Lambert, Steven M; Debattista, Joseph; Bodiroza, Aleksandar; Martin, Jack; Staunton, Shaun; Walker, Rebecca
Background Peer education is considered an effective health promotion and education strategy, particularly to populations traditionally resistant to conventional forms of health information dissemination. This has made it very applicable to HIV education and prevention, where those who are affected or at risk are often amongst the most vulnerable in society. However, there still remains uncertainty as to the reasons for its effectiveness, what constitutes an effective methodology and why a consistent methodology can often result in widely variable outcomes. Between 2008 and 2010, three separate reviews of peer education were undertaken across more than 30 countries in three distinct geographical regions across the globe. The reviews sought to identify determinants of the strengths and weaknesses inherent in approaches to peer education, particularly targeting young people and the most at-risk populations. By assessing the implementation of peer education programs across a variety of social environments, it was possible to develop a contextual understanding for peer education's effectiveness and provide a picture of the social, cultural, political, legal and geographic enablers and disablers to effective peer education. Several factors were significant contributors to program success, not as strategies of methodology, but as elements of the social, cultural, political and organisational context in which peer education was situated. Contextual elements create environments supportive of peer education. Consequently, adherence to a methodology or strategy without proper regard to its situational context rarely contributes to effective peer education.
In 2005, a survey was conducted among all the 27 high schools of Aden, which revealed low levels of knowledge on major prevention measures, and a high level of stigma and discrimination towards people living with HIV (PLWH). The results served as a baseline for implementing a school-based peer education ...
Ramseyer Winter, Virginia
Peer education programs are a popular approach to preventing HIV infection among adolescents. While the programs show promise for effectively preventing HIV among the peers who are provided education, little evaluation research has been conducted to determine if the peer educators themselves experience knowledge, attitude, and behavior changes. A…
The purpose of the study was to determine the extent to which basic knowledge on the science of HIV/AIDS was retained after a peer educational initiative. A quantitative descriptive research design was employed. It was hypothesized that through the described HIV /AIDS peer education initiative, learners would assimilate ...
HIV I AIDS peer-education programme for its employees aimed at addressing the growing ..... m:JI education intervention in a mining community reports essentially no effect.17 ... yet to be determined. Such data are crucial for the development.
The aim of the project was to evaluate a peer education programme in Zambia run by local people in relation to changes in behaviours, the effects of the programme on the community and the dynamics of peer health promotion. A qualitative process evaluation using focus groups consisting of both participants in the peer ...
Morar, Neetha Shagan; Naidoo, Sarita; Goolam, Ahmed; Ramjee, Gita
This article describes the influence of a peer education programme on skills development among 22 women participating in HIV prevention trials. Interviews were used to collect data on peer educator experiences and their opinions of the trainings. The training enhanced their agency and confidence to engage their family and community on health promotion, including HIV prevention research procedures, thus improving their self-esteem and communication skills. Training and partnering with clinical trial participants as peer educators is an effective and sustainable community-based approach for HIV prevention.
Objectives. To evaluate a South African workplace HIV I AIDS peer-education programme running since 1997. Methods. In 2001 a cross-sectional study was done of 900 retail-section employees in three geographical areas. The study measured HIV I AIDS knowledge, attitudes towards people living with HIV I AIDS, belief ...
This study evaluated the effect of an AIDS education program on deaf secondary school students' knowledge, attitude and perceived susceptibility to AIDS using peer education. Two secondary schools matched for ownership (government), composition (mixture of hearing and deaf) and teaching arrangement (separate ...
Jaganath, Devan; Gill, Harkiran K; Cohen, Adam Carl; Young, Sean D
Novel methods, such as Internet-based interventions, are needed to combat the spread of HIV. While past initiatives have used the Internet to promote HIV prevention, the growing popularity, decreasing digital divide, and multi-functionality of social networking sites, such as Facebook, make this an ideal time to develop innovative ways to use online social networking sites to scale HIV prevention interventions among high-risk groups. The UCLA Harnessing Online Peer Education study is a longitudinal experimental study to evaluate the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary effectiveness of using social media for peer-led HIV prevention, specifically among African American and Latino Men who have Sex with Men (MSM). No curriculum currently exists to train peer leaders in delivering culturally aware HIV prevention messages using social media. Training was created that adapted the Community Popular Opinion Leader (C-POL) model, for use on social networking sites. Peer leaders are recruited who represent the target population and have experience with both social media and community outreach. The curriculum contains the following elements: discussion and role playing exercises to integrate basic knowledge of HIV/AIDS, awareness of sociocultural HIV/AIDS issues in the age of technology, and communication methods for training peer leaders in effective, interactive social media-based HIV prevention. Ethical issues related to Facebook and health interventions are integrated throughout the sessions. Training outcomes have been developed for long-term assessment of retention and efficacy. This is the first C-POL curriculum that has been adapted for use on social networking websites. Although this curriculum has been used to target African-American and Latino MSM, it has been created to allow generalization to other high-risk groups.
Although HIV counselling and testing (HCT) service plays important roles in prevention and control of AIDS, many young Nigerians under-utilize it. A peer education intervention was implemented to promote use of HCT among secondary school students and apprentices in Ibadan, Nigeria. Baseline data were collected from ...
von Roenne Anna
Full Text Available Abstract Background Both conflict and HIV affect sub-Saharan Africa, and supportive approaches for HIV prevention among refugees are crucial. Peer education has been associated with improved HIV outcomes, though relatively little research has been published on refugee settings. The primary objective of this study was to assess whether exposure to refugee peer education was associated with improved HIV knowledge, attitudes, or practice outcomes among refugees in Guinea. Secondary objectives were to assess whether gender, age, or formal education were more strongly associated than peer education with improved HIV outcomes. Methods Data was collected by cross-sectional survey from 889 reproductive-age men and women in 23 camps in the Forest Region of Guinea. Selected exposures (i.e. peer education, gender, formal education, age were analysed for associations with HIV outcomes using logistic regression odds ratios (OR. Results Most participants (88% had heard of HIV, particularly those exposed to peer or formal education. Most correctly identified ways to protect themselves, while maintaining misconceptions about HIV transmission. Women and those exposed to either peer or formal education had significantly fewer misconceptions. Half of participants considered themselves at risk of HIV, women with 52% higher odds than men (adjusted OR 1.52, 95%CI 1.01-2.29. Participants exposed to peer education had more than twice the odds of reporting having made HIV-avoidant behavioural changes than unexposed participants (72% versus 58%; adjusted OR 2.49, 95%CI 1.52-4.08. While women had 57% lower odds than men of reporting HIV-avoidant behavioural changes (OR 0.43, 95%CI 0.31-0.60, women exposed to peer education had greater odds than exposed men of reporting HIV-avoidant changes (OR 2.70 versus OR 1.95. Staying faithful (66% was the most frequent behavioural change reported. Conclusions Peer education was most strongly associated with reported HIV
Involvement in prosocial prison activities can ameliorate rule-breaking conduct and assist in the reinforcement of conventional behavior. Extant research shows a connection between participation in traditional educational/vocational programs and reduced prison infractions. However, studies that examine a correlation between less traditional prison programs and better institutional conduct are lacking. This study analyzed rates of disciplinary infractions among 49 female prisoners that worked in two HIV prison-based peer programs (AIDS, Counseling, and Education [ACE] and CARE [Counseling, AIDS, Resource, and Education]) as peer educators during their incarceration. These women were unlikely to jeopardize their position by engaging in unlawful or deviant behaviors. Results showed that working in programs like ACE/CARE prevented periods of maladjustment and subsequent disciplinary infractions during incarceration. © The Author(s) 2013.
Full Text Available All adolescents are vulnerable to HIV/AIDS, including street children. The behaviors of street children are much influenced by their peers. Peer education can enhance knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and skills and empower children to be responsible for protecting the health of themselves and their peers (Wahyuni, 2012. This study aims to determine the effects of peer health education on the HIV/AIDS Preventive Behaviors of Street Children in Bandung City in 2015. The research employed a quasi-experimental method with the pre-post-test control group design. The sample was 26 people for the treatment group and 26 people for the control group, respectively, taken with purposive sampling technique. Interventions began with peer educator training and then the peer educators provided health education on HIV/AIDS transmission prevention through small group discussions for 2 days. The data in this study were not normally distributed. The paired or dependent data were analyzed using the Wilcoxon test, while the unpaired or independent data using Mann-Whitney test. The results of the research show that peer health education had effects on the knowledge and attitudes of the street children (p values 0.00 and 0.00, respectively; however, there was no effect of peer health education on the actions regarding HIV/AIDS transmission prevention among the street children (p value 0.09. Hence, it is advisable to conduct health promotion with peer health education method in an effort of increasing knowledge and attitudes regarding HIV/AIDS transmission prevention among street children that is sustainable and integrated with the existing programs at puskesmas (Community Health Center.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite ample evidence that HIV has entered the general population, most HIV awareness programs in India continue to neglect rural areas. Low HIV awareness and high stigma, fueled by low literacy, seasonal migration, gender inequity, spatial dispersion, and cultural taboos pose extra challenges to implement much-needed HIV education programs in rural areas. This paper describes a peer education model developed to educate and empower low-literacy communities in the rural district of Perambalur (Tamil Nadu, India. Methods From January to December 2005, six non-governmental organizations (NGO's with good community rapport collaborated to build and pilot-test an HIV peer education model for rural communities. The program used participatory methods to train 20 NGO field staff (Outreach Workers, 102 women's self-help group (SHG leaders, and 52 barbers to become peer educators. Cartoon-based educational materials were developed for low-literacy populations to convey simple, comprehensive messages on HIV transmission, prevention, support and care. In addition, street theatre cultural programs highlighted issues related to HIV and stigma in the community. Results The program is estimated to have reached over 30 000 villagers in the district through 2051 interactive HIV awareness programs and one-on-one communication. Outreach workers (OWs and peer educators distributed approximately 62 000 educational materials and 69 000 condoms, and also referred approximately 2844 people for services including voluntary counselling and testing (VCT, care and support for HIV, and diagnosis and treatment of sexually-transmitted infections (STI. At least 118 individuals were newly diagnosed as persons living with HIV (PLHIV; 129 PLHIV were referred to the Government Hospital for Thoracic Medicine (in Tambaram for extra medical support. Focus group discussions indicate that the program was well received in the communities, led to improved health
In this paper, I report on an examination of the rhetoric and implementation of peer education in Myanmar. I demonstrate that while there was widespread consistency on interviewees' views of what peer education should involve, there was a significant gap between this rhetoric and the ways in which peer education was implemented, particularly in…
Dickinson, David; Kgatea, Kabelo Duncan
Peer educators form an important component of company responses to HIV and AIDS. Based on interviews with peer educators working in and around a mining company in South Africa's North-West Province, the study examines the relationship between involvement in peer education and stress. The paper discusses how becoming a peer educator can be a response to the often personal stress brought about by the HIV epidemic. In addition, structural difficulties, skills deficiencies and other obstacles to effective communication with their peers can create stress. The stress that active peer education brings to individuals is discussed, particularly in regard to the embeddedness of peer educators within their communities. The need for confidentiality also magnifies stress in the case of individuals who disregard peer educators' advice. Peer educators face many stresses in managing and supporting their own lives, thus their (voluntary) work as peer educators should not be taken out of context. Using this approach, we discuss how the role of peer educator should be conceptualised and how they can be organised and supported in order that their stress be minimised and effective engagement maximised.
Full Text Available El Salvador was one of three countries to receive funding from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria to conduct a combination HIV prevention intervention among transwomen (TW, men who have sex with men (MSM, and commercial sex workers (CSW. Program evaluation revealed that prevention activities reached only 50% of the target population. The purpose of this study is to examine the barriers that Salvadoran educators faced in implementing the peer education as designed and adaptations made as a result. Between March and June 2015, 18 in-depth interviews with educators were conducted. Violence was reported as the biggest barrier to intervention implementation. Other barriers differed by subpopulation. The level of violence and discrimination calls into question the feasibility and appropriateness of peer-led interventions in the Salvadoran context and demonstrates the importance of implementation research when translating HIV prevention interventions developed in high-income countries to low- and middle-income countries.
Full Text Available about sex outside of the peer educational setting, poor adult role models of sexual relationships, poverty and unemployment, low levels of social capital and poor community facilities. We discuss the implications of our findings for the design of peer...
Adeleye Abiodun Adeomi
Full Text Available Introduction. Young people are at the centre of the global HIV/AIDS epidemic. This study therefore aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of peer education in improving HIV knowledge, attitude, and preventive practices among in-school adolescents in Osun State, Nigeria. Methods. This was an intervention study that was carried out among in-school adolescents attending mixed secondary schools in Osun State, Nigeria. The study was in three stages: before intervention, intervention, and after intervention. The impact of peer education was evaluated twelve weeks after intervention. Data were collected using pretested semistructured questionnaires and data analysis was done with SPSS version 16. Results. At the preintervention stage, the study and control groups were similar in their sociodemographic characteristics, HIV knowledge, attitude, and preventive practices, including high risk behaviours for HIV/AIDS transmission. After the peer education intervention, those with good knowledge and positive attitudes towards HIV/AIDS increased significantly from 50.0% to 86.7% and from 49.0% to 85.6%, respectively (P<0.05. Conclusion. The study showed that peer education is effective in improving knowledge, attitude, and some preventive practices towards HIV/AIDS among in-school adolescents. Educational programmes about HIV/AIDS should therefore be designed to target this age group putting into consideration their unique characteristics.
Wolf, Kimberly; Africa, Adelene
Despite the popularity of peer education as an HIV prevention strategy across a range of contexts, understanding of the experiences of those intimately placed within these programmes is limited. Instead, the majority of research in this field relies on hegemonic notions of rational human behaviour that operate under the assumption that knowledge…
Leonard, L; Ndiaye, I; Kapadia, A; Eisen, G; Diop, O; Mboup, S; Kanki, P
This article reports the results of a peer-led HIV prevention education and condom promotion program among transport workers in Kaolack, Senegal. As part of a 2-year longitudinal follow-up study, changes in men's AIDS-related knowledge, sexual behavior, condom use, and perceived barriers to condom use were evaluated by self-reports obtained from a systematic sample of transport workers interviewed before and after intervention. In addition to men's self-reports, preintervention and postintervention data on men's sexual and condom use behavior were gathered from a sample of licensed, commercial sex workers, who cited transport workers as their primary source of clients. Significant increases in men's HIV-related knowledge, previous use of condoms (from 30.4% to 53.5%), and consistent condom use with regular sex partners were documented over the study period, as were significant declines in perceived barriers to condom use. Though men reported significantly fewer sexual encounters with casual and commercial partners at follow-up compared to baseline, these data were unreliable. Women's postintervention reports indicate that a greater proportion of clients (including, but not limited to transport workers) "always" agree to use condoms (p money for unprotected sex (p taking greater initiative in the mechanics of condom use (supplying the condom, putting it on, and taking it off) than they did prior to the intervention, and significantly (p < .05) fewer women think that most of their clients know how to use a condom. The findings indicate that the peer-mediated intervention had a positive impact on several important outcomes measured and suggest that HIV prevention efforts need to focus on male client groups despite the logistical and methodological challenges.
Full Text Available Purpose: HIV/AIDS is a major public health issue. Studies have shown that young people between the ages of 15 to 24 years accounts for more than 40% of new HIV infections. However, new infections could be prevented if the desired impact is made on young people through interventions such as effective peer education program to improve their knowledge, attitude and practice. Therefore, this study is aimed at assessing the impact of peer education vis-a-vis attitudinal changes and practices on issues relating to HIV/AIDS among youths in North central Nigeria. Methods: This classical experimental study was carried out in three stages, that is: pre-intervention, intervention and post-intervention stages among students of Government High School, Ilorin between the ages of 15 and 24 years. The sample size was 80 students each for study and control groups. Proportional gender distribution was ensured in the selection and the sampling technique was multistage sampling technique. Data collection was through semi structured self administered pre and post evaluation questionnaire. Peer education training and forth night mentoring sessions was conducted for the study group. Impact of the intervention was assessed after eight weeks. Results: Analysis of the result shows that out of the sixteen questions asked on respondents‟ attitude, only four showed statistical significance between the study and control group before the intervention which shot up to eleven after intervention. Also, the frequency of those having bad practices regarding prevention of HIV/AIDS also reduced after intervention. This reduction was much more in many instances when compared to the control group. Conclusion: This study has revealed that peer education training among youth can go a long way in educating them on issues relating to HIV/AIDS prevention. It can also bring about attitudinal changes and better practices that may help in reducing incidence and prevalence of HIV/AIDS in our
Ibrahim, Normala; Rampal, Lekhraj; Jamil, Zubaidah; Zain, Azhar Mohd
Develop, implement and evaluate the effectiveness of a peer-led education program related to HIV/AIDS among university students. randomized controlled trial with 276 university students at Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences University Putra Malaysia (UPM), Serdang in 2011. A peer-led education program on HIV prevention by university students. differences in knowledge, attitude and risk behavior practices related to HIV between baselines, immediate follow-up after intervention and after three months. Significant improvement in sound knowledge in the intervention group as compared to the control group (Odds ratio, 1.75; 95% CI 1.01, 3.00; p=0.04) and improvement in good attitude related to HIV (Odds ratio 2.22; 95% CI 1.37, 3.61; p=0.01). The odds of high substance risk behavior was significantly reduced in the intervention group as compared to the control group (Odds ratio 0.07; 95% CI 0.02, 0.34; p=0.01). The association between good knowledge and intervention was modified by the different time points (baseline, immediately after intervention and 3 months after intervention), ethnicity and gender. Peer-led education program in HIV prevention improves knowledge, attitude and substance risk behavior. Changes in sexual risk behavior may require a longer follow-up. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Menna, Takele; Ali, Ahmed; Worku, Alemayehu
Worldwide, about 50% of all new cases of HIV occur in youth between age 15 and 24 years. Studies in various sub-Saharan African countries show that both out of school and in school adolescents and youth are engaged in risky sexual behaviors. School-based health education has been a cornerstone of youth-focused HIV prevention efforts since the early 1990s. In addition, peer-based interventions have become a common method to effect important health-related behavior changes and address the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate efficacy of peer education on changing HIV related risky sexual behaviors among school youth in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A quasi experimental study with peer education intervention was conducted in purposively selected four secondary schools (two secondary schools for the intervention and other two for the control group) in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Five hundred sixty students from randomly selected sections of grade 11 were assessed through anonymous questionnaires conducted in pre- and post-intervention periods. Pertinent data on socio-demographic and sexual behavior related factors were collected. The statistical packages used for data entry and analysis were epi-info version 3.5.4 and SPSS version 20.0 respectively. Chi-square test and multivariable logistic regressions were used for testing association between peer education intervention and sexual behaviors of students. In addition to testing association between dependent and independent variables, multi-variable analysis was employed to control for the effects of confounding variables. When the pre and post intervention data of each group were compared, comprehensive Knowledge of HIV (P-Values =0.004) and willingness to go for HIV counseling and testing (P-value = 0.01) showed significant differences among intervention group students during post intervention period. Moreover, students in the intervention group were more likely to use condoms during post
Ngo, Anh D; Ha, Toan H; Rule, John; Dang, Chinh V
This paper reports changes in behavioral outcomes related to the use of HIV testing service of a project that employed peer-based education strategies and integration of HIV voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) and Sexual and Reproductive Health (SRH) services targeting young people aged 15-24 across 5 provinces in Vietnam. A pre-test/post-test, non-experimental evaluation design was used. Data were collected from cross-sectional surveys of youth and client exit interviews at project supported SRH clinics conducted at baseline and again at 24 months following implementation. The baseline samples consisted of 813 youth and 399 exit clients. The end line samples included 501 youths and 399 exit clients. Z test was used to assess changes in behavioral outcomes. Results show that there was a significant increase (p<0.05) in the percentage of youth who wanted to obtain a HIV test (from 33% to 51%), who had ever had a test (from 7.5% to 15%), and who had a repeat test in the last 12 months (from 54.5% to 67.5%). Exit client interviews found a nearly five-fold increase in the percentage of clients seeking HIV VCT in their current visit (5.0% vs. 24.5%) and almost two-fold increase in the percentage of those having their last test at a project supported clinic (9.3% vs. 17.8%). There were also positive changes in some aspects of youth HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes, and risk perceptions. This study provides preliminary evidence regarding the benefits of the integration of HIV VCT-SRH services in terms of increased access to HIV services and testing in Vietnam. Benefits of peer-based education regarding increased HIV knowledge were also identified. Further investigations, including experimental studies with assessment of health outcomes and the uptake of HIV testing services, are required to better elucidate the effectiveness and challenges of this intervention model in Vietnam.
This study evaluated the process of a peer education program for hotel-based sex workers in Dhaka, Bangladesh, with social support proposed as an organizing framework. Programme outcomes were examined through baseline and follow-up assessments. Sex workers naïve to peer education were assessed on socio-cognitive and behavioural variables; a subsample was reassessed at follow-up 23 weeks later on average. Process was assessed in terms of the content of peer education sessions. These sessions were recorded and coded into percentages of social support types provided by the peer educator to her audience: informational, instrumental, appraisal, emotional, companionship, non-support. Peer educators were classified into three "social support profiles" based on average proportions of emotional and informational support they provided. Seeing more peer educators with a high informational support profile was related to higher sex worker self-efficacy, self-reported STI symptoms, and self-reported condom use at follow-up; the same was true for the high emotional support profile and treatment seeking. Social support constituted a useful framework, but needs further exploration. This study provided a direct, in-depth examination of the process of peer education based on a comprehensive theoretical framework. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Peer educators form an important component of company responses to HIV and AIDS. Based on interviews with peer educators working in and around a mining company in South Africa's North-West Province, the study examines the relationship between involvement in peer education and stress. The paper discusses how ...
Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or Fee Access ... Keywords: action research, communication, health education, HIV/AIDS education, peer education, South Africa, storytelling, workplace. African Journal of AIDS Research ...
Lonny J. Born
Full Text Available Rapid expansion of antiretroviral therapy (ART and a shortage of health care workers (HCWs required the implementation of a peer educator (PE model as part of a task-shifting strategy in Lusaka District clinics. The purpose of this study was to evaluate patient and staff perceptions regarding whether the PE program: a relieved the workload on professional HCWs; and b delivered services of acceptable quality. Qualitative and quantitative data were gathered from five primary care clinics delivering ART in Lusaka, Zambia. Closed surveys were conducted with 148 patients receiving ART, 29 PEs, and 53 HCWs. Data was imported into Microsoft Excel to calculate descriptive statistics. Six focus group discussions and eight key informant (KI interviews were conducted, recorded, transcribed, and coded to extract relevant data. Survey results demonstrated that 50 of 53 (96.1% HCWs agreed PEs reduced the amount of counseling duties required of HCWs. HCWs felt that PEs performed as well as HCWs in counseling patients (48 of 53; 90.6% and that having PEs conduct counseling enabled clinical staff to see more patients (44 of 53; 83%. A majority of patients (141 of 148; 95.2% agreed or strongly agreed that PEs were knowledgeable about ART, and 89 of 144 (61.8% expressed a high level of confidence with PEs performing counseling and related tasks. Focus group and KI interviews supported these findings. PEs helped ease the work burden of HCWs and provided effective counseling, education talks, and adherence support to patients in HIV care. Consideration should be given to formalizing their role in the public health sector.
Oldenburg, Catherine E; Ortblad, Katrina F; Chanda, Michael M; Mwanda, Kalasa; Nicodemus, Wendy; Sikaundi, Rebecca; Fullem, Andrew; Barresi, Leah G; Harling, Guy; Bärnighausen, Till
HIV testing and knowledge of status are starting points for HIV treatment and prevention interventions. Among female sex workers (FSWs), HIV testing and status knowledge remain far from universal. HIV self-testing (HIVST) is an alternative to existing testing services for FSWs, but little evidence exists how it can be effectively and safely implemented. Here, we describe the rationale and design of a cluster randomised trial designed to inform implementation and scale-up of HIVST programmes for FSWs in Zambia. The Zambian Peer Educators for HIV Self-Testing (ZEST) study is a 3-arm cluster randomised trial taking place in 3 towns in Zambia. Participants (N=900) are eligible if they are women who have exchanged sex for money or goods in the previous 1 month, are HIV negative or status unknown, have not tested for HIV in the previous 3 months, and are at least 18 years old. Participants are recruited by peer educators working in their communities. Participants are randomised to 1 of 3 arms: (1) direct distribution (in which they receive an HIVST from the peer educator directly); (2) fixed distribution (in which they receive a coupon with which to collect the HIVST from a drug store or health post) or (3) standard of care (referral to existing HIV testing services only, without any offer of HIVST). Participants are followed at 1 and 4 months following distribution of the first HIVST. The primary end point is HIV testing in the past month measured at the 1-month and 4-month visits. This study was approved by the Institutional Review Boards at the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health in Boston, USA and ERES Converge in Lusaka, Zambia. The findings of this trial will be presented at local, regional and international meetings and submitted to peer-reviewed journals for publication. Pre-results; NCT02827240. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Latkin, Carl A.; Kukhareva, Polina V.; Malov, Sergey V.; Batluk, Julia V.; Shaboltas, Alla V.; Skochilov, Roman V.; Sokolov, Nicolay V.; Verevochkin, Sergei V.; Hudgens, Michael G.; Kozlov, Andrei P.
We evaluated the efficacy of a peer-educator network intervention as a strategy to reduce HIV acquisition among injection drug users (IDUs) and their drug and/or sexual networks. A randomized controlled trial was conducted in St. Petersburg, Russia among IDU index participants and their risk network participants. Network units were randomized to the control or experimental intervention. Only the experimental index participants received training sessions to communicate risk reduction techniques to their network members. Analysis includes 76 index and 84 network participants who were HIV uninfected. The main outcome measure was HIV sero-conversion. The incidence rates in the control and experimental groups were 19.57 (95 % CI 10.74–35.65) and 7.76 (95 % CI 3.51–17.19) cases per 100 p/y, respectively. The IRR was 0.41 (95 % CI 0.15–1.08) without a statistically significant difference between the two groups (log rank test statistic X2 = 2.73, permutation p value = 0.16). Retention rate was 67 % with a third of the loss due to incarceration or death. The results show a promising trend that this strategy would be successful in reducing the acquisition of HIV among IDUs. PMID:23881187
Karaca, Aysel; Akkus, Dilek; Sener, Dilek Konuk
Peer educators (PEs) have a significant role in providing education on various health issues like smoking, alcohol, and other substance use. This study aimed to determine the experiences and opinions of PEs regarding a peer education program. Using the qualitative research method, data were collected from the study sample, which consisted of 23…
Hirschmann De Salazar, A
In Guatemala, the HIV/AIDS epidemic is expected to have a vast negative impact on private enterprises as employees battle the disease in themselves and in family members. In response, the Guatemalan Association for the Prevention and Control of AIDS (AGPCS) developed a program to train private sector employees in peer health education. The program began by informing employers about the potential impact of HIV/AIDS on the private sector. Then AGPCS designed a workshop consisting of 11 two-hour weekly modules to provide up to 30 participants with information on sexually transmitted diseases, AIDS, and related issues. The first business to take advantage of the program was a 7000-employee clothing factory that continues to implement HIV prevention strategies. However, concern about the loss of employee time impeded other companies from participating. AGPCS, therefore, increased its flexibility and gave employers the option of sending employees to fewer seminars on topics the employers choose. This new approach led to 31 workshops in 1997 and 28 by August 1998. Also, in 1998, one company hired AGPCS to present 20 workshops to all of their employees. Efforts are made to evaluate workshop effectiveness and to facilitate follow-up activities. Peer education is an important part of the program, and potential peer educators are provided with a manual, extra training, and follow-up help. The training has helped companies develop work-place AIDS policies, and the AGPCS project has become sustainable.
The failure to bring about widespread or effective behavioural change in response to South Africa's HIV epidemic requires that new forms of health communication be explored. This article reports on an action research project in which a group of workplace HIV/AIDS peer educators at a South African mining company ...
Tolli, M. V.
Peer education remains a popular strategy for health promotion and prevention, but evidence of its effectiveness is still limited. This article presents a systematic review of peer education interventions in the European Union that were published between January 1999 and May 2010. The objective of the review is to determine the effectiveness of…
Patel, Vimla L.; Branch, Timothy; Gutnik, Lily; Arocha, Jose F.
High-risk behavior in youths related to HIV transmission continues to occur despite large-scale efforts to disseminate information about safe sexual practices through education. Our study examined the relationships among knowledge, decision-making strategies, and risk assessment about HIV by youths during peer group focused discussions. Two focus…
Teixeira de Sampayo, Mafalda; Sousa-Rodrigues, David; Jimenez-Romero, Cristian; Johnson, Jeffrey
The role of peer assessment in education has become of particular interest in recent years, mainly because of its potential benefits in improving student’s learning and benefits in time management by allowing teachers and tutors to use their time more efficiently to get the results of student’s assessments quicker. Peer assessment has also relevant in the context of distance learning and massive open online courses (MOOCs).
Barber, Nicole; And Others
Adolescence is a vulnerable period of life; teens are faced with challenging issues such as stress and suicide. Facilitating informed decision-making among adolescents requires educational programs that present information in compelling and credible ways. With this in mind, a peer education program was developed, using older students to teach…
Catanzarite, Julie A.; Robinson, Myles D.
Student peer educators have been used by higher education intuitions to influence the education and retention of college students for many years, and most institutions have some type of peer educator program. Newton and Ender (2010) broadly define the role of peer educators as "students who have been selected, trained, and designated by a…
Rasberry, Catherine N; Condron, D Susanne; Lesesne, Catherine A; Adkins, Susan Hocevar; Sheremenko, Ganna; Kroupa, Elizabeth
With HIV and sexually transmitted disease (STD) rates disproportionately high among adolescent sexual minority males (ASMM), it is important to understand how school-based sexual health education may relate to sexual risk-related behavior among this population. This analysis explores reported HIV/AIDS- and condom-related education and sexual risk-related behaviors among ASMM and their adolescent non-sexual-minority male (non-ASMM) peers. Students (n = 11,681) from seven Florida high schools completed paper-and-pencil questionnaires. A matched analytic sample of ASMM and non-ASMM students was created by using propensity score-matching techniques (n = 572). Logistic regressions controlling for individual and school characteristics examined reporting having been taught about AIDS or HIV in school, having been taught in school about using condoms, condom use at last sex, HIV/STD testing, and associations between these variables. Compared with matched non-ASMM peers, ASMM students were less likely to report having been taught about AIDS or HIV in school (odds ratio [OR] = 0.58, P = 0.04) and having used a condom at last sex (OR = 0.39, P condoms. Among non-ASMM, reporting having been taught in school about using condoms was associated with a greater likelihood of condom use at last sex (OR = 4.78, P education and differential associations between condom-related education and condom use in ASMM and non-ASMM suggest that sexual health education in schools may not be resonating with ASMM and non-ASMM in the same way.
Despite the prevalence of HIV and other infectious diseases in U.S. prisons, and the mix of infected and high-risk prisoners in crowded and volatile living conditions, federal and state prisons have reduced or eliminated prevention education programs addressing HIV and other infectious diseases for incarcerated populations. Nurses' knowledge, education, and licensure place them in a position to influence prison policy in developing and implementing educational programs for inmates and staff. Their role as advocates for patients in prison and their separation from the more punitive aspects of corrections also enable nurses to earn the trust of inmate populations. These factors identify nurses as the staff best suited within corrections to implement inmate prevention education. Training inmate educators to provide peer prevention and strategies for risk reduction have potential to modify inmate behaviors both within the facility and following release. Selection criteria for peer educator recruitment, prison-sensitive issues, and suggested training activities are discussed.
Kruger, Heinz-Hermann; Kohler, Sina-Mareen; Pfaff, Nicolle; Zschach, Maren
The article presents selected results of a reconstructive study on the significance of the peer group for children's educational biography. Based on the analysis of qualitative interviews and group discussions with c. 11-year-old children from different educational milieus in Germany it is first shown how, in general, groups of friends in…
Jennings, J. M.; Howard, S.; Perotte, C. L.
This study evaluated the impact of the Teen Prevention Education Program (Teen PEP), a peer-led sexuality education program designed to prevent unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV among high school students. The study design was a quasi-experimental, nonrandomized design conducted from May 2007 to May 2008. The sample consisted of 96 intervention (i.e. Teen PEP peer educators) and 61 comparison students from five high schools in New Jersey. Baseline a...
Assessment of contamination and misclassification biases in a randomized controlled trial of a social network peer education intervention to reduce HIV risk behaviors among drug users and risk partners in Philadelphia, PA and Chiang Mai, Thailand.
Simmons, Nicole; Donnell, Deborah; Ou, San-San; Celentano, David D; Aramrattana, Apinun; Davis-Vogel, Annet; Metzger, David; Latkin, Carl
Controlled trials of HIV prevention and care interventions are susceptible to contamination. In a randomized controlled trial of a social network peer education intervention among people who inject drugs and their risk partners in Philadelphia, PA and Chiang Mai, Thailand, we tested a contamination measure based on recall of intervention terms. We assessed the recall of test, negative and positive control terms among intervention and control arm participants and compared the relative odds of recall of test versus negative control terms between study arms. The contamination measures showed good discriminant ability among participants in Chiang Mai. In Philadelphia there was no evidence of contamination and little evidence of diffusion. In Chiang Mai there was strong evidence of diffusion and contamination. Network structure and peer education in Chiang Mai likely led to contamination. Recall of intervention materials can be a useful method to detect contamination in experimental interventions.
Background: Young people are most vulnerable to acquiring HIV Infection in Zambia and they are at increased risk of developing psychiatric disorders which if left unchecked can have behavioural and health consequences. It's from this background that this study aimed at evaluating the impact of HIV information and peer ...
Full Text Available We investigated the correlations between peer involvement in students’ education and their self-perception, attachment style, relationships with peers, personality and well-being. We used the Inventory of parent and peer attachment (Armsden & Greenberg, 1987, Relationship questionnaire (Bartholomew & Horowitz, 1991, Questionnaire of the subjects’ self-perceptions (Cugmas, 2012 and The big five questionnaire (BFQ; Caprara et al, 2002. We developed the questionnaires of peer involvement and subjects’ well-being. Positive relationships with peers, secure attachment style, positive self-perceptions, some personal characteristics and well-being were positively associated with peer support, and negatively with peer pressure.
Lyons, Thomas; Osunkoya, Emmanuel; Anguh, Ivonne; Adefuye, Adedeji; Balogun, Joseph
The prevalence rate of HIV infection in jails and prisons is approximately 5 times the rate in the U.S. general population. The authors surveyed state prison officials to assess HIV testing and HIV prevention policies--specifically voluntary testing, group HIV prevention counseling, and peer education--in the 50 states and to determine whether those policies are associated with the characteristics of the state and its prison population.
Jennings, J. M.; Howard, S.; Perotte, C. L.
This study evaluated the impact of the Teen Prevention Education Program (Teen PEP), a peer-led sexuality education program designed to prevent unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV among high school students. The study design was a quasi-experimental, nonrandomized design conducted from May 2007 to May…
Hanken, Ingrid Maria
Research on peer learning in higher education indicates that learning from and together with peers can benefit students in a number of ways. Within higher music education in Western, classical music, however, the master-apprentice tradition with its dominant one-to-one mode of tuition focuses predominantly on knowledge transmission from teacher to…
In 2001, the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) and the Illinois Commerce Commission (ICC) established the Public Education and Enforcement Research Study (PEERS) to test the effectiveness of various education and enforcement (E&E) techniques to i...
Full Text Available Patricia A Rosenau, Rita F Lisella, Tracey L Clancy, Lorelli S NowellFaculty of Nursing, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, CanadaBackground: The nursing workforce and nursing education demographic trends reinforce the urgency to cultivate future nursing leaders, educators, and mentors. The changing realities of health care environments, involving crowded student placements, overtaxed clinical mentors and preceptors, and inexperienced staff, hamper student learning and professional development. Peer mentoring has been used successfully in nursing education to enhance student engagement and the quality of the student learning experience. Although various terms like peer mentor have been used to describe the role of senior students facilitating junior student learning, the literature is silent about how peer mentoring fosters the development of future nursing education leaders.Objectives: The aim of this study was to understand how peer mentorship fosters the development of nursing education leadership in senior undergraduate nursing students enrolled in an elective undergraduate peer-mentoring credit course, Introductory Concepts in Nursing Education and Leadership Through Peer-Led Learning.Design and method: This phenomenological study explored the development of nursing education leadership in senior undergraduate students through the analysis of critical reflections of individual senior students and online discussions between triads of senior students teaching/learning across diverse junior-level theory and practice courses.Participants: Seventeen senior undergraduate nursing students enrolled in the elective course participated in the study.Results: From the critical reflections and online discussions, four themes emerged: "developing teaching philosophies and pedagogies", "learning teaching strategies", "supportive peer relationship", and "benefits of the peer mentorship program".Conclusion: The creation and promotion of peer leadership
Ishikawa, Naoko; Pridmore, Pat; Carr-Hill, Roy; Chaimuangdee, Kreangkrai
After more than a decade of the AIDS epidemic in Thailand, the number of children whose parents are living with HIV or have died from AIDS is increasing significantly and it has been reported that these children are often discriminated against by their peers. In order to better understand the current situation and to explore possible strategies to support HIV-affected children, this study examined children's attitudes towards HIV and AIDS using questionnaires and focus group discussions with children in Grades three-six in five primary schools in a northern province in Thailand. A total of 513 children (274 boys and 239 girls) answered the questionnaire and five focus groups were organised. The findings showed a strong positive correlation between children's belief that HIV could be transmitted through casual contact and their negative attitudes towards their HIV-affected peers. Most children overestimated the risk of HIV transmission through casual contact and this made their attitudes less tolerant and less supportive. After HIV prevention education (which included information on HIV transmission routes) was given in three of the study schools, the same questionnaire and focus groups were repeated and the findings showed that children's attitudes had become more supportive. These findings suggest that HIV prevention education delivered through primary schools in Thailand can be an effective way to help foster a more supportive and inclusive environment and reduce the stigma and discrimination that decrease educational access and attainment for HIV-affected schoolchildren.
This paper draws upon small scale, qualitative research at a UK university to present a Learning Development (LD) perspective on peer learning. This approach is offered as a lens for exploring social aspects of learning, cultural change in higher education and implications for pedagogy and policy. Views of a small group of peer learning leaders…
O'Hara Murdock, Peggy; Garbharran, Hari; Edwards, Mary Jo; Smith, Maria A; Lutchmiah, Johnny; Mkhize, Makhosi
South African women who live in informal settlement communities are at high risk of HIV/AIDS infection due to their poor economic and social status. Prevention programs must include methods for improving their social conditions as well as their sexual risk behaviors. Members of Partners trained 24 women from informal settlements to lead HIV/AIDS education workshops for 480 residents. When these participants reached out to their neighbors, this participatory community-based approach resulted in providing HIV/AIDS prevention messages to more than 1,440 residents. Program leaders from three settlements said in focus group discussions that results from this social influences peer led approach demonstrated that women residents are a valuable resource in providing effective HIV/AIDS prevention programs to South Africa's most vulnerable residents.
Full Text Available Han Ju Lee,1 Linda Moneyham,2 Hee Sun Kang,3 Kyung Sun Kim41Department of Nursing, Sangmyung University, Cheonan-si, Chungcheongnam-do, South Korea; 2School of Nursing, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA; 3Red Cross College of Nursing, Chung-Ang University, Seoul, South Korea; 4Gyeonggi Branch, Korean Alliance to Defeat AIDS, Anyang, Gyeonggi-do, South KoreaPurpose: This study's purpose was to explore the experiences of peer supporters regarding their work in a home visit program for people with HIV infection.Patients and methods: A qualitative descriptive study was conducted using focus groups. Participants were 12 HIV-positive peer supporters conducting home visits with people living with HIV/AIDS in South Korea. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the data.Results: Six major themes emerged: feeling a sense of belonging; concern about financial support; facing HIV-related stigma and fear of disclosure; reaching out and acting as a bridge of hope; feeling burnout; and need for quality education. The study findings indicate that although peer supporters experience several positive aspects in the role, such as feelings of belonging, they also experience issues that make it difficult to be successful in the role, including the position's instability, work-related stress, and concerns about the quality of their continuing education.Conclusion: The findings suggest that to maintain a stable and effective peer supporter program, such positions require financial support, training in how to prevent and manage stress associated with the role, and a well-developed program of education and training.Keywords: human immunodeficiency virus, qualitative research, workplace experience
McLeish, Jenny; Redshaw, Maggie
To explore the experiences of women living with HIV in England who received or gave Mentor Mother (trained mother-to-mother) volunteer peer support during pregnancy and early motherhood. Qualitative descriptive study, using semistructured, in-depth interviews and inductive thematic analysis, theoretically informed by phenomenological social psychology. A London-based third sector peer support organisation for people living with HIV. 12 women living with HIV who had given or received Mentor Mother volunteer peer support (6 had given support and 6 had received support). 11 were black African. The key themes in participants' descriptions of their lives as pregnant women and mothers living with HIV were 'fear and distress', 'stigma and isolation' and 'the gap in maternity care'. The key themes related to Mentor Mother peer support during and after pregnancy were 'support to avoid mother-to-child transmission' (with subthemes 'reinforcing medical advice', 'reframing faith issues', 'prioritisation and problem-solving' and 'practical strategies for managing HIV and motherhood'), and 'emotional support' (with subthemes 'role modelling and inspiring hope', 'openness and non-judgemental acceptance', 'a caring relationship', 'recreating the lost family network', 'being understood from the inside' and 'self-confidence'). The Mentor Mothers' support appeared to be a successful hybrid between the peer education Mentor Mothers programmes in southern Africa and the more general pregnancy volunteer peer support models operating in England. A Mentor Mother peer support programme is acceptable to, and valued by, black African mothers with HIV in England. Peer support from trained volunteers during and after pregnancy can complement and reinforce medical advice on avoiding mother-to-child transmission of HIV, and can have a multidimensional positive impact on vulnerable mothers' emotional well-being. Mentor Mother peer support should be considered by those designing programmes for the
This article explores the importance of social bonds in facilitating an investment in prosocial behavior amongst female prisoners working as HIV peer educators. Female prisoners can lack strong prosocial attachments to both individuals and institutions prior to incarceration. Absent this bond, little prevents the female prisoner from recidivating.…
Tsala Dimbuene, Zacharie; Kuate Defo, Barthelemy
The last three decades have seen a series of HIV interventions in sub-Saharan Africa. However, youths still have a mixture of correct and incorrect HIV/AIDS knowledge of transmission routes and prevention strategies. Previous studies have identified parents and peers as the most important socializing agents for youths. This paper assesses the relationships between family structure, family/peer communication about sexuality and accurate knowledge of transmission routes and prevention strategies. Data were drawn from the Cameroon Family Life and Health Survey (CFHS) conducted in 2002. The CFHS collected information on a representative sample of 4950 people aged 10 years and over nested within 1765 selected households from the 75 localities forming the administrative prefecture of Bandjoun, using detailed questionnaires about family, HIV/AIDS/STDs knowledge, sexual behaviors, contraception, health, media exposure, household assets and neighborhood characteristics. The survey cooperation rates were high (97%). For the purpose of this study, a sub-sample of 2028 unmarried youths aged 12-29 years was utilized. Overall, 42% of respondents reported accurate knowledge of documented HIV transmission routes whereas 21% of them had inaccurate knowledge such as AIDS can be transmitted through mosquito bites or casual contact with an infected person. Only 9% of respondents were knowledgeable about all HIV prevention strategies. Multivariate analyses showed that family structure, communication with parents/guardians and peers about sexual topics were significantly associated with accurate HIV knowledge. Additionally, age, education, sexual experience and migration had significant effects on accurate knowledge. Finally, living in poor households and disadvantaged neighborhoods significantly increased inaccurate knowledge of HIV transmission modes and prevention strategies. This paper evidenced the limited effects of HIV interventions/programmes in sub-Saharan Africa. Indeed, few
Kuate Defo Barthelemy
Full Text Available Abstract Background The last three decades have seen a series of HIV interventions in sub-Saharan Africa. However, youths still have a mixture of correct and incorrect HIV/AIDS knowledge of transmission routes and prevention strategies. Previous studies have identified parents and peers as the most important socializing agents for youths. This paper assesses the relationships between family structure, family/peer communication about sexuality and accurate knowledge of transmission routes and prevention strategies. Methods Data were drawn from the Cameroon Family Life and Health Survey (CFHS conducted in 2002. The CFHS collected information on a representative sample of 4 950 people aged 10 years and over nested within 1 765 selected households from the 75 localities forming the administrative prefecture of Bandjoun, using detailed questionnaires about family, HIV/AIDS/STDs knowledge, sexual behaviors, contraception, health, media exposure, household assets and neighborhood characteristics. The survey cooperation rates were high (97%. For the purpose of this study, a sub-sample of 2 028 unmarried youths aged 12 - 29 years was utilized. Results Overall, 42% of respondents reported accurate knowledge of documented HIV transmission routes whereas 21% of them had inaccurate knowledge such as AIDS can be transmitted through mosquito bites or casual contact with an infected person. Only 9% of respondents were knowledgeable about all HIV prevention strategies. Multivariate analyses showed that family structure, communication with parents/guardians and peers about sexual topics were significantly associated with accurate HIV knowledge. Additionally, age, education, sexual experience and migration had significant effects on accurate knowledge. Finally, living in poor households and disadvantaged neighborhoods significantly increased inaccurate knowledge of HIV transmission modes and prevention strategies. Conclusions This paper evidenced the limited
Full Text Available Female sex workers (FSWs who work as peer outreach workers in HIV prevention programs are drawn from poor socio-economic groups and consider outreach work, among other things, as an economic activity. Yet, while successful HIV prevention outcomes by such programs are attributed in part to the work of peers who have dense relations with FSW communities, there is scant discussion of the economic implications for FSWs of their work as peers. Using observational data obtained from an HIV prevention intervention for FSWs in south India, we examined the economic benefits and costs to peers of doing outreach work and their implications for sex workers' economic security. We found that peers considered their payment incommensurate with their workload, experienced long delays receiving compensation, and at times had to advance money from their pockets to do their assigned peer outreach work. For the intervention these conditions resulted in peer attrition and difficulties in recruitment of new peer workers. We discuss the implications of these findings for uptake of services, and the possibility of reaching desired HIV outcomes. Inadequate and irregular compensation to peers and inadequate budgetary outlays to perform their community-based outreach work could weaken peers' relationships with FSW community members, undermine the effectiveness of peer-mediated HIV prevention programs and invalidate arguments for the use of peers.
