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Sample records for hiv envelope glycoproteins

  1. HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caulfield, Michael; Cupo, Albert; Dean, Hansi; Hoffenberg, Simon; King, C. Richter; Klasse, P. J.; Marozsan, Andre; Moore, John P.; Sanders, Rogier W.; Ward, Andrew; Wilson, Ian; Julien, Jean-Philippe

    2017-08-22

    The present application relates to novel HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins, which may be utilized as HIV-1 vaccine immunogens, and antigens for crystallization, electron microscopy and other biophysical, biochemical and immunological studies for the identification of broad neutralizing antibodies. The present invention encompasses the preparation and purification of immunogenic compositions, which are formulated into the vaccines of the present invention.

  2. The HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins: folding, function and vaccin design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, Rogier W.

    2003-01-01

    The need for a vaccine against HIV is obvious, but the development of an effective vaccine has met with frustrations. The HIV envelope glycoproteins, residing in the viral membrane, are the sole viral proteins exposed on the outside of virus particles and are therefore major targets for vaccine

  3. HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein immunogens to induce broadly neutralizing antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliepen, Kwinten; Sanders, Rogier W

    2016-01-01

    The long pursuit for a vaccine against human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) has recently been boosted by a number of exciting developments. An HIV-1 subunit vaccine ideally should elicit potent broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs), but raising bNAbs by vaccination has proved extremely difficult because of the characteristics of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein complex (Env). However, the isolation of bNAbs from HIV-1-infected patients demonstrates that the human humoral immune system is capable of making such antibodies. Therefore, a focus of HIV-1 vaccinology is the elicitation of bNAbs by engineered immunogens and by using vaccination strategies aimed at mimicking the bNAb maturation pathways in HIV-infected patients. Important clues can also be taken from the successful subunit vaccines against hepatitis B virus and human papillomavirus. Here, we review the different types of HIV-1 immunogens and vaccination strategies that are being explored in the search for an HIV-1 vaccine that induces bNAbs.

  4. Expression and Characterization of HIV-1 Envelope Glycoprotein in Pichia Pastoris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Li-hui; YU Xiang-hui; JIANG Chun-lai; WU Yong-ge; SHEN Jia-cong; KONG Wei

    2008-01-01

    To obtain a sufficient amount of glycoprotein for further studying the structure and function of HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein, amplified and modified HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gene which recombined subtypes(850amino acids) from Guangxi in China was inserted into Pichiapastoris expression vector pPICZaB; then the recombinant plasmid was transported into the yeast cells to induce the expression of Env protein with methanol. The results of SDS-PAGE and Western blot indicate that the envelope glycoprotein could be expressed in Pichia pastoris with productions of a 120000 glycoprotein and a 41000 glycoprotein, which showed satisfactory immunogenicity by indirect ELISA.

  5. Structural mechanism of trimeric HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein activation.

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    Erin E H Tran

    Full Text Available HIV-1 infection begins with the binding of trimeric viral envelope glycoproteins (Env to CD4 and a co-receptor on target T-cells. Understanding how these ligands influence the structure of Env is of fundamental interest for HIV vaccine development. Using cryo-electron microscopy, we describe the contrasting structural outcomes of trimeric Env binding to soluble CD4, to the broadly neutralizing, CD4-binding site antibodies VRC01, VRC03 and b12, or to the monoclonal antibody 17b, a co-receptor mimic. Binding of trimeric HIV-1 BaL Env to either soluble CD4 or 17b alone, is sufficient to trigger formation of the open quaternary conformation of Env. In contrast, VRC01 locks Env in the closed state, while b12 binding requires a partial opening in the quaternary structure of trimeric Env. Our results show that, despite general similarities in regions of the HIV-1 gp120 polypeptide that contact CD4, VRC01, VRC03 and b12, there are important differences in quaternary structures of the complexes these ligands form on native trimeric Env, and potentially explain differences in the neutralizing breadth and potency of antibodies with similar specificities. From cryo-electron microscopic analysis at ∼9 Å resolution of a cleaved, soluble version of trimeric Env, we show that a structural signature of the open Env conformation is a three-helix motif composed of α-helical segments derived from highly conserved, non-glycosylated N-terminal regions of the gp41 trimer. The three N-terminal gp41 helices in this novel, activated Env conformation are held apart by their interactions with the rest of Env, and are less compactly packed than in the post-fusion, six-helix bundle state. These findings suggest a new structural template for designing immunogens that can elicit antibodies targeting HIV at a vulnerable, pre-entry stage.

  6. Membrane topology analysis of HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp41

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    Xiao Dan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The gp41 subunit of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env has been widely regarded as a type I transmembrane protein with a single membrane-spanning domain (MSD. An alternative topology model suggested multiple MSDs. The major discrepancy between the two models is that the cytoplasmic Kennedy sequence in the single MSD model is assigned as the extracellular loop accessible to neutralizing antibodies in the other model. We examined the membrane topology of the gp41 subunit in both prokaryotic and mammalian systems. We attached topological markers to the C-termini of serially truncated gp41. In the prokaryotic system, we utilized a green fluorescent protein (GFP that is only active in the cytoplasm. The tag protein (HaloTag and a membrane-impermeable ligand specific to HaloTag was used in the mammalian system. Results In the absence of membrane fusion, both the prokaryotic and mammalian systems (293FT cells supported the single MSD model. In the presence of membrane fusion in mammalian cells (293CD4 cells, the data obtained seem to support the multiple MSD model. However, the region predicted to be a potential MSD is the highly hydrophilic Kennedy sequence and is least likely to become a MSD based on several algorithms. Further analysis revealed the induction of membrane permeability during membrane fusion, allowing the membrane-impermeable ligand and antibodies to cross the membrane. Therefore, we cannot completely rule out the possible artifacts. Addition of membrane fusion inhibitors or alterations of the MSD sequence decreased the induction of membrane permeability. Conclusions It is likely that a single MSD model for HIV-1 gp41 holds true even in the presence of membrane fusion. The degree of the augmentation of membrane permeability we observed was dependent on the membrane fusion and sequence of the MSD.

  7. Envelope glycoproteins of HIV-1, HIV-2, and SIV purified with Galanthus nivalis agglutinin induce strong immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilljam, G

    1993-05-01

    Lectin affinity chromatography was used to purify in a single step the envelope glycoproteins of HIV-1, HIV-2, and SIV. Envelope glycoproteins carry the major determinants essential for protection by the humoral immune response. The purification of these proteins has previously been a laborious procedure. The glycoproteins were purified by a one-step procedure to a high level of purity by using Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA). The purified glycoprotein had CD4-binding and antigenic reactivities. Strong immune responses to envelope proteins and peptides were seen in mice and primates after immunization with these preparations.

  8. Kinetic studies of HIV-1 and HIV-2 envelope glycoprotein-mediated fusion

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    Doms Robert W

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV envelope glycoprotein (Env-mediated fusion is driven by the concerted coalescence of the HIV gp41 N-helical and C-helical regions, which results in the formation of 6 helix bundles. Kinetics of HIV Env-mediated fusion is an important determinant of sensitivity to entry inhibitors and antibodies. However, the parameters that govern the HIV Env fusion cascade have yet to be fully elucidated. We address this issue by comparing the kinetics HIV-1IIIB Env with those mediated by HIV-2 from two strains with different affinities for CD4 and CXCR4. Results HIV-1 and HIV-2 Env-mediated cell fusion occurred with half times of about 60 and 30 min, respectively. Binding experiments of soluble HIV gp120 proteins to CD4 and co-receptor did not correlate with the differences in kinetics of fusion mediated by the three different HIV Envs. However, escape from inhibition by reagents that block gp120-CD4 binding, CD4-induced CXCR4 binding and 6-helix bundle formation, respectively, indicated large difference between HIV-1 and HIV-2 envelope glycoproteins in their CD4-induced rates of engagement with CXCR4. Conclusion The HIV-2 Env proteins studied here exhibited a significantly reduced window of time between the engagement of gp120 with CD4 and exposure of the CXCR4 binding site on gp120 as compared with HIV-1IIIB Env. The efficiency with which HIV-2 Env undergoes this CD4-induced conformational change is the major cause of the relatively rapid rate of HIV-2 Env mediated-fusion.

  9. Stabilization of HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein trimers to induce neutralizing antibodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Taeye, S.W.

    2017-01-01

    HIV-1 has evolved various tricks to prevent the development of a potent humoral immune response. The only target for neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) is the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env), which is the sole viral protein embedded in the viral membrane. It consists of three gp41 subunits and three g

  10. Glycosylation in HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein and its biological implications

    KAUST Repository

    Ho, Yung Shwen

    2013-08-01

    Glycosylation of HIV-1 envelope proteins (Env gp120/gp41) plays a vital role in viral evasion from the host immune response, which occurs through the masking of key neutralization epitopes and the presentation of the Env glycosylation as \\'self\\' to the host immune system. Env glycosylation is generally conserved, yet its continual evolution plays an important role in modulating viral infectivity and Env immunogenicity. Thus, it is believed that Env glycosylation, which is a vital part of the HIV-1 architecture, also controls intra- and inter-clade genetic variations. Discerning intra- and inter-clade glycosylation variations could therefore yield important information for understanding the molecular and biological differences between HIV clades and may assist in effectively designing Env-based immunogens and in clearly understanding HIV vaccines. This review provides an in-depth perspective of various aspects of Env glycosylation in the context of HIV-1 pathogenesis. © 2013 Future Medicine Ltd.

  11. HIV envelope glycoprotein imaged at high resolution | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The outer surface of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is surrounded by an envelope studded with spike-shaped glycoproteins called Env that help the deadly virus identify, bind, and infect cells. When unbound, Env exists in a “closed” conformational state. Upon binding with target cells, such as CD4+ T cells, the protein transitions to an “open” configuration. Given that Env is the only viral protein expressed on HIV’s surface, knowing its detailed structure—especially in the unbound state—may be critical for designing antibodies and vaccines against HIV.

  12. IFITM Proteins Restrict HIV-1 Infection by Antagonizing the Envelope Glycoprotein

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    Jingyou Yu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The interferon-induced transmembrane (IFITM proteins have been recently shown to restrict HIV-1 and other viruses. Here, we provide evidence that IFITM proteins, particularly IFITM2 and IFITM3, specifically antagonize the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env, thereby inhibiting viral infection. IFITM proteins interact with HIV-1 Env in viral producer cells, leading to impaired Env processing and virion incorporation. Notably, the level of IFITM incorporation into HIV-1 virions does not strictly correlate with the extent of inhibition. Prolonged passage of HIV-1 in IFITM-expressing T lymphocytes leads to emergence of Env mutants that overcome IFITM restriction. The ability of IFITMs to inhibit cell-to-cell infection can be extended to HIV-1 primary isolates, HIV-2 and SIVs; however, the extent of inhibition appears to be virus-strain dependent. Overall, our study uncovers a mechanism by which IFITM proteins specifically antagonize HIV-1 Env to restrict HIV-1 infection and provides insight into the specialized role of IFITMs in HIV infection.

  13. A directed molecular evolution approach to improved immunogenicity of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein.

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    Sean X Du

    Full Text Available A prophylactic vaccine is needed to slow the spread of HIV-1 infection. Optimization of the wild-type envelope glycoproteins to create immunogens that can elicit effective neutralizing antibodies is a high priority. Starting with ten genes encoding subtype B HIV-1 gp120 envelope glycoproteins and using in vitro homologous DNA recombination, we created chimeric gp120 variants that were screened for their ability to bind neutralizing monoclonal antibodies. Hundreds of variants were identified with novel antigenic phenotypes that exhibit considerable sequence diversity. Immunization of rabbits with these gp120 variants demonstrated that the majority can induce neutralizing antibodies to HIV-1. One novel variant, called ST-008, induced significantly improved neutralizing antibody responses when assayed against a large panel of primary HIV-1 isolates. Further study of various deletion constructs of ST-008 showed that the enhanced immunogenicity results from a combination of effective DNA priming, an enhanced V3-based response, and an improved response to the constant backbone sequences.

  14. Conformation of trimeric envelope glycoproteins: the CD4-dependent membrane fusion mechanism of HIV-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yingliang, Wu; Hong, Yi; Zhijian, Cao; Wenxin, Li

    2007-08-01

    The HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins are assembled by the trimeric gp120s and gp41s proteins. The gp120 binds sequentially to CD4 and coreceptor for initiating virus entry. Because of noncovalent interaction and heavy glycosylation for envelope glycoproteins, it is highly difficult to determine entire envelope glycoproteins structure now. Such question extremely limits our good understanding of HIV-1 membrane fusion mechanism. Here, a novel and reasonable assembly model of trimeric gp120s and gp41s was proposed based on the conformational dynamics of trimeric gp120-gp41 complex and gp41, respectively. As for gp41, the heptad repeat sequences in the gp41 C-terminal is of enormous flexibility. On the contrary, the heptad repeat sequences in the gp41 N-terminal likely present stable three-helical bundle due to strong nonpolar interaction, and they were predicted to associate three alpha1 helixes from the non-neutralizing face of the gp120 inner domain, which is quite similar to gp41 fusion core structure. Such interaction likely leads to the formation of noncovalent gp120-gp41 complex. In the proposed assembly of trimeric gp120-gp41 complex, three gp120s present not only perfectly complementary and symmetrical distribution around the gp41, but also different flexibility degree in the different structural domains. Thus, the new model can well explain numerous experimental phenomena, present plenty of structural information, elucidate effectively HIV-1 membrane fusion mechanism, and direct to further develop vaccine and novel fusion inhibitors.

