Barrientos, Jaime E; Bozon, Michel; Ortiz, Edith; Arredondo, Anabella
This paper describes HIV seroprevalence, knowledge of HIV transmission, and condom use among female sex workers (FSW) attending five specialized sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics in Santiago, Chile. A short questionnaire with socio-demographic, AIDS knowledge, and condom-use variables was administered to 626 FSW. HIV seroprevalence was estimated with a blood test sent to the Chilean Public Health Institute. ELISA was used to confirm HIV in suspected cases. HIV prevalence was 0%. FSW showed adequate overall knowledge of HIV, even better than reported for the Chilean general population on some items. Condom use with clients was high ("always" = 93.4%), although regular use with steady partners was low ("always" = 9.9%). The zero HIV seroprevalence and consistent condom use with clients confirms the positive impact of intervention strategies for FSW, increasing both correct knowledge of AIDS and condom use with clients and helping decrease these women's HIV/AIDS vulnerability.
Lazarus, Jeff; Himedan, Himedan Mohammed; Østergaard, Lise Rosendal
This study explores the knowledge, attitudes and practices among Somali and Sudanese immigrants in Denmark with regard to HIV/AIDS and condom use.......This study explores the knowledge, attitudes and practices among Somali and Sudanese immigrants in Denmark with regard to HIV/AIDS and condom use....
Full Text Available Judith Lammers,1 Sweder JG van Wijnbergen,2 Daan Willebrands3 1Academic Medical Center, 2Faculty of Economics and Business, University of Amsterdam, 3Atradius Credit Insurance, Amsterdam, The Netherlands Background: This paper analyzes how different types of Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV knowledge influences condom use across the sexes. Methods: The empirical work was based on a household survey conducted among 1979 households of a representative group of stallholders in Lagos, Nigeria in 2008. Condom use during last sexual intercourse was analyzed using a multivariate model corrected for clustering effects. The data included questions on socioeconomic characteristics, knowledge of the existence of HIV, HIV prevention, HIV stigma, intended pregnancy, and risk perceptions of engaging in unprotected sex. Results: A large HIV knowledge gap between males and females was observed. Across the sexes, different types of knowledge are important in condom use. Low-risk perceptions of engaging in unprotected sex and not knowing that condoms prevent HIV infection appear to be the best predictors for risky sexual behavior among men. For females, stigma leads to lower condom use. Obviously, lack of knowledge on where condoms are available (9.4% and 29.1% of male and female respondents, respectively reduced condom use in both males and females. Conclusion: The results call for programmatic approaches to differentiate between males and females in the focus of HIV prevention campaigns. Moreover, the high predictive power of high-risk perceptions of engaging in unprotected sex (while correcting for other HIV knowledge indicators calls for further exploration on how to influence these risk perceptions in HIV prevention programs. Keywords: Africa, condom, males, females, HIV/AIDS, knowledge, prevention, risk perception
The majority of the studies on HIV/AIDS and condom use carried out ... Methods: a cross-sectional study was conducted in Kola Duba, Chuahig and Dabat towns ... Results: the level of knowledge of commercial sex workers about HIV/AIDS ...
Villaseñor-Sierra, Alberto; Caballero-Hoyos, Ramiro; Hidalgo-San Martín, Alfredo; Santos-Preciado, José Ignacio
To evaluate the association between objective and subjective knowledge on HIV/AIDS and condom use. Analysis of a database from an anonymous, self-applied, randomized survey conducted between 1995 and 1996. Study subjects were 1,410 adolescents of four socioeconomic strata from Guadalajara, Mexico. Objective knowledge was assessed with 24 questions regarding HIV/AIDS, and subjective knowledge with the question "how much do you think you know about HIV/AIDS?" The variables associated with condom use were identified using logistic regression analysis and by calculating odds ratios with a 95% confidence interval. The degree of objective knowledge was "average", differentiated by socioeconomic strata (p subjective knowledge, adolescents from the low, medium, and high socioeconomic strata claimed to know "a little", and the ones from the lowest stratum claimed to know "very little". Condom use was higher in males (35.4%), and in adolescents from high socioeconomic strata (p objective and subjective knowledge (r = 0.37, p subjective knowledge was associated with condom use (p Subjective knowledge, belonging to medium and high socioeconomic strata and being male, were predictors of condom use.
Hasbun, Julia; Charow, Rebecca; Rosario, Santo; Tillotson, Louise; McGlaughlin, Elaine; Waters, John
Introduction Not only do transgender female sex workers have some of the highest rates of sexually transmitted infections (STI), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and experienced stigma, they also have higher likelihood of early sexual debut and some of the lowest levels of educational attainment compared to other stigmatized populations. Some of the most common interventions designed to reduce transmission of HIV and STIs seek to educate high-risk groups on sexual health and encourage condom use across all partner types; however, reaching stigmatized populations, particularly those in resource-limited settings, is particularly challenging. Considering the importance of condom use in stopping the spread of HIV, the aim of this study was two-fold; first to characterize this hard-to-reach population of transgender female sex workers in the Dominican Republic, and second, to assess associations between their HIV knowledge, experienced stigma, and condom use across three partner types. Methods We analyzed self-reported data from the Questionnaire for Transgender Sex Workers (N = 78). Respondents were interviewed at their workplaces. Univariate and bivariate analyses were employed. Fisher Chi-square tests assessed differences in HIV knowledge and experienced stigma by condom use across partner types. Results HIV knowledge was alarmingly low, condom use varied across partner type, and the respondents in our sample had high levels of experienced stigma. Average age of first sexual experience was 13.12 years with a youngest age reported of 7. Dominican Republic statutory rape laws indicate 18 years is the age of consent; thus, many of these transgender women’s first sexual encounters would be considered forcible (rape) and constitute a prosecutable crime. On average, respondents reported 8.45 sexual partners in the prior month, with a maximum of 49 partners. Approximately two thirds of respondents used a condom the last time they had sex with a regular partner. This
Budhwani, Henna; Hearld, Kristine R; Hasbun, Julia; Charow, Rebecca; Rosario, Santo; Tillotson, Louise; McGlaughlin, Elaine; Waters, John
Not only do transgender female sex workers have some of the highest rates of sexually transmitted infections (STI), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and experienced stigma, they also have higher likelihood of early sexual debut and some of the lowest levels of educational attainment compared to other stigmatized populations. Some of the most common interventions designed to reduce transmission of HIV and STIs seek to educate high-risk groups on sexual health and encourage condom use across all partner types; however, reaching stigmatized populations, particularly those in resource-limited settings, is particularly challenging. Considering the importance of condom use in stopping the spread of HIV, the aim of this study was two-fold; first to characterize this hard-to-reach population of transgender female sex workers in the Dominican Republic, and second, to assess associations between their HIV knowledge, experienced stigma, and condom use across three partner types. We analyzed self-reported data from the Questionnaire for Transgender Sex Workers (N = 78). Respondents were interviewed at their workplaces. Univariate and bivariate analyses were employed. Fisher Chi-square tests assessed differences in HIV knowledge and experienced stigma by condom use across partner types. HIV knowledge was alarmingly low, condom use varied across partner type, and the respondents in our sample had high levels of experienced stigma. Average age of first sexual experience was 13.12 years with a youngest age reported of 7. Dominican Republic statutory rape laws indicate 18 years is the age of consent; thus, many of these transgender women's first sexual encounters would be considered forcible (rape) and constitute a prosecutable crime. On average, respondents reported 8.45 sexual partners in the prior month, with a maximum of 49 partners. Approximately two thirds of respondents used a condom the last time they had sex with a regular partner. This was considerably lower than
Manji, A; Peña, R; Dubrow, R
There are few peer-reviewed studies of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and practices among adolescents in Central America. A population-based cross-sectional survey was conducted among 246 adolescents in León, Nicaragua, where there is reason for concern about a rise in HIV infections. In many respects, León adolescents were typical of those in other Latin American countries, with a mixture of correct and incorrect knowledge about transmission of HIV and sexually transmitted infections, a higher proportion of males than females reporting having had sex or using condoms, and inconsistent condom use. While some sexual attitudes conformed to the ideology of machismo, others did not, providing an opening for prevention interventions. Some dimensions of HIV/AIDS stigma were high, and most adolescents disapproved of same-sex sexual behaviour. Intervention against homosexuality-related stigma is particularly urgent because a concentrated HIV epidemic may be emerging in Nicaragua among men who have sex with men. Personal religious beliefs did not appear to pose a barrier to condom use. In a multivariate model, being out of school was a significant correlate of having had sex and of insufficient HIV/AIDS-related knowledge. Accordingly, HIV prevention interventions must reach adolescents both in and out of school. A multi-component approach to prevention is needed, including programmes based in schools, communities, the mass media and health facilities.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND. Condoms offer the best protection against sexually transmitted infections including HIV. In Ukraine, little research has been conducted to explore possible predictors of condom use at sexual debut. It was hypothesized that the more youth know about possible ways of HIV transmission, the more they are likely to use condoms during the first sexual intercourse.METHODS: Data analyzed in this paper comes from a cross-sectional European School Survey Project on Alcohol and other Drugs conducted among Ukrainian school youth in 2007. The survey involved a total of 5122 students (15–17 year old from all types of secondary schools in 24 oblasts and AR Crimea. Analysis was confined to 1077 students (715 males and 362 females who reported that they have ever had sexual intercourse. Associations were assessed in bivariate analysis using Chi-square test and later using binary logistic regression analysis in order to identify the significant predictors after controlling for other variables.RESULTS: Among the sexually experienced students, more than 70% had used condoms during first sexual intercourse. The results from the logistic regression analysis revealed that the age at first sexual intercourse, HIV awareness, alcohol consumption and family characteristics were significant predictors of condom use at first sexual intercourse among the Ukrainian schoolchildren. Students who had first sex at the age from 14 to 16 years were more likely to use condom at their first sexual intercourse than those with sexual debut before 14 years old (odds ratios 2,4; 2,1; and 3,3, respectively. Moreover, those students who were aware that using condom may protect against getting HIV were more likely (OR 2,1 to use condom at first sex.CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate the necessity of providing educational programs which aim to raise the level of awareness about HIV among Ukrainian youth.
Chamratrithirong, Aphichat; Ford, Kathleen; Punpuing, Sureeporn; Prasartkul, Pramote
Vulnerability to Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection among factory workers is a global problem. This study investigated the effectiveness of an intervention to increase AIDS knowledge, perceived accessibility to condoms and condom use among young factory workers in Thailand. The intervention was a workplace program designed to engage the private sector in HIV prevention. A cross-sectional survey conducted in 2008 to measure program outcomes in factories in Thailand was used in this study. The workplace intervention included the development of policies for management of HIV-positive employees, training sessions for managers and workers, and distribution of educational materials and condoms. A multi-level analysis was used to investigate the effect of HIV/AIDS prevention program components at the workplace on HIV/AIDS knowledge, perceived accessibility to condoms and condom use with regular sexual partners among 699 young factory workers (aged 18-24 years), controlling for their individual socio-demographic characteristics. Interventions related to the management and services component including workplace AIDS policy formulation, condom services programs and behavioral change campaigns were found to be significantly related to increased AIDS knowledge, perceived accessibility to condoms and condom use with regular partners. The effect of the HIV/AIDS training for managers, peer leaders and workers was positive but not statistically significant. With some revision of program components, scaling up of workplace interventions and the engagement of the private sector in HIV prevention should be seriously considered.
Jung, Minsoo; Arya, Monisha; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula
It is known that the level of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and the degree of condom use varies by socioeconomic status (SES). However, there is limited research on the effect of mass media use on HIV/AIDS-related cognitive and behavioral outcomes in low-income countries and how it might influence the association between SES and HIV-related outcomes. We investigated the moderating effect of media use on the relationship between SES and HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and condom use in sub-Saharan Africa in terms of communication inequalities. Cross-sectional data from the Demographic Health Surveys from 13 sub-Saharan countries (2004-10) were pooled. Gender-stratified multivariable poisson regression of 151,209 women and 68,890 men were used to calculate adjusted relative ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the associations between SES, media use, HIV-related outcomes, and condom use. We found significant disparities in mass media use among people from different SES groups as well as among countries. Education and wealth are strongly and positively associated with awareness of HIV/AIDS and knowledge about transmission and prevention of HIV/AIDS and are significantly associated with condom use. These associations are attenuated when the use of various types of mass media is added to the models, with newspapers showing the strongest effect. The findings of this study suggest that media use has the potential to blunt the impact of socioeconomic status though not completely eliminate it. Thus, we need to pay attention to reducing communication inequalities among social groups and countries to moderate the effect of wealth and SES on HIV/AIDS.
Full Text Available It is known that the level of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and the degree of condom use varies by socioeconomic status (SES. However, there is limited research on the effect of mass media use on HIV/AIDS-related cognitive and behavioral outcomes in low-income countries and how it might influence the association between SES and HIV-related outcomes. We investigated the moderating effect of media use on the relationship between SES and HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and condom use in sub-Saharan Africa in terms of communication inequalities. Cross-sectional data from the Demographic Health Surveys from 13 sub-Saharan countries (2004-10 were pooled. Gender-stratified multivariable poisson regression of 151,209 women and 68,890 men were used to calculate adjusted relative ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the associations between SES, media use, HIV-related outcomes, and condom use. We found significant disparities in mass media use among people from different SES groups as well as among countries. Education and wealth are strongly and positively associated with awareness of HIV/AIDS and knowledge about transmission and prevention of HIV/AIDS and are significantly associated with condom use. These associations are attenuated when the use of various types of mass media is added to the models, with newspapers showing the strongest effect. The findings of this study suggest that media use has the potential to blunt the impact of socioeconomic status though not completely eliminate it. Thus, we need to pay attention to reducing communication inequalities among social groups and countries to moderate the effect of wealth and SES on HIV/AIDS.
Correlation between knowledge on transmission and prevention of HIV/STI and proficiency in condom use among male migrants from Africa and Middle East evaluated by a Condom Use Skills score using a wooden penile model.
Zoboli, Fabio; Martinelli, Domenico; Di Stefano, Mariantonietta; Fasano, Massimo; Prato, Rosa; Santantonio, Teresa Antonia; Fiore, Jose' Ramòn
Migrants in Italy are prevalently young adults, with a higher risk of sexual transmitted infections (STI) and HIV infection. Promoting consistent as well as correct use of condoms could reduce failure rate due to their improper use. The aim of our study was to evaluate Condom Use Skills among a migrant population recently landed in Italy, hosted in a government center for asylum seekers. The study sample was composed of 80 male migrants. Sanitary trained interviewers submitted a questionnaire to participants to investigate age, provenience, marital status, educational level and knowledge about transmission and prevention of HIV/STI. Then, we assessed participants' level of condom use skill with the Condom Use Skills (CUS) measure by using a wooden penile model. The interviewer filled in a checklist and assigned 1 point for correct demonstration of each behavior that may prevent condom failure during sex. Participants' median age was 26 years and the sample was composed of 54 migrants from sub-Saharan Africa and 26 from Middle East. Most of them were married, with a lower middle level of education, up to 8 or 5 years. Half of the sample achieved the highest score in the questionnaire and our CUS showed a large number of people with middle high score classes. The Spearman's rho was 0.30, therefore answers to the questionnaire and CUS score appeared correlated (p migrants of the sample. Our study shows that educational level influences the quality of knowledge and awareness about STI/AIDS and contribute to correct condom use. Since the half of participants had a low educational level and linguistic problems, the risk of missing campaigns messages or misunderstanding informative materials increases. Direct observation of condom-application on penile model may offer realistic assessment of application skills in these individuals.
Pinkerton, S D; Abramson, P R
The consistent use of latex condoms continues to be advocated for primary prevention of HIV infection despite limited quantitative evidence regarding the effectiveness of condoms in blocking the sexual transmission of HIV. Although recent meta-analyses of condom effectiveness suggest that condoms are 60 to 70% effective when used for HIV prophylaxis, these studies do not isolate consistent condom use, and therefore provide only a lower bound on the true effectiveness of correct and consistent condom use. A reexamination of HIV seroconversion studies suggests that condoms are 90 to 95% effective when used consistently, i.e. consistent condom users are 10 to 20 times less likely to become infected when exposed to the virus than are inconsistent or non-users. Similar results are obtained utilizing model-based estimation techniques, which indicate that condoms decrease the per-contact probability of male-to-female transmission of HIV by about 95%. Though imperfect, condoms provide substantial protection against HIV infection. Condom promotion therefore remains an important international priority in the fight against AIDS.
Nyoni, Joyce E; Ross, Michael W
Although studies have been conducted in neighboring countries, there are no published data on men who have sex with men (MSM) in mainland Tanzania. We report on a respondent-driven sampling study of 271 MSM in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The sample covered a wide range of educational attainment and employment, median age was 24, and all respondents had heard of HIV/AIDS, mostly through public media. Those satisfied with media information on HIV were younger, had lower education, and had obtained their information from health facilities. Over two-thirds believed that having one faithful partner and using condoms would protect against HIV: nevertheless, more than two-thirds were worried about HIV infection. Two-thirds had had a relationship with a woman, one-third in the past year. Predictors of non-use of condoms for anal sex with last casual partner were younger age, not being worried about HIV infection, and agreeing to have sex even if a condom was refused. There was no significance in proportion using a condom with last casual (43%) and last regular (49%) partner. Most partners (MSM knew a median of 10 other MSM) were met in bars, music halls, and in the home/local environment, and 70% of MSM described their sexual position as "bottom." Sixty percent reported having an HIV test and the great majority was comfortable discussing condoms with partners and friends: half would refuse to have sex if condoms were not agreed to. These data suggest a significant "gay" community in Dar es Salaam with relatively accurate HIV information but moderate condom use, HIV testing and ability to refuse unsafe sex. There is clearly scope for targeted HIV prevention programs in the MSM community in Tanzania.
Lammers, J.; van Wijnbergen, S.; Willebrands, D.
This paper analyzes how different types of HIV-knowledge influence condom use across the sexes. The empirical work is based on a household survey conducted among 1,979 households of a representative group of market persons in Lagos in 2008. Last time condom use is analyzed based on a Probit model
Emmanuel, Wamalwa; Edward, Neyole; Moses, Poipoi; William, Ringera; Geoffrey, Otomu; Monicah, Bitok; Rosemary, Mbaluka
The male condom remains the single, most efficient and available technology to reduce sexual transmission of HIV as well as sexually transmitted infections. This study sought to establish condom use determinants and practices among people living with HIV (PLHIVs) in Kisii County, Kenya. We interviewed 340 PLHIVs and 6 health workers. Although most PLHIVs had correct knowledge and approved condoms as effective for HIV prevention, consistent use and condom use at last sex were notably low espec...
A study was undertaken among 395 intra-city commercial bus drivers, conductors and motor park attendants in a sub-urban community in Lagos, Nigeria. It was aimed at ascertaining the level of knowledge of the participants on sexually transmitted diseases including AIDS, their sexual practices and perceived vulnerability ...
Regan, Rotrease; Morisky, Donald E
Because consistent condom use is an effective strategy in the prevention of sexually transmitted infections and HIV transmission, it is important to examine social cognitive influences of consistent condom use not only among female sex workers (FSWs) but also among their male clients, for whom less is known. Because little is known about how HIV knowledge and condom attitudes affect condom use among male clients of FSWs in the Philippines, the main objective was to determine what characteristics (age, education, HIV knowledge, marital status) as well as attributes taken from protection motivation theory (perceived vulnerability, perceived severity, response efficacy) are significantly associated with consistent condom use among male clients of FSWs. Logistic regression analyses showed that the odds of using condoms consistently with an FSW are 13% higher for those with more years of education (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.13; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03, 1.23), higher versus lower perception of severity of HIV/AIDS (AOR = 1.97; 95% CI = 1.04, 3.73), and had a higher score for response efficacy of condoms (AOR = 1.14; 95% CI = 1.03, 1.27). Future HIV/AIDS prevention interventions that address condom use among male clients should promote educational attainment and focus on awareness of the enduring negative health consequences of acquiring HIV/AIDS, as well as cultivate positive attitudes toward the efficacy of condom use, using creative social marketing strategies.
Todd, Catherine S; Nasir, Abdul; Stanekzai, Mohammad R; Scott, Paul T; Close, Nicole C; Botros, Boulos A; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Tjaden, Jeffrey
There is little information about HIV awareness or condom use among female sex workers (FSWs) in Afghanistan. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to assess HIV awareness, knowledge, and condom use among FSWs in three Afghan cities. FSWs residing in Jalalabad, Kabul, and Mazar-i-Sharif were recruited through outreach programs and completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire and rapid tests for hepatitis B surface antigen, HIV, syphilis, and hepatitis C virus. Logistic regression identified factors associated with HIV awareness, comprehensive HIV knowledge (knowledge that HIV cannot be detected by sight, that condoms prevent HIV, and rejection of local misconceptions about HIV transmission), and consistent condom use (use with every sex act) with clients in the last six months. Of 520 participants, 76.9% had no formal education and 37.7% lived outside Afghanistan in the last five years. Nearly half (44.2%) were aware of HIV but, of these, only 17.4% (N = 40) had comprehensive HIV knowledge. There were significant differences by site; FSWs in Jalalabad were more likely to be aware of HIV but FSWs in Kabul were more likely to have correct HIV knowledge and use condoms consistently with clients. Consistent client condom use was reported by 11.5% (N = 60) and was independently associated with having more clients per month (AOR = 1.99, 95% CI: 1.04-3.81). In conclusion, comprehensive HIV knowledge and consistent condom use with clients are low among Afghan FSWs in these cities. Efforts to reach this population should focus on relaying accurate information and expanding condom use with clients.
Iakunchykova, Olena P; Burlaka, Viktor
While female sex workers (FSWs) carry one of the highest risks of HIV transmission, little is known about predictors of HIV and risky behavior of FSWs in Ukraine. In this study of 4806 Ukrainian FSWs, the prevalence of HIV was 5.6 %. FSWs had higher odds to be HIV infected if they had lower income, were older, injected drugs, experienced violence, and solicited clients on highways. Inconsistent condom use with clients was reported by 34.5 % of FSWs. FSWs who solicited clients at railway stations, via media, through previous clients and other FSWs, and on highways reported lower consistency of condom use. Furthermore, inconsistent condom use was related to younger age, alcohol use, having fewer clients, not being covered with HIV prevention, and experiences of violence. The present study expands on the rather limited knowledge of correlates of the HIV and inconsistent condom use among FSWs in Ukraine.
HIV prevalence, AIDS knowledge, and condom use among female sex workers in Santiago, Chile Prevalencia del VIH, conocimientos sobre el SIDA, y uso del condón en trabajadoras sexuales de Santiago, Chile
Jaime E. Barrientos
Full Text Available This paper describes HIV seroprevalence, knowledge of HIV transmission, and condom use among female sex workers (FSW attending five specialized sexually transmitted disease (STD clinics in Santiago, Chile. A short questionnaire with socio-demographic, AIDS knowledge, and condom-use variables was administered to 626 FSW. HIV seroprevalence was estimated with a blood test sent to the Chilean Public Health Institute. ELISA was used to confirm HIV in suspected cases. HIV prevalence was 0%. FSW showed adequate overall knowledge of HIV, even better than reported for the Chilean general population on some items. Condom use with clients was high ("always" = 93.4%, although regular use with steady partners was low ("always" = 9.9%. The zero HIV seroprevalence and consistent condom use with clients confirms the positive impact of intervention strategies for FSW, increasing both correct knowledge of AIDS and condom use with clients and helping decrease these women's HIV/AIDS vulnerability.Este artículo examina la prevalencia del VIH, los conocimientos respecto a su infección y, además, describe el uso del condón en mujeres que ejercen el comercio sexual en Santiago de Chile y que son atendidas en cinco centros especializados de enfermedades de transmisión sexual. Se aplicó una encuesta que indagaba sobre las características sociodemográficas, el conocimiento sobre el VIH/SIDA y el uso del condón a 626 mujeres. La prevalencia del VIH fue evaluada mediante un examen de ELISA. La prevalencia del VIH fue 0. El conocimiento del VIH fue bueno e, incluso, mejor que en población general, en algunos indicadores. El uso del condón con los clientes fue alto, aunque su uso regular con las parejas estables fue bajo. La prevalencia cero del VIH y el uso consistente de condones con los clientes confirma el impacto positivo que han tenido las estrategias de intervención implementadas para estos grupos, incrementando el conocimiento adecuado sobre el SIDA y el
Williams, Patrick Bassey; Sallar, Anthony M
We assessed the differences and similarities in knowledge, attitude, beliefs, myths, and misconceptions; and the various high-risk behavioral factors that influence the rate of infectivity of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS among African American men in urban and rural communities of Mississippi. A cross-sectional sample survey was conducted on 466 African American men in 2 sites between 2005 and 2007. With the main outcome variables of knowledge, attitude/feelings, behavior/practices, and potentials for behavior change, we administered a 64-item, ethnically sensitive, gender-specific instrument to the subjects via a person-to-person interview. Of the 466 respondents (urban, 33%; rural, 67%), 70%, 14.4%, and 16.6%, respectively, were heterosexual, bisexual, and men who have sex with men (MSM). The number of the respondents' sexual partners in the previous 12 months were: 1 to 2 (54%), 3 to 4 (25.7%), and 5 or more (20.2%). Statistically significant differences were observed between the 2 populations on HIV knowledge (p sexually transmitted infection testing history (p sexual partners (p = .038), unprotected sexual intercourse with drug users (p sexual limits prior to intercourse (p = .027). Although the level of HIV/AIDS knowledge and education were lower among urban than rural respondents, subjects' negative overall beliefs, attitude/feelings, behavior and potentials for behavioral change did not differ significantly among the African American men in the 2 communities.
repeated sexual contact among HIV-discordant couples, 98-100% of those who used latex condoms correctly and ... Quick Response Code: ... Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) ..... en/wpraids2001.pdf [Last accessed on 2009 Apr 20]. 2.
Smalyanna Sgren da Costa Andrade
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE Assessing the adequacy of knowledge, attitude and practice of women regarding male and female condoms as STI/HIV preventive measures. METHOD An evaluative Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP household survey with a quantitative approach, involving 300 women. Data collection took place between June and August 2013, in an informal urban settlement within the municipality of João Pessoa, Paraiba, Northeast Brazil. RESULTS Regarding the male condom, most women showed inadequate knowledge and practice, and an adequate attitude. Regarding the female condom, knowledge, attitude and practice variables were unsatisfactory. Significant associations between knowledge/religious orientation and attitude/education regarding the male condom were observed. CONCLUSION A multidisciplinary team should be committed to the development of educational practices as care promotion tools in order to improve adherence of condom use.
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Evaluar la asociación de conocimientos objetivo y subjetivo sobre VIH/SIDA con el uso del condón. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se analizó la base de datos de una encuesta aleatoria, anónima y autoaplicada en 1 410 adolescentes de cuatro estratos socioeconómicos de Guadalajara, Jalisco, México, entre 1995 y 1996. El conocimiento objetivo se evaluó mediante 24 preguntas sobre VIH/SIDA y el "subjetivo" con la pregunta: "¿qué tanto crees conocer sobre el SIDA?" Las variables predictoras del uso del condón se identificaron mediante regresión logística y cálculo de la razón de momios con IC 95%. RESULTADOS: El nivel de conocimiento objetivo fue regular y tuvo diferencias por estratos (pOBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between objective and subjective knowledge on HIV/AIDS and condom use. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Analysis of a database from an anonymous, self-applied, randomized survey conducted between 1995 and 1996. Study subjects were 1 410 adolescents of four socioeconomic strata from Guadalajara, Mexico. Objective knowledge was assessed with 24 questions regarding HIV/AIDS, and subjective knowledge with the question "how much do you think you know about HIV/AIDS?" The variables associated with condom use were identified using logistic regression analysis and by calculating odds ratios with a 95% confidence interval. RESULTS: The degree of objective knowledge was "average", differentiated by socioeconomic strata (p< 0.001, and was higher in adolescents from medium and high socioeconomic strata (p< 0.008. Regarding subjective knowledge, adolescents from the low, medium, and high socioeconomic strata claimed to know "a little", and the ones from the lowest stratum claimed to know "very little". Condom use was higher in males (35.4%, and in adolescents from high socioeconomic strata (p< 0.005, than in females (15.3% (p< 0.001. Although there was a correlation between objective and subjective knowledge (r = 0.37, p< 0.001, a higher
Andrade, Smalyanna Sgren da Costa; Zaccara, Ana Aline Lacet; Leite, Kamila Nethielly Souza; Brito, Karen Krystine Gonçalves de; Soares, Maria Júlia Guimarães Oliveira; Costa, Marta Miriam Lopes; Pinheiro, Ana Karina Bezerra; Oliveira, Simone Helena dos Santos
OBJECTIVE Assessing the adequacy of knowledge, attitude and practice of women regarding male and female condoms as STI/HIV preventive measures. METHOD An evaluative Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) household survey with a quantitative approach, involving 300 women. Data collection took place between June and August 2013, in an informal urban settlement within the municipality of João Pessoa, Paraiba, Northeast Brazil. RESULTS Regarding the male condom, most women showed inadequate knowl...
Starace, F; Minaci, F; Semmola, A; Nespoli, M; Palumbo, F
A correct and consistent condom use can minimize the risk of acquiring HIV infection through sexual intercourse. The aim of this study has been to assess knowledge and attitudes towards condom use among adolescents and young adults living in southern Italy. 620 randomly selected subjects have been interviewed by means of a 16-item standardized questionnaire: 87.3% consider condom an useful tool in the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases; however, 53.5% think that condom may reduce sexual pleasure and 26.8% state that its cost is too high to allow regular use. These results emphasize the need of carefully planned programs aimed to overcome objective and subjective barriers in the use of condom to prevent HIV infection spreading.
HIV/AIDS misconceptions may be associated with condom use among black South Africans: an exploratory analysis. Laura M Bogart, Donald Skinner, Lance S Weinhardt, Laura Glasman, Cheryl Sitzler, Yoesrie Toefy, Seth C Kalichman ...
van Loggerenberg, Francois; Dieter, Alexis A; Sobieszczyk, Magdalena E; Werner, Lise; Grobler, Anneke; Mlisana, Koleka
Young women are at disproportionate risk of HIV infection in South Africa. Understanding risk behaviors and factors associated with ability to negotiate safe sex and condom use is likely to be key in curbing the spread of HIV. Traditionally prevention efforts have focused on creating behavioral changes by increasing knowledge about HIV/AIDS. This was a cross-sectional analysis from a prospective observational cohort study of 245 women at a high-risk of HIV infection in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Participants demonstrated a high level of HIV/AIDS knowledge. Overall, 60.3% of participants reported condom use. Reported condom use at last sexual encounter varied slightly by partner type (57.0% with steady versus 64.4% with casual partners), and self-perceived ability to choose to use a condom was significantly lower with steady partners compared to casual partners (pformal education and condom use as a contraceptive were all significantly associated with self-reported condom use at last sexual encounter. These findings suggest that that gender inequality and access to formal education, as opposed to lack of HIV/AIDS knowledge, prevent safer sexual practices in South Africa.
Morrison-Beedy, D; Lewis, B P
To understand women's readiness to use condoms and their perceived pros and cons for condom use. Comparative, descriptive design guided by the Transtheoretical Model. Data were collected at two urban primary health care centers in western New York. 364 single urban women with steady (main) or other (casual, concurrent, multiple, new) sexual partners. Most participants were young (mean age of 27 years), economically disadvantaged women of color. Each participant completed an anonymous questionnaire that included items for the stage of change algorithm, decisional balance of the pros and cons of condom use, sexual history, and HIV risk information. Most women were in the early stages of change (not intending to use condoms), but those with other partners were further along in the stages of change for condom use than those with steady partners. The pros or advantages of condom use differed for these women depending on partner type. The change in the balance between the pros and cons occurred as theoretically predicted for women with steady and other partners. Effectiveness of HIV prevention interventions for women may be enhanced if they are tailored to both readiness to change and partner type.
Jan 31, 2014 ... most Nigeria cultures that demand premarital abstinence have almost disappeared (Orubuloye et ... preventing most STIs including HIV (Gardner et al.,. 1999). By implication, cardinal strategy in the ..... Gardner, R., Blackburn, R. and Upadhyay, U. (1999). Closing the condom gap. Popul. Rep. H, Ser. H.; 9:1 ...
Regan, Rotrease; Morisky, Donald E.
Because consistent condom use is an effective strategy in the prevention of sexually transmitted infections and HIV transmission, it is important to examine social cognitive influences of consistent condom use not only among female sex workers (FSWs) but also among their male clients, for whom less is known. Because little is known about how HIV…
Yarber, William L; Milhausen, Robin R; Crosby, Richard A; Torabi, Mohammad R
Public opinion is important in determining condom and condom education policies in public high schools. A random telephone survey of 517 Indiana residents was conducted from July through October 2003 to assess public opinion about education on correct condom use for HIV and STD prevention; condom availability in Indiana public high schools; and issues related to condom use, effectiveness and promotion. Data were analyzed using bivariate and linear regression techniques. A majority of respondents strongly or somewhat agreed that instruction on correct condom use for HIV and STD prevention should be provided in public high schools (77%), classroom instruction should include condoms (71%), only medically accurate information about condoms should being given (94%) and the federal government should promote condoms (70%). Fewer than half (48%) strongly or somewhat agreed that condoms should be made available to teenagers in public high schools without parental permission. Nearly all (92%) considered condoms at least somewhat effective in preventing HIV and other STDs. Non-Republican party affiliation, younger age and condom use within the previous five years were each significantly associated with having positive opinions on many of the condom-related statements. Public opinion appears to support the provision of correct condom use information in Indiana public schools. Schools should consider providing only medically accurate information about condoms and including condoms in instruction so students can see and touch them.
Versteeg, Marije; Murray, Montagu
Correct and consistent condom usage remains a pivotal strategy in reaching the target set by the South African government to reduce new HIV infections by 50% in the next 5 years. Studies have found that there has been an increase in condom usage by some categories of the population, but usage has not yet reached the desired levels in order to meet the target. This article reports on the findings of a study on condom usage in eight communities in the North West Province, which was part of a wider HIV and AIDS programme evaluation commissioned by the North West Provincial Department of Health. The main aim was to assess accessibility to condoms, and knowledge, attitudes and practices around condom use by four sampled communities in the North West Province. Eight focus group discussions were held and 50 households were interviewed. The study found positive results regarding accessibility and awareness of condoms. However, this often did not lead to the desired behavioural change of using condoms in risky sexual interactions. The majority of respondents still resisted condom usage, used condoms inconsistently, or were not in a position to negotiate protected sexual intercourse. The main reasons reported for this were: reduced pleasure, perceived and real physical side-effects, myths, lack of information, status, financial reasons, distrust in the efficacy of condoms, family planning, cultural reasons, gender-related reasons and trust. Many of the barriers to consistent condom use cannot be overcome by strategies that target the individual. Interventions need to address underlying developmental factors such as the non-biological factors that increase the susceptibility of women to HIV infection. As this falls outside of the scope of the mandate of the Department of Health, various partnerships with other key role players need to be established and/or strengthened, such as with local government, non-governmental organisations and faith-based organisations.
Otis, Joanne; McFadyen, Amélie; Haig, Thomas; Blais, Martin; Cox, Joseph; Brenner, Bluma; Rousseau, Robert; Émond, Gilbert; Roger, Michel; Wainberg, Mark
Gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) have adapted their sexual practices over the course of the HIV/AIDS epidemic based on available data and knowledge about HIV. This study sought to identify and compare patterns in condom use among gay, bisexual, and other MSM who were tested for HIV at a community-based testing site in Montreal, Canada. Results showed that while study participants use condoms to a certain extent with HIV-positive partners and partners of unknown HIV status, they also make use of various other strategies such as adjusting to a partner's presumed or known HIV status and viral load, avoiding certain types of partners, taking PEP, and getting tested for HIV. These findings suggest that MSM who use condoms less systematically are not necessarily taking fewer precautions but may instead be combining or replacing condom use with other approaches to risk reduction.
Francois van Loggerenberg
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Young women are at disproportionate risk of HIV infection in South Africa. Understanding risk behaviors and factors associated with ability to negotiate safe sex and condom use is likely to be key in curbing the spread of HIV. Traditionally prevention efforts have focused on creating behavioral changes by increasing knowledge about HIV/AIDS. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional analysis from a prospective observational cohort study of 245 women at a high-risk of HIV infection in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. RESULTS: Participants demonstrated a high level of HIV/AIDS knowledge. Overall, 60.3% of participants reported condom use. Reported condom use at last sexual encounter varied slightly by partner type (57.0% with steady versus 64.4% with casual partners, and self-perceived ability to choose to use a condom was significantly lower with steady partners compared to casual partners (p<0.01. In multivariate analysis, women who had high school education were more likely to use condoms at their last sex encounter compared to those with only primary school education (RR of 1.36 (95% Confidence Interval (CI 1.06-1.75 and 1.46 (95% CI 1.13-1.88 for grades 8-10 and 11-12, respectively. Those who used condoms as a contraceptive method were twice as likely to use condoms compared to women who did not report using them as a contraceptive method. Greater perceived ability to choose to use condoms was associated with higher self-reported condom use at last encounter, irrespective of partner type (RR = 2.65 (95% CI 2.15-32.5. DISCUSSION: Self-perceived ability to use condoms, level of formal education and condom use as a contraceptive were all significantly associated with self-reported condom use at last sexual encounter. These findings suggest that that gender inequality and access to formal education, as opposed to lack of HIV/AIDS knowledge, prevent safer sexual practices in South Africa.
Soskolne, V; Maayan, S
To examine gender differences in HIV-related knowledge, perceived vulnerability, beliefs in self-control, type of sexual partnership, and their associations with nonuse of condoms. Heterosexual men and women who voluntarily attended an HIV testing clinic in Israel were asked to complete a self-report questionnaire. Scales of HIV knowledge and control and a single item for vulnerability were used. Type of sexual relationship (monogamous vs. nonmonogramous) and condom use in vaginal sex (never vs. ever) referred to the previous 6 months. Response rate was 84%; 154 men and 109 women participated. Beliefs in self-control did not form a reliable scale and single items were used. No statistically significant gender differences were found in knowledge, vulnerability, or beliefs in self-control. Levels of correct HIV-related knowledge were high, but so were some misconceptions. The vast majority (87%) perceived themselves as vulnerable to HIV infection. The beliefs in self-control were moderate in some items, and low in others. In logistic regression models, different factors were significantly associated with nonuse of condoms in the two genders: the belief that their lifestyle protected them against HIV infection (OR = 2.72, CI = 1.06-7.03) among men, and being monogamous (OR = 3.72, CI = 1.28-10.8) among women. Heterosexual men and women attending an HIV testing clinic need counseling to further lower misconceptions about HIV transmission and additional gender-specific counseling to address HIV-related beliefs.
Fladseth, Kristin; Gafos, Mitzy; Newell, Marie Louise; McGrath, Nuala
Critical to preventing the spread of HIV is promoting condom use among HIV-positive individuals. Previous studies suggest that gender norms (social and cultural constructions of the ways that women and men are expected to behave) may be an important determinant of condom use. However, the relationship has not been evaluated among HIV-positive women and men in South Africa. We examined gender norms and condom use at last sex among 550 partnerships reported by 530 sexually-active HIV-positive women (372) and men (158) who had sought care, but not yet initiated antiretroviral therapy in a high HIV-prevalence rural setting in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa between January 2009 and March 2011. Participants enrolled in the cohort study completed a baseline questionnaire that detailed their socio-demographic characteristics, socio-economic circumstances, religion, HIV testing history and disclosure of HIV status, stigma, social capital, gender norms and self-efficacy. Gender norms did not statistically differ between women and men (p = 0.18). Overall, condoms were used at last sex in 58% of partnerships. Although participants disclosed their HIV status in 66% of the partnerships, 60% did not have knowledge of their partner’s HIV status. In multivariable logistic regression, run separately for each sex, women younger than 26 years with more equitable gender norms were significantly more likely to have used a condom at last sex than those of the same age group with inequitable gender norms (OR = 8.88, 95% CI 2.95–26.75); the association between condom use and gender norms among women aged 26+ years and men of all ages was not statistically significant. Strategies to address gender inequity should be integrated into positive prevention interventions, particularly for younger women, and supported by efforts at a societal level to decrease gender inequality. PMID:25853870
Fladseth, Kristin; Gafos, Mitzy; Newell, Marie Louise; McGrath, Nuala
Critical to preventing the spread of HIV is promoting condom use among HIV-positive individuals. Previous studies suggest that gender norms (social and cultural constructions of the ways that women and men are expected to behave) may be an important determinant of condom use. However, the relationship has not been evaluated among HIV-positive women and men in South Africa. We examined gender norms and condom use at last sex among 550 partnerships reported by 530 sexually-active HIV-positive women (372) and men (158) who had sought care, but not yet initiated antiretroviral therapy in a high HIV-prevalence rural setting in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa between January 2009 and March 2011. Participants enrolled in the cohort study completed a baseline questionnaire that detailed their socio-demographic characteristics, socio-economic circumstances, religion, HIV testing history and disclosure of HIV status, stigma, social capital, gender norms and self-efficacy. Gender norms did not statistically differ between women and men (p = 0.18). Overall, condoms were used at last sex in 58% of partnerships. Although participants disclosed their HIV status in 66% of the partnerships, 60% did not have knowledge of their partner's HIV status. In multivariable logistic regression, run separately for each sex, women younger than 26 years with more equitable gender norms were significantly more likely to have used a condom at last sex than those of the same age group with inequitable gender norms (OR = 8.88, 95% CI 2.95-26.75); the association between condom use and gender norms among women aged 26+ years and men of all ages was not statistically significant. Strategies to address gender inequity should be integrated into positive prevention interventions, particularly for younger women, and supported by efforts at a societal level to decrease gender inequality.
Full Text Available Critical to preventing the spread of HIV is promoting condom use among HIV-positive individuals. Previous studies suggest that gender norms (social and cultural constructions of the ways that women and men are expected to behave may be an important determinant of condom use. However, the relationship has not been evaluated among HIV-positive women and men in South Africa. We examined gender norms and condom use at last sex among 550 partnerships reported by 530 sexually-active HIV-positive women (372 and men (158 who had sought care, but not yet initiated antiretroviral therapy in a high HIV-prevalence rural setting in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa between January 2009 and March 2011. Participants enrolled in the cohort study completed a baseline questionnaire that detailed their socio-demographic characteristics, socio-economic circumstances, religion, HIV testing history and disclosure of HIV status, stigma, social capital, gender norms and self-efficacy. Gender norms did not statistically differ between women and men (p = 0.18. Overall, condoms were used at last sex in 58% of partnerships. Although participants disclosed their HIV status in 66% of the partnerships, 60% did not have knowledge of their partner's HIV status. In multivariable logistic regression, run separately for each sex, women younger than 26 years with more equitable gender norms were significantly more likely to have used a condom at last sex than those of the same age group with inequitable gender norms (OR = 8.88, 95% CI 2.95-26.75; the association between condom use and gender norms among women aged 26+ years and men of all ages was not statistically significant. Strategies to address gender inequity should be integrated into positive prevention interventions, particularly for younger women, and supported by efforts at a societal level to decrease gender inequality.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The growing trend of women infected with HIV through sexual transmission is alarming. Factors influencing condom use have not yet been fully identified, especially in countries with conservative cultures and backgrounds. The present study aimed to explore the barriers of condom use in Iranian women at risk of HIV. Methods Using the grounded theory methodology, participants’ experiences and their perceptions regarding condom were collected during semi structured in depth interviews. Participants were 22 women, aged 21–49 years, considered to be at risk for HIV, due to their own or their partner’s sexual behaviors. Qualitative analysis of the data was conducted manually and was guided by constant comparative analysis. Results Two main barriers, personal and socio-environmental emerged from data analysis. Lack of perceived threat, absence of protective motivation, inadequate knowledge, perceived lack of control, negative attitudes towards condom and misperception were the major personal barriers, while unsupportive environments and cultural norms were the common socio-environmental barriers to condom use among these at risk women. Conclusions These critical barriers have to be addressed for implementing effective prevention programs against HIV among populations at risk for HIV.
Objectives: To assess the knowledge, attitudes and use of the female condom among undergraduates of Kigali Health Institute. Methods: A descriptive study was carried out between May and June 2010. The sample was randomly selected from the students of Kigali Health Institute. A questionnaire based study was ...
Fedor, Theresa M; Kohler, Hans-Peter; Behrman, Jere R
This article assesses how married individuals' knowledge of HIV status gained through HIV testing and counseling (HTC) affects divorce, the number of sexual partners, and the use of condoms within marriage. This study improves upon previous studies on this topic because the randomized incentives affecting the propensity to be tested for HIV permit control for selective testing. Instrumental variable probit and linear models are estimated, using a randomized experiment administered as part of the Malawi Longitudinal Study of Families and Health (MLSFH). The results indicate that knowledge of HIV status (1) does not affect chances of divorce for either HIV-negative or HIV-positive respondents; (2) reduces the number of reported sexual partners among HIV-positive respondents; and (3) increases reported condom use with spouses for both HIV-negative and HIV-positive respondents. These results imply that individuals actively respond to information about their HIV status that they learn during HTC, invoking protective behavior against future risk of HIV/AIDS for themselves and their actual and potential sexual partners. Some limitations of this study are a small sample size for those who are HIV-positive and dependence on self-reported sexual behaviors.
Anglewicz, Philip; Clark, Shelley
A large and increasing proportion of HIV transmissions in sub-Saharan Africa occur within marriage. Condom use within marriage could, therefore, be an important prevention strategy, but there is considerable debate about whether married couples would be willing to use condoms. This paper contributes to this debate by identifying key factors that affect the acceptability of condom use within marriage and actual condom use among men and women in rural Malawi, using three waves of longitudinal data from 2004, 2006 and 2008. Specifically, we focused on the effect of (1) entry into first marriage, (2) respondent's HIV status, HIV perceptions, and risk behaviors, and (3) spouse's HIV characteristics on condom use acceptability within marriage and actual condom use with a spouse or steady partner. Using fixed-effects regression, we found that getting married coincides with a pronounced attitudinal shift regarding the acceptability of condom use within marriage that cannot be explained by differences in fertility status or selection into marriage. In addition, we found that, for women, perceived HIV status of the respondent and spouse generally had greater influence than actual HIV status on the acceptability of condom use within marriage and actual condom use with a spouse or steady partner, even after HIV status is known; while actual HIV status and HIV risk behaviors are generally more important among men. Although condom use within marriage remained low, these findings suggest that attitudes about and use of condoms are susceptible to change and that both marital status and perceptions of risk are important influences on condom use. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Social principle of effective HIV/AIDS control strategy recognizes sexual ... aware of HIV/AIDS, a knowledge derived mainly from media advertisements (96.4%). ... to condom use between drivers and traders or male and female respondents ...
Wulandari, Luh Putu Lila; Kaldor, John; Januraga, Pande Putu
Men who purchase sex (MWPS) have long been considered as one of the population groups at risk of HIV transmission. However, while HIV-related interventions have been targeted towards this group, few studies have directly recruited MWPS to measure the impact of such interventions. This study aimed to fill the gap for Indonesia by identifying the level and predictors of condom use and HIV testing among MWPS, to inform prevention strategies. A cross-sectional study was conducted by surveying 200 MWPS in Bali, Indonesia in 2015. A structured questionnaire was administered to collect the data. Self-reported condom use on the occasion of last paid sex was very high (88.5%), while a history of HIV testing was low (8.1%). None of the variables identified in this study were associated with condom use at last paid sex. Men were more likely to report a history of HIV testing if they: perceived themselves to be at high risk of HIV, had a higher level of HIV-related knowledge, reported a history of genital ulcers or urethral discharge in the past 12 months, or were aware that confidential HIV testing was available. Implications and limitations of this study are discussed.
Using data from the 2004 National Survey of Adolescents in Uganda, logistic regression models were fitted to examine the odds that HIV/AIDS related knowledge and perceived risk of HIV infection are associated with condom use among adolescents. After including demographic measures, findings indicated that correct ...
Slaymaker, Emma; Zaba, Basia
Correct and consistent condom use can prevent susceptible people from acquiring HIV infection. However, in many countries repeated cross-sectional studies reveal a trend of increasing prevalence of HIV infection alongside an increase in reported condom use. Changes in sexual behaviour that reduce the number of new HIV infections will not become apparent through changes in HIV prevalence until some time after the behaviour change takes place. Limitations in the data used to assess condom use may also explain the concurrent increases in condom use and HIV prevalence. One common indicator of condom use, the UNGASS indicator (condom use at last higher risk sex of those aged 15-24), has been chosen to illustrate how changes in the proportion of people who report using condoms do not always explain changes in the size of the group who had high risk behaviour. Indicators based on the proportion of the whole population who have sex without using a condom would be better measures of the size of the group at highest risk of HIV infection.
Reece, Michael; Briggs, Lindsay; Dodge, Brian; Herbenick, Debby; Glover, Richard
Promoting consistent and correct condom use remains a priority public health activity, although some HIV- and STI-related providers remain challenged by some men's resistance to condoms, which some claim do not fit properly or do not feel comfortable. Although these perceptions have been examined across multiple populations, they have not been documented among men living with HIV. During spring 2008, data were collected from 215 men living with HIV at HIV service organizations in the Midwestern and Southeastern United States. Participants completed the Condom Fit and Feel Scale and measures related to demographics and condom use during sexual interactions within the past 90 days. Men were primarily homosexual, African American, with a high school degree or higher, and unemployed. More than half of participants had used condoms for sexual intercourse within the previous 90 days. The majority of the men reported few problems with the fit and feel of condoms, with 63.1% reporting that condoms "fit my penis just fine," and 80.9% reported being able consistently to find condoms that they perceived to be "sized appropriately for my penis." Some men did report specific characteristics of condoms that challenged fit and feel, including 20.6% endorsing (always or often) that condoms feel too tight, 15.9% that condoms are too short, 17.8% or that condoms would not roll down far enough to cover their penis completely (15.6%). These data provide insights into mechanisms through which providers can help to increase men's access to the diverse range of condoms in the marketplace.
BARRIERS, FACILITATORS AND SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS ASSOCIATED WITH CONDOM USAGE AMONGST MALE HIV INTEGRATED COUNSELLING AND TESTING CENTRE ATTENDEES AT THE GOVERNMENT HOSPITAL OF THORACIC MEDICINE, AN HIV TERTIARY CARE CENTRE IN CHENNAI
Full Text Available Background: HIV is transmitted largely through sexual route which can be prevented by using condoms. The objectives of this study were to describe condom usage with various barriers, facilitators and to determine association between different socioeconomic characteristics among male Integrated Counselling and Testing Centre (ICTC attendees. Methods: This is a hospital based cross sectional study (n=300. Clients (18-45years attending ICTC for first time, between June-October ‘2010, were interviewed with structured questionnaire after obtaining informed consent. Description of demographic characteristics of respondents; univariate, multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed for estimation of association. Results: Among respondents, awareness of HIV and condom were 80% and 85.3% respectively; Knowledge of prevention from STI/HIV (97.7% was most common facilitator while forgetfulness after drinking alcohol (64.1% was most common barrier to use condom; Respondents who had education up to secondary or above level were more associated with condom usage (AOR 2.9,95%CI1.34-6.24, after adjusting for income compared to non educated respondents; considering less than Indian rupee (INR 3000 per month as reference category, there were association of condom usage among relatively higher income groups between INR.3000 to 5000 per month (AOR 2.6, 95%CI 1.38-5.0,adjusting education and income above INR5000 per month (AOR 2.85,95%CI1.37-5.9, adjusting education. Conclusions: Condom usage was independently associated with education and income level of respondents. Forgetfulness after drinking alcohol was main barrier; knowledge of prevention from HIV was main facilitator of condom usage. Dissemination of knowledge regarding facilitator of condom usage and implementation of Rapid Needs Assessment Tool for Condom Programming can encourage condom use.
Eileen V Pitpitan
Full Text Available Women in South Africa are at particularly high-risk for HIV infection and are dependent on their male partners' use of condoms for sexual risk reduction. However, many women are afraid to discuss condoms with male partners, placing them at higher risk of HIV infection.To examine the association between fear of condom negotiation with HIV testing and transmission risk behaviors, including alcohol use and sexual risks among South African women.Women (N = 1333 residing in a primarily Xhosa-speaking African township in Cape Town and attending informal alcohol-serving venues (shebeens completed anonymous surveys. Logistic regression was used to test the hypothesis that fear of condom negotiation would be associated with increased risk for HIV.Compared to women who did not fear condom negotiation, those who did were significantly less likely to have been tested for HIV, were more likely to have experienced relationship abuse, and to report more alcohol use and more unprotected sex.For women in South Africa, fear of condom negotiation is related to higher risk of HIV. HIV prevention efforts, including targeted HIV counseling and testing, must directly address gender issues.
Buchacz, K; van der Straten, A; Saul, J; Shiboski, S C; Gomez, C A; Padian, N
We examined sociodemographic, behavioral, and clinical characteristics associated with inconsistent condom use in a cross-sectional analysis of 145 sexually active HIV-serodiscordant heterosexual couples who participated in the California Partners Study II. All couples were aware of their HIV-serodiscordant status. Forty-five percent of couples reported having had unprotected vaginal or anal sex in the previous 6 months. In the multivariate couple-level analyses, factors independently associated with inconsistent (i.e., <100%) condom use in the previous 6 months included lower educational level, unemployment, African-American ethnicity, and practice of anal sex by the couple. Injection drug use was associated with inconsistent condom use among couples with younger HIV-infected partners. In addition, couples with HIV-infected partners who had higher CD4 cell counts and couples in which the HIV-infected male partner ever had sex with a man were more likely to use condoms inconsistently. Consistency of condom use did not depend on the gender of the HIV-infected partner or duration of sexual relationship. The findings suggest that many HIV-serodiscordant heterosexual couples remain at high risk of HIV transmission and may benefit not only from behavioral interventions but also from structural interventions aimed at improving their social and economic conditions.
Porche, D J
People who choose not to abstain from sexual intercourse can use barrier contraceptive methods, such as condoms, to reduce their risk of contracting HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Health care providers who provide safer sex education and counseling should provide information on condoms as a way of reducing the risk of HIV/STD transmission. Since latex condoms are regulated by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as medical devices, FDA regulations govern latex condom manufacturing and testing in accordance with stringent national standards. The FDA randomly tests imported condoms according to the same stringent quality control standards as US-produced condoms. Condom effectiveness, however, depends upon their correct and consistent use during every sexual act. Relevant data and guidelines are presented on the correct use of male latex and female polyurethane condoms. Both male latex and female polyurethane condoms can prevent the transmission of HIV and other STDs.
Sanou Sobze, Martin; Fokam, Joseph; Onohiol, James-Francis; Soung Iballa, Brice; Djeunang, Bruna; Azeufack Ngueko, Yannick; Mbida, Mpoame; Ercoli, Lucia; Colizzi, Vittorio; Russo, Gianluca
An important component of the response to the AIDS epidemic is the prevention of HIV infection and other sexually transmitted diseases through the use of condoms. In order to enhance HIV prevention programs and minimize the occurrence of unwanted pregnancies, female condoms have been introduced within the community, with the ultimate goal of reducing vulnerability of women. The success of such a program depends on its acceptance by the target population. A survey was conducted among 426 respondents from different regions of Cameroon, to evaluate their perception of HIV/AIDS and their level of acceptance of condom usage in general, and female condom use in particular. Respondents were young adults residing in seven regions of Cameroon (86.4% west, 6.5% Littoral, 3% Centre and 4.1% Adamawa, East, Far-North and North-West). Mean age was 22.6 years; 57% were male, 95% were single, and 77% were university educated. Overall, 76% of participants reported using condoms, though 48% complained of decreased sexual satisfaction. Interestingly, awareness regarding female condoms was 74.5% and 88.5% in men and women respectively, however only 8% and 9.9% respectively reported having ever used them. Respondents generally learnt about sexual education through broadcasting media (~90%). In this sexually active Cameroonian population, the rate of acceptance or use of female condom remains very low, even among women. Strategies to increase awareness of female condoms among young women, their benefits and correct use, are needed.
Full Text Available As embarrassment is a known obstacle to condom acquisition, selling condoms from physically inaccessible places that require personnel assistance constitutes a barrier to access. This study investigates the extent of this barrier in the Bronx, a high HIV/STI prevalence county of New York. 75 of 320 listed Bronx pharmacies were sampled via computer randomization. Investigators coded condom placement and physical accessibility within these pharmacies and 140 surrounding stores. 91% of sites sold condoms. In 82%, condoms could not be accessed without assistance. Condoms were physically inaccessible in venues most encountered in the community: grocery stores versus pharmacies (OR=15; 95% CI, 5–48, independent versus chain pharmacies (OR=32; 95% CI, 6–235. They were physically inaccessible more in the lowest SES/highest HIV prevalence areas versus the highest SES/lowest HIV prevalence areas (OR = 4.3, 95% CI, 1.1–17. Findings can inform efforts to increase accessibility of condoms, distribute condoms in alternative settings, and prompt similar investigations in other high-risk communities.
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a aceitabilidade, a adesão e a experiência com o uso de condom feminino (CF entre mulheres infectadas pelo HIV. MÉTODO: estudo descritivo prospectivo com 76 mulheres infectadas pelo HIV atendidas no CAISM/UNICAMP e no Centro Corsini de Campinas. Após entrevista de triagem e concordando em participar, as voluntárias receberam calendário para registro das relações sexuais e uso de condom masculino (CM. Após 30 dias, compareceram à visita de treinamento com colocação do CF em modelo pélvico, trazendo o diário do ciclo anterior, considerado controle. Aplicou-se questionário estruturado após 30, 60 e 90 dias, recolhendo-se sempre o diário de registro das relações sexuais e uso de CF ou CM. Usaram-se os testes de c², exato de Fisher, McNemar e Friedman para amostras emparelhadas na análise estatística. RESULTADOS: predominaram as mulheres jovens, de baixa escolaridade, que moravam com o parceiro. Observou-se taxa de continuidade de uso de 52%, ao longo de 90 dias. O uso de CF, em metade das relações sexuais em cada período de estudo, permaneceu estável nos 90 dias. Houve significativa diminuição da proporção média das relações sexuais desprotegidas (de 14% para 6%, sem uso de CM ou CF, aos 90 dias. As dificuldades iniciais no manuseio do CF foram superadas com o tempo. Os casais sorodiscordantes tiveram maior proporção de relações protegidas que os casais soroconcordantes, porém a diferença não foi significativa. As mulheres que relataram uso prévio consistente de CM apresentaram número significantemente maior de relações protegidas com CF. CONCLUSÕES: a oferta do CF foi capaz de reduzir as relações sexuais desprotegidas entre mulheres infectadas pelo HIV, que se mostraram motivadas e receptivas a este método.PURPOSE: to evaluate acceptability, adhesion and experience with the use of female condom (FC among HIV-infected women. METHODS: prospective descriptive study with 76 HIV
Nuken, Amenla; Kermode, Michelle; Saggurti, Niranjan; Armstrong, Greg; Medhi, Gajendra Kumar
This study examines the relationship between alcohol use, HIV status, and condom use among female sex workers in Nagaland, India. We analyzed data from a cross-sectional survey undertaken in 2009, using descriptive and multivariate statistics. Out of 417 female sex workers, one-fifth used alcohol daily and one-tenth were HIV-positive. HIV-positive female sex workers were more likely than HIV-negative female sex workers to consume alcohol daily (30.2% vs. 18.0%). HIV-positive daily alcohol users reported lower condom use at last sex with regular clients compared to HIV-positive non-daily alcohol users (46.2% vs. 79.3%), a relationship not evident among HIV-negative female sex workers. There is a need to promote awareness of synergies between alcohol use and HIV, and to screen for problematic alcohol use among female sex workers in order to reduce the spread of HIV.