This paper aims to demonstrate the importance of controlling for endogenous peer effects in estimating the influence of gender peer effects on educational outcomes. Using Manski's linear-in-means model, this paper illustrates that the estimation of gender peer effects is potentially biased in the presence of endogenous peer effect in education.…
Swartz, Sharlene; Deutsch, Charles; Moolman, Benita; Arogundade, Emma; Isaacs, Dane; Michel, Barbara
Peer education has long been seen as a key health promotion strategy and an important tool in preventing HIV infection. In South African schools, it is currently one of the strategies employed to do so. Based on both a recent research study of peer education across 35 schools and drawing on multiple previous studies in South Africa, this paper examines the key elements of peer education that contribute to its effectiveness and asks how this aligns with current educational and health policies. From this research, it summarises and proposes shared goals and aims, minimum standards of implementation and reflects on the necessary infrastructure required for peer education to be effective. In light of these findings, it offers policy recommendations regarding who should be doing peer education and the status peer education should have in a school's formal programme.
Voorhees, Rhondie; Petkas, Steven N.
The Common Ground Multicultural Dialogue program in the Department of Resident Life at the University of Maryland is an innovative peer education program designed to teach skills for engagement through exploration of contemporary multicultural societal dilemmas. The Common Ground Dialogue Program was launched in 2000 to provide undergraduate…
Vachon, R. W.
Oceans are vast, complicated, often inaccessible, three-dimensional and dark (for the most part). The value, vulnerabilities and dynamics of marine systems are quite far removed from the consciousness of many people. However, these reasons are not alibis for not understanding and appreciating oceans deep-rooted influences on our lives. Currently, the Nereus Program, a fellowship of climate, fisheries and computer modeling scientists, are accessing school systems in person and virtually, motivating teens to tell stories about their local understanding of the ocean's influence on their communities (even if they live in a landlocked location). In it's first iteration, we are soliciting youth to communicate through the popular medium of film. These films will be assembled into an on-line digital field guide. In part, this program is designed to be a peer-to-peer educational technique, where civilians are teaching other civilians about local or regional ocean dynamics. Additionally, the act of teaching through film is a proven method for deepening engagement, learning and empowerment of the individuals producing the films.
Full Text Available An evaluation of peer-education projects with sex workers, men who have sex with men and marginalized adolescents, was introduced in a remote region of Brazil. The context of varied limits of predictability made it difficult to conduct inquiry. To go beyond available epidemiological surveys and questionnaires on sexual behavior, a self-evaluation aimed at increasing pragmatic knowledge about prevention in a challenging socio-political context. During five-months, a participatory-action research explored participant observation; individual and collective exchanges with users, peer-educators, coordinators, administrators, politicians and regional health professionals. Collective understanding of peer-education in prostitution zones underlines the reality of unforeseen social repercussions and confluence/divergence of multiple actors' perspectives. It identifies meaningful dimensions at a community-level, such as the collective history and dangerous working conditions. Nurses face complex struggles and negotiations over multiple actors in their practice. This study suggests that nurses have a role to play in the conceptualization of participatory evaluation. It also underlines the threats to their physical and social safety, which they might share with peer-educators.Uma avaliação dos projetos de educação por pares com trabalhadores do sexo, homens que fazem sexo com homens e adolescentes marginalizados foi implantada numa região do interior do Brasil. Os diversos limites postos à previsibilidade tornaram difícil conduzir a investigação. Indo além das pesquisas epidemiológicas e questionários evolutivos sobre os comportamentos sexuais, esta auto-avaliação enfatiza o desenvolvimento de conhecimento pragmático sobre prevenção em um contexto sociopolítico desafiante. Durante cinco meses, uma pesquisa-ação explorou observação participante, entrevistas individuais e coletivas junto com usuários, pares educadores, coordenadores
Sriranganathan, Gobika; Jaworsky, Denise; Larkin, June; Flicker, Sarah; Campbell, Lisa; Flynn, Susan; Janssen, Jesse; Erlich, Leah
Peer education is used as a health promotion strategy in a number of areas, including sexual health. Although peer education programmes have been around for some time, published systematic evaluations of youth sexual health peer education programmes are rare. This article discusses the advantages and disadvantages of youth sexual health peer…
The Hetrick-Martin Institute and AIDS educators help gay and lesbian adolescents confront issues such as AIDS education and discrimination. Intolerance and religious convictions held by the community impede proper AIDS education. Peer education programs in schools or health care facilities, and use of near-peer educators, are effective vehicles for AIDS education.
Ten Cate, Olle; Durning, Steven
Peer teaching, an educational arrangement in which one student teaches one or more fellow students, is applied in several forms in medical education. A number of authors have linked peer teaching to theories of education and psychology. Yet no comprehensive overview of what theory can offer to understand dynamics of peer teaching has been previously provided. A framework is designed to categorize forms of peer teaching, distinguishing three dimensions: distance in stage of education, formality of the educational setting and size of the group taught. Theories are categorized in two dimensions: theories that explain benefits of peer teaching from a cognitive versus a social-psychological perspective, and theories that explain benefits for peer learners versus peer teachers. Both dimensional frameworks help to clarify why and in what conditions peer teaching may help students to learn.
Peer-led health promotion strategies in schools have been found to be effective in promoting healthy behaviours amongst youth. This study aimed to evaluate the views of the peer educators in implementing a health education programme using a qualitative approach. Informal discussions and eight in-depth interviews were used to explore the views of the 10 peer educators. Information from the interviews was transcribed verbatim, analysed, and coded thematically. The themes that emerged from the a...
van den Berg, I.; Admiraal, W.; Pilot, A.
Designing student peer assessment in higher education: analysis of written and oral peer feedback Relating it to design features, the present article describes the nature of written and oral peer feedback as it occurred in seven writing courses, each with a different PA design. Results indicate that
Layzer, Carolyn; Rosapep, Lauren; Barr, Sherry
Background: This process study is a companion to a randomized evaluation of a school-based, peer-led comprehensive sexual health education program, Teen Prevention Education Program (Teen PEP), in which 11th- and 12th-grade students are trained by school health educators to conduct informative workshops with ninth-grade peers in schools in North…
Full Text Available Peer-led health promotion strategies in schools have been found to be effective in promoting healthy behaviours amongst youth. This study aimed to evaluate the views of the peer educators in implementing a health education programme using a qualitative approach. Informal discussions and eight in-depth interviews were used to explore the views of the 10 peer educators. Information from the interviews was transcribed verbatim, analysed, and coded thematically. The themes that emerged from the analysis of the informal discussion and in-depth interviews were grouped into categories, which included peer educators' experience of implementing the intervention, personal growth and experience with interacting with young people, and personal reflection on the presentation of the intervention. The role of peer educators was shown to be crucial to the success of peer-led programmes, but it is clear that equipping and supporting them through the process of implementation is essential.
Fogg-Rogers, Laura; Lewis, Fay; Edmonds, Juliet
Undergraduate education incorporating active learning and vicarious experience through education outreach presents a critical opportunity to influence future engineering teaching and practice capabilities. Engineering education outreach activities have been shown to have multiple benefits; increasing interest and engagement with science and engineering for school children, providing teachers with expert contributions to engineering subject knowledge, and developing professional generic skills for engineers such as communication and teamwork. This pilot intervention paired 10 pre-service teachers and 11 student engineers to enact engineering outreach in primary schools, reaching 269 children. A longitudinal mixed methods design was employed to measure change in attitudes and Education Outreach Self-Efficacy in student engineers; alongside attitudes, Teaching Engineering Self-Efficacy and Engineering Subject Knowledge Confidence in pre-service teachers. Highly significant improvements were noted in the pre-service teachers' confidence and self-efficacy, while both the teachers and engineers qualitatively described benefits arising from the paired peer mentor model.
Priharjo, Robert; Hoy, Georgina
This article describes an evaluation of a peer-teaching project undertaken by second-year nursing students at a higher education institution in England. The initiative has enhanced the students' understanding of peer education. The importance of the nurse's role in patient education is emphasised. It is hoped that the experience of peer teaching will prepare nursing students for their future roles as nurse educators for patients, students and other staff.
Frantz, J. M.
Peer-led health promotion strategies in schools have been found to be effective in promoting healthy behaviours amongst youth. This study aimed to evaluate the views of the peer educators in implementing a health education programme using a qualitative approach. Informal discussions and eight in-depth interviews were used to explore the views of…
Walsh, Nick; Gibbie, Tania M; Higgs, Peter
Injecting drug use remains an important risk factor for transmission in Vietnam, with an estimated 50% of the 290 000 people living with HIV/AIDS reporting injecting drug use as a risk factor. Despite this, effective harm reduction interventions are generally lacking. This paper describes the implementation of peer-based harm reduction programmes in two rural provinces of Vietnam. Peer educators were trained in basic HIV prevention, including harm reduction. After significant preparation work with the Provincial AIDS Committees of Bac Giang and Thanh Hoa and other relevant national, provincial and local authorities, the interventions were commenced. Harm reduction interventions were delivered through outreach as well as on-site. This included needle and syringe distribution and collection. Community advocacy occurred throughout the life of the project. Local authorities and peers believed that while there was a general reduction in stigma and discrimination, legal barriers associated particularly with the carrying of injecting equipment remained. This impacted upon the ability of peer educators to work with their clients. Peer-based delivery of harm reduction intervention is acceptable. Harm reduction interventions, including needle and syringe programmes, are feasible and acceptable in these two rural Vietnamese provinces. Community acceptance and uptake of these interventions is key to successful expansion across the region. Active participation by families of drug users seems crucial. This initiative demonstrates that despite a difficult policy environment, peer-delivered needle and syringe programmes are feasible within a rural Asian environment as long as there is adequate local political and community support.
Han, Li; Li, Tao
Investigations of the existence of residential peer effects in higher education has shown mixed results. Using data from a Chinese college, we find no evidence of robust residential peer effects. Using the same data we find evidence that females respond to peer influences, whereas males do not, consistent with social psychology theories that…
Puskar, Kathryn R; Stark, Kirsti H; Northcut, Terri; Williams, Rick; Haley, Tammy
Anger could be an early warning signal of violent behavior. Early peer education health promotion in relation to anger management could help children before uncontrolled anger becomes a problem in adolescence and adulthood. Peer education has been identified as a viable intervention strategy worldwide with various prevention programs for youth. The purpose of this article is to describe an anger management program (Teaching Kids to Cope with Anger, TKC-A 4th-8th graders) co-led by high school peer educators in an urban school district's summer school enhancement program. A program of five modules will be described. This paper discusses the peer educator implementation and recommendations for future implementation.
Full Text Available Participant recruitment, retention and product adherence are necessary to measure the efficacy or effectiveness of an intervention in a clinical trial. As part of a Phase III HIV prevention trial in a rural area in Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa, a peer educator programme was initiated to aid in recruitment and retention of trial participants from the community. Enrolled trial participants who had completed at least 6 months of trial participation and who had honoured all of their scheduled trial visits within that period were approached to be peer educators. Following additional selection criteria, 24 participants were eligible to be trained as peer educators. Training topics included HIV/AIDS, sexually transmitted infections, nutrition, antiretrovirals, clinical trials, and methods of disseminating this information to the community. The role of peer educators was to bring interested women from their community to the trial site for comprehensive education and information about the trial and possibly trial participation. A total of 1879 women were educated by peer educators between July 2004 and December 2006. Of these, 553 women visited the trial site for further education and screening for participation in the trial. Peer educators provided continuous education and support to women enrolled in the trial which also promoted retention, ultimately contributing to the site's 94% retention rate. Recruitment and retention efforts of trial participants are likely to be enhanced by involving trial participants as peer educators. Such trial participants are in a better position to understand cultural dynamics and hence capable of engaging the community with appropriate HIV prevention and trial-related messaging.
Guarino, Honoria; Deren, Sherry; Mino, Milton; Kang, Sung-Yeon; Shedlin, Michele
From 2005 to 2008, the Bienvenidos Project trained Puerto Rican patients of New York City and New Jersey methadone maintenance treatment programs to conduct peer-based community outreach to migrant Puerto Rican drug users to reduce migrants' HIV risk behaviors. Ethnographic research, including focus groups, individual interviews and observations, was conducted with a subset of the patients trained as peers (n=49; 67% male; mean age 40.3 years) to evaluate the self-perceived effects of the intervention. Results of the ethnographic component of this study are summarized. The role of ethnographic methods in implementing and evaluating this kind of intervention is also discussed. PMID:20141456
Falk, Diane S.; Pettet, Kristen; Mpagi, Charles
In this paper, children attending a U.S.-sponsored private primary school serving orphaned and vulnerable children in Uganda were interviewed in focus groups about their participation in a peer-to-peer health education program in which they used music, dance, poetry, art, and drama to convey health information. The children reported enhanced…
Ross, Kathryn R.; Batzer, Lyn; Bennington, Elaine
Discusses the need for quality assurance in distance education; describes evaluation criteria; and reports how Ivy Tech State College (Indiana) created a peer review process as a formative evaluation tool to assure the quality of its distance education courses. Explains roles of the participants and evaluation of the peer review prototype. (LRW)
Layzer, Carolyn; Rosapep, Lauren; Barr, Sherry
This process study is a companion to a randomized evaluation of a school-based, peer-led comprehensive sexual health education program, Teen Prevention Education Program (Teen PEP), in which 11th- and 12th-grade students are trained by school health educators to conduct informative workshops with ninth-grade peers in schools in North Carolina. The process study was designed to understand youth participants' perspectives on the program in order to gain insight into program effectiveness. This is a mixed-methods study in 7 schools, with online surveys (N = 88) and 8 focus groups with peer educators (N = 116), end-of-program surveys (N = 1122), 8 focus groups with ninth-grade workshop participants (N = 89), and observations of the Teen PEP class and workshops during the semester of implementation in each school, 2012-2014. Both peer educators and ninth graders perceived benefits of participating in Teen PEP across a range of domains, including intentions, skills, and knowledge and that the peer education modality was important in their valuation of the experience. Our findings suggest that the peer-led comprehensive sexual health education approach embodied in Teen PEP can be an important educational mechanism for teaching students information and skills to promote sexual health. © 2017, American School Health Association.
The article describes a framework and the process for the development of the peer-based mental health support programme and its implementation. The development of a peer-based mental health support programme is based on Erikson's theory on the adolescent phase of development, the psycho-educational processes; the peer approach and the orphaned adolescents lived experiences as conceptual framework. A triangulation of five qualitative methods of photography, reflective diaries, focus groups, event history calendar and field notes were used to capture the lived experiences of adolescents orphaned to HIV and AIDS. Analysis of data followed Colaizzi's method of data analysis. The combination of psycho-education, Erikson's stages of development and peer support assisted the participants to gain knowledge and skills to overcome adversity and to assist them to become to more resilient. The peer based mental health support programme if used would enhance the mental health of adolescent orphans.
Abdi, Fatemeh; Simbar, Masoumeh
Adolescence is an important stage of human life span, which crucial developmental processes occur. Since peers play a critical role in the psychosocial development of most adolescents, peer education is currently considered as a health promotion strategy in adolescents. Peer education is defined as a system of delivering knowledge that improves social learning and provides psychosocial support. As identifying the outcomes of different educational approaches will be beneficial in choosing the most effective programs for training adolescents, the present article reviewed the impact of the peer education approach on adolescents. In this review, databases such as PubMed, EMBASE, ISI, and Iranian databases, from 1999 to 2013, were searched using a number of keywords. Peer education is an effective tool for promoting healthy behaviors among adolescents. The development of this social process depends on the settings, context, and the values and expectations of the participants. Therefore, designing such programs requires proper preparation, training, supervision, and evaluation.
de Menezes, Sara; Premnath, Daphne
This study aims to: 1) Evaluate whether a near-peer program improves perceived OSCE performance; 2) Identify factors motivating students to teach; 3) Evaluate role of near-peer teaching in medical education. A near-peer OSCE teaching program was implemented at Monash University's Peninsula Clinical School over the 2013 academic year. Forty 3rd-year and thirty final-year medical students were recruited as near-peer learners and educators, respectively. A post-program questionnaire was completed by learners prior to summative OSCEs (n=31), followed by post-OSCE focus groups (n=10). Near-peer teachers were interviewed at the program's conclusion (n=10). Qualitative data was analysed for emerging themes to assess the perceived value of the program. Learners felt peer-led teaching was more relevant to assessment, at an appropriate level of difficulty and delivered in a less threatening environment than other methods of teaching. They valued consistent practice and felt confident approaching their summative OSCEs. Educators enjoyed the opportunity to develop their teaching skills, citing mutual benefit and gratitude to past peer-educators as strong motivators to teach others. Near-peer education, valued by near-peer learners and teachers alike, was a useful method to improve preparation and perceived performance in summative examinations. In particular, a novel year-long, student-run initiative was regarded as a valuable and feasible adjunct to faculty teaching.
Swartz, Sharlene; Deutsch, Charles; Makoae, Mokhantšo; Michel, Barbara; Harding, James Hamilton; Garzouzie, Gabrielle; Rozani, Amanda; Runciman, Toby; Van der Heijden, Ingrid
In the context of poverty and HIV and AIDS, peer education is thought to be capable of providing vulnerable youth with psychosocial support as well as information and decision-making skills otherwise limited by scarce social and material resources. As a preventative education intervention method, peer education is a strategy aimed at norms and peer group influences that affect health behaviours and attitudes. However, too few evaluations of peer-led programmes are available, and they frequently fail to reflect real differences between those who have been recipients of peer education and those who have not. This article reports on an evaluation of a pilot peer-led intervention, entitled Vhutshilo, implemented on principles agreed upon through a collaborative effort in South Africa by the Harvard School of Public Health and the Centre for the Support of Peer Education (the Rutanang collaboration). Vhutshilo targeted vulnerable adolescents aged 14-16 years living in some of South Africa's under-resourced communities. The research design was a mixed-method (qualitative and quantitative), longitudinal, quasi-experimental evaluation. Tools used included a quantitative survey questionnaire (n = 183) and semi-structured interviews (n = 32) with beneficiaries of peer education. Surveys were administered twice for beneficiaries of peer education (n = 73), immediately after completion of the programme (post-test) and 4 months later (delayed post-test), and once for control group members (n = 110). The three main methodological limitations in this study were the use of a once-off control group assessment as the baseline for comparison, without a pre-test, due to timing and resource constraints; a small sample size (n = 183), which reduced the statistical power of the evaluation; and the unavailability of existing tested survey questions to measure the impact of peer education and its role in behaviour change. This article reports on the difficulties of
Full Text Available HIV prevalence among people who inject drugs (PWID in Ottawa is estimated at about 10%. The successful integration of peers into outreach efforts and wider access to HIV point-of-care testing (POCT create opportunities to explore the role of peers in providing HIV testing. The PROUD study, in partnership with Ottawa Public Health (OPH, sought to develop a model for community-based peer-administered HIV POCT.PROUD draws on community-based participatory research methods to better understand the HIV risk environment of people who use drugs in Ottawa. From March-October 2013, 593 people who reported injecting drugs or smoking crack cocaine were enrolled through street-based recruitment. Trained peer or medical student researchers administered a quantitative survey and offered an HIV POCT (bioLytical INSTI test to participants who did not self-report as HIV positive.550 (92.7% of the 593 participants were offered a POCT, of which 458 (83.3% consented to testing. Of those participants, 74 (16.2% had never been tested for HIV. There was no difference in uptake between testing offered by a peer versus a non-peer interviewer (OR = 1.05; 95% CI = 0.67-1.66. Despite testing those at high risk for HIV, only one new reactive test was identified.The findings from PROUD demonstrate high uptake of community-based HIV POCT. Peers were able to successfully provide HIV POCT and reach participants who had not previously been tested for HIV. Community-based and peer testing models provide important insights on ways to scale-up HIV prevention and testing among people who use drugs.
Razavi, Amir R.; Strommen-Bakhtiar, Abbas; Krause, Paul
The world is currently going through a transitional period, moving from the Service era to the Information era. Rapid societal and technological innovations are changing the way we live, communicate, and work. As the rate of the technological/societal change increases, pressure on educational institutions also increases. This pressure is…
The use of peer education programs to promote sexual health has been widely accepted because of the potential of such programs to be implemented in a cost-effective manner in various settings and because peers are considered more convincing than outsiders. In addition, the thousands of people who have received training to become peer educators constitute a new generation of social work and health professionals who are not embarrassed by sexuality. Problems encountered by peer health education programs include sustainability of volunteers and funding, difficulty in assessing the impact of a program (especially cost-effectiveness), and the lack of appropriate monitoring and evaluation indicators. Given the large turnover of peer educators and the resources needed to provide week-long residential training courses, new methods of training are needed that are less labor intensive and more cost effective. Another problem is that many facilitators of peer health education programs lack a background in health promotion, and sometimes peer education programs for similar audiences compete or send contradictory messages because of a lack of coordination.
Flores, Bob; Weeks, William
Peer Advising in Agricultural Education has been operating since the Fall Semester, 1987, at Texas A & M University. The program involves several undergraduate students nominated by faculty, who are supervised by two doctoral students. Responsibilities of the peer advisors include informing students of campus procedures, assisting in…
Glasman, Laura R; Dickson-Gomez, Julia; Lechuga, Julia; Tarima, Sergey; Bodnar, Gloria; de Mendoza, Lorena Rivas
In El Salvador, crack users are at high risk for HIV but they are not targeted by efforts to promote early HIV diagnosis. We evaluated the promise of peer-referral chains with incentives to increase HIV testing and identify undiagnosed HIV infections among networks of crack users in San Salvador. For 14 months, we offered HIV testing in communities with a high prevalence of crack use. For the following 14 months, we promoted chains in which crack users from these communities referred their peers to HIV testing and received a small monetary incentive. We recorded the monthly numbers of HIV testers, and their crack use, sexual risk behaviors and test results. After launching the referral chains, the monthly numbers of HIV testers increased significantly (Z = 6.90, p < .001) and decayed more slowly (Z = 5.93, p < .001), and the total number of crack-using testers increased nearly fourfold. Testers in the peer-referral period reported fewer HIV risk behaviors, but a similar percentage (~5 %) tested HIV positive in both periods. More women than men received an HIV-positive diagnosis throughout the study (χ(2)(1, N = 799) = 4.23, p = .040). Peer-referral chains with incentives can potentially increase HIV testing among networks of crack users while retaining a focus on high-risk individuals.
Kemper, M; Linke, J; Zahnert, T; Neudert, M
The use of student tutors (peers) is an accepted method in medical education. In 2011, final year students of the otorhinolaryngology (ORL) department of the University Hospital in Dresden were appointed as peers for the clinical ORL examination. They assisted in the instruction of the clinical ORL examination (peer teaching, PT) and served as examiners (peer assessment, PA) in the final objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). The effect on the quality of education and examination was examined. 248 medical students (5(th) year) were divided in 2 groups. They were trained and finally examined in the standardized clinical ORL examination by peers and/or physicians. Group I (n=118) was exclusively trained and examined by physicians and group II (n=130) by peers and physicians. The results of the OSCE were stratified for the 2 groups and in group II for the subgroups according to the instructors' and examiners' qualification (peer or physician). The students evaluated the internship and the instructors' and examiners' quality with a validated questionnaire. In the OSCE, group I scored in the mean 59.9±4.9 points (max. 65). In group II the mean score was 58.3±4.3 points examined by the peers and 59.5±4.8 points for same performance assessed by the physicians. There were no statistical significant differences in the examination results when stratified for the instructors' and examiners' qualification. The evaluation results were consistently positive and identical when compared to the previous year without use of PT and PA and between the 2 groups and subgroups. When using a standardized clinical examination routine peers can be used for PT and PA to appropriate tools in student's medical education without any decrease in the teaching and examination quality. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Peterson, John L.; Bakeman, Roger
The association between perceptions about condom use among one's peers, beliefs about new HIV treatments, and HIV sexual risk behavior was examined in a large urban sample ( N = 454) of gay and bisexual men in the Southeast. Results partially confirmed the hypothesis that men who endorsed new HIV treatment beliefs would report lower norms for…
Martin, Carol Lynn; Fabes, Richard A; Hanish, Laura D
The goals of this chapter are to discuss the theories and evidence concerning the roles of gendered-peer interactions and relationships in children's lives at school. We begin by discussing the tendency of boys and girls to separate into same-sex peer groups and consider the theories and evidence concerning how gender segregation occurs and how peers influence children's learning and development. We then turn to the important and understudied question of why some children have more exposure to same-sex peers than others. We consider factors that contribute to variability in children's experiences with gender segregation such as the types of schools children attend and the kinds of classroom experiences they have with teachers. Finally, we review new evidence concerning the cognitive and affective factors that illustrate that children are actively involved in constructing the social world that surrounds them.
The argument draws on a number of qualitative studies and uses empirical evidence from an evaluation of a peer-led HIV/AIDS-prevention strategy aimed at providing psychosocial support for 10- to 13-year-old South African children living in resource-poor communities. The paper reveals a central paradox regarding how ...
Kellett, Nicole Coffey; Gnauck, Katherine
HIV stigma remains a major problem of the AIDS epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa. Women fear impending social stigma including blame, isolation and abuse. HIV infection and HIV stigma interact cyclically, creating and reinforcing economic and social exclusion for individuals living with HIV. Evidence suggests that interventions for people living with HIV infection that include, in combination, antiretroviral therapy (ART), peer support and economic empowerment are likely to be more effective than if used alone. We report a qualitative study in West Nile Uganda that explored perceptions of HIV stigma among fifty-four HIV-positive women who had similar access to ART and HIV peer support programmes, but varying levels of participation (full-time, intermittent, none) in economic empowerment programmes. Our study found that access to ART, peer support groups, and economic empowerment programmes helped to curb perceptions of deep-seated HIV stigma for participants. More expressions of usefulness, hope and psychological well-being prevailed with participants who had increased participation in economic empowerment programmes. Our findings underscore the value of HIV outreach programmes which combine ART, peer support and economic empowerment to alleviate HIV stigma. Further research to quantify the interaction of these factors is warranted.
Full Text Available Abstract Background While the HIV epidemic is levelling off in sub-Saharan Africa, it remains at an unacceptably high level. Young people aged 15-24 years remain particularly vulnerable, resulting in a regional HIV prevalence of 1.4% in young men and 3.3% in young women. This study assesses the effectiveness of a peer-led HIV prevention intervention in secondary schools in Rwanda on young people’s sexual behavior, HIV knowledge and attitudes. Methods In a non-randomized longitudinal controlled trial, fourteen schools were selected in two neighboring districts in Rwanda Bugesera (intervention and Rwamagana (control. Students (n = 1950 in eight intervention and six control schools participated in three surveys (baseline, six and twelve months in the intervention. Analysis was done using linear and logistic regression using generalized estimation equations adjusted for propensity score. Results The overall retention rate was 72%. Time trends in sexual risk behavior (being sexually active, sex in last six months, condom use at last sex were not significantly different in students from intervention and control schools, nor was the intervention associated with increased knowledge, perceived severity or perceived susceptibility. It did significantly reduce reported stigma. Conclusions Analyzing this and other interventions, we identified several reasons for the observed limited effectiveness of peer education: 1 intervention activities (spreading information are not tuned to objectives (changing behavior; 2 young people prefer receiving HIV information from other sources than peers; 3 outcome indicators are not adequate and the context of the relationship in which sex occurs and the context in which sex occurs is ignored. Effectiveness of peer education may increase through integration in holistic interventions and redefining peer educators’ role as focal points for sensitization and referral to experts and services. Finally, we argue that a
Krishnamurthy, Parthasarathy; Hui, Sam K; Shivkumar, Narayanan; Gowda, Chandrasekhar; Pushpalatha, R
Peer-led outreach is a critical element of HIV and STI-reduction interventions aimed at sex workers. We study the association between peer-led outreach to sex workers and the time to utilize health facilities for timely STI syndromic-detection and treatment. Using data on the timing of peer-outreach interventions and clinic visits, we utilize an Extended Cox model to assess whether peer educator outreach intensity is associated with accelerated clinic utilization among sex workers. Our data comes from 2705 female sex workers registered into Pragati, a women-in-sex-work outreach program, and followed from 2008 through 2012. We analyze this data using an Extended Cox model with the density of peer educator visits in a 30-day rolling window as the key predictor, while controlling for the sex workers' age, client volume, location of sex work, and education level. The principal outcome of interest is the timing of the first voluntary clinic utilization. More frequent peer visit is associated with earlier first clinic visit (HR: 1.83, 95% CI, 1.75-1.91, p educator outreach. Peer outreach density is associated with increased likelihood of-and shortened duration to-clinic utilization among female sex workers, suggesting potential staff resourcing implications. Given the observational nature of our study, however, these findings should be interpreted as an association rather than as a causal relationship.
rate of psychiatric disorders among HIV infected youths. Acute distress usually starts .... reduced to mild depression in only eight (8) of the eighty. (80) children after the ... child with social withdrawal had serious skin lesions. There was a further ...
Most existent research on the effects of interpersonal discussions about health campaign messages is based on surveys. In this study, we analysed actual conversations about an HIV/AIDS poster to find out possible effects. Young South African women in 59 dyads (n = 118) participated in conversations about a deliberately ...
This commentary examines the problem of predatory journals, low-quality open-access journals that seek to earn revenue from scholarly authors without following scholarly publishing best practices. Seeking to accept as many papers as possible, they typically do not perform a standard peer review, leading to the publication of improperly vetted…
Bursztyn, Leonardo; Jensen, Robert
When effort is observable to peers, students may try to avoid social penalties by conforming to prevailing norms. To test this hypothesis, we first consider a natural experiment that introduced a performance leaderboard into computer-based high school courses. The result was a 24 percent performance decline. The decline appears to be driven by a desire to avoid the leaderboard; top performing students prior to the change, those most at risk of appearing on the leaderboard, had a 40 percent performance decline, while poor performing students improved slightly. We next consider a field experiment that offered students complimentary access to an online SAT preparatory course. Sign-up forms differed randomly across students only in whether they said the decision would be kept private from classmates. In nonhonors classes, sign-up was 11 percentage points lower when decisions were public rather than private. Honors class sign-up was unaffected. For students taking honors and nonhonors classes, the response depended on which peers they were with at the time of the offer, and thus to whom their decision would be revealed. When offered the course in a nonhonors class (where peer sign-up rates are low), they were 15 percentage points less likely to sign up if the decision was public. But when offered the course in an honors class (where peer sign-up rates are high), they were 8 percentage points more likely to sign up if the decision was public. Thus, students are highly responsive to their peers are the prevailing norm when they make decisions.
The aim of my critical literature review is to identify studies where students are engaged as partners in teaching in higher education and to analyze how tutors and tutees benefit from peer teaching. Thirty studies were included for review. Thirteen countries are represented and two thirds of the studies conducted in the United States of America…
Mayorga, Mary G.; Oliver, Marvarene
Conflict resolution programs are one part of peer programs offered in schools to enhance the development of life skills of students. This article addresses the need for and role of conflict resolution education in the schools. It then describes several approaches to conflict resolution education. A review of outcome research concerning conflict…
Full Text Available Background: Peer-education programmes aim to bring about attitudinal and behavioural changes in their target audience. In the South African educational context, peer education is a favoured approach in dealing with issues such as HIV and AIDS, sexual decision-making and substance misuse. Given the reliance on peer-education programmes in the educational system, it is important to establish how well they are working. This study aims to assess the effect of an extensive, structured, time-limited, curriculum-based, peer-led educational programme on first-year high school learners in public schools in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. Method: The curriculum called ‘Listen Up’ addresses issues such as supporting peers, sexual decision-making, healthy relationships, HIV risk, alcohol misuse and unwanted pregnancy in seven structured sessions. The programme targeted adolescents in Grade 8 growing up in what are considered to be risky environments in public schools in the Western Cape during 2012 and 2013. The intervention was evaluated based on 10 scales sourced from published literature related to the outcome indicators of future orientation, sensation-seeking, self-efficacy in sexual relations, HIV transmission knowledge, HIV prevention knowledge, HIV attitudes, sexual attitudes, decision-making, healthy relationships and social support. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse demographic and community characteristics and analyses of variance were used to detect differences between groups. The surveys were administered to a total of 7709 learners across three waves of the study in 27 peer intervention schools and eight control schools. Results: Immediately post intervention, statistically significant differences were noted for the intervention schools when compared to their baseline levels on measures of future orientation, self-efficacy in sexual relations, knowledge regarding HIV transmission, knowledge regarding HIV prevention and
Timol, Furzana; Vawda, Mohammed Yacoob; Bhana, Arvin; Moolman, Benita; Makoae, Mokhantso; Swartz, Sharlene
Peer-education programmes aim to bring about attitudinal and behavioural changes in their target audience. In the South African educational context, peer education is a favoured approach in dealing with issues such as HIV and AIDS, sexual decision-making and substance misuse. Given the reliance on peer-education programmes in the educational system, it is important to establish how well they are working. This study aims to assess the effect of an extensive, structured, time-limited, curriculum-based, peer-led educational programme on first-year high school learners in public schools in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. The curriculum called 'Listen Up' addresses issues such as supporting peers, sexual decision-making, healthy relationships, HIV risk, alcohol misuse and unwanted pregnancy in seven structured sessions. The programme targeted adolescents in Grade 8 growing up in what are considered to be risky environments in public schools in the Western Cape during 2012 and 2013. The intervention was evaluated based on 10 scales sourced from published literature related to the outcome indicators of future orientation, sensation-seeking, self-efficacy in sexual relations, HIV transmission knowledge, HIV prevention knowledge, HIV attitudes, sexual attitudes, decision-making, healthy relationships and social support. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse demographic and community characteristics and analyses of variance were used to detect differences between groups. The surveys were administered to a total of 7709 learners across three waves of the study in 27 peer intervention schools and eight control schools. Immediately post intervention, statistically significant differences were noted for the intervention schools when compared to their baseline levels on measures of future orientation, self-efficacy in sexual relations, knowledge regarding HIV transmission, knowledge regarding HIV prevention and knowledge in terms of healthy relationships
high-risk behaviour related to HIV/AIDS, substance abuse, and various forms of crime. Peer supporters .... nator from the Gauteng Department of Education to implement the project in ..... and aggression, and being idealised by their peers.
LUIS BERNARDO PEÑA-BORRERO
Full Text Available This article presents partial results of a qualitative research on the Project of Inquiry (PRIN that takes place in the Psychology Degree Program at Javeriana University. This project is a formative experience focused on the importance of learning investigative abilities, through academic writing. The research was based on peer-tutoring interactions with 85 ethnographic records, which were subjected to an open and axial codification, in accordance to guidelines developed by Strauss and Corbin. The recordswere organized in emerging categories for their interpretation, in order to establish the potential significance of the pedagogic interaction. The results established the advantages of peer-tutoring in the integral progress of students and specifically the promotion of reading and writing abilities at a College level.
Dumenco, Luba; Engle, Deborah L; Goodell, Kristen; Nagler, Alisa; Ovitsh, Robin K; Whicker, Shari A
After participating in a group peer-review exercise at a workshop presented by Academic Medicine and MedEdPORTAL editors at the 2015 Association of American Medical Colleges Medical Education Meeting, the authors realized that the way their work group reviewed a manuscript was very different from the way by which they each would have reviewed the paper as an individual. Further, the group peer-review process yielded more robust feedback for the manuscript's authors than did the traditional individual peer-review process. This realization motivated the authors to reconvene and collaborate to write this Commentary to share their experience and propose the expanded use of group peer review in medical education scholarship.The authors consider the benefits of a peer-review process for reviewers, including learning how to improve their own manuscripts. They suggest that the benefits of a team review model may be similar to those of teamwork and team-based learning in medicine and medical education. They call for research to investigate this, to provide evidence to support group review, and to determine whether specific paper types would benefit most from team review (e.g., particularly complex manuscripts, those receiving widely disparate initial individual reviews). In addition, the authors propose ways in which a team-based approach to peer review could be expanded by journals and institutions. They believe that exploring the use of group peer review potentially could create a new methodology for skill development in research and scholarly writing and could enhance the quality of medical education scholarship.
Powell, Heather L; Segrin, Chris
As family and peers are primary socializing agents in the lives of young adults, a social learning based model of communication about HIV/AIDS among dating partners was developed and tested, examining the role of interactions with family and peers in this type of communication. Specifically, the model describes relationships between general communication, communication about sexuality, and communication about HIV/AIDS with parents, peers, and dating partners. Participants were 153 young adult couples who completed measures of their communication practices, as well as their communication with family and peers. Communication practices in the family of origin appear to influence both general communication and communication about HIV/AIDS with dating partners. Communication practices with peers influenced general communication, communication about sexuality, and communication about HIV/AIDS with dating partners. Participants and their dating partners exhibited relative agreement about their general communication practices and their communication about HIV/AIDS, but showed less agreement in reports of their communication about sexuality. Implications for understanding the role of family and peer interactions in communication about HIV/AIDS with dating partners are discussed.
Taylor, T; Serrano, E; Anderson, J
To explore the influence of administrative aspects of a nutrition education program with peer educators delivering the program. Telephone interviews with peer educators trained to deliver La Cocina Saludable, a nutrition education program for Hispanics. Open- and closed-ended questions. Abuelas (grandmothers) recruited and trained as peer educators for the program. The sample included peer educators no longer teaching (22%), currently teaching (30%), and who never taught after training. Motives and incentives for becoming peer educators, challenges for peer educators, and reasons peer educators withdrew from the program. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze quantitative data from the closed-ended questions. Qualitative analysis was applied to data from open-ended questions. Working with community and learning about nutrition were prime motivators. Recruiting participants and coordination of classes appeared to be major challenges. Personal issues and traveling in a large geographic area were cited as the main reasons for quitting. The effectiveness of using peer educators for La Cocina Saludable may be improved through empowerment, additional training, a structured and equitable reimbursement system, and assistance to carry out administrative tasks.
Brown, Karen M; Rode, Jennifer L
Baccalaureate nursing graduates must possess leadership skills, yet few opportunities exist to cultivate leadership abilities in a clinical environment. Peer-facilitated learning may increase the leadership skills of competence, self-confidence, self-reflection, and role modeling. Facilitating human patient simulation provides opportunities to develop leadership skills. With faculty supervision, senior baccalaureate students led small-group simulation experiences with sophomore and junior peers and then conducted subsequent debriefings. Quantitative and qualitative descriptive data allowed evaluation of students' satisfaction with this teaching innovation and whether the experience affected students' desire to take on leadership roles. Students expressed satisfaction with the peer-facilitated simulation experience and confidence in mastering the content while developing necessary skills for practice. Peer-facilitated simulation provides an opportunity for leadership development and learning. Study results can inform the development of nursing curricula to best develop the leadership skills of nursing students. [J Nurs Educ. 2018;57(1):53-57.]. Copyright 2018, SLACK Incorporated.
Fogg-Rogers, Laura; Lewis, Fay; Edmonds, Juliet
Undergraduate education incorporating active learning and vicarious experience through education outreach presents a critical opportunity to influence future engineering teaching and practice capabilities. Engineering education outreach activities have been shown to have multiple benefits; increasing interest and engagement with science and…
Servilio, Kathryn L.; Hollingshead, Aleksandra; Hott, Brittany L.
In higher education, current teaching evaluation models typically involve senior faculty evaluating junior faculty. However, there is evidence that peer-to-peer junior faculty observations and feedback may be just as effective. This descriptive case study utilized an inductive analysis to examine experiences of six special education early career…
Ding, N.; Harskamp, E.G.
The aim of this study is to examine the effectiveness of collaborative learning with hints and peer tutoring with hints, and individual learning with hints in chemistry laboratory education in a secondary school. A total of 96 eleventh graders participated in this study. The study has a randomized
Henning, Jolene M.; Weidner, Thomas G.; Marty, Melissa C.
Objective: To examine the occurrence, benefits, and preferences for peer assisted learning (PAL) in medical and allied health clinical education, and to identify areas in athletic training which need further research. Data Sources: Using relevant terms, five databases were searched for the period 1980-2006 regarding literature on the use of PAL in…
Purpose: Reports examining graduate employment issues suggest that employers are concerned by the lack of employability skills exhibited by entry-level job applications. It is also suggested that employers consider it the responsibility of educational institutions to develop such skills. The current study seeks to identify peer assessment as a…
Fletcher, Jeffrey A.
There are limited viewpoints in the literature about peer observation of teaching in higher education and how it can be an effective tool to improve the quality of instruction in the classroom (Bell, 2001; Bell, 2005; Bell & Mladenovic, 2008; Brancato, 2003; Chism, 2007; Huston & Weaver, 2008; Shortland, 2004; Shortland, 2010; Smith,…
Salerno-Kennedy, Rossana; Henn, Pat; O'Flynn, Siun
In modern times, peer tutoring methods have been explored in health care education for over 30 years. In this paper, we report our experience of implementing a peer-tutoring approach to Clinical Skills Laboratory (CSL) training in the Graduate Entry in Medicine Programme (GEM) at University College Cork. Eighteen fourth-year medical students were recruited as peer tutors for CSL sessions on physical examination. In order to standardise the process, we developed a training course for peer tutors that comprised two stages. They then ran the practical sessions with junior students, under the watchful eye of medical educators. At the end of the last CSL session, the students were given 10 minutes to reflect individually on the experience, and were asked to complete a feedback form. Twenty-four of the 42 GEM students and six of the seven Senior Tutors (STs) completed and returned their feedback forms. With the caveats of small sample sizes and low response rates, both groups reported that they had both positive and negative experiences of peer tutoring, but that the positive experiences predominated. The overall experience was positive. In terms of the primary thesis of this study, the STs thought that they were well prepared by the teaching staff to take part in these teaching sessions. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2010.
Full Text Available Peer-led outreach is a critical element of HIV and STI-reduction interventions aimed at sex workers. We study the association between peer-led outreach to sex workers and the time to utilize health facilities for timely STI syndromic-detection and treatment. Using data on the timing of peer-outreach interventions and clinic visits, we utilize an Extended Cox model to assess whether peer educator outreach intensity is associated with accelerated clinic utilization among sex workers.Our data comes from 2705 female sex workers registered into Pragati, a women-in-sex-work outreach program, and followed from 2008 through 2012. We analyze this data using an Extended Cox model with the density of peer educator visits in a 30-day rolling window as the key predictor, while controlling for the sex workers' age, client volume, location of sex work, and education level. The principal outcome of interest is the timing of the first voluntary clinic utilization.More frequent peer visit is associated with earlier first clinic visit (HR: 1.83, 95% CI, 1.75-1.91, p < .001. In addition, 18% of all syndrome-based STI detected come from clinic visits in which the sex worker reports no symptoms, underscoring the importance of inducing clinic visits in the detection of STI. Additional models to test the robustness of these findings indicate consistent beneficial effect of peer educator outreach.Peer outreach density is associated with increased likelihood of-and shortened duration to-clinic utilization among female sex workers, suggesting potential staff resourcing implications. Given the observational nature of our study, however, these findings should be interpreted as an association rather than as a causal relationship.
Posner, J; Kayastha, P; Davis, D; Limoges, J; O'Donnell, C; Yue, K
Adolescent girls in Nepal face enormous social barriers to accessing education and health services due to exclusionary socio-religious traditions and years of conflict. The programme and study reported here address two issues that a national assembly of in-school and out-of-school adolescent girls, who had completed a basic life skills class, and, in the case of unschooled girls, an intensive literacy course, identified as important to their well-being - menstrual restrictions and HIV awareness and prevention. Local non-governmental organizations developed a peer education programme in three districts of Nepal that paired girls from different castes and different educational levels. The programme sought to increase peer educators' (PE) leadership and collective efficacy for informing peers and adults in their communities about the effects that these issues have on women and girls. In total, 504 girls were selected and trained as PEs. They conducted targeted discussion sessions with other girls and organised mass awareness events, reaching 20,000 people. Examination of the effects of participating in the programme on key outcome measures showed that leadership self-efficacy, which was a central theoretical construct for the programme, provided a strong predictor of both increased HIV knowledge and of practicing fewer menstrual restrictions at endline. The project demonstrated that girls from different caste and educational backgrounds are able to work together to change individual behaviour and to address socio-cultural norms that affect their lives and well-being within their communities.
Objective: To evaluate the effects of a high school peer educator training programme on the sexual behaviour and related psychosocial outcomes of peer educators. Method: A total of 728 students from 15 randomly selected public high schools in the Western Cape, South Africa, with a peer education programme and 15 ...
Kim, Sunghee; Shin, Gisoo
The purpose of this study was to develop a simulation-based training program for people living with HIV (PLWH) as peer caregivers who would take care of terminally ill, HIV-infected patients. We used qualitative research methods and standardized patients to explore the meaning of caring for patients as peer caregivers. Study participants included 32 patients registered as PLWH at the South Korea Federation for HIV/AIDS. The meanings of peer caregiving were categorized into four dimensions: physical, psychological, relational, and economic. Our study had benefits in knowledge acquisition for caregivers as well as care recipients, empathy with HIV-infected care recipients, improvement in self-esteem and social participation, and financial self-sufficiency to enable independent living for caregivers. The simulation training program for PLWH peer caregivers for terminally ill HIV-infected patients demonstrated value, for both PLWH caregivers and terminally ill HIV-infected patients in South Korea, to improve the quality of care. Copyright © 2015 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Greater involvement of HIV-infected peer-mothers in provision of reproductive health services as "family planning champions" increases referrals and uptake of family planning among HIV-infected mothers.
Mudiope, Peter; Musingye, Ezra; Makumbi, Carolyne Onyango; Bagenda, Danstan; Homsy, Jaco; Nakitende, Mai; Mubiru, Mike; Mosha, Linda Barlow; Kagawa, Mike; Namukwaya, Zikulah; Fowler, Mary Glenn
In 2012, Makerere University Johns - Hopkins University, and Mulago National Referral Hospital, with support from the National Institute of Health (under Grant number: NOT AI-01-023) undertook operational research at Mulago National Hospital PMTCT/PNC clinics. The study employed Peer Family Planning Champions to offer health education, counselling, and triage aimed at increasing the identification, referral and family planning (FP) uptake among HIV positive mothers attending the clinic. The Peer Champion Intervention to improve FP uptake was introduced into Mulago Hospital PMTCT/PNC clinic, Kampala Uganda. During the intervention period, peers provided additional FP counselling and education; assisted in identification and referral of HIV Positive mothers in need of FP services; and accompanied referred mothers to FP clinics. We compiled and compared the average proportions of mothers in need that were referred and took up FP in the pre-intervention (3 months), intervention (6 months), and post-intervention(3 months) periods using interrupted time series with segmented regression models with an autoregressive term of one. Overall, during the intervention, the proportion of referred mothers in need of FP increased by 30.4 percentage points (P family planning can be a valuable addition to clinic staff in limited-resource settings. The study provides additional evidence on the utilization of peer mothers in HIV care, improves health services uptake including family planning which is a common practice in many donor supported programs. It also provides evidence that may be used to advocate for policy revisions in low-income countries to include peers as support staff especially in busy clinic settings with poor services uptake.