  15. Contribution of intrinsic reactivity of the HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins to CD4-independent infection and global inhibitor sensitivity.

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    Hillel Haim

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 enters cells following sequential activation of the high-potential-energy viral envelope glycoprotein trimer by target cell CD4 and coreceptor. HIV-1 variants differ in their requirements for CD4; viruses that can infect coreceptor-expressing cells that lack CD4 have been generated in the laboratory. These CD4-independent HIV-1 variants are sensitive to neutralization by multiple antibodies that recognize different envelope glycoprotein epitopes. The mechanisms underlying CD4 independence, global sensitivity to neutralization and the association between them are still unclear. By studying HIV-1 variants that differ in requirements for CD4, we investigated the contribution of CD4 binding to virus entry. CD4 engagement exposes the coreceptor-binding site and increases the "intrinsic reactivity" of the envelope glycoproteins; intrinsic reactivity describes the propensity of the envelope glycoproteins to negotiate transitions to lower-energy states upon stimulation. Coreceptor-binding site exposure and increased intrinsic reactivity promote formation/exposure of the HR1 coiled coil on the gp41 transmembrane glycoprotein and allow virus entry upon coreceptor binding. Intrinsic reactivity also dictates the global sensitivity of HIV-1 to perturbations such as exposure to cold and the binding of antibodies and small molecules. Accordingly, CD4 independence of HIV-1 was accompanied by increased susceptibility to inactivation by these factors. We investigated the role of intrinsic reactivity in determining the sensitivity of primary HIV-1 isolates to inhibition. Relative to the more common neutralization-resistant ("Tier 2-like" viruses, globally sensitive ("Tier 1" viruses exhibited increased intrinsic reactivity, i.e., were inactivated more efficiently by cold exposure or by a given level of antibody binding to the envelope glycoprotein trimer. Virus sensitivity to neutralization was dictated both by the efficiency of

  16. Conglutinin binds the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp 160 and inhibits its interaction with cell membrane CD4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ove; Sørensen, A M; Svehag, S E

    1991-01-01

    The highly glycosylated envelope glycoprotein (gp 160) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) interacts with the CD4 molecule present on the membrane of CD4+ cells and is involved in the pathobiology of HIV infection. Lectins bind glycoproteins through non-covalent interactions with specific hexose...... residues. The mammalian C-type lectin bovine conglutinin was examined for its ability to interact with recombinant gp160 (rgp160) produced in vaccinia virus-infected BHK21 cells. Specific binding of conglutinin to rgp160 was demonstrated by ELISA. The interaction of bovine conglutinin with rgp160...... of the binding of rgp160 to the CD4 receptor on CEM 13 cells, as demonstrated by FACS analyses. These results indicate that conglutinin may inhibit the infection with HIV-1 through its interaction with the viral envelope glycoprotein....

  17. Engineering and Characterization of a Fluorescent Native-Like HIV-1 Envelope Glycoprotein Trimer

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    Kwinten Sliepen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Generation of a stable, soluble mimic of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env trimer on the virion surface has been considered an important first step for developing a successful HIV-1 vaccine. Recently, a soluble native-like Env trimer (BG505 SOSIP.664 has been described. This protein has facilitated major advances in the HIV-1 vaccine field, since it was the first Env immunogen that induced consistent neutralizing antibodies against a neutralization-resistant (tier 2 virus. Moreover, BG505 SOSIP.664 enabled elucidation of the atomic resolution structure of the Env trimer and facilitated the isolation and characterization of new broadly neutralizing antibodies against HIV-1. Here, we designed and characterized the BG505 SOSIP.664 trimer fused to fluorescent superfolder GFP (sfGFP, a GFP variant that allows efficient folding (BG505 SOSIP.664-sfGFP. Despite the presence of the sfGFP, the Env protein largely retained its morphology, antigenicity, glycan composition, and thermostability. In addition, we show that BG505 SOSIP.664-sfGFP can be used for fluorescence-based assays, such as flow cytometry.

  18. HIV-1 gp120 envelope glycoprotein determinants for cytokine burst in human monocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutu, Mathieu; Prévost, Jérémie; Brassard, Nathalie; Peres, Adam; Stegen, Camille; Madrenas, Joaquín; Kaufmann, Daniel E.; Finzi, Andrés

    2017-01-01

    The first step of HIV infection involves the interaction of the gp120 envelope glycoprotein to its receptor CD4, mainly expressed on CD4+ T cells. Besides its role on HIV-1 entry, the gp120 has been shown to be involved in the production of IL-1, IL-6, CCL20 and other innate response cytokines by bystander, uninfected CD4+ T cells and monocytes. However, the gp120 determinants involved in these functions are not completely understood. Whether signalling leading to cytokine production is due to CD4 or other receptors is still unclear. Enhanced chemokine receptor binding and subsequent clustering receptors may lead to cytokine production. By using a comprehensive panel of gp120 mutants, here we show that CD4 binding is mandatory for cytokine outburst in monocytes. Our data suggest that targeting monocytes in HIV-infected patients might decrease systemic inflammation and the potential tissue injury associated with the production of inflammatory cytokines. Understanding how gp120 mediates a cytokine burst in monocytes might help develop new approaches to improve the chronic inflammation that persists in these patients despite effective suppression of viremia by antiretroviral therapy. PMID:28346521

  19. Prediction of exposed domains of envelope glycoprotein in Indian HIV-1 isolates and experimental confirmation of their immunogenicity in humans

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    Mohabatkar H.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the impact of subtype differences on the seroreactivity of linear antigenic epitopes in envelope glycoprotein of HIV-1 isolates from different geographical locations. By computer analysis, we predicted potential antigenic sites of envelope glycoprotein (gp120 and gp4l of this virus. For this purpose, after fetching sequences of proteins of interest from data banks, values of hydrophilicity, flexibility, accessibility, inverted hydrophobicity, and secondary structure were considered. We identified several potential antigenic epitopes in a B subtype strain of envelope glycoprotein of HIV-1 (IIIB. Solid- phase peptide synthesis methods of Merrifield and Fmoc chemistry were used for synthesizing peptides. These synthetic peptides corresponded mainly to the C2, V3 and CD4 binding sites of gp120 and some parts of the ectodomain of gp41. The reactivity of these peptides was tested by ELISA against different HIV-1-positive sera from different locations in India. For two of these predicted epitopes, the corresponding Indian consensus sequences (LAIERYLKQQLLGWG and DIIGDIRQAHCNISEDKWNET (subtype C were also synthesized and their reactivity was tested by ELISA. These peptides also distinguished HIV-1-positive sera of Indians with C subtype infections from sera from HIV-negative subjects.

  20. Elite suppressor-derived HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins exhibit reduced entry efficiency and kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassen, Kara G; Lobritz, Michael A; Bailey, Justin R; Johnston, Samantha; Nguyen, Sandra; Lee, Benhur; Chou, Tom; Siliciano, Robert F; Markowitz, Martin; Arts, Eric J

    2009-04-01

    Elite suppressors (ES) are a rare subset of HIV-1-infected individuals who are able to maintain HIV-1 viral loads below the limit of detection by ultra-sensitive clinical assays in the absence of antiretroviral therapy. Mechanism(s) responsible for this elite control are poorly understood but likely involve both host and viral factors. This study assesses ES plasma-derived envelope glycoprotein (env) fitness as a function of entry efficiency as a possible contributor to viral suppression. Fitness of virus entry was first evaluated using a novel inducible cell line with controlled surface expression levels of CD4 (receptor) and CCR5 (co-receptor). In the context of physiologic CCR5 and CD4 surface densities, ES envs exhibited significantly decreased entry efficiency relative to chronically infected viremic progressors. ES envs also demonstrated slow entry kinetics indicating the presence of virus with reduced entry fitness. Overall, ES env clones were less efficient at mediating entry than chronic progressor envs. Interestingly, acute infection envs exhibited an intermediate phenotypic pattern not distinctly different from ES or chronic progressor envs. These results imply that lower env fitness may be established early and may directly contribute to viral suppression in ES individuals.

  1. Elite suppressor-derived HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins exhibit reduced entry efficiency and kinetics.

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    Kara G Lassen

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Elite suppressors (ES are a rare subset of HIV-1-infected individuals who are able to maintain HIV-1 viral loads below the limit of detection by ultra-sensitive clinical assays in the absence of antiretroviral therapy. Mechanism(s responsible for this elite control are poorly understood but likely involve both host and viral factors. This study assesses ES plasma-derived envelope glycoprotein (env fitness as a function of entry efficiency as a possible contributor to viral suppression. Fitness of virus entry was first evaluated using a novel inducible cell line with controlled surface expression levels of CD4 (receptor and CCR5 (co-receptor. In the context of physiologic CCR5 and CD4 surface densities, ES envs exhibited significantly decreased entry efficiency relative to chronically infected viremic progressors. ES envs also demonstrated slow entry kinetics indicating the presence of virus with reduced entry fitness. Overall, ES env clones were less efficient at mediating entry than chronic progressor envs. Interestingly, acute infection envs exhibited an intermediate phenotypic pattern not distinctly different from ES or chronic progressor envs. These results imply that lower env fitness may be established early and may directly contribute to viral suppression in ES individuals.

  2. Global rescue of defects in HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein incorporation: implications for matrix structure.

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    Philip R Tedbury

    Full Text Available The matrix (MA domain of HIV-1 Gag plays key roles in membrane targeting of Gag, and envelope (Env glycoprotein incorporation into virions. Although a trimeric MA structure has been available since 1996, evidence for functional MA trimers has been elusive. The mechanism of HIV-1 Env recruitment into virions likewise remains unclear. Here, we identify a point mutation in MA that rescues the Env incorporation defects imposed by an extensive panel of MA and Env mutations. Mapping the mutations onto the putative MA trimer reveals that the incorporation-defective mutations cluster at the tips of the trimer, around the perimeter of a putative gap in the MA lattice into which the cytoplasmic tail of gp41 could insert. By contrast, the rescue mutation is located at the trimer interface, suggesting that it may confer rescue of Env incorporation via modification of MA trimer interactions, a hypothesis consistent with additional mutational analysis. These data strongly support the existence of MA trimers in the immature Gag lattice and demonstrate that rescue of Env incorporation defects is mediated by modified interactions at the MA trimer interface. The data support the hypothesis that mutations in MA that block Env incorporation do so by imposing a steric clash with the gp41 cytoplasmic tail, rather than by disrupting a specific MA-gp41 interaction. The importance of the trimer interface in rescuing Env incorporation suggests that the trimeric arrangement of MA may be a critical factor in permitting incorporation of Env into the Gag lattice.

  3. A mechanistic understanding of allosteric immune escape pathways in the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein.

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    Anurag Sethi

    Full Text Available The HIV-1 envelope (Env spike, which consists of a compact, heterodimeric trimer of the glycoproteins gp120 and gp41, is the target of neutralizing antibodies. However, the high mutation rate of HIV-1 and plasticity of Env facilitates viral evasion from neutralizing antibodies through various mechanisms. Mutations that are distant from the antibody binding site can lead to escape, probably by changing the conformation or dynamics of Env; however, these changes are difficult to identify and define mechanistically. Here we describe a network analysis-based approach to identify potential allosteric immune evasion mechanisms using three known HIV-1 Env gp120 protein structures from two different clades, B and C. First, correlation and principal component analyses of molecular dynamics (MD simulations identified a high degree of long-distance coupled motions that exist between functionally distant regions within the intrinsic dynamics of the gp120 core, supporting the presence of long-distance communication in the protein. Then, by integrating MD simulations with network theory, we identified the optimal and suboptimal communication pathways and modules within the gp120 core. The results unveil both strain-dependent and -independent characteristics of the communication pathways in gp120. We show that within the context of three structurally homologous gp120 cores, the optimal pathway for communication is sequence sensitive, i.e. a suboptimal pathway in one strain becomes the optimal pathway in another strain. Yet the identification of conserved elements within these communication pathways, termed inter-modular hotspots, could present a new opportunity for immunogen design, as this could be an additional mechanism that HIV-1 uses to shield vulnerable antibody targets in Env that induce neutralizing antibody breadth.

