeks, in a context where X-ray screening is not feasible, aiming to increase the sensitivity of screening while achieving a specificity of ≥85%.We used 2010 Zambia South Africa Tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS Reduction (ZAMSTAR survey data: a South African (SA training dataset, a SA testing dataset for internal validation and a Zambian dataset for external validation. Regression analyses investigated relationships between symptoms or combinations of symptoms and active disease. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated for candidate rules.Among all participants, the sensitivity of using only cough ≥2 weeks as a screening rule was less than 25% in both SA and Zambia. The addition of any three of six TB symptoms (cough <2 weeks, night sweats, weight loss, fever, chest pain, shortness of breath, or 2 or more of cough <2 weeks, night sweats, and weight loss, increased the sensitivity to ~38%, while reducing specificity from ~95% to ~85% in SA and ~97% to ~92% in Zambia. Among HIV-negative adults, findings were similar in SA, whereas in Zambia the increase in sensitivity was relatively small (15% to 22%.High TB burden countries should investigate cost-effective strategies for systematic screening: one such strategy could be to use our rule in addition to cough ≥2 weeks.

  13. HIV in Indian prisons: Risk behaviour, prevalence, prevention & treatment

    Dolan, Kate; Larney, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    Background & Objectives: HIV is a major health challenge for prison authorities. HIV in prisons has implications for HIV in the general community. The aim of this paper was to gather information on HIV risk, prevalence, prevention and treatment in prisons in India. Methods: Relevant published and unpublished reports and information were sought in order to provide a coherent picture of the current situation relating to HIV prevention, treatment and care in prisons in India. Information covered...

  14. A Population-based survey of the prevalence of HIV, syphilis, hepatitis B and hepatitis C infections and associated risk factors among young women in Vitória, Brazil

    Miranda, Angelica Espinosa; Figueiredo, Nínive Camilo; Schmidt, Renylena; Page-Shafer, Kimberly

    2017-01-01

    Objective To estimate the prevalence of HIV, hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) and syphilis infections and associated risk exposures in a population-based sample of young women in Vitória, Brazil. Methods From March to December 2006, a cross-sectional sample of women aged 18 to 29 years was recruited into a single stage, population-based study. Serological markers of HIV, HBV, HCV, and syphilis infections and associated risk exposures were assessed. Results Of 1,200 eligible women, 1,029 (85.8%) enrolled. Median age was 23 (interquartile range [IQR] 20, 26) years; 32.2% had ≤ 8 years of education. The survey weighted prevalence estimates were: HIV, 0.6% (95% CI), 0.1%, 1.1%); anti-HBc, 4.2% (3.0%, 5.4%); HBsAg, 0.9% (0.4%, 1.6%); anti-HCV, 0.6% (0.1%, 1.1%) and syphilis 1.2% (0.5%, 1.9%). Overall, 6.1% had at least one positive serological marker for any of the tested infection. A majority (87.9%) was sexually active, of whom 12.1% reported a previously diagnosed sexually transmitted infection (STI) and 1.4% a history of commercial sex work. Variables independently associated with any positive serological test included: older age (≥25 vs. 4× minimum wage), previously diagnosed STI, ≥ 1 sexual partner, and any illicit drug use. Conclusions These are the first population-based estimates of the prevalence of exposure to these infectious diseases and related risks in young women, a population for whom there is a scarcity of data in Brazil. PMID:18401700

  15. HIV Prevalence, Sexual Partners, Sexual Behavior and HIV Acquisition Risk Among Trans Men, San Francisco, 2014.

    McFarland, Willi; Wilson, Erin C; Raymond, Henry F

    2017-12-01

    We surveyed 122 trans men using a hybrid sampling method that included randomly selected physical and online venues and peer referral to measure HIV prevalence and risk behaviors. HIV prevalence was 0% (one-sided 97.5% confidence interval 0-3.3%). Of 366 partnerships described, 44.8% were with cisgender women, 23.8% with cisgender men, 20.8% with trans men, and 10.7% with trans women. Condomless receptive anal and front hole/vaginal sex averaged one to three episodes per six months. HIV prevalence in trans men is likely closer to heterosexual cisgender men and women in San Francisco than trans women or MSM. Prevention prioritizing trans women and MSM, coupled with individualized and relevant sexual health education for trans men with partners from these populations, may best address the HIV prevention needs of trans men. Systematic collection of transgender status in Census and health data is needed to understand other health disparities among trans men.

  16. National South African HIV prevalence estimates robust despite substantial test non-participation

    Guy Harling

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. South African (SA national HIV seroprevalence estimates are of crucial policy relevance in the country, and for the worldwide HIV response. However, the most recent nationally representative HIV test survey in 2012 had 22% test non-participation, leaving the potential for substantial bias in current seroprevalence estimates, even after controlling for selection on observed factors. Objective. To re-estimate national HIV prevalence in SA, controlling for bias due to selection on both observed and unobserved factors in the 2012 SA National HIV Prevalence, Incidence and Behaviour Survey. Methods. We jointly estimated regression models for consent to test and HIV status in a Heckman-type bivariate probit framework. As selection variable, we used assigned interviewer identity, a variable known to predict consent but highly unlikely to be associated with interviewees’ HIV status. From these models, we estimated the HIV status of interviewed participants who did not test. Results. Of 26 710 interviewed participants who were invited to test for HIV, 21.3% of females and 24.3% of males declined. Interviewer identity was strongly correlated with consent to test for HIV; declining a test was weakly associated with HIV serostatus. Our HIV prevalence estimates were not significantly different from those using standard methods to control for bias due to selection on observed factors: 15.1% (95% confidence interval (CI 12.1 - 18.6 v. 14.5% (95% CI 12.8 - 16.3 for 15 - 49-year-old males; 23.3% (95% CI 21.7 - 25.8 v. 23.2% (95% CI 21.3 - 25.1 for 15 - 49-year-old females. Conclusion. The most recent SA HIV prevalence estimates are robust under the strongest available test for selection bias due to missing data. Our findings support the reliability of inferences drawn from such data.

  17. Prevalence and characteristics of HIV/HBV and HIV/HCV coinfections in Tuscany

    Monia Puglia

    2016-07-01

    Conclusions: We have observed less advanced disease in HIV and HCV-HIV patients compared with HBV–HIV coinfected patients. Moreover, our results show a higher prevalence of HIV/HCV among drug addicts and in the age-group 35–59, corresponding to those born in years considered most at risk for addiction. This study also confirms the finding of a less advanced HIV disease in HIV/HCV coinfected patients.

  18. Trends in socioeconomic inequalities in HIV prevalence among young people in seven countries in eastern and southern Africa.

    Hargreaves, James R; Davey, Calum; Fearon, Elizabeth; Hensen, Bernadette; Krishnaratne, Shari

    2015-01-01

    In Eastern and Southern Africa, HIV prevalence was highest among higher socioeconomic groups during the 1990s. It has been suggested that this is changing, with HIV prevalence falling among higher-educated groups while stable among lower-educated groups. A multi-country analysis has not been undertaken. We analysed data on socio-demographic factors and HIV infection from 14 nationally representative surveys of adults aged 15-24 (seven countries, two surveys each, 4-8 years apart). Sample sizes ranged from 2,408-12,082 (72,135 total). We used logistic regression to assess gender-stratified associations between highest educational level attended and HIV status in each survey, adjusting for age and urban/rural setting. We tested for interactions with urban/rural setting and age. Our primary hypothesis was that higher education became less of a risk factor for HIV over time. We tested for interaction between survey-year and the education-HIV association in each country and all countries pooled. In Ethiopia and Malawi, HIV prevalence was higher in more educated women in both surveys. In Lesotho, Kenya and Zimbabwe, HIV prevalence was lower in higher educated women in both surveys. In Ethiopia, HIV prevalence fell among no and secondary educated women only (interaction pHIV changed over time (p=0·07). Pooled analysis found little evidence for an interaction between survey year and the education-HIV association among men (p=0·60) or women (p=0·37). The pattern of prevalent HIV infection among young adults by level of education in different sub-Saharan African countries was heterogeneous. There was little statistical evidence that this pattern changed between 2003-5 and 2008-12. Explanations for the social epidemiology of HIV in Africa will need to account for time-trends and inter-country differences.

  19. National HIV prevalence estimates for sub-Saharan Africa: controlling selection bias with Heckman-type selection models

    Hogan, Daniel R; Salomon, Joshua A; Canning, David; Hammitt, James K; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Bärnighausen, Till

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Population-based HIV testing surveys have become central to deriving estimates of national HIV prevalence in sub-Saharan Africa. However, limited participation in these surveys can lead to selection bias. We control for selection bias in national HIV prevalence estimates using a novel approach, which unlike conventional imputation can account for selection on unobserved factors. Methods For 12 Demographic and Health Surveys conducted from 2001 to 2009 (N=138 300), we predict HIV status among those missing a valid HIV test with Heckman-type selection models, which allow for correlation between infection status and participation in survey HIV testing. We compare these estimates with conventional ones and introduce a simulation procedure that incorporates regression model parameter uncertainty into confidence intervals. Results Selection model point estimates of national HIV prevalence were greater than unadjusted estimates for 10 of 12 surveys for men and 11 of 12 surveys for women, and were also greater than the majority of estimates obtained from conventional imputation, with significantly higher HIV prevalence estimates for men in Cote d'Ivoire 2005, Mali 2006 and Zambia 2007. Accounting for selective non-participation yielded 95% confidence intervals around HIV prevalence estimates that are wider than those obtained with conventional imputation by an average factor of 4.5. Conclusions Our analysis indicates that national HIV prevalence estimates for many countries in sub-Saharan African are more uncertain than previously thought, and may be underestimated in several cases, underscoring the need for increasing participation in HIV surveys. Heckman-type selection models should be included in the set of tools used for routine estimation of HIV prevalence. PMID:23172342

  20. HIV prevalence and risk behaviours among foreign migrant women residing in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Townsend, Loraine; Giorgio, Maggie; Zembe, Yanga; Cheyip, Mireille; Mathews, Catherine

    2014-10-01

    HIV prevalence and risk behaviour among foreign migrants in South Africa has not been explored. This paper describes the effectiveness of respondent-driven sampling (RDS) to recruit foreign migrant women residing in Cape Town, reports HIV prevalence, and describes key characteristics among them. We conducted a biological and behavioural surveillance survey using RDS. After written informed consent, participants completed an audio computer assisted self-interview and provided a dried blood sample for HIV analysis. HIV prevalence was estimated to be 7 % (CI 4.9-9.5) among 935 women. HIV sero-positivity was associated with older age (p = 0.001), country of origin (p used a condom at last sex with a main partner (p = 0.007). Few women reported early sexual debut, or multiple sexual partners. RDS was successful in recruiting foreign migrant women.

  1. Prevalence of cervical cytology abnormalities among HIV infected ...

    Objectives: To establish the prevalence of cervical cytology abnormalities, determine the correlation between CD4+ cell count and abnormal Pap smear, determine the correlation between WHO-HIV staging and abnormal pap smear among HIV infected women attending HIV clinic at Rwanda Military Hospital. Design: ...

  2. Prevalence of HIV positive blood donors among screened ...

    hope&shola

    2006-04-03

    Apr 3, 2006 ... Department of Physiology, Obafemi Awolowo College of Health Sciences, Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching. Hospital ... screening volunteer donors by initial criteria alone does not fully eliminate all HIV positive donors. The prevalence of HIV ... HIV test criteria alone to qualify for blood donation in the.

  3. Prevalence of HIV infection among premarital couples in southeast ...

    The Catholic Church in Nigeria offers premarital HIV screening to couples, yet instances of voluntary screening are rare in southeast Nigeria. This study examines the contribution of such tests to HIV detection, and evaluates the prevalence of HIV infection in southeast Nigeria among couples who are planning to marry.

  4. HIV in Indian prisons: risk behaviour, prevalence, prevention & treatment.

    Dolan, Kate; Larney, Sarah

    2010-12-01

    HIV is a major health challenge for prison authorities. HIV in prisons has implications for HIV in the general community. The aim of this paper was to gather information on HIV risk, prevalence, prevention and treatment in prisons in India. Relevant published and unpublished reports and information were sought in order to provide a coherent picture of the current situation relating to HIV prevention, treatment and care in prisons in India. Information covered prison management and population statistics, general conditions in prisons, provision of general medical care and the HIV situation in prison. No data on drug injection in prison were identified. Sex between men was reported to be common in some Indian prisons. A national study found that 1.7 per cent of inmates were HIV positive. Some prisons provided HIV education. Condom provision was considered illegal. A few prisoners received drug treatment for drug use, HIV infection or co-infection with sexually transmitted infections (STIs). HIV prevalence in prisons in India was higher than that in the general community. Regular monitoring of information on HIV risk behaviours and prevalence in Indian prisons is strongly recommended. Evidence based treatment for drug injectors and nation-wide provision of HIV prevention strategies are urgently required. Voluntary counselling, testing and treatment for HIV and STIs should be provided.

  5. Tuberculosis prevalence surveys: rationale and cost

    Glaziou, P.; van der Werf, M. J.; Onozaki, I.; Dye, C.; Borgdorff, M. W.; Chiang, C.-Y.; Cobelens, F.; Enarson, D. A.; Gopi, P. G.; Holtz, T. H.; Kim, S. J.; van Leth, F.; Lew, W.-J.; Lonnroth, K.; van Maaren, P.; Narayanan, P. R.; Williams, B.

    2008-01-01

    This article is the first of the educational series 'Assessing tuberculosis (TB) prevalence through population-based surveys'. The series will give overall guidance in conducting cross-sectional surveys of pulmonary TB (PTB) disease. TB prevalence surveys are most valuable in areas where

  6. The prevalence of HIV infection among cannabis-abused psychiatric ...

    The prevalence of HIV infection among cannabis-abused psychiatric patients: the case of federal psychiatric hospital, Calabar. ... called “Prevalence of HIV infection and Cannabis-Abused Questionnaire” (P.H.I.C.Q.), while data obtained were subjected to statistical analysis using contingency chi-square (X2) technique.

  7. Association of HIV prevalence and concurrency of sexual ...

    Association of HIV prevalence and concurrency of sexual partnerships in South Africa's language groups: An ecological analysis. C Kenyon. Abstract. Background. There is considerable variation in HIV prevalence between different language groups in South Africa (SA). Sexual partner concurrency has been linked to the ...

  8. HIV prevalence by race co-varies closely with concurrency and number of sex partners in South Africa.

    Chris Kenyon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HIV prevalence differs by more than an order of magnitude between South Africa's racial groups. Comparing the sexual behaviors and other risk factors for HIV transmission between the different races may shed light on the determinants of South Africa's generalized HIV epidemic. METHODS: Five nationally representative and one city-representative population-based surveys of sexual behavior were used to assess the extent to which various risk factors co-varied with HIV prevalence by race in South Africa. RESULTS: In 2004, the prevalence of HIV was 0.5%, 1%, 3.2% and 19.9% in 15-49 year old whites, Indians, coloureds and blacks respectively. The risk factors which co-varied with HIV prevalence by race in the six surveys were age of sexual debut (in five out of five surveys for men and three out of six surveys for women, age gap (zero surveys in men and three in women, mean number of sex partners in the previous year (five surveys in men and three in women and concurrent partnerships (five surveys in men and one in women. Condom usage and circumcision were both more prevalent in the high HIV prevalence groups. The reported prevalence of concurrency was 6 to 17 times higher in the black as opposed to the white men in the five surveys. CONCLUSIONS: The differences in sexual behavior in general, and the prevalence of concurrency and the number of sexual partners in particular, offer a plausible and parsimonious cause to explain a part of the differing prevalences of HIV between South Africa's racial groups.

  9. Knowledge, attitudes and practices on HIV/AIDS and prevalence of HIV in the general population of Sucre, Bolivia.

    Terán Calderón, Carolina; Gorena Urizar, Dorian; González Blázquez, Cristina; Alejos Ferreras, Belén; Ramírez Rubio, Oriana; Bolumar Montrull, Francisco; Ortiz Rivera, Marta; del Amo Valero, Julia

    2015-01-01

    To analyse knowledge, attitudes and sexual practices on HIV/AIDS, and estimate HIV prevalence among residents of Sucre (Bolivia). Population-based survey of residents aged 15-49 randomly selected during 2008/2009. Blood samples were collected on Whatman-filter paper and tested with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Knowledge on HIV/AIDS, sexual risk practices and discriminatory attitudes against people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) were modelled with multiple logistic regression. Of 1499 subjects, 59% were women. All subjects were HIV-negative. Inadequate knowledge of HIV/AIDS transmission and prevention was observed in 67% and risk factors varied by gender (interaction p-value<0.05). Discriminatory attitudes were displayed by 85% subjects; associated factors were: rural residence, low educational level and low income. Unsafe sex was reported by 10%; risk factors varied by residence area (interaction p-value<0.05). In urban areas, risk factors were male sex, younger age and being in common-law union. Prevalence of HIV infection is very low and unsafe sex is relatively uncommon. Inadequate knowledge on HIV/AIDS and discriminatory attitudes towards PLWHA are extremely high and are associated to gender, ethnic and economic inequalities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  10. HIV prevalence and behavioral studies in female sex workers in Togo: a decline in the prevalence between 2005 and 2011.

    Pitché, Palokinam; Gbetoglo, Komi; Saka, Bayaki; Akakpo, Séfako; Landoh, Dadja Essoya; d'Alméida, Stéphane; Banla, Abiba Kere; Sodji, Dométo; Deku, Kodzo

    2013-01-01

    We determined the sero-prevalence of HIV among female sex workers (FSWs) in Togo identified their sexual risk behaviors. We conducted a cross-sectional study from 17 to 27 December, 2011 on 1106 FSWs in Togo. Venous sample were collected to estimate HIV prevalence as per national algorithms. Behavior data were collected by interviewer-administered questionnaires. Of the 1106 FSWs (mean age = 27.6 years) surveyed, 17% and 63% had their first sexual intercourse before the age of 15 and 18 years respectively. Overall, 43.4% of the FSWs had more than seven clients per week. Most FSWs (95%) said they had sex using a condom in their lifetime while 8.8% had used a condom during their last sexual intercourse. About 79% of FSWs used a condom during their sexual encounters the previous week and 11.6% had used a condom during each of their sexual encounters the previous day. Most FSWs (62.2%) reported to have been tested for HIV. Of these, 145 (13.1%) were HIV positive. HIV sero-prevalence decreased from 19.4% in the south to 7.5% in the north of the country. Behaviors associated with FSW being HIV positive included: FSW having more than 7 clients per week (p sex in brothels (p HIV sero-prevalence among FSWs in 2011 to be 13.1% in Togo, significantly lower than a prevalence of 29.5% estimated previously in 2005. Inconsistent use of condoms was identified as associated with high risk factor for acquiring HIV.

  11. Adherence to self-administered tuberculosis treatment in a high HIV-prevalence setting: a cross-sectional survey in Homa Bay, Kenya.

    Fabienne Nackers

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Good adherence to treatment is crucial to control tuberculosis (TB. Efficiency and feasibility of directly observed therapy (DOT under routine program conditions have been questioned. As an alternative, Médecins sans Frontières introduced self-administered therapy (SAT in several TB programs. We aimed to measure adherence to TB treatment among patients receiving TB chemotherapy with fixed dose combination (FDC under SAT at the Homa Bay district hospital (Kenya. A second objective was to compare the adherence agreement between different assessment tools. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey amongst a series of new TB patients receiving 6 months of standard TB chemotherapy with FDC under SAT. Adherence was assessed at home with urine testing for Isoniazid (INH, pill count, interviewer-administered questionnaire and visual analogue scale (VAS. RESULTS: In November 2008 and in June 2009, 212 of 279 eligible patients were assessed for adherence. Overall, 95.2% [95%CI: 91.3-97.7] of the patients reported not having missed a tablet in the last 4 days. On the VAS, complete adherence was estimated at 92.5% [95%CI: 88.0-95.6]. INH urine test was positive for 97.6% [95%CI: 94.6-99.2] of the patients. Pill count could be assessed among only 70% of the interviewed patients. Among them, it was complete for 82.3% [95%CI: 75.1-88.1]. Among the 212 surveyed patients, 193 (91.0% were successfully treated (cured or treatment completed. The data suggest a fair agreement between the questionnaire and the INH urine test (k = 0.43 and between the questionnaire and the VAS (k = 0.40. Agreement was poor between the other adherence tools. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that SAT, together with the FDC, allows achieving appropriate adherence to antituberculosis treatment in a high TB and HIV burden area. The use of a combination of a VAS and a questionnaire can be an adequate approach to monitor adherence to TB treatment in routine program

  12. HIV prevalence by ethnic group covaries with prevalence of herpes simplex virus-2 and high-risk sex in Uganda: An ecological study.

    Kenyon, Chris R

    2018-01-01

    HIV prevalence varies from 1.7% to 14.8% between ethnic groups in Uganda. Understanding the factors responsible for this heterogeneity in HIV spread may guide prevention efforts. We evaluated the relationship between HIV prevalence by ethnic group and a range of risk factors as well as the prevalence of herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2), syphilis and symptomatic STIs in the 2004/2005 Uganda HIV/AIDS Sero-Behavioural Survey-a two stage, nationally representative, population based survey of 15-59-year-olds. Spearman's correlation was used to assess the relationship between HIV prevalence and each variable. There was a positive association between HIV prevalence and HSV-2, symptomatic STIs and high-risk sex (sex with a non-cohabiting, non-marital partner) for women. Non-significant positive associations were present between HIV and high-risk sex for men and lifetime number of partners for men and women. Variation in sexual behavior may contribute to the variations in HIV, HSV-2 and other STI prevalence by ethnic group in Uganda. Further work is necessary to delineate which combinations of risk factors determine differential STI spread in Uganda.

  13. The HIV/AIDS epidemic in Cuba: description and tentative explanation of its low HIV prevalence

    Clémençon Stéphan

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Cuban HIV/AIDS epidemic has the lowest prevalence rate of the Caribbean region. The objective of this paper is to give an overview of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Cuba and to explore the reasons for this low prevalence. Methods Data were obtained from the Cuban HIV/AIDS programme established in 1983. This programme has an extensive adult HIV testing policy, including testing of all pregnant women. HIV and AIDS cases have been recorded since 1986. Persons found to be HIV-positive are interviewed on their sexual behaviour and partners. Tracing and voluntary testing of these partners are organised. Epidemiological description of this epidemic was obtained from analysis of this data set. Using elementary mathematical analyses, we estimated the coverage of the detection system (percentage of HIV-positive adults detected and the average period between HIV infection and detection. Estimated HIV prevalence rates were corrected to account for the coverage. Results HIV prevalence has increased since 1996. In 2005, the prevalence among pregnant women was 1.2 per 10,000 (16/137000. Estimated HIV prevalence among 15- to 49-year-olds was 8.1 per 10,000 (4913/6065000; 95%CI: 7.9 per 10,000 – 8.3 per 10,000. Most (77% of the HIV-positive adults were men, most (85.1% of the detected HIV-positive men were reported as having sex with men (MSM, and most of the HIV-positive women reported having had sex with MSM. The average period between HIV infection and detection was estimated to be 2.1 years (IQR = 1.7 – 2.2 years. We estimated that, for the year 2005, 79.6% (IQR: 77.3 – 81.4% of the HIV-positive persons were detected. Conclusion MSM drive the HIV epidemic in Cuba. The extensive HIV testing policy may be an important factor in explaining the low HIV prevalence. To reduce the HIV epidemic in Cuba, the epidemic among MSM should be addressed. To understand this epidemic further, data on sexual behaviour should be collected. Now that

  14. Prevalence of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections among female sex workers in Kisumu, Western Kenya, 1997 and 2008.

    Hilde M Vandenhoudt

    Full Text Available In 1997, a survey in Kisumu found a prevalence of HIV infection among female sex workers (FSW of 75%. Only 50% reported using a condom with the last client. In 2008, we conducted another survey to collect data to inform an intervention targeting FSW in Kisumu.In 2008 FSW were recruited by respondent-driven sampling. Women completed a questionnaire and were tested for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs. Multiple logistic regression analysis was done to explore factors associated with HIV-infection, and with condom use. Prevalence of HIV infection was compared in the two surveys from 1997 and 2008. Multivariate analysis was used to assess whether a change in HIV prevalence between the two surveys could be explained by changes in socio-demographic characteristics and/or behavioral factors.481 FSW participated in the 2008 study. HIV prevalence was 56.5% (95% CI 52.0-61.6. Factors independently associated with HIV were age older than 29 years; being a widow; STI treatment in the past year; herpes simplex virus Type-2 infection; bacterial vaginosis; and trichomoniasis. Condom use with last client was reported by 75.0% (95% CI 70.9-78.9. Predictors of condom use with the last client were age older than 29 years; higher price paid by last client; ever having been tested for HIV. Predictors of unprotected sex were being drunk during last sex act; usually having sex during menses; and STI treatment in the past year. The odds ratio of HIV infection associated with year of survey was 0.49 (95% CI 0.33-0.75 after adjusting for socio-demographic and behavioral factors.The prevalence of HIV among FSW in Kisumu was found to be lower in 2008 than in 1997, while reported condom use was higher. However, access to HIV/STI prevention and care services needs to improve to further decrease HIV transmission between FSW and their clients.

  15. Prevalence of HIV among people with physical disabilities in Rwanda.

    Munymana, J B; M'kumbuzi, V R P; Mapira, H T; Nzabanterura, I; Uwamariyai, I; Shema, E

    2014-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of HIV among persons with physical disabilities in Rwanda. Across-sectional HIV diagnostic study. A national referral rehabilitation centre in Rwanda. Persons aged 5 to 49 years with lower or upper limb impairments that were obtaining rehabilitation services at the centre. Blood samples were collected from the subjects who voluntarily accepted to participate in the study. Blood samples (4mls) were collected in vacutainer tubes and centrifuged to obtain serum which was analyzed using standard HIV rapid tests-determine HIV-1/2 Ab/Ag, SD-Bioline and UNI-Gold Recombigen HIV as a tie-breaker. The HIV status of participants--negative or positive. Descriptive statistics were computed to characterize the sample and proportions for the HIV test results. All one hundred and fifty-seven subjects, 59 (37.6%) male and 98 (62.4%) female, completed the study. The HIV prevalence obtained was 5.73%. All participants that tested positive were female and all tested positive for HIV-1. The prevalence obtained was higher than the population prevalence of 3.0% reported for Rwanda. Targeted HIV prevention is required for PWDs in Rwanda, with at least as much rigor as programs targeted towards the general population. Further, this should address the wide range of gender inequalities that make women particularly vulnerable to HIV. Further research needs to be conducted on a larger sample that draws participants from non-institutional settings and from other disability categories; as well as to study more specifically, the risk factors for HIV infection among PWDs in Rwanda.

  16. HIV Testing in Recent College Students: Prevalence and Correlates

    Caldeira, Kimberly M.; Singer, Barbara J.; O'Grady, Kevin E.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; Arria, Amelia M.

    2012-01-01

    Prevalence and correlates of HIV testing were examined in a sample of 957 unmarried recent college students in the United States. Participants were asked about HIV testing, past-six-months sexual activities, lifetime treatment for sexually transmitted infections (STI), past-year health service utilization, and DSM-IV criteria for alcohol and other…

  17. Prevalence of psychiatric disorders in HIV patients in the Central ...

    The statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) was used for the analysis. ... and mania) and anxiety disorders (General anxiety, agoraphobia, social phobia, ... Keywords: Prevalence, Psychiatric disorder, HIV infection, Mental challenges ...

  18. Brief communication: Low prevalence of HIV infection, and ...

    Brief communication: Low prevalence of HIV infection, and knowledge, ... History of sexually transmitted diseases was reported by 10.7% of the sexually active students. ... Continued health education is needed to bring behavioral changes.

  19. Decline in the prevalence HIV among pregnant women attending ...

    Decline in the prevalence HIV among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in Tanzania, 2001-2011. ... Journal Home > Vol 19, No 2 (2017) > ... as age, marital status, parity, education level and duration of stay at present residence.

  20. Prevalence of HIV infection among trauma patients admitted to ...

    Prevalence of HIV infection among trauma patients admitted to Bugando Medical Centre, ... This was a descriptive cross sectional study involving trauma patients aged 11 years and ... A total of 250 trauma patients were recruited and studied.

  1. Prevalence and Risk Factors for HIV/AIDS among Male Inmates in ...

    It was only one (0.4%) of the prisoners that practiced homosexuality in prison. The age 26-45 years were mostly affected constituting 56%. Seroprevalence among the prisoners (7%) was higher than the National median prevalence of HIV infection among pregnant women in year 2006 survey. This suggests the possibility of ...

  2. HIV Prevalence and Risks Associated with HIV Infection among Transgender Individuals in Cambodia.

    Amy Weissman

    Full Text Available Recognizing transgender individuals have a high risk of HIV acquisition, and to inform policies and programming, we conducted an HIV prevalence and risk behaviors survey among transgender individuals in Cambodia.Cross-sectional survey using a respondent driven sampling method with self-administered audio-computer assisted interviews. HIV testing was performed prior to the questionnaire with results available immediately after. Eligible participants were ≥18 years, identified as male at birth and self-identified/expressed as a different gender, and reported having sex with at least one male partner in past year. From six major urban centers of Cambodia, 891 transgender individuals were recruited.The majority of the 891 participants self-identified as third gender or female (94.5%, were young (median age 23, IQR [20-27], had secondary education or higher (80.5%, not married (89.7%, and employed (90.2%. The majority had first sex before 18 years (66.8%, with a male (79.9%, 37.9% having been paid or paying for this first sex. The rate of HIV positivity among participants was found to be 4.15%. Consistent condom use with male and female partners was low with all partner types, but particularly low with male partners when paying for sex (20.3%. The majority of participants reported having experienced discrimination in their lifetime (54.8% and 30.3% had been assaulted. Multivariate analysis revealed that older age (adjusted OR = 14.73 [4.20, 51.67] for age 35-44 and adjusted OR = 7.63 [2.55, 22.81] for age 30-34, only having a primary school education or no schooling at all (adjusted OR = 2.62 [1.18, 5.80], being a resident of Siem Reap (adjusted OR = 7.44 [2.37, 23.29], receiving payment at first sex (adjusted OR = 2.26 [1.00, 5.11], having sex during/after using drugs (adjusted OR = 2.90 [1.09, 7.73], inconsistent condom use during last anal sex (adjusted OR = 3.84 [1.58, 9.33], and reporting low self-esteem (adjusted OR = 3.25 [1.35, 7.85] were

  3. HIV prevalence and correlated factors of female sex workers and male clients in a border region of Yunnan Province, China.

    Zhu, Jing; Yuan, Rui; Hu, Dan; Zhu, Zhibin; Wang, Ning; Wang, Bei

    2018-04-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) and their male clients are vulnerable to HIV infection and serve as a bridge in HIV transmission from the high-risk population to the general, low-risk population. To examine the factors of FSWs and male clients that correlate with the prevalence of HIV infection in the Chinese-Vietnamese border region, a cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2014 in the Hekou county of the Yunnan province of China. We performed a questionnaire survey to collect data on demographics, sexual behavior, and drug use. Blood and urine samples were collected for testing of HIV/sexually transmitted infections and drug use. We found that the prevalence of HIV infection among FSWs was 2.74%, and 15 male clients (2.62%) were HIV-positive. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that herpes simplex virus type 2 infection was a risk factor for HIV infection in FSWs and male clients, suggesting the increased role of sexual transmission in the HIV epidemic in the Chinese-Vietnamese border region. Positive urinalysis result for amphetamine-type stimulants was observed in FSWs with HIV infection. History of drug use was correlated with HIV infection, which increased the HIV infection risk of male clients, confirming that drug use is an important target in future interventions for HIV prevention.

  4. HIV prevalence and correlates of unprotected anal intercourse among men who have sex with men, Jinan, China.

    Ruan, Shiman; Yang, Hui; Zhu, Yanwen; Ma, Yanhui; Li, Jinxing; Zhao, Jinkou; McFarland, Willi; Raymond, H Fisher

    2008-05-01

    China's HIV epidemic may be shifting towards predominantly sexual transmission and emerging data point to potential increases in HIV prevalence among men who have sex with men (MSM). There is particular need to assess the extent of risk behavior among MSM outside of China's most cosmopolitan cities. We conducted a respondent-driven sampling survey (N = 428) to measure HIV seroprevalence and risk behavior among MSM in Jinan, China, the provincial capital of Shandong. HIV prevalence was 0.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.1-1.0). Unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) in the last 6 months (reported by 61.4%) was associated with buying or selling sex to a man in the last 6 months, syphilis infection, multiple partners in the last month, low HIV knowledge and migrant status. No participant had previously tested for HIV. Risk for HIV transmission is widespread among MSM throughout China; basic prevention programs are urgently needed.

  5. HIV prevalence and characteristics of sex work among female sex workers in Hargeisa, Somaliland, Somalia.

    Kriitmaa, Kelsi; Testa, Adrienne; Osman, Mohamed; Bozicevic, Ivana; Riedner, Gabriele; Malungu, Jacqueline; Irving, Greg; Abdalla, Ismail

    2010-07-01

    To measure prevalence of HIV and syphilis and describe characteristics of sex work among female sex workers (FSWs) in Hargeisa, Somaliland, Somalia. A cross-sectional survey recruited 237 FSWs using respondent-driven sampling (RDS). A face-to-face, structured interview using handheld-assisted personal interviewing (HAPI) on personal digital assistants (PDAs) was completed and blood collected for serological testing. FSWs 15-19 years old accounted for 6.9% of the population; 20-24 year-old constituted an additional 18.0%. The majority (86.6%) never attended school. International (59.0%) and interzonal (10.7%) migration was common. Most (95.7%) reported no other source of income; 13.8% had five or more clients in the last 7 days. A minority (38.4%) had heard of STIs, even fewer (6.9%) held no misconceptions about HIV. Only 24% of FSW reported using a condom at last transactional sex, and 4% reported ever been tested for HIV. HIV prevalence was 5.2% and syphilis prevalence was 3.1%. Sex work in Hargeisa, Somaliland, Somalia, is characterized by high numbers of sexual acts and extremely low knowledge of HIV. This study illustrates the need for targeted HIV prevention interventions focusing on HIV testing, risk-reduction awareness raising, and review of condom availability and distribution mechanisms among FSWs and males engaging with FSWs.

  6. Sharply rising prevalence of HIV infection in Bali: a critical assessment of the surveillance data.

    Januraga, P P; Wulandari, L P L; Muliawan, P; Sawitri, S; Causer, L; Wirawan, D N; Kaldor, J M

    2013-08-01

    This study critically examines serological survey data for HIV infection in selected populations in Bali, Indonesia. Sero-survey data reported by the Bali Health Office between 2000 and 2010 were collated, and provincial health staff were interviewed to gain a detailed understanding of survey methods. Analysis of time series restricted to districts that have used the same sampling methods and sites each year indicates that there has been a steady decline in HIV prevalence among prisoners, from 18.7% in 2000 to 4.3% in 2010. In contrast, HIV prevalence among women engaged in sex work increased sharply: from 0.62% in 2000 to 20.2% in 2010 (brothel based), and from 0% in 2000 to 7.2% in 2010 (non-brothel based). The highest prevalence was recorded among people who injected drugs. Recent surveys of gay men and transvestites also found high prevalences, at 18.7% and 40.9%, respectively. Review of the methodology used in the surveys identified inconsistencies in the sampling technique, sample numbers and sites over time, and incomplete recording of individual information about survey participants. Attention to methodological aspects and incorporation of additional information on behavioural factors will ensure that the surveillance system is in the best position to support prevention activities.

  7. HIV infection in fishing communities of Lake Victoria Basin of Uganda--a cross-sectional sero-behavioral survey.

    Alex Opio

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Uganda's first AIDS case was reported in a fishing village. Thereafter, due to varying risk factors, the epidemic spread heterogeneously to all regions, with some populations more affected. Given the recent rising trends in HIV infection in Uganda, it is crucial to know the risk factors in different populations. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors of HIV infection among fishing communities. METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional survey of 46 fishing communities was conducted in 2010. Following written consent, 911 randomly selected respondents age 15-59 years were interviewed and gave blood for HIV testing. HIV testing was conducted in the field and central laboratory according to national algorithm. Survey protocol was approved by the Science and Ethics Committee of Uganda Virus Research Institute, and cleared by Uganda National Council for Science and Technology. Data was captured by EPIINFO and statistical analysis done in SPSS. FINDINGS: Overall HIV prevalence was 22%; there was no difference by sex (x (2 test, p>0.05. Association with HIV infection was determined by x (2 test, p<0.5. Never married respondents had lower HIV prevalence (6.2% than the ever married (24.1%. HIV prevalence was lower in younger respondents, age 15-24 years (10.8% than in age group 25 years and above (26.1%. Muslims had lower HIV prevalence (14.4% than Christians (25.2%. HIV prevalence was higher among respondents reporting 3 or more lifetime sexual partners (25.3% than in those reporting less numbers (10.8%. HIV prevalence was higher among uncircumcised men (27% than in circumcised men (11%. Multivariate analysis identified 4 risk factors for HIV infection; age, religion, ever condom use and number of lifetime sexual partners. CONCLUSIONS: HIV prevalence in the surveyed communities was three times higher than of general population. This underscores the need for tailor made HIV combination prevention interventions targeting

  8. Prevalence of HIV associated neurocognitive deficit among HIV ...

    Background: HIV associated neurocognitive deficit impairs motor activity, neuropsychiatric functioning, daily activity and work activity usually due to the immune suppression effect of the virus. Sub-Saharan region including Ethiopia is the region with the highest burden of HIV. However, a few studies are found on this aspect ...

  9. Sero-prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and ...

    Three hundred and seven (307) healthy blood donors aged 18 – 55 years were used to determine the sero-prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Hepatitis B virus (HBV) in Yola, Nigeria. The association between donors' age, occupation and marital status and the prevalence of the infections among blood ...

  10. An association between neighbourhood wealth inequality and HIV prevalence in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Brodish, Paul Henry

    2015-05-01

    This paper investigates whether community-level wealth inequality predicts HIV serostatus using DHS household survey and HIV biomarker data for men and women ages 15-59 pooled from six sub-Saharan African countries with HIV prevalence rates exceeding 5%. The analysis relates the binary dependent variable HIV-positive serostatus and two weighted aggregate predictors generated from the DHS Wealth Index: the Gini coefficient, and the ratio of the wealth of households in the top 20% wealth quintile to that of those in the bottom 20%. In separate multilevel logistic regression models, wealth inequality is used to predict HIV prevalence within each statistical enumeration area, controlling for known individual-level demographic predictors of HIV serostatus. Potential individual-level sexual behaviour mediating variables are added to assess attenuation, and ordered logit models investigate whether the effect is mediated through extramarital sexual partnerships. Both the cluster-level wealth Gini coefficient and wealth ratio significantly predict positive HIV serostatus: a 1 point increase in the cluster-level Gini coefficient and in the cluster-level wealth ratio is associated with a 2.35 and 1.3 times increased likelihood of being HIV positive, respectively, controlling for individual-level demographic predictors, and associations are stronger in models including only males. Adding sexual behaviour variables attenuates the effects of both inequality measures. Reporting eleven plus lifetime sexual partners increases the odds of being HIV positive over five-fold. The likelihood of having more extramarital partners is significantly higher in clusters with greater wealth inequality measured by the wealth ratio. Disaggregating logit models by sex indicates important risk behaviour differences. Household wealth inequality within DHS clusters predicts HIV serostatus, and the relationship is partially mediated by more extramarital partners. These results emphasize the importance

  11. HIV/AIDS in Russia: determinants of regional prevalence

    Jordaan Jacob A

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The motivation for this paper is to inform the selection of future policy directions for tackling HIV/AIDS in Russia. The Russian Federation has more people living with HIV/AIDS than any other country in Europe, and nearly 70% of the known infections in Eastern Europe and Central Asia. The epidemic is particularly young, with 80% of those infected aged less than thirty, and no Russian region has escaped the detection of infections. However, measures to address the epidemic in Russia have been hampered by late recognition of the scale of the problem, poor data on HIV prevalence, potentially counterproductive narcotics legislation, and competing health priorities. An additional complication has been the relative lack of research into the spatial heterogeneity of the Russian HIV/AIDS epidemic, investigating the variety of prevalence rates in the constituent regions and questioning assumptions about the links between the epidemic and the circumstances of post-Soviet transformation. In the light of these recent developments, this paper presents research into the determinants of regional HIV prevalence levels in Russia. Results Statistical empirical research on HIV and other infectious diseases has identified a variety of factors that influence the spread and development of these diseases. In our empirical analysis of determinants of HIV prevalence in Russia at the regional level, we identify factors that are statistically related to the level of HIV prevalence in Russian regions, and obtain some indication of the relative importance of these factors. We estimate an empirical model that includes factors which describe economic and socio-cultural characteristics. Conclusion Our analysis statistically identifies four main factors that influence HIV prevalence in Russian regions. Given the different nature of the factors that we identify to be of importance, we conclude that successful HIV intervention policies will need to be

  12. Screening strategies for tuberculosis prevalence surveys: the value of chest radiography and symptoms.

    Anna H van't Hoog

    Full Text Available We conducted a tuberculosis (TB prevalence survey and evaluated the screening methods used in our survey, to assess if screening in TB prevalence surveys could be simplified, and to assess the accuracy of screening algorithms that may be applicable for active case finding.All participants with a positive screen on either a symptom questionnaire, chest radiography (CXR and/or sputum smear microscopy submitted sputum for culture. HIV status was obtained from prevalent cases. We estimated the accuracy of modified screening strategies with bacteriologically confirmed TB as the gold standard, and compared these with other survey reports. We also assessed whether sequential rather than parallel application of symptom, CXR and HIV screening would substantially reduce the number of participants requiring CXR and/or sputum culture.Presence of any abnormality on CXR had 94% (95%CI 88-98 sensitivity (92% in HIV-infected and 100% in HIV-uninfected and 73% (95%CI 68-77 specificity. Symptom screening combinations had significantly lower sensitivity than CXR except for 'any TB symptom' which had 90% (95%CI 84-95 sensitivity (96% in HIV-infected and 82% in HIV-uninfected and 32% (95%CI 30-34 specificity. Smear microscopy did not yield additional suspects, thus the combined symptom/CXR screen applied in the survey had 100% (95%CI 97-100 sensitivity. Specificity was 65% (95%CI 61-68. Sequential application of first a symptom screen for 'any symptom', followed by CXR-evaluation and different suspect criteria depending on HIV status would result in the largest reduction of the need for CXR and sputum culture, approximately 36%, but would underestimate prevalence by 11%.CXR screening alone had higher accuracy compared to symptom screening alone. Combined CXR and symptom screening had the highest sensitivity and remains important for suspect identification in TB prevalence surveys in settings where bacteriological sputum examination of all participants is not

  13. Trends in socioeconomic inequalities in HIV prevalence among young people in seven countries in eastern and southern Africa.

    James R Hargreaves

    Full Text Available In Eastern and Southern Africa, HIV prevalence was highest among higher socioeconomic groups during the 1990s. It has been suggested that this is changing, with HIV prevalence falling among higher-educated groups while stable among lower-educated groups. A multi-country analysis has not been undertaken.We analysed data on socio-demographic factors and HIV infection from 14 nationally representative surveys of adults aged 15-24 (seven countries, two surveys each, 4-8 years apart. Sample sizes ranged from 2,408-12,082 (72,135 total. We used logistic regression to assess gender-stratified associations between highest educational level attended and HIV status in each survey, adjusting for age and urban/rural setting. We tested for interactions with urban/rural setting and age. Our primary hypothesis was that higher education became less of a risk factor for HIV over time. We tested for interaction between survey-year and the education-HIV association in each country and all countries pooled.In Ethiopia and Malawi, HIV prevalence was higher in more educated women in both surveys. In Lesotho, Kenya and Zimbabwe, HIV prevalence was lower in higher educated women in both surveys. In Ethiopia, HIV prevalence fell among no and secondary educated women only (interaction p<0·01. Only among young men in Tanzania there was some evidence that the association between education and HIV changed over time (p=0·07. Pooled analysis found little evidence for an interaction between survey year and the education-HIV association among men (p=0·60 or women (p=0·37.The pattern of prevalent HIV infection among young adults by level of education in different sub-Saharan African countries was heterogeneous. There was little statistical evidence that this pattern changed between 2003-5 and 2008-12. Explanations for the social epidemiology of HIV in Africa will need to account for time-trends and inter-country differences.

  14. [Prevalence of HIV treatment in PHI].

    Wild, F; Finkenstädt, V

    2013-12-01

    The importance of HIV in PHI is examined on the basis of the "AIDS statistics" of the Association of PHI and pharmaceutical data from PHI. The observation period is from 2007 to 2011. We define a HIV case if a private insured person has submitted at least one HIV-related invoice (e.g., an antiretroviral drug) for reimbursement during the observation period. In 2011, 7,624 people in PHI received HIV therapy, that is 32% (+1888) more than in 2007. The number of new HIV cases in 2011 was 673, and thus 12% (-92) lower than in 2007. The proportion of people receiving antiretroviral therapy in PHI is higher than in the general population in Germany. HIV infections occur in all age groups, but peaks in the age group 41 to 50 years old. Men are affected more than women. In contrast, the number of HIV cases among 11- to 15-year-old girls is higher compared to boys of the same age.

  15. Trends in HIV Prevalence in Pregnant Women in Rural South Africa.

    Kharsany, Ayesha B M; Frohlich, Janet A; Yende-Zuma, Nonhlanhla; Mahlase, Gethwana; Samsunder, Natasha; Dellar, Rachael C; Zuma-Mkhonza, May; Abdool Karim, Salim S; Abdool Karim, Quarraisha

    2015-11-01

    Despite substantial progress in the delivery of HIV prevention programs, some communities continue to experience high rates of HIV infection. We report on temporal trends in HIV prevalence in pregnant women in a community in rural KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa. Annual, anonymous cross-sectional HIV sero-prevalence surveys were conducted between 2001 and 2013 among first visit prenatal clinic attendees. The time periods 2001 to 2003 were defined as pre-antiretroviral therapy (ART), 2004 to 2008 as early ART, and 2009 to 2013 as contemporary ART roll-out, to correspond with the substantial scale-up of ART program. Overall, HIV prevalence rose from 35.3% [95% confidence interval (CI): 32.3 to 38.3] pre-ART (2001-2003) to 39.0% (95% CI: 36.8 to 41.1) in the early ART (2004-2008) to 39.3% (95% CI: 37.2 to 41.4) in the contemporary ART (2009-2013) roll-out periods. In teenage women (age 20-24 and ≥ 25 years had a 1.7-fold (95% CI: 1.3-2.4; P = 0.001) and 3-fold (95% CI: 2.1 to 4.3; P age-disparate relationships, are needed to impact this HIV epidemic trajectory.

  16. Prevalence and correlates of HIV among men who have sex with men in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Pitpitan, Eileen V; Goodman-Meza, David; Burgos, Jose Luis; Abramovitz, Daniela; Chavarin, Claudia V; Torres, Karla; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Patterson, Thomas L

    2015-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) in developing countries such as Mexico have received relatively little research attention. In Tijuana, Mexico, a border city experiencing a dynamic HIV epidemic, data on MSM are over a decade old. Our aims were to estimate the prevalence and examine correlates of HIV infection among MSM in this city. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 191 MSM recruited through respondent-driven sampling (RDS) in 2012. Biological males over the age of 18 who resided in Tijuana and reported sex with a male in the past year were included. Participants underwent interviewer-administered surveys and rapid tests for HIV and syphilis with confirmation. A total of 33 MSM tested positive for HIV, yielding an RDS-adjusted estimated 20% prevalence. Of those who tested positive, 89% were previously unaware of their HIV status. An estimated 36% (95% CI: 26.4-46.5) had been tested for HIV in the past year, and 30% (95% CI: 19.0-40.0) were estimated to have ever used methamphetamine. Independent correlates of being infected with HIV were methamphetamine use (odds ratio [OR] = 2.24, p = 0.045, 95% CI: 1.02, 4.92) and active syphilis infection (OR = 4.33, p = 0.01, 95% CI: 1.42, 13.19). Our data indicate that MSM are a key sub-population in Tijuana at higher risk for HIV. Tijuana would also appear to have the highest proportion among upper-middle-income countries of HIV-positive MSM who are unknowingly infected. More HIV prevention research on MSM is urgently needed in Tijuana.

  17. Association of HIV prevalence and concurrency of sexual ...

    2013-03-03

    Mar 3, 2013 ... ... groups, increasing circumcision rates were correlated with lower HIV prevalence rates (R2=0.48; p=0.04). Table 1. P re v alence of HIV. [2] and v arious risk factors. [3] p er language group among S outh A fricans aged 16 - 55 years. L angu age. SABSSM III. [2]. N. CS 2009. [3]. N. Age median (IQ. R).

  18. Prevalence of HIV Infection Among Tuberculosis Patients in Bali, Indonesia

    Partha Muliawan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: During 1998-2007, TB and HIV cases in Bali had shown a significant increase respectively. In general, both of these diseases are chronic diseases that need long term treatment, and together they could worsen the patients’ condition. To prevent the double burden of those patients, we need to know HIV infection prevalence among TB cases in Bali. Method: One thousands of TB cases diagnosed at TB health services unit (UPK at primary health centers (puskesmas and public hospitals in Bali, in September-November 2008, were given information and their blood samples were taken for HIV tests. Samples were chosen proportionally according to the number of TB cases registered in each UPK. Five milliliters of blood sample were taken from each eligible patient by laboratory staff or nurse at the UPK for HIV tests which were conducted at Bali Health Laboratory. HIV test used in this study were the two types of rapid test in accordance with WHO standard. Discussion: Thirty-nine out of 1,000 blood samples were found HIV positive. The highest HIV prevalence among TB cases was in the Buleleng District (11.5% and followed by Denpasar City (5.1%. This prevalence showed a different figure from the HIV/AIDS cases in VCT clinics registered at Bali Provincial Health Agency, where the highest prevalence found in Denpasar, followed by Buleleng and Badung. If we compare, the difference in figure between Badung and Buleleng, might be due to the difference in routes of HIV transmission. In Buleleng, most of the cases (90% were sexually transmitted, while in Badung 48% transmission were through injecting drug users. The IDUs seek health services at private health centers and rarely utilize public/government services such as puskesmas and hospitals. Conclusion: The HIV prevalence among TB patients in Bali was 3.9%. The characteristics of the patients showed that they are mostly male, aged between 31-40 years old, have junior high school-university education

  19. A network-level explanation for the differences in HIV prevalence in ...

    A network-level explanation for the differences in HIV prevalence in South Africa's ... or ethnic groups may help explain the differential spread of HIV in South Africa. ... Keywords: concurrency, epidemiology, ethnicity, HIV/AIDS, race, social ...

  20. [Prevalence and related factors of HIV/HBV coinfection among HIV/AIDS patients].

    Feng, D; Yao, T; Cheng, Y P; Pan, M H; Li, C X; Wang, J; Feng, Y L; Shi, J; Huang, H L; Lu, H Y; Lan, G H; Wang, S P; Zhang, Y W

    2017-12-10

    Objective: To reveal the prevalence and the related factors of hepatitis B (HepB) virus infection among HIV/AIDS patients. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study in two HIV clinics, affiliated to local Centers of Disease Control and Prevention in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Regional. A face-to-face interview, with questionnaire was conducted to collect information on socio-demographic characteristics, drug use, and sexual behavior. Blood samples were used to test HBsAg. χ (2) test or Fisher's exact test and unconditional logistic regression models were used to identify the influencing factors. Results: The prevalence of HBV and HIV co-infection was 13.85% (113/816). Results from multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that age (25-45), family history of HBV and history of HepB vaccination were independent influencing factors for HBV and HIV coinfection, with OR (95% CI ) as 1.738 (1.031-2.931), 2.898 (1.678-5.005) and 1.744 (1.052-2.892), respectively. Conclusion: The prevalence of HBV among HIV/AIDS patients was significantly higher than that in general population. HIV/AIDS patients aged between 25 and 45 and with family history of HBV were more likely to be infected with HBV, while HepB vaccination was associated with the reduction of HIV/HBV coinfection. Specific comprehensive prevention and treatment programs on HIV/AIDS patients need to be set up.

  1. Interaction between HIV awareness, knowledge, safe sex practice and HIV prevalence: evidence from Botswana.

    Ray, Ranjan; Sinha, Kompal

    2012-05-01

    This paper makes methodological and empirical contributions to the study of HIV in the context of Botswana, a country with high HIV prevalence. Comparable evidence is presented from India to put the Botswana results in perspective. The results point to the strong role played by affluence and education in increasing HIV knowledge, promoting safe sex and reducing HIV prevalence. The study presents African evidence on the role played by the empowerment of women in promoting safe sex practices such as condom use. The lack of significant association between HIV prevalence and safe sex practice points to the danger of HIV-infected individuals spreading the disease through multiple sex partners and unprotected sex. This danger is underlined by the finding that females with multiple sex partners are at higher risk of being infected with HIV. These results take on special policy significance in the context of Botswana, where the issue of multiple sex partners has not been adequately addressed in the programme to contain the spread of HIV.

  2. Prevalence and patterns of HIV transmitted drug resistance in Guatemala.

    Avila-Ríos, Santiago; Mejía-Villatoro, Carlos R; García-Morales, Claudia; Soto-Nava, Maribel; Escobar, Ingrid; Mendizabal, Ricardo; Girón, Amalia; García, Leticia; Reyes-Terán, Gustavo

    2011-12-01

    To assess human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) diversity and the prevalence of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) in Guatemala. One hundred forty-five antiretroviral treatment-naïve patients referred to the Roosevelt Hospital in Guatemala City were enrolled from October 2010 to March 2011. Plasma HIV pol sequences were obtained and TDR was assessed with the Stanford algorithm and the World Health Organization (WHO) TDR surveillance mutation list. HIV subtype B was highly prevalent in Guatemala (96.6%, 140/145), and a 2.8% (4/145) prevalence of BF1 recombinants and 0.7% (1/145) prevalence of subtype C viruses were found. TDR prevalence for the study period was 8.3% (12/145) with the Stanford database algorithm (score > 15) and the WHO TDR surveillance mutation list. Most TDR cases were associated with non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) (83.3%, 10/12); a low prevalence of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and protease inhibitors was observed in the cohort (Guatemala. TDR prevalence in Guatemala was at the intermediate level. Most TDR cases were associated with NNRTIs. Further and continuous TDR surveillance is necessary to gain more indepth knowledge about TDR spread and trends in Guatemala and to optimize treatment outcomes in the country.

  3. Prevalence of HIV associated neurocognitive deficit among HIV ...

    International HIV dementia scale, activity of daily living scale and Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale were used to assess neuro cognitive deficit, activity of daily living, anxiety and depression respectively. The data was analyzed by using SPSS window 20. Result: About 88% of the subjects were receiving highly active ...

  4. ORIGINAL ARTICLES HIV/AIDS prevalence testing – merits ...

    2006-01-18

    Jan 18, 2006 ... individuals.2 The annual national antenatal surveillance survey in 20033 ... groups, the antenatal survey prevalence figures do not reflect the lower overall ... employees with antiretroviral therapy. .... versus the sample taken.

  5. Pancreatitis in a high HIV prevalence environment

    In environments with low HIV infection rates, acute pancreatitis is ... The serum amylase level was used to confirm acute pancreatitis in 50 patients, with a ..... Mortier E, Gaba S, Mari I, Vinceneux P, Pouchot J. Acute pancreatitis during primary ...

  6. Male circumcision and sexual risk behaviors may contribute to considerable ethnic disparities in HIV prevalence in Kenya: an ecological analysis.

    Chris Richard Kenyon

    Full Text Available HIV prevalence varies between 0.8 and 20.2% in Kenya's various ethnic groups. The reasons underlying these variations have not been evaluated before.We used data from seven national surveys spanning the period 1989 to 2008 to compare the prevalence of a range of risk factors in Kenya's ethnic groups. Spearman's and linear regression were used to assess the relationship between HIV prevalence and each variable by ethnic group.The ethnic groups exhibited significant differences in a number of HIV related risk factors. Although the highest HIV prevalence group (the Luo had the highest rates of HIV testing (Men 2008 survey: 56.8%, 95% CI 51.0-62.5% and condom usage at last sex (Men 2008∶28.6%, 95% CI 19.6-37.6%, they had the lowest prevalence of circumcision (20.9%, 95% CI 15.9-26.0 the highest prevalence of sex with a non-married, non-cohabiting partner (Men: 40.2%, 95% CI 33.2-47.1% and pre-marital sex (Men 2008∶73.9%, 95% CI 67.5-80.3% and the youngest mean age of debut for women (1989 SURVEY: 15.7 years old, 95% CI 15.2-16.2. At a provincial level there was an association between the prevalence of HIV and male concurrency (Spearman's rho = 0.79, P = 0.04. Ethnic groups with higher HIV prevalence were more likely to report condom use (Men 2008 survey: R2 = 0.62, P = 0.01 and having been for HIV testing (Men 2008 survey: R2 = 0.47, P = 0.04.In addition to differences in male circumcision prevalence, variation in sexual behavior may contribute to the large variations in HIV prevalence in Kenya's ethnic groups. To complement the prevention benefits of the medical male circumcision roll-out in several parts of Kenya, interventions to reduce risky sexual behavior should continue to be promoted.

  7. Prevalence and Correlates of HIV Infection among Street Boys in Kisumu, Kenya.

    Goldblatt, Ariella; Kwena, Zachary; Lahiff, Maureen; Agot, Kawango; Minnis, Alexandra; Prata, Ndola; Lin, Jessica; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Auerswald, Colette L

    2015-01-01

    Despite their perceived vulnerability to HIV, East African street youth have been neglected in HIV prevention research. We examined HIV seroprevalence and correlates of HIV infection in a sample of male street youth in Kisumu, Kenya. We enrolled a street-recruited sample of 13-21 year old street youth. Participants completed a survey followed by voluntary HIV counseling and testing. Survey items included demographics, homelessness history, survival activities, sexual behavior and substance use. We examined the relationship between predictor variables, markers of coercion and marginalization and HIV. The sample included 296 males. Survival activities included garbage picking (55%), helping market vendors (55%), begging (17%), and working as porters (46%) or domestic workers (4%). Forty-nine percent of participants reported at least weekly use of alcohol and 32% marijuana. Forty-six percent of participants reported lifetime inhalation of glue and 8% fuel. Seventy-nine percent of participants reported lifetime vaginal sex, 6% reported lifetime insertive anal sex and 8% reported lifetime receptive anal sex. Twelve (4.1%; 95% CI: 2.3-7.0) participants tested positive for HIV. Of those, all had been on the street for at least one year and all had engaged in vaginal sex. Occupations placing youth at particular risk of coercion by adults, including helping market vendors (prevalence ratio (PR) = 8.8; 95% CI: 1.2-67.5) and working as domestic workers (PR = 4.6; 95% CI: 1.1-19.0), were associated with HIV infection. Both insertive anal sex (PR = 10.2; 95% CI: 3.6-29.4) and receptive anal sex (PR = 3.9; 95% CI: 1.1-13.4) were associated with HIV infection. Drug use, begging, and garbage picking were not associated with HIV infection. Although HIV prevalence in our sample of street youth is comparable to that of similarly-aged male youth in Nyanza Province, our findings highlight behavioral factors associated with HIV infection that offer opportunities for targeted prevention

  8. Prevalence and Correlates of HIV Infection among Street Boys in Kisumu, Kenya.

    Ariella Goldblatt

    Full Text Available Despite their perceived vulnerability to HIV, East African street youth have been neglected in HIV prevention research. We examined HIV seroprevalence and correlates of HIV infection in a sample of male street youth in Kisumu, Kenya.We enrolled a street-recruited sample of 13-21 year old street youth. Participants completed a survey followed by voluntary HIV counseling and testing. Survey items included demographics, homelessness history, survival activities, sexual behavior and substance use. We examined the relationship between predictor variables, markers of coercion and marginalization and HIV.The sample included 296 males. Survival activities included garbage picking (55%, helping market vendors (55%, begging (17%, and working as porters (46% or domestic workers (4%. Forty-nine percent of participants reported at least weekly use of alcohol and 32% marijuana. Forty-six percent of participants reported lifetime inhalation of glue and 8% fuel. Seventy-nine percent of participants reported lifetime vaginal sex, 6% reported lifetime insertive anal sex and 8% reported lifetime receptive anal sex. Twelve (4.1%; 95% CI: 2.3-7.0 participants tested positive for HIV. Of those, all had been on the street for at least one year and all had engaged in vaginal sex. Occupations placing youth at particular risk of coercion by adults, including helping market vendors (prevalence ratio (PR = 8.8; 95% CI: 1.2-67.5 and working as domestic workers (PR = 4.6; 95% CI: 1.1-19.0, were associated with HIV infection. Both insertive anal sex (PR = 10.2; 95% CI: 3.6-29.4 and receptive anal sex (PR = 3.9; 95% CI: 1.1-13.4 were associated with HIV infection. Drug use, begging, and garbage picking were not associated with HIV infection.Although HIV prevalence in our sample of street youth is comparable to that of similarly-aged male youth in Nyanza Province, our findings highlight behavioral factors associated with HIV infection that offer opportunities for targeted

  9. Prevalence and Correlates of HIV Infection among Street Boys in Kisumu, Kenya

    Goldblatt, Ariella; Kwena, Zachary; Lahiff, Maureen; Agot, Kawango; Minnis, Alexandra; Prata, Ndola; Lin, Jessica; Bukusi, Elizabeth A.; Auerswald, Colette L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Despite their perceived vulnerability to HIV, East African street youth have been neglected in HIV prevention research. We examined HIV seroprevalence and correlates of HIV infection in a sample of male street youth in Kisumu, Kenya. Methods We enrolled a street-recruited sample of 13–21 year old street youth. Participants completed a survey followed by voluntary HIV counseling and testing. Survey items included demographics, homelessness history, survival activities, sexual behavior and substance use. We examined the relationship between predictor variables, markers of coercion and marginalization and HIV. Results The sample included 296 males. Survival activities included garbage picking (55%), helping market vendors (55%), begging (17%), and working as porters (46%) or domestic workers (4%). Forty-nine percent of participants reported at least weekly use of alcohol and 32% marijuana. Forty-six percent of participants reported lifetime inhalation of glue and 8% fuel. Seventy-nine percent of participants reported lifetime vaginal sex, 6% reported lifetime insertive anal sex and 8% reported lifetime receptive anal sex. Twelve (4.1%; 95% CI: 2.3–7.0) participants tested positive for HIV. Of those, all had been on the street for at least one year and all had engaged in vaginal sex. Occupations placing youth at particular risk of coercion by adults, including helping market vendors (prevalence ratio (PR) = 8.8; 95% CI: 1.2–67.5) and working as domestic workers (PR = 4.6; 95% CI: 1.1–19.0), were associated with HIV infection. Both insertive anal sex (PR = 10.2; 95% CI: 3.6–29.4) and receptive anal sex (PR = 3.9; 95% CI: 1.1–13.4) were associated with HIV infection. Drug use, begging, and garbage picking were not associated with HIV infection. Conclusions Although HIV prevalence in our sample of street youth is comparable to that of similarly-aged male youth in Nyanza Province, our findings highlight behavioral factors associated with HIV

  10. HIV infection among tuberculosis patients in Vietnam: prevalence and impact on tuberculosis notification rates

    Thanh, D. H.; Sy, D. N.; Linh, N. D.; Hoan, T. M.; Dien, H. T.; Thuy, T. B.; Hoa, N. P.; Tung, L. B.; Cobelens, F.