Mulder, Raoul A.; Pearce, Jon M.; Baik, Chi
Peer review is integral to academic endeavour, but opportunities for students to benefit from peer review in higher education remain limited, and relatively little is known about how student perceptions influence their appreciation of peer review. University student perceptions were examined before and after experiencing student peer review in…
Binder, Nadine; Schreier, Margrit; Kühnen, Ulrich; Kedzior, Karina Karolina
Increasing internationalization of higher education raises the question of how well institutions prepare their students to integrate into and benefit from cultural diversity on any university campus. The aim of this study was to assess an intercultural peer-to-peer training at Jacobs University Bremen, Germany, that aims to facilitate the…
As the Pokemon game craze illustrates, the combination of peer education and technology makes for powerful educational experiences. Educators need to accept technology-based peer education as a help rather than a hindrance to improve educational outcomes for students. (SLD)
Sarma, Haribondhu; Oliveras, Elizabeth
School-based HIV/AIDS education is a common and well-proven intervention strategy for providing information on HIV/AIDS to young people. However, lack of skills among teachers for imparting sensitive information to students can lead to programme failure in terms of achieving goals. A cross-sectional study was conducted among teachers to identify the factors that support or hinder their role in HIV/AIDS education. A self-administered questionnaire was used for interviewing teachers from randomly-selected schools in two adjacent districts in Bangladesh. Based on exposure to teachers' training, the districts were divided into control and intervention areas and the teachers' ability, skill, and their participation in HIV/AIDS education were compared between the districts. Trained teachers in the intervention schools were more likely to participate, less likely to face difficulties, and more likely to use interactive teaching methods in HIV/ AIDS classes compared to the controls who did not receive any training. Inadequate allocation of time for conducting the HIV/AIDS class was found to be barriers to HIV/AIDS education that suggest the need to provide teachers with more support in terms of training and logistics.
Cunningham, I M; Johnson, I; Lynch, C D
Peer review of teaching (PRT) is well established and valued within higher education. Increasingly, dental educators involved in undergraduate or postgraduate teaching are required to undertake PRT as part of their teaching development. Despite this, there is a paucity of literature relating to PRT within dental education, and none that considers the implementation of PRT within large dental teaching establishments. This article describes in detail a staged process for the planning and implementation of PRT within a UK dental school. It uses relevant educational literature to supplement the authors' experiences and recommendations. By highlighting aspects of the process which are key to successful implementation, it is a useful guide for all dental educator teams who wish to successfully introduce, restructure or refresh a PRT scheme.
Nabunya, Proscovia; Ssewamala, Fred M.; Mukasa, Miriam N.; Byansi, William; Nattabi, Jennifer
Adolescents and young adults in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are particularly vulnerable to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) infection. Adolescents orphaned as a direct result of HIV/AIDS are at an elevated risk of acquiring HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections. However, limited empirical evidence exists on HIV knowledge and prevention programs, especially those designed to address HIV information gaps among adolescents. This study evaluates the effect of a peer mentorship program provided in addition to other supportive services on HIV/AIDS knowledge, beliefs, and prevention attitudes, among school-going orphaned adolescents in southern Uganda. We utilize data from the Bridges to the Future Study, a 5-year longitudinal randomized experimental study funded by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. Out of the 1410 adolescents enrolled in the study (average age = 12.7 at study initiation), 855 of them participated in a nine-session, curriculum based peer mentorship program. We analyzed data collected at baseline and 12-months post intervention initiation. The results from bivariate and regression analysis indicate that, controlling for socioeconomic characteristics, adolescents who participated in a peer mentorship program were more likely than non-participants to report increased scores on HIV/AIDS knowledge(b = .86, 95%CI = .47 – 1.3, p ≤ .001); better scores on desired HIV/AIDS-related beliefs (b = .29, 95%CI = .06 – .52, p ≤ .01); and better scores on HIV/AIDS prevention attitudes (b = .76, 95%CI = .16 – 1.4, p ≤ .01). Overall, the study findings point to the potential role a of peer mentorship program in promoting the much-desired HIV/AIDS knowledge, beliefs, and prevention attitudes among orphaned adolescents. Future programs and policies that support AIDS-orphaned adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa should consider incorporating peer mentoring programs that provide
Peers have a paradoxical influence on each other's educational decisions. On one hand, students are prone to conform to each other's ambitious educational decisions and, on the other hand, are discouraged from ambitious decisions when surrounded by successful peers. In this study I examine how peers influence each other's decision to apply to an…
O'Reilly, Aileen; Barry, James; Neary, Marie-Louise; Lane, Sabrina; O'Keeffe, Lynsey
The use of peer education has been well documented within the discipline of health promotion, but not within the youth mental health domain. This paper describes an evaluation of an innovative schools-based peer education training programme that involved preparing young people to deliver a mental health workshop to their peers. Participants…
Ganser, Stephanie R.; Kennedy, Tricia L.
The emergence of undergraduate students serving in peer leader or peer educator roles is relatively recent in the history of higher education. Peer leadership positions were first recorded in 1959 in the field of student services, specifically working with students entering college and living in residence halls. Beginning with the Hazen Report of…
peer educators' experience of implementing the intervention, personal growth and experience with interacting with young people, and .... aimed to improve the knowledge of high school ..... peer leadership can result in changes of attitude in.
Turner, G; Shepherd, J
Peer education has grown in popularity and practice in recent years in the field of health promotion. However, advocates of peer education rarely make reference to theories in their rationale for particular projects. In this paper the authors review a selection of commonly cited theories, and examine to what extent they have value and relevance to peer education in health promotion. Beginning from an identification of 10 claims made for peer education, each theory is examined in terms of the scope of the theory and evidence to support it in practice. The authors conclude that, whilst most theories have something to offer towards an explanation of why peer education might be effective, most theories are limited in scope and there is little empirical evidence in health promotion practice to support them. Peer education would seem to be a method in search of a theory rather than the application of theory to practice.
Benè, Kristen L; Bergus, George
Peer teaching engages students as teachers and is widely used in K-12 education, many universities, and increasingly in medical schools. It draws on the social and cognitive congruence between learner and teacher and can be attractive to medical schools faced with a growing number of learners but a static faculty size. Peer teachers can give lectures on assigned topics, lead problem-based learning sessions, and provide one on one support to classmates in the form of tutoring. We undertook a narrative review of research on peer teachers in medical school, specifically investigating how medical students are impacted by being peer teachers and how having a peer teacher impacts learners. Studies have shown that peer teaching has a primarily positive impact on both the peer teacher and the learners. In the setting of problem-based learning courses or clinical skills instruction, medical students' performance on tests of knowledge or skills is similar whether they have faculty instructors or peer teachers. There is also strong evidence that being a peer teacher enhances the learning of the peer teacher relative to the content being taught. It is common for peer teachers to lack confidence in their abilities to successfully teach, and they appreciate receiving training related to their teaching role. We find evidence from several different educational settings that peer teaching benefits both the peer teachers and the learners. This suggests that peer teaching is a valuable methodology for medical schools to engage learners as teachers.
Justice, Laura M; Logan, Jessica A R; Lin, Tzu-Jung; Kaderavek, Joan N
There has been a push in recent years for students with disabilities to be educated alongside their typically developing peers, a practice called inclusion. In this study, we sought to determine whether peer effects operate within early-childhood special-education (ECSE) classrooms in which preschoolers with disabilities are educated alongside typical peers. Peer effects specific to language growth were assessed for 670 preschoolers (mean age = 52 months) in 83 ECSE classrooms; 55% of the children had disabilities. We found that the average language skills of classmates, as assessed in the fall of the year, significantly predicted children's language skills in the spring (after controlling for their relative skill level in the fall); in addition, there was a significant interactive effect of disability status (i.e., the presence or absence of a disability) and peers' language skills. Peer effects were the least consequential for children without disabilities whose classmates had relatively strong language skills, and the most consequential for children with disabilities whose classmates had relatively poor language skills. © The Author(s) 2014.
Full Text Available Raj K Patel King’s College Hospital, London, UK Context: Anticoagulant options for the management of venous thromboembolism (VTE now include the non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs. The safe and effective integration of these agents into routine clinical practice within different health care settings presents common challenges. Bayer AG created the INternational Network fOr Venous and Arterial Thrombosis Excellence in practice (INNOVATE program as a professional education network to foster best practice in thrombosis management in the NOAC era.Concept and format: Since 2013, INNOVATE has been run as a series of educational 1.5‑day global meetings at VTE centers of excellence. The format is based on expert-led discussion rather than lectures; all participants are encouraged to share their own expertise and experience. Through peer-to-peer exchange, less experienced professionals from an array of specialties learn from others in a small-group interactive setting. This format encourages positive engagement and discussion, and the establishment of relationships between health care professionals from different countries.Expansion and localization: INNOVATE has successfully expanded to cover a broad spectrum of thromboembolic disorders in which anticoagulation with NOACs plays an important role; now including specific meetings focusing on the management of patients in the community. Local meetings are run in many countries in the local language, facilitating discussion and ensuring applicability to local or regional issues.Implementing learnings: INNOVATE delegates have provided consistently positive feedback and have used their attendance to create and improve thrombosis management pathways in their own institutions. Overseen by a Steering Committee, the program responds to feedback, evolving to meet the needs of participants.Conclusion: By showcasing best practice in the care of patients requiring anticoagulation, INNOVATE
Barnard, A.; Nash, R.; McEvoy, K.; Shannon, S.; Waters, C.; Rochester, S.; Bolt, S.
Peer review of teaching is recognized increasingly as one strategy for academic development even though historically peer review of teaching is often unsupported by policy, action and culture in many Australian universities. Higher education leaders report that academics generally do not engage with peer review of teaching in a systematic or…
Wiskochil, Brian; Lieberman, Lauren J.; Houston-Wilson, Cathy; Petersen, Susan
This study examined the effect of trained peer tutors on the academic learning time-physical education (ALT-PE) scores of children with visual impairments. It found a mean increase of 20.8% for ALT-PE and increases in ALT-PE scores for closed and open skills and that trained peer tutors were more effective than were untrained peer tutors.
Heenatigala, Thilina; Russo, Pedro; Gomez, Edward; Strubbe, Linda
Astronomy educators and teachers worldwide commonly request and search for high-quality astronomy activities to do with their students. Hundreds of astronomy education activities exist, as well as many resource repositories to find them. However, the quality of such resources is highly variable as they are not updated regularly or limited with content review. Since its launch in 2013, astroEDU has been addressing these issues and more by following a peer-review process. Each activity submitted is reviewed by an educator and a professional astronomer, balancing both the scientific and educational value of the content. Moreover, the majority of the reviewers are invited from IAU commissions related to the field of the activity, as an effort to get IAU members actively involved in the project. The website code, activities and layout design are open-access in order to make them accessible and adoptable for educators around the world. Furthermore the platform harnesses the OAD volunteer database to develop existing astronomy education activities into the astroEDU activity format. Published activities are also pushed to partner repositories and each activity is registered for DOI, allowing authors to cite their work. To further test the activities and improve the platform, astroEDU editorial team organises workshops.
McMahon, Sarah; Postmus, Judy L.; Warrener, Corinne; Koenick, Ruth Anne
To address the widespread problem of sexual assault, many colleges and universities are providing primary prevention education programs. Although a number of such programs exist and appear in the literature (for review see Vladutiu, Martin, & Macy, 2011), the role of peer education theater offers a unique approach. Peer education has been…
Weeks, Lori E.; Bryanton, Olive; McInnis-Perry, Gloria; Chaulk, Paul
There continues to be lack of public awareness about elder abuse. To help address this issue, we developed and piloted an elder abuse peer educator training program from an educational gerontology and health empowerment perspective. We describe the process employed to train older adults as peer educators. We present evaluation results from data…
Bester, Lucas; Muller, Gregg; Munge, Brendon; Morse, Marcus; Meyers, Noel
Near-peer teaching is used within higher education because of its efficacy for both student teachers and learners. Our purpose in this paper is to highlight the possibilities of applying near-peer teaching pedagogies in outdoor and environmental higher education contexts. We begin by reviewing its use in the higher education sector, mainly…
de Vreede, Catherine; Warner, Alan; Pitter, Robert
Peer education is an understudied yet valuable strategy for sustainability educators in shifting youth to take action for sustainability. This case study conceptualizes the change process in facilitating youth to take sustainability actions, and explores the benefits, dynamics, and challenges of peer education as a strategy in facilitating change.…
Murphy Tighe, Sylvia; Bradshaw, Carmel
This paper outlines the value of peer-supported review of teaching for nurse and midwifery educators in an academic environment. Reflection and continuing professional development are important tenets of an educators' practice and can be addressed via peer observation. Definitions and models of peer observation are presented. The strengths and challenges associated with peer-supported review of teaching are discussed. The reasons why peer observation is underutilised are explored with some suggestions on how to overcome these challenges. Recent developments in relation to peer observation and peer-supported review are outlined. The need for tangible evidence of development and enhancement of existing teaching expertise is very pronounced in the current economic climate, it is concluded that peer-supported review of teaching can provide such evidence. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kendra Lowery; Rachel Geesa; Kat McConnell
Objectives: In preparation for creating a peer-mentoring program for education doctorate (EdD) students, we conducted a literature review to learn about the characteristics of peer-mentoring programs for graduate students and EdD students specifically. Method: Our search criteria included articles about peer mentoring for graduate students only; published in peer-reviewed journals since the year 2000; and about programs that involved more experienced students, students farther along in t...
Gatlin, Tricia K; Serafica, Reimund; Johnson, Michael
To systematically review published randomised controlled trials of peer education interventions among adults with type 2 diabetes. Systematic reviews have shown mixed results for peer support interventions to improve diabetes self-management. Given the effectiveness of diabetes education by healthcare professionals, peer education interventions may be a useful alternative approach. This review addressed that gap. Systematic review. A systematic search of published randomised controlled trials between 2006-2016 was conducted using the keywords diabetes, type 2 diabetes, randomised controlled trials, self-management, peer education and peer support. The methodological quality of each study was assessed using the Jadad scale. Seven studies were included in the final review, and the Jadad scores ranged from 8-10 of a possible 13 points. There was no consistent design, setting, or outcome measurement among the studies. There were two types of peer education interventions compared to traditional diabetes education: face-to-face or a combination of face-to-face and telephone/texting. The most common clinical outcome measure was HbA1c. Two of six studies showed statistically significant improvement in HbA1c between intervention and control groups. An increase in diabetes knowledge was also statistically significant in two of five studies. Peer education could be successful in improving clinical outcomes. No evidence was found indicating that healthcare provider education was superior in regard to clinical knowledge or behavioural or psychological outcome measures than peer education. HbA1c was statistically significantly lower in some peer education groups compared to control groups. There is evidence that peer education can be useful in achieving positive clinical outcomes such as decreasing HbA1c levels and increasing diabetes knowledge. A certified diabetes educator or a trained healthcare professional should not be overlooked though when using peer educators. © 2017
Small, La Fleur F.
Despite being one of the fastest growing segments of the HIV/AIDS caseload, persons age 50 and older have been largely neglected in terms of HIV/AIDS education. This study describes a project involving HIV-related health education for persons [greater than or equal] 50 in an urban area of Ohio. Data from 50 persons age [greater than or equal] 50…
Full Text Available A substantial proportion of persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA delay, decline, or discontinue antiretroviral therapy (ART when it is medically indicated (40-45%, largely African Americans and Latinos/Hispanics. This study explores the feasibility of locating PLHA who are not on ART (PLHA-NOA through clinics and peer referral; compares the two cohorts on multi-level barriers to ART; and examines readiness to initiate/reinitiate ART, a predictor of treatment outcomes. We recruited adult HIV-infected African American and Latino/Hispanic PLHA-NOA through HIV hospital clinics and peer referral in 2012-13. Participants engaged in structured one-hour assessments with reliable/valid measures on barriers to ART. We found recruitment through peers (63.2%, 60/95 was more feasible than in clinics (36.8%, 35/90. Participants were 48.0 years old and had lived with HIV for 14.7 years on average, and 56.8% had taken ART previously. Most (61.1% were male and African American (76.8%, and 23.2% were Latino/Hispanic. Peer-recruited participants were older, had lived with HIV longer, were less engaged in HIV care, and were more likely to have taken ART previously. The cohorts differed in reasons for discontinuing ART. Levels of ART knowledge were comparable between cohorts (68.5% correct, and there were no differences in attitudes toward ART (e.g., mistrust, which were in the neutral range. In bivariate linear regression, readiness for ART was negatively associated with physician mistrust (B=-10.4, and positively associated with self-efficacy (B=5.5, positive outcome expectancies (B=6.3, beliefs about personal necessity of ART (B=17.5, and positive internal norms (B=7.9. The present study demonstrates the feasibility of engaging this vulnerable population through peer referral. Peer-recruited PLHA evidence particularly high rates of risk factors compared those in clinics. Interventions to support ART initiation and continuation are sorely needed for both subgroups.
Munthali, Tendai; Musonda, Patrick; Mee, Paul; Gumede, Sehlulekile; Schaap, Ab; Mwinga, Alwyn; Phiri, Caroline; Kapata, Nathan; Michelo, Charles; Todd, Jim
The extent to which routinely collected HIV data from Zambia has been used in peer-reviewed published articles remains unexplored. This paper is an analysis of peer-reviewed articles that utilised routinely collected HIV data from Zambia within six programme areas from 2004 to 2014. Articles on HIV, published in English, listed in the Directory of open access journals, African Journals Online, Google scholar, and PubMed were reviewed. Only articles from peer-reviewed journals, that utilised routinely collected data and included quantitative data analysis methods were included. Multi-country studies involving Zambia and another country, where the specific results for Zambia were not reported, as well as clinical trials and intervention studies that did not take place under routine care conditions were excluded, although community trials which referred patients to the routine clinics were included. Independent extraction was conducted using a predesigned data collection form. Pooled analysis was not possible due to diversity in topics reviewed. A total of 69 articles were extracted for review. Of these, 7 were excluded. From the 62 articles reviewed, 39 focused on HIV treatment and retention in care, 15 addressed prevention of mother-to-child transmission, 4 assessed social behavioural change, and 4 reported on voluntary counselling and testing. In our search, no articles were found on condom programming or voluntary male medical circumcision. The most common outcome measures reported were CD4+ count, clinical failure or mortality. The population analysed was children in 13 articles, women in 16 articles, and both adult men and women in 33 articles. During the 10 year period of review, only 62 articles were published analysing routinely collected HIV data in Zambia. Serious consideration needs to be made to maximise the utility of routinely collected data, and to benefit from the funds and efforts to collect these data. This could be achieved with government support
Sule, Amiru; Abdullah, Farah Aini
A mathematical model which describes the transmission dynamics of HIV/AIDS is developed. The optimal control representing education and treatment for this model is explored. The existence of optimal Control is established analytically by the use of optimal control theory. Numerical simulations suggest that education and treatment for the infected has a positive impact on HIV/AIDS control.
van Laren, Linda
In South Africa, the HIV&AIDS education policy documents indicate opportunities for integration across disciplines/subjects. There are different interpretations of integration/inclusion and mainstreaming HIV&AIDS education, and numerous levels of integration. Integration ensures that learners experience the disciplines/subjects as being linked and related, and integration is required to support and expand the learners' opportunities to attain skills, acquire knowledge and develop attitudes and values across the curriculum. This study makes use of self-study methodology where I, a teacher educator, aim to improve my practice through including HIV&AIDS statistics in Mathematics Education. This article focuses on how I used HIV&AIDS statistics to facilitate pre-service teacher reflection and introduce them to integration of HIV&AIDS education across the curriculum. After pre-service teachers were provided with HIV statistics, they drew a pie chart which graphically illustrated the situation and reflected on issues relating to HIV&AIDS. Three themes emerged from the analysis of their reflections. The themes relate to the need for further HIV&AIDS education, the changing pastoral role of teachers and the changing context of teaching. This information indicates that the use of statistics is an appropriate means of initiating the integration of HIV&AIDS education into the academic curriculum.
Sevenhuysen, Samantha L.; Nickson, Wendy; Farlie, Melanie K.; Raitman, Lyn; Keating, Jennifer L.; Molloy, Elizabeth; Skinner, Elizabeth; Maloney, Stephen; Haines, Terry P.
Demand for clinical placements in physiotherapy education continues to outstrip supply. Peer assisted learning, in various formats, has been trialled to increase training capacity and facilitate student learning during clinical education. There are no documented examples of measurable or repeatable peer assisted learning models to aid clinicians…
This article presents a case study of the peer review process for a feminist article submitted to an engineering education journal. It demonstrates how an examination of peer review can be a useful approach to further understanding the development of feminist thought in education fields. Rather than opposition to feminist thought per se, my…
Ehrhardt, Britt L.; Krumboltz, John D.; Koopman, Cheryl
Peer sexual health education programs are widespread on college campuses, but little research has assessed the effect of these programs on the peer educators. This study employed a repeated measures design to examine changes over the academic quarter in the knowledge, counseling self-efficacy, and sexual behavior of 70 college students enrolled in…
Roy, Anupama; Sharples, Mike
This paper describes an investigatory project to pilot an SMS based game to enhance the training of peer educators of MSM (Males having Sex with Males) groups in India. The objective of this research was to increase the efficacy of the MSM peer educators by bridging the gap between the training needs and their real life experiences. An SMS based…
The purpose of this study was to investigate interactions between two doctoral students and their colleagues in a graduate music education program and determine how a community of peer interactions functions as a resource to prepare music teacher educators. Results of this study showed that peer interactions between two participants and other…
Jaworsky, Denise; Larkin, June; Sriranganathan, Gobika; Clout, Jerri; Janssen, Jesse; Campbell, Lisa; Flicker, Sarah; Stadnicki, Dan; Erlich, Leah; Flynn, Susan
Although peer sexual health education is a common form of sexual health promotion for youth, systematic reviews of these programs are relatively rare. In this study we interviewed youth peer educators to inquire about their experience of program evaluation and their perception of what is needed to develop effective evaluation practices. Data were…
Influence of culture and religion on HIV and sexuality education among South African ... the prevailing religious and cultural tolerance sexuality education is receiving. ... was mainly driven by their own cultural and religious values and beliefs.
Nicol, David; Thomson, Avril; Breslin, Caroline
Peer review is a reciprocal process whereby students produce feedback reviews on the work of peers and receive feedback reviews from peers on their own work. Prior research has primarily examined the learning benefits that result from the receipt of feedback reviews, with few studies specifically exploring the merits of producing feedback reviews…
Nov 28, 2016 ... sexual relations, knowledge regarding HIV transmission, knowledge regarding HIV prevention and knowledge in terms of ... relatives aux indicateurs de résultats sur les orientations futures, ..... their biological mother.
Rempel, Lynn A; Moore, Katrina C J
To evaluate a prenatal breast-feeding class developed and facilitated by peer Breast-feeding Buddies. Non-equivalent control group quasi-experimental study comparing participants of the peer-led class (PLC) to those attending an established hospital-based breast-feeding nurse-led class (NLC). A brief questionnaire was completed immediately prior to the class, and telephone interviews were conducted approximately one week following the class, and one and six months post partum. 54 expectant mothers who registered for the community PLC and 55 expectant mothers who registered for the NLC. Breast-feeding intentions were measured at all time-points. Class evaluations, breast-feeding experiences, and breast-feeding support were measured at all post-class interviews. Both classes were considered worthwhile, but the PLC class was rated as more helpful and participants appreciated learning from the peers' personal experiences. Mothers taught by peers were more likely to access peer breast-feeding support. PLC participants initially decreased their prenatal breast-feeding duration intentions but had significantly stronger intentions to continue breast feeding at six months than did NLC mothers. A peer-led prenatal breast-feeding class is as effective as a traditional model of breast-feeding education and is a valuable tool to promote and support successful breast feeding. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Peer-led breast-feeding classes should be provided to enhance the accessibility of breast-feeding education and support for expectant mothers. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tai, Joanna Hong Meng; Canny, Benedict J; Haines, Terry P; Molloy, Elizabeth K
Phenomenon: Peer learning has many benefits and can assist students in gaining the educational skills required in future years when they become teachers themselves. Peer learning may be particularly useful in clinical learning environments, where students report feeling marginalized, overwhelmed, and unsupported. Educational interventions often fail in the workplace environment, as they are often conceived in the "ideal" rather than the complex, messy real world. This work sought to explore barriers and facilitators to implementing peer learning activities in a clinical curriculum. Previous peer learning research results and a matrix of empirically derived peer learning activities were presented to local clinical education experts to generate discussion around the realities of implementing such activities. Potential barriers and limitations of and strategies for implementing peer learning in clinical education were the focus of the individual interviews. Thematic analysis of the data identified three key considerations for real-world implementation of peer learning: culture, epistemic authority, and the primacy of patient-centered care. Strategies for peer learning implementation were also developed from themes within the data, focusing on developing a culture of safety in which peer learning could be undertaken, engaging both educators and students, and establishing expectations for the use of peer learning. Insights: This study identified considerations and strategies for the implementation of peer learning activities, which took into account both educator and student roles. Reported challenges were reflective of those identified within the literature. The resultant framework may aid others in anticipating implementation challenges. Further work is required to test the framework's application in other contexts and its effect on learner outcomes.
Ten Cate, Olle; Durning, Steven
To provide an estimation of how often peer teaching is applied in medical education, based on reports in the literature and to summarize reasons that support the use of this form of teaching. We surveyed the 2006 medical education literature and categorised reports of peer teaching according to educational distance between students teaching and students taught, group size, and level of formality of the teaching. Subsequently, we analysed the rationales for applying peer teaching. Most reports were published abstracts in either Medical Education's annual feature 'Really Good Stuff' or the AMEE's annual conference proceedings. We identified twelve distinct reasons to apply peer teaching, including 'alleviating faculty teaching burden', 'providing role models for junior students', 'enhancing intrinsic motivation' and 'preparing physicians for their future role as educators'. Peer teaching appears to be practiced often, but many peer teaching reports do not become full length journal articles. We conclude that specifically 'near-peer teaching' appears beneficial for student teachers and learners as well as for the organisation. The analogy of the 'journeyman', as intermediate between 'apprentice' and 'master', with both learning and teaching tasks, is a valuable but yet under-recognized source of education in the medical education continuum.
Conclusion: The students’ points of view showed that peer groups and sports have a very high effect on education and training process thus leading to the improvement of social relationship and increasinglearning in different groups. Therefore, strengthening the peer groups and sport teams in educational environments has a very important influence on socialization of teenagers and youth thereby facilitating the acquisition of life skills and learning process and thus the education and training development in society
Klassen, Benjamin J; Lachowsky, Nathan J; Lin, Sally Yue; Edward, Joshua B; Chown, Sarah A; Hogg, Robert S; Moore, David M; Roth, Eric A
Effective rollout of HIV treatment-based prevention such as pre-exposure prophylaxis and treatment as prevention has been hampered by poor education, limited acceptability, and stigma among gay men. We undertook a thematic analysis regarding the education sources and acceptability of these New Prevention Technologies (NPTs) using 15 semistructured interviews with gay men in Vancouver, Canada, who were early adopters of NPTs. NPT education was derived from a variety of sources, including the Internet, health care providers, community organizations, sexual partners, and peers; participants also emphasized their own capacities as learners and educators. Acceptable forms of NPT education featured high-quality factual information, personal testimony, and easy access. Stigma was highlighted as a major barrier. For public health, policy makers, and gay communities to optimize the personal and population benefits of NPTs, there is a need for increased community support and dialogue, antistigma efforts, early NPT adopter testimony, and personalized implementation strategies.
Mason-Jones, Amanda J; Mathews, Catherine; Flisher, Alan J
Peer education is popular both with governments and with young people. The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a government-led peer education program on the self-reported sexual health behavior and related psychosocial outcomes of adolescent students in public high schools in the Western Cape of South Africa. Grade 10 students (n = 3934), at 30 public high schools (15 intervention, 15 comparison) were recruited to the study. In the intervention schools, peer educators were recruited and trained to provide information and support to their fellow students. Sexual health behaviors and related psychosocial outcomes of students were measured at baseline and at follow up 18 months later. Comparisons were made between those in the intervention and comparison group schools. We were unable to detect a significant difference in the age of sexual debut, use of condoms at last sex, goal orientation, decision-making or future orientation for students in the intervention group as compared to students in the comparison group. The findings suggest that the peer education program was not effective in reducing the age of sexual debut or condom use. Issues around the implementation of the program suggested that this was sub-optimal. Governments who advocate widespread use of peer education as an approach need to recognise barriers to implementation and ensure ongoing monitoring and evaluation of effectiveness and cost effectiveness.
Al-Maqrashi, Zainab; Al-Lawati, Yasser; Al-Sadi, Amira; Al-Wahaiby, Malak; Lakhtakia, Ritu
'Walk with us…' reflects on a series of innovative educational journeys that have offered value addition in cancer education of health professions students. It provides an insight into interdisciplinary peer education through extra-curricular pathways. It taps on student creativity and inspirational techniques in health education that stimulate student-centered learning.
It can be concluded that HIV/AIDS is having a serious impact on the fiscal situation of tertiary institutions in much the same ways as it does on other institutions. It is, therefore, imperative for higher education institutions to respond to HIV/AIDS for their own benefit and that of their broader stakeholders. Early action will reap ...
Goza, Franklin; Ryabov, Igor
Little attention has been paid to the role of peer social capital in the school context, especially as a predictor of adolescents' academic outcomes. This study uses a nationally representative (N = 13,738, female = 51%), longitudinal sample and multilevel models to examine how peer networks impact educational achievement and attainment. Results…
Skaniakos, Terhi; Penttinen, Leena; Lairio, Marjatta
Peer mentoring is one of the most important guidance practices for first-year students entering higher education and academic life. We are interested in mentors' roles and apply the ideas of group counseling in order to increase the understanding of peer mentoring. Other aspects of guidance--content, methods, and collaboration--are approached on…
Athletes can be involved as role models and leaders--in collaboration with coaches and other staff--to enhance life skills and prevent substance use among their peers. "Drugs in Sport" is a peer education program involving collegiate athletes visiting middle schools to speak with school children. This article discusses the structure of the Drugs…
The aim of this study is to investigate the use of WhatsApp application in anonymous peer assessment in higher education. The mobile phone application WhatsApp was used as both an anonymous and nonanonymous peer assessment tool in a classroom environment. The participants of the study were the students of two classes (sophomores and juniors), half…
Linda van Laren
Full Text Available Since 1999, many South African education policy documents have mandated integration of HIV & AIDS education in learning areas/disciplines. Policy document research has shown that although South African politicians and managers have produced volumes of eloquent and compelling legislation regarding provision for HIV & AIDS education, little of this is translated into action. The impact of HIV & AIDS permeates the social, economic and political arenas in South Africa. Integration of HIV & AIDS education across disciplines can serve as a strategy to further the ideals of social justice. This paper focuses on how integration in the teaching and learning of Mathematics Education provides opportunities to take action for social justice. The inquiry explores the following question: How can the myth that there is 'nothing we can do' about HIV & AIDS, which is linked to social justice issues, be addressed through integration of HIV & AIDS education in Mathematics pre-service teacher education? Drawing on self-study, the work of a Mathematics teacher educator who worked with pre-service teachers to integrate HIV & AIDS education at a higher education institution is described. By considering integration of HIV & AIDS education in Mathematics Education and taking action it is possible to develop strategies which directly relate to social justice.
van Laren, Linda
Since 1999, many South African education policy documents have mandated integration of HIV & AIDS education in learning areas/disciplines. Policy document research has shown that although South African politicians and managers have produced volumes of eloquent and compelling legislation regarding provision for HIV & AIDS education, little…
Pawlicki, T [UC San Diego Medical Center, La Jolla, CA (United States); Brown, D; Dunscombe, P [Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, AB (Canada); Mutic, S [Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, MO (United States)
Pawlicki, T; Brown, D; Dunscombe, P; Mutic, S
Andrew, Megan; Flashman, Jennifer
School transitions are a regular feature of the educational career. While they are of general interest as instances of academic change, they also represent instances of peer environment and influence change. Previous theoretical and empirical work suggests peer influence is important for students' academic and educational outcomes, especially for the complex decision-making processes leading up to those outcomes. In this manuscript, we study the impact of peers on educational expectation formation at the 8th-to-9th-grade school transition. In doing so, we test a theoretical model that links institutional settings, social influence, and individual decision-making. We find the 9th grade transition likely represents a negative shock for students' college attendance expectations. Independent of this transition, however, stable peer environments further depress expectations. A more equal mixture of new and old peers in the 9th grade likely increases students' educational expectations in contrast. These effects of peer perturbations and the re-organization of social ties they imply mainly apply to female students. But, both male and female students revise their educational expectations in light of changing peer intelligence comparisons, albeit in countervailing ways. Copyright Â© 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Febres-Cordero, Belen; Brouwer, Kimberly C; Rocha-Jimenez, Teresita; Fernandez-Casanueva, Carmen; Morales-Miranda, Sonia; Goldenberg, Shira M
Migrant women engaged in precarious employment, such as sex work, frequently face pronounced social isolation alongside other barriers to health and human rights. Although peer support has been identified as a critical HIV and violence prevention intervention for sex workers, little is known about access to peer support or its role in shaping health and social outcomes for migrant sex workers. This article analyses the role of peer support in shaping vulnerability and resilience related to HIV/STI prevention and violence among international migrant sex workers at the Mexico-Guatemala border. This qualitative study is based on 31 semi-structured interviews conducted with international migrant sex workers in the Mexico-Guatemala border communities of Tapachula, Mexico and Tecún Umán and Quetzaltenango, Guatemala. Peer support was found to be critical for reducing social isolation; improving access to HIV/STI knowledge, prevention and resources; and mitigating workplace violence, particularly at the initial stages of migration and sex work. Peer support was especially critical for countering social isolation, and peers represented a valuable source of HIV/STI prevention knowledge and resources (e.g., condoms), as well as essential safety supports in the workplace. However, challenges to accessing peer support were noted, including difficulties establishing long-lasting relationships and other forms of social participation due to frequent mobility, as well as tensions among peers within some work environments. Variations in access to peer support related to country of work, work environment, sex work and migration stage, and sex work experience were also identified. Results indicate that peer-led and community empowerment interventions represent a promising strategy for promoting the health, safety and human rights of migrant sex workers. Tailored community empowerment interventions addressing the unique migration-related contexts and challenges faced by migrant sex
Van der Heijden, Ingrid; Swartz, Sharlene
In addressing the psychosocial effects of the HIV and AIDS pandemic among vulnerable children, the issue of bereavement appears inadequately addressed. Amid the global discourse on children orphaned and made vulnerable by HIV and AIDS, this paper explores how cultural contexts and social environments in South Africa shape children's experience of grief. The argument draws on a number of qualitative studies and uses empirical evidence from an evaluation of a peer-led HIV/AIDS-prevention strategy aimed at providing psychosocial support for 10- to 13-year-old South African children living in resource-poor communities. The paper reveals a central paradox regarding how the intervention's objective of talking about death and eliciting memories of deceased loved ones with young children is confounded by cultural practices located in notions of silence and the need to protect children. The paper acknowledges the 'culture of silence' surrounding death in some African contexts, but concludes that peer-led strategies have the potential to naturally circumvent these cultural taboos, simultaneously creating a much-needed space for young children to cry and talk among themselves, even if remaining silent at home in the presence of adults.
A peer evaluation of the community-based education programme for medical ... The University of Zimbabwe College of Health Sciences (UZCHS), Harare, which ... of community-based activities and the availability of a large teaching platform, ...
Peer-led health promotion strategies in schools have been found to be effective in ... that addressing the risk factors for non-communicable diseases such as physical activity participation and diet, ..... Sport, Physical Education and Recreation,.
González, Lorena; Elgart, Jorge Federico; Gagliardino, Juan José
Inadequate quality of care provided to people with type 2 diabetes mellitus, generates a significant socioeconomic burden and a serious public health problem. Diabetes education through peers with diabetes is an alternative to that provided by professional educators (traditional education) which achieves non-inferior results. However, there is little evidence of cost-effectiveness of education trough peers over traditional education. To evaluate cost-effectiveness of education of people with type 2 diabetes mellitus, during a year, by a team of professional educators (traditional education) versus education and support delivered by trained peers with diabetes. Cost-effectiveness analysis based on a randomized prospective clinical study conducted in the city of La Plata, including 199 people with type 2 diabetes mellitus, divided in two groups:, one receiving traditional education and another receiving the same education but delivered by peer educators with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Change in glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) was considered as a primary indicator of effectiveness and secondary indicators were others, such as body mass index, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol and triglyceride levels. The direct cost of each strategy was estimated based on resources used in the trial, evaluating three cost scenarios for peer education. The strength of the results was assessed by univariate sensitivity analysis. Cost per unit decrease (%) in HbA1c: traditional education: $2 621; peer education: $1 508, $1 779 y $2 071 for each of the three scenarios considered (scenario 1, scenario 2, scenario 3), respectively. For each $100 invested a decrease of 0.04% in the HbA1c with traditional education was achieved; and 0.07% in scenario 1; 0.06% in scenario 2 and 0.05% in scenario 3, with education delivered by peer educators. Sensitivity analysis showed the strength of the results. Education of type 2 diabetes mellitus
Roy, Anupama; Sharples, Mike
This paper describes an investigatory project to pilot an SMS based game to enhance the training of peer educators of MSM (Males having Sex with Males) groups in India. The objective of this research was to increase the efficacy of the MSM peer educators by bridging the gap between the training needs and their real life experiences. An SMS based game was designed using participatory approaches as a learning support, upholding their real life experiences in game form. The game was designed on ...
Chen, J Q; Dunne, M P; Zhao, D C
This study assessed the preparedness of school health personnel to develop and deliver HIV/AIDS prevention education programmes for young people in China. A survey of 653 personnel working in secondary schools in 14 cities was conducted. More than 90% had basic knowledge of ways in which HIV can be transmitted, but knowledge of ways in which the virus is not transmitted needs improvement. Substantial numbers of teachers were not sure whether there was an effective preventive vaccine (42%) or did not know whether AIDS was a curable illness or not (32%). The great majority approved of AIDS prevention programmes in universities (98%) and secondary schools (91%), although fewer (58%) agreed that the topic was appropriate for primary schools. Currently, most classroom activities focuses on teaching facts about HIV/AIDS transmission, while less than half are taught about HIV/AIDS related discrimination and life skills to reduce peer pressure. Personnel with some prior training on HIV/ AIDS education (53%) had better factual knowledge, more tolerant attitudes and more confidence in teaching about HIV/AIDS than those without training. The majority of teachers indicated a need for more resource books, audiovisual products, expert guidance, school principal support and dissemination of national AIDS prevention education guidelines to schools.
Maman, Suzanne; Kajula, Lusajo; Balvanz, Peter; Kilonzo, Mrema; Mulawa, Marta; Yamanis, Thespina
Gender inequality is at the core of the HIV patterns that are evident in sub-Saharan Africa. Gender-based violence (GBV) and lack of economic opportunity are important structural determinants of HIV risk. We piloted a microfinance and health promotion intervention among social networks of primarily young men in Dar es Salaam. Twenty-two individuals participated in the microfinance component and 30 peer leaders were recruited and trained in the peer health leadership component. We collected and analysed observational data from trainings, monitoring data on loan repayment, and reports of peer conversations to assess the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention. Eighteen of the loan recipients (82%) paid back their loans, and of these 15 (83%) received a second, larger loan. Among the loan defaulters, one died, one had chronic health problems, and two disappeared, one of whom was imprisoned for theft. The majority of conversations reported by peer health leaders focused on condoms, sexual partner selection, and HIV testing. Few peer leaders reported conversations about GBV. We demonstrated the feasibility and acceptability of this innovative HIV and GBV prevention intervention. The lessons learned from this pilot have informed the implementation of a cluster-randomised trial of the microfinance and peer health leadership intervention.
This may be the case for HIV in sub-Saharan Africa: Recent empirical work shows that incidence is falling and the reduction is concentrated in more educated ... More educated men also appeared to have larger reductions in the number of sexual partners and there was evidence that younger, more educated women may ...
Alpine, Lucy M; Caldas, Francieli Tanji; Barrett, Emer M
The objective of the study was to investigate student and practice educator evaluations of practice placements using a structured 2 to 1 supervision and implementation model. Cross-sectional pilot study set in clinical sites providing placements for physiotherapy students in Ireland. Students and practice educators completing a 2.1 peer placement between 2013 and 2015 participated. A self-reported questionnaire which measured indicators linked to quality assured placements was used. Three open-ended questions captured comments on the benefits and challenges associated with the 2 to 1 model. Ten students (10/20; 50% response rate) and 10 practice educators (10/10; 100% response rate) responded to the questionnaire. Student responses included four pairs of students and one student from a further two pairs. There was generally positive agreement with the questionnaire indicating that placements using the 2 to 1 model were positively evaluated by participants. There were no significant differences between students and practice educators. The main benefits of the 2 to 1 model were shared learning experiences, a peer supported environment, and the development of peer evaluation and feedback skills by students. A key component of the model was the peer scripting process which provided time for reflection, self-evaluation, and peer review. 2 to 1 placements were positively evaluated by students and educators when supported by a structured supervision model. Clear guidance to students on the provision of peer feedback and support for educators providing feedback to two different students is recommended.
Toth, Kate E.; McKey, Colleen A.
The purpose of faculty development in terms of the educational role is to assist faculty in becoming better educators. Educational peer review (EPR) is one method of faculty development. This article is based on a study that explored the different development needs of nursing faculty within a school of nursing at an Ontario university. The study…
Baghianimoghadam, M H; Forghani, H; Zolghadr, R; Rahaei, Z; Khani, P
Peer-led programmes on AIDS prevention have shown a good level of effectiveness when tested among high-risk populations. This study compared peer-led and teacher-led methods of education about HIV/AIDS among female high-school students in Yazd city, Islamic Republic of Iran. In 2009 students in 3 high schools were trained by their classmates (peer-led), by the research team (teacher-led) or had no education (controls); 180 students completed a specially designed questionnaire based on the health belief model, before and after the intervention. Post-intervention mean knowledge scores increased 2-fold in the peer-led group, and this was significantly higher than the increase in the teacher-led group scores (1.5-fold). Control group scores were unchanged. In the peer-led programme all of the components of the model were significantly improved whereas in the teacher-led programme, only perceived severity and perceived barriers scored significantly higher after the intervention.
Carbonaro, William; Workman, Joseph
Sociologists of education have long been interested in the effects of peer relations on educational outcomes. Recent theory and research on adolescence suggest that peers on the boundaries of students' friendship networks may play an important role in shaping behaviors and educational outcomes. In this study, we examine the importance of a key "intermediate peer context" for students' outcomes: the friends of a student's friends. Our findings indicate both friends' and friends' friends' characteristics independently predict students' college expectations and their risk of dropping out of high school (although only friends' characteristics predict GPA). Our models suggest the magnitude of students' friends-of-friends' characteristics are at least as large their friends' characteristics. Together, the association between the peer context and students outcomes is considerably larger when accounting for both the characteristics of students' friends and the friends of their friends. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zachariah, Bobby; de Wit, Emma E.; Bahirat, Jyotsna Dnyaneshwar; Bunders-Aelen, Joske F.G.; Regeer, Barbara J.
Youth suicide is a public health problem in India, and young people in school, particularly adolescents, experience heavy psychological burden. Prevention programs, involving peer educators (PEs), have proved useful strategies to address this problem, but their impact on the PEs is less understood,
Rotsaert, Tijs; Panadero, Ernesto; Schellens, Tammy; Raes, Annelies
This study explores the effects of peer assessment (PA) practice on peer feedback (PF) quality of 11th grade secondary education students (N = 36). The PA setting was synchronous: anonymous assessors gave immediate PF using mobile response technology during 10 feedback occasions. The design was quasi-experimental (experimental vs. control…
Full Text Available Peer tutors in higher education are frequently given vital teaching and learning work to do, but the training or professional development and support opportunities they are offered vary, and more often than not peer tutors are under-supported. In order to create and sustain teaching and learning environments that are better able to facilitate students’ engagement with knowledge and learning, the role of peer tutors needs to be recognised differently, as that of learning and teaching partners to both lecturers and students. Tutors then need to be offered opportunities for more in-depth professional academic development in order to fully realise this role. This paper explores a tutor development programme within a South African writing centre that aimed at offering tutors such ongoing and cumulative opportunities for learning and growth using a balanced approach, which included scholarly research and practice-based training. Using narrative data tutors provided in reflective written reports, the paper explores the kinds of development in tutors’ thinking and action that are possible when training and development is theoretically informed, coherent, and oriented towards improving practice.
Rajasekaran, Rajkumar; Iyengar, Nallani Chackravatula Sriman Narayana
Mobile technology helps to improve continuing medical education; this includes all aspects of public health care as well as keeping one's knowledge up-to-date. The program of continuing medical and health education is intertwined with mobile health technology, which forms an imperative component of national strategies in health. Continuing mobile medical education (CMME) programs are designed to ensure that all medical and health-care professionals stay up-to-date with the knowledge required through mobile JXTA to appraise modernized strategies so as to achieve national goals of health-care information distribution. In this study, a 20-item questionnaire was distributed to 280 health professionals practicing traditional training learning methodologies (180 nurses, 60 doctors, and 40 health inspectors) in 25 rural hospitals. Among the 83% respondents, 56% are eager to take new learning methodologies as part of their evaluation, which is considered for promotion to higher grades, increments, or as part of their work-related activities. The proposed model was executed in five public health centers in which nurses and health inspectors registered in the JXTA network were referred to the record peer group by administrators. A mobile training program on immunization was conducted through the ADVT, with the lectures delivered on their mobiles. Credits are given after taking the course and completing an evaluation test. The system is faster compared with traditional learning. Medical knowledge management and mobile-streaming application support the CMME system through JXTA. The mobile system includes online lectures and practice quizzes, as well as assignments and interactions with health professionals. Evaluation and assessments are done online and credits certificates are provided based on the score the student obtains. The acceptance of mobile JXTA peer-to-peer learning has created a drastic change in learning methods among rural health professionals. The professionals
Homøe, Anne-Sophie; Knudsen, Ane-Kersti Skaarup; Nielsen, Sigrid Brisson; Grynnerup, Anna Garcia-Alix
For decades, the rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), such as gonorrhoea, chlamydia and syphilis, have increased in Greenland, especially within the young age groups (15-29 years). From 2006 to 2013, the number of abortions has been consistent with approximately 800-900 abortions per year in Greenland, which is nearly as high as the total number of births during the same period. Previous studies in Greenland have reported that knowledge about sexual health is important, both as prevention and as facilitator to stop the increasing rates of STIs. A peer-to-peer education programme about sexual health requires adaption to cultural values and acceptance among the population and government in order to be sustainable. Formative evaluation of a voluntary project (SexInuk), in relation to peer-to-peer education with focus on sexual health. Two workshops were conducted in Nuuk, Greenland, to recruit Greenlandic students. Qualitative design with focus group interviews (FGIs) to collect qualitative feedback on feasibility and implementation of the project. Supplemented with a brief questionnaire regarding personal information (gender, age, education) and questions about the educational elements in the SexInuk project. Eight Greenlandic students, who had completed one or two workshops, were enrolled. The FGIs showed an overall consensus regarding the need for improving sexual health education in Greenland. The participants requested more voluntary educators, to secure sustainability. The articulation of taboo topics in the Greenlandic society appeared very important. The participants suggested more awareness by promoting the project. Cultural values and language directions were important elements in the FGIs. To our knowledge, voluntary work regarding peer-to-peer education and sexual health has not been structurally evaluated in Greenland before. To achieve sustainability, the project needs educators and financial support. Further research is needed to investigate
Full Text Available Context Peer education is an effective strategy for improving adolescents’ health. It focuses on the improvement of knowledge, attitudes and beliefs among adolescents with regards to different healthcare issues and empowers them to make informed decisions. This review study aimed to determine factors that promote peer education among adolescents. Evidence Acquisition In this narrative review, electronic databases including Google Scholar, Science Direct, PubMed (including Medline, Web of Science, Scientific Information Database, and Scopus were searched. Articles published between 1991 and 2016 were retrieved and undergone abstract and full-text appraisal. Lastly, 53 articles were selected and used to write this review. Results The factors influencing the promotion of peer education among adolescents were classified as follow: ‘characteristics of peer educators’: personal, skills and communication characteristics; ‘characteristics of the educational program’: theoretical foundations, program transparency, program sustainability, adolescents’ comprehensive participation, and evaluation and monitoring; and ‘structural characteristics of the educational program’: supportive structure, and financial-official structure. Conclusions Taking into account the importance of adolescence and issues surrounding this period, the important role of peer education in the promotion of adolescents’ health should be emphasized.