Does the position of the Roman Catholic Church on contraception also imply that the usage of condoms by HIV-discordant couples is illicit? A standard argument is to appeal to the doctrine of double effect to condone such usage, but this meets with the objection that there exists an alternative action that brings about the good effect-namely, abstinence. I argue against this objection, because an HIV-discordant couple does not bring about any bad outcome through condom usage-there is no disrespect displayed for the generative function of sex. One might retort that the badness of condom usage consists in thwarting the unitive function of sex. I argue that also this objection cannot be upheld. In conclusion, if there are no in-principle objections against condom usage for HIV-discordant couples, then policies that deny access to condoms to such couples are indefensible. HIV-discordant couples have a right to continue consummating their marriage in a manner that is minimally risky and this right cannot be trumped by utilitarian concerns that the distribution of condoms might increase promiscuity and along with it the HIV infection rate.
To identify predictors of HIV testing and condom use in Mozambique. Nationally representative survey data collected in Mozambique in 2009 was analyzed. Logistic regression analysis was used for two outcomes: HIV testing and condom use. Women at a higher risk of HIV were less likely to be tested for HIV than women at a lower risk: compared to married women, HIV testing was lower among never married women (OR = 0.37, CI: 0.25-0.54); compared to women with one lifetime partner, HIV testing was lower among women with four or more lifetime partners (OR = 0.62, CI: 0.47-0.83). Large wealth differentials were observed: compared to the poorest women, HIV testing was higher among the wealthiest women (OR = 3.03, CI: 1.96-4.68). Perceived quality of health services was an important predictor of HIV testing: HIV testing was higher among women who rated health services as being of very good quality (OR = 2.12, CI: 1.49-3.00). Type of sexual partner was the strongest predictor of condom use: condom use was higher among men who reported last sex with a girlfriend (OR = 9.75, CI: 6.81-13.97) or a casual partner (OR = 11.05, CI: 7.21-16.94). Being tested for HIV during the last two years was the only programmatic variable that predicted condom use. Interestingly, being tested for HIV more than two years ago was not associated with condom use. Frequent mass media exposure was neither associated with HIV testing nor with condom use. The focus of HIV testing should shift from married women (routinely tested during antenatal care visits) to unmarried women and women with multiple sexual partners. Financial barriers to HIV testing appear to be substantial. Since HIV testing is done without a fee being charged, these barriers are presumably related to the cost of transportation to static health facilities. Mechanisms should be developed to cover the cost of transportation to health facilities. Substantially increasing community-based counseling is one way of reducing the cost of
Full Text Available Abstract Background To identify predictors of HIV testing and condom use in Mozambique. Methods Nationally representative survey data collected in Mozambique in 2009 was analyzed. Logistic regression analysis was used for two outcomes: HIV testing and condom use. Results Women at a higher risk of HIV were less likely to be tested for HIV than women at a lower risk: compared to married women, HIV testing was lower among never married women (OR = 0.37, CI: 0.25-0.54; compared to women with one lifetime partner, HIV testing was lower among women with four or more lifetime partners (OR = 0.62, CI: 0.47-0.83. Large wealth differentials were observed: compared to the poorest women, HIV testing was higher among the wealthiest women (OR = 3.03, CI: 1.96-4.68. Perceived quality of health services was an important predictor of HIV testing: HIV testing was higher among women who rated health services as being of very good quality (OR = 2.12, CI: 1.49-3.00. Type of sexual partner was the strongest predictor of condom use: condom use was higher among men who reported last sex with a girlfriend (OR = 9.75, CI: 6.81-13.97 or a casual partner (OR = 11.05, CI: 7.21-16.94. Being tested for HIV during the last two years was the only programmatic variable that predicted condom use. Interestingly, being tested for HIV more than two years ago was not associated with condom use. Frequent mass media exposure was neither associated with HIV testing nor with condom use. Conclusions The focus of HIV testing should shift from married women (routinely tested during antenatal care visits to unmarried women and women with multiple sexual partners. Financial barriers to HIV testing appear to be substantial. Since HIV testing is done without a fee being charged, these barriers are presumably related to the cost of transportation to static health facilities. Mechanisms should be developed to cover the cost of transportation to health facilities
Objectives: Despite widespread knowledge that condoms offer protection against STIs/HIV when used correctly and consistently, many young people do not regularly use condoms, thus leading to new sexually transmitted infections, including HIV and AIDS. This study explored condom use behaviour, specifically the extent ...
Full Text Available Besides access to medical male circumcision, HIV testing, access to condoms and consistent condom use are additional strategies men can use to prevent HIV acquisition. We examine male behavior toward testing and condom use.To determine factors associated with never testing for HIV and consistent condom use among men who never test in Soweto.A cross-sectional survey in Soweto was conducted in 1539 men aged 18-32 years in 2007. Data were collected on socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics to determine factors associated with not testing and consistent condom use.Over two thirds (71% of men had not had an HIV test and the majority (55%, n = 602 were young (18-23. Of those not testing, condom use was poor (44%, n = 304. Men who were 18-23 years (aOR: 2.261, CI: 1.534-3.331, with primary (aOR: 2.096, CI: 1.058-4.153 or high school (aOR: 1.622, CI: 1.078-2.439 education, had sex in the last 6 months (aOR: 1.703, CI: 1.055-2.751, and had ≥1 sexual partner (aOR: 1.749, CI: 1.196-2.557 were more likely not to test. Of those reporting condom use (n = 1036, 67%, consistent condom use was 43% (n = 451. HIV testing did not correlate with condom use.Low rates of both condom use and HIV testing among men in a high HIV prevalence setting are worrisome and indicate an urgent need to develop innovative behavioral strategies to address this shortfall. Condom use is poor in this population whether tested or not tested for HIV, indicating no association between condom use and HIV testing.
Booysen, Frederik le Roux; Wouters, Edwin; de Walque, Damien; Over, Mead
Risky sexual behaviour in PLWHA on antiretroviral therapy threatens both prevention and treatment efforts, but disclosure promises to support safer sexual practices. This paper investigates the association between HIV self-disclosure and consistent condom use in a cohort of public sector patients on antiretroviral (ARV) treatment. Using data from the FEATS cohort study, logistic regression analysis shows that knowledge of your partner's HIV status is positively associated with consistent condom use (OR 2.73, 95% CI 1.37-5.43, p = 0.004) and so too mutual HIV disclosure (OR 3.38, 95% CI 1.60-7.18, p = 0.001). Prevention and treatment programmes, through couple HIV counselling and testing (CHCT) and other assistance programmes, should focus on supporting the mutual disclosure of HIV status among PLWHA on ARV treatment.
Bortot, Andrea T; Risser, William L; Cromwell, Polly F
Information is limited on how well adolescents use condoms and where they learn how. The objective of this study was to determine how often incarcerated males used condoms incorrectly and where, how, and from whom they learned condom use. This study consisted of an interviewer-administered survey during intake physicals at a juvenile detention center. Results were based on self-report; condom use models were not used. During usual use among 141 males, errors included failure to secure the condom to the penis on withdrawal (37%), loss of erection before condom removal (18%), and failure to leave space at the tip (14%). Learning occurred at home (27%), school (23%), probation/detention facilities (14%), and community programs (3.4%). Subjects learned from educators/counselors (37%), family (27%), and friends (6.9%). Methods of learning included reading the package insert (45%), demonstrations (39%), explanations (33%), and media (19%). These adolescents had relatively few condom errors. Common methods of learning correct condom use included observing a demonstration, reading the package insert, and hearing an explanation. The last 2 methods are easy to implement.
Lwin, May O; Stanaland, Andrea J S; Chan, Desmond
The number of individuals infected with HIV/AIDS continues to rise in Asia. Condom use is considered to be the first line of defense against AIDS (UNAIDS, 2006). Using protection motivation theory (Rogers, 1983), this research aims to first understand the factors affecting condom usage intention among homosexual and heterosexual men in Singapore, and then to utilize those findings to assess the efficacy of HIV-directed health communications. We collected survey data from 484 men and analyzed the data using hierarchical regression and structural equation modeling. We found self-efficacy to be a significant predictor for both groups of men, together with perceived severity for homosexuals and response efficacy for heterosexuals. Next, we analyzed HIV-directed condom usage communication materials and found that the use of threat appeal themes is more common than themes promoting self-efficacy. Implications for health communications and policy are discussed.
Full Text Available Lizzie Moore,1 Mags Beksinska,1,2 Alnecia Rumphs,3 Mario Festin,4 Erica L Gollub3 1MatCH Research (Maternal, Adolescent and Child Health Research, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of the Witwatersrand, Westville, Durban, South Africa; 2Faculty of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK; 3Florida International University, Department of Epidemiology, Stempel College of Public Health and Social Work, Miami, FL, USA; 4World Health Organization, Special Program of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction, Department of Reproductive Health and Research, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland Abstract: Women in developing countries are at high risk of HIV, sexually transmitted infections, and unplanned pregnancy. The female condom (FC is an effective dual protective method regarded as a tool for woman's empowerment, yet supply and uptake are limited. Numerous individual, socioeconomic, and cultural factors influence uptake of new contraceptive methods. We reviewed studies of FC knowledge, attitudes, practices, and behaviors across developing countries, as well as available country-level survey data, in order to identify overarching trends and themes. High acceptability was documented in studies conducted in diverse settings among male and female FC users, with FCs frequently compared favorably to male condoms. Furthermore, FC introduction has been shown to increase the proportion of "protected" sex acts in study populations, by offering couples additional choice. However, available national survey data showed low uptake with no strong association with method awareness, as well as inconsistent patterns of use between countries. We identified a large number of method attributes and contextual factors influencing FC use/nonuse, most of which were perceived both positively and negatively by different groups and between settings. Male partner
Wilson, Michele D.; And Others
Examined male adolescent behavior, attitudes, and knowledge concerning condom use. Findings from 241 sexually active black adolescent males revealed that factors associated with condom use included higher grade level, having 2 or more sexual partners in past 6 months, communication about contraception with sexual partner, desire for sexually…
Arendt, Florian; Hauck, Patricia; Mayr, Johanna; Negwer, Flavia
Recent campaigns try to reduce social stigma associated with persons living with HIV. For example, a German campaign raised awareness that infection is unlikely in low-risk day-to-day interactions. Research has yet to show that there are no harmful side effects. This is essential because such messages promote a less threatening picture of HIV and thus may unintentionally increase complacency. We tested the possible side effects on the willingness to have sex without condoms. An experiment was conducted in which participants were exposed to anti-stigma messages or not. Anti-stigma messages did not elicit an increase in the willingness to have sex without condoms.
ones were higher and use of female condom was very low. Key words: ...  Besides, mass media campaigns are likely to contribute to the ... cess, continuous supply, free distribution and social marketing of .... Muslims and other religions.
1Institute of Community Health, College of Pharmacy, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77030; 2 University of Texas, School of Public. Health .... marijuana use, and attitude towards condom ... adjust for the possible confounding effects.
Drummond, Peter D; Mizan, Ayse; Wright, Bernadette
Most women who live in sub-Saharan countries have heard of HIV/AIDS, but there is still widespread misunderstanding about how HIV is spread, the consequences of infection, and how to protect against infection. The aim of the present study was to investigate knowledge about HIV and attitudes towards condom use in West African refugees who had settled in Perth, Western Australia, within the past 5 years. Knowledge about transmission of HIV, myths about how HIV is spread, incorrect beliefs about protective factors, the effectiveness of condoms in protecting against sexually transmissible infections, and attitudes towards condom use were investigated by survey in 51 West African women, and in 100 Australian women for comparison. Where possible, each West African woman was matched for age and level of education with an Australian woman. Knowledge of HIV was poorest in the least educated West African women, but many of the more highly educated women also had misconceptions about how HIV is spread, how to protect against HIV, and the effectiveness of condoms in protecting against HIV. Moreover, most West African women held negative attitudes towards condom use. Within the Australian sample, HIV knowledge was greatest in women with tertiary qualifications, and was greater in younger than older women; in addition, attitudes towards condom use differed across the age span. The findings in the present study suggest that educational programs that focus on knowledge about HIV should be tailored to meet the needs and cultural sensitivities of newly emerging immigrant communities, and should target particular demographic groups within the Australian population.
Stephens, T; Conerly, R; Braithwaite, R L; Sifunda, S; Ogbuawa, N; Bhengu, S; Reddy, P
The purpose of this study was to describe the characteristics of a random sample of prison inmates from two provinces in South Africa with respect to correct knowledge regarding HIV/AIDS and sexual transmitted infection (STI) risk and beliefs about condom use. This cross-sectional descriptive study of 357 prison inmates formed part of a larger longitudinal investigation designed to implement a health education intervention for prison inmates in the KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) and Mpumalanga (MP) provinces of South Africa. Mean differences for groups were compared across sites using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Inmates from KZN were less likely to agree that 'It is important to use condoms every time you have sex' F (1355) = 25.8, pCondoms work well to prevent the spread of HIV' F (1355) = 11.7, pCondoms also prevent pregnancy' F (1355) = 5.1, pcondom use behaviour suggested that future prevention efforts focus on the importance of using condoms to prevent the spread of HIV/AIDS and other STIs.
Stanton, B; Deveaux, L; Lunn, S; Yu, S; Brathwaite, N; Li, X; Cottrell, L; Harris, C; Clemens, R; Marshall, S
Because of the continued importance of correct condom-use in controlling the HIV epidemic and the limited availability of tools for assessing correct condom-use, methods for assessing condom-application skills, especially when direct observation is not feasible, are needed. Accordingly, in the context of a high-risk population (The Bahamas) for HIV, a 17-item scale--the Condom-use Skills Checklist (CUSC)--was developed for use among young adolescents and adults. The rationale and approach to developing the scale and some measures of internal consistency, construct validity, and criterion-related validity have been described. It is concluded that the scale offers a reasonable alternative to direct observation among older subjects and that further development may make it more useful among pre-adolescents.
Representative Barbara Lee (D-CA) is reintroducing legislation in the U.S. House of Representatives that would require federal correctional facilities to allow community organizations to distribute condoms and provide voluntary counselling and testing for HIV and STDs for inmates. The bill has been referred to the House Judiciary Committee's Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, and Homeland Security.
As access to anti-retroviral therapy (ART) increases in sub-Saharan Africa, fertility and contraception patterns are likely to change. Two hundred HIV-positive women at an ART roll-out site in Zimbabwe responded to a questionnaire on fertility desires and condom use. Ten women (5%) reported planning a pregnancy in the ...
The primary aim of this study was to determine the perceptions of youth on the use of condoms for HIV prevention in the Capricorn District of the Limpopo Province, South Africa. A qualitative, exploratory and descriptive design was used. The population included all youth from the ages of 15 to 19 years who attended two ...
Bankole, Akinrinola; Ahmed, Fatima H.; Neema, Stella; Ouedraogo, Christine; Konyani, Sidon
Using data from the 2004 National Adolescent Surveys, this paper undertook a detail analysis of knowledge of correct condom use and consistency of use, as well as their covariates, among adolescents in Burkina Faso, Ghana, Malawi and Uganda. The strongest predictor of knowledge of correct condom use among both male and female adolescents is exposure to a condom use demonstration. In Burkina Faso, Ghana and Uganda, adolescents who have seen a condom demonstration are 2 to 5 times as likely as ...
Ritchwood, Tiarney D.; Penn, Dolly; Peasant, Courtney; Albritton, Tashuna; Corbie-Smith, Giselle
This study examines the role of condom use knowledge and attitudes, and parent-teen communication about sex and relationship quality on reports of condom use self-efficacy among rural, African American youth. Participants were 465 North Carolinian youth (10–14 years). Results indicated that greater condom use self-efficacy was predicted by greater knowledge of condom use (β = .206; p parent-teen communication about sex (β = .13; p parent-teen communication about sex and dating (β = .14; p parents and youth on measures related to parent-teen communication about sex. Findings call for interventions targeting improvement of condom use knowledge among early adolescents, as well as parent-teen communication about sex. In addition, given the low parent-teen agreement regarding sexual communication, parent-teen sexual communication is an important point of intervention. PMID:28461714
Kaufman, Michelle R; Rimal, Rajiv N; Carrasco, Maria; Fajobi, OlaOluwa; Soko, Anthony; Limaye, Rupali; Mkandawire, Glory
While overall HIV prevalence in Malawi has decreased, it is still high in the southern region of the country. Behavioral prevention activities are crucial to continue the reduction in HIV prevalence. Behavior change is influenced by many factors. Previous work indicates knowledge about HIV transmission, self-efficacy to protect oneself from exposure, and accurate risk perception of one's susceptibility all impact sexual behavior. The current study looks at the effects of a behavior change communication program in Malawi called the BRIDGE II Project on psychosocial and behavioral variables. The program sought to address barriers to individual action and confront societal norms related to sexual risk behavior through a mix of community-based activities and mass media messages delivered through local radio stations. Using cohort data (n = 594), we examined the effect of BRIDGE exposure on three variables that affect HIV behaviors: knowledge, self-efficacy, and risk perception, as well as two behavioral outcomes: HIV testing and condom use at last sex. Data were collected at baseline and for a midterm evaluation. Regression analyses showed exposure to BRIDGE was significantly associated with knowledge level (β = 0.20, p use at last sex (OR = 1.26, p increased.
Partner trust, non-availability of condoms, not achieving the desired sexual satisfaction and embarrassment of condom purchase were the main barriers to condom-use. Prevention strategies based on perceived severity or adequate knowledge about HIV/AIDS may not be sufficient to induce condom-use. Reproductive ...
Anyanwu, Philip Emeka; Fulton, John
Although sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are a global health problem affecting every region of the world, the higher prevalence and mortality rate of STIs in developing countries of the world, like Nigeria, make them serious public health issues in this region. The aim of this study is to assess the knowledge and perception of young adults in Nigeria on the role of condom (both male and female condoms) as a preventive measure against STIs during heterosexual and homosexual intercourse. Data was collected from participants selected from the northern and southern Nigeria using self-administered questionnaire specifically designed for this study. Knowledge of condom efficacy in STI prevention was satisfactory. However, knowledge and practice of the correct use of condom was poor. Only 47.1% of the 102 participants in this study reported correct condom use of wearing condoms before staring intercourse and removing condoms after ejaculation. As a strategy to include the experiences, knowledge and perception of men who have sex with men, this study asked the question on condom use during anal sex. Only 24.4% of the male participants indicated they have never had anal sex while for females, the percentage was more than half (53.5%). Condom use during anal sex was low with only 20.6% of participants reporting condom use during anal sex. Negative perceptions about condom use - such as that condom use promotes sexual promiscuity, and not using condoms with steady sexual partners - were significant in this study. Also, condom use errors were common in this study. There is a wide gap in knowledge of correct condom use in this population. There is need for interventions that address the issue of condom use during anal and same-sex sexual intercourse in this population.
The aim of the study is to investigate knowledge and sexual practices with reference to correct use of condoms among first year South African University students. The sample consisted of 206 participants, 146 female and 60 male, the mean age was 20.9 years (SD = 3.4), with a range from 17 to 34 years. Results indicated that one third (29.2%) of the sample reported never using condoms, 35.4% always, 19.8% regularly and 8.5% irregularly in the past three months. About 90% levels of correct answers for condom use were found for the items of 'condoms as protection against STD and AIDS', 'expiry date of condoms', and 're-using condoms'. More than 15% were not aware that a condom should be put on before any contact with the vagina. The most common mistakes with respect to condom use were ignorance about the correct moment to put on a condom (56%), and when to take off a condom (55%). Male sex and especially increasing recent sexual encounters was associated with correct condom knowledge. The most common reasons for not using a condom were 'I do not have the AIDS virus' and 'I thought I was safe' seems to indicate a low perceived susceptibility. Findings are discussed in view of condom promotion programmes.
Peterson, John L.; Bakeman, Roger
The association between perceptions about condom use among one's peers, beliefs about new HIV treatments, and HIV sexual risk behavior was examined in a large urban sample ( N = 454) of gay and bisexual men in the Southeast. Results partially confirmed the hypothesis that men who endorsed new HIV treatment beliefs would report lower norms for…
The aim of the study was to investigate factors affecting condom use among senior secondary school pupils in South Africa. Objectives were to identify the sociodemographic characteristics and sexual history, knowledge about correct condom use, source of condom information, AIDS health beliefs, self efficacy of condom use, correlates and predictors of condom use in Grade 12 students. Cross sectional survey. 460 Grade 12 secondary school pupils from three rural schools. The sample included 460 Grade 12 secondary school pupils, 170 (37%) males and 290 (63%) females in the age range of 16 to 30 years (mean age 19.7 yrs, SD = 2.5). Self reported sexual activity and condom use (12 items); source of 'condom' information (12 items); knowledge of correct condom use (10 items); a 16 item AIDS Health Belief Scale and a 28 item Condom Use Self-Efficacy Scale. About half of those sexually active (52.6% males and 40.5% females) reported never having used condoms. About 90% levels of correct answers on condom knowledge were found for the items of "protection against AIDS" and "expire date of condoms". Knowing someone with HIV/AIDS was related to current condom use and a history of STD with lifetime condom use. The four AIDS beliefs sub-scales were all related to self efficacy of condom use. Behavioural norm to use condoms, attitudes towards condom use, normative beliefs to use of condoms and subjective norm to use condoms were all related to condom use intention. Normative beliefs and subjective norms to use condoms were both negatively related with lifetime condom use, current condom use, and self efficacy in condom use. Normative beliefs, attitudes and subjective norms about condoms predicted condom use intention, AIDS susceptibility and AIDS benefits predicted condom use with last sexual partner, and AIDS benefits and AIDS barriers predicted condom use intention. Findings have relevant implications and are discussed in the context of developing an educational or intervention
Harris, A O; Jubwe, S; Kennedy, S B; Taylor, C H; Martin, R B; Bee, E M; Perry, O S; Massaquoi, M T; Woods, D V; Barbu, E M
Youths in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) account for a large burden of the global HIV/STI crises. As such, strategies directed at promoting behavioral modifications would be critical to reducing the prevalence of risky sexual behaviors among high risk adolescents in post-conflict environments. This study describes a condom promotion strategy to prevent HIV/STIs among highly vulnerable urban youth in a post-conflict, resource-constrained environment via the provision of both male and female condoms to nontraditional venues like music and photo shops, ice cream parlors, money exchange centers and beauty salons. Community members in the designated catchment areas volunteered their services and the use of their small businesses to support this endeavor. In this paper, we describe the condom promotion strategy and its implications within the context of a community-based participatory social marketing program to prevent risky sexual behaviors among highly vulnerable urban youth in a post-conflict country. We postulate that this approach may likely increase condom use among urban youth in Monrovia, the capital city of Liberia.
Azwihangwisi H. Mavhandu-Mudzusi
Full Text Available Background: Millennium Development Goal (MDG number 6, target 6A focuses on halting and reversing the spread of HIV by 2015. South Africa is amongst the 189 countries that are involved in trying to meet the MDGs. In order to try and achieve this goal, South Africa, through its HIV and AIDS, STI and TB strategic plans has adopted the United Nations vision of ‘Zeros’, which include zero new HIV infections by the year 2015. One of the key interventions for achieving this is improvement in access to condoms. Aim: This article reports on perceptions of Vhembe District young adults regarding condom use. Setting: This study was conducted in one of the rural clinics in Vhembe District of the Limpopo Province: South Africa. Methods: A quantitative, cross-sectional design approach was followed. Data were collected using structured questionnaires administered to 372 young adults who came for healthcare services at one of the clinics in Vhembe District. Results: The findings indicated that there is a relationship between positive perceptions toward condom use and actual condom use. People who have positive attitudes toward condoms are also more likely to use them. In contrast, people with a negative attitude towards condoms are less likely to use them during sexual intercourse. Negative attitudes of health care providers were found to be a barrier that prevents sexually active individuals to access condoms in primary health care facilities. Conclusion: With current peceptions towards condom use, Zero new HIV infection will never be achieved. The researcher recommends development of strategies for promoting access and correct use of condoms. Keywords: Condom use, perception, young adults
Full Text Available Objectives: Young women are more likely to be infected with HIV globally, in sub-Saharan Africa, and in Cameroon. Despite its clear clinical and public health benefits, condom use among HIV-infected women continues to be low. The objective of this study was to describe the prevalence of inconsistent condom use among HIV-infected women in Cameroon and the factors associated with it. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of HIV-infected young women aged 17–26 years from three semi-urban HIV clinics in the Northwest Region of Cameroon. This study was a subgroup analysis of a previously reported study on inconsistent condom use in HIV-infected and -uninfected youth. Inconsistent condom use was defined as reporting “sometimes” or “never” to questions regarding frequency of condom use. Logistic regression modeling was used to determine factors associated with inconsistent condom use. Results: A total of 84 participants were recruited and submitted completed questionnaires for analysis. Median age was 24 years (interquartile range = 22–25 and the median age at HIV diagnosis was 21 years (interquartile range = 20–23. Fifty percent of the participants reported no prior schooling or only primary school education. Overall, 61/84 (73% reported inconsistent condom use. After adjusting for potential confounders, education to the secondary school level was protective against inconsistent condom use (odds ratio = 0.19; confidence interval: 0.04–0.95, and having ≥2 pregnancies was associated with inconsistent condom use (odds ratio = 7.52; confidence interval: 1.67–34.00. Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of inconsistent condom use among young HIV-infected women in Cameroon, which appears to be associated with lower levels of educational attainment and higher parity. Further larger studies assessing the factors associated with poor condom use in this population are warranted and may inform public health
Full Text Available In many settings, interventions targeting female sex workers (FSWs could significantly reduce the overall transmission of HIV. To understand the role HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP could play in controlling HIV transmission amongst FSWs, it is important to understand how its impact compares with scaling-up condom use—one of the proven HIV prevention strategies for FSWs. It is important to remember that condoms also have other benefits such as reducing the incidence of sexually transmitted infections and preventing pregnancy. A dynamic deterministic model of HIV transmission amongst FSWs, their clients and other male partners (termed ‘pimps’ was used to compare the protection provided by PrEP for HIV-negative FSWs with FSWs increasing their condom use with clients and/or pimps. For different HIV prevalence scenarios, levels of pimp interaction, and baseline condom use, we estimated the coverage of PrEP that gives the same reduction in endemic FSW HIV prevalence or HIV infections averted as different increases in condom use. To achieve the same impact on FSW HIV prevalence as increasing condom use by 1%, the coverage of PrEP has to increase by >2%. The relative impact of PrEP increases for scenarios where pimps contribute to HIV transmission, but not greatly, and decreases with higher baseline condom use. In terms of HIV infections averted over 10 years, the relative impact of PrEP compared to condoms was reduced, with a >3% increase in PrEP coverage achieving the same impact as a 1% increase in condom use. Condom promotion interventions should remain the mainstay HIV prevention strategy for FSWs, with PrEP only being implemented once condom interventions have been maximised or to fill prevention gaps where condoms cannot be used.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Proper knowledge of HIV transmission is not enough for people to adopt protective behaviors, but deficits in this information may increase HIV/AIDS vulnerability. Objective To assess drug users' knowledge of HIV/AIDS and the possible association between knowledge and HIV testing. Methods A Cross-sectional study conducted in 2006/7 with a convenience sample of 295 illicit drug users in Rio de Janeiro, assessing knowledge on AIDS/HIV transmission and its relationship with HIV testing. Information from 108 randomly selected drug users who received an educational intervention using cards illustrating situations potentially associated with HIV transmission were assessed using Multidimensional Scaling (MDS. Results Almost 40% of drug users reported having never used condoms and more than 60% reported not using condoms under the influence of substances. Most drug users (80.6% correctly answered that condoms make sex safer, but incorrect beliefs are still common (e.g. nearly 44% believed HIV can be transmitted through saliva and 55% reported that HIV infection can be transmitted by sharing toothbrushes, with significant differences between drug users who had and who had not been tested for HIV. MDS showed queries on vaginal/anal sex and sharing syringes/needles were classified in the same set as effective modes of HIV transmission. The event that was further away from this core of properly perceived risks referred to blood donation, perceived as risky. Other items were found to be dispersed, suggesting inchoate beliefs on transmission modes. Conclusions Drug users have an increased HIV infection vulnerability compared to the general population, this specific population expressed relevant doubts about HIV transmission, as well as high levels of risky behavior. Moreover, the findings suggest that possessing inaccurate HIV/AIDS knowledge may be a barrier to timely HIV testing. Interventions should be tailored to such specific
Background: Youths in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) account for a large burden of the global HIV/STI crises. As such, strategies directed at promoting behavioral modifications would be critical to reducing the prevalence of risky sexual behaviors among high risk adolescents in post-conflict environments. Objectives: This study ...
Full Text Available There is a paucity of data concerning condom use, especially regarding knowledge about the correct use of condoms in South Africa. Therefore, the aim of the study is to investigate knowledge and sexual practices with reference to correct use of condoms among an urban adult community in the Northern Province. *Please note: This is a reduced version of the abstract. Please refer to PDF for full text.
Full Text Available The aim of the study is to investigate knowledge and sexual practices with reference to correct use of condoms among first year South African University students. The sample consisted of 206 participants, 146 female and 60 male, the mean age was 20.9 years (SD=3.4, with a range from 17 to 34 years. Results indicated that one third (29.2% of the sample reported never using condoms, 35.4% always, 19.8% regularly and 8.5% irregularly in the past three months. About 90% levels of correct answers for condom use were found for the items of ‘condoms as protection against STD and AIDS’, ‘expiry date of condoms’, and ‘re-using condoms’. More than 15% were not aware that a condom should be put on before any contact with the vagina. The most common mistakes with respect to condom use were ignorance about the correct moment to put on a condom (56%, and when to take off a condom (55%. Male sex and especially increasing recent sexual encounters was associated with correct condom knowledge. The most common reasons for not using a condom were ‘I do not have the AIDS virus’ and ‘I thought I was safe’ seems to indicate a low perceived susceptibility. Findings are discussed in view of condom promotion programmes.
Lisa B Haddad
Full Text Available Programs for integration of family planning into HIV care must recognize current practices and desires among clients to appropriately target and tailor interventions. We sought to evaluate fertility intentions, unintended pregnancy, contraceptive and condom use among a cohort of HIV-infected women seeking family planning services within an antiretroviral therapy (ART clinic.200 women completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire during enrollment into a prospective contraceptive study at the Lighthouse Clinic, an HIV/ART clinic in Lilongwe, Malawi, between August and December 2010.Most women (95% did not desire future pregnancy. Prior reported unintended pregnancy rates were high (69% unplanned and 61% unhappy with timing of last pregnancy. Condom use was inconsistent, even among couples with discordant HIV status, with lack of use often attributed to partner's refusal. Higher education, older age, lower parity and having an HIV negative partner were factors associated with consistent condom usage.High rates of unintended pregnancy among these women underscore the need for integ rating family planning, sexually transmitted infection (STI prevention, and HIV services. Contraceptive access and use, including condoms, must be improved with specific efforts to enlist partner support. Messages regarding the importance of condom usage in conjunction with more effective modern contraceptive methods for both infection and pregnancy prevention must continue to be reinforced over the course of ongoing ART treatment.
Haddad, Lisa B; Feldacker, Caryl; Jamieson, Denise J; Tweya, Hannock; Cwiak, Carrie; Chaweza, Thomas; Mlundira, Linly; Chiwoko, Jane; Samala, Bernadette; Kachale, Fanny; Bryant, Amy G; Hosseinipour, Mina C; Stuart, Gretchen S; Hoffman, Irving; Phiri, Sam
Programs for integration of family planning into HIV care must recognize current practices and desires among clients to appropriately target and tailor interventions. We sought to evaluate fertility intentions, unintended pregnancy, contraceptive and condom use among a cohort of HIV-infected women seeking family planning services within an antiretroviral therapy (ART) clinic. 200 women completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire during enrollment into a prospective contraceptive study at the Lighthouse Clinic, an HIV/ART clinic in Lilongwe, Malawi, between August and December 2010. Most women (95%) did not desire future pregnancy. Prior reported unintended pregnancy rates were high (69% unplanned and 61% unhappy with timing of last pregnancy). Condom use was inconsistent, even among couples with discordant HIV status, with lack of use often attributed to partner's refusal. Higher education, older age, lower parity and having an HIV negative partner were factors associated with consistent condom usage. High rates of unintended pregnancy among these women underscore the need for integ rating family planning, sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention, and HIV services. Contraceptive access and use, including condoms, must be improved with specific efforts to enlist partner support. Messages regarding the importance of condom usage in conjunction with more effective modern contraceptive methods for both infection and pregnancy prevention must continue to be reinforced over the course of ongoing ART treatment.
Objective: The aim of this study was to identify factors affecting HIV risk reduction ... Main outcome measures: Sexual behavior and condom use, knowledge about ... attitudes, normative beliefs, and subjective norms about condoms, HIV/AIDS ...
necessary for the design of a behavior change. Page 2. African Health Sciences Vol 13 Issue 4 December 2013. 1028 communication (BCC) toolkit for use in addressing. HIV/STI risk-taking behaviors among FSWs and truckers operating along ... and truckers, or were patrons of bars and other entertainment venues that ...
Bontempi, Jean Breny; Mugno, Raymond; Bulmer, Sandra M.; Danvers, Karina; Vancour, Michele L.
Background: Rates of HIV/AIDS, and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), are increasing among university students. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine gender differences in the relationship between condom use and (1) HIV/STD testing behaviors, (2) STD treatment behaviors and, (3) alcohol use behaviors. Methods: A survey was…
Sanders, Stephanie A; Crosby, Richard A; Milhausen, Robin R; Graham, Cynthia A; Tirmizi, Amir; Yarber, William L; Beauchamps, Laura; Mena, Leandro
The objective of this study was to investigate women's willingness to experiment with new condoms and lubricants, in order to inform condom promotion in a city with high rates of poverty and HIV. One hundred and seventy-three women (85.9% Black) sexually transmitted infection clinic attendees in Jackson, Mississippi, United States completed a questionnaire assessing willingness to experiment with condoms and lubricants and sexual pleasure and lubrication in relation to last condom use. Most women were willing to: (1) experiment with new types of condoms and lubricants to increase their sexual pleasure, (2) touch/handle these products in the absence of a partner, and (3) suggest experimenting with new condoms and lubricants to a sex partner. Previous positive sexual experiences with lubricant during condom use predicted willingness. The role women may play in male condom use should not be underestimated. Clinicians may benefit women by encouraging them to try new types of condoms and lubricants to find products consistent with sexual pleasure.
Crosby, Richard; Mena, Leandro; Yarber, William L; Graham, Cynthia A; Sanders, Stephanie A; Milhausen, Robin R
To describe self-reported frequencies of selected condom use errors and problems among young (age, 15-29 years) black men who have sex with men (YBMSM) and to compare the observed prevalence of these errors/problems by HIV serostatus. Between September 2012 October 2014, electronic interview data were collected from 369 YBMSM attending a federally supported sexually transmitted infection clinic located in the southern United States. Seventeen condom use errors and problems were assessed. χ(2) Tests were used to detect significant differences in the prevalence of these 17 errors and problems between HIV-negative and HIV-positive men. The recall period was the past 90 days. The overall mean (SD) number of errors/problems was 2.98 (2.29). The mean (SD) for HIV-negative men was 2.91 (2.15), and the mean (SD) for HIV-positive men was 3.18 (2.57). These means were not significantly different (t = 1.02, df = 367, P = 0.31). Only 2 significant differences were observed between HIV-negative and HIV-positive men. Breakage (P = 0.002) and slippage (P = 0.005) were about twice as likely among HIV-positive men. Breakage occurred for nearly 30% of the HIV-positive men compared with approximately 15% among HIV-negative men. Slippage occurred for approximately 16% of the HIV-positive men compared with approximately 9% among HIV-negative men. A need exists to help YBMSM acquire the skills needed to avert breakage and slippage issues that could lead to HIV transmission. Beyond these 2 exceptions, condom use errors and problems were ubiquitous in this population regardless of HIV serostatus. Clinic-based intervention is warranted for these young men, including education about correct condom use and provision of free condoms and long-lasting lubricants.
Miranda, Joyal; Côté, José; Godin, Gaston; Blais, Martin; Otis, Joanne; Guéhéneuc, Yann-Gaël; Fadel, Ghayas; Barton, Luisa; Fowler, Shawn
In the recent years, the Internet has been used as a medium to find sexual partners and engage in risky sexual behavior. This has changed the way in which men having have sex with men (MSM) seek sexual partners and has increased the number of high-risk sexual encounters. Therefore, developers of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-prevention interventions have also started using the Internet as a viable medium to promote safe sexual behaviors. However, much of the efforts thus far have been aimed at HIV-negative rather than HIV-positive MSM. HIV-positive individuals continue to engage in risky sexual behaviors and thus constitute an important group in which HIV prevention strategies need to be addressed. Therefore, HIV prevention in HIV-positive MSM is a critical issue. Condom-Him, an Internet-based intervention tailored to increase condom use among HIV-positive MSM, was developed with the aim of improving condom use, self-efficacy, and intentions to use condoms among these individuals. The acceptability and feasibility of this Internet-based intervention will be examined in a pilot study. We will perform a randomized controlled parallel-group superiority trial. HIV-positive MSM who currently engage in unprotected anal sex will be recruited for the study. Participants will be randomly assigned using a one-to-one allocation ratio generated by the computer program. The researchers will be blinded to participant's group assignment. Participants will be assigned either to use the Condom-Him intervention (experimental arm) or to view a list of websites containing HIV/AIDS related information (control arm). Self-administered questionnaires will be provided online before randomization (baseline) and two weeks after intervention (post-test). The study will include a total of 60 participants with 30 in each group. The results from this pilot study will provide further evidence for a larger study to examine the effectiveness of this intervention and will provide a cost
Prata, Ndola; Morris, Leo; Mazive, Elizio; Vahidnia, Farnaz; Stehr, Mark
The relationship between individuals' perception of their risk for acquiring HIV and their use of condoms is poorly understood. Understanding this relationship is crucial to the development of effective strategies to fight HIV and AIDS. Data from the Mozambique 2001 Adolescent and Young Adult Reproductive Health and Behavior Risk Survey are used to compare 15-24-year-olds' assessments of their HIV risk with assessments based on current and past sexual behavior. In bivariate and probit regression analyses, the relationship between correct risk assessment and the likelihood of condom use at last intercourse is examined. Twenty-seven percent of women and 80% of men who considered themselves to have no risk or a small risk of contracting HIV were actually at moderate or high risk. For both men and women, the prevalence of condom use at last sex was more than twice as high among those who assessed their risk correctly (30% and 16%, respectively) as among those who did not (14% and 6%). Multivariate analysis showed that correct assessment was positively associated with condom use; the association was driven by use among never-married individuals. Never-married males who assessed their risk correctly were 18% more likely than other males to report condom use; never-married females, 17% more likely than other females. Educational messages should aim at enabling individuals to correctly assess their own HIV risk and encouraging behavior change based on self-assessment of risk.
Sonnex, C; Hart, G J; Williams, P; Adler, M W
The use of condoms to prevent the further spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is one of the main themes of the government's health education campaign against AIDS. A study of the use of and attitudes towards condoms in 222 heterosexual men and women attending a department of genitourinary medicine (GUM) in central London showed that 55% (50/91) to 59% (41/70) of men or women never, and 6% (6/95) to 15% (14/91) always, used condoms with their regular or non-regular sexual pa...
Wechsberg, Wendee M; Luseno, Winnie K; Kline, Tracy L; Browne, Felicia A; Zule, William A
This article presents the results of a randomized trial in South Africa of an adapted evidence-based Woman-Focused intervention on condom use with primary sex partners. The preliminary findings show that regardless of HIV status, condom negotiation was significantly associated with condom use at the 3- and 6-month follow-ups. By intervention group, significant intervention effects were found at 6-month follow-up for HIV-positive and HIV-unknown status women in the Woman-Focused intervention who were more likely than women in the Standard intervention to report condom use with a primary male partner. Among HIV-positive women, those in the Woman-Focused group and those with greater sexual control were more likely to report condom use at the 6-month follow-up. The findings indicate that gender-based interventions for women may result in increased condom negotiation skills.
Noden, Bruce H; Gomes, Aurelio; Ferreira, Aldina
The interactions between religious affiliation, education, HIV knowledge, and HIV-related sexual behaviors among African church youth are poorly understood. In this socio-demographic study, 522 unmarried youth 12-28 years old in rural central Mozambique were surveyed with a structured questionnaire. Using binary logistic regression analysis, we used religious affiliation and education to measure influence on (1) HIV transmission and prevention knowledge and attitudes and (2) HIV-related sexual behaviors among youth. Religiously affiliated males were more likely than non-religious males to know when a condom should be used, respond correctly to HIV transmission questions and respond with less stigma to HIV-related scenarios. Increased levels of education among males corresponded significantly to increased knowledge of condom usage and HIV prevention strategies and less likelihood to respond with stigma. Only education levels influenced young female responses. Religious affiliation and education had minimal effects on sexual activity, condom usage, and multiple partnerships. African Independent Church/Zionist males were 1.6 times more likely to be sexually inexperienced than non-religious males but were also significantly less likely to use condoms (0.23, p=0.024). Non-religious youth were most likely to have visited sex workers and did not use condoms. These results suggest that religious affiliation, possibly as the result of educational opportunities afforded by religious-affiliated schools, is contributing to increased HIV transmission and prevention knowledge among youth in rural Central Mozambique but not influencing HIV-related sexual behavior. The need exists to strengthen the capacity of religious congregations to teach about HIV/AIDS and target non-religious youth with HIV transmission and prevention information.
Lennart P. Maljaars
Full Text Available Background: Approximately 3 million adolescents and young adults (AYA, between the ages of 15 years and 24 years, are living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. The use of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP may be a promising HIV prevention tool to bridge the high-risk years of AYA between sexual debut and adulthood. Objectives: Concerns have been raised that the use of PrEP could lead to an increase in sexual risk behaviour and sexually transmitted infections in general and less condom use in particular among adolescents. Methods: This study assesses condom use among South African adolescents enrolled on a demonstration PrEP study, called Pluspills, being conducted in Cape Town and Soweto. A questionnaire on sexual risk behaviour was administered at baseline and after 4, 8 and 12 weeks. Three different questions on condom use were asked at each visit. Unless all answers indicated condom use at all times, a participant was scored ‘at risk’. McNemar’s tests and a Cochran’s Q test were used to investigate changes in condom use over time. Results: We interviewed 148 adolescents (66% female at baseline. Eighty-nine participants completed all visits. In this group, an increase in condom use was observed over the period of 12 weeks. Most participants who reported behavioural changes mentioned an increase in condom use. Conclusion: There was no sign of sexual risk compensation in the 12 weeks of the study. Observed increase in condom use can be explained by an increased awareness of personal HIV risk or by social desirability or recall biases. In future research, additional data including other biomarkers of unprotected sex and longer follow-up time would be useful to help understand the relationship between PrEP use, sexual risk perception and consequent behaviours, especially in adolescents.
Rhodes, Scott D; Alonzo, Jorge; Mann, Lilli; Song, Eunyoung Y; Tanner, Amanda E; Arellano, Jorge Elias; Rodriguez-Celedon, Rodrigo; Garcia, Manuel; Freeman, Arin; Reboussin, Beth A; Painter, Thomas M
To evaluate the HOLA en Grupos intervention, a Spanish-language small-group behavioral HIV prevention intervention designed to increase condom use and HIV testing among Hispanic/Latino gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men. In 2012 to 2015, we recruited and randomized 304 Hispanic/Latino men who have sex with men, aged 18 to 55 years in North Carolina, to the 4-session HOLA en Grupos intervention or an attention-equivalent general health education comparison intervention. Participants completed structured assessments at baseline and 6-month follow-up. Follow-up retention was 100%. At follow-up, relative to comparison participants, HOLA en Grupos participants reported increased consistent condom use during the past 3 months (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 4.1; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.2, 7.9; P < .001) and HIV testing during the past 6 months (AOR = 13.8; 95% CI = 7.6, 25.3; P < .001). HOLA en Grupos participants also reported increased knowledge of HIV (P < .001) and sexually transmitted infections (P < .001); condom use skills (P < .001), self-efficacy (P < .001), expectancies (P < .001), and intentions (P < .001); sexual communication skills (P < .01); and decreased fatalism (P < .001). The HOLA en Grupos intervention is efficacious for reducing HIV risk behaviors among Hispanic/Latino men who have sex with men.
However, the extent to which knowledge of one's HIV status contributes to behavioural change among people living with HIV (PLHIV) has not been comprehensively documented. Drawing on an analysis of 37 in-depth interviews and five focus group discussions with PLHIV, this paper examines the nature of sexual activity ...
Tobin-West, Charles I; Maduka, Omosivie; Onyekwere, Victor N; Tella, Adedayo O
Most university students in Nigeria are sexually active and engage in high risk sexual behaviors. The aim of this study was to assess the acceptability and use of female condoms in the context of HIV prevention in order to provide basic information that can stimulate female condom programming to promote sexually transmitted infection and HIV prevention among youths in tertiary institutions. A descriptive, cross-sectional study was carried out among 810 undergraduate students of the University of Port Harcourt from October to November 2011, using a stratified sampling method and self-administered questionnaires. Most of the students, 589 (72.7%) were sexually active; 352 (59.7%) reported having just one sexual partner, while 237 (40.3%) had multiple partners. The mean number of sexual partners in the past six months was 2.2 ± 0. Consistent condom use was reported among 388 (79.2%) students, 102 (20.8%) reported occasional usage, while 99 (16.8%) did not use condoms at all. Only 384 (65.2%) of the students had ever been screened for HIV. Although 723 (89.3%) were aware of female condoms, only 64(8.9%) had ever used one due to unavailability, high cost, and difficulty with its insertion. Nevertheless, 389 (53.8%) of the students expressed willingness to use them if offered, while 502 (69.4%) would recommend it to friends/peers. This study highlights significant challenges in the use of female condoms among university students. These include unavailability, high cost, and difficulty with insertion. Therefore, deliberate efforts using social marketing strategies, appropriate youth-friendly publicity, and peer education must be exerted to provide affordable female condoms and promote usage; such efforts should target vulnerable youths in Nigerian tertiary institutions.
Shilo, Guy; Mor, Zohar
In Israel, as in other industrialized countries, the age of sexual debut among adolescents has declined, and the rate of sexually transmitted infections (STI) has risen, but the motivations and attitudes of Israeli adolescents toward carrying condoms have yet to be studied. The aims of this study were to establish the associations (if any) between demographic characteristics and the knowledge held by Jewish Israeli adolescents about HIV transmission, their attitudes toward condom use and sexual experience, and to explore their recommendations to increase condom use. The method used was an analysis of sexual experience and practices, attitudes toward condom carrying and condom use among a national representative sample of Jewish adolescents aged 15-18. Two dichotomized measures were assessed: (i) sexual experience (defined as having had previous consensual oral/vaginal/anal sex); and (ii) the practice of carrying a condom on a regular basis. Of all 410 participants, 14.6% carried condoms, 18.3% had sexual experience, and 70.7% of those used condoms. Those who thought condoms to be protective against HIV, and those who thought they are difficult to wear, were more likely to have sexual experience. The perception of condom use as important, and the perception that condoms are difficult to wear, were predictors of condom carrying. The participants' knowledge of the risk of HIV in vaginal intercourse was deficient. Participants did not consider school sex education to be effective in promoting condom use, and recommended the use of graphic, deterrent personal accounts told by youths to encourage wider use of condoms. Health educators should consider the barriers cited by adolescents and the deterrent techniques they recommend when planning interventions to encourage condom use. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.
Marsudi, Hidayat, Noor; Wibowo, Ratno Bagus Edy
In this article, we present a deterministic model for the transmission dynamics of HIV/AIDS in which condom campaign and antiretroviral therapy are both important for the disease management. We calculate the effective reproduction number using the next generation matrix method and investigate the local and global stability of the disease-free equilibrium of the model. Sensitivity analysis of the effective reproduction number with respect to the model parameters were carried out. Our result shows that efficacy rate of condom campaign, transmission rate for contact with the asymptomatic infective, progression rate from the asymptomatic infective to the pre-AIDS infective, transmission rate for contact with the pre-AIDS infective, ARV therapy rate, proportion of the susceptible receiving condom campaign and proportion of the pre-AIDS receiving ARV therapy are highly sensitive parameters that effect the transmission dynamics of HIV/AIDS infection.
Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV/AIDS remains being a disease of great public health concern worldwide. In regions such as sub-Saharan Africa (SSA where women are disproportionately infected with HIV, women are reportedly less likely capable of negotiating condom use. However, while knowledge of condom use for HIV prevention is extensive among men and women in many countries including Tanzania, evidence is limited about the role of condom negotiation on condom use among women in rural Tanzania. Methods Data originate from a cross-sectional survey of random households conducted in 2011 in Rufiji, Kilombero and Ulanga districts in Tanzania. The survey assessed health-seeking behaviour among women and children using a structured interviewer-administered questionnaire. A total of 2,614 women who were sexually experienced and aged 15-49 years were extracted from the main database for the current analysis. Linkage between condom negotiation and condom use at the last sexual intercourse was assessed using multivariate logistic regression. Results Prevalence of condom use at the last sexual intercourse was 22.2% overall, ranging from12.2% among married women to 54.9% among unmarried (single women. Majority of the women (73.4% reported being confident to negotiate condom use, and these women were significantly more likely than those who were not confident to have used a condom at the last sexual intercourse (OR = 3.13, 95% CI 2.22-4.41. This effect was controlled for marital status, age, education, religion, number of sexual partners, household wealth and knowledge of HIV prevention by condom use. Conclusion Confidence to negotiate condom use is a significant predictor of actual condom use among women in rural Tanzania. Women, especially unmarried ones, those in multiple partnerships or anyone needing protection should be empowered with condom negotiation skills for increased use of condoms in order to enhance their sexual and reproductive health outcomes.
Exavery, Amon; Kanté, Almamy M; Jackson, Elizabeth; Noronha, John; Sikustahili, Gloria; Tani, Kassimu; Mushi, Hildegalda P; Baynes, Colin; Ramsey, Kate; Hingora, Ahmed; Phillips, James F
HIV/AIDS remains being a disease of great public health concern worldwide. In regions such as sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) where women are disproportionately infected with HIV, women are reportedly less likely capable of negotiating condom use. However, while knowledge of condom use for HIV prevention is extensive among men and women in many countries including Tanzania, evidence is limited about the role of condom negotiation on condom use among women in rural Tanzania. Data originate from a cross-sectional survey of random households conducted in 2011 in Rufiji, Kilombero and Ulanga districts in Tanzania. The survey assessed health-seeking behaviour among women and children using a structured interviewer-administered questionnaire. A total of 2,614 women who were sexually experienced and aged 15-49 years were extracted from the main database for the current analysis. Linkage between condom negotiation and condom use at the last sexual intercourse was assessed using multivariate logistic regression. Prevalence of condom use at the last sexual intercourse was 22.2% overall, ranging from12.2% among married women to 54.9% among unmarried (single) women. Majority of the women (73.4%) reported being confident to negotiate condom use, and these women were significantly more likely than those who were not confident to have used a condom at the last sexual intercourse (OR = 3.13, 95% CI 2.22-4.41). This effect was controlled for marital status, age, education, religion, number of sexual partners, household wealth and knowledge of HIV prevention by condom use. Confidence to negotiate condom use is a significant predictor of actual condom use among women in rural Tanzania. Women, especially unmarried ones, those in multiple partnerships or anyone needing protection should be empowered with condom negotiation skills for increased use of condoms in order to enhance their sexual and reproductive health outcomes.
Ray, Ranjan; Sinha, Kompal
This paper makes methodological and empirical contributions to the study of HIV in the context of Botswana, a country with high HIV prevalence. Comparable evidence is presented from India to put the Botswana results in perspective. The results point to the strong role played by affluence and education in increasing HIV knowledge, promoting safe sex and reducing HIV prevalence. The study presents African evidence on the role played by the empowerment of women in promoting safe sex practices such as condom use. The lack of significant association between HIV prevalence and safe sex practice points to the danger of HIV-infected individuals spreading the disease through multiple sex partners and unprotected sex. This danger is underlined by the finding that females with multiple sex partners are at higher risk of being infected with HIV. These results take on special policy significance in the context of Botswana, where the issue of multiple sex partners has not been adequately addressed in the programme to contain the spread of HIV.
influencing level of knowledge, rate of condom use and attitude toward condoms use and sexual activities ... Only about 28.6% of pupils reported condom use in their last sexual intercourse. ... and parents' education for both boy and ... showed 80% of boys and 63% of girls to .... education campaigns on media and school.
Margolis, Andrew D; Joseph, Heather; Hirshfield, Sabina; Chiasson, Mary Ann; Belcher, Lisa; Purcell, David W
The changing landscape of HIV prevention in the United States underscores the need to improve our ability to efficiently reach HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) who engage in behaviors that could transmit HIV. We examined the prevalence of anal intercourse (AI) without condoms with HIV-negative or unknown serostatus partners ("at-risk partners") among 1319 HIV-positive adult male members of a sexual networking Web site for MSM. Sexual behaviors and substance use were measured over a 60-day recall period. Logistic regression was used to identify correlates of insertive and receptive AI without condoms with at-risk partners. Approximately 25% of the men had been diagnosed as having HIV 12 months or less before study enrollment. Overall, 32% of men engaged in AI without condoms with at-risk partners. Multiple logistic regression identified behavioral predictors of insertive AI without condoms with at-risk partners, including HIV diagnosis within the last 12 months, sex with multiple male partners, substance use in conjunction with sex, and use of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors. Receptive AI without condoms with at-risk partners was associated with younger age (19-24 years), residing outside metropolitan cities, substance use in conjunction with sex, and having multiple male partners. High levels of sexual risk were found among these MSM. Increased Internet-based HIV prevention marketing efforts and prevention strategies should be considered to efficiently reach HIV-positive MSM who engage in serodiscordant AI without condoms.
Bankole, Akinrinola; Ahmed, Fatima H; Neema, Stella; Ouedraogo, Christine; Konyani, Sidon
Using data from the 2004 National Adolescent Surveys, this paper undertook a detail analysis of knowledge of correct condom use and consistency of use, as well as their covariates, among adolescents in Burkina Faso, Ghana, Malawi and Uganda. The strongest predictor of knowledge of correct condom use among both male and female adolescents is exposure to a condom use demonstration. In Burkina Faso, Ghana and Uganda, adolescents who have seen a condom demonstration are 2 to 5 times as likely as those who have not to have good knowledge of correct condom use. Age, ever received sex education in school, ever attended school and exposure to the radio are also significant predictors of knowledge of correct use, particularly among men. As indicated by behavior among young men, the extent to which adolescents use the condom consistently varies across countries. Yet, it is nowhere near the required 100% level. The proportion reporting consistent use of the method in the 3 months preceding the survey is 38% in Burkina Faso, 47% in Ghana, 20% in Malawi and 36% in Uganda. Age difference between partners is a major determinant of consistent use of condoms: young men whose partner is 0-4 years younger are about two and a half times more likely to use condoms consistently than those who whose partner is 5-9 years younger. Other important predictors of consistent condom use are residence, education, living arrangement and exposure to mass media, specifically the radio and newspaper. Findings from this study point to areas that policy and program can address to provide adolescents access to the kinds of information and service they need to achieve healthy sexual and reproductive lives.
Tran, Bonnie Robin; Thomas, Anne Goldzier; Ditsela, Mooketsi; Vaida, Florin; Phetogo, Robert; Kelapile, David; Chambers, Christina; Haubrich, Richard; Shaffer, Richard
Preventing HIV infection is a priority for militaries. HIV prevention research is needed to monitor existing programs, identify areas for modification, and develop new interventions. Correct and consistent condom use is highly effective against HIV. However, use among soldiers is lower than ideal. This study describes condom use behaviors and examines correlates of use in the Botswana Defence Force (BDF). Analyses were based on 211 male personnel, aged 18–30, who completed a cross-sectional survey that collected baseline data for an intervention study. Results showed that 51% of participants reported always using condoms, 35% used condoms most times, and 14% used condoms occasionally/never. Condom use varied by partner type and was typically higher with casual partners in comparison to regular partners. After adjustment for age and marital status, factors associated with lower condom use included excessive alcohol use, perception that using condoms reduce sexual pleasure, and having a trusted partner. However, higher levels of HIV knowledge and reports of being circumcised were protective against lower condom use. HIV interventions aimed at increasing condom use in the BDF should address condom perceptions, alcohol abuse, and issues of trust. Innovative ways to increase condom use in this population should also be explored. PMID:23970609
Tran, Bonnie Robin; Thomas, Anne Goldzier; Ditsela, Mooketsi; Vaida, Florin; Phetogo, Robert; Kelapile, David; Chambers, Christina; Haubrich, Richard; Shaffer, Richard
Preventing HIV infection is a priority for militaries. HIV prevention research is needed to monitor existing programme, identify areas for modification, and develop new interventions. Correct and consistent condom use is highly effective against HIV. However, use among soldiers is lower than ideal. This study describes condom use behaviours and examines correlates of use in the Botswana Defence Force (BDF). Analyses were based on 211 male BDF personnel, aged 18-30, who completed a cross-sectional survey that collected baseline data for an intervention study. Results showed that 51% of participants reported always using condoms, 35% used condoms most times, and 14% used condoms occasionally/never. Condom use varied by partner type and was typically higher with casual partners in comparison to regular partners. After adjustment for age and marital status, factors associated with lower condom use included excessive alcohol use, perception that using condoms reduce sexual pleasure, and having a trusted partner. However, higher levels of HIV knowledge and reports of being circumcised were protective against lower condom use. HIV interventions aimed at increasing condom use in the BDF should address condom perceptions, alcohol abuse, and issues of trust. Innovative ways to increase condom use in this population should also be explored.