  4. Antigenic characterization of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein precursor incorporated into nanodiscs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Kristen C.; Castillo-Menendez, Luis; Ding, Haitao; Espy, Nicole; Zhang, Shijian; Kappes, John C.; Sodroski, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    The entry of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) into host cells is mediated by the viral envelope glycoproteins (Envs), which are derived by the proteolytic cleavage of a trimeric gp160 Env precursor. The mature Env trimer is a major target for entry inhibitors and vaccine-induced neutralizing antibodies. Env interstrain variability, conformational flexibility and heavy glycosylation contribute to evasion of the host immune response, and create challenges for structural characterization and vaccine development. Here we investigate variables associated with reconstitution of the HIV-1 Env precursor into nanodiscs, nanoscale lipid bilayer discs enclosed by membrane scaffolding proteins. We identified detergents, as well as lipids similar in composition to the viral lipidome, that allowed efficient formation of Env-nanodiscs (Env-NDs). Env-NDs were created with the full-length Env precursor and with an Env precursor with the majority of the cytoplasmic tail intact. The self-association of Env-NDs was decreased by glutaraldehyde crosslinking. The Env-NDs exhibited an antigenic profile expected for the HIV-1 Env precursor. Env-NDs were recognized by broadly neutralizing antibodies. Of note, neutralizing antibody epitopes in the gp41 membrane-proximal external region and in the gp120:gp41 interface were well exposed on Env-NDs compared with Env expressed on cell surfaces. Most Env epitopes recognized by non-neutralizing antibodies were masked on the Env-NDs. This antigenic profile was stable for several days, exhibiting a considerably longer half-life than that of Env solubilized in detergents. Negative selection with weak neutralizing antibodies could be used to improve the antigenic profile of the Env-NDs. Finally, we show that lipid adjuvants can be incorporated into Env-NDs. These results indicate that Env-NDs represent a potentially useful platform for investigating the structural, functional and antigenic properties of the HIV-1 Env trimer in a membrane context

  5. A strategy for eliciting antibodies against cryptic, conserved, conformationally dependent epitopes of HIV envelope glycoprotein.

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    Hanna C Kelker

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Novel strategies are needed for the elicitation of broadly neutralizing antibodies to the HIV envelope glycoprotein, gp120. Experimental evidence suggests that combinations of antibodies that are broadly neutralizing in vitro may protect against challenge with HIV in nonhuman primates, and a small number of these antibodies have been selected by repertoire sampling of B cells and by the fractionation of antiserum from some patients with prolonged disease. Yet no additional strategies for identifying conserved epitopes, eliciting antibodies to these epitopes, and determining whether these epitopes are accessible to antibodies have been successful to date. The defining of additional conserved, accessible epitopes against which one can elicit antibodies will increase the probability that some may be the targets of broadly neutralizing antibodies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We postulate that additional cryptic epitopes of gp120 are present, against which neutralizing antibodies might be elicited even though these antibodies are not elicited by gp120, and that many of these epitopes may be accessible to antibodies should they be formed. We demonstrate a strategy for eliciting antibodies in mice against selected cryptic, conformationally dependent conserved epitopes of gp120 by immunizing with multiple identical copies of covalently linked peptides (MCPs. This has been achieved with MCPs representing 3 different domains of gp120. We show that some cryptic epitopes on gp120 are accessible to the elicited antibodies, and some epitopes in the CD4 binding region are not accessible. The antibodies bind to gp120 with relatively high affinity, and bind to oligomeric gp120 on the surface of infected cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Immunization with MCPs comprised of selected peptides of HIV gp120 is able to elicit antibodies against conserved, conformationally dependent epitopes of gp120 that are not immunogenic when presented as gp120. Some

  6. Tryptophan dendrimers that inhibit HIV replication, prevent virus entry and bind to the HIV envelope glycoproteins gp120 and gp41.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivero-Buceta, Eva; Doyagüez, Elisa G; Colomer, Ignacio; Quesada, Ernesto; Mathys, Leen; Noppen, Sam; Liekens, Sandra; Camarasa, María-José; Pérez-Pérez, María-Jesús; Balzarini, Jan; San-Félix, Ana

    2015-12-01

    Dendrimers containing from 9 to 18 tryptophan residues at the peryphery have been efficiently synthesized and tested against HIV replication. These compounds inhibit an early step of the replicative cycle of HIV, presumably virus entry into its target cell. Our data suggest that HIV inhibition can be achieved by the preferred interaction of the compounds herein described with glycoproteins gp120 and gp41 of the HIV envelope preventing interaction between HIV and the (co)receptors present on the host cells. The results obtained so far indicate that 9 tryptophan residues on the periphery are sufficient for efficient gp120/gp41 binding and anti-HIV activity.

  7. Bloch spin waves and emergent structure in protein folding with HIV envelope glycoprotein as an example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jin; Niemi, Antti J.; He, Jianfeng; Sieradzan, Adam; Ilieva, Nevena

    2016-03-01

    We inquire how structure emerges during the process of protein folding. For this we scrutinize collective many-atom motions during all-atom molecular dynamics simulations. We introduce, develop, and employ various topological techniques, in combination with analytic tools that we deduce from the concept of integrable models and structure of discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation. The example we consider is an α -helical subunit of the HIV envelope glycoprotein gp41. The helical structure is stable when the subunit is part of the biological oligomer. But in isolation, the helix becomes unstable, and the monomer starts deforming. We follow the process computationally. We interpret the evolving structure both in terms of a backbone based Heisenberg spin chain and in terms of a side chain based XY spin chain. We find that in both cases the formation of protein supersecondary structure is akin the formation of a topological Bloch domain wall along a spin chain. During the process we identify three individual Bloch walls and we show that each of them can be modelled with a precision of tenths to several angstroms in terms of a soliton solution to a discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation.

  8. Neurotoxic Activity of the HIV-1 Envelope Glycoprotein: Activation of Protein Kinase C in Rat Astrocytes

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    Isaac Adebayo

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Envelope glycoprotein (gp120 of the human immunodeficiency virus type one (HIV-1, has adverse effects on glial cells and neurons. This study reports on the direct effect of recombinant gp120 (r-gp120 produced from different expression systems on protein kinase C, as a measure of relative neurotoxicity. Brain cells were grown in vitro from explants of the cerebral cortex of newborn rats, and recombinant gp120 preparations expressed in mammalian cell/vaccinia virus and insect cell/baculovirus systems were applied to astrocyte-enriched cultures. The gp120 preparations activated protein kinase C (PKC to similar levels in these cells. Mutant recombinant gp120 lacking the amino-terminal 29 amino acids produced from the mammalian and insect cells also activated PKC to similar levels as did the full-length protein. The recombinant proteins specifically activated PKC β and ζ, suggesting that they are able to induce both Ca2+-dependent and Ca2+-independent isoforms of this enzyme. Alteration of PKC activity in astrocytes by gp120 indicates its ability to modulate gene expression, which is associated with the neurotoxicity of this protein. Furthermore, the results suggest that the deletion of the first 29 residues of NH2-terminal end of the gp120 does not affect the functional activity of this protein with regard to modulation of signal transduction in astrocytes.

  9. Molecular motions and conformational transition between different conformational states of HIV-1 gp120 envelope glycoprotein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The HIV-1 gp120 exterior envelope glycoprotein undergoes a series of conformational rearrangements while sequentially interacting with the receptor CD4 and coreceptor CCR5 or CXCR4 on the surface of host cells to initiate virus entry. Both the crystal structures of the HIV-1 gp120 core bound by the CD4 and antigen 17b and the SIV gp120 core prebound by CD4 are known. Despite the wealth of knowledge on these static snapshots of molecular conformations, the details of molecular motions involved in conformational transition that are crucial to intervention remain elusive. We presented comprehensive comparative analyses of the dynamics behaviors of the gp120 in its CD4-complexed, CD4-free and CD4-unliganded states based on the homology models with modeled V3 and V4 loops by means of CONCOORD computer simulation to generate ensembles of feasible protein structures that were subsequently analysed by essential dynamics analyses to identify preferred concerted motions. The revealed collective fluctuations are dominated by complex modes of combinational motions of the rotation/twisting, flexing/closure, and shortness/elongation between or within the inner, outer, and bridging-sheet domains, and these modes are related to the CD4 association and HIV neutralization avoidance. Further essential subspace overlap analyses were performed to quantitatively distinguish the preference for conformational transitions between the three states, revealing that the unliganded gp120 has a greater potential to translate its conformation into the conformational state adopted by the CD4-complexed gp120 than by the CD4-free gp120, whereas the CD4-free gp120 has a greater potential to translate its conformation into the unliganded state than the CD4-complexed gp120 does. These dy-namics data of gp120 in its different conformations are helpful in understanding the relationship be-tween the molecular motion/conformational transition and the function of gp120, and in gp120-structure-based subunit

  10. Structural characteristics correlate with immune responses induced by HIV envelope glycoprotein vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Victoria A; Kan, Elaine; Sun, Yide; Lian, Ying; Cisto, Jimna; Frasca, Verna; Hilt, Susan; Stamatatos, Leonidas; Donnelly, John J; Ulmer, Jeffrey B; Barnett, Susan W; Srivastava, Indresh K

    2006-08-15

    HIV envelope glycoprotein (Env) is the target for inducing neutralizing antibodies. Env is present on the virus surface as a trimer, and, upon binding to CD4, a cascade of events leads to structural rearrangement exposing the co-receptor binding site and entry into the CD4+ host target cells. We have designed monomeric and trimeric Env constructs with and without deletion of the variable loop 2 (ΔV2) from SF162, a subtype B primary isolate, and performed biophysical, biochemical and immunological studies to establish a potential structure–functional relationship. We expressed these Envs in CHO cells, purified the proteins to homogeneity and performed biophysical studies to define the binding properties to CD4, structural characteristics and exposure of epitopes recognized by b12 and CD4i mAb (17B) on both full-length and mutant HIV Env proteins. Parameters evaluated include oligomerization state, number and affinity of CD4 binding sites, enthalpy and entropy of the Env–CD4 interaction and affinity for b12 and 17b mAbs. We observed one CD4 binding site per monomer and three active CD4 binding sites per trimer. A40-fold difference in affinity of the gp120 monomer vs. the o-gp140 trimer towards CD4 was observed (Kd = 58 nM and 1.5 nM, respectively),whereas only a 2-fold difference was observed for the V2 deleted Envs (Kd of gp120ΔV2 = 19 nM, Kd of o-gp140DV2 = 9.3 nM). Monomers had 3-fold higher affinity to the mAb 17b and at least 3-fold weaker affinity to b12 compared to trimers, with gp120DV2 having the weakest affinity for b12 (Kd = 446 nM). Affinity of CD4 binding correlated with proportion of the antibodies induced against the conformational epitopes by the corresponding Envs, and changes in mAb binding correlated with the induction of antibodies directed against linear epitopes. Furthermore,biophysical analysis reveals that the V2 deletion has broad structural implications in the monomer not shared by the trimer, and these changes are reflected in the

  11. Broader HIV-1 neutralizing antibody responses induced by envelope glycoprotein mutants based on the EIAV attenuated vaccine

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    Liu Lianxing

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to induce a potent and cross-reactive neutralizing antibody (nAb, an effective envelope immunogen is crucial for many viral vaccines, including the vaccine for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. The Chinese equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV attenuated vaccine has controlled the epidemic of this virus after its vaccination in over 70 million equine animals during the last 3 decades in China. Data from our past studies demonstrate that the Env protein of this vaccine plays a pivotal role in protecting horses from both homologous and heterogeneous EIAV challenges. Therefore, the amino acid sequence information from the Chinese EIAV attenuated vaccine, in comparison with the parental wild-type EIAV strains, was applied to modify the corresponding region of the envelope glycoprotein of HIV-1 CN54. The direction of the mutations was made towards the amino acids conserved in the two EIAV vaccine strains, distinguishing them from the two wild-type strains. The purpose of the modification was to enhance the immunogenicity of the HIV Env. Results The induced nAb by the modified HIV Env neutralized HIV-1 B and B'/C viruses at the highest titer of 1:270. Further studies showed that a single amino acid change in the C1 region accounts for the substantial enhancement in induction of anti-HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies. Conclusions This study shows that an HIV envelope modified by the information of another lentivirus vaccine induces effective broadly neutralizing antibodies. A single amino acid mutation was found to increase the immunogenicity of the HIV Env.

  12. Molecular architectures of trimeric SIV and HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins on intact viruses: strain-dependent variation in quaternary structure.

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    Tommi A White

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The initial step in target cell infection by human, and the closely related simian immunodeficiency viruses (HIV and SIV, respectively occurs with the binding of trimeric envelope glycoproteins (Env, composed of heterodimers of the viral transmembrane glycoprotein (gp41 and surface glycoprotein (gp120 to target T-cells. Knowledge of the molecular structure of trimeric Env on intact viruses is important both for understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying virus-cell interactions and for the design of effective immunogen-based vaccines to combat HIV/AIDS. Previous analyses of intact HIV-1 BaL virions have already resulted in structures of trimeric Env in unliganded and CD4-liganded states at ~20 Å resolution. Here, we show that the molecular architectures of trimeric Env from SIVmneE11S, SIVmac239 and HIV-1 R3A strains are closely comparable to that previously determined for HIV-1 BaL, with the V1 and V2 variable loops located at the apex of the spike, close to the contact zone between virus and cell. The location of the V1/V2 loops in trimeric Env was definitively confirmed by structural analysis of HIV-1 R3A virions engineered to express Env with deletion of these loops. Strikingly, in SIV CP-MAC, a CD4-independent strain, trimeric Env is in a constitutively "open" conformation with gp120 trimers splayed out in a conformation similar to that seen for HIV-1 BaL Env when it is complexed with sCD4 and the CD4i antibody 17b. Our findings suggest a structural explanation for the molecular mechanism of CD4-independent viral entry and further establish that cryo-electron tomography can be used to discover distinct, functionally relevant quaternary structures of Env displayed on intact viruses.