-, č. 399 (2009), s. 1-32 ISSN 1211-3298 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : peer effects * smoking * youth Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp399.pdf
Pufall, E.L.; Nyamukapa, C.; Eaton, J.W.
Little is known about how HIV impacts directly and indirectly on receiving, or particularly succeeding in, education in sub-Saharan Africa. To address this gap, we used multivariable logistic regression to determine the correlation between education outcomes in youth (aged 15-24) (being...... school completion, "O" level passes, or being in the correct grade-for-age in adolescents aged 16-17 years. Additionally, HIV status had no significant association with any education outcomes in children aged 6-17 surveyed in 2009-2011. In 2009-2011, being a young carer was associated with lower...
Ribeiro, Clarisse; Sarmento e Castro, Rui; Dinis-Ribeiro, M?rio; Fernandes, Lia
Adherence to Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) is the main prognostic factor associated with HIV disease progression and death. The aim was to evaluate the effectiveness of a psycho-educational program to promote adherence to HAART in HIV patients. A longitudinal study (n=102) over 9 months in an Infectious Diseases Hospital was carried out. Adherence to HAART was measured with standardized scales and values of viral load. Two groups were defined: adherents and non-adherents. In th...
that the school should teach adolescents' about HIV/AIDS. ... learners. Educators were aware that this education did not always lead to positive ... at many South African schools justify the need for further scientific inquiry .... Africa the researcher was motivated to establish how school culture .... Perspectives on validation.
Skov, Peter Rohde
as a point of comparison. I investigate this theory using a school-by-grade fixed effects model and comprehensive administrative data. I examine the non-linear relationships between peers educational achievement on choice of secondary education. I show that the relative rank in the classroom have......In this paper I investigate whether a social contrast mechanism affects the choice of secondary schooling. Based on a theory of relative deprivation, a strand of research in social inequality of educational attainment shows that, controlling for the students ability, students who attends schools...... with more privileged peers have lower educational attainment and less prestigious labor market careers. This theory shows that students with similar ability may be regarded differently depending on context, which may affect the students' academic self-image. This also means that the students use their peers...
Okpareke, Alicia Wyche; Salisbury, Christine L.
This study deepens the field's understanding about factors that contribute to positive social engagement between students without disabilities and their peers with mild disabilities in general education classrooms. A sample of 68 seventh grade students with and without disabilities was drawn from general education classrooms in a suburban, Midwest…
McMahon, Sarah; Winter, Samantha C.; Palmer, Jane E.; Postmus, Judy L.; Peterson, N. Andrew; Zucker, Sharon; Koenick, RuthAnne
This article reports findings from a longitudinal, experimental evaluation of a peer education theater program, Students Challenging Realities and Educating Against Myths (SCREAM) Theater. This study examines the impact of SCREAM Theater on a range of bystander-related outcomes (i.e. bystander intentions, bystander efficacy, perception of friend…
Holland, Nicole E.
This investigation demonstrates the effect that peers have on students' academic engagement and educational aspirations. Forty-nine African American university students retrospectively discuss the manner by which their friends influenced their academic commitment and activity while in high school; their postsecondary education aspirations,…
In the education sector, teamwork assessment and self/peer evaluation are widely applied in higher education nationally and internationally. This assessment is designed to encourage students to promote and improve their skills in teamwork, communication (writing, interpersonal interaction and cultural awareness, and presenting), critical and…
Faucette, Nell; Nugent, Peg
Today, new and redesigned mentoring roles are being explored in teacher education programs. According to literature, having peers mentor less experienced colleagues can benefit both groups. In this study, 11 senior physical education majors served as mentors to 15 juniors. Mentoring sessions occurred during regularly scheduled classes for all.…
Williams, Brett; Nguyen, David
The transition of the Australian paramedic discipline from vocation education and training to the higher education sector has seen a sharp rise in interest in near-peer teaching (NPT). The objective of this study was to examine satisfaction levels of NPT over one academic semester among undergraduate paramedic students. A repeated measured design…
Farias, Cláudio; Mesquita, Isabel; Hastie, Peter A.; O'Donovan, Toni
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to provide an integrated analysis of a teacher's peer-teaching mediation strategies, the student-coaches' instruction, and the students' gameplay development across 3 consecutive seasons of sport education. Method: Twenty-six 7th-grade students participated in 3 consecutive sport education seasons of invasion…
O'Malley, Teagen L.; Horowitz, Katie Rose; Garth, José; Mair, Christina; Burke, Jessica G.
Sexuality health education is moving beyond the classroom, with technology expanding youth access to sexual health information. While text message services are increasingly being used to provide information, a peer education approach has yet to be incorporated. Results from this feasibility study support a sexual health textline (IOTAS),…
Masquillier, Caroline; Wouters, Edwin; Mortelmans, Dimitri; Booysen, Frederik le Roux
Hope is an essential dimension of successful coping in the context of illnesses such as HIV/AIDS, because positive expectations for the future alleviate emotional distress, enhance quality of life and have been linked to the capacity for behavioural change. The social environment (e.g. family, peers) is a regulator of hope for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). In this regard, the dual aim of this article is (1) to analyze the influence of a peer adherence support (PAS) intervention and the family environment on the state of hope in PLWHA and (2) to investigate the interrelationship between the two determinants. The Effective AIDS Treatment and Support in the Free State study is a prospective randomized controlled trial. Participants were recruited from 12 public antiretroviral treatment (ART) clinics across five districts in the Free State Province of South Africa. Each of these patients was assigned to one of the following groups: a control group receiving standard care, a group receiving additional biweekly PAS or a group receiving PAS and nutritional support. Latent cross-lagged modelling (Mplus) was used to analyse the impact of PAS and the family environment on the level of hope in PLWHA. The results of the study indicate that neither PAS nor the family environment has a direct effect on the level of hope in PLWHA. Subsequent analysis reveals a positive significant interaction between family functioning and PAS at the second follow-up, indicating that better family functioning increases the positive effect of PAS on the state of hope in PLWHA. The interplay between well-functioning families and external PAS generates higher levels of hope, which is an essential dimension in the success of lifelong treatment. This study provides additional insight into the important role played by family dynamics in HIV/AIDS care, and it underscores the need for PAS interventions that are sensitive to the contexts in which they are implemented.
The purpose of this review is to provide a framework for peer teaching and learning in the clinical education of undergraduate health science students in clinical practice settings and make clear the positive and negative aspects of this teaching and learning strategy. The practice of using peers incidentally or purposefully in the clinical education of apprentice or undergraduate health science students is a well-established tradition and commonly practiced, but lacks definition in its implementation. The author conducted a search of health science and educational electronic databases using the terms peer, clinical education and undergraduate. The set limitations were publications after 1980 (2005 inclusive), English language and research papers. Selection of studies occurred: based on participant, intervention, research method and learning outcomes, following a rigorous critical and quality appraisal with a purposefully developed tool. The results have been both tabled and collated in a narrative summary. Twelve articles met the inclusion criteria, representing five countries and four health science disciplines. This review reported mostly positive outcomes on the effectiveness of peer teaching and learning; it can increase student's confidence in clinical practice and improve learning in the psychomotor and cognitive domains. Negative aspects were also identified; these include poor student learning if personalities or learning styles are not compatible and students spending less individualized time with the clinical instructor. Peer teaching and learning is an effective educational intervention for health science students on clinical placements. Preclinical education of students congruent with the academic timetable increases student educational outcomes from peer teaching and learning. Strategies are required prior to clinical placement to accommodate incompatible students or poor student learning. The findings from this systematic review, although not
Monroe, April; Nakigozi, Gertrude; Ddaaki, William; Bazaale, Jeremiah Mulamba; Gray, Ronald H; Wawer, Maria J; Reynolds, Steven J; Kennedy, Caitlin E; Chang, Larry W
People living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) who have not yet initiated antiretroviral therapy (ART) can benefit from being engaged in care and utilizing preventive interventions. Community-based peer support may be an effective approach to promote these important HIV services. After conducting a randomized trial of the impact of peer support on pre-ART outcomes, we conducted a qualitative evaluation to better understand trial implementation, processes, and results. Overall, 75 participants, including trial participants (clients), peer supporters, and clinic staff, participated in 41 in-depth interviews and 6 focus group discussions. A situated Information Motivation, and Behavioral skills model of behavior change was used to develop semi-structured interview and focus group guides. Transcripts were coded and thematically synthesized. We found that participant narratives were generally consistent with the theoretical model, indicating that peer support improved information, motivation, and behavioral skills, leading to increased engagement in pre-ART care. Clients described how peer supporters reinforced health messages and helped them better understand complicated health information. Peer supporters also helped clients navigate the health system, develop support networks, and identify strategies for remembering medication and clinic appointments. Some peer supporters adopted roles beyond visiting patients, serving as a bridge between the client and his or her family, community, and health system. Qualitative results demonstrated plausible processes by which peer support improved client engagement in care, cotrimoxazole use, and safe water vessel use. Challenges identified included insufficient messaging surrounding ART initiation, lack of care continuity after ART initiation, rare breaches in confidentiality, and structural challenges. The evaluation found largely positive perceptions of the peer intervention across stakeholders and provided valuable
de Boer, Anke; Pijl, Sip Jan; Post, Wendy; Minnaert, Alexander
While there is an increased interest in describing attitudes of teachers, parents and peers towards students with special educational needs in regular education, there is a lack of knowledge about various variables relating to the attitudes of these three groups. The aims of this study are: (1) to
Ahmadi, Zakieh; Sadeghi, Tabandeh; Loripoor, Marzeyeh
Education is an important aspect of care for diabetic patients. This study aimed to compare the effect of education by health care provider and peer on self-care behaviors among Iranian patients with diabetes. In this clinical randomized control trial, we enrolled 120 patients with type 2 diabetes who were referred to the Diabetes Clinic at a…
Go, Vivian F; Frangakis, Constantine; Le Minh, Nguyen; Latkin, Carl A; Ha, Tran Viet; Mo, Tran Thi; Sripaipan, Teerada; Davis, Wendy; Zelaya, Carla; Vu, Pham The; Chen, Yong; Celentano, David D; Quan, Vu Minh
Globally, 30% of new HIV infections outside sub-Saharan Africa involve injecting drug users (IDU) and in many countries, including Vietnam, HIV epidemics are concentrated among IDU. We conducted a randomized controlled trial in Thai Nguyen, Vietnam, to evaluate whether a peer oriented behavioral intervention could reduce injecting and sexual HIV risk behaviors among IDU and their network members. 419 HIV-negative index IDU aged 18 years or older and 516 injecting and sexual network members were enrolled. Each index participant was randomly assigned to receive a series of six small group peer educator-training sessions and three booster sessions in addition to HIV testing and counseling (HTC) (intervention; n = 210) or HTC only (control; n = 209). Follow-up, including HTC, was conducted at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months post-intervention. The proportion of unprotected sex dropped significantly from 49% to 27% (SE (difference) = 3%, p < 0.01) between baseline and the 3-month visit among all index-network member pairs. However, at 12 months, post-intervention, intervention participants had a 14% greater decline in unprotected sex relative to control participants (Wald test = 10.8, df = 4, p = 0.03). This intervention effect is explained by trial participants assigned to the control arm who missed at least one standardized HTC session during follow-up and subsequently reported increased unprotected sex. The proportion of observed needle/syringe sharing dropped significantly between baseline and the 3-month visit (14% vs. 3%, SE (difference) = 2%, p < 0.01) and persisted until 12 months, but there was no difference across trial arms (Wald test = 3.74, df = 3, p = 0.44). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pethrick, Helen; Nowell, Lorelli; Oddone Paolucci, Elizabeth; Lorenzetti, Liza; Jacobsen, Michele; Clancy, Tracey; Lorenzetti, Diane L
Many medical residents lack ready access to social and emotional supports that enable them to successfully cope with the challenges associated with medical residency. This absence of support has been shown to lead to high levels of burnout, decreased mental wellbeing, and difficulty mastering professional competencies in this population. While there is emerging evidence that peer mentoring can be an important source of psychosocial and career-related support for many individuals, the extent of the evidence regarding the benefits of peer mentorship in medical residency education has not yet been established. We describe a protocol for a systematic review to assess the effects of peer mentoring on medical residents' mental wellbeing, social connectedness, and professional competencies. Studies included in this review will be those that report on peer-mentoring relationships among medical residents. Quantitative, qualitative, and mixed-methods studies will be eligible for inclusion. No date or language limits will be applied. We will search EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsychINFO, Web of Science, Scopus, ERIC, Education Research Complete, and Academic Research Complete databases to identify relevant studies. Two authors will independently assess all abstracts and full-text studies for inclusion and study quality and extract study data in duplicate. This is the first systematic review to explicitly explore the role of peer mentoring in the context of medical residency education. We anticipate that the findings from this review will raise awareness of the benefits and challenges associated with peer-mentoring relationships, further the development and implementation of formal peer-mentoring programs for medical residents, and, through identifying gaps in the existing literature, inform future research efforts. This protocol has not been registered in PROSPERO or any other publicly accessible registry.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of conflict resolution, peace education and peer mediation on the conflict resolution skills of students via meta-analysis method. 23 studies were determined to be in accordance with the study criteria. According to research findings conflict resolution, peace education and peer mediation…
Vian, Taryn; Ashigbie, Paul G.
Purpose: The environment of public health practice is rapidly changing, creating the need to adapt graduate education and accelerate educational innovation. Formative peer review is a strategy designed to promote critical reflection on teaching and to develop faculty as teachers. Through case study methods, we explore how peer review of teaching…
Vaughn, Lisa M; Whetstone, Crystal; Boards, Alicia; Busch, Melida D; Magnusson, Maria; Määttä, Sylvia
Within community-engaged research, education and social care, peer models that partner with local "insiders" are increasingly common. Peer models are composed of insider "lay" community members who often share similarities or background with a project's target population. Peers are not academically trained, but work alongside researchers and professionals to carry out specific tasks within a project, or in the truest sense of partnership, peers collaborate throughout the project from start to finish as an equal member of the team. Although peer models are used widely, the literature lacks consistency and clarity. This systematic review of literature used a qualitative thematic synthesis to examine and report how, where and why peer models have been used in research, education and social care. We examined the language and titles used to describe the peers, details of their involvement in community-engaged projects, the setting, content/topic of study, level of engagement and related benefits/outcomes of such models. Focusing on the last 10 years, we conducted a comprehensive literature search twice between September 2016 and June 2017. The search resulted in 814 articles which were assessed for eligibility. Overall, 251 articles met our inclusion criteria and were categorised into three categories: empirical (n = 115); process/descriptive (n = 93); and "about" peers (n = 43). Findings suggest that there is a wide variety of peers, titles and terminology associated with peer models. There is inconsistency in how these models are used and implemented in research studies and projects. The majority of articles used an employment peer model, while only a handful involved peers in all phases of the project. The results of this literature review contribute to understanding the use, development and evolution of peer models. We highlight potential benefits of peer models for peers, their communities and community-engaged work, and we offer recommendations for future
those working in rural schools had higher HIV prevalence than educators residing in urban areas and teaching in urban schools.1. The implication is that if nothing ... Due to their illnesses,. 66.6% of teachers took advantage of their sick leave.
The study sought to establish Zimbabwean parents' views on HIV and AIDS Education among their children attending secondary schools in Masvingo. A qualitative design was used. An open ended questionnaire was used to collect data from twenty conveniently selected parents with children attending secondary schools ...
This article examines the literacy events in HIV/AIDS education in Tanzania to investigate how they construct social identities for participants and to what extent they provide opportunities for critical health literacies. The projects took place as collaborative research partnerships with local Tanzanian NGOs in an effort to analyse and improve…
Full Text Available Most existent research on the effects of interpersonal discussions about health campaign messages is based on surveys. In this study, we analysed actual conversations about an HIV/AIDS poster to find out possible effects. Young South African women in 59 dyads (n = 118 participated in conversations about a deliberately puzzling HIV and AIDS poster that cautioned the target group to be faithful to one sexual partner. We measured their comprehension of the poster and beliefs about the message, before and after the conversations. Overall, actual comprehension (AC was low, and we observed a large discrepancy between actual and perceived comprehension. In general, conversations did not improve AC. It proved to be even more probable that a correct interpretation before a conversation turned into an incorrect interpretation than the other way around. However, having a well-informed conversation partner increased the chance of acquiring adequate subsequent comprehension. We found, in general, that conversations did not decrease undesirable beliefs. One important undesirable belief even became reinforced after the conversations. Conversations among peers might be valuable in health campaigns, but our study shows that intended positive effects do not automatically follow.
This study primarily applied social network analysis (SNA) to explore the relationship between friendships, peer social interactions and group work dynamics within a higher education undergraduate programme in England. A critical case study design was adopted so as to allow for an in-depth exploration of the students' voice. In doing so, the views…
Miller, J. Jay; Duron, Jacquelynn F.; Bosk, Emily Adlin; Finno-Velasquez, Megan; Abner, Kristin S.
Peer-learning networks (PLN) can be valuable tools for doctoral students. Participation in these networks can aid in the completion of the dissertation, lead to increased scholarship productivity, and assist in student retention. Yet, despite the promise of PLNs, few studies have documented their effect on social work doctoral education. This…
Hudson, Heather K.; Bliss, Kadi R.; Bice, Matthew R.; Lodyga, Marc G.; Ragon, Bruce M.
Purpose: The purpose of the study was to evaluate consumer (instructor) reception of Channel Surfing Contraceptives in order to determine components necessary for creation of peer-led educational videos to teach sensitive contraceptive topics. Methods: Two focus group interviews with introductory-level undergraduate personal health instructors…
Toth, Kate E.; McKey, Colleen A.
The literature on educational peer review (EPR) has focused on evaluating EPR's impact on faculty and/or student learning outcomes; no literature exists on the potential organizational impact. A qualitative (case study) research design explored perceptions of 17 faculty and 10 administrators within a school of nursing in an Ontario university…
Full Text Available This paper examines one specific question: What support do students in Enabling Education need to learn the behaviours, knowledge and attitudes required to succeed in tertiary education, employment and life? Success appears in many guises. It can mean achieving officially desired outcomes such as retention, completion and employment. It can also mean achieving less measurable outcomes such as deep learning, wellbeing and active citizenship. The paper first introduces an overarching success framework before exploring how the widely used student engagement pedagogy can support learners to achieve both official and personal success outcomes. It then develops two specific constructs applicable to Enabling Education as found in student engagement: facilitated peer learning and active citizenship. Peer learning is here connected to tutor supported but peer facilitated mentoring; active citizenship to educational experiences in classrooms, institutions and workplaces that support flexibility, resilience, openness to change and diversity. The paper includes examples of how facilitated peer learning and active citizenship can build success in practice.
Obrusnikova, Iva; Block, Martin E.; Dillon, Suzanna
Theory of Planned Behavior (Ajzen, 1991) was used to elicit salient behavioral, normative, and control beliefs of children without disabilities toward playing with a hypothetical peer with a disability in general physical education. Participants were 350 elementary and middle school students who completed two questionnaires. Questionnaires were…
Leadership development is an outcome of colleges and universities today stressed both in and out of the classroom. Additionally, leadership is often included in institutional missions, with emphasis on students developing as responsible citizens or leaders. The use of peer educators is standard in many student leadership development programs. In…
Leppisaari, Irja; Vainio, Leena; Herrington, Jan; Im, Yeonwook
More and more, social technologies and virtual work methods are facilitating new ways of crossing boundaries in professional development and international collaborations. This paper examines the peer development of higher education teachers through the experiences of the IVBM project (International Virtual Benchmarking, 2009-2010). The…
Schweer, Jen Luettel; Heather, Katie; Kay, Kathryn; Stewart, K. Leigh; Kovach, Laura
R.U. Ready? at Georgetown University is an annual sexual assault awareness event that incorporates peer education and resources with opportunities for students, staff, and faculty to dialogue about providing bystander intervention throughout the campus community. Beyond dialogue, participants learn about student activism and the resources and…
This study was conducted to investigate the academic achievement and perceived peer support levels of 4th-8th grade Turkish elementary and middle school students at low socio-economic status. Factorial design analyses were used to test the statistical effects of gender and preschool education variables on the dependent variables. The findings…
Goetz, Joseph W.; Durband, Dorothy B.; Halley, Ryan E.; Davis, Kimberlee
This paper presents a peer-based financial planning and education program as a strategy to address the lack of financial literacy among college students and provide an experiential learning opportunity for students majoring in financial planning or other financial services-related disciplines. Benefits of such programs to campus communities are…
Story, Mary; Lytle, Leslie A; Birnbaum, Amanda S; Perry, Cheryl L
Peer education has become a popular strategy for health promotion interventions with adolescents, but it has not been used widely in school-based nutrition education. This paper describes and reports on the feasibility of the peer leader component of a school-based nutrition intervention for young adolescents designed to increase fruit and vegetable intakes and lower fat foods. About 1,000 seventh-grade students in eight schools received the nutrition intervention. Of these, 272 were trained as peer leaders to assist the teacher in implementing the activities. Results from a multicomponent process evaluation based on peer leader and classroom student feedback, direct classroom observation, and teacher ratings and interviews are presented. Results show that peer-led nutrition education approaches in schools are feasible and have high acceptability among peer leaders, classroom students, and teachers.
Miedema, Esther A. J.; Maxwell, Claire; Aggleton, Peter
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)- and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related education is seen by many as central to increasing young people's awareness of, as well as decreasing their vulnerability to, HIV. There is less agreement, however, on the central goals of HIV- and AIDS-related education and the form it might best take. This…
This study focuses on metaphors used in South African HIV/AIDS education to explain the struggle of the immune system when it becomes infected with HIV. Three versions of an educational text on HIV/AIDS were presented to a total of 543 learners from secondary schools in the Western Cape. Each learner was given ...
Kidney Research UK, have been working since 2001 to raise health awareness, fund and oversee research into kidney related issues disproportionately affecting the BAME communities in the UK. Almost 10 years ago, the charity initiated its Peer Educator model which uses the natural skills of lay people and patients to raise awareness in these communities. This article will describe the work of the Charity in relation to patient and public engagement, describing the Peer Educator model and providing examples of how it has been used. It will then focus on the deployment and impact of Peer Educators in an end of life project that the charity was involved in. Peer Educators (PEs) are ordinary people from the targeted community. In the case of our health improvement work, this has largely been the BAME communities. These people do not need any prior knowledge, training or experience in the subject matter. However, they do need to have a desire to give something back to their community in terms of health messages and also be passionate about the subject matter. They tend to have a natural empathy with the target groups in terms of culture, religion and language. The Peer Educator model, is it has been found, to be a flexible and highly adaptable approach to addressing health issues in the BAME communities. It has been utilised by the charity to address everything from early disease detection, prevention, management, organ donation awareness, right through to end of life issues. The model has been well evaluated in the area of organ donation whereby its effectiveness has been proven. Moreover, there have been several notable outcomes from the end of life work including training and deployment of 10 Peer Educators who reached over 2,700 people from diverse South Asian communities, providing important information on who does what, when, and how to access it--in a culturally competent manner. Kidney Research UK's Peer Educator initiative has been well established as an
Raj, Sony Jalarajan; Massey, Susan R.; Jose, Soumya
Quality education and teacher accountability are predominant issues generating apprehension in higher education. Traditional methods of evaluation are giving way to more contemporary methods. One technique that is being implemented in many universities throughout the world that provides feedback and improves pedagogical approaches is a formative and collaborative process known as peer review of teaching (PRT). Review of the literature included 34 studies which identified five themes that offe...
Kiweewa, Flavia M; Wabwire, Deo; Nakibuuka, Jessica; Mubiru, Mike; Bagenda, Danstan; Musoke, Phillippa; Fowler, Mary G; Antelman, Gretchen
To assess the noninferiority of a task-shifting HIV treatment model relying on peer counselors and nurses compared with a physician-centered model among HIV-1-positive women initiated on antiretroviral therapy (ART) at a prevention of mother-to-child transmission clinic in Mulago Hospital, Uganda. HIV-1-infected ART eligible naive women were randomized to either nurse-peer (intervention) or doctor-counselor (standard model) arm. The primary endpoint was virologic success defined attaining a viral load baseline) and pill count. Data on 85 participants were analyzed (n = 45 in the intervention and n = 40 in the standard model). The proportion of participants with virologic success was similar in the standard and intervention models [91% versus 88% respectively; difference, 3%; 95% confidence interval (CI): -11% to 12%]. Probability of viral detection at 6-12 months' time point was similar in the 2 models (log-rank test P = 0.73). Immunologic and pill count indicators were also similar in the intervention and standard models, with mean CD4 increase of 217 versus 206 cells per microliter (difference, 11; 95% CI: -60 to 82 cells/μL) and pill counts of 99.8% versus 99.7% (difference, 0.0; 95% CI: -5% to 5%) respectively. Nurses and peer counselors were not inferior in providing ART follow-up care to postpartum women, an approach that may help deliver treatment to many more HIV-infected people.
Ndwiga, Charity; Abuya, Timothy; Mutemwa, Richard; Kimani, James Kelly; Colombini, Manuela; Mayhew, Susannah; Baird, Averie; Muia, Ruth Wayua; Kivunaga, Jackline; Warren, Charlotte E
The Integra Initiative designed, tested, and adapted protocols for peer mentorship in order to improve service providers' skills, knowledge, and capacity to provide quality integrated HIV and sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services. This paper describes providers' experiences in mentoring as a method of capacity building. Service providers who were skilled in the provision of FP or PNC services were selected to undergo a mentorship training program and to subsequently build the capacity of their peers in SRH-HIV integration. A qualitative assessment was conducted to assess provider experiences and perceptions about peer mentoring. In-depth interviews were conducted with twelve mentors and twenty-three mentees who were trained in SRH and HIV integration. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and imported to NVivo 9 for analysis. Thematic analysis methods were used to develop a coding framework from the research questions and other emerging themes. Mentorship was perceived as a feasible and acceptable method of training among mentors and mentees. Both mentors and mentees agreed that the success of peer mentoring largely depended on cordial relationship and consensus to work together to achieve a specific set of skills. Mentees reported improved knowledge, skills, self-confidence, and team work in delivering integrated SRH and HIV services as benefits associated with mentoring. They also associated mentoring with an increase in the range of services available and the number of clients seeking those services. Successful mentorship was conditional upon facility management support, sufficient supplies and commodities, a positive work environment, and mentors selection. Mentoring was perceived by both mentors and mentees as a sustainable method for capacity building, which increased providers' ability to offer a wide range of and improved access to integrated SRH and HIV services.
Aburahma, Mona Hassan; Mohamed, Heba Moustafa
In the past decade, various health care programs have implemented diverse types of peer-assisted learning (PAL) programs, in particularly peer teaching (PT), due to their reported benefits for students (both those undertaking teaching and those being taught), teachers, and educational institutes. Unfortunately, peer teaching is still under-recognized in pharmacy programs worldwide when compared to other health care programs. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the published literature centered on formal PT programs that are implemented in pharmacy schools. In addition, this review focuses on the methodologies adopted for peer teacher recruitment and training as well as the benefits gained by students (both those undertaking teaching and those being taught). The rationales behind PT implementation are recapitulated as well. Finally, a simple scheme for successful implementation of PT activity is provided to serve as a groundwork for educators. Pre-defined key terms were used to search for experimental peer teaching activities in pharmacy schools between January 2000 and June 2016. Titles were selected based on pre-set eligibility criteria. Only complete research articles with clear design and evaluation sections were included in this review. Studies about inter-professional peer teaching activities between pharmacy students and other healthcare professions were also included. Six relevant educational research articles containing peer teaching activities were included. A lot of variety exists between different pharmacy courses implementing PT, the format/setting of PT, how peer teachers are selected, and how training and evaluation are implemented. The studies reviewed confirmed that PT was well received by most of the students and had a positive impact on their learning outcome. These findings cannot be generalized due to the insufficient number of studies published beside their methodological limitations and inadequate descriptions of the PT format
Leichliter, Marie E.
Honors educators are privileged to work with exceptional students who are also some of the most engaged and motivated students on campus. These students often seek opportunities within their honors experience to study abroad, join community service organizations, conduct research, participate in internships, and develop their leadership skills.…
This article reports on the growing influence of informal and not democratically legitimised authority within the educational field in Europe. The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), the Bologna Process and the European Qualifications Framework are discussed as instances of neoliberal strategies of modernisation that change the…
In response to widespread support for mentoring schemes in higher education this article calls for a more critical investigation of the dynamics of power and control, which are intrinsic to the mentoring process, and questions presumptions that mentoring brings only positive benefits to its participants. It provides this more critical appraisal by…
Ross, Bella; Carbone, Angela; Lindsay, Katherine; Drew, Steve; Phelan, Liam; Cottman, Caroline; Stoney, Sue
The rapid changes facing higher education are placing increased focus on the quality of the student experience, achieving learning outcomes, and employability expectations. As a result, academics in teaching roles are increasingly measured on performance via student evaluations amplifying attention on professional development initiatives for…
Cox, Anne; Duncheon, Nicole; McDavid, Lindley
Research has demonstrated the importance of relatedness perceptions to self-determined motivation in physical education. Therefore, studies have begun to examine the social factors contributing to feelings of relatedness. The purpose of this study was to examine teacher (perceived emotional support) and peer (acceptance, friendship quality) relationship variables to feelings of relatedness, motivation, and affective responses in junior high physical education students (N = 411). Results revealed that perceived relatedness mediated the relationship between variables and self-determined motivation and related directly to the amount of enjoyment and worry students experienced. These findings demonstrate that relationships with both teachers and peers are important for students' relatedness perceptions, motivation, enjoyment, and worry in physical education.
Gürkan, Özlem C; Kömürcü, Nuran
Student nurses in Turkey need to be exposed to appropriate undergraduate training if they are to acquire the required knowledge, attitudes and skills that will help them to fight the issue of violence against women (VAW). The aim of this research study was to assess the effect of a peer education program about combating VAW on the knowledge, attitudes and skills of nursing students. The study was designed as a randomized controlled trial. The participants in the intervention group received peer education on combating VAW. 136 nursing students (intervention group: n=63, control group: n=73) were included in the study. Participants in both the intervention and control groups were assessed at pre-training and at two months post-training. Pre-training and post-training knowledge and attitudes were significantly different in the intervention group (peducation should be used as a part of undergraduate nursing education on VAW. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Maksut, Jessica L; Eaton, Lisa A; Siembida, Elizabeth J; Driffin, Daniel D; Baldwin, Robert
Men who have sex with men (MSM), particularly MSM who identify as African-American or Black (BMSM), are the sociodemographic group that is most heavily burdened by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic in the United States. To meet national HIV testing goals, there must be a greater emphasis on novel ways to promote and deliver HIV testing to MSM. Obstacles to standard, clinic-based HIV testing include concerns about stigmatization or recognition at in-person testing sites, as well as the inability to access a testing site due to logistical barriers. This study examined the feasibility of self-administered, at-home HIV testing with Web-based peer counseling to MSM by using an interactive video chatting method. The aims of this study were to (1) determine whether individuals would participate in at-home HIV testing with video chat-based test counseling with a peer counselor, (2) address logistical barriers to HIV testing that individuals who report risk for HIV transmission may experience, and (3) reduce anticipated HIV stigma, a primary psychosocial barrier to HIV testing. In response to the gap in HIV testing, a pilot study was developed and implemented via mailed, at-home HIV test kits, accompanied by HIV counseling with a peer counselor via video chat. A total of 20 MSM were enrolled in this test of concept study, 80% of whom identified as BMSM. All participants reported that at-home HIV testing with a peer counseling via video chat was a satisfying experience. The majority of participants (13/18, 72%) said they would prefer for their next HIV testing and counseling experience to be at home with Web-based video chat peer counseling, as opposed to testing in an office or clinic setting. Participants were less likely to report logistical and emotional barriers to HIV testing at the 6-week and 3-month follow-ups. The results of this study suggest that self-administered HIV testing with Web-based peer counseling is feasible and that MSM find it to be a
Evin Kirmizitoprak; Zeynep Simsek
Aim: To determine the effect of peer education on the knowledge and attitudes of the young about safe sexual life and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Method: In this intervention type epidemiologic study, 1100 youngs were reached at 95% level of significance by probability sampling method. These young people were given education by peer trainers; level of knowledge and attitudes of the young were evaluated before and after education. ‘Young’s Health Information Form’ p...
Legarth, Rebecca; Omland, Lars H; Kronborg, Gitte
.0 (95% CI 1.2-3.4) for population controls with low educational attainment compared with medium and high educational attainment. CONCLUSION: With free and equal access to healthcare, low educational attainment might increase risk of HIV infection among heterosexual individuals, but was not associated......OBJECTIVE: To estimate association between educational attainment and risk of HIV diagnosis, response to HAART, all-cause, and cause-specific mortality in Denmark in 1998-2009. DESIGN: Prospective, population-based cohort study including 1277 incident HIV-infected patients without hepatitis C virus...... or intravenous drug abuse identified in the Danish HIV Cohort Study and 5108 individually matched population controls. METHODS: Data on educational attainment, categorized as low, medium, or high, were identified in The Danish Attainment Register. Logistic and Poisson regression were used to estimate odds ratios...
Full Text Available A recent phenomenon in the MOOC space has been the development of courses tailored to educators serving in K-12 settings. MOOCs, particularly as a form of educator professional development, face a number of challenges. Academics, as well as pundits from traditional and new media, have raised a number of concerns about MOOCs, including the lack of instructional and social supports. It is an assumption of this study that challenges arising form this problem of scale can be addressed by leveraging these massive numbers to develop robust online learning communities. This mixed-methods case study addresses critical gaps in the literature and issues of peer support in MOOCs through an examination of the characteristics, mechanisms, and outcomes of peer networks. Findings from this study demonstrate that even with technology as basic as a discussion forum, MOOCs can be leveraged to foster these networks and facilitate peer-supported learning. Although this study was limited to two unique cases along the wide spectrum of MOOCs, the methods applied provide other researchers with an approach for better understanding the dynamic process of peer supported learning in MOOCs.
Williams, Brett; McKenna, Lisa; French, Jill; Dousek, Simon
Teaching is a key role for nurses in contemporary clinical practice. Consequently, peer-assisted learning continues to gather momentum in nursing education in tertiary and professional education settings. In this study, we investigated the factor structure of the Peer Teaching Experience Questionnaire when completed by a group of nursing undergraduates from a large Australian university. Data from the 14-item Peer Teaching Experience Questionnaire completed by third year undergraduate nursing students were analyzed using factor analysis. A total of 257 final (third)-year undergraduate nursing students participated in the study. Factor analysis of the 14 items revealed three factors with eigenvalues above 1, accounting for 47.3% of the total variance. Items with loadings greater than ± 0.40, with the factor in question, were used to characterize the factor solutions. Findings from the exploratory factor analysis provide preliminary results that the Peer Teaching Experience Questionnaire has adequate dimensionality and reliability. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Opiate overdoses (OD constitute one of the leading causes of avoidable deaths among people aged 20-40 years old. As peer-administered help in cases of overdose was found to be effective, we aimed to explore how much the subjects of the intervention are able to learn from one another and from their own experience. METHODS: Secondary data analysis was performed with the 2008 dataset of peer-driven intervention among IDUs who were not involved in harm reduction programs earlier; recruiting was performed with respondent driven sampling methodology combined with peer education covering overdose response. Subsample of 6667 opiate users was considered. Data on overdose response strategies experienced by respondents were considered predictors and data on intended response strategies as outcomes. To reveal relationships between the experienced and intended responses, binary logistic regression analysis was performed. RESULTS: With recommended strategies including calling ambulance, putting a person in recovery position, fixing the tongue, applying mouth-to-mouth resuscitation and cardiac massage, percentages of those planning to apply them was considerably higher (on average, 2.3 times higher than the percentage of those having experienced them. With other strategies including applying cold, pain, ammonia, percentages of those who experienced the strategy and those who planned to practice it were rather close and on average differed just by 1.1. With all the strategies, the intention to apply a particular response in future was strongly associated with personal experience of having had this applied when having an overdose episode. Peer-education to larger extent determines the intentions of those who have not experienced particular overdose responses themselves. On the other hand, social learning contributes to persisting of those experienced strategies which cannot be recommended. CONCLUSIONS: Social learning can impact intended overdose
Heenatigala, Thilina; Russo, Pedro; Strubbe, Linda; Gomez, Edward
astroEDU is an open access platform for peer-reviewed astronomy education activities. It addresses key problems in educational repositories such as variability in quality, not maintained or updated regularly, limited content review, and more. This is achieved through a peer-review process similar to what scholarly articles are based on. Activities submitted are peer-reviewed by an educator and a professional astronomer which gives the credibility to the activities. astroEDU activities are open-access in order to make the activities accessible to educators around the world while letting them discover, review, distribute and remix the activities. The activity submission process allows authors to learn how to apply enquiry-based learning into the activity, identify the process skills required, how to develop core goals and objectives, and how to evaluate the activity to determine the outcome. astroEDU is endorsed by the International Astronomical Union meaning each activity is given an official stamp by the international organisation for professional astronomers.
Velasco Quintana, Paloma J.; Benito Capa, Agueda
The current educational model for the European Higher Education Area (EHEA), demands a greater involvement on the behalf of students in all aspects of their education. In this respect, peer mentorship not only provides effective orientation for newly admitted students, a key element of quality in education, but also the active participation of…
van der Wilt, Femke; van Kruistum, Claudia; van der Veen, Chiel; van Oers, Bert
This study investigated gender differences in the relationship between oral communicative competence and peer rejection in early childhood education. It was hypothesized that children with poorer oral communicative competence would be rejected by their peers more frequently and that the strength of this relationship would differ for boys and…
Harris, Douglas N.
Background: Interest among social scientists in peer influences has grown with recent resegregation of the nation's schools and court decisions that limit the ability of school districts to consider race in school assignment decisions. If having more advantaged peers is beneficial, then these trends may reduce educational equity. Previous studies…
Discusses problems associated with teen sex, the relationship between teen sexuality and self-esteem, and problems with traditional sex-education programs. Outlines factors in effective sex education, emphasizing the importance of a comprehensive health program. Discusses problems specific to rural areas, and includes examples of programs…
Full Text Available This paper presents the exploratory analysis of an action-research into dropout prevention in an Italian secondary school. By taking into account the representations of teachers, students and parents, different activities of peer education have been implemented during the school year in a city of Sardinia in order to promote school success. The study is based on a mixed-methods design, including focus groups with teachers, students and parents, as well as classroom observations. The action-research consists of different interventions: firstly, the participants’ representations of school dropout have been collected; then, a specific program of peer education has been proposed through activities of role-playing, simulations, brainstorming, and improvement of life skills (during training meetings with the participants. Thereafter, the action-research has been qualitatively analysed, with the findings indicating possible directions of re-creating school practices that could have potential benefits in preventing dropout.
Chao, Li-Wei; Gow, Jeff; Akintola, Goke; Pauly, Mark
Background: One hundred and twenty educators from KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, underwent HIV/AIDS training. The educators were surveyed about their attitudes toward people with HIV. Methods: The educators completed self-administered survey questionnaires both before and after 2 interventions. Measures included demographic characteristics,…
Chao, Li-Wei; Gow, Jeff; Akintola, Olagoke; Pauly, Mark
The purpose of this study was to compare two different methods to teach educators about HIV/AIDS. Sixty educators were selected from eight schools in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa, to undergo HIV/AIDS training using an interactive CD-ROM intervention. Another sixty educators from other schools were selected to undergo a two-day Life Skills…
Hill, Robert J.
HIV and AIDS are complex events that offer numerous opportunities for adult education. However, mainstream education on this issue has often not been relevant to a number of subpopulations, including sex workers. This chapter explores sources and content of HIV/AIDS education in the sex work industry (including art and the Internet) and suggests…
Objective: This study was aimed at assessing the knowledge, opinion and practices of Nigerian primary and secondary school teachers on HIV/AIDS education. Method: A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data on demography, knowledge of HIV transmission and prevention, training on HIV transmission ...
Liu, Yan; Han, Ying; Shi, Jieli; Li, Ruixia; Li, Sufen; Jin, Nana; Gu, Yong; Guo, Honglei
The purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of peer education in type 2 diabetes patients with emotional disorders on the metabolic index and psychological status. Educators use psychological scales to screen type 2 diabetes patients with emotional disorders. Participants were divided into usual and peer education groups. Both groups received usual diabetes education. Peer leaders were recruited to provide support with the peer education group for 6 months. The metabolic index, diabetes knowledge, self-management, diabetes-related distress, emotional status and quality of life were compared at the end of the study. A total of 127 patients participated in the study. There were 20 peer leaders engaged in the study as volunteers for peer education. All participants completed the study and fulfilled the scales. Improvements in the peer education group were significant compared with the usual education group with respect to anxiety (49.0 ± 9.65 vs 54.0 ± 8.48), depression (51.3 ± 7.97 vs 55.8 ± 7.52), diabetes knowledge (18.8 ± 2.46 vs 16.3 ± 2.08), distress (2.67 ± 0.55 vs 3.02 ± 0.56), self-management (66.5 ± 4.26 vs 62.4 ± 5.88) and quality of life (-1.98 ± 0.82 vs -2.50 ± 0.71), whereas no significant difference existed with respect to the metabolic index. Peer education, providing more attention to diabetes patients with emotional disorders, is a preferred model for delivering care.
Harmer, Bonnie McKay; Huffman, Jaime; Johnson, Barbara
The authors describe a clinical peer mentoring (CPM) program that partnered 16 pairs of senior (mentors) and sophomore (novices) BSN students to provide patient care on a dedicated education unit at a VA Medical Center. Situated learning theory and Tanner's Clinical Judgment Model provided frameworks for CPM implementation. Survey findings suggested novices and mentors perceived improvements in self-confidence, prioritization, time management, clinical judgment, and evidence-based practice use. Many mentors spontaneously expressed an interest in becoming a preceptor or nurse educator. Copyright © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Hawa, Roula N; Underhill, Angela; Logie, Carmen H; Islam, Shazia; Loutfy, Mona
Using a community-based, socialist feminist qualitative study, and an emergent research design, we explored the unique individual experiences of South Asian immigrant women living with HIV in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) of Ontario, Canada. We assessed both the HIV risk context and the strategies for HIV education and prevention as expressed by study participants. Grounded in Connell's social theory of gender, a thematic analysis of semi-structured interviews with 12 women yielded six themes related to the power and impact of stigmatization, community's denial of HIV, infidelity, manifested in resistance to discussing sex and condom use, non-disclosure, and lack of HIV knowledge. This study validated the legitimacy of listening to the voices of South Asian immigrant women living with HIV, who communicated 20 recommendations for researchers, educators, community organizations, and service providers to culturally-tailor HIV education programs.
Irvine, Susan; Williams, Brett; McKenna, Lisa
Near Peer teaching (NPT) is reported as an effective pedagogical approach to student learning and performance. Studies in medicine, nursing and health sciences have relied mainly on self-reports to describe its benefits, focusing on psychomotor and cognitive aspects of learning. Despite increasing research reports on peer teaching internationally, little is known about the various domains of learning used in assessment of performance and objective learning outcomes of NPT. To determine the domains of learning and assessment outcomes used in NPT in undergraduate health professional education. Quantitative systematic review was conducted in accord with the PRISMA protocol and the Joanna Briggs Institute processes. A wide literature search was conducted for the period 1990-November 2015 of fourteen databases. Grey literature was undertaken from all key research articles. Studies meeting the inclusion criteria were eligible for consideration, including measured learning outcomes of near-peer teaching in undergraduate education in nursing, medicine and health sciences. Set limitations included publications after 1990 (2015 inclusive), English language and objective learning outcomes. A quality appraisal process involving two independent reviewers was used to analyse the data. Of 212 selected articles, 26 were included in the review. Terminology was confusing and found to be a barrier to the review process. Although some studies demonstrated effective learning outcomes resulting from near-peer teaching, others were inconclusive. Studies focused on cognitive and psychomotor abilities of learners with none assessing metacognition, affective behaviours or learning outcomes from quality of understanding. The studies reviewed focused on cognitive and psychomotor abilities of learners. Even though evidence clearly indicates that metacognition and affective behaviours have direct influence on learning and performance, indicating more research around this topic is warranted
Figueiredo, Maria Pacheco; Figueiredo, Ana Cláudia Nogueira de; Rego, Belmiro
The study was developed as a teacher-research project during initial teacher education – Masters Degree of Early Childhood and Primary Education, in Portugal. It analysed the interactions between children of 3 to 6 years old, during the use of the computer as a free choice activity, confronting situations between peers of the same age and situations between peers of different ages. The focus of the analysis was the collaborative interactions. This was a qualitative study. Child...
Ribeiro, Clarisse; Sarmento E Castro, Rui; Dinis-Ribeiro, Mário; Fernandes, Lia
Adherence to Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) is the main prognostic factor associated with HIV disease progression and death. The aim was to evaluate the effectiveness of a psycho-educational program to promote adherence to HAART in HIV patients. A longitudinal study (n = 102) over 9 months in an Infectious Diseases Hospital was carried out. Adherence to HAART was measured with standardized scales and values of viral load. Two groups were defined: adherents and non-adherents. In the latter, a psycho-educational program was implemented and 6 months later measured adherence to HAART. Knowledge about the infection, CD4 T lymphocytes and HIV-ribonucleic acid values were measured before and after this program. The sample was predominantly male (70%), heterosexual (78%), with a mean age of 49 (SD = 12.7) years, and 48% of participants were not adhering to HAART. After the program, non-adherence decreased to 21.6%. Knowledge about the infection increased from 79 to 97%. A significant increase in CD4 T lymphocytes (mean 540-580) and a decrease in viral load (mean 5411-3052) were observed, the latter of statistical significance. This program seems to be feasible and efficient, improving adherence to HAART.