Martin, D J
Use of condoms has been advocated as an important method of reducing the risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission among high-risk groups such as homosexual and bisexual men, prostitutes, intravenous drug users, adolescents, and hemophiliacs. Despite risk-reduction education campaigns directed to gay men since the early 1980s, evidence shows continued deficits in condom-use skills and knowledge among gay men. Because most failures in the use of condoms are attributed to errors i...
Conserve, Donaldson F.; Whembolua, Guy-Lucien; Surkan, Pamela J.
Although men have substantial decision-making power regarding condom use, the majority of HIV knowledge and prevention studies in the general Haitian population have been conducted among youth and women. We investigated attitudes towards intimate partner violence, knowledge of and use of condoms among 9,493 men in Haiti using data from the 2012 nationally representative Demographic and Health Survey. Only 36% of HIV-negative and 44% of HIV-positive men reported using a condom the last time th...
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the knowledge, attitudes and practices related to HIV and AIDS among teenagers in rural schools in Vhembe district. This study focused on teenagers’ sources of knowledge about HIV/AIDS; their knowledge of how to avoid contracting HIV/AIDS; their knowledge of the methods of transmission of the disease; their knowledge of condoms and usage levels; and people with whom they are comfortable to talk about HIV/AIDS. This was a quantitative descriptive research design where a random sample of 128 participants between the ages of 14 and 19 years was selected. The participants were in grades 8 to 12. The study recommended that holistic HIV/AIDS preventive programmes which were culture and gender sensitive be developed. Custodians of culture should be involved in dealing with HIV/AIDS. Parents should also play their role in discussing HIV/AIDS with their children in a non-threatening environment.
Htat, Han Win; Longfield, Kim; Mundy, Gary; Win, Zaw; Montagu, Dominic
Concerns about appropriate pricing strategies and the high market share of subsidized condoms prompted Population Services International (PSI)/Myanmar to adopt a total market approach (TMA). This article presents data on the size and composition of the Myanmar condom market, identifies inefficiencies and recommends methods for better targeting public subsidy. Data on condom need and condom use came from PSI/Myanmar's (PSI/M's) behavioural surveys; data for key populations' socioeconomic status profiles came from the same surveys and the National Tuberculosis Prevalence Survey. Data on market share, volumes, value and number of condoms were from PSI/M's quarterly retail audits and Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS). Between 2008 and 2010, the universal need for condoms decreased from 112.9 to 98.2 million while condom use increased from 32 to 46%. Free and socially marketed condoms dominated the market (94%) in 2009-11 with an increase in the proportion of free condoms over time. The retail price of socially marketed condoms was artificially low at 44 kyats ($0.05 USD) in 2011 while the price for commercial condoms was 119-399 kyats ($0.15-$0.49 USD). Equity analyses demonstrated an equal distribution of female sex workers across national wealth quintiles, but 54% of men who have sex with men and 55% of male clients were in the highest two quintiles. Donor subsidies for condoms increased over time; from $434,000 USD in 2009 to $577,000 USD in 2011. The market for male condoms was stagnant in Myanmar due to: limited demand for condoms among key populations, the dominance of free and socially marketed condoms on the market and a neglected commercial sector. Subsidies for socially marketed and free condoms have prevented the growth of the private sector, an unintended consequence. A TMA is needed to grow and sustain the condom market in Myanmar, which requires close co-ordination between the public, socially marketed and commercial sectors. Published
Longfield, Kim; Mundy, Gary; Win, Zaw; Montagu, Dominic
Background Concerns about appropriate pricing strategies and the high market share of subsidized condoms prompted Population Services International (PSI)/Myanmar to adopt a total market approach (TMA). This article presents data on the size and composition of the Myanmar condom market, identifies inefficiencies and recommends methods for better targeting public subsidy. Methodology Data on condom need and condom use came from PSI/Myanmar’s (PSI/M’s) behavioural surveys; data for key populations’ socioeconomic status profiles came from the same surveys and the National Tuberculosis Prevalence Survey. Data on market share, volumes, value and number of condoms were from PSI/M’s quarterly retail audits and Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS). Results Between 2008 and 2010, the universal need for condoms decreased from 112.9 to 98.2 million while condom use increased from 32 to 46%. Free and socially marketed condoms dominated the market (94%) in 2009–11 with an increase in the proportion of free condoms over time. The retail price of socially marketed condoms was artificially low at 44 kyats ($0.05 USD) in 2011 while the price for commercial condoms was 119–399 kyats ($0.15–$0.49 USD). Equity analyses demonstrated an equal distribution of female sex workers across national wealth quintiles, but 54% of men who have sex with men and 55% of male clients were in the highest two quintiles. Donor subsidies for condoms increased over time; from $434 000 USD in 2009 to $577 000 USD in 2011. Conclusion The market for male condoms was stagnant in Myanmar due to: limited demand for condoms among key populations, the dominance of free and socially marketed condoms on the market and a neglected commercial sector. Subsidies for socially marketed and free condoms have prevented the growth of the private sector, an unintended consequence. A TMA is needed to grow and sustain the condom market in Myanmar, which requires close co-ordination between the
Choon, S E; Sapiah, W; Ismail, Z; Balan, V
A study was conducted in the Dermatology cum Genitourinary Clinic, Hospital Sultanah Aminah Johor Bahru to determine a local population's knowledge of HIV and their sexual behaviour in relation to it. A total of 231 men and 217 women were interviewed. The sexual culture seen is one of relatively late age of first sexual intercourse, low level of partner change and low level of condom use. Men reported a higher involvement in risk behaviour. Nearly all the respondents (95.8%) have heard of HIV/AIDS but had incorrect perceptions of its mode of transmission and its associations with risk groups. This study enable us to gain background information about our patients sexual behaviour and HIV knowledge. There is a need to continue HIV education to improve our public's HIV knowledge and the results of this study provides a baseline against which future educational interventions can be gauged.
Nodin, N; Carballo-Diéguez, A; Ventuneac, A M; Balan, I C; Remien, R
Condom use is the best available strategy to prevent HIV infection during sexual intercourse. However, since many people choose not to use condoms in circumstances in which HIV risk exists, alternatives to condom use for HIV prevention are needed. Currently there are several alternative bio-medical HIV-prevention products in different stages of development: microbicides, vaccines, post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Seventy-two men who have sex with men (MSM) who took part in a study on Internet use and intentional condomless anal intercourse were asked about these four products during a semi-structured interview. The questions explored knowledge and acceptability of all the products and willingness to participate in microbicide and vaccine trials. Qualitative analysis of the data suggests that these men had virtually no knowledge of PrEP, very limited knowledge of microbicides, some information about PEP and considerably more knowledge about vaccines. Reactions towards the products were generally positive except for PrEP, for which reactions were polarized as either enthusiastic or negative. With the exception of PrEP, many men expressed willingness to use the products in the future. Most men would be willing to participate in trials for microbicides and vaccines if given basic reassurances. Concerns over negative side effects and preoccupation with possible infection were some of the motives given for non-willingness to participate in a vaccine trial. These results should inform the development of future trials of biomedical prevention products.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate characteristics of female sex workers and their HIV/AIDS/STI knowledge, attitudes and behaviour in semi-urban areas in South Africa. The sample included 70 female sex workers from the Tzaneen and Phalaborwa area in the Limpopo Province. A modified form of snowball sampling known as “targeted” sampling was used for identifying female sex workers. Results showed an inadequate knowledge of HIV prevention methods and some incorrect beliefs about AIDS transmission. Most sex workers reported condom use with their last sex client, inconsistent condom use with paying partners, and had poor condom use with regular partners. One third were drinking alcohol daily, one quarter had had voluntary HIV tests, and three quarters had been exposed to HIV interventions. Findings are discussed and implications for HIV interventions outlined.
Measures of the following were included : sexual behaviour and condom use, knowledge about correct condom use, intention of condom use, behavioural norms, attitudes, normative beliefs, and subjective norms about condoms, HIV / AIDS vulnerability (likelihood to get it) and severity of the illness in the country, and ...
Brown, Jennifer L; DiClemente, Ralph J; Sales, Jessica M; Rose, Eve S; Gause, Nicole K; Safonova, Polina; Levina, Olga; Belyakov, Nikolay; Rassokhin, Vadim V
Alcohol use is a prominent factor correlated with HIV risk behavior engagement. Hazardous drinking is prevalent among Russian women and may contribute to decreased condom use. Event-based studies suggest that HIV risk behaviors may vary based on situational factors including partner characteristics and alcohol use. This study investigated the effect of situational factors on condom use during the most recent sexual encounter among a sample of HIV-infected Russian women. HIV-infected women (n = 239; mean age = 30.0 years) receiving medical care in St. Petersburg, Russia, completed an audio computer-assisted self-interview that assessed characteristics of their last sexual encounter. Multivariable logistic regression examined the associations between the following situational factors: (a) alcohol use, (b) partner type, (c) partner's serostatus, and (d) partner's alcohol use on whether a condom was used for vaginal and/or anal sex during the last sexual encounter. A total of 54.0% engaged in unprotected vaginal and/or anal sex during their last sexual encounter. In an adjusted logistic regression model, unprotected sex did not differ by participants' alcohol use (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.72, 95% CI [0.29, 1.8]) but was more likely with partners who had consumed alcohol (AOR = 2.3, 95% CI [1.1, 5.2]) and HIV-infected partners (AOR = 2.8, 95% CI [1.6, 4.9]) and less likely to occur in the context of nonsteady partnerships (AOR= 0.36, 95% CI [0.13, 0.99]). More stable, steady relationships with HIV-infected partners who consumed alcohol were associated with greater likelihood of noncondom use. Results highlight the need to address the intersection of alcohol and sexual risk engagement within the context of HIV-infected women's relationships.
Jamner, M S; Wolitski, R J; Corby, N H
To evaluate the impact of the Long Beach AIDS Community Demonstration Project, a community-based HIV-prevention intervention incorporating principles from the Transtheoretical model in its design and evaluation. Repeated cross-sectional sampling with matched intervention and comparison communities. Neighborhoods in Long Beach, California, having a high prevalence of drug abuse and prostitution. 3081 injecting drug users who were sexually active and/or shared injection equipment. Trained peer volunteers distributed fliers featuring role model stories targeted to the population's stage of change. Fliers were packaged with bleaching kits and/or condoms. Primary outcome measures were exposure to the intervention, condom carrying, and stage of change for disinfecting injection equipment with bleach and for using condoms with main and other partners. Toward the end of the study, 77% of injection drug users in the intervention area reported being exposed to the intervention. In the intervention area, rates of condom carrying increased from 10 to 27% (p project exposure had higher stage-of-change scores for using condoms with a main partner (p Project intervention for reaching injecting drug users in the community and for motivating the adoption of risk-reducing practices.
Conners, Erin E; Swanson, Kate; Morales-Miranda, Sonia; Fernández Casanueva, Carmen; Mercer, Valerie J; Brouwer, Kimberly C
This study assessed correlates of inconsistent condom use with casual partners and the prevalence of sexual risk behaviors and STIs in the Mexico/Guatemala border region using a sample of 392 migrants (303 men, 85 women) who reported current substance use or problem drinking. We ran separate univariate logistic regression models for men and women, and multivariate logistic regression models for men only. Prevalence of syphilis was 1.2% among women and 2.3% among men; HIV prevalence was 2.4% among women and 1.3% among men. Inconsistent condom use with casual partners was higher in women with greater education and lower among women who sold sex. In men, less access to free condoms, drug use with sexual partners, and drug use before sex were independently associated with inconsistent condom use with casual partners. Sexual and substance use risk behaviors were common, and HIV/STI prevention efforts should target both genders and expand beyond most-at risk populations.
Yeakley, Anna M.; Gant, Larry M.
Discusses the failure to use condoms among U.S. Latino populations and identifies six "myths" related to traditional cultural values and gender roles, and associations between condoms and prostitution, infidelity, and disease, that prevent condom use in these populations. Suggests ways that programs can address these myths in HIV…
El-Sayyed, N; Kabbash, I A; El-Gueniedy, M
This study explored knowledge, attitudes and practices towards HIV/AIDS infection among 1256 Egyptian industrial and tourism workers aged 16-40 years. Compared with industrial workers, tourism workers had a significantly better perception of the magnitude of the HIV/AIDS problem worldwide as well as in Egypt and of the likelihood of the problem worsening. Knowledge of tourism workers was also significantly better about causative agent of AIDS and methods of transmission. Both groups had negative attitudes towards patients living with HIV/AIDS concerning their right to confidentiality and to work. Both groups had a positive attitude towards behaviour change for protection from HIV/AIDS, principally via avoidance of extramarital sexual relations and adherence to religious beliefs. Use of condoms as a way to avoid HIV/AIDS was reported by only 0.4% of workers.
Elvis E. Tarkang
Full Text Available Persons with disabilities have been identified as one of the groups vulnerable to HIV, due to several challenges posed by their disabilities. They also suffer external stigma from their able bodied peers. However, they have largely been ignored as part of HIV prevention programs, largely due to the perceptions that they are not at risk, and information is not being accessible. About 5.4% of the Cameroon population lives with a disability. In Cameroon, no official statistics exist on perception of factors associated with condom use to prevent HIV among persons with disabilities, which creates a challenge for understanding the extent of the pandemic in this population. The objective of this study was therefore to investigate perceptions of factors associated with condom use among persons with physical disability in an urban town of Cameroon. The qualitative study from which this paper is based, used semi-structured in-depth interviews, conducted with a purposive sample of ten (5 male and 5 female persons with physical disability, aged 18 years and above, in April 2015. The findings of this study as interpreted according to the components of the Health Belief Model, indicated that perceived susceptibility to HIV, perceived severity of HIV, perceived benefit of condom use, perceived barriers to condom use and perceived self-efficacy for condom use were the factors perceived by persons with physical disability, to be associated with condom use. It is therefore recommended that there should be educational programs in HIV/AIDS targeted specifically at persons with physical disability. These programs should pertinently promote the understanding and perceptions of persons with physical disability of the real threat of HIV/AIDS, and also equip them with condom negotiation skills and strategies to overcome barriers to condom use.
Elvis E. Tarkang
Full Text Available Persons with disabilities have been identified as one of the groups vulnerable to HIV, due to several challenges posed by their disabilities. They also suffer external stigma from their able bodied peers. However, they have largely been ignored as part of HIV prevention programs, largely due to the perceptions that they are not at risk, and information is not being accessible. About 5.4% of the Cameroon population lives with a disability. In Cameroon, no official statistics exist on perception of factors associated with condom use to prevent HIV among persons with disabilities, which creates a challenge for understanding the extent of the pandemic in this population. The objective of this study was therefore to investigate perceptions of factors associated with condom use among persons with physical disability in an urban town of Cameroon. The qualitative study from which this paper is based, used semi-structured in-depth interviews, conducted with a purposive sample of ten (5 male and 5 female persons with physical disability, aged 18 years and above, in April 2015. The findings of this study as interpreted according to the components of the Health Belief Model, indicated that perceived susceptibility to HIV, perceived severity of HIV, perceived benefit of condom use, perceived barriers to condom use and perceived self-efficacy for condom use were the factors perceived by persons with physical disability, to be associated with condom use. It is therefore recommended that there should be educational programs in HIV/AIDS targeted specifically at persons with physical disability. These programs should pertinently promote the understanding and perceptions of persons with physical disability of the real threat of HIV/AIDS, and also equip them with condom negotiation skills and strategies to overcome barriers to condom use.
Prophylactics; Rubbers; Male condoms; Contraceptive - condom; Contraception - condom; Barrier method - condom ... your health care provider or pharmacy about emergency contraception ("morning-after pills"). PROBLEMS WITH CONDOM USE Some ...
Marfatia, Y S; Pandya, Ipsa; Mehta, Kajal
Though many methods of prevention of STI/HIV are available, condoms remain of utmost importance. They have gone a long way from the oiled silk paper used by the Chinese and the hard sheaths made of tortoise- shell used by the Japanese to the latex condoms of today. The breakthrough came when the rubber vulcanization process was invented by Charles Goodyear and eventually the first rubber condom was made. The condom offers maximum protection( more than 90%) against HIV, Hepatitis B virus and N.Gonorrhoea. They also offer protection in scenarios when alternate sexual practices are adapted. The female condom in the only female driven contraceptive method available today. Graphene and Nano lubricated condoms are new in the market and others in futuristic approach may include wearable technology/Technology driven condom and invisible Condoms. Both Correct and Consistent use of condoms needs to be promoted for HIV/STI prevention.
Tsuyuki, Kiyomi; Gipson, Jessica D; Barbosa, Regina Maria; Urada, Lianne A; Morisky, Donald E
Syndemic Zika virus, HIV and unintended pregnancy call for an urgent understanding of dual method (condoms with another modern non-barrier contraceptive) and consistent condom use. Multinomial and logistic regression analysis using data from the Pesquisa Nacional de Demografia e Saúde da Criança e da Mulher (PNDS), a nationally representative household survey of reproductive-aged women in Brazil, identified the socio-demographic, fertility and relationship context correlates of exclusive non-barrier contraception, dual method use and condom use consistency. Among women in marital and civil unions, half reported dual protection (30% condoms, 20% dual methods). In adjusted models, condom use was associated with older age and living in the northern region of Brazil or in urban areas, whereas dual method use (versus condom use) was associated with younger age, living in the southern region of Brazil, living in non-urban areas and relationship age homogamy. Among condom users, consistent condom use was associated with reporting Afro-religion or other religion, not wanting (more) children and using condoms only (versus dual methods). Findings highlight that integrated STI prevention and family planning services should target young married/in union women, couples not wanting (more) children and heterogamous relationships to increase dual method use and consistent condom use.
Sep 1, 2011 ... condoms ('flesh-to-flesh' sex is equated with masculinity and is ... sex with a virgin can cure the disease); that circumcised men cannot contract HIV; that ..... information on HIV was electronic media (radio and television).22,42.
Background Avahan, the India AIDS initiative began HIV prevention interventions in 2003 in Andhra Pradesh (AP) among high-risk groups including female sex workers (FSWs), to help contain the HIV epidemic. This manuscript describes an assessment of this intervention using the published Avahan evaluation framework and assesses the coverage, outcomes and changes in STI and HIV prevalence among FSWs. Methodology Multiple data sources were utilized including Avahan routine program monitoring data, two rounds of cross-sectional survey data (in 2006 and 2009) and STI clinical quality monitoring assessments. Bi-variate and multivariate analyses, Wald Chi-square tests and multivariate logistic regressions were used to measure changes in behavioural and biological outcomes over time and their association. Results Avahan scaled up in conjunction with the Government program to operate in all districts in AP by March 2009. By March 2009, 80% of the FSWs were being contacted monthly and 21% were coming to STI services monthly. Survey data confirmed an increase in peer educator contacts with the mean number increasing from 2.9 in 2006 to 5.3 in 2009. By 2008 free and Avahan-supported socially marketed condoms were adequate to cover the estimated number of commercial sex acts, at 45 condoms/FSW/month. Consistent condom use was reported to increase with regular (63.6% to 83.4%; AOR=2.98; p<0.001) and occasional clients (70.8% to 83.7%; AOR=2.20; p<0.001). The prevalence of lifetime syphilis decreased (10.8% to 6.1%; AOR=0.39; p<0.001) and HIV prevalence decreased in all districts combined (17.7% to 13.2%; AOR 0.68; p<0.01). Prevalence of HIV among younger FSWs (aged 18 to 20 years) decreased (17.7% to 8.2%, p=0.008). A significant increase in condom use at last sex with occasional and regular clients and consistent condom use with occasional clients was observed among FSWs exposed to the Avahan program. There was no association between exposure and HIV or STIs, although numbers
Paz-Bailey, Gabriela; Isern Fernandez, Virginia; Morales Miranda, Sonia; Jacobson, Jerry O; Mendoza, Suyapa; Paredes, Mayte A; Danaval, Damien C; Mabey, David; Monterroso, Edgar
We conducted a study among HIV-positive men and women in Honduras to describe demographics, HIV risk behaviors and sexually transmitted infection prevalence, and identify correlates of unsafe sex. Participants were recruited from HIV clinics and nongovernmental organizations in Tegucigalpa and San Pedro Sula, Honduras in a cross-sectional study in 2006. We used audio-assisted computer interviews on demographics; behaviors in the past 12 months, 6 months, and 30 days; and access to care. Assays performed included herpes (HSV-2 Herpes Select), syphilis (rapid plasma reagin [RPR] and Treponema pallidum particle agglutination assay [TPPA]) serology, and other sexually transmitted infections by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to assess variables associated with unprotected sex across all partner types in the past 12 months. Of 810 participants, 400 were from Tegucigalpa and 410 from San Pedro Sula; 367 (45%) were men. Mean age was 37 years (interquartile range: 31-43). Consistent condom use for men and women was below 60% for all partner types. In multivariate analysis, unprotected sex was more likely among women (odds ratio [OR]: 1.9, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.2-3.1, P = 0.007), those with HIV diagnoses within the past year (OR: 2.0, 95% CI: 1.1-3.7, P = 0.016), those reporting difficulty accessing condoms (OR: 2.6, 95% CI: 1.4-4.7, P = 0.003), and those reporting discrimination (OR: 1.8, 95% CI: 1.1-3.0, P = 0.016). Programs targeting HIV-positive patients need to address gender-based disparities, improve condom access and use, and help establish a protective legal and policy environment free of stigma and discrimination.
Carrasco, Maria Augusta; Nguyen, Trang Q; Barrington, Clare; Perez, Martha; Donastorg, Yeycy; Kerrigan, Deanna
Evidence indicates that social cohesion is a successful strategy to improve consistent condom use (CCU) among female sex workers. However, the individual and layered or combined effect that various types of overlapping stigmas may have on CCU between female sex workers living with HIV and their clients and steady partners has not been analyzed. Drawing on the Abriendo Puertas cohort of female sex workers living with HIV in the Dominican Republic, we used structural equation modeling to test the hypothesis that both HIV stigma and sex work stigma mediate the association between social cohesion and CCU and that they have a layered effect. The results indicated that HIV stigma mediated the association between social cohesion and CCU with clients and partners, while sex work-related stigma did not. There was no evidence of a layered HIV stigma and sex work stigma effect, which may be due to methodological limitations to handle highly correlated latent variables. Findings highlight the need to address internalized HIV stigma within the context of community-based approaches to enhance their HIV prevention impact. This will help to reduce the risk of HIV re-infection with a new distinct HIV viral strain, STI infection, and onward HIV transmission among female sex workers living with HIV.
Johnson, Patrick S; Sweeney, Mary M; Herrmann, Evan S; Johnson, Matthew W
Alcohol use, especially at binge levels, is associated with sexual HIV risk behavior, but the mechanisms through which alcohol increases sexual risk taking are not well-examined. Delay discounting, that is, devaluation of future consequences as a function of delay to their occurrence, has been implicated in a variety of problem behaviors, including risky sexual behavior. Probability discounting is studied with a similar framework as delay discounting, but is a distinct process in which a consequence is devalued because it is uncertain or probabilistic. Twenty-three, nondependent alcohol users (13 male, 10 female; mean age = 25.3 years old) orally consumed alcohol (1 g/kg) or placebo in 2 separate experimental sessions. During sessions, participants completed tasks examining delay and probability discounting of hypothetical condom-protected sex (Sexual Delay Discounting Task, Sexual Probability Discounting Task) and of hypothetical and real money. Alcohol decreased the likelihood that participants would wait to have condom-protected sex versus having immediate, unprotected sex. Alcohol also decreased the likelihood that participants would use an immediately available condom given a specified level of sexually transmitted infection (STI) risk. Alcohol did not affect delay discounting of money, but it did increase participants' preferences for larger, probabilistic monetary rewards over smaller, certain rewards. Acute, binge-level alcohol intoxication may increase sexual HIV risk by decreasing willingness to delay sex in order to acquire a condom in situations where one is not immediately available, and by decreasing sensitivity to perceived risk of STI contraction. These findings suggest that delay and probability discounting are critical, but heretofore unrecognized, processes that may mediate the relations between alcohol use and HIV risk. Copyright © 2016 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
Jimenez, Michelle M; Andrade, Flavia C D; Raffaelli, Marcela; Iwelunmor, Juliet
Gendered dynamics in heterosexual relationships compromise women's self-efficacy and increase their vulnerability to acquiring HIV. This study examines the impact of socioeconomic determinants, media exposure, and sexual expectations on sexual behaviors of men and women in the Dominican Republic (DR). We analyzed cross-sectional data from 51,018 adults in the Dominican Republic age 15 to 45 years collected by the Demographics and Health Survey (DHS) in 2007. Measures included demographic and socioeconomic indicators, social exposures, sexual expectations and sexual behaviors. Logistic regression models explored gender differences in condom use. Study findings indicated that women were less likely to use a condom at last intercourse than men (odds ratio [OR] = 0.29; 95 % CI = 0.27, 0.31). Among men, secondary (OR = 1.43; 95 % CI = 1.16, 1.76) and higher education (OR = 1.58; 95 % CI = 1.25, 2.00), being in the richest quintile (OR = 1.25; 95 % CI = 1.07, 1.47), and living in a female-headed household (OR = 1.13; 95 % CI 1.03, 1.23) increased the likelihood of condom use. Compared to never married men, currently and formerly married men were less likely to use condoms (OR = 0.03; 95 % CI = 0.03, 0.04 and OR = 0.67; 95 % CI = 0.60, 0.75, respectively). The odds of condom use increased for young women 15-19 years old in comparison with women age 30-34 years, but decreased as they grew older. For women, being in the richer quintile (OR = 1.28; 95 % CI = 1.06, 1.54), living in a female-headed household (OR = 1.26; 1.12, 1.41), and having good access to media (OR = 1.24; 95 % CI = 1.12, 1.42) increased the likelihood of condom use. Being currently married or formerly married and living in rural areas decreased such likelihood among women. Study findings provide evidence that, in the DHS, socioeconomic and cultural differences between men and women affects condom use. Efforts to reduce HIV transmission
Seal, D W; Ehrhardt, A A
This article addresses heterosexual men's familiarity with the female condom and their attitudes toward this barrier method. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 71 ethnically diverse and heterosexually active men who were recruited in sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics or through word of mouth in communities with high HIV/STD seroprevalence in New York City during fall 1994 to fall 1995. Only one man reported previous experience with the female condom. The large majority of men had no or limited knowledge of the female condom. Men's reactions to learning about this method ranged from positive to negative, although most men reported willingness to have sex with a partner who wanted to use the female condom. Positive reactions included: endorsement of a woman-controlled condom and her right to use it, the potential for enhancing one's sexual pleasure, and an eagerness to have a new sexual experience. Negative reactions centered on the "strangeness" and "bigness" of the female condom, concerns about prevention efficacy, and concerns about reductions in sexual pleasure. Our findings highlight the need for HIV prevention programs that target heterosexual men and promote the use of the female condom.
Lachowsky, N J; Dewey, C E; Dickson, N P; Saxton, P J W; Hughes, A J; Milhausen, R R; Summerlee, A J S
Our objectives were to investigate demographic and behavioural factors associated with condom use and to examine how habitual condom use was across partner types and sexual positions among younger men who have sex with men (YMSM), aged 16-29, surveyed in New Zealand. We analysed the 2006-2011 national HIV behavioural surveillance data from YMSM who reported anal intercourse in four scenarios of partner type and sexual position: casual insertive, casual receptive, regular insertive and regular receptive. For each, respondents' condom use was classified as frequent (always/almost always) or otherwise, with associated factors identified with multivariate mixed-effect logistic regression. Habitual condom use across scenarios was examined using a latent variable technique that estimated the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Frequent condom use was reported for 63.6% of 5153 scenarios reported from 2412 YMSM. Frequent use increased from boyfriend to fuckbuddy to casual partners. Infrequent use was associated with online recruitment, Pacific ethnicity, less education, HIV positivity, sex with women, having ≥20 sexual partners versus 1 and reporting insertive and receptive sexual positions. Frequent condom use was associated with having two to five sexual partners versus one and shorter regular partnerships. The ICC=0.865 indicated highly habitual patterns of use; habitual infrequent condom use was most prevalent with regular partners (53.3%) and habitual frequent condom use was most prevalent with casual partners (70.2%) and for either sexual position (50.5% and 49.1%). Habitual condom use among YMSM highlights the value of early, engaging and sustained condom promotion. Public health should provide better and more compelling condom education, training and promotion for YMSM. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Chandran, Thoovakkunon Moorkoth; Berkvens, Dirk; Chikobvu, Perpetual; Nöstlinger, Christiana; Colebunders, Robert; Williams, Brian Gerard; Speybroeck, Niko
This study investigated the extent and predictors of condom use and condom refusal in the Free State province in South Africa. Through a household survey conducted in the Free Sate province of South Africa, 5,837 adults were interviewed. Univariate and multivariate survey logistic regressions and classification trees (CT) were used for analysing two response variables 'ever used condom' and 'ever refused condom'. Eighty-three per cent of the respondents had ever used condoms, of which 38% always used them; 61% used them during the last sexual intercourse and 9% had ever refused to use them. The univariate logistic regression models and CT analysis indicated that a strong predictor of condom use was its perceived need. In the CT analysis, this variable was followed in importance by 'knowledge of correct use of condom', condom availability, young age, being single and higher education. 'Perceived need' for condoms did not remain significant in the multivariate analysis after controlling for other variables. The strongest predictor of condom refusal, as shown by the CT, was shame associated with condoms followed by the presence of sexual risk behaviour, knowing one's HIV status, older age and lacking knowledge of condoms (i.e., ability to prevent sexually transmitted diseases and pregnancy, availability, correct and consistent use and existence of female condoms). In the multivariate logistic regression, age was not significant for condom refusal while affordability and perceived need were additional significant variables. The use of complementary modelling techniques such as CT in addition to logistic regressions adds to a better understanding of condom use and refusal. Further improvement in correct and consistent use of condoms will require targeted interventions. In addition to existing social marketing campaigns, tailored approaches should focus on establishing the perceived need for condom-use and improving skills for correct use. They should also incorporate
Stephen Napier has argued against the soundness of what he calls the "Canon-Law argument" against the moral permissibility of a couple employing a condom for the sake of one spouse avoiding the contraction of HIV from the other spouse. Without an attempt to provide a full defense of the Canon-Law argument per se, this paper argues that Napier has not shown that argument to be inadequate. Napier's critique of that argument suffers from unsubstantiated counterexamples and from a failure to take into account analogous senses of "procreative end" in reference to the conjugal act. Using magisterial documents and canonical sources, this paper suggests that the distinction between validity and liceity can be usefully applied to conjugal acts. Lay Summary: Stephen Napier has argued in favor of the claim that there is no plausible argument for thinking that married couples who use a condom in order to prevent HIV transmission are necessarily doing something morally wrong. In responding to Napier by showing that his arguments in favor of his claim are inconclusive, this article introduces a distinction, frequently used in sacramental theology, between validity and liceity (lawfulness) and applies this distinction to marital actions. I argue that some modifications to martial actions make them merely unlawful, whereas other modifications-such as using an intact condom-make them both unlawful and "invalid."
Cai, Yong; Shi, Rong; Shen, Tian; Pei, Bei; Jiang, Xueqin; Ye, Xiuxia; Xu, Gang; Li, Shenghui; Huang, Hong; Shang, Meili
China is currently facing a rapid and widespread increase in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The activities of female sex workers (FSWs) have contributed to the mounting epidemic of HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Therefore, this study aimed to assess the HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, attitude and risk behaviors among FSWs operating in Shanghai China. A cross-sectional study was conducted in five districts of Shanghai, including three suburbs and two downtown locales. We adopted a cluster randomized sampling method to obtain ten geographic sites which consisted of one or more communities/villages proximal to a location where FSWs were accessible. A total of 324 FSWs from 109 Xitou Fang, massage parlors and hair salons who explicitly provided sexual services were enrolled in the study. Each participant completed a questionnaire survey and interview aimed to collect information on the individual's knowledge, attitude, and behaviors associated with risk for HIV/AIDs. The overall correct answer rate of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge was 60.8%, and the knowledge of FSWs from downtown areas was significantly higher than those from suburban areas (P use of condoms was 33.6%. Condom slippage or breakage was reported as having occurred at least once by 51.2% of the FSWs. FSWs from suburban areas were found to more often engage in high-risk behaviors, including oral and anal sex, than those from downtown areas (P condom usage with these partners were lower (34.3%). Based on the findings from our survey, we advise that promotion of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge be targeted towards FSWs in Shanghai, especially those operating in the suburbs. HIV prevention efforts, such as urging constant condom usage with both clients and steady partners, should be sustained and reinforced among the female sex workers population.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Consistent and correct condom use and suppressive antiretroviral therapy for the infected partner are two of the primary strategies recommended for prevention of heterosexual HIV transmission in serodiscordant couples today. The applied effectiveness of treatment as a prevention strategy in China is still under investigation, and much less is known about its effects in the presence of other prevention strategies such as consistent condom use. METHODS: We conducted a systematic search in PubMed and three Chinese language databases to identify relevant articles for the estimation of relative effectiveness of a consistent condom use and b ART use by index partners for preventing HIV transmission in serodiscordant couples. We also estimated the prevention effectiveness of ART stratified by condom use level and the prevention effectiveness of consistent condom use stratified by ART use level. RESULTS: Pooled results from the eleven eligible studies found a pooled HIV seroconversion incidence of 0.92 cases per 100 person years (PY among HIV-negative spouses whose index partners were taking ART versus 2.45 cases per 100 PY in untreated couples. The IRR comparing seroconversion in couples where the index-partner was on ART versus not on ART was 0.47 (95%CI: 0.43, 0.52, while stratified by condom use, the IRR was 0.33(0.17,0.64. The IRR comparing incidence in couples reporting "consistent condom use" versus those reporting otherwise was 0.02(95%CI:0.01,0.04, after stratified by ART use level, the IRR was 0.01(95%CI: 0.00, 0.06. CONCLUSIONS: ART use by index partners could reduce HIV transmission in serodiscordant couples, and the effectiveness of this prevention strategy could be further increased with consistent condom use.
Bruce, Eunice; Bauai, Ludwina; Sapuri, Mathias; Kaldor, John M; Fairley, Christopher K; Keogh, Louise A
Sex workers are considered a high-risk group for sexually transmitted infections, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and are often targeted by prevention interventions with safer sex messages. The purpose of this study was to explore the extent to which knowledge of HIV and perception of risk influence safer sex practices among female sex workers (FSWs) in Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea. FSWs (n = 174) were recruited from 19 sites to participate in the study. Qualitative data were collected using semistructured interviews with FSWs (n = 142) through focus group discussions and (n = 32) individual interviews. In addition, quantitative data were collected from all FSWs using a short structured, demographic questionnaire. Data were analyzed using recurring themes and calculations of confidence intervals. Despite some common misperceptions, overall, most FSWs were basically aware of the risks of HIV and informed about transmission and prevention modalities but used condoms inconsistently. Most reported using condoms ‘sometimes’, almost one-sixth ‘never’ used condoms, only a fraction used condoms ‘always’ with clients, and none used condoms ‘always’ with regular sexual partners (RSPs). Among these FSWs, being knowledgeable about the risks, transmission, and prevention of HIV did not translate into safe sex. The findings suggest that certain contextual barriers to safer sex practices exist. These barriers could heighten HIV vulnerability and possibly may be responsible for infection in FSWs. Specific interventions that focus on improving condom self-efficacy in FSWs and simultaneously target clients and RSPs with safer sex messages are recommended. PMID:21445375
Many people in the US are infected with HIV. One can not tell whether someone has HIV simply by looking at them. As such, not using a condom when having sex with an individual outside of a mutually monogamous relationship in which both partners are not infected with HIV opens one to the potentially enormous risk of contracting HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases (STD). The risk of unwanted pregnancy also looms high when heterosexual intercourse is practiced without contraception. The high incidences of unwanted pregnancies and STDs in the US attest to the squeamishness of the American public about contraception in general and condoms in particular. Compared to other leading industrialized nations, the US has the highest birth rate with 40% of US births unintended; 75% of births to teenagers are unplanned, with 66% of such teens giving birth as unmarried mothers. Twelve million people in the US annually contract STDs, 66% of them under age 25 years, and an estimated one million people in the US are infected with HIV. This article reports the establishment by Zero Population Growth (ZPG) Seattle of a comfortable, nonprofit store in which patrons can learn about and buy condoms. Appropriate especially for young people, the store provides an alternative to the pharmacies and sex shops in which people are typically constrained to buy prophylactics. Launched in 1975, the Rubber Tree is a nonprofit store in which approximately sixty varieties of condoms, safer sex supplies, T-shirts, and books on sexuality, population growth, and the environment are sold. The Seattle Times recently noted that it is the only store of its kind in the nation. The store also provides fliers on STDs and other sex-related subjects, has a borrowing library, and displays ZPG literature. The laid back staff and volunteers tackle sexuality with a balance of humor and seriousness, yet are trained to answer questions about contraceptives without attempting to take the place of professionally
The aim of this study was to identify factors affecting HIV risk reduction among 150 Black and 150 White South Africans chosen by systematic random sampling. Main outcome measures included sexual behaviour and condom use, knowledge about correct condom use, intention of condom use, behavioural norms, attitudes, normative beliefs, and subjective norms about condoms, HIV/AIDS health beliefs, and HIV risk behaviour. Bivariate analysis gave positive significant relations among being single, age, ...
Kabwama, Steven Ndugwa; Ssewanyana, Derrick; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele
Introduction: The protective benefit of male circumcision against spreading HIV is well established. Aim: The objective of this Meta-analysis was to investigate behavioral risk compensation measured as the change in condom use behavior in light of knowledge of the benefits of circumcision. Material...... does not influence condom use behavior in the medium and short term. Keywords: Condom use, behavioral change, circumcision, sexual health....... and Methods: A systematic search was conducted from 6 bibliographic databases for studies that quantitatively assessed a link between male circumcision and condom use behavior. Pooled odd ratios (OR) of condom use during any sexual activity were generated from three cohort studies and two Randomized Control...
The aim of the study is to investigate knowledge and sexual practices with reference to correct use of condoms among first year South African University students. The sample consisted of 206 participants, 146 female and 60 male, the mean age was 20.9 years (SD=3.4), with a range from 17 to 34 years. Results indicated that one third (29.2%) of the sample reported never using condoms, 35.4% always, 19.8% regularly and 8.5% irregularly in the past three months. About 90% levels of correct answer...
Pinchoff, Jessie; Chowdhuri, Rachna Nag; Taruberekera, Noah; Ngo, Thoai D
Globally, 220 million women experience an unmet need for family planning. A newly designed female condom, the Woman's Condom (WC), has been developed featuring an improved design. It is the first dual-protection, female-initiated contraceptive that is a premium, higher price point product. However, market availability alone will not increase uptake. In February 2016 the WC will be distributed with a strong media campaign and interpersonal communication (IPC) outreach intervention. The impact of these on knowledge, acceptability, and use of the WC will be measured. A baseline survey of 2314 randomly selected 18- to 24-year-old sexually active men and women has been conducted. The WC and mass media will be introduced throughout 40 urban wards in and surrounding Lusaka, Zambia. The baseline survey will serve as a quasi-control arm to determine the impact of introducing the WC with mass media. Half of the wards will be randomly allocated to additionally receive the IPC intervention. A single-blind randomized controlled trial will determine the impact of the IPC intervention on knowledge, uptake, and use of the WC. After one year, another 2314 individuals will be randomly selected to participate in the endline survey. We hypothesize that (1) the distribution and media campaign of the WC will increase overall condom use in selected urban wards, and specifically use of the WC; (2) the IPC intervention will significantly impact knowledge, acceptability, and use of the WC. The primary outcome measures are use of the WC, use of any condom, and willingness to use the WC. Secondary outcomes include measures of knowledge, acceptability, and choice of contraception. Odds ratios will be estimated to measure the effect of the intervention on the outcomes with 95% confidence intervals. All analyses will be based on the intention-to-treat principle. Increasing uptake of dual prevention measures (such as the WC) may reduce incidence of sexually transmitted infections/HIV and
Background Condom failure has always been found to coexist with condom usage, especially among sex workers. Objective To describe the actions of female sex workers when they are faced with situations of condom failure. Methods Using the survey design, the participants were selected through the snowball sampling method. Their responses were obtained using a structured questionnaire. A total of 100 questionnaires were analysed. Results With respect to the immediate actions of sex workers after condom failure, 36% of the respondents continued with the sexual encounter after noticing that the condom was broken. Another 36% stopped immediately when they noticed that the condom had failed, but replaced the condom; 13% of the participants stopped the sexual encounter completely; 3% applied vaginal spermicidal foam; and 5% of the respondents stopped immediately and took a douche when they had the chance. For the actions within the next 24 hours of experiencing condom failure with a client, 53% of the participants did nothing; 4% sought counsel from a professional; 3% of the respondents took alcohol or drugs to forget the incident, 25% went to the clinic for assistance and 8% offered other responses. Conclusion While continuing the sexual encounter without replacing the condom, taking alcohol and drugs or doing nothing could increase the risk of contracting HIV; however, actions like stopping the sexual encounter completely and visiting a clinic or a professional could make a difference between staying HIV negative or seroconverting. There is a need for targeted intervention to address issues of inappropriate behaviours after experiencing condom failure. PMID:29568633
Rachakulla Hari Kumar
Full Text Available Abstract Background Avahan, the India AIDS initiative began HIV prevention interventions in 2003 in Andhra Pradesh (AP among high-risk groups including female sex workers (FSWs, to help contain the HIV epidemic. This manuscript describes an assessment of this intervention using the published Avahan evaluation framework and assesses the coverage, outcomes and changes in STI and HIV prevalence among FSWs. Methodology Multiple data sources were utilized including Avahan routine program monitoring data, two rounds of cross-sectional survey data (in 2006 and 2009 and STI clinical quality monitoring assessments. Bi-variate and multivariate analyses, Wald Chi-square tests and multivariate logistic regressions were used to measure changes in behavioural and biological outcomes over time and their association. Results Avahan scaled up in conjunction with the Government program to operate in all districts in AP by March 2009. By March 2009, 80% of the FSWs were being contacted monthly and 21% were coming to STI services monthly. Survey data confirmed an increase in peer educator contacts with the mean number increasing from 2.9 in 2006 to 5.3 in 2009. By 2008 free and Avahan-supported socially marketed condoms were adequate to cover the estimated number of commercial sex acts, at 45 condoms/FSW/month. Consistent condom use was reported to increase with regular (63.6% to 83.4%; AOR=2.98; p Conclusions The absence of control groups is a limitation of this study and does not allow attribution of changes in outcomes and declines in HIV and STI to the Avahan program. However, the large scale implementation, high coverage, intermediate outcomes and association of these outcomes to the Avahan program provide plausible evidence that the declines were likely associated with Avahan. Declining HIV prevalence among the general population in Andhra Pradesh points towards a combined impact of Avahan and government interventions.
Mariângela F Silveira
Full Text Available Pretendeu-se identificar intervenções educativas dirigidas a indivíduos HIV positivos, com desfecho uso de preservativos masculinos. Trata-se de revisão sistemática, onde foram pesquisadas bases de dados (Lilacs/Bireme, Medline, Popline e sites (CDC e UNAIDS, sem limite de tempo. Os unitermos utilizados foram: women; men; interventions; HIV; Aids; HIV positive; risk behaviors; sexual risk behaviors; intervention studies. Foram incluídos 14 estudos, oito deles com efeito positivo. As limitações mais freqüentes foram: ausência de randomização, falta de controle para fatores de confusão, altas perdas, falta de poder estatístico e avaliação do desfecho baseada em relato. A possibilidade de viés de publicação, favorecendo estudos de intervenção que mostraram efeitos benéficos, deve ser considerada. Intervenções efetivas para aumentar o uso de preservativos em pessoas HIV positivas são importantes para obter maior efeito na prevenção da disseminação do vírus.In order to identify educational interventions promoting male condom use during intercourse among HIV+ persons, we conducted a systematic review of publications. Lilacs/Bireme, Medline and Popline data sets and CDC and UNAIDS sites were searched without time limit. Uniterms used were: women; men; interventions; HIV; Aids; HIV positive; risk behaviors; sexual risk behaviors; and intervention studies. Fourteen interventions were included, eight of which reported a positive result. Most frequent methodological weaknesses observed were lack of randomization, no control for confounding, high rates of losses to follow-up, small sample sizes, and outcome of condom use stated by patient self-report. Publication bias favoring studies showing a beneficial effect has to be considered. Effective interventions aiming to promote condom use among HIV positive persons are currently an important tool in the prevention of HIV dissemination.
Full Text Available Background. The increasing prevalence of HIV in Uganda during the last decade (7.5% in 2004-05 to 8.3% in 2011 among women and 5.0% in 2004-05 to 6.1% among men in 2011 of 15 to 49 years clearly shows that women are disproportionately affected by HIV epidemic. Hence, we assessed the prevalence of HIV and focused on differences in risky sexual behaviour and knowledge of HIV among Ugandan youth. Design and Methods. Uganda AIDS Indicator Survey 2011 data was used. The total samples of men and women (15 to 24 years, interviewed and tested for HIV, were 3450 and 4504 respectively. The analysis of risky sexual behaviour was based on 1941 men and 3127 women who had ever had sex and were tested for HIV. Pearson’s Chi-square test and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used. Results. Findings showed that young women were almost two times more vulnerable than young men in acquiring HIV (OR=1.762, P<0.001. Women who had first sex under age 15 (7.3%, had more than 2 sexual partners (9.2% and did not use condom during last sex (6.4% were more HIV-positive. Higher risk was found among women (6.3% than men (2.2%. Significantly (P<0.01 less percentage (81.3% of women as compared to men (83.8% perceived that the probability of HIV transmission may be reduced by correct and consistent use of the condom during sex. Conclusions. Hence, there is an urgent need for effective strategies and programmes to raise awareness on sexual health and risky behaviour, particularly targeting the youth, which will reduce the gender gap in risky sexual behaviour and new transmission of HIV in Uganda.
Sandøy, Ingvild Fossgard; Blystad, Astrid; Shayo, Elizabeth H.
study findings indicate that substantial further efforts should be made to secure that condoms are easily accessible in places where sexual relationships are initiated. Although condom distribution in drinking places has been pinpointed in the HIV/AIDS prevention strategies of all the three countries......Background A number of studies from countries with severe HIV epidemics have found gaps in condom availability, even in places where there is a substantial potential for HIV transmission. Although reported condom use has increased in many African countries, there are often big differences...... in the availability of condoms in places where people meet new sexual partners in these three African districts. Considering that previous studies have found that improved condom availability and accessibility in high risk places have a potential to increase condom use among people with multiple partners, the present...
Church, Kathryn; Wringe, Alison; Fakudze, Phelele; Kikuvi, Joshua; Nhlabatsi, Zelda; Masuku, Rachel; Initiative, Integra; Mayhew, Susannah H
Objectives To (i) describe the contraceptive practices of HIV care and treatment (HCTx) clients in Manzini, Swaziland, including their unmet needs for family planning (FP), and compare these with population-level estimates; and (ii) qualitatively explore the causal factors influencing contraceptive choice and use. Methods Mixed quantitative and qualitative methods were used. A cross-sectional survey conducted among HCTx clients (N=611) investigated FP and condom use patterns. Using descriptive statistics, findings were compared with population-level estimates derived from Swaziland Demographic and Health Survey data, weighted for clustering. In-depth interviews were conducted with HCTx providers (n=16) and clients (n=22) and analysed thematically. Results 64% of HCTx clients reported current contraceptive use; most relied on condoms alone, few practiced dual method use. Rates of condom use for FP among female HCTx clients (77%, 95% CI 71% to 82%) were higher than population-level estimates in the study region (50% HIV-positive, 95% CI 43% to 57%; 37% HIV-negative, 95% CI 31% to 43%); rates of unmet FP needs were similar when condom use consistency was accounted for (32% HCTx, 95% CI 26% to 37%; vs 35% HIV-positive, 95% CI 28% to 43%; 29% HIV-negative, 95% CI 24% to 35%). Qualitative analysis identified motivational factors influencing FP choice: fears of reinfection; a programmatic focus on condoms for people living with HIV; changing sexual behaviours before and after antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation; failure to disclose to partners; and contraceptive side effect fears. Conclusions Fears of reinfection prevailed over consideration of pregnancy risk. Given current evidence on reinfection, HCTx services must move beyond a narrow focus on condom promotion, particularly for those in seroconcordant relationships, and consider diverse strategies to meet reproductive needs. PMID:24695990
Church, Kathryn; Wringe, Alison; Fakudze, Phelele; Kikuvi, Joshua; Nhlabatsi, Zelda; Masuku, Rachel; Mayhew, Susannah H
To (i) describe the contraceptive practices of HIV care and treatment (HCTx) clients in Manzini, Swaziland, including their unmet needs for family planning (FP), and compare these with population-level estimates; and (ii) qualitatively explore the causal factors influencing contraceptive choice and use. Mixed quantitative and qualitative methods were used. A cross-sectional survey conducted among HCTx clients (N=611) investigated FP and condom use patterns. Using descriptive statistics, findings were compared with population-level estimates derived from Swaziland Demographic and Health Survey data, weighted for clustering. In-depth interviews were conducted with HCTx providers (n=16) and clients (n=22) and analysed thematically. 64% of HCTx clients reported current contraceptive use; most relied on condoms alone, few practiced dual method use. Rates of condom use for FP among female HCTx clients (77%, 95% CI 71% to 82%) were higher than population-level estimates in the study region (50% HIV-positive, 95% CI 43% to 57%; 37% HIV-negative, 95% CI 31% to 43%); rates of unmet FP needs were similar when condom use consistency was accounted for (32% HCTx, 95% CI 26% to 37%; vs 35% HIV-positive, 95% CI 28% to 43%; 29% HIV-negative, 95% CI 24% to 35%). Qualitative analysis identified motivational factors influencing FP choice: fears of reinfection; a programmatic focus on condoms for people living with HIV; changing sexual behaviours before and after antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation; failure to disclose to partners; and contraceptive side effect fears. Fears of reinfection prevailed over consideration of pregnancy risk. Given current evidence on reinfection, HCTx services must move beyond a narrow focus on condom promotion, particularly for those in seroconcordant relationships, and consider diverse strategies to meet reproductive needs. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Crosby, Richard A; Mena, Leandro; Arnold, Trisha
Background The first purpose of the present study was to determine whether young Black men who have sex with men (YBMSM) disclose their newly diagnosed HIV infection to a male or female partner, and to determine whether this disclosure is related to condom use; the second was to identify correlates of disclosing newly diagnosed HIV infection to male sex partners, including a measure of partner-related barriers to condom use. A sample of 125 HIV-infected YBMSM (age 15-29 years) provided cross-sectional data used for both study purposes. Recruitment occurred in a mid-size city in the southern US experiencing inordinately high prevalence and incidence rates of HIV among YBMSM. Significance was defined by an α level of <0.05. Eighty-eight YBMSM (70.4%) indicated disclosing their newly diagnosed HIV status to the first male partner they had sex with after being diagnosed. Of these, nine (9.1%) reported that condoms were not used during ensuing sex with that partner. However, of the men not disclosing, 27.0% reported not using condoms for ensuing sex (P=0.009). Similar findings were observed relative to sex with females (P=0.057). Regarding the second study purpose, in addition to a protective effect of advancing age, men scoring at or above the median on a measure of partner-related barriers to condom use were 2.4-fold more likely to not disclose compared with men scoring below the median (P=0.04). For YBMSM, a beneficial counselling objective relative to disclosing newly diagnosed HIV may be to help men resolve perceptions of partner-related barriers to condom use.
Salam, Rehana A; Haroon, Sarah; Ahmed, Hashim H; Das, Jai K; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A
In 2012, an estimated 35.3 million people lived with HIV, while approximately two million new HIV infections were reported. Community-based interventions (CBIs) for the prevention and control of HIV allow increased access and ease availability of medical care to population at risk, or already infected with, HIV. This paper evaluates the impact of CBIs on HIV knowledge, attitudes, and transmission. We included 39 studies on educational activities, counseling sessions, home visits, mentoring, women's groups, peer leadership, and street outreach activities in community settings that aimed to increase awareness on HIV/AIDS risk factors and ensure treatment adherence. Our review findings suggest that CBIs to increase HIV awareness and risk reduction are effective in improving knowledge, attitudes, and practice outcomes as evidenced by the increased knowledge scores for HIV/AIDS (SMD: 0.66, 95% CI: 0.25, 1.07), protected sexual encounters (RR: 1.19, 95% CI: 1.13, 1.25), condom use (SMD: 0.96, 95% CI: 0.03, 1.58), and decreased frequency of sexual intercourse (RR: 0.76, 95% CI: 0.61, 0.96). Analysis shows that CBIs did not have any significant impact on scores for self-efficacy and communication. We found very limited evidence on community-based management for HIV infected population and prevention of mother- to-child transmission (MTCT) for HIV-infected pregnant women. Qualitative synthesis suggests that establishment of community support at the onset of HIV prevention programs leads to community acceptance and engagement. School-based delivery of HIV prevention education and contraceptive distribution have also been advocated as potential strategies to target high-risk youth group. Future studies should focus on evaluating the effectiveness of community delivery platforms for prevention of MTCT, and various emerging models of care to improve morbidity and mortality outcomes.
Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV causes a sexually transmitted disease (STD affecting the human immune system. It is mainly transmitted through sexual intercourse, blood transfusions, hypodermic needles, and parenterally. Multiple actions can be taken to prevent the spread of HIV/AIDS, such as condom and sterile needle use and HIV testing for pregnant women. This study aims to assess freshmen students’ awareness, knowledge, attitudes, and behavioral perceptions regarding HIV/AIDS at Oakland University (OU in Michigan. This study is a cross-sectional survey targeting freshman students at OU. The questionnaire is comprised of seven sections including demographics, risk perception, protection measures, alcohol tendencies, health-seeking behaviors, culturally sensitive issues, and methods of dissemination of information. The mean age of respondents was 20. The majority of respondents knew that HIV is transmitted sexually (98% and by sharing needles (98%. Many misconceptions about transmission of HIV were expressed by 53%. Data showed that while there was good knowledge regarding HIV transmission and prevention, some misconceptions still prevailed. Our results indicate the need to develop educational programs with specific interventions to raise awareness about preventive measures, clear misconceptions, and promote healthy lifestyle in order to prevent new HIV infections among young college students.
Tairy, Daniel; Levy, Itzchak; Turner, Dan; Livnat, Yuval; Mor, Zohar
HIV-discordant gay male couples may play an important role in HIV-transmissions. This cross-sectional study compared the knowledge, attitudes and sexual behaviors of HIV-uninfected gay men, between those in HIV-discordant and those in HIV-concordant steady relationships. Anonymous questionnaires were distributed electronically in designated gay-related internet sites and in AIDS-clinics in 2015. The dependent variable was defined as a steady relationship of an HIV-uninfected man with an HIV-infected partner. Risky sexual behavior was defined as unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) with a sex partner whose HIV-status was either positive or unknown. Of 2,319 responders, 460 (20%) were HIV-uninfected gay men in steady relationships, of whom 72 were in HIV-discordant relationships and 388 were in HIV-concordant relationships. Those in HIV-discordant relationships presented better established knowledge regarding HIV-transmission, more lenient attitudes regarding UAI, and reported being involved in riskier sexual behavior, both within and outside their steady relationship compared to men in HIV-concordant relationships. UAI was performed by 48% of the HIV-discordant couples and was associated with the use of sero-positioning strategy and with achieving undetectable viral-load. These findings reflect the complexity of constant use of condoms during long-term sero-discordant relationships. Targeted interventions for HIV-prevention in HIV-discordant couples should be employed for balancing the partners' desire for intimacy and sexual pleasure in the relationship, while reducing the risk for acquiring HIV. ART: Antiretroviral therapy; PEP: Post exposure prophylaxis; PrEP: Pre exposure prophylaxis; STI: Sexually transmitted infections; UAI: Unprotected anal intercourse.
Tu, Yu-Ching; Wang, Hsiu-Hung; Lin, Yi-Jung; Chan, Te-Fu
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a frequent cause of sexually transmitted infection worldwide, and has a key role in the etiology of cervical cancer. Young people are the most vulnerable age group for acquiring HPV infection, but this particular age group in Taiwan knows little about it. This study investigated Taiwanese adolescent women's knowledge of HPV and factors associated with intention to use condoms for reducing HPV-related diseases among adolescent women. A descriptive cross-sectional design was used, and a convenience sample of 384 adolescent women aged 15 to 16 years in Southern Taiwan was recruited. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire and analyzed with descriptive statistics, t-test or ANOVA, and multiple regression analysis. Only 26.6% of the participants were aware of HPV. The percentage of correct answers for knowledge about HPV was 35.4%. Factors associated with intention to use condoms for HPV prevention were discussion of sexual issues, attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, and HPV knowledge. These variables accounted for 55.8% of the variance in scores for intention to use condoms for HPV prevention. These findings could be used in future HPV prevention education and campaigns. Future intervention programs might be particularly focused on insufficient HPV knowledge among adolescent females.
Social marketing is a strategy which addresses a public health problem with private-sector marketing and sales techniques. In condom social marketing programs, condoms are often offered for sale to the public at low prices. 350 million condoms were sold to populations in developing countries through such programs in 1992, and another 650 million were distributed free through public clinics. The major donors of these condoms are the US Agency for International Development, the World Health Organization, the UN Population Fund, the International Planned Parenthood Federation, the World Bank, and the European Community. This marketing approach has promoted condom use as prevention against HIV transmission and has dramatically increased the number of condoms distributed and used throughout much of Africa, Latin America, and Asia. Donors are now concerned that they will not be able to provide condoms in sufficient quantities to keep pace with rapidly rising demand. Findings in selected countries, however, suggest that people seem willing to buy condoms which are well promoted and distributed. Increasing demand for condoms may therefore be readily met through greater dependence upon social marketing programs and condom sales. Researchers generally agree that a social marketing program must change for 100 condoms no more than 1% of a country's GNP in order to sell an amount of condoms equal to at least half of the adult male population. Higher prices may be charged for condoms in countries with relatively high per-capita incomes. Since prices charged tend to be too low to cover all promotional, packaging, distribution, and logistical management costs, most condom distribution programs will have to be subsidized on an ongoing basis.