  13. Determination of molecular structures of HIV envelope glycoproteins using cryo-electron tomography and automated sub-tomogram averaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyerson, Joel R; White, Tommi A; Bliss, Donald; Moran, Amy; Bartesaghi, Alberto; Borgnia, Mario J; de la Cruz, M Jason V; Schauder, David; Hartnell, Lisa M; Nandwani, Rachna; Dawood, Moez; Kim, Brianna; Kim, Jun Hong; Sununu, John; Yang, Lisa; Bhatia, Siddhant; Subramaniam, Carolyn; Hurt, Darrell E; Gaudreault, Laurent; Subramaniam, Sriram

    2011-12-01

    Since its discovery nearly 30 years ago, more than 60 million people have been infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (www.usaid.gov). The virus infects and destroys CD4+ T-cells thereby crippling the immune system, and causing an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) (2). Infection begins when the HIV Envelope glycoprotein "spike" makes contact with the CD4 receptor on the surface of the CD4+ T-cell. This interaction induces a conformational change in the spike, which promotes interaction with a second cell surface co-receptor (5,9). The significance of these protein interactions in the HIV infection pathway makes them of profound importance in fundamental HIV research, and in the pursuit of an HIV vaccine. The need to better understand the molecular-scale interactions of HIV cell contact and neutralization motivated the development of a technique to determine the structures of the HIV spike interacting with cell surface receptor proteins and molecules that block infection. Using cryo-electron tomography and 3D image processing, we recently demonstrated the ability to determine such structures on the surface of native virus, at ˜20 Å resolution (9,14). This approach is not limited to resolving HIV Envelope structures, and can be extended to other viral membrane proteins and proteins reconstituted on a liposome. In this protocol, we describe how to obtain structures of HIV envelope glycoproteins starting from purified HIV virions and proceeding stepwise through preparing vitrified samples, collecting, cryo-electron microscopy data, reconstituting and processing 3D data volumes, averaging and classifying 3D protein subvolumes, and interpreting results to produce a protein model. The computational aspects of our approach were adapted into modules that can be accessed and executed remotely using the Biowulf GNU/Linux parallel processing cluster at the NIH (http://biowulf.nih.gov). This remote access, combined with low-cost computer hardware and

  14. Determination of Molecular Structures of HIV Envelope Glycoproteins using Cryo-Electron Tomography and Automated Sub-tomogram Averaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyerson, Joel R.; White, Tommi A.; Bliss, Donald; Moran, Amy; Bartesaghi, Alberto; Borgnia, Mario J.; de la Cruz, M. Jason V.; Schauder, David; Hartnell, Lisa M.; Nandwani, Rachna; Dawood, Moez; Kim, Brianna; Kim, Jun Hong; Sununu, John; Yang, Lisa; Bhatia, Siddhant; Subramaniam, Carolyn; Hurt, Darrell E.; Gaudreault, Laurent; Subramaniam, Sriram

    2011-01-01

    Since its discovery nearly 30 years ago, more than 60 million people have been infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (www.usaid.gov). The virus infects and destroys CD4+ T-cells thereby crippling the immune system, and causing an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) 2. Infection begins when the HIV Envelope glycoprotein "spike" makes contact with the CD4 receptor on the surface of the CD4+ T-cell. This interaction induces a conformational change in the spike, which promotes interaction with a second cell surface co-receptor 5,9. The significance of these protein interactions in the HIV infection pathway makes them of profound importance in fundamental HIV research, and in the pursuit of an HIV vaccine. The need to better understand the molecular-scale interactions of HIV cell contact and neutralization motivated the development of a technique to determine the structures of the HIV spike interacting with cell surface receptor proteins and molecules that block infection. Using cryo-electron tomography and 3D image processing, we recently demonstrated the ability to determine such structures on the surface of native virus, at ˜20 Å resolution 9,14. This approach is not limited to resolving HIV Envelope structures, and can be extended to other viral membrane proteins and proteins reconstituted on a liposome. In this protocol, we describe how to obtain structures of HIV envelope glycoproteins starting from purified HIV virions and proceeding stepwise through preparing vitrified samples, collecting, cryo-electron microscopy data, reconstituting and processing 3D data volumes, averaging and classifying 3D protein subvolumes, and interpreting results to produce a protein model. The computational aspects of our approach were adapted into modules that can be accessed and executed remotely using the Biowulf GNU/Linux parallel processing cluster at the NIH (http://biowulf.nih.gov). This remote access, combined with low-cost computer hardware and high

  15. Envelope glycoprotein of arenaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burri, Dominique J; da Palma, Joel Ramos; Kunz, Stefan; Pasquato, Antonella

    2012-10-17

    Arenaviruses include lethal human pathogens which pose serious public health threats. So far, no FDA approved vaccines are available against arenavirus infections, and therapeutic options are limited, making the identification of novel drug targets for the development of efficacious therapeutics an urgent need. Arenaviruses are comprised of two RNA genome segments and four proteins, the polymerase L, the envelope glycoprotein GP, the matrix protein Z, and the nucleoprotein NP. A crucial step in the arenavirus life-cycle is the biosynthesis and maturation of the GP precursor (GPC) by cellular signal peptidases and the cellular enzyme Subtilisin Kexin Isozyme-1 (SKI-1)/Site-1 Protease (S1P) yielding a tripartite mature GP complex formed by GP1/GP2 and a stable signal peptide (SSP). GPC cleavage by SKI-1/S1P is crucial for fusion competence and incorporation of mature GP into nascent budding virion particles. In a first part of our review, we cover basic aspects and newer developments in the biosynthesis of arenavirus GP and its molecular interaction with SKI-1/S1P. A second part will then highlight the potential of SKI-1/S1P-mediated processing of arenavirus GPC as a novel target for therapeutic intervention to combat human pathogenic arenaviruses.

  16. Envelope Glycoprotein of Arenaviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Pasquato

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Arenaviruses include lethal human pathogens which pose serious public health threats. So far, no FDA approved vaccines are available against arenavirus infections, and therapeutic options are limited, making the identification of novel drug targets for the development of efficacious therapeutics an urgent need. Arenaviruses are comprised of two RNA genome segments and four proteins, the polymerase L, the envelope glycoprotein GP, the matrix protein Z, and the nucleoprotein NP. A crucial step in the arenavirus life-cycle is the biosynthesis and maturation of the GP precursor (GPC by cellular signal peptidases and the cellular enzyme Subtilisin Kexin Isozyme-1 (SKI-1/Site-1 Protease (S1P yielding a tripartite mature GP complex formed by GP1/GP2 and a stable signal peptide (SSP. GPC cleavage by SKI-1/S1P is crucial for fusion competence and incorporation of mature GP into nascent budding virion particles. In a first part of our review, we cover basic aspects and newer developments in the biosynthesis of arenavirus GP and its molecular interaction with SKI-1/S1P. A second part will then highlight the potential of SKI-1/S1P-mediated processing of arenavirus GPC as a novel target for therapeutic intervention to combat human pathogenic arenaviruses.

  17. Apoptotic killing of HIV-1-infected macrophages is subverted by the viral envelope glycoprotein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Swingler

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Viruses have evolved strategies to protect infected cells from apoptotic clearance. We present evidence that HIV-1 possesses a mechanism to protect infected macrophages from the apoptotic effects of the death ligand TRAIL (tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand. In HIV-1-infected macrophages, the viral envelope protein induced macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF. This pro-survival cytokine downregulated the TRAIL receptor TRAIL-R1/DR4 and upregulated the anti-apoptotic genes Bfl-1 and Mcl-1. Inhibition of M-CSF activity or silencing of Bfl-1 and Mcl-1 rendered infected macrophages highly susceptible to TRAIL. The anti-cancer agent Imatinib inhibited M-CSF receptor activation and restored the apoptotic sensitivity of HIV-1-infected macrophages, suggesting a novel strategy to curtail viral persistence in the macrophage reservoir.

  18. Only five of 10 strictly conserved disulfide bonds are essential for folding and eight for function of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. van Anken (Eelco); R.W. Sanders (Rogier); I.M. Liscaljet (Marije); A. Land (Aafke); I. Bontjer (Ilja); S.P.R. Tillemans; A.A. Nabatov (Alexey); W.A. Paxton (William); B. Berkhout (Ben); I. Braakman (Ineke)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractProtein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum goes hand in hand with disulfide bond formation, and disulfide bonds are considered key structural elements for a protein's folding and function. We used the HIV-1 Envelope glycoprotein to examine in detail the importance of its 10 completely

  19. Only five of 10 strictly conserved disulfide bonds are essential for folding and eight for function of the hiv-1 envelope glycoprotein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Anken, E.; Sanders, R.W.; Liscaljet, I.M.; Land, A.; Bontjer, I.; Tillemans, S.; Nabatov, A.A.; Paxton, W.A.; Berkhout, B.; Braakman, L.J.

    2008-01-01

    Protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum goes hand in hand with disulfide bond formation, and disulfide bonds are considered key structural elements for a protein’s folding and function. We used the HIV-1 Envelope glycoprotein to examine in detail the importance of its 10 completely conserved di

  20. Functional stability of unliganded envelope glycoprotein spikes among isolates of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitish Agrawal

    Full Text Available The HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env spike is challenging to study at the molecular level, due in part to its genetic variability, structural heterogeneity and lability. However, the extent of lability in Env function, particularly for primary isolates across clades, has not been explored. Here, we probe stability of function for variant Envs of a range of isolates from chronic and acute infection, and from clades A, B and C, all on a constant virus backbone. Stability is elucidated in terms of the sensitivity of isolate infectivity to destabilizing conditions. A heat-gradient assay was used to determine T(90 values, the temperature at which HIV-1 infectivity is decreased by 90% in 1 h, which ranged between ∼40 to 49°C (n = 34. For select Envs (n = 10, the half-lives of infectivity decay at 37°C were also determined and these correlated significantly with the T(90 (p = 0.029, though two 'outliers' were identified. Specificity in functional Env stability was also evident. For example, Env variant HIV-1(ADA was found to be labile to heat, 37°C decay, and guanidinium hydrochloride but not to urea or extremes of pH, when compared to its thermostable counterpart, HIV-1(JR-CSF. Blue native PAGE analyses revealed that Env-dependent viral inactivation preceded complete dissociation of Env trimers. The viral membrane and membrane-proximal external region (MPER of gp41 were also shown to be important for maintaining trimer stability at physiological temperature. Overall, our results indicate that primary HIV-1 Envs can have diverse sensitivities to functional inactivation in vitro, including at physiological temperature, and suggest that parameters of functional Env stability may be helpful in the study and optimization of native Env mimetics and vaccines.

  1. Escherichia coli–expressed near full length HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein is a highly sensitive and specific diagnostic antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talha Sheikh M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp160, useful in detecting anti-HIV-1 antibodies, is difficult to express in heterologous hosts. The major hurdles are its signal sequence, strong hydrophobic regions and heavy glycosylation. While it has not been possible to express full length recombinant (r-gp160 in E. coli, it can be expressed in insect and mammalian cells, but at relatively higher cost. In this work, we report E. coli-based over-expression of r-gp160 variant and evaluate its performance in diagnostic immunoassays for the detection of anti-HIV-1 antibodies. Methods A deletion variant of r-gp160 lacking hydrophobic regions of the parent full length molecule was expressed in E. coli and purified to near homogeneity using single-step Ni(II-affinity chromatography. Biotinylated and europium(III chelate-labeled versions of this antigen were used to set up one- and two-step time-resolved fluorometric double antigen sandwich assays. The performance of these assays was evaluated against a collection of well-characterized human sera (n=131, that included an in-house panel and four commercially procured panels. Results In-frame deletion of three hydrophobic regions, spanning amino acid residues 1–43, 519–538 and 676–706, of full length HIV-1 gp160 resulted in its expression in E. coli. Both the one- and two-step assays manifested high sensitivity unambiguously identifying 75/77 and 77/77 HIV-1 positive sera, respectively. Both assays also identified all 52 HIV-seronegative sera correctly. Between the two assays, the mean signal-to-cutoff value of the two-step assay was an order of magnitude greater than that of the one-step assay. Both assays were highly specific manifesting no cross-reactivity towards antibodies specific to other viruses like hepatitis B, C, and human T cell leukemia viruses. Conclusions This study has demonstrated the expression of r-gp160 variant in E. coli, by deletion

  2. Discovery of a small molecule PDI inhibitor that inhibits reduction of HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Maola M G; Simizu, Siro; Lai, Ngit Shin; Kawatani, Makoto; Shimizu, Takeshi; Osada, Hiroyuki

    2011-03-18

    Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) is a promiscuous protein with multifunctional properties. PDI mediates proper protein folding by oxidation or isomerization and disrupts disulfide bonds by reduction. The entry of HIV-1 into cells is facilitated by the PDI-catalyzed reductive cleavage of disulfide bonds in gp120. PDI is regarded as a potential drug target because of its reduction activity. We screened a chemical library of natural products for PDI-specific inhibitors in a high-throughput fashion and identified the natural compound juniferdin as the most potent inhibitor of PDI. Derivatives of juniferdin were synthesized, with compound 13 showing inhibitory activities comparable to those of juniferdin but reduced cytotoxicity. Both juniferdin and compound 13 inhibited PDI reductase activity in a dose-dependent manner, with IC(50) values of 156 and 167 nM, respectively. Our results also indicated that juniferdin and compound 13 exert their inhibitory activities specifically on PDI but do not significantly inhibit homologues of this protein family. Moreover, we found that both compounds can inhibit PDI-mediated reduction of HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120.