Mary Jane Rotheram-Borus
Full Text Available We evaluate the effect of clinic-based support by HIV-positive Peer Mentors, in addition to standard clinic care, on maternal and infant well-being among Women Living with HIV (WLH from pregnancy through the infant's first year of life.In a cluster randomized controlled trial in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, eight clinics were randomized for pregnant WLH to receive either: a Standard Care condition (SC; 4 clinics; n = 656 WLH; or an Enhanced Intervention (EI; 4 clinics; n = 544 WLH. WLH in the EI were invited to attend four antenatal and four postnatal meetings led by HIV-positive Peer Mentors, in addition to SC. WLH were recruited during pregnancy, and at least two post-birth assessment interviews were completed by 57% of WLH at 1.5, 6 or 12 months. EI's effect was ascertained on 19 measures of maternal and infant well-being using random effects regressions to control for clinic clustering. A binomial test for correlated outcomes evaluated EI's overall efficacy.WLH attended an average of 4.1 sessions (SD = 2.0; 13% did not attend any sessions. Significant overall benefits were found in EI compared to SC using the binomial test. Secondarily, over time, WLH in the EI reported significantly fewer depressive symptoms and fewer underweight infants than WLH in the SC condition. EI WLH were significantly more likely to use one feeding method for six months and exclusively breastfeed their infants for at least 6 months.WLH benefit by support from HIV-positive Peer Mentors, even though EI participation was partial, with incomplete follow-up rates from 6-12 months.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00972699.
Kalef, Laura; Reid, Greg; Macdonald, Cathy
The purpose of the research was to conduct a quality indicator analysis of studies investigating peer-tutoring for students with a disability in adapted physical education. An electronic search was conducted among English journals published from 1960 to November 2012. Databases included ERIC, PsycINFO, and SPORTDiscus. Fifteen research studies employing group-experimental (Gersten et al., 2005) or single-subject designs (Horner et al., 2005) met inclusion criteria. Each study was assessed for the presence and clarity of quality indicators. Group designs met an average of 62.5% essential and 69% desirable indicators. An average of 80% of indicators was present for single-subject designs. Results suggest claims of peer-tutoring being an evidence-based practice are premature. Recommendations for clarifying and applying the quality indicators are offered. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Aim: Research was conducted as a experimental study in order to determine the effect of menstrual health education conducted with peer education to adolescent girls in 6-8 classes on information and behaviors. Method: The study was made in Primary School of Regional Girl Boarding. Working group consisted of 202 students responded completely pre-test and post-test from 214 female students studying in this school in 2008-2009 academic year. Data were collected by Personal Information Form, Menstruation and Menstrual Health Information Form. The forms were implemented to all students before the start of peer education program. Then, a total of 24 students including two students from each class were chosen as a peer educator with simple random sampling method. Peer educators were given information about menstruation and menstrual health for 2 hours per week and a total of 6 hours during 3 weeks in line with the educational booklet. Peer educator were asked to share acquired this information with classmates in various environments. Forms used at the beginning of students were applied to students again 4 weeks after completion of peer education program. Results: The average score of the students' knowledge of menstruation and menstrual health increased significantly (p <0.05 after the peer education program. Also, a statistically significant increase has occurred in the behaviors of students’ washing their hands before the toilet during menstruation, lustrating from front to back with toilet paper, bathing in the form of shower during menstruation, using cotton underwear, changing frequently pads used and taking away the pads used by wrapping (p<0.05. Conclusion: It can be considered that the method of peer education is an effective method to increase knowledge of adolescent girls about menstruation and menstrual health and develop health behaviors. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(2.000: 191-198
Karau, Paul Bundi; Winnie, Mueni Saumu; Geoffrey, Muriira; Mwenda, Mukuthuria
Uptake of VCT and other HIV prevention strategies among rural African women is affected by various socio-cultural and economic factors which need elucidation. Our aim was to establish the responsiveness to HIV education among rural women attending three dispensaries in Kenya. This study was designed to assess gender and psycho-social factors that influence HIV dynamics in rural Kenya. This was a cross-sectional questionnaire based study of 1347 women, conducted in October 2009. Socio-economic status as well as knowledge on methods of HIV transmission was assessed. Testing status, knowledge on existing VCT services and willingness to share HIV information with their children was assessed. Majority of the women have heard about VCT services, but significantly few of them have been tested. Those with secondary school education and above are more knowledgeable on methods of HIV transmission, while those with inadequate education are more likely to cite shaking hands, sharing utensils, mosquito bites and hugging as means of transmission (p = 0.001). 90% of educated women are willing to share HIV information with their children, compared to 40% of uneducated women. Marital status is seen to positively influence testing status, but has no significant effect on dissemination of information to children. We conclude that despite the aggressive HIV education and proliferation of VCT services in Kenya, women are not heeding the call to get tested. Education has a positive impact on dissemination of HIV information. Focus needs to shift into increasing acceptability of testing by women in rural Kenya.
Sigstad, Hanne Marie Høybråten
Students with intellectual disabilities may lack sufficiently developed skills to initiate qualitatively good social interactions; thus, they might be in need of assistance. This study examined special education teachers' role in facilitating peer relationships among students with mild intellectual disabilities in a mainstream school context. The study was based on qualitative semi-structured interviews with nine special education teachers who belong to special education groups in lower secondary schools. A thematic structural analysis was used to identify themes. The teachers made substantial efforts to promote social competence and ensure optimal conditions to foster peer interactions. An "academic-oriented" education, divergent attitudes, challenges in teacher collaboration, and organizational constraints may be barriers. In a mainstream school, the role of special education teachers appears to be dependent on the basic values of the school management in terms of real opportunities to foster peer relationships among students with mild intellectual disabilities.
Sambe, Mariam M.
The objective of this research was to explore how Ethiopian high school students experienced the HIV/AIDS education programs offered in their schools. The project also examined gender differences in the way HIV/AIDS education was perceived and the implications for the instructional design of the programs. A total of 15 high school students (eight…
Rothberg, Madeleine A.; Sandberg, Sonja; Awerbuch, Tamara E.
The AIDS epidemic is still growing rapidly and the disease is thought to be uniformly fatal. With no vaccine or cure in sight, education during high school years is a critical component in the prevention of AIDS. We propose the use of computer software with which high school students can explore via simulation their own risk of acquiring an HIV infection given certain sexual behaviors. This particular software is intended to help students understand the three factors that determine their risk of HIV infection (number of sexual acts, probability that their partners are infected, and riskiness of the specific sexual activities they choose). Users can explicitly calculate their own chances of becoming infected based on decisions they make. Use of the program is expected to personalize the risk of HIV infection and thus increase users' concern and awareness. Behavioral change may not result from increased knowledge alone. Therefore the effectiveness of this program in changing attitudes toward risky sexual behaviors would be enhanced when the simulation is embedded in an appropriate curriculum. A description of the program and an example of its use are presented.
The relatively new specialty of Hospital Medicine in the USA is one of the fastest growing fields in internal medicine. Academic hospitalists are largely involved in the medical education of postgraduate residents and medical students. Little is known about the effectiveness of peer-to-peer teaching in internal medicine residency training programs and how the medical residents perceive its educational value in learning Hospital Medicine. The Hospitalist Huddle is a weekly educational activity newly established by our Hospitalist Division to facilitate the concept of peer-to-peer teaching. It requires medical residents to teach and educate their peers about the clinical topics related to Hospital Medicine. Faculty hospitalists serve as facilitators during the teaching sessions. A survey disseminated at the end of the first year of its implementation examined the residents' perception of the educational value of this new teaching activity. Most residents reported that they see the Huddle as a useful educational forum which may improve their skills in teaching, create a better educational and learning environment during their inpatient rotation, and improve their understanding of Hospital Medicine. Most residents also prefer that their peers, rather than faculty hospitalists, run the activity and do the teaching. The survey results support the notion that teaching and learning with flat hierarchies can be an appealing educational method to medical residents to help them understand Hospital Medicine during their medical wards rotation. Some areas need to be improved and others need to be continued and emphasized in order to make this novel educational activity grow and flourish in terms of its educational value and residents' satisfaction.
Habibzadeh, Hosein; Milan, Zahra D; Radfar, Moloud; Alilu, Leyla; Cund, Audrey
Coronary angiography can be stressful for patients and anxiety-caused physiological responses during the procedure increase the risk of dysrhythmia, coronary artery spasms and rupture. This study therefore aimed to investigate the effects of peer, video and combined peer-and-video training on anxiety among patients undergoing coronary angiography. This single-blinded randomised controlled clinical trial was conducted at two large educational hospitals in Iran between April and July 2016. A total of 120 adult patients undergoing coronary angiography were recruited. Using a block randomisation method, participants were assigned to one of four groups, with those in the control group receiving no training and those in the three intervention groups receiving either peer-facilitated training, video-based training or a combination of both. A Persian-language validated version of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory was used to measure pre- and post-intervention anxiety. There were no statistically significant differences in mean pre-intervention anxiety scores between the four groups (F = 0.31; P = 0.81). In contrast, there was a significant reduction in post-intervention anxiety among all three intervention groups compared to the control group (F = 27.71; P <0.01); however, there was no significant difference in anxiety level in terms of the type of intervention used. Peer, video and combined peer-and-video education were equally effective in reducing angiography-related patient anxiety. Such techniques are recommended to reduce anxiety amongst patients undergoing coronary angiography in hospitals in Iran.
Somerville, R. C.
Constructivist learning theory and inquiry-based educational practice stress the parallels between learning and research. Although peer review has long been a central feature of the working lives of research scientists, it has rarely found its way into the classroom. Motivated by this thought, an imaginary journal, Reviews of Atmospheric Science Topics (ROAST), has been integrated into a graduate-level course in atmospheric thermodynamics. The instructor acts as editor of ROAST. Students in the class are divided into teams and assigned topics on which to write survey papers and give in-class presentations, using the text, the Internet, the library, and other resources. The assigned topics range over the subject matter of the course. The submitted survey papers are sent by the ROAST editor to other members of the class, acting as anonymous reviewers. Just as in the case of real research journals, the editor asks the authors to respond to criticisms of reviewers and then sends the revised papers back to the reviewers. Each student is thus a researcher and co-author of one paper as well as an anonymous reviewer of several others. ROAST has proven to be not only a useful means of fostering learning, but also a natural and effective assessment tool. The peer review mechanism allows the student authors to address the defects in their papers, and hence in their learning, as pointed out not by an authority figure or an examination but by their own peers. As an important side benefit, the students gain experience with the peer review process itself and come to appreciate its strengths and weaknesses in evaluating scientific papers.
Yasuhara, Tomohisa; Konishi, Motomi; Nishida, Takahiro; Kushihata, Taro; Sone, Tomomichi; Kurio, Wasako; Yamamoto, Yumi; Nishikawa, Tomoe; Yanada, Kazuo; Nakamura, Mitsutaka
Learning chemistry is cumulative: basic knowledge and chemical calculation skills are required to gain understanding of higher content. However, we often suffer from students' lack of learning skills to acquire these concepts. One of the reasons is the lack of adequate training in the knowledge and skills of chemistry, and one of the reasons for this lack is the lack of adequate evaluation of training procedures and content. Team-based learning (TBL) is a strong method for providing training in the knowledge and skills of chemistry and reaffirms the knowledge and skills of students of various levels. In our faculty, TBL exercises are provided for first-year students concurrently with lectures in physical chemistry and analytical chemistry. In this study, we researched the adoption of a peer evaluation process for this participatory learning model. Questionnaires taken after TBL exercises in the previous year showed a positive response to TBL. Further, a questionnaire taken after TBL exercises in the spring semester of the current year also yielded a positive response not only to TBL but also to peer evaluation. In addition, a significant correlation was observed between the improvement of students' grades in chemistry classes and the feeling the percentage (20%) of peer evaluation in overall evaluation low (logistic regression analysis, p=0.022). On the basis of the findings, we argue that TBL provides a generic, practical learning environment including an effective focus on learning strategy and evaluation of knowledge, skills, and attitudes, and studies on the educational effects of TBL and peer evaluation.
Jesmin, Syeda S; Chaudhuri, Sanjukta; Abdullah, Shahnaz
Mass media is an important vehicle for health promotion in developing countries. In Bangladesh multiple media campaigns are being carried out to educate people about HIV/AIDS. We examined the extent of HIV/AIDS knowledge and the association of exposure to mass media among women in Bangladesh. The Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS) provides data for this article. We found that media exposure (combined index of television, radio, and newspaper) was a highly significant predictor of women's knowledge about HIV and AIDS. Other significant predictors of HIV knowledge include women's education, age, employment, and urban residence.
Bulman, C; Forde-Johnson, C; Griffiths, A; Hallworth, S; Kerry, A; Khan, S; Mills, K; Sharp, P
This action research study developed the use of peer reflective supervision (PRS) amongst eight nurse educators contributing to an undergraduate Adult Nursing programme at a UK University. During the academic year (2013-14), nurse educator co-researchers met for an introductory workshop and then met regularly in pairs to facilitate each other's reflection. This provided an opportunity for nurse educators to reflect on identified issues linked to their role with a facilitative peer. Educators met three additional times in a Reflexive Learning Group (RLG), to gather data on their use of PRS. Audio-recordings from the RLGs were transcribed and analysed using Norton's (2009) thematic analysis framework. Co-researchers iteratively validated the data and an external validation group critically viewed the evidence. Overall, seven themes were generated from the three research cycles. These were: PRS as a Valuable Affirming Experience; Time Issues; Facilitation- Support, Trust and Challenge; Developing a Flexible 'Toolbox'; To Write or Not to Write; Drawing on Literature; and Requirement for Action. Findings add new evidence regarding use of a flexible toolbox of resources to develop reflection and offer practical guidance on the development of PRS. Nurse educators often experienced similar concerns, and a facilitative supervision structure allowed co-researchers to positively explore these. Recognition of work pressures and requirement for time and space for reflection was highlighted, particularly regarding writing, and exploring the literature, to develop critical analysis of experiences. The importance of action as part of the reflective process was emphasised. Co-researchers reported positive personal change as well as the opportunity to highlight issues through their reflection for further action within the organisation. The study adds constructive evidence for the use of reflection to explore professional work, make sense of experiences and develop positive action
Gray, Nancy L.; Gardiner, Mary E.
The purpose of the study was to examine educator-peer social relationships within the context of the organization and to consider the role of the school administrator in establishing collegial and caring relationships. The study was a critical collective case study of six educators--administrators and teachers--in U.S. schools. Through interviews,…
Jenkinson, Kate A.; Benson, Amanda C.
In the teacher education context, most peer mentoring programs have focused on pre-service teachers and a qualified teacher mentor within schools (Hobson, et.al., 2009; Ambrosetti, Knight & Dekkers, 2014). Few studies have focused on mentoring between pre-service physical education teachers. Therefore, we describe the Assessment and Mentoring…
Steinert, Yvonne; McLeod, Peter J; Liben, Stephen; Snell, Linda
Although educational innovations in medical education are increasing in number, many educators do not submit their ideas for publication. The goal of this initiative was to assist faculty members write about their educational innovations. Twenty-four faculty members participated in this intervention, which consisted of a half-day workshop, three peer writing groups, and independent study. We assessed the impact of this intervention through post-workshop evaluations, a one-year follow-up questionnaire, tracking of manuscript submissions, and an analysis of curriculum vitae. The workshop evaluations and one-year follow-up demonstrated that participants valued the workshop small groups, self-instructional workbook, and peer support and feedback provided by the peer writing groups. One year later, nine participants submitted a total of 14 manuscripts, 11 of which were accepted for publication. In addition, 10 participants presented a total of 38 abstracts at educational meetings. Five years later, we reviewed the curriculum vitae of all participants who had published or presented their educational innovation. Although the total number of publications remained the same, the number of educationally-related publications and presentations at scientific meetings increased considerably. A faculty development workshop and peer writing group can facilitate writing productivity and presentations of scholarly work in medical education.
Woods, Douglas; Marcks, Brook
Individuals who exhibit motor and vocal tics are viewed as less socially acceptable than persons who do not exhibit tics. Efforts have been made to alter the negative perceptions through the use of education. However, the effectiveness of peer education and whether it need be Tourette syndrome (TS) specific remains unclear. One hundred and seventy…
Johnson, D.; Ruzek, M.; Weatherley, J.
The Journal of Earth System Science Education is a new interdisciplinary electronic journal aiming to foster the study of the Earth as a system and promote the development and exchange of interdisciplinary learning resources for formal and informal education. JESSE will serve educators and students by publishing and providing ready electronic access to Earth system and global change science learning resources for the classroom and will provide authors and creators with professional recognition through publication in a peer reviewed journal. JESSE resources foster a world perspective by emphasizing interdisciplinary studies and bridging disciplines in the context of the Earth system. The Journal will publish a wide ranging variety of electronic content, with minimal constraints on format, targeting undergraduate educators and students as the principal readership, expanding to a middle and high school audience as the journal matures. JESSE aims for rapid review and turn-around of resources to be published, with a goal of 12 weeks from submission to publication for resources requiring few changes. Initial publication will be on a quarterly basis until a flow of resource submissions is established to warrant continuous electronic publication. JESSE employs an open peer review process in which authors and reviewers discuss directly the acceptability of a resource for publication using a software tool called the Digital Document Discourse Environment. Reviewer comments and attribution will be available with the resource upon acceptance for publication. JESSE will also implement a moderated peer commentary capability where readers can comment on the use of a resource or make suggestions. In the development phase, JESSE will also conduct a parallel anonymous review of content to validate and ensure credibility of the open review approach. Copyright of materials submitted remains with the author, granting JESSE the non-exclusive right to maintain a copy of the resource
Wang, Shijuan; Murota, Masao
The effects of active peer-peer interaction on the generation of new hypotheses or models and the increase of new solutions have attracted widespread attention. Therefore, the peer discussion portion of peer instruction is supposedly effective in developing students' creativity. However, few empirical research involves how to adapt peer…
Tsai, Alexander C; Venkataramani, Atheendar S
HIV is highly stigmatized in sub-Saharan Africa. This is an important public health problem because HIV stigma has many adverse effects that threaten to undermine efforts to control the HIV epidemic. The implementation of a universal primary education policy in Uganda in 1997 provided us with a natural experiment to test the hypothesis that education is causally related to HIV stigma. For this analysis, we pooled publicly available, population-based data from the 2011 Uganda Demographic and Health Survey and the 2011 Uganda AIDS Indicator Survey. The primary outcomes of interest were negative attitudes toward persons with HIV, elicited using four questions about anticipated stigma and social distance. Standard least squares estimates suggested a statistically significant, negative association between years of schooling and HIV stigma (each P education as an instrumental variable. Participants who were education on HIV stigma (P-values ranged from 0.21 to 0.69). Three of the four estimated regression coefficients were positive, and in all cases the lower confidence limits convincingly excluded the possibility of large negative effect sizes. These instrumental variables estimates have a causal interpretation and were not overturned by several robustness checks. We conclude that, for young adults in Uganda, additional years of education in the formal schooling system driven by a universal primary school intervention have not had a causal effect on reducing negative attitudes toward persons with HIV. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lv, Ben-Yan; Xiang, Yuan-Xi; Zhao, Rui; Feng, Zhan-Chun; Liang, Shu-Ying; Wang, Yu-Ming
Nowadays, there is a trend of HIV prevalence transmitting from high-risk group to average-risk group in China. Rural China is the weak link of HIV prevention, and rural areas of Henan province which is one of the most high-risk regions in China have more than 60% of the AIDS patients in the province. Thus, improving the HIV awareness and implementing health education become the top-priority of HIV/AIDS control and prevention. A multistage sampling was designed to draw 1129 people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs) and 1168 non-PLWHAs in 4 prevalence counties of Henan province. A health promoting and social-psychological support model was constructed to improve the health knowledge of participants. Chi-square tests and unconditional logistic regression were performed to determine the intervention effect and influencing factors. All groups had misunderstandings towards the basic medical knowledge and the AIDS transmission mode. Before the intervention, 59.3% of the HIV/AIDS patients and 74.6% of the healthy people had negative attitudes towards the disease. There was statistically significant difference in the improvement of knowledge, attitude and action with regards to HIV prevention before and after intervention (Peducation level (OR=1.910) were found to have better HIV/AIDS health knowledge, whereas older PLWHAs (OR=0.961) were less likely to have better HIV/AIDS health knowledge. However, the intervention effect was associated with the expertise of doctors and supervisors, the content and methods of education, and participants' education level. It was concluded that health education of HIV/AIDS which positively influences the awareness and attitude of HIV prevention is popular in rural areas, therefore, a systematic and long-term program of HIV control and prevention is urgently needed in rural areas.
Malak, Arzu Tuna; Bektash, Murat; Turgay, Ayshe San; Tuna, Asli; Genç, Rabia Ekti
To estimate associations among peer education, social support and self-esteem and their influences on performance of breast self-examination (BSE). Seven volunteer peer educators were given the BSE training programme and in turn educated 65 women students in the university. BSE knowledge evaluation forms developed by Maurer were applied for evaluation. Other data were collected with questionnaires for the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory and Scale of Perceived Social Support over three months. Knowledge level points of students and the BSE practice ratio were increased by peer support. There was a positive relationship between average BSE knowledge points and social support and self-esteem. The results showed positive relationships among BSE knowledge, social support and self-esteem, these affecting the BSE performance level.
Tomori, Cecilia; Srikrishnan, Aylur K; Ridgeway, Kathleen; Solomon, Sunil S; Mehta, Shruti H; Solomon, Suniti; Celentano, David D
Globally, men who have sex with men (MSM) are at high risk for HIV. Many HIV-prevention efforts rely on community outreach and mobilization to engage MSM. This study examines peer relationships and their potential role in HIV prevention through 31 focus group discussions (FGDS) and 121 in-depth interviews (IDIs) with 363 MSM across 15 sites in India. Results indicate that MSM receive social support in friendships, sex-worker collaborations, constructed kin relationships, and romantic partnerships. Access to these relationships, however, is uneven across MSM, and can carry risks of disclosure of same-sex behavior and exclusion based on HIV- positive status. Positive peer relationships can serve as the basis of community empowerment, education, and couple-based interventions for MSM, and peer counselors can also provide a buffer against the social risks of peer relationships and facilitate linkage to care and continued engagement in treatment. These insights can improve HIV interventions for MSM in India and elsewhere.
Governments, UN agencies and international and local NGOs have mounted a concerted effort to remobilise sport as a vehicle for broad, sustainable social development. This resonates with the call for sport to be a key component in national and international development objectives. Missing in these efforts is an explicit focus on physical education within state schools, which still enroll most children in the global South. This article focuses on research into one of the few instances where physical education within the national curriculum is being revitalised as part of the growing interest in leveraging the appeal of sport and play as means to address social development challenges such as HIV/AIDS. It examines the response to the Zambian government's 2006 Declaration of Mandatory Physical Education (with a preventive education focus on HIV/AIDS) by personnel charged with its implementation and illustrates weaknesses within the education sector. The use of policy instruments such as decrees/mandates helps ensure the mainstreaming of physical education in development. However, the urgency required to respond to new mandates, particularly those sanctioned by the highest levels of government, can result in critical pieces of the puzzle being ignored, thereby undermining the potential of physical education (and sport) within development.
Karran A. Phillips
Full Text Available We sought to develop and deploy a video-based smartphone-delivered mobile HIV Risk Reduction (mHIVRR intervention to individuals in an addiction treatment clinic. We developed 3 video modules that consisted of a 10-minute HIVRR video, 11 acceptability questions, and 3 knowledge questions and deployed them as a secondary study within a larger study of ecological momentary and geographical momentary assessments. All 24 individuals who remained in the main study long enough completed the mHIVRR secondary study. All 3 videos met our a priori criteria for acceptability “as is” in the population: they achieved median scores of ≤2.5 on a 5-point Likert scale; ≤20% of the individuals gave them the most negative rating on the scale; a majority of the individuals stated that they would not prefer other formats over video-based smartphone-delivered one (all P<0.05. Additionally, all of our video modules met our a priori criteria for feasibility: ≤20% of data were missing due to participant noncompliance and ≤20% were missing due to technical failure. We concluded that video-based mHIVRR education delivered via smartphone is acceptable, feasible and may increase HIV/STD risk reduction knowledge. Future studies, with pre-intervention assessments of knowledge and random assignment, are needed to confirm these findings.
Nordio, Sergio; Flapp, Federica
The aim of this work is to present some experiences of intergenerational education about meteorology and climatology issues carried out with school pupils from 6 to 19 years old, through peer-tutoring methodology. These experiences started in 2003 and each year the project involves about 500 students in Friuli Venezia Giulia region (about 8.000 km2) in northeastern Italy. A group of volunteers (older students from upper secondary school, 17-19 years old) play the role of "tutor": they receive supplementary training on meteorology and climatology, and then, during students' meetings and/or public events, they teach younger pupils how to use meteorological instruments (thermometer, hygrometer, barometer, anemometer, rain gages, etc.) and they carry out interactive experiences such as "game-experiments", to better understand some meteorological concepts, like density of fluids, and some climatological notions, like the effects of climate change with an exhibit that simulates the greenhouse effect. They also do some meteorological forecasting exercises, using meteorological maps, as if they were actual forecasters. All these activities are addressed to pupils from primary (age 6-11) and lower secondary schools (age 11-14), and both tutors and their younger "apprentices" are not only cognitively, but also emotionally involved in such learning experiences. As a second step of this educational process, after consolidating the above mentioned peer-tutoring activities, high school students hare being actively involved in developing visual tools - e.g. video-clips, interviews and cartoons - in order to communicate climate change issues in the most effective way to younger pupils. Keywords: meteorology, climatology, climate change, schools, education, communication.
Kaya, Taciser; Goksel Karatepe, Altinay; Atici Ozturk, Pinar; Gunaydin, Rezzan
To determine the effect of peer-led group education on the quality of life and depression in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Eighty patients with definite AS were allocated randomly to either the education or control group. The education group (n = 40) was subjected to a peer-led group education program about disease and was given an educational booklet, while the control group (n = 40) was given the educational booklet only. Levels of quality of life and depression were measured at baseline, immediately after education (fourth week) and at 6 months in both groups. The results are based on 56 (n = 27, education group; n = 29, control group) patients. The level of quality of life and depressive symptoms were not changed except for a deterioration in the social functioning subgroup of Short From (SF)-36 in both groups. When the groups were compared, there were no significant differences between changes in social functioning scores. Peer-led education did not alter quality of life levels and depression scores. However, because of the maintainance of quality of life levels, this type of intervention may be considered as a supplementary intervention to the standard medical care for management of AS. © 2013 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL. 609. EDITORIAL. IMPACT OF HIV/AIDS ON EDUCATION IN THE SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA. HIV /AIDS mark a severe development crisis in sub-Saharan Africa, which remains by far the worst affected region in the world. Approximately 3.5 million new infections occurred in 2001, ...
Baxter, Paul; Ashurst, Emily; Read, Robin; Kennedy, James; Belpaeme, Tony
The benefit of social robots to support child learning in an educational context over an extended period of time is evaluated. Specifically, the effect of personalisation and adaptation of robot social behaviour is assessed. Two autonomous robots were embedded within two matched classrooms of a primary school for a continuous two week period without experimenter supervision to act as learning companions for the children for familiar and novel subjects. Results suggest that while children in both personalised and non-personalised conditions learned, there was increased child learning of a novel subject exhibited when interacting with a robot that personalised its behaviours, with indications that this benefit extended to other class-based performance. Additional evidence was obtained suggesting that there is increased acceptance of the personalised robot peer over a non-personalised version. These results provide the first evidence in support of peer-robot behavioural personalisation having a positive influence on learning when embedded in a learning environment for an extended period of time.
Full Text Available The benefit of social robots to support child learning in an educational context over an extended period of time is evaluated. Specifically, the effect of personalisation and adaptation of robot social behaviour is assessed. Two autonomous robots were embedded within two matched classrooms of a primary school for a continuous two week period without experimenter supervision to act as learning companions for the children for familiar and novel subjects. Results suggest that while children in both personalised and non-personalised conditions learned, there was increased child learning of a novel subject exhibited when interacting with a robot that personalised its behaviours, with indications that this benefit extended to other class-based performance. Additional evidence was obtained suggesting that there is increased acceptance of the personalised robot peer over a non-personalised version. These results provide the first evidence in support of peer-robot behavioural personalisation having a positive influence on learning when embedded in a learning environment for an extended period of time.
Ashurst, Emily; Read, Robin; Kennedy, James; Belpaeme, Tony
The benefit of social robots to support child learning in an educational context over an extended period of time is evaluated. Specifically, the effect of personalisation and adaptation of robot social behaviour is assessed. Two autonomous robots were embedded within two matched classrooms of a primary school for a continuous two week period without experimenter supervision to act as learning companions for the children for familiar and novel subjects. Results suggest that while children in both personalised and non-personalised conditions learned, there was increased child learning of a novel subject exhibited when interacting with a robot that personalised its behaviours, with indications that this benefit extended to other class-based performance. Additional evidence was obtained suggesting that there is increased acceptance of the personalised robot peer over a non-personalised version. These results provide the first evidence in support of peer-robot behavioural personalisation having a positive influence on learning when embedded in a learning environment for an extended period of time. PMID:28542648
Breithaupt, Lauren; Eickman, Laura; Byrne, Catherine E; Fischer, Sarah
Previously validated eating disorder (ED) prevention programs utilize either a targeted or universal approach. While both approaches have shown to be efficacious, implementing either style of program within a school setting remains a challenge. The current study describes an enhanced version of REbeL, a module based, continuous ED prevention program which utilizes a self-selection model of prevention in high school settings. The purpose of this study was to determine if an enhanced empowerment model of REbeL could increase feelings of empowerment and reduce eating disorder risk. We also aimed to assess the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention. High school peer-educators self-selected into the semi-manualized dissonance based intervention. Following feedback from a pilot trailed, enhanced peer-led group activities, designed to critique the thin ideal and designed to empower macro-changes in societal structures that emphasize the thin ideal, were added. The study (N=83) indicates that the program appears to be effective at reducing eating disorder risk factors and increasing empowerment. Participants reported reductions in body checking and internalization of the thin ideal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lord, Julie A; Mourtzanos, Emmanuel; McLaren, Kimberly; Murray, Suzanne B; Kimmel, Ryan J; Cowley, Deborah S
To study the effect of a peer mentoring group (PMG). Six junior clinician educator faculty and one senior faculty at the University of Washington Medical Center's Department of Psychiatry formed a PMG in 2006. The PMG had 30 meetings during 2006-2010. Group format, goals, and meeting agendas were determined solely by participants. Feedback about positive and negative outcomes of participation in the PMG was determined by open-ended response to three sets of questions; qualitative analysis was performed by an outside research consultant. Program evaluation revealed benefits and undesirable or unintended outcomes. Reported benefits were increased workplace satisfaction; improved social connection; increased professional productivity and personal growth/development through accountability, collaboration, mutual learning, support, and information sharing; synergy, collaboration, and diversity of thought; increased involvement in professional activities; opportunity for peer discussions in a safe environment; and increased accountability and motivation. Undesirable or unintentional outcomes were exclusivity, lack of hierarchy, scheduling of meetings, absence of an intentional curriculum, diverse and competing interests, personal-professional enmeshment, and occasional loss of focus due to overemphasis on personal matters. Every member of the PMG was retained, and scholarly productivity increased, as did collaboration with other group members. Participants in this PMG experienced qualitative benefits and perceived advantages in career advancement and scholarly productivity. Negative consequences did not deter participation in the PMG or outweigh benefits. The self-sufficient and low-cost structure makes it particularly portable.
Smith, Michelle K.; Annis, Seanna L.; Kaplan, Jennifer J.; Drummond, Frank
Blueberry growers in Maine attend annual Cooperative Extension presentations given by university faculty members. These presentations cover topics, such as, how to prevent plant disease and monitor for insect pests. In 2012, in order to make the sessions more interactive and promote learning, clicker questions and peer discussion were incorporated into the presentations. Similar to what has been shown at the undergraduate level, after peer discussion, more blueberry growers gave correct answers to multiple-choice questions than when answering independently. Furthermore, because blueberry growers are characterized by diverse levels of education, experience in the field etc., we were able to determine whether demographic factors were associated with changes in performance after peer discussion. Taken together, our results suggest that clicker questions and peer discussion work equally well with adults from a variety of demographic backgrounds without disadvantaging a subset of the population and provide an important learning opportunity to the least formally educated members. Our results also indicate that clicker questions with peer discussion were viewed as a positive addition to university-related informal science education sessions. PMID:23077638
Michelle K Smith
Full Text Available Blueberry growers in Maine attend annual Cooperative Extension presentations given by university faculty members. These presentations cover topics, such as, how to prevent plant disease and monitor for insect pests. In 2012, in order to make the sessions more interactive and promote learning, clicker questions and peer discussion were incorporated into the presentations. Similar to what has been shown at the undergraduate level, after peer discussion, more blueberry growers gave correct answers to multiple-choice questions than when answering independently. Furthermore, because blueberry growers are characterized by diverse levels of education, experience in the field etc., we were able to determine whether demographic factors were associated with changes in performance after peer discussion. Taken together, our results suggest that clicker questions and peer discussion work equally well with adults from a variety of demographic backgrounds without disadvantaging a subset of the population and provide an important learning opportunity to the least formally educated members. Our results also indicate that clicker questions with peer discussion were viewed as a positive addition to university-related informal science education sessions.
Smith, Michelle K; Annis, Seanna L; Kaplan, Jennifer J; Drummond, Frank
Blueberry growers in Maine attend annual Cooperative Extension presentations given by university faculty members. These presentations cover topics, such as, how to prevent plant disease and monitor for insect pests. In 2012, in order to make the sessions more interactive and promote learning, clicker questions and peer discussion were incorporated into the presentations. Similar to what has been shown at the undergraduate level, after peer discussion, more blueberry growers gave correct answers to multiple-choice questions than when answering independently. Furthermore, because blueberry growers are characterized by diverse levels of education, experience in the field etc., we were able to determine whether demographic factors were associated with changes in performance after peer discussion. Taken together, our results suggest that clicker questions and peer discussion work equally well with adults from a variety of demographic backgrounds without disadvantaging a subset of the population and provide an important learning opportunity to the least formally educated members. Our results also indicate that clicker questions with peer discussion were viewed as a positive addition to university-related informal science education sessions.
Wouters, Edwin; Masquillier, Caroline; Ponnet, Koen; le Roux Booysen, Frederik
Given the severe shortage of human resources in the healthcare sector in many countries with high HIV prevalence, community-based peer adherence support is being increasingly cited as an integral part of a sustainable antiretroviral treatment (ART) strategy. However, the available scientific evidence on this topic reports discrepant findings on the effectiveness of peer adherence support programmes. These conflicting findings to some extent can be attributed to the lack of attention to the social contexts in which peer adherence support programmes are implemented. This study explores the potential moderating role of family dynamics by assessing the differential impact of peer adherence support in different types of families, based on the theoretical underpinnings of the family functioning framework. These relationships were explored with the aid of multivariate statistical analysis of cross-sectional, post-trial data for a sample of 340 patients interviewed as part of the Effectiveness of Aids Treatment and Support in the Free State (FEATS) study conducted in the public-sector ART programme of the Free State Province of South Africa. The analysis reveals no significant overall differences in CD4 cell count between the intervention group accessing additional peer adherence support and the control group receiving standard care. When controlling for the potential moderating role of family dynamics, however, the outcomes clearly reveal a significant interaction effect between the adherence intervention and the level of family functioning with regard to treatment outcomes. Multi-group analysis demonstrates that peer adherence support has a positive effect on immunological restoration in well-functioning families, while having a negative effect in dysfunctional families. The study outcomes stress the need for peer adherence interventions that are sensitive to the suboptimal contexts in which they are often implemented. Generic, broad-based interventions do not
Scoates, J. S.; Hanano, D. W.; Weis, D.; Bilenker, L.; Sherman, S. B.; Gilley, B.
The use of active learning and collaborative strategies is widely gaining momentum at the university level and is ideally suited to field instructional settings. Peer learning, when students learn with and from each other, is based on the principle that students learn in a more profound way by explaining their ideas to others and by participating in activities in which they can learn from their peers. The Multidisciplinary Applied Geochemistry Network (MAGNET), an NSERC Collaborative Research and Training Experience (CREATE) initiative in Canada, recently experimented with this approach during its fourth annual workshop in August 2016. With a group of 25 geochemistry graduate students from universities across Canada, three remarkable field sites in Montana and Wyoming were explored: the Stillwater Complex, the Beartooth Mountains, and Yellowstone National Park. Rather than developing a rigorous teaching curriculum led by faculty, groups of students were tasked with designing and delivering half-day teaching modules that included field activities at each of the locations. Over the course of two months and with feedback from mentors, the graduate students transformed their ideas into formal lesson plans, complete with learning goals, a schedule of teaching activities, equipment lists, and plans for safety and environmental mitigation. This shift, from teacher-centered to learner-centered education, requires students to take greater initiative and responsibility for their own learning and development. We highlight the goals, structure and implementation of the workshop, as well as some of the successes and challenges. We also present the results of participant feedback taken immediately after each lesson and both pre- and post-trip surveys. The outdoor classroom and hands-on activities accelerated learning of field techniques and enhanced understanding of complex geological systems and processes. The trainee-led format facilitated peer knowledge transfer and the
Rajasekaran, Rajkumar; Sriman Narayana Iyengar, Nallani Chackravatula
Objectives: Mobile technology helps to improve continuing medical education; this includes all aspects of public health care as well as keeping one?s knowledge up-to-date. The program of continuing medical and health education is intertwined with mobile health technology, which forms an imperative component of national strategies in health. Continuing mobile medical education (CMME) programs are designed to ensure that all medical and health-care professionals stay up-to-date with the knowled...
Carmen H Logie
Full Text Available Little evidence exists regarding efficacious HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STI prevention interventions with internally displaced populations. Internally displaced women are at elevated risk for HIV/STI due to limited access to health services, heightened poverty and social network breakdown. The FASY (Famn an Aksyon Pou Sante' Yo (Women Taking Action For Their Health study examined the effectiveness of a peer health worker (PHW delivered psycho-educational HIV/STI pilot study with internally displaced women in Leogane, Haiti.This was a non-randomized cohort pilot study. Participants completed a computer-assisted pre-test programmed on Android tablet PCs followed by an HIV/STI educational video-based session and a 6-week psycho-educational group program of weekly meetings. Participants completed a post-test upon completion of group sessions. The primary outcome was HIV knowledge; our pre-specified index of clinically significant change was an effect size of 0.30. Secondary outcomes included: STI knowledge, condom use, social support, resilient coping, depression and relationship control. We used mixed-effects regression to calculate mean outcome pre-post score change. This study was registered (clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01492829.Between January 1-April 30, 2012 we assigned 200 participants to the study. The majority of participants (n = 176, 88% completed the study and were followed up at 8 weeks, finishing April 30, 2012. Adjusted for socio-demographic characteristics, HIV knowledge (β = 4.81; 95% CI 4.36-5.26, STI knowledge (β = 0.84; 95% CI 0.70-0.99, condom use (AOR = 4.05, 95% CI 1.86-8.83, and depression (β = -0.63, 95% CI -0.88--0.39 scores showed statistically significant change post-intervention (p<0.05.This pilot study evaluated a PHW psycho-educational HIV/STI prevention intervention among internally displaced women in post-earthquake Haiti. Pilot studies are an important approach to understand feasibility and scientific
Petersen, Nadine; de Beer, Josef; Dunbar-Krige, Helen
The article describes the use of a simulation game in HIV/AIDS education with pre-service teachers in Johannesburg, South Africa. The use of a simulation game, as novel experiential pedagogy, was an attempt to raise awareness about HIV and AIDS and to demonstrate that anyone can be at risk of HIV infection. Using a generic qualitative research design, the data were collected over a three-year period by way of video recordings of the simulation game, recordings of large and small group discussions afterwards, and via questionnaires and written reflections by the education students four weeks afterwards. Content analysis and discourse analysis led to the construction of three main themes. First, we found that the novelty factor of the simulation game for raising HIV/AIDS awareness was confirmed both during the game itself and after a period of time had elapsed. Second, in light of many education students' naivety about the intersection of biological, socio-cultural and economic issues at play in the spread of HIV, the game prompted more reflexivity about the disease and helped to broaden the participants' discussions. Lastly, the data revealed the disjuncture between theory and practice in HIV/AIDS education. We propose that in raising awareness of HIV and AIDS, educators should move towards more engaging and challenging pedagogies that address the learning needs of the 'new' generation of university students.
In an area of high HIV prevalence, HIV-related ocular lesions are relatively common. It is estimated that there are 5.6 million people in South Africa living with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). A relatively small percentage of them are on highly active ...
Amrein-Beardsley, Audrey; Osborn Popp, Sharon E.
Teacher educators piloted the use of the Reformed Teaching Observation Protocol (RTOP), a peer observation instrument associated with increases in learning in science and mathematics teacher education courses. Faculty participants received a series of trainings in RTOP use and rated each other's teaching during multiple peer observations. The…
Farias, Cláudio; Mesquita, Isabel; Hastie, Peter A; O'Donovan, Toni
The purpose of this study was to provide an integrated analysis of a teacher's peer-teaching mediation strategies, the student-coaches' instruction, and the students' gameplay development across 3 consecutive seasons of sport education. Twenty-six 7th-grade students participated in 3 consecutive sport education seasons of invasion games (basketball, handball, and soccer). The research involved 3 action research cycles, 1 per season, and each cycle included the processes of planning, acting and monitoring, reflecting, and fact finding. Data collection consisted of videotape and audiotape records of all 47 lessons, a reflective field diary kept by the first author in the role of teacher-researcher, and a total of 24 semistructured focus-group interviews. Trustworthiness criteria for assuring the quality of qualitative research included extensive data triangulation, stakeholders' crosschecking, and collaborative interpretational analysis. Through the application of systematic preparation strategies, student-coaches were able to successfully conduct team instruction that resulted in students' tactical development and improved performance. Aspects such as the study of predominant configurations of players' gameplay and similar tactical principles across games within the same category prevented a setback in the complexity of the learning content addressed at the beginning of each season. Players also showed an increasing ability to adapt gameplay to game conditions. While sport education has the capacity to develop competent players, different levels of teacher guidance and learners' instructional responsibility are necessary when teaching tactics.
Kuo, Fon-Chu; Chen, Jun-Ming; Chu, Hui-Chun; Yang, Kai-Hsiang; Chen, Yi-Hsuan
Peer-assessment and video comment-sharing are effective learning strategies for students to receive feedback on their learning. Researchers have emphasized the need for well-designed peer involvement in order to improve students' abilities in the cognitive and affective domains. Although student perceptions of peer-assessment have been studied…
Yip, Calvin; Gates, Michelle; Gates, Allison; Hanning, Rhona M.
To date, the impacts of school-based, peer-led nutrition education initiatives have not been summarized or assessed collectively. This review presents the current evidence, identifies knowledge gaps, and provides recommendations for future research. PubMed, Scopus, ERIC and Google Scholar were searched for refereed Canadian and American primary…
Useche, Ana Carolina; Sullivan, Amanda L.; Merk, Welmoet; Orobio de Castro, Bram
This study examines the concurrent and longitudinal relationships between reactive and proactive aggression and children's peer status. Participants were 94 Dutch elementary school-aged boys in self-contained special education classrooms for students with emotional/behavioral disorders (EBD) and 47 boys with no disabilities in general education…
Useche, Ana Carolina; Sullivan, Amanda L.; Merk, Welmoet; Orobio de Castro, Bram
This study examines the concurrent and longitudinal relationships between reactive and proactive aggression and children's peer status. Participants were 94 Dutch elementary school-aged boys in self-contained special education classrooms for students with emotional/behavioral disorders (EBD) and 47
Delaloye, Joan E.
This report describes a project developed by New York City Technical College which provides continuing education to the homebound older adults through linkages with colleges and social agencies and a peer teaching approach. Section I provides background information; outlines project objectives, which include the training of professional teachers…
Thomas, Susan; Chie, Qiu Ting; Abraham, Mathew; Raj, Sony Jalarajan; Beh, Loo-See
The issues of professional accountability, faculty member development, and enhancing higher education quality in universities are gaining importance. A strategy that could increase personal control over teaching practices in addition to improving professional development among faculty members is peer review of teaching (PRT). Five themes that are…
O'Brennan, Lindsey M.; Waasdorp, Tracy E.; Pas, Elise T.; Bradshaw, Catherine P.
The present longitudinal study used a social-ecological framework to explore the extent to which peer victimization and aggression were associated with changes in concentration problems and emotion regulation among elementary students in general versus special education, while accounting for student demographics and school contextual factors. Data…
Kitara, David Lagoro; Amongin, Hellen Christine; Oonyu, Joseph C; Baguma, Peter K
Whereas HIV/AIDS prevalence has been declining in Uganda from 30% to less than 10% in the last 2 decades, the number of HIV/AIDS orphaned girls in secondary schools is still high and girl children have tended to carry the heaviest burdens of family responsibilities thereby adversely affecting their assertiveness and attitudes towards education. Assertiveness is a critical life skill that enables a person to state an opinion, claim a right, or establish authority and it is important to improve attitude towards education. This study examined the relationship between assertiveness and attitude towards education of HIV/AIDS orphaned and non-orphaned adolescent school girls in Kampala. The California Psychological Inventory (CPI) Dominance (Do) Assertiveness Scale and the Attitude Scale were administered to 225 students consecutively selected from 6 secondary schools in Kampala. HIV/AIDS Orphaned girls had lower levels of assertiveness and most had a negative attitude towards education compared to non-orphaned girls. Girls orphaned to HIV/AIDS were less assertive compared to those orphaned by other causes. There was a positive relationship between assertiveness and attitude towards education among orphaned adolescent secondary school girls in Kampala. Girls orphaned to HIV/AIDS were less assertive compared to other school girls and have a poor attitude towards education.
Schoorman, Dilys; Acosta, Maria Cristina; Sena, Rachel; Baxley, Traci
In this article the authors discuss how the perspectives of Paulo Freire were instructive in addressing the challenges of HIV-AIDS education in Guatemalan Maya immigrant communities with minimal formal education and literacy. The forging of a community-based, collaborative, educational program offers several implications for effective teaching and…
Selikow, Terry-Ann; Ahmed, Nazeema; Flisher, Alan J; Mathews, Catherine; Mukoma, Wanjiru
Young people in South Africa are susceptible to HIV infection. They are vulnerable to peer pressure to have sex, but little is known about how peer pressure operates. The aim of the study was to understand how negative peer pressure increases high risk sexual behaviour among young adolescents in Cape Town, South Africa. Qualitative research methods were used. Eight focus groups were conducted with young people between the ages of 13 and 14 years. Peer pressure among both boys and girls undermines healthy social norms and HIV prevention messages to abstain, be faithful, use a condom and delay sexual debut. HIV prevention projects need to engage with peer pressure with the aim of changing harmful social norms into healthy norms. Increased communication with adults about sex is one way to decrease the impact of negative peer pressure. Peer education is a further mechanism by which trained peers can role model healthy social norms and challenge a peer culture that promotes high risk sexual behaviour. Successful HIV prevention interventions need to engage with the disconnect between educational messages and social messages and to exploit the gaps between awareness, decision making, norms, intentions and actions as spaces for positive interventions.