Full Text Available Augustine Ankomah,1 Samson B Adebayo,2,3 Jennifer Anyanti,3 Olaronke Ladipo,3,† Bright Ekweremadu31Department of Population, Family and Reproductive Health, School of Public Health, University of Ghana, Accra, Ghana; 2Directorate of Planning, Research and Statistics, National Agency for the Control of Food and Drugs Administration and Control, Abuja, Nigeria; 3Society for Family Health, Abuja, Nigeria†Olaronke Ladipo passed away on 30/10/2012Background: Extramarital sex is a high-risk behavior in terms of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV transmission, yet condom use in extramarital relationships is an understudied area in Africa, and Nigeria in particular, where such liaisons are not uncommon. This study highlights key determinants of condom use among men who engage in extramarital sex in Nigeria.Methods: Results are based on a subsample of 642 married men from a combined dataset from three waves of the National HIV/AIDS and Reproductive Health Survey (NARHS, a set of multiround nationally representative surveys. Logistic regression was employed to explore possible determinants of condom use in extramarital sex. The motivation, opportunity, and ability model was applied in selecting the determinants.Results: HIV risk-reduction knowledge was found not to be associated with condom use. At the full logistic regression model, being of the Yoruba tribe, having no misconception about HIV transmission, ability to discuss condom use, and ability to wear condoms were the key variables significantly associated with condom use in extramarital sex.Conclusion: Implementing HIV risk-reduction behavior change requires more than knowledge. Behavioral skills in condom use are critical. Intervention efforts should move away from knowledge about risk to concentrate on improving skills on how to discuss condom use and wear condoms correctly.Keywords: married men, extramarital sex, condom use, motivation, opportunity, Nigeria
, sexual activity, exposure to HIV-prevention services, and to identify correlates of risky sexual behaviour (not having used a condom at first or last sexual encounter and/or having multiple sexual partners over a 12-month period) among street ...
Morrison-Beedy, Dianne; Carey, Michael P; Lewis, Brian P
This study was undertaken to identify and test a model of the cognitive antecedents to condom use stage of change in low-income, single, urban women. A convenience sample of 537 women (M=30 years old) attending two urban primary health care settings in western New York State anonymously completed questionnaires based primarily on two leading social-cognitive models, the transtheoretical model and the information-motivation-behavioral skills model. We used structural equation modeling to examine the direct and indirect effects of HIV-related knowledge, social norms of discussing HIV risk and prevention, familiarity with HIV-infected persons, general readiness to change sexual behaviors, perceived vulnerability to HIV, and pros and cons of condom use on condom-use stage of change. The results indicated two models that differ by partner type. Condom-use stage of change in women with steady main partners was influenced most by social norms and the pros of condom use. Condom-use stage of change in women with "other" types (multiple, casual, or new) of sexual partners was influenced by HIV-related knowledge, general readiness to change sexual behaviors, and the pros of condom use. These findings suggest implications for developing gender-relevant HIV-prevention interventions. Copyright 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Peltzer, Karl; Oladimeji, Yetunde
A questionnaire was administered to 213 sexually active first-year Nigerian university students and 150 Black and 150 White South African adults. Nigerian students gave 90% correct answers on 6 of the 10 items of a measure of condom knowledge (M = 6.1). The most common mistakes with respect to condom use were ignorance about putting a condom on just before ejaculation (37%), the use of an oil-based lubricant with a condom (29%), and when to take off a condom (28%). For the South African sample utility of the Health Belief Model and Theory of Reasoned Action for HIV prevention could be confirmed by intention to use condoms. Race and preventive benefits were predictive for current condom use. Findings have relevant implications for developing culturally diverse HIV intervention programs if confirmed with larger diverse groups.
Saxton, Peter J W; Dickson, Nigel P; Hughes, Anthony J
Over the last decade, annual HIV diagnoses among men who have sex with men (MSM) in New Zealand increased, then stabilised in 2006 and have not increased further. The aim was to examine trends in behaviours in order to better understand this pattern and inform community-based prevention. From 2002 to 2011, we conducted five repeat cross-sectional behavioural surveillance surveys among MSM at community locations in Auckland (fair day, gay bars, sex-on-site venues; n=6091). Participation was anonymous and self-completed. Recruitment methods were consistent at each round. Overall, the samples became more ethnically diverse and less gay community attached over time. Condom use during anal intercourse was stable across three partnering contexts (casual, current regular fuckbuddy, current regular boyfriend), with a drop among casual contacts in 2011 only. In the 6 months prior to surveys, there was a gradual decline over time in the proportion reporting >20 male partners, an increase in acquiring partners from the internet and increases in engagement in anal intercourse in some partnering contexts. HIV testing in the 12 months prior to surveys rose from 35.1% in 2002 to 50.4% in 2011, mostly from 2008. This first indepth examination of trends in HIV-related behaviours among five consecutive large and diverse samples of MSM in New Zealand does not suggest condom use is declining. However, subtle changes in sexual networks and partnering may be altering the epidemic determinants in this population and increasing exposure.
Hamra, Mary; Ross, Michael W; Orrs, Mark; D'Agostino, Angelo
To quantify expressed stigma in clients of the Kangemi program for HIV+ children, and to characterize the association between stigma and other population characteristics. By means of a household survey we created a stigma index and indices for other social and knowledge domains that influence HIV-related healthcare. We used chi2, anova, and correlation to identify associations between domains. The mean (+/-SD) expressed stigma on a six points scale (6 = least stigma) was 3.65 +/- 1.64. Composite scores on knowledge about AIDS were skewed toward more knowledge; and analysis of individual knowledge items indicates that most respondents reject erroneous traditional beliefs and myths about the causes and transmission routes of AIDS. Respondents who were younger, had never married, and had less education expressed greater stigma. Differences in stigma were associated with poor knowledge about AIDS and negative attitudes toward testing, but not with gender or tribal affiliation. Condom use at last intercourse, unrelated to stigma, was only 40% (n = 218). While this population has good knowledge about AIDS and appraises risks realistically, it fails to reduce these risks. Associations between stigma and other domains can inform interventions that improve HIV care and mitigate spread of HIV.
Come Yélian Adohinzin, Clétus; Meda, Nicolas; Anicet Ouédraogo, Georges; Gaston Belem, Adrien Marie; Sombié, Issiaka; Berthé, Abdramane; Bakwin Kandala, Ngianga; Damienne Avimadjenon, Georgette; Fond-Harmant, Laurence
Introduction: Despite health education efforts, young people are still faced with major health problems. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge and attitude regarding HIV prevention and unwanted pregnancy among young people in Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. Methods: Based on two-level sampling, representing 94,947 households in the Bobo-Dioulasso municipality, 573 young people between the ages of 15 and 24 years were interviewed. This data collection was conducted from September 2014 to January 2015 in the three districts of the municipality. A questionnaire was used to assess the knowledge and attitudes of young people. Results: The interviewees had a poor knowledge about HIV transmission and prevention and contraception Very few young people (9%) had complete knowledge about the modes of transmission and 5% had no knowledge. Persistent misperceptions about the effectiveness of condoms (25%) and contraception (32%) did not prevent some young people from using them (79% used condoms and 46% used contraceptives). Knowledge and attitudes of young people regarding HIV and contraception varied according to age, sex, education level and type of parental supervision. Conclusion: A significant proportion of young people still has incomplete knowledge about HIV/AIDS and contraception. Actions designed to reinforce the knowledge of young people are of paramount importance. The capacities of parents and healthcare providers also need to be reinforced to improve the quality of relationship with young people.
Yang, Yi; Yang, Cui; Latkin, Carl A; Luan, Rongsheng; Nelson, Kenrad E
There has been little theory-based research focusing on condom use among male clients of female sex workers (CFSW) in China. The current study applied social cognitive theory to condom use behaviors of CFSW in China. Face-to-face structured interviews were conducted among 584 CFSW recruited through snowball sampling. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models were applied to examine factors associated with consistent condom use. A minority (30.65 %) of respondents reported using condoms consistently with FSW, and 7 of 12 social cognitive dimensions/subdimensions were found to be significantly influential. The most significant factors were self-efficacy [adjusted prevalence ratio (APR) = 2.11, 95 %, CI = 1.74-2.43] and personal pleasure reduction (APR = 0.3, 95 % CI = 0.15-0.6). HIV-related knowledge, perceived HIV susceptibility, condom cost, condom efficacy, and embarrassment of carrying condoms were not associated with consistent condom uses with FSW. Findings from the current study suggest future prevention programs should target sex venues, and condom access should ensure both quantity and quality. Peer education should focus on knowledge education and peer norms, and knowledge education should include information on HIV infection severity and how to increase pleasure with condom use.
Dunn, Jennifer; Zhang, Qingning; Weeks, Margaret R; Li, Jianghong; Liao, Susu; Li, Fei
New interventions to reduce HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STI) among female sex workers are introduced into the context of women's existing prevention beliefs and practices. These indigenous practices affected implementation of our program to introduce female condoms to women in sex-work establishments in southern China. We used ethnographic field observations and in-depth interviews to document common prevention methods women reported using to protect themselves before and during intervention implementation. Individual, sex-work establishment, and other contextual factors, including sources of information and social and economic pressures to use or reject prevention options, shaped their perceptions and selection of these methods and affected adoption of female condoms as an additional tool. Efforts to improve uptake of effective prevention methods among low-income sex workers require attention to the context and spectrum of women's HIV/STI prevention practices when introducing innovations such as female condoms, microbicides, pre-exposure prophylaxis pills, and others, as they become available.
LeVasseur, Michael T; Goldstein, Neal D; Tabb, Loni P; Olivieri-Mui, Brianne L; Welles, Seth L
HIV preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is an effective tool in preventing HIV infection among high-risk men who have sex with men (MSM). It is unknown how effective PrEP is in the context of other implemented HIV prevention strategies, including condom use, seroadaption, and treatment as prevention (TasP). We evaluate the impact of increasing uptake of PrEP in conjunction with established prevention strategies on HIV incidence in a high-risk population of MSM through simulation. Agent-based simulation models representing the sexual behavior of high-risk, urban MSM in the United States over the period of 1 year were used to evaluate the effect of PrEP on HIV infection rates. Simulations included data for 10,000 MSM and compared increasing rates of PrEP uptake under 8 prevention paradigms: no additional strategies, TasP, condom use, seroadaptive behavior, and combinations thereof. We observed a mean of 103.2 infections per 10,000 MSM in the absence of any prevention method. PrEP uptake at 25% without any additional prevention strategies prevented 30.7% of infections. In the absence of PrEP, TasP, condom use, and seroadaptive behavior independently prevented 27.1%, 48.8%, and 37.7% of infections, respectively, and together prevented 72.2%. The addition of PrEP to the 3 aforementioned prevention methods, at 25% uptake, prevented an additional 5.0% of infections. To achieve a 25% reduction in HIV infections by 2020, HIV prevention efforts should focus on significantly scaling up access to PrEP in addition to HIV testing, access to antiretroviral therapy, and promoting condom use.
Okafor, Uchenna O.; Crutzen, Rik; Awo, Egbe A.; Van Den Borne, Bart
A qualitative study using in-depth interviews explored the perceptions and views of brothel leaders and HIV program experts on the acceptability and adoptability of using gatekeepers in interventions aimed at improving Female Sex Workers’ (FSWs) condom use in Nigeria. Brothel leaders are an
Sales, J. M.; DiClemente, R. J.; Davis, T. P.; Sullivan, S.
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) interventions can significantly reduce risky sexual behaviors among vulnerable populations. However, not everyone exposed to an intervention will reduce their sexual risk behavior. This qualitative study sought to identify factors associated with young African American females' lack of increase in condom use…
Full Text Available The data from Board of Health in Surakarta City, on 8 September 2005, from 155 commercial sex worker woman had blood examined, there were 7 persons positive in HIV. One of factor affecting the high infection HIV/AIDS in women commercial sex worker was low use of condom. Aims of this research was to know factor-factor associated with didn’t use of condom and social aspect negotiations about using condom (education, economics status, working experience, devilling place, occupation, ethnic, religious, and income. This research is qualitative research using guided group discussion technique, in-depth interview, and participatory observation. Subject for this research were 30 persons, consist of 25 commercial sex worker, 3 guest, 1 room owner, and 1 parent. Independent variables in this research are social economics characteristic, demography and community characteristics. Dependent variables as PPSK capability in condom using negotiating to prevent sexually transmitted disease and HIV/AIDS. Commonly, despite knowing that everyone, including themselves, is vulnerable to AIDS infection, the respondents ignore asking the guest/partners for condom use. Most of them don’t ask for condom use due to their fear of either being the target of the guest anger and bad words, or losing money from them. Women commercial sex worker Silir in using condom and prevent sexual transmitted disease had free education from Board of Health in Surakarta City. In the street prostitutes are low support from peer, room owner, hotel owner, or guest about using condom for women commercial sex worker in illegal place, caused women commercial sex worker in the street more potential and high risk to spread sexual transmitted diseases than they were operated in Silir. The low capability of the street prostitutes for negotiating condom use with the guest customers results from: misperception on "safe-sex" behavior for seeking "help", economic and psychology pressure, free and
Liu, Shengyuan; Wang, Kaili; Yao, Songpo; Guo, Xiaotong; Liu, Yancheng; Wang, Binyou
In Heilongjiang province, the HIV prevalence in men who have sex with men (MSM) is generally lower than other part of China. However, the official perception for their risk of HIV/AIDS infection has been increasing in the province over the years. Moreover, little information on HIV/AIDS was provided to the communities so that we have disadvantage of controlling HIV/AIDS epidemic in the region. The purpose of this study is to investigate the prevalence of HIV among MSM in Heilongjiang province, to assess their knowledge levels and risk behaviors related to HIV/AIDS, and to explore their associations with information resources. A cross-sectional study using a standardized questionnaire and blood test was administered in 2008 by local interviewers to a sample (1353) of MSM in four cities in Heilongjiang province. Among 1353 MSM, 2.3% were identified with HIV infection. About 48.7% of the subjects had multiple male sexual partners and only 37.3% of the subjects had consistent condom use (use every time) in the past 6 months. Most had a fair level of knowledge on HIV/AIDS, with the highest mean knowledge score among the MSM from Jiamusi, those with income 2000-3000 RMB/month, those searching sexual partners via internet and those performed HIV testing over 1 year ago). However, some myths regarding viral transmission (e.g., via mosquito bites or sharing kitchen utensils) also existed. Resources of information from which knowledge and risk behaviors related to HIV/AIDS was most available were television (58.6%) among MSM, followed by sexual partner (51.6%), publicity material (51.0%) and internet (48.7%). Significantly statistical differences of mean knowledge score were revealed in favor of book (P = 0.0002), medical staff (P = 0.0007), publicity material (P = 0.005) and sexual partner (P = 0.02). Press (P = 0.04) and book (P = 0.0003) were contributory to the most frequent condom use (condom use every time), while medical staff (P = 0.005) and publicity material (P = 0
Full Text Available Abstract Backgroud In Heilongjiang province, the HIV prevalence in men who have sex with men (MSM is generally lower than other part of China. However, the official perception for their risk of HIV/AIDS infection has been increasing in the province over the years. Moreover, little information on HIV/AIDS was provided to the communities so that we have disadvantage of controlling HIV/AIDS epidemic in the region. The purpose of this study is to investigate the prevalence of HIV among MSM in Heilongjiang province, to assess their knowledge levels and risk behaviors related to HIV/AIDS, and to explore their associations with information resources. Methods A cross-sectional study using a standardized questionnaire and blood test was administered in 2008 by local interviewers to a sample (1353 of MSM in four cities in Heilongjiang province. Results Among 1353 MSM, 2.3% were identified with HIV infection. About 48.7% of the subjects had multiple male sexual partners and only 37.3% of the subjects had consistent condom use (use every time in the past 6 months. Most had a fair level of knowledge on HIV/AIDS, with the highest mean knowledge score among the MSM from Jiamusi, those with income 2000-3000 RMB/month, those searching sexual partners via internet and those performed HIV testing over 1 year ago. However, some myths regarding viral transmission (e.g., via mosquito bites or sharing kitchen utensils also existed. Resources of information from which knowledge and risk behaviors related to HIV/AIDS was most available were television (58.6% among MSM, followed by sexual partner (51.6%, publicity material (51.0% and internet (48.7%. Significantly statistical differences of mean knowledge score were revealed in favor of book (P = 0.0002, medical staff (P = 0.0007, publicity material (P = 0.005 and sexual partner (P = 0.02. Press (P = 0.04 and book (P = 0.0003 were contributory to the most frequent condom use (condom use every time, while medical staff (P
Conserve, Donaldson F; Whembolua, Guy-Lucien S; Surkan, Pamela J
Although men have substantial decision-making power regarding condom use, the majority of HIV knowledge and prevention studies in the general Haitian population have been conducted among youth and women. We investigated attitudes toward intimate partner violence, knowledge of, and use of condoms among 9493 men in Haiti using data from the 2012 nationally representative Demographic and Health Survey. Only 36% of HIV-negative and 44% of HIV-positive men reported using a condom the last time they had had sex. Logistic regression revealed that believing it was justified for a man to hit or beat his wife if she refuses to have sex with him was associated with a lower odds of condom use. The odds of using a condom during last sex was higher among men who reported knowing condoms can prevent HIV and who had been tested for HIV. Given the low rate of condom use among men in Haiti, these findings suggest that interventions promoting HIV knowledge, HIV testing, and gender-violence prevention among men may also increase condom use. © The Author(s) 2014.
The study assessed the relationship between knowledge and attitude towards HIV voluntary counselling among secondary school adolescents in Edo State. One hypothesis guided the study. This was a descriptive correlational study based on survey research design. The population of the study was one hundred and ...
Rios-Ellis, Britt; Espinoza, Lilia; Bird, Mara; Garcia, Melawhy; D'Anna, Laura Hoyt; Bellamy, Laura; Scolari, Rosana
Latinos are less likely to be aware of their HIV seropositivity than African Americans and Whites. 'Protege tu Familia: Hazte la Prueba' is a culturally and linguistically-sensitive HIV/AIDS prevention and testing program targeting Latino families. Using community-based participatory research techniques, Spanish-speaking bicultural community health workers helped develop and then used an educational flip chart and materials to conduct outreach and HIV prevention education in diverse settings. The intervention was created to increase HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, to improve communication regarding sexual risk, and to augment intentions to use condoms and test for HIV. A secondary purpose was to decrease HIV-related stigma by improving knowledge about transmission and reducing homophobia. Participants demonstrated significant increases in HIV knowledge, intention to practice safer sex and communicate sexual risk to partner(s), and intention to test for HIV. Improvements were also found in self-reported comfort levels when interacting with and caring for the HIV positive, thus decreasing HIV/AIDS-related stigma.
Condoms are an effective contraceptive and disease prevention device used correctly and consistently by millions of people around the world. That condoms do not work, HIV can pass through them, and condoms frequently break are simply myths. Condom efficacy is directly related to their correct and consistent usage. Condoms are therefore very effective when properly used. While HIV is only 0.1 micron wide and the head of a human sperm cell is 3 microns wide, scanning electron microscopy has shown latex condoms to block the passage of both. Most condom breakage is due to incorrect usage rather than poor condom quality. Prolonged exposure to heat and/or sunlight and the use of oil-based lubricants such as Vaseline can weaken condoms and cause them to break during use. Opening the condom pack with teeth or sharp fingernails can also damage a condom. Finally, a condom should not be used if its expiration date has passed or if it is more than 5 years from the manufacturing date.
Full Text Available Aim. The aim of the study was to determine knowledge, attitudes and personal beliefs regarding HIV and AIDS in a group of mentally ill patients attending outpatient clinics in Soweto, Johannesburg. Method. All patients attending four randomly chosen clinics in Soweto were invited to complete a self-administered questionnaire after obtaining informed written consent. The 63-item questionnaire, developed from others specifically for this study, included questions on socio-demographic and clinical characteristics; knowledge on how HIV is acquired and spread; attitudes and beliefs regarding HIV and AIDS; and condom usage. The statements in the knowledge sections were used to calculate a composite score, which if greater than or equal to 75% was defined as ‘adequate knowledge’. Results. A total of 1 151 patients with mental illness participated in the study. The mean age was 41.9 years (standard deviation 11.6 and the majority were males (50%; single (55%, and had achieved only a secondary level of education (53.3%. Overall, most of the study population did not believe in the myths surrounding the spread and acquisition of HIV and AIDS. There were however, significant associations between a low level of education and the belief that HIV is acquired from mosquito bites (odds ratio (OR 1.61; 95% CI 1.19 - 2.18; p=0.002 and through masturbation or body rubbing (OR 1.76; 95% CI 1.34 - 2.33; p=0.000. Although more than 90% of the patients were aware of the facts regarding the spread of HIV, approximately 40% did not believe that one could acquire HIV through a single sexual encounter. The composite scoring for knowledge showed that less than half the patients had adequate knowledge of HIV/AIDS. This was significantly associated with gender and level of education: females were 1.6 times (p
Sales, Jessica M.; Lang, Delia L.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Latham, Teaniese P; Wingood, Gina M.; Hardin, James W.; Rose, Eve S.
Objective Although effective HIV prevention interventions have been developed for adolescents, few interventions have explored whether components of the intervention are responsible for the observed changes in behaviors post-intervention. This study examined the mediating role of partner communication frequency on African-American adolescent females’ condom use post-participation in a demonstrated efficacious HIV risk-reduction intervention. Main Outcome Measures Percent condom use in the past 60 days and consistent condom use in the past 6o days across the 12-month follow-up period. Design As part of a randomized controlled trial of African-American adolescent females (N=715), 15-21 years, seeking sexual health services, completed a computerized interview at baseline (prior to intervention) and again 6- and 12-month follow-up post-intervention participation. The interview assessed adolescents’ sexual behavior and partner communication skills, among other variables, at each time point. Using generalized estimating equation (GEE) techniques, both logistic and linear regression models were employed to test mediation over the 12-month follow-up period. Additional tests were conducted to assess the significance of the mediated models. Results Mediation analyses observed that partner communication frequency was a significant partial mediator of both proportion condom-protected sex acts (p =.001) and consistent condom use (p = .001). Conclusion Partner communication frequency, an integral component of this HIV intervention, significantly increased as a function of participating in the intervention partially explaining the change in condom use observed 12-months post-intervention. Understanding what intervention components are associated with behavior change is important for future intervention development. PMID:21843001
Dec 1, 2012 ... Nigeria. Study design: Both qualitative (focus group discussions) and quantitative (cross-sectional ... Keywords: Condom, unsafe sex, HIV, gender, undergraduates. ..... QUESTIONS: the following may influence condom.
Ugarte, William J; Högberg, Ulf; Valladares, Eliette; Essén, Birgitta
Nicaragua's HIV epidemic is concentrated among men who have sex with men. Nevertheless, the increasing number of HIV cases among heterosexuals, high levels of poverty and migration rates, and incomplete epidemiological data suggest the need to improve the understanding of the epidemic. To examine the prevalence of HIV-related knowledge, attitudes, and sexual risk-taking behaviors, and their predictors among the adult population. A community-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2009 among 520 participants ages 15-49 from an ongoing Health and Demographic Surveillance System in Nicaragua. Bivariate analysis and adjusted prevalence ratios were use to examine factors associated with HIV-related knowledge, attitudes, and sexual behavior. Contributing factors for risk-taking behaviors included cognitive, psychosocial, and emotional elements. Insufficient knowledge affecting the accurate assessment of HIV risk were low educational level, poverty, and rural origin, especially among females. Recognizing risk was not sufficient to promote safer sex: 90% of the females and 70% of the males who reported being sexually active in the past year did not use condoms during their last sexual encounter. Inconsistent condom use among men was associated with older age, long-term relationships, and lack of awareness about acquiring HIV infection. Interventions to reduce social-structural contextual factors in Nicaragua are needed so that individuals may adopt and maintain HIV risk reduction strategies. Increased gender-specific HIV education and skills-building programs need to be implemented. Sensitive mass media messages may also increase the knowledge of HIV and AIDS, and serve to encourage protective attitudes and behaviors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available There is a general recognition of homosexuality being responsible for the high prevalence of HIV/AIDS among inmates in Nigerian prisons. However, the use of condoms which is an evidenced-based preventive measure is critical in the prison setting because of socio-cultural reasons. Due to the dynamic nature of the prison population, interventions targeting the prisons will have a significant effect on the general population. This study assessed condom acceptability for the prevention of HIV infection among male inmates in a convict prison in north-western, Nigeria in order to provide supplementary information that will corroborate some findings from quantitative methods. A qualitative study was conducted in Zaria prison between 18th December, 2012 and 8th January, 2013. Purposive sampling identified 48 inmates who had Focused Group Discussions (FGDs and In-depth Interviews (IDIs. Common trends and variations in the responses were identified and reflected as appropriate and presented as narratives with relevant quotations. Majority of the respondents agreed that homosexuality exists among the inmates, but all the inmates scowled at the distribution of condoms to inmates in prison. Majority were of the opinion that condom distribution will promote homosexuality which is prohibited by Nigerian laws and controlling HIV transmissions in Nigeria prisons can be effectively done through behavioral modifications that are geared towards total abstinence.
Full Text Available There is a general recognition of homosexuality being responsible for the high prevalence of HIV/AIDS among inmates in Nigerian prisons. However, the use of condoms which is an evidenced-based preventive measure is critical in the prison setting because of socio-cultural reasons. Due to the dynamic nature of the prison population, interventions targeting the prisons will have a significant effect on the general population. This study assessed condom acceptability for the prevention of HIV infection among male inmates in a convict prison in north-western, Nigeria in order to provide supplementary information that will corroborate some findings from quantitative methods. A qualitative study was conducted in Zaria prison between 18th December, 2012 and 8th January, 2013. Purposive sampling identified 48 inmates who had Focused Group Discussions (FGDs and In‐depth Interviews (IDIs. Common trends and variations in the responses were identified and reflected as appropriate and presented as narratives with relevant quotations. Majority of the respondents agreed that homosexuality exists among the inmates, but all the inmates scowled at the distribution of condoms to inmates in prison. Majority were of the opinion that condom distribution will promote homosexuality which is prohibited by Nigerian laws and controlling HIV transmissions in Nigeria prisons can be effectively done through behavioral modifications that are geared towards total abstinence.
Mehra, Devika; Östergren, Per-Olof; Ekman, Björn; Agardh, Anette
Feminization of the HIV/AIDS epidemic has been a prominent phenomenon in sub-Saharan Africa. Inconsistent condom use among young people is one of the major risk factors in the continued propagation of the epidemic. Therefore, it is of importance to increase knowledge of gender aspects of condom use among young people. To investigate whether gender differences regarding individual and social factors determine the association between condom efficacy and inconsistent condom use with a new sex partner, among Ugandan university students. In 2010, 1954 Ugandan students participated in a cross-sectional survey, conducted at Mbarara University of Science and Technology in southwestern Uganda. A self-administered questionnaire assessed socio-demographic factors, alcohol consumption, sexual behaviors (including condom use and condom efficacy), and peer norms. The data were stratified by sex and examined by multivariate logistic regression analysis. A total of 1,179 (60.3%) students reported having had their sexual debut. Of these, 231 (37.4%) males and 209 (49.2%) females reported inconsistent condom use with a new sex partner. Students with low condom efficacy had a higher risk of inconsistent condom use with a new sex partner, even after adjusting for the potential confounders. A synergistic effect was observed between being a female and low condom efficacy with inconsistent condom use. The association between inconsistent condom use and low condom efficacy was found among both males and females, but females were found to be at a higher risk of inconsistent condom use compared to their male counterparts. Therefore, gender power relations should be addressed in policies and interventions aiming at increasing condom use among young people in sub-Saharan settings. Programs could be designed with intervention strategies that focus on interactive and participatory educational activities and youth-friendly counseling of young people, which in turn may improve their interpersonal
Full Text Available Background: Feminization of the HIV/AIDS epidemic has been a prominent phenomenon in sub-Saharan Africa. Inconsistent condom use among young people is one of the major risk factors in the continued propagation of the epidemic. Therefore, it is of importance to increase knowledge of gender aspects of condom use among young people. Objective: To investigate whether gender differences regarding individual and social factors determine the association between condom efficacy and inconsistent condom use with a new sex partner, among Ugandan university students. Design: In 2010, 1954 Ugandan students participated in a cross-sectional survey, conducted at Mbarara University of Science and Technology in southwestern Uganda. A self-administered questionnaire assessed socio-demographic factors, alcohol consumption, sexual behaviors (including condom use and condom efficacy, and peer norms. The data were stratified by sex and examined by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results: A total of 1,179 (60.3% students reported having had their sexual debut. Of these, 231 (37.4% males and 209 (49.2% females reported inconsistent condom use with a new sex partner. Students with low condom efficacy had a higher risk of inconsistent condom use with a new sex partner, even after adjusting for the potential confounders. A synergistic effect was observed between being a female and low condom efficacy with inconsistent condom use. Conclusion: The association between inconsistent condom use and low condom efficacy was found among both males and females, but females were found to be at a higher risk of inconsistent condom use compared to their male counterparts. Therefore, gender power relations should be addressed in policies and interventions aiming at increasing condom use among young people in sub-Saharan settings. Programs could be designed with intervention strategies that focus on interactive and participatory educational activities and youth
Owoaje, E T; Adebiyi, A O; Adebayo, M A
Migration has been associated with a higher risk of STI/HIV but few studies have assessed the sexual risk behaviour of migrant farm workers in Nigeria. An exploratory survey was conducted to assess the knowledge of HIV/AIDS and sexual risk behaviours of migrant farmers in Saki West Local Government Area, Oyo State, Nigeria. Questionnaires were used to obtain information on socio-demographic and occupational characteristics, knowledge of HIV/AIDS, sexual behaviours and history of STI symptoms. Overall 518 respondents were interviewed, slightly over half were aware of HIV/AIDS; awareness was significantly lower among the females, those aged 15-24 years and those with no formal education. Majority (80.7%) were sexually experienced, the mean age at sexual debut was 19.4 +/- 5.2 years and 18.4 +/- 4.2 years for males and females respectively. Sexual intercourse with multiple sexual partners in the past year was reported by 24.6% (males, 35.7%, versus females, 10.4%, p casual partner was reported by 9.1% (12.8% males versus 4.4% females). Only 18.2% used a condom during the last casual sexual contact. Level of awareness of HIV is unacceptably low and sexual risk behaviours are prevalent among these workers. Appropriate sexual health and HIV prevention interventions should be instituted.
Henrickson, Mark; Dickson, Nigel; Mhlanga, Fungai; Ludlam, Adrian
The AfricaNZ Health project aimed explore HIV risks in Black African communities in NZ with a view to informing HIV infection prevention and health promotion programs. AfricaNZ Health was completed in two phases. The first developed desk estimates of the resident Black African population in New Zealand, and Africans living with HIV. The second comprised two arms: an anonymous survey administered at African community events and a series of focus groups around the country. High levels of knowledge and positive attitudes about HIV were more often found in older than younger age groups. Condom use was higher in the younger group than in older age groups. Traditional attitudes still inform some beliefs about HIV. Stigma about HIV and anyone at risk for HIV remains very high among Africans. Western sexual identity constructs are not meaningful. A culturally informed strategy for risk and stigma reduction is urgently needed. The existing prevention and care infrastructure, informed by MSM experiences, must address increased risk to Black African new settlers, but this is not a reason to discriminate or further stigmatise an already vulnerable population. © 2014 Public Health Association of Australia.
Early versions of a female condom were available in the 1920s and 1960s, but they were little used and soon forgotten. It took the arrival of AIDS, and the urgent need for a wider range of female-controlled barrier techniques, to rekindle scientific interest in this method. In the 1980s, three groups in Europe and the USA began development of new female condom designs, comprising 'Femidom (Reality)', the 'Bikini Condom', and 'Women's Choice'. Apart from differences in their physical design, Femidom differs from the others in that it is made of a polyurethane membrane, which has several advantages over latex. Of the three, Femidom is the most advanced in terms of development and clinical testing, and it is the only one to have reached the marketing stage. Laboratory studies and clinical trials suggest that its contraceptive efficacy is similar to that documented for the male condom, though a direct comparison is not possible because no comparative clinical trials have, as yet, been undertaken. Reported 'typical-use' pregnancy rates range from 12.4 to 22.2% at 6 months of use in the USA and Latin America, respectively, while a study in the UK observed a rate of 15% at 12 months. As with all barrier methods, most failures appear to be associated with poor compliance or incorrect use. 'Perfect-use' pregnancy rates were substantially lower, indicating that Femidom can be very effective, if used consistently and correctly. Evidence for Femidom's effectiveness to protect against transmission of sexual disease-causing organisms, including HIV, is still very limited and based largely on laboratory studies. Whilst, in theory, the condom should confer reliable protection, its efficacy in clinical use will depend upon correct and consistent use and upon the product's ability to maintain an effective physical barrier throughout penetrative intercourse. In this respect, the results of recent and ongoing clinical studies are expected with much interest. How valuable Femidom will
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Use of condoms is recommended in all risky sexual contacts, as long as a couple becomes monogamous and tests for HIV and other STDs. This research aims to examine whether people in Ukraine follow this recommendation.MATERIAL AND METHODS: Associations between condom use at last sexual intercourse and type of sexual partner were explored separately for men and women based on data of 2007 survey by using regression models adjusted for knowledge about and attitude to STDs and HIV, contraception and pregnancy, risky behaviour and socio-demographic characteristics.RESULTS: Generally, 37.2% of men and 25.2% of women reported using condom at last sexual contact. Overall, use of condoms increased with less intimacy between partners: 22.6% of men and 19.2% of women used condoms with their spouses, 62.8% and 52.4% ― with girl-/boy-friends, somewhat less – 56.6% and 35.3% ― with casual acquaintance, respectively, and 71.4% of men – with commercial sex workers; in multivariate analysis direction of associations remained the same. Moreover, risky sexual behaviour for both genders, and drugs ever-use and alcohol consumption during last sex for men reduces odds of using condoms. Also, men demonstrating correct knowledge of ways of horizontal transmission of HIV and women aware about ways of prevention of HIV transmission had higher odds of using condoms, as well as women confident in their ability to buy condoms. For socio-demographic characteristics, having children, younger age and dwelling in non-Western regions and cities were positively associated with using condoms.DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Although condom use in Ukraine is not prevalent enough, there is a tendency to more frequent use of them with high-risk sexual partners. At the same time, people practicing other types of risky behaviour use condoms less, too.
Cultural practices, gender inequality and inconsistent condom use increase vulnerability to HIV infection: narratives from married and cohabiting women in rural communities in Mpumalanga province, South Africa
Madiba, Sphiwe; Ngwenya, Nomsa
ABSTRACT Background: Women in sub-Saharan Africa bear the brunt of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic, and older married women and those in cohabiting relationships are regarded as the largest HIV risk group. Although preventing HIV infection in married or stable relationships is an international HIV prevention priority, little is known about the influence of sociocultural contexts on safe-sex practice by women, particularly older women in rural communities in South Africa. Objectives: This study aimed to examine how older women in a rural patriarchal society negotiate safer sex within marital and long-term cohabitation relationships, and their perceptions and experiences of barriers that influence condom use. Methods: Focus group discussions were conducted with married and cohabiting women aged 40–60 years recruited from primary health facilities in a rural district in Mpumalanga province, South Africa. A thematic analysis approach was used to analyse the data. Results: We found that although women reported negotiating safe sex in their relationships, they dreaded the possible consequences of suggesting condom use with their partners. Many factors made negotiating safe sex complex for these women: living in a patriarchal society where women play no part in sexual decision making, the fear of possible consequences of insisting on condom use, women’s inferior social position in marital relationships, cultural practices such as bride price, and gender inequality were the main barriers to practising safer sex. Conclusions: Older married and cohabiting women dreaded negotiating safer sex in this patriarchal society where women’s subordination is legitimized. The findings suggest that the women were at high risk of HIV infection because of their inability to negotiate condom use, or to reject forced sex and non-consensual sex. There is a need for interventions targeting older married and cohabiting couples and key stakeholders within communities to
Cultural practices, gender inequality and inconsistent condom use increase vulnerability to HIV infection: narratives from married and cohabiting women in rural communities in Mpumalanga province, South Africa.
Madiba, Sphiwe; Ngwenya, Nomsa
Women in sub-Saharan Africa bear the brunt of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic, and older married women and those in cohabiting relationships are regarded as the largest HIV risk group. Although preventing HIV infection in married or stable relationships is an international HIV prevention priority, little is known about the influence of sociocultural contexts on safe-sex practice by women, particularly older women in rural communities in South Africa. This study aimed to examine how older women in a rural patriarchal society negotiate safer sex within marital and long-term cohabitation relationships, and their perceptions and experiences of barriers that influence condom use. Focus group discussions were conducted with married and cohabiting women aged 40-60 years recruited from primary health facilities in a rural district in Mpumalanga province, South Africa. A thematic analysis approach was used to analyse the data. We found that although women reported negotiating safe sex in their relationships, they dreaded the possible consequences of suggesting condom use with their partners. Many factors made negotiating safe sex complex for these women: living in a patriarchal society where women play no part in sexual decision making, the fear of possible consequences of insisting on condom use, women's inferior social position in marital relationships, cultural practices such as bride price, and gender inequality were the main barriers to practising safer sex. Older married and cohabiting women dreaded negotiating safer sex in this patriarchal society where women's subordination is legitimized. The findings suggest that the women were at high risk of HIV infection because of their inability to negotiate condom use, or to reject forced sex and non-consensual sex. There is a need for interventions targeting older married and cohabiting couples and key stakeholders within communities to create awareness about cultural practices and beliefs that undermine
Schwitters, Amee; Sabatier, Jennifer; Seth, Puja; Glenshaw, Mary; Remmert, Dietrich; Pathak, Sonal; Bock, Naomi
Namibia's HIV prevalence is 13.3%. Alcohol is associated with sexual risk-taking, leading to increased HIV risk. Baseline sexual behaviors, HIV and alcohol knowledge, and self-perceived HIV risk were examined among men reporting high-risk drinking in Katutura, Namibia. HIV negative men, ≥ 18 years, were screened for harmful or hazardous levels of drinking and >1 recent sex partner prior to randomization into control or intervention arm. SAS 9.3 and R 3.01 were used for descriptive baseline cohort analyses. A total of 501 participants who met criteria were included in analysis (mean Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test [AUDIT] =12.4). HIV and alcohol knowledge were high with the majority (>85 and 89.8-98%, respectively) of respondents correctly answering assessment questions. Despite high knowledge levels, 66.7% of men felt they were at some or high risk of HIV acquisition. Among those respondents, 56.5% stated often wanting to have sex after drinking and 40.3% stated sex was better when drunk. Among respondents with non-steady partners [n = 188], 44.1% of last sexual encounters occurred while the participant was drunk and condoms were not used 32.5% of those times. Among persons who were not drunk condoms were not used 13.3% of those times. Sex with casual partners was high. Inconsistent condom use and alcohol use before sex were frequently reported. Increased emphasis on alcohol risk-reduction strategies, including drinking due to peer pressure and unsafe sexual behaviors, is needed.
Lindemann, Dana F; Brigham, Thomas A; Harbke, Colin R; Alexander, Teresa
Traditionally, researchers have focused HIV/AIDS prevention efforts on increasing condom use, yet few researchers have assessed condom use skills. Because incorrect condom use may lead to condom failure, promoting condom use without ensuring participants have the skills necessary for correct condom use may lead to increased risk of exposure. This study compared the effects of two condom use courses on condom use skills. These courses were administered as part of a HIV/AIDS educational program for college students. Participants in the treatment groups (n=179) attended either a limited, 1-Session, or extensive, 3-Session, condom use course, and an additional 108 participants served as a Control Group. Condom use skills increased among participants in both treatment groups; however, the greatest improvement was among those in the 3-Session Group. This finding supports use of the extensive, 3-Session course as a more effective means for improving condom use skills.
Adolescents and young adults are highly impacted by sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unplanned pregnancy in the United States and globally. Consistent and correct use of male latex condoms is associated with protection against both STIs and pregnancy. Providing adolescents and young adults with access to free condoms in schools may increase the use of condoms by improving condom availability, eliminating cost, and decreasing embarrassment associated with purchasing condoms. Studies demonstrate that condom availability in schools is associated with the increased use of condoms and improved overall sexual health. The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine encourages schools to make condoms available to students as part of efforts to decrease rates of STIs and unplanned pregnancy in adolescents and young adults. The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine also encourages health care providers to advocate for and support the availability of condoms in local schools. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Evaluated a female condom promotion intervention for socioeconomically disadvantaged women at high risk for sexually transmitted diseases and HIV who had never used female condoms. Pre- and postintervention surveys indicated that providing education and counseling, along with unlimited quantities of male condoms, female condoms, and water-based…
Shiva Raj Mishra
Full Text Available Unsafe sexual behavior is common among the HIV infected. This exposes them to the risks of unintended pregnancy, HIV transmission to uninfected partners and super-infection. Studies on the use of family planning measures among People Living with HIV (PLHIV are scarce in Nepal. The aim of this study was to explore the knowledge and practice of family planning (FP in PLHIV. A cross sectional survey was conducted during July-December 2012 in Kaski district of Nepal. A total of 120 PLHIVs were recruited using snowball sampling from three HIV clinics within the Pokhara sub-metropolitan city area. This study found that nine in ten PLHIV had heard about family planning. Two thirds of respondents were using at least one FP method. The majority (65.8% used condoms and had received FP counseling (67.5%. Less than one percent used condoms in addition to another contraceptive. Being single, being female and having received the counselling sessions were associated with the use of FP. The individuals who received FP counseling were more likely [OR 4.522; 95% CI (1.410-14.504] to use FP. Females were more likely [OR 4.808; 95% CI (1.396-16.556] to use FP than males. The individuals who were single/de-facto widowed were more likely [OR 7.330; 95% CI (2.064-26.028] to use FP than the married individuals. Our findings suggest that there is a need to focus on FP counseling if the HIV prevention program is to increase FP use among the PLHIV population. Use of dual contraceptives need to be promoted through counseling sessions and other health promotion programs focusing in HIV prevention.
Elisabeth Meloni Vieira
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To study HIV-positive women and women at risk of becoming infected with HIV who attended HIV prevention education group sessions at a university hospital in Bra-zil and to compare the use of the female condom and the male condom by these two groups of women. METHODS: The study subjects were 165 women participating in HIV prevention education group sessions at the Medical School Hospital of Ribeirão Preto of the University of São Paulo, in the city of Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil. Women could be enrolled in the study from August 2000 to June 2001, and the follow-up observation time period was from August 2000 to July 2001. Male condoms and female condoms were freely distributed to all the participants at the end of each educational session and also at the end of each follow-up visit that the participants made. Each woman took part in an initial interview and was asked to return monthly. At each follow-up visit an additional short interview was carried out in order to investigate use of the male condom and of the female condom. Variables that were examined for the study included age, education, ethnic group, marital or relationship status, number of children, the women's use of male condoms and female condoms, commercial sex (whether the women had ever had sex in exchange for money, gifts, or favors, and previous knowledge of the female condom. RESULTS: The 165 women studied fell into the following three categories: 132 of them (80.0% were HIV-positive, 26 of them (15.8% had a sexually transmitted disease (STD other than HIV and did not have an HIV-positive partner, and 7 of them (4.2% had an HIV-positive partner but did not have HIV or any other STD. The women ranged in age from 15 to 64 years, with a mean of 30.3 years. Of the women in the study, 69.7% of them were married or were cohabitating, and 90.9% of them had a sexual partner. Just over two-thirds of the women had seven years of formal schooling or less. Out of 163
sexual partners without using condoms are at risk of HIV transmission. ... Key words: Cameroon, condom use, HIV/AIDS, multiple sexual partners, secondary school female students .... The number of sexual partners is an important indicator of.
Full Text Available Unprotected sexual intercourse is a major risk factor for HIV transmission. Men who have sex with men (MSM face challenges in accessing HIV prevention services, including condoms. However, there is limited in-depth assessment and documentation of the barriers to condom use among MSM in sub-Saharan Africa. In this paper, we examine the barriers to condom use among MSM in Uganda.The data for this study were extracted from a larger qualitative study conducted among 85 self-identified adult (>18 years MSM in 11 districts in Uganda between July and December 2013. Data on sexual behaviours and access and barriers to condom use were collected using semi-structured interviews. All interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. This paper presents an analysis of data for 33 MSM who did not use condoms at last sex, with a focus on barriers to condom use. Analysis was conducted using the content analysis approach.Six major barriers to condom use were identified: Difficulties with using condoms, access challenges, lack of knowledge and misinformation about condom use, partner and relationship related issues, financial incentives and socio-economic vulnerability, and alcohol consumption.The findings suggest that several reasons account for lack of condom use among high-risk MSM. The findings are valuable to inform interventions needed to increase condom use among MSM.
Islam, Mohammad Tajul; Mostafa, Golam; Bhuiya, Abbas Uddin; Hawkes, Sarah; de Francisco, Andres
Two hundred and ninety-three randomly-selected members of the staff of ICDDR,B: Centre for Health and Population Research were surveyed anonymously in June 1998, using a pre-tested and self-administered questionnaire, to assess their knowledge on, and attitude toward, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). All except 4 (1.4%) heard of AIDS. Main sources of information were radio and television (93%), newspapers and magazines (84.8%), posters and leaflets (70.2%), and friends (59.2%). About 94% of the respondents believed that HIV might spread in Bangladesh. Only 61.6% knew about the causative agent for AIDS. More than 96% had knowledge that HIV could be detected through blood test. The respondents were aware that unprotected sexual intercourse (92%), transfusion of blood and blood components (93.8%), sharing unsterile needles for injections (94.1%), and delivery of babies by infected mothers (82.7%) could transmit HIV. Similarly, the respondents had the knowledge that HIV infection could be prevented by using condom during sexual intercourse (85.5%), having sex only with an HIV-negative faithful partner (87.2%), avoiding transfusion of blood not screened for HIV (88.9%), and taking injections with sterile needles (86.5%). However, only 33.0% had the knowledge that HIV-infected persons can look healthy, and 56.4% were unaware of transmission through breastmilk. Most members of the staff, particularly at lower level, had misconceptions about transmission and prevention of HIV/AIDS. More than 40% of the respondents had the attitude that HIV-infected persons should not be allowed to work, while another 10% did not have any idea about it. The findings of the study suggest that the members of the Centre's staff have a satisfactory level of essential knowledge on HIV/AIDS, although half of them have poor attitudes toward persons with HIV/AIDS. Therefore, preventive strategy for the staff should be directed toward behaviour change
Globally, South Africa has the highest prevalence of HIV/AIDS. In the absence of cure, prevention is the only available method to reduce HIV prevalence rates. This can only be obtained through behavioural change, which is associated with a good knowledge about HIV. The study aims to determine the knowledge, beliefs, ...
Bloom, Shelah S; Griffiths, Paula L
Factors contributing to India's vulnerability to the AIDS epidemic include pervasive poverty, low levels of education and high gender stratification. This study uses data collected in the 1998-99 National Family Health Survey-2 (NFHS-2) to investigate the relationship between aspects of women's autonomy and four measures of HIV-related knowledge and behaviour--awareness and knowledge of HIV/AIDS, condom awareness and condom use--in three culturally contrasting states in India: Kerala (n=2884), Karnataka (n=4357) and Uttar Pradesh (n=8981). The NFHS-2 is a nationally representative survey of India, with a sampling scheme that was designed such that each state sample can be generalized back to represent ever-married women aged 15-49 living in the state. Kerala scores highest in the four health outcome measures, followed by Karnataka and then Uttar Pradesh, but condom use is lowest in Karnataka. Kerala also leads in the four dimensions of autonomy examined and in socio-demographic status, followed again by Karnataka and Uttar Pradesh. Despite these observed differences, in all three states, women with greater autonomy as measured by this study were more likely to be knowledgeable about AIDS and condoms and to use condoms, after controlling for socio-demographic factors. These results concur with other studies focusing on women's autonomy and health outcomes around the world, and point to the importance of incorporating a gender-based approach to AIDS prevention programmes in India.
Results indicated that HIV-related knowledge; condom knowledge and risk perception were enhanced by the HIV- related risk reduction programme. However, there is a need for improvement, especially with regard to attitudes towards condoms since some students still had negative attitudes even after the intervention ...
Bradley, Heather; Leichliter, Jami S; Gift, Thomas L
Young people may be more likely to use condoms if they discuss sexual risks with their parents. However, no previous study has examined whether discussing sexual risks with a parent is differently associated with condom use among women using and not using other contraceptive methods. Using weighted data from the 2006-2008 National Survey of Family Growth, we examined condom use at last sex among 1206 sexually active unmarried women aged 15-24 years. Using logistic regression, we examined the association between condom use and discussing sexually transmissible infections (STIs) with parents before the age of 18 years, adjusted for women's characteristics (age, ethnicity, income and condom use at first sex). We estimated the predicted probability of condom use by whether women discussed STIs with parents, stratified by use of other contraceptive methods. Overall, 53% of women used condoms at last sex. Among 564 women using other contraceptives, 42% used condoms, versus 64% of 642 women not using other contraceptive methods (P<0.01). After adjustment for covariates, the predicted probability of condom use among women using other contraceptives was 47% among women who discussed STIs with their parents (v. 31% of those not discussing STIs; P<0.01). Among women not using other contraceptives, the predicted probability of condom use remained 64% regardless of whether they discussed STIs with their parents. Young women who use other contraceptive methods are less likely to use condoms, but discussing STIs with parents is associated with increased condom use among these women.
Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the prevalence and correlates of condom use at last sexual intercourse among people aged 15–49 years in Nepal. Secondary data analysis was performed using the Nepal Demographic and Health Survey 2011. The study was restricted to the respondents who reported ever having had sexual intercourse; 9843 females and 3017 males were included. Condom use was assessed by asking if respondents used condoms in their most recent sexual intercourse. Chi-square test and multivariate logistic regression analysis were performed using Complex Sample Analysis Procedure to adjust for sample weight and multistage sampling design. Overall, 7.6% of total, and 16.3% of males and 6.2% of females reported using condoms in their last sexual intercourse. Living in Far-Western region, age and wealth quintile were positively associated with condom use in both males and females. Being unmarried was the most important predictor of condom use among males. Higher education was associated with increased likelihood of condom use in females. However, mobility, having multiple sexual partners, and HIV knowledge were not significant correlates of condom use in both sexes. A big difference was observed in the variance accounted for males and females; indicating use of condoms is poorly predicted by the variables included in the study among females. Condom use was more associated with sociodemographic factors than with sexual behavior and HIV knowledge.
knowledge base of policy-relevant evidence that would provide new ... coded as 1, and negative attitudes as 0. The questions ..... decision making and vulnerability to STD and HIV/AIDS ... Framing HIV prevention discourse to encompass the ...
Allard, R; Lambert, G
To measure the perceived risk of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) among international travellers, to measure their knowledge of the transmission and prevention of HIV infection abroad and to identify some of the determinants of this knowledge. Survey. Travellers' immunization clinic providing mostly primary preventive care to international travellers. All clients aged 18 to 50 years seen at the clinic between Oct. 2 and Dec. 21, 1989, before their departure. Sixteen statements measured knowledge of transmission and prevention of HIV infection. Standardized scales measured health beliefs. The response rate was 81% (331/409). Compared with other diseases AIDS was perceived to be associated with a low risk except by those travelling to countries with a high prevalence of AIDS. Most of the clients were found to have a good knowledge of HIV transmission to travellers, although some myths remained popular and some real routes of transmission, especially blood, remained underrated. In all, 70% of the subjects believed in the efficacy of condoms when used with local people, as compared with 79% when used with other tourists; this difference was greatest among travellers who perceived AIDS as being particularly severe but difficult to prevent. The determinants of the knowledge of HIV transmission and prevention were a high level of education, a mother tongue other than French, unmarried status, a high prevalence of AIDS at the destination, the duration of the trip and a high perceived risk of HIV infection. Counselling should teach travellers (a) not to underestimate their risk of HIV infection during their trip, (b) to decrease the risk of requiring health care in developing countries and (c) to rely on their own prudent sexual behaviour rather than on their assessment of the level of risk posed by the environment.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify factors affecting HIV risk reduction among 150 Black and 150 White South Africans chosen by systematic random sampling. Main outcome measures included sexual behaviour and condom use, knowledge about correct condom use, intention of condom use, behavioural norms, attitudes, normative beliefs, and subjective norms about condoms, HIV/AIDS health beliefs, and HIV risk behaviour. Bivariate analysis gave positive significant relations among being single, age, HIV/ AIDS perceived severity, HIV/AIDS prevention barriers and HIV risk behaviour. Further, bivariate analysis gave negative significant relations among age at onset of puberty, age at first vaginal intercourse, correct condom use knowledge, subjective norms, intention to use condoms and HIV risk behaviour. Regression analysis indicated that for subjective norm to use condoms, less intention for condom use, less condom use knowledge and younger age of first vaginal intercourse were predictive for HIV/AIDS risk behaviour. HIV prevention intervention programmes should include the identified factors and cultural diversity.
Espada, José Pedro; Guillén-Riquelme, Alejandro; Morales, Alexandra; Orgilés, Mireia; Sierra, Juan Carlos
The objective of this research is to determine the validity and reliability of a questionnaire designed to specifically assess the knowledge of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections in a Spanish adolescent population. Cross-sectional study for the validation of a questionnaire. A total of 17 schools in five Spanish provinces. A total of 1,570 adolescent schoolchildren between 13 and 17 years old. A pool of 40 items relating to knowledge about HIV and other sexually transmitted infections was established. This pool was analyzed by an expert panel. It was then administered to a pilot group with the same demographic characteristics of the sample, to ensure comprehension. Item analysis, internal consistency, test/retest and exploratory factorial analysis. A factor analysis was performed, in which five factors that explained 46% of the total variance were retained: general knowledge about HIV, condom as a protective method, routes of HIV transmission, the prevention of HIV, and other sexually transmitted infections. Reliability measures ranged from 0.66 to 0.88. The test-retest correlation was 0.59. There were gender differences in the knowledge of infections. These factors have adequate internal consistency and acceptable test-retest correlation. Theoretically, these factors fit properly with the content of the items. The factors have a moderate relationship, indicating that a high degree of knowledge about an aspect, but not a guarantee of general knowledge. The availability of a questionnaire to assess knowledge of sexually transmitted infections is helpful to evaluate prevention programs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Nwokoji, Ugboga Adaji; Ajuwon, Ademola J
Background The epidemic of HIV continues to grow in Nigeria. Personnel in the military are at increased risk of HIV infection. Although HIV-risk related sexual behavior of Nigerian police officers has been studied, little is known about the sexual behavior of their counterparts in the Navy. This study describes knowledge of AIDS, and HIV-risk sexual behavior of naval personnel in Lagos Nigeria. Methods Four hundred and eighty personnel of the Nigerian Navy completed a 70-item questionnaire in 2002. Group discussion and in-depth interviews of four key informants were also conducted to gain insights into the context of risky sexual behaviors and suggestions for feasible HIV primary prevention interventions. Results The mean age of the respondents was 34 years. Although the overall mean AIDS knowledge score was 7.1 of 10 points, 52.1% of respondents believed that a cure for AIDS was available in Nigeria and that one can get HIV by sharing personal items with an infected person (25.3%). The majority (88.1%) had had lifetime multiple partners ranging from 1–40 with a mean of 5.1; 32.5% of male respondents had had sexual contact with a female sex worker, 19.9% did so during the six months preceding the survey. Forty-one percent of those with sexual contact with a female sex worker did not use a condom during the most recent sexual encounter with these women. Naval personnel who have been transferred abroad reported significantly more risky sexual behaviors than others. Group discussants and key informants believed that sex with multiple partners is a tradition that has persisted in the navy even in the era of AIDS because of the belief that AIDS affects only foreigners, that use of traditional medicine provides protection against HIV infection, and influence of alcohol. Conclusion Many naval personnel report participating in high-risk sexual behavior which may increase their risk of acquiring and spreading HIV. Naval personnel live and interact freely with civilian
Ajuwon Ademola J
Full Text Available Abstract Background The epidemic of HIV continues to grow in Nigeria. Personnel in the military are at increased risk of HIV infection. Although HIV-risk related sexual behavior of Nigerian police officers has been studied, little is known about the sexual behavior of their counterparts in the Navy. This study describes knowledge of AIDS, and HIV-risk sexual behavior of naval personnel in Lagos Nigeria. Methods Four hundred and eighty personnel of the Nigerian Navy completed a 70-item questionnaire in 2002. Group discussion and in-depth interviews of four key informants were also conducted to gain insights into the context of risky sexual behaviors and suggestions for feasible HIV primary prevention interventions. Results The mean age of the respondents was 34 years. Although the overall mean AIDS knowledge score was 7.1 of 10 points, 52.1% of respondents believed that a cure for AIDS was available in Nigeria and that one can get HIV by sharing personal items with an infected person (25.3%. The majority (88.1% had had lifetime multiple partners ranging from 1–40 with a mean of 5.1; 32.5% of male respondents had had sexual contact with a female sex worker, 19.9% did so during the six months preceding the survey. Forty-one percent of those with sexual contact with a female sex worker did not use a condom during the most recent sexual encounter with these women. Naval personnel who have been transferred abroad reported significantly more risky sexual behaviors than others. Group discussants and key informants believed that sex with multiple partners is a tradition that has persisted in the navy even in the era of AIDS because of the belief that AIDS affects only foreigners, that use of traditional medicine provides protection against HIV infection, and influence of alcohol. Conclusion Many naval personnel report participating in high-risk sexual behavior which may increase their risk of acquiring and spreading HIV. Naval personnel live and
Scott-Sheldon, Lori A J; Glasford, Demis E; Marsh, Kerry L; Lust, Sarah A
Correct and consistent condom use has been promoted as a method to prevent sexually transmitted infections including HIV. Yet research has repeatedly shown that people fail to use condoms consistently. One influence on the pervasive lack of condom use that has received relatively little attention is the context in which consumers are exposed to condoms (i.e., how condoms are displayed in retail settings). In this paper we present two studies explored variations in condom shelf placement and its effects on people's condom attitudes and acquisition. Study 1 explored the shelf placement of condoms in 59 retail outlets in Connecticut, USA and found that condoms were typically located in areas of high visibility (e.g., next to the pharmacy counter) and on shelves adjacent to feminine hygiene and disease treatment products. In Study 2, 120 heterosexual undergraduate students at the University of Connecticut were randomly assigned to evaluate condoms adjacent to sensual, positive, neutral, or negative products and found that overall men reported more positive attitudes and acquired more condoms when exposed to condoms in a sensual context compared to women in the same condition. Among women, condom attitudes were more positive in the context of neutral products; condom acquisition was strongest for women exposed to condoms in the positive aisles. These results suggest a gender-specific approach to condom promotion. Implications of these studies for HIV prevention, public health, and condom marketing strategies are discussed.