    2010-01-01

    Vietnam has an emerging human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic (estimated population prevalence 0.5%), but valid data on HIV prevalence among tuberculosis (TB) patients are limited. Recent increases in TB notification rates among young adults may be related to HIV. To assess the prevalence of

  11. Prevalence and determinants of HIV infection among maritime ...

    The close proximity of brothels and large sex-worker populations, as well as the fact that many seafarers are young, ... Methods: The study utilized a descriptive cross-sectional design. ... Prevalence of HIV in the studied population was 4.8%.

  12. 7 PREVALENCE OF Rh AND ABO BLOOD GROUPS IN HIV ...

    Bioline

    Summary: HIV status and blood groups determination (Rhesus and ABO groups) in 3691 pregnant ... quick test kits and tested for blood group types with anti-sera A,B,AB, and D. Overall, the prevalence of blood group .... Theory,Techniques,.

  13. Prevalence of HIV infection among the patients with an avascular ...

    Objective: To study the prevalence of HIV infection among the risk factors associated with the avascular necrosis of the femoral head in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Design: Multicenter retrospective study. Setting: Rheumatology consultations and Orthopedic-Traumatology Surgery Department Of The University Hospital ...

  14. Prevalence of cryptococcosis among HIV-infected patients in ...

    Objective: To investigate the prevalence of cryptococcosis among HIV infected patients in Yaounde. Methods: In a hospital-based surveillance study of cryptococcosis, the colonization of Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF), urine and blood sample by C. neoformans was evaluated by direct microscopic examination and culture ...

  15. Chronic diarrhoea in HIV patients: Prevalence of coccidian parasites

    Gupta S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in HIV patients with or without diarrhoea and to see an association between diarrhoea and the coccidian parasites in our setting. Stool samples from 113 HIV patients, 34 chronic diarrhoea and 79 without any history of diarrhoea were collected and examined for enteric parasites by microscopy. One hundred and thirteen control samples from HIV negative patients complaining of prolonged diarrhoea were also collected and analysed. Prevalence of coccidian parasites in HIV and non-HIV patients; with and without diarrhoea was compared using chi-square tests. Enteric parasites were detected in 55.8% HIV patients with diarrhoea compared to 16.4% in patients without diarrhoea ( P < 0.001. Isospora belli was found in 41.1% (14/34 of chronic diarrhoea and 6.3% (5/79 in non-diarrhoeal cases ( P < 0.001. Cryptosporidium was detected in 20.6% (7/34 of chronic diarrhoea and 2.5% (2/79 in non-diarrhoeal cases ( P < 0.01. Cyclospora cayetanensis associated diarrhoea was detected in only one case of chronic diarrhoea (2.9%. CD4+ T-cell count was lower (180 cells/μl0 in diarrhoeal HIV patients as compared to non-diarrhoeal patients. Coccidian parasites were seen at a mean CD4+ T-cell count of 186.3 cells/μL. This study concluded that Isospora belli was the predominant parasite followed by Cryptosporidium spp. and both were strongly associated with diarrhoea among HIV patients.

  16. Factors Associated with Variations in Population HIV Prevalence across West Africa: Findings from an Ecological Analysis

    Prudden, Holly J.; Beattie, Tara S.; Bobrova, Natalia; Panovska-Griffiths, Jasmina; Mukandavire, Zindoga; Gorgens, Marelize; Wilson, David; Watts, Charlotte H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Population HIV prevalence across West Africa varies substantially. We assess the national epidemiological and behavioural factors associated with this. Methods National, urban and rural data on HIV prevalence, the percentage of younger (15–24) and older (25–49) women and men reporting multiple (2+) partners in the past year, HIV prevalence among female sex workers (FSWs), men who have bought sex in the past year (clients), and ART coverage, were compiled for 13 countries. An Ecological analysis using linear regression assessed which factors are associated with national variations in population female and male HIV prevalence, and with each other. Findings National population HIV prevalence varies between 0 4–2 9% for men and 0 4–5.6% for women. ART coverage ranges from 6–23%. National variations in HIV prevalence are not shown to be associated with variations in HIV prevalence among FSWs or clients. Instead they are associated with variations in the percentage of younger and older males and females reporting multiple partners. HIV prevalence is weakly negatively associated with ART coverage, implying it is not increased survival that is the cause of variations in HIV prevalence. FSWs and younger female HIV prevalence are associated with client population sizes, especially older men. Younger female HIV prevalence is strongly associated with older male and female HIV prevalence. Interpretation In West Africa, population HIV prevalence is not significantly higher in countries with high FSW HIV prevalence. Our analysis suggests, higher prevalence occurs where more men buy sex, and where a higher percentage of younger women, and older men and women have multiple partnerships. If a sexual network between clients and young females exists, clients may potentially bridge infection to younger females. HIV prevention should focus both on commercial sex and transmission between clients and younger females with multiple partners. PMID:26698854

  17. Factors Associated with Variations in Population HIV Prevalence across West Africa: Findings from an Ecological Analysis.

    Holly J Prudden

    Full Text Available Population HIV prevalence across West Africa varies substantially. We assess the national epidemiological and behavioural factors associated with this.National, urban and rural data on HIV prevalence, the percentage of younger (15-24 and older (25-49 women and men reporting multiple (2+ partners in the past year, HIV prevalence among female sex workers (FSWs, men who have bought sex in the past year (clients, and ART coverage, were compiled for 13 countries. An Ecological analysis using linear regression assessed which factors are associated with national variations in population female and male HIV prevalence, and with each other.National population HIV prevalence varies between 0 4-2 9% for men and 0 4-5.6% for women. ART coverage ranges from 6-23%. National variations in HIV prevalence are not shown to be associated with variations in HIV prevalence among FSWs or clients. Instead they are associated with variations in the percentage of younger and older males and females reporting multiple partners. HIV prevalence is weakly negatively associated with ART coverage, implying it is not increased survival that is the cause of variations in HIV prevalence. FSWs and younger female HIV prevalence are associated with client population sizes, especially older men. Younger female HIV prevalence is strongly associated with older male and female HIV prevalence.In West Africa, population HIV prevalence is not significantly higher in countries with high FSW HIV prevalence. Our analysis suggests, higher prevalence occurs where more men buy sex, and where a higher percentage of younger women, and older men and women have multiple partnerships. If a sexual network between clients and young females exists, clients may potentially bridge infection to younger females. HIV prevention should focus both on commercial sex and transmission between clients and younger females with multiple partners.

  18. Correlates of Prevalent Disability Among HIV-Infected Elderly Patients.

    Ávila-Funes, José Alberto; Belaunzarán-Zamudio, Pablo Francisco; Tamez-Rivera, Oscar; Crabtree-Ramírez, Brenda; Navarrete-Reyes, Ana Patricia; Cuellar-Rodríguez, Jennifer; Sierra-Madero, Juan; Amieva, Hélène

    2016-02-01

    The growing elderly population of HIV-infected patients is leading to a significant epidemiological transition and HIV infection has been proposed as a premature and accelerated aging model rending the individual more susceptible to premature disability. However, the determinants of disability among this emergent population are still lacking. Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine the correlates of prevalent disability in adults ≥50 years with HIV infection. A cross-sectional study of 184 HIV-infected adults receiving ambulatory care in an HIV clinic of a tertiary care, university-affiliated hospital in Mexico City was conducted. Disability for instrumental (IADL) and basic activities of daily living (ADL) was established. Sociodemographic factors, clinical variables, current CD4(+) cell count, and HIV viral load (VL) were tested as potential determinants of disability. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify the correlates of both types of disability. The mean age was 59.3 years. All participants were receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy. Of participants 17.9% had disability for IADL and 26.1% for ADL. Multivariate logistic regression analyses indicated that being older; having a lower CD4(+) cell count, and having a detectable HIV VL were independently associated with both types of disability. In addition, educational level was also independently associated with ADL disability. Age, educational level, low CD4(+) cell count, and detectable HIV VL were independently associated with disability. Whether effective and timely antiretroviral therapy will reduce the risk of disability in HIV-infected elderly patients needs to be evaluated.

  19. HIV infection among tuberculosis patients in Vietnam: prevalence and impact on tuberculosis notification rates.

    Thanh, D H; Sy, D N; Linh, N D; Hoan, T M; Dien, H T; Thuy, T B; Hoa, N P; Tung, L B; Cobelens, F

    2010-08-01

    Vietnam has an emerging human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic (estimated population prevalence 0.5%), but valid data on HIV prevalence among tuberculosis (TB) patients are limited. Recent increases in TB notification rates among young adults may be related to HIV. To assess the prevalence of HIV infection among smear-positive TB patients in six provinces with relatively high HIV population prevalence in Vietnam. All patients who registered for treatment of smear-positive TB during the fourth quarter of 2005 were offered HIV testing. Of the 1217 TB patients included in the study, 100 (8.2%) tested HIV-positive. HIV prevalence varied between 2% and 17% in the provinces, and was strongly associated with age Vietnam, HIV infection is concentrated in drug users, as well as in specific geographic areas where it has considerable impact on TB notification rates among men aged 15-34 years.

  20. HIV and STI prevalence and determinants among male migrant workers in India.

    Sangeeta S Dave

    Full Text Available Our objective was to estimate for the first time the prevalence and determinants of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 and sexually transmitted infections (STIs among male migrants in India.We conducted a multi-stage stratified probability sample survey of migrant (defined as not born in Surat city men aged 18 to 49 years working in the diamond and textile industries in Surat city. Behavioural and biological data were collected. Biological data included laboratory diagnosed herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2, syphilis, chlamydia, gonorrhoea, Trichomonas vaginalis (together defined as 'any STI' and HIV-1. Likely recently acquired STIs included chlamydia, gonorrhoea, T. vaginalis and syphilis with rapid plasma reagin ≥1:8. The response rate was 77% (845/1099. Among 841 participants, HIV-1 prevalence was 1.0%, 'any STI' prevalence was 9.5% and 38.9% of these STIs were likely to have been recently acquired. Being a diamond worker, Surat resident for 10+ years and recent antibiotic use were each associated with higher odds of 'any STI' (aORs 1.83 (95% CI 1.09-3.09, 1.98 (95% CI 1.22-3.22 and 2.57 (95% CI 1 .17-5.64, respectively after adjusting for the other two factors and age. The main study limitation was social desirability bias for self-reported sexual behaviour; STIs were diagnosed in some self-reported virgins.HIV and STI prevalence were lower than expected, but prevention interventions remain necessary in Surat since almost 40% of STIs among participants were probably recently acquired and sentinel surveillance HIV prevalence remains high. The participants had a similar HIV prevalence to Surat antenatal clinic attendees, a proxy for the general population. This suggests migrants are not always at higher risk of HIV compared to the general population in their migration destination. Our findings highlight the need to contextualise research findings from a specific setting with other local information to guide HIV/STI prevention

  1. High burden of prevalent and recently acquired HIV among female sex workers and female HIV voluntary testing center clients in Kigali, Rwanda

    Braunstein, Sarah L.; Ingabire, Chantal M.; Geubbels, Eveline; Vyankandondera, Joseph; Umulisa, Marie-Michèle; Gahiro, Elysée; Uwineza, Mireille; Tuijn, Coosje J.; Nash, Denis; van de Wijgert, Janneke H. H. M.

    2011-01-01

    To estimate HIV prevalence and risk factors in population-based samples of female sex workers (FSW) and female voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) clients in Rwanda. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 800 FSW and 1,250 female VCT clients in Rwanda, which included interviewing and testing

  2. High Burden of Prevalent and Recently Acquired HIV among Female Sex Workers and Female HIV Voluntary Testing Center Clients in Kigali, Rwanda

    Braunstein, S.L.; Ingabire, C.M.; Geubbels, E.; Vyankandondera, J.; Umulisa, M.M.; Gahiro, E.; Uwineza, M.; Tuijn, C.J.; Nash, D.; van de Wijgert, J.H.H.M.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To estimate HIV prevalence and risk factors in population-based samples of female sex workers (FSW) and female voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) clients in Rwanda. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 800 FSW and 1,250 female VCT clients in Rwanda, which included

  3. Factors associated with HIV among female sex workers in a high HIV prevalent state of India.

    Medhi, Gajendra Kumar; Mahanta, Jagadish; Paranjape, Ramesh S; Adhikary, Rajatashuvra; Laskar, Nabjyoti; Ngully, P

    2012-01-01

    The study was carried out to assess the factors associated with HIV seropositivity among female sex workers (FSWs) in Dimapur, Nagaland, a high HIV prevalence state of India. A total of 426 FSWs were recruited into the study using respondent driven sampling (RDS). Data on demographic characteristics, sexual and injecting risk behaviours were collected from them and were tested for HIV, Syphilis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis. RDS-weighted univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the factors associated with HIV seropositivity. Consistent condom use with regular and occasional sexual clients was 9% and 16.4%, respectively. About 25% of the participants ever used and 5.7% ever injected illicit drugs. RDS adjusted HIV prevalence was 11.6%. In the univariate analysis, factors associated with HIV were initiating sexual intercourse before the age of 15 years, ≥2 years duration of sex work, serving clients at lodge/hotel, positive test result for one or more sexually transmitted infections (STIs), lifetime history of injecting drug use, lifetime history of consuming illicit drugs, ever having exchanged sex for drugs, having sexual partners who engaged in risky injecting practices and having been widowed or divorced. In multivariate analysis, factors found to be independently associated with HIV included lifetime injecting drug use, initiating sexual intercourse before the age of 15 years, positive test result for one or more STIs and having been widowed. Injecting drug use was found to be most potent independent risk factor for HIV (OR: 3.17, CI: 1.02-9.89). Because of lower consistent condom use among them, FSWs may act as bridge for HIV transmission to general population from injecting drug users (IDU) through their sexual clients. The informations from this study may be useful for enriching the HIV preventions effort for FSWs in this region.

  4. Expanding HIV testing efforts in concentrated epidemic settings: a population-based survey from rural Vietnam.

    Anastasia Pharris

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To improve HIV prevention and care programs, it is important to understand the uptake of HIV testing and to identify population segments in need of increased HIV testing. This is particularly crucial in countries with concentrated HIV epidemics, where HIV prevalence continues to rise in the general population. This study analyzes determinants of HIV testing in a rural Vietnamese population in order to identify potential access barriers and areas for promoting HIV testing services. METHODS: A population-based cross-sectional survey of 1874 randomly sampled adults was linked to pregnancy, migration and economic cohort data from a demographic surveillance site (DSS. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine which factors were associated with having tested for HIV. RESULTS: The age-adjusted prevalence of ever-testing for HIV was 7.6%; however 79% of those who reported feeling at-risk of contracting HIV had never tested. In multivariate analysis, younger age (aOR 1.85, 95% CI 1.14-3.01, higher economic status (aOR 3.4, 95% CI 2.21-5.22, and semi-urban residence (aOR 2.37, 95% CI 1.53-3.66 were associated with having been tested for HIV. HIV testing rates did not differ between women of reproductive age who had recently been pregnant and those who had not. CONCLUSIONS: We found low testing uptake (6% among pregnant women despite an existing prevention of mother-to-child HIV testing policy, and lower-than-expected testing among persons who felt that they were at-risk of HIV. Poverty and residence in a more geographically remote location were associated with less HIV testing. In addition to current HIV testing strategies focusing on high-risk groups, we recommend targeting HIV testing in concentrated HIV epidemic settings to focus on a scaled-up provision of antenatal testing. Additional recommendations include removing financial and geographic access barriers to client-initiated testing, and encouraging provider

  5. Expanding HIV testing efforts in concentrated epidemic settings: a population-based survey from rural Vietnam.

    Pharris, Anastasia; Nguyen, Thi Kim Chuc; Tishelman, Carol; Brugha, Ruairí; Nguyen, Phuong Hoa; Thorson, Anna

    2011-01-11

    To improve HIV prevention and care programs, it is important to understand the uptake of HIV testing and to identify population segments in need of increased HIV testing. This is particularly crucial in countries with concentrated HIV epidemics, where HIV prevalence continues to rise in the general population. This study analyzes determinants of HIV testing in a rural Vietnamese population in order to identify potential access barriers and areas for promoting HIV testing services. A population-based cross-sectional survey of 1874 randomly sampled adults was linked to pregnancy, migration and economic cohort data from a demographic surveillance site (DSS). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine which factors were associated with having tested for HIV. The age-adjusted prevalence of ever-testing for HIV was 7.6%; however 79% of those who reported feeling at-risk of contracting HIV had never tested. In multivariate analysis, younger age (aOR 1.85, 95% CI 1.14-3.01), higher economic status (aOR 3.4, 95% CI 2.21-5.22), and semi-urban residence (aOR 2.37, 95% CI 1.53-3.66) were associated with having been tested for HIV. HIV testing rates did not differ between women of reproductive age who had recently been pregnant and those who had not. We found low testing uptake (6%) among pregnant women despite an existing prevention of mother-to-child HIV testing policy, and lower-than-expected testing among persons who felt that they were at-risk of HIV. Poverty and residence in a more geographically remote location were associated with less HIV testing. In addition to current HIV testing strategies focusing on high-risk groups, we recommend targeting HIV testing in concentrated HIV epidemic settings to focus on a scaled-up provision of antenatal testing. Additional recommendations include removing financial and geographic access barriers to client-initiated testing, and encouraging provider-initiated testing of those who believe that they are at-risk of

  6. High HIV prevalence and associated factors in a remote community in the Rwenzori region of Western Uganda

    John Rubaihayo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In Uganda, previous studies have shown a tremendous decline in HIV prevalence over the past two decades due to changes in sexual behavior with a greater awareness of the risks involved. However, studies in Fort-Portal municipality, a rural town in Western Uganda, continued to show a persistent high HIV prevalence despite the various interventions in place. We conducted a study to establish the current magnitude of HIV prevalence and the factors associated with HIV prevalence in this community. This cross-sectional study was conducted between July and November 2008. Participants were residents of Fort-Portal municipality aged 15-49 years. A population-based HIV sero-survey and a clinical review of prevention of mother to child HIV transmission (PMTCT and voluntary counseling and HIV Testing (VCT records were used to collect quantitative data. An inteviewer administered structured questionnaire was used to collect qualitative data on social deographics, risk behaviour and community perceptions. Focus group discussions (FGDs and in-depth interviews provided supplementary data on community perceptions. Logistic regression was used in the analysis. The overall HIV prevalence in the general population was 16.1% [95% CI; 12.5-20.6]. Prevalence was lower among women (14.5%; 95% CI; 10.0-19.7 but not significantly different from that among men (18.7%; 95% CI; 12.5-26.3 (c2=0.76, P=0.38. Having more than 2 sexual partners increased the odds of HIV by almost 2.5 times. None or low education and age over 35 years were independently associated with HIV prevalence (P<0.05. Most participants attributed the high HIV prevalence to promiscuity/multiple sexual partners (32.5%, followed by prostitution (13.6%, alcoholism (10.1%, carelessness (10.1%, poverty (9.7%, ignorance (9.5%, rape (4.7%, drug abuse (3.6% and others (malice/malevolence, laziness, etc. (6.2%. Although there was a slight decline compared to previous reports, the results from this study confirm

  7. HIV and Syphilis Prevalence and Associated Risks in the Cameroonian Armed Forces.

    Grillo, Michael; Tran, Bonnie Robin; Tamoufe, Ubald; Djoko, Cyrille F; Saylors, Karen; Woodland, Kelly; Wangmene, L T C; Macera, Caroline

    2017-01-01

    Continued surveillance of the HIV epidemic is critical to monitor changes in trends and risk behaviors. A 2005 study in the Cameroonian Armed Forces (CAF) found an HIV prevalence of 11.3% among male and female service members. The purpose of the current study is to determine the 5-year change in the HIV prevalence, estimate the prevalence of syphilis, and examine factors associated with infection in the CAF. Participants were male and female service members 18 years of age or older who were stationed at one of the 10 military garrisons selected for participation. The military garrisons included in this study were proportionally representative of the CAF by geographic region. Military companies and individuals within the selected garrisons were randomly chosen to participate in the study. Demographic and behavioral risk data were collected from September-November 2011 using personal interviews. Blood was collected for HIV and syphilis testing. Of 2,523 participants tested, 6.0% screened positive for HIV [includes 5.3% who screened positive for HIV only and 0.7% who screened positive for both HIV and syphilis], and 3.1% screened positive for syphilis only. Analyses examining risk factors associated with HIV/syphilis infection (i.e., infected with HIV, infected with syphilis, or co-infected with both HIV and syphilis) were restricted to 2,255 men who reported ever having sex. In a multivariate logistic regression model, the odds of testing positive for HIV/syphilis were higher among men who were separated, divorced, or widowed (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=3.13, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.24-7.89), had sex with sex workers (AOR=1.64, 95% CI: 1.19-2.27), and reported a genital sore/ulcer in the past 12 months preceeding the survey (AOR=1.73, 95% CI: 1.05-2.86). Higher HIV knowledge was protective against HIV/syphilis infection (AOR=0.73, 95% CI: 0.54-0.99). While the overall HIV prevalence in this sample of military personnel was lower than previously reported (6

  8. Human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B and hepatitis C in an Indonesian prison: prevalence, risk factors and implications of HIV screening.

    Nelwan, Erni J; Van Crevel, Reinout; Alisjahbana, Bachti; Indrati, Agnes K; Dwiyana, Reiva F; Nuralam, Nisaa; Pohan, Herdiman T; Jaya, Ilham; Meheus, Andre; Van Der Ven, Andre

    2010-12-01

    To determine the prevalence and behavioural correlates of HIV, HBV and HCV infections among Indonesian prisoners and to examine the impact of voluntary counselling and testing for all incoming prisoners on access to antiretroviral treatment (ART). In a non-anonymous survey in an Indonesian prison for drug-related offences, all incoming prisoners and symptomatic resident prisoners were counselled and offered testing for HIV, hepatitis B and C. Screening was performed in 679 incoming prisoners, of whom 639 (94.1%) agreed to be tested, revealing a seroprevalence of 7.2% (95% CI 5.2-9.2) for HIV, 5.8% (95% CI 3.9-7.6) for HBsAg and 18.6% (95% CI 15.5-21.6) for HCV. Of 57 resident prisoners tested, 29.8% were HIV-positive. HIV infection was strongly associated with injecting drug use (IDU; P prisoners was responsible for diagnosing and treating HIV in 73.0%, respectively, and 68.0% of HIV-positive individuals. HIV and HCV are highly prevalent among incoming Indonesian prisoners and almost entirely explained by IDU. Our study is the first to show that voluntary HIV counselling and testing during the intake process in prison may greatly improve access to ART in a developing country. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Effects of neighbourhood-level educational attainment on HIV prevalence among young women in Zambia.

    Kayeyi, Nkomba; Sandøy, Ingvild F; Fylkesnes, Knut

    2009-08-25

    Investigations of the association between socio-economic position indicators and HIV in East, Central and Southern Africa have chiefly focused on factors that pertain to individual-level characteristics. This study investigated the effect of neighbourhood educational attainment on HIV prevalence among young women in selected urban and rural areas in Zambia. This study re-analysed data from a cross-sectional population survey conducted in Zambia in 2003. The analyses were restricted to women aged 15-24 years (n = 1295). Stratified random cluster sampling was used to select 10 urban and 10 rural clusters. A measure for neighbourhood-level educational attainment was constructed by aggregating individual-level years-in-school. Multi-level mixed effects regression models were run to examine the neighbourhood-level educational effect on HIV prevalence after adjusting for individual-level underlying variables (education, currently a student, marital status) and selected proximate determinants (ever given birth, sexual activity, lifetime sexual partners). HIV prevalence among young women aged 15-24 years was 12.5% in the urban and 6.8% in the rural clusters. Neighbourhood educational attainment was found to be a strong determinant of HIV infection in both urban and rural population, i.e. HIV prevalence decreased substantially by increasing level of neighbourhood education. The likelihood of infection in low vs. high educational attainment of neighbourhoods was 3.4 times among rural women and 1.8 times higher among the urban women after adjusting for age and other individual-level underlying variables, including education. However, the association was not significant for urban young women after this adjustment. After adjusting for level of education in the neighbourhood, the effect of the individual-level education differed by residence, i.e. a strong protective effect among urban women whereas tending to be a risk factor among rural women. The findings suggested structural

  10. Prevalence of communication disorders in HIV-infected adults.

    Kallail, K James; Downs, David; Scherz, Julie; Sweet, Donna; Zackula, Rosalee E

    2014-01-01

    Few adult patients with HIV/AIDS are evaluated for communication disorders. A broad inventory of the communication disorders was obtained in a convenience sample of 82 adult HIV/AIDS patients who presented for medical appointments. Each participant underwent a head and neck exam and a communications skills evaluation. Speech, language, and cognition were assessed using a 10-item test battery. A 14-item hearing test battery was conducted in a separate session. The primary outcomes were the presence and degree of communication disorders. Head and neck exams revealed 40% with ear-related issues. Only 2 participants showed normal findings on all 24 communication skills assessments. Four demonstrated normal findings on all speech-language-cognitive assessments, whereas 8 had normal findings on the complete hearing test battery. A relatively high prevalence of cognitive and language deficits and central auditory disturbances were found. Clinicians must recognize the potential for communication deficits even in a relatively healthy patient with HIV.

  11. Headache among patients with HIV disease: prevalence, characteristics, and associations.

    Kirkland, Kale E; Kirkland, Karl; Many, W J; Smitherman, Todd A

    2012-03-01

    Headache is one of the most common medical complaints reported by individuals suffering from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), but limited and conflicting data exist regarding their prevalence, prototypical characteristics, and relationship to HIV disease variables in the current era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). The aims of the present cross-sectional study were to characterize headache symptoms among patients with HIV/AIDS and to assess relations between headache and HIV/AIDS disease variables. Two hundred HIV/AIDS patients (49% female; mean age = 43.22 ± 12.30 years; 74% African American) from an internal medicine clinic and an AIDS outreach clinic were administered a structured headache diagnostic interview to assess headache characteristics and features consistent with International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD)-II diagnostic semiologies. They also completed 2 measures of headache-related disability. Prescribed medications, most recent cluster of differentiation (CD4) cell count, date of HIV diagnosis, possible causes of secondary headache, and other relevant medical history were obtained via review of patient medical records. One hundred seven patients (53.5%) reported headache symptoms, the large majority of which were consistent with characteristics of primary headache disorders after excluding 4 cases attributable to secondary causes. Among those who met criteria for a primary headache disorder, 88 (85.44%) met criteria for migraine, most of which fulfilled ICHD-II appendix diagnostic criteria for chronic migraine. Fifteen patients (14.56%) met criteria for episodic or chronic tension-type headache. Severity of HIV (as indicated by CD4 cell counts), but not duration of HIV or number of prescribed antiretroviral medications, was strongly associated with headache severity, frequency, and disability and also distinguished migraine from TTH. Problematic headache is highly prevalent

  12. Low prevalence of primary HIV resistance in western Massachusetts.

    Iarikov, Dmitri E; Irizarry-Acosta, Melina; Martorell, Claudia; Hoffman, Robert P; Skiest, Daniel J

    2010-01-01

    Most studies of primary antiretroviral (ARV) resistance have been conducted in large metropolitan areas with reported rates of 8% to 25%. We collected data on 99 HIV-1-infected antiretroviral-naive patients from several sites in Springfield, MA, who underwent genotypic resistance assay between 2004 and 2008. Only major resistance mutations per International AIDS Society-USA (IAS-USA) drug resistance mutations list were considered. The prevalence of resistance was 5% (5 of 99). Three patients had one nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) mutation: 103N, 103N, and 190A, 1 patient had a protease inhibitor (PI) mutation: 90M; and 1 patient had 3-class resistance with NNRTI: 181C, 190A, PI: 90M, and nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI): 41L, 210W. Mean time from HIV diagnosis to resistance testing was shorter in patients with resistance versus those without: 9 (range 0.3-42 months) versus 27 (range 0.1-418 months), P = .11. There was a trend to lower mean CD4 count in those with resistance, 170 versus 318 cells/mm(3), P = .06. No differences were noted in gender, age, HIV risk category, or HIV RNA level. The low prevalence of primary resistance may be explained by differences in demographic and risk factors or may reflect the time from infection to resistance testing. Our findings emphasize the importance of continued resistance surveillance.

  13. HIV-1 molecular epidemiology among newly diagnosed HIV-1 individuals in Hebei, a low HIV prevalence province in China.

    Xinli Lu

    Full Text Available New human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 diagnoses are increasing rapidly in Hebei. The aim of this study presents the most extensive HIV-1 molecular epidemiology investigation in Hebei province in China thus far. We have carried out the most extensive systematic cross-sectional study based on newly diagnosed HIV-1 positive individuals in 2013, and characterized the molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 based on full length gag-partial pol gene sequences in the whole of Hebei. Nine HIV-1 genotypes based on full length gag-partial pol gene sequence were identified among 610 newly diagnosed naïve individuals. The four main genotypes were circulating recombinant form (CRF01_AE (53.4%, CRF07_BC (23.4%, subtype B (15.9%, and unique recombinant forms URFs (4.9%. Within 1 year, three new genotypes (subtype A1, CRF55_01B, CRF65_cpx, unknown before in Hebei, were first found among men who have sex with men (MSM. All nine genotypes were identified in the sexually contracted HIV-1 population. Among 30 URFs, six recombinant patterns were revealed, including CRF01_AE/BC (40.0%, CRF01_AE/B (23.3%, B/C (16.7%, CRF01_AE/C (13.3%, CRF01_AE/B/A2 (3.3% and CRF01_AE/BC/A2 (3.3%, plus two potential CRFs. This study elucidated the complicated characteristics of HIV-1 molecular epidemiology in a low HIV-1 prevalence northern province of China and revealed the high level of HIV-1 genetic diversity. All nine HIV-1 genotypes circulating in Hebei have spread out of their initial risk groups into the general population through sexual contact, especially through MSM. This highlights the urgency of HIV prevention and control in China.

  14. HIV-1 molecular epidemiology among newly diagnosed HIV-1 individuals in Hebei, a low HIV prevalence province in China.

    Lu, Xinli; Kang, Xianjiang; Liu, Yongjian; Cui, Ze; Guo, Wei; Zhao, Cuiying; Li, Yan; Chen, Suliang; Li, Jingyun; Zhang, Yuqi; Zhao, Hongru

    2017-01-01

    New human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) diagnoses are increasing rapidly in Hebei. The aim of this study presents the most extensive HIV-1 molecular epidemiology investigation in Hebei province in China thus far. We have carried out the most extensive systematic cross-sectional study based on newly diagnosed HIV-1 positive individuals in 2013, and characterized the molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 based on full length gag-partial pol gene sequences in the whole of Hebei. Nine HIV-1 genotypes based on full length gag-partial pol gene sequence were identified among 610 newly diagnosed naïve individuals. The four main genotypes were circulating recombinant form (CRF)01_AE (53.4%), CRF07_BC (23.4%), subtype B (15.9%), and unique recombinant forms URFs (4.9%). Within 1 year, three new genotypes (subtype A1, CRF55_01B, CRF65_cpx), unknown before in Hebei, were first found among men who have sex with men (MSM). All nine genotypes were identified in the sexually contracted HIV-1 population. Among 30 URFs, six recombinant patterns were revealed, including CRF01_AE/BC (40.0%), CRF01_AE/B (23.3%), B/C (16.7%), CRF01_AE/C (13.3%), CRF01_AE/B/A2 (3.3%) and CRF01_AE/BC/A2 (3.3%), plus two potential CRFs. This study elucidated the complicated characteristics of HIV-1 molecular epidemiology in a low HIV-1 prevalence northern province of China and revealed the high level of HIV-1 genetic diversity. All nine HIV-1 genotypes circulating in Hebei have spread out of their initial risk groups into the general population through sexual contact, especially through MSM. This highlights the urgency of HIV prevention and control in China.

  15. Human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B and hepatitis C in an Indonesian prison: prevalence, risk factors and implications of HIV screening.

    Nelwan, E.J.; Crevel, R. van; Alisjahbana, B.; Indrati, A.K.; Dwiyana, R.F.; Nuralam, N.; Pohan, H.T.; Jaya, I.; Meheus, A.; Ven, A.J.A.M. van der

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and behavioural correlates of HIV, HBV and HCV infections among Indonesian prisoners and to examine the impact of voluntary counselling and testing for all incoming prisoners on access to antiretroviral treatment (ART). METHODS: In a non-anonymous survey in an

  16. Prevalence and associated factors of TB/HIV co-infection among HIV ...

    Abstract. Background: Tuberculosis is one of the world's most common causes of death in the era of Human immunodeficiency virus. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and associated factors of TB/HIV co-infection. Methods: Hospital based retrospective studies were conducted among adult ...

  17. Screening Yield of HIV Antigen/Antibody Combination and Pooled HIV RNA Testing for Acute HIV Infection in a High-Prevalence Population.

    Peters, Philip J; Westheimer, Emily; Cohen, Stephanie; Hightow-Weidman, Lisa B; Moss, Nicholas; Tsoi, Benjamin; Hall, Laura; Fann, Charles; Daskalakis, Demetre C; Beagle, Steve; Patel, Pragna; Radix, Asa; Foust, Evelyn; Kohn, Robert P; Marmorino, Jenni; Pandori, Mark; Fu, Jie; Samandari, Taraz; Gay, Cynthia L

    2016-02-16

    established and acute HIV infections) by 10.4% (95% CI, 8.8%-12.2%) and pooled HIV RNA testing increased the relative HIV diagnostic yield by 12.4% (95% CI, 10.7%-14.3%). In a high-prevalence population, HIV screening using an HIV Ag/Ab combination assay following a negative rapid test detected 82% of acute HIV infections detectable by pooled HIV RNA testing, with a positive predictive value of 59%. Further research is needed to evaluate this strategy in lower-prevalence populations and in persons using preexposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention.

  18. Prevalence and risk factors for HIV among people aged 50 years ...

    JOHN

    reproductive and sexual health characteristics of the participants, knowledge on HIV ... Keywords: HIV, older adults, prevalence, knowledge, risk factors, Tanzania ... With increased availability of ART, people are living longer and age with HIV ...

  19. HIV prevalence and uptake of HIV/AIDS services among youths (15–24 Years in fishing and neighboring communities of Kasensero, Rakai District, South Western Uganda

    Richardson Mafigiri

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although fishing communities have a significantly higher HIV prevalence than the general population, there is paucity of data on the burden of HIV and service utilization, particularly among the youth. We assessed the HIV prevalence and utilization of HIV prevention and treatment services among youth in Kasensero fishing community and the neighboring communities. Method Data were derived from the Rakai Community Cohort Study (RCCS surveys conducted between 2013 and 2014. The RCCS is a population-based household survey that collects data annually from individuals aged 15–49 years, resident in 48 communities in Rakai and neighboring districts in Uganda. For this analysis, socio-demographic, behavioral and HIV-related data were obtained for 792 individuals aged 15–24 years. We used logistic regression to conduct bivariate and multivariable analysis to determine the factors that are independently associated with HIV-positive status and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals. Data were analyzed using STATA version 13. Results Overall HIV prevalence was 19.7% (n = 155; higher in Kasensero (n = 141; 25.1% and Gwanda (n = 8; 11% than in Kyebe (n = 6; 3.9%, p < 0.001 and among females (n = 112; 26.0% than males (n = 43; 12.0%, p < 0.001. Uptake of HIV testing was high in both HIV-positive (n = 136; 89.5% and HIV-negative youth (n = 435; 92%. Consistent condom use was virtually non-existent in HIV-positive youth (n = 1; 0.6% compared to HIV-negative youth (n = 20; 4.2%. Only 22.4% (n = 34 of the HIV-positive youth were receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART in 2013–2014; higher in the HIV-positive females (n = 31; 28.4% than HIV-positive males (n = 03; 6.7%. Slightly more than half of males (n = 134; 53.8% reported that they were circumcised; the proportion of circumcised youth was higher among HIV-negative males (n = 122; 58% than HIV-positive males (n

  20. Unexpected low prevalence of HIV among fertile women in Luanda, Angola. Does war prevent the spread of HIV?

    Strand, R T; Fernandes Dias, L; Bergström, S; Andersson, S

    2007-07-01

    We studied HIV prevalence and risk factors for HIV infection among fertile women in Luanda for the purposes of obtaining background data for planning of interventions as well as to look into the association of armed conflicts and HIV prevalence in sub-Saharan Africa. The HIV-1 prevalence was 1.7% in an antenatal care group (n = 517) and 1.9% in a family planning group (n = 518). Socioeconomic and sexual background factors did not significantly differ HIV-positive from HIV-negative women. Data on armed conflict factors were matched with HIV prevalence figures among pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa. The level of armed conflicts was found to be inversely related to HIV prevalence. The low HIV seroprevalence in Luanda is in sharp contrast to the capitals of neighbouring countries. While the spread of HIV may have been hampered by the long armed conflict in the country, it is feared to increase rapidly with the return of soldiers and refugees in a post-war situation. The challenge for preventive actions is urgent. This example may be relevant to other areas with a recent end-of-war situation.

  1. [Survey on the transmission of HIV drug resistance in Kunming, Yunnan province in 2010].

    Chen, Min; Ma, Yan-ling; Chu, Cheng-xia; Xing, Hui; Xu, Yan-sheng; Su, Ying-zhen; Yang, Ying; Chen, Hui-chao; Luo, Hong-bing; Jia, Man-hong; Lu, Lin

    2012-01-01

    To study the HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) transmission in Kunming city of Yunnan province in 2010. Referring to the guidelines for HIV drug resistance threshold survey (HIVDR-TS) set by WHO, 62 plasma samples of recently reported HIV-infected individuals who were older than 25 years of age, were collected from January to August 2010. Genotyping of pol genetic mutations associated with HIVDR with reverse transcriptional PCR was performed and the prevalence of HIV-1 drug resistance transmission was evaluated. Of the 62 plasma samples, 54 were successfully sequenced and genotyped on pol sequence. Based on the pol sequences, HIV subtypes including CRF08_BC (53.2%), CRF07_BC (25.5%), CRF01_AE (19.1%) and C (2.1%) were identified. According to the time of sampling, the first 47 sequenced samples were used for drug resistance prevalence analysis. A protease inhibitor (PI) relative mutation was found in one sample. Based on the WHO standard, the prevalence of transmitted HIV-1 drug resistance was scientific management to AIDS patients seemed to be quite important.

  2. Actual and undiagnosed HIV prevalence in a community sample of men who have sex with men in Auckland, New Zealand

    Saxton Peter JW

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of HIV infection and how this varies between subgroups is a fundamental indicator of epidemic control. While there has been a rise in the number of HIV diagnoses among men who have sex with men (MSM in New Zealand over the last decade, the actual prevalence of HIV and the proportion undiagnosed is not known. We measured these outcomes in a community sample of MSM in Auckland, New Zealand. Methods The study was embedded in an established behavioural surveillance programme. MSM attending a gay community fair day, gay bars and sex-on-site venues during 1 week in February 2011 who agreed to complete a questionnaire were invited to provide an anonymous oral fluid specimen for analysis of HIV antibodies. From the 1304 eligible respondents (acceptance rate 48.5%, 1049 provided a matched specimen (provision rate 80.4%. Results HIV prevalence was 6.5% (95% CI: 5.1-8.1. After adjusting for age, ethnicity and recruitment site, HIV positivity was significantly elevated among respondents who were aged 30-44 or 45 and over, were resident outside New Zealand, had 6-20 or more than 20 recent sexual partners, had engaged in unprotected anal intercourse with a casual partner, had had sex with a man met online, or had injected drugs in the 6 months prior to survey. One fifth (20.9% of HIV infected men were undiagnosed; 1.3% of the total sample. Although HIV prevalence did not differ by ethnicity, HIV infected non-European respondents were more likely to be undiagnosed. Most of the small number of undiagnosed respondents had tested for HIV previously, and the majority believed themselves to be either "definitely" or "probably" uninfected. There was evidence of continuing risk practices among some of those with known HIV infection. Conclusions This is the first estimate of actual and undiagnosed HIV infection among a community sample of gay men in New Zealand. While relatively low compared to other countries with mature epidemics

  3. Actual and undiagnosed HIV prevalence in a community sample of men who have sex with men in Auckland, New Zealand.

    Saxton, Peter J W; Dickson, Nigel P; Griffiths, Richard; Hughes, Anthony J; Rowden, John

    2012-02-01

    The prevalence of HIV infection and how this varies between subgroups is a fundamental indicator of epidemic control. While there has been a rise in the number of HIV diagnoses among men who have sex with men (MSM) in New Zealand over the last decade, the actual prevalence of HIV and the proportion undiagnosed is not known. We measured these outcomes in a community sample of MSM in Auckland, New Zealand. The study was embedded in an established behavioural surveillance programme. MSM attending a gay community fair day, gay bars and sex-on-site venues during 1 week in February 2011 who agreed to complete a questionnaire were invited to provide an anonymous oral fluid specimen for analysis of HIV antibodies. From the 1304 eligible respondents (acceptance rate 48.5%), 1049 provided a matched specimen (provision rate 80.4%). HIV prevalence was 6.5% (95% CI: 5.1-8.1). After adjusting for age, ethnicity and recruitment site, HIV positivity was significantly elevated among respondents who were aged 30-44 or 45 and over, were resident outside New Zealand, had 6-20 or more than 20 recent sexual partners, had engaged in unprotected anal intercourse with a casual partner, had had sex with a man met online, or had injected drugs in the 6 months prior to survey. One fifth (20.9%) of HIV infected men were undiagnosed; 1.3% of the total sample. Although HIV prevalence did not differ by ethnicity, HIV infected non-European respondents were more likely to be undiagnosed. Most of the small number of undiagnosed respondents had tested for HIV previously, and the majority believed themselves to be either "definitely" or "probably" uninfected. There was evidence of continuing risk practices among some of those with known HIV infection. This is the first estimate of actual and undiagnosed HIV infection among a community sample of gay men in New Zealand. While relatively low compared to other countries with mature epidemics, HIV prevalence was elevated in subgroups of MSM based on

  4. Actual and undiagnosed HIV prevalence in a community sample of men who have sex with men in Auckland, New Zealand

    2012-01-01

    Background The prevalence of HIV infection and how this varies between subgroups is a fundamental indicator of epidemic control. While there has been a rise in the number of HIV diagnoses among men who have sex with men (MSM) in New Zealand over the last decade, the actual prevalence of HIV and the proportion undiagnosed is not known. We measured these outcomes in a community sample of MSM in Auckland, New Zealand. Methods The study was embedded in an established behavioural surveillance programme. MSM attending a gay community fair day, gay bars and sex-on-site venues during 1 week in February 2011 who agreed to complete a questionnaire were invited to provide an anonymous oral fluid specimen for analysis of HIV antibodies. From the 1304 eligible respondents (acceptance rate 48.5%), 1049 provided a matched specimen (provision rate 80.4%). Results HIV prevalence was 6.5% (95% CI: 5.1-8.1). After adjusting for age, ethnicity and recruitment site, HIV positivity was significantly elevated among respondents who were aged 30-44 or 45 and over, were resident outside New Zealand, had 6-20 or more than 20 recent sexual partners, had engaged in unprotected anal intercourse with a casual partner, had had sex with a man met online, or had injected drugs in the 6 months prior to survey. One fifth (20.9%) of HIV infected men were undiagnosed; 1.3% of the total sample. Although HIV prevalence did not differ by ethnicity, HIV infected non-European respondents were more likely to be undiagnosed. Most of the small number of undiagnosed respondents had tested for HIV previously, and the majority believed themselves to be either "definitely" or "probably" uninfected. There was evidence of continuing risk practices among some of those with known HIV infection. Conclusions This is the first estimate of actual and undiagnosed HIV infection among a community sample of gay men in New Zealand. While relatively low compared to other countries with mature epidemics, HIV prevalence was

  5. Consistently low prevalence of syphilis among female sex workers in Jinan, China: findings from two consecutive respondent driven sampling surveys.

    Meizhen Liao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Routine surveillance using convenient sampling found low prevalence of HIV and syphilis among female sex workers in China. Two consecutive surveys using respondent driven sampling were conducted in 2008 and 2009 to examine the prevalence of HIV and syphilis among female sex workers in Jinan, China. METHODS: A face-to-face interview was conducted to collect demographic, behavioral and service utilization information using a structured questionnaire. Blood samples were drawn for serological tests of HIV-1 antibody and syphilis antibody. Respondent Driven Sampling Analysis Tool was used to generate population level estimates. RESULTS: In 2008 and in 2009, 363 and 432 subjects were recruited and surveyed respectively. Prevalence of syphilis was 2.8% in 2008 and 2.2% in 2009, while no HIV case was found in both years. Results are comparable to those from routine sentinel surveillance system in the city. Only 60.8% subjects in 2008 and 48.3% in 2009 reported a consistent condom use with clients during the past month. Over 50% subjects had not been covered by any HIV-related services in the past year, with only 15.6% subjects in 2008 and 13.1% in 2009 ever tested for HIV. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the low prevalence of syphilis and HIV, risk behaviors are common. Targeted interventions to promote the safe sex and utilization of existing intervention services are still needed to keep the epidemic from growing.

  6. Prevalence of prior HIV testing and associated factors among MSM in Zhejiang Province, China: a cross-sectional study

    Runhua Li

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Men who have sex with men (MSM have become one of high-risk population for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection, due to their multiple sex partners and unprotected anal intercourse. Promoting HIV testing is an effective strategy for the prevention and control of HIV infection. We assessed the factors associated with a prior HIV testing history, which could provide guidance for implementation of future HIV intervention programs. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in three cities of Zhejiang Province, namely, Hangzhou, Ningbo and Wenzhou, using respondent-driven sampling, between December 2013 and June 2014. A face-to-face questionnaire survey was employed to collect relevant information about HIV testing. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify the factors associated with a prior HIV testing history. Results The adjusted rate of prior HIV testing among MSM in Zhejiang Province was 55.9 %. The adjusted rates of HIV and syphilis infections among MSM in Zhejiang Province were 14.0 % and 11.4 %, respectively. A weighted multivariate analysis showed that MSM of older age were more likely to be tested, as were MSM with higher level of education, self-reported homosexuality and a higher frequency of receiving AIDS/sexually transmitted infections educational intervention in the past year. MSM with suicidal inclination and self-perceived lower possibility of HIV infection were less likely to report ever having undergone an HIV test. Conclusions The prevalence of prior HIV testing among MSM in Zhejiang Province, China is low. Effective and more frequent interventional measures should be adopted to improve risk awareness and psychosocial support for younger, less educated MSM, and to encourage more MSM to undergo HIV testing.

  7. Community burden of undiagnosed HIV infection among adolescents in Zimbabwe following primary healthcare-based provider-initiated HIV testing and counselling: A cross-sectional survey.

    Victoria Simms

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Children living with HIV who are not diagnosed in infancy often remain undiagnosed until they present with advanced disease. Provider-initiated testing and counselling (PITC in health facilities is recommended for high-HIV-prevalence settings, but it is unclear whether this approach is sufficient to achieve universal coverage of HIV testing. We aimed to investigate the change in community burden of undiagnosed HIV infection among older children and adolescents following implementation of PITC in Harare, Zimbabwe.Over the course of 2 years (January 2013-January 2015, 7 primary health clinics (PHCs in southwestern Harare implemented optimised, opt-out PITC for all attendees aged 6-15 years. In February 2015-December 2015, we conducted a representative cross-sectional survey of 8-17-year-olds living in the 7 communities served by the study PHCs, who would have had 2 years of exposure to PITC. Knowledge of HIV status was ascertained through a caregiver questionnaire, and anonymised HIV testing was carried out using oral mucosal transudate (OMT tests. After 1 participant taking antiretroviral therapy was observed to have a false negative OMT result, from July 2015 urine samples were obtained from all participants providing OMTs and tested for antiretroviral drugs to confirm HIV status. Children who tested positive through PITC were identified from among survey participants using gender, birthdate, and location. Of 7,146 children in 4,251 eligible households, 5,486 (76.8% children in 3,397 households agreed to participate in the survey, and 141 were HIV positive. HIV prevalence was 2.6% (95% CI 2.2%-3.1%, and over a third of participants with HIV were undiagnosed (37.7%; 95% CI 29.8%-46.2%. Similarly, among the subsample of 2,643 (48.2% participants with a urine test result, 34.7% of those living with HIV were undiagnosed (95% CI 23.5%-47.9%. Based on extrapolation from the survey sample to the community, we estimated that PITC over 2 years identified

  8. Engagement with HIV prevention treatment and care among female sex workers in Zimbabwe: a respondent driven sampling survey.

    Cowan, Frances M; Mtetwa, Sibongile; Davey, Calum; Fearon, Elizabeth; Dirawo, Jeffrey; Wong-Gruenwald, Ramona; Ndikudze, Theresa; Chidiya, Samson; Benedikt, Clemens; Busza, Joanna; Hargreaves, James R

    2013-01-01

    To determine the HIV prevalence and extent of engagement with HIV prevention and care among a representative sample of Zimbabwean sex workers working in Victoria Falls, Hwange and Mutare. Respondent driven sampling (RDS) surveys conducted at each site. Sex workers were recruited using respondent driven sampling with each respondent limited to recruiting 2 peers. Participants completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire and provided a finger prick blood sample for HIV antibody testing. Statistical analysis took account of sampling method. 870 women were recruited from the three sites. HIV prevalence was between 50 and 70%. Around half of those confirmed HIV positive were aware of their HIV status and of those 50-70% reported being enrolled in HIV care programmes. Overall only 25-35% of those with laboratory-confirmed HIV were accessing antiretroviral therapy. Among those reporting they were HIV negative, 21-28% reported having an HIV test in the last 6 months. Of those tested HIV negative, most (65-82%) were unaware of their status. Around two-thirds of sex workers reported consistent condom use with their clients. As in other settings, sex workers reported high rates of gender based violence and police harassment. This survey suggests that prevalence of HIV is high among sex workers in Zimbabwe and that their engagement with prevention, treatment and care is sub-optimal. Intensifying prevention and care interventions for sex workers has the potential to markedly reduce HIV and social risks for sex workers, their clients and the general population in Zimbabwe and elsewhere in the region.

  9. Employment discrimination and HIV stigma: survey results from civil ...

    The article presents findings from three surveys of people living with HIV (PLHIV) and civil society organisations about the experience of employment discrimination and stigma in the workplace. The work seeks to contribute to efforts by businesses and other organisations to effectively respond to the HIV epidemic within the ...

  10. Prevalence of genotypic HIV-1 drug resistance in Thailand, 2002

    Watitpun Chotip

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prices of reverse transcriptase (RT inhibitors in Thailand have been reduced since December 1, 2001. It is expected that reduction in the price of these inhibitors may influence the drug resistance mutation pattern of HIV-1 among infected people. This study reports the frequency of HIV-1 genetic mutation associated with drug resistance in antiretroviral-treated patients from Thailand. Methods Genotypic resistance testing was performed on samples collected in 2002 from 88 HIV-1 infected individuals. Automated DNA sequencing was used to genotype the HIV-1 polymerase gene isolated from patients' plasma. Results Resistance to protease inhibitors, nucleoside and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors were found in 10 (12%, 42 (48% and 19 (21% patients, respectively. The most common drug resistance mutations in the protease gene were at codon 82 (8%, 90 (7% and 54 (6%, whereas resistant mutations at codon 215 (45%, 67 (40%, 41 (38% and 184 (27% were commonly found in the RT gene. This finding indicates that genotypic resistance to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors was prevalent in 2002. The frequency of resistant mutations corresponding to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors was three times higher-, while resistant mutation corresponding to protease inhibitors was two times lower than those frequencies determined in 2001. Conclusion This study shows that the frequencies of RT inhibitor resistance mutations have been increased after the reduction in the price of RT inhibitors since December 2001. We believe that this was an important factor that influenced the mutation patterns of HIV-1 protease and RT genes in Thailand.

  11. The Prevalence of HIV in Cancer Patients at the Surgical Oncology Unit of Donka University Hospital of Conakry (Guinea).

    Traore, Bangaly; Bah, Thierno Souleymane; Traore, Fode Amara; Sow, Mamadou Saliou; Diane, Solomana; Keita, Mamady; Cisse, Mohamed; Koulibaly, Moussa; Camara, Naby Daouda

    2015-01-01

    Aim. To determine the prevalence of HIV infection among patients seen at the surgical oncology unit of Donka (Conakry, Guinea). Method. We conducted a retrospective and descriptive study of HIV infection in cancer patients from May 2007 to December 2012. Social characteristics (age, gender, marital status, and education) and immune status (HIV type, CD4 count) were reviewed. Results. Out of 2598 cancer patients, 54 (2.1%) tested positive for HIV. There were 11 (20.4%) defining AIDS and 43 (79.6%) nondefining AIDS cancers. The most frequent cancers were breast (14) (26.0%), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (6) (11.1%), liver (6) (11.1%), eye and annexes (6) (11.1%), and cervical cancer (5) (9.3%). These patients were female in 34 (63.0%) and had a median age of 39 years and body mass index was 20,3 Kg/m(2). They were unschooled in 40 (74.1%) and married in 35 (64.8%). CD4 count showed a median of 317 cells/mL. Antiretroviral treatment was performed in 40 (74.1%). Conclusion. HIV prevalence is higher in patients in our unit of surgical oncology. Breast cancer was the most common in this association. A national survey of a large sample is needed to determine the true prevalence and impact of HIV on cancer prognosis.

  12. The Prevalence of HIV in Cancer Patients at the Surgical Oncology Unit of Donka University Hospital of Conakry (Guinea

    Bangaly Traore

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To determine the prevalence of HIV infection among patients seen at the surgical oncology unit of Donka (Conakry, Guinea. Method. We conducted a retrospective and descriptive study of HIV infection in cancer patients from May 2007 to December 2012. Social characteristics (age, gender, marital status, and education and immune status (HIV type, CD4 count were reviewed. Results. Out of 2598 cancer patients, 54 (2.1% tested positive for HIV. There were 11 (20.4% defining AIDS and 43 (79.6% nondefining AIDS cancers. The most frequent cancers were breast (14 (26.0%, non-Hodgkin lymphoma (6 (11.1%, liver (6 (11.1%, eye and annexes (6 (11.1%, and cervical cancer (5 (9.3%. These patients were female in 34 (63.0% and had a median age of 39 years and body mass index was 20,3 Kg/m2. They were unschooled in 40 (74.1% and married in 35 (64.8%. CD4 count showed a median of 317 cells/mL. Antiretroviral treatment was performed in 40 (74.1%. Conclusion. HIV prevalence is higher in patients in our unit of surgical oncology. Breast cancer was the most common in this association. A national survey of a large sample is needed to determine the true prevalence and impact of HIV on cancer prognosis.

  13. The Prevalence of HIV in Cancer Patients at the Surgical Oncology Unit of Donka University Hospital of Conakry (Guinea)

    Traore, B.; Diane, S.; Keita, M. S.; Bah, T. S.; Sow, M. S.; Cisse, M.; Koulibaly, M.; Camara, N. D.

    2015-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of HIV infection among patients seen at the surgical oncology unit of Donka (Conakry, Guinea). Method. We conducted a retrospective and descriptive study of HIV infection in cancer patients from May 2007 to December 2012. Social characteristics (age, gender, marital status, and education) and immune status (HIV type, CD4 count) were reviewed. Results. Out of 2598 cancer patients, 54 (2.1%) tested positive for HIV. There were 11 (20.4%) defining AIDS and 43 (79.6%) non defining AIDS cancers. The most frequent cancers were breast (14) (26.0%), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (6) (11.1%), liver (6) (11.1%), eye and annexes (6) (11.1%), and cervical cancer (5) (9.3%). These patients were female in 34 (63.0%) and had a median age of 39 years and body mass index was 20,3 Kg/m 2 . They were unschooled in 40 (74.1%) and married in 35 (64.8%). CD4 count showed a median of 317 cells/mL. Antiretroviral treatment was performed in 40 (74.1%). Conclusion. HIV prevalence is higher in patients in our unit of surgical oncology. Breast cancer was the most common in this association. A national survey of a large sample is needed to determine the true prevalence and impact of HIV on cancer prognosis

  14. HIV prevalence and high-risk behaviour of young brothel and non-brothel based female sex workers in Nigeria.

    Okafor, Uchenna Onyekachi; Crutzen, Rik; Ifeanyi, Okekearu; Adebajo, Sylvia; Van den Borne, Hubertus

    2017-08-10

    Female sex workers (FSWs) have been identified as a core group in the transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Young FSWs are particularly more vulnerable to HIV due to the combination of vulnerabilities associated with their youth and the sex work they engage in. This study aims to give more insight into HIV prevalence and sexual risk behaviour of young FSWs in Nigeria, by focusing on the differences between BB and NBB young FSWs. Data was obtained from the Nigeria Integrated Biological and Behavioural Surveillance Survey (IBBSS) for high-risk groups conducted in 2010. IBBSS is a quantitative survey conducted amongst identified high-risk sub populations within Nigeria. HIV prevalence and risk behaviour data for young BB and NBB FSWs aged 15-24 years for nine states was extracted and analysed. A total of 1796 FSWs aged 15-24 years were interviewed during the survey, 746 (41.5%) were BB while 1050 (58.5%) were NBB. The HIV prevalence was higher among BB FSWs compared to the NBB FSWs (21.0% vs. 15.5%). BB FSWs reported less condom use with boyfriends and casual partners than NBB FSWs (26.3% vs. 45.5%) and (55.1% vs. 61.1%) respectively while risk of HIV infection due to injecting drug use was higher in NBB compared to BB FSWs (6.6% vs. 1.2%). Existing and future interventions on HIV prevention should focus on empowering young FSWs with innovative and sustainable approaches aimed at improving their health and wellbeing.

  15. Examining sex differentials in the uptake and process of HIV testing in three high prevalence districts of India.

    Joseph, Saju; Kielmann, Karina; Kudale, Abhay; Sheikh, Kabir; Shinde, Swati; Porter, John; Rangan, Sheela

    2010-03-01

    Sex differentials in the uptake of HIV testing have been reported in a range of settings, however, men's and women's testing patterns are not consistent across these settings, suggesting the need to set sex differentials against gender norms in patient testing behaviour and provider practices. A community-based, cross-sectional survey among 347 people living with HIV in three HIV high prevalence districts of India examined reasons for undergoing an HIV test, location of testing and conditions under which individuals were tested. HIV testing was almost always provider-initiated for men. Men were more likely to be advised to test by a private practitioner and to test in the private sector. Women were more likely to be advised to test by a family member, and to test in the public sector. Men were more likely to receive pre-test information than women, when tested in the private sector. Men were also more likely to receive direct disclosure of their HIV positive status by a health provider, regardless of the sector in which they tested. More women than men were repeatedly tested for HIV, regardless of sector. These sex differentials in the uptake and process of HIV testing are partially explained through differences in public and private sector testing practices. However, they also reflect women's lack of awareness and agency in HIV care seeking and differential treatment by providers. Examining gender dynamics that underpin sex differentials in HIV testing patterns and practices is essential for a realistic assessment of the challenges and implications of scaling-up HIV testing and mainstreaming gender in HIV/AIDS programmes.

  16. Prevalence and public-health significance of HIV infection and anaemia among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in south-eastern Nigeria.

    Uneke, C J; Duhlinska, D D; Igbinedion, E B

    2007-09-01

    HIV infection and anaemia are major public-health problems in Africa and are important factors associated with an increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of HIV infection and anaemia among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in southeastern Nigeria. To achieve this, a cross-sectional survey was conducted during July 2005-June 2006 using standard techniques. Of 815 pregnant women studied, 31 (3.8%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.5-5.1) were HIV-positive. Maternal age and gestational age were not associated with HIV infection (p > 0.05). The prevalence of anaemia (Hb anaemia (Hb prevalence of anaemia was observed among individuals in their second pregnancy trimester (p anaemia are preventable, antenatal care services could serve as a pivotal entry point for simultaneous delivery of interventions for the prevention and control of HIV infection and anaemia in pregnant women.