Young, Vicki L; Cole, Amy; Lecky, Donna M; Fettis, Dennis; Pritchard, Beth; Verlander, Neville Q; Eley, Charlotte V; McNulty, Cliodna A M
Delivering health topics in schools through peer education is known to be beneficial for all students involved. In this study, we have evaluated a peer-education workshop that aims to educate primary and secondary school students on hygiene, the spread of infection and antibiotics. Four schools in south-west England, in a range of localities, took part in peer-education workshops, with students completing before, after and knowledge-retention questionnaires. Mixed-effect logistic regression and mixed-effect linear regression were used to analyse the data. Data were analysed by topic, region and peer/non-peer-educator status. Qualitative interviews and focus groups with students and educators were conducted to assess changes in participants' skills, confidence and behaviour. Qualitative data indicated improvements in peer-educator skills and behaviour, including confidence, team-working and communication. There was a significant improvement in knowledge for all topics covered in the intervention, although this varied by region. In the antibiotics topic, peer-educators' knowledge increased in the retention questionnaire, whereas non-peer-educators' knowledge decreased. Knowledge declined in the retention questionnaires for the other topics, although this was mostly not significant. This study indicates that peer education is an effective way to educate young people on important topics around health and hygiene, and to concurrently improve communication skills. Its use should be encouraged across schools to help in the implementation of the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidance that recommends children are taught in an age-appropriate manner about hygiene and antibiotics. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy.
Noden, Bruce H; Gomes, Aurelio; Ferreira, Aldina
The interactions between religious affiliation, education, HIV knowledge, and HIV-related sexual behaviors among African church youth are poorly understood. In this socio-demographic study, 522 unmarried youth 12-28 years old in rural central Mozambique were surveyed with a structured questionnaire. Using binary logistic regression analysis, we used religious affiliation and education to measure influence on (1) HIV transmission and prevention knowledge and attitudes and (2) HIV-related sexual behaviors among youth. Religiously affiliated males were more likely than non-religious males to know when a condom should be used, respond correctly to HIV transmission questions and respond with less stigma to HIV-related scenarios. Increased levels of education among males corresponded significantly to increased knowledge of condom usage and HIV prevention strategies and less likelihood to respond with stigma. Only education levels influenced young female responses. Religious affiliation and education had minimal effects on sexual activity, condom usage, and multiple partnerships. African Independent Church/Zionist males were 1.6 times more likely to be sexually inexperienced than non-religious males but were also significantly less likely to use condoms (0.23, p=0.024). Non-religious youth were most likely to have visited sex workers and did not use condoms. These results suggest that religious affiliation, possibly as the result of educational opportunities afforded by religious-affiliated schools, is contributing to increased HIV transmission and prevention knowledge among youth in rural Central Mozambique but not influencing HIV-related sexual behavior. The need exists to strengthen the capacity of religious congregations to teach about HIV/AIDS and target non-religious youth with HIV transmission and prevention information.
Masanet, Maria-Jose; Buckingham, David
Previous research has pointed to the potential of entertainment media as a source of informal sex education for young people. New social media may offer additional potential in this respect. In this paper, we consider the pedagogical possibilities and limitations of online fan forums, via a case study of the forums of the controversial British…
Grassly, Nicholas C; Desai, Kamal; Pegurri, Elisabetta; Sikazwe, Alfred; Malambo, Irene; Siamatowe, Clement; Bundy, Don
To estimate and project the economic impact of HIV/AIDS on the supply of education in Zambia. An analysis of the financial implications of HIV/AIDS for the Ministry of Education (MoE) and donors funding education in Zambia. A mathematical model was used to project the number of primary school teachers and their HIV status under current plans for teacher training and recruitment. Cost data were compiled from the MoE, the Teacher Education Department, teacher training colleges and the donor consortium BESSIP (Basic Education Sub-Sector Investment Programme). Multivariate sensitivity analyses were performed. The impact of HIV/AIDS on the supply of primary education imply costs to the MoE and BESSIP estimated at US$1.3-3.1 million in 1999, and projected at $10.6-41.3 million over the period 1999-2010. These costs include salaries paid to teachers absent as a result of HIV-associated illness (71%), additional training of teachers to cope with AIDS-related attrition (22%) and funeral costs contractually met by the MoE (7%). They do not include the additional costs of an active care and prevention response by the MoE, or the burden of ensuring enrolment of AIDS orphans. The annual cost of HIV/AIDS is a relatively small fraction of the overall MoE budget (2.5% in 1999) but has substantial implications for resource allocation to some functions. Expenditure on teacher training will need to increase by 26% if Education for All targets are to be met in the face of AIDS. HIV/AIDS has significant implications for resource allocation in the education sector in Zambia.
Mager, Diana R; Kazer, Meredith W; Conelius, Jaclyn; Shea, Joyce; Lippman, Doris T; Torosyan, Roben; Nantz, Kathryn
For many years, an area of research in higher education has been emerging around the development and implementation of fair and effective peer evaluation programs. Recently, a new body of knowledge has developed regarding the development and implementation of fair and effective peer evaluation programs resulting in formative and summative evaluations. The purpose of this article is to describe the development, implementation, and evaluation of a peer review of teaching (PRoT) program for nursing faculty, initiated at one small comprehensive university in the northeastern United States. Pairs of nursing faculty evaluated each other's teaching, syllabi, and course materials after collaborating in a pre-evaluation conference to discuss goals of the classroom visit. Qualitative data gathered in post project focus groups revealed that faculty found their modified PRoT process to be a mutually beneficial experience that was more useful, flexible and collegial, and less stressful than their previous evaluation process.
A Case Study of Peer Educators in a Community-Based Program to Reduce Teen Pregnancy: Selected Characteristics Prior to Training, Perceptions of Training and Work, and Perceptions of How Participation in the Program Has Affected Them
Beshers, Sarah C.
This investigation is a case study of peer educators in a community-based teen pregnancy prevention program. Research questions focused on identifying ways in which peer educators differed from other teens and exploring the perceptions of the peer educators about their experience in the program and the ways in which it has affected them. Data were…
Xie, Yu-Han; Potměšil, Miloň; Peters, Brenda
This review is conducted to describe how children who are deaf or hard of hearing (D/HH) interact with hearing peers in inclusive settings, illustrate the difficulties and challenges faced by them in interacting with peers, and identify effective interventions that promote their social interaction in inclusive education. A systematic search of databases and journals identified 21 papers that met the inclusion criteria. Two broad themes emerged from an analysis of the literatures, which included processes and outcomes of interactions with peers and intervention programs. The research indicates that children who are D/HH face great difficulties in communicating, initiating/entering, and maintaining interactions with hearing peers in inclusive settings. The co-enrollment and social skills training programs are considered to be effective interventions for their social interaction. Communication abilities and social skills of children who are D/HH, responses of children with normal hearing, and the effect of environment are highlighted as crucial aspects of social interactions. In addition, future research is needed to study the interaction between children who are D/HH and hearing peers in natural settings, at different stages of school life, as well as improving social interaction and establishing an inclusive classroom climate for children who are D/HH. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Saylor, Jennifer L; Wainwright, Susan F; Herge, E A; Pohlig, Ryan T
Evaluating the debriefing skill of faculty in simulations is essential but often challenging. The Peer Assessment Debriefing Instrument (PADI) is a self and peer assessment designed to assess a debriefers' effectiveness and is grounded in current scientific debriefing literature and peer review methodology. This pilot study tested the PADI at three institutions during 10 different healthcare debriefing sessions. The PADI is useful to faculty and administrators of simulation centers by demonstrating ongoing quality improvement and as a guide to train new debriefers.
Alexander, Carla S; Pappas, Gregory; Henley, Yvonne; Kangalawe, Angela Kaiza; Oyebola, Folaju Olusegun; Obiefune, Michael; Nwene, Ejike; Stanis-Ezeobi, Winifred; Enejoh, Victor; Nwizu, Chidi; Nwandu, Anthea Nwandu; Memiah, Peter; Etienne-Mesubi, Martine; Oni, Babatunji; Amoroso, Anthony; Redfield, Robert R
Pain management (PM) has not been routinely incorporated into HIV/AIDS care and treatment in resource-constrained settings. We describe training for multidisciplinary teams tasked with integrating care management into HIV clinics to address pain for persons living with HIV in Nigeria. Education on PM was provided to mixed-disciplinary teams including didactic and iterative sessions following home and hospital visits. Participants identified challenges and performed group problem solving. HIV trainers identified barriers to introducing PM reflecting views of the patient, providers, culture, and the health environment. Implementation strategies included (1) building upon existing relationships; (2) preliminary advocacy; (3) attention to staff needs; and (4) structured data review. Implementing PM in Nigerian HIV clinics requires recognition of cultural beliefs. © The Author(s) 2014.
In 2006, the Kenyan state joined the international commitment to make antiretroviral treatment free in public health institutions to people infected with HIV. Less than a decade later, treatment has reached over 60% of those who need it in Kenya. This paper, which is based on an in-depth
Logie, Carmen H; Daniel, CarolAnn; Newman, Peter A; Weaver, James; Loutfy, Mona R
Little evidence exists regarding efficacious HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STI) prevention interventions with internally displaced populations. Internally displaced women are at elevated risk for HIV/STI due to limited access to health services, heightened poverty and social network breakdown. The FASY (Famn an Aksyon Pou Sante' Yo) (Women Taking Action For Their Health) study examined the effectiveness of a peer health worker (PHW) delivered psycho-educational HIV/STI pilot study with internally displaced women in Leogane, Haiti. This was a non-randomized cohort pilot study. Participants completed a computer-assisted pre-test programmed on Android tablet PCs followed by an HIV/STI educational video-based session and a 6-week psycho-educational group program of weekly meetings. Participants completed a post-test upon completion of group sessions. The primary outcome was HIV knowledge; our pre-specified index of clinically significant change was an effect size of 0.30. Secondary outcomes included: STI knowledge, condom use, social support, resilient coping, depression and relationship control. We used mixed-effects regression to calculate mean outcome pre-post score change. This study was registered (clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01492829). Between January 1-April 30, 2012 we assigned 200 participants to the study. The majority of participants (n = 176, 88%) completed the study and were followed up at 8 weeks, finishing April 30, 2012. Adjusted for socio-demographic characteristics, HIV knowledge (β = 4.81; 95% CI 4.36-5.26), STI knowledge (β = 0.84; 95% CI 0.70-0.99), condom use (AOR = 4.05, 95% CI 1.86-8.83), and depression (β = -0.63, 95% CI -0.88--0.39) scores showed statistically significant change post-intervention (pHaiti. Pilot studies are an important approach to understand feasibility and scientific impacts of HIV prevention strategies in disaster contexts. Study results may inform HIV prevention interventions among internally displaced women in
Quitadamo, Ian Joseph
Many higher education faculty perceive a deficiency in students' ability to reason, evaluate, and make informed judgments, skills that are deemed necessary for academic and job success in science and math. These skills, often collected within a domain called critical thinking (CT), have been studied and are thought to be influenced by teaching styles (the combination of beliefs, behavior, and attitudes used when teaching) and small group collaborative learning (SGCL). However, no existing studies show teaching styles and SGCL cause changes in student CT performance. This study determined how combinations of teaching styles called clusters and peer-facilitated SGCL (a specific form of SGCL) affect changes in undergraduate student CT performance using a quasi-experimental pre-test/post-test research design and valid and reliable CT performance indicators. Quantitative analyses of three teaching style cluster models (Grasha's cluster model, a weighted cluster model, and a student-centered/teacher-centered cluster model) and peer-facilitated SGCL were performed to evaluate their ability to cause measurable changes in student CT skills. Based on results that indicated weighted teaching style clusters and peer-facilitated SGCL are associated with significant changes in student CT, we conclude that teaching styles and peer-facilitated SGCL influence the development of undergraduate CT in higher education science and math.
Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the prevalence and sexual behavioural dynamics of HIV infection in students of institutions of higher education (IHEs as a guide to the design of a tailor-made HIV intervention programmes. Methods: A total of 9 709 sexually matured students from five IHEs in Southeast Nigeria aged 1 9-24 years were recruited to obtain representative data from the institutionalised student population. HIV status was confirmed using enzyme based immuno-assay technique. Demographic and behavioural information were obtained through a structured questionnaire. Association of HIV infection with behavioural risk factors was done using multiple logistics regression model. Results: IHEs in Southeast Nigeria have a higher HIV prevalence of 3.69% against the national projected rate of 201 2. The age-specific prevalence among male students (2.91 % is nonsignificantly (P>0.1 lower than that of females (4.31 %. Female students had higher rate of infection, multiple sexual partner, transactional and forced sex, unusual genital discharge and low condom use when compared with their male counterparts. These risk factors were associated with increased HIV seropositivity. HIV prevalence and sexual risky behaviour were high among students of IHEs when compared with previous estimates of their non-institutionalised age brackets. Unprotected sexual activity have a 4.2 times higher chances of infecting the partner with HIV. Conclusions: The data showed a higher prevalence of HIV infection in students of IHEs in comparison with non-institutionalised persons of the same age bracket. Specifically, it could be inferred that appropriate HIV intervention measures was absent with higher incidence of the infection and risky behaviour found in female students. Therefore, a prioritised tailor-made policy for HIV control for students of IHEs should be considered.
Lubinga, Elizabeth; Maes, A.; Jansen, C. J. M.
Most existent research on the effects of interpersonal discussions about health campaign messages is based on surveys. In this study, we analysed actual conversations about an HIV/AIDS poster to find out possible effects. Young South African women in 59 dyads (n = 118) participated in conversations
... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español HIV and AIDS KidsHealth / For Kids / HIV and AIDS ... actually the virus that causes the disease AIDS. HIV Hurts the Immune System People who are HIV ...
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Michalec, Barret; Veloski, J Jon; Hojat, Mohammadreza; Tykocinski, Mark L
Abstract Background: Previous research has paid little to no attention towards exploring methods of identifying existing medical student leaders. Aim: Focusing on the role of influence and employing the tenets of the engaging leadership model, this study examines demographic and academic performance-related differences of positive influencers and if students who have been peer-identified as positive influencers also demonstrate high levels of genuine concern for others. Methods: Three separate fourth-year classes were asked to designate classmates that had significant positive influences on their professional and personal development. The top 10% of those students receiving positive influence nominations were compared with the other students on demographics, academic performance, and genuine concern for others. Results: Besides age, no demographic differences were found between positive influencers and other students. High positive influencers were not found to have higher standardized exam scores but did receive significantly higher clinical clerkship ratings. High positive influencers were found to possess a higher degree of genuine concern for others. Conclusion: The findings lend support to (a) utilizing the engaging model to explore leaders and leadership within medical education, (b) this particular method of identifying existing medical student leaders, and (c) return the focus of leadership research to the power of influence.
Based on the demonstrated value of peer reviews in the engineering industry, numerous industry experts have listed it at the top of the list of desirable development practices. Experience has shown that problems (defects) are eliminated earlier if a development process incorporates peer reviews and that these reviews are as effective as or even…
A peer-mentoring program was developed for students in an introductory biology course at a university in Ontario, Canada. Students could attend up to five peer-mentoring sessions during their first semester. Quantitative-survey, participation, and academic data spanning from 2003 through 2007 were reviewed for the purpose of evaluating the…
Morcom, Veronica E.
Peers create one of the most significant contexts for developing prosocial values. This paper reports on a yearlong study of thirty one year 4/5 students where antisocial values were deep-seated. The aim of this qualitative research was to examine how to reduce antisocial behaviour and promote peer collaboration. The notion of whole-class…
Abaoud, Abdulrahman A.
This study aimed to measured teachers' attitudes toward implementation of peer tutoring strategies in teaching students with ADHD in Saudi Arabia. The study moreover examined the relationship between teachers' attitudes of implementation of peer tutoring strategies and variables of demographic characteristics. Five hundred thirty eight teachers…
McClure, Beverlee J.
This study addresses concerns regarding compensation disparities between New Mexico institutions and their peers. A recommended adjustment schedule with fiscal requirements is included, but not specific recommendations for faculty at individual institutions. The average salaries for New Mexico institutions were compared with regional peers to…
Collings, R.; Swanson, V.; Watkins, R.
Peer mentoring is becoming increasingly popular in UK higher education, however, there remains little good quality, theoretically driven and evaluative research. The current study aims to bridge the gap between theory, practice and evaluation by providing a controlled evaluation of a peer mentoring scheme within UK universities. 109 first year…
Kasje, Willeke N.; Denig, Petra; Stewart, Roy E.; de Graeff, Pieter A.; Haaijer-Ruskamp, Flora M.
Rationale, aims and objectives Peer review groups are considered helpful for quality improvement in primary care. An interactive educational programme for small peer groups was developed, focusing on the implementation of newly developed treatment guidelines. The aim is to evaluate the effect of the
Mens, Petra F.; Scheelbeek, Pauline Fd; Al Atabbi, Hind; Enato, Ehijie Fo
There is limited uptake of measures to prevent malaria by pregnant women in Nigeria which is often related to the lack of knowledge on Malaria in Pregnancy (MIP) and its effects on mother and foetus. This study, explored peer to peer education as a tool in raising knowledge of MIP among women of
Mens, P.F.; Scheelbeek, P.F.D.; Al Atabbi, H.; Enato, E.F.O.
Background: There is limited uptake of measures to prevent malaria by pregnant women in Nigeria which is often related to the lack of knowledge on Malaria in Pregnancy (MIP) and its effects on mother and foetus. This study, explored peer to peer education as a tool in raising knowledge of MIP among
Johansson, Ellen; Holmin, Tobias E; Johansson, Bengt R; Braide, Magnus
Peer-assisted learning has gained momentum in a variety of disciplines, including medical education. In Gothenburg, Sweden, medical students who have finished their compulsory anatomy courses have the option of working as teaching assistants (TAs). Teaching assistants provide small group teaching sessions as a complement to lectures given by faculty. Previously, TAs were left to handle the role as junior teachers by themselves, but since 2011, a continuation course in anatomy has been developed with the aim of providing the TAs better anatomy knowledge and guidance for teaching. The course was designed to comprise 7.5 ECTS credits (equivalent to 5 weeks of full-time studies), and today all TAs are required to take this course before undertaking their own teaching responsibilities. This study aims to compare course evaluations of TA teaching before and after the introduction of the anatomy continuation course, in order to understand how students perceived teaching performed by self-learned versus trained TAs. The results of this study demonstrate that there was a trend towards better teaching performed by trained TAs. The variability in rankings decreased significantly after the introduction of the continuation course. This was mainly due to an improvement among the TAs with the lowest levels of performance. In addition to comparing student rankings, TAs were interviewed regarding their experiences and perceptions within the continuation course. The course was generally positively regarded. The TAs described a sense of cohesion and appreciation since the institute invested in a course dedicated specifically for them. Anat Sci Educ. © 2018 American Association of Anatomists. © 2018 American Association of Anatomists.
Heiskanen, Eva; Nissilä, Heli; Tainio, Pasi
Peer-to-peer learning is gaining increasing attention in nonformal community-based environmental education. This article evaluates a novel modification of a concept for peer-to-peer learning about residential energy solutions (Open Homes). We organized collective "Energy Walks" visiting several homes with novel energy solutions and…
Liu, Yu; Vermund, Sten H; Ruan, Yuhua; Liu, Hongjie; Rivet Amico, K; Simoni, Jane M; Shepherd, Bryan E; Shao, Yiming; Qian, Han-Zhu
Reducing high-risk behaviours (i.e. multiple partnership, condomless anal/vaginal sex, alcohol use before sex, illicit drug use) after HIV diagnosis is critical for curtailing HIV transmission. We designed an intervention to explore peer- counselling in reducing high-risk behaviours among newly diagnosed HIV-positive Chinese men who have sex with men (MSM). We randomized 367 newly diagnosed HIV-positive men to either standard-of-care (SOC; n = 183) or peer-counselling intervention (n = 184), and followed them for 12 months (visit at 0-, 3-, 6-, 9- and 12-month). SOC participants received counselling on high-risk behaviour reduction by clinic staff. Intervention participants received both SOC and peer counselling. A generalized estimating equation was used to compare pre-post diagnosis high-risk behaviour change; logistic regression was used to assess the likelihood of practicing high-risk behaviours between intervention and SOC participants. Both intent-to-treat and per-protocol (full-dosage) approaches were used for the analyses. For pre- and post-diagnosis comparisons, multiple partnership fell from 50% to 16% (p peer counselling was more likely to reduce insertive anal sex (AOR = 0.65; 95% CI: 0.45 to 0.94), condomless anal sex (AOR = 0.27; 95% CI: 0.10 to 0.64) and illicit drug use (AOR = 0.32; 95% CI: 0.16 to 0.64). In the per-protocol analysis, peer counselling was associated with a lower likelihood of using illicit drug (OR = 0.23; 95% CI: 0.07 to 0.81) and having condomless vaginal sex with women (OR = 0.12; 95% CI: 0.07 to 0.98). We observed a 14 to 43% decrease in the prevalence of selected high-risk behaviours after HIV diagnosis. Peer counselling had a greater impact in reducing condomless anal sex with men, illicit drug use and condomless vaginal sex with women over time. Future studies with exclusive peer-counselling arm are necessary to test its efficacy and effectiveness among Chinese MSM. Clinical Trial Number: NCT01904877. © 2018
Yip, Calvin; Gates, Michelle; Gates, Allison; Hanning, Rhona M.
To date, the impacts of school-based, peer-led nutrition education initiatives have not been summarized or assessed collectively. This review presents the current evidence, identifies knowledge gaps, and provides recommendations for future research. PubMed, Scopus, ERIC and Google Scholar were searched for refereed Canadian and American primary studies published between January 2000 and November 2013, following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Sev...
Full Text Available Nowadays, the clinical skill learning in dental education has begun in pre-clinic, known as Clinical Skill Laboratory (CSL which needs human resources, many and expensive tools and manikins, and enough times for practise. One of the method used in CSL in dental education is PeerAssisted Learning (PAL defined as “the development of knowledge and skill through active help and support among status equals or match companions”. This paper aims is to explain the role of PAL method to improve the effectivity of CSL learning in dental education in preclinical stage. Reviewing on the relevant literatures regarding peer assisted learning on the implementation of the clinical skill laboratory in dental education. The effectivity of CSL learning needs close supervision and individual feedback, so enough tutors is important through the process. This PAL method considered to be helpfull with the increasing numbers of dental students and the limitation of staff faculty. This method is found feasible, well accepted by peer-tutors and students, and can be as effective as conventional learning method. This is also useful for peer-teacher because they more intrinsically motivated, have higher conceptual learning scores, and perceive themselves to be more actively engaged with the environment than students who learn in order to be tested. However, there are several limitation of this method. The contact time between students and medical doctors may decrease significantlyand it does not seem to be generally qualified to transfer such complex procedures.It also needs peer-teachers training and a detailed manual. Questions concerning the cost-effectiveness and profitability of student tutor-guided technical skills training may thus arise. But one institution that implemented this method states that the majority of their tutors decided to continue their teaching activity in the skills lab and that these experienced tutors, in addition to established faculty staff
Kayeyi, Nkomba; Sandøy, Ingvild F; Fylkesnes, Knut
Investigations of the association between socio-economic position indicators and HIV in East, Central and Southern Africa have chiefly focused on factors that pertain to individual-level characteristics. This study investigated the effect of neighbourhood educational attainment on HIV prevalence among young women in selected urban and rural areas in Zambia. This study re-analysed data from a cross-sectional population survey conducted in Zambia in 2003. The analyses were restricted to women aged 15-24 years (n = 1295). Stratified random cluster sampling was used to select 10 urban and 10 rural clusters. A measure for neighbourhood-level educational attainment was constructed by aggregating individual-level years-in-school. Multi-level mixed effects regression models were run to examine the neighbourhood-level educational effect on HIV prevalence after adjusting for individual-level underlying variables (education, currently a student, marital status) and selected proximate determinants (ever given birth, sexual activity, lifetime sexual partners). HIV prevalence among young women aged 15-24 years was 12.5% in the urban and 6.8% in the rural clusters. Neighbourhood educational attainment was found to be a strong determinant of HIV infection in both urban and rural population, i.e. HIV prevalence decreased substantially by increasing level of neighbourhood education. The likelihood of infection in low vs. high educational attainment of neighbourhoods was 3.4 times among rural women and 1.8 times higher among the urban women after adjusting for age and other individual-level underlying variables, including education. However, the association was not significant for urban young women after this adjustment. After adjusting for level of education in the neighbourhood, the effect of the individual-level education differed by residence, i.e. a strong protective effect among urban women whereas tending to be a risk factor among rural women. The findings suggested structural
Guo, Yan; Li, Xiaoming; Sherr, Lorraine
The number of children losing one or both parents to HIV/AIDS has continued to rise in the past decade, with most of them being school-aged children. This study reviews global literature on the effects of HIV/AIDS (e.g., parental HIV-related illness or death) on children's schooling. Systematic review procedures generated 23 studies for examination. Existing studies show educational disadvantages among children affected by AIDS in various educational outcomes, including school enrollment and attendance, school behavior and performance, school completion, and educational attainment. A number of individual and contextual factors potentially moderate or mediate the effect of HIV/AIDS on children's education. These factors include gender of child, pattern of parental loss (maternal vs. paternal vs. dual), living arrangement (relationship with caregivers, gender of the household head), and household poverty. Current literature indicates limitations in number and scope of existing studies and in educational outcome measurements. There is a lack of studies with longitudinal design and data collection from multiple sources (e.g., students, teachers, caregivers), and a lack of studies on the relationship between psychosocial well-being of children affected by AIDS and their educational outcomes. Future studies need to employ more rigorous methodology and incorporate both individual and contextual factors for children affected by AIDS in various regions. More efforts are needed to design and implement culturally appropriate and context-specific approaches to improve the educational outcomes of children affected by AIDS.
Wagner, Michael; Mileder, Lukas P; Goeral, Katharina; Klebermass-Schrehof, Katrin; Cardona, Francesco S; Berger, Angelika; Schmölzer, Georg M; Olischar, Monika
The World Health Organization recommends regular simulation training to prevent adverse healthcare events. We used specially trained medical students to provide paediatric simulation training to their peers and assessed feasibility, cost and confidence of students who attended the courses. Students at the Medical University of Vienna, Austria were eligible to participate. Students attended two high-fidelity simulation training sessions, delivered by peers, which were videorecorded for evaluation. The attendees then completed questionnaires before and after the training. Associated costs and potential benefits were analysed. From May 2013 to June 2015, 152 students attended the sessions and 57 (37.5%) completed both questionnaires. Satisfaction was high, with 95% stating their peer tutor was competent and 90% saying that peer tutors were well prepared. The attendees' confidence in treating critically ill children significantly improved after training (p peer tutor were six Euros per working hour, compared to 35 Euros for a physician. Using peer tutors for paediatric simulation training was a feasible and low-cost option that increased the number of medical students who could be trained and increased the self-confidence of the attendees. Satisfaction with the peer tutors was high. ©2017 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
knowledge and attitudes of HIV/AIDS were influenced by family and school ... Accordingly, while a school culture is recognizable by its unique values, beliefs, climate, ethos ..... acquired prior to the qualitative research would in some way cloud ...
Orish, Verner N; Onyeabor, Onyekachi S; Boampong, Johnson N; Afoakwah, Richmond; Nwaefuna, Ekene; Acquah, Samuel; Orish, Esther O; Sanyaolu, Adekunle O; Iriemenam, Nnaemeka C
This study investigated the influence of the level of education on HIV infection among pregnant women attending antenatal care in Sekondi-Takoradi, Ghana. A cross-sectional study was conducted at four hospitals in the Sekondi-Takoradi metropolis. The study group comprised 885 consenting pregnant women attending antenatal care clinics. Questionnaires were administered and venous blood samples were screened for HIV and other parameters. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the association between the level of education attained by the pregnant women and their HIV statuses. The data showed that 9.83% (87/885) of the pregnant women were HIV seropositive while 90.17% (798/885) were HIV seronegative. There were significant differences in mean age (years) between the HIV seropositive women (27.45 ± 5.5) and their HIV seronegative (26.02 ± 5.6) counterparts (p = .026) but the inference disappeared after adjustment (p = .22). Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that pregnant women with secondary/tertiary education were less likely to have HIV infection compared with those with none/primary education (adjusted OR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.30-0.91; p = .022). Our data showed an association with higher level of education and HIV statuses of the pregnant women. It is imperative to encourage formal education among pregnant women in this region.
del Carmen Cabezas, María; Fornasini, Marco; Barmettler, David; Ortuño, Diego; Borja, Teresa; Albert, Adelin
Objective: To develop and assess an innovative educational video package for improving HIV knowledge, attitudes and practices among company workers in Ecuador. Methods: The design and development of the HIV prevention educational video was based on the results of a large-scale survey conducted in 115 companies (commerce, manufacturing and real…
Shields, Richard K; Pizzimenti, Marc A; Dudley-Javoroski, Shauna; Schwinn, Debra A
The purpose of this report is to describe student satisfaction with a near-peer interprofessional education (IPE) session for physical therapy and medical students. Ten senior physical therapy students worked in peer-groups to develop a musculoskeletal anatomy demonstration for first-semester medical students. Together with their classmates, they demonstrated observation, palpation, and musculoskeletal assessment of the shoulder and scapular-thoracic articulation to medical student dissection groups in the Gross Anatomy laboratory. The medical students were encouraged to consider the synergistic function of shoulder structures and the potential impact of a selected pathology: rotator cuff injury. The session provided the medical students with an opportunity to integrate their new anatomical knowledge into a framework for clinical musculoskeletal evaluation. The experience offered senior physical therapy students an opportunity to work in teams with their peers, internalize and adapt to constructive feedback, and seek common ground with members of another profession. Both student groups reported a high degree of satisfaction with the sessions and expressed a desire for further interaction. These positive perceptions by student stakeholders have prompted us to consider additional IPE exchanges for the anatomy course in the upcoming school year. Given the positive outcome of this descriptive study, we now plan to systematically test whether near-peer IPE interactions can enhance the degree that students learn key anatomical concepts. © 2014 American Association of Anatomists.
Ma, Zhen-qiang; Fisher, Monica A.; Kuller, Lewis H.
Although studies indicate school-based HIV/AIDS education programs effectively reduce risky behaviors, only 33 states and the District of Columbia in US mandate HIV/AIDS education. Ideally, school-based HIV/AIDS education should begin before puberty, or at the latest before first sexual intercourse. In 2011, 20% US states had fewer schools…
Solomon, Patricia; Salbach, Nancy M; O'Brien, Kelly K; Nixon, Stephanie; Worthington, Catherine; Baxter, Larry; Tattle, Stephen; Gervais, Nicole
The objective of this study is to describe the collaborative development of a rehabilitation guide for people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) which was adapted from an online resource for clinicians. We adapted a comprehensive evidence-informed online clinical resource for people living with HIV using a three-phase participatory process. In Phase 1, we interviewed 26 clinicians and 16 people living with HIV to gather recommendations on how to adapt and format the content to benefit people living with HIV. In Phase 2, we adapted the patient education resource using the recommendations that emerged from Phase 1. Phase 3 consisted of comprehensive stakeholder review of the revised resource on the adaptability, usability, communicability, and relevance of the information. Stakeholders participated in an interview to obtain in-depth information on their perspectives. Transcribed interviews underwent qualitative content analysis. Stakeholders indicated that the e-guide had utility for people living with HIV, community HIV service organizations, and care providers. Engaging people living with HIV resulted in a more relevant and meaningful resource that incorporated patients' values, needs, and preferences. Involving multiple stakeholders and user groups in the adaptation and evaluation of online patient education resources can assist in meeting patients' needs through increasing the relevance, organization and presentation of the content, and incorporating patients' values and needs. Implications for Rehabilitation Online patient education resources should be adapted in order to maximize relevance and meaningfulness to patients. Involving multiple stakeholders in the adaptation and evaluation of online patient education resources can assist in meeting patients' needs. Involving multiple stakeholders increases the relevance, organization and presentation of the content and allows the incorporation of patient values and needs. This collaborative approach with
Conner, Kyaien O; McKinnon, Symone A; Ward, Christine J; Reynolds, Charles F; Brown, Charlotte
This article examines the mechanisms through which peer educator (PE) intervention targets and reduces internalized stigma. There is substantial evidence that internalized stigma negatively impacts the lives of those suffering with mental health concerns, and has been identified as 1 of the most significant barriers to seeking professional mental health services. There has been a push toward identifying interventions and programs that effectively reduce and mitigate the impact of internalized stigma. Research suggests that contact with other individuals who share a stigmatized condition may be a promising approach to targeting and reducing internalized stigma. However, there is a dearth of research that has identified the mechanism through which this contact impacts internalized stigma. Study participants (n = 19) completed a 3-month PE intervention. Each participant was matched with an older adult with a history of depression currently in recovery who provided psychoeducation, social support, and motivational interviewing. Participants completed a demographic questionnaire, public stigma (PDD), and internalized stigma (Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness, ISMI) scales pre- and post-PE intervention. They further participated in a brief semistructured qualitative interview to attain in-depth information about their perceptions of stigma and of working with a PE. Overall, internalized stigma scores were significantly reduced after participating in the PE intervention. In addition, participants identified 4 mechanisms through which contact with their PE impacted their stigmatized beliefs: age related concerns, shared understanding, improved mental health literacy, and mutual support. This study suggests that PE is a potentially valuable approach toward reducing internalized stigma among older adults with depression. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Foley, B C; Shrewsbury, V A; Hardy, L L; Flood, V M; Byth, K; Shah, S
Few studies have reported energy balance-related behavior (EBRB) change for peer leaders delivering health promotion programs to younger students in secondary schools. Our study assessed the impact of the Students As LifeStyle Activists (SALSA) program on SALSA peer leaders' EBRBs, and their intentions regarding these behaviors. We used a pre-post study design to assess changes in EBRBs and intentions of Year 10 secondary school students (15-16 year olds) who volunteered to be peer leaders to deliver the SALSA program to Year 8 students (13-14 year olds). This research is part of a larger study conducted during 2014 and 2015 in 23 secondary schools in Sydney, Australia. We used an online questionnaire before and after program participation to assess Year 10 peer leaders' fruit and vegetable intake, daily breakfast eating, sugar sweetened beverage (SSB) intake, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) participation and school-day recreational screen time behaviors and intentions regarding these EBRBs. Generalized estimating equations with a robust variance structure and exchangeable correlation structure were used to estimate the individual-level summary statistics and their 95% CIs, adjusted for clustering. We further assessed the effect of covariates on EBRB changes. There were significant increases in the proportion of Year 10 peer leaders (n = 415) who reported eating ≥2 serves fruit/day fruit from 54 to 63% (P peer leaders recreational screen time differed by socio-economic status (P peer leaders' intentions, except MVPA which remained stable. The SALSA program had a positive impact on peer leaders' EBRBs, with gender and socio-economic status moderating some outcomes. ACTRN12617000712303 retrospectively registered.
Davies, Andrew; Macleod, Rachael; Bennett-Britton, Ian; McElnay, Philip; Bakhbakhi, Danya; Sansom, Jane
Near-peer teaching and electronic learning (e-learning) are two effective modern teaching styles. Near-peer sessions provide a supportive learning environment that benefits both the students and the tutor. E-learning resources are flexible and easily distributed. Careful construction and regular editing can ensure that students receive all of the essential material. The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy of e-learning and near-peer teaching during the pre-clinical medical curriculum. Thirty-nine second-year medical students were consented and randomised into two groups. Each group received teaching on electrocardiogram (ECG) interpretation from a predefined syllabus. Eighteen students completed an e-learning module and 21 students attended a near-peer tutorial. Students were asked to complete a multiple-choice exam, scored out of 50. Each student rated their confidence in ECG interpretation before and after their allocated teaching session. The near-peer group (84%) demonstrated a significantly higher performance than the e-learning group (74.5%) on the final assessment (p = 0.002). Prior to the teaching, the students' mean confidence scores were 3/10 in both the near-peer and e-learning groups (0, poor; 10, excellent). These increased to 6/10 in both cases following the teaching session. Both teaching styles were well received by students and improved their confidence in ECG interpretation. Near-peer teaching led to superior scores in our final assessment. Given the congested nature of the modern medical curriculum, direct comparison of the efficacy of these methods may aid course design. The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy of e-learning and near-peer teaching. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Holge-Hazelton, B.; Tulinius, Anne-Charlotte
Background. Research has shown that peer-group supervision can strengthen GPs' professionalism, but little is known about the individual learning processes. To establish professionalism beyond professional behaviour, identity and idealism need to be included. The inner attitudinal values of profe......Background. Research has shown that peer-group supervision can strengthen GPs' professionalism, but little is known about the individual learning processes. To establish professionalism beyond professional behaviour, identity and idealism need to be included. The inner attitudinal values...
In the United States, 46% of high school students have had sexual intercourse and potentially are at risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and pregnancy. The National HIV/AIDS Strategy for the United States recommends educating young persons about HIV before they begin engaging in behaviors that place them at risk for HIV infection. The Community Preventive Services Task Force (CPSTF) also recommends risk reduction interventions to prevent HIV, other STDs, and pregnancy among adolescents. To estimate changes in the percentage of secondary schools that teach specific HIV, other STD, and pregnancy risk reduction topics, a key intervention consistent with those supported by the National HIV/AIDS Strategy and CPSTF, CDC analyzed 2008 and 2010 School Health Profiles data for public secondary schools in 45 states. This report summarizes the results of those analyses, which indicated that in 2010, compared with 2008, the percentage of secondary schools teaching 11 topics on HIV, other STD, and pregnancy prevention in a required course in grades 6, 7, or 8 was significantly lower in 11 states and significantly higher in none; the percentage of secondary schools teaching eight topics in a required course in grades 9, 10, 11, or 12 was significantly lower in one state and significantly higher in two states; and the percentage of secondary schools teaching three condom-related topics in a required course in grades 9, 10, 11, or 12 was significantly lower in eight states and significantly higher in three states. Secondary schools can increase efforts to teach all age-appropriate HIV, other STD, and pregnancy prevention topics to help reduce risk behaviors among students.
Claire L Risley
Full Text Available We set out to estimate, for the three geographical regions with the highest HIV prevalence, (sub-Saharan Africa [SSA], the Caribbean and the Greater Mekong sub-region of East Asia, the human resource and economic impact of HIV on the supply of education from 2008 to 2015, the target date for the achievement of Education For All (EFA, contrasting the continuation of access to care, support and Antiretroviral therapy (ART to the scenario of universal access.A costed mathematical model of the impact of HIV and ART on teacher recruitment, mortality and absenteeism (Ed-SIDA was run using best available data for 58 countries, and results aggregated by region. It was estimated that (1 The impact of HIV on teacher supply is sufficient to derail efforts to achieve EFA in several countries and universal access can mitigate this. (2 In SSA, the 2008 costs to education of HIV were about half of those estimated in 2002. Providing universal access for teachers in SSA is cost-effective on education returns alone and provides a return of $3.99 on the dollar. (3 The impacts on education in the hyperendemic countries in Southern Africa will continue to increase to 2015 from its 2008 level, already the highest in the world. (4 If treatment roll-out is successful, numbers of HIV positive teachers are set to increase in all the regions studied.The return on investing in care and support is also greater in those areas with highest impact. SSA requires increased investment in teacher support, testing and particularly ART if it is to achieve EFA. The situation for teachers in the Caribbean and East Asia is similar but on a smaller scale proportionate to the lower levels of infection and greater existing access to care and support.
Self-esteem is vital to a law-abiding lifestyle and serves to promote successful rehabilitative and reintegrative outcomes, particularly for female offenders often plagued by low levels of self-worth. Prison-based program administrators have the opportunity to achieve their intended programmatic goals while offenders are incarcerated, in addition…
Full Text Available Language mechanisms in much HIV discourse insist that a Western-based moralism dominates. These mechanisms include: the use of strategic absences of information about the moral grounding of texts; and slippages of meaning, where one word is used to refer to many meanings. A common slippage of meaning is the use of the word ‘polygamy’ to refer to a range of behaviours, thus hiding low HIV risk sexual practices (polyfidelity under the same umbrella as high risk practices (promiscuity and advocating their general removal. Another dubious method of achieving a moral position is to take a true premise and use it to advance a false conclusion. For example, the true premise that wife inheritance in its historical form is an HIV risk does not automatically lead to the conclusion that wife inheritance ‘must’ be eradicated. This is only one possible conclusion. Another, more culturally sensitive, conclusion could be that wife inheritance should be embarked upon, as should all sexual relationships, in a context of HIV tests, and safer sexual practice. I argue that moralism (such as ‘wife inheritance is morally wrong’ cloaked as science (the claim that science ‘proves’ the moral position that wife inheritance is wrong is a threat to traditional culture and discriminates against up-holders of traditional lifestyles. Drawing primarily from my experience of HIV education in a development setting in Southern Africa, I offer a weak (realist moral relativism as an alternative to, on the one hand, the positivist-based, absolutist morality which threatens to destroy traditional cultures in the name of HIV education and, on the other hand, extreme cultural relativism in which ‘anything goes’. Possibly, HIV educators have not done enough to include some traditional safer sex practices in their professional inventory of acceptable behaviours, such as hlobonga (thigh sex and polygamy interpreted as polyfidelity. My hope is that by being more
Connie J Evashwick
Full Text Available The education of undergraduate college students in the field of public health has burgeoned over the past decade. Professional literature in peer-reviewed journals is one indicator of the status of a field of study and its related body of knowledge. It is also a mechanism for sharing information among professionals about challenges, issues, experiences and best practices.The purpose of the literature review conducted here was to describe the status of the peer reviewed literature over the past decade pertaining to the education of undergraduates about the field of public health in the U.S.A literature search was conducted of three data bases: PubMed, Scopus and ERIC. Inclusion criteria were publication date from January 1, 2004 through July 31, 2014; written in the English language; pertaining to undergraduate education in the U.S.; and a focus on public health as the primary discipline. Public health was searched as an overarching discipline; articles focused on sub-disciplines or other health professions disciplines were excluded.The search resulted in 158 articles. Each of the authors reviewed the abstracts for all articles and read full articles when necessary. The result was 23 articles that were then considered in depth. The articles were categorized according to their primary theme: curriculum, courses, learning objectives (N=14; evaluation of teaching method (N=3; case study (N=3; career path and advising (N=2; accreditation (N=1. Year of publication and journal were also examined.The results of the literature search lead to several observations about how the peer reviewed literature has been used to date and how it could be used to advance the emerging field of undergraduate education for public health.
Martinez, J L; Licea Serrato, J de D; Jimenez, R; Grimes, R M
Hispanic clinicians in Texas, United States of America, and in the neighboring state of Nuevo Leon, Mexico, were surveyed to determine their educational needs in the area of HIV/AIDS. Two-thirds of the 74 Texan and 22% of the 104 Mexican physicians queried had seen at least one HIV/AIDS patient in the previous year. The majority of the respondents were primary care physicians who: 1) were in private practice; 2) saw more than 1,000 patients per year; 3) had been out of training for more than 10 years; 4) provided some HIV prevention education to patients based on their perceived risk of infection; 5) rated their own knowledge of HIV/AIDS as average but rated their knowledge of treatments for the disease below average; 6) received most of their information about HIV/AIDS from journals rather than formal continuing education programs; 7) thought Hispanic patients had special needs with regard to HIV/AIDS care; and 8) were willing to attend education programs to improve their HIV/AIDS management skills. The greatest barriers to caring for HIV patients were lack of clinical knowledge and fear of infection. These results point to a need for a large-scale training program to improve the HIV/AIDS management skills of Hispanic clinicians in Texas and Nuevo Leon.
Martinez J. Louis
Full Text Available Hispanic clinicians in Texas, United States of America, and in the neighboring state of Nuevo Leon, Mexico, were surveyed to determine their educational needs in the area of HIV/AIDS. Two-thirds of the 74 Texan and 22% of the 104 Mexican physicians queried had seen at least one HIV/AIDS patient in the previous year. The majority of the respondents were primary care physicians who: 1 were in private practice; 2 saw more than 1 000 patients per year; 3 had been out of training for more than 10 years; 4 provided some HIV prevention education to patients based on their perceived risk of infection; 5 rated their own knowledge of HIV/AIDS as average but rated their knowledge of treatments for the disease below average; 6 received most of their information about HIV/AIDS from journals rather than formal continuing education programs; 7 thought Hispanic patients had special needs with regard to HIV/AIDS care; and 8 were willing to attend education programs to improve their HIV/AIDS management skills. The greatest barriers to caring for HIV patients were lack of clinical knowledge and fear of infection. These results point to a need for a large-scale training program to improve the HIV/AIDS management skills of Hispanic clinicians in Texas and Nuevo Leon.
Harling, Guy; Bärnighausen, Till
Individuals' educational attainment has long been considered as a risk factor for HIV. However, little attention has been paid to the association between partner educational attainment and HIV infection. We conducted cross-sectional analysis of young women (aged 15-34) in 14 Demographic and Health Surveys from seven sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) countries with generalized HIV epidemics. We measured the degree of similarity in educational attainment (partner homophily) in 75,373 partnerships and evaluated the correlation between homophily and female HIV prevalence at the survey cluster level. We then used logistic regression to assess whether own and partner educational attainment was associated with HIV serostatus amongst 38,791 women. Educational attainment was positively correlated within partnerships in both urban and rural areas of every survey (Newman assortativity coefficients between 0.09 and 0.44), but this correlation was not ecologically associated with HIV prevalence. At the individual level, larger absolute differences between own and partner educational attainment were associated with significantly higher HIV prevalence amongst women. This association was heterogeneous across countries, but not between survey waves. In contrast to other women, for those aged 25-34 who had secondary or higher education, a more-educated partner was associated with lower HIV prevalence. HIV prevalence amongst women in SSA is associated not only with one's own education but also with that of one's partner. These findings highlight the importance of understanding how partners place individuals at risk of infection and suggest that HIV prevention efforts may benefit from considering partner characteristics.