  3. Chimeric HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins with potent intrinsic granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gözde Isik

    Full Text Available HIV-1 acquisition can be prevented by broadly neutralizing antibodies (BrNAbs that target the envelope glycoprotein complex (Env. An ideal vaccine should therefore be able to induce BrNAbs that can provide immunity over a prolonged period of time, but the low intrinsic immunogenicity of HIV-1 Env makes the elicitation of such BrNAbs challenging. Co-stimulatory molecules can increase the immunogenicity of Env and we have engineered a soluble chimeric Env trimer with an embedded granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF domain. This chimeric molecule induced enhanced B and helper T cell responses in mice compared to Env without GM-CSF. We studied whether we could optimize the activity of the embedded GM-CSF as well as the antigenic structure of the Env component of the chimeric molecule. We assessed the effect of truncating GM-CSF, removing glycosylation-sites in GM-CSF, and adjusting the linker length between GM-CSF and Env. One of our designed Env(GM-CSF chimeras improved GM-CSF-dependent cell proliferation by 6-fold, reaching the same activity as soluble recombinant GM-CSF. In addition, we incorporated GM-CSF into a cleavable Env trimer and found that insertion of GM-CSF did not compromise Env cleavage, while Env cleavage did not compromise GM-CSF activity. Importantly, these optimized Env(GM-CSF proteins were able to differentiate human monocytes into cells with a macrophage-like phenotype. Chimeric Env(GM-CSF should be useful for improving humoral immunity against HIV-1 and these studies should inform the design of other chimeric proteins.

  4. Cross-Reactive Human IgM-Derived Monoclonal Antibodies that Bind to HIV-1 Envelope Glycoproteins

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    Barton F. Haynes

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Elicitation of antibodies with potent and broad neutralizing activity against HIV by immunization remains a challenge. Several monoclonal antibodies (mAbs isolated from humans with HIV-1 infection exhibit such activity but vaccine immunogens based on structures containing their epitopes have not been successful for their elicitation. All known broadly neutralizing mAbs (bnmAbs are immunoglobulin (Ig Gs (IgGs and highly somatically hypermutated which could impede their elicitation. Ig Ms (IgMs are on average significantly less divergent from germline antibodies and are relevant for the development of vaccine immunogens but are underexplored compared to IgGs. Here we describe the identification and characterization of several human IgM-derived mAbs against HIV-1 which were selected from a large phage-displayed naive human antibody library constructed from blood, lymph nodes and spleens of 59 healthy donors. These antibodies bound with high affinity to recombinant envelope glycoproteins (gp140s, Envs of HIV-1 isolates from different clades. They enhanced or did not neutralize infection by some of the HIV-1 primary isolates using CCR5 as a coreceptor but neutralized all CXCR4 isolates tested although weakly. One of these antibodies with relatively low degree of somatic hypermutation was more extensively characterized. It bound to a highly conserved region partially overlapping with the coreceptor binding site and close to but not overlapping with the CD4 binding site. These results suggest the existence of conserved structures that could direct the immune response to non-neutralizing or even enhancing antibodies which may represent a strategy used by the virus to escape neutralizing immune responses. Further studies will show whether such a strategy plays a role in HIV infection of humans, how important that role could be, and what the mechanisms of infection enhancement are. The newly identified mAbs could be used as reagents to further

  5. Stabilizing exposure of conserved epitopes by structure guided insertion of disulfide bond in HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein.

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    Aemro Kassa

    Full Text Available Entry of HIV-1 into target cells requires binding of the viral envelope glycoprotein (Env to cellular receptors and subsequent conformational changes that culminates in fusion of viral and target cell membranes. Recent structural information has revealed that these conformational transitions are regulated by three conserved but potentially flexible layers stacked between the receptor-binding domain (gp120 and the fusion arm (gp41 of Env. We hypothesized that artificial insertion of a covalent bond will 'snap' Env into a conformation that is less mobile and stably expose conserved sites. Therefore, we analyzed the interface between these gp120 layers (layers 1, 2 and 3 and identified residues that may form disulfide bonds when substituted with cysteines. We subsequently probed the structures of the resultant mutant gp120 proteins by assaying their binding to a variety of ligands using Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR assay. We found that a single disulfide bond strategically inserted between the highly conserved layers 1 and 2 (C65-C115 is able to 'lock' gp120 in a CD4 receptor bound conformation (in the absence of CD4, as indicated by the lower dissociation constant (Kd for the CD4-induced (CD4i epitope binding 17b antibody. When disulfide-stabilized monomeric (gp120 and trimeric (gp140 Envs were used to immunize rabbits, they were found to elicit a higher proportion of antibodies directed against both CD4i and CD4 binding site epitopes than the wild-type proteins. These results demonstrate that structure-guided stabilization of inter-layer interactions within HIV-1 Env can be used to expose conserved epitopes and potentially overcome the sequence diversity of these molecules.

  6. Cellulose acetate phthalate, a common pharmaceutical excipient, inactivates HIV-1 and blocks the coreceptor binding site on the virus envelope glycoprotein gp120

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    Li Yun-Yao

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP, a pharmaceutical excipient used for enteric film coating of capsules and tablets, was shown to inhibit infection by the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 and several herpesviruses. CAP formulations inactivated HIV-1, herpesvirus types 1 (HSV-1 and 2 (HSV-2 and the major nonviral sexually transmitted disease (STD pathogens and were effective in animal models for vaginal infection by HSV-2 and simian immunodeficiency virus. Methods Enzyme-linked immunoassays and flow cytometry were used to demonstrate CAP binding to HIV-1 and to define the binding site on the virus envelope. Results 1 CAP binds to HIV-1 virus particles and to the envelope glycoprotein gp120; 2 this leads to blockade of the gp120 V3 loop and other gp120 sites resulting in diminished reactivity with HIV-1 coreceptors CXCR4 and CCR5; 3 CAP binding to HIV-1 virions impairs their infectivity; 4 these findings apply to both HIV-1 IIIB, an X4 virus, and HIV-1 BaL, an R5 virus. Conclusions These results provide support for consideration of CAP as a topical microbicide of choice for prevention of STDs, including HIV-1 infection.

  7. Nucleic acids encoding modified human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) group M consensus envelope glycoproteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Barton F [Durham, NC; Gao, Feng [Durham, NC; Korber, Bette T [Los Alamos, NM; Hahn, Beatrice H [Birmingham, AL; Shaw, George M [Birmingham, AL; Kothe, Denise [Birmingham, AL; Li, Ying Ying [Hoover, AL; Decker, Julie [Alabaster, AL; Liao, Hua-Xin [Chapel Hill, NC

    2011-12-06

    The present invention relates, in general, to an immunogen and, in particular, to an immunogen for inducing antibodies that neutralizes a wide spectrum of HIV primary isolates and/or to an immunogen that induces a T cell immune response. The invention also relates to a method of inducing anti-HIV antibodies, and/or to a method of inducing a T cell immune response, using such an immunogen. The invention further relates to nucleic acid sequences encoding the present immunogens.

  8. Comparative evaluation of trimeric envelope glycoproteins derived from subtype C and B HIV-1 R5 isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Indresh K; Kan, Elaine; Sun, Yide; Sharma, Victoria A; Cisto, Jimna; Burke, Brian; Lian, Ying; Hilt, Susan; Biron, Zohar; Hartog, Karin; Stamatatos, Leonidas; Diaz-Avalos, Ruben; Cheng, R Holland; Ulmer, Jeffrey B; Barnett, Susan W

    2008-03-15

    We previously reported that an envelope (Env) glycoprotein immunogen (o-gp140DeltaV2SF162) containing a partial deletion in the second variable loop (V2) derived from the R5-tropic HIV-1 isolate SF162 partially protected vaccinated rhesus macaques against pathogenic SHIV(SF162P4) virus. Extending our studies to subtype C isolate TV1, we have purified o-gp140DeltaV2TV1 (subtype C DeltaV2 trimer) to homogeneity, performed glycosylation analysis, and determined its ability to bind CD4, as well as a panel of well-characterized neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAb). In general, critical epitopes are preserved on the subtype C DeltaV2 trimer; however, we did not observe significant binding for the b12 mAb. The molecular mass of subtype C DeltaV2 trimer was found to be 450 kDa, and the hydrodynamic radius was found to be 10.87 nm. Our data suggest that subtype C DeltaV2 trimer binds to CD4 with an affinity comparable to o-gp140DeltaV2SF162 (subtype B DeltaV2 trimer). Using isothermal titration calorimetric (ITC) analysis, we demonstrated that all three CD4 binding sites (CD4-BS) in both subtype C and B trimers are exposed and accessible. However, compared to subtype B trimer, the three CD4-BS in subtype C trimer have different affinities for CD4, suggesting a cooperativity of CD4 binding in subtype C trimer but not in subtype B trimer. Negative staining electron microscopy of the subtype C DeltaV2 trimer has demonstrated that it is in fact a trimer. These results highlight the importance of studying subtype C Env, and also of developing appropriate subtype C-specific reagents that may be used for better immunological characterization of subtype C Env for developing an AIDS vaccine.

  9. Induction of antibodies against epitopes inaccessible on the HIV type 1 envelope oligomer by immunization with recombinant monomeric glycoprotein 120

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schønning, Kristian; Bolmstedt, A; Novotny, J;

    1998-01-01

    An N-glycan (N306) at the base of the V3 loop of HIV-BRU gp120 is shielding a linear neutralization epitope at the tip of the V3 loop on oligomeric Env. In contrast, this epitope is readily antigenic on monomeric gp120. Immunization with recombinant monomeric HIV-BRU gp120 may thus be expected to...... immunogenic structures inaccessible on the envelope oligomer. The limited ability of recombinant gp120 vaccines to induce neutralizing antibodies against primary isolates may thus not exclusively reflect genetic variation.......An N-glycan (N306) at the base of the V3 loop of HIV-BRU gp120 is shielding a linear neutralization epitope at the tip of the V3 loop on oligomeric Env. In contrast, this epitope is readily antigenic on monomeric gp120. Immunization with recombinant monomeric HIV-BRU gp120 may thus be expected...

  10. Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in vitro by anticarbohydrate monoclonal antibodies: peripheral glycosylation of HIV envelope glycoprotein gp120 may be a target for virus neutralization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J E; Clausen, H; Nielsen, C

    1990-01-01

    Carbohydrate structures are often involved in the initial adhesion of pathogens to target cells. In the present study, a panel of anticarbohydrate monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) was tested for their ability to inhibit in vitro human immunodeficiency virus infectivity. MAbs against three different N...... carbohydrate structures expressed by the viral envelope glycoprotein gp120, indicating that glycans of the viral envelope are possible targets for immunotherapy or vaccine development or both....

  11. Co-receptor Binding Site Antibodies Enable CD4-Mimetics to Expose Conserved Anti-cluster A ADCC Epitopes on HIV-1 Envelope Glycoproteins

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    Jonathan Richard

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 has evolved a sophisticated strategy to conceal conserved epitopes of its envelope glycoproteins (Env recognized by antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC-mediating antibodies. These antibodies, which are present in the sera of most HIV-1-infected individuals, preferentially recognize Env in its CD4-bound conformation. Accordingly, recent studies showed that small CD4-mimetics (CD4mc able to “push” Env into this conformation sensitize HIV-1-infected cells to ADCC mediated by HIV+ sera. Here we test whether CD4mc also expose epitopes recognized by anti-cluster A monoclonal antibodies such as A32, thought to be responsible for the majority of ADCC activity present in HIV+ sera and linked to decreased HIV-1 transmission in the RV144 trial. We made the surprising observation that CD4mc are unable to enhance recognition of HIV-1-infected cells by this family of antibodies in the absence of antibodies such as 17b, which binds a highly conserved CD4-induced epitope overlapping the co-receptor binding site (CoRBS. Our results indicate that CD4mc initially open the trimeric Env enough to allow the binding of CoRBS antibodies but not anti-cluster A antibodies. CoRBS antibody binding further opens the trimeric Env, allowing anti-cluster A antibody interaction and sensitization of infected cells to ADCC. Therefore, ADCC responses mediated by cluster A antibodies in HIV-positive sera involve a sequential opening of the Env trimer on the surface of HIV-1-infected cells. The understanding of the conformational changes required to expose these vulnerable Env epitopes might be important in the design of new strategies aimed at fighting HIV-1.