  17. The Prevalence of Disclosure of HIV Status to HIV-Infected Children in Western Kenya.

    Turissini, Matthew L; Nyandiko, Winstone M; Ayaya, Samuel O; Marete, Irene; Mwangi, Ann; Chemboi, Victor; Warui, Lucy; Vreeman, Rachel C

    2013-06-01

    As antiretroviral therapy (ART) allows the world's 2.3 million human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children to grow and thrive, these children need to be informed of their HIV status. Neither the prevalence of disclosure to children nor its impact has been evaluated in most resource-limited settings. We conducted a prospective assessment of a random sample of HIV-infected children ages 6-14 years enrolled in HIV care at a large referral clinic in Eldoret, Kenya. Clinicians administered questionnaires to children and caregivers independently at routine clinic visits to assess disclosure status, ART adherence, stigma, and depression. Children's demographic and clinical characteristics were extracted from chart review. We calculated descriptive statistics and performed logistic regression to assess the association between disclosure and other characteristics. Two hundred seventy children-caregiver dyads completed questionnaires. The mean child age was 9.3 years (standard deviation 2.6); 49% were male, and 42% were orphans. 11.1% of children had been informed of their HIV status (N = 30). Of those under 10 years, 3.3% knew their status, whereas 9.2% of 10- to 12-year-olds and 39.5% of 13- to 14-year-olds knew they had HIV. Only age was significantly associated with disclosure status in both bivariate analyses (P processes should be a key facet of long-term pediatric HIV management. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. HIV prevalence and demographic determinants of condomless receptive anal intercourse among trans feminine individuals in Beirut, Lebanon.

    Kaplan, Rachel L; McGowan, Justine; Wagner, Glenn J

    2016-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests increased HIV incidence in the Middle East and North Africa among "key populations." To date, epidemiological data have not accurately included and measured HIV prevalence and risk among trans feminine individuals in the region. Through the lens of the Gender Affirmation Framework, we assessed demographic correlates of risk behaviour and the prevalence of HIV among trans feminine individuals in Lebanon. Long-chain referral sampling was used to recruit 53 participants for completion of a behavioural survey and optional free rapid HIV tests. Data were collected using interviewer-administered questionnaires. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to identify demographic determinants of HIV risk behaviour. Fifty-seven percent of participants reported condomless receptive anal intercourse (CRAI) with male partner(s) in the last three months, 40% of whom reported not knowing the HIV status of the partner(s). Of the participants tested for HIV as part of the study or via self-report, four (10%) were HIV positive; 13 declined HIV testing. Forty percent of the sample had no prior history of HIV testing. A history of trauma such as sexual abuse/assault was reported by almost half of the participants (49%). Sixty-eight percent reported experiencing physical violence and 32% police arrest, because of gender identity or presentation. A staggering 98% reported having experienced gender identity or gender presentation-related discrimination. Sixty-six percent of the sample reported current sex work; sex work was correlated with CRAI but was not significant in multivariate analysis. In regression analysis, "openness"/"outness" about transgender identity at work or school was significantly associated with CRAI. Surprisingly, a history of sexual abuse/assault was negatively correlated with CRAI, suggesting the need for further inquiry. The results of this study provide implications for how to address sexual health among trans feminine

  19. Associations between sexual behaviour change in young people and decline in HIV prevalence in Zambia

    Siziya Seter

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence suggests that HIV prevalence amongst young Zambians has declined recently, especially in higher-education groups. We studied trends in key sexual behaviour indicators among 15–24 year-olds from 1995 to 2003, including the associations between sexual behaviour change and education. Methods The data stem from a series of three population-based surveys conducted in 1995 (n = 1720, 1999 (n = 1946 and 2003 (n = 2637. Logistic regression and Extended Mantel Haenszel Chi Square for linear trends were used to compare the three surveys. Results Men and lower-education groups reported more than one sexual partner in the year immediately prior to the survey more frequently than did women and higher-education groups (p Conclusion High risk behaviours clearly decreased, especially in higher-educated and urban groups, and there is a probable association here with the decline in HIV prevalence in the study population. Fewer sexual partners and condom use were among the core factors involved for both sexes; and for women a further factor was delayed child-bearing.

  20. Size estimation, HIV prevalence and risk behaviours of female sex workers in Pakistan

    Altaf, A.; Aga, A.; McKinizie, M.H.; Abbas, Q.; Jafri, S.B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To provide size estimation and to determine risky behaviours and HIV prevalence among female sex workers in Pakistan, which has progressed from a low to concentrated level of HIV epidemic. Methods: A cross-sectional study (geographic mapping and integrated behavioural and biological survey-IBBS) was conducted between August 2005 to January 2006 in Karachi, Hyderabad and Sukkur. A detailed questionnaire and dry blood spot (DBS) specimen for HIV testing were collected by trained interviewers after informed consent. The study was ethically approved by review boards in Canada and Pakistan. Results: About 14,900 female sex workers were estimated to be functional in Sindh. A total of 1158 of them were interviewed for the study. Average age of sex workers was 27.4+- 6.7 years, and the majority 787 (67.9%) were married, and uneducated 764 (65.9%). Sindhi (26.4%) was the predominant ethnicity. Mean number of paid clients was 2.1+-1.2. Three workers were confirmed HIV positive (0.75%, 95 percent CI 0.2-2.2%) from Karachi. Condom use at last sexual act was highest (68%) among brothel-based workers from Karachi, and the lowest in Sukkur where only 1.3% street-based workers reported using a condom at last sexual act. Overall use of illicit drugs through injections was negligible. Conclusion: HIV prevalence among female sex workers in Sindh, Pakistan is low but risky behaviours are present. Well organised service delivery programmes can help promoting safer practices. (author)

  1. Hypertension and obesity in adults living in a high HIV prevalence rural area in South Africa.

    Abraham Malaza

    Full Text Available Hypertension and excess body weight are major risk factors of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in developing countries. In countries with a high HIV prevalence, it is unknown how increased antiretroviral treatment and care (ART coverage has affected the prevalence of overweight, obesity, and hypertension. We conducted a health survey in 2010 based on the WHO STEPwise approach in 14,198 adult resident participants of a demographic surveillance area in rural South Africa to investigate factors associated with hypertension and excess weight including HIV infection and ART status. Women had a significantly higher median body mass index (BMI than men (26.4 vs. 21.2 kg/m(2, p<0.001. The prevalence of obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2 in women (31.3%, 95% confidence interval (CI 30.2-32.4 was 6.5 times higher than in men (4.9%, 95% CI 4.1-5.7, whereas prevalence of hypertension (systolic or diastolic blood pressure ≥ 140 or 90 mm Hg, respectively was 1.4 times higher in women than in men (28.5% vs 20.8%, p<0.001. In multivariable regression analysis, both hypertension and obesity were significantly associated with sex, age, HIV and ART status. The BMI of women and men on ART was on average 3.8 (95% CI 3.2-3.8 and 1.7 (95% CI 0.9-2.5 kg/m(2 lower than of HIV-negative women and men, respectively. The BMI of HIV-infected women and men not on ART was on average 1.2 (95% CI 0.8-1.6 and 0.4 (95% CI -0.1-0.9 kg/m(2 lower than of HIV-negative women and men, respectively. Obesity was a bigger risk factor for hypertension in men (adjusted odds ratio (aOR 2.99, 95% CI 2.00-4.48 than in women (aOR 1.64, 95% CI 1.39-1.92 and overweight (25 ≤ BMI<30 was a significant risk factor for men only (aOR 1.53 95% CI 1.14-2.06. Our study suggests that, cardiovascular risk factors of hypertension and obesity differ substantially between women and men in rural South Africa.

  2. Prevalence of vaginitis, syphilis and HIV infection in women in the ...

    To determine the prevalence of vaginitis, syphilis and HIV infection in women in ... have a significant impact on infected people's health as well as on health care .... for both HIV-1 and H1V-2 antibodies using HIV 1/2 EIA. (Abbott Laboratories ...

  3. Maternal hiv positive sero-prevalence at delivery at a tertiary ...

    Background Key Words: Maternal HIV positive sero-prevalence, delivery, birth sex ratio,Orlu.: The duo of HIV/AIDS infection has become a Global public health problem. This study was conducted to determine the maternal HIV positive seroprevalence at delivery at the Imo State University Teaching Hospital, Orlu. Methods: ...

  4. Incident and prevalence of HIV/AIDS among patients attending a ...

    Young people, ages 15–24, account for approximately 40% of new HIV infections (among those 15 and over). Globally, young women are twice as likely to become infected with HIV than their male counterparts. As at 2012, UNAIDS revealed that the HIV/AIDS prevalence rate among adults of ages 15-49 in Nigeria was ...

  5. Gender differences, routes of transmission, socio-demographic characteristics and prevalence of HIV related infections of adults and children in an HIV cohort from a rural district of India

    Gerardo Alvarez-Uria

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite 67% of HIV infected people in India are rural residents, the epidemiology of HIV in rural areas is not well known. This is an observational cohort study of 11,040 HIV infected people living in a rural district of India. The prevalence of hepatitis B, hepatitis C and syphilis of HIV infected patients were compared to the seroprevalence in 16,641 blood donors from the same area. The age of diagnosis in adults was below 35 years in 70% of cases and 56% were illiterate. One third of women were widows and only 3.6% of adults had a permanent job. Women were diagnosed at earlier age, had lower level of education, had poorer employment conditions and depended more on their relatives than men. In a survey performed to a subgroup of patients, 81% of women referred to have acquired HIV from their spouse, whereas 51% of men acquired HIV from commercial sex. Patients with HIV had significantly higher prevalence of hepatitis B, hepatitis C and syphilis than blood donors. Seroprevalence of HIV-2, hepatitis C and toxoplasmosis were low compared to other sites. Six percent were children (<15 years and almost half of them had lost one or both of their parents. The study shows the poor socio-economical situation and the high level of illiteracy of people living with HIV in rural India, especially women. Future health programmes of HIV in India should take into account the particularities of the HIV epidemic in rural areas.

  6. Gender differences, routes of transmission, socio-demographic characteristics and prevalence of HIV related infections of adults and children in an HIV cohort from a rural district of India.

    Alvarez-Uria, Gerardo; Midde, Manoranjan; Pakam, Raghavakalyam; Naik, Praveen Kumar

    2012-01-02

    Despite 67% of HIV infected people in India are rural residents, the epidemiology of HIV in rural areas is not well known. This is an observational cohort study of 11,040 HIV infected people living in a rural district of India. The prevalence of hepatitis B, hepatitis C and syphilis of HIV infected patients were compared to the seroprevalence in 16,641 blood donors from the same area. The age of diagnosis in adults was below 35 years in 70% of cases and 56% were illiterate. One third of women were widows and only 3.6% of adults had a permanent job. Women were diagnosed at earlier age, had lower level of education, had poorer employment conditions and depended more on their relatives than men. In a survey performed to a subgroup of patients, 81% of women referred to have acquired HIV from their spouse, whereas 51% of men acquired HIV from commercial sex. Patients with HIV had significantly higher prevalence of hepatitis B, hepatitis C and syphilis than blood donors. Seroprevalence of HIV-2, hepatitis C and toxoplasmosis were low compared to other sites. Six percent were children (illiteracy of people living with HIV in rural India, especially women. Future health programmes of HIV in India should take into account the particularities of the HIV epidemic in rural areas.

  7. The need for a comprehensive response to HIV/ AIDS in north-western Somalia: evidence from a seroprevalence survey.

    Abdalla, E; Ekanem, E; Said, D; Arube, P; Gboun, M; Mohammed, F

    2010-02-01

    The prolonged civil strife in the North-West Zone of Somalia (Somaliland) has hampered the development of social infrastructure and public health services. There are limited data on HIV/AIDS. In 2004, a sentinel HIV seroprevalence survey was conducted. Blood samples were collected from 1561 women attending antenatal care clinics, 249 tuberculosis (TB) patients and 243 people attending sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics. Samples were tested for syphilis and HIV. Overall HIV prevalence was 1.4%, significantly higher than that observed in many other countries in the Region. Prevalence was 1.2% among pregnant women 15-24 years, 12.3% among patients with STD and 5.6% among TB patients. The prevalence of syphilis was 1.3% in the pregnant women.

  8. HIV Serostatus Disclosure to Sexual Partners Among Sexually Active People Living with HIV in South Africa: Results from the 2012 National Population-Based Household Survey.

    Simbayi, Leickness C; Zungu, Nompumelelo; Evans, Meredith; Mehlomakulu, Vuyelwa; Kupamupindi, Takura; Mafoko, Goitseone; Zuma, Khangelani

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the prevalence and correlates of HIV seropositive status disclosure to sexual partners by people living with HIV (PLHIV) in South Africa. Secondary analysis of the 2012 South African National HIV Prevalence, Incidence and Behaviour Survey was conducted on data obtained from 934 sexually active PLHIV aged 15 years and older who responded to the question about HIV seropositive status disclosure. Overall, a large majority of respondents (77.1 %) reported disclosing their HIV-positive status to all their current sex partners. Multiple regression analysis, after adjustments for sex, marital status and locality type, revealed that those who were living together, going steady, and those who were single were all 60 % [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0.4, 95 % CIs 0.20-0.78; AOR = 0.4, 95 % CIs 0.24-0.77; and AOR = 0.4, 95 % CIs 0.19-1.00, all ps < 0.05] less likely to disclose their HIV positive status to their partners compared to those who were married. Those who lived in rural formal areas were 70 % less likely to disclose their HIV status to their partners compared to those who stayed in urban formal areas (AOR = 0.3, 95 % CI 0.17-0.69, p < 0.001). Those who had correct HIV knowledge and rejection of myths were 2.0 times more likely to disclose their HIV status to their partners compared to those who did not have correct HIV knowledge and rejection of myths (AOR = 2.0, 95 % CI 1.04-3.68, p < 0.05). In conclusion, intervention programmes which help improve HIV seropositive status disclosure are needed by PLHIV who are not married, live in rural formal areas, and have incorrect HIV knowledge and rejection of myths.

  9. Condom use and prevalence of syphilis and HIV among female sex workers in Andhra Pradesh, India – following a large-scale HIV prevention intervention

    2011-01-01

    Background Avahan, the India AIDS initiative began HIV prevention interventions in 2003 in Andhra Pradesh (AP) among high-risk groups including female sex workers (FSWs), to help contain the HIV epidemic. This manuscript describes an assessment of this intervention using the published Avahan evaluation framework and assesses the coverage, outcomes and changes in STI and HIV prevalence among FSWs. Methodology Multiple data sources were utilized including Avahan routine program monitoring data, two rounds of cross-sectional survey data (in 2006 and 2009) and STI clinical quality monitoring assessments. Bi-variate and multivariate analyses, Wald Chi-square tests and multivariate logistic regressions were used to measure changes in behavioural and biological outcomes over time and their association. Results Avahan scaled up in conjunction with the Government program to operate in all districts in AP by March 2009. By March 2009, 80% of the FSWs were being contacted monthly and 21% were coming to STI services monthly. Survey data confirmed an increase in peer educator contacts with the mean number increasing from 2.9 in 2006 to 5.3 in 2009. By 2008 free and Avahan-supported socially marketed condoms were adequate to cover the estimated number of commercial sex acts, at 45 condoms/FSW/month. Consistent condom use was reported to increase with regular (63.6% to 83.4%; AOR=2.98; p<0.001) and occasional clients (70.8% to 83.7%; AOR=2.20; p<0.001). The prevalence of lifetime syphilis decreased (10.8% to 6.1%; AOR=0.39; p<0.001) and HIV prevalence decreased in all districts combined (17.7% to 13.2%; AOR 0.68; p<0.01). Prevalence of HIV among younger FSWs (aged 18 to 20 years) decreased (17.7% to 8.2%, p=0.008). A significant increase in condom use at last sex with occasional and regular clients and consistent condom use with occasional clients was observed among FSWs exposed to the Avahan program. There was no association between exposure and HIV or STIs, although numbers

  10. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Danish patients with HIV infection: the effect of antiretroviral therapy

    Hansen, B R; Petersen, J; Haugaard, S B

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) in HIV-infected patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is a subject of debate. We investigated the prevalence of MS in a cohort of Danish HIV-infected patients and estimated the effect of the various classes of antiretroviral...

  11. Increased prevalence of malaria in HIV-infected pregnant women and its implications for malaria control

    Verhoeff, F. H.; Brabin, B. J.; Hart, C. A.; Chimsuku, L.; Kazembe, P.; Broadhead, R. L.

    1999-01-01

    To examine in pregnant women the relationship between HIV infection and malaria prevalence and to determine, in relation to HIV infection, the effectiveness of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine in clearing P. falciparum infection. Descriptive cross-sectional analysis of P. falciparum prevalence in pregnant

  12. Comparing HIV prevalence estimates from prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission programme and the antenatal HIV surveillance in Addis Ababa

    Mirkuzie Alemnesh H

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the absence of reliable data, antenatal HIV surveillance has been used to monitor the HIV epidemic since the late 1980s. Currently, routine data from Prevention of Mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT programmes are increasingly available. Evaluating whether the PMTCT programme reports provide comparable HIV prevalence estimates with the antenatal surveillance reports is important. In this study, we compared HIV prevalence estimates from routine PMTCT programme and antenatal surveillance in Addis Ababa with the aim to come up with evidence based recommendation. Methods Summary data were collected from PMTCT programmes and antenatal surveillance reports within the catchment of Addis Ababa. The PMTCT programme data were obtained from routine monthly reports from 2004 to 2009 and from published antenatal HIV surveillance reports from 2003 to 2009. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics. Results In Addis Ababa, PMTCT sites had increased from six in 2004 to 54 in 2009. The site expansion was accompanied by an increased number of women testing. There were marked increases in the rate of HIV testing following the introduction of routine opt-out HIV testing approach. Paralleling these increases, the HIV prevalence showed a steady decline from 10.0% in 2004 to 4.5% in 2009. There were five antenatal surveillance sites from 2003 to 2007 in Addis Ababa and they increased to seven by 2009. Four rounds of surveillance data from five sites showed a declining trend in HIV prevalence over the years. The overall antenatal surveillance data also showed that the HIV prevalence among antenatal attendees had declined from 12.4% in 2003 to 5.5% in 2009. The HIV prevalence estimates from PMTCT programme were 6.2% and 4.5% and from antenatal surveillance 6.1 and 5.5% in 2008 and 2009 respectively. Conclusions There were consistent HIV prevalence estimates from PMTCT programme and from antenatal surveillance reports. Both data sources

  13. Prevalence of HIV Among U.S. Female Sex Workers: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Paz-Bailey, Gabriela; Noble, Meredith; Salo, Kathryn; Tregear, Stephen J

    2016-10-01

    Although female sex workers are known to be vulnerable to HIV infection, little is known about the epidemiology of HIV infection among this high-risk population in the United States. We systematically identified and critically assessed published studies reporting HIV prevalence among female sex workers in the United States. We searched for and included original English-language articles reporting data on the prevalence of HIV as determined by testing at least 50 females who exchanged sexual practices for money or drugs. We did not apply any restrictions on date of publication. We included 14 studies from 1987 to 2013 that reported HIV prevalence for a total of 3975 adult female sex workers. Only two of the 14 studies were conducted in the last 10 years. The pooled estimate of HIV prevalence was 17.3 % (95 % CI 13.5-21.9 %); however, the prevalence of HIV across individual studies varied considerably (ranging from 0.3 to 32 %) and statistical heterogeneity was substantial (I(2) = 0.89, Q = 123; p HIV among female sex workers in the United States; however, the available evidence does suggest that HIV prevalence among this vulnerable population is high.

  14. Prevalence of risk factors for HIV infection among Mexican migrants and immigrants: probability survey in the north border of Mexico Prevalencia de factores de riesgo para la infección por VIH entre migrantes mexicanos: encuesta probabilística en la frontera norte de México

    M. Gudelia Rangel

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of risk factors for HIV infection among Mexican migrants and immigrants (MMIs in different geographic contexts, including the sending communities in Mexico, the receiving communities in the United States (US, and the Mexican North border region. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a probability survey among MMIs traveling through key border crossing sites in the Tijuana (Baja California, Mexico-San Diego (California, US border region (N=1 429. RESULTS: The survey revealed substantial rates of reported sexually transmitted infections, needle-sharing and sexual risk practices in all migration contexts. CONCLUSIONS: The estimated levels of HIV risk call for further binational research and preventive interventions in all key geographic contexts of the migration experience to identify and tackle the different personal, environmental, and structural determinants of HIV risk in each of these contexts.OBJETIVO: Estimar la prevalencia de prácticas de riesgo para la infección por VIH en migrantes mexicanos durante su estancia en distintos contextos geográficos, incluyendo sus comunidades de origen en México, las comunidades de destino en Estados Unidos de América (EUA, y la frontera Norte de México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Encuesta probabilística de migrantes mexicanos que transitan por la región fronteriza Tijuana (Baja California, México-San Diego (California, EUA (N=1 429. RESULTADOS: La encuesta reveló una alta prevalencia de infecciones de transmisión sexual, uso compartido de agujas, y prácticas sexuales de riesgo en todos los contextos geográficos estudiados. CONCLUSIONES: Los niveles de riesgo de infección por VIH estimados para migrantes mexicanos en diferentes contextos geográficos exigen estudios e intervenciones preventivas binacionales que identifiquen y aborden los distintos factores de riesgo personales, ambientales, y estructurales que contribuyen al riesgo de infección por VIH en cada

  15. Transitioning from antenatal surveillance surveys to routine HIV testing: a turning point in the mother-to-child transmission prevention programme for HIV surveillance in Brazil.

    Pereira, Gerson Fernando Mendes; Sabidó, Meritxell; Caruso, Alessandro; Benzaken, Adele Schwartz

    2017-07-05

    In Brazil, due to the rapid increase in programmes for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT), routine programme data are widely available. The objective of this study was to assess the utility of programmatic data to replace HIV surveillance based on the antenatal care (ANC) surveillance survey (SS). We analysed ANC SS data from 219 maternity service clinics. PMTCT variables were extracted from the ANC SS data collection form, which allowed us to capture and compare the ANC SS data and PMTCT HIV test results for each pregnant woman who completed the ANC SS. Both the PMTCT programme and the ANC SS tested for HIV using sequential ELISA and western blot for confirmation. We assessed the completeness (% missing) of the PMTC data included in the ANC SS. Of the 36,713 pregnant women who had ANC SS HIV tests performed, 30,588 also underwent PMTCT HIV testing. The HIV prevalence rate from routine PMTCT testing was 0.36%, compared to 0.38% from the ANC SS testing (relative difference -0.05%; absolute difference -0.02%). The relative difference in prevalence rates between pregnant women in northern Brazil and pregnant women central-west Brazil was -0.98 and 0.66, respectively. Of the 29,856 women who had HIV test results from both the PMTCT and ANC SS, the positive percent agreement of the PMTCT versus the surveillance test was 84.1% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 74.8-91.0), and the negative percent agreement was 99.9% (95% CI: 99.9-100.0). The PMTCT HIV testing uptake was 86.4%. The ANC SS HIV prevalence was 0.33% among PMTCT non-refusers and 0.59% among refusers, with a percent bias of -10.80% and a differential prevalence ratio of 0.56. Syphilis and HIV testing results were complete in 98% and 97.6% of PMTCT reports, respectively. The reported HIV status for the women at clinic entry was missing. Although there were consistent HIV prevalence estimates from the PMTCT data and the ANC SS, the overall positive percent agreement of 84.1% falls below the

  16. AIDS stigma as an obstacle to uptake of HIV testing: evidence from a Zimbabwean national population-based survey.

    Sambisa, William; Curtis, Sian; Mishra, Vinod

    2010-02-01

    Using the 2005-2006 Zimbabwe Demographic and Health Survey, we investigated the prevalence of HIV testing uptake within a sample of women (6839) and men (5315), and identified the independent effects of AIDS stigma on testing uptake, with particular emphasis on three pathways to testing: voluntary testing, testing when offered, and testing when required. The prevalence of self-reported HIV testing was higher among women (31%) than men (22%). For women, the main pathway to testing uptake was to accept testing when it is offered (46%), whereas for men it was voluntary testing (53%). In the logistic regression models, we found that social rejection stigma was inversely associated with uptake across all pathways of testing for women, but not men. As regards observed enacted stigma, respondents who both knew someone with HIV and had observed discrimination against someone with HIV were more likely to test for HIV through all pathways, while those who knew someone with HIV but had not observed stigma were more likely to test voluntarily. Individual characteristics important to the adoption of testing included high educational attainment, religion, exposure to mass media, and ever use of condoms; while being never married and self-perceived risk were barriers to testing. Programmatic strategies aimed at increasing HIV testing uptake should consider reducing stigma toward people living with HIV/AIDS and also addressing the role of agency and structure in individual's decision to be tested for HIV.

  17. [HIV infection and syphilis prevalence among men who have sex with men receiving voluntary counseling and testing appointed through a web-based registering system and related factors].

    Wu, Qiongmiao; Cheng, Weibin; Zhong, Fei; Xu, Huifang; Liu, Qi; Lin, Peng

    2015-05-01

    To understand the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection status and syphilis prevalence among men who have sex with men (MSM) receiving voluntary counseling and testing appointed through a web-based registering system and related factors. The MSM receiving web appointed HIV counseling and testing from 2011 to 2012 in Guangzhou were recruited and a questionnaire survey was conduct among them to obtain the information about their demographic characteristics and sexual behavior. Binary and multivariate logistic regression model were used to identify the factors associated with HIV infection or syphilis prevalence. A total of 4,904 MSM were enrolled in the study, the average age of the MSM was (28.77±7.24) years, and 70.3% of them had high education level; the unmarried MSM accounted for 72.7%. The HIV infection rate and syphilis prevalence were 8.7% and 4.4% respectively. The co-infection rate of HIV and Treponema pallidum was 1.2% (59/4 904). About one in three MSM did not use condom at latest homosexual behavior, 43.5% did not use condoms at each homosexual behavior in the past three months. Lower education level, occupation (worker or farmer), non-consistent condom use at each sex with men in the past three months, receiving HIV test or not and Treponema pallidum infection were associated with HIV infection. Age≥40 years, lower education level, multi male sex partners in the past three months and HIV infection were associated with Treponema pallidum infection. MSM receiving web appointed HIV counseling and testing had high prevalence of risk behaviors and high HIV infection rate, but had low previous HIV testing rate. It is necessary to strengthen the promotion of HIV test through web based appointment and conduct target behavior intervention in older MSM with lower education level.

  18. Health Care Use and HIV-Related Behaviors of Black and Latina Transgender Women in 3 US Metropolitan Areas: Results From the Transgender HIV Behavioral Survey.

    Denson, Damian J; Padgett, Paige M; Pitts, Nicole; Paz-Bailey, Gabriela; Bingham, Trista; Carlos, Juli-Ann; McCann, Pamela; Prachand, Nikhil; Risser, Jan; Finlayson, Teresa

    2017-07-01

    HIV prevalence estimates among transgender women in the United States are high, particularly among racial/ethnic minorities. Despite increased HIV risk and evidence of racial disparities in HIV prevalence among transgender women, few data are available to inform HIV prevention efforts. A transgender HIV-related behavioral survey conducted in 2009 in 3 US metropolitan areas (Chicago, Houston, and Los Angeles County), used respondent-driven sampling to recruit 227 black (n = 139) and Latina (n = 88) transgender women. We present descriptive statistics on sociodemographic, health care, and HIV-risk behaviors. Of 227 transgender women enrolled, most were economically and socially disadvantaged: 73% had an annual income of less than $15,000; 62% lacked health insurance; 61% were unemployed; and 46% reported being homeless in the past 12 months. Most (80%) had visited a health care provider and over half (58%) had tested for HIV in the past 12 months. Twenty-nine percent of those who reported having an HIV test in the past 24 months self-reported being HIV positive. Most of the sample reported hormone use (67%) in the past 12 months and most hormone use was under clinical supervision (70%). Forty-nine percent reported condomless anal sex in the past 12 months and 16% reported ever injecting drugs. These findings reveal the socioeconomic challenges and behavioral risks often associated with high HIV risk reported by black and Latina transgender women. Despite low health insurance coverage, the results suggest opportunities to engage transgender women in HIV prevention and care given their high reported frequency of accessing health care providers.

  19. No association between gender inequality and peak HIV prevalence in developing countries - an ecological study.

    Kenyon, Chris R; Buyze, Jozefien

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of both gender inequality and HIV prevalence vary considerably both within all developing countries and within those in sub-Saharan Africa. We test the hypothesis that the extent of gender inequality is associated with national peak HIV prevalence. Linear regression was used to test the association between national peak HIV prevalence and three markers of gender equality - the gender-related development index (GDI), the gender empowerment measure (GEM), and the gender inequality index (GII). No evidence was found of a positive relationship between gender inequality and HIV prevalence, either in the analyses of all developing countries or those limited to Africa. In the bivariate analyses limited to Africa, there was a positive association between the two measures of gender "equality" and peak HIV prevalence (GDI: coefficient 28, 95% confidence interval (CI) 9.1-46.8; GEM: coefficient 54.8, 95% CI 20.5-89.1). There was also a negative association between the marker of gender "inequality" and peak HIV prevalence (GII: coefficient -66.9, 95% CI -112.8 to -21.0). These associations all disappeared on multivariate analyses. We could not find any evidence to support the hypothesis that variations in the extent of gender inequality explain variations in HIV prevalence in developing countries.

  20. High HIV Prevalence, Suboptimal HIV Testing, and Low Knowledge of HIV-Positive Serostatus Among Injection Drug Users in St. Petersburg, Russia

    Toussova, Olga V.; Verevochkin, Sergei V.; Barbour, Russell; Heimer, Robert; Kozlov, Andrei P.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis was to estimate human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence and testing patterns among injection drug users (IDUs) in St. Petersburg, Russia. HIV prevalence among 387 IDUs in the sample was 50%. Correlates of HIV-positive serostatus included unemployment, recent unsafe injections, and history/current sexually transmitted infection. Seventy-six percent had been HIV tested, but only 22% of those who did not report HIV-positive serostatus had been tested in the past 12 months and received their test result. Correlates of this measure included recent doctor visit and having been in prison or jail among men. Among the 193 HIV-infected participants, 36% were aware of their HIV-positive serostatus. HIV prevalence is high and continuing to increase in this population. Adequate coverage of HIV testing has not been achieved, resulting in poor knowledge of positive serostatus. Efforts are needed to better understand motivating and deterring factors for HIV testing in this setting. PMID:18843531

  1. Prevalence of HIV infection in pregnant women in Mumbai, India: Experience from 1993-2004 and 2008

    Shah, Ira; Lala, Mamatha; Damania, Kaizad

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Prevalence of HIV among pregnant women in India is of great concern, especially to prevent HIV in children. Mother–to-child transmission of HIV is the most common cause of transmission of HIV in children. Prevalence of HIV infection in pregnant women in India has ranged from 0.7% to 1.2%. Thus, estimating prevalence of HIV in pregnant women would aid in developing and prioritizing prevention of parent-to-child transmission of HIV programs. Materials and Methods: All pregnant women referr...

  2. Filling the Knowledge Gap: Measuring HIV Prevalence and Risk Factors among Men Who Have Sex with Men and Female Sex Workers in Tripoli, Libya

    Valadez, Joseph J.; Berendes, Sima; Jeffery, Caroline; Thomson, Joanna; Ben Othman, Hussain; Danon, Leon; Turki, Abdullah A.; Saffialden, Rabea; Mirzoyan, Lusine

    2013-01-01

    Background Publications on Libya’s HIV epidemic mostly examined the victims of the tragic nosocomial HIV outbreak in the 1990s and the related dispute about the detention of foreign medical workers. The dispute resolution in 2003 included an agreement with the European Union on humanitarian cooperation and the development of Libya’s first National HIV Strategy. As part of this we conducted Libya’s first bio-behavioural survey among men having sex with men (MSM) and female sex workers (FSW). Methods Using respondent-driven sampling, we conducted a cross-sectional study to estimate the prevalence of HIV, hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and related risk factors among 227 MSM and 69 FSW in Tripoli (FSW recruitment ended prematurely due to the political events in 2011). Results For MSM we estimated an HIV prevalence of 3.1%, HBV prevalence of 2.9%, and HCV prevalence of 7.3%, and for FSW an HIV prevalence of 15.7%, HBV prevalence of 0%, and HCV prevalence of 5.2%. We detected high levels of risk behaviours, poor HIV-related knowledge, high stigma and lack of prevention programmes. These results must be interpreted in the context of the political situation which prohibited reaching an ideal sample size for FSW. Conclusion There is urgent need to implement an effective National HIV Strategy informed by the results of this research. The risk of transmission within different risk groups and to the general population may be high given the recent military events that led to increased violence, migration, and the disruption of essential HIV-related services. PMID:23840521

  3. Strong association between in-migration and HIV prevalence in urban sub-Saharan Africa.

    Voeten, Hélène A C M; Vissers, Debby C J; Gregson, Simon; Zaba, Basia; White, Richard G; de Vlas, Sake J; Habbema, J Dik F

    2010-04-01

    Enormous variation exists in HIV prevalence between countries in sub-Saharan Africa. The contribution of migration to the spread of HIV has long been recognized, but its effect at the population level has never been assessed. In this ecological analysis, we explore how much variation in HIV prevalence in urban sub-Saharan Africa is explained by in-migration. We performed a linear regression to analyze the association between the proportion of recent in-migrants and HIV prevalence for men and women in urban areas, using 60 data points from 28 sub-Saharan African countries between 1987 and 2005. We found a strong association between recent in-migration and HIV prevalence for women (Pearson R = 57%, P Africa (R = 50%, P = 0.003). For both genders, the association was strongest between 1985 and 1994, slightly weaker between 1995 and 1999, and nonexistent as from 2000. The overall association for both men and women was not confounded by the developmental indicators GNI per capita, income inequalities, or adult literacy. Migration explains much of the variation in HIV spread in urban areas of sub-Saharan Africa, especially before the year 2000, after which HIV prevalences started to level off in many countries. Our findings suggest that migration is an important factor in the spread of HIV, especially in rapidly increasing epidemics. This may be of relevance to the current HIV epidemics in China and India.

  4. HIV prevalence, risks for HIV infection, and human rights among men who have sex with men (MSM in Malawi, Namibia, and Botswana.

    Stefan Baral

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the generalized epidemics of HIV in southern Sub-Saharan Africa, men who have sex with men have been largely excluded from HIV surveillance and research. Epidemiologic data for MSM in southern Africa are among the sparsest globally, and HIV risk among these men has yet to be characterized in the majority of countries. METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional anonymous probe of 537 men recruited with non-probability sampling among men who reported ever having had sex with another man in Malawi, Namibia, and Botswana using a structured survey instrument and HIV screening with the OraQuick(c rapid test kit. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The HIV prevalence among those between the ages of 18 and 23 was 8.3% (20/241; 20.0% (42/210 among those 24-29; and 35.7% (30/84 among those older than 30 for an overall prevalence of 17.4% (95% CI 14.4-20.8. In multivariate logistic regressions, being older than 25 (aOR 4.0, 95% CI 2.0-8.0, and not always wearing condoms during sex (aOR 2.6, 95% CI 1.3-4.9 were significantly associated with being HIV-positive. Sexual concurrency was common with 16.6% having ongoing concurrent stable relationships with a man and a woman and 53.7% had both male and female sexual partners in proceeding 6 months. Unprotected anal intercourse was common and the use of petroleum-based lubricants was also common when using condoms. Human rights abuses, including blackmail and denial of housing and health care was prevalent with 42.1% (222/527 reporting at least one abuse. CONCLUSIONS: MSM are a high-risk group for HIV infection and human rights abuses in Malawi, Namibia, and Botswana. Concurrency of sexual partnerships with partners of both genders may play important roles in HIV spread in these populations. Further epidemiologic and evaluative research is needed to assess the contribution of MSM to southern Africa's HIV epidemics and how best to mitigate this. These countries should initiate and adequately fund evidence-based and targeted HIV

  5. a survey of opportunistic infections in hiv seropositive patients

    DR. AMINU

    focal brain lesion and accounts for about 13% of all ... between latitude 10° and 13°N and longitude 2°-6°E. According to 1991 ... pipettes into clean dry test tubes ready for use. Genie II ... The percentage prevalence of HIV infection and the.

  6. Population and antenatal-based HIV prevalence estimates in a high contracepting female population in rural South Africa

    Barnighausen Till

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To present and compare population-based and antenatal-care (ANC sentinel surveillance HIV prevalence estimates among women in a rural South African population where both provision of ANC services and family planning is prevalent and fertility is declining. With a need, in such settings, to understand how to appropriately adjust ANC sentinel surveillance estimates to represent HIV prevalence in general populations, and with evidence of possible biases inherent to both surveillance systems, we explore differences between the two systems. There is particular emphasis on unrepresentative selection of ANC clinics and unrepresentative testing in the population. Methods HIV sero-prevalence amongst blood samples collected from women consenting to test during the 2005 annual longitudinal population-based serological survey was compared to anonymous unlinked HIV sero-prevalence amongst women attending antenatal care (ANC first visits in six clinics (January to May 2005. Both surveillance systems were conducted as part of the Africa Centre Demographic Information System. Results Population-based HIV prevalence estimates for all women (25.2% and pregnant women (23.7% were significantly lower than that for ANC attendees (37.7%. A large proportion of women attending urban or peri-urban clinics would be predicted to be resident within rural areas. Although overall estimates remained significantly different, presenting and standardising estimates by age and location (clinic for ANC-based estimates and individual-residence for population-based estimates made some group-specific estimates from the two surveillance systems more predictive of one another. Conclusion It is likely that where ANC coverage and contraceptive use is widespread and fertility is low, population-based surveillance under-estimates HIV prevalence due to unrepresentative testing by age, residence and also probably by HIV status, and that ANC sentinel surveillance over

  7. HIV Futures 8: Protocol for a Repeated Cross-sectional and Longitudinal Survey of People Living with HIV in Australia

    Power, Jennifer; Brown, Graham; Lyons, Anthony; Thorpe, Rachel; Dowsett, Gary W.; Lucke, Jayne

    2017-01-01

    Introduction More than 27,000 Australians currently live with HIV. Most of these people have access to quality clinical care and antiretroviral treatment (ART) and can expect good general health. However, HIV-related stigma is a problem and many people living with HIV experience poorer than average mental health. Issues of aging are also of increasing concern. This paper describes the methods and sample for the HIV Futures 8 study, a national survey of people living with HIV in Australia that...

  8. Prevalence of HIV infection in pregnant women in Mumbai, India: Experience from 1993-2004 and 2008.

    Shah, Ira; Lala, Mamatha; Damania, Kaizad

    2017-01-01

    Prevalence of HIV among pregnant women in India is of great concern, especially to prevent HIV in children. Mother-to-child transmission of HIV is the most common cause of transmission of HIV in children. Prevalence of HIV infection in pregnant women in India has ranged from 0.7% to 1.2%. Thus, estimating prevalence of HIV in pregnant women would aid in developing and prioritizing prevention of parent-to-child transmission of HIV programs. All pregnant women referred to the antenatal clinic from 1993 onward were tested for HIV infection by ELISA test after pretest counseling. A woman was diagnosed to be HIV infected if she tested positive on more than two HIV ELISA tests. Prevalence of HIV infection in them was calculated and also whether there was an increasing trend was determined. A total of 123,439 pregnant women were tested for HIV from 1993 to 2004, of which 1797 women were HIV infected. Overall, the prevalence rate was found to be 1.4%. Prevalence rose from 0.76% in 1993 to 2.37% in 1998. However, from 2004, the prevalence has decreased to 0.6%. Prevalence of HIV in pregnant women in Mumbai is decreasing.

  9. Prevalence of HIV infection in pregnant women in Mumbai, India: Experience from 1993-2004 and 2008

    Ira Shah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Prevalence of HIV among pregnant women in India is of great concern, especially to prevent HIV in children. Mother–to-child transmission of HIV is the most common cause of transmission of HIV in children. Prevalence of HIV infection in pregnant women in India has ranged from 0.7% to 1.2%. Thus, estimating prevalence of HIV in pregnant women would aid in developing and prioritizing prevention of parent-to-child transmission of HIV programs. Materials and Methods: All pregnant women referred to the antenatal clinic from 1993 onward were tested for HIV infection by ELISA test after pretest counseling. A woman was diagnosed to be HIV infected if she tested positive on more than two HIV ELISA tests. Prevalence of HIV infection in them was calculated and also whether there was an increasing trend was determined. Results: A total of 123,439 pregnant women were tested for HIV from 1993 to 2004, of which 1797 women were HIV infected. Overall, the prevalence rate was found to be 1.4%. Prevalence rose from 0.76% in 1993 to 2.37% in 1998. However, from 2004, the prevalence has decreased to 0.6%. Conclusion: Prevalence of HIV in pregnant women in Mumbai is decreasing.

  10. Prevalence of HIV infection in pregnant women in Mumbai, India: Experience from 1993-2004 and 2008

    Shah, Ira; Lala, Mamatha; Damania, Kaizad

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Prevalence of HIV among pregnant women in India is of great concern, especially to prevent HIV in children. Mother–to-child transmission of HIV is the most common cause of transmission of HIV in children. Prevalence of HIV infection in pregnant women in India has ranged from 0.7% to 1.2%. Thus, estimating prevalence of HIV in pregnant women would aid in developing and prioritizing prevention of parent-to-child transmission of HIV programs. Materials and Methods: All pregnant women referred to the antenatal clinic from 1993 onward were tested for HIV infection by ELISA test after pretest counseling. A woman was diagnosed to be HIV infected if she tested positive on more than two HIV ELISA tests. Prevalence of HIV infection in them was calculated and also whether there was an increasing trend was determined. Results: A total of 123,439 pregnant women were tested for HIV from 1993 to 2004, of which 1797 women were HIV infected. Overall, the prevalence rate was found to be 1.4%. Prevalence rose from 0.76% in 1993 to 2.37% in 1998. However, from 2004, the prevalence has decreased to 0.6%. Conclusion: Prevalence of HIV in pregnant women in Mumbai is decreasing. PMID:29302524

  11. Prevalence of HIV and sexually transmitted infections among clients of female sex workers in Karnataka, India: a cross-sectional study.

    Shaw, Souradet Y; Deering, Kathleen N; Reza-Paul, Sushena; Isac, Shajy; Ramesh, Banadakoppa M; Washington, Reynold; Moses, Stephen; Blanchard, James F

    2011-12-29

    Studies have demonstrated the significance of commercial sex work in the ongoing transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in India. Clients of female sex workers (FSWs) are thought to be an important bridging population for HIV/STIs. However, there is a lack of information on basic characteristics of sex work clients. This study sought to describe the prevalence of HIV and other STIs, as well as examine the determinants of these pathogens among a sample of clients in south India. Data were from a cross-sectional biological and behavioural survey of FSW clients from six districts in Karnataka State, India. The prevalence of HIV, syphilis, herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), chlamydia (CT) and gonorrhoea (NG) among clients was examined. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to analyse the socio-demographic, sexual behaviour and sex-work related characteristics related to the prevalence of each pathogen. Sampling weights and appropriate survey methods were utilized in regression models to account for complex sampling design. The total sample size was 2,745. The average age of clients was 30.4 (SE:0.3). Across the total sample, the prevalence of HIV, HSV-2, syphilis and CT/NG was 5.6%, 28.4%, 3.6% and 2.2%, respectively. The prevalence of HIV/STIs varied substantially across districts, reaching statistical significance for HIV (plodges were at increased risk for CT/NG (AOR: 6.3; 95%CI: 1.9-20.6, p=.03). Examining co-infections, clients with HSV-2 infections were at substantially higher risk of being HIV-positive (AOR: 10.4; 95%CI: 6.1-17.7, p<.0001). This study fills in important gaps in knowledge regarding clients in southern India. The strong association between HIV and HSV-2 infections highlights the complications in designing effective prevention, intervention and management programs of this well-hidden population.

  12. HIV prevalence, AIDS knowledge, and condom use among female sex workers in Santiago, Chile.

    Barrientos, Jaime E; Bozon, Michel; Ortiz, Edith; Arredondo, Anabella

    2007-08-01

    This paper describes HIV seroprevalence, knowledge of HIV transmission, and condom use among female sex workers (FSW) attending five specialized sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics in Santiago, Chile. A short questionnaire with socio-demographic, AIDS knowledge, and condom-use variables was administered to 626 FSW. HIV seroprevalence was estimated with a blood test sent to the Chilean Public Health Institute. ELISA was used to confirm HIV in suspected cases. HIV prevalence was 0%. FSW showed adequate overall knowledge of HIV, even better than reported for the Chilean general population on some items. Condom use with clients was high ("always" = 93.4%), although regular use with steady partners was low ("always" = 9.9%). The zero HIV seroprevalence and consistent condom use with clients confirms the positive impact of intervention strategies for FSW, increasing both correct knowledge of AIDS and condom use with clients and helping decrease these women's HIV/AIDS vulnerability.

  13. High prevalence of oral colonization by Candida dubliniensis in HIV-positive patients in Argentina.

    Binolfi, Andrés; Biasoli, Marisa S; Luque, Alicia G; Tosello, María E; Magaró, Hortensia M

    2005-08-01

    Candida dubliniensis is a recently described yeast species, closely related to Candida albicans. This work represents the first general survey of the carriage of C. dubliniensis in the oral cavities of HIV-positive patients in Argentina. We studied 133 strains isolated from 162 HIV-positive patients, using the following identification tests: chlamydospore production on corn meal agar with Tween 80; colony color on CHROMagar Candida media; differential growth at 45 degrees C on potato dextrose agar; D-xylose assimilation; chlamydospore formation on sunflower seed agar (SSA); carbohydrate assimilation profiles using the API 20 C Aux commercial kit and PCR using primers that hybridize to the class IV intron of the ACT1 gene. Out of the 133 strains, 21 were identified as C. dubliniensis, representing approximately 13% of the 162 patients in this study. From these data, we conclude that although the PCR assay is the most reliable method, clamydospore formation on SSA is an easier and less expensive test for the screening of C. dubliniensis in the routine laboratory. Our results show that C. dubliniensis has a high prevalence among HIV-positive patients in Argentina.

  14. Smoking prevalence: a comparison of two American surveys.

    Rodu, B; Cole, P

    2009-09-01

    To compare smoking prevalence estimates from two nationally representative surveys in the USA. Smoking prevalence estimates derived from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) and the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) for the period 1998-2005. Comparisons according to age (18-34 or 35+ years) and according to smoking frequency (every day or some days). In 1998, the prevalence of smoking in both surveys was nearly identical at 24%. From 1999 to 2005, a divergence occurred in smoking prevalence found by the NSDUH and the NHIS. By 2005, NHIS prevalence had declined to 20.9% [95% confidence interval (CI) 20.3-21.5], but the NSDUH estimate was 25.4% (95%CI 24.6-26.2), amounting to 9.1 million more smokers. In 1999, prevalence among 18-34 year olds in the NSDUH was only 18% (95%CI 13-22) higher than that in the NHIS, but that difference had doubled by 2005, when smoking prevalence among 18-34 year olds was 36% (95%CI 30-41) higher in the NSDUH than in the NHIS. NSDUH and NHIS prevalence among 35+ year olds were similar in 1999 and 2001, but the difference was 13% (95%CI 9-18) in 2005. Higher smoking prevalence estimates in the NSDUH were largely due to much higher estimates for some-day smoking in that survey, although every-day smoking prevalence among 18-34 year-olds was also higher in the NSDUH than in the NHIS. These results raise doubt about the recent decline in smoking prevalence described by the NHIS. Further investigation of the NSDUH/NHIS discrepancy may lead to better surveys and to a clearer picture of smoking trends in the USA.

  15. High prevalence of HIV p24 antigen among HIV antibody negative prospective blood donors in Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

    Japhet, Margaret Oluwatoyin; Adewumi, Moses Olubusuyi; Adesina, Olufisayo Adeyemi; Donbraye, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Blood transfusion service centers in Nigeria screen donated blood for markers of HIV infection using antibody- (Ab) based rapid test and in some centers, positives are re-tested using Ab-based ELISA. Paucity of data exists on p24 antigen prevalence among HIV Ab-negative donors in Nigeria. This study aims at detecting HIV p24 antigen among prospective blood donors in Osun State, Nigeria. Prospective blood donors negative for HIV antibodies using Determine test kit were re-tested using BIORAD GENSCREEN Ultra Ag-Ab ELISA kit, a fourth-generation ELISA kit that detects HIV antibodies/p24 antigen. Of the 169 HIV Ab-negative prospective donors, 10 (5.9%) were positive for HIV p24 antigen and 70% (7/10) of them were in the age range 18-30 years. Results of this study show that blood transfusion is still one of the major routes of HIV transmission in Nigeria and a higher proportion is among youth. Inclusion of p24 antigen testing into the blood donor screening will help reduce transfusion associated HIV in Nigeria if Nucleic Acid Testing (NAT) of all blood donor samples is not affordable; also, HIV enlightenment programs tailored toward youth may help reduce this rate among donors since more young people donate blood in low/middle-income countries than in high-income countries.

  16. Low prevalence of H. pylori Infection in HIV-Positive Patients in the Northeast of Brazil

    Silva Cícero IS

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study conducted in Northeastern Brazil, evaluated the prevalence of H. pylori infection and the presence of gastritis in HIV-infected patients. Methods There were included 113 HIV-positive and 141 age-matched HIV-negative patients, who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy for dyspeptic symptoms. H. pylori status was evaluated by urease test and histology. Results The prevalence of H. pylori infection was significantly lower (p H. pylori status and gender, age, HIV viral load, antiretroviral therapy and the use of antibiotics. A lower prevalence of H. pylori was observed among patients with T CD4 cell count below 200/mm3; however, it was not significant. Chronic active antral gastritis was observed in 87.6% of the HIV-infected patients and in 780.4% of the control group (p = 0.11. H. pylori infection was significantly associated with chronic active gastritis in the antrum in both groups, but it was not associated with corpus chronic active gastritis in the HIV-infected patients. Conclusion We demonstrated that the prevalence of H. pylori was significantly lower in HIV-positive patients compared with HIV-negative ones. However, corpus gastritis was frequently observed in the HIV-positive patients, pointing to different mechanisms than H. pylori infection in the genesis of the lesion.

  17. Incremento en la prevalencia del VIH y en las conductas de riesgo asociadas en hombres que tienen sexo con hombres: 12 años de encuestas de vigilancia conductual en Cataluña Increase in the prevalence of HIV and in associated risk behaviors in men who have sex with men: 12 years of behavioral surveillance surveys in Catalonia (Spain

    Cinta Folch

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Describir las tendencias en la prevalencia de la infección por VIH, las conductas de riesgo asociadas a su transmisión y las actitudes respecto a los tratamientos antirretrovirales en el colectivo de hombres que tienen sexo con hombres reclutados en Cataluña entre 1995 y 2006. Métodos: Estudios transversales bianuales en una muestra de conveniencia de hombres que tienen sexo con hombres reclutados en saunas, sex-shops, bares y un parque público, y por correo a los socios de la Coordinadora Gai-Lesbiana, mediante un cuestionario anónimo y autoadministrado. Se recogieron muestras de saliva para determinar la prevalencia de la infección por VIH. La significación de las tendencias lineales en las proporciones se analizó mediante el test de ji² de tendencia lineal, estratificando por edad. Resultados: La prevalencia global del VIH aumentó del 8,5% (1995 al 14,1% (2006 en los menores de 30 años (p=0,162, y del 18,2% (1995 al 21,2% (2006 en los de 30 años y más (p=0,07. El uso consistente del preservativo en la penetración anal con parejas ocasionales descendió del 72,9% al 58,7% en los menores de 30 años (pObjectives: To describe trends in HIV prevalence, in risk behaviors associated with HIV transmission, and in knowledge and attitudes related to antiretroviral therapy (ART among men who have sex with men (MSM recruited in Catalonia between 1995 and 2006. Methods: Biannual cross-sectional surveys were performed. An opportunistic sample of MSM was recruited in saunas, sex shops, bars and a cruising site in a public park. In addition, an anonymous self-administered questionnaire was sent by mail to all members of a gay and lesbian association (Coordinadora Gai-Lesbiana. Oral fluid samples were collected to determine HIV prevalence. Linear trends in proportions were assessed by the chi² test, stratified by age. Results: The overall prevalence of HIV infection increased from 8.5% (1995 to 14.1% (2006 among men aged less than

  18. Correlates of previous couples’ HIV counseling and testing uptake among married individuals in three HIV prevalence strata in Rakai, Uganda

    Joseph K. B. Matovu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies show that uptake of couples’ HIV counseling and testing (couples’ HCT can be affected by individual, relationship, and socioeconomic factors. However, while couples’ HCT uptake can also be affected by background HIV prevalence and awareness of the existence of couples’ HCT services, this is yet to be documented. We explored the correlates of previous couples’ HCT uptake among married individuals in a rural Ugandan district with differing HIV prevalence levels. Design: This was a cross-sectional study conducted among 2,135 married individuals resident in the three HIV prevalence strata (low HIV prevalence: 9.7–11.2%; middle HIV prevalence: 11.4–16.4%; and high HIV prevalence: 20.5–43% in Rakai district, southwestern Uganda, between November 2013 and February 2014. Data were collected on sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics, including previous receipt of couples’ HCT. HIV testing data were obtained from the Rakai Community Cohort Study. We conducted multivariable logistic regression analysis to identify correlates that are independently associated with previous receipt of couples’ HCT. Data analysis was conducted using STATA (statistical software, version 11.2. Results: Of the 2,135 married individuals enrolled, the majority (n=1,783, 83.5% had been married for five or more years while (n=1,460, 66% were in the first-order of marriage. Ever receipt of HCT was almost universal (n=2,020, 95%; of those ever tested, (n=846, 41.9% reported that they had ever received couples’ HCT. There was no significant difference in previous receipt of couples’ HCT between low (n=309, 43.9%, middle (n=295, 41.7%, and high (n=242, 39.7% HIV prevalence settings (p=0.61. Marital order was not significantly associated with previous receipt of couples’ HCT. However, marital duration [five or more years vis-à-vis 1–2 years: adjusted odds ratio (aOR: 1.06; 95% confidence interval (95% CI: 1.04–1.08] and

  19. Prevalence of Internalized HIV-Related Stigma Among HIV-Infected Adults in Care, United States, 2011-2013.

    Baugher, Amy R; Beer, Linda; Fagan, Jennifer L; Mattson, Christine L; Freedman, Mark; Skarbinski, Jacek; Shouse, R Luke

    2017-09-01

    HIV-infected U.S. adults have reported internalized HIV-related stigma; however, the national prevalence of stigma is unknown. We sought to determine HIV-related stigma prevalence among adults in care, describe which socio-demographic groups bear the greatest stigma burden, and assess the association between stigma and sustained HIV viral suppression. The Medical Monitoring Project measures characteristics of U.S. HIV-infected adults receiving care using a national probability sample. We used weighted data collected from June 2011 to May 2014 and assessed self-reported internalized stigma based on agreement with six statements. Overall, 79.1% endorsed ≥1 HIV-related stigma statements (n = 13,841). The average stigma score was 2.4 (out of a possible high score of six). White males had the lowest stigma scores while Hispanic/Latina females and transgender persons who were multiracial or other race had the highest. Although stigma was associated with viral suppression, it was no longer associated after adjusting for age. Stigma was common among HIV-infected adults in care. Results suggest individual and community stigma interventions may be needed, particularly among those who are Stigma was not independently associated with viral suppression; however, this sample was limited to adults in care. Examining HIV-infected persons not in care may elucidate stigma's association with viral suppression.

  20. Prevalence and management of intestinal helminthiasis among HIV-infected patients at Muhimbili National Hospital.

    Mwambete, Kennedy D; Justin-Temu, Mary; Peter, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted at Muhimbili National Hospital (Tanzania) to determine prevalence of helminthiasis among in-patients with HIV/AIDS. After signing an informed consent form, participants answered a sociodemographic and risk factor questionnaire. Fecal specimens from patients with HIV-infected and uninfected patients were screened for intestinal helminthiasis (IHLs) using coprological methods. A total of 146 patients were recruited, of those 66 were HIV-negative while 80 were HIV-negative patients. Thirty-five patients (12 HIV/AIDS and 23 non-HIV/AIDS) had helminthic infections. Hookworms were the most frequently detected helminths among patients living with HIV/AIDS (13.6%) and HIV-negative patients (17.5%), followed by schistosomiasis (9%) detected among HIV-negative individuals only. Prevalence of helminthiases (HLs) was observed to be relatively lower among HIV-infected than uninfected patients, which is ascribable to prophylactic measures adopted for patients with HIV/AIDS. Thus, it is recommended that routine screening for HLs and prophylactic measures should be adopted for the improvement of patients' health status.

  1. HIV prevalence, attitudes and behaviour in clients of a confidential HIV testing and counselling centre in Uganda.

    Müller, O; Barugahare, L; Schwartländer, B; Byaruhanga, E; Kataaha, P; Kyeyune, D; Heckmann, W; Ankrah, M

    1992-08-01

    To describe clients, operation and impact of an African public HIV testing and counselling centre. Analysis of samples from clients attending the AIDS Information Centre (AIC) in Kampala, Uganda in early 1991. HIV-1-positive and HIV-negative consecutive clients (250 of each), 86 consecutive couples, and 200 consecutive clients who were HIV-negative in 1990 and were attending for their repeat test. HIV seroprevalence rates, attitudes, behaviour and behaviour change. HIV-1 prevalence was 28% overall, 24% in men and 35% in women. Reasons for taking the HIV test were a planned marriage or a new relationship (27%; 84% in couples), to plan for the future (35%), distrust of sexual partner (14%) and illness or disease/death (not HIV-specific) of partner (20%). The majority of the reported intentions in response to a positive or a negative HIV test result were positive, demonstrating the ability to cope with this information. Of repeat clients, two (1%) had become HIV-1-positive. The majority of repeat clients reported one sexual partner only (67%) or sexual abstinence (25%). Compared with pre-test information from AIC clients attending for the first time, repeat clients reported casual sexual contacts less often (6 versus 25%) and, of those, the majority used condoms. Our study demonstrates the demand for and the feasibility of confidential HIV testing and counseling services in Uganda, and illustrates the value of these services in achieving behaviour changes. Such services should be considered an additional approach for the reduction of HIV transmission in Africa, especially in areas with high HIV seroprevalence rates.

  2. How to identify tuberculosis cases in a prevalence survey

    van der Werf, M. J.; Enarson, D. A.; Borgdorff, M. W.

    2008-01-01

    The identification of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) cases in a prevalence Survey is a challenge, as diagnostic methods are labour-intensivc and large numbers of individuals need to be screened because the prevalence rate is low (almost never greater than 1200 per 100000 population). Three testing

  3. High HIV sero-prevalence among students of institutions of higher education in Southeast Nigeria

    Ijeoma Emeka-Nwabunnia

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the prevalence and sexual behavioural dynamics of HIV infection in students of institutions of higher education (IHEs as a guide to the design of a tailor-made HIV intervention programmes. Methods: A total of 9 709 sexually matured students from five IHEs in Southeast Nigeria aged 1 9-24 years were recruited to obtain representative data from the institutionalised student population. HIV status was confirmed using enzyme based immuno-assay technique. Demographic and behavioural information were obtained through a structured questionnaire. Association of HIV infection with behavioural risk factors was done using multiple logistics regression model. Results: IHEs in Southeast Nigeria have a higher HIV prevalence of 3.69% against the national projected rate of 201 2. The age-specific prevalence among male students (2.91 % is nonsignificantly (P>0.1 lower than that of females (4.31 %. Female students had higher rate of infection, multiple sexual partner, transactional and forced sex, unusual genital discharge and low condom use when compared with their male counterparts. These risk factors were associated with increased HIV seropositivity. HIV prevalence and sexual risky behaviour were high among students of IHEs when compared with previous estimates of their non-institutionalised age brackets. Unprotected sexual activity have a 4.2 times higher chances of infecting the partner with HIV. Conclusions: The data showed a higher prevalence of HIV infection in students of IHEs in comparison with non-institutionalised persons of the same age bracket. Specifically, it could be inferred that appropriate HIV intervention measures was absent with higher incidence of the infection and risky behaviour found in female students. Therefore, a prioritised tailor-made policy for HIV control for students of IHEs should be considered.

  4. The prevalence of secondary diseases of the HIV patients in the Omsk region: cross sectional study

    Pasechnik, Oksana; Pitsenko, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of secondary diseases of the HIV infected patients who were under observation in medical organizations of Omsk region in 2013 has been studied. 16, 8% of HIV-infected patients had a wide spectrum of secondary diseases, mainly infectious etiology. In the structure of secondary infections the leading position was occupied by tuberculosis (32, 3%), candidiasis (24,4%), bacterial diseases (23,7%). The average risk of tuberculosis diseases is 24 cases for 1000 HIV-infected patients.

  5. 4. Prevalence and Factors Associated with Renal Dysfunction in HIV ...

    Esem

    -Saharan Africa has limited data on HIV related kidney disease with most available data coming from the developed countries. Kidney disease is a recognised complication in HIV infected patients presenting with acute renal failure (ARF) or ...

  6. Decline in the prevalence HIV among pregnant women attending ...

    ZoomUser

    The numbers of ANC sentinel sites and Regional coverage as well as ... revealed a decrease in the magnitude of HIV infection with variations by regions (THIS, 2005; ..... UNAIDS/WHO (1996) Working Group on Global HIV/AIDS and STI ...

  7. Perceptions about the acceptability and prevalence of HIV testing ...

    Yoliswa Ntsepe

    2014-07-25

    Jul 25, 2014 ... Keywords: HIV Counselling and Testing, perceptions, stigma, discrimination and confidentiality, ..... was very little self-initiated HIV testing in their communities. ..... women seek help much earlier as it a normalized behaviour,.