Harling, Guy; Bärnighausen, Till
Introduction Individuals’ educational attainment has long been considered as a risk factor for HIV. However, little attention has been paid to the association between partner educational attainment and HIV infection. Methods We conducted cross-sectional analysis of young women (aged 15–34) in 14 Demographic and Health Surveys from seven sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) countries with generalized HIV epidemics. We measured the degree of similarity in educational attainment (partner homophily) in 75,373 partnerships and evaluated the correlation between homophily and female HIV prevalence at the survey cluster level. We then used logistic regression to assess whether own and partner educational attainment was associated with HIV serostatus amongst 38,791 women. Results Educational attainment was positively correlated within partnerships in both urban and rural areas of every survey (Newman assortativity coefficients between 0.09 and 0.44), but this correlation was not ecologically associated with HIV prevalence. At the individual level, larger absolute differences between own and partner educational attainment were associated with significantly higher HIV prevalence amongst women. This association was heterogeneous across countries, but not between survey waves. In contrast to other women, for those aged 25–34 who had secondary or higher education, a more-educated partner was associated with lower HIV prevalence. Conclusions HIV prevalence amongst women in SSA is associated not only with one's own education but also with that of one's partner. These findings highlight the importance of understanding how partners place individuals at risk of infection and suggest that HIV prevention efforts may benefit from considering partner characteristics. PMID:26902392
Full Text Available Aim: To determine the effect of peer education on the knowledge and attitudes of the young about safe sexual life and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs. Method: In this intervention type epidemiologic study, 1100 youngs were reached at 95% level of significance by probability sampling method. These young people were given education by peer trainers; level of knowledge and attitudes of the young were evaluated before and after education. ‘Young’s Health Information Form’ prepared by the investigators and including questions about safe sexual life, family planning and STDs along with socio-demographic informations was used for data collection. In statistical analysis, ‘t test’ was used for comparison of two averages, one-way anova for three groups in independent groups, ‘coupled t test’ was used in dependent groups, ‘qui-square test’ was used for comparison of percents in independent groups, ‘McNemar qui-square test’ was used in dependent groups. Results: A total of 977 young people (females 45.1%, males 54.9% aged between 15-24 years were included in the study (response ratio 88.8%. It was determined that 15.6% of unmarried young had a relationship resulted in sexual intercourse. Boys constitute the majority of the young experienced sexual intercourse and mean age of sexual intercourse was determined as 17.6. Of the young, 43.1% had a sexual intercourse with a prostitute, 43.3% with a close friend and a girlfriend, 8.3% with a maquette or an animal. Total knowledge score increased to 32.6 from 14.6 following peer education intervention carried out based on health attitude theories (p<0.05. Significant improvements were detected in each of ‘avoidance of sexual intercourse’, ‘being monogamous’ and ‘condom use’ in the context of safe sexual life (p<0.05. While ratio of modern method use increased to 80.8% from 53.8%, using no methods decraesed to 11.8% from 28%. Conclusion: Peer education model is suggested to be
conception, taking risks and unwanted pregnancy, STDs and HIV, safer sex and condoms, gender-based violence, motivations for sexual behaviour and communication skills. Two years after the start of the study, Herpes Simplex Virus 2. (HSV-2) infections were reduced by a third in men and women and men's perpetration.
Focus needs to shift into increasing acceptability of testing by women in rural .... homogeneity and clarity of the questions to all age ... c) HIV testing: Participants were asked if they had .... Van der Straten A, King R, Grinstead O, Serufilira A,.
AJRH Managing Editor
Information Science, University of Ibadan and Department of Information Science, University of South Africa, Pretoria3. ; Institute .... the face of increasing incidence and prevalence of. HIV/AIDS .... distribution of the teachers' manual and a student .... Table 1: State Performance on selected indicators of FLHE implementation.
B. C. Foley
Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have reported energy balance-related behavior (EBRB change for peer leaders delivering health promotion programs to younger students in secondary schools. Our study assessed the impact of the Students As LifeStyle Activists (SALSA program on SALSA peer leaders’ EBRBs, and their intentions regarding these behaviors. Methods We used a pre–post study design to assess changes in EBRBs and intentions of Year 10 secondary school students (15–16 year olds who volunteered to be peer leaders to deliver the SALSA program to Year 8 students (13–14 year olds. This research is part of a larger study conducted during 2014 and 2015 in 23 secondary schools in Sydney, Australia. We used an online questionnaire before and after program participation to assess Year 10 peer leaders’ fruit and vegetable intake, daily breakfast eating, sugar sweetened beverage (SSB intake, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA participation and school-day recreational screen time behaviors and intentions regarding these EBRBs. Generalized estimating equations with a robust variance structure and exchangeable correlation structure were used to estimate the individual-level summary statistics and their 95% CIs, adjusted for clustering. We further assessed the effect of covariates on EBRB changes. Results There were significant increases in the proportion of Year 10 peer leaders (n = 415 who reported eating ≥2 serves fruit/day fruit from 54 to 63% (P < 0.01; eating ≥5 serves vegetables/day from 8 to 12% (P < 0.01; and drinking <1 cup/day of SSBs from 56 to 62% (P < 0.01. Change in ≥60 min MVPA participation/day depended on gender (P < 0.01: Boys increased 14% while girls decreased −2%. Changes in eating breakfast daily also depended on gender (P < 0.004: Boys increased 13% while girls decreased −0.4%. The change in peer leaders recreational screen time differed by socio-economic status (P < 0.05: above average
Use of a simulation game for HIV/AIDS education with pre-service teachers. ... the data were collected over a three-year period by way of video recordings of the simulation game, recordings of large and small ... AJOL African Journals Online.
Linda van Laren
Dec 13, 2012 ... In South Africa, the HIV&AIDS education policy documents indicate ... in disciplines call for the development of new approaches – and ... be initiated when working with pre-service teachers who are regis- ... as 'personal development and social development areas of Life ..... Australia and New Zealand. 500.
Wood, Susan Y.; Rogow, Deborah; Stines, Frederica
Evidence shows that a focus on gender and power in sexuality/HIV education increases the likelihood of achieving positive sexual health outcomes, and international agencies have called for a shift to a gender-focused approach. However, questions remain about the implementation of such programmes, including how best to prepare teachers to deliver…
Rhodes, Darson L.; Jozkowski, Kristen N.; Hammig, Bart J.; Ogletree, Roberta J.; Fogarty, Erin C.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine if education about human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted disease (STD) and pregnancy prevention is dependent on professional preparation and/or class structure. Design: A secondary data analysis of the 2006 School Health Policies and Programmes Study (SHPPS) was conducted.…
Ayran, Gulsun; Fırat, Meryem; Kucukakca, Gulden; Cuneydioğlu, Beyazıt; Tahta, Kubra; Avcı, Esra
Objective The current study was semi-experimentally designed in order to identify the effect of peer education upon breast self-examination (BSE) behaviors and self-esteem among university students. Materials and methods The study was undertaken with 100 female students who studied at Erzincan University. Peer educators were recruited from the 4th year students. The data were collected with a questionnaire form, BSE skill form and Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale in two phases one month before and after the BSE peer education. For the data assessment; percentage distributions, frequency, mean, standard deviation and Simple T test were employed. Results The mean age of the participant students was 20.45±1.67 year and all of them were single. It was found that during the first data collection phase, only 16 % of the students performed BSE while during the final data collection phase, the rate of the students performing BSE rose to 77 %. During the first data collection phase, students received a mean score of 2.36±4.13 from BSE skill form while during the last data collection phase they had a mean score of 10.70±3.40 from BSE skill form. When the scores obtained from Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale by the students were examined, it was seen that they received a mean score of 1.20±1.34 during the first data collection phase while they had a mean score of 0.84±1.07 during the final data collection phase. Conclusion Although short-term feedback was obtained, it was noted that students’ BSE knowledge and skills increased considerably. PMID:28894853
Ayran, Gulsun; Fırat, Meryem; Kucukakca, Gulden; Cuneydioğlu, Beyazıt; Tahta, Kubra; Avcı, Esra
The current study was semi-experimentally designed in order to identify the effect of peer education upon breast self-examination (BSE) behaviors and self-esteem among university students. The study was undertaken with 100 female students who studied at Erzincan University. Peer educators were recruited from the 4th year students. The data were collected with a questionnaire form, BSE skill form and Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale in two phases one month before and after the BSE peer education. For the data assessment; percentage distributions, frequency, mean, standard deviation and Simple T test were employed. The mean age of the participant students was 20.45±1.67 year and all of them were single. It was found that during the first data collection phase, only 16 % of the students performed BSE while during the final data collection phase, the rate of the students performing BSE rose to 77 %. During the first data collection phase, students received a mean score of 2.36±4.13 from BSE skill form while during the last data collection phase they had a mean score of 10.70±3.40 from BSE skill form. When the scores obtained from Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale by the students were examined, it was seen that they received a mean score of 1.20±1.34 during the first data collection phase while they had a mean score of 0.84±1.07 during the final data collection phase. Although short-term feedback was obtained, it was noted that students' BSE knowledge and skills increased considerably.
Alamgir, Hasanat; Drebit, Sharla; Li, Helen Guiyun; Kidd, Catherine; Tam, Helen; Fast, Catherine
To reduce the risk of patient handling-related musculoskeletal injury, overhead ceiling lifts have been installed in health care facilities. To increase ceiling lift usage for a variety of patient handling tasks, a peer coaching and mentoring program was implemented among the direct care staff in the long-term care subsector in British Columbia, Canada. They received a 4-day training program on body mechanics, ergonomics, patient-handling techniques, ceiling lift usage, in addition to coaching skills. A questionnaire was administered among staff before and after the intervention to evaluate the program's effectiveness. There were 403 and 200 respondents to the pre-intervention and post-intervention questionnaires. In general, staff perceived the peer-coaching program to be effective. The number of staff who reported to be using ceiling lifts "often and always" went higher from 64.5% to 80.5% (<0.001) after coaching program implementation. Furthermore, staff reported that they were using the ceiling lifts for more types of tasks post-intervention. Staff reported that the peer coaching program has increased their safety awareness at work and confidence in using the ceiling lifts. The findings suggest that this educational model can increase the uptake of mechanical interventions for occupational health and safety initiatives. It appears that the training led to a greater awareness of the availability of or increased perceptions of the number of ceiling lifts, presumably through coaches advocating their use. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Full Text Available In recent years, social media have become a mirror for many adolescents: young people experiment online, testing their own limits and possibilities, and they build their identity day by day (Boyd, 2014. The consequences of this new behaviour are important and include sexting (Temple, 2012, 2014, self-exposure, self-objectification and identity manipulation. Many of these behaviours pass through the media themselves, as they work as a sort of megaphone or extensive sharing platform.This paper aims to reach two goals. The first is to share a new perspective with educators and researchers named Peer&Media Education (Ottolini & Rivoltella, 2014—a model developed in recent years to reach young people and foster their “awareness” of media and their health (Ottolini & Rivoltella, 2014. The result is a new methodological framework fostering the responsible use of social media and digital tools and also helping young people to keep healthy habits. We will present the framework in sections1 and 2.The second goal is to discuss the results of the research Image.ME, run by Cremit, which studied the uses of social network sites, their impact on relationships and identity and the incidence of risky behaviours. In fact, the research is built according to the Peer&Media Education perspective, preventing risky behaviours and supporting media awareness. We will discuss this in section3.
Arco-Tirado, Jose L.; Fernandez-Martin, Francisco D.; Fernandez-Balboa, Juan-Miguel
The purposes of this study were, on one had, to determine the impact of a peer tutoring program on preventing academic failure and dropouts among first-year students (N = 100), from Civil Engineering, Economics, Pharmacy, and Chemical Engineering careers; while, on the other hand, to identify the potential benefits of such tutoring program on the…
*The main part of this thesis focuses on designing, optimising, and studying the embedding of two types of interventions: pre-testing and peer assessment, both supported by or combined with ICT-tools. * Pre-test sensitisation is used intentionally to boost the learning gain of the main intervention,
Poon, Wai-Yin; McNaught, Carmel; Lam, Paul; Kwan, H. S.
The aim of this study was to investigate whether, in the Hong Kong context, self- and peer-assessment promote students' self-reflection and enable students to understand their own strengths and weaknesses better. A three-stage assessment strategy was employed in three Science courses at The Chinese University of Hong Kong: (1) students developing…
Gok, Tolga; Gok, Ozge
The aim of this research was to investigate the effects of peer instruction on learning strategies, problem solving performance, and conceptual understanding of college students in a general chemistry course. The research was performed students enrolled in experimental and control groups of a chemistry course were selected. Students in the…
Baker, Felicity; Krout, Robert
This article reports on a study of 21 Australian and United States (US) tertiary/university students involved in training to become professional music therapists. The study aimed to identify the learning outcomes--musical, professional, and personal--that occurred when students participated in collaborative peer songwriting experiences. Student…
Full Text Available Background/Aim. Millions of soldiers around the world represent one of the most vulnerable populations regarding exposure to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection. The programs for HIV prevention remain the most viable approach to reducing the spread of HIV infection. Very few studies have tested the effectiveness of HIV preventive interventions undertaken in military population. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of educational film to transfer knowledge about HIV infection to soldiers. Methods. We performed a quasi-experimental study among 102 soldiers of the Serbian Armed Forces. The experimental intervention consisted of the HIV knowledge pre-questionnaire, watching a film on HIV knowledge, then the post-HIV knowledge questionnaire. The results of pre-and post-HIV knowledge questionnaires were compared. Results. There were 23 questions in the test. The average total score on the questionnaire before watching the film was 18.23 and after watching it was 20.14, which was statistically significant difference (p < 0.001. Conclusions. The results of the study show that viewing a film on HIV infection is an effective method of transferring knowledge about HIV to the Serbian military population.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 2000, peer-mediated interventions among female sex workers (FSW in Mombasa Kenya have promoted behavioural change through improving knowledge, attitudes and awareness of HIV serostatus, and aimed to prevent HIV and other sexually transmitted infection (STI by facilitating early STI treatment. Impact of these interventions was evaluated among those who attended peer education and at the FSW population level. Methods A pre-intervention survey in 2000, recruited 503 FSW using snowball sampling. Thereafter, peer educators provided STI/HIV education, condoms, and facilitated HIV testing, treatment and care services. In 2005, data were collected using identical survey methods, allowing comparison with historical controls, and between FSW who had or had not received peer interventions. Results Over five years, sex work became predominately a full-time activity, with increased mean sexual partners (2.8 versus 4.9/week; P P P = 0.36. Conclusion Peer-mediated interventions were associated with an increase in protected sex. Though peer-mediated interventions remain important, higher coverage is needed and more efficacious interventions to reduce overall vulnerability and risk.
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McQuiston, C; Choi-Hevel, S; Clawson, M
To be effective, HIV/AIDS interventions must be culturally and linguistically appropriate and must occur within the context of the specific community in which they are delivered. In this article, the development of a culture-specific lay health advisor (LHA) program, Protegiendo Nuestra Comunidad, for recently immigrated Mexicans is described. This program is one component of a collaborative inquiry research project involving community participants and researchers working as partners in carrying out and assessing a program for the prevention of HIV/AIDS. The collaborative inquiry process was applied as an empowerment philosophy and methodology of Paulo Freire and an ecological framework was used for the development of Protegiendo Nuestra Comunidad. The use of principles of empowerment for curriculum development, teaching methodology, and program delivery are described.
Jukes, Matthew; Simmons, Stephanie; Bundy, Donald
Education has a potentially important role to play in tackling the spread of HIV, but is there evidence that this potential is realized? This analysis combines the results of previous literature reviews and updates them with the findings of recent randomized controlled trials and a discussion of possible mechanisms for the effect of schooling on vulnerability to HIV infection. There is a growing body of evidence that keeping girls in school reduces their risk of contracting HIV. The relationship between educational attainment and HIV has changed over time, with educational attainment now more likely to be associated with a lower risk of HIV infection than earlier in the epidemic. Educational attainment cannot, however, be isolated from other socioeconomic factors as the cause of HIV risk reduction. The findings of this analysis suggest that the equitable expansion of primary and secondary schooling for girls in southern Africa will help reduce their vulnerability to HIV. Evidence of ineffective HIV prevention education in schools underlines the need for careful evidence-based programme design. Despite the challenges, recent provisional evidence suggests that highly targeted programmes promoting realistic options for young adults may lead to safer sexual behaviour. Targeted education programmes have also been successful in changing students' attitudes to people living with HIV and AIDS, which is associated with testing and treatment decisions. This reduction in stigma may be crucial in encouraging the uptake of voluntary counselling and testing, a central strategy in the control of the epidemic. Expansions of carefully designed and evaluated school-based HIV prevention programmes can help to reduce stigma and have the potential to promote safe sexual behaviour.
Campbell, Bob; Lubben, Fred
HIV/AIDS programmes in schools ultimately intend to decrease high risk sexual behaviour. One factor facilitating this outcome is a strong health promoting environment in the school. This paper reports a study surveying the health promoting environments supporting HIV/AIDS education in Namibian senior secondary schools. It develops a…
Ogelman, Hulya Gulay; Secer, Zarife
The purpose of this study is to set forth the effect preschool inclusive education practices have on the peer relations of 5-6 year olds with typical development. The study comprised of two sample groups. The children in both groups were attendees of kindergartens at primary schools governed by the Ministry of National Education located in the…
Sevenhuysen, Samantha; Farlie, Melanie K; Keating, Jennifer L; Haines, Terry P; Molloy, Elizabeth
What are the experiences of students and clinical educators in a paired student placement model incorporating facilitated peer-assisted learning (PAL) activities, compared to a traditional paired teaching approach? Qualitative study utilising focus groups. Twenty-four physiotherapy students and 12 clinical educators. Participants in this study had experienced two models of physiotherapy clinical undergraduate education: a traditional paired model (usual clinical supervision and learning activities led by clinical educators supervising pairs of students) and a PAL model (a standardised series of learning activities undertaken by student pairs and clinical educators to facilitate peer interaction using guided strategies). Peer-assisted learning appears to reduce the students' anxiety, enhance their sense of safety in the learning environment, reduce educator burden, maximise the use of downtime, and build professional skills including collaboration and feedback. While PAL adds to the clinical learning experience, it is not considered to be a substitute for observation of the clinical educator, expert feedback and guidance, or hands-on immersive learning activities. Cohesion of the student-student relationship was seen as an enabler of successful PAL. Students and educators perceive that PAL can help to position students as active learners through reduced dependence on the clinical educator, heightened roles in observing practice, and making and communicating evaluative judgments about quality of practice. The role of the clinical educator is not diminished with PAL, but rather is central in designing flexible and meaningful peer-based experiences and in balancing PAL with independent learning opportunities. ACTRN12610000859088. [Sevenhuysen S, Farlie MK, Keating JL, Haines TP, Molloy E (2015) Physiotherapy students and clinical educators perceive several ways in which incorporating peer-assisted learning could improve clinical placements: a qualitative study
Thomas, S B; Quinn, S C
The Tuskegee study of untreated syphilis in the Negro male is the longest nontherapeutic experiment on human beings in medical history. The strategies used to recruit and retain participants were quite similar to those being advocated for HIV/AIDS prevention programs today. Almost 60 years after the study began, there remains a trail of distrust and suspicion that hampers HIV education efforts in Black communities. The AIDS epidemic has exposed the Tuskegee study as a historical marker for the legitimate discontent of Blacks with the public health system. The belief that AIDS is a form of genocide is rooted in a social context in which Black Americans, faced with persistent inequality, believe in conspiracy theories about Whites against Blacks. These theories range from the belief that the government promotes drug abuse in Black communities to the belief that HIV is a manmade weapon of racial warfare. An open and honest discussion of the Tuskegee Syphilis Study can facilitate the process of rebuilding trust between the Black community and public health authorities. This dialogue can contribute to the development of HIV education programs that are scientifically sound, culturally sensitive, and ethnically acceptable. Images p1500-a p1502-a p1503-a PMID:1951814
Crawford, Joanne; Frisina, Angela; Hack, Tricia; Parascandalo, Faye
This study explored Arabic, Chinese, South Asian, and Vietnamese immigrant women's experiences with a peer health educator program, a public health program that facilitated access to breast health information and mammography screening. Framed within critical social theory, this participatory action research project took place from July 2009 to January 2011. Ten focus groups and 14 individual interviews were conducted with 82 immigrant women 40 years of age and older. Qualitative methods were utilized. Thematic content analysis derived from grounded theory and other qualitative literature was employed to analyze data. Four dominant themes emerged: Breast Cancer Prevention focused on learning within the program, Social Support provided by the peer health educator and other women, Screening Services Access for Women centered on service provision, and Program Enhancements related to specific modifications required to meet the needs of immigrant women accessing the program. The findings provide insights into strategies used to promote breast health, mammography screening, and the improvement of public health programming. Perceived barriers that continue to persist are structural barriers, such as the provision of information on breast cancer and screening by family physicians. A future goal is to improve collaborations between public health and primary care to minimize this barrier.
Gobbi, Erica; Greguol, Márcia; Carraro, Attilio
The purpose of this study was to explore possible benefits of a peer-tutored physical education programme (PTPE) in comparison with school physical education (SPE) in high school students with intellectual disability. Nineteen students with intellectual disabilities (15 boys, mean age 17.4 ± 1.7 years) were monitored during three PTPE and three SPE classes. A factorial RM-ANOVA was used to test differences on objective measured physical activity (PA), enjoyment and exertion during the two conditions, considering participants' weight condition as independent factor. During PTPE, participants reported higher light intensity PA, enjoyment and exertion than during SPE. Participants with overweight showed less inactive time and higher light intensity PA during PTPE than during SPE. The peer-tutored programme was beneficial for adolescents with intellectual disability, particularly for those in overweight condition. The higher enjoyment found during PTPE may encourage exercise participation of students with intellectual disability. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Singh, Kavita; Luseno, Winnie; Haney, Erica
Gender equality and education are being promoted as strategies to combat the HIV epidemic in Africa, but few studies have looked at the role of gender equality and education in the uptake of a vital service - HIV testing. This study looks at the associations between education (a key input needed for gender equality) and key gender equality measures (financial decision making and attitudes toward violence) with ever tested for HIV and tested for HIV in the past year. The study focused on currently married women ages between15-24 and 25-34 in three countries - Kenya, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. The data came from the Demographic and Health Surveys. Logistic regression was used to study the role of gender equality and education on the HIV testing outcomes after controlling for both social and biological factors. Results indicated that education had a consistent positive relationship with testing for both age groups, and the associations were always significant for young women aged 15-24 years (pequality are important strategies for increasing uptake of a vital HIV service, and thus are important tools for protecting girls and young women against HIV.
Chanda, Michael M; Perez-Brumer, Amaya G; Ortblad, Katrina F; Mwale, Magdalene; Chongo, Steven; Kamungoma, Nyambe; Kanchele, Catherine; Fullem, Andrew; Barresi, Leah; Bärnighausen, Till; Oldenburg, Catherine E
Zambia has a generalized HIV epidemic, and HIV is concentrated along transit routes. Female sex workers (FSWs) are disproportionately affected by the epidemic. HIV testing is the crucial first step for engagement in HIV care and HIV prevention activities. However, to date little work has been done with FSWs in Zambia, and little is known about barriers and facilitators to HIV testing in this population. FSW peer educators were recruited through existing sex worker organizations for participation in a trial related to HIV testing among FSWs. We conducted five focus groups with FSW peer educators (N = 40) in three transit towns in Zambia (Livingstone, Chirundu, and Kapiri Mposhi) to elicit community norms related to HIV testing. Emerging themes demonstrated barriers and facilitators to HIV testing occurring at multiple levels, including individual, social network, and structural. Stigma and discrimination, including healthcare provider stigma, were a particularly salient barrier. Improving knowledge, social support, and acknowledgment of FSWs and women's role in society emerged as facilitators to testing. Interventions to improve HIV testing among FSWs in Zambia will need to address barriers and facilitators at multiple levels to be maximally effective.
Carragher, Jean; McGaughey, Jennifer
The global transfer of nursing and midwifery education to higher education institutes has led to student nurses and midwives experiencing challenges previously faced by traditional third-level students, including isolation, loneliness, financial difficulties and academic pressure. These challenges can contribute to increased stress and anxiety levels which may be detrimental to the successful transition to higher education, thus leading to an increase in attrition rates. Peer mentoring as an intervention has been suggested to be effective in supporting students in the transition to third-level education through enhancing a sense of belongingness and improving student satisfaction, engagement and retention rates. This proposed systematic review aims to determine the effectiveness of peer mentoring in enhancing levels of student engagement, sense of belonging and overall satisfaction of first-year undergraduate students following transition into higher education. MEDLINE, Web of Knowledge, ProQuest, Embase, CINAHL, ERIC, PsycINFO and CENTRAL databases will be searched for qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods studies on the implementation of peer assessment strategies in higher education institutes (HEIs) or universities for full-time, first-year adult students (>17 years). Included studies will be limited to the English language. The quality of included studies will be assessed using a validated Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool (MMAT). The findings will be presented as a narrative synthesis or meta-analysis as appropriate following sequential explanatory synthesis. The review will provide clear, non-biased evidence-based guidance to all third-level educators on the effectiveness of peer-mentoring programmes for first-year undergraduates. The review is necessary to help establish which type of peer mentoring is most effective. The evidence from qualitative and quantitative studies drawn from the international literature will be utilised to illustrate the best way
Ma, Zhen-qiang; Fisher, Monica A; Kuller, Lewis H
Although studies indicate school-based HIV/AIDS education programs effectively reduce risky behaviors, only 33 states and the District of Columbia in US mandate HIV/AIDS education. Ideally, school-based HIV/AIDS education should begin before puberty, or at the latest before first sexual intercourse. In 2011, 20% US states had fewer schools teaching HIV/AIDS prevention than during 2008; this is worrisome, especially for more vulnerable minorities. A nationally representative sample of 16 410 US high-school students participating in 2009 Youth Risk Behavior Survey was analyzed. Multiple regression models assessed the association between HIV/AIDS education and risky sexual behaviors, and academic grades. HIV/AIDS education was associated with delayed age at first sexual intercourse, reduced number of sex partners, reduced likelihood to have forced sexual intercourse and better academic grades, for sexually active male students, but not for female students. Both male and female students who had HIV/AIDS education were less likely to inject drugs, drink alcohol or use drugs before last sexual intercourse, and more likely to use condoms. Minority ethnic female students were more likely to have HIV testing. The positive effect of HIV/AIDS education and different gender and race/ethnicity effects support scaling up HIV/AIDS education and further research on the effectiveness of gender-race/ethnicity-specific HIV/AIDS curriculum.
Full Text Available This study was designed to understand the status of HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP among different populations and to provide scientific evidences for further health education. Three rounds of questionnaires were administered among service industry workers who were selected through stratified cluster sampling. Study subjects included hotel attendants, employees of beauty parlors and service workers of transportation industry. Data were analyzed using the analytical hierarchy process. All demonstrated high KAP overall. Synthetic scoring indexes of the three surveys were above 75%. However, the correct response rate on questions whether mosquito bite can transmit HIV/AIDS and what is the relationship between STD with HIV was unsatisfactory (lower than expected; and their attitudes towards people living with HIV and AIDS need to be improved. Moreover, the effect of health education on these groups was unclear. In conclusion, analytical hierarchy process is a valid method in estimating overall effect of HIV/AIDS health education. Although the present status of HIV/AIDS KAP among the service industry workers was relatively good, greater efforts should be made to improve their HIV transmission knowledge, attitude and understanding of the relationship between STDs and HIV.
Al Atabbi Hind
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is limited uptake of measures to prevent malaria by pregnant women in Nigeria which is often related to the lack of knowledge on Malaria in Pregnancy (MIP and its effects on mother and foetus. This study, explored peer to peer education as a tool in raising knowledge of MIP among women of child bearing age. Methods 1105 women of child bearing age were interviewed in their households using a structured questionnaire about their knowledge of malaria in general, MIP and use of preventive measures. Thereafter, a peer education campaign was launched to raise the level of knowledge in the community. The interviews were repeated after the campaign and the responses between the pre- and post-intervention were compared. Results In the pre-assessment women on average answered 64.8% of the question on malaria and its possibility to prevent malaria correctly. The peer education campaign had a significant impact in raising the level of knowledge among the women; after the campaign the respondents answered on average 73.8% of the questions correctly. Stratified analysis on pre and post assessment scores for malaria in general (68.8 & 72.9% and MIP (61.7 & 76.3% showed also significant increase. Uptake of bed nets was reported to be low: 11.6% Conclusion Peer education led to a significant increase in knowledge of malaria and its prevention but we could not asses its influence on the use of preventive measures.
Mpofu, Elias; Mutepfa, Magen Mhaka; Hallfors, Denise Dion
The authors used state-of-the-art concept mapping approaches to examine structural institutional effects of church and secular high schools on the types of sexual and HIV-prevention education messages transmitted to learners in Zimbabwe. Participants were school teachers (n = 26), school counselors (n = 28), and pastors involved in student pastoral care (n = 14; males = 27, females = 41). They reported on messages perceived to influence sexual decisions of learners in their school setting. The self-report data were clustered into message types using concept mapping and contrasted for consistency of content and structure both between and within type of school. The authors also engaged in curriculum document study with member checks in the participant schools to determine convergence of the evidence on school-type effects of the messages transmitted to students. Church schools prioritized faith-informed sexual and HIV-prevention messages, whereas both types of schools prioritized Life skills education and a future focus. Secular schools prioritized sex and HIV messages in the context of community norms. Facts about HIV and AIDS were relatively underemphasized by church schools. The implicit knowledge values that differentiate types of schools influence learner access to information important for their sexual decisions.
Taylor, T; Serrano, E; Anderson, J; Kendall, P
A nutrition education program, entitled La Cocina Saludable, was designed according to the Stage of Change Model and implemented in ten southern Colorado counties. The objectives were to improve the nutrition related knowledge, skills, and behaviors that lead to healthy lifestyles in a low-income Hispanic population. The content of the program included nutrition information designed to help mothers of preschool children provide for their children's nutritional needs. Previous studies suggest that low-income Hispanics often demonstrate low intakes of vitamins A and C, calcium, iron, and protein, and high rates of diabetes, obesity, and infections. Additionally, this population presents many obstacles for nutrition educators including limited resources, child care, transportation, time, language, culture, literacy, health beliefs, and, in some cases, the transient nature of the population. The program attempted to overcome these barriers by incorporating a flexible program format carried out by abuela (Hispanic grandmother) educators using the processes described in the Stage of Change Model. The program was evaluated using a knowledge, skills and behavior pre-test, post-test, and six-month follow-up survey on both the abuela educators as well as the actual class participants. Results of the peer education training sessions suggest that this type of training program can be effective in increasing the knowledge, skills, and behavior of peer educators as well as reduce need for retraining for educators who continuously teach classes. Additionally, the results suggest that this type of program can be effective in changing selected nutrition related knowledge, skills, and behaviors leading to healthy lifestyles for low-income Hispanic mothers of preschool children.
Phillips, Karran A; Epstein, David H; Mezghanni, Mustapha; Vahabzadeh, Massoud; Reamer, David; Agage, Daniel; Preston, Kenzie L
We sought to develop and deploy a video-based smartphone-delivered mobile HIV Risk Reduction (mHIVRR) intervention to individuals in an addiction treatment clinic. We developed 3 video modules that consisted of a 10-minute HIVRR video, 11 acceptability questions, and 3 knowledge questions and deployed them as a secondary study within a larger study of ecological momentary and geographical momentary assessments. All 24 individuals who remained in the main study long enough completed the mHIVRR secondary study. All 3 videos met our a priori criteria for acceptability "as is" in the population: they achieved median scores of ≤2.5 on a 5-point Likert scale; ≤20% of the individuals gave them the most negative rating on the scale; a majority of the individuals stated that they would not prefer other formats over video-based smartphone-delivered one (all P smartphone is acceptable, feasible and may increase HIV/STD risk reduction knowledge. Future studies, with pre-intervention assessments of knowledge and random assignment, are needed to confirm these findings.
Carrasco, Maria A; Arias, Rosario; Figueroa, Maria E
HIV stigma continues to be a major challenge to addressing HIV/AIDS in various countries in sub-Saharan Africa, including Mozambique. This paper explores the multidimensional nature of HIV stigma through the thematic analysis of five qualitative studies conducted in high HIV prevalence provinces in Mozambique between 2009 and 2012. These studies included 23 interviews with people living with HIV (PLHIV) (10 women and 13 men); 6 focus groups with 32 peer educators (24 women and 8 men) working for community-based organisations (CBOs) providing services to PLHIV; 17 focus groups with community members (72 men and 70 women); 6 interviews (4 women and 2 men) with people who had family members living with HIV/AIDS; 24 focus groups (12 with men and 12 with women) and 6 interviews with couples. Our findings indicate that HIV stigma is a barrier to HIV testing and counselling, status disclosure, partner notification, and antiretroviral therapy (ART) access and adherence, and that moral stigma seems to be more common than physical stigma. Additionally, the findings highlight that HIV stigma is a dynamic social process that is conceptualised as being tied to personal responsibility. To effectively diminish HIV stigma in Mozambique, future interventions should address moral stigma and re-conceptualise HIV as a chronic disease.
The Use of Online Posts to Identify Barriers to and Facilitators of HIV Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) Among Men Who Have Sex with Men: A Comparison to a Systematic Review of the Peer-Reviewed Literature.
Hannaford, Alisse; Lipshie-Williams, Madeleine; Starrels, Joanna L; Arnsten, Julia H; Rizzuto, Jessica; Cohen, Phillip; Jacobs, Damon; Patel, Viraj V
Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) remains an under-utilized HIV prevention tool among men who have sex with men (MSM). To more comprehensively elucidate barriers and facilitators to PrEP use among US MSM, we conducted a systematic review of peer-reviewed published articles and content analysis of online posts about PrEP. We searched peer-reviewed databases (Medline, Web of Science, Google Scholar) using MESH headings and keywords about PrEP and/or HIV prevention from 2005 to 2015. We included original studies among MSM in the US that reported on barriers, facilitators, or other factors related to PrEP use. We also searched online posts and associated comments (news articles, opinion pieces, blogs and other social media posts) in diverse venues (Facebook, Slate Outward, Huffington Post Gay Voices, Queerty, and My PrEP Experience blog) to identify posts about PrEP. We used content analysis to identify themes and compare potential differences between the peer-reviewed literature and online posts. We identified 25 peer-reviewed articles and 28 online posts meeting inclusion criteria. We identified 48 unique barriers and 46 facilitators to using PrEP. These 94 themes fit into six overarching categories: (1) access (n = 14), (2) attitudes/beliefs (n = 24), (3) attributes of PrEP (n = 13), (4) behaviors (n = 11), (5) sociodemographic characteristics (n = 8), and (6) social network (n = 6). In all categories, analysis of online posts resulted in identification of a greater number of unique themes. Thirty-eight themes were identified in the online posts that were not identified in the peer-reviewed literature. We identified barriers and facilitators to PrEP in online posts that were not identified in a systematic review of the peer-reviewed literature. By incorporating data both from a systematic review of peer-reviewed articles and from online posts, we have identified salient and novel information about barriers to and facilitators of PrEP use. Traditional
Sookane, Patricia Nomasonto
The aims of this research were to describe the role that coaching plays in the development of educators and to make recommendations for the way in which schools can make use of coaching as an educator human resource development tool at the workplace. According to the findings from the literature review, coaching plays an important role in the success of novice educators. Educators who are coached typically develop a strong self-concept, become consistent in the implementation of policies and ...
Lennox Jeffrey L
Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV-awareness programs tailored toward the needs of rural communities are needed. We sought to quantify change in HIV knowledge in three rural Nigerian villages following an integrated culturally adapted and technology assisted educational intervention. Methods A prospective 14-week cohort study was designed to compare short-term changes in HIV knowledge between seminar-based education program and a novel program, which capitalized on the rural culture of small-group oral learning and was delivered by portable digital-audio technology. Results Participants were mostly Moslem (99%, male (53.5%, with no formal education (55%. Baseline HIV knowledge was low ( Conclusions Baseline HIV-awareness was low. Culturally adapted, technology-assisted HIV education program is a feasible cost-effective method of raising HIV awareness among low-literacy rural communities.
Full Text Available The prevalence of physical activity among lower educated adolescent girls is low, suggesting it is important to have insights into the complex processes that may underlie their physical activity levels. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the mediating effects of self-efficacy, perceived benefits and barriers on the associations between peer and parental variables and physical activity among lower educated adolescent girls.In total, 226 girls (mean age 16.0±1.0 years; 53% technical education; 47% vocational education from a convenience sample of 6 secondary schools in Flanders, Belgium, completed a questionnaire on their total physical activity level and related peer and parental variables (i.e. modeling of physical activity, co-participation in physical activities and encouragement to be active and personal variables (i.e. self-efficacy to be active, and specific perceived benefits of physical activity and specific barriers to be active. Mediating effects were tested using MacKinnon's product-of-coefficients test based on multilevel linear regression analyses.Higher peer and parental modeling, co-participation and encouragement were significantly related to a higher physical activity level among adolescent girls (p<0.05. Self-efficacy, the perceived benefits of having fun, being around friends or meeting new people, and not being bored and the perceived barrier of not liking physical activity mediated several associations between peer and parental variables and girls' physical activity, with some of the mediated proportions exceeding 60%.This study contributed to a better understanding of the complexity of how parental and peer factors work together with personal factors to influence the physical activity levels of adolescent girls with a lower educational level. Interventions should involve both peers and parents, as they may influence girls' physical activity both directly and indirectly through the internalisation of several personal
Peter R Whipp
Full Text Available Peer teaching is recognized as a powerful instructional method; however, there is a paucity of studies that have evaluated the outcomes experienced by peer-teachers and their student recipients in the context of trained, non-reciprocal, high school physical education. Accordingly, the effectiveness of a formalized and trained non-reciprocal peer teaching (T-PT program upon psychosocial, behavioral, pedagogical and student learning outcomes within high school physical education classes was investigated. Students from eight intact classes (106 males, 94 females, Mage = 12.46, SD = 0.59 were randomly assigned to either a T-PT intervention group (taught by a volunteer peer-teacher who was trained in line with a tactical games approach or untrained group (U-PT; where volunteer peer-teachers received no formal training, but did receive guidance on the game concepts to teach. Data were collected over 10 lessons in a 5-week soccer unit. Mixed-model ANOVAs/MANOVAs revealed that, in comparison to U-PT, the T-PT program significantly enhanced in-game performance actions and academic learning time among student recipients. Those in the T-PT also provided greater levels of feedback and structured learning time, as well as reporting more positive feelings about peer teaching and fewer perceived barriers to accessing learning outcomes. These findings show that non-reciprocal peer-teachers who receive formalized support through training and tactical games approach-based teaching resources can enhance behavioral, pedagogical, and motor performance outcomes in physical education.
Cinderey, Lynn Elizabeth
This research starts with a set of practical research questions to investigate a problem which occurs in some computing undergraduate modules that use group work as part of the learning and assessment strategy. In this study final year students with experience in information systems project work and trained in team processes met with small groups of first year computing students with the aim of turning the first year project group into a team. This study seeks to explore the experience of the final year students as they take on the role of peer tutor looking at the problems they perceive within the first year teams and the skills and knowledge they use to help them. The study includes the recruitment and training of final year students (n=9) and allocation to first year teams. The final year students acted as co-researchers and team leaders in L4 Information Systems project work and recorded their thoughts and observations in a diary during the first semester of 2008/9 academic year. Diary data was supplemented by interview data from a sample of final year students (n=4). The sample was selected based on the richness of the data provided in the diaries and the number of meetings held with their teams. Rich data and thick descriptions were essential for a phenomenological examination of the experience of the final year students. A number of findings emerged. A critical approach to analysis revealed ongoing conflicts occurred across cultural divides within the first year teams that final year leaders did not articulate or appear fully aware of. This had important implications for individual team members. Other findings which relate to issues of changing levels of motivation in the teams over the ten weeks, roles adopted by the leaders, ability to systematize the project or team processes and the ability to reflect on unsuccessful strategies also had implications for peer mentoring training and support. The picture that emerged from the data suggested that lack of
Kaki Nyami, Rachael
Within the field of participatory health education, this study made use of the IVAC approach as an intervention in the teaching of HIV/AIDS education. It aimed at exploring teachers competences and learner participation in HIV/AIDS education in two schools i Mutomo District, Kenya....
Buhmann, Caecilie Böck
The Nuclear Weapons Inheritance Project is a student run and student initiated project founded in 2001 with the purpose of increasing awareness of health effects of nuclear policies and empowering university students to take action in a local and international context. The project uses dialogues to discuss nuclear disarmament with university students and a method of interactive peer education to train new trainers. The project has met more than 1500 students in nuclear weapon states in dialogue and trained about 400 students from all over the world. This article describes the methods and results of the project and discuss how the experience of the project can be used in other projects seeking to increase awareness of a topic and to initiate action on social injustice.
Full Text Available A peer-mentoring program was developed for students in an introductory biology course at a university in Ontario, Canada. Students could attend up to five peer-mentoring sessions during their first semester. Quantitative-survey, participation, and academic data spanning from 2003 through 2007 were reviewed for the purpose of evaluating the program. An objectives-oriented approach was used to determine if the program was meeting its goals to improve students’ introductory biology grades, facilitate transitioning experiences, and encourage students to pursue studies in biology. Data analysis revealed that students who participated in the program felt that it was a valuable experience. Students attending three or more sessions performed significantly better in their introductory biology courses, measured by final grades achieved, than those attending fewer sessions. There were no indications that the peer-mentoring program had any impact on students’ perceptions of transitioning to university or on their program selection preferences. Recommendations are made to improve the peer-mentoring program to better align its components and objectives.Un programme de mentorat par les pairs destiné aux étudiants qui suivent un cours d'introduction à la biologie a été implanter dans un université situé dans la province de l’Ontario. Les étudiants avaient accès à cinq séances de mentorat par les pairs au cours du premier semestre. Afin d’évaluer le programme, les chercheurs ont effectué des sondages quantitatifs, examiné la participation et les notes des étudiants entre 2003 et 2007. Ils ont utilisé une méthode axée sur les objectifs afin de déterminer si le programme atteignait ses objectifs qui consistaient à améliorer les notes des étudiants au cours d’introduction à la biologie, à faciliter leur transition et à les encourager à poursuivre des études en biologie. L'analyse des données révèle que les étudiants qui ont
Nov 10, 2017 ... and developmental challenges, resulting in a high level of stigma and discrimination ... the public sphere but through schools, teacher education and in community settings. .... Profile of key informants. Code. Academic. ZW,1M.
Pluth, Michael D.; Boettcher, Shannon W.; Nazin, George V.; Greenaway, Ann L.; Hartle, Matthew D.
Decreased funding for middle and high school education has resulted in reduced classroom time, which, when coupled with an increased focus on standardized testing, has decreased the exposure of many middle school students to hands-on science education. To help address these challenges, we developed an integrated outreach program, spanning grades…
St Clair-Thompson, Helen; Bugler, Myfanwy; Robinson, Jamey; Clough, Peter; McGeown, Sarah P.; Perry, John
Mental toughness has frequently been associated with successful performance in sport; however, recent research suggests that it may also be related to academic performance in Higher Education. In a series of three exploratory studies, we examined the relationship between mental toughness and different aspects of educational performance in…
Ludlow, Barbara L.; Wienke, Wilfred D.; Henderson, Joan; Klein, Holly
As increasing numbers of students with disabilities are placed in regular classrooms, the shortage of rural special educators means that many rural classroom teachers are the primary providers of individualized programming to meet special needs. Since 1994, West Virginia University has been expanding its existing teacher education programs to…
Background: Being recognized as a competent and accepted member in the peer group is one of the most important basic human needs for children and youth. However, it is the peer group itself that decides which competencies are estimated and which are not, and through this process, a social order as well as peer power constellations is created.…
Tindall, Judith A.
The goal of this book is to provide a program designed to teach peer helping professionals a method and rationale for training peer helpers. Peer helping programs are a major delivery system of affective education or deliberate psychological education. Peer helping programs can provide prevention, intervention, and support systems for people.…
Sturdivant, Rodney X.; Souhan, Brian E.
Most educators know that the best way to truly understand new material is to teach it. The use of students as peer educators provides numerous benefits to the student teacher and his or her classmates. Student-led instruction or peer-to-peer teaching is not a new concept or teaching technique. Peer teaching traces its roots back to the ancient…
Paloma Velasco Quintana
Full Text Available The current educational model for the Europea Higher Education Area (EHEA, demands a greater involvement on the behalf of students in all aspects of their education. In this respect, peer mentorship not only provides effective orientation for newly admitted students, a key element of quality in education, but also the active participation of students mentors, leading to the development of a wide range of skills in both mentor and mentee students. From a research-action perspective, this article describes a program of peer mentoring, in which the student interaction taking place leads to wide-ranging knowledge acquisition (knowledge and know how for both participants. Within the sphere of mathematics, the program was developed with the aim of developing general skills, as well as the specific objective of improving competence in mathematics. In the results obtained, the profile and educational development of the student mentor, together with the study of the needs of first year students, from the perspective of teachers and students, were especially relevant. The conclusions and recommendations from this study may constitute a good basis upon which future peer mentorship programs may be developed as an approach that is very much in line with the EHEA and of great educational value. ------ La mentoría entre iguales en la Universidad Europea de Madrid: Una estrategia educativa para el desarrollo de competencias generales y específicas Resumen El modelo educativo actual, desarrollado dentro del Espacio Europeo de Educación Superior (EEES, requiere de una mayor implicación por parte de los estudiantes en todos los aspectos de su formación. En este sentido, la tutoría entre iguales no sólo proporciona una orientación efectiva de los alumnos de reciente incorporación en la universidad, elemento clave de calidad, sino una participación activa del estudiante mentor, que resulta en el desarrollo de un amplio abanico de competencias por parte de
Daysal, N. Meltem; Chin, Aimee; Imberman, Scott
bilingual education above this 20-student cutoff. Using this discontinuity as an instrument for district bilingual education provision, we find that providing bilingual education programs (relative to providing only English as a Second Language programs) does not significantly impact the standardized test...... scores of students with Spanish as their home language (comprised primarily of ever-LEP students). However, we find significant positive impacts on non-LEP students’ achievement, which indicates that education programs for LEP students have spillover effects to non-LEP students.......Texas requires a school district to offer bilingual education when its enrollment of limited English proficient (LEP) students in a particular elementary grade and language is twenty or higher. Using school panel data, we find a significant increase in the probability that a district provides...
Elliot, L M; Booth, M M; Patterson, G; Althoff, M; Bush, C K; Dery, M A
Abstinence-only sexuality education (AOSE); is required in the public school systems of many states, raising public health concerns and perpetuating health disparities through school systems. This study aimed to determine the correlations between state-mandated AOSE and the rates of adolescent HIV and teen pregnancy. Using publicly available data on all 50 United States' laws and policies on AOSE, states were ranked according to their level of abstinence emphasis on sexuality education (Level 0 - Level 3);. We calculated the relative proportion of Black students in public schools and the proportion of families below the federal poverty line then ranked them by state. We compared the states' ranks to the incidence of adolescent HIV and teen pregnancy in those states to identify associations between variables. The majority of states (~44 percent ); have legally mandated AOSE policies (Level 3); and adolescent HIV and teen pregnancy rates were highest in these Level 3 states. There were significant, positive correlations between HIV incidence rates of 13-19 year olds, HIV rates of 20-24 year olds, teen pregnancy rates, and AOSE level, with the proportion of the population that lives below the federal poverty level, and whether they attended schools that had a greater than 50 percent of an African American population. These data show a clear association between state sexuality education policies and adolescent HIV and teen pregnancy rates not previously demonstrated. Our data further show that states that have higher proportions of at-risk populations, with higher adolescent HIV and teen pregnancy rates, are more likely to also have restrictive AOSE policies. These populations may be more likely to attend public schools where AOSE is taught, increasing their risk for HIV and teen pregnancy. The World Health Organization considers fact-based Comprehensive Sexuality Education a human right, and the authors believe it is past time to end harmful, discriminatory sexuality
Szabo, Susan, Ed.; Martin, Linda, Ed.; Haas, Leslie, Ed.; Garza-Garcia, Lizabeth, Ed.