  12. Elicitation of neutralizing antibodies directed against CD4-induced epitope(s using a CD4 mimetic cross-linked to a HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein.

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    Antu K Dey

    Full Text Available The identification of HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env structures that can generate broadly neutralizing antibodies (BNAbs is pivotal to the development of a successful vaccine against HIV-1 aimed at eliciting effective humoral immune responses. To that end, the production of novel Env structure(s that might induce BNAbs by presentation of conserved epitopes, which are otherwise occluded, is critical. Here, we focus on a structure that stabilizes Env in a conformation representative of its primary (CD4 receptor-bound state, thereby exposing highly conserved "CD4 induced" (CD4i epitope(s known to be important for co-receptor binding and subsequent virus infection. A CD4-mimetic miniprotein, miniCD4 (M64U1-SH, was produced and covalently complexed to recombinant, trimeric gp140 envelope glycoprotein (gp140 using site-specific disulfide linkages. The resulting gp140-miniCD4 (gp140-S-S-M64U1 complex was recognized by CD4i antibodies and the HIV-1 co-receptor, CCR5. The gp140-miniCD4 complex elicited the highest titers of CD4i binding antibodies as well as enhanced neutralizing antibodies against Tier 1 viruses as compared to gp140 protein alone following immunization of rabbits. Neutralization against HIV-2(7312/V434M and additional serum mapping confirm the specific elicitation of antibodies directed to the CD4i epitope(s. These results demonstrate the utility of structure-based approach in improving immunogenic response against specific region, such as the CD4i epitope(s here, and its potential role in vaccine application.

  13. Single Amino Acid Substitution N659D in HIV-2 Envelope Glycoprotein (Env Impairs Viral Release and Hampers BST-2 Antagonism

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    François E. Dufrasne

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available BST-2 or tetherin is a host cell restriction factor that prevents the budding of enveloped viruses at the cell surface, thus impairing the viral spread. Several countermeasures to evade this antiviral factor have been positively selected in retroviruses: the human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2 relies on the envelope glycoprotein (Env to overcome BST-2 restriction. The Env gp36 ectodomain seems involved in this anti-tetherin activity, however residues and regions interacting with BST-2 are not clearly defined. Among 32 HIV-2 ROD Env mutants tested, we demonstrated that the asparagine residue at position 659 located in the gp36 ectodomain is mandatory to exert the anti-tetherin function. Viral release assays in cell lines expressing BST-2 showed a loss of viral release ability for the HIV-2 N659D mutant virus compared to the HIV-2 wild type virus. In bst-2 inactivated H9 cells, those differences were lost. Subtilisin treatment of infected cells demonstrated that the N659D mutant was more tethered at the cell surface. Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET experiments confirmed a direct molecular link between Env and BST-2 and highlighted an inability of the mutant to bind BST-2. We also tested a virus presenting a truncation of 109 amino acids at the C-terminal part of Env, a cytoplasmic tail partial deletion that is spontaneously selected in vitro. Interestingly, viral release assays and FRET experiments indicated that a full Env cytoplasmic tail was essential in BST-2 antagonism. In HIV-2 infected cells, an efficient Env-mediated antagonism of BST-2 is operated through an intermolecular link involving the asparagine 659 residue as well as the C-terminal part of the cytoplasmic tail.

  14. Single Amino Acid Substitution N659D in HIV-2 Envelope Glycoprotein (Env) Impairs Viral Release and Hampers BST-2 Antagonism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufrasne, François E.; Lombard, Catherine; Goubau, Patrick; Ruelle, Jean

    2016-01-01

    BST-2 or tetherin is a host cell restriction factor that prevents the budding of enveloped viruses at the cell surface, thus impairing the viral spread. Several countermeasures to evade this antiviral factor have been positively selected in retroviruses: the human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) relies on the envelope glycoprotein (Env) to overcome BST-2 restriction. The Env gp36 ectodomain seems involved in this anti-tetherin activity, however residues and regions interacting with BST-2 are not clearly defined. Among 32 HIV-2 ROD Env mutants tested, we demonstrated that the asparagine residue at position 659 located in the gp36 ectodomain is mandatory to exert the anti-tetherin function. Viral release assays in cell lines expressing BST-2 showed a loss of viral release ability for the HIV-2 N659D mutant virus compared to the HIV-2 wild type virus. In bst-2 inactivated H9 cells, those differences were lost. Subtilisin treatment of infected cells demonstrated that the N659D mutant was more tethered at the cell surface. Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) experiments confirmed a direct molecular link between Env and BST-2 and highlighted an inability of the mutant to bind BST-2. We also tested a virus presenting a truncation of 109 amino acids at the C-terminal part of Env, a cytoplasmic tail partial deletion that is spontaneously selected in vitro. Interestingly, viral release assays and FRET experiments indicated that a full Env cytoplasmic tail was essential in BST-2 antagonism. In HIV-2 infected cells, an efficient Env-mediated antagonism of BST-2 is operated through an intermolecular link involving the asparagine 659 residue as well as the C-terminal part of the cytoplasmic tail. PMID:27754450

  15. Fusion proteins of HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120 with CD4-induced antibodies showed enhanced binding to CD4 and CD4 binding site antibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Weizao, E-mail: chenw3@mail.nih.gov [Protein Interactions Group, Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Frederick, MD 21702 (United States); Feng, Yang [Protein Interactions Group, Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Frederick, MD 21702 (United States); Wang, Yanping [Protein Interactions Group, Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Frederick, MD 21702 (United States); The Basic Research Program, Science Applications International Corporation-Frederick, Inc., National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Frederick, MD 21702 (United States); Zhu, Zhongyu; Dimitrov, Dimiter S. [Protein Interactions Group, Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Frederick, MD 21702 (United States)

    2012-09-07

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Some recombinant HIV-1 gp120s do not preserve their conformations on gp140s. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We hypothesize that CD4i antibodies could induce conformational changes in gp120. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CD4i antibodies enhance binding of CD4 and CD4bs antibodies to gp120. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CD4i antibody-gp120 fusion proteins could have potential as vaccine immunogens. -- Abstract: Development of successful AIDS vaccine immunogens continues to be a major challenge. One of the mechanisms by which HIV-1 evades antibody-mediated neutralizing responses is the remarkable conformational flexibility of its envelope glycoprotein (Env) gp120. Some recombinant gp120s do not preserve their conformations on gp140s and functional viral spikes, and exhibit decreased recognition by CD4 and neutralizing antibodies. CD4 binding induces conformational changes in gp120 leading to exposure of the coreceptor-binding site (CoRbs). In this study, we test our hypothesis that CD4-induced (CD4i) antibodies, which target the CoRbs, could also induce conformational changes in gp120 leading to better exposed conserved neutralizing antibody epitopes including the CD4-binding site (CD4bs). We found that a mixture of CD4i antibodies with gp120 only weakly enhanced CD4 binding. However, such interactions in single-chain fusion proteins resulted in gp120 conformations which bound to CD4 and CD4bs antibodies better than the original or mutagenically stabilized gp120s. Moreover, the two molecules in the fusion proteins synergized with each other in neutralizing HIV-1. Therefore, fusion proteins of gp120 with CD4i antibodies could have potential as components of HIV-1 vaccines and inhibitors of HIV-1 entry, and could be used as reagents to explore the conformational flexibility of gp120 and mechanisms of entry and immune evasion.

  16. Effects of the I559P gp41 change on the conformation and function of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 membrane envelope glycoprotein trimer.

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    Nirmin Alsahafi

    Full Text Available The mature human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env trimer is produced by proteolytic cleavage of a precursor and consists of three gp120 exterior and three gp41 transmembrane subunits. The metastable Env complex is induced to undergo conformational changes required for virus entry by the binding of gp120 to the receptors, CD4 and CCR5/CXCR4. An isoleucine-to-proline change (I559P in the gp41 ectodomain has been used to stabilize soluble forms of HIV-1 Env trimers for structural characterization and for use as immunogens. In the native membrane-anchored HIV-1BG505 Env, the I559P change modestly decreased proteolytic maturation, increased the non-covalent association of gp120 with the Env trimer, and resulted in an Env conformation distinctly different from that of the wild-type HIV-1BG505 Env. Compared with the wild-type Env, the I559P Env was recognized inefficiently by polyclonal sera from HIV-1-infected individuals, by several gp41-directed antibodies, by some antibodies against the CD4-binding site of gp120, and by antibodies that preferentially recognize the CD4-bound Env. Some of the gp120-associated antigenic differences between the wild-type HIV-1BG505 Env and the I559P mutant were compensated by the SOS disulfide bond between gp120 and gp41, which has been used to stabilize cleaved soluble Env trimers. Nonetheless, regardless of the presence of the SOS changes, Envs with proline 559 were recognized less efficiently than Envs with isoleucine 559 by the VRC01 neutralizing antibody, which binds the CD4-binding site of gp120, and the PGT151 neutralizing antibody, which binds a hybrid gp120-gp41 epitope. The I559P change completely eliminated the ability of the HIV-1BG505 Env to mediate cell-cell fusion and virus entry, and abolished the capacity of the SOS Env to support virus infection in the presence of a reducing agent. These results suggest that differences exist between the quaternary structures of functional Env

  17. Recurrent signature patterns in HIV-1 B clade envelope glycoproteins associated with either early or chronic infections.

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    S Gnanakaran

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Here we have identified HIV-1 B clade Envelope (Env amino acid signatures from early in infection that may be favored at transmission, as well as patterns of recurrent mutation in chronic infection that may reflect common pathways of immune evasion. To accomplish this, we compared thousands of sequences derived by single genome amplification from several hundred individuals that were sampled either early in infection or were chronically infected. Samples were divided at the outset into hypothesis-forming and validation sets, and we used phylogenetically corrected statistical strategies to identify signatures, systematically scanning all of Env. Signatures included single amino acids, glycosylation motifs, and multi-site patterns based on functional or structural groupings of amino acids. We identified signatures near the CCR5 co-receptor-binding region, near the CD4 binding site, and in the signal peptide and cytoplasmic domain, which may influence Env expression and processing. Two signatures patterns associated with transmission were particularly interesting. The first was the most statistically robust signature, located in position 12 in the signal peptide. The second was the loss of an N-linked glycosylation site at positions 413-415; the presence of this site has been recently found to be associated with escape from potent and broad neutralizing antibodies, consistent with enabling a common pathway for immune escape during chronic infection. Its recurrent loss in early infection suggests it may impact fitness at the time of transmission or during early viral expansion. The signature patterns we identified implicate Env expression levels in selection at viral transmission or in early expansion, and suggest that immune evasion patterns that recur in many individuals during chronic infection when antibodies are present can be selected against when the infection is being established prior to the adaptive immune response.

  18. HIV-1 envelope trimer fusion proteins and their applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sliepen, K.H.E.W.J.

    2016-01-01

    HIV-1 is a major threat to global health and a vaccine is not yet on the horizon. A successful HIV-1 vaccine should probably induce HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies that target the envelope glycoprotein (Env) trimer on the outside of the virion. A possible starting point for such a vaccine are soluble

  19. The V4 and V5 Variable Loops of HIV-1 Envelope Glycoprotein Are Tolerant to Insertion of Green Fluorescent Protein and Are Useful Targets for Labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakane, Shuhei; Iwamoto, Aikichi; Matsuda, Zene

    2015-06-12

    The mature human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein (Env) comprises the non-covalently associated gp120 and gp41 subunits generated from the gp160 precursor. Recent structural analyses have provided quaternary structural models for gp120/gp41 trimers, including the variable loops (V1-V5) of gp120. In these models, the V3 loop is located under V1/V2 at the apical center of the Env trimer, and the V4 and V5 loops project outward from the trimeric protomers. In addition, the V4 and V5 loops are predicted to have less movement upon receptor binding during membrane fusion events. We performed insertional mutagenesis using a GFP variant, GFPOPT, placed into the variable loops of HXB2 gp120. This allowed us to evaluate the current structural models and to simultaneously generate a GFP-tagged HIV-1 Env, which was useful for image analyses. All GFP-inserted mutants showed similar levels of whole-cell expression, although certain mutants, particularly V3 mutants, showed lower levels of cell surface expression. Functional evaluation of their fusogenicities in cell-cell and virus-like particle-cell fusion assays revealed that V3 was the most sensitive to the insertion and that the V1/V2 loops were less sensitive than V3. The V4 and V5 loops were the most tolerant to insertion, and certain tag proteins other than GFPOPT could also be inserted without functional consequences. Our results support the current structural models and provide a GFPOPT-tagged Env construct for imaging studies.