  8. Prevalence of HIV and sexually transmitted infections among clients of female sex workers in Karnataka, India: a cross-sectional study

    Shaw Souradet Y

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have demonstrated the significance of commercial sex work in the ongoing transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs in India. Clients of female sex workers (FSWs are thought to be an important bridging population for HIV/STIs. However, there is a lack of information on basic characteristics of sex work clients. This study sought to describe the prevalence of HIV and other STIs, as well as examine the determinants of these pathogens among a sample of clients in south India. Methods Data were from a cross-sectional biological and behavioural survey of FSW clients from six districts in Karnataka State, India. The prevalence of HIV, syphilis, herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2, chlamydia (CT and gonorrhoea (NG among clients was examined. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to analyse the socio-demographic, sexual behaviour and sex-work related characteristics related to the prevalence of each pathogen. Sampling weights and appropriate survey methods were utilized in regression models to account for complex sampling design. Results The total sample size was 2,745. The average age of clients was 30.4 (SE:0.3. Across the total sample, the prevalence of HIV, HSV-2, syphilis and CT/NG was 5.6%, 28.4%, 3.6% and 2.2%, respectively. The prevalence of HIV/STIs varied substantially across districts, reaching statistical significance for HIV (p Conclusions This study fills in important gaps in knowledge regarding clients in southern India. The strong association between HIV and HSV-2 infections highlights the complications in designing effective prevention, intervention and management programs of this well-hidden population.

  9. Condom use and prevalence of syphilis and HIV among female sex workers in Andhra Pradesh, India – following a large-scale HIV prevention intervention

    Rachakulla Hari Kumar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Avahan, the India AIDS initiative began HIV prevention interventions in 2003 in Andhra Pradesh (AP among high-risk groups including female sex workers (FSWs, to help contain the HIV epidemic. This manuscript describes an assessment of this intervention using the published Avahan evaluation framework and assesses the coverage, outcomes and changes in STI and HIV prevalence among FSWs. Methodology Multiple data sources were utilized including Avahan routine program monitoring data, two rounds of cross-sectional survey data (in 2006 and 2009 and STI clinical quality monitoring assessments. Bi-variate and multivariate analyses, Wald Chi-square tests and multivariate logistic regressions were used to measure changes in behavioural and biological outcomes over time and their association. Results Avahan scaled up in conjunction with the Government program to operate in all districts in AP by March 2009. By March 2009, 80% of the FSWs were being contacted monthly and 21% were coming to STI services monthly. Survey data confirmed an increase in peer educator contacts with the mean number increasing from 2.9 in 2006 to 5.3 in 2009. By 2008 free and Avahan-supported socially marketed condoms were adequate to cover the estimated number of commercial sex acts, at 45 condoms/FSW/month. Consistent condom use was reported to increase with regular (63.6% to 83.4%; AOR=2.98; p Conclusions The absence of control groups is a limitation of this study and does not allow attribution of changes in outcomes and declines in HIV and STI to the Avahan program. However, the large scale implementation, high coverage, intermediate outcomes and association of these outcomes to the Avahan program provide plausible evidence that the declines were likely associated with Avahan. Declining HIV prevalence among the general population in Andhra Pradesh points towards a combined impact of Avahan and government interventions.

  10. High prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in HIV-infected patients

    Worm, Signe Westring; Friis-Møller, Nina; Bruyand, Mathias

    2010-01-01

    This study describes the characteristics of the metabolic syndrome in HIV-positive patients in the Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs study and discusses the impact of different methodological approaches on estimates of the prevalence of metabolic syndrome over time....

  11. The Prevalence of HIV/AIDS Epidemic in Anambra State, Nigeria ...

    In 2012 AVERT'S HIV/AIDS statistics records Nigeria as the second largest number ... state, Nigeria with 8.7% above the national prevalence average rate of 4.5 per cent. ... Results revealed among others that: biological issues, poverty, female ... false religious assurances against HIV/AIDS, and traditional birth practices are ...

  12. The prevalence of HIV among patients admitted with stroke at the ...

    lmboera

    The respective proportions were 44% vs 24.7%; 26.7% vs 7.6%; 20.0% vs 2.9%; 13.3% vs 1.2%; ... Key words: HIV, stroke, prevalence, hospital, Tanzania ..... The clinical picture of patients with stroke and HIV infection is of importance. As.

  13. HIV-Sero- prevalence trend among blood donors in North East ...

    2017-09-03

    Sep 3, 2017 ... On the other hand, significantly declining fashion of. HIV seroprevalence were observed in the studies done in blood banks of Jimma University Specialized Hos- pital and Gonder University hospital7,8 and NorthWest. Ethiopia.9 The Federal Ministry of Health reported the. National HIV prevalence as 3.5% ...

  14. Prevalence and predictors of late presentation for HIV care in South ...

    2 Division of Global HIV/AIDS and Tuberculosis, Centers for Disease Control and ..... HIV care tended to be more prevalent among males, older people, ..... Newell M-L, McGrath N. Factors associated with pre-ART loss-to-follow up in adults.

  15. Prevalence and risk factors for HIV among people aged 50 years ...

    Background: It is estimated that over ten percent of the 36.7 million people living with HIV (PLWHIV) globally, are those aged ≥50 years. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors for HIV among adult aged 50 years and above in Rombo district, northern Tanzania. Methods: This cross ...

  16. Low sero-prevalence of hepatitis delta antibodies in HIV/ hepatitis B ...

    /198, 3.2% (95% CI 1.14-6.92%), associated with male gender and a duration of more than 5 years since HIV diagnosis. Conclusions: The sero-prevalence of HDV antibodies among the HIV/HBV co-infected patients is low in a Ugandan urban ...

  17. The prevalence and clinical significance of intestinal parasites in HIV-infected patients in Denmark

    Stensvold, Christen Rune; Nielsen, Susanne Dam; Badsberg, Jens Henrik

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence and clinical significance of intestinal parasites in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients, faecal specimens from 96 HIV-infected patients were submitted to microbiological analyses, including microscopy and polymerase chain reaction for protozoa and e...

  18. HIV-Sero- prevalence trend among blood donors in North East ...

    Background: Although blood transfusion is one of the known therapeutic interventions that cuts across a number of clinical disciplines. It is necessary to test all intending blood donors for HIV infection before donation. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of HIV among blood donors at Dessie Blood Bank, ...

  19. HIV prevalence, sexual risk behaviour and sexual mixing patterns among migrants in Amsterdam, The Netherlands

    Gras, M. J.; Weide, J. F.; Langendam, M. W.; Coutinho, R. A.; van den Hoek, A.

    1999-01-01

    To study (1) HIV prevalence; (2) sexual risk behaviour; (3) sexual mixing patterns; (4) determinants of disassortative (between-group) mixing among migrant groups in Amsterdam, the Netherlands and to gain insight into the potential for heterosexual spread of HIV/sexually transmitted diseases.

  20. Prevalence and associated factors of late HIV diagnosis in north ...

    Information regarding age, sex, WHO stage, type of opportunistic condition, HIV testing service and on diagnosis CD4 counts were all collected. On diagnosis CD4 counts <200cells/µl was coded as Late HIV diagnosis. The proportion of with Late HIV diagnosis was calculated and logistic regression modal was used to ...

  1. Prevalence and Factors Associated with Renal Dysfunction in HIV ...

    Background: Despite having the highest disease burden of HIV, Sub-Saharan Africa has limited data on HIV related kidney disease with most available data coming from the developed countries. Kidney disease is a recognised complication in HIV infected patients presenting with acute renal failure (ARF) or chronic kidney ...

  2. Messages about dual contraception in areas of high HIV prevalence ...

    Background. Dual protection is recommended for prevention of unwanted pregnancies and protection against sexually transmitted infections, including HIV. It is critical for HIV-negative women to prevent seroconversion and HIV transmission to their infants during pregnancy and breastfeeding. Methods. Women were ...

  3. Perceptions about the acceptability and prevalence of HIV testing ...

    HIV counselling and testing (HCT) is considered important because it is an entry point to a comprehensive continuum of care for HIV/AIDS. The South African Department of Health launched an HCT campaign in April 2010, and this reached 13,269,746 people by June 2011, of which 16% tested HIV positive and 400,000 of ...

  4. HIV Risk, Prevalence, and Access to Care Among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Lebanon.

    Heimer, Robert; Barbour, Russell; Khouri, Danielle; Crawford, Forrest W; Shebl, Fatma; Aaraj, Elie; Khoshnood, Kaveh

    2017-11-01

    Little is known about HIV prevalence and risk among men who have sex with men (MSM) in much of the Middle East, including Lebanon. Recent national-level surveillance has suggested an increase in HIV prevalence concentrated among men in Lebanon. We undertook a biobehavioral study to provide direct evidence for the spread of HIV. MSM were recruited by respondent-driven sampling, interviewed, and offered HIV testing anonymously at sites located in Beirut, Lebanon, from October 2014 through February 2015. The interview questionnaire was designed to obtain information on participants' sociodemographic situation, sexual behaviors, alcohol and drug use, health, HIV testing and care, and experiences of stigma and discrimination. Individuals not reporting an HIV diagnosis were offered optional, anonymous HIV testing. Among the 292 MSM recruited, we identified 36 cases of HIV (12.3%). A quarter of the MSM were born in Syria and recently arrived in Lebanon. Condom use was uncommon; 65% reported condomless sex with other men. Group sex encounters were reported by 22% of participants. Among the 32 individuals already aware of their infection, 30 were in treatment and receiving antiretroviral therapy. HIV prevalence was substantially increased over past estimates. Efforts to control future increases will have to focus on reducing specific risk behaviors and experience of stigma and abuse, especially among Syrian refugees.

  5. Pakistan prevalence survey in acute pharyngitis

    Rathi, S. K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To study the prevalence of Group A beta haemolytic Streptococcus in patients with acute pharyngitis and correlation of Modified Centor Score and Rapid Antigen Detection Test. Methods: The multi-centre, prospective, cross-sectional study was conducted in 8 major cities of Pakistan between June 2012 and February 2013, and comprised patients presenting with acute pharyngitis. The subjects were above 3 years of age presenting to primary care physician with sore throat, temperature over 100.4 (degree) F, tonsillar exudates and/or cervical adenopathy (duration of symptoms 4. Conclusion: The prevalence of Group A beta haemolytic Streptococcus as a cause of acute pharyngitis was 25.3%. Modified Centor Score had a strong positive correlation with Rapid Antigen Detection Test in identifying Group A beta haemolytic Streptococcus as a cause of acute pharyngitis. (author)

  6. Longitudinal Trends in the Prevalence of Detectable HIV Viremia: Population-Based Evidence From Rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Vandormael, Alain; Bärnighausen, Till; Herbeck, Joshua; Tomita, Andrew; Phillips, Andrew; Pillay, Deenan; de Oliveira, Tulio; Tanser, Frank

    2018-04-03

    The prevalence of detectable viremia has previously been used to infer the potential for ongoing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission. To date, no study has evaluated the longitudinal change in the prevalence of detectable viremia within the HIV-positive community (PDV+) and the entire population (PDVP) using data from a sub-Saharan African setting. In 2011, 2013, and 2014, we obtained 6752 HIV-positive and 15415 HIV-negative test results from a population-based surveillance system in the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa. We quantified the PDV+ as the proportion of the 6752 HIV-positive results with a viral load >1550 copies/mL and the PDVP as the proportion of the 6752 HIV-positive and 15415 HIV-negative results with a viral load >1550 copies/mL. Between 2011 and 2014, the PDV+ decreased by 16.5 percentage points (pp) for women (from 71.8% to 55.3%) and 10.6 pp for men (from 77.8% to 67.2%). However, a steady rise in the overall HIV prevalence, from 26.7% to 32.4%, offset the declines in the PDV+ for both sexes. For women, the PDVP decreased by only 2.1 pp, from 21.3% to 19.2%, but for men, the PDVP actually increased by 1.6 pp, from 14.6% to 16.2%, over the survey period. The PDV+, which is currently being tracked under the UNAIDS 90-90-90 targets, may not be an accurate indicator of the potential for ongoing HIV transmission. There is a critical need for countries to monitor and report the prevalence of detectable viremia among all adults, irrespective of HIV status.

  7. HIV, HBV and HCV Coinfection Prevalence in Iran--A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Fahimeh Bagheri Amiri

    Full Text Available worldwide, hepatitis C and B virus infections (HCV and HCV, are the two most common coinfections with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and has become a major threat to the survival of HIV-infected persons. The review aimed to estimate the prevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV, HIV/HCV and HIV/HBV and triple coinfections in different subpopulations in Iran.Following PRISMA guidelines, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of reports on prevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV and HIV coinfections in different subpopulations in Iran. We systematically reviewed the literature to identify eligible studies from January 1996 to March 2012 in English or Persian/Farsi databases. We extracted the prevalence of HIV antibodies (diagnosed by Elisa confirmed with Western Blot test, HCV antibodies and HBsAg (with confirmatory laboratory test as the main primary outcome. We reported the prevalence of the three infections and coinfections as point and 95% confidence intervals.HIV prevalence varied from %0.00 (95% CI: 0.00-0.003 in the general population to %17.25 (95% CI: 2.94-31.57 in people who inject drugs (PWID. HBV prevalence ranged from % 0.00 (95% CI: 0.00-7.87 in health care workers to % 30.9 (95% CI: 27.88-33.92 in PWID. HCV prevalence ranged from %0.19 (95% CI: 0.00-0.66 in health care workers to %51.46 (95% CI: 34.30-68.62 in PWID. The coinfection of HIV/HBV and also HIV/HCV in the general population and in health care workers was zero, while the most common coinfections were HIV/HCV (10.95%, HIV/HBV (1.88% and triple infections (1.25% in PWID.We found that PWID are severely and disproportionately affected by HIV and the other two infections, HCV and HBV. Screenings of such coinfections need to be reinforced to prevent new infections and also reduce further transmission in their community and to others.

  8. Intestinal Parasitic Infections in HIV Infected and Non-Infected Patients in a Low HIV Prevalence Region, West-Cameroon

    Nkenfou, Céline Nguefeu; Nana, Christelle Tafou; Payne, Vincent Khan

    2013-01-01

    The magnitude of intestinal parasitic infection in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients requires careful consideration in the developing world where poor nutrition is associated with poor hygiene and several tropical diseases. However, there have been very few studies addressing this issue in Cameroon. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis in HIV/AIDS patients in Dschang -Cameroon. Stool and blood specimens from HIV/AIDS patients and control group were screened respectively for intestinal parasites and for HIV antibodies. Intestinal parasites were identified using direct microscopy, formalin-ether concentration and Ziehl Neelsen methods. Out of 396 participants recruited among patients consulting at hospital, 42 (10.6%) were HIV positive, thirty of them treatment naïve. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 14.64%. Out of 42 HIV/AIDS patients, 59.5% (25/42) were infected with intestinal parasites, while only 9.32% (33/354) of the HIV negative patients were infected with intestinal parasites. The parasites detected in our study population included Crystosporidium parvum (2.53%), Entamoeba histolytica (7.52%), Entamoeba coli (4.04%), Giardia lamblia (0.25%), Trichuris trichura (0.25%), Strongyloides stercoralis (0.25%) and Taenia spp. (0.25%). In the HIV infected group, Crystosporidium parvum (19.04%), Entamoeba histolytica (19.04%), Entamoeba coli (21.42%), Giardia lamblia (2.38%), Strongyloides stercoralis (0.25%) and Taenia spp. (0.25%) were found. Crystosporidium parvum was found to be significantly higher in HIV/AIDS patients than in controls (Pintestinal parasitosis. Routine examinations of stool samples for parasites would significantly benefit the HIV patients by contributing in reducing morbidity and improving the efficiency of antiretroviral treatment. Even after the introduction of free anti-retroviral drugs, opportunistic intestinal infections are still a threat. HIV patients should be screened

  9. Prevalência da infecção pelo HIV em pacientes internados por tuberculose Prevalence of HIV infection in patients hospitalized due to tuberculosis

    GUILHERME FREIRE GARCIA

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Verificar a prevalência da co-infecção tuberculose (TBC/HIV e a capacidade da anamnese em detectar a infecção pelo HIV em pacientes internados por TBC. Local: Hospital Eduardo de Menezes, Belo Horizonte, MG, referência para TBC e SIDA. Material e métodos: Todos os pacientes internados com TBC na enfermaria de pneumologia foram avaliados prospectivamente no período de 1/1/1997 até 31/1/1998, com anamnese dirigida para fatores de risco para SIDA, TBC, tratamentos anteriores e abandonos de tratamento para TBC, e verificadas as formas clínicas de TBC. Foram excluídos pacientes com doenças marcadoras de SIDA com exceção da TBC, ou com sorologia anti-HIV realizada anteriormente. Foram realizadas sorologias anti-HIV (ELISA e, quando positivas, confirmadas pelo teste Western-Blot. Os testes do qui-quadrado e de Fisher foram usados para análise estatística. Resultados: Sessenta e cinco pacientes avaliados foram divididos em grupo I (sorologia positiva para HIV, n = 6 e grupo II (sorologia negativa para HIV, n = 59. Não houve diferença significativa entre os dois grupos quanto a fatores de risco para SIDA, TBC, abandonos de tratamento ou tratamentos anteriores para TBC ou formas clínicas de TBC. Conclusões: Devido à alta prevalência da infecção pelo HIV (9,2% no grupo estudado, estes achados reforçam as orientações do Consenso Brasileiro de Tuberculose no sentido de: 1 a anamnese não consegue detectar uma parcela significativa dos pacientes com co-infecção TBC/HIV; e: 2 a solicitação de sorologia anti-HIV deve ser feita de forma rotineira em todos os pacientes com TBC ativa.Objectives: To verify the prevalence of tuberculosis (TB/HIV co-infection and the ability of the clinical history to detect the HIV infection in TB inpatients. Setting: Eduardo de Menezes Hospital, reference for both TB and AIDS. Patients and methods: All patients admitted with TB in a pneumology ward were evaluated prospectively from 1

  10. Prevalence and predictors of HIV among Chinese tuberculosis patients by provider-initiated HIV testing and counselling (PITC: a multisite study in South Central of China.

    Junjie Xu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB and HIV are two worldwide public health concerns. Co-infection of these two diseases has been considered to be a major obstacle for the global efforts in reaching the goals for the prevention of HIV and TB. METHOD: A comprehensive cross-sectional study was conducted to recruit TB patients in three provinces (Guangxi, Henan and Sichuan of China between April 1 and September 30, 2010. RESULTS: A total of 1,032 consenting TB patients attended this survey during the study period. Among the participants, 3.30% were HIV positive; about one quarter had opportunistic infections. Nearly half of the participants were 50 years or older, the majority were male and about one third were from minority ethnic groups. After adjusting for site, gender and areas of residence (using the partial/selective Model 1, former commercial plasma donors (adjusted OR [aOR] = 33.71 and injecting drug users(aOR = 15.86 were found to have significantly higher risk of being HIV-positivity. In addition, having extramarital sexual relationship (aOR = 307.16, being engaged in commercial sex (aOR = 252.37, suffering from opportunistic infections in the past six months (aOR = 2.79, losing 10% or more of the body weight in the past six months (aOR = 5.90 and having abnormal chest X-ray findings (aOR = 20.40 were all significantly associated with HIV seropositivity (each p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: HIV prevalence among TB patients was high in the study areas of China. To control the dual epidemic, intervention strategies targeting socio-demographic and behavioral factors associated with higher risk of TB-HIV co-infection are urgently called for.

  11. National HIV/AIDS mortality, prevalence, and incidence rates are associated with the Human Development Index.

    Lou, Li-Xia; Chen, Yi; Yu, Chao-Hui; Li, You-Ming; Ye, Juan

    2014-10-01

    HIV/AIDS is a worldwide threat to human health with mortality, prevalence, and incidence rates varying widely. We evaluated the association between the global HIV/AIDS epidemic and national socioeconomic development. We obtained global age-standardized HIV/AIDS mortality, prevalence, and incidence rates from World Health Statistics Report of the World Health Organization. The human development indexes (HDIs) of 141 countries were obtained from a Human Development Report. Countries were divided into 4 groups according to the HDI distribution. We explored the association between HIV/AIDS epidemic and HDI information using Spearman correlation analysis, regression analysis, and the Kruskal-Wallis test. HIV/AIDS mortality, prevalence, and incidence rates were inversely correlated with national HDI (r = -0.675, -0.519, and -0.398, respectively; P birth, mean years of schooling, expected years of schooling, and gross national income per capita). Low HDI countries had higher HIV/AIDS mortality, prevalence, and incidence rates than that of medium, high, and very high HDI countries. Quantile regression results indicated that HDI had a greater negative effect on the HIV/AIDS epidemic in countries with more severe HIV/AIDS epidemic. Less-developed countries are likely to have more severe HIV/AIDS epidemic. There is a need to pay more attention to HIV/AIDS control in less-developed countries, where lower socioeconomic status might have accelerated the HIV/AIDS epidemic more rapidly. Copyright © 2014 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Prevalence and Knowledge Assessment of HIV and Non-Communicable Disease Risk Factors among Formal Sector Employees in Namibia.

    Guariguata, Leonor; de Beer, Ingrid; Hough, Rina; Mulongeni, Pancho; Feeley, Frank G; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F

    2015-01-01

    The burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) is growing in sub-Saharan Africa combined with an already high prevalence of infectious disease, like HIV. Engaging the formal employment sector may present a viable strategy for addressing both HIV and NCDs in people of working age. This study assesses the presence of three of the most significant threats to health in Namibia among employees in the formal sector: elevated blood pressure, elevated blood glucose, and HIV and assesses the knowledge and self-perceived risk of employees for these conditions. A health and wellness screening survey of employees working in 13 industries in the formal sector of Namibia was conducted including 11,192 participants in the Bophelo! Project in Namibia, from January 2009 to October 2010. The survey combined a medical screening for HIV, blood glucose and blood pressure with an employee-completed survey on knowledge and risk behaviors for those conditions. We estimated the prevalence of the three conditions and compared to self-reported employee knowledge and risk behaviors and possible determinants. 25.8% of participants had elevated blood pressure, 8.3% of participants had an elevated random blood glucose measurement, and 8.9% of participants tested positive for HIV. Most participants were not smokers (80%), reported not drinking alcohol regularly (81.2%), and had regular condom use (66%). Most participants could not correctly identify risk factors for hypertension (57.2%), diabetes (57.3%), or high-risk behaviors for HIV infection (59.5%). In multivariate analysis, having insurance (OR:1.15, 95%CI: 1.03 - 1.28) and a managerial position (OR: 1.29, 95%CI: 1.13 - 1.47) were associated with better odds of knowledge of diabetes. The prevalence of elevated blood pressure, elevated blood glucose, and HIV among employees of the Namibian formal sector is high, while risk awareness is low. Attention must be paid to improving the knowledge of health-related risk factors as well as providing

  13. Prevalence and Knowledge Assessment of HIV and Non-Communicable Disease Risk Factors among Formal Sector Employees in Namibia.

    Leonor Guariguata

    Full Text Available The burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs is growing in sub-Saharan Africa combined with an already high prevalence of infectious disease, like HIV. Engaging the formal employment sector may present a viable strategy for addressing both HIV and NCDs in people of working age. This study assesses the presence of three of the most significant threats to health in Namibia among employees in the formal sector: elevated blood pressure, elevated blood glucose, and HIV and assesses the knowledge and self-perceived risk of employees for these conditions.A health and wellness screening survey of employees working in 13 industries in the formal sector of Namibia was conducted including 11,192 participants in the Bophelo! Project in Namibia, from January 2009 to October 2010. The survey combined a medical screening for HIV, blood glucose and blood pressure with an employee-completed survey on knowledge and risk behaviors for those conditions. We estimated the prevalence of the three conditions and compared to self-reported employee knowledge and risk behaviors and possible determinants.25.8% of participants had elevated blood pressure, 8.3% of participants had an elevated random blood glucose measurement, and 8.9% of participants tested positive for HIV. Most participants were not smokers (80%, reported not drinking alcohol regularly (81.2%, and had regular condom use (66%. Most participants could not correctly identify risk factors for hypertension (57.2%, diabetes (57.3%, or high-risk behaviors for HIV infection (59.5%. In multivariate analysis, having insurance (OR:1.15, 95%CI: 1.03 - 1.28 and a managerial position (OR: 1.29, 95%CI: 1.13 - 1.47 were associated with better odds of knowledge of diabetes.The prevalence of elevated blood pressure, elevated blood glucose, and HIV among employees of the Namibian formal sector is high, while risk awareness is low. Attention must be paid to improving the knowledge of health-related risk factors as well as

  14. Survey on HIV risk perception and sexual behaviours among seafarers.

    Grappasonni, I; Paci, P; Mazzucchi, F; Amenta, F

    2011-01-01

    Because the nature of their work seafarers spend long periods of time away from their families and therefore represent a group at risk for sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV infection. This paper reports the results of a survey to evaluate awareness and knowledge of the risk of HIV infection among seafarers. Risky behaviours for HIV transmission were also assessed. The survey was conducted using anonymous questionnaires on 197 workers of 9 vessels and 26 office employees of an Italian shipping company (FINAVAL S.p.A., Rome). The respondents considered HIV/AIDS as one of the diseases with a high risk of transmission. Most respondents had a good general knowledge of HIV/AIDS and on the ways of its transmission. However, there is still lack of knowledge on the basics of this disease. On the other hand, in spite of knowledge and awareness about the risks of the disease, only 56.35% of the interviewed crewmembers used protection in sexual intercourse with occasional partners. Compared to data available in literature, the percentage of self-protecting people is increasing, but the number of seafarers exposing themselves to risky behaviours is still high. As expected, condoms are used with regular partners with lower frequency compared to occasional intercourse. The results of this survey indicate that adequate prevention campaigns and major attention paid to seafarers health is useful for stimulating responsible conduct for the prevention of infectious diseases, including HIV infection. Nevertheless, it is still necessary to increase information about the risk of sexually transmitted diseases and how to reduce it.

  15. Understanding the high prevalence of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections among socio-economically vulnerable men who have sex with men in Jamaica.

    J Peter Figueroa

    Full Text Available This study estimates HIV prevalence among men who have sex with men (MSM in Jamaica and explores social determinants of HIV infection among MSM.An island-wide cross-sectional survey of MSM recruited by peer referral and outreach was conducted in 2011. A structured questionnaire was administered and HIV/STI tests done. We compared three groups: MSM who accepted cash for sex within the past 3 months (MSM SW, MSM who did not accept cash for sex (MSM non-SW, and MSM with adverse life events (ever raped, jailed, homeless, victim of violence or low literacy.HIV prevalence among 449 MSM was 31.4%, MSM SW 41.1%, MSM with adverse life events 38.5%, 17 transgender MSM (52.9%, and MSM non-SW without adverse events 21.0%. HIV prevalence increased with age and number of adverse life events (test for trend P < 0.001, as did STI prevalence (P = 0.03. HIV incidence was 6.7 cases/100 person-years (95% CI: 3.74, 12.19. HIV prevalence was highest among MSM reporting high-risk sex; MSM SW who had been raped (65.0%, had a STI (61.2% and who self identified as female (55.6%. Significant risk factors for HIV infection common to all 3 subgroups were participation in both receptive and insertive anal intercourse, high-risk sex, and history of a STI. Perception of no or little risk, always using a condom, and being bisexual were protective.HIV prevalence was high among MSM SW and MSM with adverse life events. Given the characteristics of the sample, HIV prevalence among MSM in Jamaica is probably in the range of 20%. The study illustrates the importance of social vulnerability in driving the HIV epidemic. Programs to empower young MSM, reduce social vulnerability and other structural barriers including stigma and discrimination against MSM are critical to reduce HIV transmission.

  16. Contextualizing gender differences and methamphetamine use with HIV prevalence within a South African community.

    Wechsberg, Wendee M; Doherty, Irene A; Myers, Bronwyn; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A; Emanuel, Andrea; Carney, Tara; Kline, Tracy L; Zule, William A

    2014-05-01

    This study was conducted in a large Black African township outside of Cape Town, South Africa, where HIV infection has been endemic at extremely high levels for years. Problems associated with high HIV prevalence are compounded by gender inequality and high rates of gender-based violence exacerbated by heavy alcohol use and increasing methamphetamine use. Informal drinking establishments (known as shebeens) were geocoded and mapped. Based on visual examination, we identified 36 neighbourhoods, each of which contained between three to seven drinking venues clustered together. Neighbourhoods were separated from each other by at least 200m. We randomly selected 30 of the 36 neighbourhoods. Outreach workers screened males in shebeens and screened their female partners. This analysis includes 580 study participants recruited from 30 neighbourhoods between 2010 and 2012. All participants completed a baseline questionnaire that included individual-level, couple-level, and neighbourhood-level measures of alcohol and other drug use, HIV infection, and HIV risk behaviours. Multilevel fixed effects regression analyses stratified by gender were conducted to examine correlates of HIV infection. Women were twice as likely as men to be HIV infected, yet they reported fewer sex partners. Neighbourhood prevalence of HIV was correlated with greater likelihood of HIV infection among women, but not men. Neighbourhood methamphetamine use was marginally associated with HIV among women but not among men. At the individual level, heavy alcohol use was marginally associated with HIV infection among men but not among women. Having an HIV positive partner was the strongest correlate of being HIV positive among both men and women. Findings from this study underscore the need for policy makers to direct scarce resources to the communities, places within communities, and populations, especially vulnerable women, where the impact on HIV prevention and onward transmission will be greatest

  17. Prevalence and mortality of cancer among HIV-infected inpatients in Beijing, China.

    Yang, Jun; Su, Shu; Zhao, Hongxin; Wang, Dennis; Wang, Jiali; Zhang, Fujie; Zhao, Yan

    2016-02-16

    Cancer is responsible for elevated HIV-related morbidity and mortality. Research on HIV-infected patients with concurrent cancer is rare in China. The purpose of our study was to investigate the prevalence and risk factors associated with cancer among HIV-infected inpatients in Beijing, and to investigate the mortality and risk factors among HIV-infected inpatients with cancer. Hospital records from a total of 1946 HIV-infected patients were collected from the Beijing Ditan Hospital. The data, from 2008 to 2013, were collected retrospectively. The cancer diagnoses included AIDS-defining cancers (ADC) and non-AIDS defining cancers (NADC). Logistic regression was used to identify risk factors predicting the concurrence of cancer with HIV. Mortality was examined using Kaplan-Meier estimates and Cox proportional hazards models. 7.7 % (149 cases) of all HIV-infected inpatients had concurrent cancer at their first hospital admission; of those, 33.6 % (50 cases) had ADCs, and 66.4 % (99 cases) had NADCs. The most prevalent NADCs were Hodgkin's lymphoma, gastrointestinal cancer, liver cancer, and lung cancer. Patients who did not accept antiretroviral therapy (ART) were more likely to suffer from cancer [AOR = 2.07 (1.42-3.01), p = 0.001]. Kaplan-Meier curves indicated that the survival probability of HIV-positive cancer patients was significantly lower than that of HIV-positive cancer-free patients (log-rank test, p cancer, the mortality was also higher among those who did not receive ART [AHR = 2.19 (1.84-2.61), p cancer concurrence among hospitalized HIV-infected patients was 7.7 %. Concurrent cancer also increased mortality among HIV-infected patients. ART was protective against concurrent cancer as well as mortality among HIV-infected cancer patients. These results highlight the importance of promoting cancer screening and early ART initiation among HIV-infected patients.

  18. Prevalence of Dyslipidemia Among Antiretroviral-Naive HIV-Infected Individuals in China

    Shen, Yinzhong; Wang, Jiangrong; Wang, Zhenyan; Qi, Tangkai; Song, Wei; Tang, Yang; Liu, Li; Zhang, Renfang; Lu, Hongzhou

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Little is known about the epidemiological features of dyslipidemia among antiretroviral-naive HIV-infected individuals in China. We used a cross-sectional study design to estimate the prevalence of dyslipidemia in this population, and to identify risk factors associated with the presence of dyslipidemia. One thousand five hundred and eighteen antiretroviral-naive HIV-infected individuals and 347 HIV-negative subjects in China were enrolled during 2009 to 2010. Demographics and medical histories were recorded. After an overnight fast, serum samples were collected to measure lipid levels. Factors associated with the presence of dyslipidemia were analyzed by logistic regression. Mean total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) levels were lower in HIV-positive than HIV-negative subjects, but mean triglyceride (TG) was higher in HIV-positive subjects. The overall prevalence of dyslipidemia in HIV-positive and HIV-negative groups did not differ (75.6% vs. 73.7%, P = 0.580). However, the prevalence of high TC (8.4% vs. 28.2%, P dyslipidemia characterized by high TG and low HDL, which was associated with lower CD4 counts. These data support the assessment of lipid profiles before and after initiation of antiretroviral therapy regardless of age. PMID:26632908

  19. Prevalence and significance of Mycoplasma genitalium in women living with HIV in Denmark

    Madsen, Anne Marie Rosendahl; Thorsteinsson, Kristina; Lebech, Anne-Mette

    2017-01-01

    has been suggested as part of HIV prevention strategies. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of M. genitalium in women living with HIV (WLWH) in Denmark, and to compare the result with data on symptoms from the lower abdomen, sexual habits and immune status. 234 women......, recruited from Danish HIV centres as part of a larger observational study on aspects of living with HIV as a woman (the SHADE study), were included. RESULTS: We tested cervical samples for M. genitalium by specific PCR. We found three samples positive (1.3%). The women were between 30 and 50 years old, all...... were of Asian origin, sexually active, and on antiretroviral treatment with supressed HIV RNA and CD4 count >350 cells/µL. None reported symptoms from the lower abdomen. The prevalence of M. genitalium infection in WLWH in Denmark is low, thus systematic screening for M. genitalium in this group does...

  20. Future-oriented tweets predict lower county-level HIV prevalence in the United States.

    Ireland, Molly E; Schwartz, H Andrew; Chen, Qijia; Ungar, Lyle H; Albarracín, Dolores

    2015-12-01

    Future orientation promotes health and well-being at the individual level. Computerized text analysis of a dataset encompassing billions of words used across the United States on Twitter tested whether community-level rates of future-oriented messages correlated with lower human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) rates and moderated the association between behavioral risk indicators and HIV. Over 150 million tweets mapped to U.S. counties were analyzed using 2 methods of text analysis. First, county-level HIV rates (cases per 100,000) were regressed on aggregate usage of future-oriented language (e.g., will, gonna). A second data-driven method regressed HIV rates on individual words and phrases. Results showed that counties with higher rates of future tense on Twitter had fewer HIV cases, independent of strong structural predictors of HIV such as population density. Future-oriented messages also appeared to buffer health risk: Sexually transmitted infection rates and references to risky behavior on Twitter were associated with higher HIV prevalence in all counties except those with high rates of future orientation. Data-driven analyses likewise showed that words and phrases referencing the future (e.g., tomorrow, would be) correlated with lower HIV prevalence. Integrating big data approaches to text analysis and epidemiology with psychological theory may provide an inexpensive, real-time method of anticipating outbreaks of HIV and etiologically similar diseases. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Association of HIV prevalence and concurrency of sexual partnerships in South Africa’s language groups: An ecological analysis

    Chris Kenyon

    2013-01-01

    Background. There is considerable variation in HIV prevalence between different language groups in South Africa (SA). Sexual partner concurrency has been linked to the spread of HIV, but its effect on differential HIV transmission within SA’s language groups has not been investigated quantitatively. Objective. This ecological analysis was intended to explore the degree to which the variation in HIV prevalence according to language group can be explained by differential concurrency rates. ...

  2. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among HIV patients in Benin City, Nigeria

    Frederick Olusegun Akinbo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the presence of intestinal parasites and their correlation with CD4+ T-cell counts and demographics among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-positive patients in Benin City, Nigeria. Stool specimens from 2,000 HIV-positive patients and 500 controls (HIV-negative individuals were examined for ova, cysts, or parasites, using standard procedures. In addition, patient's blood samples were analyzed for CD4 counts by flow cytometry. An overall prevalence rate of 15.3% was observed among HIV-positive patients while 6.2% was noted among non-HIV subjects. HIV status was a significant (P<0.0001 risk factor for acquiring intestinal parasitic infections. Male gender, CD4 count <200cell/µl, and diarrhea were significantly associated with an increased prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among HIV-positive patients. The level of education, occupation, and source of water among HIV patients significantly (P<0.0001 affected the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections. Ascaris lumbricoides was the most predominant parasite in both HIV-positive patients and controls. A CD4 count <200 cells/µl was significantly associated with only Isospora belli and Cryptosporidium infections. The presence of pathogenic intestinal parasites such as A. lumbricoides, hookworm, Giardia intestinalis, Entamoeba histolytica, Trichuris trichiura, and Taenia species among HIV-infected persons should not be neglected. Cryptosporidium species and I. belli were the opportunistic parasites observed in this study. Routine screening for intestinal parasites in HIV-positive patients is advocated.

  3. Increasing adolescent HIV prevalence in Eastern Zimbabwe--evidence of long-term survivors of mother-to-child transmission?

    Jeffrey W Eaton

    Full Text Available Recent data from the Manicaland HIV/STD Prevention Project, a general-population open HIV cohort study, suggested that between 2004 and 2007 HIV prevalence amongst males aged 15-17 years in eastern Zimbabwe increased from 1.20% to 2.23%, and in females remained unchanged at 2.23% to 2.39%, while prevalence continued to decline in the rest of the adult population. We assess whether the more likely source of the increase in adolescent HIV prevalence is recent sexual HIV acquisition, or the aging of long-term survivors of perinatal HIV acquisition that occurred during the early growth of the epidemic. Using data collected between August 2006 and November 2008, we investigated associations between adolescent HIV and (1 maternal orphanhood and maternal HIV status, (2 reported sexual behaviour, and (3 reporting recurring sickness or chronic illness, suggesting infected adolescents might be in a late stage of HIV infection. HIV-infected adolescent males were more likely to be maternal orphans (RR = 2.97, p<0.001 and both HIV-infected adolescent males and females were more likely to be maternal orphans or have an HIV-infected mother (male RR = 1.83, p<0.001; female RR = 16.6, p<0.001. None of 22 HIV-infected adolescent males and only three of 23 HIV-infected females reported ever having had sex. HIV-infected adolescents were 60% more likely to report illness than HIV-infected young adults. Taken together, all three hypotheses suggest that recent increases in adolescent HIV prevalence in eastern Zimbabwe are more likely attributable to long-term survival of mother-to-child transmission rather than increases in risky sexual behaviour. HIV prevalence in adolescents and young adults cannot be used as a surrogate for recent HIV incidence, and health systems should prepare for increasing numbers of long-term infected adolescents.

  4. Decline in HIV prevalence among young women in Zambia: national-level estimates of trends mask geographical and socio-demographic differences.

    Nkomba Kayeyi

    Full Text Available A decline in HIV incidence has been reported in Zambia and a number of other sub-Saharan countries. The trend of HIV prevalence among young people is a good marker of HIV incidence. In this study, different data sources are used to examine geographical and sub-population group differentials in HIV prevalence trends among men and women aged 15-24 years in Zambia.We analysed ANC data for women aged 15-24 years from 22 sentinel sites consistently covered in the period 1994-2008, and HIV data for young men and women aged 15-24 years from the ZDHS 2001/2 and 2007. In addition, we systematically reviewed peer-reviewed articles that have reported findings on HIV prevalence and incidence among young people.Overall trends of the ANC surveillance data indicated a substantial HIV prevalence decline among young women in both urban and rural areas. However, provincial declines differed substantially, i.e. between 10% and 68% among urban women, and from stability to 86% among rural women. Prevalence declines were steeper among those with the highest educational attainments than among the least educated. The ZDHS data indicated a significant reduction in prevalence between the two survey rounds among young women only. Provincial-level ZDHS changes were difficult to assess because the sample sizes were small. ANC-based trend patterns were consistent with those observed in PMTCT-based data (2002-2006, whereas population-based surveys in a selected urban community (1995-2003 suggested that the ANC-based data underestimated the prevalence declines in the general populations of both young both men and women.The overall HIV prevalence declined substantially among young women in Zambia and this is interpreted as indicating a decline in HIV incidence. It is noteworthy that overall national trends masked substantial differences by place and by educational attainment, demonstrating critical limitations in the current focus on overall country-level trends in

  5. Perceptions of Community HIV/STI Risk Among U.S Women Living in Areas with High Poverty and HIV Prevalence Rates.

    Blackstock, Oni J; Frew, Paula; Bota, Dorothy; Vo-Green, Linda; Parker, Kim; Franks, Julie; Hodder, Sally L; Justman, Jessica; Golin, Carol E; Haley, Danielle F; Kuo, Irene; Adimora, Adaora A; Rompalo, Anne; Soto-Torres, Lydia; Wang, Jing; Mannheimer, Sharon B

    2015-08-01

    Although studies have consistently demonstrated that women at high risk for HIV and non-HIV sexually transmitted infections (STIs) tend to underestimate their individual risk, little is known about how women at risk perceive their community's HIV/STI risk. We explored perceptions of community HIV/STI risk among U.S. women living in areas with high poverty and HIV prevalence rates as part of a qualitative substudy of the Women's HIV SeroIncidence Study. Semi-structured focus groups were conducted. Data were coded and analyzed using the constant comparative method. Participants expressed the perception that their communities were at elevated HIV/STI risk, mostly due to contextual and structural factors such as lack of access to health care and education. Findings suggest that HIV prevention messages that target U.S. women at high risk for HIV may be strengthened by addressing the high perceived community HIV/STI risk driven by structural factors.

  6. Prevalence, type, and correlates of trauma exposure among adolescent men and women in Soweto, South Africa: implications for HIV prevention

    Kalysha Closson

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Youth trauma exposure is associated with syndemic HIV risk. We measured lifetime prevalence, type, and correlates of trauma experience by gender among adolescents living in the HIV hyper-endemic setting of Soweto, South Africa. Methods Using data from the Botsha Bophelo Adolescent Health Survey (BBAHS, prevalence of “ever” experiencing a traumatic event among adolescents (aged 14–19 was assessed using a modified Traumatic Event Screening Inventory-Child (TESI-C scale (19 items, study alpha = 0.63. We assessed self-reported number of potentially traumatic events (PTEs experienced overall and by gender. Gender-stratified multivariable logistic regression models assessed independent correlates of ‘high PTE score’ (≥7 PTEs. Results Overall, 767/830 (92% participants were included (58% adolescent women. Nearly all (99.7% reported experiencing at least one PTE. Median PTE was 7 [Q1,Q3: 5-9], with no gender differences (p = 0.19. Adolescent men reported more violent PTEs (e.g., “seen an act of violence in the community” whereas women reported more non-violent HIV/AIDS-related PTEs (e.g., “family member or someone close died of HIV/AIDS”. High PTE score was independently associated with high food insecurity among adolescent men and women (aOR = 2.63, 95%CI = 1.36-5.09; aOR = 2.57, 95%CI = 1.55-4.26, respectively. For men, high PTE score was also associated with older age (aOR = 1.40/year, 95%CI = 1.21-1.63; and recently moving to Soweto (aOR = 2.78, 95%CI = 1.14-6.76. Among women, high PTE score was associated with depression using the CES-D scale (aOR = 2.00, 95%CI = 1.31-3.03, and inconsistent condom use vs. no sexual experience (aOR = 2.69, 95%CI = 1.66-4.37. Conclusion Nearly all adolescents in this study experienced trauma, with gendered differences in PTE types and correlates, but not prevalence. Exposure to PTEs were distributed along social and gendered axes. Among adolescent women, associations with

  7. Prevalence, type, and correlates of trauma exposure among adolescent men and women in Soweto, South Africa: implications for HIV prevention.

    Closson, Kalysha; Dietrich, Janan Janine; Nkala, Busi; Musuku, Addy; Cui, Zishan; Chia, Jason; Gray, Glenda; Lachowsky, Nathan J; Hogg, Robert S; Miller, Cari L; Kaida, Angela

    2016-11-25

    Youth trauma exposure is associated with syndemic HIV risk. We measured lifetime prevalence, type, and correlates of trauma experience by gender among adolescents living in the HIV hyper-endemic setting of Soweto, South Africa. Using data from the Botsha Bophelo Adolescent Health Survey (BBAHS), prevalence of "ever" experiencing a traumatic event among adolescents (aged 14-19) was assessed using a modified Traumatic Event Screening Inventory-Child (TESI-C) scale (19 items, study alpha = 0.63). We assessed self-reported number of potentially traumatic events (PTEs) experienced overall and by gender. Gender-stratified multivariable logistic regression models assessed independent correlates of 'high PTE score' (≥7 PTEs). Overall, 767/830 (92%) participants were included (58% adolescent women). Nearly all (99.7%) reported experiencing at least one PTE. Median PTE was 7 [Q1,Q3: 5-9], with no gender differences (p = 0.19). Adolescent men reported more violent PTEs (e.g., "seen an act of violence in the community") whereas women reported more non-violent HIV/AIDS-related PTEs (e.g., "family member or someone close died of HIV/AIDS"). High PTE score was independently associated with high food insecurity among adolescent men and women (aOR = 2.63, 95%CI = 1.36-5.09; aOR = 2.57, 95%CI = 1.55-4.26, respectively). For men, high PTE score was also associated with older age (aOR = 1.40/year, 95%CI = 1.21-1.63); and recently moving to Soweto (aOR = 2.78, 95%CI = 1.14-6.76). Among women, high PTE score was associated with depression using the CES-D scale (aOR = 2.00, 95%CI = 1.31-3.03,) and inconsistent condom use vs. no sexual experience (aOR = 2.69, 95%CI = 1.66-4.37). Nearly all adolescents in this study experienced trauma, with gendered differences in PTE types and correlates, but not prevalence. Exposure to PTEs were distributed along social and gendered axes. Among adolescent women, associations with depression and inconsistent condom use suggest pathways for HIV risk. HIV

  8. Prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among ...

    AJB SERVER

    2007-02-05

    Feb 5, 2007 ... associated virus (LAV, now HIV1.). In the same year,. Robert Gallo and colleagues, working at the National. Cancer Institute (NCI), USA made a similar discovery while in their quest to find cancer-causing viruses. In. 1986 a second closely related virus, termed HIV 2 was isolated from a patient from West ...

  9. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among HIV patients in ...

    2010-10-29

    Oct 29, 2010 ... Cryptosporidium species and I. belli were the opportunistic parasites observed in this study. Routine screening for intestinal parasites in. HIV-positive patients is advocated. Keywords: intestinal parasites; HIV; CD4 count; Demographics; Benin City. Received: 2 August 2010; Revised: 25 September 2010; ...

  10. Prevalence of HIV infection among trauma patients admitted to ...

    Tanzania Journal of Health Research Volume 12, Number 4, October 2010 ... Thus, all trauma health care workers in this region need to practice universal barrier ... of HIV in trauma patients is vital for education and post-exposure prophylaxis. ... of HIV among trauma patients admitted at Bugando Medical Centre in Mwanza, ...

  11. Prevalence of Anaemia Among Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)

    Background: Anaemia is the most commonly encountered haematological abnormality in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive patients with estimates climbing as high as 95% depending on clinical settings. The twin effects of HIV infection and anaemia in pregnancy is associated with adverse maternal and ...

  12. Prevalence of HIV positive blood donors among screened ...

    Two thousand five hundred and thirty two (2,532) males, aged 25 – 50 years potential blood donors were randomly selected from the total number of volunteer blood donors who satisfied the initial screening criteria for donating blood, and were screened for HIV using Immunocomb II (HIV 1 and 2 Bispot) and Recombigen ...

  13. Prevalence and associated factors of late HIV diagnosis in north ...

    User

    Moreover, there is still a lack of studies addressing the risk factors ..... Jiang, H., Yin, J., Fan, Y., Liu, J., Zhang, Z, Liu, L. & Nie, S. (2015) Gender difference in advanced HIV disease ... Incidence of HIV-associated tuberculosis among individuals taking combination antiretroviral therapy: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

  14. Anal and penile high-risk human papillomavirus prevalence in HIV-negative and HIV-infected MSM

    van Aar, Fleur; Mooij, Sofie H.; van der Sande, Marianne A. B.; Speksnijder, Arjen G. C. L.; Stolte, Ineke G.; Meijer, Chris J. L. M.; Verhagen, Dominique W. M.; King, Audrey J.; de Vries, Henry J. C.; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F.

    2013-01-01

    Anal and penile high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is associated with anogenital cancer, which is especially common in HIV-infected MSM. We assessed HPV prevalence and determinants in MSM. Analysis of baseline data from a prospective cohort study. MSM aged 18 years or older were

  15. Estimates of global HIV/AIDS mortality, prevalence and incidence rates, and their association with the Human Development Index

    Kamyar Mansori; Erfan Ayubi; Fatemeh Khosravi Shadmani; Shiva Mansouri Hanis; Somayeh Khazaei; Mohadeseh Sani; Yousef Moradi; Salman Khazaei; Abolfazl Mohammadbeigi

    2017-01-01

    Background: HIV/AIDS is one of greatest global public health concerns today due to the high incidence, prevalence and mortality rates. The aim of this research was investigate and estimate the global HIV/AIDS mortality, prevalence and incidence rates, and explore their associations with the Human Development Index. Methods: The global age-standardized rates of mortality, prevalence and incidence of HIV/AIDS were obtained from the UNAIDS for different countries in 2015. The human developm...

  16. Prevalence of HIV infection among former commercial plasma donors in rural eastern China.

    Wu, Z; Rou, K; Detels, R

    2001-03-01

    Sporadic reports of HIV-1 infection among commercial plasma donors in China between 1994 and 1995. (1) To determine the prevalence of HIV infection among repeat plasma donors; (2) to identify factors associated with HIV infection; and (3) to describe characteristics associated with secondary transmission. Plasma/blood donors who had a history of donating plasma/blood before March 1, 1995, their spouses, and their children under 5 years were recruited for a cross-sectional study. A questionnaire and an HIV test were collected anonymously. Information collected included demographic characteristics, sexual behaviour, recreational drug use and history of medical care and blood/plasma donation. HIV antibody was identified by the Hema-Strip rapid test and confirmed by Western blot. The prevalence of HIV infection was calculated and risk factors associated with infection determined by univariate analyses followed by multivariate modelling. A total of 1517 individuals were interviewed and tested, of whom 1043 adults admitted to donating plasma. The prevalence of HIV infection among plasma donors was 12.5% and among their non-donor spouses was 2.1%. Prevalence was inversely related to educational level and was higher in married participants, but was not associated with medical care, drug abuse or multiple sexual partners. A higher frequency of plasma donation was directly associated with a higher risk of HIV infection. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that being HIV-positive was associated with being 30 to 49 years old [odds ratio (OR) = 1.9], donating both plasma and blood (OR = 2.5), and the frequency of plasma donation (OR = 14 for >10 donations per month). The study demonstrated that the prevalence of HIV infection in the commercial plasma donor population was alarmingly high. Many married individuals and those getting married in the future will transmit the virus to their spouses and future children. Plasma donors need to be alerted to the risk of being infected with

  17. HBV, HCV, and HIV infection prevalence among prison staff in the light of occupational risk factors

    Maria Gańczak

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Objectives of the study: to assess the occupational risk for blood-borne infections (BBIs among prison staff (number/ circumstances of blood exposures and preventive methods used, and to estimate the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV, hepatitis C virus (HCV and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. Material and Methods: The survey, which included serological testing with the use of 3-generation enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA was completed on active staff at a correctional facility in Goleniów, Poland, between June–July 2015. Results: Response rate was 38%, 87 participants (aged 22–64 years, median: 34 years agreed to participate. There were 88.5% males, correctional officers comprised 87.4% of the participants. Having had ≥ 1 blood exposure during professional career was reported by 28.7% respondents, 8% – sustained it in the preceding year. For correctional officers the last blood exposure was caused by a hollow-bore needle/razor blade during cell or manual searches. This was not reported by 83.3%. Participation rate in an infection control training was 85.1%. Hepatitis B virus vaccination uptake was 83.9%. Compliance with glove use was 75.9%, with protective eyewear – 28.7%. Regular use of both was reported by 9.2% of participants. The lack of their availability was the most common reason (79.7% for non-compliance. Anti-HBc (hepatitis B core antigen total/anti-HCV/anti-HIV prevalence was 2.3%, 1.1%, and 0%, respectively. Conclusions: Prison staff are at risk for occupational exposures to blood. Reporting of such incidents is poor, as well as compliance with personal protective equipment use, which place them at risk for acquiring BBIs. Anti-HCV prevalence is similar to that observed in the general population, anti-HBc total prevalence is lower, possibly due to high vaccination uptake, however, poor response rate limits precise prevalence estimates. Med Pr 2017;68(4:507–516

  18. The HIV Epidemic in Sub-Saharan Africa is Aging: Evidence from the Demographic and Health Surveys in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Vollmer, Sebastian; Harttgen, Kenneth; Alfven, Tobias; Padayachy, Jude; Ghys, Peter; Bärnighausen, Till

    2017-07-01

    We use the individual-level data from all available Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) from 27 sub-Saharan African countries conducted between 2003 and 2012 (40 population-based and nationally representative surveys in total) to calculate HIV testing consent rates and HIV prevalence for each country separately, as well as for the pooled sample. The pooled sample comprised of 427,130 individuals. In most countries HIV prevalence in adults aged 45 years and above is higher than in the total population. We further show that over the past decade HIV prevalence has increased in older age groups, while it has decreased in younger ones. While the age patterns of HIV consent rates vary across the 27 countries included in our sample, analysis of the pooled sample across all countries reveals a u-shaped relationship with lowest consent rates around age 35 years and higher consent rates among younger and older people. We argue that future DHS and other population-based HIV surveys should offer HIV testing to all adults without age limits.

  19. Sexual behaviour and HIV/sexually transmitted infection risk behaviours in the general population of Slovenia, a low HIV prevalence country in central Europe

    Klavs, I; Rodrigues, L C; Wellings, K; Weiss, H A; Hayes, R

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To describe sexual and HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI) risk behaviours in Slovenia. Methods: A nationally representative cross-sectional survey of the general population aged 18–49 years in 1999–2001 was conducted. The data were collected by face-to-face interviews and anonymous self-administered questionnaires. Statistical methods for complex survey data were used. Results: 849 men and 903 women were interviewed. In the past 5 years, both men and women reported a median of one heterosexual partner (means 3.2, 1.5, respectively), concurrent heterosexual partnerships were reported by 24.4% of men and 8.2% of women, heterosexual sex with non-Slovenian partners by 12.6% of men and 12.2% of women, forced sex by 4.8% of women, paid heterosexual sex by 2.6% of men, sex with another man by 0.6% of men and heterosexual sex with an injecting drug user by 1.2% of men and 1.3% of women. In the past year, 22.7% of men and 9.5% of women reported forming at least one new heterosexual partnership. The mean numbers of episodes of heterosexual sex in the previous 4 weeks were 6.1 for men and 6.0 for women. Consistent and inconsistent condom use was reported more frequently among men reporting multiple female partners and those not married or cohabiting. Conclusions: Recent patterns of reported sexual behaviour are consistent with a low risk of HIV and STI transmission in Slovenia. The results will inform Slovenian sexual health policies including HIV/STI prevention, and are particularly valuable because population-based data on HIV/STI risk behaviour have not previously been available in low HIV prevalence countries of central Europe. PMID:19060036

  20. Prevalence and factors associated with occupational burnout among HIV/AIDS healthcare workers in China: a cross-sectional study

    Zhengxue Qiao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Burnout is a psychosomatic syndrome characterized by three dimensions (emotional exhaustion [EE], feelings of depersonalization [DP], and reduced personal accomplishment [PA]. We determined the prevalence of burnout and mental health status between HIV/AIDS healthcare workers and other healthcare workers, and determined the factors associated with burnout of HIV/AIDS healthcare workers. Methods All participants were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire. The participants were recruited from the departments of infectious diseases in four hospitals which treated HIV/AIDS. The questionnaire included demographics, the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey (MBI-GS, the Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90, the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ, and the Trait Coping Style Questionnaire (TCSQ. Results A total of 512 questionnaires were distributed; 501 questionnaires were completed and collected (the response rate was 97.9 %. After eliminating nine invalid questionnaires (1.80 %, 264 physicians and nurses caring for HIV/AIDS and 228 physicians and nurses caring for other infectious diseases provided valid responses (98.2 %. The HIV/AIDS healthcare workers’ scores on the emotional exhaustion (F = 6.350, p = 0.012 and depersonalization dimensions (F = 8.533, p = 0.004 were significantly higher than other healthcare workers. The HIV/AIDS healthcare workers had higher total scores and positive items on the Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90 compared with other healthcare workers. Low job satisfaction, serious somatization, interpersonal sensitivity, poor quality of sleep, high psychoticism scores, and use of negative coping styles were frequently associated with burnout. Conclusions Burnout was shown to be highly prevalent in HIV/AIDS healthcare workers, 76.9 % of whom met the accepted criteria for burnout. In addition, compared with other healthcare workers, HIV/AIDS healthcare workers experienced lower

  1. HIV AND HCV COINFECTION: PREVALENCE, ASSOCIATED FACTORS AND GENOTYPE CHARACTERIZATION IN THE MIDWEST REGION OF BRAZIL

    Solange Zacalusni Freitas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study on prevalence, associated factors and genotype distribution of HCV infection was conducted among 848 HIV-infected patients recruited at reference centers in the Midwest Region of Brazil. The prevalence rate of HIV-HCV coinfection was 6.9% (95% CI: 5.2 to 8.6. In multivariable analysis, increasing age, use of illicit drugs (injection and non-injection, a history of blood transfusion before 1994, and the absence of a steady partnership were significant independent associated factors for HIV-HCV coinfection. The phylogenetic analysis based on the NS5B region revealed the presence of two major circulating genotypes of HCV: genotypes 1 (58.3% and 3 (41.7%. The prevalence of HIV-HCV coinfection was lower than those reported in studies conducted with HIV-infected patients in different regions of Brazil, due to the fact that illicit drug use is not a frequent mode of HIV transmission in this region of Brazil. Serologic screening of HIV-patients for HCV before initiating antiretroviral treatment, a comprehensive identification of associated factors, and the implementation of effective harm reduction programs are highly recommended to provide useful information for treatment and to prevent HCV coinfection in these patients.

  2. HIV and HCV coinfection: prevalence, associated factors and genotype characterization in the Midwest Region of Brazil.

    Freitas, Solange Zacalusni; Teles, Sheila Araújo; Lorenzo, Paulo Cesar; Puga, Marco Antonio Moreira; Tanaka, Tayana Serpa Ortiz; Thomaz, Danilo Yamamoto; Martins, Regina Maria Bringel; Druzian, Angelita Fernandes; Lindenberg, Andréa Siqueira Campos; Torres, Marina Sawada; Pereira, Sérgio A; Villar, Livia Melo; Lampe, Elisabete; Motta-Castro, Ana Rita Coimbra

    2014-01-01

    A cross-sectional study on prevalence, associated factors and genotype distribution of HCV infection was conducted among 848 HIV-infected patients recruited at reference centers in the Midwest Region of Brazil. The prevalence rate of HIV-HCV coinfection was 6.9% (95% CI: 5.2 to 8.6). In multivariable analysis, increasing age, use of illicit drugs (injection and non-injection), a history of blood transfusion before 1994, and the absence of a steady partnership were significant independent associated factors for HIV-HCV coinfection. The phylogenetic analysis based on the NS5B region revealed the presence of two major circulating genotypes of HCV: genotypes 1 (58.3%) and 3 (41.7%). The prevalence of HIV-HCV coinfection was lower than those reported in studies conducted with HIV-infected patients in different regions of Brazil, due to the fact that illicit drug use is not a frequent mode of HIV transmission in this region of Brazil. Serologic screening of HIV-patients for HCV before initiating antiretroviral treatment, a comprehensive identification of associated factors, and the implementation of effective harm reduction programs are highly recommended to provide useful information for treatment and to prevent HCV coinfection in these patients.

  3. [A respondent-driven sampling survey on HIV and risk factors among men who have sex with men in Chongqing].

    Ouyang, Lin; Feng, Lian-gui; Ding, Xian-bin; Zhao, Jin-kou; Xu, Jing; Han, Mei; Zhou, Chao

    2009-10-01

    To examine HIV prevalence and related risk factors among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Chongqing, and to explore the feasibility of using respondent-driven sampling (RDS) in the survey. Based on results from formative research, a RDS survey was designed and conducted to collect demographic, behavioral and serologic data. RDSAT was used to calculate point estimation and confidence intervals. SPSS was used for bi-variate analysis using RDSAT exported weighed data. NETDRAW was used to draw network diagram. Among 617 subjects recruited, the adjusted HIV and syphilis prevalence rates were 16.8% and 10.9%, respectively. 73.0% of the subjects were 20 to 29 years old and 72.9% were officially registered residents of Chongqing. 83.4% were single, with the proportion of students the highest, accounting for 24.6%. During the last six months, 83.4% of them reported ever having anal sex, and 54.0% reported having unprotected anal sex. This survey confirmed that Chongqing had a higher reported HIV prevalence among MSM than from other Chinese cities. Comprehensive intervention services were required to address this alarmingly high prevalence, with focus on intervention through internet and those having syphilis infection. RDS seemed one of the effective ways of recruiting hidden MSM populations in Chongqing which had a large population of active MSM who did not frequently visit MSM venues as compared with snowball method.