Full Text Available Contact dermatitis from natural latex of condom has been reported and is attributed to latex sensitivity. Chemical leukoderma from rubber condom is probably not reported. Here we present a case of chemical leukoderma in a 32-year-old male who developed depigmentation around the shaft of the penis in a circumferential pattern. Since the lesion was solitary and the site corresponded to the point of maximum contact of the condom, a diagnosis of contact leukoderma due to latex condom was thought of. Patch testing was done with mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT, dusting powder present in the condom, and condom latex as such. The patient tested positive (3+ with mercaptobenzothiazole and the condom latex. On discontinuation of condom use and with UVB phototherapy, lesions repigmented in eight weeks.
This is a descriptive cross-sectional study on 200 IDUs of Dhaka city was conducted to evaluate their knowledge. ... Regarding practice majority (94.5%) of the IDUs shared needle, 69% had multiple sex partners, out of which only 2.5% used new disposable syringe and only 4.8% always used condom during intercourse.
Simkhada, Padam; van Teijlingen, Edwin R; Regmi, Pramod R; Bhatta, Prakash
People in Nepal generally hold fairly traditional views about sex and sexual health, whilst Western tourists often have a more liberal approach towards sex and relationships. There is evidence that significant sexual interaction occurs between male trekking guides and female travellers and/or local female sex workers in Nepal. This qualitative study explored trekking guides' sexual health knowledge, sexual relationships and condom use with female trekkers and local female sex workers. A total of 21 in-depth interviews were conducted with male trekking guides. Most reported having had sexual relationships with female trekkers and local female sex workers. Explanations for intercourse with female trekkers included: financial support; getting future trekkers through word-of-mouth advertising from the women they have had sex with; and opportunities for emigration. Interestingly, sexual intercourse is reported as more likely to be initiated by female trekkers than by guides, and more so by older women. In contrast, the main reasons for having sex with local female sex workers included: romantic love or sexual excitement and novelty. Awareness regarding sexual health was high among guides, but several factors discouraged the regular use of condoms. Further research with female tourists would help understand the motivations and reasons for their sexual behaviour.
Rasberry, Catherine N; Condron, D Susanne; Lesesne, Catherine A; Adkins, Susan Hocevar; Sheremenko, Ganna; Kroupa, Elizabeth
With HIV and sexually transmitted disease (STD) rates disproportionately high among adolescent sexual minority males (ASMM), it is important to understand how school-based sexual health education may relate to sexual risk-related behavior among this population. This analysis explores reported HIV/AIDS- and condom-related education and sexual risk-related behaviors among ASMM and their adolescent non-sexual-minority male (non-ASMM) peers. Students (n = 11,681) from seven Florida high schools completed paper-and-pencil questionnaires. A matched analytic sample of ASMM and non-ASMM students was created by using propensity score-matching techniques (n = 572). Logistic regressions controlling for individual and school characteristics examined reporting having been taught about AIDS or HIV in school, having been taught in school about using condoms, condom use at last sex, HIV/STD testing, and associations between these variables. Compared with matched non-ASMM peers, ASMM students were less likely to report having been taught about AIDS or HIV in school (odds ratio [OR] = 0.58, P = 0.04) and having used a condom at last sex (OR = 0.39, P condoms. Among non-ASMM, reporting having been taught in school about using condoms was associated with a greater likelihood of condom use at last sex (OR = 4.78, P education and differential associations between condom-related education and condom use in ASMM and non-ASMM suggest that sexual health education in schools may not be resonating with ASMM and non-ASMM in the same way.
Full Text Available To assess the correlates for bisexual behaviors, HIV knowledge, and HIV/AIDS-related stigmatizing/discriminatory attitudes among men who have sex with men (MSM.A cross-sectional survey among MSM was conducted in 2011 to provide demographics, sexual behaviors, HIV knowledge, HIV/AIDS-related stigmatizing/discriminatory attitudes, and services in Jinan, Qingdao, and Yantai of Shandong Province of China.Of 1230 participants, 82.8% were single, 85.7% aged <35 years, and 47.2% received college or higher education. There were 28.6% MSM who reported to be married or cohabitating or ever had sex with woman in the past 6 months (P6M. 74.5% had ≥6 HIV-related knowledge score. The average total score of stigmatizing/discriminatory attitude was 37.4±4.4(standard deviation. Bisexual behavior was independently associated with higher levels of HIV/AIDS-related stigma/discrimination(AOR = 1.1, 95% CI:1.0-1.1, older age(AOR = 1.2, 95%CI:1.1-1.2, and lower HIV-related knowledge score(AOR = 1.6, 95%CI:1.2-2.2. HIV knowledge score ≥6 was independently associated with lower levels of HIV/AIDS-related stigma/discrimination(AOR = 1.3, 95%CI:1.2-1.3, less bisexual behaviors(AOR = 0.6, 95%CI:0.5-0.9, ever received a test for HIV in the past 12 months (P12M(AOR = 3.2, 95%CI:2.3-4.5, college or higher level education(AOR = 1.9, 95%CI:1.4-2.6, consistent condom use with men in P6M(AOR=6.9, 95%CI:4.6-10.6, recruited from internet or HIV testing sites(AOR = 11.2, 95%CI:8.0-16.1 and bars, night clubs, or tea houses(AOR = 2.5, 95%CI:1.7-4.8. Expressing higher levels of HIV/AIDS-related stigmatizing/discriminatory attitudes was independently associated with bisexual behaviors(Aβ = 0.9, 95%CI:0.4-1.4, lower HIV-related knowledge score(Aβ = 3.6, 95%CI:3.0-4.1, the number of male sex partners in the past week ≥2(Aβ = 1.4, 95%CI:1.0-1.9, unprotected male anal sex in P6M(Aβ = 1.0, 95%CI:0.5-1.6, and inversely associated with ever received HIV test(Aβ = 1.4, 95%CI:0
Thomas Obinchemti Egbe
Full Text Available Background. We determined the incidence of HIV seroconversion during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy and ad hoc potential cofactors associated with HIV seroconversion after having an HIV-negative result antenatally. We also studied knowledge of PMTCT among pregnant women in seven health facilities in Fako Division, South West Region, Cameroon. Method. During the period between September 12 and December 4, 2011, we recruited a cohort of 477 HIV-negative pregnant women by cluster sampling. Data collection was with a pretested interviewer-administered questionnaire. Sociodemographic information, knowledge of PMTCT, and methods of HIV prevention were obtained from the study population and we did Voluntary Counselling and Testing (VCT for HIV. Results. The incidence rate of HIV seroconversion during pregnancy was 6.8/100 woman-years. Ninety percent of the participants did not use condoms throughout pregnancy but had a good knowledge of PMTCT of HIV. Only 31.9% of participants knew their HIV status before the booking visit and 33% did not know the HIV status of their partners. Conclusion. The incidence rate of HIV seroconversion in the Fako Division, Cameroon, was 6.8/100 woman-years. No risk factors associated with HIV seroconversion were identified among the study participants because of lack of power to do so.
Egbe, Thomas Obinchemti; Tazinya, Rose-Mary Asong; Halle-Ekane, Gregory Edie; Egbe, Eta-Nkongho; Achidi, Eric Akum
We determined the incidence of HIV seroconversion during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy and ad hoc potential cofactors associated with HIV seroconversion after having an HIV-negative result antenatally. We also studied knowledge of PMTCT among pregnant women in seven health facilities in Fako Division, South West Region, Cameroon. During the period between September 12 and December 4, 2011, we recruited a cohort of 477 HIV-negative pregnant women by cluster sampling. Data collection was with a pretested interviewer-administered questionnaire. Sociodemographic information, knowledge of PMTCT, and methods of HIV prevention were obtained from the study population and we did Voluntary Counselling and Testing (VCT) for HIV. The incidence rate of HIV seroconversion during pregnancy was 6.8/100 woman-years. Ninety percent of the participants did not use condoms throughout pregnancy but had a good knowledge of PMTCT of HIV. Only 31.9% of participants knew their HIV status before the booking visit and 33% did not know the HIV status of their partners. The incidence rate of HIV seroconversion in the Fako Division, Cameroon, was 6.8/100 woman-years. No risk factors associated with HIV seroconversion were identified among the study participants because of lack of power to do so.
Bupe Bwalya Bwalya
Full Text Available Background: Although people of any age are susceptible to HIV, youths aged 15 – 24 face disproportionate risk of contracting it because of challenges that they face with regard to correct HIV and AIDS related knowledge, attitudes and practices. This study was aimed at determining whether HIV and AIDS can be fought by targeting interventions at youths aged 15 – 24 years by assessing their current knowledge, attitudes and sexual behaviours in Zambia. Methods: The study utilised secondary data from a self-weighting nationally representative sample of the 2009 Zambia Sexual Behaviour Survey. Results: Generally correct comprehensive knowledge is very low among youths (43 percent. This is in spite having good command of general and full general knowledge and the ABCs of HIV and AIDS prevention. Attitudes towards PLHIV, Condom use and HIV counselling and testing were negative. About one third (58 percent of youths in Zambia have a history of early sexual debut (sex before age 15 with more females (64 percent than males (51 percent having hard sex. Male youths were more likely to have used a condom with most recent sexual partner as compared to females (AOR=0.265, 95%CI: 0.160, 0.438; p<0.001. Youths in rural areas had reduced odds of using a condom during their first sexual intercourse compared with those in urban areas (AOR=0.530, 95%CI: 0.387, 0.726; p<0.001. Conclusions: Therefore, it can be seen lack of comprehensive correct knowledge, gender disparities, poor educational levels, youth’s age and place of residence are some of the contributing factors that may hinder the fight against HIV/AIDS among youths in Zambia.Key words: Youths; HIV/AIDS; Knowledge; Attitudes; Behaviour, Zambia
Okunlola, M A; Morhason-Bello, I O; Owonikoko, K M; Adekunle, A O
A cross-sectional study of female condom awareness, usage and concerns among the female undergraduates of the University of Ibadan was conducted in September 2004. The results of 850 out of the 879 female students interviewed were used for analysis (96.6%). Over 80% had knowledge of the female condom as a form of modern contraception and the majority of them learnt about it through the mass media (39.9%) and health workers (34.4%). However, only 11.3% had ever used the female condom, with most (40%) using it to prevent both unwanted pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections including HIV (STI/HIV). The sexual partners' approval was appreciable, accounting for about 42.7% among those that had experience of the female condom usage. Major concerns mentioned such as difficulty of inserting it into the vagina and lack of sexual satisfaction, were not different from those in earlier studies. The result of this study looks promising judging from a high awareness level of the female condom, even though its usage is low. The female condom may be an alternative strategy to combat unsafe sexual practises and its sequelae in a country like Nigeria that is male dominated.
Purpose: The study assessed the knowledge of both HIV and non-HIV hypertensive patients on hypertension and the role of pharmacists in their pharmaceutical care. Methods: The study was conducted at the hypertension and HIV clinics in government hospitals in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Patients were interviewed using ...
Hinduan, Zahrotur R; Suherman, Harry; Pinxten, W J Lucas; Alisjahbana, Bachti; Hospers, Harm J
Prison officers have a vital role in running a secure and healthy living environment for the inmates. The purpose of this article is to examine the relationship between HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and attitude towards inmates living with HIV among the officers in an Indonesian narcotics prison. A total of 93 officers from a narcotics prison in Bandung, Indonesia voluntarily participated in this cross-sectional study by completing a self-reported questionnaire. A Prior focus group discussion was also held among selected participants. Statistical data analyses indicate that all domains of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, i.e. knowledge of HIV-transmission, general HIV/AIDS knowledge and knowledge of HIV-prevention, have substantial positive correlations with the prison officers' attitude towards inmates living with HIV. These results show that the more knowledgeable the officers are, the less likely they are to respond in an unfavourable manner to inmates living with HIV and vice versa. Despite the limited participants involved in this study, the knowledge gaps that are identified in this study should be the starting point for the development of educational interventions for prison officers. Sufficient educational programs and the latest materials need to be made available within the prison. Commitment from prison authorities as well as a proper policy are also needed. This study helped prison authorities to identify areas for knowledge development of the officers. Hopefully the positive attitude towards inmates living with HIV will be developed.
Sallar, Anthony M
Among adolescents in Africa and in the rest of the world, unprotected sexual intercourse is the primary cause of HIV transmission. There is limited information on population based study of adolescents who are not-in-school. A quantitative and qualitative study was conducted among adolescents aged 10-19 (n = 483, mean age = 16.6) in the Ashanti region of Ghana on sexual behavior, condom use, and peer norms regarding sexuality. Age of sexual debut was younger for those in-school. However, out-of-school adolescents were more likely to ever have sexual intercourse (72.2% vs. 27.8%) and use condoms (83.6% vs. 16.4%) compared to their in-school counterparts. Religious affiliation was associated with being less sexually active. Statistically significant differences occurred for condom use and increased sexual activity with age. There is the need for programs to increase condom use. Adolescents in Ghana represent a vulnerable population and concerted efforts must be made to reach them.
Rungsiyanont, Sorasun; Lam-Ubol, Aroonwan; Vacharotayangul, Piamkamon; Sappayatosok, Kraisorn
To investigate the knowledge and attitudes of Thai dental practitioners regarding patients with HIV, a cross-sectional study using self-administered questionnaires was conducted. The questionnaires requested demographic information and included questions evaluating the knowledge and attitude of dental practitioners towards HIV. The results were analyzed using Scheffe method for multiple comparisons at the 95 percent confidence level. Out of 1,200 questionnaires sent, 446 questionnaires were returned (response rate 37.2 percent). The subjects included final (sixth)-year dental students (11.9 percent), general dentists (29.1 percent), specialist dentists (15.5 percent), dental hygienists (30.5 percent), and dental assistants (13 percent). More than 80 percent of the dental practitioners correctly answered the questions testing their basic knowledge of HIV such as routes of transmission and common opportunistic infections. However, knowledge about HIV pathogenesis, complications, and advances in HIV management was lacking. Dental hygienists and dental assistants had statistically significant lower scores in knowledge about HIV than other groups. Sixty-seven percent of dental practitioners said they feel worried when treating patients with HIV, and 20.4 percent said they would deny treatment for patients with HIV if possible. While knowledge about HIV may be adequate among dental practitioners in Thailand, greater effort should be put into emphasizing positive attitudes towards patients with HIV.
Ranjan Ray; Kompal Sinha
This paper makes methodological and empirical contributions to the study of HIV awareness, knowledge, incidence and safe sex practice in the context of Botswana, one of the most HIV prone countries in the world. While the focus is on Botswana, the paper presents comparable evidence from India to put the Botswana results in perspective. The results point to the strong role played by affluence and education in increasing HIV knowledge, promoting safe sex and reducing HIV incidence. The study pr...
Rubens, Muni; McCoy, H. Virginia; Shehadeh, Nancy
Consistent and correct use of condoms is important to prevent the transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases. We evaluated condom use skills on an 11-point scale in which participants were observed placing a condom on a penile model. Participants were 375 sexually active African American and Hispanic migrant workers. For analysis, subjects were divided into skilled and unskilled groups by a median split of the condom use skills score. Sexual risk behaviors were analyzed betwe...
Mohammed Fayaz A
Full Text Available A Mohammed Fayaz,1,* Zhujun Ao,1,3,* Morkattu Girilal,2 Liyu Chen,3,4 Xianzhong Xiao,4 PT Kalaichelvan,2 Xiaojian Yao1,31Laboratory of Molecular Human Retrovirology, Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada; 2CAS in Botany, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India; 3Department of Microbiology, 4School of Basic Medical Sciences, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, People’s Republic of China*Both authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Recent research suggests that today’s condoms are only 85% effective in preventing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases. In response, there has been a push to develop more effective ways of decreasing the spread of the disease. The new nanotechnology-based condom holds the promise of being more potent than the first-generation products. The preliminary goal of this study was to develop a silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs-coated polyurethane condom (PUC and to investigate its antimicrobial potential including the inactivation of HIV and herpes simplex virus (HSV infectiousness. The Ag-NPs-coated PUC was characterized by using ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, high-resolution scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive analysis of X-ray spectroscopy. Nanoparticles were stable on the PUC and not washed away by water. Morphology of the PUC was retained after coating. The NP binding is due to its interaction with the nitrogen atom of the PUC. No significant toxic effects was observed when human HeLa cells, 293T and C8166 T cells were contacted to Ag-NPs-coated PUC for three hours. Interestingly, our results demonstrated that the contact of the Ag-NPs-coated PUC with HIV-1 and HSV-1/2 was able to efficiently inactivate their infectiousness. In an attempt to elucidate the antiviral action of the Ag-NPs, we have demonstrated that the
Taylor, Tory M; Hembling, John; Bertrand, Jane T
To describe levels of risky sexual behaviour, HIV testing and HIV knowledge among men and women in Guatemala by ethnic group and to identify adjusted associations between ethnicity and these outcomes. Data on 16,205 women aged 15-49 and 6822 men aged 15-59 from the 2008-2009 Encuesta Nacional de Salud Materno Infantil were used to describe ethnic group differences in sexual behaviour, HIV knowledge and testing. We then controlled for age, education, wealth and other socio-demographic factors in a multivariate logistic regression model to examine the effects of ethnicity on outcomes related to age at sexual debut, number of lifetime sex partners, comprehensive HIV knowledge, HIV testing and lifetime sex worker patronage (men only). The data show low levels of risky sexual behaviour and low levels of HIV knowledge among indigenous women and men, compared to other respondents. Controlling for demographic factors, indigenous women were more likely than other women never to have been tested for HIV and to lack comprehensive HIV knowledge. They were less likely to report early sexual debut and three or more lifetime sexual partners. Indigenous men were more likely than other men to lack comprehensive HIV knowledge and demonstrated lower odds of early sexual debut, 10 or more lifetime sexual partners and sex worker patronage. The Mayan indigenous population in Guatemala, while broadly socially vulnerable, does not appear to be at elevated risk for HIV based on this analysis of selected risk factors. Nonetheless, low rates of HIV knowledge and testing may be cause for concern. Programmes working in indigenous communities should focus on HIV education and reducing barriers to testing. Further research into the factors that underlie ethnic self-identity and perceived ethnicity could help clarify the relative significance of these measures for HIV risk and other health outcomes.
Phillips, K A
Increasing knowledge is an important goal of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention strategies, although increased knowledge may not be associated with increased preventive behaviors. This study examines the association of (1) objective and subjective acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) knowledge, and (2) both objective and subjective AIDS knowledge with HIV testing use. Data are from the 1988 National Health Interview Survey. Objective and subjective knowledge were only moderately correlated. In regression analyses, higher subjective knowledge was significantly associated with higher testing use, but objective knowledge was not. The results are relevant to other preventive behaviors for which knowledge is an important factor.
HIV knowledge and sexual risk behavior among street adolescents in rehabilitation centres in Kinshasa; DRC: gender differences. ... Background: Street children, common in Africa, are increasingly vulnerable to alcohol and drugs of abuse and lack access to both healthcare and knowledge about HIV and AIDS. Hence, this ...
A cross sectional study to determine the knowledge and awareness of HIV/AIDS among some senior secondary school students was undertaken in Katsina, Katsina State, Nigeria. The purpose of this study was to provide preliminary data on HIV/AIDS knowledge and awareness among young people in Katsina. A 26 item ...
Introduction: The level of accurate knowledge adolescents have about HIV/AIDS, is important to enhance effective preventive actions, which ultimately result in a decrease in the incidence of the disease among adolescents. This study assessed the level of knowledge of HIV/AIDS and the first source of the information on HIV ...
Wong, M L; Lubek, I; Dy, B C; Pen, S; Kros, S; Chhit, M
To determine the social and behavioural factors associated with condom use among direct sex workers in Siem Reap, Cambodia. Using a structured behavioural questionnaire, interviews were conducted with 140 direct sex workers attending a health centre in Siem Reap for HIV screening. Consistent condom use with their clients was reported by 78% of sex workers compared to only 20% with their non-paying partners. Consistent condom use with clients was significantly higher among higher income than lower income sex workers (adjusted prevalence ratio: 1.91, 95% CI: 1.15 to 3.18) and those with good rather than poor negotiation skills (adjusted prevalence ratio: 1.51, 95% CI: 1.01 to 2.26), after adjustment for age, educational level, marital status, number of sexual encounters per week, and knowledge of AIDS/HIV and sexually transmitted infections. The most frequently reported reason for not using condoms with clients was not being able to persuade them (66.7%), while for non-paying partners, the reason was that they loved them (60.0%). To complement the government's current programme of client education, 100% condom policy and brothel administrative measures, additional strategies to increase condom use among clients and non-paying partners should be directed at (i) the social policy and community levels to address sex workers' economic and cultural barriers to condom use, and (ii) personal level empowerment through developing sex workers' condom negotiation skills.
Lippman, Sheri A.; Chinaglia, Magda; Donini, Angela A.; Diaz, Juan; Reingold, Arthur; Kerrigan, Deanna L.
Background Sexually transmitted infection (STI)/HIV prevention programs which do not modify social-structural contexts that contribute to risk of STI/HIV may fail to bring about improvements in health, particularly among groups who experience discrimination and exclusion from public life. We conducted a multi-level intervention with sex workers, including improved clinical care and community mobilizing strategies to modify social-structural factors that shape sexual behavior, in order to improve condom use and reduce incident STI. Methods We followed 420 sex workers participating in the Encontros intervention in Corumbá, Brazil from 2003-2005. We estimated the effect of the intervention on incident chlamydia and gonorrhea infections and condom use using generalized estimating equations and inverse probability weighting by comparing those who actively engaged in the intervention activities (exposed) to those who were less engaged (unexposed). We also determined the association of participation on reported social cohesion and participation in networks. Results Exposed participants had significantly higher odds of reporting consistent condom use with regular clients (OR:1.9, 95%CI:1.1-3.3) and non-significantly increased odds with both new clients (OR:1.6, 0.9-2.8) and nonpaying partners (OR:1.5, 0.9-1.5). The odds of an incident STI were non-significantly reduced for exposed participants compared to unexposed (OR:0.46, 0.2-1.3). Participation was significantly associated with increased perceived cohesion and participation in networks. Conclusion This prospective study provides evidence that multi-level interventions with mobilizing strategies to modify aspects of the social environment can improve condom use, reduce STIs, and increase social cohesion and participation in networks among sex workers. PMID:22337108
Lippman, Sheri A; Chinaglia, Magda; Donini, Angela A; Diaz, Juan; Reingold, Arthur; Kerrigan, Deanna L
Sexually transmitted infection (STI)/HIV prevention programs, which do not modify social structural contexts that contribute to risk of STI/HIV may fail to bring about improvements in health, particularly among groups who experience discrimination and exclusion from public life. We conducted a multilevel intervention with sex workers, including improved clinical care and community-mobilizing strategies to modify social structural factors that shape sexual behavior, to improve condom use and reduce incident STI. We followed 420 sex workers participating in the Encontros intervention in Corumbá, Brazil, between 2003 and 2005. We estimated the effect of the intervention on incident chlamydia and gonorrhea infections and condom use using generalized estimating equations and inverse probability weighting by comparing those who actively engaged in the intervention activities (exposed) with those who were less engaged (unexposed). We also determined the association of participation on reported social cohesion and participation in networks. Exposed participants had significantly higher odds of reporting consistent condom use with regular clients (odds ratio [OR]: 1.9, 95% confidence interval:1.1-3.3) and nonsignificantly increased odds with both new clients (OR: 1.6, 0.9-2.8) and nonpaying partners (OR: 1.5, 0.9-1.5). The odds of an incident STI were nonsignificantly reduced for exposed participants compared with unexposed (OR: 0.46, 0.2-1.3). Participation was significantly associated with increased perceived cohesion and participation in networks. This prospective study provides evidence that multilevel interventions with mobilizing strategies to modify aspects of the social environment can improve condom use, reduce STIs, and increase social cohesion and participation in networks among sex workers.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Injection drug use (IDU is one of the major modes of HIV transmission in China. Drug use is illegal in China, all identified drug users are registered by Public Security Bureau, and most were sent to detention; most detainees engaged in high risk behaviours. In order to well understand the HIV/AIDS knowledge among detainees, a survey was conducted in different detention settings in Hunan province in 2008 to assess knowledge and attitudes about HIV among detainees and to provide useful information for HIV prevention and intervention strategies in detention centers. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 10 detentions in Hunan province, China, and demographic information along with knowledge and attitude of HIV/AIDS was collected through standardized interviews. Descriptive statistics were used to describe HIV knowledge, attitudes, and education services among detainees. Results There were 956 detainees interviewed from 10 detention centers. The male to female ratio was 2.24:1. The majority detainees received nine years of compulsory education, accounting for 51.5%. There were nine questions to assess HIV/AIDS knowledge of detainees, and 35.7% of those surveyed answered all nine questions correctly. There were 92.3% (882/956 who consented to be informed about the HIV antibody test results when tested, and 81% (774/956 elected that their family members were also informed. All detention centers had an organized HIV/AIDS education program. Conclusion This study gives us an overview about HIV/AIDS knowledge in detention in Hunan province, and all detention sites in the study provided HIV/AIDS intervention services among detainees that focused on HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitude, and health behaviors.
Dyrehave, Charlotte; Rasmussen, Dlama Nggida; Hønge, Bo Langhoff
-sectional study included 494 HIV-infected individuals from the Bissau HIV Cohort in Guinea-Bissau. They completed a questionnaire designed for assessment of adherence and HIV-related knowledge. RESULTS: A majority were female, 41% were illiterate, 25% did not take the medicine during the last 4 days, and 23......BACKGROUND: Poor treatment adherence is a main barrier for effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) globally. HIV-related knowledge may affect understanding and utilization of HIV medical information, hence limited health literacy is a known barrier to treatment adherence. DESIGN AND METHODS: A cross......% skipped their medicine during weekends. The most frequent reasons for not taking medicine were simply forgetting, side effects, lack of food, and being too ill to attend the clinic. Nonadherent patients had a lower level of HIV-related knowledge. CONCLUSION: Main barriers for nonadherence were side...
Dawood, Naseema; Bhagwanjee, Anil; Govender, Kay; Chohan, Ebrahim
This study investigates the knowledge, attitudes and sexual practices of adolescents with mild mental retardation (MMR) in relation to HIV/AIDS. Questionnaires were personally administered to a saturation sample of 90 adolescents with MMR drawn from one specialised educational institution in Durban, South Africa. The study revealed critical gaps and erroneous beliefs regarding knowledge of HIV/AIDS, especially with regard to its existence, transmission and cure. Participants indicated a high degree of exposure to various sources of information, particularly media messages. The results indicate that gender-role prescriptions and prevailing social constructions of immorality have had a negative influence on the attitudes and behaviour of participants, particularly with regard to sexual practices and preventative risk behaviours. Furthermore, the sample was found to have low levels of self-efficacy in relation to sexual negotiation and decision-making, more specifically with regard to condom use. It should be noted, however, that only a small proportion of the sample was sexually active and the use of contraceptives was accordingly found to be extremely low. The findings are discussed against the backdrop of the empirical literature on HIV/AIDS, developmental theory, and pertinent theories and models of health behaviour. This study may help to promote a better understanding of the psycho-educational dynamics of HIV infection in this special group of adolescents, and also help to inform attempts to tailor suitable educational programmes, as well as promote further research to add to our knowledge as we address the problems of HIV/AIDS among this group.
Zhang, Tiejun; Zhang, Jinling; Gao, Meiyang; He, Na; Detels, Roger
To document knowledge, attitudes and practices of voluntary HIV counselling and testing (VCT) among rural migrants in central China. A cross-sectional study with face-to-face anonymous questionnaire interviews was conducted using a structured questionnaire. Among 1280 participants, 87.9% reported having had sexual intercourse during their lifetime, with 69% of singles reporting having had sexual intercourse and 49.1% having had sex in the past month. Only 21% always used condoms, 84.4% knew HIV infection was diagnosed through blood testing, 56.6% had heard of VCT, but only 3.8% perceived their own risk for HIV infection. Only 43 (2.3%) had ever been tested for HIV, and none had ever been tested at a VCT site. About two-thirds (64.5%) would be willing to use VCT services upon awareness of HIV risk. A logistic regression model showed that females, those having little knowledge of HIV/AIDS, those unwilling to work with HIV-infected individuals, never having been tested for HIV and having low awareness regarding HIV risk were less willing to use VCT. The results of this study indicated that much greater efforts are needed to improve HIV/AIDS and VCT knowledge, to promote safer sex and to improve VCT acceptance among rural migrants in central China, particularly those engaging in risky behaviours.
Marli Teresinha Gimeniz Galvão
Full Text Available The frequency with which condoms are used in sex relations by subjects with HIV was determined by interviewing 132 individuals, 82 men and 50 women, most of them from São Paulo state and some from other regions of the country, all of them seen at an outpatient clinic of the School of Medicine in Botucatu. The women were younger, were of lower educational level and had poorer professional qualification than men. Also, a greater proportion of women were widowed, separated or divorced. We observed that 43.9% of men and 72% of women had been contaminated by the sexual route, but only 41.2% of the men and 31.8% of the women reported the use of a condom after the diagnosis of infection, with most men and women preferring sexual abstinence. The results enable the conclusion that there is still a need to continue to provide information about the use of condoms and to guarantee their free-of-charge distribution due to the low levels of education and professional qualification of the individuals studied. The data also suggest that campaigns for the dissemination of preventive measures should consider the social and cultural differences of infected women.Para estudar a ocorrência da utilização do preservativo masculino em relações sexuais pelos portadores do HIV, foram entrevistados 132 indivíduos, sendo 82 homens e 50 mulheres. A maioria do Estado de São Paulo e algumas de outras regiões do País, atendidas na Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu. As mulheres eram mais jovens, tinham menor escolaridade, pior qualificação profissional que os homens, e ainda, maior proporção era de viúvas, separadas, desquitadas e divorciadas. Verificou-se que 43,9% dos homens e 72% das mulheres foram contaminados pela via sexual, mas apenas 41,2% dos primeiros e 31,8% das mulheres referiram utilização do preservativo após o diagnóstico de infecção, a maioria de homens e mulheres preferindo observar abstinência sexual. Os resultados permitem concluir que
Only simple equipment, simple technology and low initial capital investment are needed in their manufacture. The condoms can be made by people who were previously unskilled or only semi-skilled workers. Plastic condoms differ from those made of latex rubber in that the nature of the plastic film allows unlimited shelf-life. Also, the plastic has a higher degree of lubricity than latex rubber; if there is a demand for extra lubrication in a particular market, this can be provided. Because the plastic is inert, these condoms need not be packaged in hermetically sealed containers. All these attributes make it possible to put these condoms on the distributors' shelves in developing countries competitively with rubber condoms. The shape of the plastic condom is based on that of the lamb caecum, which has long been used as luxury-type condom. The plastic condom is made from plastic film (ethylene ethyl acrilate) of 0.001 inch (0.0254 mm.) thickness. In addition, a rubber ring is provided and sealed into the base of the condom for retention during coitus. The advantage of the plastic condom design and the equipment on which it is made is that production can be carried out either in labour-intensive economy or with varying degrees of mechanization and automation. The uniform, finished condom if made using previously untrained workers. Training of workers can be done in a matter of hours on the two machines which are needed to produce and test the condoms. The plastic film is provided on a double wound roll, and condom blanks are prepared by means of a heat-sealing die on the stamping machine. The rubber rings are united to the condom blanks on an assembly machine, which consists of a mandrel and heat-sealing equipment to seal the rubber ring to the base of the condom. Built into the assembly machine is a simple air-testing apparatus that can detect the smallest pinhole flaw in a condom. The manufacturing process is completed by unravelling the condom from the assembly
Background: Correct and consistent use of condoms has been reported as effective in the prevention of transmission of HIV. There have been many studies reporting on attitudes (perceptions) of communities on condoms and other aspects of HIV and AIDS and yet there is paucity of data on the perception towards condoms ...
Martins, Laura B Motta; da Costa-Paiva, Lúcia Helena S; Osis, Maria José D; de Sousa, Maria Helena; Pinto-Neto, Aarão M; Tadini, Valdir
This study aimed to compare knowledge about STD/AIDS and identify the factors associated with adequate knowledge and consistent use of male condoms in teenagers from public and private schools in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. We selected 1,594 adolescents ranging 12 to 19 years of age in 13 public schools and 5 private schools to complete a questionnaire on knowledge of STD/AIDS and use of male condoms. Prevalence ratios were computed with a 95% confidence interval. The score on STD knowledge used a cutoff point corresponding to 50% of correct answers. Statistical tests were chi-square and Poisson multiple regression. Consistent use of male condoms was 60% in private and 57.1% in public schools (p > 0.05) and was associated with male gender and lower socioeconomic status. Female gender, higher schooling, enrollment in private school, Caucasian race, and being single were associated with higher knowledge of STDs. Teenagers from public and private schools have adequate knowledge of STD prevention, however this does not include the adoption of effective prevention. Educational programs and STD/AIDS awareness-raising should be expanded in order to minimize vulnerability.
Organista, P B; Organista, K C; Soloff, P R
AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors were assessed in female Mexican migrant laborers. Thirty-two women were administered a modified version of the Hispanic Condom Questionnaire. Respondents were knowledgeable about the major modes of HIV transmission, but one-third to one-half of the women believed that they could contract AIDS from unlikely casual sources. Although respondents reported few negative beliefs about condom use, actual condom use with sex partners was low and knowledge of proper condom use was problematic. Consequently, 75 percent reported never carrying condoms. Implications of these findings for future research and provision of services for female Mexican migrants are discussed.
Mantell, Joanne E.; Smit, Jennifer A.; Beksinska, Mags; Scorgie, Fiona; Milford, Cecilia; Balch, Erin; Mabude, Zonke; Smith, Emily; Adams-Skinner, Jessica; Exner, Theresa M.; Hoffman, Susie; Stein, Zena A.
Young men in South Africa can play a critical role in preventing new human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections, yet are seldom targeted for HIV prevention. While reported condom use at last sex has increased considerably among young people, consistent condom use remains a challenge. In this study, 74 male higher education students gave their perspectives on male and female condoms in 10 focus group discussions. All believed that condoms should be used when wanting to prevent conception an...
de Beer, Ingrid H; Gelderblom, Huub C; Schellekens, Onno; Gaeb, Esegiel; van Rooy, Gert; McNally, Alta; Wit, Ferdinand W; Tobias, Rinke de Wit F
With an overall adult HIV prevalence of 15.3%, Namibia is facing one of the largest HIV epidemics in Africa. Young people aged 20 to 34 years constitute one of the groups at highest risk of HIV infection in Namibia. However, little is known about the impact of HIV on this group and its access to healthcare. The purpose of this study was to estimate HIV prevalence, to assess the knowledge of and attitudes towards HIV/AIDS, and to assess access to healthcare among university students in Namibia. We assessed HIV/AIDS knowledge and attitudes, HIV prevalence and access to healthcare among students at the Polytechnic of Namibia and the University of Namibia. HIV prevalence was tested through anonymous oral fluid-based tests. Half (n = 2790/5568) of the university students and 45% (n = 2807/6302) of the Polytechnic students participated in the knowledge and attitudes surveys. HIV/AIDS knowledge was reasonable, except for misperceptions about transmission. Awareness of one's own HIV status and risks was low. In all, 55% (n = 3055/5568) of university students and 58% (n = 3680/6302) of Polytechnic students participated in the HIV prevalence survey; 54 (1.8%) university students and 103 (2.8%) Polytechnic students tested HIV positive. Campus clinics were not the major providers of healthcare to the students. Meaningful strategies addressing the gap between knowledge, attitude and young people's perception of risk of HIV acquisition should be implemented. HIV prevalence among Namibian university students appears relatively low. Voluntary counselling and testing should be stimulated. Efforts should be made to increase access to healthcare through the campus clinics.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Individuals who are aware of the risk of infection and perceive themselves to be at risk of infection are more likely to take action to prevent HIV infection. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge of HIV/AIDS among Iraqi women. Methods A secondary analysis of the 2000 Multiple Cluster Indicator Survey (MICS for Iraq was carried out to assess the extent of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge among Iraqi women. Results The majority of the 22,997 respondents were age 15–24 years (44.3%, currently married (51.4%, and resided in urban areas (71.7%. About 1 in 4 (26.0% of the study participants had no formal education. Only 49.9% had heard of HIV/AIDS. Overall, 60.5% did not know that HIV can be transmitted through blood transfusion. Meanwhile, 98.5% of the respondents did not know that HIV can be transmitted from mother to child through breast milk. Only 0.7% of the respondents reported that HIV cannot be transmitted through mosquito bites. The proportion of the respondents who had adequate knowledge on HIV/AIDS was 9.8%. Adequate knowledge of HIV/AIDS was negatively associated with being married, poor, having low education, and residing in rural areas. Conclusion Findings from this study indicate that adequate knowledge of HIV/AIDS among Iraqi is very limited and associated with marital status, education, wealth, and place of residence. This information may be of use in the design, targeting, monitoring and evaluation of programs aimed at improving HIV and AIDS related knowledge in Iraq.
Li, Xiaoming; Lin, Danhua; Wang, Bo; Du, Hongfei; Tam, Cheuk Chi; Stanton, Bonita
Our objective was to evaluate the efficacy of a cultural adaptation of a social cognitive theory-based HIV behavioral prevention program among young rural-to-urban migrants in China. The intervention design and assessment were guided by the Protection Motivation Theory (PMT). The intervention was evaluated through a randomized controlled trial with 6-month and 12-month follow-ups. The primary behavioral outcome was the use of condoms. Other outcome measures include HIV knowledge, condom use knowledge, HIV-related perceptions (PMT constructs), and intention to use condom. The mixed-effects regression models for condom use with regular partners indicated that overall frequency of condom use, condom use in last three sexual acts and proper condom use increased over time for the participants but the increases were significantly greater among the intervention group than the control group at 6-month and 12-month follow-ups. The mixed-effects models for HIV-related perceptions indicated that extrinsic rewards, intrinsic rewards, and response costs decreased while vulnerability, severity, response efficacy, and self-efficacy increased over time for the intervention group. The increases in HIV knowledge, condom use knowledge, and intention to use condom were also significantly greater among the intervention group than the control group. The data in the current study suggested efficacy of a social cognitive theory-based behavioral intervention in increasing condom use among young migrants in China. The intervention also increased protective perceptions and decreased risk perception posited by the theory (i.e., PMT).
Phillips, S R
Results from a 1991-92 survey of the condom use beliefs, attitudes, and practices of 373 US inner-city high school students reveal educational policy implications which would further the goal of encouraging sexually active youth to use condoms. First, the issue of sexual desire must be treated realistically. Many teenage girls, as well as boys, want to fulfill their desires by having sexual intercourse. The standard educational approach to teenage boys also assumes that they are sexual exploiters, but this may also simply be a cultural construct rather than a reality. Addressing physical pleasure issues may be particularly important in encouraging condom use, but it would be inappropriate for such discussions to encourage sexual activity. Adolescent ambivalence towards risk taking and mortality must also be considered. Standard definitions of risk (which exclude the health risk of pregnancy) contain the common perception that adolescent males are greater risk-takers than females. When such definitions exclude certain behaviors, the classification of risk becomes a social construct. Adolescents are not completely unaware of the dangers of risky behavior and may even overestimate their chances of getting pregnant or contracting HIV. Adolescents may find the risk of offending a partner to be more important than the risk of contracting a disease in 10 years. When teenagers believe themselves to be in love, they are less likely to insist on condom use. Educators must deconstruct risks and address each one specifically. High levels of knowledge about HIV transmission fail to predict previous, current, or intended condom use. Thus, while facts are important, teenagers also need to learn the social skills surrounding condom use. Students have easy accessibility to condoms, but embarrassment may pose a barrier to acquisition. This embarrassment, however, showed no correlation to actual or intended condom use. By working within the context of the adolescent mind and world
Oxley, G M
The incidence of HIV/AIDS is rapidly increasing among adolescents and young adults with some studies linking sexual risk taking and self-esteem. A convenience sample of 39 ethnically diverse adolescents, ages 14-18, participated in a pilot study designed to assess HIV/AIDS knowledge and to build self-esteem. Adolescents selected from two centers in California completed the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory and the Student Health Questionnaire (SHQ) before beginning and after completing a program of six 2-hour educational sessions. These sessions focused on HIV/AIDS knowledge and building self-esteem. Knowledge of HIV/AIDS prevention and transmission increased by 2096 from pretest to posttest. Practitioners addressing the needs of adolescents should focus on in-depth information regarding HIV/AIDS, especially in the area of prevention strategies and cultural factors influencing levels of self-esteem.
Michela L. Sammarco
Full Text Available Italian university students were investigated for: sources of information about HIV, knowledge of HIV risk behaviours, as well as sexual behaviours and condom use. A self completed anonymous questionnaire was administered to 430 university students in Campobasso, Italy (mean age 23,1; males 35,8%. Although TV, radio and the printed press were the most common sources of HIV information (>60% of respondents, most respondents preferred to receive information from physicians or resource centres (50 and 51%. Most students (>97% were aware that specific sexual behaviours (unprotected vaginal or anal intercourse and sharing of needles with illegal injecting drug users could transmit HIV. Most students (>50% did not regularly use condoms (despite understanding their protective effect, and continued to engage in behaviours considered risky. Males were significantly more likely than females to engage in vaginal sex (84 vs. 67% or anal sex (37 vs. 13% with both regular and casual partners. Although knowledge of HIV in itself is not enough to produce behaviour change, increases in students’ levels of knowledge may be useful.
The polyurethane female condom is stronger than the latex male condom. Thus, the single-use female condom is less likely to break and has a longer shelf life than the single-use male condom. The ring at the closed end of the condom helps women insert the condom and secures the condom inside the vagina. The outer ring remains outside the vagina and protects the labia and the base of the penis. Female condom use reduces the likelihood of transmission of infectious diseases. The female condom is as effective at preventing pregnancy as the male condom and the diaphragm. Its life-table pregnancy rate in a multicenter clinical trial in the US and Latin America was 15.1% (12.4% in US and 22.% in Latin America). The 6-month failure rate during perfect use was 4.3%. In laboratory studies, no sexually transmitted organism, including HIV, penetrated the female condom. In a human use study, 14% of controls and 14.7% of non-perfect users were reinfected with trichomonas while none of the perfect users were reinfected. Advantages of the female condom follow: allows for greater sensitivity and greater protection than the male condom, is controlled by the female, can be used with any lubricant (even oil-based lubricants), and can be inserted well before intercourse. Disadvantages include cost (5 times costlier than the male condom), unsightly coverage of female genitalia, noisy during use, and breakage (although breakage rates were lower than for latex condoms: 1% vs. 2-5%). Method acceptability studies among various populations show that the inner rings and movement of the female condom during use were the most common complaints. Many women liked the female condom and would recommend it to others. Only a few women complained about insertion problems, yet it took some women at least two tries to insert the female condom.
von Roenne Anna
-avoidant behaviour change. Gender was most associated with HIV knowledge and risk perception. Refugee women had fewer misconceptions than men had, but were more likely to report HIV risk and less likely to report making behavioural changes. Peer education appears promising for HIV interventions in chronic-emergency settings, if gender disparities and related barriers to condom usage are also addressed.
Full Text Available Abstract Background China is currently facing a rapid and widespread increase in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS. The activities of female sex workers (FSWs have contributed to the mounting epidemic of HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, attitude and risk behaviors among FSWs operating in Shanghai China. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in five districts of Shanghai, including three suburbs and two downtown locales. We adopted a cluster randomized sampling method to obtain ten geographic sites which consisted of one or more communities/villages proximal to a location where FSWs were accessible. A total of 324 FSWs from 109 Xitou Fang, massage parlors and hair salons who explicitly provided sexual services were enrolled in the study. Each participant completed a questionnaire survey and interview aimed to collect information on the individual's knowledge, attitude, and behaviors associated with risk for HIV/AIDs. Results The overall correct answer rate of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge was 60.8%, and the knowledge of FSWs from downtown areas was significantly higher than those from suburban areas (P P Conclusions Based on the findings from our survey, we advise that promotion of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge be targeted towards FSWs in Shanghai, especially those operating in the suburbs. HIV prevention efforts, such as urging constant condom usage with both clients and steady partners, should be sustained and reinforced among the female sex workers population.
Little research has been conducted on the knowledge domain specifically related to HIV testing among college students. Students (age 18-24) were recruited from a major university in the southeastern United States to participate in a Web-based survey during spring 2003 (N=440). About 21% of the students reported previous voluntary HIV tests.…
community needs and address economic and socio-cultural barriers to facilitate education utilisation and behavioural changes required in HIV/AIDS prevention and control in Tanzania. Keywords: HIV/AIDS, knowledge, information communication, Tanzania Tanzania Health Research Bulletin Vol. 8 (2) 2006: pp. 101-108 ...
There were misconceptions like availability of cure (18%) and transmission of HIV through handshake (14.5%). Majority (64.8%) thought only visibly stained instruments were infectious and 83.3% did not know that barbers were at risk of direct infection from the clients. Those with higher education had more HIV knowledge ...
The aim of this study is to investigate HIV knowledge, beliefs and HIV risk behaviours among ex-offenders in Mpumalanga province, South Africa. A sample of 85 male ex-offenders conveniently selected from an exoffenders organization were interviewed with a structured and open-ended questionnaire. Results indicate ...
Molatelo Elisa Shikwane
Jan 3, 2014 ... To cite this article: Molatelo Elisa Shikwane, Olga M. Villar-Loubet, Stephen M. Weiss, Karl Peltzer & Deborah L. Jones. (2013) HIV knowledge, disclosure and sexual risk among pregnant women and their partners in rural South Africa, SAHARA-. J: Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS: An Open Access ...
This study examined comprehensive knowledge of HIV (CKH) and its determinants among young ... gender, education, marital status, place of ..... One of such interventions is the National ... of learning leaving a teeming population of out-of-.
knowledge and attitudes of HIV/AIDS were influenced by family and school ... Accordingly, while a school culture is recognizable by its unique values, beliefs, climate, ethos ..... acquired prior to the qualitative research would in some way cloud ...
senior secondary school students was undertaken in Katsina, Katsina State, Nigeria. The purpose of this study was to provide preliminary data on HIV/AIDS knowledge and awareness among ... (International Barrier Protection Digest, 2004).
Pratibha Gupta; Fatima Anjum; Pankaj Bhardwaj; J P Srivastav; Zeashan Haider Zaidi
Background: HIV/AIDS has emerged as the single most formidable challenge to public health. School children of today are exposed to the risk of HIV/AIDS. Aims: The study was conducted to determine the knowledge among secondary school students regarding HIV/AIDS and provide suggestions for HIV/AIDS education in schools. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among students of tenth to twelfth standard in the intermediate schools of Lucknow, India, from July to October 2011...
Full Text Available Abstract Background This study investigated the extent and predictors of condom use and condom refusal in the Free State province in South Africa. Methods Through a household survey conducted in the Free Sate province of South Africa, 5,837 adults were interviewed. Univariate and multivariate survey logistic regressions and classification trees (CT were used for analysing two response variables ‘ever used condom’ and ‘ever refused condom’. Results Eighty-three per cent of the respondents had ever used condoms, of which 38% always used them; 61% used them during the last sexual intercourse and 9% had ever refused to use them. The univariate logistic regression models and CT analysis indicated that a strong predictor of condom use was its perceived need. In the CT analysis, this variable was followed in importance by ‘knowledge of correct use of condom’, condom availability, young age, being single and higher education. ‘Perceived need’ for condoms did not remain significant in the multivariate analysis after controlling for other variables. The strongest predictor of condom refusal, as shown by the CT, was shame associated with condoms followed by the presence of sexual risk behaviour, knowing one’s HIV status, older age and lacking knowledge of condoms (i.e., ability to prevent sexually transmitted diseases and pregnancy, availability, correct and consistent use and existence of female condoms. In the multivariate logistic regression, age was not significant for condom refusal while affordability and perceived need were additional significant variables. Conclusions The use of complementary modelling techniques such as CT in addition to logistic regressions adds to a better understanding of condom use and refusal. Further improvement in correct and consistent use of condoms will require targeted interventions. In addition to existing social marketing campaigns, tailored approaches should focus on establishing the perceived need
Schoueri, Nour; Bullock, Sandra L; Dubin, Joel A
Interracial relationships in Canada have increased over the years. However, little research has focused on comparing STI/HIV risk and condom use between those in intra- and interracial relationships, specifically among Middle Eastern-Canadians. A web-based survey was administered to Middle Eastern-Canadians. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess factors associated with consistent condom use. Analyses were stratified by partner's race (Middle Eastern or non-Middle Eastern). The analysis sub-sample consisted of 92 participants. Factors associated with consistent condom use varied between the stratified groups. Among those with Middle Eastern partners, attitude towards marriage and the family and control in the relationship were associated with condom use. Among participants with non-Middle Eastern partners, acculturation and HIV knowledge were found to be associated with condom use. Factors associated with condom use varied between Middle Eastern-Canadians in intra- and interracial relationships. These differences illustrate the need for tailored interventions aimed at increasing condom use among this racial group.
Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of Adolescents to HIV/AIDS. 43 ... which 40% cited the media as source of information. Seventy ... through sex, mother to child, ... and parents, societal pressure, norms ... reported condom use as an effective.
Full Text Available Condoms have been a subject of curiosity throughout history. The idea of safer sex has been explored in ancient and modern history, and has been used to prevent venereal diseases. We conducted a historical and medical review of condoms using primary and secondary sources as well as using the RSM library and the internet. These resources show that the first use of a condom was that of King Minos of Crete. Pasiphae, his wife, employed a goat′s bladder in the vagina so that King Minos would not be able to harm her as his semen was said to contain "scorpions and serpents" that killed his mistresses. To Egyptians, condom-like glans caps were dyed in different colours to distinguish between different classes of people and to protect themselves against bilharzia. The Ancient Romans used the bladders of animals to protect the woman; they were worn not to prevent pregnancy but to prevent contraction of venereal diseases. Charles Goodyear, the inventor, utilized vulcanization, the process of transforming rubber into malleable structures, to produce latex condoms. The greater use of condoms all over the world in the 20 th and 21 st centuries has been related to HIV. This account of the use of condoms demonstrates how a primitive idea turned into an object that is used globally with a forecast estimated at 18 billion condoms to be used in 2015 alone.
Jones, Leah Ffion; Ricketts, Ellie; Town, Katy; Rugman, Claire; Lecky, Donna; Folkard, Kate; Nardone, Anthony; Hartney, Thomas Nathan; McNulty, Cliodna
Opportunistic chlamydia screening is actively encouraged in English general practices. Based on recent policy changes, Public Health England piloted 3Cs and HIV in 2013-2014, integrating the offer of chlamydia testing with providing condoms, contraceptive information, and HIV testing (referred to as 3Cs and HIV) according to national guidelines. To determine young adults' opinions of receiving a broader sexual health offer of 3Cs and HIV at their GP practice. Qualitative interviews were conducted in a general practice setting in England between March and June 2013. Thirty interviews were conducted with nine male and 21 female patients aged 16-24 years, immediately before or after a routine practice attendance. Data were transcribed verbatim and analysed using a thematic framework. Participants indicated that the method of testing, timing, and the way the staff member approached the topic were important aspects to patients being offered 3Cs and HIV. Participants displayed a clear preference for 3Cs and HIV to be offered at the GP practice over other sexual health service providers. Participants highlighted convenience of the practice, assurance of confidentiality, and that the sexual health discussion was appropriate and routine. Barriers identified for patients were embarrassment, unease, lack of time, religion, and patients believing that certain patients could take offence. Suggested facilitators include raising awareness, reassuring confidentiality, and ensuring the offer is made in a professional and non-judgemental way at the end of the consultation. General practice staff should facilitate patients' preferences by ensuring that 3Cs and HIV testing services are made available at their surgery and offered to appropriate patients in a non-judgemental way. © British Journal of General Practice 2017.
Philip J Ciampa
Full Text Available The relationship between HIV knowledge and HIV-related behaviors in settings like Mozambique has been limited by a lack of rigorously validated measures.A convenience sample of women seeking prenatal care at two clinics were administered an adapted, orally-administered, 27 item HIV-knowledge scale, the HK-27. Validation analyses were stratified by survey language (Portuguese and Echuabo. Kuder-Richardson (KR-20 coefficients estimated internal reliability. Construct validity was assessed with bivariate associations between HK-27 scores (% correct and selected participant characteristics. The association between knowledge, self-reported HIV testing, and HIV infection were evaluated with multivariable logistic regression.Participants (N = 348 had a median age of 24; 188 spoke Portuguese, and 160 spoke Echuabo. Mean HK-27 scores were higher for Portuguese-speaking participants than Echuabo-speaking participants (68% correct vs. 42%, p0.8 for scales in both languages. Higher HK-27 scores were significantly (p≤0.05 correlated with more education, more media items in the home, a history of HIV testing, and participant work outside of the home for women of both languages. HK-27 scores were independently associated with completion of HIV testing in multivariable analysis (per 1% correct: aOR:1.02, 95%CI:0.01-0.03, p = 0.01, but not with HIV infection.HK-27 is a reliable and valid measure of HIV knowledge among Portuguese and Echuabo-speaking Mozambican women. The HK-27 demonstrated significant knowledge deficits among women in the study, and higher scores were associated with higher HIV testing probability. Future studies should evaluate the role of the HK-27 in longitudinal studies and in other populations.
Ciampa, Philip J; Skinner, Shannon L; Patricio, Sérgio R; Rothman, Russell L; Vermund, Sten H; Audet, Carolyn M
The relationship between HIV knowledge and HIV-related behaviors in settings like Mozambique has been limited by a lack of rigorously validated measures. A convenience sample of women seeking prenatal care at two clinics were administered an adapted, orally-administered, 27 item HIV-knowledge scale, the HK-27. Validation analyses were stratified by survey language (Portuguese and Echuabo). Kuder-Richardson (KR-20) coefficients estimated internal reliability. Construct validity was assessed with bivariate associations between HK-27 scores (% correct) and selected participant characteristics. The association between knowledge, self-reported HIV testing, and HIV infection were evaluated with multivariable logistic regression. Participants (N = 348) had a median age of 24; 188 spoke Portuguese, and 160 spoke Echuabo. Mean HK-27 scores were higher for Portuguese-speaking participants than Echuabo-speaking participants (68% correct vs. 42%, p0.8) for scales in both languages. Higher HK-27 scores were significantly (p≤0.05) correlated with more education, more media items in the home, a history of HIV testing, and participant work outside of the home for women of both languages. HK-27 scores were independently associated with completion of HIV testing in multivariable analysis (per 1% correct: aOR:1.02, 95%CI:0.01-0.03, p = 0.01), but not with HIV infection. HK-27 is a reliable and valid measure of HIV knowledge among Portuguese and Echuabo-speaking Mozambican women. The HK-27 demonstrated significant knowledge deficits among women in the study, and higher scores were associated with higher HIV testing probability. Future studies should evaluate the role of the HK-27 in longitudinal studies and in other populations.
Bekalu, Mesfin Awoke; Eggermont, Steven
Despite the widespread utilization of the mass media in HIV/AIDS prevention, little is known about the knowledge gap that results from disparities in mass media use. This study examined the relationship between HIV/AIDS-related mass media use and HIV/AIDS-related knowledge among urban and rural residents of northwestern Ethiopia. A hierarchical regression analysis indicated that HIV/AIDS-related mass media use has both sequestering and mainstreaming effects in certain segments of the study population, although it was not a significant predictor of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge in the total population. The knowledge gaps between individuals with high and low education and between individuals who experience high and low levels of interpersonal communication about HIV/AIDS narrowed as HIV/AIDS-related media use increased, but the gap between urban and rural residents widened. The widening gap could be explained by differences in perceptions of information salience and several theoretical assumptions. Current mass media information campaigns, which are often prepared and broadcast from urban centers, may not only fail to improve the HIV/AIDS knowledge of the rural populace but also put rural populations at a disadvantage relative to their urban counterparts. Communication interventions informed by socioecological models might be helpful to redress and/or narrow the widening knowledge gap between urban and rural residents. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Zometa, Carlos S; Dedrick, Robert; Knox, Michael D; Westhoff, Wayne; Siri, Rodrigo Simán; Debaldo, Ann
An instrument developed in the United States by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to assess HIV/AIDS knowledge and four attitudinal dimensions (Peer Pressure, Abstinence, Drug Use, and Threat of HIV Infection) and an instrument developed by Basen-Engquist et al. (1999) to measure abstinence and condom use were translated, cross-culturally adapted, and validated for use with Spanish-speaking high school students in El Salvador. A back-translation of the English version was cross-culturally adapted using two different review panels and pilot-tested with Salvadorian students. An expert panel established content validity, and confirmatory factor analysis provided support for construct validity. Results indicated that the methodology was successful in cross-culturally adapting the instrument developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the instrument developed by Basen-Engquist et al. The psychometric properties of the knowledge section were acceptable and there was partial support for the four-factor attitudinal model underlying the CDC instrument and the two-factor model underlying the Basen-Engquist et al. instrument. Additional studies with Spanish-speaking populations (either in the United States or Latin America) are needed to evaluate the generalizability of the present results.
Chequer, P; VanOss Marín, B; Paiva, L; Hudes, E S; Piazza, T; Rodrigues, L; Hearst, N
A telephone survey was conducted to measure AIDS knowledge, media usage and condom attitudes and behaviors among 500 adults aged 18 to 49 in Brasilia, as well as to evaluate the feasibility of the telephone survey method in a developing country. The response rate was 91.6%. Respondents had good knowledge about correct modes of HIV transmission and prevention but also believed HIV was transmitted through blood donation, public toilets, swimming pools, and mosquito bites. TV and newspapers were the most important sources of information on health matters and AIDS, though health workers were considered the most credible sources of such information. Only 19% of sexual encounters in the 4 weeks prior to the survey included condoms. Single and younger respondents and those with more positive attitudes used condoms more frequently. More work is needed to identify appropriate messages to motivate people to use condoms. Telephone surveys regarding AIDS and sexual attitudes and behaviors are feasible in Brasilia, a planned community with universal telephone coverage.