For their 56th annual meeting, the Association of Educators and Researchers (ALER) met in Grand Rapids, Michigan at the Amway Grand Hotel. This year's conference theme was Literacy Is Transformative, which was also used as the title for this year's Yearbook, Volume 35. Included are double-peer reviewed papers, the presidential address,…
Marin, Linda, Ed.; Boggs, Merry, Ed.; Szabo, Susan, Ed.; Morrision, Timothy, Ed.; Garza-Garcia, Lizabeth, Ed.
The Association of Literacy Educators and Researchers (ALER) Yearbook, Volume 34, includes papers presented at the annual conference, which have gone through a double peer review process. It also includes the Presidential Address and the keynote addresses given at the conference. For ALER's 55th annual meeting, the Association of Literacy…
Valera, Pamela; Chang, Yvonne; Lian, Zi
HIV prevalence in correctional populations is approximately five times that of the general adult population. This systematic review examines the broad question of HIV prevention and interventions to reduce inmate HIV-related risk behaviors in U.S. federal and state prisons. We conducted a systematic review of multiple databases and Google Scholar to identify behavioral, biomedical, social, and policy studies related to HIV among U.S. prison populations from 1980-2014. Studies were excluded if they did not focus on HIV, prison inmates, if they were conducted outside of the U.S., if they involved juvenile offenders, or if they included post-release outcomes. Twenty-seven articles met the study criteria. Evidence suggests that research related to the HIV care continuum, risk behaviors, gender, prevention (e.g., peer education), and policy are key topics to enhance HIV prevention interventions in the criminal justice system. This review provides a prison-specific overview of HIV in U.S. correctional populations and highlight effective interventions, including inmate peer education. There is an urgent need to continue to implement HIV prevention interventions across all prisons and improve the quality of life among those at heightened risk of HIV infection.
Forrest, Simon; Strange, Vicki; Oakley, Ann; The Ripple Study Team
This paper presents data on the need for sexual health information and advice of 4353 students aged 13/14 years in 13 English secondary schools. Data were collected by peer educators as part of a sex education programme, and through a questionnaire survey administered by researchers. Data illustrate young people's need for concrete information and advice on issues related to physical development and puberty; transmission of sexually transmitted diseases; accessing and using condoms and other contraception; using sexual health services; managing relationships and dealing with jealousy, love and sexual attraction; how people have sex; sexual pleasure; masturbation; and homosexuality. Differences between the concerns and interests raised by young people and current UK guidance on sex and relationships education are examined, and the implications of these findings for designing future policy and effective school based sex education programmes are discussed. The paper highlights some of the wider social norms around sex and sexuality that influence young people's understanding and sexual behaviour, and the importance of addressing these within sex education is noted. Factors influencing the processes of expressing and assessing needs are explored.
Discussion: Whilst RPT has been found to have a positive impact upon learner experiences, further investigation is required around its use, particularly in assessing learning outcomes in health education programs.
Hurkchand, H.; Makuluma, H.; Molefe, N.; Molapo, M.
A cross-sectional study was conducted in November 2001 to establish the prevalence rates of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) (Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoea) in a coalmining town in Mpumalanga. HIV prevalence in this community is high, and corresponds to national figures. However, the prevalence of STIs is surprisingly low as it would be expected to be high in a migrant population. Although communities are exposed to expanding peer-education activities that encourage behaviour change, the prevalence of HIV in this group. There is an urgent need for interventions designed to treat or prevent HIV infection in women generally and in women at high risk.
AJRH Managing Editor
Information Science, University of Ibadan and Department of Information Science, ... in 35 states and the Abuja Federal Capital Territory show large variations in the year .... the recourse to development and implementation ... FLHE as a planned process of education that ... health behaviour, and thus catalysed the teaching.
Martin, Geoffrey W.
A survey found that many of British nurses (n=717) had inadequate knowledge and attitudes about people with AIDS. Educational programs should include the following content: attitudes/stereotypes, safer sex and infection control, confidentiality, epidemiology and statistics, and signs, symptoms, and progression of the syndrome. (SK)
Araya G, Alejandra; Carrasco A, Paola; Loayza G, Carla; Fernández S, Ana María; Pérez C, Carlos; Lasso B, Martín
The success of educational interventions depends on the integration of educational programs into clinical practice. To determine the educational needs and perceived barriers of people living with HIV (PHIV) and their health care providers (HCP). Qualitative study conducted in 60 PHIV and 10 HCP. For data collection, a semi-structured in-depth interview was applied, addressing the educational needs (content, methodology, person, time, physical location) and identified barriers to implement an educational program for PHIV Content analysis technique was used for data analysis. PHIV and their HCP identified the same educational needs as the following: general-related content, psychological, sexual and secondary prevention aspects of the disease. Individual sessions with written material and web pages were identified as important resources to support education. Both PHIV and professionals expressed their willingness to participate in educational programs, but the most commonly identified barrier was lack of time. This study identifies the key elements to include in an educational program for Chilean PHIV from the user and professional perspective.
Mbachu, Chinyere; Dim, Cyril; Ezeoke, Uche
Effective female education on cervical cancer prevention has been shown to increase awareness and uptake of screening. However, sustaining increase in uptake poses a challenge to control efforts. Peer health education has been used as an effective tool for ensuring sustained behavior change. This study was undertaken to assess the effectiveness of peer health education on perception, willingness to screen and uptake of cervical cancer screening by women. A before and after intervention study was undertaken in 2 urban cities in Enugu state, Nigeria among women of reproductive age attending women's meeting in Anglican churches. Multistage sampling was used to select 300 women. Peer health education was provided once monthly for 3 consecutive sessions over a period of 3 months. Data was collected at baseline and after the intervention using pre-tested questionnaires. Descriptive statistics and tests of significance of observed differences and associations were done at p-value of education, employment status and parity (p education is an effective strategy for increasing women's perception of benefits of early detection of cervical cancer through screening. It is also effective for increasing their practice of screening for cervical cancer.
Mahat, Ganga; Scoloveno, Mary Ann; Scoloveno, Robert
The purpose of this study was to explore HIV/AIDS knowledge, self-efficacy for sexual risk behaviors, and parental monitoring in a sample of 140 7th and 9th grade adolescents studying in an urban high school in the United States. Further, the study examined differences in HIV/AIDS knowledge, self-efficacy and parental monitoring by grade and gender. This study also investigated the effectiveness of an HIV/AIDS peer education program, Teens for AIDS Prevention (TAP), on improving adolescents' HIV/AIDS knowledge. A quasi-experimental design was used to examine effects of the peer education program (TAP) on adolescents' HIV/AIDS knowledge. Pearson-product-moment correlation coefficients were calculated to examine the relationships among the variables. Independent t-tests were used to compare adolescents' HIV/AIDS knowledge, self-efficacy, and parental monitoring scores by grade and gender. Paired t-tests were used to determine differences in pre-intervention and post-intervention HIV/AIDS knowledge. The results showed that HIV/AIDS knowledge improved significantly in both 7th and 9th grade students after the intervention. HIV/AIDS knowledge was associated with self-efficacy; however it was not associated with parental monitoring. There were no significant differences in HIV/AIDS knowledge and self-efficacy by gender. However, there was a significant difference in parental monitoring by gender. Pediatric nurses are well-positioned to develop and implement evidence-based programs for adolescents. It is essential that pediatric nurses, in conjunction with other professionals and parent groups, take the initiative in implementing peer education programs in schools and community centers to promote healthy behaviors among adolescents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Monika Roberta Korczyńska
The first recommendation about HIV/AIDS prevention was created by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 1981 . Up to now they provide the foundation of actions aimed at reducing the number of infected people, but during the last 30 years, forms and means which can be used to achieve this goal have changed. Prevention actions are effective when they are adapted to the recipient . Young adults (in age between 20-39 years old constitute one of the most exposed group to new HIV infections , so in the era of rapidly development of new technologies, especially the large impact of the Internet and social networks on this age group, the effectiveness and the efficiency of health education on HIV carried out using this mass media should be considered.
Gacoin, Andrée E.
Globally, sexuality education is framed as a key programmatic strategy for achieving HIV prevention among youth. In particular, sexuality education is positioned as a way to address gender inequalities and promote youth empowerment in relation to gendered identities. In this paper, I argue that the focus on what content should be taught and…
Perez, F; Dabis, F
The aim of this paper is to describe and evaluate a school-based peer education programme on HIV primary prevention implemented in urban marginal districts of three cities of Colombia from 1997 to 1999. Its main objective was to promote risk awareness and safe sexual behaviours among urban youth populations. Methodology included the collection of baseline information through qualitative methods (focus groups and in-depth interviews), a knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) survey, a health education intervention, and post-intervention data collection. Direct beneficiaries were adolescents 10 to 19 years of age, and secondary school teachers of 6th to 9th grades. Main strategies used were peer education and classroom sessions conducted by trained teachers. Short-term results suggest that the programme had a positive effect on knowledge and attitudes related to HIV/AIDS (as the mean knowledge summary indicator among adolescents and secondary school teachers increased 24% and 21%, respectively). The main outcome has been the development of a sex education programme, emphasizing the role of schools in the promotion of sexual and reproductive health. Mass education by a combination of interventions and events at school level, backed up by effective interpersonal communication such as peer education, classroom teaching and community actions are effective primary prevention strategies for HIV sexual transmission and should be more extensively considered.
Andrews, Jane; Clark, Robin
This report draws on the findings of a three year study into peer mentoring conducted at 6 Higher Education Institutions (HEIs), 5 of which were in the UK, 1 of which was in Norway. Following a multiple case-study design, quantitative and qualitative research was conducted in collaboration with the project partners. The research findings provide empirical evidence that peer mentoring works! In particular the report provides: - An Executive Summary outlining the main project findings - A synop...
Lu, Qian; You, Jin; Man, Jenny; Loh, Alice; Young, Lucy
To evaluate a social support intervention that was culturally tailored for Chinese Americans who face many challenges because of cultural and linguistic barriers. Intervention with a one-group pre- or post-test design, mixed methods, and a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach. Southern California. 14 Chinese American breast cancer survivors post-treatment and eight breast cancer peer mentors. The intervention was a 10-week program to provide emotional and informational support through peer mentoring and education. Health outcomes were assessed before and after the intervention. Eight weekly process evaluations and two focus group interviews also were conducted. Depressive and anxiety symptoms. The program was associated with a decrease in depressive symptoms. Participants valued the program highly. Inductive analysis suggested possible mechanisms for effectiveness, such as reducing stigma, empowerment, and increased sense of belonging. The peer-mentoring and education program has the potential to serve as a model intervention for ethnic minorities. Mixed methods and CBPR are valuable in evaluating pilot interventions with minorities. Focusing on relationships may be fruitful for designing novel interventions for cancer survivors from collectivistic cultures. Peer-mentoring and education programs can be integrated into communities and clinics to improve care for underserved minority cancer survivors and to reduce health disparities.
Stepp, Stephanie D; Pardini, Dustin A; Loeber, Rolf; Morris, Nancy A
Objective We examined trajectories of adolescent social competence as a resilience factor among at-risk youth. To examine potential mechanisms of this resilience process, we investigated the putative mediating effect of peer delinquency on the relation between adolescent social competence and young adult delinquency seriousness and educational attainment. Method Participants (n = 257) were screened to be at risk for antisocial behaviour at age 13 years. Data were derived from an ongoing longitudinal study of the development of antisocial and delinquent behaviour among inner-city boys, the Pittsburgh Youth Study. We used data collected from participants when aged 13 years until they were aged 25.5 years for our study. Results Results indicated that boys with high levels of social competence decreased their involvement with deviant peers throughout adolescence, which, in turn, predicted less serious forms of delinquency in early adulthood. Social competence had a direct effect on educational attainment in early adulthood, as boys who developed social competencies in adolescence went further in school irrespective of their involvement with delinquent peers. Conclusions Results suggest that promoting the development of social competencies and reducing involvement with delinquent peers will protect at-risk youth from engaging in serious delinquency in early adulthood while increasing their educational success. PMID:21878156
Full Text Available Cases of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV infection in Pati District increase, particularly among housewives. The aim of this study was to analyse the risk factors of HIV infection among housewives in Pati District using case-control study design. The respondents were 90 housewives divided into case and control group. The case group consisted of 30 housewives living with HIV, while the control group comprised 60 housewives living in the similar area of the counterparts. The data collection was focused on demographic, sexual behaviour, and sociocultural variables possessed by housewives and their husbands. The study resulted that the risk factors of HIV infection among housewives based on bivariate analysis were housewife’s level of education, husband’s level of education, husband’s occupation, housewife’s sexual transmission disease (STD record, husband’s STD record, husband’s participation in religious activities, and husband’s alcohol drinking habit. The risk factors that fitted to logistic regression model were education level and alcoholic behaviour of husbands that contributed to 29.1% HIV infection among housewives. In conclusion, the husband’s variables are proved having stronger and very significant correlation with HIV infection among housewives than housewife’s variables.
Young, Lindsay E; Schumm, Phil; Alon, Leigh; Bouris, Alida; Ferreira, Matthew; Hill, Brandon; Khanna, Aditya S; Valente, Thomas W; Schneider, John A
Advances in biomedical prevention strategies such as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) represent a new opportunity for reducing HIV incidence among young Black men who have sex with men, for whom the number of new HIV infections continues to rise. However, studies have documented low rates of PrEP uptake in this community. Research suggests that the peer networks of young Black men who have sex with men play important roles in their sexual health decisions. PrEP Chicago is a randomized controlled trial network intervention designed to increase PrEP uptake among young Black men who have sex with men living in Chicago. The aims of this study are twofold. Aim 1 is to estimate the effectiveness of a peer change agent intervention for (1) increasing the number of referrals made to a PrEP information line, (2) increasing the rate of PrEP adoption among non-participant peers, and (3) increasing PrEP knowledge, attitudes, and intentions among participants. Aim 2 is to determine the individual and network variables that explain peer change agent effectiveness. PrEP Chicago is a social network intervention that utilizes the influence of peer change agents to link young Black men who have sex with men in Chicago to PrEP. Young Black men who have sex with men were recruited using respondent-driven sampling. Once screened for eligibility, participants were randomly assigned to either one of two treatment sequences: (1) intervention treatment in Year 1 followed by a minimal contact attention control in Year 2 or (2) the minimal contact attention control in Year 1 followed by treatment in Year 2. The treatment consists of a PrEP/peer change agent training workshop followed by booster calls for 12 months. The attention control consists of a sex diary activity designed to help participants assess sexual risk. Psychosocial, sexual health, and network data are collected from all participants at baseline and at 12- and 24-month follow-ups. In total, 423 participants aged 18-35 have
Malenga, Tumaini; Kabaghe, Alinune Nathanael; Manda-Taylor, Lucinda; Kadama, Asante; McCann, Robert S; Phiri, Kamija Samuel; van Vugt, Michèle; van den Berg, Henk
Interventions to reduce malaria burden are effective if communities use them appropriately and consistently. Several tools have been suggested to promote uptake and use of malaria control interventions. Community workshops on malaria, using the 'Health Animator' approach, are a potential behaviour change strategy for malaria control. The strategy aims to influence a change in mind-set of vulnerable populations to encourage self-reliance, using community volunteers known as Health Animators. The aim of the paper is to describe the process of implementing community workshops on malaria by Health Animators to improve uptake and use of malaria control interventions in rural Malawi. This is a descriptive study reporting feasibility, acceptability, appropriateness and fidelity of using Health Animator-led community workshops for malaria control. Quantitative data were collected from self-reporting and researcher evaluation forms. Qualitative assessments were done with Health Animators, using three focus groups (October-December 2015) and seven in-depth interviews (October 2016-February 2017). Seventy seven health Animators were trained from 62 villages. A total of 2704 workshops were conducted, with consistent attendance from January 2015 to June 2017, representing 10-17% of the population. Attendance was affected by social responsibilities and activities, relationship of the village leaders and their community and involvement of Community Health Workers. Active discussion and participation were reported as main strengths of the workshops. Health Animators personally benefited from the mind-set change and were proactive peer influencers in the community. Although the information was comprehended and accepted, availability of adequate health services was a challenge for maintenance of behaviour change. Community workshops on malaria are a potential tool for influencing a positive change in behaviour towards malaria, and applicable for other health problems in rural
Full Text Available Background: Diabetes Education by Peer Coaching is a strategy which helps the patients with diabetes in the field of behavioral and emotional problems. However, the results of studies in this field in other countries could not be generalized in our context. So, the current study aimed to examine the effectiveness of Diabetes Education by Peer Coaching on Diabetes Management. Methods: Outcome variables for patients and peer coaches are measured at baseline and in3,6 and 12 months. The primary outcome consisted of Fasting Blood Sugar (FBS and HbA1c. Secondary outcomes included Blood Pressure (BP, Body Mass Index (BMI, Waist–Hip Ratio (WHR, Lipid Profile, diabetes self-care activities, diabetes-related quality of life, depression, and Social Capital levels.Initial analyses compared the frequency of baseline levels of outcome and other variables using a simple Chi-square test, t-test and the Mann-Whitney- U test. Sequential measurements in each group were evaluated by two-way analysis of variance. If significant differences in baseline characteristics were found, analyses were repeated adjusting for these differences using ANOVA and logistic regression for multivariate analyses. Additional analyses were conducted to look for the evidence of effect modification by pre-specified subgroups. Conclusion: The fact is that self-control and self-efficacy in diabetes management and treatment of diabetes could be important components. It seems that this research in this special setting with cultural differences would provide more evidence about peer-coaching model. It seems that if the peer-coaching model improves learning situations between patients with diabetes by offering one-on-one Diabetes Self Management Education, it could be an interactive approach to diabetic education
The study concentrated on an area in Greece with a multiplicity of sites for outdoor education. Informal networks of teachers were detected through a snowball technique and data were collected by means of a questionnaire and semi-structured interviews. A typology was first enriched to account for teacher interaction. This typology was then…
Minor, Amanda J.; Pimpleton, Asher; Stinchfield, Tracy; Stevens, Heath; Othman, Nor Asma
Counselor education doctoral students (CEDSs), like other doctoral students, need assistance and support to ensure their self-care. One area markedly affecting self-care is one's relationships with others. The purpose of this article is to examine the multiple relationships involved within CEDSs supervision, the potential areas to utilize peer…
Harris, Anne; Farrington, David
Using collaborative performance ethnography in community- and school-based settings, sex education has the potential to challenge at-risk narratives for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, intersex and queer (LGBTIQ) youth. This paper problematises the youth-led drama project "Epic Queer" to test the "queer" potential of…
Wilkins, Stephen; Huisman, Jeroen
The purpose of this article is to identify and discuss the possible uses of higher education journal rankings, and the associated advantages and disadvantages of using them. The research involved 40 individuals--lecturers, university managers, journal editors and publishers--who represented a range of stakeholders involved with research into…
Whipp, Peter R; Jackson, Ben; Dimmock, James A; Soh, Jenny
Peer teaching is recognized as a powerful instructional method; however, there is a paucity of studies that have evaluated the outcomes experienced by peer-teachers and their student recipients in the context of trained, non-reciprocal, high school physical education (PE). Accordingly, the effectiveness of a formalized and trained non-reciprocal peer teaching (T-PT) program upon psychosocial, behavioral, pedagogical, and student learning outcomes within high school PE classes was investigated. Students from eight intact classes (106 males, 94 females, Mage = 12.46, SD = 0.59) were randomly assigned to either a T-PT intervention group (taught by a volunteer peer-teacher who was trained in line with a tactical games approach) or untrained group (U-PT; where volunteer peer-teachers received no formal training, but did receive guidance on the game concepts to teach). Data were collected over 10 lessons in a 5-week soccer unit. Mixed-model ANOVAs/MANOVAs revealed that, in comparison to U-PT, the T-PT program significantly enhanced in-game performance actions and academic learning time among student recipients. Those in the T-PT also provided greater levels of feedback and structured learning time, as well as reporting more positive feelings about peer teaching and fewer perceived barriers to accessing learning outcomes. These findings show that non-reciprocal peer-teachers who receive formalized support through training and tactical games approach-based teaching resources can enhance behavioral, pedagogical, and motor performance outcomes in PE.
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Background: this study in the prospect of promoting adherence to the primary and secondary preven- tion programmes will research knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of the student population attending high schools regarding HPV infections and will also promote health education sessions based on peer education.
Methods: we carried out a cross-sectional kaP survey regarding HPV infection, HPV vaccination, and sexual health, of students and a peer educational intervention. To verify the effectiveness of peer educators in changing opinions and beliefs about HPV a self-com- pletion questionnaire was made and distributed pre (T1 and post (T2 peer educator intervention. The same questionnaires were assigned to the control group.
Results: the sample consisted of 900 students, mean age was 16.6±1.4, having relationship 34.4%. at T1, 64.6% of students in experimental group said that they knew HPV, 83.4% how it is transmitted and 71.1% HPV vaccination, 54.7% perceived dangerousness with significant gender-related difference. at T2 the percentages increased. at T1, 14.1% of females were vaccinated at T2 they were 17.5%. The main factors associated with the students’ propensity to vaccination were: having at least one sister; being in favour of vaccinations in general; knowing that the vaccine is aimed at preventing cervical cancer; and being aware that they could be infected by HPV.
Conclusion: both the HPV test and HPV vaccine need effective communication and monitoring of the spread of knowledge, especially among women identified as most in need of information and included in the age group at risk, in wich it is crucial to encourage informed choices. This underlines the need to plan adequate educational programmes....
Thuo, Daniel Njane; Nyaga, Veronica K.; Bururia, David N.; Barchok, Hilary K.
Education plays an important role in curbing the spread of HIV and AIDS among the youth. However, there is little known how teachers' motivation in teaching HIV/AIDS education affects students' knowledge and attitudes towards sexual behaviour. The purpose of the study was to determine the relationship between teachers' level of motivation in…
McGinty, Sara; Mundy, Karen
The Life Skills course is offered to Namibian students in grades eight through twelve. It includes lessons on HIV/AIDS, imparting information and equipping them with the necessary psycho-social skills to assist in reducing the risk of becoming infected. Teachers are the impetus for the success of the course. As such, research was undertaken to…
Silveira, Erika Aparecida; Santos, Annelisa Silva E Alves de Carvalho; Falco, Marianne de Oliveira; Cardoso, Rodrigo de Castro; Vitorino, Priscila Valverde de Oliveira
The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of physical inactivity and whether it is associated with sociodemographic, lifestyle, clinical, anthropometric, and body composition variables in people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). This study makes use of data from a cohort of 288 adults aged ≥19 years, conducted between October 2009 and July 2011. The variables studied were sex, age, education, income, skin color, tobacco use, alcohol intake, body mass index, body fat percentage, waist circumference, and waist-hip ratio, length of HIV/AIDS diagnosis, use of antiretroviral therapy and length of its use, CD4, hypertension (HT) and diabetes mellitus. Physical inactivity was defined as a score below 600 metabolic equivalent minutes/week according to the International Physical Activity Questionnaire - Short Version. Poisson multiple regression was applied in the multivariate analysis with a significance level of 5%. The prevalence of physical inactivity was 44.1%. Education of ≤4 years of study (prevalence ratio [PR]: 1.71) and HT (PR: 1.49) were associated with physical inactivity. Physical inactivity was highly prevalent in PLWHA and associated with low educational level and HT. We highlight the simultaneous association between two cardiometabolic risk factors, HT and physical inactivity.
Maria de Fátima Nunes
Full Text Available The objective of this work is to report the experience of the "Project for the formation of dentists as facilitators of Permanent Education in Health in the area of STD/HIV/AIDS" developed in partnerships with the National Program of STD/AIDS, the Technical Area of Oral Health of the Ministry of Health, Public Universities and Municipal and State Secretaries of Health. The objective of the program was to capacitate dentists of the public health system in Brazilian states and cities to provide integral and humanized attendance for people living with HIV/AIDS. The methodology of choice for the form of teams of facilitators was Permanent Education in Health through semi-presential courses focusing on the problematization of local and professional realities. Thus, seeking to construct a process of education to modify and reorient the hegemonic dental practice, strengthening the process of attendance and management and the partnerships, guaranteeing the sustainability of the actions in the states and cities.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Accreditation Council on Graduate Medical Education (ACGME supports chart audit as a method to track competency in Practice-Based Learning and Improvement. We examined whether peer chart audits performed by internal medicine residents were associated with improved documentation of foot care in patients with diabetes mellitus. Methods A retrospective electronic chart review was performed on 347 patients with diabetes mellitus cared for by internal medicine residents in a university-based continuity clinic from May 2003 to September 2004. Residents abstracted information pertaining to documentation of foot examinations (neurological, vascular, and skin from the charts of patients followed by their physician peers. No formal feedback or education was provided. Results Significant improvement in the documentation of foot exams was observed over the course of the study. The percentage of patients receiving neurological, vascular, and skin exams increased by 20% (from 13% to 33% (p = 0.001, 26% (from 45% to 71% (p Conclusion Peer chart audits performed by residents in the absence of formal feedback were associated with improved documentation of the foot exam in patients with diabetes mellitus. Although this study suggests that peer chart audits may be an effective tool to improve practice-based learning and documentation of foot care in diabetic patients, evaluating the actual performance of clinical care was beyond the scope of this study and would be better addressed by a randomized controlled trial.
Sharif, Farkhondeh; Abshorshori, Narjes; Tahmasebi, Sedigheh; Hazrati, Maryam; Zare, Najaf; Masoumi, Sarah
Breast cancer among women is a relatively common with a more favorable expected survival rates than other forms of cancers. This study aimed to determine the improved quality of life for post-mastectomy women through peer education. Using pre and post test follow up and control design approach, 99 women with stage I and II of breast cancer diagnosis were followed one year after modified radical mastectomy. To measure the quality of life an instrument designed by the European organization for research and treatment of cancer, known as the Quality of Life Question (QLQ-30) and its breast cancer supplementary measure (QLQ-BR23) at three points in time (before, immediately and two months after intervention) for both groups were used. The participant selection was a convenient sampling method and women were randomly assigned into two experimental and control groups. The experimental group was randomly assigned to five groups and peer educators conducted weekly educational programs for one month. Tabulated data were analyzed using chi square, t test, and repeated measurement multivariate to compare the quality of life differences over time. For the experimental group, the results showed statistically significant improvement in all performance aspects of life quality and symptom reduction (P life quality. The findings of this study suggest that peer led education is a useful intervention for post-mastectomy women to improve their quality of life.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer among women is a relatively common with a more favorable expected survival rates than other forms of cancers. This study aimed to determine the improved quality of life for post-mastectomy women through peer education. Methods Using pre and post test follow up and control design approach, 99 women with stage I and II of breast cancer diagnosis were followed one year after modified radical mastectomy. To measure the quality of life an instrument designed by the European organization for research and treatment of cancer, known as the Quality of Life Question (QLQ-30 and it's breast cancer supplementary measure (QLQ-BR23 at three points in time (before, immediately and two months after intervention for both groups were used. The participant selection was a convenient sampling method and women were randomly assigned into two experimental and control groups. The experimental group was randomly assigned to five groups and peer educators conducted weekly educational programs for one month. Tabulated data were analyzed using chi square, t test, and repeated measurement multivariate to compare the quality of life differences over time. Results For the experimental group, the results showed statistically significant improvement in all performance aspects of life quality and symptom reduction (P Conclusion The findings of this study suggest that peer led education is a useful intervention for post-mastectomy women to improves their quality of life.
Ogrin, Rajna; Brasher, Kathleen; Occleston, Jessica; Byrne, Jennifer
Chronic wounds, debilitating and costly to manage, are more common in older people. Prevention is possible through improving skin health. We developed, implemented and evaluated an innovative health promotion program to improve skin health of older adults. A one-hour, peer education program was co-created and delivered to culturally diverse community-dwelling older people. A mixed-methods evaluation approach comprised objective measures of skin health and barrier function at commencement and six weeks posteducation, and focus groups posteducation. Seventy-three participants participated in the study (mean age 74.38 ± 11.80 years). Hydration significantly improved at follow-up for English speaking participants (t(27) = -2.90, P = 0.007). The majority of participants reported the education to be informative and useful in supporting behaviour changes. The peer education program improved skin hydration in older English speaking individuals. Peer education may effectively deliver health promotion information in some groups. © 2017 AJA Inc.
Yip, Calvin; Gates, Michelle; Gates, Allison; Hanning, Rhona M
To date, the impacts of school-based, peer-led nutrition education initiatives have not been summarized or assessed collectively. This review presents the current evidence, identifies knowledge gaps, and provides recommendations for future research. PubMed, Scopus, ERIC and Google Scholar were searched for refereed Canadian and American primary studies published between January 2000 and November 2013, following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Seventeen articles (11 programs) from Canada (24%) and the United States (76%) were identified. The results were summarized in terms of the study population, program design and main outcomes. Common outcome measures included healthy eating knowledge (n = 5), self-efficacy or attitudes towards healthy eating (n = 13), dietary measures (n = 9) and body mass index (n = 4), all of which tended to improve as a result of the programs. More research is needed to ascertain the effect of improvements in knowledge, self-efficacy and attitudes towards healthy eating on food behaviors. When evaluated, programs were generally well received, while the long-term maintenance of positive impacts was a challenge. Studies of sustainability and feasibility to promote long-term impact are a logical next step. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Jozkowski, Kristen N.; Henry, Dayna S.; Sturm, Ashley A.
Introduction: Sexual assault continues to be a pervasive health issue among college students in the USA. Prevention education initiatives have been implemented to address this concern. However, little is known about college students' perceptions of such programming. The purpose of this study was to assess predictors of college students'…
Cross, Michael; Naidoo, Devika
The paper scrutinises the dynamics and the nature of peer review in the programme evaluation and accreditation process within the context of diverse individual and institutional legacies in South Africa. It analyses the peer review process and highlights the contestation at political, policy and epistemological levels. The paper argues that,…
Leidenfrost, Birgit; Strassnig, Barbara; Schabmann, Alfred; Spiel, Christiane; Carbon, Claus-Christian
The purpose of our study was to explore peer mentoring styles and examine their contribution to academic success among mentees. Data were collected as part of a comprehensive evaluation of a peer mentoring program. The sample consisted of 49 mentors (advanced students) who supported 376 mentees (first year students) in small groups. Indicators for…
Gulfon, Efrem; Obsa, Oukula
Peer learning plays an important role in changing teaching learning environment for betterment of learners and their academic achievements. Due to the limitations of conventional approaches such as lecturing, which give too much chance for teacher to talk, peer learning is among the most well researched of all teaching strategies for maximizing…
Zurbriggen, Carmen L. A.; Venetz, Martin; Hinni, Chantal
The aim of this paper is to investigate the quality of experience of students with and without SEN in everyday life in general and when relating to peers in particular: (1) How do they experience everyday school life vs. leisure time? (2) How much time per week do they spend with peers outside school? and (3) How do they experience those peer…
Onyechi, Kay Chinonyelum Nwamaka; Eseadi, Chiedu; Okere, Anthony U; Otu, Mkpoikanke Sunday
Exploring beliefs about personal risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is essential to understanding what motivates people to engage in behaviors that reduce or increase their risk of HIV infection. Therefore, the current study's objective was to examine the effects of a Rational-Emotive Health Education Program (REHEP) on HIV risk perceptions among in-school adolescents in Anambra State, Nigeria.Forty-four participants were identified as having high-risk perceptions about HIV infection through a self-report questionnaire and met the inclusion criteria. The treatment process was guided by a REHEP manual and consisted of 8 weeks of full intervention and 2 weeks of follow-up meetings that marked the end of intervention. The study used repeated measures analysis of variance to assess improvements in individual participants and across control and treatment group risk perceptions after the intervention.HIV risk perceptions of in-school adolescents did not differ across the treatment and control groups at baseline. Through REHEP, HIV risk perceptions significantly reduced in the treatment group compared to those in the control group. REHEP had significant effect on HIV risk perceptions of in-school adolescents exposed to treatment group, despite their sex. Religious background did not determine the significant effect of REHEP on HIV risk perceptions of in-school adolescents in the treatment group.Follow-up studies that would use a REHEP to assist client population from other parts of the country to promote HIV risk reduction, especially among those with high-risk behavior, are needed in Nigeria.
Regassa, Nigatu; Kedir, Seman
The main objective of this cross-sectional study is to assess higher education students' attitudes, their practice on preventive measures against HIV/AIDS; and examined factors affecting attitude and practice of the students related to HIV/AIDS prevention. The 606 study participants were drawn from Addis Ababa University, which is the oldest and biggest public university in Ethiopia, through multistage sampling. Data were collected using survey quantitative (questionnaire) and qualitative (FGDs), and subsequently, analysis of the data was made through the use of descriptive statistics (Frequency and logistic regression model). The findings of the study revealed that 207 (34.2%) of respondents were sexually active during the survey. Of these, 144 (23.8%) of them had sexual intercourse with their partner or someone in the last 6 months. The mean and median age at first sex debut was computed as 17.8 and 18.0 years respectively. About 489 (80.7%) did not perceive being at risk of contracting HIV/AIDS. But 65.5% of the respondent had favorable attitude on HIV prevention. 359 (59.2%) of the respondents had experienced at least one of the three HIV prevention practice. Of which, more than half (52.4%) adopted abstinence as top preventive measure. The result also showed that out of the total respondents 47.2% had been tested for HIV/AIDS and more than 80% have willingness to take VCT service for HIV/AIDS. As to the multivariate analysis result; sex, previous residence, religious participation, pornographic viewing, currently alcohol intake, chewing khat and cigarette smoking were found to be determinant of AAU students' attitude on HIV prevention. Similarly, age, having pocket money, pornographic film show and currently khat chewing were determinants of practices on HIV prevention. Finally, based on the findings, the study has forwarded some workable recommendations.
that the community’s hunger for publication accompanies only a modest appetite for providing the necessary support to sustain the consequent increase in peer-review load. The advent of blockchain technologies and the proliferation of cryptocurrencies presents an opportunity to develop a token-based peer...
Chepngeno-Langat, Gloria; Falkingham, Jane C; Madise, Nyovani J; Evandrou, Maria
The article explores the way that social networks and personal experiences affect perceived HIV-related concerns among people aged 50 years or older living in a low resource neighborhood with high HIV prevalence in Nairobi, Kenya. Multiple logistic regression is used to model the association between the reporting of an HIV-related concern and individual-level characteristics, personal experiences, and social interaction. The main concerns regarding HIV reported by older people in the study included caring for orphaned children (65%), caring for people with AIDS (48%), and losing material and social support from adult children (36%). Interestingly, 38% of respondents voiced concerns about HIV infection among older people. Respondents who had been individually affected by HIV and AIDS, who were part of a wide social network, or who participated in community activities were frequently more likely to report a concern. The findings highlight the significance of the role of social interaction and social networks in the diffusion of information and knowledge. These findings have implications for HIV and AIDS policy and programs, highlighting the potential for social networks and community-level interventions to educate and increase awareness about HIV and AIDS among older people. Community leaders can make good peer educators and communication agents for HIV/AIDS campaigns. Additionally, the recognized high level of personal vulnerability to HIV infection among older people suggests the need for targeted sexual behavior change programs among this often neglected group. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.
Martinez, Homero; Palar, Kartika; Linnemayr, Sebastian; Smith, Alexandria; Derose, Kathryn Pitkin; Ramírez, Blanca; Farías, Hugo; Wagner, Glenn
Food insecurity and malnutrition negatively affect adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and are associated with poor HIV clinical outcomes. We examined the effect of providing household food assistance and nutrition education on ART adherence. A 12-month prospective clinical trial compared the effect of a monthly household food basket (FB) plus nutrition education (NE) versus NE alone on ART adherence on 400 HIV patients at four clinics in Honduras. Participants had been receiving ART for an average of 3.7 years and were selected because they had suboptimal adherence. Primary outcome measures were missed clinic appointments, delayed prescription refills, and self-reported missed doses of ART. These three adherence measures improved for both groups over 12 months (p < 0.01), mostly within 6 months. On-time prescription refills improved for the FB plus NE group by 19.6 % more than the group receiving NE alone after 6 months (p < 0.01), with no further change at 12 months. Change in missed appointments and self-reported missed ART doses did not significantly differ by intervention group.
Sharif, Farkhondeh; Abshorshori, Narjes; Tahmasebi, Sedigheh; Hazrati, Maryam; Zare, Najaf; Masoumi, Sarah
Abstract Background Breast cancer among women is a relatively common with a more favorable expected survival rates than other forms of cancers. This study aimed to determine the improved quality of life for post-mastectomy women through peer education. Methods Using pre and post test follow up and control design approach, 99 women with stage I and II of breast cancer diagnosis were followed one year after modified radical mastectomy. To measure the quality of life an instrument designed by th...
Full Text Available Marita Kloseck,1,2 Deborah A Fitzsimmons,1,3,4 Mark Speechley,5 Marie Y Savundranayagam,1 Richard G Crilly1,2 1Sam Katz Community Health and Aging Research Unit, 2Division of Geriatric Medicine, Western University, London, ON, Canada; 3School of Nursing and Allied Health, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, 4School of Health and Related Research, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK; 5Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Western University, London, ON, Canada Background: This randomized controlled trial (RCT evaluated a 6-month peer-led community education and mentorship program to improve the diagnosis and management of osteoporosis.Methods: Ten seniors (74–90 years of age were trained to become peer educators and mentors and deliver the intervention. In the subsequent RCT, 105 seniors (mean age =80.5±6.9; 89% female were randomly assigned to the peer-led education and mentorship program (n=53 or control group (n=52. Knowledge was assessed at baseline and 6 months. Success was defined as discussing osteoporosis risk with their family physician, obtaining a bone mineral density assessment, and returning to review their risk profile and receive advice and/or treatment.Results: Knowledge of osteoporosis did not change significantly. There was no difference in knowledge change between the two groups (mean difference =1.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] of difference −0.76 to 3.36. More participants in the intervention group achieved a successful outcome (odds ratio 0.16, 95% CI 0.06–0.42, P<0.001.Conclusion: Peer-led education and mentorship can promote positive health behavior in seniors. This model was effective for improving osteoporosis risk assessment, diagnosis, and treatment in a community setting. Keywords: prevention, seniors, mentor, bone mineral density, capacity building, community knowledge translation
Sherer, Renslow D; Bronson, John D; Teter, Caroline J; Wykoff, Randolph F
Poverty is among the root causes of death and poor health worldwide. Project HOPE's Village Health Bank (VHB) program is a public health intervention that combines integrated microcredit lending and health education. Groups of 18 to 25 women receive small loans, and biweekly, one-hour health education sessions. Since 1993, about 50,000 women in 949 VHBs have participated in seven countries in the Americas, Africa, and Southeast Asia, receiving more than US$25 million in loans and 8,445 hours of health education. Members of VHBs are charged modest interest rates that enable them to become self-sufficient (eg, able to cover all operating charges, including the costs of the health education staff, and the necessary loan capital to continue without infusion of outside resources). The VHB program produces substantial economic improvements for individuals and groups, and benefits in health knowledge and behaviors, including increased utilization of healthcare services. Data from Guatemala, Malawi, and Thailand demonstrate that VHBs in countries with high HIV prevalence have been comparably successful in spite of the enormous added burdens of chronic illness, deaths, and orphans in need of support. For example, in 2004, 48 percent of 266 VHB members in Malawi experienced at least one death in their household in the preceding year, and 67 percent housed one or more orphans with an average of two orphans per household. Because of the unique combination of increased household economic stability and improved health knowledge, the VHB program is now being adapted to families of people affected by HIV/AIDS, including orphans.
Kloseck, Marita; Fitzsimmons, Deborah A; Speechley, Mark; Savundranayagam, Marie Y; Crilly, Richard G
This randomized controlled trial (RCT) evaluated a 6-month peer-led community education and mentorship program to improve the diagnosis and management of osteoporosis. Ten seniors (74-90 years of age) were trained to become peer educators and mentors and deliver the intervention. In the subsequent RCT, 105 seniors (mean age =80.5±6.9; 89% female) were randomly assigned to the peer-led education and mentorship program (n=53) or control group (n=52). Knowledge was assessed at baseline and 6 months. Success was defined as discussing osteoporosis risk with their family physician, obtaining a bone mineral density assessment, and returning to review their risk profile and receive advice and/or treatment. Knowledge of osteoporosis did not change significantly. There was no difference in knowledge change between the two groups (mean difference =1.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] of difference -0.76 to 3.36). More participants in the intervention group achieved a successful outcome (odds ratio 0.16, 95% CI 0.06-0.42, P seniors. This model was effective for improving osteoporosis risk assessment, diagnosis, and treatment in a community setting.
Potters, Hanneke; Berlanga, Adriana; Bijlsma, Lex
Potters, H., Berlanga, A. J., & Lex, B. (2011). Peer Production & Peer Support at the Free Technology Academy. In G. van de Veer, P. B. Sloep, & M. van Eekelen (Eds.), Proceedings Computer Science Education Research Conference (CSERC '11) (pp. 49-58). April, 7-8, 2011, Heerlen, The Netherlands: ACM.
are using Facebook groups to help each other with all kinds of school-related matters, including issues relating directly to academic subjects. Based on the findings from the study, the paper concludes that there is an educational potential of Facebook groups in supporting peer-to-peer learning between...
Newcomb, Michael E; Macapagal, Kathryn R; Feinstein, Brian A; Bettin, Emily; Swann, Gregory; Whitton, Sarah W
Young men who have sex with men are at high risk for HIV, and most new HIV infections occur in serious relationships. This pilot study assessed the feasibility, acceptability and preliminary efficacy of the 2GETHER couples-based HIV prevention and relationship education intervention for young same-sex male couples. We enrolled 57 young male couples (N = 114) into a four-session hybrid group and individual intervention. We assessed acceptability via post-session surveys and exit interviews, and we examined preliminary efficacy at a two week posttest. The vast majority of participants (93%) reported exclusively positive impressions of 2GETHER, and all components received high mean ratings. We observed decreases in HIV risk behavior, increases in information, motivation and behavioral skills related to HIV prevention, and improvement in relationship investment between pretest and posttest. Integrating relationship education and sexual health programming may be an effective way to reduce HIV transmissions in young male couples.
Within the wide expanse of social networking, educators appear to be gravitating to more protected and exclusive spaces. While teachers often use such popular mainstream social networks as Facebook, they are more likely to seek out and return to less-established networks that offer the privacy, peer-to-peer connections, and resource sharing that…
Velez, Jonathan J.; Cano, Jamie; Whittington, M. Susie; Wolf, Kattlyn J.
The purpose of this qualitative research study was to describe the impact of peer teaching on both the students and the classroom environment. Students, enrolled in two Introduction to Teaching courses in agricultural and extension education, were asked to engage in peer teaching activities. The researchers utilized discourse analysis, textual…
Moletsane, R.; Madiya, N.
Social issues such as HIV/AIDS, bullying, and violence have recently come to the fore in schooling and related research in South Africa. This article describes and critically analyses Masters and Ph.D. research done in education in the period 1995-2004, with particular reference to the voice given to social issues, namely: gender, violence, and…
Uses data from an evaluation of a high school sexuality education program to examine gender relations and production of difference. Participating schools incorporated teaching and learning that normalized sexual diversity and explored HIV-related discrimination and homophobia. Discussion of gender, power, and menstruation and heterosexism and…
Njom Nlend, A E; Lyeb, A S; Moyo, S; Nsangou, D
Psychosocial support and therapeutic patient education are recommended practices that are poorly reported. Our objective was to describe the main achievements after a patient therapeutic education program conducted for pre-adolescents and adolescents with HIV infection. This qualitative study of 37 children with a mean age of 11 years assessed the outcome of an educational program of 8 sessions that ended by the disclosure of their HIV status. Semistructured interviews that took place 8 weeks after the last session and lasted 20 minutes evaluated the following areas: knowledge of the disease, its treatment, its prevention, and their skills in managing their treatment and the secret. The level of knowledge was acceptable except about HIV transmission, and specifically, how they had acquired the disease. In all, 33/37 (89%) of the children were able to cite or write the name of their disease; 29/37 (78%) had acquired knowledge of their treatment (name of the drugs, objective, and daily treatment times); they were able to manage treatment intake away from home; and secrecy was the standard for all. However, many were unable to explain how they had acquired the virus. Therapeutic patient education for HIV status disclosure enables adolescents to acquire knowledge about their disease and the ability to manage it. The poor results observed for knowledge of transmission needs to be improved after disclosure in support groups.
Zeelen, Jacques; Wijbenga, Hieke; Vintges, Marga; de Jong, Gideon
Purpose: This paper aims to explore the role of a small-scale project around storytelling as a form of informal education in five health clinics in rural areas of the Limpopo Province in South Africa. The aim of the project is to decrease the stigma around HIV/AIDS and to start an open dialogue in local communities about the disease.…
Haberland, Nicole A
Curriculum-based sexuality and HIV education is a mainstay of interventions to prevent STIs, HIV and unintended pregnancy among young people. Evidence links traditional gender norms, unequal power in sexual relationships and intimate partner violence with negative sexual and reproductive health outcomes. However, little attention has been paid to analyzing whether addressing gender and power in sexuality education curricula is associated with better outcomes. To explore whether the inclusion of content on gender and power matters for program efficacy, electronic and hand searches were conducted to identify rigorous sexuality and HIV education evaluations from developed and developing countries published between 1990 and 2012. Intervention and study design characteristics of the included interventions were disaggregated by whether they addressed issues of gender and power. Of the 22 interventions that met the inclusion criteria, 10 addressed gender or power, and 12 did not. The programs that addressed gender or power were five times as likely to be effective as those that did not; fully 80% of them were associated with a significantly lower rate of STIs or unintended pregnancy. In contrast, among the programs that did not address gender or power, only 17% had such an association. Addressing gender and power should be considered a key characteristic of effective sexuality and HIV education programs.
Abuya, Benta A.; Onsomu, Elijah O.; Moore, DaKysha; Piper, Crystal N.
The objective of this study was to examine the association between education and domestic violence among women being offered an HIV test in urban and rural areas in Kenya. A sample selection of women who experienced physical (n = 4,308), sexual (n = 4,309), and emotional violence (n = 4,312) aged 15 to 49 allowed for the estimation of the…