  4. High prevalence of radiological vertebral fractures in HIV-infected males.

    Torti, Carlo; Mazziotti, Gherardo; Soldini, Pier Antonio; Focà, Emanuele; Maroldi, Roberto; Gotti, Daria; Carosi, Giampiero; Giustina, Andrea

    2012-06-01

    Age-related co-morbidities including osteoporosis are relevant in patients responding to combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Vertebral fractures are common osteoporotic fractures and their diagnosis is useful for managing at-risk individuals. However, there are few data from HIV-infected patients. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of and factors associated with vertebral fractures in a population of HIV-infected males. A cross-sectional study of 160 HIV-infected patients with available chest X-rays was conducted from 1998 to 2010. One hundred and sixty-three males with comparable age and with no history of HIV infection were recruited as controls. Semi-quantitative evaluation of vertebral heights in lateral chest X-rays and quantitative morphometry assessment of centrally digitized images using dedicated morphometry software were utilized to detect prevalent vertebral fractures. The result showed that the vertebral fractures were detected in 43/160 (26.9%) HIV-infected patients and in 21/163 (12.9%) controls (P = 0.002). In HIV-infected patients with fractures, 27 had two or more fractures and ten patients had severe fractures. The prevalence of any fractures and multiple fractures in HIV-infected patients receiving cART (29.6 and 20.0%) was slightly higher than in HIV-infected patients not exposed to cART (17.1 and 5.7%), but significantly higher than control subjects (12.9 and 3.7%). At multivariable analyses, body mass index and diabetes mellitus were independently correlated with vertebral fractures in HIV-infected patients. We concluded that a significant proportion of HIV-infected males receiving cART showed vertebral fractures. Furthermore, proactive diagnosis of vertebral fragility fractures is particularly relevant in patients who are overweight or suffer from diabetes.

  5. HIV prevalence and sexual risk behaviour among non-injection drug users in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Deiss, Robert G; Lozada, Remedios M; Burgos, Jose Luis; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Gallardo, Manuel; Cuevas, Jazmine; Garfein, Richard S

    2012-01-01

    Prior studies estimate HIV prevalence of 4% among injection drug users (IDUs), compared with 0.8% in the general population of Tijuana, Mexico. However, data on HIV prevalence and correlates among non-injecting drug users (NIDUs) are sparse. Individuals were recruited through street outreach for HIV testing and behavioural risk assessment interviews to estimate HIV prevalence and identify associated sexual risk behaviours among NIDUs in Tijuana. Descriptive statistics were used to characterise 'low-risk' NIDUs (drug users who were not commercial sex workers or men who have sex with men). Results showed that HIV prevalence was 3.7% among low-risk NIDUs. During the prior six months, 52% of NIDUs reported having >1 casual partner; 35% reported always using condoms with a casual partner; and 13% and 15%, respectively, reported giving or receiving something in exchange for sex. Women were significantly more likely than men to have unprotected sex with an IDU (pTijuana. Broad interventions including HIV testing, condom promotion and sexual risk reduction should be offered to all drug users in Tijuana.

  6. Low Prevalence of Transmitted HIV Type 1 Drug Resistance Among Antiretroviral-Naive Adults in a Rural HIV Clinic in Kenya

    Hassan, Amin S.; Mwaringa, Shalton M.; Obonyo, Clare A.; Nabwera, Helen M.; Sanders, Eduard J.; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F.; Cane, Patricia A.; Berkley, James A.

    2013-01-01

    Low levels of HIV-1 transmitted drug resistance (TDR) have previously been reported from many parts of sub-Saharan Africa (sSA). However, recent data, mostly from urban settings, suggest an increase in the prevalence of HIV-1 TDR. Our objective was to determine the prevalence of TDR mutations among

  7. HIV-1 subtypes D and F are prevalent in Guinea Conakry.

    Freimanis, G L; Loua, A; Allain, J P

    2012-04-01

    Limited data is available upon the distribution of different HIV-1/2 genotypes in the blood donor population from Guinea Conakry. To investigate the prevalence of HIV-1/2 subtypes in asymptomatic blood donors in Guinea Conakry, in order to update knowledge of HIV-1/2 epidemiology within this country. Samples from 104 blood donors seropositive for HIV-1/2 were tested for HIV-1 by real-time RT-PCR. Those negative for HIV-1 were tested with HIV-2 nested RT-PCR. Positive samples were further amplified in the HIV-1 gag and pol regions and sequenced. Subtypes were determined by phylogenetic analysis on amplicon sequences. 61 samples were positive by HIV-1 real-time RT-PCR. Of the 43 negative, 2 (4.6%) were positive for HIV-2. 52/61 (85.3%) samples were positive by nested RT-PCR. Of the 52, 43 (70.5%) and 31(59.6%) sequences were obtained in the gag and pol regions, respectively; 23 for both regions. HIV-1 subtype distribution was 1 B (2.1%), 8 F (17%), 8 D (17%) and 28 CRF02_AG (59.6%) with 2 unclassified recombinants (4.3%). Unique clusters for subtype D and F distinguished Guinea from HIV-1 subtype distribution in neighboring countries. Subtype F and subtype D strains, uncommon in West Africa, are a substantial part of HIV-1 epidemiology in Guinea. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Prevalence of HIV in pregnant women identified with a risk factor at a tertiary care hospital.

    Mahmud, Ghazala; Abbas, Shazra

    2009-01-01

    HIV is an epidemic quite unlike any other, combining the problems of a lifelong medical disease with immense social, psychological, economic and public health consequences. Since we are living in a global village where human interactions has become fast and frequent, diseases like HIV are no more alien to us. HIV/AIDS in Pakistan is slowly gaining recognition as a public health issue of great importance. Objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of HIV in pregnant women identified with a high risk factor/behaviour at a tertiary care hospital. It is a Descriptive study. All pregnant women attending antenatal booking clinic were assessed via a pre-designed 'Risk assessment questionnaire'. Women identified with a risk factor were offered HIV Rapid screening test (Capillus HIV1/2). Positive (reactive) results on screening test were confirmed with ELISA. During the study period (March 2007-May 2008), out of 5263 antenatal bookings 785 (14%) women were identified with a risk factor. HIV screening test was done in 779 (99%), and 6 women refused testing. Three women (0.3%) were found positive (reactive) on screening. Two out of 3 women were confirmed positive (0.2%) on ELISA. Husbands of both women were tested and one found positive (migrant from Dubai). Second women had history of blood transfusion. Her husband was HIV negative. During the study period, in addition to 2 pregnant women diagnosed as HIV positive through ANC risk screening, 6 confirmed HIV positive women, found pregnant were referred from 'HIV Treatment Centre', Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences (PIMS) to Prevention of Parent to Child Transmission (PPTCT) centre for obstetric care. Spouses of 5 out of 6 had history of working abroad and extramarital sexual relationships. All positive (8) women were referred to PPTCT centre for further management. A simple 'Risk Assessment Questionnaire' can help us in identifying women who need HIV screening. Sexual transmission still remains the

  9. High prevalence of antiretroviral drug resistance among HIV-1-untreated patients in Guinea-Conakry and in Niger.

    Charpentier, Charlotte; Bellecave, Pantxika; Cisse, Mohamed; Mamadou, Saidou; Diakite, Mandiou; Peytavin, Gilles; Tchiombiano, Stéphanie; Teisseire, Pierre; Pizarro, Louis; Storto, Alexandre; Brun-Vézinet, Françoise; Katlama, Christine; Calvez, Vincent; Marcelin, Anne-Geneviève; Masquelier, Bernard; Descamps, Diane

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of antiretroviral drug resistance mutations in HIV-1 from recently diagnosed and untreated patients living in Conakry, Guinea-Conakry and in Niamey, Niger. The study was performed in two countries of Western Africa - Guinea-Conakry and Niger - using the same survey method in both sites. All newly HIV-1 diagnosed patients, naive of antiretroviral drugs, were consecutively included during September 2009 in each of the two sites. Protease and reverse transcriptase sequencing was performed using the ANRS procedures. Drug resistance mutations were identified according to the 2009 update surveillance drug resistance mutations. In Conakry, 99 patients were included, most of whom (89%) were infected with CRF02_AG recombinant virus. Resistance analysis among the 93 samples showed that ≥1 drug resistance mutation was observed in 8 samples, leading to a prevalence of primary resistance of 8.6% (95% CI 2.91-14.29%). In Niamey, 96 patients were included; a high diversity in HIV-1 subtypes was observed with 47 (51%) patients infected with CRF02_AG. Resistance analysis performed among the 92 samples with successful genotypic resistance test showed that ≥1 drug resistance mutation was observed in 6 samples, leading to a prevalence of primary resistance of 6.5% (95% CI 1.50-11.50%). We reported the first antiretroviral drug resistance survey studies in antiretroviral-naive patients living in Guinea-Conakry and in Niger. The prevalence of resistance was between 6% and 9% in both sites, which is higher than most of the other countries from Western Africa region.

  10. Creating an African HIV clinical research and prevention trials network: HIV prevalence, incidence and transmission.

    Anatoli Kamali

    Full Text Available HIV epidemiology informs prevention trial design and program planning. Nine clinical research centers (CRC in sub-Saharan Africa conducted HIV observational epidemiology studies in populations at risk for HIV infection as part of an HIV prevention and vaccine trial network. Annual HIV incidence ranged from below 2% to above 10% and varied by CRC and risk group, with rates above 5% observed in Zambian men in an HIV-discordant relationship, Ugandan men from Lake Victoria fishing communities, men who have sex with men, and several cohorts of women. HIV incidence tended to fall after the first three months in the study and over calendar time. Among suspected transmission pairs, 28% of HIV infections were not from the reported partner. Volunteers with high incidence were successfully identified and enrolled into large scale cohort studies. Over a quarter of new cases in couples acquired infection from persons other than the suspected transmitting partner.

  11. Creating an African HIV Clinical Research and Prevention Trials Network: HIV Prevalence, Incidence and Transmission

    Kamali, Anatoli; Price, Matt A.; Lakhi, Shabir; Karita, Etienne; Inambao, Mubiana; Sanders, Eduard J.; Anzala, Omu; Latka, Mary H.; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Asiki, Gershim; Ssetaala, Ali; Ruzagira, Eugene; Allen, Susan; Farmer, Paul; Hunter, Eric; Mutua, Gaudensia; Makkan, Heeran; Tichacek, Amanda; Brill, Ilene K.; Fast, Pat; Stevens, Gwynn; Chetty, Paramesh; Amornkul, Pauli N.; Gilmour, Jill

    2015-01-01

    HIV epidemiology informs prevention trial design and program planning. Nine clinical research centers (CRC) in sub-Saharan Africa conducted HIV observational epidemiology studies in populations at risk for HIV infection as part of an HIV prevention and vaccine trial network. Annual HIV incidence ranged from below 2% to above 10% and varied by CRC and risk group, with rates above 5% observed in Zambian men in an HIV-discordant relationship, Ugandan men from Lake Victoria fishing communities, men who have sex with men, and several cohorts of women. HIV incidence tended to fall after the first three months in the study and over calendar time. Among suspected transmission pairs, 28% of HIV infections were not from the reported partner. Volunteers with high incidence were successfully identified and enrolled into large scale cohort studies. Over a quarter of new cases in couples acquired infection from persons other than the suspected transmitting partner. PMID:25602351

  12. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori prevalence and upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in HIV/AIDS patients with gastrointestinal symptoms in the University Teaching Hospitals in Cameroon.

    Andoulo, F A; Kowo, M; Ngatcha, G; Ndam, A N; Awouoyiegnigni, B; Sida, M B; Tzeuton, C; Ndjitoyap Ndam, E C

    2016-08-01

    To determine the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and of various upper gastrointestinal (GI) lesions in HIV + patients with GI symptoms and the relation of H. pylori infection to CD4 cell counts. In all, 56 HIV + patients and 56 age- and sex-matched HIV - controls, all with upper GI symptoms, were evaluated by an upper endoscopy examination and gastric biopsy. H. pylori status was assessed with a urease test and histology. HIV was diagnosed with the rapid test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The prevalence of H. pylori was 50% (28/56 [95%CI 36.3-63.7]) in HIV + subjects and 55% (31/56 [95%CI 41.5-68.7]) in HIV - controls (p = 0.57). H. pylori infection rates did not differ significantly in HIV + patients between those with a CD4 count ≥200/mm 3 (52%) and those with a CD4 count HIV + patients and controls were compared: esophageal candidiasis (61%, 34/56 vs. 7%; pHIV + and HIV - subjects. Prevalence of H. pylori was also lower, although not significantly, among HIV + patients with CD4 T-cell counts below 200/mm 3 . On endoscopy, esophageal candidiasis was the most common finding in HIV + patients, discovered by dysphagia.

  13. Prevalence, severity, and related factors of anemia in HIV/AIDS patients

    Mohsen Meidani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The prevalence of anemia in HIV infected patients has not been well characterized in Iran. This study aimed to describe the prevalence of anemia and related factors in HIV positive patients. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study, anemia prevalence and risk factors of 212 HIV positive patients were assessed, at the behavioral disease consulting center in Isfahan. The relationship between anemia, demographic variables, and clinical histories were analyzed. Mild to moderate anemia was defined as hemoglobin 8-13 g/dL for men and 8-12 g/dL for women. Severe anemia was defined as hemoglobin, 8 g/dL. Results: A total of 212 HIV positive patients with a mean±SD age of 36.1 ± 9.1 years were assessed. We found that hemoglobin levels were between 4.7 and 16.5 gr/dL. In this study, the overall prevalence of anemia was 71%, with the majority of patients having mild to moderate anemia. Mild to moderate anemia and severe anemia occurred in 67% and 4% of patients, respectively. The mean absolute CD4 count was 348 ± 267.8 cells/cubic mm. Sixty one of 212 patients were at late stage of HIV infection (males=51 and female=10. Of the 212 HIV positive patients enrolled, 17 (8% had a positive history of tuberculosis. We found a strong association between anemia and death. Conclusion: Normocytic anemia with decreased reticulocyte count was the most common type of anemia in overall. Prevalence of anemia in this study is relatively higher than other similar studies. Such a high prevalence of anemia needs close monitoring of patients on a zidovudine-based regimen. Better screening for anemia and infectious diseases, and modified harm reduction strategy (HRS for injection drug users are primary needs in HIV seropositive patients.

  14. Perceptions of Community HIV/ STI Risk Among U.S Women Living in Areas with High Poverty and HIV Prevalence Rates

    Blackstock, Oni J.; Frew, Paula; Bota, Dorothy; Vo-Green, Linda; Parker, Kim; Franks, Julie; Hodder, Sally L.; Justman, Jessica; Golin, Carol E.; Haley, Danielle F.; Kuo, Irene; Adimora, Adaora A.; Rompalo, Anne; Soto-Torres, Lydia; Wang, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Although studies have consistently demonstrated that women at high risk for HIV and non-HIV sexually transmitted infections (STIs) tend to underestimate their individual risk, little is known about how women at risk perceive their community’s HIV/STI risk. We explored perceptions of community HIV/ STI risk among U.S. women living in areas with high poverty and HIV prevalence rates as part of a qualitative substudy of the Women’s HIV SeroIncidence Study. Semi-structured focus groups were condu...

  15. The prevalence of HIV among blood donors at Juba Teaching Hospital Blood Bank, South Sudan

    Kenneth L L Sube

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of HIV among blood donors in Juba Teaching Hospital Blood Bank, South Sudan in 2013. Method and Materials This is a retrospective study that involved the abstraction of data from registers at the blood bank. Data were collected onto data sheets and entered into a computer database. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS Version 20 Software. A p value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results Out of 1095 blood donors, 1074 (98.1% were males and 21 (1.9% were females. The mean age and the range for the whole group was 29+7.16 (15-69 yrs. The prevalence of HIV was higher among males than females 85 (7.9% vs 1 (4.8% respectively but this was not statistical significant (p=0.6. The 20 to 29 year age group had the highest prevalence of 49 (57% with no statistical significance (p=0.3.The prevalence of HIV was 7.0 % (86 and there were co-infections between HIV and HBV, HCV and syphilis of 14 (50%, 5 (18%, 9 (32% with p=0.7, p=0.1, p=0.8 respectively. Blood group O positive had the highest percentage 58.1 % (n=50 and was the commonest group. Conclusion In this study, HIV prevalence is very high among blood donors at the Juba Teaching Hospital blood bank.

  16. Intestinal parasitic infections in HIV infected and non-infected patients in a low HIV prevalence region, West-Cameroon.

    Céline Nguefeu Nkenfou

    Full Text Available The magnitude of intestinal parasitic infection in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients requires careful consideration in the developing world where poor nutrition is associated with poor hygiene and several tropical diseases. However, there have been very few studies addressing this issue in Cameroon. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis in HIV/AIDS patients in Dschang -Cameroon. Stool and blood specimens from HIV/AIDS patients and control group were screened respectively for intestinal parasites and for HIV antibodies. Intestinal parasites were identified using direct microscopy, formalin-ether concentration and Ziehl Neelsen methods. Out of 396 participants recruited among patients consulting at hospital, 42 (10.6% were HIV positive, thirty of them treatment naïve. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 14.64%. Out of 42 HIV/AIDS patients, 59.5% (25/42 were infected with intestinal parasites, while only 9.32% (33/354 of the HIV negative patients were infected with intestinal parasites. The parasites detected in our study population included Crystosporidium parvum (2.53%, Entamoeba histolytica (7.52%, Entamoeba coli (4.04%, Giardia lamblia (0.25%, Trichuris trichura (0.25%, Strongyloides stercoralis (0.25% and Taenia spp. (0.25%. In the HIV infected group, Crystosporidium parvum (19.04%, Entamoeba histolytica (19.04%, Entamoeba coli (21.42%, Giardia lamblia (2.38%, Strongyloides stercoralis (0.25% and Taenia spp. (0.25% were found. Crystosporidium parvum was found to be significantly higher in HIV/AIDS patients than in controls (P<0.05. Multivariate analysis showed that the HIV status and the quality of water were the major risk factors for intestinal parasitosis. Routine examinations of stool samples for parasites would significantly benefit the HIV patients by contributing in reducing morbidity and improving the efficiency of antiretroviral treatment. Even after the introduction

  17. HIV and STI prevalence among female sex workers in Côte d'Ivoire: why targeted prevention programs should be continued and strengthened.

    Bea Vuylsteke

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess condom use and prevalence of STIs and HIV among female sex workers (FSWs, as part of a comprehensive monitoring and evaluation plan of a nationwide sex worker prevention project in Côte d'Ivoire. DESIGN AND METHODS: Cross sectional surveys were conducted among FSWs attending five project clinics in Abidjan and San Pedro (2007, and in Yamoussoukro and Gagnoa (2009. A standardized questionnaire was administered in a face-to-face interview, which included questions on socio-demographic characteristics, sexual behaviour and condom use. After the interview, the participants were asked to provide samples for STI and HIV testing. RESULTS: A total of 1110 FSWs participated in the surveys. There were large differences in socio-demographic and behavioural characteristics between FSW coming for the first time as compared to FSW coming on a routine visit. The prevalence of N. gonorrhoeae or C.trachomatis was 9.1%, 11.8% among first vs. 6.9% routine attendees (p = 0.004. The overall HIV prevalence was 26.6%, it was lower among first time attendees (17.5% as compared to 33.9% for routine attendees, p<0.001. The HIV prevalence among first attendees was also lower than the proportion of HIV positive tests from routine testing and counselling services in the same clinics. CONCLUSIONS: The results show a relatively high STI and HIV prevalence among FSWs in different cities in Côte d'Ivoire. In the light of these results, prevention efforts should continue to focus on FSWs in the country.

  18. Prevalence and significance of Mycoplasma genitalium in women living with HIV in Denmark

    Madsen, Anne Marie Rosendahl; Thorsteinsson, Kristina; Lebech, Anne-Mette

    2017-01-01

    has been suggested as part of HIV prevention strategies. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of M. genitalium in women living with HIV (WLWH) in Denmark, and to compare the result with data on symptoms from the lower abdomen, sexual habits and immune status. 234 women...... were of Asian origin, sexually active, and on antiretroviral treatment with supressed HIV RNA and CD4 count >350 cells/µL. None reported symptoms from the lower abdomen. The prevalence of M. genitalium infection in WLWH in Denmark is low, thus systematic screening for M. genitalium in this group does......OBJECTIVE: Mycoplasma genitalium (M. genitalium) is a sexually transmitted pathogen associated with urethritis, cervicitis, and pelvic inflammatory disease. Previous studies have shown a strong association between M. genitalium and HIV infection, therefore screening and treatment for M. genitalium...

  19. National South African HIV prevalence estimates robust despite ...

    Approximately 18% of all people living with HIV in 2013 were estimated to live in South Africa (SA),[1] which ... 1 Research Department of Infection and Population Health, Institute for Global Health, University College London, UK.

  20. Intimate partner sexual and physical violence among women in Togo, West Africa: Prevalence, associated factors, and the specific role of HIV infection

    Juan Burgos-Soto

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: A substantial proportion of newly diagnosed HIV infections in sub-Saharan Africa occur within serodiscordant cohabiting heterosexual couples. Intimate partner violence is a major concern for couple-oriented HIV preventive approaches. This study aimed at estimating the prevalence and associated factors of intimate partner physical and sexual violence among HIV-infected and -uninfected women in Togo. We also described the severity and consequences of this violence as well as care-seeking behaviors of women exposed to intimate partner violence. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted between May and July 2011 within Sylvanus Olympio University Hospital in Lomé. HIV-infected women attending HIV care and uninfected women attending postnatal care and/or children immunization visits were interviewed. Intimate partner physical and sexual violence and controlling behaviors were assessed using an adapted version of the WHO Multi-country study on Women's Health and Life Events questionnaire. Results: Overall, 150 HIV-uninfected and 304 HIV-infected women accepted to be interviewed. The prevalence rates of lifetime physical and sexual violence among HIV-infected women were significantly higher than among uninfected women (63.1 vs. 39.3%, p<0.01 and 69.7 vs. 35.3%, p<0.01, respectively. Forty-two percent of the women reported having ever had physical injuries as a consequence of intimate partner violence. Among injured women, only one-third had ever disclosed real causes of injuries to medical staff and none of them had been referred to local organizations to receive appropriate psychological support. Regardless of HIV status and after adjustment on potential confounders, the risk of intimate partner physical and sexual violence was strongly and significantly associated with male partner multi-partnership and early start of sexual life. Among uninfected women, physical violence was significantly associated with gender submissive

  1. Augmented Cross-Sectional Prevalence Testing for Estimating HIV Incidence

    Wang, R.; Lagakos, S. W.

    2010-01-01

    Estimation of an HIV incidence rate based on a cross-sectional sample of individuals evaluated with both a sensitive and less-sensitive diagnostic test offers important advantages to incidence estimation based on a longitudinal cohort study. However, the reliability of the cross-sectional approach has been called into question because of two major concerns. One is the difficulty in obtaining a reliable external approximation for the mean “window period” between detectability of HIV infection ...

  2. Employment discrimination and HIV stigma: survey results from civil society organisations and people living with HIV in Africa.

    Sprague, Laurel; Simon, Sara; Sprague, Courtenay

    2011-01-01

    The article presents findings from three surveys of people living with HIV (PLHIV) and civil society organisations about the experience of employment discrimination and stigma in the workplace. The work seeks to contribute to efforts by businesses and other organisations to effectively respond to the HIV epidemic within the world of work, and to deepen our understanding of the ways in which HIV stigma and employment discrimination persist in the workplace. The findings of global and regional surveys indicate the existence of high levels of employment discrimination based on HIV status worldwide, including forced disclosure of HIV status, exclusion in the workplace, refusals to hire or promote, and terminations of people known to be living with HIV. The survey findings show that employment discrimination based on HIV status is experienced in all African subregions. Country-level surveys conducted in Kenya and Zambia indicated that PLHIV face marked barriers to employment, including discrimination in hiring, loss of promotions, and termination because of HIV status. Additionally, large variances were found in the degree of support versus discrimination that employees living with HIV in those two countries received following their disclosure. The discussion emphasises the importance of the workplace as a site for intervention and behaviour change. To address this, we introduce a conceptual framework - the employment continuum - that maps multiple points of entry within the workplace to address HIV-related stigma and discrimination. Additional recommendations include: actions to ensure equal opportunity in hiring for PLHIV; ensuring that HIV testing is voluntary, never mandatory, and that disclosure is not necessary for employment; ensuring confidentiality of HIV status; communicating and enforcing HIV-related antidiscrimination policies; establishing support groups in the workplace; providing safe and confidential processes for resolving complaints of employment

  3. Screening, prevalence, and risk factors for cervical lesions among HIV positive and HIV negative women in Swaziland

    Pauline E. Jolly

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cervical Cancer (CC is the number one cancer among women in sub-Saharan Africa. Although CC is preventable, most women in developing countries do not have access to screening. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence and risk factors for cervical lesions using visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA among 112 HIV positive and 161 negative women aged 18–69 years. Results The presence of cervical lesions was greater among HIV positive (22.9% than HIV negative women (5.7%; p < 0.0001. In logistic models, the risk of cervical lesions among HIV positive women was 5.24 times higher when adjusted by age (OR 5.24, CI 2.31–11.88, and 4.06 times higher in a full model (OR 4.06, CI 1.61–10.25, than among HIV negative women. In the age-adjusted model women who had ≥2 lifetime sexual partners were 3 times more likely (OR 3.00, CI 1.02–8.85 to have cervical lesions compared to women with one lifetime partner and the odds of cervical lesions among women with a history of STIs were 2.16 greater (OR 2.16, CI 1.04–4.50 than among women with no previous STI. In the fully adjusted model women who had a previous cervical exam were 2.5 times more likely (OR 2.53, CI 1.06–6.05 to have cervical lesions than women who had not. Conclusions The high prevalence of HIV infection and the strong association between HIV and cervical lesions highlight the need for substantial scale-up of cervical screening to decrease the rate of CC in Swaziland.

  4. HBV and HIV co-infection: Prevalence and clinical outcomes in tertiary care hospital Malaysia.

    Akhtar, Ali; Khan, Amer Hayat; Sulaiman, Syed Azhar Syed; Soo, Chow Ting; Khan, Kashifullah

    2016-03-01

    According to WHO, Malaysia has been classified as a concentrated epidemic country due to progression of HIV infection in the population of injecting drug users. The main objectives of current study are to determine the prevalence of HBV among HIV-positive individuals in a tertiary care hospital of Malaysia and to assess the predictors involved in the outcomes of HIV-HBV co-infected patients. A retrospective, cross-sectional study is conducted at Hospital Palau Pinang, Malaysia. The collection of socio-demographic data as well as clinical data is done with the help of data collection form. Data were analyzed after putting the collected values of required data by using statistical software SPSS version 20.0 and P > 0.05 is considered as significant. Results show that the overall prevalence of HBV was 86 (13%) including 495 (74.5%) males and 169 (25.5%) females among a total of 664 HIV-infected patients. It was observed that there is a high prevalence of HIV-HBV co-infection in males 76 (11.4%) as compared to females 10 (1.5%) (P = 0.002). The median age of the study population was 39 years. The statistical significant risk factors involved in the outcomes of HIV-HBV co-infected patients were observed in the variables of gender, age groups, and injecting drug users. The findings of the present study shows that the prevalence of HBV infection among HIV-positive patients was 13% and the risk factors involved in the outcomes of HIV-HBV co-infected patients were gender, age, and intravenous drug users. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. The Prevalence of HIV Risk Behaviors among Felony Drug Court Participants.

    Festinger, David S; Dugosh, Karen L; Metzger, David S; Marlowe, Douglas B

    2012-01-01

    A small percentage of participants in a large metropolitan felony Drug Court engaged in high-risk injection drug use, but a large percentage engaged in high-risk sexual behaviors. HIV risk behaviors were associated with being male, African-American, and younger. A large proportion of Drug Court participants resided in areas of the city with a high prevalence of persons living with HIV/AIDS, thus heightening the probability of exposure to the virus.

  6. High HIV infection prevalence in a group of men who have sex with men

    Raquel Maria Cardoso Torres

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is characterized by a concentrated AIDS epidemic, it has a prevalence of less than 1% in the general population. However, there are higher rates in specific populations, especially in men who have sex with men. The study's aim was to analyze the association between sociodemographic characteristics, sexual practices, sexual behaviors and the HIV infection in a group of men who have sex with men. Secondary data was collected between June 2014 and September 2015 in a research of cross-sectional design in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Volunteers answered an online computerized questionnaire and took HIV test. Chi-squared distribution and multiple logistic regression was used. There were 341 participants. Most of them were racially mixed, single, average age of 30.6 years and with a higher education level. The HIV prevalence was 13.9%. Two logistic models were fit (insertive or receptive anal intercourse. Both models showed an association with HIV among those who had a HIV positive sexual partner (Odds Ratio ≈ 2.5 and a high self-perception of acquiring HIV (Model 1: Odds Ratio ≈ 7/Model 2: Odds Ratio ≈ 10. Low condom usage in receptive anal intercourse with casual partners had a direct association with HIV seropositivity, whereas insertive anal intercourse with casual partners with or without condoms were inversely related. The study identified a high prevalence of HIV infections among a group of men who sex with men with a high self-perception risk of acquiring HIV. The findings also showed a relation with sociodemographic and sexual behavior variables.

  7. 'Never testing for HIV' among men who have sex with men in Viet Nam: results from an Internet-based cross-sectional survey.

    García, Macarena Cecilia; Duong, Quyen Le; Mercer, Licelot Eralte; Meyer, Samantha Beth; Ward, Paul Russell

    2013-12-28

    Men who have sex with men in Viet Nam have been under-studied as a high-risk group for HIV infection, and this population's percentage and determinants of HIV testing have not been comprehensively investigated. A national Internet-based survey of self-reported sexual and health seeking behaviours was conducted between August and October 2011 with 2077 Vietnamese men who had sex with men in the last twelve months to identify the frequency of 'never testing for HIV' among Internet-using MSM living in Viet Nam, as well as the factors associated with this HIV-related high-rish behavior. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the demographic characteristics and behaviours predicting never testing for HIV. A total of 76.5% of men who have sex with men who were surveyed reported never having been voluntarily tested for HIV. Predictors of never being tested included having a monthly income less than VND 5 Million, being a student, using the Internet less than 15 hour per week, and not participating in a behavioural HIV intervention. Never testing for HIV is common among Internet-using men who have sex with men in Viet Nam. Given the dangerously high prevalence of this high-risk behaviour, our findings underscore the urgent need for segmented and targeted HIV prevention, care and treatment strategies, focusing on drastically reducing the number of men who have sex with men never testing for HIV in Viet Nam.

  8. The prevalence and pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus in treated HIV-infection.

    Paik, Il Joon; Kotler, Donald P

    2011-06-01

    HIV-associated morbidity and mortality have declined significantly since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). These developments have allowed an increased focus on associated adverse metabolic effects, such as dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, and insulin resistance, which are risk factors for cardiovascular disease and other adverse outcomes. The pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying the metabolic changes are complicated and not yet fully elucidated due to the difficulty of separating the effects of HIV infection from those of HAART, co-morbidities, or individual patient vulnerabilities. This article reviews studies concerning the prevalence and incidence of diabetes mellitus and HIV, HIV-specific effects on diabetes mellitus complications, and HIV-specific diabetes mellitus treatment considerations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Burkitt's lymphoma: The prevalence of HIV/AIDS and the outcome of treatment

    F Kouya

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of HIV in Burkitt’s lymphoma (BL patients and the outcome of treatment in Cameroon were unknown. Records of all patients diagnosed with BL at three Cameroon Baptist Convention hospitals were reviewed to ascertain the recorded HIV status and outcome of treatment. Of 979 patients diagnosed with BL, 717 were tested for HIV and 11 (1.5% were HIV-positive. Three of eight patients treated with both cyclophosphamide (CPM-based chemotherapy and antiretrovirals were alive at 62, 96 and 111 months, respectively. The HIV rate was comparable to that of 1% for the general population of children aged <15 years. Low-cost high-frequency CPM was the only available treatment option for BL and was associated with 37.5% long-term survival in a resource-limited setting.

  10. High Prevalence of Hypertension in Ethiopian and Non-Ethiopian HIV-Infected Adults

    Maya Korem

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Prevalence of hypertension has not been studied in the Ethiopian HIV-infected population, which represents 60% of the patients in our AIDS unit. Our aim was to identify risk factors and characterize the prevalence of hypertension in the population monitored at our unit. Methods. A retrospective chart review categorized subjects according to their blood pressure levels. Hypertension prevalence was determined and stratified according to variables perceived to contribute to elevated blood pressure. Results. The prevalence of hypertension in our study population was significantly higher compared to the general population (53% versus 20%, P<0.0001 and was associated with known risk factors and not with patients’ viral load and CD4 levels. Ethiopian HIV-infected adults had a prominently higher rate of blood pressure rise over time as compared to non-Ethiopians (P=0.016. Conclusions. The high prevalence of hypertension in this cohort and the rapid increase in blood pressure in Ethiopians are alarming. We could not attribute high prevalence to HIV-related factors and we presume it is part of the metabolic syndrome. The lifelong cardiovascular risk associated with HIV infection mandates hypertension screening and close monitoring in this population.

  11. Prevalence and management of helminthiasis among underfives living with HIV/AIDS at Amana Hospital, Tanzania.

    Mwambete, Kennedy D; Tunzo, Jones; Justin-Temu, Mary

    2013-01-01

    This was a cross-sectional study intended to assess the prevalence and management of helminthiasis (HL) among underfives living with HIV/AIDS (ULHA). Clinical histories of ULHA were scrutinized for HIV/AIDS status, antiretroviral therapy (ART), HL prevalence, and their management. About 364 ULHA were studied, 213 (58.5%) were girls and 151 (41.5%) were boys. Of the 364 ULHA, 171 (47.5%) had HL and 64.3% were treated with albendazole (ABZ). Trichuriasis was ascribed to 23.6% of HL. Majority (72.5%) of ULHA had a CD4 count below 200 cells/mm³. Direct association was observed between CD4 counts and HL. About 55% ULHA were on lamivudine (3TC)-stavudine (d4T)-nevirapine (NVP; LSN) combination therapy. The ABZ-LSN combination was frequently used for HIV/AIDS and HL management. High prevalence of HL and vivid correlation between HIV status and HL were observed. The LSN-ABZ combination was frequently employed for management of HIV/AIDS and HL. We recommended prompt diagnosis of HL to avoid acceleration of HIV infection to AIDS.

  12. Diabetes incidence and projections from prevalence surveys in Fiji.

    Morrell, Stephen; Lin, Sophia; Tukana, Isimeli; Linhart, Christine; Taylor, Richard; Vatucawaqa, Penina; Magliano, Dianna J; Zimmet, Paul

    2016-11-25

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) incidence is traditionally derived from cohort studies that are not always feasible, representative, or available. The present study estimates T2DM incidence in Fijian adults from T2DM prevalence estimates assembled from surveys of 25-64 year old adults conducted over 30 years (n = 14,288). T2DM prevalence by five-year age group from five population-based risk factor surveys conducted over 1980-2011 were variously adjusted for urban-rural residency, ethnicity, and sex to previous censuses (1976, 1986, 1996, 2009) to improve representativeness. Prevalence estimates were then used to calculate T2DM incidence based on birth cohorts from the age-period (Lexis) matrix following the Styblo technique, first used to estimate annual risk of tuberculosis infection (incidence) from sequential Mantoux population surveys. Poisson regression of year, age, sex, and ethnicity strata (n = 160) was used to develop projections of T2DM prevalence and incidence to 2020 based on various scenarios of population weight measured by body mass index (BMI) change. T2DM prevalence and annual incidence increased in Fiji over 1980-2011. Prevalence was higher in Indians and men than i-Taukei and women. Incidence was higher in Indians and women. From regression analyses, absolute reductions of 2.6 to 5.1% in T2DM prevalence (13-26% lower), and 0.5-0.9 per 1000 person-years in incidence (8-14% lower), could be expected in 2020 in adults if mean population weight could be reduced by 1-4 kg, compared to the current period trend in weight gain. This is the first application of the Styblo technique to calculate T2DM incidence from population-based prevalence surveys over time. Reductions in population BMI are predicted to reduce T2DM incidence and prevalence in Fiji among adults aged 25-64 years.

  13. An update on the prevalence of HIV/AIDS in Bangladesh.

    Islam, M M; Karim, E; Mian, M A; Kristensen, S; Chowdhury, M R; Vermund, S H

    1999-06-01

    The National AIDS Committee was formed in 1985 to develop and support policies that prevent transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In 1990, the Institute of Epidemiology, Disease Control and Research in the Ministry of Health began sero-surveillance for AIDS/HIV infection. Convenience sampling was conducted among prisoners, sailors, truckers, antenatal attendees, repatriated Bangladeshi workers, and brothel-based prostitutes in Dhaka. In 1994, commercial sex workers in other high-risk areas were included in surveillance activities. Among over 75,700 HIV tests through 1998, 119 have been confirmed positive for HIV. While the cumulative HIV prevalence rate was only 1.5/1,000 tests, it was significantly higher among men (p women. The rates among men were as high as 28/1,000 tests in 1996 and 21/1,000 tests in 1997. Almost 50% of the reported HIV cases are from cities on the border of India and Myanmar. It is anticipated that HIV transmission will increase further given the high prevalence of risk behaviors, core high-risk groups, and extreme poverty.

  14. Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in Patients with HIV in the Era of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy.

    Lombo, Bernardo; Alkhalil, Imran; Golden, Marjorie P; Fotjadhi, Irma; Ravi, Sreedhar; Virata, Michael; Lievano, Marta; Diez, Jose; Ghantous, Andre; Donohue, Thomas

    2015-05-01

    Since the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) as the standard of care for HIV disease, there has been a precipitous decline in the death rate due to HIV/ AIDS. The purpose of this study was to report the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in HIV infected patients. Retrospective, cross-sectional, observational study of 259 patients with HIV infection treated with cART from an urban community hospital. Metabolic syndrome prevalence was defined using the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and the U.S. National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) criteria. Study patients were included regardless of the duration of cART. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 27% using IDF criteria and 26% using ATP III criteria. Logistic regression analysis found an association between treatment with the protease inhibitor darunavir and metabolic syndrome. (OR 3.32 with 95% confidence interval between 1.54 and 7.15). There is a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome and obesity in HIV patients treated with cART, especially those taking the protease inhibitor darunavir.

  15. Survey of Four Decades of Addiction Prevalence Researches in Iran

    Hamid Sarrami

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The main aim of this research is the survey of addiction and drug abuse and psychotropic drugs prevalence researches which have been done in our country in last decades Method: To do this research all addiction and drug abuse prevalence researches that have been taken place were collected and analyzed. Results: the results of the researches show that the statistics of addiction has been in an oscillation as in 1390, the survey in 15 to 64 years old people (according to 1385 census that is 50 million people, is equal to one million and three hundred thousand and twenty five persons. Conclusion: the results of the four decades of addiction prevalence in Iran show that in according to the size of the threat of drugs and psychotropic drugs and addiction prevalence and also the change of gender, matrimony, age, job and the level of addicts education, less attention has been given to the drug abuse prevalence researches in public, youngsters, students and governmental and governmental non- officials.

  16. Association of HIV prevalence and concurrency of sexual partnerships in South Africa’s language groups: An ecological analysis

    Chris Kenyon

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. There is considerable variation in HIV prevalence between different language groups in South Africa (SA. Sexual partner concurrency has been linked to the spread of HIV, but its effect on differential HIV transmission within SA’s language groups has not been investigated quantitatively. Objective. This ecological analysis was intended to explore the degree to which the variation in HIV prevalence according to language group can be explained by differential concurrency rates. Method. Linear regression was used to assess the association between each language group’s HIV prevalence and four risk factors: the prevalence of concurrency, multiple sexual partners in the preceding year, circumcision, and condom utilisation. Results. In multivariate analysis, only the point prevalence of concurrency remained associated with HIV prevalence. Conclusion. There is evidence of a high prevalence of point concurrency in sexual partnerships in SA’s most HIV-affected language groups. Together with evidence that relatively small decreases in concurrency can lead to large declines in HIV incidence, this provides impetus for interventions to promote having only one sexual partner at a time. S Afr J HIV Med 2013;14(1:25-28. DOI:10.7196/SAJHIVMED.884

  17. Brief behavioural surveys in routine HIV sentinel surveillance: a new tool for monitoring the HIV epidemic in Viet Nam

    Duong Cong Thanh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this report we describe a new approach in HIV sentinel surveillance that was piloted in Viet Nam in 2009 and is currently being rolled out in all provinces. It comprises a brief behavioural questionnaire added to the HIV sentinel surveillance surveys conducted routinely among people who inject drugs, female sex workers and men who have sex with men. Timely reporting of data from this system has resulted in improvements to HIV prevention efforts for most at-risk populations.

  18. Brief behavioural surveys in routine HIV sentinel surveillance: a new tool for monitoring the HIV epidemic in Viet Nam.

    Thanh, Duong Cong; Hien, Nguyen Tran; Tuan, Nguyen Anh; Ha, Hoang Thi Thanh; Thang, Pham Hong; Ha, Nguyen Thi Thanh; Tuan, Le Anh; Quang, Tran Dai; Tram, Tran Hong; Le Hai, Nguyen; Huong, Phan Thi Thu; Son, Vo Hai; Duc, Bui Hoang; Nga, Nguyen Thien; Jacka, David; Sabin, Keith

    2015-01-01

    In this report we describe a new approach in HIV sentinel surveillance that was piloted in Viet Nam in 2009 and is currently being rolled out in all provinces. It comprises a brief behavioural questionnaire added to the HIV sentinel surveillance surveys conducted routinely among people who inject drugs, female sex workers and men who have sex with men. Timely reporting of data from this system has resulted in improvements to HIV prevention efforts for most at-risk populations.

  19. A prevalence survey of every-day activities in pregnancy

    Hadfield Ruth M

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research into the effects of common activities during pregnancy is sparse and often contradictory. To examine whether common activities are an acute trigger of pregnancy complications the prevalence of these activities are necessary to determine sample size estimates. The aim of this study is to ascertain the prevalence of selected activities in any seven day period during pregnancy. Methods The study was conducted in the antenatal clinic of a teaching hospital with tertiary obstetric and neonatal care in Sydney, Australia between August 2008 and April 2009. Women who were at least 20 weeks pregnant and able to read English completed a questionnaire to assess whether they had performed a list of activities in the seven days prior to survey completion. Results were analysed using frequency tabulations, contingency table analyses and chi square tests. Results A total of 766 surveys were completed, 29 surveys were excluded as the women completing them were less than 20 weeks pregnant, while 161 women completed the survey more than once. Ninety seven per cent of women completed the survey when approached for the first time, while 87% completed the survey when approached a subsequent time. In the week prior to completing the survey 82.6% of women had consumed a caffeinated beverage, 42.1% had had sexual intercourse, 32.7% had lifted something over 12 kilograms, 21.4% had consumed alcohol and 6.4% had performed vigorous exercise. The weekly prevalence of heavy lifting was higher for multiparous women compared to nulliparous women. Conclusions The results of this study can be used to inform future research into activities as acute triggers of pregnancy complications.

  20. Analysis of HIV prevalence among pregnant women in Liangshan Prefecture, China, from 2009 to 2015.

    Yang, Shujuan; Yang, Chao; Liao, Qiang; Zhai, Wenwen; Yu, Gang; Xiao, Lin; Wang, Qixing; Gong, Yuhan; Zhang, Suhua; Yao, Yongna; Wang, Ke; Wang, Ju; Bian, Shaochao; Liu, Qian

    2017-01-01

    Yi people make up about 50% of the population in Liangshan Prefecture, Sichuan Province, China, but accounted for 88.07% of new HIV cases in the prefecture from 2011 to 2013. This study evaluated HIV prevalence in pregnant women of Liangshan Prefecture using HIV sentinel surveillance (HSS) data over the period of 2009 to 2015. Xichang, Zhaojue County, and Butuo County were selected as HSS sites. We investigated the temporal trends in HIV prevalence in these areas, and the association between demographic and behavioral characteristics and risk of HIV infection. Data on a total of 2797 pregnant women in Xichang and 3983 pregnant women in Zhaojue and Butuo was collected for the period 2009 to 2015. There was a fluctuating HIV prevalence among pregnant women of Xichang, with a rate of 0.75% in 2015 (χ2trend = 2.27, P = 0.13). HIV prevalence among pregnant women of Zhaojue and Butuo was consistently high, varying between 3.4% (9/267, 2011) and 10.3% (82/796, 2012) over the period of 2010 to 2015 (χ2trend = 0.12, P = 0.73). In Xichang, we found that Yi ethnicity (OR = 11.37, 95% CI = 2.92-44.25) and a husband who used drugs (OR = 32.13, 95% CI = 5.33-193.67) were significantly associated with HIV risk in pregnant women. For Zhaojue and Butuo, we observed that pregnant women had a higher risk of HIV infection when they were over 30 years old (OR = 1.72, 95% CI = 1.17-2.52), when they had a higher number of previous births, when their husbands had a history of migrating for work (OR = 1.56, 95% CI = 1.16-2.08), and when they had a history of other sexually transmitted infections (OR = 2.19, 95% CI = 1.16-2.08). Compared to those with a primary school education or below, pregnant women with a secondary or high school education level had a lower risk of HIV infection (OR = 0.28, 95% CI = 0.09-0.89). Our results indicate that there is a serious HIV epidemic among pregnant Yi women, especially for those with less education, more past births, or a husband with a history of

  1. Prevalence and predictors of severe menopause symptoms among HIV-positive and -negative Nigerian women.

    Agaba, Patricia A; Meloni, Seema T; Sule, Halima M; Ocheke, Amaka N; Agaba, Emmanuel I; Idoko, John A; Kanki, Phyllis J

    2017-11-01

    We compared the prevalence of menopause symptoms between women living with HIV to their HIV-negative peers and determined predictors of severe menopause symptoms in Jos, Nigeria. This descriptive cross-sectional study included 714 women aged 40-80 years. We compared prevalence and severity of menopause symptoms using the menopause rating scale (MRS). Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the predictors of severe symptoms. Six-hundred and seven (85.0%) were HIV-positive, with a mean duration of infection of 5.6 ± 2.7 years. The mean age of the cohort was 46 ± 5 years. The most prevalent menopause symptoms were hot flushes (67.2%), joint and muscle discomfort (66.2%), physical/mental exhaustion (65.3%), heart discomfort (60.4%), and anxiety (56.4%). The median MRS score was higher for HIV-positive compared to HIV-negative women (p = 0.01). Factors associated with severe menopause symptoms included HIV-positive status (aOR: 3.01, 95% CI: 1.20-7.54) and history of cigarette smoking (aOR: 4.18, 95% CI: 1.31-13.26). Being married (aOR: 0.49, 95% CI: 0.32-0.77), premenopausal (aOR: 0.60, 95% CI: 0.39-0.94), and self-reporting good quality of life (aOR: 0.62. 95% CI: 0.39-0.98) were protective against severe menopause symptoms. We found HIV infection, cigarette smoking, quality of life, and stage of the menopause transition to be associated with severe menopause symptoms. As HIV-positive populations are aging, additional attention should be given to the reproductive health of these women.

  2. Estimating incidence from prevalence in generalised HIV epidemics: methods and validation.

    Timothy B Hallett

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available HIV surveillance of generalised epidemics in Africa primarily relies on prevalence at antenatal clinics, but estimates of incidence in the general population would be more useful. Repeated cross-sectional measures of HIV prevalence are now becoming available for general populations in many countries, and we aim to develop and validate methods that use these data to estimate HIV incidence.Two methods were developed that decompose observed changes in prevalence between two serosurveys into the contributions of new infections and mortality. Method 1 uses cohort mortality rates, and method 2 uses information on survival after infection. The performance of these two methods was assessed using simulated data from a mathematical model and actual data from three community-based cohort studies in Africa. Comparison with simulated data indicated that these methods can accurately estimates incidence rates and changes in incidence in a variety of epidemic conditions. Method 1 is simple to implement but relies on locally appropriate mortality data, whilst method 2 can make use of the same survival distribution in a wide range of scenarios. The estimates from both methods are within the 95% confidence intervals of almost all actual measurements of HIV incidence in adults and young people, and the patterns of incidence over age are correctly captured.It is possible to estimate incidence from cross-sectional prevalence data with sufficient accuracy to monitor the HIV epidemic. Although these methods will theoretically work in any context, we have able to test them only in southern and eastern Africa, where HIV epidemics are mature and generalised. The choice of method will depend on the local availability of HIV mortality data.

  3. HIV prevalence and demographic determinants of condomless receptive anal intercourse among trans feminine individuals in Beirut, Lebanon

    Rachel L Kaplan; Justine McGowan; Glenn J Wagner

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Growing evidence suggests increased HIV incidence in the Middle East and North Africa among “key populations.” To date, epidemiological data have not accurately included and measured HIV prevalence and risk among trans feminine individuals in the region. Through the lens of the Gender Affirmation Framework, we assessed demographic correlates of risk behaviour and the prevalence of HIV among trans feminine individuals in Lebanon. Methods: Long-chain referral sampling was used to ...

  4. High Prevalence of Severe Food Insecurity and Malnutrition among HIV-Infected Adults in Senegal, West Africa

    Benzekri, Noelle A.; Sambou, Jacques; Diaw, Binetou; Sall, El Hadji Ibrahima; Sall, Fatima; Niang, Alassane; Ba, Selly; Ngom Gu?ye, Nd?ye Fatou; Diallo, Mouhamadou Ba?la; Hawes, Stephen E.; Seydi, Moussa; Gottlieb, Geoffrey S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Malnutrition and food insecurity are associated with increased mortality and poor clinical outcomes among people living with HIV/AIDS; however, the prevalence of malnutrition and food insecurity among people living with HIV/AIDS in Senegal, West Africa is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and severity of food insecurity and malnutrition among HIV-infected adults in Senegal, and to identify associations between food insecurity, malnutrition, and HI...

  5. A scoping review of prevalence, incidence and risk factors for HIV infection amongst young people in Brazil

    Saffier, I. P.; Kawa, H.; Harling, G.

    2017-01-01

    Background Despite young people being a key population for HIV prevention, the HIV epidemic amongst young Brazilians is perceived to be growing. We therefore reviewed all published literature on HIV prevalence and risk factors for HIV infection amongst 10-25 year olds in Brazil. Methods We searched Embase, LILACS, Proquest, PsycINFO, PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science for studies published up to March 2017 and analyzed reference lists of relevant studies. We included published stud...

  6. HIV-surveys bij hoog-risicogroepen in Amsterdam 2003-2004

    van Veen MG; Wagemans MAJ; Op de Coul ELM; Fennema JSA; van der Helm TCM; Walter J; Prins M; van de Laar MJW; CIE

    2006-01-01

    Hoog-risicogroepen kunnen een brugfunctie vervullen voor de verspreiding van HIV en SOA naar de rest van de bevolking in Nederland. Dit blijkt uit de HIV-survey onder migranten en prostituees en hun klanten die is uitgevoerd in Amsterdam. Hierbij is gevonden dat de HIV-prevalentie onder

  7. Comparison of Sexual Risk, HIV/STI Prevalence and Intervention Exposure Among Men Who Have Sex with Men and Women (MSMW) and Men Who Have Sex with Men Only (MSMO) in India: Implications for HIV Prevention.

    Ramakrishnan, Lakshmi; Ramanathan, Shreena; Chakrapani, Venkatesan; Goswami, Prabuddhagopal; Deshpande, Sucheta; Yadav, Diwakar; Sen, Shrabanti; George, Bitra; Paranjape, Ramesh

    2015-12-01

    Using data from a cross-sectional bio-behavioral survey conducted among men who have sex with men (n = 3833) in India, we examined differences related to HIV-related sexual risk, HIV/STI prevalence and intervention exposures between men who have sex with men and women (MSMW, 35 % of the sample) and men who have sex with men only (MSMO). Among MSMW, 93 % reported having female regular partners, 14 % had female paid partners, and all types of male partners (regular 55 %; casual 77.1 %; paying 47 %; paid 19 %). Logistic regression revealed that MSMW had higher odds of being aged 26 years and above (AOR 4.45, 95 % CI 3.66-5.42), lower odds of inconsistently using condoms with male partners (AOR 0.82, 95 % CI 0.67-0.98) and lower odds of having kothi (feminine/mostly receptive) identity (AOR 0.07, 95 % CI 0.06-0.09). HIV intervention exposure and HIV/STI prevalence did not differ significantly between MSMW and MSMO (HIV 13.1 vs. 12.2 %; active syphilis 3.5 vs. 3.1 %, respectively). Concurrent sexual partnerships with men and women pose risk of HIV transmission/acquisition for MSM and their male and female partners. All subgroups of MSM require tailored information and skills to consistently use condoms with different types of partners of either gender.

  8. Prevalence and predictors of unknown HIV status among women ...

    MTCT rates to less than 2% in non-breastfeeding popu- lations2. Even in ... women in sub Saharan Africa received HIV testing. In ac- cordance with the WHO ..... Health Services Research (COHRE) Training Program at the Joint Clinical and ...

  9. Prevalence and clinical presentation of HIV positive female ...

    Nine of the 19 HIV positive patients (47%) had a pre-existing primary psychiatric diagnosis, most commonly Bipolar Disorder, recent episode mania with psychotic symptoms. The most common psychotic symptoms were grandiose delusions followed by auditory hallucinations, paranoid delusions and visual hallucinations.

  10. Incidence of HIV-1 infection and changes in prevalence of ...

    Sexual risk behaviours and RTIs may have contributed to HIV-1 transmission in this community. The data collected may help to inform the future design and evaluation of various intervention measures. Keywords: Africa, bacterial vaginosis, candidiasis, chlamydia, epidemiological synergy, gonorrhoea, incidence, sequelae

  11. Prevalence of hematological abnormalities and malnutrition in HIV ...

    Their hemoglobin level, neutrophil, and platelet counts were the hematological profiles evaluated using the WHO case definitions in HIV clinical staging. The weight-for-height z-score index was used to assess the nutritional status of subjects using the WHO reference ranges. The t-test, Chi-square, and Pearson correlation ...

  12. HIV sero.prevalence among adult with newly diagnosed pulmonary ...

    Materials and Methods: New patients registered with the DOTS clinic meeting TB case definition, diagnosed based on findings suggestive of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) on clinical and radiological examination (chest X.ray), and sputum testing for AFB (acid fast bacilli) were offered provider initiated HIV counseling and ...

  13. Gender asymmetry in concurrent partnerships and HIV prevalence

    Leung, Ka Yin; Powers, Kimberly A.; Kretzschmar, Mirjam

    The structure of the sexual network of a population plays an essential role in the transmission of HIV. Concurrent partnerships, i.e. partnerships that overlap in time, are important in determining this network structure. Men and women may differ in their concurrent behavior, e.g. in the case of

  14. Gender asymmetry in concurrent partnerships and HIV prevalence

    Leung, Ka Yin; Powers, Kimberly A.; Kretzschmar, Mirjam

    2017-01-01

    The structure of the sexual network of a population plays an essential role in the transmission of HIV. Concurrent partnerships, i.e. partnerships that overlap in time, are important in determining this network structure. Men and women may differ in their concurrent behavior, e.g. in the case of

  15. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infestation in HIV seropositive and ...

    opportunistic parasites such as Cryptosporidium,. Cyclospora and Isospora species. It is also important to note that this report will be the first documentation on HIV/AIDS and intestinal parasites from this center. And it aims to determine the frequency and pattern of intestinal parasitic infestation, including protozoan species ...

  16. Prevalence of hematological abnormalities and malnutrition in HIV ...

    2013-10-11

    Oct 11, 2013 ... case definitions) and malnutrition in HIV‑infected children receiving care at the University of Nigeria Teaching. Hospital, Enugu. ... on highly active antiretroviral therapy treatment and had advanced HIV disease (clinical stage 3). Children who were ..... iron, vitamin B complex, and folic acid deficiencies are.

  17. The Prevalence of HIV Infection among Pregnant Women at ...

    AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL · RESOURCES ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... The HIV infection has been a threat to mothers and their babies since many years in ... But persistent vigilance is needed to prevent the Mother to Child transmission.

  18. Prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among ...

    AJB SERVER

    2007-02-05

    Feb 5, 2007 ... ... virus (HIV) was disco- vered in 1983 (two years after the diseases AIDS was ... de this lipid bilayer is a matrix (MA) protein (p17). Below the matrix is ... conformational changes in the viral envelope to permit virus-cell fusion.

  19. Prevalence of HIV among blood donors at Juba Teaching Hospital ...

    Male. 85. (99%). 193. (99%). 34. (100%). 102. (97%). 414. Female. 1(1%). 2(1%). 0. 3(3%). 6. Total. 86. 195. 34. 105. 420. Figure 1. Distribution (percent) of HIV, HBV, HCV and syphilis among blood donors. Table 3. Distribution of blood groups among blood donors. Blood group. Frequency. Percentage (%). A+ve. 270. 24.7.

  20. the prevalence and risk factors associated with anaemia among hiv ...

    associated with the development of anaemia among HIV patients attending the special ... Methods: This was a cross – sectional study conducted over a period of 6 months from June ..... reflected in other studies (Mukund B.K. et al 2015, Alem.

  1. Surviving Sepsis in High HIV Prevalence Settings | Andrews ...

    No Abstract. Keywords: minimally invasive surgery, sclerotherapy, transfusion, HIV, occupational exposure. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors ...

  2. Drug choice, spatial distribution, HIV risk, and HIV prevalence among injection drug users in St. Petersburg, Russia

    Shaboltas Alla V

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The HIV epidemic in Russia has been driven by the unsafe injection of drugs, predominantly heroin and the ephedrine derived psychostimulants. Understanding differences in HIV risk behaviors among injectors associated with different substances has important implications for prevention programs. Methods We examined behaviors associated with HIV risk among 900 IDUs who inject heroin, psychostimulants, or multiple substances in 2002. Study participants completed screening questionnaires that provided data on sociodemographics, drug use, place of residence and injection- and sex-related HIV risk behaviors. HIV testing was performed and prevalence was modeled using general estimating equation (GEE analysis. Individuals were clustered by neighborhood and disaggregated into three drug use categories: Heroin Only Users, Stimulant Only Users, and Mixed Drug Users. Results Among Heroin Only Users, younger age, front/backloading of syringes, sharing cotton and cookers were all significant predictors of HIV infection. In contrast, sharing needles and rinse water were significant among the Stimulant Only Users. The Mixed Drug Use group was similar to the Heroin Only Users with age, front/back loading, and sharing cotton significantly associated with HIV infection. These differences became apparent only when neighborhood of residence was included in models run using GEE. Conclusion The type of drug injected was associated with distinct behavioral risks. Risks specific to Stimulant Only Users appeared related to direct syringe sharing. The risks specific to the other two groups are common to the process of sharing drugs in preparation to injecting. Across the board, IDUs could profit from prevention education that emphasizes both access to clean syringes and preparing and apportioning drug with these clean syringes. However, attention to neighborhood differences might improve the intervention impact for injectors who favor different drugs.

  3. High prevalence of non-communicable diseases and associated risk factors amongst adults living with HIV in Cambodia.

    Pheak Chhoun

    USD and being underweighted were significantly associated with hypercholesterolemia.The prevalence of diabetes mellitus, hypertension and hypercholesterolemia in adults living with HIV in this study was considerably high, with most of these diseases newly identified through active screening in the survey. These findings strongly suggest that screening of non-communicable diseases should be integrated into routine HIV care in Cambodia.

  4. HIV testing uptake and prevalence among adolescents and adults in a large home-based HIV testing program in Western Kenya.

    Wachira, Juddy; Ndege, Samson; Koech, Julius; Vreeman, Rachel C; Ayuo, Paul; Braitstein, Paula

    2014-02-01

    To describe HIV testing uptake and prevalence among adolescents and adults in a home-based HIV counseling and testing program in western Kenya. Since 2007, the Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare program has implemented home-based HIV counseling and testing on a large scale. All individuals aged ≥13 years were eligible for testing. Data from 5 of 8 catchments were included in this analysis. We used descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression to examine testing uptake and HIV prevalence among adolescents (13-18 years), younger adults (19-24 years), and older adults (≥25 years). There were 154,463 individuals eligible for analyses as follows: 22% adolescents, 19% younger adults, and 59% older adults. Overall mean age was 32.8 years and 56% were female. HIV testing was high (96%) across the following 3 groups: 99% in adolescents, 98% in younger adults, and 94% in older adults (P < 0.001). HIV prevalence was higher (11.0%) among older adults compared with younger adults (4.8%) and adolescents (0.8%) (P < 0.001). Those who had ever previously tested for HIV were less likely to accept HIV testing (adjusted odds ratio: 0.06, 95% confidence interval: 0.05 to 0.07) but more likely to newly test HIV positive (adjusted odds ratio: 1.30, 95% confidence interval: 1.21 to 1.40). Age group differences were evident in the sociodemographic and socioeconomic factors associated with testing uptake and HIV prevalence, particularly, gender, relationship status, and HIV testing history. Sociodemographic and socioeconomic factors were independently associated with HIV testing and prevalence among the age groups. Community-based treatment and prevention strategies will need to consider these factors.

  5. Prevalence of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV antibodies among patients HIV/AIDS in Kurdistan province, 2015

    Arezo Omati

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background : Cytomegalovirus (CMV infection is one of the most common causes of death in people with immune deficiency diseases such as: organ or tissue recipients, patients with HIV/AIDS and newborn infants. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of anti-CMV antibodies in patients with HIV/AIDS in the Kurdistan province. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study carried out on 151 patients with HIV/AIDS covered by behavioral health counseling centers in Kurdistan province, 2015. For all patients the values of CMV antibodies, include IgG and IgM, were determined by ELISA technique and Diagnostic Kits (EIA WELL, Rome, Italy. Data analyses were done by use of t-test and multiple linear regression tests in stata software, version 13. Results: 116 (76.8% and 35 (23.2% of the patients were male and female, respectively. Mean (SD age of the patients were 39.3 (9.1 years. All studied patients were found positive for CMV-IgG (prevalence=100%, whereas only one case (0.7% was found positive for CMV-IgM. The relationship between age and CMV-IgG levels was statistically significant. Conclusion: The results showed that high prevalence of CMV in patients with HIV/AIDS, so in addition to paying more attention to the issue of HIV and CMV co-infection, about value of early antiretroviral treatment conducting further studies seems necessary.