Vulnerability to Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection among factory workers is a global problem. This study investigated the effectiveness of an intervention to increase AIDS knowledge, perceived accessibility to condoms and condom use among young factory workers in Thailand. The intervention was a ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge of HIV status can be important in reducing the risk of HIV exposure. In a European sample of men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM, we aimed to identify factors associated with HIV serostatus disclosure to the most recent anal intercourse (AI partner. We also aimed to describe the impact of HIV serostatus disclosure on HIV exposure risks. Methods During 2013 and 2014, 4901 participants were recruited for the bio-behavioural Sialon-II study in 13 European cities. Behavioural data were collected with a self-administered paper questionnaire. Biological specimens were tested for HIV antibodies. Factors associated with HIV serostatus disclosure with the most recent AI partner were examined using bivariate and multilevel multivariate logistic regression analysis. We also describe the role of serostatus disclosure for HIV exposure of the most recent AI partner. Results Thirty-five percent (n = 1450 of the study participants reported mutual serostatus disclosure with their most recent AI partner or disclosed having HIV to their partner. Most of these disclosures occurred between steady partners (74%, n = 1077. In addition to the type of partner and HIV diagnosis status, other factors positively associated with HIV serostatus disclosure in the multilevel multivariate logistic regression model were recent testing, no condom use, and outness regarding sexual orientation. Disclosure rates were lowest in three south-eastern European cities. Following condom use (51%, n = 2099, HIV serostatus disclosure (20%, n = 807 was the second most common prevention approach with the most recent AI partner, usually resulting in serosorting. A potential HIV exposure risk for the partner was reported by 26% (111/432 of HIV antibody positive study participants. In 18% (20/111 of exposure episodes, an incorrect HIV serostatus was unknowingly communicated. Partner exposures were equally distributed between steady and non-steady partners
Marcus, Ulrich; Schink, Susanne Barbara; Sherriff, Nigel; Jones, Anna-Marie; Gios, Lorenzo; Folch, Cinta; Berglund, Torsten; Nöstlinger, Christiana; Niedźwiedzka-Stadnik, Marta; Dias, Sonia F; Gama, Ana F; Naseva, Emilia; Alexiev, Ivailo; Staneková, Danica; Toskin, Igor; Pitigoi, Daniela; Rafila, Alexandru; Klavs, Irena; Mirandola, Massimo
Knowledge of HIV status can be important in reducing the risk of HIV exposure. In a European sample of men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM), we aimed to identify factors associated with HIV serostatus disclosure to the most recent anal intercourse (AI) partner. We also aimed to describe the impact of HIV serostatus disclosure on HIV exposure risks. During 2013 and 2014, 4901 participants were recruited for the bio-behavioural Sialon-II study in 13 European cities. Behavioural data were collected with a self-administered paper questionnaire. Biological specimens were tested for HIV antibodies. Factors associated with HIV serostatus disclosure with the most recent AI partner were examined using bivariate and multilevel multivariate logistic regression analysis. We also describe the role of serostatus disclosure for HIV exposure of the most recent AI partner. Thirty-five percent (n = 1450) of the study participants reported mutual serostatus disclosure with their most recent AI partner or disclosed having HIV to their partner. Most of these disclosures occurred between steady partners (74%, n = 1077). In addition to the type of partner and HIV diagnosis status, other factors positively associated with HIV serostatus disclosure in the multilevel multivariate logistic regression model were recent testing, no condom use, and outness regarding sexual orientation. Disclosure rates were lowest in three south-eastern European cities. Following condom use (51%, n = 2099), HIV serostatus disclosure (20%, n = 807) was the second most common prevention approach with the most recent AI partner, usually resulting in serosorting. A potential HIV exposure risk for the partner was reported by 26% (111/432) of HIV antibody positive study participants. In 18% (20/111) of exposure episodes, an incorrect HIV serostatus was unknowingly communicated. Partner exposures were equally distributed between steady and non-steady partners. The probability of HIV exposure through condomless AI
Full Text Available The National Family Planning Programme of India had introduced condom as one of the family planning methods in the late1960s. Condom was promoted as a family planning method through social marketing since its inception. With the increasing prevalence and incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs including HIV/AIDS, condom was also promoted as a dual method for protection against both unintended pregnancies as well as sexually transmitted infections. Despite efforts at various levels, the overall use of condom among couples in India is low. Here we present literature review of studies to understand the condom acceptability among couples in India. Specifically, the paper assesses research and programmes that have been carried out to increase the use of condom among couples; determinants of condom use; reason for not using condom; and perception versus experience of condom failure. The reported problems related to condom use included non acceptance by partner, perceived ineffectiveness, less comfort, lack of sexual satisfaction, husband′s alcohol use, depression, and anxiety, and not available at that instant. The role of media in the promotion of condom use was indicated as an important way to increase awareness and use. Multiple strategies would help in acceptance of male condom.
Rukundo, Annamaria; Muwonge, Mathias M; Mugisha, Danny; Aturwanaho, Dickens; Kasangaki, Arabat; Bbosa, Godfrey S
HIV/AIDS has remained a challenge in Uganda among adolescent despite the ABC strategy used globally to prevent HIV infection. The study assessed the knowledge, attitudes and perceptions of secondary school teenagers towards HIV transmission and prevention in rural and urban schools of central Uganda. A cross sectional study using self-administered questionnaires and structured interviews was used to collect data from adolescents in secondary schools in Kampala and Buikwe districts. Eight schools were randomly selected with 4 schools in each district. A total of 245 students from schools were recruited in the study with 120 and 125 students from urban Kampala and rural Buikwe district schools respectively. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 11. The results were expressed as percentages in a 2 × 2 tables. The mean age of the participants was 15.9 ± 2.5 years. Results showed that 95.1% participants had knowledge on HIV/AIDS in both urban and rural schools and 27.4% knew all the modes of HIV transmission. About 83.7% knew the ABC strategy for HIV prevention and 37.6% would talk about HIV/AIDS mainly with friends. For HIV cure, 62.0% of study participants reported non-cure and 24.9% were not sure. The remaining 13.1% of the study participants in both urban and rural schools reported that HIV can be cured. And the modes of curing HIV that were mentioned by participants included spiritual healing, transmitting it to others through sexual intercourse and that antiretroviral (ARVs) drugs can cure it as well as that it can be cured abroad. About 65.7% of participants reported recognition of one with HIV/ AIDS and by having red lips, being sickly; weight loss, skin rash and being very rich were mentioned. About 39.2% of the study participants mentioned that they cannot get infected with HIV and can't contract HIV at all and 18.4% believed that chances of getting HIV infection were high. On perception and attitude on condoms and their use, participants reported that it is
Rosenberg, Nora E; Graybill, Lauren A; Wesevich, Austin; McGrath, Nuala; Golin, Carol E; Maman, Suzanne; Bhushan, Nivedita; Tsidya, Mercy; Chimndozi, Limbikani; Hoffman, Irving F; Hosseinipour, Mina C; Miller, William C
In sub-Saharan Africa couple HIV testing and counseling (CHTC) has been associated with substantial increases in safe sex, especially when at least one partner is HIV infected. However, this relationship has not been characterized in an Option B+ context. The study was conducted at the antenatal clinic at Bwaila District Hospital in Lilongwe, Malawi in 2016 under an Option B+ program. Ninety heterosexual couples with an HIV-infected pregnant woman (female-positive couples) and 47 couples with an HIV-uninfected pregnant woman (female-negative couples) were enrolled in an observational study. Each couple member was assessed immediately before and 1 month after CHTC for safe sex (abstinence or consistent condom use in the last month). Generalized estimating equations were used to model change in safe sex before and after CHTC and to compare safe sex between female-positive and female-negative couples. Mean age was 26 years among women and 32 years among men. Before CHTC, safe sex was comparable among female-positive couples (8%) and female-negative couples (2%) [risk ratio (RR): 3.7, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.5 to 29.8]. One month after CHTC, safe sex was higher among female-positive couples (75%) than among female-negative couples (3%) (RR: 30.0, 95% CI: 4.3 to 207.7). Safe sex increased substantially after CTHC for female-positive couples (RR 9.6, 95% CI: 4.6 to 20.0), but not for female-negative couples (RR: 1.2, 95% CI: 0.1 to 18.7). Engaging pregnant couples in CHTC can have prevention benefits for couples with an HIV-infected pregnant woman, but additional prevention approaches may be needed for couples with an HIV-uninfected pregnant woman.
Nubed, Colins Kingoum; Akoachere, Jane-Francis Tatah Kihla
Knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAPs) regarding HIV/AIDS is one of the corner stones in the fight against the disease. Youths are most vulnerable to infection because they engage in risky practices due to a lack of adequate information. Thus, evaluating their KAPs will help in designing appropriate prevention strategies. This study was aimed at assessing the KAPs of senior secondary school students in Fako Division, Cameroon, on HIV/AIDS. This was a cross-sectional study carried out on 464 students aged 13-25 years, selected by systematic quota random sampling from some secondary schools in Fako, from April to June 2014, to evaluate their KAPs regarding HIV/AIDS. Participants were drawn from one secondary school in each of the four health districts in Fako. Pre-tested questionnaires were administered to the students to obtain information about their KAPs on HIV/AIDS. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. All respondents were aware of HIV/AIDS. Sources of information varied, the most common being sex education in school. The majority of participants demonstrated an adequate understanding of HIV transmission and prevention. However, misconceptions about routes of transmission were observed in 3.4 to 23.3 % of respondents. Risky behaviors were found among participants as about 60 % practice safe sex and 40 % reported not to. Up to 196 (42.2 %) respondents had a history of sexual intercourse of which 108 (56.25 %) had used a condom during their last three sexual encounters. About half of the respondents had negative views about HIV infected people. Students with medium (34.3 %) and high (62.1 %) levels of knowledge were more likely to display positive attitudes Although statistically not significant, we found that as knowledge increased the ability of respondents to report safer sex decreased (95 % CI, P = 0.922). Students had a satisfactory level of knowledge on HIV/AIDS prevention. Those with adequate knowledge were more likely to display
Colins Kingoum Nubed
Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAPs regarding HIV/AIDS is one of the corner stones in the fight against the disease. Youths are most vulnerable to infection because they engage in risky practices due to a lack of adequate information. Thus, evaluating their KAPs will help in designing appropriate prevention strategies. This study was aimed at assessing the KAPs of senior secondary school students in Fako Division, Cameroon, on HIV/AIDS. Methods This was a cross-sectional study carried out on 464 students aged 13–25 years, selected by systematic quota random sampling from some secondary schools in Fako, from April to June 2014, to evaluate their KAPs regarding HIV/AIDS. Participants were drawn from one secondary school in each of the four health districts in Fako. Pre-tested questionnaires were administered to the students to obtain information about their KAPs on HIV/AIDS. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. Results All respondents were aware of HIV/AIDS. Sources of information varied, the most common being sex education in school. The majority of participants demonstrated an adequate understanding of HIV transmission and prevention. However, misconceptions about routes of transmission were observed in 3.4 to 23.3 % of respondents. Risky behaviors were found among participants as about 60 % practice safe sex and 40 % reported not to. Up to 196 (42.2 % respondents had a history of sexual intercourse of which 108 (56.25 % had used a condom during their last three sexual encounters. About half of the respondents had negative views about HIV infected people. Students with medium (34.3 % and high (62.1 % levels of knowledge were more likely to display positive attitudes Although statistically not significant, we found that as knowledge increased the ability of respondents to report safer sex decreased (95 % CI, P = 0.922. Conclusions Students had a satisfactory level of knowledge on HIV/AIDS prevention
Sawitri, Anak Agung Sagung; Hartawan, Anak Agung Gede; Craine, Noel; Sari, Ayu Kartika; Septarini, Ni Wayan; Wirawan, Dewa Nyoman
The purpose of this paper is to describe HIV-related risk behavior and knowledge of HIV among inmates of Kerobokan prison Bali, Indonesia. A cross-sectional survey of inmates of using a structured questionnaire and sample framework to reflect narcotic use among inmates and the prison gender mix. Among 230 inmates recruited to the study self-reported prevalence of injecting drug use was 7.4 percent (95 percent CI 4.0-10.8 percent). Respondents who participated in a prison based methadone treatment program were all still injecting drugs, these made up 13/17 of the IDU. In total, 47 percent (95 percent CIs 45-55 percent) of respondents who reported injecting also reported sharing needles within the last week. Sexual intercourse while in prison was reported by 3.0 percent (95 percent CI 0.82-5.26 percent) of study respondents. One-third of non-injectors were unaware of the preventative role of condom use. This study suggests that despite harm reduction initiatives within Kerobokan prison HIV risk behavior continues and there is a considerable lack of awareness of the importance of condom use in preventing HIV. The authors relied on self-reported risk behavior that may be subject to reporting bias. The sampling strategy may not reflect the true ratio inmates using or not using narcotics. The current harm reduction approach, including methadone substitution treatment should be optimized within the Indonesian prison setting. This is the first study reporting HIV-related risk behavior from an Indonesian prison with an established methadone substitution program.
Farid, R.; Choudhry, A.J.
Objective: To determine the level of awareness about HIV/ AIDs infection among female college students of Lahore. Results: Ninety-five percent students had heard about HIV/AIDS and its presence in Pakistan, 61.7 % students knew that HIV/AIDS is caused by germs and 91.2% knew about its transmissibility. Over 70% of students knew that HIV can be transmitted through sexual contact, infected blood transfusion, and re-use of infected injection needles. Moreover, only 19.2% mentioned ear/nose piercing with infected needles while 46.8% mentioned breast-feeding as sources of transmission of HIV/AIDS. However, 57% were of the view that second hand clothing cannot spread AIDS. Individuals having multiple sexual partners (78.2%), drug addicts (38.8%), homosexuals (39.2%), commercial sex workers (52.2%) and health care workers (16.2%) were identified as high-risk groups. Only 33.2% student perceived that women are at higher risk of acquiring HIV as compared to men. Regarding prevention of AIDS, 61.0% mentioned avoiding promiscuous sex, 49.3% knew use of condoms and 60.2% were aware that AIDS can be prevented by avoiding homosexuality. Sixty-eight percent and 70.2% students respectively held the view that avoiding used needles for injections in hospitals and laboratories for screening blood or blood products can prevent AIDS, while 78.2% and 55.8% respectively knew that there is no cure or vaccine available for AIDS. Majority of the students (71.5%) have discussed AIDS with their friends while discussion with siblings, parents and teachers was not common. Conclusion: The general level of awareness regarding HIV/AIDS transmission and prevention was satisfactory among college girls included in the study. However, a number of misconceptions and myths like getting HIV/AIDS through nose/ear piercing, its relation to Islam, and use of second hand clothing need to be clarified. (author)
Farid, Rakshanda; Choudhry, Abdul Jamil
To determine the level of awareness about HIV/ AIDS infection among female college students of Lahore. Cross-sectional survey. The study was conducted in three different girls colleges of Lahore (Pakistan). PATIENTS AND METHODS A total of 600 students were interviewed with the help of anonymous semi-structured questionnaire from September, 1999 to November 1999. Ninety-five percent students had heard about HIV/ AIDS and its presence in Pakistan, 61.7% students knew that HIV/AIDS is caused by germs and 91.2% knew about its transmissibility. Over 70% of students knew that HIV can be transmitted through sexual contact, infected blood transfusion, and re-use of infected injection needles. Moreover, only 19.2% mentioned ear/nose piercing with infected needles while 46.8% mentioned breast feeding as sources of transmission of HIV/AIDS. However, 57% were of the view that second hand clothing cannot spread AIDS. Individuals having multiple sexual partners (78.2%), drug addicts (38.8%), homosexuals (39.2%), commercial sex workers (52.2%) and health care workers (16.2%) were identified as high risk groups. Only 33.2% of students perceived that women are at higher risk of acquiring HIV as compared to men. Regarding prevention of AIDS, 61.0% mentioned avoiding promiscuous sex, 49.3% knew use of condoms and 60.2% were aware that AIDS can be prevented by avoiding homosexuality. Sixty-eight percent and 70.2% students respectively held the view that avoiding used needles for injections in hospitals and laboratories for screening blood or blood products can prevent AIDS, while 78.2% and 55.8% respectively knew that there is no cure or vaccine available for AIDS. Majority of the students (71.5%) have discussed AIDS with their friends while discussion with siblings, parents and teachers was not common. The general level of awareness regarding HIV/AIDS transmission and prevention was satisfactory among college girls included in the study. However, a number of misconceptions and myths
Widman, Laura; Golin, Carol E.; Grodensky, Catherine A.; Suchindran, Chirayath
To understand sexual decision-making processes among people living with HIV, we compared safer sex self-efficacy, condom attitudes, sexual beliefs, and rates of unprotected anal or vaginal intercourse with at-risk partners (UAVI-AR) in the past 3 months among 476 people living with HIV: 185 men who have sex with men (MSM), 130 heterosexual men, and 161 heterosexual women. Participants were enrolled in SafeTalk, a randomized, controlled trial of a safer sex intervention. We found 15% of MSM, 9% of heterosexual men, and 12% of heterosexual women engaged in UAVI-AR. Groups did not differ in self-efficacy or sexual attitudes/beliefs. However, the associations between these variables and UAVI-AR varied within groups: greater self-efficacy predicted less UAVI-AR for MSM and women, whereas more positive condom attitudes – but not self-efficacy – predicted less UAVI-AR for heterosexual men. These results suggest HIV prevention programs should tailor materials to different subgroups. PMID:22252475
Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is the region with the world's highest rates of HIV and other sexually transmissible infections (STIs), yet numerous studies show that condom use is generally rare. This suggests a need for a better understanding of how condoms fit within sexual practices and relationships in SSA. This paper seeks to address this need by reviewing research published between the late 1980s and 2011 on use and factors influencing use of male condoms in SSA. What is evident from this research is that condom use involves complex social and interpersonal dynamics, with structural and cultural conditions exerting an influence through framing social cognitions and setting boundaries on autonomy that make the apparently irrational choice of eschewing condoms a rational decision. The influences of poverty; relationships with parents, peers and partners; limited, insufficient or absent information especially in rural areas and among men who have sex with men; gender and sexual norms, and the dynamics of gendered power; and beliefs and attitudes about HIV, condoms and sexuality all have been shown to work against condom use for a large proportion of Africa's people. However, promising results are shown in trends towards increased condom use among single women in numerous countries, increasing acceptance and use of condoms among some university students, successes in producing potentially sustainable condom use resulting from select interventions, and resistance to succumbing to the dominant gender-power dynamics and structural-cultural impediments that women in groups have mobilised.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Men who have sex with men (MSM are considered a high-risk group for HIV. As condom use prevents HIV transmission, a study of factors associated with condom use with occasional partners (CUWOP among MSM was undertaken.METHODS: Case-control study with 866 participants was nested in a cross-sectional survey among MSM conducted in 2007. Controls were those who used a condom during the most recent sexual contact with an occasional partner, and cases – those who did not. Independent variables included socio-demographic characteristics, other risky behaviors, HIV knowledge and sources of information. Bivariate analysis used chi-square test and multivariate – binary logistic regression.RESULTS: Better knowledge and use of harm reduction services (HRS was associated with safer behaviors. Those respondents, who were unaware whether HIV testing was available to them, had a greater risk of unprotected sex: OR = 2.344 (95%CI 1.09-5.00 as well as those who were unclear about the quality of condoms they get from HRS. Among those not covered by HRS, older MSM and those who have multiple commercial partners are at higher risk of unprotected sex. Among those attending HRS, a major barrier to use condoms is their perception as diminishing sensitivity: OR=4.143 (95%CI 1.305-13.152. The dose-dependent association was found with frequency of alcohol consumption – unsafe sexual contacts were more likely in daily alcohol users compared to those who used alcohol on a monthly basis: OR=2.264 (95%CI 1.041-4.923. DISCUSSION: Low CUWOP is typical for those MSMs who practice other risky behaviors including frequent alcohol use, contacts with multiple commercial sex partners and non-use of HRS which include provision of information, condoms and testing. Thus HIV prevention depends not only on the fact whether preventive services are provided but whether they are used by the target group.
72.2% knew that HIV/AIDS could affect the eye which is related to the status of health work (P= 0.00) .About 50% of hospital workers do not know the part of the eye that HIV/AIDS could affect and another 52.5% says it affect the eye only at the late stage. Knowledge about different eye complications was generally low.
Gupta, Pratibha; Anjum, Fatima; Bhardwaj, Pankaj; Srivastav, Jp; Zaidi, Zeashan Haider
HIV/AIDS has emerged as the single most formidable challenge to public health. School children of today are exposed to the risk of HIV/AIDS. The study was conducted to determine the knowledge among secondary school students regarding HIV/AIDS and provide suggestions for HIV/AIDS education in schools. A cross-sectional study was conducted among students of tenth to twelfth standard in the intermediate schools of Lucknow, India, from July to October 2011. A total of 215 students, both boys and girls, were enrolled in the study. In this study, for majority of the students (85%), the source of information about HIV/AIDS was the television. Regarding knowledge about modes of transmission of HIV/AIDS among girl students, 95.1% of them told that it is through unprotected sex. A total of 75.8% students said that it was transmitted from mother to child. It was observed that the knowledge of the school students was quite satisfactory for most of the variables like modes of transmission, including mother-to-child transmission of the disease. However, schools should come forward to design awareness campaigns for the benefit of the students.
Sanou, Sobze Martin; Fokam, Joseph Martin; Mabvouna, Biguioh Rodriguez; Guetiya, Wadoum Raoul; Sali, Ben Bechir Adogaye; Teikeu, Tessa Vivaldi Vladimir; Nafack, Sonkeng Sonia; Panà, Augusto; Colizzi, Vittorio; Russo, Gianluca
The aim of our study was to assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) regarding HIV/AIDS in the city of Kribi, southern region of Cameroon. In November 2012, a questionnaire composed of 20 items was administered by trained staff from the Biomedical Sciences Department of the University of Dschang to 200 students selected from four population groups: high school students, local traders, tourism personnel (staff of bars, restaurants, hotels, nightclubs), and motorcycle taxi drivers. A cluster sampling method was used to select the first three groups while motorcycle taxi drivers were selected by the method of all comers. KAP regarding HIV/AIDS was found to be fragmentary in the studied population. Only 6.5% systematically uses condoms, 59% believe that AIDS can be cured by traditional medicine and religious faith and 40.9% developed stigmatizing behaviour toward HIV infected people. Among participants there is a wide discrepancy between knowledge and social behaviours toward HIV/AIDS. Strategic and continuous awareness campaigns that are culturally and socially tailored are urgently needed.
De Santis, Joseph P; Hauglum, Shayne D; Deleon, Diego A; Provencio-Vasquez, Elias; Rodriguez, Allan E
Transgender women experience a variety of factors that may contribute to HIV risk. The purpose of this study was to explore links among HIV risk perception, knowledge, and sexual risk behaviors of transgender women. A descriptive, correlational study design was used. Fifty transgender women from the South Florida area were enrolled in the study. Transgender women completed a demographic questionnaire and standardized instruments measuring HIV risk perception, knowledge, and sexual risk behaviors. Transgender women reported low levels of HIV risk perception, and had knowledge deficits regarding HIV risk/transmission. Some participants engaged in high-risk sexual behaviors. Predictors of sexual risk behaviors among transgender women were identified. More research is needed with a larger sample size to continue studying factors that contribute to sexual risk behaviors in the understudied population of transgender women. Evidence-based guidelines are available to assist public health nurses in providing care for transgender women. Nurses must assess HIV perception risk and HIV knowledge and provide relevant education to transgender women on ways to minimize sexual risk. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Conclusion: The reported prevalence of ever use of a condom amongst antenatal clinic attendees is low and inconsistent especially among HIV positive women. Deliberate effort should be used to ensure condom access, availability and correct and consistent use of condoms by women in all sexual acts.
The findings demonstrate the gap between reported HIV-prevention knowledge and safer-sex practices among a group of young and educated South Africans. Although the participants reported that students were knowledgeable about HIV and had easy access to condoms on campus, a range of factors mediated their ...
Mantell, Joanne E.; Smit, Jennifer A.; Beksinska, Mags; Scorgie, Fiona; Milford, Cecilia; Balch, Erin; Mabude, Zonke; Smith, Emily; Adams-Skinner, Jessica; Exner, Theresa M.; Hoffman, Susie; Stein, Zena A.
Young men in South Africa can play a critical role in preventing new human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections, yet are seldom targeted for HIV prevention. While reported condom use at last sex has increased considerably among young people, consistent condom use remains a challenge. In this study, 74 male higher education students gave their…
Worldwide, at least 33 million people are infected with HIV, another 14 million have died, and approximately 16,000 people are newly infected each day, 60% of whom are women. An estimated 6-9 billion condoms are currently used throughout the world each year. However, a report from the Johns Hopkins University School of Hygiene and Public Health has determined that the level of condom use must be increased to 24 billion units annually in order to check the spread of HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases. An estimated 71% of total condom need is among sexually active unmarried men, while the rest of the need is among married men who have extramarital affairs and by married couples. Condoms should be made accessible to all at subsidized prices and provided not only through health clinics and retail shops, but also in hotels, bars, grocery stores, and vending machines. New efforts are needed to make condoms more accessible, including lowering their cost, effectively promoting their use, and overcoming the many social and personal obstacles to their use, especially in developing countries where the impact of AIDS is the most severe. Special programs should target specific groups, including youth, unmarried men, and prostitutes, while condom promotion should also aim to improve the image of condoms by portraying them as fun, reliable, and important. Finally, political and religious leaders should speak out in favor of condom use, while the mass media should openly discuss condoms.
Maljaars, Lennart P.; Gill, Katherine; Smith, Philip J.; Gray, Glenda E.; Dietrich, Janan J.; Gomez, Gabriela B.; Bekker, Linda-Gail
Background: Approximately 3 million adolescents and young adults (AYA), between the ages of 15 years and 24 years, are living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. The use of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) may be a promising HIV prevention tool to bridge the high-risk years of AYA between sexual debut
Liddell, Christine; Giles, Melanie; Rae, Gordon
To examine attitudes toward condoms and their association with culturally grounded beliefs among young South African adults. A questionnaire survey undertaken in three different locations (urban, rural, and mixed), including 1100 participants, and implementing both a cross-validational and a bootstrap multivariate design. Outcome measures were intention to use a condom at next sex and condom salience (i.e., confidence in the protective value of condoms). Culturally grounded predictors included traditional beliefs about illness, beliefs in ancestral protection, endorsement of AIDS myths, and mortality salience (CONTACT). Participants exhibited strong endorsement of indigenous beliefs about illness and ancestral protection, and moderate endorsement of AIDS myths. Participants who viewed condoms as important for HIV prevention were more likely to show strong endorsement of both beliefs in ancestral protection and traditional beliefs about illness. Participants who strongly endorsed AIDS myths viewed condoms as less important and also had lower intention to use scores. Finally, participants who knew HIV positive people, and/or people who had died of HIV-related illnesses, had higher condom salience and higher intention to use scores. Results challenge the assumption that culturally grounded variables are inherently adversarial in their relationship to biomedical models of HIV prevention, and offer insights into how traditional beliefs and cultural constructions of HIV/AIDS might be used more effectively in HIV education programs.
Andrews, Carin Hillerdal; Faxelid, Elisabeth; Sychaerun, Vanphanom; Phrasisombath, Ketkesone
Female sex workers (FSWs) are a high-risk population for HIV. Correct and consistent use of condoms is the most effective measure for reducing transmission of HIV. Lao PDR is a low HIV-prevalence country, but FSWs have a relatively high HIV prevalence. To be able to make recommendations for condom promotion interventions in Lao PDR it is important to know more about the context specific situation. This study looked at reasons for and associated factors of consistent condom use among FSWs. A cross-sectional survey among 258 FSWs in Kaysone Phomvihan district in Savannakhet province was performed. Almost all FSWs had enough condoms (94%), condoms always available (100%) and could always afford condoms (92%). Consistent condom use was 97% with non-regular partners and 60% with regular partners. Almost all respondents (95%) had received information about condoms from the drop-in centre. Stated reasons for consistent condom use were prevention of HIV (94%), STIs (88%) and pregnancy (87%). Most reasons for inconsistent condom use were related to partners not wanting to use condoms because of reduced sexual pleasure. Some FSWs reported that they were physically abused and forced not to use condoms. Shorter time in sex work, higher education and FSW not having regular partners were significantly associated with consistent condom use. Consistent condom use was very high with non-regular partners, but less frequent with regular partners. The main reason for inconsistent condom use was that the partner did not want to use a condom. Associated factors for consistent condom use were not having regular partners, higher education and shorter time in sex work. Condom promotion programs should include both FSWs and their partners and female condoms should be included in condom intervention efforts. Future studies should investigate the validity of self-reported sexual practices, partners' reasons for inconsistent condom use, risk of violence in sex work and why shorter time in sex
Ross, Dana; Schumacher, Joseph E
The purpose of this study was to objectively and quantitatively assess individual skill level of male condom use. This study developed a reliable and face valid assessment of correct male condom use based on Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria. Participants (N= 163) were recruited from persons in treatment for cocaine addiction. Condom use was assessed on the basis of correct completion of eight discrete steps. An overall score of 40% correct condom use indicated the need for training in this sample. Assessment showed training needs especially related to steps involving reduction of ejaculate leakage and steps related to potential hazards of nonoxynol-9 use. Frequency of condom use was also assessed; there was no correlation between frequency of condom use and condom use skill. Drug addiction treatment programs are encouraged to incorporate HIV risk reduction programs that teach condom use skills and use the CUDOS as an empirical measure of condom skill acquisition.
Poteat, Tonia; Malik, Mannat; Scheim, Ayden; Elliott, Ayana
The purpose of this review is to summarize the available evidence-based HIV prevention interventions tailored for transgender people. A limited number of evidence-based HIV prevention interventions have been tested with transgender populations. Most existing interventions target behavior change among transgender women, with only one HIV prevention program evaluated for transgender men. Studies addressing biomedical interventions for transgender women are ongoing. Few interventions address social and structural barriers to HIV prevention, such as stigma, discrimination, and poverty. Evidence-based multi-level interventions that address the structural, biomedical, and behavioral risks for HIV among transgender populations, including transgender men, are needed to address disparities in HIV prevalence. Future research should address not only pre-exposure prophylaxis uptake and condom use but also structural barriers that limit access to these prevention strategies.
HIV testing is associated with increased knowledge and reductions in sexual risk behaviours among men in Cape Town, South Africa. Lori AJ Scott-Sheldon, Michael P Carey, Kate B Carey, Demetria Cain, Leickness C Simbayi, Vuyelwa Mehlomakhulu, Seth C Kalichman ...
Objectives. To assess the level of HlV-related knowledge, as well as high-risk behaviour and attitudes towards HIV, in a group of South African National Defence Force (SANDF) recruits. Design. Cross-sectional study. Setting. Tempe military base in Bloemfontein. Subjects. Three hundred and thirty-nine recruits from one ...
AJRH Managing Editor
The major objective of this study was to determine knowledge, attitudes and practices about HIV testing services and the uptake of this service amongst girls aged 15-19 in selected secondary schools in Malawi. A questionnaire was administered to 457 students and 18 focus group discussions and 45 in-depth interviews ...
Irwin, K; Bertrand, J; Mibandumba, N; Mbuyi, K; Muremeri, C; Mukoka, M; Munkolenkole, K; Nzilambi, N; Bosenge, N; Ryder, R
As a first step in designing an AIDS prevention program at a large factory in Kinshasa, Zaire, we collected information on attitudes towards human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) from factory foremen and their wives. Trained moderators conducted twelve focus group discussions (from November through December 1987) that addressed knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about HIV infection and AIDS. In general, participants were familiar with HIV infection and AIDS and considered these conditions leading health problems in Kinshasa. Although participants had a fairly accurate understanding of the causes of HIV infection, modes of transmission and preventive measures, many myths and misconceptions existed. Many participants did not believe that condom use would consistently prevent infection through sexual intercourse. Participants strongly favored the counseling of seropositive persons but showed less consensus about whether the spouse of a seropositive person should be notified of the partner's test result. Participants predicted that couples in which one member is seropositive and the other is not would experience marital discord and friction with family, neighbors and co-workers. These findings were applied to the development of a counseling and educational program for seropositive factory employees and their spouses.
Rubens, Muni; McCoy, H Virginia; Shehadeh, Nancy
Consistent and correct use of condoms is important to prevent the transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases. We evaluated condom use skills on an 11-point scale in which participants were observed placing a condom on a penile model. Participants were 375 sexually active African American and Hispanic migrant workers. For analysis, subjects were divided into skilled and unskilled groups by a median split of the condom use skills score. Sexual risk behaviors were analyzed between condom use skilled and unskilled groups and level of condom use skills between African Americans and Hispanics. African Americans showed better skills in using condoms, and participants in the condom-use skilled group used condoms more frequently. Finally, a logistic regression was conducted to find predictors of condom use skills. Significant predictors were ethnicity, language, and assistance-related social support (obtaining advice from people who could provide tangible assistance). Copyright © 2014 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Malmberg, Erik D; Phan, Thao M; Harmon, Glynn; Nauert, Richard F
A primary goal for the development of EHRs and EHR-related technologies should be to facilitate greater knowledge management for improving individual and community health outcomes associated with HIV / AIDS. Most of the current developments of EHR have focused on providing data for research, patient care and prioritization of healthcare provider resources in other areas. More attention should be paid to using information from EHRs to assist local, state, national, and international entities engaged in HIV / AIDS care, research and prevention strategies. Unfortunately the technology and standards for HIV-specific reporting modules are still being developed. A literature search and review supplemented by the author's own experiences with electronic health records and HIV / AIDS prevention strategies will be used. This data was used to identify both opportunities and challenges for improving public health informatics primarily through the use of latest innovations in EHRs. Qualitative analysis and suggestions are offered for how EHRs can support knowledge management and prevention strategies associated with HIV infection. EHR information, including demographics, medical history, medication and allergies, immunization status, and other vital statistics can help public health practitioners to more quickly identify at-risk populations or environments; allocate scarce resources in the most efficient way; share information about successful, evidenced-based prevention strategies; and increase longevity and quality of life. Local, state, and federal entities need to work more collaboratively with NGOs, community-based organizations, and the private sector to eliminate barriers to implementation including cost, interoperability, accessibility, and information security.
Coyle, Karin K.; Franks, Heather M.; Glassman, Jill R.; Stanoff, Nicole M.
Background: School-based human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted infection (STI), and pregnancy prevention programs often focus on consistent and correct condom use. Research on adolescents' experience using condoms, including condom slippage/breakage, is limited. This exploratory study examines proper condom use and the…
Nakhaee, F H
Knowledge of prisoners regarding HIV/AIDS in Kerman was evaluated. Analysis indicated that the sample (n = 350) of prisoners had relatively high knowledge about HIV/AIDS and its modes of transmission. However, they had a lower level of knowledge about HIV/AIDS prevention. The overall knowledge of men about AIDS was significantly lower than women. Persons aged 46 years and older and illiterate inmates had the least knowledge about modes of transmission. In addition, the knowledge of illiterate prisoners about HIV/AIDS prevention was significantly lower than others. Evaluation of attitudes and practices of prisoners and implementation of educational programmes regarding HIV/AIDS are suggested.
Sun, Xinying; Liu, Xiaona; Shi, Yuhui; Wang, Yanling; Wang, Peiyu; Chang, Chun
The purposes of this study were to assess sexual behavior and condom use among Chinese college students, and to explore social-environmental and social-cognitive determinants associated with risky sexual behaviors within this population. A survey was conducted among 19,123 Chinese college students recruited through stratified cluster sampling. About 9% of the students reported having had sex (male=13.3%, female=5.0%, OR=2.918), 3.6% had multiple sexual partners (male=5.7%, female=1.6%, OR=3.624), and 0.9% had commercialized sex (male=1.6%, female=0.3%, OR=6.169). Only 24.8% of sexually active students had used a condom for every sexual encounter, and there was no significant difference in condom use between male students and female students. Logistic regression showed that sex (female, OR=0.769), age (older, OR=1.263), exposure to pornographic information (higher, OR=1.751), drinking (intoxication, OR=1.437), and smoking (OR=2.123-5.112) were all determinants of sexual behaviors. Path analysis showed that exposure to pornographic information, level of consumption, and sex education were important social-environmental factors of condom use. Condom use was more common among those who had greater HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes toward high-risk behavior, self-efficacy, and intent to use a condom. Intentions were the most important and direct factor influencing condom use. The study concluded that college students are vulnerable to sexually transmitted diseases - including HIV/AIDS infection - through sexual contact. Therefore, future HIV/AIDS prevention and safer sex interventions should focus on self-protection skills and target behavior change.
Chen, Yi; Abraham Bussell, Scottie; Shen, Zhiyong; Tang, Zhenzhu; Lan, Guanghua; Zhu, Qiuying; Liu, Wei; Tang, Shuai; Li, Rongjian; Huang, Wenbo; Huang, Yuman; Liang, Fuxiong; Wang, Lu; Shao, Yiming; Ruan, Yuhua
Abstract Clients of female sex workers (CFSWs) are a bridge population for the spread of HIV and syphilis to low or average risk heterosexuals. Most studies have examined the point prevalence of these infections in CFSWs. Limited evidence suggests that older age CFSWs are at a higher risk of acquiring sexually transmitted diseases compared with younger clients. Thus, we sought to describe long-term trends in HIV, syphilis, and hepatitis C (HCV) to better understand how these infections differ by sex worker classification and client age. We also examined trends in HIV, syphilis, and HCV among categories of female sex workers (FSWs). We conducted serial cross-sectional studies from 2010 to 2015 in Guangxi autonomous region, China. We collected demographic and behavior variables. FSWs and their clients were tested for HIV, syphilis, and HCV antibodies. Positive HIV and syphilis serologies were confirmed by Western blot and rapid plasma regain, respectively. Clients were categorized as middle age (40–49 years) and older clients (≥50 years). FSWs were categorized as high-tier, middle-tier, or low-tier based on the payment amount charged for sex and their work venue. Chi-square test for trends was used for testing changes in prevalence over time. By 2015, low-tier FSWs (LTFSWs) accounted for almost half of all FSWs; and they had the highest HIV prevalence at 1.4%. HIV prevalence declined significantly for FSWs (high-tier FSW, P = 0.003; middle-tier FSWs; P = 0.021; LTFSWs, P HIV prevalence increased for older age clients (1.3%–2.0%, P = 0.159) while syphilis prevalence remained stable. HCV infections were halved among older clients in 3 years (1.7%–0.8%, P sex with men or intravenous drug use. Clients preferred LTFSWs, especially older clients (81.9%). Our results suggest that HIV and syphilis infections are increasing in older clients who prefer LTFSWs. HIV and syphilis are likely increasing in Guangxi Province through heterosexual transmission
Chi, X.; Hawk, S.T.; Winter, S.; Meeus, W.H.J.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether a comprehensive sexual education program for college students in Southwest China (a) improved sexual health knowledge in reproduction, contraception, condom use, sexually transmitted diseases, and HIV; (b) increased accepting attitudes toward
Chi, Xinli; Hawk, Skyler T; Winter, Sam; Meeus, Wim
The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether a comprehensive sexual education program for college students in Southwest China (a) improved sexual health knowledge in reproduction, contraception, condom use, sexually transmitted diseases, and HIV; (b) increased accepting attitudes toward
Full Text Available Puja Sharma Dhital,1 Sarojini Sharma,2 Pratik Poudel,3 Pankaj Raj Dhital4 1Adult Health Nursing, Nepal Polytechnic Institute, College of Nursing, 2Adult Health Nursing, BP Koirala Memorial Cancer Hospital, 3Department of Radiology, College of Medical Sciences, Bharatpur, 4Department of Agricultural Extension and Rural Sociology, Agriculture and Forestry University, Rampur, Nepal Abstract: Fifty nurses working in BP Koirala Memorial Cancer Hospital, Bharatpur, were selected by probability simple random sampling technique for determining the knowledge level about postexposure prophylaxis (PEP of HIV among nurses during 2014. A descriptive design, semistructured self-administered questionnaire was used for the study. The study showed that 48% of respondents had knowledge on the meaning of PEP, only 39.39% respondents were aware of the first aid management getting needle prick injury, 60% were aware of the best time to start PEP of HIV and 56% respondents had knowledge about the time schedule of HIV test after exposure. Although the respondents answered most of the questions correctly, they had knowledge deficit in certain areas. The respondents’ knowledge in this regard needs to be improved with time-to-time awareness program and periodic training, which ultimately helps to decrease the transmission of disease and reduces mortality and morbidity. Keywords: needle prick injury, transmission, PEP, HIV
Guariguata, Leonor; de Beer, Ingrid; Hough, Rina; Mulongeni, Pancho; Feeley, Frank G; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F
The burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) is growing in sub-Saharan Africa combined with an already high prevalence of infectious disease, like HIV. Engaging the formal employment sector may present a viable strategy for addressing both HIV and NCDs in people of working age. This study assesses the presence of three of the most significant threats to health in Namibia among employees in the formal sector: elevated blood pressure, elevated blood glucose, and HIV and assesses the knowledge and self-perceived risk of employees for these conditions. A health and wellness screening survey of employees working in 13 industries in the formal sector of Namibia was conducted including 11,192 participants in the Bophelo! Project in Namibia, from January 2009 to October 2010. The survey combined a medical screening for HIV, blood glucose and blood pressure with an employee-completed survey on knowledge and risk behaviors for those conditions. We estimated the prevalence of the three conditions and compared to self-reported employee knowledge and risk behaviors and possible determinants. 25.8% of participants had elevated blood pressure, 8.3% of participants had an elevated random blood glucose measurement, and 8.9% of participants tested positive for HIV. Most participants were not smokers (80%), reported not drinking alcohol regularly (81.2%), and had regular condom use (66%). Most participants could not correctly identify risk factors for hypertension (57.2%), diabetes (57.3%), or high-risk behaviors for HIV infection (59.5%). In multivariate analysis, having insurance (OR:1.15, 95%CI: 1.03 - 1.28) and a managerial position (OR: 1.29, 95%CI: 1.13 - 1.47) were associated with better odds of knowledge of diabetes. The prevalence of elevated blood pressure, elevated blood glucose, and HIV among employees of the Namibian formal sector is high, while risk awareness is low. Attention must be paid to improving the knowledge of health-related risk factors as well as providing
Full Text Available The burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs is growing in sub-Saharan Africa combined with an already high prevalence of infectious disease, like HIV. Engaging the formal employment sector may present a viable strategy for addressing both HIV and NCDs in people of working age. This study assesses the presence of three of the most significant threats to health in Namibia among employees in the formal sector: elevated blood pressure, elevated blood glucose, and HIV and assesses the knowledge and self-perceived risk of employees for these conditions.A health and wellness screening survey of employees working in 13 industries in the formal sector of Namibia was conducted including 11,192 participants in the Bophelo! Project in Namibia, from January 2009 to October 2010. The survey combined a medical screening for HIV, blood glucose and blood pressure with an employee-completed survey on knowledge and risk behaviors for those conditions. We estimated the prevalence of the three conditions and compared to self-reported employee knowledge and risk behaviors and possible determinants.25.8% of participants had elevated blood pressure, 8.3% of participants had an elevated random blood glucose measurement, and 8.9% of participants tested positive for HIV. Most participants were not smokers (80%, reported not drinking alcohol regularly (81.2%, and had regular condom use (66%. Most participants could not correctly identify risk factors for hypertension (57.2%, diabetes (57.3%, or high-risk behaviors for HIV infection (59.5%. In multivariate analysis, having insurance (OR:1.15, 95%CI: 1.03 - 1.28 and a managerial position (OR: 1.29, 95%CI: 1.13 - 1.47 were associated with better odds of knowledge of diabetes.The prevalence of elevated blood pressure, elevated blood glucose, and HIV among employees of the Namibian formal sector is high, while risk awareness is low. Attention must be paid to improving the knowledge of health-related risk factors as well as
Des Jarlais, Don C; McKnight, Courtney; Arasteh, Kamyar; Feelemyer, Jonathan; Perlman, David; Hagan, Holly; Cooper, Hannah L F
We assessed awareness and use of the "NYC Condom" among persons who use heroin and cocaine in New York City. The NYC Condom distribution program is the largest free condom distribution program in the USA, with over 30 million condoms distributed per year. It includes a condom social marketing program for a specific brand, the NYC Condom with its own packaging and advertising. People who use heroin and cocaine are at relatively high risk for HIV infection and are an important target population for the program. In order to assess awareness of the NYC Condom, structured interviews and blood testing for HIV, HSV-2, and sexually transmitted infections (STI) were conducted among entrants to the Beth Israel Medical Center drug detoxification and methadone treatment programs. Participants were asked about drug use, sexual risk behaviors, and awareness and use of the NYC Condom. Univariate and multivariable regression analyses were conducted to examine the associations between use of NYC Condoms and consistent condom use with primary and casual sexual partners. A total of 970 subjects were recruited between February 2011 and December 2012. Subjects were primarily African-American and Hispanic, with a mean age of 43. Fifty-five percent of subjects reported being sexually active with primary sexual partners, and 25 % reported being sexually active with a casual partner for the 6 months prior to the interview. Sixty-five percent of subjects had heard of the NYC Condom, 48 % of those who had heard of the condom had used it, and 58 % of those who had ever used it were currently using it (in the previous 6 months). In multivariable regression analyses, current use of NYC Condoms was strongly associated with consistent condom use with primary sexual partners (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 3.99, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.85-8.58) and consistent condom use with casual sexual partners (AOR = 4.48, 95 % CI 1.49-13.42). In terms of market share, 38 % of subjects consistently using
Hood, Kristina B; Shook, Natalie J
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2011) estimated that women represent 24% of HIV diagnoses in the United States, with most infections resulting from heterosexual contact. However, consistent condom use is highly effective in preventing the spread of HIV. The current study examined women's attitudes toward condom use and potential inconsistencies related to the conceptualization and measurement of attitudes. Data were collected from October 2009 through March 2010. Researchers included 556 female undergraduate students from the Southeast region of the United States. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were used to determine whether women's condom use attitudes were composed of an affective and a cognitive component. Evidence for a two-factor model of condom use attitudes consisting of an affective and cognitive component was found, with participants reporting slightly negative feelings toward condom use but favorable beliefs about using condoms. Affect accounted for more variance (42%) than cognition (8%) in condom use attitudes. Notably, affect and cognition were differentially associated with past behavior and intentions to use condoms. Understanding the structure of women's attitudes toward using condoms can aid in the creation of appropriate HIV prevention and condom use messaging targeted toward promoting positive attitudes and normative change. Changing women's attitudes in this manner could enhance the effectiveness of condom use interventions.
Joe, J. Richelle; Foster, Victoria A.
People living with HIV/AIDS will likely require services from mental health professionals to address the complex psychosocial effects of the illness. In the United States, counseling students are not likely to be well prepared to serve clients affected by HIV/AIDS, and little is known about their HIV-related knowledge and attitudes. The present…
Greene, George J; Swann, Greg; Fought, Angela J; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Hope, Thomas J; Kiser, Patrick F; Mustanski, Brian; D'Aquila, Richard T
HIV prevention method preferences were evaluated among 512 U.S. men who have sex with men (MSM; median age: 22 years). Approximately 90 % consistently preferred one option across pairwise comparisons of condoms, daily oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), and long-acting PrEP delivered via either an injectable or one of two types of PrEP implants differing in visibility. Condoms were most frequently preferred (33.8 %), followed by non-visible implants (21.5 %), and oral PrEP (17.0 %); HIV risk was reported by more choosing implants. In a follow-up question comparing the four PrEP options only, daily oral pills and non-visible implants were most frequently preferred (35.5 and 34.3 %, respectively), followed by injections (25.2 %) and visible implants (4.3 %). An inductive, open-coding approach determined that convenience, duration of protection, and privacy were the most commonly cited reasons for a PrEP method choice, and associated with self-report of HIV risk. Tailoring PrEP product development to privacy and other concerns important to those at highest HIV risk may improve HIV prevention.
Rodger, Alison J.; Cambiano, Valentina; Bruun, Tina; Vernazza, Pietro; Collins, Simon; van Lunzen, Jan; Corbelli, Giulio Maria; Estrada, Vicente; Geretti, Anna Maria; Beloukas, Apostolos; Asboe, David; Viciana, Pompeyo; Gutiérrez, Félix; Clotet, Bonaventura; Pradier, Christian; Gerstoft, Jan; Weber, Rainer; Westling, Katarina; Wandeler, Gilles; Prins, Jan M.; Rieger, Armin; Stoeckle, Marcel; Kümmerle, Tim; Bini, Teresa; Ammassari, Adriana; Gilson, Richard; Krznaric, Ivanka; Ristola, Matti; Zangerle, Robert; Handberg, Pia; Antela, Antonio; Allan, Sris; Phillips, Andrew N.; Lundgren, Jens; Pompeyo, V.; Trastoy, M.; Palacio, R.; Gutiérrez, F.; Masiá, M.; Padilla, S.; Robledano, C.; Clotet, B.; Coll, P.; Peña, J.; Estrada, V.; Rodrigo, M.; Santiago, E.; Rivero, A.; Antela, A.; Losada, E.
IMPORTANCE A key factor in assessing the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy (ART) as a prevention strategy is the absolute risk of HIV transmission through condomless sex with suppressed HIV-1 RNA viral load for both anal and vaginal sex. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the rate of
Rodger, Alison J; Cambiano, Valentina; Bruun, Tina
IMPORTANCE: A key factor in assessing the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy (ART) as a prevention strategy is the absolute risk of HIV transmission through condomless sex with suppressed HIV-1 RNA viral load for both anal and vaginal sex. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the ra...
Knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding antiretroviral management, reproductive health, sexually transmitted infections, and sexual risk behavior among perinatally HIV-infected youth in Thailand.
Lolekha, Rangsima; Boon-Yasidhi, Vitharon; Leowsrisook, Pimsiri; Naiwatanakul, Thananda; Durier, Yuitiang; Nuchanard, Wipada; Tarugsa, Jariya; Punpanich, Warunee; Pattanasin, Sarika; Chokephaibulkit, Kulkanya
More than 30% of perinatally HIV-infected children in Thailand are 12 years and older. As these youth become sexually active, there is a risk that they will transmit HIV to their partners. Data on the knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of HIV-infected youth in Thailand are limited. Therefore, we assessed the KAP of perinatally HIV-infected youth and youth reporting sexual risk behaviors receiving care at two tertiary care hospitals in Bangkok, Thailand and living in an orphanage in Lopburi, Thailand. From October 2010 to July 2011, 197 HIV-infected youth completed an audio computer-assisted self-interview to assess their KAP regarding antiretroviral (ARV) management, reproductive health, sexual risk behaviors, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). A majority of youth in this study correctly answered questions about HIV transmission and prevention and the importance of taking ARVs regularly. More than half of the youth in this study demonstrated a lack of family planning, reproductive health, and STI knowledge. Girls had more appropriate attitudes toward safe sex and risk behaviors than boys. Although only 5% of the youth reported that they had engaged in sexual intercourse, about a third reported sexual risk behaviors (e.g., having or kissing boy/girlfriend or consuming an alcoholic beverage). We found low condom use and other family planning practices, increasing the risk of HIV and/or STI transmission to sexual partners. Additional resources are needed to improve reproductive health knowledge and reduce risk behavior among HIV-infected youth in Thailand.
Sanjay Kumar Gupta
Full Text Available Research question: What is the knowledge, attitude and practice towards HIV/AIDS in a general population? Objectives: (1 To assess the knowledge about mode of transmission, treatment and prevention of HIV/AIDS. (2 To study the socio demographic pattern, myths and misconceptions. Study design: Community based cross sectional study. Setting: Chunampett Village, Tamilnadu. Duration: March to May 2007. Participants: 845 both males and females above the age of 18 years interviewed at home. Results: Population surveyed was 845, comprising of 482 (57.04% males and 363 (42.96% females. Most of them were Hindus (96.10%. Main occupation was agriculture (39.41% among males and house wives (33.73% among females. 40.35% respondents belonged to low socioeconomic status. Illiteracy rate was high especially among females (43%.Source of information about HIV/AIDS was mass media in about 85% of the population. Majority of individuals (58.5% were not aware that the disease was contagious. An overwhelming majority (98.59% were aware about the mode of transmission of HIV/AIDS through sexual route. However about 20% had myths regarding transmission of disease. 65% knew that HIV/AIDS is preventable, yet only 4% used condoms. A vast majority (60-65% were not aware that treatment and PEP were available free of cost in government hospitals. A majority of about 54.22% were of the opinion that the diagnosis of HIV/AIDS should not be kept confidential. Conclusion: The awareness about HIV / AIDS is high among the study population but the implementation of preventive measures is low. The knowledge about availability of prophylactic and therapeutic measures against HIV / AIDS in Govt. hospitals is also low.
Gazi, H; Surucuoglu, S; Yolasigmaz, G; Sen, M; Akcali, S; Dinc, G; Teker, A; Sanlidag, T; Koroğlu, G
The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of selected sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and the level of knowledge and attitudes regarding HIV/AIDS among Turkish brothel based sex-workers (SWs). A pre-designed questionnaire was administered to 199 SWs to obtain their sexual behaviours and their level of knowledge of HIV/AIDS. The specimens collected for C trachomatis/N gonorrhoeae and human papillomavirus (HPV) were tested using Gen-Probe PACE 2 and HPV-screening assays, respectively. Aproximately sixty-seven per cent of the SWs knew that condoms afforded protection against HIV/AIDS and 62% reported continued use of condoms. Although most of the SWs had heard about HIV/AIDS, thorough knowledge of transmission and prevention was lacking. The overall estimated rates for C trachomatis/N gonorrhoeae and HPV were 18.6% and 9.7%, respectively. There is a need for further studies to generate more data on the prevalence of STDs and the knowledge of STDs in this population.
Tung, Wei-Chen; Hu, Jie; Efird, Jimmy Thomas; Yu, Liping; Su, Wei
Objectives: To assess the knowledge, attitudes, sources of HIV information and behaviours related to HIV, and to explore the difference in the HIV knowledge and attitudes between genders and school years among college students in China. Design: Descriptive, cross-sectional. Setting: 475 college students from two universities in China. Method: Data…
Mnguni, Lindelani; Abrie, Mia
HIV/AIDS education should empower students to create knowledge using everyday life experiences. Such knowledge should then be used to construe experience and resolve social problems such as risk behaviour that leads to infection. In South Africa, attempts to reduce the spread of HIV include incorporating HIV/AIDS education in the biology…
Paintsil, Elijah; Renner, Lorna; Antwi, Sampson; Dame, Joycelyn; Enimil, Anthony; Ofori-Atta, Angela; Alhassan, Amina; Ofori, Irene Pokuaa; Cong, Xiangyu; Kyriakides, Tassos; Reynolds, Nancy R
The majority of HIV-infected children in sub-Saharan Africa have not been informed of their HIV status. Caregivers are reluctant to disclose HIV status to their children because of concern about the child's ability to understand, parental sense of guilt, and fear of social rejection and isolation. We hypothesized that the low prevalence of pediatric HIV disclosure in Ghana is due to lack of accurate HIV information and high HIV stigma among caregivers. This is a preliminary analysis of baseline data of an HIV pediatric disclosure intervention study in Ghana ("Sankofa"). "Sankofa" - is a two-arm randomized controlled clinical trial comparing disclosure intervention plus usual care (intervention arm) vs usual care (control arm) at Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital (KBTH; control arm) and Komfo-Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH; intervention arm). We enrolled HIV-infected children, ages 7-18 years who do not know their HIV status, and their caregivers. Baseline data of caregivers included demographic characteristics; Brief HIV Knowledge Questionnaire (HIV-KQ-18); Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire; and HIV Stigma Scale. Simple and multivariable linear regression analyses were used to assess the relationship between caregiver characteristics and HIV knowledge, stigma, and illness perception. Two hundred and ninety-eight caregivers were enrolled between January 2013 and July 2014 at the two study sites; KBTH (n = 167) and KATH (n = 131). The median age of caregivers was 41 years; 80.5% of them were female and about 60% of caregivers were HIV-positive. Seventy-eight percent of caregivers were self-employed with low household income. In both unadjusted and adjusted analyses, HIV negative status and lower level of education were associated with poor scores on HIV-KQ. HIV positive status remained significant for higher level of stigma in the adjusted analyses. None of the caregiver's characteristics predicted caregiver's illness perception. Intensification of HIV education in
Council reporting that condom use declined significantly from 2008 ... The bushcan initiative highlighted the fact that condoms are not as easily accessible to all South Africans as is ... Women Living with HIV: Global Lessons from Local Voices.
Walsh, Terri L; Frezieres, Ron G; Peacock, Karen; Nelson, Anita L; Clark, Virginia A; Bernstein, Leslie
To reduce unintended pregnancy and HIV infection, it is critical to develop reliable male condoms that will attract consumers who reject conventional latex condoms. In a prospective clinical trial conducted in 1998-2000, 830 monogamous couples were randomized in equal numbers to use either a nonlatex condom or a commercial natural latex condom for six months as their only method of birth control. Couples completed detailed reports for the first five condom uses and recorded intercourse and condom use in coital diaries. Pregnancy rates associated with typical and consistent condom use were calculated using life-table analysis. Rates of clinical failure (condom breakage or slippage) were determined for the first five condom uses. During the first five uses, the nonlatex condom had a higher frequency of breakage or slippage during intercourse or withdrawal (4.0%) than latex condoms (1.3%); the breakage rate for the nonlatex condom was about eight times that of latex condoms. The six-cycle typical-use pregnancy rate did not differ significantly between users of nonlatex (10.8%) and latex condoms (6.4%). The six-cycle consistent-use pregnancy rate was higher for nonlatex condom users than for latex condom users (4.9% vs. 1.0%). The data present strong indirect support for public health messages that promote the use of latex condoms and, for individuals who cannot or are unwilling to use latex condoms, the use of nonlatex condoms for prevention of pregnancy and disease.
Pines, Heather A; Gorbach, Pamina M; Weiss, Robert E; Reback, Cathy J; Landovitz, Raphael J; Mutchler, Matt G; Mitsuyasu, Ronald T
We examined individual-level, partnership-level, and sexual event-level factors associated with condom use during receptive anal intercourse (RAI) among 163 low-income, racially/ethnically diverse, HIV-negative men who have sex with men (MSM) in Los Angeles (2007-2010). At baseline, 3-month, and 12-month visits, computer-assisted self-interviews collected information on ≤3 recent male partners and the last sexual event with those partners. Factors associated with condom use during RAI at the last sexual event were identified using logistic generalized linear mixed models. Condom use during RAI was negatively associated with reporting ≥ high school education (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.32, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 0.11-0.96) and methamphetamine use, specifically during RAI events with non-main partners (AOR = 0.20, 95 % CI 0.07-0.53) and those that included lubricant use (AOR = 0.20, 95 % CI 0.08-0.53). Condom use during RAI varies according to individual-level, partnership-level, and sexual event-level factors that should be considered in the development of risk reduction strategies for this population.