  20. Induction of antibodies against epitopes inaccessible on the HIV type 1 envelope oligomer by immunization with recombinant monomeric glycoprotein 120

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schønning, Kristian; Bolmstedt, A; Novotny, J

    1998-01-01

    An N-glycan (N306) at the base of the V3 loop of HIV-BRU gp120 is shielding a linear neutralization epitope at the tip of the V3 loop on oligomeric Env. In contrast, this epitope is readily antigenic on monomeric gp120. Immunization with recombinant monomeric HIV-BRU gp120 may thus be expected...... to elicit antibodies preferentially neutralizing mutant variants of HIV-BRU lacking the N306 glycan. Therefore, two guinea pigs were immunized with monomeric wild-type HIV-BRU gp120 possessing the N306 glycan and immune sera were tested for neutralization against target viruses HIV-BRU, -A308, and -A308T321....... HIV-A308 and HIV-A308T321 lack the N306 glycan; HIV-A308T321 contains an additional mutation at the tip of V3 rendering it resistant to MAb binding at this epitope. Both immune sera preferentially neutralized the two mutant virus variants lacking the N306 glycan, with a 10- to 20-fold increase...

  1. Induction of antibodies against epitopes inaccessible on the HIV type 1 envelope oligomer by immunization with recombinant monomeric glycoprotein 120

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schønning, Kristian; Bolmstedt, A; Novotny, J

    1998-01-01

    An N-glycan (N306) at the base of the V3 loop of HIV-BRU gp120 is shielding a linear neutralization epitope at the tip of the V3 loop on oligomeric Env. In contrast, this epitope is readily antigenic on monomeric gp120. Immunization with recombinant monomeric HIV-BRU gp120 may thus be expected...... to elicit antibodies preferentially neutralizing mutant variants of HIV-BRU lacking the N306 glycan. Therefore, two guinea pigs were immunized with monomeric wild-type HIV-BRU gp120 possessing the N306 glycan and immune sera were tested for neutralization against target viruses HIV-BRU, -A308, and -A308T321....... HIV-A308 and HIV-A308T321 lack the N306 glycan; HIV-A308T321 contains an additional mutation at the tip of V3 rendering it resistant to MAb binding at this epitope. Both immune sera preferentially neutralized the two mutant virus variants lacking the N306 glycan, with a 10- to 20-fold increase...

  2. Asn 362 in gp120 contributes to enhanced fusogenicity by CCR5-restricted HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein variants from patients with AIDS

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    Wang Bin

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CCR5-restricted (R5 human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 variants cause CD4+ T-cell loss in the majority of individuals who progress to AIDS, but mechanisms underlying the pathogenicity of R5 strains are poorly understood. To better understand envelope glycoprotein (Env determinants contributing to pathogenicity of R5 viruses, we characterized 37 full-length R5 Envs from cross-sectional and longitudinal R5 viruses isolated from blood of patients with asymptomatic infection or AIDS, referred to as pre-AIDS (PA and AIDS (A R5 Envs, respectively. Results Compared to PA-R5 Envs, A-R5 Envs had enhanced fusogenicity in quantitative cell-cell fusion assays, and reduced sensitivity to inhibition by the fusion inhibitor T-20. Sequence analysis identified the presence of Asn 362 (N362, a potential N-linked glycosylation site immediately N-terminal to CD4-binding site (CD4bs residues in the C3 region of gp120, more frequently in A-R5 Envs than PA-R5 Envs. N362 was associated with enhanced fusogenicity, faster entry kinetics, and increased sensitivity of Env-pseudotyped reporter viruses to neutralization by the CD4bs-directed Env mAb IgG1b12. Mutagenesis studies showed N362 contributes to enhanced fusogenicity of most A-R5 Envs. Molecular models indicate N362 is located adjacent to the CD4 binding loop of gp120, and suggest N362 may enhance fusogenicity by promoting greater exposure of the CD4bs and/or stabilizing the CD4-bound Env structure. Conclusion Enhanced fusogenicity is a phenotype of the A-R5 Envs studied, which was associated with the presence of N362, enhanced HIV-1 entry kinetics and increased CD4bs exposure in gp120. N362 contributes to fusogenicity of R5 Envs in a strain dependent manner. Our studies suggest enhanced fusogenicity of A-R5 Envs may contribute to CD4+ T-cell loss in subjects who progress to AIDS whilst harbouring R5 HIV-1 variants. N362 may contribute to this effect in some individuals.

  3. Immunogens Modeling a Fusion-Intermediate Conformation of gp41 Elicit Antibodies to the Membrane Proximal External Region of the HIV Envelope Glycoprotein.

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    Russell Vassell

    Full Text Available The membrane proximal external region (MPER of the gp41 subunit of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env contains determinants for broadly neutralizing antibodies and has remained an important focus of vaccine design. However, creating an immunogen that elicits broadly neutralizing antibodies to this region has proven difficult in part due to the relative inaccessibility of the MPER in the native conformation of Env. Here, we describe the antigenicity and immunogenicity of a panel of oligomeric gp41 immunogens designed to model a fusion-intermediate conformation of Env in order to enhance MPER exposure in a relevant conformation. The immunogens contain segments of the gp41 N- and C-heptad repeats to mimic a trapped intermediate, followed by the MPER, with variations that include different N-heptad lengths, insertion of extra epitopes, and varying C-termini. These well-characterized immunogens were evaluated in two different immunization protocols involving gp41 and gp140 proteins, gp41 and gp160 DNA primes, and different immunization schedules and adjuvants. We found that the immunogens designed to reduce extension of helical structure into the MPER elicited the highest MPER antibody binding titers, but these antibodies lacked neutralizing activity. The gp41 protein immunogens also elicited higher MPER titers than the gp140 protein immunogen. In prime-boost studies, the best MPER responses were seen in the groups that received DNA priming with gp41 vectors followed by gp41 protein boosts. Finally, although titers to the entire protein immunogen were similar in the two immunization protocols, MPER-specific titers differed, suggesting that the immunization route, schedule, dose, or adjuvant may differentially influence MPER immunogenicity. These findings inform the design of future MPER immunogens and immunization protocols.

  4. A Functional Henipavirus Envelope Glycoprotein Pseudotyped Lentivirus Assay System

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    Broder Christopher C

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hendra virus (HeV and Nipah virus (NiV are newly emerged zoonotic paramyxoviruses discovered during outbreaks in Queensland, Australia in 1994 and peninsular Malaysia in 1998/9 respectively and classified within the new Henipavirus genus. Both viruses can infect a broad range of mammalian species causing severe and often-lethal disease in humans and animals, and repeated outbreaks continue to occur. Extensive laboratory studies on the host cell infection stage of HeV and NiV and the roles of their envelope glycoproteins have been hampered by their highly pathogenic nature and restriction to biosafety level-4 (BSL-4 containment. To circumvent this problem, we have developed a henipavirus envelope glycoprotein pseudotyped lentivirus assay system using either a luciferase gene or green fluorescent protein (GFP gene encoding human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1 genome in conjunction with the HeV and NiV fusion (F and attachment (G glycoproteins. Results Functional retrovirus particles pseudotyped with henipavirus F and G glycoproteins displayed proper target cell tropism and entry and infection was dependent on the presence of the HeV and NiV receptors ephrinB2 or B3 on target cells. The functional specificity of the assay was confirmed by the lack of reporter-gene signals when particles bearing either only the F or only G glycoprotein were prepared and assayed. Virus entry could be specifically blocked when infection was carried out in the presence of a fusion inhibiting C-terminal heptad (HR-2 peptide, a well-characterized, cross-reactive, neutralizing human mAb specific for the henipavirus G glycoprotein, and soluble ephrinB2 and B3 receptors. In addition, the utility of the assay was also demonstrated by an examination of the influence of the cytoplasmic tail of F in its fusion activity and incorporation into pseudotyped virus particles by generating and testing a panel of truncation mutants of NiV and HeV F

  5. Immunological responses to envelope glycoprotein 120 from subtypes of human immunodeficiency virus type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilljam, G; Svensson, A; Ekström, A; Wahren, B

    1999-07-01

    The outer envelope glycoprotein (gp120) from subtypes A-E of HIV-1 was purified using a specific high mannose-binding lectin, Galanthus nivalis agglutinin. All isolates were grown in peripheral blood lymphocyte cells in order to avoid selection in cell lines. A comparison of the reactivities of the envelope proteins was made using sera from patients infected with the different subtypes. In this study, the B and C subtype envelope glycoproteins showed the strongest immunological reactivity, when reacted with sera from patients infected with the same subtype of virus. On the other hand, sera of patients infected with subtype A or C virus had the strongest and broadest reactivities, to envelope glycoproteins of many subtypes. The purified gp120 proteins from all five subtypes stimulated mononuclear cells from HIV-1 (subtype B)-infected patients, indicating conserved T cell-activating epitopes. The immunological reactivities indicate that strong antigenicity does not always predict the broadest immunogenicity of an envelope glycoprotein. Glycoprotein 120 from foreign subtypes may serve to induce strong cross-reactive immune responses.

  6. Correlation between carbohydrate structures on the envelope glycoprotein gp120 of HIV-1 and HIV-2 and syncytium inhibition with lectins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J E; Nielsen, C M; Nielsen, C;

    1989-01-01

    The binding of 13 different lectins to gp120 partially purified from two HIV-1 isolates and one HIV-2 isolate was studied by in situ staining on electrophoretically separated and electroblotted HIV antigens. The lectins concanavalin A, wheat germ agglutinin, Lens culinaris agglutinin, Vicia faba...

  7. Transmembrane envelope glycoproteins of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 and simian immunodeficiency virus SIV-mac exist as homodimers.

    OpenAIRE

    Rey, M A; Laurent, A G; McClure, J; Krust, B; Montagnier, L; Hovanessian, A G

    1990-01-01

    An 80-kilodalton glycoprotein (gp80) was produced in human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2)-infected cells along with three envelope glycoproteins that we have recently reported: the extracellular glycoprotein (gp125), the envelope glycoprotein precursor (gp140), and the transient dimeric form of the precursor (gp300). gp125 and gp80 were detectable after the synthesis of gp140 and the formation of gp300. Using a specific monoclonal antibody, we showed here that gp80 is a dimeric form of...

  8. Correlation between carbohydrate structures on the envelope glycoprotein gp120 of HIV-1 and HIV-2 and syncytium inhibition with lectins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J E; Nielsen, C M; Nielsen, C

    1989-01-01

    agglutinin, Pisum sativum agglutinin and phytohaem(erythro)agglutinin bound to gp120 of all three isolates. The carbohydrate of gp120 recognized by lectins was thus arranged in at least four types of glycans: a high mannose type glycan, a bisected hybrid or complex type glycan, a biantennary fucosylated...... complex type glycan and a triantennary bisected complex type glycan. Only lectins which bound at least one of the four types of glycans were capable of inhibiting fusion of HIV-infected cells with CD4 cells by a carbohydrate-specific interaction with the HIV-infected cells. Thus, several different glycan...... structures may be implicated in CD4-gp120 binding....

  9. HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein resistance to monoclonal antibody 2G12 is subject-specific and context-dependent in macaques and humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine C Malherbe

    Full Text Available HIV-1 Envelope (Env protein is the sole target of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs that arise during infection to neutralize autologous variants. Under this immune pressure, HIV escape variants are continuously selected and over the course of infection Env becomes more neutralization resistant. Many common alterations are known to affect sensitivity to NAbs, including residues encoding potential N-linked glycosylation sites (PNGS. Knowledge of Env motifs associated with neutralization resistance is valuable for the design of an effective Env-based vaccine so we characterized Envs isolated longitudinally from a SHIV(SF162P4 infected macaque for sensitivity to neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs B12, 2G12, 4E10 and 2F5. The early Env, isolated from plasma at day 56 after infection, was the most sensitive and the late Env, from day 670, was the most resistant to MAbs. We identified four PNGS in these Envs that accumulated over time at positions 130, 139, 160 and 397. We determined that removal of these PNGS significantly increased neutralization sensitivity to 2G12, and conversely, we identified mutations by in silico analyses that contributed resistance to 2G12 neutralization. In order to expand our understanding of these PNGS, we analyzed Envs from clade B HIV-infected human subjects and identified additional glycan and amino acid changes that could affect neutralization by 2G12 in a context-dependent manner. Taken together, these in vitro and in silico analyses of clade B Envs revealed that 2G12 resistance is achieved by previously unrecognized PNGS substitutions in a context-dependent manner and by subject-specific pathways.