  6. Non-governmental organizations, democracy, and HIV prevalence: a cross-national analysis.

    Shircliff, Eric J; Shandra, John M

    2011-01-01

    Despite the scale, reach, and global impact of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), its study has remained largely at the purview of various micro-level analyses (e.g., Gutmann 2007; Levi and Vitória 2002). However, differences in prevalence rates at the national level suggest that other forces might be at work. Following the work of McIntosh and Thomas (2004), the only cross-national study of HIV/AIDS published to our knowledge, we conduct a cross-national analysis that examines world polity ideas that higher levels of health and women’s non-governmental organizations (NGOs) should be associated with lower levels of HIV prevalence. Initially, we find no support for these hypotheses. However, we respecify our models to test a political opportunity structure hypothesis that democracy enhances the ability of health and women’s NGOs to deal with HIV. We test this line of reasoning by including an interaction term between democracy and the health and women’s NGO variables. In doing so, we find that health and women’s NGOs are associated with lower levels of HIV prevalence in democratic rather than repressive nations.

  7. [Aids in Madagascar. II. Intervention policy for maintaining low HIV infection prevalence].

    Ravaoarimalala, C; Andriamahenina, R; Ravelojaona, B; Rabeson, D; Andriamiadana, J; May, J F; Behets, F; Rasamindrakotroka, A

    1998-01-01

    The HIV seroprevalence per 100,000 adults Malagasy rose from 20 in 1989, to 30 in 1992, and to 70 in 1995. In that year, the total number of HIV infected people in the Big Island was estimated at 5,000, the number of people sick with AIDS at 130, and the people at risk at more than 1,000,000. The latter are the persons infected with other STDs and individuals (or their partners) with risky sexual behaviour (e.g. numerous sexual partners, occasional sexual partners, and/or sexual contacts with commercial sex workers). The HIV prevalence rate is low as compared with those of other countries. Nevertheless, the spread of the HIV infection is alarming in some parts of the country and the risk factors are also present, namely: the high prevalence of STDs, numerous sexual partners, the low use of condoms in all groups, the development of tourism, the development of prostitution associated with social and economical problems, and internal and international migrations (with risky sexual contacts). Therefore, the still low but rising HIV prevalence in 1995 does not warrant complacency. To estimate the trend of HIV prevalence within the population, it is useful to know two different assumptions, as follows: firstly, a controlled evolution of the epidemic (low epidemic) and secondly, a very fast spread of the epidemic (high epidemic). If we consider the 5,000 individuals seropositive in July 1995, the Aids Impact Model (AIM) projection model shows that HIV seroprevalence rates among adults in 2015 might be between 3% (when the progression course of HIV epidemic is low) and 15% (when the progression course of HIV epidemic is high). By 2015 AIDS could have severe demographic, social, and economic impacts. Then, it is necessary to take measures to prevent contamination. Five major interventions are required: public information about AIDS, HIV transmission mechanism, and its prevention, communities education via the respected people and the notabilities to promote moral values

  8. HIV, STI prevalence and risk behaviours among women selling sex in Lahore, Pakistan

    Zaman Shakila

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background More than 340 million cases of curable sexually transmitted infections (STIs were estimated to have occurred worldwide in 1995. Previous studies have shown that the presence of other concomitant STIs increases the likelihood of HIV transmission. The first national study of STIs conducted in Pakistan in 2004 revealed a high burden of STIs among women selling sex. The HIV epidemic in Pakistan has thus far followed the "Asian epidemic model". Earlier studies among women selling sex have shown a low prevalence of HIV coupled with a low level of knowledge about AIDS. The aim of our study was to estimate the prevalence of HIV and STIs, and assess knowledge and risk behaviours related to HIV/STI, among women selling sex in Lahore, Pakistan. Methods A total of 730 participants were recruited through respondent-driven sampling. The participants were women selling sex in three areas (referred to as "A", "B", and "C" of Lahore. A structured questionnaire addressing demographic information, sexual life history, sexual contacts, and knowledge and practices related to HIV/STI prevention was administered by face-to-face interview. Biological samples were obtained from all participants and tested for HIV, Treponema pallidum, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis and Trichomonas vaginalis. Pearson's chi-square and multivariable logistic regression analysis were performed to test associations between potential risk factors and specified diagnosed infections. Results The prevalence of HIV infection was 0.7%, T pallidum 4.5%, N gonorrhoeae 7.5%, C trachomatis 7.7% and T vaginalis 5.1%. The participants had been selling sex for a median period of seven years and had a median of three clients per day. Sixty five percent of the participants reported that they "Always use condom". The median fee per sexual contact was Rs. 250 (3 Euro. Compared to Areas A and C, women selling sex in Area B had a significantly higher risk of chlamydial

  9. A scoping review of prevalence, incidence and risk factors for HIV infection amongst young people in Brazil.

    Saffier, Igor Pedrosa; Kawa, Hélia; Harling, Guy

    2017-10-11

    Despite young people being a key population for HIV prevention, the HIV epidemic amongst young Brazilians is perceived to be growing. We therefore reviewed all published literature on HIV prevalence and risk factors for HIV infection amongst 10-25 year olds in Brazil. We searched Embase, LILACS, Proquest, PsycINFO, PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science for studies published up to March 2017 and analyzed reference lists of relevant studies. We included published studies from any time in the HIV epidemic which provided estimates specific to ages 10-25 (or some subset of this age range) for Brazilians on either: (a) HIV prevalence or incidence; or (b) the association between HIV and socio-demographic or behavioral risk factors. Forty eight publications met the inclusion criteria: 44 cross-sectional, two case-control, two cohort. Four studies analysed national data. Forty seven studies provided HIV prevalence estimates, largely for six population subgroups: Counselling and Testing Center attendees; blood donors; pregnant women; institutional individuals; men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM) and female sex workers (FSW); four provided HIV incidence estimates. Twelve studies showed HIV status to be associated with a wide range of risk factors, including age, sexual and reproductive history, infection history, substance use, geography, marital status, mental health and socioeconomic status. Few published studies have examined HIV amongst young people in Brazil, and those published have been largely cross-sectional and focused on traditional risk groups and the south of the country. Despite these limitations, the literature shows raised HIV prevalence amongst MSM and FSW, as well as amongst those using drugs. Time trends are harder to identify, although rates appear to be falling for pregnant women, possibly reversing an earlier de-masculinization of the epidemic. Improved surveillance of HIV incidence, prevalence and risk factors is a key component of efforts to eliminate HIV in

  10. Oncogenic Viral Prevalence in Invasive Vulvar Cancer Specimens from HIV Positive and Negative Women in Botswana

    Tesfalul, Martha; Simbiri, Kenneth; Wheat, Chikoti M.; Motsepe, Didintle; Goldbach, Hayley; Armstrong, Kathleen; Hudson, Kathryn; Kayembe, Mukendi K.; Robertson, Erle; Kovarik, Carrie

    2014-01-01

    Objective The primary aim of this study is to describe the prevalence of select oncogenic viruses within vulvar squamous cell carcinoma (VSCC) and their association with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) status in women in Botswana, where the national HIV prevalence is the third highest in the world. Methods/materials A cross-sectional study of biopsy-confirmed VSCC specimens and corresponding clinical data was conducted in Gaborone, Botswana. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and Immunohistochemistry (IHC) viral testing were done for Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV), Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) strains, and Kaposi's Sarcoma Herpesvirus (KSHV), and PCR viral testing alone was done for John Cunningham Virus (JCV). Results HPV prevalence by PCR was 100% (39/39 35/35) among tested samples. HPV16 was the most prevalent HPV strain (82.9% by PCR, 94.7% by either PCR or IHC). KSHV prevalence by PCR had a significant association with HIV status (p = 0.013), but not by IHC (p = 0.650). Conclusions The high burden of HPV, specifically HPV16, in VSCC in Botswana suggests a distinct HPV profile that differs from other studied populations, which provides increased motivation for HPV vaccination efforts. Oncogenic viruses KSHV and EBV were also more prevalent in our study population though their potential role in VSCC pathology is unclear. PMID:24651632

  11. Prevalence and determinants of glucose intolerance among HIV ...

    ±SD age of 38±15 years were HAARTtreated; while 200 (61 males and 139 females) with mean±SD age of 33±17 years were HAART-naive. Overall, the prevalence of GI was 40.4% (IFG) 19.5%, IGT 11.5% and DM 9.4%. The prevalence of ...

  12. The Impact of Quality Assurance Initiatives and Workplace Policies and Procedures on HIV/AIDS-Related Stigma Experienced by Patients and Nurses in Regions with High Prevalence of HIV/AIDS.

    Hewko, Sarah J; Cummings, Greta G; Pietrosanu, Matthew; Edwards, Nancy

    2018-02-23

    Stigma is commonly experienced by people living with HIV/AIDS and by those providing care to HIV/AIDS patients. Few intervention studies have explored the impact of workplace policies and/or quality improvement on stigma. We examine the contribution of health care workplace policies, procedures and quality assurance initiatives, and self- and peer-assessed individual nurse practices, to nurse-reported HIV/AIDS-stigma practices toward patients living with HIV/AIDS and nurses in health care settings. Our sample of survey respondents (n = 1157) included managers (n = 392) and registered/enrolled nurses (n = 765) from 29 facilities in 4 countries (South Africa, Uganda, Jamaica, Kenya). This is one of the first studies in LMIC countries to use hierarchical linear modeling to examine the contributions of organizational and individual factors to HIV/AIDS stigma. Based on our results, we argue that organizational interventions explicitly targeting HIV/AIDS stigma are required to reduce the incidence, prevalence and morbidity of HIV/AIDS.

  13. [Prevalences of HIV, hepatitis B and hepatitis C in blood donors in the Republic of Djibouti].

    Dray, X; Dray-Spira, R; Bronstein, J A; Mattera, D

    2005-01-01

    Screening for hepatitis B (HBV) surface antigen (Ag HBs) and for antibodies to hepatitis C (HCV) and human: immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was carried out in 9006 volunteer blood donors at the National Blood Bank in the Republic of Djibouti from 1998 to 2000. Results demonstrated the presence of Ag HBs in 934 patients (10.4%), antibodies to HCV in 21 patients (0.3%), and antibodies to HIV in 175 patients (1.9%). In comparison with neighboring countries the prevalence of HBV, HCV, and HIV infection in Djibouti was low. These findings should be used to guide preventive action against these viral infections in the Republic of Djibouti. Estimations of HIV infection (11.7%) based on modeling by the World Health Organization should be reviewed.

  14. Hepatitis C prevalence among HIV-infected patients in Guinea-Bissau

    Hønge, Bo Langhoff; Jespersen, Sanne; Medina, Candida

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To estimate the prevalence and determine the clinical presentation of risk factors of hepatitis C virus (HCV) among HIV-infected patients in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we included individuals who had a routine blood analysis performed during...... the period April 28 to September 30, 2011. Patient samples were tested for HCV antibodies (anti-HCV) with a chemiluminescence test (Architect, Abbott, USA) and INNO-LIA HCV Score (Innogenetics, Belgium). HCV viral load and genotype were analyzed using an in-house real-time PCR method. Results: In total, 576...... patients were included (417 HIV-1, 104 HIV-2, and 55 HIV-1/2). Ten (1.7%) patients were anti-HCV-positive and eight (1.4%) patients had detectable HCV RNA; all were genotype 2. In a multivariable logistic regression analysis, age >50 years was associated with anti-HCV reactivity (p

  15. Determinants of Selenium Intake in a High HIV Prevalence Fishing Community in Bondo District, Kenya

    Samwel Boaz Otieno; Fred Were; Ephantus Kabiru; Kaunda Waza

    2016-01-01

    A study was done to establish determinants of selenium intake in a high HIV prevalence fishing community in the Pala Bondo district, Kenya. It was established that most of the respondents (61%) were small holder Farmers and Fishermen {χ2 (1, N=386) p

  16. Prevalence and Incidence of Toxoplasmosis in HIV-Positive Patients in the Czech Republic

    Kodym, P.; Hrdá, Š.; Machala, L.; Rozsypal, H.; Staňková, M.; Malý, Marek

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 53, Suppl. 1 (2006), s. 160-161 ISSN 1066-5234 Source of funding: V - iné verejné zdroje Keywords : toxoplasmosis * HIV infection * prevalence Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 2.288, year: 2006

  17. The prevalence of HIV and AIDS and average demographic data in ...

    HIV infection and AIDS are non-notifiable conditions with a serious effect on forestry contracting businesses due to the effect on human resource productivity. The condition affects households as it burdens the household income, affects breadwinners and the family. With information available concerning the prevalence rate ...

  18. Declining HIV prevalence among women attending antenatal care in Pune, India

    Kulkarni, Vinay; Joshi, Smita; Gupte, Nikhil; Parchure, Ritu; Darak, Shrinivas; Kulkarni, Sanjeevani

    A declining prevalence of HIV among young women has been reported by the public sector implementing prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) programmes, sentinel surveillance sites and research institutions ill India. However, there are no reports evaluating such trends from the private

  19. Prevalence and significance of Mycoplasma genitalium in women living with HIV in Denmark

    Madsen, Anne Marie Rosendahl; Thorsteinsson, Kristina; Lebech, Anne-Mette

    2017-01-01

    were of Asian origin, sexually active, and on antiretroviral treatment with supressed HIV RNA and CD4 count >350 cells/µL. None reported symptoms from the lower abdomen. The prevalence of M. genitalium infection in WLWH in Denmark is low, thus systematic screening for M. genitalium in this group does...

  20. Prevalence of HIV and syphilis in pregnant women in Leon, Nicaragua

    Hoekstra, Carlijn E L; Riedijk, Martiene; Matute, Armando J; Hak, Eelko; Delgado, Edgar; Alonso, Rosa E; Benavides, Maria D; van Loon, Anton M; Hoepelman, Ilja M

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of HIV and syphilis and to identify risk factors among pregnant women visiting antenatal clinics in León, Nicaragua. During February to April 2004, blood samples from pregnant women were collected after written consent had been obtained.

  1. The HIV prevalence among pregnant women in the Amsterdam region (1988-1991)

    Bindels, P. J.; Mulder-Folkerts, D. K.; Boer, K.; Schutte, M. F.; van der Velde, W. j; Wong, F. J.; van den Hoek, A. J.; van Doornum, G. J.; Coutinho, R. A.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of the study was to monitor the HIV prevalence in the years 1988-1991 among pregnant women in the Amsterdam region, visitors to an abortion clinic and 3 outpatient infertility clinics. All women attending these clinics were asked to participate in the study on a voluntary basis and

  2. Multicenter European Prevalence Study of Neurocognitive Impairment and Associated Factors in HIV Positive Patients

    Haddow, Lewis J; Laverick, Rosanna; Daskalopoulou, Marina

    2018-01-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional study in 448 HIV positive patients attending five European outpatient clinics to determine prevalence of and factors associated with neurocognitive impairment (NCI) using computerized and pen-and-paper neuropsychological tests. NCI was defined as a normalized Z scor...

  3. Factor Configurations with Governance as Conditions for Low HIV/AIDS Prevalence in HIV/AIDS Recipient Countries: Fuzzy-set Analysis.

    Lee, Hwa-Young; Yang, Bong-Min; Kang, Minah

    2015-11-01

    This paper aims to investigate whether good governance of a recipient country is a necessary condition and what combinations of factors including governance factor are sufficient for low prevalence of HIV/AIDS in HIV/AIDS aid recipient countries during the period of 2002-2010. For this, Fuzzy-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) was used. Nine potential attributes for a causal configuration for low HIV/AIDS prevalence were identified through a review of previous studies. For each factor, full membership, full non-membership, and crossover point were specified using both author's knowledge and statistical information of the variables. Calibration and conversion to a fuzzy-set score were conducted using Fs/QCA 2.0 and probabilistic tests for necessary and sufficiency were performed by STATA 11. The result suggested that governance is the necessary condition for low prevalence of HIV/AIDS in a recipient country. From sufficiency test, two pathways were resulted. The low level of governance can lead to low level of HIV/AIDS prevalence when it is combined with other favorable factors, especially, low economic inequality, high economic development and high health expenditure. However, strengthening governance is a more practical measure to keep low prevalence of HIV/AIDS because it is hard to achieve both economic development and economic quality. This study highlights that a comprehensive policy measure is the key for achieving low prevalence of HIV/AIDS in recipient country.

  4. Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections among pregnant women with known HIV status in northern Tanzania

    Mbizvo Elizabeth M

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To determine the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs and other reproductive tract infections (RTIs among pregnant women in Moshi, Tanzania and to compare the occurrence of STIs/RTIs among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-infected and uninfected women. Methods Pregnant women in their 3rd trimester (N = 2654 were recruited from two primary health care clinics between June 2002 and March 2004. They were interviewed, examined and genital and blood samples were collected for diagnosis of STIs/RTIs and HIV. Results The prevalence of HIV, active syphilis and herpes simplex virus – type 2 (HSV-2 were 6.9%, 0.9% and 33.6%, respectively, while 0.5% were positive for N gonorrhoeae, 5.0% for T vaginalis and 20.9% for bacterial vaginosis. Genital tract infections were more prevalent in HIV-seropositive than seronegative women, statistically significant for syphilis (3.3% vs 0.7%, HSV-2 (43.2% vs 32.0%, genital ulcers (4.4% vs 1.4% and bacterial vaginosis (37.2% vs 19.6%. In comparison with published data, a declining trend for curable STIs/RTIs (syphilis, trichomoniasis and bacterial vaginosis was noted. Conclusion Rates of STIs and RTIs are still high among pregnant women in Moshi. Where resources allow, routine screening and treatment of STIs/RTIs in the antenatal care setting should be offered. Higher STIs/RTIs in HIV-seropositive women supports the expansion of HIV-counseling and testing services to all centers offering antenatal care. After identification, STIs/RTIs need to be aggressively addressed in HIV-seropositive women, both at antenatal and antiretroviral therapy care clinics.

  5. Prevalence and Determinants of Chronic periodontitis in HIV positive patients in Nigeria

    Kehinde Adesola Umeizudike

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence and determinants of chronic periodontitis in HIV positive patients. Methods: A total of 120 HIV positive patients attending the dedicated HIV outpatient clinic of the Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Nigeria were recruited for the study. Their periodontal status was assessed using the community periodontal index of treatment needs. Their CD4+ cell count was determined using the flow-cytometer method. The risk factors for periodontitis including age, gender, education, smoking, CD4+ cell counts, bleeding on probing (BOP were determined. Results: Prevalence of periodontitis was high (63.3% in the HIV positive patients. In a bivariate analysis, significant associations were observed between severity of periodontitis and age ≥35 years (P=0.021, male gender (P=0.005, smoking (P=0.040 and ≥3 community periodontal index of treatment needs sextants exhibiting BOP (P=0.004. In a binary logistic regression, independent predictors of periodontitis were ≥3 sextants exhibiting BOP (odds ratio 1.738, 95% CI 1.339 to 2.256, P=0.000 and age ≥35 years (odds ratio 1.057, 95% CI 1.005 to 1.111, P=0.030. The CD4+ cell counts were not associated with periodontitis in the HIV positive patients (P=0.988. Conclusions: A high prevalence of periodontitis was found among the HIV positive Nigerian patients in this study. Older age ≥35 years and BOP were the determinants of periodontitis. There is therefore a need for close periodontal monitoring of HIV positive Nigerian patients with emphasis on preventive, professional oral prophylaxis.

  6. HIV seroprevalence among Mexicans age 15 to 49: results from the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2012

    Juan Pablo Gutiérrez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To estimate the HIV seroprevalence among Mexicans aged 15 to 49 years old and living in households, and to describe the profile of serorreactive individuals. Materials and methods. Cross-sectional study with a national probabilistic sample of individuals aged 15 to 49 years with behavioral data from direct interview (face-to-face at households and HIV screening using capillary blood collected from the same individuals. Results. A seroprevalence of 0.15% (95%CI 0.09-0.21 was estimated for Mexicans aged 15 to 49; seroprevalence among women was 0.07% (95%CI 0.03-0.11 and 0.24% (95%CI 0.11-0.36 for men. HIV serorreactive population is composed of younger men, with a higher socioeconomic level compared to the general population, and with a higher insurance coverage –social protection on health in general and social security in particular. Only 50% of the serorreactive individuals may be aware of their status as living with HIV. Conclusions. The estimated HIV seroprevalence in the NHNS 2012 suggests a stable pattern since 2000. The estimated prevalence among individuals 15 to 49 years was adjusted both for selection bias correction and to include MSM estimations (under the assumption that MSM is a population hard to reach in a household survey, resulting in a total seroprevalence of 0.23% and an estimated number of people with HIV of 140000

  7. Transactional sex among young women in rural South Africa: prevalence, mediators and association with HIV infection

    Ranganathan, Meghna; Heise, Lori; Pettifor, Audrey; Silverwood, Richard J; Selin, Amanda; MacPhail, Catherine; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; Kahn, Kathleen; Gómez-Olivé, F Xavier; Hughes, James P; Piwowar-Manning, Estelle; Laeyendecker, Oliver; Watts, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Young adolescent women in sub-Saharan Africa are three to four times more likely to be HIV-positive than boys or men. One of the relationship dynamics that is likely to be associated with young women's increased vulnerability to HIV is transactional sex. There are a range of HIV-related risk behaviours that may drive this vulnerability. However, to date, limited epidemiological data exist on the role of transactional sex in increasing HIV acquisition, especially among young women in sub-Saharan Africa. Our paper presents data on the prevalence of self-reported engagement in transactional sex and explores whether transactional sex is associated with increased risk of HIV infection among a cohort of young, rural, sexually active South African women. We also explore whether this relationship is mediated through certain HIV-related risk behaviours. Methods We analyzed baseline data from a phase III trial of conditional cash transfers for HIV prevention of 693 sexually active, school-going young women aged 13–20 years in rural South Africa. We examined the association between young women's engagement in transactional sex and HIV infection. Transactional sex is defined as a non-commercial, non-marital sexual relationship whereby sex is exchanged for money and/or gifts. We explored whether this relationship is mediated by certain HIV-related risk behaviours. We used logistic and multinomial regression and report unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios with 95% CI. Results Overall, 14% (n=97) of sexually active young women reported engaging in transactional sex. Engagement in transactional sex was associated with an increased risk of being HIV-positive (aOR: 2.5, CI: 95% 1.19–5.25, p=0.01). The effect size of this association remained nearly unchanged when adjusted for certain other dimensions of HIV risk that might help explain the underlying pathways for this relationship. Conclusions This study provides quantitative support demonstrating that transactional

  8. HIV and HCV prevalence among entrants to methadone maintenance treatment clinics in China: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Zhuang Xun

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT was implemented in China since 2004. It was initiated in 8 pilot clinics and subsequently expanded to 738 clinics by the end of 2011. Numerous individual research studies have been conducted to estimate HIV and HCV prevalence among MMT clients but an overview of the epidemics in relations to MMT remains unclear. The aim of this study is to estimate the magnitude and changing trends of HIV, HCV and HIV-HCV co-infections among entry clients to MMT clinics in China during 2004-2010. Methods Chinese and English databases of literature were searched for studies reporting HIV, HCV and co-infection prevalence among MMT clients in China from 2004 to 2010. The prevalence estimates were summarized through a systematic review and meta-analysis of published literatures. Results Ninety eligible articles were selected in this review (2 in English and 88 in Chinese. Nationally, pooled prevalence of HIV-HCV and HIV-HCV co-infection among MMT clients was 6.0% (95%CI: 4.7%-7.7%, 60.1% (95%CI: 52.8%-67.0% and 4.6% (95%CI: 2.9%-7.2%, respectively. No significant temporal trend was found in pooled prevalence estimates. Study location is the major contributor of heterogeneities of both HIV and HCV prevalence among drug users in MMT. Conclusions There was no significant temporal trend in HIV and HCV prevalence among clients in MMT during 2004–2010. Prevalence of HCV is markedly higher than prevalence of HIV among MMT clients. It is recommended that health educational programs in China promote the earlier initiation and wider coverage of MMT among injecting drug users (IDUs, especially HIV-infected IDUs.

  9. High HIV Prevalence and Risk Among Male Clients of Female Sex Workers in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    Nadol, Patrick; Hoang, Tran Vu; Le, Linh-Vi; Nguyen, Tuan Anh; Kaldor, John; Law, Matthew

    2017-08-01

    In Vietnam's concentrated HIV epidemic, female sex workers (FSWs) are at increased risk for acquiring and transmitting HIV, largely through their male clients. A high proportion of males in Vietnam report being clients of FSWs. Studying HIV-related risk factors and prevalence among male clients is important, particularly given the potential for male clients to be a 'bridge' of HIV transmission to the more general population or to sex workers. Time-location sampling was used to identify FSW in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam's largest cities, in 2013-2014. Recruited FSWs were asked to refer one male client to the study. Demographic and risk behavior data were collected from FSWs and male clients by administered questionnaires. Biologic specimens collected from male clients were tested for HIV and opiates. Sampling weights, calculated based on the FSWs probability of being selected for enrolment, were applied to prevalence estimates for both FSWs and male clients. Logistic regression models were developed to obtain odds ratios for HIV infection among male clients. A total of 804 male clients were enrolled. Overall, HIV prevalence among male clients was 10.2%; HIV prevalence was 20.7% (95% confidence interval (CI) 15.0-27.9%) among those reporting a history of illegal drug use and 32.4% (95% CI 20.2-47.7%) among those with opioids detected in urine. HIV prevalence among male clients did not differ across 'bridging' categories defined by condom use with FSWs and regular partners over the previous 6 months. HIV among male clients was associated with a reported history of illegal drug use (OR 3.76; 95% CI 1.87-7.56), current opioid use (OR 2.55; 95% CI 1.02-6.36), and being referred by an FSW who self-reported as HIV-positive (OR 5.37; 95% CI 1.46-19.75). Self-reported HIV prevalence among enrolled FSWs was 2.8%. Based on HIV test results of male clients and self-reported status from FSWs, an estimated 12.1% of male client-FSW pairs were sero-discordant. These

  10. HIV prevalence and risk among people who inject drugs in five South African cities.

    Scheibe, Andrew; Makapela, David; Brown, Ben; dos Santos, Monika; Hariga, Fabienne; Virk, Harsheth; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Lyan, Olga; Fee, Nancy; Molnar, Margarete; Bocai, Alina; Eligh, Jason; Lehtovuori, Riku

    2016-04-01

    Policy and programming for people who inject drugs (PWID) in South Africa is limited by the scarcity of epidemiological data. We conducted a cross-sectional survey among 450 PWID (362 males and 88 females) from five South African cities in 2013, using outreach and peer referral to recruit participants. We carried out rapid HIV tests on participants' saliva and assessed drug-using and sexual practices by means of a questionnaire. We found that 26% of females and 13% of males reported to always share injecting equipment, while 49% of all participants had used contaminated injecting equipment the last time they injected. Only 6% of participants usually used bleach to clean their injecting equipment. We found that half of participants reported using a condom the last time they had sex. A quarter of participants reported symptoms of a sexually transmitted infection (STI) in the previous 12 months and 22% had ever worked as a sex worker (51% of females). HIV prevalence among participants was 14% (18% among females and 13% among males). In multivariate analysis HIV was significantly associated with being 25 years and older (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 2.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.0-4.6, p=0.06), belonging to a racial group other than white (aOR 4.2, 95% CI 1.9-9.4, p<0.001), coming from Gauteng province (aOR 2.3, 95% CI 1.1-5.5, p=0.023), having ever worked as a sex worker (aOR 3.4, 95% CI 1.7-7.2, p=0.001) and the presence of STI symptoms in the last 12 months (aOR 2.4, 95% CI 1.1-4.4, p=0.019). This study highlights the need for increased access to sterile injecting equipment, education around safer injecting practices and access to sexual and reproductive health services for PWID in South Africa. Programmes for PWID should also address the specific needs of female PWID, PWID who sell sex and PWID from previously disadvantaged communities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. High heterogeneity of HIV-related sexual risk among transgender people in Ontario, Canada: a province-wide respondent-driven sampling survey

    Bauer Greta R

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies of HIV-related risk in trans (transgender, transsexual, or transitioned people have most often involved urban convenience samples of those on the male-to-female (MTF spectrum. Studies have detected high prevalences of HIV-related risk behaviours, self-reported HIV, and HIV seropositivity. Methods The Trans PULSE Project conducted a multi-mode survey using respondent-driven sampling to recruit 433 trans people in Ontario, Canada. Weighted estimates were calculated for HIV-related risk behaviours, HIV testing and self-reported HIV, including subgroup estimates for gender spectrum and ethno-racial groups. Results Trans people in Ontario report a wide range of sexual behaviours with a full range of partner types. High proportions – 25% of female-to-male (FTM and 51% of MTF individuals – had not had a sex partner within the past year. Of MTFs, 19% had a past-year high-risk sexual experience, versus 7% of FTMs. The largest behavioural contributors to HIV risk were sexual behaviours some may assume trans people do not engage in: unprotected receptive genital sex for FTMs and insertive genital sex for MTFs. Overall, 46% had never been tested for HIV; lifetime testing was highest in Aboriginal trans people and lowest among non-Aboriginal racialized people. Approximately 15% of both FTM and MTF participants had engaged in sex work or exchange sex and about 2% currently work in the sex trade. Self-report of HIV prevalence was 10 times the estimated baseline prevalence for Ontario. However, given wide confidence intervals and the high proportion of trans people who had never been tested for HIV, estimating the actual prevalence was not possible. Conclusions Results suggest potentially higher than baseline levels of HIV; however low testing rates were observed and self-reported prevalences likely underestimate seroprevalence. Explicit inclusion of trans people in epidemiological surveillance statistics would provide much

  12. Prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control rate of hypertension in HIV-infected patients: the HIV-HY study.

    De Socio, Giuseppe Vittorio; Ricci, Elena; Maggi, Paolo; Parruti, Giustino; Pucci, Giacomo; Di Biagio, Antonio; Calza, Leonardo; Orofino, Giancarlo; Carenzi, Laura; Cecchini, Enisia; Madeddu, Giordano; Quirino, Tiziana; Schillaci, Giuseppe

    2014-02-01

    We aimed to assess the prevalence of hypertension in an unselected human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected population and to identify factors associated with hypertension prevalence, treatment, and control. We used a multicenter, cross-sectional, nationwide study that sampled 1,182 unselected, consecutive, HIV-infected patients. Office blood pressure was accurately measured with standard procedures. Patients were 71% men and 92% white, with a median age of 47 years (range = 18-78); 6% were antiretroviral treatment naive. The overall prevalence of hypertension was 29.3%; high-normal pressure accounted for an additional 12.3%. Among hypertensive subjects, 64.9% were aware of their hypertensive condition, 52.9% were treated, and 33.0% were controlled (blood pressure < 140/90 mm Hg). Blood pressure-lowering medications were used in monotherapy in 54.3% of the subjects. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers were the most frequently used drugs (76.1%: monotherapy = 39.1%, combination treatment = 37.0%). In multivariable regression models, hypertension was independently predicted by traditional risk factors, including age ≥50 years, male sex, family history of cardiovascular disease, body mass index ≥25 kg/m2, previous cardiovascular events, diabetes, central obesity, and metabolic syndrome, as well as by duration of HIV infection, duration of antiretroviral therapy, and nadir CD4+ T-cell count <200/μl. The choice of protease inhibitors vs. nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors as a third antiretroviral drug was irrelevant. Hypertension affects nearly 30% of HIV adult outpatients in Italy. More than one-third of the hypertensive subjects are unaware of their condition, and more than two-thirds are uncontrolled. A higher level of attention to the diagnosis and treatment of hypertension is mandatory in this setting.

  13. Prevalence and correlates of knowledge of male partner HIV testing and serostatus among African-American women living in high poverty, high HIV prevalence communities (HPTN 064)

    Jennings, Larissa; Rompalo, Anne M.; Wang, Jing; Hughes, James; Adimora, Adaora A.; Hodder, Sally; Soto-Torres, Lydia E.; Frew, Paula M.; Haley, Danielle F.

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of sexual partners' HIV infection can reduce risky sexual behaviors. Yet, there are no published studies to-date examining prevalence and characteristics associated with knowledge among African-American women living in high poverty communities disproportionately affected by HIV. Using the HIV Prevention Trial Network's (HPTN) 064 Study data, multivariable logistic regression was used to examine individual, partner, and partnership-level determinants of women's knowledge (n=1,768 women). Results showed that women's demographic characteristics alone did not account for the variation in serostatus awareness. Rather, lower knowledge of partner serostatus was associated with having two or more sex partners (OR=0.49, 95%CI: 0.37-0.65), food insecurity (OR=0.68, 95%CI: 0.49-0.94), partner age>35 (OR=0.68, 95%CI: 0.49-0.94), and partner concurrency (OR=0.63, 95%CI: 0.49-0.83). Access to financial support (OR=1.42, 95%CI: 1.05-1.92) and coresidence (OR=1.43, 95%CI: 1.05-1.95) were associated with higher knowledge of partner serostatus. HIV prevention efforts addressing African-American women's vulnerabilities should employ integrated behavioral, economic, and empowerment approaches. PMID:25160901

  14. High prevalence of HIV-1 CRF01_AE viruses among female commercial sex workers residing in Surabaya, Indonesia.

    Kotaki, Tomohiro; Khairunisa, Siti Qamariyah; Sukartiningrum, Septhia Dwi; Arfijanto, M Vitanata; Utsumi, Takako; Normalina, Irine; Handajani, Retno; Widiyanti, Prihartini; Rusli, Musofa; Rahayu, Retno Pudji; Lusida, Maria Inge; Hayashi, Yoshitake; Nasronudin; Kameoka, Masanori

    2013-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) cause serious health problems and have an impact on the Indonesian economy. In addition, the rapid epidemic growth of HIV is continuing in Indonesia. Commercial sex plays a significant role in the spread of HIV; therefore, in order to reveal the current HIV prevalence rate among commercial sex workers (CSWs), we conducted an epidemiological study on HIV infection among CSWs residing in Surabaya, the capital of East Java province of Indonesia with large communities of CSWs. The prevalence of HIV infection among 200 CSWs was studied. In addition, the subtype of HIV type 1 (HIV-1) and the prevalence of other blood-borne viruses, hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and GB virus C (GBV-C), were studied. The prevalence rates of HIV, hepatitis B core antibody, hepatitis B surface antigen, anti-HCV antibodies and anti-GBV-C antibodies were 11%, 64%, 4%, 0.5% and 0% among CSWs involved in this study, respectively. HIV-1 CRF01_AE viral gene fragments were detected in most HIV-positive samples. In addition, most CSWs showed low awareness of sexually transmitted diseases and had unprotected sex with their clients. The HIV prevalence rate among CSWs was significantly higher than that among the general population in Indonesia (0.2-0.4%). In addition, CSWs were at a high risk of exposure to HBV, although chronic HBV infection was less frequently established. Our results suggest the necessity of efficient prevention programs for HIV and other blood-borne viral infections among CSWs in Surabaya, Indonesia.

  15. High prevalence of HIV-1 CRF01_AE viruses among female commercial sex workers residing in Surabaya, Indonesia.

    Tomohiro Kotaki

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS cause serious health problems and have an impact on the Indonesian economy. In addition, the rapid epidemic growth of HIV is continuing in Indonesia. Commercial sex plays a significant role in the spread of HIV; therefore, in order to reveal the current HIV prevalence rate among commercial sex workers (CSWs, we conducted an epidemiological study on HIV infection among CSWs residing in Surabaya, the capital of East Java province of Indonesia with large communities of CSWs.The prevalence of HIV infection among 200 CSWs was studied. In addition, the subtype of HIV type 1 (HIV-1 and the prevalence of other blood-borne viruses, hepatitis B virus (HBV, hepatitis C virus (HCV and GB virus C (GBV-C, were studied. The prevalence rates of HIV, hepatitis B core antibody, hepatitis B surface antigen, anti-HCV antibodies and anti-GBV-C antibodies were 11%, 64%, 4%, 0.5% and 0% among CSWs involved in this study, respectively. HIV-1 CRF01_AE viral gene fragments were detected in most HIV-positive samples. In addition, most CSWs showed low awareness of sexually transmitted diseases and had unprotected sex with their clients.The HIV prevalence rate among CSWs was significantly higher than that among the general population in Indonesia (0.2-0.4%. In addition, CSWs were at a high risk of exposure to HBV, although chronic HBV infection was less frequently established. Our results suggest the necessity of efficient prevention programs for HIV and other blood-borne viral infections among CSWs in Surabaya, Indonesia.

  16. HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes and behaviour of persons with and without disabilities from the Uganda Demographic and Health Survey 2011: Differential access to HIV/AIDS information and services.

    Julie Abimanyi-Ochom

    /AIDS-related questions from Demographic Health Surveys to provide information about persons with disabilities in Uganda in comparison to those without disabilities. These findings present a more complex and nuanced understanding of persons with disabilities and HIV/AIDS. If persons with disabilities are becoming sexually active earlier, are more likely to have an STD within the preceding 12 month period and are less likely to receive HIV test results, it is important to understand why. Recommendations are also made for the inclusion of disability measures in Uganda's AIDS Indicator Survey to provide cyclical and systematic data on disability and HIV/AIDS, including HIV prevalence amongst persons with disabilities.

  17. Continued high prevalence of HIV, HBV and HCV among injecting and noninjecting drug users in Italy

    Laura Camoni

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available We estimated the prevalence of HIV, HBV and HCV infections among injecting and non-injecting drug users treated within public drug-treatment centres in Italy to determine the correlates of infection. In the sample of 1330 drug users, the prevalence of HIV was 14.4% among drug injectors and 1.6% among non-injectors; the prevalence of HBV was 70.4% among injecting drug users and 22.8% among non-injectors and of HCV was 83.2% among injecting drug users and 22.0% among non-injectors. Old age, unemployment, and intravenous drug use were significantly correlated with each of the infections, as well as a longer history of injecting drug use. The results indicate that these infections continue to circulate among drug users, highlighting the need for monitoring of this group in Italy.

  18. Determinants of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV prevalence in homosexual and bisexual men screened for admission to a cohort study of HIV negatives in Belo Horizonte, Brazil: Project Horizonte

    Carneiro Mariângela

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Project Horizonte, an open cohort of homosexual and bisexual human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 negative men, is a component of the AIDS Vaccine Program, in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The objective of this study was to compare volunteers testing HIV positive at cohort entry with a sample of those who tested HIV negative in order to identify risk factors for prevalent HIV infection, in a population being screened for enrollment at Project Horizonte. A nested case-control study was conducted. HIV positive volunteers at entry (cases were matched by age and admission date to three HIV negative controls each. Selected variables used for the current analysis included demographic factors, sexual behavior and other risk factors for HIV infection. During the study period (1994-2001, among the 621 volunteers screened, 61 tested positive for HIV. Cases were matched to 183 HIV negative control subjects. After adjustments, the main risk factors associated with HIV infection were unprotected sex with an occasional partners, OR = 3.7 (CI 95% 1.3-10.6, receptive anal intercourse with an occasional partner, OR = 2.8 (95% CI 0.9-8.9 and belonging to the negro racial group, OR = 3.4 (CI 95% 1.1-11.9. These variables were associated with an increase in the risk of HIV infection among men who have sex with men at the screening for admission to an open HIV negative cohort.

  19. HIV-related social intolerance and risky sexual behavior in a high HIV prevalence environment.

    Delavande, Adeline; Sampaio, Mafalda; Sood, Neeraj

    2014-06-01

    Although most countries state that fighting social intolerance against persons with HIV is part of their national HIV strategy, the impact of reducing intolerance on risky sexual behavior is largely unknown. In this paper, we estimate the effect of social intolerance against HIV+ persons on risky sexual behavior in rural Malawi using data from roughly 2000 respondents from the 2004 and 2006 waves of the Malawi Longitudinal Study of Families and Health (MLSFH). The effect of social intolerance on risky behavior is a priori ambiguous. On the one hand, higher social intolerance or stigma can lead people to disassociate from the stigmatized group and hence promote risky behavior. On the other hand, intolerance can be viewed as a social tax on being HIV+ and thus higher intolerance may reduce risky behavior. We find that a decrease in social intolerance is associated with a decrease in risky behavior, including fewer partners and a lower likelihood of having extra-marital relations. This effect is mainly driven by the impact of social intolerance on men. Overall the results suggests that reducing social intolerance might not only benefit the HIV positive but might also forestall the spread of HIV. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Within-Gender Changes in HIV Prevalence among Adults between 2005/6 and 2010/11 in Zimbabwe.

    Elizabeth Gonese

    Full Text Available Zimbabwe has reported significant declines in HIV prevalence between 2005/06 and 2010/11 Demography and Health Surveys; a within-gender analysis to identify the magnitude and factors associated with this change, which can be masked, is critical for targeting interventions.We analyzed change in HIV prevalence for 6,947 women and 5,848 men in the 2005/06 survey and 7,313 women and 6,250 men in 2010/11 surveys using 2005/06 as referent. The data was analyzed taking into consideration the survey design and therefore the svy, mean command in Stata was used in both linear and logistic regression.There were similar proportional declines in prevalence at national level for males (15% p=0.011 and females (16%,p=0.008. However, there were variations in decline by provincial setting, demographic variables of age, educational level and some sexual risk behaviours. In logistic regression analysis, statistically significant declines were observed among men in Manicaland, Mashonaland East and Harare (p<0.01 and for women in Manicaland, Mashonaland Central and Harare (p<0.01. Although not statistically significant, numerical increases were observed among men in Matebeleland North, Matebeleland South, Midlands and for both men and women in Bulawayo. Young women in the age range 15-34 experienced a decline in prevalence (p<0.01 while older men 30-44 had a statistically significant decline (p<0.01. Having a secondary and above education, regardless of employment status for both men and women recorded a significant decline. For sexual risk behaviours, currently in union for men and women and not in union for women there was a significant decline in prevalence.Zimbabwe has reported a significant decline among both men and women but there are important differentials across provinces, demographic characteristics and sexual risk behaviours that suggest that the epidemic in Zimbabwe is heterogeneous and therefore interventions must be targeted in order to achieve

  1. HIV infection among foreign transsexual sex workers in Rome: prevalence, behavior patterns, and seroconversion rates.

    Spizzichino, L; Zaccarelli, M; Rezza, G; Ippolito, G; Antinori, A; Gattari, P

    2001-07-01

    The Azienda Sanitaria Locale Roma E (ASL-RME) outpatient clinic is the main reference center in Rome for HIV testing of foreign people. To define the prevalence and incidence of HIV infection among foreign transsexual sex workers attending the center. A cross-sectional, follow-up study was conducted. Between 1993 and 1999, 353 transsexuals attended the ASL-RME. They were from Colombia (n = 208), Brazil (n = 122), and other countries (n = 23). Most of these transsexuals reported having 5 to 10 partners per day. The overall HIV prevalence was 38.2%, which multivariate analysis found to be associated with origin from Brazil and a higher number of sex partners. The observed HIV seroconversion rate was 4.1 per 100 person-years, and non-regular condom use was the only factor related to seroconversion. The data from this study suggest that promotion of safer sex practices and regular condom use still is the main priority among marginalized population subgroups, such as foreign prostitutes, involved in sex activities that put them at risk for HIV infection.

  2. Prevalence and risk factors for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia among HIV-infected women

    Nara Chartuni Pereira Teixeira

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the prevalence and the risk factors for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN among HIV-infected women. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 494 HIV-infected women in Brazil, between 1998 and 2008. Gynecologic exam was performed, and samples were collected for cervical cytology and for HPV DNA detection. Cervical biopsy was carried out when indicated. HPV infection, CD4 T-lymphocyte count and HIV viral load were compared with cervical histopathology. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were performed to evaluate the statistical association of several risk factors. RESULTS: CIN prevalence detected by histopathology was 23.4% (6% of CIN2/3 and 17.4% cases of CIN1. Multivariate analysis confirmed an independent association of CIN with CD4 T-lymphocyte count below 200 cells/mm³ (OR 5.0, 95% CI 2.5-10.1, with a positive detection of HPV DNA (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.2-3.5, and with age < 34 years old (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.0-2.4. HIV viral load and antiretroviral use were not independent risk factors for CIN. CONCLUSIONS: Severity of immunosupression, presence of HPV infection and younger age are strong predictors of CIN among HIV-infected women.

  3. Prevalence of Periodontal Diseases in a Multicenter Cohort of Perinatally HIV-Infected and HIV-exposed and Uninfected Youth

    Ryder, Mark I.; Yao, Tzy-Jyun; Russell, Jonathan S.; Moscicki, Anna-Barbara; Shiboski, Caroline H.

    2016-01-01

    Aims To compare the prevalence and severity of periodontal diseases between 180 perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV) and 118 perinatally HIV-exposed and uninfected (PHEU) youth in a cross-sectional study conducted at 11 clinical sites in the United States and Puerto Rico from the Adolescent Master Protocol (AMP) study of the Pediatric HIV/AIDS cohort study (PHACS) network. Methods Several analyses were conducted, employing the current CDC/AAP classification for periodontitis and incorporating a definition of gingivitis based on a bleeding on probing threshold, and analyses based on more detailed whole mouth, intraoral regionally, site-based, and tooth-based criteria of bleeding on probing, plaque levels, pockets depths and clinical attachment levels. Results After adjusting for plaque control habits, and behavioral and sociodemographic factors, there were no significant differences in periodontal diseases between the PHIV and PHEU youth using any of these criteria. For PHIV youth, there was no significant association between parameters of periodontal disease and current HIV status. Conclusions While no significant differences in periodontal parameters were noted between the PHIV and PHEU youth, the influence of antiretroviral therapy on merits further exploration in this cohort in a longitudinal study. PMID:27801947

  4. Prevalence of HIV Infection and Risk Factors Among Female Sex Workers in a Southeast Province of Vietnam.

    Nguyen, Tri; Stewart, Donald Edwin; Lee, Chiao Tzu Patricia; Dang, Thi Nhu Hang

    2017-08-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) are at heightened risk of HIV infection. This research aims to determine the prevalence of HIV and relevant risk factors and related behavior among FSWs in Ba Ria - Vung Tau, a southeast province of Vietnam. 420 FSWs were interviewed using a structured questionnaire and biological samples tested for HIV. 2.6 % were found to be HIV positive. HIV infection was significantly higher in FSWs who had low income (≤AUD 200 per month), have had anal sex, have had sex with injecting drug users, and had a low level of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge. Improved employment opportunities and income are important to reduce the pressure for young women to engage in sex work for income purposes, but in public health terms, existing HIV treatment, prevention and intervention programs needs better targeting and improvements to reduce the risk of HIV infection.

  5. Stigma, lack of knowledge and prevalence maintain HIV risk among Black Africans in New Zealand.

    Henrickson, Mark; Dickson, Nigel; Mhlanga, Fungai; Ludlam, Adrian

    2015-02-01

    The AfricaNZ Health project aimed explore HIV risks in Black African communities in NZ with a view to informing HIV infection prevention and health promotion programs. AfricaNZ Health was completed in two phases. The first developed desk estimates of the resident Black African population in New Zealand, and Africans living with HIV. The second comprised two arms: an anonymous survey administered at African community events and a series of focus groups around the country. High levels of knowledge and positive attitudes about HIV were more often found in older than younger age groups. Condom use was higher in the younger group than in older age groups. Traditional attitudes still inform some beliefs about HIV. Stigma about HIV and anyone at risk for HIV remains very high among Africans. Western sexual identity constructs are not meaningful. A culturally informed strategy for risk and stigma reduction is urgently needed. The existing prevention and care infrastructure, informed by MSM experiences, must address increased risk to Black African new settlers, but this is not a reason to discriminate or further stigmatise an already vulnerable population. © 2014 Public Health Association of Australia.

  6. HAART impact on prevalence of chronic otitis media in Brazilian HIV-infected children.

    Weber, Raimar; Pinheiro Neto, Carlos Diógenes; Miziara, Ivan Dieb; Araújo Filho, Bernardo Cunha

    2006-01-01

    The advent of new antiretroviral drugs such as protease inhibitors has generated sensible changes in morbity and mortality in HIV-infected patients. To evaluate the impact of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) on the prevalence of chronic otitis media in HIV-infected pediatric population. We analyzed medical charts of 471 children aged zero to 12 years and 11 months with HIV infection from an Ambulatory of ENT and AIDS. Children were divided according to the age: 0 to 5 years and 11 months and 6 to 12 years and 11 months and classified as having chronic otitis media based on history, physical examination, audiologic and tympanometric data. Prevalence of chronic otitis media, as well as CD4+ lymphocyte count were compared between groups in use of HAART and the group without HAART. Out of 459 children, 65 (14.2%) had chronic otitis media. We observed that in children aged 0 to 5 years and 11 months who were taking HAART there was significant lower prevalence of chronic otitis media (p=0.02). The use of HAART was associated to higher mean CD4+ lymphocyte count (pmedia in HIV infected children, probably due to increase in mean CD4+ lymphocyte count.

  7. HIV Prevalence and Antenatal Care Attendance among Pregnant Women in a Large Home-Based HIV Counseling and Testing Program in Western Kenya.

    Ndege, Samson; Washington, Sierra; Kaaria, Alice; Prudhomme-O'Meara, Wendy; Were, Edwin; Nyambura, Monica; Keter, Alfred K; Wachira, Juddy; Braitstein, Paula

    2016-01-01

    To describe the uptake of and factors associated with HIV prevalence among pregnant women in a large-scale home-based HIV counseling and testing (HBCT) program in western Kenya. In 2007, the Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare Program (AMPATH) initiated HBCT to all individuals aged ≥13 years and high-risk children HIV prevalence. There were 119,678 women eligible for analysis; median age 25 (interquartile range, IQR: 18-34) years. Of these, 7,396 (6.2%) were pregnant at the time of HBCT; 4,599 (62%) had ever previously tested for HIV and 2,995 (40.5%) had not yet attended ANC for their current pregnancy. Testing uptake among pregnant women was high (97%). HBCT newly identified 241 (3.3%) pregnant HIV-positive women and overall HIV prevalence among all pregnant women was 6.9%. HIV prevalence among those who had attended ANC in this pregnancy was 5.4% compared to 9.0% among those who had not. Pregnant women were more likely to newly test HIV-positive in HBCT if they had not attended ANC in the current pregnancy (AOR: 6.85, 95% CI: 4.49-10.44). Pregnant women who had never attended ANC were about 6 times more likely to newly test HIV-positive compared to those who had attended ANC, suggesting that the cascade of services for prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission should optimally begin at the home and village level if elimination of perinatal HIV transmission is to be achieved.

  8. HIV prevalence and behavioral and psychosocial factors among transgender women and cisgender men who have sex with men in 8 African countries: A cross-sectional analysis

    Ackerman, Benjamin; Diouf, Daouda; Ceesay, Nuha; Mothopeng, Tampose; Odette, Ky-Zerbo; Kouanda, Seni; Ouedraogo, Henri Gautier; Simplice, Anato; Kouame, Abo; Trapence, Gift; van der Merwe, L. Leigh Ann; Jumbe, Vicente; Baral, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Sub-Saharan Africa bears more than two-thirds of the worldwide burden of HIV; however, data among transgender women from the region are sparse. Transgender women across the world face significant vulnerability to HIV. This analysis aimed to assess HIV prevalence as well as psychosocial and behavioral drivers of HIV infection among transgender women compared with cisgender (non-transgender) men who have sex with men (cis-MSM) in 8 sub-Saharan African countries. Methods and findings Respondent-driven sampling targeted cis-MSM for enrollment. Data collection took place at 14 sites across 8 countries: Burkina Faso (January–August 2013), Côte d’Ivoire (March 2015–February 2016), The Gambia (July–December 2011), Lesotho (February–September 2014), Malawi (July 2011–March 2012), Senegal (February–November 2015), Swaziland (August–December 2011), and Togo (January–June 2013). Surveys gathered information on sexual orientation, gender identity, stigma, mental health, sexual behavior, and HIV testing. Rapid tests for HIV were conducted. Data were merged, and mixed effects logistic regression models were used to estimate relationships between gender identity and HIV infection. Among 4,586 participants assigned male sex at birth, 937 (20%) identified as transgender or female, and 3,649 were cis-MSM. The mean age of study participants was approximately 24 years, with no difference between transgender participants and cis-MSM. Compared to cis-MSM participants, transgender women were more likely to experience family exclusion (odds ratio [OR] 1.75, 95% CI 1.42–2.16, p HIV (OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.49–2.19, p HIV prevalence was 25% (235/926) in transgender women and 14% (505/3,594) in cis-MSM. When adjusted for age, condomless receptive anal sex, depression, interpersonal stigma, law enforcement stigma, and violence, and the interaction of gender with condomless receptive anal sex, the odds of HIV infection for transgender women were 2.2 times greater

  9. A Meta-Analysis of the Metabolic Syndrome Prevalence in the Global HIV-Infected Population.

    Kim A Nguyen

    Full Text Available Cardio-metabolic risk factors are of increasing concern in HIV-infected individuals, particularly with the advent of antiretroviral therapy (ART and the subsequent rise in longevity. However, the prevalence of cardio-metabolic abnormalities in this population and the differential contribution, if any, of HIV specific factors to their distribution, are poorly understood. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the global prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS in HIV-infected populations, its variation by the different diagnostic criteria, severity of HIV infection, ART used and other major predictive characteristics.We performed a comprehensive search on major databases for original research articles published between 1998 and 2015. The pooled overall prevalence as well as by specific groups and subgroups were computed using random effects models.A total of 65 studies across five continents comprising 55094 HIV-infected participants aged 17-73 years (median age 41 years were included in the final meta-analysis. The overall prevalence of MS according to the following criteria were: ATPIII-2001:16.7% (95%CI: 14.6-18.8, IDF-2005: 18% (95%CI: 14.0-22.4, ATPIII-2004-2005: 24.6% (95%CI: 20.6-28.8, Modified ATPIII-2005: 27.9% (95%CI: 6.7-56.5, JIS-2009: 29.6% (95%CI: 22.9-36.8, and EGIR: 31.3% (95%CI: 26.8-36.0. By some MS criteria, the prevalence was significantly higher in women than in men (IDF-2005: 23.2% vs. 13.4, p = 0.030, in ART compared to non-ART users (ATPIII-2001: 18.4% vs. 11.8%, p = 0.001, and varied significantly by participant age, duration of HIV diagnosis, severity of infection, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs use and date of study publication. Across criteria, there were significant differences in MS prevalence by sub-groups such as in men, the Americas, older publications, regional studies, younger adults, smokers, ART-naïve participants, NNRTIs users, participants with shorter

  10. HIV prevalence in South Sudan: data from the ANC sentinel ...

    data, triangulated with data from other sources that will achieve informed consensus about population prevalence. Methodology selection of sample. Sentinel surveillance was conducted among pregnant women aged 15-49 attending ANC. Pregnant women were selected as a proxy for the general population and because ...

  11. Prevalence and multiplicity of HPV in HIV women in Minas Gerais, Brazil Prevalência e multiplicidade do HPV em mulheres infectadas pelo HIV em Minas Gerais

    Christine Miranda Corrêa

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To detect the frequency and subtypes of HPV in the uterine cervix of HIV-infected women. METHODS: Sample consisted of 288 HIV-infected women, recruited from the public health system of five cities of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Women were seen from August 2003 to August 2008. Cervical samples were collected for cytological analysis and for HPV DNA detection, using polymerase chain reaction (PCR. HPV DNA was classified according to its oncogenic potential in low risk (types 6, 11 and high risk (types 16, 18, 31, 33, 35. Colposcopy was performed, followed by cervical biopsy when necessary. Categorical variables were compared using the Chi-squared test, with a significance level established at the 5% level. RESULTS: HPV prevalence was 78.8%. Most frequent genotypes were HPV-6 (63.9% and HPV-16 (48.5%. High-risk HPV were observed in 70.5% of the women; low-risk in 71.4%; both high and low-risk HPV were detected in 55.1% of the patients. Multiple HPV genotypes were detected in 64.8% of the patients; two genotypes in 23.8%, and three in 18.9%. CONCLUSION: HPV prevalence was high among HIV-infected women. Multiple HPV genotypes were common in samples from the uterine cervix of HIV-infected womenOBJETIVO: Detectar a frequência e os subtipos do HPV na cérvice uterina de mulheres infectadas pelo HIV. MÉTODOS: A amostra era composta por 288 mulheres infectadas pelo HIV, recrutadas do sistema público de saúde de cinco cidades de Minas Gerais, Brasil. As mulheres foram avaliadas de agosto de 2003 a agosto de 2008. Amostras cervicais foram coletadas para análise citológica e para detecção do HPV DNA, usando a reação em cadeia de polimerase (PCR. O HPV DNA foi classificado de acordo com seu potencial oncogênico em baixo risco (tipos 6,11 e alto risco (tipos 16, 18, 31, 33, 35. Foi realizada colposcopia, seguida de biópsia cervical, quando indicada. Variáveis categóricas foram comparadas usando o teste do quiquadrado, com nível de signific

  12. HIV prevalence and behavioral and psychosocial factors among transgender women and cisgender men who have sex with men in 8 African countries: A cross-sectional analysis.

    Poteat, Tonia; Ackerman, Benjamin; Diouf, Daouda; Ceesay, Nuha; Mothopeng, Tampose; Odette, Ky-Zerbo; Kouanda, Seni; Ouedraogo, Henri Gautier; Simplice, Anato; Kouame, Abo; Mnisi, Zandile; Trapence, Gift; van der Merwe, L Leigh Ann; Jumbe, Vicente; Baral, Stefan

    2017-11-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa bears more than two-thirds of the worldwide burden of HIV; however, data among transgender women from the region are sparse. Transgender women across the world face significant vulnerability to HIV. This analysis aimed to assess HIV prevalence as well as psychosocial and behavioral drivers of HIV infection among transgender women compared with cisgender (non-transgender) men who have sex with men (cis-MSM) in 8 sub-Saharan African countries. Respondent-driven sampling targeted cis-MSM for enrollment. Data collection took place at 14 sites across 8 countries: Burkina Faso (January-August 2013), Côte d'Ivoire (March 2015-February 2016), The Gambia (July-December 2011), Lesotho (February-September 2014), Malawi (July 2011-March 2012), Senegal (February-November 2015), Swaziland (August-December 2011), and Togo (January-June 2013). Surveys gathered information on sexual orientation, gender identity, stigma, mental health, sexual behavior, and HIV testing. Rapid tests for HIV were conducted. Data were merged, and mixed effects logistic regression models were used to estimate relationships between gender identity and HIV infection. Among 4,586 participants assigned male sex at birth, 937 (20%) identified as transgender or female, and 3,649 were cis-MSM. The mean age of study participants was approximately 24 years, with no difference between transgender participants and cis-MSM. Compared to cis-MSM participants, transgender women were more likely to experience family exclusion (odds ratio [OR] 1.75, 95% CI 1.42-2.16, p gender with condomless receptive anal sex, the odds of HIV infection for transgender women were 2.2 times greater than the odds for cis-MSM (95% CI 1.65-2.87, p gender diversity within HIV research and programs.

  13. HBV or HCV Coinfection in HIV-1-Infected Pregnant Women in France: Prevalence and Pregnancy Outcomes.

    Benhammou, Valérie; Tubiana, Roland; Matheron, Sophie; Sellier, Pierre; Mandelbrot, Laurent; Chenadec, Jérôme Le; Marel, Emmanuelle; Khoshnood, Babak; Warszawski, Josiane

    2018-04-15

    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is frequent in HIV-infected persons but their impact on pregnant HIV-infected women is understudied. We explored whether these coinfections are associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes and lower response to antiretroviral therapy (ART). Pregnancies in HIV-1-infected women included in the ANRS French Perinatal Cohort between 2005 and 2013 were analyzed if HBV and HCV infection statuses were available. Among 4236 women, the prevalence of HBV (HBs Ag+) and HCV (RNA+) were 6.2% (95% confidence interval: 5.4 to 6.8) and 1.7% (1.3 to 2.1), respectively. HCV coinfection was strongly associated with a history of drug use; HBV coinfection was 6 times more frequent in women born in Sub-Saharan Africa than in European France. Baseline HIV viral load, CD4 count, and HIV care during pregnancy were similar in coinfected and monoinfected HIV mothers, except that 90% of HBV/HIV women were receiving tenofovir and/or lamivudine or emtricitabine. HCV coinfection was significantly associated with cholestasis [adjusted odds ratio: 4.1 (1.5-10.8), P = 0.005], preterm delivery [3.0 (1.6-5.7), P HIV-infected women, chronic HBV infection, mostly treated using targeted ART, had no major impact on the course of pregnancy. By contrast, chronic HCV infection was associated with a higher risk of obstetrical complications and a poorer immune-virological response to ART. It is yet unknown whether cure of HCV infection before conception can limit these adverse outcomes.