Spielberg, Freya; Crookston, Benjamin T; Chanani, Sheila; Kim, Jaewhan; Kline, Sean; Gray, Bobbi L
Microfinance can be used to reach women and adolescent girls with HIV prevention education. We report findings from a cluster-randomized control trial among 55 villages in West Bengal to determine the impact of non-formal education on knowledge, attitudes and behaviors for HIV prevention and savings. Multilevel regression models were used to evaluate differences between groups for key outcomes while adjusting for cluster correlation and differences in baseline characteristics. Women and girls who received HIV education showed significant gains in HIV knowledge, awareness that condoms can prevent HIV, self-efficacy for HIV prevention, and confirmed use of clean needles, as compared to the control group. Condom use was rare and did not improve for women. While HIV testing was uncommon, knowledge of HIV-testing resources significantly increased among girls, and trended in the positive direction among women in intervention groups. Conversely, the savings education showed no impact on financial knowledge or behavior change.
Vera, Eduardo Gayón; Orozco, Hilda Hernández; Soto, Selene Sam; Aburto, Esther Lombardo
Sexual transmitted diseases (included HIV/AIDS) are a common and preventable cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. When used consistently and correctly, condoms are effective to prevent these diseases, however, its protection does not account for 100%. To know the effectiveness of male condom, through bibliographic evidence, to prevent sexual transmitted infections in heterosexual serodiscordant partners. A bibliographical review of Medline/Pubmed, LILACS and Cochrane databases, and publications of the National Health Institutes, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, World Health Organization, and WHO AIDS Global Program was done to analyze male condom effectiveness to prevent sexual transmitted diseases. Reports demonstrated that male condom protection against HIV/AIDS in heterosexual serodiscordant partners goes from 60 to 95%. Most recent information (2006) showed 80%. Two studies demonstrated no HPV protection with male condom, and another one 70% of protection. Male condom demonstrated no HPV-1 protection, but decrease of risk in HVS-2 transmission in women (0.85 of protection). Male condom protection against sexual transmitted diseases is not 100%. There must be used additional measures that have demonstrated its utility to decrease transmission risk.
Heeren, G Anita; Jemmott, John B; Mandeya, Andrew; Tyler, Joanne C
Whether certain behavioral beliefs, normative beliefs, and control beliefs predict the intention to use condoms and subsequent condom use was examined among 320 undergraduates at a university in South Africa who completed confidential questionnaires on two occasions separated by 3 months. Participants' mean age was 23.4 years, 47.8% were women, 48.9% were South Africans, and 51.1% were from other sub-Saharan African countries. Multiple regression revealed that condom-use intention was predicted by hedonistic behavioral beliefs, normative beliefs regarding sexual partners and peers, and control beliefs regarding condom-use technical skill and impulse control. Logistic regression revealed that baseline condom-use intention predicted consistent condom use and condom use during most recent intercourse at 3-month follow-up. HIV/STI risk-reduction interventions for undergraduates in South Africa should target their condom-use hedonistic beliefs, normative beliefs regarding partners and peers, and control beliefs regarding technical skill and impulse control.
Sexual sterilization is highly effective in preventing pregnancy, but it does not protect against sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). People who accept sterilization as their method of family planning therefore need to be encouraged to protect themselves against HIV/AIDS and STDs even after they have been sterilized. Since women return less often to family planning providers following their sterilization procedure, they need to be advised to protect themselves against HIV and STDs before the sterilization is performed. 42% of the 2782 women who underwent tubal sterilizations at the Baylor College of Medicine in Houston during 1991-96 indicated their intention in a cross-sectional study to use condoms after sterilization. 20% of all respondents, aged 18-51 years, had a known risk factor for HIV, and almost 25% reported regular condom use for contraception or disease protection during the 3 months before sterilization. Planned condom use increased from 32% in 1991 to 51% in 1996, irrespective of age, marital status, or ethnic background. Of the 646 women who used condoms before being sterilized, almost half indicated no plans to do so after the procedure. The following factors were associated with condom use: relatively younger age, black ethnicity, unmarried status, history of previous STD, no steady partner, having a higher number of previous sex partners, past use of condoms to prevent disease transmission, and lack of partner involvement in the decision to undergo sterilization.
Mansfield, Mahadi Audrey
As South Africa is one of the countries with the highest HIV/Aids prevalence in the world, many South Africans are affected by the pandemic. The education system is one of the structures that cannot escape the effects of the pandemic. Educators are especially affected by the pandemic due to the fact that they not only have to cope with the infected colleagues who are often absent, but are also burdened with numerous orphans and vulnerable children at their schools because of the pandemic. Som...
Kenu, Ernest; Obo-Akwa, Adjoa; Nuamah, Gladys B; Brefo, Anita; Sam, Miriam; Lartey, Margaret
In Ghana it is estimated that 1.2% of HIV infections occur in young people aged 15-24 but the representation in our clinics is small. Adherence to treatment, appointment keeping and knowledge of HIV status remains a challenge. Disclosure has been shown to result in better adherence to therapy, good clinical outcomes, psychological adjustment and reduction in the risk of HIV transmission when the young person becomes sexually active. A baseline study was conducted to ascertain if adolescents and young adults knew their HIV status and their knowledge on HIV. Informed consent and assent were obtained from willing participants. Self-administered questionnaires on general knowledge of HIV, HIV treatment and disclosure were collected and analyzed. Thirty-four young persons participated in the study. The mean age was 16.9±SD 2.5 and 62% (21/32) were female. All of them were still in school. Eighty-five percent were aware that young people their age could fall sick, 91% had heard of HIV, 70% knew someone with HIV and 45% thought that adolescents were not at risk of HIV. On modes of HIV transmission, 66.7% knew HIV was transmitted through sex and 63.6% knew about mother to child transmission. Fifty three percent (18/34) knew their HIV status, 50% (17/34) were on antiretroviral and 35% (6/17) of them admitted to missing ARV doses. One person who said he was HIV negative and another who did not know his status were both on ARVs. Disclosure of HIV status to adolescents and young people is dependent on a complex mix of factors and most practitioners recommend an age and developmentally appropriate disclosure. Thus it is highly individualized. The knowledge and awareness of HIV was 91% compared to 97% of adults in the most recent Ghana Demographic and Health Survey however only about two thirds had acceptable in depth knowledge on HIV. Only half knew their HIV status which was not the best considering their ages. There is the need to strengthen education to young persons with
Evans, Catrin; Lambert, Helen
This paper uses ethnographic data from a sex workers' HIV project in India to consider the appropriateness of individual, social/group and structural theories of health behaviour when applied to HIV-prevention initiatives. Existing theories are critiqued for their modernist representation of behaviour as determined by individual rational decision-making processes or by external structural forces, with inadequate recognition being given to the roles that human agency, subjective meaning and local context play in everyday actions. Analysis of sex workers' accounts of their sexual practices suggests that existing theories of health behaviour can only partially account for sexual behaviour change retrospectively and that they have limited predictive value with respect to the outcomes of individual sexual encounters. Our data show that these outcomes were, in fact, highly context dependent, while possibilities for action were ultimately strongly constrained by structural forces. Findings suggest that interventions need to adopt an integrated, structurally-oriented approach for promoting safer sexual practices in sex work settings. Recognising that no one model of health behaviour is likely to be adequate in explaining or predicting behaviour change encourages responsiveness to local people's agency, recognises the different (health- and non-health-related) registers of risk with which people operate and encourages flexibility according to local contingencies and contexts.
An advertisement in the Uganda weekly Topic printed in 1990 is the center of the controversy over whether promoting condom use to prevent AIDS is really promoting immorality and promiscuity. The ad states: "The bible may save your soul but this condom will save you life." Critics have called the ad blasphemy for showing a condom package alongside the Bible; claimed the condom fools people into thinking they are safe from AIDS; and blamed the practice of supplying condoms for the moral decadence that is destroying the country. In contrast the national AIDS Control Program (ACP) believes that supplying university students, who may be the group at highest risk, with condoms, is wise because they at lest know how to use them properly. A spokesman for the ACP said that the condom is one of the limited options that exist to fight the life-threatening epidemic. Present Museven changed his views to November 1990 from a policy of encouraging abstinence and monogamy, to promoting condoms. This change in government policy coincided with the report of 17,422 cases of AIDS, and the estimate that 1.3 million people in Uganda are infected with HIV.
Amy, Jean-Jacques; Thiery, Michel
The literature concerning the history of condoms is replete with errors. The paper Youssef published in 1993 is in our opinion the best. We update and expand the information. To mention only established facts, we accessed primary sources, which are identified in the article. The origin of the term 'condom' remains an enigma. Plausible hypotheses are that it is derived from either (i) the Latin 'condĕre' (to sheathe) or the corresponding noun 'condus' (receptacle); or (ii) the Venetian variant 'gondon' of the Italian word 'guantone' (glove). The earliest identified mention of a similar barrier method is in the legend of Minos and Pasiphae written (in the 2nd century AD) by Antoninus Liberalis. A penile sheath, made from animal gallbladder, was advocated in the 10th century by the Persian physician Al-Akhawayni. The earliest surviving condoms made of animal membranes date back to between 1642 and 1646. Such 'skin' condoms became increasingly popular for prevention of venereal disease, but as early as the 18th century their value as contraceptives was appreciated. Rubber condoms were available from 1855; since 1930, they are made of latex. We mention, in parallel, the most striking changes over time in sexual mores and behaviours, and illustrate these by referring to colourful figures such as, among others, Boswell, Mrs Philips, Casanova, Marguerite Gourdan, and Richard Carlile. Papers related to this topic often contain errors, which we identify. Condoms over time evolved from animal gut receptacles to reliable contraceptives protecting also against certain sexually transmitted infections, including HIV.
Bradley H Wagenaar
Full Text Available We compared factors associated with low HIV/AIDS knowledge among internet-using MSM in South Africa and the United States.1,154 MSM in the US and 439 MSM in South Africa, recruited through Facebook.com, completed an online survey using a US-validated HIV knowledge scale (HIV-KQ-18. Separate multivariable logistic regression models were built, one for the US and one for South Africa, using a dichotomized variable of scoring less than and equal to 13/18 ("low knowledge" on the HIV-KQ-18 as outcome.Median knowledge scores were 16/18 for both groups of respondents. For South African MSM, factors associated with low knowledge were: a high school education or less (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 2.5, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.4–4.6, not using condom-compatible lubrication during last anal sex with another man (aOR: 1.9, CI: 1.0–3.5, number of gay or bisexual acquaintances (aOR: 0.89, CI: 0.81–0.99, being unemployed (aOR: 2.2, CI: 1.0–4.6, and testing HIV negative (aOR: 0.30, CI: 0.16–0.59 or testing HIV positive (aOR: 0.15, CI: 0.03–0.74 compared to those never HIV tested. For US MSM, associated factors were: a high school education or less (aOR: 2.7, CI: 1.9–3.8, low pride and acceptance of homosexuality (aOR: 1.3, CI: 1.2–1.5, age 18–24 (aOR: 2.3, CI: 1.3–3.8 or age 50+ (aOR: 3.2, CI: 1.6–6.3 compared to age 25–29, Hispanic ethnicity compared to white non-Hispanic (aOR: 1.9, CI: 1.1–3.2, and testing HIV positive (aOR: 0.34, CI: 0.16–0.69 or testing HIV negative (aOR: 0.59, CI: 0.39–0.89 compared to those never HIV tested [corrected].Those developing programs for MSM in South Africa should weigh these data and other relevant factors, and might consider focusing education services towards MSM with limited education, less integration into gay/bisexual communities, no HIV testing history, limited use of condom-compatible lube, and the unemployed. In the United States, Hispanic MSM, those with limited education, no HIV
Manasi Shekhar Padhyegurjar
Full Text Available Background: Education sector plays an important role in imparting vital information regarding HIV AIDS to large number of adolescents. The present study was carried out to assess the baseline level of knowledge and attitude regarding HIV / AIDS and retention of various aspects of information over the period of one year among ninth standard school students in Mumbai. Methods and Material: The present study was designed as a school based interventional follow up study. Health education sessions on HIV/AIDS were conducted. Pre test, immediate post test, along with a follow up post test at six months and one year were administered. SPSS (Version 16 and Excel software were used for statistical analysis. Z tests for difference between proportions were applied. Results: The proportion of correct responses regarding some of the aspects of knowledge of HIV / AIDS significantly increased on health education intervention. However, no significant change in the proportion of correct responses regarding blood donation leading to HIV transmission was observed. Significant waning (p < 0.01 away of the effect of health education has been observed in some important aspects especially regarding spread without being aware of transmission, involvement of infected needles, condoms as mode of prevention and no complete cure till date. Though there is a general acceptance of HIV positive patients, attitudes involving sexual mode of transmission, drug abuse and homosexuality did not show positive change post intervention. Conclusions: Health education sessions were very effective in increasing knowledge. However, students tend to lose information regarding certain aspects. We thus need strategies for reinforcing knowledge as well as attitude aspect in school AIDS education.
Mantell, J E; Scheepers, E; Karim, Q A
The successful implementation of new public health policy is influenced by provider preparedness and user acceptability of the new intervention. This paper describes the development and implementation of a participatory Training of Trainers (TOT) programme as a precursor to launch the South African government's female-initiated HIV prevention strategies in public health clinics. Three hundred peer-trainees from throughout South Africa were trained through a comprehensive, modular and interactive three-day workshop. The workshop content included: HIV/AIDS knowledge, beliefs and attitudes; values clarification regarding HIV infection and sexuality; sexual desensitization; 'hands-on' training in the use of and introduction of the female condom; and counselling, communication and programme planning skills. The TOT generated a cadre of knowledgeable health care workers for training others and provided a support structure at the service delivery level for ensuring potential users' access to the female condom within each province. Qualitative assessments of the training and trainer debriefing sessions suggest that the training was successful in increasing knowledge and promoting positive attitudes about female condoms. In addition, the expanded repertoire of problem-solving approaches left providers feeling confident about recommending this method to clients.
Hovey, Joseph D; Booker, Victoria; Seligman, Laura D
Previous research has suggested that Mexican migrant farmworkers are at elevated risk for contracting HIV/AIDS and that they are in need of receiving HIV/AIDS-related education. The present study evaluated the impact of the Infórmate adolescent theater program on HIV/AIDS knowledge and attitudes among farmworker audience members of various ages. Audience members from 7 migrant farmworker camps completed a self-administered questionnaire before and after they observed the Infórmate performance. Paired-samples t-tests and McNemar tests indicated an increase in knowlege in "modes of HIV transmission," "body fluids that can transmit HIV," and items assessing HIV/AIDS "myths." In addition, a greater percentage of farmworkers at posttest reported that they believed that condoms should always be used during sex. The overall findings from this study suggest that theater can be an effective medium for increasing HIV/AIDS-related knowledge among migrant farmworkers. However, it is suggested that, because some farmworkers held false beliefs regarding modes of HIV transmission after viewing the theater program, theater used in combination with other prevention activities may provide for a more comprehensive educational experience.
樋口, 匡貴; 中村, 菜々子
Properly using condoms is one of the most effective types of protection against HIV. To clarify the contents of normative beliefs regarding purchasing and using condoms, 390 undergraduate student volunteers were surveyed. The exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed that both males and females held two types of normative beliefs, namely formal normative beliefs and informal normative beliefs, regarding purchasing and using condoms. Formal normative beliefs were concerned with the...
Full Text Available Compared to the general population, men who have sex with men (MSM are at greater risk for HIV and less understood due to their more hidden and stigmatized nature. Moreover, the discrepancy in findings in the literature merits further investigations in MSM populations from different cultures and settings. We therefore conducted this study to explore factors associated with inconsistent condom use among high-risk MSM in Cambodia.This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2014 among 367 MSM randomly selected from Battembang and Siem Reap using a two-stage cluster sampling method. A structured questionnaire was used for face-to-face interviews to collect information on characteristics of respondents, HIV testing history, self-perception of HIV risk, substance use, sexual behaviors, mental disorders, and HIV knowledge. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors independently associated with inconsistent condom use.On average, 62.3% of respondents reported that they always used condoms over the past three months. The rates varied with types of sexual partners; the proportion of respondents who reported always using condoms was 55.1%, 64.2%, 75.9%, 73.0%, 78.1%, and 70.3%, for sexual partners who were girlfriends, boyfriends, female sex workers, male sex workers, female clients, or male clients, respectively. After adjustment, inconsistent condom use was significantly associated with age of ≥25 (AOR = 1.77, 95% CI = 1.09-2.86, self-rated quality of life as good or very good (AOR = 4.37, 95% CI = 1.79-5.67, self-perception of higher HIV risk compared to the general population (AOR = 2.37, 95% CI = 1.35-4.17, illicit drug use in the past three months (AOR = 5.76, 95% CI = 1.65-10.09, and reported consistent lubricant use when selling anal sex to men in the past three months (AOR = 2.85, 95% CI = 1.07-8.12.We found risky sexual behaviors to be considerably high among MSM in this study, especially among those who used
Evans, W Douglas; Taruberekera, Noah; Longfield, Kim; Snider, Jeremy
Zimbabwe suffers from one of the greatest burdens of HIV/AIDS in the world that has been compounded by social and economic instability in the past decade. However, from 2001 to 2009 HIV prevalence among 15-49 year olds declined from 26% to approximately 14%. Behavior change and condom use may in part explain this decline.PSI-Zimbabwe socially markets the Protector Plus (P+) branded line of condoms. When Zimbabwe converted to a dollar-based economy in 2009, the price of condoms was greatly increased and new marketing efforts were undertaken. This paper evaluates the role of condom marketing, a multi-dimensional scale of brand peceptions (brand equity), and price in condom use behavior. We randomly sampled sexually active men age 15-49 from 3 groups - current P+ users, former users, and free condom users. We compared their brand equity and willingness to pay based on survey results. We estimated multivariable logistic regression models to compare the 3 groups. We found that the brand equity scale was positive correlated with willingness to pay and with condom use. Former users also indicated a high willingness to pay for condoms. We found differences in brand equity between the 3 groups, with current P+ users having the highest P+ brand equity. As observed in previous studies, higher brand equity was associated with more of the targeted health behavior, in this case and more consistent condom use. Zimbabwe men have highly positive brand perceptions of P+. There is an opportunity to grow the total condom market in Zimbabwe by increasing brand equity across user groups. Some former users may resume using condoms through more effective marketing. Some free users may be willing to pay for condoms. Achieving these objectives will expand the total condom market and reduce HIV risk behaviors.
Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of studies from countries with severe HIV epidemics have found gaps in condom availability, even in places where there is a substantial potential for HIV transmission. Although reported condom use has increased in many African countries, there are often big differences by socioeconomic background. The aim of this study was to assess equity aspects of condom availability and uptake in three African districts to evaluate whether condom programmes are given sufficient priority. Methods Data on condom availability and use was examined in one district in Kenya, one in Tanzania and one in Zambia. The study was based on a triangulation of data collection methods in the three study districts: surveys in venues where people meet new sexual partners, population-based surveys and focus group discussions. The data was collected within an overall study on priority setting in health systems. Results At the time of the survey, condoms were observed in less than half of the high risk venues in two of the three districts and in 60% in the third district. Rural respondents in the population-based surveys perceived condoms to be less available and tended to be less likely to report condom use than urban respondents. Although focus group participants reported that condoms were largely available in their district, they expressed concerns related to the accessibility of free condoms. Conclusion As late as thirty years into the HIV epidemic there are still important gaps in the availability of condoms in places where people meet new sexual partners in these three African districts. Considering that previous studies have found that improved condom availability and accessibility in high risk places have a potential to increase condom use among people with multiple partners, the present study findings indicate that substantial further efforts should be made to secure that condoms are easily accessible in places where sexual relationships are
Sandøy, Ingvild Fossgard; Blystad, Astrid; Shayo, Elizabeth H; Makundi, Emmanuel; Michelo, Charles; Zulu, Joseph; Byskov, Jens
A number of studies from countries with severe HIV epidemics have found gaps in condom availability, even in places where there is a substantial potential for HIV transmission. Although reported condom use has increased in many African countries, there are often big differences by socioeconomic background. The aim of this study was to assess equity aspects of condom availability and uptake in three African districts to evaluate whether condom programmes are given sufficient priority. Data on condom availability and use was examined in one district in Kenya, one in Tanzania and one in Zambia. The study was based on a triangulation of data collection methods in the three study districts: surveys in venues where people meet new sexual partners, population-based surveys and focus group discussions. The data was collected within an overall study on priority setting in health systems. At the time of the survey, condoms were observed in less than half of the high risk venues in two of the three districts and in 60% in the third district. Rural respondents in the population-based surveys perceived condoms to be less available and tended to be less likely to report condom use than urban respondents. Although focus group participants reported that condoms were largely available in their district, they expressed concerns related to the accessibility of free condoms. As late as thirty years into the HIV epidemic there are still important gaps in the availability of condoms in places where people meet new sexual partners in these three African districts. Considering that previous studies have found that improved condom availability and accessibility in high risk places have a potential to increase condom use among people with multiple partners, the present study findings indicate that substantial further efforts should be made to secure that condoms are easily accessible in places where sexual relationships are initiated. Although condom distribution in drinking places has been
Tarkang, Elvis E
HIV/AIDS prevention programs rooted in the social cognitive models are based on the theoretical assumptions that adoption of preventive behaviour (condom use) depends on the individual's perceptions of their susceptibility to HIV/AIDS and the benefits of condom use. However some studies contend that applying such models in the African setting may not be that simple considering that in many societies, people's capacity to initiate health enhancing behaviour are mediated by power relations (parents/guardians) and socialisation processes that are beyond the control of individuals. The relative influence of these family forces on condom use is however unknown in Cameroon. In this study it is hypothesized that adolescents' perceptions of family support for condom use, would encourage condom use among female students in Limbe urban city of Cameroon. A cross-sectional study of a probability sample of 210 female students selected from three participating secondary school was adopted, using a self-administered questionnaire to collect data. Pearson Chi-square statistics was used to test association between perceived family support for condom use and condom use. Statistics were calculated using SPSS version 20 software program. Of the respondents, 56.2% reported being sexually active. Of these, 27.4% reported using condoms consistently; 39.1% reported having used condoms during their first sexual intercourse, while 48.7% reported having used condoms during their last sexual intercourse. Majority of the female students exhibited positive perceptions regarding family support for condom use. Respondents who agreed that they feel themselves free to discuss condom use with their parents or any adult member of the family, reported more condom use during first sex than those who disagreed (X2 = 13.021; df = 6; p = 0.043). Likewise respondents who agreed that they feel themselves free to discuss condom use with their parents or any adult member of the family, reported
Butts, Stefani A.; Kayukwa, Annette; Langlie, Jake; Rodriguez, Violeta J.; Alcaide, Maria L.; Chitalu, Ndashi; Weiss, Stephen M.; Jones, Deborah L.
In sub-Saharan Africa, young women are at the highest risk of HIV infection. Comprehensive sexuality education and open parent-child communication about sex have been shown to mitigate risky sexual practices associated with HIV. This study aimed to identify sources of HIV prevention knowledge among young women aged 10-14 years and community-based…
H.P. Versteegh (Hendt); A. Bakia (Affuenti); H.M. Koopman (Hendrik); V. Kraaij (Vivian); F.G. Versteegh (Florens)
textabstractIntroduction: HIV/AIDS, the most important health problem in Africa, is the leading cause of death on the continent. Ignorance on HIV/AIDS status will hamper treatment and prevention. To investigate the level of HIV/AIDS knowledge among men in a rural area, we performed a questionnaire
Knowledge of HIV and AIDS in women in sub-Saharan Africa. Amy D. Burgoyne and Peter D. Drummond. ABSTRACT. Although most African people have heard of HIV and AIDS, there is still widespread misunderstanding about how HIV is spread, the consequences of infection, and how to protect against infection.
Callaghan, Chris William
Knowledge management as a field is concerned with the management of knowledge, including the management of knowledge in research processes. Knowledge management theory has the potential to support research into problems such as HIV, antibiotic resistance and others, particularly in terms of aspects of scientific research related to the contribution of social science. To date, however, these challenges remain with us, and theoretical contributions that can complement natural science efforts to eradicate these problems are needed. This paper seeks to offer a theoretical contribution grounded in Kuhn's paradigm theory of innovation, and in the argument by Lakatos that scientific research can be fundamentally non-innovative, which suggests that social science aspects of knowledge creation may hold the key to more effective biomedical innovation. Given the consequences of ongoing and emerging global crises, and the failure of knowledge systems of scientific research to solve such problems outright, this paper provides a review of theory and literature arguing for a new paradigm in scientific research, based on the development of global systems to maximise research collaborations. A global systems approach effectively includes social science theory development as an important complement to the natural sciences research process. Arguably, information technology and social media technology have developed to the point at which solutions to knowledge aggregation challenges can enable solutions to knowledge problems on a scale hitherto unimaginable. Expert and non-expert crowdsourced inputs can enable problem-solving through exponentially increasing problem-solving inputs, using the 'crowd,' thereby increasing collaborations dramatically. It is argued that these developments herald a new era of participatory research, or a democratisation of research, which offers new hope for solving global social problems. This paper seeks to contribute to this end, and to the recognition
SIPHAMBE, H.K. (PROF.)
There was a negative relationship between condom use and age differences with partner ... to investigate the role of gender imbalance in the use of condoms as a preventive ... use force and women are not treated as equals at work, in the household .... Violence is both a cause and a consequence of HIV/AIDS and 10 to 69 ...
Full Text Available BackgroundBangladesh is currently a low HIV prevalent country. However, the risk factors are widespread and the number of at-risk population is also rising which warrants special policy attention. The risks of transmission were shown to be correlated with the level of HIV knowledge of individuals. In this study, we aimed to explore the level and influencing factors of HIV knowledge among adult men in Bangladesh. MethodologyData for the present study were collected from the sixth round of Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS. Participants were 3305 men between 15 and 54 years of age regardless of HIV status. The primary outcome variable was the HIV knowledge score, which was calculated by responses to questions regarding general concepts and the mode of transmission of HIV. Association between the HIV knowledge score and the explanatory variables were analyzed by binary logistic regression methods. ResultThe mean HIV knowledge score was 7.2 (SD 1.3. Results indicate that being an urban resident (p<0.001; OR=0.56, 95%=0.48-0.64, having secondary/higher educational level (p<0.001 OR=0.56, 95%=0.48-0.64, reading newspaper (p=0.006; OR=0.76, 95%CI=0.62-0.92, and communication with CHWs (p=0.05; OR=0.77, 95%CI=0.60-10.00 were significantly associated with a high (Equal or above mean value HIV knowledge level. ConclusionThe level of HIV knowledge among Bangladeshi men is low. Leveraging HIV awareness programs targeting adult men to prevent future expansion of the epidemic should be a high priority. Revitalization and restructuring of the education sector and strengthening community health worker (CHWs engagement to improve knowledge about HIV transmission among men could generate beneficial returns for HIV prevention programs.
Full Text Available We examined whether knowledge of the HIV-protective benefits of male circumcision (MC led to risk compensating behavior in a traditionally circumcising population in South Africa. We extend the current literature by examining risk compensation among women, which has hitherto been unexplored.We used data on Xhosa men and women from the 2009 Cape Area Panel Study. Respondents were asked if they had heard that MC reduces a man's risk of contracting HIV, about their perceived risk of contracting HIV, and condom use. For each gender group we assessed whether risk perception and condom use differed by knowledge of the protective benefits of MC using bivariate and then multivariate models controlling for demographic characteristics, HIV knowledge/beliefs, and previous sexual behaviors. In a further check for confounding, we used data from the 2005 wave to assess whether individuals who would eventually become informed about the protective benefits of circumcision were already different in terms of HIV risk perception and condom use.34% of men (n=453 and 27% of women (n=690 had heard that circumcision reduces a man's risk of HIV infection. Informed men perceived slightly higher risk of contracting HIV and were more likely to use condoms at last sex (p<0.10. Informed women perceived lower HIV risk (p<0.05, were less likely to use condoms both at last sex (p<0.10 and more generally (p<0.01, and more likely to forego condoms with partners of positive or unknown serostatus (p<0.01. The results were robust to covariate adjustment, excluding people living with HIV, and accounting for risk perceptions and condom use in 2005.We find evidence consistent with risk compensation among women but not men. Further attention should be paid to the role of new information regarding MC, and drivers of HIV risk more broadly, in modulating sexual behavior among women.
Full Text Available Aim: In this study,it was aimed to investigate the level of knowledge and attitudes of healty care workers about HIV/AIDS. Material and Method: Data on knowledge and attitude of health care workers about HIV/AIDS was collected with a questionnaire. Results:This research was carried out on 230 health care workers (36 doctors, 194 nurses to investigate their knowledge and attidudes on HIV/AIDS. All of the participants knew that HIV/AIDS is an infectious disease,while 90.4 % of the participants stated that HIV/AIDS can be transmitted sexually.76.5 % of the participants stated they found their work risky for HIV/AIDS. Discussion:These findings have provided a data for educational programs designed for healty care workers. We belive that education programs for healty care workers will be effecive to control HIV/AIDS.
Terán Calderón, Carolina; Gorena Urizar, Dorian; González Blázquez, Cristina; Alejos Ferreras, Belén; Ramírez Rubio, Oriana; Bolumar Montrull, Francisco; Ortiz Rivera, Marta; del Amo Valero, Julia
To analyse knowledge, attitudes and sexual practices on HIV/AIDS, and estimate HIV prevalence among residents of Sucre (Bolivia). Population-based survey of residents aged 15-49 randomly selected during 2008/2009. Blood samples were collected on Whatman-filter paper and tested with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Knowledge on HIV/AIDS, sexual risk practices and discriminatory attitudes against people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) were modelled with multiple logistic regression. Of 1499 subjects, 59% were women. All subjects were HIV-negative. Inadequate knowledge of HIV/AIDS transmission and prevention was observed in 67% and risk factors varied by gender (interaction p-value<0.05). Discriminatory attitudes were displayed by 85% subjects; associated factors were: rural residence, low educational level and low income. Unsafe sex was reported by 10%; risk factors varied by residence area (interaction p-value<0.05). In urban areas, risk factors were male sex, younger age and being in common-law union. Prevalence of HIV infection is very low and unsafe sex is relatively uncommon. Inadequate knowledge on HIV/AIDS and discriminatory attitudes towards PLWHA are extremely high and are associated to gender, ethnic and economic inequalities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Odujinrin, M T; Adebajo, S B
Although many behavioral research studies and public enlightenment campaigns have been undertaken by both government and non-governmental organizations in the general public, no such study has been documented on prison inmates in Nigeria. This study aimed at documenting the social characteristics, HIV/AIDS knowledge and preventive practices of selected prisoners in Nigeria. It also elicited risk factors HIV/AIDS transmission in Nigeria prisons. A cross-sectional study of prison inmates using an anonymous risk-factors identification questionnaire was undertaken in January 1997. The Kiri-kiri (maximum, medium and female) prisons were selected by balloting. Thereafter, two hundred and fifty two inmates were selected by systematic random sampling method using the full listing of all inmates as at the time of the survey. The study comprised of an interview session using a well structured questionnaire to seek information about their social data, their knowledge about HIV/AIDS including its transmission and preventive social data, and their indulgence in HIV/AIDS risky behaviour. The majority (53.6%) of the respondents were in the age group 20-29 years, 18 (7.1%) were less than 20 years old one of whom was in the maximum-security prison and three were females (table 1). The majority (52%) had secondary education while 9.9% had tertiary education and 7.1% had no formal education. About 97.2% of the study population had heard about AIDS although only 20.6% had known or seen someone with AIDS before and about 34.1% knew the causative agent of AIDS. 60.3% knew the correct mode of transmission of AIDS. 15.5% claimed fidelity and 12.7 % claimed use of condom for casual sexual contact, were measures that could help prevent AIDS but 7.9% did not know any preventive measure. Since hearing about AIDS, 59.5% claimed to have taken steps to protect themselves. 42.7% of the 89 who had not taken any protective steps against AIDS had no knowledge of how to protect themselves. About 56
Roberto, E L
A number of program strategies have been suggested to close the gap between knowledge and awareness of family planning, and its practice. Most focus on the interim between awareness and usage. This article presents data to support the argument that the problem lies in the awareness stage. Its assumption is that the quality of the awareness is important. As opposed to the survey method of determining awareness, the author proposes the "Focus Group Discussion." As illustration, he presents results of a study using this method, on awareness about condoms, undertaken as part of a Population Center Foundation Condom Distribution Project, in 1975. Its purpose was to identify the more important attitudes toward condoms among married couples, the factors which motivate the couples to use or reject them, and the meanings associated with condoms and how these influence the time, manner, and reasons for rejecting or accepting them. 4 group discussions were carried out, with 8 or 10 married male and female respondents, age 18-35, with at least 2 children, of middle and lower class, and all having at least heard of condoms. Discussions were taped and subjected to content analysis. The 7 major findings are: 1) Quality of awareness depends on experience with use. 2) Experience with use does not guarantee positive quality awareness -- some regular users were still ignorant of some aspects of condom use. 3) Respondents perceive positive aspects of condoms, which should be reinforced. 4) Most of the negative qualities perceived by respondents were imaginary, but can be combatted by the positive statements of users. 5) Filipino men respond to their wives' reactions and project an image of sexual prowess, both possibly damaging to the reputation of condoms; communicators and educators must address the wives equally with their husbands. 6) Buying condoms is embarrassing: studies are needed on how this can be overcome at the places of purchase. 7) Brand awareness is low: only 3 or 4 out
Full Text Available Abstract Background Globally, women share an indiscriminate burden of the HIV epidemic and the associated socioeconomic consequences. Previous studies have demonstrated a positive correlation between levels of HIV knowledge with its prevalence. However, for Bangladesh such evidence is non-existent. In this study, we aimed to explore the extent of HIV knowledge in relation to the socio-demographic variables such as age, region, area of residence i.e., urban or rural, wealth index and education, and investigate the factors influencing the level of HIV knowledge among Bangladeshi women. Methods We used data from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS survey conducted in 2011. In total 12,512 women ageing between 15 and 49 ever hearing about HIV regardless of HIV status were selected for this study. HIV knowledge level was estimated by analyzing respondents’ answers to a set of 11 basic questions indicative of general awareness and mode of transmission. Descriptive statistics, cross-tabulation and multinominal logistic regression were performed for data analysis. Results Little over half the respondents had good knowledge regarding HIV transmission risks. The mean HIV knowledge score was −0.001 (SD 0.914. Average correct response rate about mode of transmission was higher than for general awareness. Educational level of women and sex of household head were found to be significantly associated with HIV knowledge in the high score group. Those with no education, primary education or secondary education were less likely to be in the high score group for HIV knowledge when compared with those with higher than secondary level of education. Similarly those with male as household head were less likely to be in the higher score group for HIV knowledge. Conclusions Level of HIV knowledge among Bangladeshi women is quite low, and the limiting factors are rooted in various demographic and household characteristics. Education and sex of the
Jesmin, Syeda S; Chaudhuri, Sanjukta; Abdullah, Shahnaz
Mass media is an important vehicle for health promotion in developing countries. In Bangladesh multiple media campaigns are being carried out to educate people about HIV/AIDS. We examined the extent of HIV/AIDS knowledge and the association of exposure to mass media among women in Bangladesh. The Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS) provides data for this article. We found that media exposure (combined index of television, radio, and newspaper) was a highly significant predictor of women's knowledge about HIV and AIDS. Other significant predictors of HIV knowledge include women's education, age, employment, and urban residence.
Kanamori, Mariano; De La Rosa, Mario; Diez, Stephanie; Weissman, Jessica; Trepka, Mary Jo; Sneij, Alicia; Schmidt, Peter; Rojas, Patria
Throughout the past decade, HIV rates in Florida-particularly South Florida, where many Latina seasonal farmworkers reside and work-have ranked among the highest in the nation. In this brief report, we delineate important lessons learned and preliminary findings from the implementation of the HIV prevention intervention Progreso en Salud (Progress in Health). Among the 114 Latina seasonal farmworker participants, there were significant increases from baseline to 6-month follow-up in the percentages of overall condom use, HIV testing, HIV/AIDS-related communications with friends, HIV knowledge, condom use self-efficacy, and correct use of condoms. Lessons learned from this study can be used to inform future HIV intervention strategies to improve the adoption and maintenance of HIV risk reduction behaviors among high-risk Latina seasonal workers and other high-risk underserved populations. Future research is needed to support our findings.
Full Text Available Throughout the past decade, HIV rates in Florida—particularly South Florida, where many Latina seasonal farmworkers reside and work—have ranked among the highest in the nation. In this brief report, we delineate important lessons learned and preliminary findings from the implementation of the HIV prevention intervention Progreso en Salud (Progress in Health. Among the 114 Latina seasonal farmworker participants, there were significant increases from baseline to 6-month follow-up in the percentages of overall condom use, HIV testing, HIV/AIDS-related communications with friends, HIV knowledge, condom use self-efficacy, and correct use of condoms. Lessons learned from this study can be used to inform future HIV intervention strategies to improve the adoption and maintenance of HIV risk reduction behaviors among high-risk Latina seasonal workers and other high-risk underserved populations. Future research is needed to support our findings.
Buehler, Charlotte P; Blevins, Meridith; Ossemane, Ezequiel B; González-Calvo, Lázaro; Ndatimana, Elisée; Vermund, Sten H; Sidat, Mohsin; Olupona, Omo; Moon, Troy D
To conduct a cross-sectional mapping analysis of HIV knowledge in Zambézia Province, Mozambique, and to examine spatial patterns of HIV knowledge and associated household characteristics. A population-based cluster survey was administered in 2010; data were analysed from 201 enumeration areas in three geographically diverse districts: Alto Molócuè, Morrumbala and Namacurra. We assessed HIV knowledge scores (0-9 points) using previously validated assessment tools. Using geographic information systems (GIS), we mapped hot spots of high and low HIV knowledge. Our multivariable linear regression model estimated HIV knowledge associations with distance to nearest clinic offering antiretroviral therapy, respondent age, education, household size, number of children under five, numeracy, literacy and district of residence. We found little overall HIV knowledge in all three districts. People in Alto Molócuè knew comparatively most about HIV, with a median score of 3 (IQR 2-5) and 22 of 51 (43%) enumeration areas scoring ≥4 of 9 points. Namacurra district, closest to the capital city and expected to have the best HIV knowledge levels, had a median score of 1 (IQR 0-3) and only 3 of 57 (5%) enumeration areas scoring ≥4 points. More HIV knowledge was associated with more education, age, household size, numeracy and proximity to a health facility offering antiretroviral therapy. HIV knowledge is critical for its prevention and treatment. By pinpointing areas of poor HIV knowledge, programme planners can prioritize educational resources and outreach initiatives within the context of antiretroviral therapy expansion. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Copeland, Raniyah M; Wilson, Phill; Betancourt, Gabriela; Garcia, David; Penner, Murray; Abravanel, Rebecca; Wong, Eric Y; Parisi, Lori D
Non-medical, community-based workers play a critical role in supporting people living with (or at risk of acquiring) HIV along the care continuum. The biomedical nature of promising advances in HIV prevention, such as pre-exposure prophylaxis and treatment-as-prevention, requires frontline workers to be knowledgeable about HIV science and treatment. This study was developed to: measure knowledge of HIV science and treatment within the HIV non-medical workforce, evaluate workers' familiarity with and attitudes toward recent biomedical interventions, and identify factors that may affect HIV knowledge and attitudes. A 62-question, web-based survey was completed in English or Spanish between 2012 and 2014 by 3663 US-based employees, contractors, and volunteers working in AIDS service organizations, state/local health departments, and other community-based organizations in a non-medical capacity. Survey items captured the following: respondent demographics, HIV science and treatment knowledge, and familiarity with and attitudes toward biomedical interventions. An average of 61% of HIV knowledge questions were answered correctly. Higher knowledge scores were associated with higher education levels, work at organizations that serve people living with HIV/AIDS or who are at a high risk of acquiring HIV, and longer tenure in the field. Lower knowledge scores were associated with non-Hispanic Black or Black race/ethnicity and taking the survey in Spanish. Similarly, subgroup analyses showed that respondents who were non-Hispanic Black or Hispanic (versus non-Hispanic white), as well as those located in the South (versus other regions) scored significantly lower. These subpopulations were also less familiar with and had less positive attitudes toward newer biomedical prevention interventions. Respondents who took the survey in Spanish (versus English) had lower knowledge scores and higher familiarity with, but generally less positive attitudes toward, biomedical interventions
Anderson, S; Shannon, K; Li, J; Lee, Y; Chettiar, J; Goldenberg, S; Krüsi, A
Despite a large body of evidence globally demonstrating that the criminalization of sex workers increases HIV/STI risks, we know far less about the impact of criminalization and policing of managers and in-call establishments on HIV/STI prevention among sex workers, and even less so among migrant sex workers. Analysis draws on ethnographic fieldwork and 46 qualitative interviews with migrant sex workers, managers and business owners of in-call sex work venues in Metro Vancouver, Canada. The criminalization of in-call venues and third parties explicitly limits sex workers' access to HIV/STI prevention, including manager restrictions on condoms and limited onsite access to sexual health information and HIV/STI testing. With limited labour protections and socio-cultural barriers, criminalization and policing undermine the health and human rights of migrant sex workers working in -call venues. This research supports growing evidence-based calls for decriminalization of sex work, including the removal of criminal sanctions targeting third parties and in-call venues, alongside programs and policies that better protect the working conditions of migrant sex workers as critical to HIV/STI prevention and human rights.
Osuji, Alice; Pharr, Jennifer R; Nwokoro, Uche; Ike, Anulika; Ali, Christiana; Ejiro, Ogheneaga; Osuyali, John; Obiefune, Michael; Fiscella, Kevin; Ezeanolue, Echezona E
Nigeria is second in the world for the number of people with HIV and has a high rate of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT). Over 60% of births in Nigeria occur outside of health care facilities, and because of this, Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs) play a significant role in maternal and child health. It is important that TBAs be knowledgeable about HIV prevention. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of HIV testing and counseling (HTC) knowledge on the HIV prevention practices among TBAs in Nigeria. Five hundred TBAs were surveyed. Chi-square and logistic regression were used to assess differences in HIV prevention practices between TBAs with and without HTC knowledge. TBAs with HTC knowledge are significantly more likely to engage in HIV prevention practices than TBAs without HTC. Prevention practices included: wearing gloves during delivery (p births occur outside health care facilities in Nigeria, there will be a need for TBAs. Providing TBAs with HTC training increases HIV prevention practices and can be a key to improve maternal and child health.
Functional Knowledge of Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis for HIV Prevention Among Participants in a Web-Based Survey of Sexually Active Gay, Bisexual, and Other Men Who Have Sex With Men: Cross-Sectional Study
Background Awareness of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention is increasing, but little is known about the functional knowledge of PrEP and its impact on willingness to use PrEP. Objective The objective of this study was to assess the functional knowledge of PrEP among a sample of gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) participating in a Web-based survey of sexually active MSM. Methods Men at least 18 years old, residing in the United States, and reporting sex with a man in the previous 6 months were recruited through social networking websites. PrEP functional knowledge included the following 4 questions (1) efficacy of consistent PrEP use, (2) inconsistent PrEP use and effectiveness, (3) PrEP and condom use, and (4) effectiveness at reducing sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Ordinal logistic regression was used to identify respondent characteristics associated with PrEP functional knowledge. In a subsample of participants responding to HIV prevention questions, we compared willingness to use PrEP by response to PrEP functional knowledge using logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, race and ethnicity, and education level. Results Among 573 respondents, PrEP knowledge was high regarding adherence (488/573, 85.2%), condom use (532/573, 92.8%), and STIs (480/573, 83.8%), but only 252/573 (44.0%) identified the correct efficacy. Lower functional PrEP knowledge was associated with minority race/ethnicity (P=.005), lower education (P=.01), and not having an HIV test in the past year (P=.02). Higher PrEP knowledge was associated with willingness to use PrEP (P=.009). Younger age was not associated with higher PrEP functional knowledge or willingness to use PrEP. Conclusions PrEP knowledge was generally high in our study, including condom use and consistent use but may be lacking in higher risk MSM. The majority of respondents did not correctly identify PrEP efficacy with consistent use, which could impact motivation to seek
Full Text Available Abstract Background Community engagement strategies are often integrated in public health interventions designed to promote condom use among men who have sex with men (MSM, a key population for HIV prevention. However, the ways in which condom use peer norms and self-efficacy play a role in the association between community engagement and condom use is unclear. This study examines the potential mediating roles of peer norms and self-efficacy in this association. Methods A nationwide cross-sectional online survey was conducted among Chinese MSM in 2015. Recruitment criteria included being born biologically male, being older than 16 years, having had anal sex with a man at least once during their lifetime, and having had condomless anal or vaginal sex in the past three months. Mplus 6.11 was used to conduct confirmatory factor analysis and path modeling analysis to examine the structural relationships between HIV/sexual health community engagement (e.g., joining social media and community events related to HIV and sexual health services, condom use peer norms, condom use self-efficacy, and frequency of condom use. Results The study found that HIV/sexual health community engagement, condom use peer norms, condom use self-efficacy, and frequency of condom use were mutually correlated. A good data model was achieved with fit index: CFI = 0.988, TLI = 0.987, RMSEA = 0.032, 90% CI (0.028, 0.036. HIV/sexual health community engagement was associated with frequency of condom use, which was directly mediated by condom use peer norms and indirectly through self-efficacy. Conclusion The study suggests that condom use peer norms and self-efficacy may be mediators in the pathway between community engagement and condom use, and suggests the importance of peer-based interventions to improve condom use.
Li, Haochu; Xue, Li; Tucker, Joseph D; Wei, Chongyi; Durvasula, Maya; Hu, Wenqi; Kang, Dianming; Liao, Meizhen; Tang, Weiming; Ma, Wei
Community engagement strategies are often integrated in public health interventions designed to promote condom use among men who have sex with men (MSM), a key population for HIV prevention. However, the ways in which condom use peer norms and self-efficacy play a role in the association between community engagement and condom use is unclear. This study examines the potential mediating roles of peer norms and self-efficacy in this association. A nationwide cross-sectional online survey was conducted among Chinese MSM in 2015. Recruitment criteria included being born biologically male, being older than 16 years, having had anal sex with a man at least once during their lifetime, and having had condomless anal or vaginal sex in the past three months. Mplus 6.11 was used to conduct confirmatory factor analysis and path modeling analysis to examine the structural relationships between HIV/sexual health community engagement (e.g., joining social media and community events related to HIV and sexual health services), condom use peer norms, condom use self-efficacy, and frequency of condom use. The study found that HIV/sexual health community engagement, condom use peer norms, condom use self-efficacy, and frequency of condom use were mutually correlated. A good data model was achieved with fit index: CFI = 0.988, TLI = 0.987, RMSEA = 0.032, 90% CI (0.028, 0.036). HIV/sexual health community engagement was associated with frequency of condom use, which was directly mediated by condom use peer norms and indirectly through self-efficacy. The study suggests that condom use peer norms and self-efficacy may be mediators in the pathway between community engagement and condom use, and suggests the importance of peer-based interventions to improve condom use.
Reece, Michael; Dodge, Brian; Herbenick, Debby; Fisher, Christopher; Alexander, Andreia; Satinsky, Sonya
To offer an empirical understanding of characteristics associated with the fit and feel of condoms among African-American men who have sex with men (MSM), a particularly high-risk group for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI) in the United States. Survey data were collected from 178 adult African-American MSM attending a community event in Atlanta, Georgia. Although the majority of participants reported that condoms generally fit properly and felt comfortable, a substantial number of men reported a variety of problems with the fit and feel of condoms. Specifically, 21% reported that condoms felt too tight, 18% reported that condoms felt too short, 10% reported that condoms felt too loose, and 7% reported that condoms felt too long. There were significant associations between men's reports of condom breakage and slippage, and their perceptions of condom fit and feel. Perceptions of condom fit and feel were also related to men's reports of seeking condoms for their size-specific properties. The fit and feel issues that men in this sample identified may be among those that contribute to their likelihood of using, or not using, condoms consistently and correctly. A better understanding of these factors will be beneficial to both condom manufacturers and sexual health professionals who share a common goal of increasing consistent and correct condom use and reducing the incidence of HIV and other STI among this and other communities.
Sharma, V; Dave, S; Sharma, A; Chauhan, P
Condoms are a common denominator for three prestigious national prevention programmes in India, none of which has been a real success. The present study was undertaken to investigate prevalence of condom use and to assess knowledge about correct use of condoms among married, sexually active men, who had not adopted any permanent method of contraception. The study was conducted by a house-to-house survey in eight randomly selected villages of Anand, Gujarat (a 10% sample). All married men (ages: 18-55 years) were interviewed with the help of a pre-tested, structured questionnaire, comprising questions on: (a) their sexual practices; (b) knowledge about the correct use of condoms; and (c) reasons for their use/non-use. Respondents were evaluated for knowledge about correct use of condoms by scoring on a scale of 10. The sample consisted of 1,478 men whose mean age was 29.8 (± 6.75) years and mean duration of married life was 8.4 (± 6.25) years. Almost 52% (n = 771) were either illiterate or had been educated up to primary level; while 131 (8.8%) had university qualifications. More than 74% (n = 1,092) had never used condoms; 24.4% had used them irregularly and only 1.8% (n = 26) were using them regularly. The mean knowledge score for the correct use of condoms was 1.44 ± 2.29 on a scale of 10 and it was positively related to regularity of use and educational status of respondents (p condoms offer protection against STDs and/or AIDS. The most common mistakes related to incorrect use of condoms were use of oil-based lubricants with condoms, ignorance about the technique of putting on a condom, re-use of condoms, etc. The commonly cited reasons for non-use of condoms were interference with sexual activity; lack of privacy; fear of losing it inside the woman's body, and lack of confidence in its effectiveness as a contraceptive. To be effective as a contraceptive and to offer protection against sexually transmitted diseases and AIDS, condoms need to be used regularly
Pick De Weiss, S
The Institute Mexicano de Investigacion de Familia y Poblacion, A.C. (IMIFAP) tested the effectiveness of a training course and educational materials that were designed to increase the awareness and knowledge of pharmacy employees concerning acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and its prevention, and to promote condoms. 174 employees participated in workshops that included information on transmission and prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and AIDS, and condom usage. Pre- and post-session tests were performed to ascertain the short-term retention of information; the long-term effect was assessed via incognito shopper visits and monitoring of condom sales. Short, intensive training, when reinforced by posters, pamphlets, and video, significantly increased knowledge of AIDS (symptoms, transmission, and prevention) and correct condom usage. Awareness of risk behaviors and groups at risk for AIDS improved. Printed materials alone did not have a substantial impact on knowledge or sales of condoms, and increased knowledge alone did not increase information disseminated. After 6 months there was a significantly higher rise in condom sales (16%) in the course-plus-materials group. This group also took a greater initiative in providing information to clients. In spite of these positive results, knowledge and initiative are still unsatisfactory, especially when the role of pharmacies in general health care and the suspected prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases and human immunodeficiency virus in Mexico are considered.
Ross, Pamela; Humble, Áine M; Blum, Ilya
Sexuality research tends to ignore older populations, and little is known about older women's sexual health knowledge. To fill this research gap, 186 Canadian heterosexual women 50 years and older were surveyed about their knowledge regarding sexuality and HIV/AIDS. Respondents had moderate levels of overall knowledge of sexual health and aging, correctly answering, on average, 60% of the 35 questions. They had lower levels of HIV/AIDS knowledge, correctly answering just over 50% of the 25 questions. Results indicate the need for social awareness and education in this group regarding both general sexual health later in life and HIV/AIDS.
may engage in risky sexual behaviours, such as having unprotected sex with sex workers .4 Furthermore, studies have found high HIV risk- taking...did not use a condom the last time they had sex with a sex worker . 11 And in the 1Naval Health Research Center, Department of Defense HIV /AIDS...only found in 16-20% of participants,7 and 41% did not use a condom the last time they had sex with a sex worker .4 In the Rwanda Defence Forces, 24
The first AIDS case in Egypt was reported almost 10 years ago, yet Egypt still does not have reliable statistics on the HIV/AIDS epidemic (officially, 513 HIV infections and 88 AIDS cases; more likely, 3000 and 10,000, respectively). HIV/AIDS bears a stigma. The government claims that every HIV-infected Egyptian acquired the infection through a blood transfusion while in the Gulf or through sexual intercourse in Europe. Cultural, social, and religious norms that discourage promiscuity may explain the low HIV/AIDS rate but these same taboos put women at risk by making it difficult for them to protect themselves. Islamic fundamentalist women reinforce the Islamic principle of forbidding sex education. They consider AIDS a plague of immoral Western society. They refuse to accept the fact that many men do not practice safer sex. These women consider condoms immoral. They think God will curse women who refuse to have sexual intercourse at their husbands' bidding. Many nongovernmental organizations consider an intensive education program as the only means to avert disaster. Egypt has yet to implement its model AIDS program. All hospitals in Cairo and some hospitals in rural areas have equipment to test for HIV. Surveillance systems have been limited to high risk groups. In Egypt, it is mandatory to test foreigners for HIV. Prisoners, prostitutes, homosexuals, and blood donors are tested randomly without their consent. Positive results are often reported to authorities before the persons learn their HIV status. A campaign for widespread sex education is the only action recommended so far. It includes a mass media component and community meetings and conferences. An Egyptian physician has found an anti-viral drug that stimulates the immune system, but his work does not receive much coverage outside Egypt. Egyptians need to tackle their cultural taboos about discussion of sex to curb the HIV/AIDS epidemic.
Mahat, Ganga; Scoloveno, Mary Ann; Scoloveno, Robert
The purpose of this study was to explore HIV/AIDS knowledge, self-efficacy for sexual risk behaviors, and parental monitoring in a sample of 140 7th and 9th grade adolescents studying in an urban high school in the United States. Further, the study examined differences in HIV/AIDS knowledge, self-efficacy and parental monitoring by grade and gender. This study also investigated the effectiveness of an HIV/AIDS peer education program, Teens for AIDS Prevention (TAP), on improving adolescents' HIV/AIDS knowledge. A quasi-experimental design was used to examine effects of the peer education program (TAP) on adolescents' HIV/AIDS knowledge. Pearson-product-moment correlation coefficients were calculated to examine the relationships among the variables. Independent t-tests were used to compare adolescents' HIV/AIDS knowledge, self-efficacy, and parental monitoring scores by grade and gender. Paired t-tests were used to determine differences in pre-intervention and post-intervention HIV/AIDS knowledge. The results showed that HIV/AIDS knowledge improved significantly in both 7th and 9th grade students after the intervention. HIV/AIDS knowledge was associated with self-efficacy; however it was not associated with parental monitoring. There were no significant differences in HIV/AIDS knowledge and self-efficacy by gender. However, there was a significant difference in parental monitoring by gender. Pediatric nurses are well-positioned to develop and implement evidence-based programs for adolescents. It is essential that pediatric nurses, in conjunction with other professionals and parent groups, take the initiative in implementing peer education programs in schools and community centers to promote healthy behaviors among adolescents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Maughan-Brown, Brendan; Venkataramani, Atheendar S
We examined whether knowledge of the HIV-protective benefits of male circumcision (MC) led to risk compensating behavior in a traditionally circumcising population in South Africa. We extend the current literature by examining risk compensation among women, which has hitherto been unexplored. We used data on Xhosa men and women from the 2009 Cape Area Panel Study. Respondents were asked if they had heard that MC reduces a man's risk of contracting HIV, about their perceived risk of contracting HIV, and condom use. For each gender group we assessed whether risk perception and condom use differed by knowledge of the protective benefits of MC using bivariate and then multivariate models controlling for demographic characteristics, HIV knowledge/beliefs, and previous sexual behaviors. In a further check for confounding, we used data from the 2005 wave to assess whether individuals who would eventually become informed about the protective benefits of circumcision were already different in terms of HIV risk perception and condom use. 34% of men (n=453) and 27% of women (n=690) had heard that circumcision reduces a man's risk of HIV infection. Informed men perceived slightly higher risk of contracting HIV and were more likely to use condoms at last sex (pwomen perceived lower HIV risk (pwomen but not men. Further attention should be paid to the role of new information regarding MC, and drivers of HIV risk more broadly, in modulating sexual behavior among women.
Bond, V; Dover, P
Understanding cultural attitudes to condoms is of the utmost importance in promoting their use as a means of protection against HIV transmission. This article examines condom use in relation to what people see as the purpose of sex, what good sex entails and how this relates to ideas of being a proper woman or man. It seems that the underlying and pervasive ideal is that sex is essentially a procreative act, since an emphasis on male potency and male and female fertility often overrides anxieties about contracting HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases. Hence condom use is usually only negotiated within some short-term relationships and then not consistently. Whilst both men and women have negative attitudes to condoms, women because of their economic and ideological dependence on men are in a much weaker position to negotiate condom use.
Mnguni, Lindelani; Abrie, Mia; Ebersohn, Liesel
Debates on the role of scientific knowledge to affect behaviour are continuing. The theory of planned behaviour suggests that behaviour is influenced by attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control and not by knowledge. However, a large body of knowledge argues that increased HIV/AIDS-related knowledge leads to the adoption of…
Patra, Shraboni; Singh, Rakesh Kumar
The increasing prevalence of HIV in Uganda during the last decade (7.5% in 2004-05 to 8.3% in 2011 among women and 5.0% in 2004-05 to 6.1% among men in 2011 of 15 to 49 years) clearly shows that women are disproportionately affected by HIV epidemic. Hence, we assessed the prevalence of HIV and focused on differences in risky sexual behaviour and knowledge of HIV among Ugandan youth. Uganda AIDS Indicator Survey 2011 data was used. The total samples of men and women (15 to 24 years), interviewed and tested for HIV, were 3450 and 4504 respectively. The analysis of risky sexual behaviour was based on 1941 men and 3127 women who had ever had sex and were tested for HIV. Pearson's Chi-square test and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used. Findings showed that young women were almost two times more vulnerable than young men in acquiring HIV (OR=1.762, Pgap in risky sexual behaviour and new transmission of HIV in Uganda. Significance for public healthThe present study represents the evidence of a recent increase in HIV infection in Uganda from the latest round of AIDs indicator survey. This manuscript describes how young women (15-24 years-old) are disproportionately HIV-infected compared to young men in Uganda. They are more vulnerable to HIV than young men. Moreover, it is also observed that young women are at greater risk of acquiring HIV because of their risky sexual behaviour and inappropriate knowledge of HIV transmission. Some educational programmes, growing gender equity in HIV/AIDS activities and services, dropping violence and coercion, addressing male norms and behaviours, improving women's legal protection, and rising women's access to income and productive resources can be very effective in minimising the vulnerability of young women to HIV/AIDS.