  14. Perceptions of HIV and Safe Male Circumcision in High HIV Prevalence Fishing Communities on Lake Victoria, Uganda.

    Paul E Nevin

    Full Text Available In 2010, the Uganda Ministry of Health introduced its Safe Male Circumcision (SMC strategy for HIV prevention with the goal of providing 4.2 million voluntary medical male circumcisions by 2015. Fishing communities, where HIV prevalence is approximately 3-5 times higher than the national average, have been identified as a key population needing targeted HIV prevention services by the National HIV Prevention Strategy. This study aimed to understand perceptions of HIV and identify potential barriers and facilitators to SMC in fishing communities along Lake Victoria.We conducted 8 focus group discussions, stratified by sex and age, with 67 purposefully sampled participants in 4 communities in Kalangala District, Uganda.There was universal knowledge of the availability of SMC services, but males reported high uptake in the community while females indicated that it is low. Improved hygiene, disease prevention, and improved sexual performance and desirability were reported facilitators. Barriers included a perceived increase in SMC recipients' physiological libido, post-surgical abstinence, lost income during convalescence, and lengthier recovery due to occupational hazards. Both males and females reported concerns about spousal fidelity during post-SMC abstinence. Reported misconceptions and community-held cultural beliefs include fear that foreskins are sold after their removal, the belief that a SMC recipient's first sexual partner after the procedure should not be his spouse, and the belief that vaginal fluids aid circumcision wound healing.Previous outreach efforts have effectively reached these remote communities, where availability and health benefits of SMC are widely understood. However, community-specific intervention strategies are needed to address the barriers identified in this study. We recommend the development of targeted counseling, outreach, and communication strategies to address barriers, misconceptions, and community-held beliefs

  15. National Prevalence and Trends of HIV Transmitted Drug Resistance in Mexico

    Avila-Ríos, Santiago; García-Morales, Claudia; Garrido-Rodríguez, Daniela; Ormsby, Christopher E.; Hernández-Juan, Ramón; Andrade-Villanueva, Jaime; González-Hernández, Luz A.; Torres-Escobar, Indiana; Navarro-Álvarez, Samuel; Reyes-Terán, Gustavo

    2011-01-01

    Background Transmitted drug resistance (TDR) remains an important concern for the management of HIV infection, especially in countries that have recently scaled-up antiretroviral treatment (ART) access. Methodology/Principal Findings We designed a study to assess HIV diversity and transmitted drug resistance (TDR) prevalence and trends in Mexico. 1655 ART-naïve patients from 12 Mexican states were enrolled from 2005 to 2010. TDR was assessed from plasma HIV pol sequences using Stanford scores and the WHO TDR surveillance mutation list. TDR prevalence fluctuations over back-projected dates of infection were tested. HIV subtype B was highly prevalent in Mexico (99.9%). TDR prevalence (Stanford score>15) in the country for the study period was 7.4% (95% CI, 6.2∶8.8) and 6.8% (95% CI, 5.7∶8.2) based on the WHO TDR surveillance mutation list. NRTI TDR was the highest (4.2%), followed by NNRTI (2.5%) and PI (1.7%) TDR. Increasing trends for NNRTI (p = 0.0456) and PI (p = 0.0061) major TDR mutations were observed at the national level. Clustering of viruses containing minor TDR mutations was observed with some apparent transmission pairs and geographical effects. Conclusions TDR prevalence in Mexico remains at the intermediate level and is slightly lower than that observed in industrialized countries. Whether regional variations in TDR trends are associated with differences in antiretroviral drug usage/ART efficacy or with local features of viral evolution remains to be further addressed. PMID:22110765

  16. Peripheral neuropathy in HIV: prevalence and risk factors

    Evans, Scott R.; Ellis, Ronald J.; Chen, Huichao; Yeh, Tzu-min; Lee, Anthony J.; Schifitto, Giovanni; Wu, Kunling; Bosch, Ronald J.; McArthur, Justin C.; Simpson, David M.; Clifford, David B.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To estimate neuropathic sign/symptom rates with initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in HIV-infected ART-naive patients, and to investigate risk factors for: peripheral neuropathy and symptomatic peripheral neuropathy (SPN), recovery from peripheral neuropathy/SPN after neurotoxic ART (nART) discontinuation, and the absence of peripheral neuropathy/SPN while on nART. Design AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) Longitudinal Linked Randomized Trial participants who initiated cART in randomized trials for ART-naive patients were annually screened for symptoms/signs of peripheral neuropathy. ART use and disease characteristics were collected longitudinally. Methods Peripheral neuropathy was defined as at least mild loss of vibration sensation in both great toes or absent/hypoactive ankle reflexes bilaterally. SPN was defined as peripheral neuropathy and bilateral symptoms. Generalized estimating equation logistic regression was used to estimate associations. Results Two thousand, one hundred and forty-one participants were followed from January 2000 to June 2007. Rates of peripheral neuropathy/SPN at 3 years were 32.1/8.6% despite 87.1% with HIV-1RNA 400 copies/ml or less and 70.3% with CD4 greater than 350 cells/µl. Associations with higher odds of peripheral neuropathy included older patient age and current nART use. Associations with higher odds of SPN included older patient age, nART use, and history of diabetes mellitus. Associations with lower odds of recovery after nART discontinuation included older patient age. Associations with higher odds of peripheral neuropathy while on nART included older patient age and current protease inhibitor use. Associations with higher odds of SPN while on nART included older patient age, history of diabetes, taller height, and protease inhibitor use. Conclusion Signs of peripheral neuropathy remain despite virologic/immunologic control but frequently occurs without symptoms. Aging is a risk factor for

  17. Prevalence of malnutrition among HIV-infected children in Central and West-African HIV-care programmes supported by the Growing Up Programme in 2011: a cross-sectional study.

    Jesson, Julie; Masson, David; Adonon, Arsène; Tran, Caroline; Habarugira, Capitoline; Zio, Réjane; Nicimpaye, Léoncie; Desmonde, Sophie; Serurakuba, Goreth; Kwayep, Rosine; Sare, Edith; Konate, Tiefing; Nimaga, Abdoulaye; Saina, Philemon; Kpade, Akossiwa; Bassuka, Andrée; Gougouyor, Gustave; Leroy, Valériane

    2015-05-26

    The burden of malnutrition among HIV-infected children is not well described in sub-Saharan Africa, even though it is an important problem to take into account to guarantee appropriate healthcare for these children. We assessed the prevalence of malnutrition and its associated factors among HIV-infected children in HIV care programmes in Central and West-Africa. A cross-sectional study was conducted from September to December 2011 among the active files of HIV-infected children aged 2-19 years old, enrolled in HIV-care programmes supported by the Sidaction Growing Up Programme in Benin, Burundi, Cameroon, Côte d'Ivoire, Mali, Chad and Togo. Socio-demographics characteristics, anthropometric, clinical data, and nutritional support were collected. Anthropometric indicators, expressed in Z-scores, were used to define malnutrition: Height-for-age (HAZ), Weight-for-Height (WHZ) for children children ≥5 years. Three types of malnutrition were defined: acute malnutrition (WHZ/BAZ malnutrition (HAZ malnutrition (WHZ/BAZ malnutrition. Overall, 1350 HIV-infected children were included; their median age was 10 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 7-13 years), 49 % were girls. 80 % were on antiretroviral treatment (ART), for a median time of 36 months. The prevalence of malnutrition was 42 % (95 % confidence interval [95% CI]: 40-44 %) with acute, chronic and mixed malnutrition at 9 % (95% CI: 6-12 %), 26 % (95% CI: 23-28 %), and 7 % (95% CI: 5-10 %), respectively. Among those malnourished, more than half of children didn't receive any nutritional support at the time of the survey. Acute malnutrition was associated with male gender, severe immunodeficiency, and the absence of ART; chronic malnutrition with male gender and age (malnutrition with male gender, age (malnutrition. The prevalence of malnutrition in HIV-infected children even on ART remains high in HIV care programmes. Anthropometric measurements and appropriate nutritional care of malnourished HIV

  18. Low prevalence of peripheral arterial disease in a cross-sectional study of Danish HIV-infected patients

    Knudsen, Andreas; Malmberg, Catarina Anna Evelina; Kjær, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    . However, controversies exist on the prevalence of PAD among HIV-infected patients. In this study we aimed to measure the prevalence of PAD among HIV-infected patients and compare the ABI with carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) and other known CVD risk predictors. METHODS: We prospectively included HIV......BACKGROUND: Patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) appear to be at increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The ankle-brachial index (ABI) is a well-established screening tool for peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and future cardiovascular events in the general population....... In contrast, a strong correlation was found between cIMT and traditional risk factors. Values of post-exercise ABI and cIMT were not correlated. The current ART did not influence ABI values. CONCLUSIONS: We found a low prevalence of PAD in HIV-infected patients. ABI did not correlate with CVD risk factors...

  19. Prevalence of HIV/AIDS and psychiatric disorders and their related risk factors among adults in Epworth, Zimbabwe.

    Sebit, M B; Tombe, M; Siziya, S; Balus, S; Nkomo, S D A; Maramba, P

    2003-10-01

    To examine the prevalence of HIV infection, neuropsychiatric disorders, psychiatric symptoms/signs, alcohol use/misuse, CD4 cell counts and risk factors in adult patients. Cross-sectional study. Epworth, which is about 15 km on the southeastern part of Harare, Zimbabwe. Two hundred subjects were included in the study out of which six were excluded beacause of HIV-1 indeterminate results. A convenience sample of 200 subjects recruited in a cross-sectional study in Epworth, Zimbabwe. Six subjects had indeterminate HIV-1 antibody results and were excluded from the study. The remaining 194 subjects of whom 101 (52.1%) knew about their sero-status and were consecutively recruited, whereas, 93 (47.9%) did not know about their sero-status and were recruited by a systematic random sampling method (1-in-3). They were then interviewed about neuropsychiatric disorders using BPRS, MADRS, AUDIT and MINI Mental State Test, including the risk factors related to HIV infection. After ELISA tests' results, the two groups were combined and then categorised into HIV positive (n=115) and HIV negative (n=79) subjects. Prevalence, neuropsychiatric disorders, increased CD4 cell counts and risk factors associated with HIV infection. The findings were that the overall point prevalence of the HIV infection was 59.3% (115/194). Comparative analyses between seropositive and seronegative HIV/AIDS subjects showed: over two thirds (71.3%) of the HIV positive subjects suffered from psychiatric disorders, more than those with HIV negative 44.3% (OR=3.12, 95% CI=1.64-5.95, P=0.0002), and subjects aged 35 years and less were mostly HIV seronegatives (n=77.2%, OR=2.34, 95% CI=1.18-4.75, P=0.014). The overall prevalence of alcohol use/misuse was 41 (21.1%), with higher prevalence rate among HIV positive subjects, 28 (24.3%) than those who were HIV negative, 13 (16.5%). The commonest psychiatric symptoms/signs (P<0.05) were emotional withdrawal, depressed mood, suspiciousness, apparent sadness, reduced

  20. Relationship between HIV risk perception and condom use: Evidence from a population-based survey in Mozambique.

    Prata, Ndola; Morris, Leo; Mazive, Elizio; Vahidnia, Farnaz; Stehr, Mark

    2006-12-01

    The relationship between individuals' perception of their risk for acquiring HIV and their use of condoms is poorly understood. Understanding this relationship is crucial to the development of effective strategies to fight HIV and AIDS. Data from the Mozambique 2001 Adolescent and Young Adult Reproductive Health and Behavior Risk Survey are used to compare 15-24-year-olds' assessments of their HIV risk with assessments based on current and past sexual behavior. In bivariate and probit regression analyses, the relationship between correct risk assessment and the likelihood of condom use at last intercourse is examined. Twenty-seven percent of women and 80% of men who considered themselves to have no risk or a small risk of contracting HIV were actually at moderate or high risk. For both men and women, the prevalence of condom use at last sex was more than twice as high among those who assessed their risk correctly (30% and 16%, respectively) as among those who did not (14% and 6%). Multivariate analysis showed that correct assessment was positively associated with condom use; the association was driven by use among never-married individuals. Never-married males who assessed their risk correctly were 18% more likely than other males to report condom use; never-married females, 17% more likely than other females. Educational messages should aim at enabling individuals to correctly assess their own HIV risk and encouraging behavior change based on self-assessment of risk.

  1. Relationship Between Alcohol Consumption Prior to Sex, Unprotected Sex and Prevalence of STI/HIV Among Socially Marginalized Men in Three Coastal Cities of Peru

    Leon, Segundo R.; Lescano, Andrés G.; Clark, Jesse L.; Hall, Eric R.; Klausner, Jeffrey D.; Coates, Tom J.; Caceres, Carlos F.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents data about the relationship between alcohol consumption prior to sex and unprotected sex and the prevalence of at least one sexually transmitted infection (STI) including HIV among socially marginalized men in three coastal Peruvians cities. During an epidemiological survey with 2,146 men, we assessed their STI prevalence, frequency of alcohol consumption prior to sex, unprotected sex and other sexual risk behaviors. The overall prevalence of at least one STI/HIV was 8.5 % (95 % CI 7.3–9.7), the prevalence of unprotected sex was 79.1 % (95 % CI 77.8–80.3) and alcohol consumption prior to sex with any of the last five sex partners in the previous 6 months was 68.9 % (95 % CI 66.9–70.9). Bivariate and multivariate analysis showed that alcohol consumption of participants or their partners prior to sex were associated with the prevalence of at least one STI, adjusted Prevalence Ratio (aPR) = 1.3 (95 % CI 1.01–1.68). Unprotected sex was significantly associated with alcohol consumption prior to sex when both partners used alcohol, aPR = 1.15 (95 % CI 1.10–1.20) or when either one of them used alcohol aPR = 1.14 (95 % CI 1.09–1.18). These findings concur with previous literature suggesting a relationship between alcohol consumption prior to sex and STI and HIV. These data improve our understanding of this relationship in this context and could be used to enhance STI and HIV prevention strategies for socially marginalized men in Peru. PMID:23054035

  2. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Syphilis Infections Among Military Personnel in Sierra Leone

    2017-03-01

    sponses (n=10). 3.5. Factors Associated with Syphilis Status Syphilis seropositivity was increased by older age , HIV in- fection and the...multiple sexual partnerships in the same week and HIV testing outside of military facilities (pɘ.05). Increasing age , positive HIV status and rural...population (15-49 years of age ) of Sierra Leone, and the estimated syphilis prevalence ranged from 1.5% to 5.2% based on regional studies. We examined the

  3. Sero-prevalence of latent Toxoplasma gondii infection among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected people in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: A comparative cross-sectional study

    Tegbaru Belete

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxoplasmosis in immuno-compromised hosts manifests primarily as a life threatening condition, toxoplasmic encephalitis. However, there is scarce information about the magnitude of Toxoplasma gondii infection among HIV-infected people in Ethiopia. This study was, therefore, conducted to determine the sero-prevalence of T. gondii infection among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected subjects. Findings Sera were collected from people with and without HIV infection for the purpose of studying hepatitis B virus (HBV at St. Paul Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia from 24 January 2007 to 15 February 2007. Among these sera, the first 330 consecutive sera, 165 from each HIV sero-group, were selected and tested for anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay. The seroprevalence of Toxoplasma infection was assessed against socio-demographic characteristics, HIV and HBV serostatus and HBV-related risk factors. The overall sero-prevalence of latent T. gondii infection among the study subjects was 90.0%. Toxoplasma infection was observed with respective prevalence of 93.3% and 86.7% among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected people. Though Toxoplasma infection seems to be influenced by age, gender and HIV serostatus, only HBV serostatus was significantly associated (OR 2.71, CI 1.12 to 6.57 in multivariate logistic regression analysis. Conclusion The seroprevalence of latent T. gondii infection is high and similar by HIV status. Educating people to prevent acquisition of new Toxoplasma infection and minimizing the risk of disease manifestations among HIV-Toxoplasma co-infected individuals is important.

  4. The cost-effectiveness of intervening in low and high HIV prevalence areas in South Africa

    Josue Mbonigaba

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This research compared the cost-effectiveness of a set of HIV/AIDS interventions in a low HIV prevalence area (LPA and in a high HIV prevalence area (HPA in South Africa. The rationale for this analysis was to assess the interaction dynamics between a specific HIV/AIDS intervention and an area of implementation and the effects of these dynamics on the cost-effectiveness of such an HIV/AIDS intervention. A pair of Markov models was evaluated for each intervention; one model for a HPA and another for an LPA and the cost-effectiveness of that intervention was compared across an LPA and a HPA. The baseline costs and health outcomes in each area were collected from the literature. To depict interaction dynamics between an HIV/AIDS intervention and an area of implementation, baseline health outcomes collected in each area, were adjusted over time based on the patterns of the projections observed in the AIDS model of the Actuarial Society of South Africa (ASSA2008. The study found that the VCT and treatment of STDs were equally cost-effective in an LPA and in a HPA while PMTCT and HAART were more cost-effective in an LPA than in a HPA. As a policy proposal, resources earmarked to non-ARV based interventions (VCT and treatment of STDs should  be equally shared across an LPA and a HPA while  more of the resources reserved for ARV-based interventions (PMTCT and HAART should go in an LPA in order to increase efficiency.

  5. Prevalence and associated factors of TB/HIV co-infection among HIV ...

    of ART, patients whose marital status was single were significant predictors for ..... Table 1 Summary result of TB/HIV co-infection vs. socio-demographic, economic and clinical, and risk .... persons are younger than married persons and have a.

  6. PREVALENCE OF HYPERTENSION, ANEMIA, ASYMPTOMATIC URINARY TRACT INFECTION, SYPHILIS, HIV AND HEPATITIS B VIRUS INFECTION

    Deme, Chala; Edao, Beyene; Jaya, Gemedi; Tisiano, Gebre; Fano, Hayi; Alegria, Iñaki; Reyes, Francisco; Gorgolas, Miguel; Ramos, José M

    2016-09-01

    Antenatal care (ANC) is provided to prevent, diagnose early and treat pregnant women for a variety of diseases. The objective of this study was to determine the seroprevalences of syphilis, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B virus (HVB) and asymptomatic urinary tract infections and the prevalence of hypertension and anemia among pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic at Gambo Rural Hospital in southern Ethiopia. The following tests were conducted among study subjects: hemoglobin (Hgb) level, rapid plasma reagin (RPR) for syphilis, anti-HIV antibodies, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and urine analysis. A total of 574 pregnant women were included in this study. The mean age of the participants was 25.7 (SD: 4.8) years old; 88.2% were living in urban areas and 11.8% in rural areas. Sixty-seven point two percent of participants began their attended care during the second trimester of their pregnancy. Overall, anemia (Hgb urinary tract infection (having ≥10 white blood cells /high power field in the urine) was present in 12.7% of participants (95% CI: 10.0-15.5). The RPR test was positive in two patients (0.3%; 95% CI: 0.1-1.3). The prevalences of positive test for HBsAg and HIV-1 were 2.3% (95% CI: 1.3-3.8) and 0.2% (95% CI: 0.03-0.9), respectively. No HIV-2 cases were detected. Our data show relatively low prevalences of anemia, hypertension, urinary tract infection, syphilis, HIV, and hepatitis B virus infections among study subjects at a rural antenatal clinic in southern Ethiopia.

  7. Prevalence and predictors of depressive symptoms among HIV-positive men who inject drugs in Vietnam.

    Levintow, Sara N; Pence, Brian W; Ha, Tran Viet; Minh, Nguyen Le; Sripaipan, Teerada; Latkin, Carl A; Vu, Pham The; Quan, Vu Minh; Frangakis, Constantine; Go, Vivian F

    2018-01-01

    HIV infection is common among people who inject drugs (PWID), and HIV-positive PWID may be particularly vulnerable to depression. This study measured the prevalence of depressive symptoms and the factors associated with severe symptoms among 455 HIV-positive PWID in Thai Nguyen, Vietnam. We used cross-sectional data from PWID in a randomized controlled trial of an intervention to reduce high-risk injecting and sexual behaviors in Thai Nguyen from 2009-2013. Depressive symptoms were measured with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). We used logistic regression to assess demographic, clinical, and psychosocial predictors of severe depressive symptoms (CES-D≥23) with prevalence odds ratios (POR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). The prevalence of severe depressive symptoms (CES-D≥23) was 44%. 25% of participants had mild to moderate depressive symptoms (16≤CES-D<23), and 31% experienced no depressive symptoms (CES-D<16). Not being married, self-rated poor health, greater frequency of injection drug use, history of overdose, no alcohol use, and daily cigarette smoking were positively associated with severe depressive symptoms in unadjusted models and remained predictive in a multivariable model. The strongest predictors of depressive symptoms were self-reported poor health (POR = 2.94, 95% CI: 1.82, 4.76), no current alcohol use (POR = 2.35, 95% CI: 1.47, 3.77), and not currently married or cohabitating (POR = 2.21, 95% CI = 1.40, 3.47). Severe depressive symptoms were common among HIV-positive PWID in Thai Nguyen and were strongly associated with demographic, clinical, and psychosocial factors. Interventions that promote social support from family and reduce drug dependence may particularly benefit PWID experiencing severe depressive symptoms. Greater recognition and treatment of depressive symptoms has the potential to enhance quality of life and improve HIV clinical outcomes for PWID.

  8. Short Communication: Prevalence of HIV Type 1 Transmitted Drug Resistance in Slovenia: 2005–2010

    Lunar, Maja M.; Židovec Lepej, Snježana; Abecasis, Ana B.; Tomažič, Janez; Vidmar, Ludvik; Karner, Primož; Vovko, Tomaž D.; Pečavar, Blaž; Maver, Polona J.; Seme, Katja

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Slovenia is a small European country with a total of 547 HIV-infected individuals cumulatively reported by the end of 2011. However, the estimated incidence rate of HIV infections increased from 7.0 per million in 2003 to 26.8 per million in 2011. In this study, we assessed the prevalence of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) in the past 6 years (2005–2010) and analyzed the time trend of the proportion of men having sex with men (MSM) and HIV-1 subtype B among newly diagnosed individuals in a 15-year period (1996–2010) in Slovenia. Among 150 patients included in the study, representing 63% of HIV-1 newly diagnosed patients in 2005–2010, TDR was found in seven patients (4.7%). The prevalence of TDR to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, and protease inhibitors was 2% (3/150), 2% (3/150), and 0.7% (1/150), respectively. The majority of patients were infected with subtype B (134/150, 89%), while subtype A was detected in 6.0% (9/150), subtype D in 1.3% (2/150), and subtype G and CRF02_AG in 0.7% (one patient each). Three of 150 sequences could not be typed. Infection with subtype B was found to be significantly associated with male gender, Slovenia being reported as the country of the patient's nationality and origin of the virus, CDC class A, mode of transmission with homosexual/bisexual contact, sex with an anonymous person, and a higher CD4+ count. Among patients carrying the subtype B virus, an MSM transmission route was reported in 87% of patients. Although the prevalence of TDR in Slovenia is still below the European average, active surveillance should be continued, especially among MSM, the most vulnerable population for HIV-1 infection in this part of Europe. PMID:22860694

  9. Short communication: prevalence of HIV type 1 transmitted drug resistance in Slovenia: 2005-2010.

    Lunar, Maja M; Židovec Lepej, Snježana; Abecasis, Ana B; Tomažič, Janez; Vidmar, Ludvik; Karner, Primož; Vovko, Tomaž D; Pečavar, Blaž; Maver, Polona J; Seme, Katja; Poljak, Mario

    2013-02-01

    Slovenia is a small European country with a total of 547 HIV-infected individuals cumulatively reported by the end of 2011. However, the estimated incidence rate of HIV infections increased from 7.0 per million in 2003 to 26.8 per million in 2011. In this study, we assessed the prevalence of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) in the past 6 years (2005-2010) and analyzed the time trend of the proportion of men having sex with men (MSM) and HIV-1 subtype B among newly diagnosed individuals in a 15-year period (1996-2010) in Slovenia. Among 150 patients included in the study, representing 63% of HIV-1 newly diagnosed patients in 2005-2010, TDR was found in seven patients (4.7%). The prevalence of TDR to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, and protease inhibitors was 2% (3/150), 2% (3/150), and 0.7% (1/150), respectively. The majority of patients were infected with subtype B (134/150, 89%), while subtype A was detected in 6.0% (9/150), subtype D in 1.3% (2/150), and subtype G and CRF02_AG in 0.7% (one patient each). Three of 150 sequences could not be typed. Infection with subtype B was found to be significantly associated with male gender, Slovenia being reported as the country of the patient's nationality and origin of the virus, CDC class A, mode of transmission with homosexual/bisexual contact, sex with an anonymous person, and a higher CD4(+) count. Among patients carrying the subtype B virus, an MSM transmission route was reported in 87% of patients. Although the prevalence of TDR in Slovenia is still below the European average, active surveillance should be continued, especially among MSM, the most vulnerable population for HIV-1 infection in this part of Europe.

  10. High prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in HIV-infected patients : impact of different definitions of the metabolic syndrome

    Worm, Signe W; Friis-Møller, Nina; Bruyand, Mathias; D'Arminio Monforte, Antonella; Rickenbach, Martin; Reiss, Peter; El-Sadr, Wafaa; Phillips, Andrew; Lundgren, Jens; Sabin, Caroline; Schölvinck, Elisabeth H.

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This study describes the characteristics of the metabolic syndrome in HIV-positive patients in the Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs study and discusses the impact of different methodological approaches on estimates of the prevalence of metabolic syndrome over time.

  11. High prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in HIV-infected patients: impact of different definitions of the metabolic syndrome

    Worm, Signe H.Westring; Friis-Møller, Nina; Bruyand, Mathias

    2010-01-01

    This study describes the characteristics of the metabolic syndrome in HIV-positive patients in the Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs study and discusses the impact of different methodological approaches on estimates of the prevalence of metabolic syndrome over time....

  12. Prevalence of oral candidiasis in HIV/AIDS children in highly active antiretroviral therapy era. A literature analysis.

    Gaitán-Cepeda, Luis Alberto; Sánchez-Vargas, Octavio; Castillo, Nydia

    2015-08-01

    SummaryHighly active antiretroviral therapy has decreased the morbidity and mortality related to HIV infection, including oral opportunistic infections. This paper offers an analysis of the scientific literature on the epidemiological aspects of oral candidiasis in HIV-positive children in the combination antiretroviral therapy era. An electronic databases search was made covering the highly active antiretroviral therapy era (1998 onwards). The terms used were oral lesions, oral candidiasis and their combination with highly active antiretroviral therapy and HIV/AIDS children. The following data were collected from each paper: year and country in which the investigation was conducted, antiretroviral treatment, oral candidiasis prevalence and diagnostic parameters (clinical or microbiological). Prevalence of oral candidiasis varied from 2.9% in American HIV-positive children undergoing highly active antiretroviral therapy to 88% in Chilean HIV-positive children without antiretroviral therapy. With respect to geographical location and antiretroviral treatment, higher oral candidiasis prevalence in HIV-positive children on combination antiretroviral therapy/antiretroviral therapy was reported in African children (79.1%) followed by 45.9% reported in Hindu children. In HIV-positive Chilean children on no antiretroviral therapy, high oral candidiasis prevalence was reported (88%) followed by Nigerian children (80%). Oral candidiasis is still frequent in HIV-positive children in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era irrespective of geographical location, race and use of antiretroviral therapy. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. High prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in HIV-infected patients: impact of different definitions of the metabolic syndrome

    Worm, Signe W.; Friis-Møller, Nina; Bruyand, Mathias; D'Arminio Monforte, Antonella; Rickenbach, Martin; Reiss, Peter; El-Sadr, Wafaa; Phillips, Andrew; Lundgren, Jens; Sabin, Caroline; de Wolf, F.; Zaheri, S.; Gras, L.; Bronsveld, W.; Hillebrand-Haverkort, M. E.; Prins, J. M.; Bos, J. C.; Eeftinck Schattenkerk, J. K. M.; Geerlings, S. E.; Godfried, M. H.; Lange, J. M. A.; van Leth, F. C.; Lowe, S. H.; van der Meer, J. T. M.; Nellen, F. J. B.; Pogány, K.; van der Poll, T.; Ruys, Th A.; Steingrover, R.; van Twillert, G.; van der Valk, M.; van Vonderen, M. G. A.; Vrouenraets, S. M. E.; van Vugt, M.; Wit, F. W. M. N.; van Eeden, A.; ten Veen, J. H.; van Dam, P. S.; Roos, J. C.; Brinkman, K.; Frissen, P. H. J.; Weigel, H. M.; Mulder, J. W.; van Gorp, E. C. M.; Meenhorst, P. L.; Mairuhu, A. T. A.; Veenstra, J.; Danner, S. A.; van Agtmael, M. A.; Claessen, F. A. P.

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This study describes the characteristics of the metabolic syndrome in HIV-positive patients in the Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs study and discusses the impact of different methodological approaches on estimates of the prevalence of metabolic syndrome over time.

  14. Prevalence and Knowledge Assessment of HIV and Non-Communicable Disease Risk Factors among Formal Sector Employees in Namibia

    Guariguata, Leonor; de Beer, Ingrid; Hough, Rina; Mulongeni, Pancho; Feeley, Frank G.; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F.

    2015-01-01

    The burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) is growing in sub-Saharan Africa combined with an already high prevalence of infectious disease, like HIV. Engaging the formal employment sector may present a viable strategy for addressing both HIV and NCDs in people of working age. This study assesses

  15. Prevalence and predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder and depression in HIV-infected and at-risk Rwandan women.

    Cohen, Mardge H; Fabri, Mary; Cai, Xiaotao; Shi, Qiuhu; Hoover, Donald R; Binagwaho, Agnes; Culhane, Melissa A; Mukanyonga, Henriette; Karegeya, Davis Ksahaka; Anastos, Kathryn

    2009-11-01

    During the 1994 Rwandan genocide, rape was used as a weapon of war to transmit HIV. This study measures trauma experiences of Rwandan women and identifies predictors associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depressive symptoms. The Rwandan Women's Interassociation Study and Assessment (RWISA) is a prospective observational cohort study designed to assess effectiveness and toxicity of antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected Rwandan women. In 2005, a Rwandan-adapted Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ) and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) were used to assess genocide trauma events and prevalence of PTSD (HTQ mean > 2) and depressive symptoms (CES-D > or = 16) for 850 women (658 HIV-positive and 192 HIV-negative). PTSD was common in HIV-positive (58%) and HIV-negative women (66%) (p = 0.05). Women with HIV had a higher prevalence of depressive symptoms than HIV-negative women (81% vs. 65%, p depressive symptoms. Independent predictors for increased depressive symptoms were making rape, and having more PTSD symptoms. The prevalence of PTSD and depressive symptoms is high in women in the RWISA cohort. Four of five HIV-infected women had depressive symptoms, with highest rates among women with CD4 cell counts depression and PTSD may reduce morbidity and mortality among women in postconflict countries.

  16. The Prevalence of Common Mental Disorders Among South Africans Seeking HIV Testing.

    Kagee, Ashraf; Saal, Wylene; De Villiers, Laing; Sefatsa, Mpho; Bantjes, Jason

    2017-06-01

    We administered the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM to 485 persons seeking HIV testing at five community testing centres in South Africa to determine the prevalence of common mental disorders among this population. The prevalence estimates for the various disorders were as follows: major depressive disorder: 14.2 % (95 % CI [11.1, 17.3]); generalised anxiety disorder 5.0 % (95 % CI [3.07, 6.93]); posttraumatic stress disorder 4.9 % (95 % CI [2.98, 6.82]); and alcohol use disorder 19.8 % (95 % CI [16.26, 23.34]). Our findings imply the need to research the integration of screening and referral trajectories in the context of voluntary HIV counselling and testing.

  17. Timing is everything: international variations in historical sexual partnership concurrency and HIV prevalence.

    Martina Morris

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Higher prevalence of concurrent partnerships is one hypothesis for the severity of the HIV epidemic in the countries of Southern Africa. But measures of the prevalence of concurrency alone do not adequately capture the impact concurrency will have on transmission dynamics. The importance of overlap duration and coital exposure are examined here. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a comparison of data from three studies of sexual behavior carried out in the early 1990s in Uganda, Thailand and the US. Using cumulative concurrency measures, the three countries appeared somewhat similar. Over 50% of both Thai and Ugandan men reported a concurrency within the last three partnerships and over 20% reported a concurrency in the last year, the corresponding rates among US men were nearly 20% for Blacks and Hispanics, and about 10% for other racial/ethnic groups. Concurrency measures that were more sensitive to overlap duration, however, showed large differences. The point prevalence of concurrency on the day of interview was over 10% among Ugandan men compared to 1% for Thai men. Ugandan concurrencies were much longer duration - a median of about two years - than either the Thai (1 day or US concurrencies (4-9 months across all groups, and involved 5-10 times more coital risk exposure with the less frequent partner. In the US, Blacks and Hispanics reported higher prevalence, longer duration and greater coital exposure than Whites, but were lower than Ugandans on nearly every measure. Together, the differences in the prevalence, duration and coital exposure of concurrent partnerships observed align with the HIV prevalence differentials seen in these populations at the time the data were collected. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: There were substantial variations in the patterns of concurrent partnerships within and between populations. More long-term overlapping partnerships, with regular coital exposure, were found in populations with

  18. Prevalence of HIV, STIs, and risk behaviors in a cross-sectional community- and clinic-based sample of men who have sex with men (MSM) in Lima, Peru.

    Perez-Brumer, Amaya G; Konda, Kelika A; Salvatierra, H Javier; Segura, Eddy R; Hall, Eric R; Montano, Silvia M; Coates, Thomas J; Klausner, Jeff D; Caceres, Carlos F; Clark, Jesse L

    2013-01-01

    Further research is necessary to understand the factors contributing to the high prevalence of HIV/STIs among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Peru. We compared HIV/STI prevalence and risk factors between two non-probability samples of MSM, one passively enrolled from an STI clinic and the other actively enrolled from community venues surrounding the clinic in Lima, Peru. A total of 560 self-identified MSM were enrolled between May-December, 2007. 438 subjects enrolled from a municipal STI clinic and 122 subjects enrolled during community outreach visits. All participants underwent screening for HIV, syphilis, HSV-2, gonorrhoea, and chlamydia and completed a survey assessing their history of HIV/STIs, prior HIV testing, and sexual behavior. HIV prevalence was significantly higher among MSM enrolled from the clinic, with previously undiagnosed HIV identified in 9.1% compared with 2.6% of community participants. 15.4 % of all MSM screened were infected with ≥ 1 curable STI, 7.4% with early syphilis (RPR ≥ 1:16) and 5.5% with urethral gonorrhoea and/or chlamydia. No significant differences between populations were reported in prevalence of STIs, number of male sex partners, history of unprotected anal intercourse, or alcohol and/or drug use prior to sex. Exchange of sex for money or goods was reported by 33.5% of MSM enrolled from the clinic and 21.2% of MSM from the community (p = 0.01). Our data demonstrate that the prevalence of HIV and STIs, including syphilis, gonorrhoea, and chlamydia are extremely high among MSM enrolled from both clinic and community venues in urban Peru. New strategies are needed to address differences in HIV/STI epidemiology between clinic- and community-enrolled samples of MSM.

  19. Multilevel Analysis of the Predictors of HIV Prevalence among Pregnant Women Enrolled in Annual HIV Sentinel Surveillance in Four States in Southern India.

    Thamattoor, Usha; Thomas, Tinku; Banandur, Pradeep; Rajaram, S; Duchesne, Thierry; Abdous, Belkacem; Washington, Reynold; Ramesh, B M; Moses, Stephen; Alary, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Heterogeneity of the HIV epidemic across districts of south India is reflected in HIV positivity among antenatal clinic (ANC) attendees. Along with individual factors, contextual factors also need consideration for effective HIV interventions. Thus, identifying district and individual level factors that influence ANC HIV positivity assumes importance to intervene effectively. Data on HIV sentinel surveillance among the ANC population were obtained from the National AIDS Control Organization (NACO) between years 2004 and 2007. Data from serial cross-sectional studies among female sex workers (FSWs) conducted during this time period in 24 districts were used to generate district level variables corresponding to parameters concerning this high risk population. Other district level data were obtained from various official/governmental agencies. Multilevel logistic regression was used to identify individual and district level factors associated with ANC-HIV positivity. The average ANC-HIV prevalence from 2004 to 2007 in the 24 integrated biological and behavioural assessments (IBBA) districts ranged from 0.25 to 3.25%. HIV positivity was significantly higher among ANC women with age ≥ 25 years [adjusted odds ratio (AOR):1.49; 95% confidence interval (95%CI):1.27 to 1.76] compared to those with ageIlliteracy of the woman, higher HIV prevalence among FSWs and early marriage were associated with HIV positivity among pregnant women in southern India. In addition to targeted HIV preventive interventions among FSWs, studying and changing the behavior of FSW clients and addressing structural drivers of the epidemic might indirectly help reduce HIV infection among women in southern India.

  20. Alta prevalência de sedentarismo em adolescentes que vivem com HIV/Aids

    Luana Fiengo Tanaka

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ResumoObjetivo:Verificar a prevalência de sedentarismo entre adolescentes com HIV/Aids e seus fatores associados.Métodos:Foram entrevistados 91 adolescentes de 10 a 19 anos, com HIV/Aids, em acompanhamento em uma unidade de infectologia universitária. Foram coletados dados antropométricos (peso, altura e circunferência da cintura em duplicata, informações clínicas foram obtidas nos prontuários médicos e a prática de atividade física habitual foi medida por meio do questionário proposto por Florindo et al. O ponto de corte para sedentarismo foi de 300 minutos/semana.Resultados:As prevalências de altura inadequada para idade, desnutrição e sobrepeso/obesidade foram de 15,4%, 9,9% e 12,1%, respectivamente. As atividades físicas mais citadas foram: futebol (44,4%, voleibol (14,4% e andar de bicicleta (7,8%. Os tempos medianos dispendidos com a prática de atividade física e caminhando/andando de bicicleta até a escola foram de 141 minutos e 39 minutos, respectivamente. A maioria dos adolescentes (71,4% era sedentária, proporção maior entre as meninas (p=0,046.Conclusões:Foi observada alta prevalência de sedentarismo entre adolescentes com HIV/Aids, prevalência essa semelhante àquela observada na população geral. Promover a prática de atividade física entre adolescentes - especialmente entre meninas - com HIV/Aids, assim como monitorá-la, deve fazer parte da rotina de acompanhamento desses pacientes.

  1. The definition of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders: are we overestimating the real prevalence?

    Gisslén, Magnus; Price, Richard W; Nilsson, Staffan

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background A substantial prevalence of mild neurocognitive disorders has been reported in HIV, also in patients treated with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). This includes a new disorder that has been termed asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment (ANI). Discussion ANI is identified by performance on formal neuropsychological testing that is at least 1 SD below the mean of normative scores in at least two cognitive domains out of at least five examined in patients without as...

  2. The prevalence of anal human papillomavirus among young HIV negative men who have sex with men

    Zou Huachun

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Men who have sex with men (MSM especially those who are HIV positive are at risk for HPV-associated anal cancer. We systematically reviewed studies with data on the prevalence of vaccine preventable anal HPV among men who have sex with men aged 25 or younger and identified 6 studies. None of these studies were specifically designed to determine the prevalence of HPV in this population. Available data, albeit limited, suggest many young MSM may not already be HPV infected. Further studies using representative sampling focused on teenage MSM are required to confirm this.

  3. Prevalence of HTLV-1/2 infections in Spain: A cross-sectional hospital-based survey.

    Treviño, Ana; García, Juan; de Mendoza, Carmen; Benito, Rafael; Aguilera, Antonio; Ortíz de Lejarazu, Raul; Ramos, José M; Trigo, Matilde; Eirós, Jose M; Rodríguez-Iglesias, Manuel; Torres, Alvaro; Calderón, Enrique; Hernandez, Araceli; Gomez, Cesar; Marcaida, Goizane; Soriano, Vincent

    2010-08-01

    The presence of antibodies to human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV) types 1 and 2 was examined in 5742 sera belonging to consecutive adult outpatients attended during June 2008 at 13 different hospitals across Spain. Overall, 58.8% were female. Foreigners represented 8% of the study population. Seven individuals were seropositive for HTLV-2 (overall prevalence 0.12%). No cases of HTLV-1 infection were found. All HTLV-2(+) subjects were Spanish natives, of whom six were coinfected with HIV-1 and five with hepatitis C virus (HCV). Moreover, all but one of the HTLV-2(+) subjects had been intravenous drug users. In summary, this cross-sectional survey suggests that the rate of HTLV infection in Spain is low, and is mostly represented by HTLV-2. Infected individuals are generally Spanish natives with a prior history of intravenous drug use and are coinfected with HIV-1 and/or HCV.

  4. Disparities in HIV and syphilis prevalence and risk factors between older male clients with and without steady sex partners in southwestern rural China.

    Chen, Li; His, Jenny H; Wu, Xinghua; Shen, Zhiyong; Lu, Huaxiang; Chen, Huanhuan; Huang, Hui; Zhang, Heng; Ruan, Yuhua; Shao, Yiming; Tang, Zhenzhu

    2017-04-12

    Heterosexual intercourse accounted for 93% of reported HIV cases in Guangxi, and Guangxi had 10% of China's total number of reported HIV cases. Older men are particularly vulnerable to STIs, for example, 46% of Guangxi's HIV cases were men over 50 years of age. As this is an under-studied population in China, effective prevention and control policies have yet to be developed. Thus, the aim of this study was to use a large-scale cross-sectional survey to understand the demographic and behavior factors associated with HIV and syphilis infections among older male clients of female sex workers (FSWs) in a high epidemic area of rural Guangxi, China. A large-scale cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2012 among older male clients of FSWs in low-cost commercial sex venues. Questionnaire interviews were administered to collect sociodemographic and sexual behavior information. Blood samples were collected for HIV and syphilis infection tests. Of the 3485 participants, 2509 (72.0%) clients had a steady sex partner and 976 (28.0%) clients had no steady sex partner. The overall prevalence of HIV and syphilis infection were 3.0% and 3.2%, respectively. Compared to those with a steady sex partner, clients with no steady partner had higher odds of HIV infection (AOR: 1.90, 95% CI: 1.27-2.86), syphilis infection (AOR: 1.53, 95% CI: 1.02-2.30), and having factors associated with HIV or syphilis infection, including non-commercial casual sex encounters in last month (AOR: 3.29, 95% CI: 2.42-4.46), >10 years of commercial sex history (AOR: 1.31, 95% CI: 1.12-1.53), >2 incidents of commercial sex in last month (AOR: 1.53, 95% CI: 1.19-1.96), and aphrodisiac use in last month (AOR: 1.40, 95% CI: 1.16-1.70). Clients with no steady partner had lower odds of having heterosexual intercourse (AOR: 0.66, 95% CI: 0.56-0.79), awareness and knowledge of HIV/AIDS (AOR: 0.75, 95% CI: 0.64-0.88), and having had HIV tests (AOR: 0.65, 95% CI: 0.44-0.98). Older male clients of low

  5. Sex Differences in HIV Prevalence, Behavioral Risks and Prevention Needs Among Anglophone and Francophone Sub-Saharan African Migrants Living in Rabat, Morocco.

    Johnston, Lisa; Oumzil, Hicham; El Rhilani, Houssine; Latifi, Amina; Bennani, Aziza; Alami, Kamal

    2016-04-01

    Morocco has experienced a dramatic increase of migration from sub-Sahara Africa during the past decade. Recently included among the most vulnerable populations cited in the Morocco National Strategic Plans on HIV/TB for 2012-2016, sub-Saharan Africa migrants living in an irregular administrative situation participated in a survey to provide baseline data about their socio-demographic, sexual and HIV testing behaviors and HIV and syphilis prevalence. Two surveys using respondent driven sampling were conducted in 2013 among males and females, ≥18 years, originating from sub-Saharan African countries and living and/or working in an irregular administrative situation in Rabat and residing at least 3 months in Morocco. Analysis was conducted to evaluate differences between the two samples and between females and males within each sample using the successive sampling estimator in RDS Analyst. Roughly 3 % of francophone and anglophone migrants were infected with HIV, whereas a statistically significantly higher percentage of francophone (2.8 %), compared to anglophone (0.3 %), migrants were infected with syphilis. Females were found to have HIV infection rates three times higher and past year sexually transmitted infection signs and symptoms more than two times higher than their male counterparts. Female migrants also had statistically significantly higher percentages of ever testing for HIV and HIV testing and receiving results in the past year compared to males. We found distinct and important differences between migrants depending on whether they come from francophone versus anglophone countries and whether they were male or female. Future research should continue to explore these differences, while policies and programs should note these differences to best allocate resources in providing social and health services to these populations.

  6. HIV prevalence and risk behaviour among men who have sex with men in Vientiane Capital, Lao People's Democratic Republic, 2007.

    Sheridan, Sarah; Phimphachanh, Chansy; Chanlivong, Niramonh; Manivong, Sisavath; Khamsyvolsvong, Sod; Lattanavong, Phonesay; Sisouk, Thongchanh; Toledo, Carlos; Scherzer, Martha; Toole, Mike; van Griensven, Frits

    2009-01-28

    Men who have sex with men are at high risk for HIV infection. Here we report the results of the first assessment of HIV prevalence and risk behaviour in this group in Vientiane, Lao People's Democratic Republic. Between August and September 2007, 540 men were enrolled from venues around Vientiane, using venue-day-time sampling. Men of Lao nationality, 15 years and over, reporting oral or anal sex with a man in the previous 6 months were eligible for participation. Demographic and socio-behavioural information was self-collected using hand-held computers. Oral fluid was tested for HIV infection. Logistic regression was used to evaluate risk factors for prevalent HIV infection. The median age of participants was 21 years; the HIV prevalence was 5.6%. Of participants, 39.6% reported exclusive attraction to men and 57.6% reported sex with women. Of those who reported having regular and nonregular sexual partner(s) in the past 3 months, consistent condom use with these partners was 14.4 and 24.2%, respectively. A total of 42.2% self-reported any sexually transmitted infection symptoms and 6.3% had previously been tested for HIV. Suicidal ideation was reported by 17.0%, which was the only variable significantly and independently associated with HIV infection in multivariate analysis. Although the HIV prevalence is low compared with neighbouring countries in the region, men who have sex with men in Lao People's Democratic Republic are at high behavioural risk for HIV infection. To prevent a larger HIV epidemic occurrence and transmission into the broader community, higher coverage of HIV prevention interventions is required.

  7. Scale-up, retention and HIV/STI prevalence trends among female sex workers attending VICITS clinics in Guatemala.

    Sonia Morales-Miranda

    Full Text Available Since 2007, Guatemala integrated STI clinical service with an HIV prevention model into four existing public health clinics to prevent HIV infection, known as the VICITS strategy. We present the first assessment of VICITS scale-up, retention, HIV and STI prevalence trends, and risk factors associated with HIV infection among Female Sex Workers (FSW attending VICITS clinics in Guatemala.Demographic, behavioral and clinical data were collected using a standardized form. Data was analyzed by year and health center. HIV and STI prevalence were estimated from routine visits. Retention was estimated as the percent of new users attending VICITS clinics who returned for at least one follow-up visit to any VICITS clinic within 12 months. Separate multivariate logistic regression models were conducted to investigate factors associated with HIV infection and program retention.During 2007-2011 5,682 FSW visited a VICITS clinic for the first-time. HIV prevalence varied from 0.4% to 5.8%, and chlamydia prevalence from 0% to 14.3%, across sites. Attending the Puerto Barrios clinic, having a current syphilis infection, working primarily on the street, and using the telephone or internet to contact clients were associated with HIV infection. The number of FSW accessing VICITS annually increased from 556 to 2,557 (361% during the period. In 2011 retention varied across locations from 7.7% to 42.7%. Factors negatively impacting retention included current HIV diagnosis, having practiced sex work in another country, being born in Honduras, and attending Marco Antonio Foundation or Quetzaltenango clinic sites. Systematic time trends did not emerge, however 2008 and 2010 were characterized by reduced retention.Our data show local differences in HIV prevalence and clinic attendance that can be used to prioritize prevention activities targeting FSW in Guatemala. VICITS achieved rapid scale-up; however, a better understanding of the causes of low return rates is urgently

  8. Scale-up, retention and HIV/STI prevalence trends among female sex workers attending VICITS clinics in Guatemala.

    Morales-Miranda, Sonia; Jacobson, Jerry O; Loya-Montiel, Itzel; Mendizabal-Burastero, Ricardo; Galindo-Arandi, César; Flores, Carlos; Chen, Sanny Y

    2014-01-01

    Since 2007, Guatemala integrated STI clinical service with an HIV prevention model into four existing public health clinics to prevent HIV infection, known as the VICITS strategy. We present the first assessment of VICITS scale-up, retention, HIV and STI prevalence trends, and risk factors associated with HIV infection among Female Sex Workers (FSW) attending VICITS clinics in Guatemala. Demographic, behavioral and clinical data were collected using a standardized form. Data was analyzed by year and health center. HIV and STI prevalence were estimated from routine visits. Retention was estimated as the percent of new users attending VICITS clinics who returned for at least one follow-up visit to any VICITS clinic within 12 months. Separate multivariate logistic regression models were conducted to investigate factors associated with HIV infection and program retention. During 2007-2011 5,682 FSW visited a VICITS clinic for the first-time. HIV prevalence varied from 0.4% to 5.8%, and chlamydia prevalence from 0% to 14.3%, across sites. Attending the Puerto Barrios clinic, having a current syphilis infection, working primarily on the street, and using the telephone or internet to contact clients were associated with HIV infection. The number of FSW accessing VICITS annually increased from 556 to 2,557 (361%) during the period. In 2011 retention varied across locations from 7.7% to 42.7%. Factors negatively impacting retention included current HIV diagnosis, having practiced sex work in another country, being born in Honduras, and attending Marco Antonio Foundation or Quetzaltenango clinic sites. Systematic time trends did not emerge, however 2008 and 2010 were characterized by reduced retention. Our data show local differences in HIV prevalence and clinic attendance that can be used to prioritize prevention activities targeting FSW in Guatemala. VICITS achieved rapid scale-up; however, a better understanding of the causes of low return rates is urgently needed.

  9. High Prevalence of Severe Food Insecurity and Malnutrition among HIV-Infected Adults in Senegal, West Africa.

    Benzekri, Noelle A; Sambou, Jacques; Diaw, Binetou; Sall, El Hadji Ibrahima; Sall, Fatima; Niang, Alassane; Ba, Selly; Ngom Guèye, Ndèye Fatou; Diallo, Mouhamadou Baïla; Hawes, Stephen E; Seydi, Moussa; Gottlieb, Geoffrey S

    2015-01-01

    Malnutrition and food insecurity are associated with increased mortality and poor clinical outcomes among people living with HIV/AIDS; however, the prevalence of malnutrition and food insecurity among people living with HIV/AIDS in Senegal, West Africa is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and severity of food insecurity and malnutrition among HIV-infected adults in Senegal, and to identify associations between food insecurity, malnutrition, and HIV outcomes. We conducted a cross-sectional study at outpatient clinics in Dakar and Ziguinchor, Senegal. Data were collected using participant interviews, anthropometry, the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale, the Individual Dietary Diversity Scale, and chart review. One hundred and nine HIV-1 and/or HIV-2 participants were enrolled. The prevalence of food insecurity was 84.6% in Dakar and 89.5% in Ziguinchor. The prevalence of severe food insecurity was 59.6% in Dakar and 75.4% in Ziguinchor. The prevalence of malnutrition (BMI insecurity was associated with missing clinic appointments (p = 0.01) and not taking antiretroviral therapy due to hunger (p = 0.02). Malnutrition was associated with lower CD4 cell counts (p = 0.01). Severe food insecurity and malnutrition are highly prevalent among HIV-infected adults in both Dakar and Ziguinchor, and are associated with poor HIV outcomes. Our findings warrant further studies to determine the root causes of malnutrition and food insecurity in Senegal, and the short- and long-term impacts of malnutrition and food insecurity on HIV care. Urgent interventions are needed to address the unacceptably high rates of malnutrition and food insecurity in this population.

  10. High Prevalence of Severe Food Insecurity and Malnutrition among HIV-Infected Adults in Senegal, West Africa.

    Noelle A Benzekri

    Full Text Available Malnutrition and food insecurity are associated with increased mortality and poor clinical outcomes among people living with HIV/AIDS; however, the prevalence of malnutrition and food insecurity among people living with HIV/AIDS in Senegal, West Africa is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and severity of food insecurity and malnutrition among HIV-infected adults in Senegal, and to identify associations between food insecurity, malnutrition, and HIV outcomes.We conducted a cross-sectional study at outpatient clinics in Dakar and Ziguinchor, Senegal. Data were collected using participant interviews, anthropometry, the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale, the Individual Dietary Diversity Scale, and chart review.One hundred and nine HIV-1 and/or HIV-2 participants were enrolled. The prevalence of food insecurity was 84.6% in Dakar and 89.5% in Ziguinchor. The prevalence of severe food insecurity was 59.6% in Dakar and 75.4% in Ziguinchor. The prevalence of malnutrition (BMI <18.5 was 19.2% in Dakar and 26.3% in Ziguinchor. Severe food insecurity was associated with missing clinic appointments (p = 0.01 and not taking antiretroviral therapy due to hunger (p = 0.02. Malnutrition was associated with lower CD4 cell counts (p = 0.01.Severe food insecurity and malnutrition are highly prevalent among HIV-infected adults in both Dakar and Ziguinchor, and are associated with poor HIV outcomes. Our findings warrant further studies to determine the root causes of malnutrition and food insecurity in Senegal, and the short- and long-term impacts of malnutrition and food insecurity on HIV care. Urgent interventions are needed to address the unacceptably high rates of malnutrition and food insecurity in this population.

  11. Prevalence of human Papilloma Virus in HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients in the State of Bahia: a pilot study

    Conceição Queiroz

    Full Text Available Human Papilloma Virus (HPV plays a central role in the development of cervical cancer. However, other coexisting factors, such as HIV infection, must be present for this to occur. We evaluated the prevalence of HPV in HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients in the city of Salvador , Bahia, Brazil, and determined the most prevalent types of HPV in these patients. Fifty-five cases were selected from among patients attending three institutions providing cervical pathology services in the city of Salvador. HIV testing (Elisa/WB, HPV-DNA testing by PCR, colposcopy, cytology and biopsy were carried out in all patients. The histopathological results were classified as follows: 11 cases were normal/negative for neoplasia, 15 were diagnosed as cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1 (CIN 1, 10 were CIN 2, 15 cases were CIN 3 and there were four cases of invasive squamous cell carcinoma. Among the 55 patients studied, 43 tested positive for HPV-DNA and 20 for HIV. All HIV-positive patients were positive for HPV-DNA. The most prevalent types of HPV were HPV 16, 52, 58, 53, 54, 33 and 51, and there was little difference between the groups of HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients with respect to the type of HPV encountered. The HIV-positive patients were found to be infected with a greater number of types of HPV than the HIV-negative patients. This study corroborates the existence of regional variations in the distribution of certain types of HPV, which is probably due to the particular ethnic constitution found in this region of Brazil.

  12. HIV-surveys bij hoog-risicogroepen in Den Haag 2005

    Veen MG van; Wagemans MAJ; Burg I van den; Tonino-van der Marel E; Leeuwen AP van; Laar MJW van de; CIE

    2006-01-01

    Verspreiding van HIV en SOA kan mogelijk optreden doordat hoog-risicogroepen een brug vormen naar de rest van de bevolking in Nederland. Dit blijkt uit de HIV-survey die is uitgevoerd in Den Haag onder prostituees werkzaam in de raamprostitutie, clubs en op de tippelzone en onder migranten

  13. Cross-sectional study on the prevalence and predictors of pregnancy among women living in HIV discordant relationships in a rural Rakai cohort, Uganda.

    Nakiganda, Lydia Jacenta; Agardh, Anette; Asamoah, Benedict Oppong

    2018-04-24

    This study examines the prevalence of pregnancy in serodiscordant couples and identifies predictors associated with pregnancy in rural Rakai, Uganda. A population-based cross-sectional study that used data from the Rakai Community Cohort Study (RCCS). We used data from the RCCS survey round 17 (2015-2016), which included 488 women in serodiscordant relationships. This study was conducted in Rakai district, located in south-western Uganda. Pregnancy status. Multivariable modified Poisson regression using stepwise selection was used to determine characteristics and behaviours associated with pregnancy status. The prevalence of pregnancy was 12% in women among serodiscordant couples. HIV-negative women in serodiscordant couples had a slightly higher pregnancy prevalence rate (13.6%) compared with HIV-positive women in serodiscordant couples (11%). Factors significantly associated with higher prevalence of pregnancy were; younger age 15-24 years (prevalence risk ratio (PRR)=4.04; 95% CI 1.72 to 9.50), middle age 25-34 years (PRR=2.49; 95% CI 1.05 to 5.89), Christian religion (PRR=2.26; 95% CI 1.41 to 3.63) and inconsistent condom use in the last 12 months (PRR=4.38, 95% CI 1.09 to 17.53). Neither HIV status nor HIV status disclosure was significantly associated with risk of getting pregnant. Nearly 12% of women in serodiscordant relationships were pregnant, highlighting the need for integrated services to prevent unintended pregnancies and reduce conceptional related risks for those choosing to conceive. Association with younger age and inconsistent condom use suggests a role for early and continued couple-based conception counselling. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. A scoping review of prevalence, incidence and risk factors for HIV infection amongst young people in Brazil

    Saffier, Igor Pedrosa; Kawa, Hélia; Harling, Guy

    2017-01-01

    Background Despite young people being a key population for HIV prevention, the HIV epidemic amongst young Brazilians is perceived to be growing. We therefore reviewed all published literature on HIV prevalence and risk factors for HIV infection amongst 10-25 year olds in Brazil. Methods We searched Embase, LILACS, Proquest, PsycINFO, PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science for studies published up to March 2017 and analyzed reference lists of relevant studies. We included published studies from any...

  15. Prevalence, risk factors and genotypes of hepatitis B infection among HIV-infected patients in the State of MS, Central Brazil

    Solange Zacalusni Freitas

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: This study demonstrates the low prevalence of HIV-HBV infection and also highlights the need for early vaccination against HBV as well as testing for HBV, HCV and HDV in all HIV-infected individuals.

  16. The people living with HIV stigma survey UK 2015: HIV-related sexual rejection and other experiences of stigma and discrimination among gay and heterosexual men.

    Hibbert, M; Crenna-Jennings, W; Kirwan, P; Benton, L; Lut, I; Okala, S; Asboe, D; Jeffries, J; Kunda, C; Mbewe, R; Morris, S; Morton, J; Nelson, M; Thorley, L; Paterson, H; Ross, M; Reeves, I; Sharp, L; Sseruma, W; Valiotis, G; Wolton, A; Jamal, Z; Hudson, A; Delpech, V

    2018-05-27

    We aim to understand the difference in stigma and discrimination, in particular sexual rejection, experienced between gay and heterosexual men living with HIV in the UK. The People Living with HIV StigmaSurvey UK 2015 recruited a convenience sample of persons with HIV through over 120 cross sector community organisations and 46 HIV clinics to complete an online survey. 1162 men completed the survey, 969 (83%) gay men and 193 (17%) heterosexual men, 92% were on antiretroviral therapy. Compared to heterosexual men, gay men were significantly more likely to report worrying about workplace treatment in relation to their HIV (21% vs. 11%), worrying about HIV-related sexual rejection (42% vs 21%), avoiding sex because of their HIV status (37% vs. 23%), and experiencing HIV-related sexual rejection (27% vs. 9%) in the past 12 months. In a multivariate logistic regression controlling for other sociodemographic factors, being gay was a predictor of reporting HIV-related sexual rejection in the past 12 months (aOR 2.17, CI 1.16, 4.02). Both gay and heterosexual men living with HIV experienced stigma and discrimination in the past 12 months, and this was higher for gay men in terms of HIV-related sexual rejection. Due to the high proportion of men reporting sexual rejection, greater awareness and education of the low risk of transmission of HIV among people on effective treatment is needed to reduce stigma and sexual prejudice towards people living with HIV.

  17. Screening Strategies for Tuberculosis Prevalence Surveys: The Value of Chest Radiography and Symptoms

    van't Hoog, Anna H.; Meme, Helen K.; Laserson, Kayla F.; Agaya, Janet A.; Muchiri, Benson G.; Githui, Willie A.; Odeny, Lazarus O.; Marston, Barbara J.; Borgdorff, Martien W.

    2012-01-01

    Background: We conducted a tuberculosis (TB) prevalence survey and evaluated the screening methods used in our survey, to assess if screening in TB prevalence surveys could be simplified, and to assess the accuracy of screening algorithms that may be applicable for active case finding. Methods: All

  18. HIV/AIDS and the long-distance truck drivers in south-west Nigeria: A cross-sectional survey on the knowledge, attitude, risk behaviour and beliefs of truckers

    Glory O. Atilola

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Objectives: According to the last HIV surveillance survey conducted in 2008, the overall National HIV prevalence in Nigeria stands at 4.6%. Recent studies and estimates by UNAIDS/WHO show higher prevalences in some selected states in Nigeria. The focus of this study is to determine the prevalence, risk behaviour, attitude and knowledge of HIV among long-distance heavy-truckers from a cross-sectional survey conducted in the south-west Nigeria. Methods: Four major truck terminals (devoted to long-distance trips in south western Nigeria were identified. A cross-sectional survey was conducted using a total sample size of 451 truckers who consented to be interviewed. A questionnaire (in English, Hausa and Yoruba languages for data collection on the socio-demographic, risk behaviour, attitude and knowledge of HIV from the truckers was also designed. The multiple logistic regressions analysis was used to assess the association between some selected variables and factors. Results: Only 164 (36.4% participants out of the study population of 451 were tested for HIV (due to limited test facilities and consent and the prevalence of HIV antibodies among the truckers was found to be 2.4% (4/164 with all the infected individuals being within 21–30 years of age. 309 (68.1% of the respondents admitted that they were at risk of contracting HIV while a total of 249 (55.3% admitted that they had more than one sexual partners. In addition, while 392 (86.9% said it was important for them to know their HIV status, 88 (19.5% said that they would commit suicide should they test positive for HIV. Conclusion: Although the HIV prevalence rate observed among the tested participants (2.4% was lower than the overall national prevalence (4.6%, the result calls for concern as it showed that the population of truckers is a potential high risk group in Nigeria. Also, the mobile nature of this high-risk group has made getting HIV/AIDS awareness messages across to them a

  19. Prevalence and determinants of unplanned pregnancy in HIV-positive and HIV-negative pregnant women in Cape Town, South Africa: a cross-sectional study.

    Iyun, Victoria; Brittain, Kirsty; Phillips, Tamsin K; le Roux, Stanzi; McIntyre, James A; Zerbe, Allison; Petro, Greg; Abrams, Elaine J; Myer, Landon

    2018-04-03

    Prevention of unplanned pregnancy is a crucial aspect of preventing mother-to-child HIV transmission. There are few data investigating how HIV status and use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) may influence pregnancy planning in high HIV burden settings. Our objective was to examine the prevalence and determinants of unplanned pregnancy among HIV-positive and HIV-negative women in Cape Town, South Africa. Cross-sectional analysis. Single primary-level antenatal care clinic in Cape Town, South Africa. HIV-positive and HIV-negative pregnant women, booking for antenatal care from March 2013 to August 2015, were included. Unplanned pregnancy was measured at the first antenatal care visit using the London Measure of Unplanned Pregnancy (LMUP). Analyses examined LMUP scores across four groups of participants defined by their HIV status, awareness of their HIV status prior to the current pregnancy and/or whether they were using antiretroviral therapy (ART) prior to the current pregnancy. Among 2105 pregnant women (1512 HIV positive; 593 HIV negative), median age was 28 years, 43% were married/cohabiting and 20% were nulliparous. Levels of unplanned pregnancy were significantly higher in HIV-positive versus HIV-negative women (50% vs 33%, p<0.001); and highest in women who were known HIV positive but not on ART (53%). After adjusting for age, parity and marital status, unplanned pregnancy was most common among women newly diagnosed and women who were known HIV positive but not on ART (compared with HIV-negative women, adjusted OR (aOR): 1.43; 95% CI 1.05 to 1.94 and aOR: 1.57; 95% CI 1.13 to 2.15, respectively). Increased parity and younger age (<24 years) were also associated with unplanned pregnancy (aOR: 1.42; 95% CI 1.25 to 1.60 and aOR: 1.83; 95% CI 1.23 to 2.74, respectively). We observed high levels of unplanned pregnancy among HIV-positive women, particularly among those not on ART, suggesting ongoing missed opportunities for improved family planning and

  20. Meta-Analysis of Prevalence of Erectile Dysfunction in Mainland China: Evidence Based on Epidemiological Surveys

    Wenying Wang, MD, PhD

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: ED is highly prevalent in mainland China, and its prevalence increases with age. More high-quality surveys on ED with larger samples throughout mainland China are needed to confirm these findings.

  1. Prevalence of HIV and Associated Risks of Sex Work among Youth in the Slums of Kampala.

    Swahn, Monica H; Culbreth, Rachel; Salazar, Laura F; Kasirye, Rogers; Seeley, Janet

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study is to examine the prevalence of and risk factors for engaging in sex work among youth living in Kampala, Uganda. Methods. Analyses are based on a cross-sectional study (N = 1,134) of youth aged 12-18 years, living in the slums of Kampala, conducted in Spring of 2014. The analytic sample consisted of only sexually active youth (n = 590). Youth who reported engaging in sex work were compared to youth who did not report sex work. Multivariable analyses were conducted to examine factors associated with sex work. Results. Among the youth who had ever had sexual intercourse (n = 590), 13.7% (n = 81) reported engaging in sex work. Self-reported HIV prevalence was 13.9% among the total sample (n = 81) and 22.5% (n = 18) among youth engaged in sex work. Engaging in sex work was associated with being female (AOR 10.4; 95% CI: 3.9, 27.4), being an orphan (AOR 3.8; 95% CI: 1.7, 8.4), ever drinking alcohol (AOR 8.3; 95% CI 3.7, 19.0), and experiencing any rape (AOR 5.3; 95% CI: 2.9, 9.5). Discussion. The reported prevalence of sex work is high among youth in the slums of Kampala and is associated with high HIV prevalence, ever drinking alcohol, previously being raped, and being an orphan.

  2. Prevalence of HIV and Associated Risks of Sex Work among Youth in the Slums of Kampala

    Monica H. Swahn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this study is to examine the prevalence of and risk factors for engaging in sex work among youth living in Kampala, Uganda. Methods. Analyses are based on a cross-sectional study (N = 1,134 of youth aged 12-18 years, living in the slums of Kampala, conducted in Spring of 2014. The analytic sample consisted of only sexually active youth (n = 590. Youth who reported engaging in sex work were compared to youth who did not report sex work. Multivariable analyses were conducted to examine factors associated with sex work. Results. Among the youth who had ever had sexual intercourse (n = 590, 13.7% (n = 81 reported engaging in sex work. Self-reported HIV prevalence was 13.9% among the total sample (n = 81 and 22.5% (n = 18 among youth engaged in sex work. Engaging in sex work was associated with being female (AOR 10.4; 95% CI: 3.9, 27.4, being an orphan (AOR 3.8; 95% CI: 1.7, 8.4, ever drinking alcohol (AOR 8.3; 95% CI 3.7, 19.0, and experiencing any rape (AOR 5.3; 95% CI: 2.9, 9.5. Discussion. The reported prevalence of sex work is high among youth in the slums of Kampala and is associated with high HIV prevalence, ever drinking alcohol, previously being raped, and being an orphan.

  3. Parkinson's disease prevalence in Fabry disease: A survey study

    Adina H. Wise

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent research has suggested a possible link between Parkinson's disease (PD and Fabry disease. To test this relationship, we administered a self-report and family history questionnaire to determine the prevalence of PD in Fabry disease patients and family members with likely pathogenic alpha-galactosidase A (GLA mutations. A total of 90 Fabry patients (77 from the online survey and 13 from the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai (ISMMS were included in the analysis. Two of the Fabry disease patients who completed the online survey were diagnosed with PD (2/90, 2.2%. Among probands older than 60, 8.3% (2/24 were diagnosed with PD. Using Kaplan Meier survival analysis, the age-specific risk of PD by age 70 was 11.1%. Family history was available on 72 Fabry families from the online study and 9 Fabry families from ISMMS. Among these 81 families, 6 (7.4% had one first degree relative who fit the criteria for a conservative diagnosis of PD. The results of this study suggest that there may be an increased risk of developing PD in individuals with GLA mutations, but these findings should be interpreted with caution given the limitations of the study design.

  4. Multilevel Analysis of the Predictors of HIV Prevalence among Pregnant Women Enrolled in Annual HIV Sentinel Surveillance in Four States in Southern India.

    Usha Thamattoor

    Full Text Available Heterogeneity of the HIV epidemic across districts of south India is reflected in HIV positivity among antenatal clinic (ANC attendees. Along with individual factors, contextual factors also need consideration for effective HIV interventions. Thus, identifying district and individual level factors that influence ANC HIV positivity assumes importance to intervene effectively.Data on HIV sentinel surveillance among the ANC population were obtained from the National AIDS Control Organization (NACO between years 2004 and 2007. Data from serial cross-sectional studies among female sex workers (FSWs conducted during this time period in 24 districts were used to generate district level variables corresponding to parameters concerning this high risk population. Other district level data were obtained from various official/governmental agencies. Multilevel logistic regression was used to identify individual and district level factors associated with ANC-HIV positivity.The average ANC-HIV prevalence from 2004 to 2007 in the 24 integrated biological and behavioural assessments (IBBA districts ranged from 0.25 to 3.25%. HIV positivity was significantly higher among ANC women with age ≥ 25 years [adjusted odds ratio (AOR:1.49; 95% confidence interval (95%CI:1.27 to 1.76] compared to those with age<25 years; illiterate (AOR:1.62; 95%CI:1.03 to 2.54 compared to literate; employed in agriculture (AOR:1.34; 95%CI:1.11 to 1.62 or with occupations like driver/helper/industry/factory workers/hotel staff (AOR:1.59; 95%CI:1.26 to 2.01 compared to unemployed. District level HIV prevalence among FSWs (AOR:1.03; 95%CI:1.0 to 1.05 and percentage women marrying under 18 years were significantly associated with ANC-HIV positivity (AOR:1.02; 95%CI:1.00 to 1.04.Illiteracy of the woman, higher HIV prevalence among FSWs and early marriage were associated with HIV positivity among pregnant women in southern India. In addition to targeted HIV preventive interventions among

  5. Economic impact of HIV and antiretroviral therapy on education supply in high prevalence regions.

    Claire L Risley

    Full Text Available We set out to estimate, for the three geographical regions with the highest HIV prevalence, (sub-Saharan Africa [SSA], the Caribbean and the Greater Mekong sub-region of East Asia, the human resource and economic impact of HIV on the supply of education from 2008 to 2015, the target date for the achievement of Education For All (EFA, contrasting the continuation of access to care, support and Antiretroviral therapy (ART to the scenario of universal access.A costed mathematical model of the impact of HIV and ART on teacher recruitment, mortality and absenteeism (Ed-SIDA was run using best available data for 58 countries, and results aggregated by region. It was estimated that (1 The impact of HIV on teacher supply is sufficient to derail efforts to achieve EFA in several countries and universal access can mitigate this. (2 In SSA, the 2008 costs to education of HIV were about half of those estimated in 2002. Providing universal access for teachers in SSA is cost-effective on education returns alone and provides a return of $3.99 on the dollar. (3 The impacts on education in the hyperendemic countries in Southern Africa will continue to increase to 2015 from its 2008 level, already the highest in the world. (4 If treatment roll-out is successful, numbers of HIV positive teachers are set to increase in all the regions studied.The return on investing in care and support is also greater in those areas with highest impact. SSA requires increased investment in teacher support, testing and particularly ART if it is to achieve EFA. The situation for teachers in the Caribbean and East Asia is similar but on a smaller scale proportionate to the lower levels of infection and greater existing access to care and support.

  6. Prevalence of parasitic infections in HIV-positive patients in southern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.

    Fekadu, Sintayehu; Taye, Kefyalew; Teshome, Wondu; Asnake, Solomon

    2013-11-15

    Intestinal parasitic infections are a major public health burden in tropical countries. Although all HIV/AIDS patients are susceptible to parasitic infections, those having lower immune status are at greater risk. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in patients living with HIV/AIDS. This was a facility-based cross-sectional study. A total of 343 consecutively sampled HIV/AIDS patients from the HIV care clinic of Hawassa University Referral Hospital were included. Subjects were interviewed for demographic variables and diarrheal symptoms using structured questionnaires. Stool examinations and CD4 cells counts were also performed. The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection was 47.8% among HIV/AIDS patients; single helminthic infection prevalence (22.7%) was higher than that the prevalence of protozoal infections (14.6%). About 54% of study participants had chronic diarrhea while 3.4% had acute diarrhea. The prevalence of intestinal parasites in patients with chronic diarrhea was significantly higher than in acute diarrhea (p intestinal parasite infections such as Ascaris lumbricoides, Taenia spp., and hookworm were commonly found, regardless of immune status or diarrheal symptoms. Opportunistic and non-opportunistic intestinal parasitic infection were more frequent in patients with a CD4 count of Intestinal parasitic infections should be suspected in HIV/AIDS-infected patients with advanced disease presenting with chronic diarrhea. Patients with low CD4 counts should be examined critically for intestinal parasites, regardless of diarrheal status.

  7. A Cross Section Study to Determine the Prevalence of Antibodies against HIV Infection among Hepatitis B and C Infected Individuals

    Geane L. Flores

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: There are limited data regarding human immunodeficiency virus (HIV prevalence among hepatitis B virus (HBV or hepatitis C virus (HCV infected individuals. The aim of this cross-sectional study is to determine the prevalence of HBV and HCV infection among HIV individuals; (2 Methods: A total of 409 patients (126 HBV+ and 283 HCV+ referred to the Brazilian Reference Laboratory for Viral Hepatitis from 2010 to 2013 donated serum samples. Anti-HIV, HBsAg, anti-HBc, anti-HBs, anti-HBcIgM, anti-HBe, HBeAg, and anti-HCV antibodies were measured, and anti-HCV positive samples were tested for viral RNA and genotype; (3 Results: The anti-HIV antibody prevalence was 10.31% and 4.59% among HBV+ and HCV+ patients, respectively. The HCV mean (SD viral load was log 5.14 ± 1.64 IU/mL, and genotype I was most prevalent (163/283. Anti-HBs and anti-HBc were detected in 40% and 26% of HCV+ individuals, respectively. Among the HBV+ population, the presence of anti-HIV antibodies was associated with male gender, marital status (married, tattoo, sexual orientation, sexual practices (oral sex and anal sex, history of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs, history of viral hepatitis treatment, and a sexual partner with hepatitis or HIV. For the HCV+ group, the presence of anti-HIV antibodies was associated with female gender, marital status (married, anal intercourse, previous history of STDs, and number of sexual partners; (4 Conclusion: A high prevalence of anti-HIV antibodies was found among individuals with HBV and HCV, showing the importance of education programmes towards HIV infection among HBV- and HCV-infected individuals.

  8. The EuroPrevall surveys on the prevalence of food allergies in children and adults: background and study methodology

    Kummeling, I.; Mills, E. N. C.; Clausen, M.; Dubakiene, R.; Pérez, C. Farnãndez; Fernández-Rivas, M.; Knulst, A. C.; Kowalski, M. L.; Lidholm, J.; Le, T.-M.; Metzler, C.; Mustakov, T.; Popov, T.; Potts, J.; van Ree, R.; Sakellariou, A.; Töndury, B.; Tzannis, K.; Burney, P.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The epidemiological surveys in children and adults of the EU-funded multidisciplinary Integrated Project EuroPrevall, launched in June 2005, were designed to estimate the currently unknown prevalence of food allergy and exposure to known or suspected risk factors for food allergy across

  9. Overlapping HIV and sex-work stigma among female sex workers recruited to 14 respondent-driven sampling surveys across Zimbabwe, 2013.

    Hargreaves, J R; Busza, J; Mushati, P; Fearon, E; Cowan, F M

    2017-06-01

    HIV stigma can inhibit uptake of HIV testing and antiretroviral therapy as well as negatively affect mental health. Efforts to reduce discrimination against people living with HIV (LWH) have contributed to greater acceptance of the infection. Female sex workers (FSW) LWH may experience overlapping stigma due to both their work and HIV status, although this is poorly understood. We examined HIV and sex-work stigma experienced by FSW LWH in Zimbabwe. Using the SAPPH-IRe cluster-randomised trial baseline survey, we analysed the data from 1039 FSW self-reporting HIV. The women were recruited in 14 sites using respondent-driven sampling. We asked five questions to assess internalised and experienced stigma related to working as a sex worker, and the same questions were asked in reference to HIV. Among all FSW, 91% reported some form of sex-work stigma. This was not associated with sociodemographic or sex-work characteristics. Rates of sex-work stigma were higher than those of HIV-related stigma. For example, 38% reported being "talked badly about" for LWH compared with 77% for their involvement in sex work. Those who reported any sex-work stigma also reported experiencing more HIV stigma compared to those who did not report sex-work stigma, suggesting a layering effect. FSW in Zimbabwe experience stigma for their role as "immoral" women and this appears more prevalent than HIV stigma. As HIV stigma attenuates, other forms of social stigma associated with the disease may persist and continue to pose barriers to effective care.

  10. Community-level income inequality and HIV prevalence among persons who inject drugs in Thai Nguyen, Vietnam.

    Lim, Travis W; Frangakis, Constantine; Latkin, Carl; Ha, Tran Viet; Minh, Nguyen Le; Zelaya, Carla; Quan, Vu Minh; Go, Vivian F

    2014-01-01

    Socioeconomic status has a robust positive relationship with several health outcomes at the individual and population levels, but in the case of HIV prevalence, income inequality may be a better predictor than absolute level of income. Most studies showing a relationship between income inequality and HIV have used entire countries as the unit of analysis. In this study, we examine the association between income inequality at the community level and HIV prevalence in a sample of persons who inject drugs (PWID) in a concentrated epidemic setting. We recruited PWID and non-PWID community participants in Thai Nguyen, Vietnam, and administered a cross-sectional questionnaire; PWID were tested for HIV. We used ecologic regression to model HIV burden in our PWID study population on GINI indices of inequality calculated from total reported incomes of non-PWID community members in each commune. We also modeled HIV burden on interaction terms between GINI index and median commune income, and finally used a multi-level model to control for community level inequality and individual level income. HIV burden among PWID was significantly correlated with the commune GINI coefficient (r = 0.53, p = 0.002). HIV burden was also associated with GINI coefficient (β = 0.082, p = 0.008) and with median commune income (β = -0.018, p = 0.023) in ecological regression. In the multi-level model, higher GINI coefficient at the community level was associated with higher odds of individual HIV infection in PWID (OR = 1.46 per 0.01, p = 0.003) while higher personal income was associated with reduced odds of infection (OR = 0.98 per $10, p = 0.022). This study demonstrates a context where income inequality is associated with HIV prevalence at the community level in a concentrated epidemic. It further suggests that community level socioeconomic factors, both contextual and compositional, could be indirect determinants of HIV infection in PWID.

  11. Prevalence and risk factors for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV-infected women in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

    Paula Matos Oliveira

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV is frequently associated with high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia. Immunosuppression and high HIV viral load are the main risk factors for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of CIN in HIV-infected women in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, and to describe the risk factors in comparison with non-infected women. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study at the AIDS Reference Center of Bahia and the Gynecological Outpatient Clinic of Fundação Bahiana para o Desenvolvimento da Ciência, in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. METHODS: Sixty-four HIV-infected women and 76 uninfected women from Salvador were enrolled between May 2006 and May 2007. Associations between CIN and presence of HIV infection, HIV viral load, proportion of T CD4+ lymphocytes and risk factors were evaluated. The independence of the risk factors was investigated using logistic regression. RESULTS: CIN was more prevalent among HIV-infected women than in the control group (26.6% versus 6.6%; P = 0.01. The odds ratio for CIN among HIV-infected women was 3.7 (95% confidence interval, CI: 1.23-11; P = 0.01, after adjusting for the following variables: age at first sexual intercourse, number of partners, number of deliveries and previous history of sexually transmitted disease. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of CIN among HIV-infected women was significantly higher than among women without HIV infection. HIV infection was the most important risk factor associated with the development of cervical lesions.

  12. Sexual agreements and perception of HIV prevalence among an online sample of partnered men who have sex with men.

    Stephenson, Rob; White, Darcy; Mitchell, Jason W

    2015-10-01

    Stemming from recent evidence that between one- and two-thirds of new HIV transmissions among men who have sex with men (MSM) occur within main partnerships, research and programmatic efforts have begun to recognize the role of the male-male dyad in shaping HIV risk. Central to this new focus has been studies detailing the presence of sexual agreements, which provide guidelines governing permissions around sex with partners outside of the relationship. Using a Facebook-recruited sample of US-partnered MSM (n = 454), this study examines the associations between reporting of sexual agreements and perceptions of HIV prevalence among male sex partners, friends, and local and national MSM populations. Men who perceived that 10-20 % (OR 6.18, 95 % CI 1.28-29.77) and >20 % of their male sex partners were HIV positive (OR 2.68, 95 % CI 1.02-7.08) had significantly higher odds of reporting having an open agreement with their current main partner than men who perceived that less than 10 % of their male sex partners were HIV positive. Partnered men with open sexual agreements may have more sexual partners than those who report monogamy, possibly leading to heightened perceptions of HIV risk, which may result in reporting of perceptions of greater local HIV prevalence. Additionally, men who have made agreements with their partners may have done so due to concerns about HIV risks, and may also be more aware of increased risks of HIV infection, or may have greater knowledge of HIV prevalence through discussions of serostatus with sex partners. Attention is needed to develop prevention efforts, such as toolkits and resources that enable men to form sexual agreements that are based on comprehensive knowledge of the potential risks for acquisition of HIV.

  13. [Prevalence of congenital and perinatal infection in HIV positive pregnant in Belo Horizonte metropolitan region].

    Maia, Marcelle Marie Martins; Lage, Eura Martins; Moreira, Bárbara Cecília Borges; Deus, Elayne Alayne Braga de; Faria, Joanna Gonçalves; Pinto, Jorge Andrade; Melo, Victor Hugo

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of toxoplasmosis, rubella, cytomegalovirus, hepatitis B&C and syphilis (Torchs) in a cohort pregnant women and to identify the sociodemographic, clinical and laboratory factors. A total of 1,573 HIV-infected pregnant women from a Brazilian metropolitan region were studied between 1998 and 2013. The results of serological tests were available for 704 (44.8%) pregnant women. Pregnant women were considered to be Torchs positive (Gtp) when they had positive results for at least one of these infections, and to be Torchs negative (Gtn) when they had negative results for all of them. Maternal covariables were: age, marital status, educational level, time and mode of infection, CD4 lymphocyte count, viral load at delivery, and use of antiretroviral therapy (ARV). Neonatal covariables were: HIV infection, prematurity, low birth weight, neonatal complications, abortion and neonatal death. Odds ratios with 95% confidence interval were used to quantify the association between maternal and neonatal variables and the presence of Torchs. Among 704 pregnant women, 70 (9.9%; 95%CI 7.8-12.4) had positive serological tests for any Torchs factor. The individual prevalence rates were: 1.5% (10/685) for toxoplasmosis; 1.3% (8/618) for rubella; 1.3% (8/597) for cytomegalovirus; 0.9% (6/653) for hepatitis B and 3.7% (20/545) for hepatitis C; and 3.8% (25/664) for syphilis. The HIV Vertical HIV transmission was 4.6% among Gtp pregnant women and 1.2% among Gtn women. Antiretroviral therapy (ARV), vertical transmission, low birth weight and neonatal complications were significantly associated with Torchs positivity in univariate analysis. The Torchs prevalence found in the study was high for some infections. These findings emphasize the need to promote serological Torchs screening for all pregnant women, especially HIV-infected women, so that an early diagnosis can be made and treatment interventions can be implemented to prevent vertical HIV transmission.

  14. HIV risks vary according to type of sex work in a cross-sectional survey from Nagaland, India.

    O'Halloran, Anna B Z; Armstrong, Gregory; Medhi, Gajendra K; Sono, Collins Z; Mahanta, Jagadish; Kermode, Michelle

    2014-11-12

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a significant problem among female sex workers (FSWs) in Nagaland, India. Place of solicitation and sex vary considerably in this context. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between categories of sex work and HIV risks. In 2009 a survey was undertaken among 417 FSWs in Dimapur, Nagaland using an interviewer-administered questionnaire and blood and urine samples. Using this data, we constructed a typology of sex work by combining usual place of solicitation and place of sex, and examined variations in demographics, sex work patterns, sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV prevalence across typology categories. Binary logistic regression analyses were done to examine the association between category of sex work and HIV, STIs, and condom use. By combining place of solicitation with place of sex, seven distinct categories of sex work emerged. The largest category were women who usually solicited in a public place and had sex in a rented room or lodge (31.7%, n = 132). One-tenth of participants were HIV positive (10.3%) and 35.4% had at least one STI (reactive syphilis serology, gonorrhoea or chlamydia). FSWs who both solicited and entertained in a rented room or lodge (OR = 13.3; 95% CI 2.2, 81.5) and those who solicited by phone and had sex in a rented room or lodge (OR = 6.3; 95% CI 1.0, 38.0) were more likely to be HIV positive compared to home-based FSWs. Women who both solicited and entertained in public (OR = 6.7; 95% CI 1.6, 28.0) and who solicited in public and entertained in a rented room or lodge (OR = 2.5; 95% CI 1.1, 6.0) were more likely to test positive for an STI compared to home-based FSWs. The results indicate that different categories of sex work are associated with different HIV and STI risk profiles. Local contextual understanding of the different types of sex work and the associated levels of risk assist NGOs to target their interventions more

  15. Do Customers Flee From HIV? A Survey of HIV Stigma and Its Potential Economic Consequences on Small Businesses in Tshwane (Pretoria), South Africa.

    Chao, Li-Wei; Szrek, Helena; Leite, Rui; Ramlagan, Shandir; Peltzer, Karl

    2017-01-01

    HIV stigma and discrimination affect care-seeking behavior and may also affect entrepreneurial activity. We interview 2382 individuals in Pretoria, South Africa, and show that respondents believe that businesses with known HIV+ workers may lose up to half of their customers, although the impact depends on the type of business. Survey respondents' fear of getting HIV from consuming everyday products sold by the business-despite a real infection risk of zero-was a major factor driving perceived decline in customers, especially among food businesses. Respondents' perceptions of the decline in overall life satisfaction when one gets sick from HIV and the respondent's dislike of people with HIV were also important predictors of potential customer exit. We suggest policy mechanisms that could improve the earnings potential of HIV+ workers: reducing public health scare tactics that exacerbate irrational fear of HIV infection risk and enriching public health education about HIV and ARVs to improve perceptions about people with HIV.

  16. Prevalence and risk factors for osteopenia/osteoporosis in an HIV-infected male population.

    Tomazic, Janez; Ul, Katja; Volcansek, Gabriele; Gorensek, Samo; Pfeifer, Misa; Karner, Primoz; Prezelj, Janez; Vidmar, Gaj; Vidmar, Ludvik

    2007-01-01

    The objective of our investigation was to estimate the prevalence of osteopenia/osteoporosis in men with HIV/AIDS and evaluate the role of antiretroviral treatment (ART), HIV and other risk factors in reducing bone mineral density (BMD). All known Slovenian HIV-infected ART-naïve and treated males (infected or treated > 12 months) were invited to participate in a cross-sectional study. Data were collected on age, BMI, waist-hip ratio, family history of hip fracture, duration of infection, duration of ART, smoking, alcohol, exercise, viral load and CD4+ cells. BMD was measured using dual X-ray absorptiometry. A total of 96 patients (out of 133 who fulfilled the inclusion criteria) were assessed and allocated into three groups: group A (n = 24), ART-naïve; group B1 (n = 37), treated with non-protease-inhibitor (PI) containing ART; and group B2 (n = 35), treated with PI-containing ART. The prevalence of osteopenia/osteoporosis was 57/96 (59%): osteopenia 45/96 (47%) and osteoporosis 12/96 (12%). Significantly lower BMD was detected in group A (P = 0.020). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed ART to be an independent negative predictor for reduced BMD (P = 0.037; OR = 0.29, 95%CI 0.09-0.93). Vitamin D(3) deficiency was detected in 79 (82%) of the patients. The study group represented 72% of the national HIV-infected male population; this proportion being higher than in any other study reported to date. The prevalence of reduced BMD was notably higher than the national prevalence among men of comparable age. There was no association between reduced BMD and any specific ART. According to our results, absence of ART was confirmed as an independent predictor of osteopenia/osteoporosis. Targeted screening and early treatment present a reasonable strategy for preventing reduced BMD in HIV-infected patients, but correcting vitamin D(3) levels could also be an important component.

  17. Analysis of the prevalence of dyslipidemia in individuals with HIV and its association with antiretroviral therapy

    Talita Gabriela de Limas

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Antiretroviral therapy (ART has been used to treat large numbers of patients living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection. Lipid disorders are often observed in these patients, and include elevations in total cholesterol (TC and triglycerides (TG. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed using 333 patient records from the Regional Hospital of São José Doutor Homero de Miranda Gomes (HRSJHMG. The study population consisted of patients with HIV who were under medical follow up, either on or off drug treatment. The data were entered into Excel and exported to SPSS 16.0 for analysis using chi-square testing. We used prevalence ratios as the measure of association. Results Lipid abnormalities were observed in 78.9% of individuals who received ART. Of the 308 subjects on ART, 59.1%, 41.9%, and 33.1% had TG, TC and low-density lipoprotein (LDL abnormalities, respectively. The prevalence of LDL changes was 2.57-fold higher in individuals who had been using ART for more than 12 months, compared to those using ART for 6 to 12 months. Conclusions HIV patients showed a significant increase in the association between TC and TG levels and the use of ART. In particular, changes in TC, LDL and TG were greater in individuals who had received ART for over more than 12 months.

  18. Independent predictors of tuberculosis mortality in a high HIV prevalence setting: a retrospective cohort study.

    Pepper, Dominique J; Schomaker, Michael; Wilkinson, Robert J; de Azevedo, Virginia; Maartens, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Identifying those at increased risk of death during TB treatment is a priority in resource-constrained settings. We performed this study to determine predictors of mortality during TB treatment. We performed a retrospective analysis of a TB surveillance population in a high HIV prevalence area that was recorded in ETR.net (Electronic Tuberculosis Register). Adult TB cases initiated TB treatment from 2007 through 2009 in Khayelitsha, South Africa. Cox proportional hazards models were used to identify risk factors for death (after multiple imputations for missing data). Model selection was performed using Akaike's Information Criterion to obtain the most relevant predictors of death. Of 16,209 adult TB cases, 851 (5.3 %) died during TB treatment. In all TB cases, advancing age, co-infection with HIV, a prior history of TB and the presence of both pulmonary and extra-pulmonary TB were independently associated with an increasing hazard of death. In HIV-infected TB cases, advancing age and female gender were independently associated with an increasing hazard of death. Increasing CD4 counts and antiretroviral treatment during TB treatment were protective against death. In HIV-uninfected TB cases, advancing age was independently associated with death, whereas smear-positive disease was protective. We identified several independent predictors of death during TB treatment in resource-constrained settings. Our findings inform resource-constrained settings about certain subgroups of TB patients that should be targeted to improve mortality during TB treatment.

  19. Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections among HIV-infected women in Brazil

    Ana Gabriela Álvares Travassos

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs and associated risk factors in HIV-infected pregnant women followed for prenatal care in Salvador, Bahia. This was a cross-sectional study of 63 women seeking prenatal care at a reference center. Participants were interviewed regarding socio-epidemiological and clinical history, and were tested for HBsAg, anti-HCV, anti HTLV I/II, VDRL, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, CD4 count, and HIV plasma viral load. The main outcome variable was the presence of any STI. The mean age of patients was 28.2 years (16-40 years. 23 (36.5% were diagnosed with at least one STI. The frequency of diagnoses was: HBV, 3.2%; HCV, 8.1%; HTLV I/II, 3.4%; syphilis, 9.5%; Chlamydia trachomatis, 11.1%; HPV, 15.0%; Mycoplasma hominis, 2.1%, and Ureaplasma urealyticum, 2.1%. No case of Neisseria gonorrhoeae was identified. No association was found between socio-epidemiological variables and the presence of an STI. CD4 T lymphocyte 1,000 copies (p = 0.027 were associated with the presence of sti. stis are frequent in pregnant women infected with hiv, and all hiv-infected pregnant women should be screened to decrease transmission of these pathogens and to protect their own health.

  20. Prevalence of dementia and major dementia subtypes in Spanish populations: A reanalysis of dementia prevalence surveys, 1990-2008

    Boix Raquel

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study describes the prevalence of dementia and major dementia subtypes in Spanish elderly. Methods We identified screening surveys, both published and unpublished, in Spanish populations, which fulfilled specific quality criteria and targeted prevalence of dementia in populations aged 70 years and above. Surveys covering 13 geographically different populations were selected (prevalence period: 1990-2008. Authors of original surveys provided methodological details of their studies through a systematic questionnaire and also raw age-specific data. Prevalence data were compared using direct adjustment and logistic regression. Results The reanalyzed study population (aged 70 year and above was composed of Central and North-Eastern Spanish sub-populations obtained from 9 surveys and totaled 12,232 persons and 1,194 cases of dementia (707 of Alzheimer's disease, 238 of vascular dementia. Results showed high variation in age- and sex-specific prevalence across studies. The reanalyzed prevalence of dementia was significantly higher in women; increased with age, particularly for Alzheimer's disease; and displayed a significant geographical variation among men. Prevalence was lowest in surveys reporting participation below 85%, studies referred to urban-mixed populations and populations diagnosed by psychiatrists. Conclusion Prevalence of dementia and Alzheimer's disease in Central and North-Eastern Spain is higher in females, increases with age, and displays considerable geographic variation that may be method-related. People suffering from dementia and Alzheimer's disease in Spain may approach 600,000 and 400,000 respectively. However, existing studies may not be completely appropriate to infer prevalence of dementia and its subtypes in Spain until surveys in Southern Spain are conducted.

  1. Risk factors for HIV-1 infection in India: evidence from the National Family Health Survey.

    Hazarika, I

    2012-10-01

    To study demographic, social, behavioural and biological variables as risk factors for HIV infection among men and women in India, we used data from the cross-sectional, population-based National Family Health Survery (NFHS)-3 2005-06. During the survey, 52,853 women aged 15-49 years and 50,093 men aged 15-54 years gave consent to anonymous HIV testing. HIV serostatus data for men and women were analysed for their relationships to key characteristics using bivariate and multivariate techniques. In the analysis of the study sample, in both men and women the ages of highest risk for HIV were between 25 and 34 years. Married, widowed, divorced women and men had higher odds of being HIV-positive; employed individuals also had a higher risk of being HIV-positive (odds ratio [OR] = 1.89 and 2.89, respectively). Muslim women had a lower risk (OR 0.23). Wealth was not found to be associated with HIV serostatus among men in our study sample. In women, a history of genital ulcer or sore significantly increased their risk. Circumcised men were found to be at a lower risk for HIV infection. HIV is a multi-dimensional epidemic, with demographic, residential, social, biological and behavioural factors exerting influence on individual probability of becoming infected with HIV.

  2. Exploring HIV risk perception and behaviour in the context of antiretroviral treatment: results from a township household survey.

    Boulle, A; Hilderbrand, K; Menten, J; Coetzee, D; Ford, N; Matthys, F; Boelaert, M; Van der Stuyft, P

    2008-08-01

    The objective of this cross-sectional household survey was to assess factors influencing HIV risk perception, behaviour and intervention uptake in a community characterised by high HIV prevalence and availability of antiretroviral therapy (ART). The survey was conducted in Khayelitsha, South Africa and involved two-stage sampling with self-weighting clusters and random selection of households within clusters. One man and woman between 14 and 49 years old was interviewed in each household; 696 men and 879 women were interviewed for a response rate of 84% and 92% respectively. Ninety-three percent and 94% were sexually active with median age of sexual debut 15.3 and 16.5 years. Eighty-three percent and 82% reported a partner at the time of interview and 29% and 8% had additional partner(s). Forty-one percent and 33% reported condom use during the last sexual encounter. Thirty-seven percent of men not using condoms did not as they believed their partner to be faithful, whilst 27% of women did not as their partner refused. Twenty-eight percent and 53% had been tested for HIV. Having undergone HIV testing was not associated with condom usage, whilst current relationship status was the strongest association with condom usage for both men and women. In spite of a relatively high uptake of condoms and testing as well as ART availability, the HIV epidemic has continued unabated in Khayelitsha. Even greater coverage of preventive interventions is required, together with a national social and political environment that builds on the availability of both preventive and treatment services.

  3. An exploratory survey measuring stigma and discrimination experienced by people living with HIV/AIDS in South Africa: the People Living with HIV Stigma Index.

    Dos Santos, Monika Ml; Kruger, Pieter; Mellors, Shaun E; Wolvaardt, Gustaaf; van der Ryst, Elna

    2014-01-27

    The continued presence of stigma and its persistence even in areas where HIV prevalence is high makes it an extraordinarily important, yet difficult, issue to eradicate. The study aimed to assess current and emerging HIV/AIDS stigma and discrimination trends in South Africa as experienced by people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV). The PLHIV Stigma Index, a questionnaire that measures and detects changing trends in relation to stigma and discrimination experienced by PLHIV, was used as the survey tool. The study was conducted in 10 clinics in four provinces supported by the Foundation for Professional Development (FPD), with an interview total of 486 PLHIV. A cross-sectional design was implemented in the study, and both descriptive and inferential analysis was conducted on the data. Findings suggest that PLHIV in this population experience significant levels of stigma and discrimination that negatively impact on their health, working and family life, as well as their access to health services. Internalised stigma was prominent, with many participants blaming themselves for their status. The findings can be used to develop and inform programmes and interventions to reduce stigma experienced by PLHIV. The current measures for dealing with stigma should be expanded to incorporate the issues related to health, education and discrimination experienced in the workplace, that were highlighted by the study.

  4. Prevalencia de trombocitopenia en niños con HIV/sida Prevalence of thrombocytopenia in HIV infected children

    Graciela Barboni

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available La trombocitopenia es una de las múltiples alteraciones hematológicas presentes en pacientes infectados con el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (HIV. Puede ser de curso crónico, en la cual la destrucción inmune, el secuestro esplénico o el daño en la producción son los mecanismos primariamente involucrados, o aguda, acompañando a otra intercurrencia. En este trabajo se evaluó la prevalencia de trombocitopenia en un lapso de 14 años, en una población pediátrica con HIV/sida, analizando las características clínicas y la relación con el estado inmuno-virológico. La prevalencia de trombocitopenia fue de 8.5%, (29 de los 339 niños en seguimiento. En 22 fue de curso crónico y en 7 aguda. Los pacientes evaluados presentaron niveles porcentuales de TCD4+ variables y la presencia de trombocitopenia no estuvo en relación con el compromiso inmunitario. Los pacientes trombocitopénicos tuvieron niveles de carga viral significativamente mayores que los que no la presentaron. En 10 de los 29 niños con recuentos plaquetarios disminuidos, la trombocitopenia fue la manifestación inicial de la infección por HIV. Las manifestaciones hemorrágicas de las trombocitopenias crónicas fueron leves, presentes en el 23% de los niños y no se asociaron al deterioro inmunológico, mientras que en las agudas fueron más graves y condicionadas a la evolución de la enfermedad coexistente. El desarrollo de trombocitopenias se ve favorecido por la continua actividad viral y la falla en la implementación del tratamiento antirretroviral adecuado.Thrombocytopenia is a common hematologic finding in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. Multiple mechanisms may contribute to the development of chronic thrombocytopenia as immune-mediated platelet destruction, enhanced platelet splenic sequestration and impaired platelet production. Acute thrombocytopenia is frequently associated with coexisting disorders. In this study, the prevalence of

  5. Human Papillomavirus prevalence, viral load and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV-infected women

    José E. Levi

    Full Text Available HIV-infected women from São Paulo city were enrolled in a cross-sectional study on Human Papillomavirus (HPV and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN prevalence and their association with laboratory markers of AIDS, namely HIV viral load and CD4+ cell counts. A cervical specimen was collected and submitted to Hybrid Capture, a test for HPV viral load determination. HPV-DNA was detected in 173 of 265 women (64.5%. Twenty (7.5% women were infected by one or more low-risk viruses, 89 (33% by one or more high-risk viruses, and 64 (24% harbored at least one HPV type from each risk group. Abnormal smears were observed in 19% of the patients, though there were no invasive carcinomas. Severely immunosuppressed patients (CD4/µL <100 were at the greatest risk of having a cytological abnormality and a high high-risk HPV viral load.

  6. Human Papillomavirus prevalence, viral load and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV-infected women

    Levi José E.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available HIV-infected women from São Paulo city were enrolled in a cross-sectional study on Human Papillomavirus (HPV and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN prevalence and their association with laboratory markers of AIDS, namely HIV viral load and CD4+ cell counts. A cervical specimen was collected and submitted to Hybrid Capture, a test for HPV viral load determination. HPV-DNA was detected in 173 of 265 women (64.5%. Twenty (7.5% women were infected by one or more low-risk viruses, 89 (33% by one or more high-risk viruses, and 64 (24% harbored at least one HPV type from each risk group. Abnormal smears were observed in 19% of the patients, though there were no invasive carcinomas. Severely immunosuppressed patients (CD4/µL <100 were at the greatest risk of having a cytological abnormality and a high high-risk HPV viral load.

  7. High prevalence of quasi-legal psychoactive substance use among male patients in HIV care in Japan: a cross-sectional study.

    Hayashi, Kanna; Wakabayashi, Chihiro; Ikushima, Yuzuru; Tarui, Masayoshi

    2017-02-23

    Syndemics of illicit drug use and HIV remain as significant public health issues around the world. There has been increasing concern regarding the rapidly growing market of new psychoactive substances, particularly in Asia. In response, the Japanese government has increasingly banned such substances in recent years. We sought to identify the prevalence and correlates of use of quasi-legal psychoactive substances among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV) in Japan. Data were derived from a nationwide survey of PLHIV conducted at nine leading HIV/AIDS care hospitals between July and December 2013. The prevalence and correlates of the use of quasi-legal psychoactive substances (e.g., synthetic cannabinoids, cathinone derivatives, etc. that had not been prohibited from using at the time of survey) among male participants were examined using multivariate survey logistic regression. Among 963 study participants, the majority (95.3%) were male. The most commonly used drug among men was quasi-legal psychoactive substances (55.3% ever and 12.8% in the previous year). In multivariate analysis, the lifetime use of tryptamine-type derivatives (i.e., 5-MeO-DIPT or N,N-diisopropyl-5-methoxytryptamine) (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 2.42; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.36-4.28) and methamphetamine/amphetamine (AOR: 3.59; 95% CI: 2.13-6.04) were independently associated with recent quasi-legal psychoactive substance use. In our sample of male PLHIV in Japan, quasi-legal psychoactive substances were the most commonly used drugs. Individuals who had ever used tryptamine-type derivatives or methamphetamine/amphetamine were more likely to report recent quasi-legal psychoactive substance use, suggesting a potential shift in drug use patterns from regulated to unregulated substances among this population. These findings indicate a need for further research to examine implications for HIV care.

  8. Lower HIV prevalence among Asian/Pacific Islander men who have sex with men: a critical review for possible reasons.

    Wei, Chongyi; Raymond, H Fisher; Wong, Frank Y; Silvestre, Anthony J; Friedman, Mark S; Documét, Patricia; McFarland, Willi; Stall, Ron

    2011-04-01

    We conducted a critical literature review for possible reasons that may explain the lower HIV prevalence observed among API MSM compared to MSM of other races/ethnicities. Trends emerging from the literature suggest that traditional individual-level factors-unprotected anal intercourse, substance use, STD prevalence, rates and frequency of HIV testing, and utilization of HIV prevention services-do not appear to be related to the lower HIV prevalence among API MSM. Some evidence suggests that socio-cultural and structural factors might be the more critical forces in determining racial/ethnic disparities of HIV among MSM. For API MSM, these factors include structures of sexual networks, access to and reception of medical care and treatment among HIV-positive MSM, and influences of different levels and types of acculturation. Moreover, emerging risk reduction strategies, such as seroadaptive behaviors, could play a role. Future research should address these factors in intervention design. In addition, better theories of resilience and measurement of strengths and protective factors are needed to enhance the efficacy of HIV interventions.

  9. Impact of Extended Combination Antiretroviral Therapy on the Decline of HIV Prevalence in Pregnant Women in Malawi.

    Liotta, Giuseppe; Chimbwandira, Frank; Wouters, Kristien; Nielsen-Saines, Karin; Jere, Haswell; Mancinelli, Sandro; Ceffa, Susanna; Erba, Fulvio; Palombi, Leonardo; Marazzi, Maria Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Combination antiretroviral therapy has been shown to reduce HIV transmission and incident infections. In recent years, Malawi has significantly increased the number of individuals on combination antiretroviral drugs through more inclusive treatment policies. Using a retrospective observational cohort design, records with HIV test results were reviewed for pregnant women attending a referral hospital in Malawi over a 5-year period, with viral load measurements recorded. HIV prevalence over time was determined, and results correlated with population viral load. A total of 11 052 women were included in this analysis, with 440 (4.1%) HIV infections identified. HIV prevalence rates in pregnant women in Malawi halved from 6.4% to 3.0% over 5 years. Mean viral loads of adult patients decreased from 120 000 copies/mL to less than 20 000 copies/mL. Results suggest that community viral load has an effect on HIV incidence rates in the population, which in turn correlates with reduced HIV prevalence rates in pregnant women. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Human papillomavirus prevalence and type distribution in 3603 HIV-positive and HIV-negative women in the general population of Tanzania

    Dartell, Myassa Arkam; Rasch, Vibeke; Kahesa, Crispin

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the Prevention of Cervical Cancer in Tanzania (PROTECT) study is to assess the prevalence of oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) and to determine the type distribution among women in the general population according to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status, in preparation for a po......The aim of the Prevention of Cervical Cancer in Tanzania (PROTECT) study is to assess the prevalence of oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) and to determine the type distribution among women in the general population according to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status, in preparation...

  11. High prevalence of diarrhoegenic intestinal parasite infections among non-ART HIV patients in Fitche Hospital, Ethiopia.

    Adamu, Haileeyesus; Wegayehu, Teklu; Petros, Beyene

    2013-01-01

    HIV infection has been modifying both the epidemiology and outcome of parasite infections. Hence, this study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium and other intestinal parasite infections among HIV positives with and without Antiretroviral Treatment(ART) and its association with CD4+ T-cell count. A cross-sectional study was conducted at Fitche hospital focusing on HIV positives who came to hospital for follow-ups. A total of 378 HIV positive persons with and without ART participated in the study. Data on socio-demographic factors and diarrhoea status were obtained by interviewing all 214 with ART and 164 without ART. Stool samples were collected from all patients and examined for intestinal parasites using direct, formol-ether and modified acid-fast staining techniques. The prevalence of intestinal parasite infections in this study was significantly higher among HIV positive persons not on ART. Specifically, the rate of infection with Cryptosporidium species, Blastocystis spp., Giardia lamblia, and Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar were higher, particularly in those with CD4+ T-cell counts less than 200 cells/µL. Fifty seven percent of the study participants were on ART. Out of these 164/378 (43%) of the non-ART study participants were infected with at least one intestinal parasite species. Significant association was observed between lower CD4+ T-cell count (parasites were significantly more prevalent in HIV positive non-ART patients. HIV infection increased the risk of having Cryptosporidium and other intestinal parasites and diarrhoea. Therefore, raising HIV positive's immune status and screening for intestinal parasites is important. This study showed that patients who are taking ART had a lower prevalence of diarrhoea causing parasites and Cryptosporidium suggesting that ART through improvement of immune status of the patients may have contributed to controlling diarrhoea-causing parasites in HIV positive patients.

  12. Prevalence of neurocognitive disorders and depression in a Brazilian HIV population

    Flávio Trentin Troncoso

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractINTRODUCTION:Combined antiretroviral therapy has enabled human immunodeficiency virus (HIV carriers to live longer. This increased life expectancy is associated with the occurrence of degenerative diseases, including HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND, which are diagnosed via a complex neuropsychological assessment. The International HIV Dementia Scale (IHDS is a screening instrument validated in Brazil for use in the absence of neuropsychological evaluation. HIV patients are frequently diagnosed with depression. We aimed to determine the prevalence of neurocognitive impairment using the IHDS and depressive disorders using the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D17, compare the IHDS performance with the performances on the Timed Gait Test (TGT, the Digit Symbol Coding Test (DS and the Brazilian version of the Scale of Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL, and evaluate the association between the IHDS performance and clinical-demographic variables.METHODS:One hundred fourteen patients were evaluated in a cross-sectional study conducted in a public outpatient clinic for infectious diseases in Marília City, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Data were collected following consultation. Statistical analysis was performed in accordance with the nature and distribution of the data and hypotheses.RESULTS:According to the IHDS, 53.2% of the sampled patients were neuropsychologically impaired. According to the HAM-D17, 26.3% had depressive disorders. There were significant associations between the IHDS and the TGT and DS. Multiple regression analysis indicated that female gender, educational level, and cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4 levels were significantly and independently associated with neurocognitive impairment.CONCLUSIONS:The prevalence of neurocognitive impairment according to the IHDS is high and associated with female gender, education level, and low CD4 levels.

  13. Hepatitis B virus prevalence, risk factors and genotype distribution in HIV infected patients from West Java, Indonesia.

    Fibriani, Azzania; Wisaksana, Rudi; Alisjahbana, Bachti; Indrati, Agnes; Schutten, Martin; van Crevel, Reinout; van der Ven, Andre; Boucher, Charles A B

    2014-04-01

    Indonesia currently faces both an increasing HIV incidence and a high hepatitis B virus (HBV) burden. The objective of our study is to examine the prevalence, risk factors, and genotypic distribution of HBV infection among HIV infected patients in West Java, Indonesia. A cross sectional study was conducted among a cohort of HIV infected patients in 2008. Demographic and disease related variables were compared between HBV negative and positive patients. Logistic regression was applied to determine risk factors for HBV co-infection. HBV and HIV genotyping was performed in co-infected patients. Of 636 HIV-infected patients, the rate of HBV co-infection was 7%. The proportion of males was higher in HBV/HIV co-infected patients than in HIV mono-infected patients (93% vs. 72%, P=0.001). A history of injecting drug use (IDU), but not tattooing, was associated with HBV co-infection [P=0.035 OR 2.41 (95% CI 1.06-5.47)]. In the HIV and HBV treatment naive patients, CD4 cells counts Java. However, an increased prevalence was observed in men with a history of IDU, underlining the need for routine HBV screening and monitoring. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Diverse HIV epidemics among people who inject drugs in Thailand: evidence from respondent-driven sampling surveys in Bangkok and Chiang Mai.

    Prybylski, Dimitri; Manopaiboon, Chomnad; Visavakum, Prin; Yongvanitjit, Kovit; Aramrattana, Apinun; Manomaipiboon, Parnrudee; Tanpradech, Suvimon; Suksripanich, Orapin; Pattanasin, Sarika; Wolfe, Mitchell; Whitehead, Sara J

    2015-03-01

    Thailand's long-standing HIV sero-sentinel surveillance system for people who inject drugs (PWID) is confined to those in methadone-based drug treatment clinics and representative data are scarce, especially outside of Bangkok. We conducted probability-based respondent-driven sampling (RDS) surveys in Bangkok (n=738) and Chiang Mai (n=309) to increase understanding of local HIV epidemics and to better inform the planning of evidence-based interventions. PWID had different epidemiological profiles in these two cities. Overall HIV prevalence was higher in Bangkok (23.6% vs. 10.9%, pChiang Mai, HIV infections appear to be more recently acquired and PWID were younger and had higher levels of recent injecting and sexual risk behaviors with lower levels of intervention exposure. Methamphetamine was the predominant drug injected in both sites and polydrug use was common although levels and patterns of the specific drugs injected varied significantly between the sites. In multivariate analysis, recent midazolam injection was significantly associated with HIV infection in Chiang Mai (adjusted odds ratio=8.1; 95% confidence interval: 1.2-54.5) whereas in Bangkok HIV status was not associated with recent risk behaviors as infections had likely been acquired in the past. PWID epidemics in Thailand are heterogeneous and driven by local factors. There is a need to customize intervention strategies for PWID in different settings and to integrate population-based survey methods such as RDS into routine surveillance to monitor the national response. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  15. Effect of misclassification of antiretroviral treatment status on the prevalence of transmitted HIV-1 drug resistance

    Castro Hannah

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Estimates of the prevalence of transmitted HIV drug resistance (TDR in a population are derived from resistance tests performed on samples from patients thought to be naïve to antiretroviral treatment (ART. Much of the debate over reliability of estimates of the prevalence of TDR has focused on whether the sample population is representative. However estimates of the prevalence of TDR will also be distorted if some ART-experienced patients are misclassified as ART-naïve. Methods The impact of misclassification bias on the rate of TDR was examined. We developed methods to obtain adjusted estimates of the prevalence of TDR for different misclassification rates, and conducted sensitivity analyses of trends in the prevalence of TDR over time using data from the UK HIV Drug Resistance Database. Logistic regression was used to examine trends in the prevalence of TDR over time. Results The observed rate of TDR was higher than true TDR when misclassification was present and increased as the proportion of misclassification increased. As the number of naïve patients with a resistance test relative to the number of experienced patients with a test increased, the difference between true and observed TDR decreased. The observed prevalence of TDR in the UK reached a peak of 11.3% in 2002 (odds of TDR increased by 1.10 (95% CI 1.02, 1.19, p(linear trend = 0.02 per year 1997-2002 before decreasing to 7.0% in 2007 (odds of TDR decreased by 0.90 (95% CI 0.87, 0.94, p(linear trend Conclusion The effect of misclassification of ART on estimates of the prevalence of TDR may be appreciable, and depends on the number of naïve tests relative to the number of experienced tests. Researchers can examine the effect of ART misclassification on their estimates of the prevalence of TDR if such a bias is suspected.

  16. Prevalence of human papillomavirus infection & cervical abnormalities in HIV-positive women in eastern India

    Jaya Chakravarty

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: India has the third highest burden of HIV and highest number of cervical cancer in the world. A cross-sectional study was performed to determine the prevalence and types of human papillomavirus (HPV infection, and the factors associated with HPV infection and abnormal cervical cytology in HIV-positive women attending the Antiretroviral Therapy (ART Centre in a tertiary care hospital in eastern India. Methods: We screened 216 HIV- positive women with Papanicolau smear cytology and HPV testing. HPV DNA was detected by using consensus primers followed by sequencing. Results: Of the 216 HIV-positive women screened, 58 (26.85% were HPV-positive; 56 (25.9% were of high-risk (HR HPV type. The most prevalent HPV type was HPV-16 (7.9%; non 16 and 18 HPV types were present in 17.6 per cent patients. Age ≤ 35 yr [(OR, 2.56 (1.26-5.19], illiteracy [OR, 2.30 (1.19-4.46], rural residence [OR, 3.99 (1.27-12.56] and CD4 ≤350/µl [OR, 2.46 (1.26-4.83] were associated with increased risk of acquisition of HPV. One hundred thirty nine (74.33% patients had normal/ negative for intraepithelial lesions (NILM cytology, three (1.60% had atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS, 32 (17.11% had low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL, 10 (5.35% had high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL and three (1.60% had carcinoma cervix. WHO clinical Stage III and IV [OR, 2.83 (1.07-7.49] and CD4 ≤350/µl [OR, 2.84 (1.30-6.20] were risk factors for abnormal cytology. Interpretation &conclusions: Our study showed 26.85 per cent HPV positivity in HIV infected women in this region, with HPV-16 as the commonest genotype. Abnormal cervical cytology was seen in about 25 per cent women. Regular Pap smear screening as recommended by the National AIDS Control Organization will help in early detection of cervical abnormalities in HIV- positive women.

  17. Prevalence of human papillomavirus infection & cervical abnormalities in HIV-positive women in eastern India.

    Chakravarty, Jaya; Chourasia, Ankita; Thakur, Minaxi; Singh, Abhishek Kumar; Sundar, Shyam; Agrawal, Nisha Rani

    2016-01-01

    India has the third highest burden of HIV and highest number of cervical cancer in the world. A cross-sectional study was performed to determine the prevalence and types of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, and the factors associated with HPV infection and abnormal cervical cytology in HIV-positive women attending the Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) Centre in a tertiary care hospital in eastern India. We screened 216 HIV- positive women with Papanicolau smear cytology and HPV testing. HPV DNA was detected by using consensus primers followed by sequencing. Of the 216 HIV-positive women screened, 58 (26.85%) were HPV-positive; 56 (25.9%) were of high-risk (HR) HPV type. The most prevalent HPV type was HPV-16 (7.9%); non 16 and 18 HPV types were present in 17.6 per cent patients. Age ≤ 35 yr [(OR), 2.56 (1.26-5.19)], illiteracy [OR, 2.30 (1.19-4.46)], rural residence [OR, 3.99 (1.27-12.56)] and CD4 ≤ 350/µl [OR, 2.46 (1.26-4.83)] were associated with increased risk of acquisition of HPV. One hundred thirty nine (74.33%) patients had normal/ negative for intraepithelial lesions (NILM) cytology, three (1.60%) had atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS), 32 (17.11%) had low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL), 10 (5.35%) had high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) and three (1.60%) had carcinoma cervix. WHO clinical Stage III and IV [OR, 2.83 (1.07-7.49)] and CD4 ≤ 350/µl [OR, 2.84 (1.30-6.20)] were risk factors for abnormal cytology. Our study showed 26.85 per cent HPV positivity in HIV infected women in this region, with HPV-16 as the commonest genotype. Abnormal cervical cytology was seen in about 25 per cent women. Regular Pap smear screening as recommended by the National AIDS Control Organization will help in early detection of cervical abnormalities in HIV- positive women.

  18. Colpocytological abnormalities in HIV infected and uninfected pregnant women: prevalence, persistence and progression.

    Carriero, Carmine; Fascilla, Fabiana Divina; Cramarossa, Paola; Lepera, Achiropita; Bettocchi, Stefano; Vimercati, Antonella

    2018-02-01

    In this retrospective case-control study, we analyse data of 48 HIV-positive pregnant patients, versus a control group of 99 HIV-negative pregnant women, followed as outpatients by our department from 2009 to 2014. The aims of the study were to investigate the prevalence, persistence and progression of cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL) in each group and to correlate colpo-cytological lesions to the socio-demographic and clinical-laboratory findings in the HIV + pregnant women. In our study we observed that immunosuppression, HPV infection and vaginal coinfections were predictive of cervical lesions. Pap smear and colposcopy should be part of routine care for HIV-infected pregnant women because these lesions behave aggressively in these patients. Success of prevention depends on massive access of patients to screening. HAART reduces viral load and maintains CD4 count and can affect progression of SIL. Multidisciplinary services on the same site appear to be one promising strategy to improve compliance in patients. Impact Statement What is already known on this subject: Our study provided novel information on a highly vulnerable population of young HIV + pregnant women. What the results of this study add: We observed that immunosuppression, HPV infection and vaginal coinfections were predictive of cervical lesions remarkable with colposcopy. We could consider these important risk factors to evaluate to establish an appropriate strategy of management for these patients. What the implications are of these findings for clinical practice and/or further research: Association of the risk between SIL presence and HIV and HPV infection also deserves additional investigation. We believe that Pap smears and colposcopies should be part of the routine care for HIV-infected women because these lesions behave particularly aggressively in these patients.

  19. Prevalence of and risk factors for MRSA colonization in HIV-positive outpatients in Singapore

    Kyaw Win

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whilst there have been studies on the risks and outcomes of MRSA colonization and infections in HIV-positive patients, local data is limited on the risk factors for MRSA colonization among these patients. We undertook this study in a tertiary HIV care centre to document the risk factors for colonization and to determine the prevalence of MRSA colonization among HIV-positive outpatients in Singapore. Methods This was a cross-sectional study in which factors associated with MRSA positivity among patients with HIV infection were evaluated. A set of standardized questionnaire and data collection forms were available to interview all recruited patients. Following the interview, trained nurses collected swabs from the anterior nares/axilla/groin (NAG, throat and peri-anal regions. Information on demographics, clinical history, laboratory results and hospitalization history were retrieved from medical records. Results MRSA was detected in swab cultures from at least 1 site in 15 patients (5.1%. Inclusion of throat and/or peri-anal swabs increased the sensitivity of NAG screening by 20%. Predictors for MRSA colonization among HIV-positive patients were age, history of pneumonia, lymphoma, presence of a percutaneous device within the past 12 months, history of household members hospitalized more than two times within the past 12 months, and a most recent CD4 count less than 200. Conclusions This study highlights that a proportion of MRSA carriers would have been undetected without multiple-site screening cultures. This study could shed insight into identifying patients at risk of MRSA colonization upon hospital visit and this may suggest that a risk factor-based approach for MRSA surveillance focusing on high risk populations could be considered.

  20. Poppers use and Sexual Partner Concurrency Increase the HIV Incidence of MSM: a 24-month Prospective Cohort Survey in Shenyang, China.

    Chu, Zhen-Xing; Xu, Jun-Jie; Zhang, Yong-Hui; Zhang, Jing; Hu, Qing-Hai; Yun, Ke; Wang, Hong-Yi; Jiang, Yong-Jun; Geng, Wen-Qing; Shang, Hong

    2018-01-08

    The use of poppers is highly prevalent in MSM, but little is known about the association between their use and HIV incidence in China. A prospective cohort study was conducted from 2011 to 2013 in MSM in Shenyang. 475(79.6%) of eligible HIV-negative MSM participated in this prospective survey and near one fourth MSM (23.4%) ever used poppers. About one-third of the participants had condomless anal intercourse, half had multiple sexual partners and 10.5% were syphilis positive. The HIV incidence densities were15.5 (95% CI:9.4-23.4)/100 PY[person-years]) and 4.6 (95% CI:2.9-7.0)/100 PY in poppers-users and non-poppers-users, respectively. Predictors of HIV seroconversion included poppers-using-behavior, having had more than two male partners, practicing group sex, unprotected anal intercourse(UAI) with male partners, and baseline syphilis positivity (all P poppers, high-risk-sexual behaviors and syphilis infection significantly increase the HIV incidence among Shenyang MSM. It is essential for policy makers to add poppers to the official controlled illicit drug list to reduce HIV transmission among the MSM community. A comprehensive strategy should also be implemented to control both their high-risk-sexual behaviors and risk of syphilis infection, since these may represent novel ways to prevent new HIV infections in these MSM.

  1. Prevalence and Correlates of Non-Disclosure of HIV Serostatus to Sex partners among HIV-Infected Female Sex Workers and HIV-infected Male Clients of Female Sex Workers in India

    Raj, Anita; Mahapatra, Bidhubhusan; Cheng, Debbie M.; Coleman, Sharon; Bridden, Carly; Battala, Madhusudana; Silverman, Jay G.; Pardeshi, Manoj H.; Samet, Jeffrey H.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines non-disclosure of HIV serostatus to sex partners among HIV-infected adults involved with transactional sex in Mumbai, India. Surveys were conducted with HIV-infected female sex workers (n = 211) and infected male clients (n = 205) regarding HIV knowledge, awareness of sex partners’ HIV serostatus, alcohol use, transactional sex involvement post-HIV diagnosis and non-disclosure of HIV serostatus. Gender-stratified multiple logistic regression models were used for analysis. Non-disclosure of one’s serostatus to all sex partners was reported by almost three-fifths of females and two-fifths of males. Predictors of non-disclosure included lack of correct knowledge about HIV and no knowledge of sex partners’ HIV serostatus. Among females, recent alcohol consumption also predicted non-disclosure. Among males, 10 + paid sexual partners in the year following HIV diagnosis predicted non-disclosure. Secondary HIV prevention efforts in India require greater focus on