Michael Bol Jool Dit
Full Text Available Background: HIV is an infectious virus commonly transmitted through body fluids mostly semen and blood. It causes a serious and non-curable disease with grave consequences especially in sub-Saharan Africa. In South Sudan the prevalence rate of HIV was estimated at 2.6% in 2016. The treatment options are scarce and educational programs limited. This is of great concern since limited knowledge and awareness of HIV is a major risk factor particularly, among young people. Method: A cross-sectional survey using self-administered questionnaires among adolescents was carried out in November 2016. Results: Sixty-five students participated in the study. In general they had good knowledge about HIV/AIDS with the majority having heard of HIV. Majority stated that HIV spreads through sex (82%, blood transfusion (95%, and from mother to child during pregnancy and delivery (66%. Several misconceptions were present with 43% responding that HIV can be transmitted through mosquito bites and 18% stating that the virus can be spread through shaking hands, hugging and living in the same house. Conclusion: Though the respondents showed fair knowledge about HIV/AIDS, there are still some areas in which they lack knowledge especially regarding spread of the disease and practice. More information about HIV/AIDS and sexual education should be made available.
Adrien, Alix; Beaulieu, Marianne; Leaune, Viviane; Perron, Michèle; Dassa, Clément
People living with HIV (PWHIV) face negative attitudes that isolate and discourage them from accessing services. Understanding negative attitudes and the social environment can lead to more effective health promotion strategies and programs. However, a scale to measure attitudes has been lacking. We developed and validated attitudes toward PWHIV Scale to examine trends in attitudes toward PWHIV in Quebec in 1996, 2002, and 2010. We also examined the relationship between negative attitudes toward PWHIV, homophobia, and knowledge about HIV transmission. The scale included 16 items and had a five-factor structure: F1 (fear of being infected), F2 (fear of contact with PWHIV), F3 (prejudicial beliefs toward groups at high risk of HIV), F4 (tolerance regarding sexual mores and behaviors), and F5 (social support for PWHIV). The validity and reliability of the scale were assessed and found to be high. Overall, Quebecers had positive attitudes toward PWHIV, with more negative attitudes observed in subgroups defined as male, ≥50 years of age, homophobia, and below-average knowledge about HIV transmission. Scores were stable between 1996 and 2002, and increased in 2010. Negative attitudes were correlated with higher levels of homophobia and lesser knowledge about HIV transmission. The lowest scores for each factor were observed in the same subgroups that had low overall scores on the Attitudes Scale. The findings from this study can be used to intensify interventions that promote compassion for PWHIV, address attitudes toward homosexuality, and encourage greater knowledge about the transmission of HIV in these subgroups.
Terris-Prestholt, Fern; Windmeijer, Frank
Despite condoms being cheap and effective in preventing HIV, there remains an 8billion shortfall in condom use in risky sex-acts. Social marketing organisations apply private sector marketing approaches to sell public health products. This paper investigates the impact of marketing tools, including promotion and pricing, on demand for male and female condoms in 52 countries between 1997 and 2009. A static model differentiates drivers of demand between products, while a dynamic panel data estimator estimates their short- and long-run impacts. Products are not equally affected: female condoms are not affected by advertising, but highly affected by interpersonal communication and HIV prevalence. Price and promotion have significant short- and long-run effects, with female condoms far more sensitive to price than male condoms. The design of optimal distribution strategies for new and existing HIV prevention technologies must consider both product and target population characteristics. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Huang, Wen; Dong, Yanyan; Chen, Lin; Song, Dandan; Wang, Jun; Tao, Haidong; Zaller, Nickolas; Zhang, Hongbo; Operario, Don
Sexual behavior is the dominant mode of HIV transmission in China, and young female migrants are among the populations at highest risk. This article examines how HIV-related risk behaviors among female migrants might vary according to workplace settings. Participants were young female migrants recruited from three workplace settings-factories, restaurants and entertainment venues. In a cross-sectional survey, we assessed 457 participants' sociodemographic characteristics, HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, condom use knowledge, sexual behaviors, condom use behavior and reproductive health factors. Participants working in entertainment venues were significantly more likely than those working in factories and restaurants to report sexual behavior, unprotected sex, multiple pregnancy terminations and sexually transmitted infections (STI). However, participants working in factories and restaurants reported significantly lower levels of HIV/AIDS knowledge, condom use knowledge, condom use self-efficacy and history of HIV/AIDS counseling and testing. Independent correlates of unprotected sex included employment in an entertainment venue, abortion history and sexual self-efficacy. Independent correlates of STI or genitourinary tract infection included employment in an entertainment venue, abortion history, recent migration and recent unprotected sex. These findings indicate a need for sexual and reproductive health interventions prioritizing young female migrants, and call for programs that can be incorporated into different workplace settings. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Schroeder, K; Dwyer, D; Barton, S E
Government and media education has promoted the use of condoms in an attempt to reduce the spread of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Condoms have been identified, in vitro, as an effective barrier to HIV and a large heterosexual study has shown there was no transmission of infection in those couples systematically using condoms. Safer sex knowledge and practice and HIV knowledge were assessed in 584 individuals, 16-74 years old, attending a London genitourinary medicine (GUM) clinic via a self-administered, anonymous questionnaire. Over 80% were heterosexual, 64% had attended a GUM clinic before, 60% had a history of sexually transmitted infection. Over 80% were aware of the protective effect of condoms and the risks of intravenous drug use; 66% of geographical risk factors; 49% of the risks of anal sex; and 53% perceived masturbation as safer. Only 10.4% always used condoms; over 50% gave no reason for non-use. Use was not increased in higher risk respondents nor in those with good safer sex/HIV knowledge, nor was there any sex difference. Although knowledge of some aspects of safer sex was good, anal sex risks, geographical sex risks, and alternative safer sexual practices were less well known. In addition, condom use was disappointingly low, even in the presence of good safer sex knowledge, awareness of high risk behavior and despite intense media health education. As a result of this survey educational input was increased, allowing an interaction which is lacking in media campaigns, and a variety of condoms were introduced in an attempt to increase use. Re-audit will be important in assessing the effects of such changes. Pre-adolescent targeting before sexual patterns are learned may be useful. Further research into this difficult area is essential.
Abiona, Titilayo; Balogun, Joseph; Yohannes, Eden; Adefuye, Adedeji; Yakut, Yavuz; Amosun, Seyi; Frantz, Jose
Objective: To examine HIV/AIDS knowledge, perceptions of knowledge and sources of HIV information among university students in four countries with different HIV prevalence rates. Methods: A survey was completed by 2,570 randomly selected university students from the USA, Turkey, South Africa and Nigeria. Logistic regression analysis was used to…
Full Text Available ABSTRACTIntroduction:It is known that a single prevention strategy is not enough to control multiple HIV epidemics around the world and in Brazil. However, it is not only necessary to recognize the importance of condoms as part of the policy of HIV/AIDS prevention but also discuss its limits. In this article, we aim to investigate the use of condoms in Brazil, draw critical reflections, and understand how they can once again be highlighted in Brazil's prevention strategy going forward.Methods:A narrative review of literature was conducted using keywords in PubMed. Reports from national surveys that guide the epidemiological and behavioral surveillance of the Brazilian Ministry of Health were also included.Results:A total of 40 articles and 3 reports were included in the review and 11 intervention studies to promote the condom use; the main findings were as follows: 1 Despite the increase in national studies on sexual behavior, little attention is given to the role of condom use; 2 There are few studies examining the factors associated with condom use among key populations such as men who have sex with men (MSM, female sex workers (FSW, drug users (DU, and transvestites and transexuals (TT, while substantial studies focus on adolescents and women; 3 Evidence suggests that a combination of interventions is more effective.Discussion:new prevention technologies must not lose sight of the critical importance of condoms, and efforts to reintroduce them should focus on the role of pleasure in addition to their potential to minimize the risk of HIV.
Wang, Wenting; Chen, Ren; Ma, Ying; Sun, Xuehui; Qin, Xia; Hu, Zhi
There is a growing recognition of the need to provide HIV/AIDS prevention and care to migrant workers. Social involvement, a type of social capital, is considered a 'critical enabler' of effective HIV/AIDS prevention. Designated participation in formal community groups by the government (e.g., political parties) and informal, voluntary local networks by NGOs (e.g., alumni association, cultural & sports club) play different roles in HIV prevention. The objective of this study is to assess the impact of different types of social organizations on HIV/AIDS prevention knowledge among migrant workers. A cross-sectional study of 758 migrants was conducted in Hefei, Anhui Province, China. Data were collected through a self-reported questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to assess associations between different social organizations and HIV/AIDS prevention. Migrants who participated in social organizations had a higher awareness of HIV/AIDS knowledge than migrants who do not participate in social organizations. Higher levels of HIV/AIDS knowledge is associated with positive HIV/AIDS behaviors for people who attended political parties (odds ratio [OR] = 3.49, 95% CI: 1.22-9.99). This effect is not significant for alumni association. For both political parties and alumni association members (OR = 0.19, 95% CI: 0.06-0.66, OR = 0.20, 95% CI: 0.08-0.61, respectively), people who exhibited higher levels of HIV/AIDS knowledge had more negative attitudes than those with less knowledge. Social organizations play an important role in improving HIV/AIDS knowledge and behavior in migrants, providing a great opportunity for HIV/AIDS prevention.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sex workers in China continue to engage in unprotected sex acts that put them at risk for contracting HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus and other STIs (Sexually Transmitted Infections. The purpose of this study was to explore women's work history, the context of sex work, condom use, HIV testing services, and potential barriers to condom use in a sample of FSWs (female sex workers in Guangzhou, China. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In-depth, semi-structured, face-to-face interviews were conducted with 24 FSWs in Guangzhou, China. Informants were recruited using a purposive sampling technique. Qualitative data were coded and analyzed using NVivo 8.0. The majority of respondents were internal economic migrants who had entered the sex industry in pursuit of greater financial reward. Most women in the study were married or had steady boyfriends, and were young, with secondary education and limited knowledge about HIV and STIs. Most were not satisfied with their current living conditions and expressed a desire to leave the sex industry. Women reported that they were more likely to use condoms during sex acts with commercial partners than with non-commercial partners. The potential stigma of being seen as a sex worker prevented many from accessing HIV testing. Three key factors put these FSWs at risk for HIV and STIs: unreasonable trust toward clients, stereotypes and assumptions about customers, and financial incentives. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings suggest that social and economic factors play an important role in shaping sexual decision-making among female sex workers in Guangzhou. We argue that greater insight into and attention to these factors could enhance the success of HIV prevention efforts.
In Tanzania, the debate about whether condoms should be free is particularly significant because condoms were unheard of 5 years ago and are the least population form of contraception. A nongovernmental organization (NGO) is selling condoms which they promote as "fun." Sales blossomed after an advertising campaign was televised during the soccer World Cup. The new prevailing attitude seems to be that if a man can afford sex, he can afford to buy a condom. In fact, one NGO which distributed free condoms found that their supply at a local guest house was always depleted. Their pleasure with this success was diminished when they learned that people were selling their condoms across the border in Uganda.
Hong, Yan; Zhang, Chen; Li, Xiaoming; Fang, Xiaoyi; Lin, Xiuyun; Zhou, Yuejiao; Liu, Wei
Despite the recognized importance of HIV testing in prevention, care and treatment, HIV testing remains low in China. Millions of female sex workers (FSW) play a critical role in China's escalating HIV epidemic. Limited data are available regarding HIV testing behavior among this at-risk population. This study, based on a cross-sectional survey of 1,022 FSW recruited from communities in Southwest China, attempted to address the literature gap. Our data revealed that 48% of FSW ever took HIV testing; older age, less education, working in higher-income commercial sex venues and better HIV knowledge were associated with HIV testing. Those who never took HIV testing were more likely to engage in high-risk behaviors including inconsistent condom use with clients and stable partners. A number of psychological and structural barriers to testing were also reported. We call for culturally appropriate interventions to reduce HIV risks and promote HIV testing for vulnerable FSW in China.
Stulhofer, Aleksandar; Brouillard, Pamela; Nikolić, Nebojga; Greiner, Nina
Due to their geographical mobility and long periods of separation from intimate partners, migrant workers are at increased risk for a variety of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV/AIDS. This study sought to investigate patterns in HIV/AIDS related knowledge, attitudes and sexual behaviour in migrant workers in Croatia. In 2003, 566 male migrant workers were recruited during regular required medical examinations and surveyed at seven locations throughout the country. Each participant was asked to complete a self-administered KABP (sexual knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and practices) questionnaire. The average age of respondents was 38.2 years and the majority worked as seafarers (77.3%) and construction workers (20.5%). Only 18.5% of respondents were able to correctly answer all 13 questions assessing knowledge of HIV/AIDS. Seafarers reported higher levels of knowledge than did construction workers. The average respondent reported having had two sexual partners in the last 12 months, with slightly over half of the respondents (55.3%) reporting condom use at their last intercourse with a casual partner. One fifth of the respondents (20.3%) who reported having had intercourse with a sex worker during the last year reported not using condoms at last intercourse. The number of sexual partners was correlated with age, marital status, faith in God, and personal HIV risk assessment. Attitudes toward condom use, co-workers' HIV/AIDS concerns and the duration of migrant status (within the last two years) were shown to be significant correlates of condom use at last intercourse with a casual partner. The effect of HIV/AIDS related knowledge on analyzed behaviors did not reach statistical significance. Inadequate patterns of migrant workers' condom use, gaps in knowledge about HIV transmission and modes of protection, as well as widespread ignorance regarding available anonymous HIV testing found by this study suggest a critical need for expert intervention to
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess students' knowledge, attitudes and practices on HIV and AIDS. A questionnaire was administered to a cross section of 259 Chinese undergraduates. Respondents were asked to provide information about knowledge and attitudes about HIV/AIDS. Study results indicated that the majority of undergraduates had a moderate level of HIV and AIDS knowledge, acceptance and attitudes towards people with HIV and AIDS. Boys had more acceptance and positive attitudes towards people with HIV and AIDS than girls. Students majoring in medicine performed better (more knowledgeable and accepting than non-medical students. Differences between students with various monthly expenditures were found-- 6.2% of students had 3-5 sexual partners which has rarely been found in Chinese students; most students did not know HIV VCT centers and most students did not show their confidence for controlling of HIV and AIDS in China. In conclusion, studentsÃ¢Â€Â™ knowledge about HIV/AIDS was uneven. A peer educational program to talk about self esteem, healthy sexual attitudes, being human-accepting and loving should be developed in the near future.
Mohammad Akhtar Hussain
Full Text Available Background: India estimates third highest number of HIV infections in the world, with about 2.4 million people currently living with HIV/AIDS. Adequately trained and sensitized healthcare professionals can play a vital role in combating this epidemic. Limited studies have explored knowledge and attitudes of medical students relating to HIV/AIDS, particularly in the eastern part of India. Methods: The present cross sectional study explored knowledge and attitudes of first year MBBS, BDS & BPT students of Kalinga Institute of Medical Sciences (KIMS, Bhubaneswar, Odisha on HIV/AIDS using a self-administered questionnaire. Data thus collected were analyzedand relevant statistics were calculated. Knowledge and attitude scores were determined and analysis of variance (ANOVA test was used to examine the equality between the groups. Results: All students scored low on the overall knowledge scale (<10/15. Specifically, knowledgewas low on modes of transmission and treatment. Attitudinal scores in the areas of precautions and need for training on HIV was low for all the three streams.The willingness to treat HIV/AIDS patient was found to be high amongst study participants. Conclusion: There is a need and scope to provide correct and detailed information on HIV/AIDS for new entrants in medical and allied health sciences to help them acquire adequate knowledge and develop appropriate attitudes towards HIV/AIDS.
de Beer, Ingrid H.; Gelderblom, Huub C.; Schellekens, Onno; Gaeb, Esegiel; van Rooy, Gert; McNally, Alta; Wit, Ferdinand W.; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F.
Background: With an overall adult HIV prevalence of 15.3%, Namibia is facing one of the largest HIV epidemics in Africa. Young people aged 20 to 34 years constitute one of the groups at highest risk of HIV infection in Namibia. However, little is known about the impact of HIV on this group and its
Darak, S.; Hutter, I.; Kulkarni, S.; Kulkarni, V.; Janssen, F.
This is the first study to examine the behavioural effect of HIV on fertility among HIV infected women in India. Retrospective calendar data from ever-married HIV infected women between 15 and 45 years of age, attending a specialized HIV clinic in Pune, Western India , were analysed. Directly
Darak, Shrinivas; Hutter, Inge; Kulkarni, Sanjeevani; Kulkarni, Vinay; Janssen, Fanny
This is the first study to examine the behavioural effect of HIV on fertility among HIV infected women in India. Retrospective calendar data from ever-married HIV infected women between 15 and 45 years of age, attending a specialized HIV clinic in Pune, Western India (N = 560), were analysed.
S. Darak (Shrinivas); I. Hutter (Inge); S. Kulkarni (Sanjeevani); V. Kulkarni (Vinay); F. Janssen (Fanny)
textabstractThis is the first study to examine the behavioural effect of HIV on fertility among HIV infected women in India. Retrospective calendar data from ever-married HIV infected women between 15 and 45 years of age, attending a specialized HIV clinic in Pune, Western India (N = 560), were
Piotrow, P T; Rinehart, W
A great deal of avoided if political and religious leaders, educators, health care providers and the mass media would band together in an effort to promote condom use. Condoms use protects against unwanted pregnancies, STDs and AIDS. Yet, public discussions on condom use are rate. In the US, political leaders avoid mentioning the topic, and television networks severely restrict the airing of public service announcements for condoms. Worldwide, an estimated 100 billion acts of sexual intercourse take place every year. A recent report indicates that it would take a modest 13 billion condoms a year to protect everyone who is at risk of contracting AIDS and other STDs, and risk of having an unwanted pregnancy. Currently, worldwide production of condoms stands at about 6 billion a year. Furthermore, condom makers have the capacity to increase production by some 2 billion, and could add new capacity in about 2 years. Many believe that marketing condoms is a difficult enterprise, since men often report that condoms reduce pleasure, cause embarrassment, or are not available when needed. The challenge for markets, then, is to create demand. This is especially true in the US, where prime-time advertising and the use of popular entertainment, such as soap operas, could promote condoms as both safe and satisfying. In the developing world, the challenge is to make condoms widely available and affordable. Some changes have taken place since 1981, when AIDS first came into the spotlight. In the US, people now discuss the topic of STDs more openly. But an all-out effort to promote condom use has not yet begun.
Hill, Lauren M; Maman, Suzanne; Holness, David; Moodley, Dhayendre
The rights of women and people living with HIV (PLHIV) are protected under South African law, yet there is a gap in the application of these laws. While there are numerous systemic and social barriers to women's and PLHIV's exercise of their legal rights and rights to access social services, there has been little effort to document these barriers as well as legal needs and knowledge in this context. 1480 HIV-positive and HIV-negative women recruited from an antenatal clinic in Umlazi Township completed a questionnaire on legal knowledge, experience of legal issues, assistance seeking for legal issues, and barriers to seeking assistance. We compared the legal knowledge and experience of legal issues of HIV-positive and HIV-negative women, and described assistance seeking and barriers to assistance seeking among all women. Both HIV-positive and HIV-negative women had high levels of knowledge of their legal rights. There were few important differences in legal knowledge and experience of legal issues by HIV status. The most common legal issues women experienced were difficulty obtaining employment (11 %) and identification documents (7 %). A minority of women who had ever experienced a legal issue had sought assistance for this issue (38 %), and half (50 %) of assistance sought was from informal sources such as family and friends. Women cited lack of time and government bureaucracy as the major barriers to seeking assistance. These results indicate few differences in legal knowledge and needs between HIV-positive and HIV-negative women in this context, but rather legal needs common among women of reproductive age. Legal knowledge may be a less important barrier to seeking assistance for legal issues than time, convenience, and cost. Expanding the power of customary courts to address routine legal issues, encouragement of pro bono legal assistance, and introduction of legal navigators could help to address these barriers.
Toussova, Olga V.; Verevochkin, Sergei V.; Barbour, Russell; Heimer, Robert; Kozlov, Andrei P.
The purpose of this analysis was to estimate human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence and testing patterns among injection drug users (IDUs) in St. Petersburg, Russia. HIV prevalence among 387 IDUs in the sample was 50%. Correlates of HIV-positive serostatus included unemployment, recent unsafe injections, and history/current sexually transmitted infection. Seventy-six percent had been HIV tested, but only 22% of those who did not report HIV-positive serostatus had been tested in the past 12 months and received their test result. Correlates of this measure included recent doctor visit and having been in prison or jail among men. Among the 193 HIV-infected participants, 36% were aware of their HIV-positive serostatus. HIV prevalence is high and continuing to increase in this population. Adequate coverage of HIV testing has not been achieved, resulting in poor knowledge of positive serostatus. Efforts are needed to better understand motivating and deterring factors for HIV testing in this setting. PMID:18843531
Video-based versus Medical Personnel-led Training for the Knowledge on Condom Use, Partner Notification and Sexually Transmitted Infections in Rural Communities in Thailand: A Randomized Comparison Pilot Study
Full Text Available Objective: To compare the knowledge regarding partner notification (PN, condom use (CU and sexually transmitted infections (STIs after video-based or medical personnel-led training. Methods: From December 2016 to January 2017, we conducted an opened-label randomized study in four communities (20 participants/ community in Bangsaphannoi district, Prachuabkirikhan province. In each community, the participants were randomly allocated into Group A (medical personnel-led training or Group B (video-based training. Both trainings covered similar contents which included knowledge about STIs (5 minutes; how to safely notify their partners (10 minutes and techniques of correct condom use (10 minutes. Participants’ knowledge was assessed by five one-best questions for each topic before and after the training. Comparison of scores within group and between groups was done by using Wilcoxon rank sum test and Wilcoxon signed rank test. P <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: From 160 eligible participants, 148 could complete the study (74 in Group A and 74 in Group B. Between two groups, there was no difference of participants’ characteristics, including age, education, employment, sex debut, STIs and number of partners. Both training techniques significantly improved participants’ knowledge and there was no difference between them. The lowest median score and least improvement of knowledge were found in PN. Conclusion: At the community level, both video-based training and medical personnel-led training improve the knowledge on PN, CU and STIs with comparable results.
Hogg, Robert; Nkala, Busisiwe; Dietrich, Janan; Collins, Alexandra; Closson, Kalysha; Cui, Zishan; Kanters, Steve; Chia, Jason; Barhafuma, Bernard; Palmer, Alexis; Kaida, Angela; Gray, Glenda; Miller, Cari
Purpose We examined adolescents? knowledge regarding the origin of HIV/AIDS and correlates of beliefs surrounding conspiracy theories in Soweto, South Africa. Now, a decade post-AIDS denialism, South Africa has the largest antiretroviral therapy roll-out worldwide. However, conspiracy theories stemming from past AIDS denialism may impact HIV prevention and treatment efforts. Methods Study participants were recruited through the Kganya Motsha Adolescent Health Centre and the Perinatal HIV Rese...
Hogg, Robert; Nkala, Busisiwe; Dietrich, Janan; Collins, Alexandra; Closson, Kalysha; Cui, Zishan; Kanters, Steve; Chia, Jason; Barhafuma, Bernard; Palmer, Alexis; Kaida, Angela; Gray, Glenda; Miller, Cari
We examined adolescents' knowledge regarding the origin of HIV/AIDS and correlates of beliefs surrounding conspiracy theories in Soweto, South Africa. Now, a decade post-AIDS denialism, South Africa has the largest antiretroviral therapy roll-out worldwide. However, conspiracy theories stemming from past AIDS denialism may impact HIV prevention and treatment efforts. Study participants were recruited through the Kganya Motsha Adolescent Health Centre and the Perinatal HIV Research Unit's Botsha Bophelo Adolescent Health Study (BBAHS). Adolescents were eligible to participate if aged 14-19 years and living in Soweto. We calculated the proportion of adolescents who correctly believed that HIV originated from non-human primates, and used contingency table analysis and logistic regression modeling to describe correlates associated with accurate knowledge and beliefs in conspiracy theories. Of 830 adolescents, 168 (20.2%) participants correctly identified HIV as originating from chimpanzees and one third (n = 71, 8.6%) believed in a conspiracy theory about the origins of HIV, including that it originated from the US government (2.3%), the pharmaceutical industry (2.2%), a vaccine (2.1%), space (1.5%), and a scientist (0.6%). Participants who were more likely to correctly identify the origin of HIV were older, men, and unemployed. Participants who were men, unemployed or students, and who had a parent or close relative who had died of HIV, were more likely to believe in a conspiracy theory regarding the origins of HIV. Adolescents living in Soweto did not have high levels of accurate knowledge regarding the origins of HIV/AIDS and conspiracy beliefs were present among a small minority of participants. Accurate knowledge of the origins of HIV and debunking myths are important for improving uptake of HIV prevention tools in this population.
Full Text Available We examined adolescents' knowledge regarding the origin of HIV/AIDS and correlates of beliefs surrounding conspiracy theories in Soweto, South Africa. Now, a decade post-AIDS denialism, South Africa has the largest antiretroviral therapy roll-out worldwide. However, conspiracy theories stemming from past AIDS denialism may impact HIV prevention and treatment efforts.Study participants were recruited through the Kganya Motsha Adolescent Health Centre and the Perinatal HIV Research Unit's Botsha Bophelo Adolescent Health Study (BBAHS. Adolescents were eligible to participate if aged 14-19 years and living in Soweto. We calculated the proportion of adolescents who correctly believed that HIV originated from non-human primates, and used contingency table analysis and logistic regression modeling to describe correlates associated with accurate knowledge and beliefs in conspiracy theories.Of 830 adolescents, 168 (20.2% participants correctly identified HIV as originating from chimpanzees and one third (n = 71, 8.6% believed in a conspiracy theory about the origins of HIV, including that it originated from the US government (2.3%, the pharmaceutical industry (2.2%, a vaccine (2.1%, space (1.5%, and a scientist (0.6%. Participants who were more likely to correctly identify the origin of HIV were older, men, and unemployed. Participants who were men, unemployed or students, and who had a parent or close relative who had died of HIV, were more likely to believe in a conspiracy theory regarding the origins of HIV.Adolescents living in Soweto did not have high levels of accurate knowledge regarding the origins of HIV/AIDS and conspiracy beliefs were present among a small minority of participants. Accurate knowledge of the origins of HIV and debunking myths are important for improving uptake of HIV prevention tools in this population.
Leonard, L; Ndiaye, I; Kapadia, A; Eisen, G; Diop, O; Mboup, S; Kanki, P
This article reports the results of a peer-led HIV prevention education and condom promotion program among transport workers in Kaolack, Senegal. As part of a 2-year longitudinal follow-up study, changes in men's AIDS-related knowledge, sexual behavior, condom use, and perceived barriers to condom use were evaluated by self-reports obtained from a systematic sample of transport workers interviewed before and after intervention. In addition to men's self-reports, preintervention and postintervention data on men's sexual and condom use behavior were gathered from a sample of licensed, commercial sex workers, who cited transport workers as their primary source of clients. Significant increases in men's HIV-related knowledge, previous use of condoms (from 30.4% to 53.5%), and consistent condom use with regular sex partners were documented over the study period, as were significant declines in perceived barriers to condom use. Though men reported significantly fewer sexual encounters with casual and commercial partners at follow-up compared to baseline, these data were unreliable. Women's postintervention reports indicate that a greater proportion of clients (including, but not limited to transport workers) "always" agree to use condoms (p money for unprotected sex (p taking greater initiative in the mechanics of condom use (supplying the condom, putting it on, and taking it off) than they did prior to the intervention, and significantly (p < .05) fewer women think that most of their clients know how to use a condom. The findings indicate that the peer-mediated intervention had a positive impact on several important outcomes measured and suggest that HIV prevention efforts need to focus on male client groups despite the logistical and methodological challenges.
Teva, Inmaculada; de Araújo, Ludgleydson Fernandes; de la Paz Bermúdez, María
HIV testing is important in terms of prevention and treatment. However, HIV testing rates in the Spanish general population remains low. Therefore, HIV testing promotion constitutes a key issue. A high level of knowledge about HIV/AIDS is associated with having been tested for HIV. The general aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of people who had ever been tested for HIV in Spain. The sample consisted of 1,106 participants from the general population - 60.0% females and 40.0% males - aged between 17 and 55 years old. The assessment instruments were a questionnaire on sociodemographic data and HIV testing, a scale of knowledge about STIs and HIV/AIDS, and a scale of concern about STIs/HIV. Results showed that greater knowledge about STIs and HIV was associated with a greater likelihood of being tested for HIV (OR = .77; 95.0% CI = .73-.82; p concern about HIV/AIDS decreased the likelihood of not having been tested for HIV (OR = .87; 95.0% CI = .83-.92; p concern about STIs was, the lower their likelihood of not having been tested for HIV was (OR = .87; 95.0% CI = .83-.91; p < .05). It is necessary to promote HIV testing in the general population as well as to consider their socio-demographic and psychological characteristics.
Milena Silva Costa
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the knowledge, religious beliefs and the adoption of preventive measures against HIV/AIDS of non-Catholic elderly women. Method: A qualitative study, carried out in religious institutions of a municipality in the state of Ceará, Northeast Brazil, with 78 elderly women. Of these, 64 were evangelicals, seven spiritualists and seven Jehovah's Witnesses. A semi-structured interview script was used followed by thematic content analysis of participants' responses. Results: After analyzing the empirical data, three categories were elaborated: the first presented the knowledge they had about AIDS; the second, highlighted the beliefs attributed to people with HIV/AIDS; and the third, presented the preventive measures to HIV/AIDS adopted by them. Final considerations: There were participants with knowledge gaps and failure to use preventive measures against HIV/AIDS. They suggested that religious institutions can be venues for lectures on HIV/AIDS prevention.
Kelley, R. Mark; Ball, Marcia; Cerullo, Jennie; Trunova, Elena
For several years, HIV infection has increasing rapidly in Eastern Europe and Russia (UNAIDS, 2000, 2003). The purpose of the study was to investigate the HIV and STD knowledge, sexual behaviors and drug taking behaviors of adolescents in southern Russia. The instrument was compiled by the authors, professionally translated, and pilot tested. Most…
Sexual behavioural change is central to HIV/AIDS control programme. This study was carried out among students (n = 603; average age = 18.9) of Covenant University, Nigeria. The study was designed to examine the impact of attribution patterns, attitude and knowledge of HIV/AIDS on sexual behavioural change.
Khan, L.K.; Sethi, S.M.; Kokab, F.; Qureshi, A.
Objective: To evaluate the knowledge of HIV/AIDS among gypsies in Lahore and their preventive practices Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Four gypsy settlements around Multan Road, Lahore were surveyed from July to August 2009. Methodology: Two hundred and thirteen randomly selected gypsies, aged 15-50 years, were interviewed using a pretested questionnaire based on UNAIDS survey indicators. Socio-demographic information and knowledge about HIV/AIDS, its spread and preventive practices was asked. Scoring systems were devised to categorize the level of knowledge and preventive practices as satisfactory and unsatisfactory. Statistically significant difference between knowledge and preventive practices was calculated by Pearson's chi-square test using Epi Info. version 3.5.1. Results: The mean age of participants was 29.5 +- 6.5 years, including 60.2% males and 39.8% females. Aggregate score for the level of knowledge indicated that 17 (7.98%) of these gypsies had satisfactory knowledge about HIV/AIDS and its transmission, whereas 40 (18.77%) and 156 (73.23%) were classified as having unsatisfactory and poor knowledge respectively. However, there was a statistically significant difference (p=0.003) when this knowledge was compared with preventive practices. Conclusion: Knowledge of HIV/AIDS among gypsies in Lahore was largely unsatisfactory. Improving knowledge about HIV/AIDS among gypsy community may result in positive behavioural change for disease prevention. (author)
Majority (92.6%) claimed to have heard about HIV/AIDS prior to the study. More than half (67.8%) agreed that HIV/AIDS is a life-threatening disease, 29.4% said there is a cure for AIDS, and 77.6% thought that the government is doing enough to deal with the disease. The most important sources of HIV/AIDS information ...
Nury Esther García Alúm
study having a cross-sectional design was conducted; it was aimed at describing the attitudes related to the use of male condom to prevent HIV/AIDS in medical students at Medical University in Pinar del Rio. The target group was comprised of 300 students in the first academic course. The information was collected from a survey. Nominal qualitative variables were summarized through absolute and relative frequencies. Cognitive component of the students’s attitude was characterized by difficulties with knowledge related to the management of male condom and its efficacy in the prevention of HIV/AIDS. Students knew about the different trades of condoms and the ways to collect information was through the mass media, medical studies and other written materials. Affective-behavioral component of the students in relation to HIV/AIDS was characterized by an active sexual life in early ages, where the no use of male condoms as protection was observed; despite the majority of students accepted their use.
Full Text Available China is considered a country of low HIV prevalence (780,000 people living with HIV, however, HIV infections among high-risk populations continue to grow at alarming rates. Voluntary Counseling and Testing services were first implemented in 2003, and oral rapid HIV testing (ORHT began in 2012. Dentists, as oral health experts, would be well placed to conduct ORHT. We assessed willingness of dentists to undertake ORHT in their clinical practice.A cross-sectional, paper-based survey of dentists from the Xi'an region of China was conducted from April to June 2013. Dentists were recruited from Shaanxi Stomatological Association using a stratified sampling methodology. A 40-item survey was used to measure knowledge of HIV, attitudes toward people living with HIV and willingness to conduct ORHT.477 dentists completed the survey with a mean HIV knowledge test score of 13.2/18 (SD 1.9. If made available in the dental setting, 276 (57.9% preferred to use blood to diagnose HIV, only 190 (39.8% preferred saliva or both. Four hundred and thirty-five (91.2% thought that ORHT was needed in dental clinics. Female dentists felt more accepting of ORHT than males (93.8% vs. 87.8%; χ2=5.145; p<0.05. 42.6% of the participants who responded thought that lack of education on ORHT for dentists was the most urgent problem to solve for ORHT, 144 (31.3% thought that lack of support for ORHT from patients was the most urgent problem. There was statistically significant difference among dental hospital, dentistry and department of dentistry (χ2=24.176; p<0.05.The majority of Chinese dentists thought that ORHT was needed in the dental setting. Providing opportunities for dentists and dental students to learn about HIV testing guidelines and practices is needed as well as feasibility and implementation science research.
Glory O. Atilola
difficult task. Keywords: Truck drivers, HIV/AIDS, Knowledge of HIV/AIDS, HIV risk behaviour, Commercial sex workers, Condom use, South-west Nigeria
Conclusion: The awareness of HCWs was high, however, it is incomplete due to some misconception. Education campaigns, posters, workshops will strengthen the knowledge of HCWs and attempt to clarify any misconception or perverting theories about HIV-infection.
Liska Janse van Rensburg
Conclusion: Healthcare workers' knowledge did not conform favourably with the current WHO guidelines. These healthcare workers were actively involved in the care of patients in the maternity wards where HIV-infected mothers regularly seek counselling on infant feeding matters.
Full Text Available Zambia experiences high unmet need for family planning and high rates of HIV, particularly among youth. While male condoms are widely available and 95% of adults have heard of them, self-reported use in the past 12 months is low among young adults (45%. This study describes factors associated with non-use of male condoms among urban young adults in Zambia.A household cross-sectional survey in four urban districts was conducted from November 2015 to January 2016 among sexually active young adults ages 18-24 years. A random walk strategy was implemented in urban areas; eligible, enrolled participants were administered a survey on household characteristics, health access, and knowledge, attitudes and practices related to contraception. Relative risk regression models were built to determine factors associated with the decision to not use a male condom (non-use at most recent sexual intercourse.A total of 2,388 individuals were interviewed; 69% were female, 35% were married, and average lifetime sex partners was 3.45 (SD±6.15. Non-use of male condoms was 59% at most recent sexual intercourse. In a multivariate model, women were more likely to report non-use of a male condom compared with men (aRR = 1.24 [95% CI: 1.11, 1.38], married individuals were more likely to report non-use compared with unmarried individuals (aRR = 1.59 [1.46, 1.73], and those residing in the highest poverty wards were more likely to report non-use compared with those in the lowest poverty wards (aRR = 1.31 [1.16, 1.48]. Those with more negative perceptions of male condom use were 6% more likely to report non-use (aRR = 1.06 [1.03, 1.09]. Discussion regarding contraception with a partner decreased non-use 13% (aRR = 0.87 [0.80, 0.95] and agreement regarding male condom use with a partner decreased non-use 16% (aRR = 0.84 [0.77, 0.91].Non-use of male condoms is high among young, married adults, particularly women, who may be interested in contraception for family planning but
Peasant, Courtney; Sullivan, Tami P; Weiss, Nicole H; Martinez, Isabel; Meyer, Jaimie P
HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) disproportionately affect women who experience intimate partner violence (IPV). The current study (1) applied a syndemic framework to study the collective effects of problematic drug use, hazardous drinking, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on fear of condom negotiation, condom negotiation, and condom use and (2) evaluated condom negotiation (controlling for fear of condom negotiation) as a mediator of the association between syndemic severity and condom use among low-income IPV-exposed women. Participants were 158 women living in the community and experiencing ongoing IPV who completed face-to-face, computer-assisted interviews. Almost three-fourths of the participants reported problematic drug use, hazardous drinking, depression, and/or PTSD; many of these factors were correlated, indicating a syndemic. Multivariate logistic and linear regression analyses revealed associations between syndemic severity and fear of condom negotiation (OR = 1.57, p = .02), condom negotiation (β = -8.51, p = .001), and condom use (β = -8.26, p = .01). Meditation analyses identified condom negotiation as a mediator of the association between syndemic severity and condom use (effect = -6.57, SE = 2.01, [95% CI: -10.66, -2.77]). Results fill a critical gap in previous research by identifying condom negotiation as a mechanism through which this syndemic affects condom use. Prevention and intervention programs should consider addressing condom negotiation to reduce sexual risk among this high-risk population. Further, because IPV-exposed women may experience fear related to condom negotiation, it is critical that prevention and intervention efforts for this population offer skills to safely negotiate condom use, increase condom use, and reduce STI and HIV risk.
Abstract: Provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling (PITC) is referred to as routine ... group discussions (FGDs) were conducted with 99 (73 female and 26 male) .... spoke of the right of a sick individual to ask for voluntary counseling and testing. ..... of testing HIV positive: a comparison of stand alone center versus mobile ...
HIV infection continues to increase rapidly in the developing world, especially in Africa and Asia. Although the HIV epidemic has for the most part affected men the world over; this is not so in sub-Saharan Africa, where it is a major health threat to women especially those of reproductive age. In Nigeria, more women are now ...
Each trainee completed an anonymous self- administered questionnaire and was tested for syphilis, trichomoniasis and HIV. Seventy one (75.5%) of the respondents were between ages 21-25 years. Twenty three (25%) did not believe that having sex with commercial sex workers puts them at high risk of HIV while eighteen ...
Lena Morgon Banks
Full Text Available While the rapid expansion in antiretroviral therapy access in low and middle income countries has resulted in dramatic declines in mortality rates, many people living with HIV face new or worsening experiences of disability. As nearly 1 in 20 adults are living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa-many of whom are likely to develop disabling sequelae from long-term infection, co-morbidities and side effects of their treatment-understanding the availability and accessibility of services to address HIV-related disabilities is of vital importance. The aim of this study thus is to explore knowledge of HIV-related disabilities amongst stakeholders working in the fields of HIV and disability and factors impacting uptake and provision of interventions for preventing, treating or managing HIV-related disabilities.In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with ten stakeholders based in Harare, Zimbabwe, who were working in the fields of either disability or HIV. Stakeholders were identified through a priori stakeholder analysis. Thematic Analysis, complemented by constant comparison as described in Grounded Theory, was used to analyse findings.All key informants reported some level of knowledge of HIV-related disability, mostly from observations made in their line of work. However, they reported no interventions or policies were in place specifically to address HIV-related disability. While referrals between HIV and rehabilitation providers were not uncommon, no formal mechanisms had been established for collaborating on prevention, identification and management. Additional barriers to accessing and providing services to address HIV-related disabilities included: the availability of resources, including trained professionals, supplies and equipment in both the HIV and rehabilitation sectors; lack of disability-inclusive adaptations, particularly in HIV services; heavy centralization of available services in urban areas, without accessible, affordable
Rahman, M; Shimu, T A; Fukui, T; Shimbo, T; Yamamoto, W
A study of the knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and practices (KABP) relating to HIV/AIDS was conducted among people from Bangladesh seeking work overseas (N = 300), during February, 1997 and March, 1997. Only 26% of the respondents knew of AIDS and out of 13 basic facts concerning HIV/AIDS the mean score of the sample was 1.63 correct responses. Most of those who knew of HIV had some false beliefs about the mode of HIV transmission, for example, believing that HIV could be contracted by touching an AIDS patient, or sharing bathing facilities or eating utensils. Sex with brothel-based commercial sex workers (100%), sharing contaminated needles (93.6%) and blood transfusion from infected individuals (93.6%) were seen as the main route of HIV transmission. Printed media (69%) was the main source of AIDS information. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that having a non-agricultural occupation (P work abroad.
Ahmed, Syed Imran; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Aziz, Noorizan Abdul
To evaluate the level of knowledge, attitudes, and risk perceptions of University Sains Malaysia final-year pharmacy students regarding human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immunity deficiency syndrome (AIDS). A cross-sectional study among pharmacy students. Data were analyzed with Chi-square to find difference at p value AIDS patients. Students recommended HIV testing for health care professionals (69.4%) and patients (75.9%) before surgical procedures. Students knew little about Post Exposure Prophylaxis (18.5%) or about the time for HIV to develop into AIDS (57.4%). About 40% of students were unaware of the inability of antivirals to treat HIV/AIDS. Students had low awareness for opportunistic infections (18.5%), and low agreement on competency to treat and counsel HIV patients (12.9%). The study highlighted students' misconceptions, negative attitudes, and risk perceptions towards HIV/AIDS.
Smits, A K; Goergen, C A; Delaney, J A; Williamson, C; Mundy, L M; Fraser, V J
HIV is a growing epidemic among women in the United States. This study seeks to determine if knowledge of HIV infection and of the benefits of prenatal zidovudine (ZDV) to decrease vertical HIV transmission is related to decisions about pregnancy planning, contraceptive and condom use, and pregnancy termination among noninjection drug using (IDU) women with HIV. Eighty-two HIV-infected women were interviewed about their pregnancy decisions, contraceptive and condom use, and pregnancy outcome. Data was verified by structured chart review where available. Awareness of HIV infection or knowledge of the benefits of prenatal ZDV use did not significantly influence pregnancy planning, contraceptive choice, use of contraception, or consideration of pregnancy termination. Condom use was extremely low (14.6% consistent use), the majority of pregnancies (68.0%) were unplanned, contraceptive use was low (50.9%), and few pregnancies were terminated (6.3%). Women on Medicaid were significantly less likely than women with private or no insurance to terminate their pregnancy (2/20, 10% vs. 3/5, 60%, p = 0.04, two-tailed Fisher's exact test). Most women (70.0%) reported the most important reason for carrying the pregnancy to term was the desire for a child. In conclusion, among women in this non-IDU, Midwestern cohort, knowledge of HIV infection was not associated with decisions to plan a pregnancy, use contraception if not planning pregnancy, or terminate an unplanned pregnancy.
Full Text Available The practice of dry sex is reportedly common among young black women in South Africa. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship of women’s preference for dry sex with condom use and the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT, Neisseria gonorrhoea (NG and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV infections. Between January 2006 and December 2007, 446 women completed a behavioural survey in isiXhosa which assessed demographic information, sexual behaviours, condom use behaviour and other potential correlates. In total, 159 (36.72% women indicated preferring dry sex. A multivariate logistic regression model indicated that participants who preferred dry sex were more likely to report past STI episodes and to have a partner who also preferred dry sex. The findings indicate that dry sex behaviour was not directly associated with condom use and STI (CT, NG, and TV prevalence but may have been associated with relationships in which sexual preferences of the male partner were dominant.
Andrews, Carin Hillerdal; Faxelid, Elisabeth; Sychaerun, Vanphanom; Phrasisombath, Ketkesone
Background Female sex workers (FSWs) are a high-risk population for HIV. Correct and consistent use of condoms is the most effective measure for reducing transmission of HIV. Lao PDR is a low HIV-prevalence country, but FSWs have a relatively high HIV prevalence. To be able to make recommendations for condom promotion interventions in Lao PDR it is important to know more about the context specific situation. This study looked at reasons for and associated factors of consistent condom use amon...
Full Text Available Background Antiretroviral therapy adherence (ART adherence is a factor significantly extending life expectancy of people living with HIV/AIDS. The objective of this study was determine several factors on ART adherence in women infected with HIV/AIDS. Methods A cross-sectional study involving 99 women with HIV/AIDS who were infected through their sexual partner or spouse was conducted in Dharmais Hospital between March and August 2014. The instruments used were demographic and self-esteem questionnaires, Hamilton rating scale for depression, Hamilton rating scale for anxiety, knowledge, perception of ART benefits and limitations, family support, peer support as well as assessment of ART adherence. The knowledge questionnaire has been validated with Cronbach’s alpha = 0.823. Data were analyzed using Chi-Square test and multivariate logistic regression. Results A total of 99 women with HIV/AIDS participated in the study, with an age range of 30- 60 years and mean age of 36 ± 3.72 years. A total of 57.58% of participants showed poor ART adherence. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that knowledge, ART side effects, depression, peer support and ARV availability significantly affected ART adherence (p<0.05. The most dominant factor affecting ART adherence was knowledge, with OR = 64.02 (95% CI 4.99-670.12. Conclusion With good knowledge about HIV/AIDS infection, ART benefits, and possible ARV side effects, women living with HIV/AIDS are expected to carry out ART adherence according to the recommended rules.
Stigma and discrimination towards people living with HIV have been widely documented, and have extended their impact into the workplace. Stigmatising attitudes towards people living with HIV (PLHIV) in the workplace significantly hinder HIV prevention efforts and indirectly affect national development.
Saxton, Peter J; Dickson, Nigel P; Hughes, Anthony J; Ludlam, Adrian H
To identify predictors of non-condom use among gay and bisexual men (GBM) in New Zealand with casual male partners. We analysed anonymous self-completed data from GBM who participated in the communitybased Gay Auckland Periodic Sex Survey (GAPSS) and Internet-based Gay Online Sex Survey (GOSS), undertaken in 2014. Infrequent condom use was defined as not using condoms "always" or "almost always" during anal intercourse in the prior six months. Of the 1,912 GBM reporting anal intercourse with a casual partner, 27.2% reported infrequent condom use. Being recruited from Internet dating sites, Pacific ethnicity, having over 20 recent male partners, infrequent condom use with a current regular partner, or being HIV-positive were independently predictive of infrequent condom use. Conversely, being older, having a tertiary degree, using a condom at first anal intercourse, being exclusively receptive with a casual partner/s, and seeing condoms promoted through multiple channels predicted frequent condom use. Attitudes to condoms and safe sex were strongly predictive of actual condom use. Social marketing should target the modifiable predictors of condom use, such as attitudes to safe sex. Interventions also need to engage successfully with GBM reporting non-modifiable traits such as HIV-positive GBM.
Stonbraker, Samantha; Smaldone, Arlene; Luft, Heidi; Cushman, Linda F; Lerebours Nadal, Leonel; Halpern, Mina; Larson, Elaine
To determine the health literacy levels of persons living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (PLWH) at a health clinic in the Dominican Republic (DR) and assess associations between health literacy, HIV-related knowledge, and health information behavior (how patients need, seek, receive, and use information). Cross-sectional, descriptive. Participants were 107 PLWH attending the Clinic. A theoretically based, 64-item survey assessing information behavior and HIV-related knowledge was administered in Spanish through individual interviews. Health literacy was assessed using the Short Assessment of Health Literacy-Spanish and English. On average, participants were 40.8 years old and had lived with HIV for 7.7 years. The majority (69.2%) had low health literacy. HIV-related knowledge and information behavior varied by health literacy level and uncertainty regarding a main indicator of disease progression, viral load, was demonstrated regardless of health literacy level. Participants with low health literacy were less likely to answer questions or answer questions correctly and many participants (39.2%) indicated viral transmission can occur through supernatural means. Findings demonstrate unmet information need and that information received may not always be understood. Methods to improve health education are needed to ensure patients receive health information in an understandable way. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Kasinga, F; Mogotlane, S M; van Rensburg, G H
Although breast-feeding is nature's way of providing nutrition to the baby, in HIV positive mothers this has been identified as one of the means through which HIV infection is transmitted from the mother to the child. In Africa where children under the age of 5 are killed by preventable diseases like diarrhoea, the issue of HIV transmission through breast feeding poses an added huge problem. Research has, however shown that exclusive infant feeding, be it breast or formula, reduces the risk substantially. It is imperative that mothers be informed about safer methods of infant feeding so that HIV infection is kept to a minimum. The objective of the study was to explore and describe the knowledge that pregnant women had about mother to child transmission of HIV infection through breast-feeding. A non-experimental quantitative exploratory and descriptive research design was used to explore the knowledge women had on mother to child transmission of HIV infection through breast-feeding. From the data collected, it showed that although women were aware of the susceptibility of children to HIV infection if fed on breast and formula feeds simultaneously by HIV positive mothers, exclusive feeding was a problem as people associated the practise with a positive HIV status. Women who had not disclosed their HIV status and were HIV positive, found it difficult to comply with the requirement to exclusively feed their infants. These either continued with complementary feeds or did not collect the free formula milk supply preferring instead to buy the formula feeds privately. In this study it was recommended that information on transmission of HIV infection from mother to child through breast -feeding including the benefits of exclusive infant feeding, be it breast or formula, for the first three to six months be provided to the community so that relatives can support the mother on infant feeding method of choice.
Degroote, Sophie; Vogelaers, Dirk; Liefhooghe, Griet; Vermeir, Peter; Vandijck, Dominique M
Adolescents are a risk group for acquiring sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV. Correct knowledge about transmission mechanisms is a prerequisite to taking appropriate precautions to avoid infection. This study aimed at assessing the level of HIV-related knowledge among university students as a first step in developing targeted interventions. We used a self-developed HIV knowledge questionnaire, supplemented with socio-demographic and sexual behaviour questions. The questionnaire was composed of 59 items from different existing questionnaires. It included general statements and statements about prevention, transmission and treatment of HIV. There were 357 (79.7%) female and 93 (20.3%) male participants and their median age was 20 (IQR 19-21). On average 42/59 (71.2%) questions were answered correctly, 5/59 (8.5%) were answered incorrectly and 12/59 (20.3%) were unknown . The best and worse scores were seen on the prevention questions and the treatment questions, respectively. HIV-related knowledge is higher in older students and in students with a health-related education. Students with sexual experience, with five or more partners and students who have been tested on STDs have a higher HIV-related knowledge. Knowledge on prevention and transmission of HIV is fairly good among university students and knowledge is higher among students with more sexual experience. They still have some misconceptions (e.g. HIV is spread by mosquitoes) and they are ignorant of a substantial number of statements (e.g. risk for infection through oral sex).
Ndiaye, P; Fall, A; Tal-Dia, A; Faye, A; Diongue, M
This study aimed to review knowledge, attitudes and practices related to sexual transmitted diseases (STD) and HIV/AIDS among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Senegal. The study was undertaken from February 1st to June 30th 2007, in three capitals cities in Senegal (one national, and two regional). It concerned the MSM that benefited from at least one of services of an MSM association. Studied variables included socio demographic characteristics, sexual practices, as well as knowledge and attitudes related to STDs and VIH/AIDS. Interviews took place during appointments obtained by direct phone call or by two MSM leaders intermediary. Data were seized and analyzed with Epi2000 Software. Among 245 registered MSM, 63 had a precise contact (address and/or phone number), and 49 aged in average of 25 years were investigated. Among them, one was illiterate, five studied Koran, seven Arab and 36 French. The socio-professional categories differentiated two officials, two merchants, one mechanic, one fighter, five artists, five restorers, seven tailors, 11 students, and 15 unemployed. The associations, to which 35 HSH belonged, were related to sexuality (66%), religion (20%), social matters (8%) and economy (6%). Sexual habits, according to anal intercourse, differentiated the "Ubbi" or receptive/passive (57%), the "Yoos" or incertif/active (25%), the "Ubbi/Yoos" who play the two roles (14%) and the "neitherUbbi/norYoos" who had other practices than anal (4%). Practices between men, concerned mutual strokes (100%), fellatio (61%) and anal intercourse (49%), counted 45% for remuneration, 35% of multi-unprotected partnership, and 12% of breaking condom. Practices with women were reported by 15 MSM (31%). Concerning STDs, at least one sign was reported by 43 MSM, one transmission way by 42, one mean of protection by 47; and the first recourse was a health system for 36 MSM. The test of HIV/AIDS screening was done by 38 HSH among which 30 withdrew the results. The "Ubby
Pérez-Jiménez, David; Orengo-Aguayo, Rosaura E
This qualitative analysis elucidates the potential elements of the intervention that may be effective in terms of a) increasing knowledge about HIV/ AIDS in the members of this population; b) increasing the use of male condoms and the practice of mutual masturbation; and c) changing opinions toward male condom use and mutual masturbation. Five heterosexual HIV-discordant couples participated in the adapted intervention, which consisted of four three-hour-long sessions. One month after the intervention, we conducted a qualitative semi-structured interview with every participant to evaluate issues related to the process and content of the activities comprising the intervention, the impact of the intervention, logistics, and recruitment and retention as well as to make a more general evaluation. The information was submitted to qualitative content analysis. After the intervention, participants reported having better attitudes regarding safer sex, particularly in terms of condom use. A reason given by the participants to feel more positive toward condom use and mutual masturbation was that these practices could prevent the infection of the HIV-negative partner. This study provides important evidence of an intervention that promises to be efficacious in preventing some high-risk sexual behaviors among Latino HIV-discordant heterosexual couples. The evidence presented seems to suggest that an intervention that includes basic relevant information about HIV/AIDS, that explains the benefits of condom use and other safer sex options, and that provides effective negotiation and communication strategies could significantly reduce HIV transmission among these couples.
Dandachi, Dima; Dang, Bich N; Wilson Dib, Rita; Friedman, Harvey; Giordano, Thomas
Ten years after the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommended universal HIV screening, rates remain low. Internal medicine residents are the front-line medical providers for large groups of patients. We evaluated the knowledge of internal medicine residents about HIV testing guidelines and examined adherence to universal HIV testing in an outpatient setting. A cross-sectional survey of internal medicine residents at four residency programs in Chicago was conducted from January to March 2016. Aggregate data on HIV screening were collected from 35 federally qualified community health centers in the Chicago area after inclusion of an HIV testing best practice alert in patients' electronic medical records. Of the 192 residents surveyed, 130 (68%) completed the survey. Only 58% were aware of universal HIV screening and 49% were aware that Illinois law allows for an opt-out HIV testing strategy. Most of the residents (64%) ordered no more than 10 HIV tests in 6 months. The most frequently reported barriers to HIV testing were deferral because of urgent care issues, lack of time, and the perception that patients were uncomfortable discussing HIV testing. From July 2015 to February 2016, the average HIV testing adherence rate in the 35 health centers was 18.2%. More effort is needed to change HIV testing practices among internal medicine residents so that they will adopt this approach in their future clinical practice. Improving knowledge about HIV testing and addressing other HIV testing barriers are essential for such a successful change.
Pérez V, Ruth; Barrales C, Ingrid; Jara P, Jenny; Palma R, Virla; Ceballos M, Alejandra
to analyse adolescents' knowledge of preventive sexual practices related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) by means of a questionnaire recommended by the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS). non-experimental, cross-sectional, descriptive and analytical investigation. four schools in Chillán, Chile, 2005. a total of 480 adolescents aged between 15 and 19 years. Students completed a questionnaire recommended by UNAIDS in order to develop basic indicators. the indicator of preventive sexual practices related to HIV/AIDS was 32.5%; forms of prevention (62.5%) were better known than erroneous ideas about transmission (46%). Adolescents from the only private school in the study demonstrated greater knowledge (43.3%) than students from the public schools (25%) (psexual practices related to HIV and AIDS. It is necessary to implement an indicator of knowledge that allows for the creation and monitoring of sexual education programmes.
The globalization of standardized knowledge about HIV and AIDS depends in part on local AIDS awareness educators who receive training from national and international organizations and then, ideally, disseminate what they have learned. In this article I analyze textual and observational data from a five-day introductory AIDS awareness workshop in rural Papua New Guinea. Although the instructor adhered to the handbook provided by the National AIDS Council for much of the information, she departed from it significantly when informing participants about the "root causes" of HIV's spread and in giving them advice about prevention. I explicate where her extratextual knowledge came from as well as its overall message to target audiences. I suggest that textual silences in AIDS awareness handbooks can motivate local HIV translators to embark on a kind of semiosis-the ongoing production of new, hybrid knowledge about HIV.
Janulis, Patrick; Newcomb, Michael E; Sullivan, Patrick; Mustanski, Brian
Knowledge about the transmission, prevention, and treatment of HIV remains a critical element in psychosocial models of HIV risk behavior and is commonly used as an outcome in HIV prevention interventions. However, most HIV knowledge questions have not undergone rigorous psychometric testing such as using item response theory. The current study used data from six studies of men who have sex with men (MSM; n = 3565) to (1) examine the item properties of HIV knowledge questions, (2) test for differential item functioning on commonly studied characteristics (i.e., age, race/ethnicity, and HIV risk behavior), (3) select items with the optimal item characteristics, and (4) leverage this combined dataset to examine the potential moderating effect of age on the relationship between condomless anal sex (CAS) and HIV knowledge. Findings indicated that existing questions tend to poorly differentiate those with higher levels of HIV knowledge, but items were relatively robust across diverse individuals. Furthermore, age moderated the relationship between CAS and HIV knowledge with older MSM having the strongest association. These findings suggest that additional items are required in order to capture a more nuanced understanding of HIV knowledge and that the association between CAS and HIV knowledge may vary by age.
The condom industry in the US is dominated by Carter Wallace and the London International Group. They offer very little product differentiation. Ten years ago, however, two engineers in a small California laboratory began working on a nonlatex condom which would be both stronger and more sensitive than the traditional male latex condom. Their efforts resulted in the development of the polyurethane Avanti condom currently being marketed in thirteen states of the Western US. Made by London International Group plc in Cambridge, England, Avanti should be available nationwide as of April 1995. The public, however, has received only very little information about the product and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is concerned about the safety and efficacy of polyurethane/plastic condoms. Six other condom manufacturers are developing plastic condoms, with at least five such condoms awaiting FDA premarket clearance to be marketed. Recent delays in marketing Avanti are due to disagreements between the manufacturer and the FDA over labeling. Other delays have involved safety and efficacy con