  10. Second site escape of a T20-dependent HIV-1 variant by a single amino acid change in the CD4 binding region of the envelope glycoprotein

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    Berkhout Ben

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We previously described the selection of a T20-dependent human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1 variant in a patient on T20 therapy. The fusion inhibitor T20 targets the viral envelope (Env protein by blocking a conformational switch that is critical for viral entry into the host cell. T20-dependent viral entry is the result of 2 mutations in Env (GIA-SKY, creating a protein that undergoes a premature conformational switch, and the presence of T20 prevents this premature switch and rescues viral entry. In the present study, we performed 6 independent evolution experiments with the T20-dependent HIV-1 variant in the absence of T20, with the aim to identify second site compensatory changes, which may provide new mechanistic insights into Env function and the T20-dependence mechanism. Results Escape variants with improved replication capacity appeared within 42 days in 5 evolution cultures. Strikingly, 3 cultures revealed the same single amino acid change in the CD4 binding region of Env (glycine at position 431 substituted for arginine: G431R. This mutation was sufficient to abolish the T20-dependence phenotype and restore viral replication in the absence of T20. The GIA-SKY-G431R escape variant produces an Env protein that exhibits reduced syncytia formation and reduced cell-cell fusion activity. The escape variant was more sensitive to an antibody acting on an early gp41 intermediate, suggesting that the G431R mutation helps preserve a pre-fusion Env conformation, similar to T20 action. The escape variant was also less sensitive to soluble CD4, suggesting a reduced CD4 receptor affinity. Conclusion The forced evolution experiments indicate that the premature conformational switch of the T20-dependent HIV-1 Env variant (GIA-SKY can be corrected by a second site mutation in Env (GIA-SKY-G431R that affects the interaction with the CD4 receptor.

  11. Solubilization of glycoproteins of envelope viruses by detergents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berezin, V.E.; Zaides, V.M.; Artamsnov, A.F.; Isaeva, E.S.; Zhdanov, V.M.

    1986-11-20

    The action of a number of known ionic and nonionic detergents, as well as the new nonionic detergent MESK, on envelope viruses was investigated. It was shown that the nonionic detergents MESK, Triton X-100, and octyl-..beta..-D-glucopyranoside selectively solubilize the outer glycoproteins of the virus particles. The nonionic detergent MESK has the mildest action. Using MESK, purified glycoproteins of influenza, parainfluenza, Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis, vesicular stomatitis, rabies, and herpes viruses were obtained. The procedure for obtaining glycoproteins includes incubation of the virus suspension with the detergent MESK, removal of subvirus structures by centrifuging, and purification of glycoproteins from detergents by dialysis. Isolated glycoproteins retain a native structure and biological activity and possess high immunogenicity. The detergent MESK is promising for laboratory tests and with respect to the production of subunit vaccines.

  12. High-Mannose Specific Lectin and Its Recombinants from a Carrageenophyta Kappaphycus alvarezii Represent a Potent Anti-HIV Activity Through High-Affinity Binding to the Viral Envelope Glycoprotein gp120.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayama, Makoto; Shibata, Hiromi; Imamura, Koji; Sakaguchi, Takemasa; Hori, Kanji

    2016-04-01

    We previously reported that a high-mannose binding lectin KAA-2 from the red alga Kappaphycus alvarezii, which is an economically important species and widely cultivated as a source of carrageenans, had a potent anti-influenza virus activity. In this study, the full-length sequences of two KAA isoforms, KAA-1 and KAA-2, were elucidated by a combination of peptide mapping and cDNA cloning. They consisted of four internal tandem-repeated domains, which are conserved in high-mannose specific lectins from lower organisms, including a cyanobacterium Oscillatoria agardhii and a red alga Eucheuma serra. Using an Escherichia coli expression system, an active recombinant form of KAA-1 (His-tagged rKAA-1) was successfully generated in the yield of 115 mg per a litter of culture. In a detailed oligosaccharide binding analysis by a centrifugal ultrafiltration-HPLC method with 27 pyridylaminated oligosaccharides, His-tagged rKAA-1 and rKAA-1 specifically bound to high-mannose N-glycans with an exposed α1-3 mannose in the D2 arm as the native lectin did. Predicted from oligosaccharide-binding specificity, a surface plasmon resonance analysis revealed that the recombinants exhibit strong interaction with gp120, a heavily glycosylated envelope glycoprotein of HIV with high association constants (1.48-1.61 × 10(9) M(-1)). Native KAAs and the recombinants inhibited the HIV-1 entry at IC50s of low nanomolar levels (7.3-12.9 nM). Thus, the recombinant proteins would be useful as antiviral reagents targeting the viral surface glycoproteins with high-mannose N-glycans, and the cultivated alga K. alvarezii could also be a good source of not only carrageenans but also this functional lectin(s).

  13. The V1-V3 region of a brain-derived HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein determines macrophage tropism, low CD4 dependence, increased fusogenicity and altered sensitivity to entry inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín-García Julio

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV-1 infects macrophages and microglia in the brain and can cause neurological disorders in infected patients. We and others have shown that brain-derived envelope glycoproteins (Env have lower CD4 dependence and higher avidity for CD4 than those from peripheral isolates, and we have also observed increased fusogenicity and reduced sensitivity to the fusion inhibitor T-1249. Due to the genetic differences between brain and spleen env from one individual throughout gp120 and in gp41's heptad repeat 2 (HR2, we investigated the viral determinants for the phenotypic differences by performing functional studies with chimeric and mutant Env. Results Chimeric Env showed that the V1/V2-C2-V3 region in brain's gp120 determines the low CD4 dependence and high avidity for CD4, as well as macrophage tropism and reduced sensitivity to the small molecule BMS-378806. Changes in brain gp41's HR2 region did not contribute to the increased fusogenicity or to the reduced sensitivity to T-1249, since a T-1249-based peptide containing residues found in brain's but not in spleen's HR2 had similar potency than T-1249 and interacted similarly with an immobilized heptad repeat 1-derived peptide in surface plasmon resonance analysis. However, the increased fusogenicity and reduced T-1249 sensitivity of brain and certain chimeric Env mostly correlated with the low CD4 dependence and high avidity for CD4 determined by brain's V1-V3 region. Remarkably, most but not all of these low CD4-dependent, macrophage tropic envelopes glycoproteins also had increased sensitivity to the novel allosteric entry inhibitor HNG-105. The gp120's C2 region asparagine 283 (N283 has been previously associated with macrophage tropism, brain infection, lower CD4 dependence and higher CD4 affinity. Therefore, we introduced the N283T mutation into an env clone from a brain-derived isolate and into a brain tissue-derived env clone, and the T283N change into a spleen-derived env

  14. Intracellular interaction of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (ARV-2) envelope glycoprotein gp160 with CD4 blocks the movement and maturation of CD4 to the plasma membrane.

    OpenAIRE

    Jabbar, M A; Nayak, D P

    1990-01-01

    The envelope glycoprotein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) plays a major role in the down-regulation of its receptor, CD4. Using a transient-expression system, we investigated the interaction of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein with CD4 during their movement through the intracellular membrane traffic. In singly transfected cells, the envelope glyprotein gp160 was synthesized, glycosylated, and localized predominantly in the endoplasmic reticulum. Only a minor fraction of gp160 wa...

  15. Understanding the Process of Envelope Glycoprotein Incorporation into Virions in Simian and Feline Immunodeficiency Viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L. Affranchino

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The lentiviral envelope glycoproteins (Env mediate virus entry by interacting with specific receptors present at the cell surface, thereby determining viral tropism and pathogenesis. Therefore, Env incorporation into the virions formed by assembly of the viral Gag polyprotein at the plasma membrane of the infected cells is a key step in the replication cycle of lentiviruses. Besides being useful models of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infections in humans and valuable tools for developing AIDS therapies and vaccines, simian and feline immunodeficiency viruses (SIV and FIV, respectively are relevant animal retroviruses; the study of which provides important information on how lentiviral replication strategies have evolved. In this review, we discuss the molecular mechanisms underlying the incorporation of the SIV and FIV Env glycoproteins into viral particles.

  16. Determining the Structure of an Unliganded and Fully Glycosylated SIV gp120 Envelope Glycoprotein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Bing; Vogan, Erik M.; Gong, Haiyun; Skehel, John J.; Wiley, Don C.; Harrison, Stephen C. (Harvard-Med); (NIMR)

    2010-07-13

    HIV/SIV envelope glycoproteins mediate the first steps in viral infection. They are trimers of a membrane-anchored polypeptide chain, cleaved into two fragments known as gp120 and gp41. The structure of HIV gp120 bound with receptor (CD4) has been known for some time. We have now determined the structure of a fully glycosylated SIV gp120 envelope glycoprotein in an unliganded conformation by X-ray crystallography at 4.0 {angstrom} resolution. We describe here our experimental and computational approaches, which may be relevant to other resolution-limited crystallographic problems. Key issues were attention to details of beam geometry mandated by small, weakly diffracting crystals, and choice of strategies for phase improvement, starting with two isomorphous derivatives and including multicrystal averaging. We validated the structure by analyzing composite omit maps, averaged among three distinct crystal lattices, and by calculating model-based, SeMet anomalous difference maps. There are at least four ordered sugars on many of the thirteen oligosaccharides.

  17. Differentiating founder and chronic HIV envelope sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Stephen; Mota, Talia; Suzuki, Kazuo; Kelleher, Anthony D.

    2017-01-01

    Significant progress has been made in characterizing broadly neutralizing antibodies against the HIV envelope glycoprotein Env, but an effective vaccine has proven elusive. Vaccine development would be facilitated if common features of early founder virus required for transmission could be identified. Here we employ a combination of bioinformatic and operations research methods to determine the most prevalent features that distinguish 78 subtype B and 55 subtype C founder Env sequences from an equal number of chronic sequences. There were a number of equivalent optimal networks (based on the fewest covarying amino acid (AA) pairs or a measure of maximal covariance) that separated founders from chronics: 13 pairs for subtype B and 75 for subtype C. Every subtype B optimal solution contained the founder pairs 178–346 Asn-Val, 232–236 Thr-Ser, 240–340 Lys-Lys, 279–315 Asp-Lys, 291–792 Ala-Ile, 322–347 Asp-Thr, 535–620 Leu-Asp, 742–837 Arg-Phe, and 750–836 Asp-Ile; the most common optimal pairs for subtype C were 644–781 Lys-Ala (74 of 75 networks), 133–287 Ala-Gln (73/75) and 307–337 Ile-Gln (73/75). No pair was present in all optimal subtype C solutions highlighting the difficulty in targeting transmission with a single vaccine strain. Relative to the size of its domain (0.35% of Env), the α4β7 binding site occurred most frequently among optimal pairs, especially for subtype C: 4.2% of optimal pairs (1.2% for subtype B). Early sequences from 5 subtype B pre-seroconverters each exhibited at least one clone containing an optimal feature 553–624 (Ser-Asn), 724–747 (Arg-Arg), or 46–293 (Arg-Glu). PMID:28187204

  18. Hepatitis C Virus E2 Envelope Glycoprotein Core Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Leopold; Giang, Erick; Nieusma, Travis; Kadam, Rameshwar U.; Cogburn, Kristin E.; Hua, Yuanzi; Dai, Xiaoping; Stanfield, Robyn L.; Burton, Dennis R.; Ward, Andrew B.; Wilson, Ian A.; Law, Mansun

    2014-08-26

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV), a Hepacivirus, is a major cause of viral hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. HCV envelope glycoproteins E1 and E2 mediate fusion and entry into host cells and are the primary targets of the humoral immune response. The crystal structure of the E2 core bound to broadly neutralizing antibody AR3C at 2.65 angstroms reveals a compact architecture composed of a central immunoglobulin-fold β sandwich flanked by two additional protein layers. The CD81 receptor binding site was identified by electron microscopy and site-directed mutagenesis and overlaps with the AR3C epitope. The x-ray and electron microscopy E2 structures differ markedly from predictions of an extended, three-domain, class II fusion protein fold and therefore provide valuable information for HCV drug and vaccine design.

  19. Structure of the Epstein-Barr virus major envelope glycoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szakonyi, Gerda; Klein, Michael G; Hannan, Jonathan P; Young, Kendra A; Ma, Runlin Z; Asokan, Rengasamy; Holers, V Michael; Chen, Xiaojiang S

    2006-11-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection of B cells is associated with lymphoma and other human cancers. EBV infection is initiated by the binding of the viral envelope glycoprotein (gp350) to the cell surface receptor CR2. We determined the X-ray structure of the highly glycosylated gp350 and defined the CR2 binding site on gp350. Polyglycans shield all but one surface of the gp350 polypeptide, and we demonstrate that this glycan-free surface is the receptor-binding site. Deglycosylated gp350 bound CR2 similarly to the glycosylated form, suggesting that glycosylation is not important for receptor binding. Structure-guided mutagenesis of the glycan-free surface disrupted receptor binding as well as binding by a gp350 monoclonal antibody, a known inhibitor of virus-receptor interactions. These results provide structural information for developing drugs and vaccines to prevent infection by EBV and related viruses.

  20. Antibodies to several conformation-dependent epitopes of gp120/gp41 inhibit CCR-5-dependent cell-to-cell fusion mediated by the native envelope glycoprotein of a primary macrophage-tropic HIV-1 isolate

    OpenAIRE

    Verrier, Florence C.; Charneau, Pierre; Altmeyer, Ralf; Laurent, Stephanie; Borman, Andrew M.; Girard, Marc

    1997-01-01

    The β-chemokine receptor CCR-5 is essential for the efficient entry of primary macrophage-tropic HIV-1 isolates into CD4+ target cells. To study CCR-5-dependent cell-to-cell fusion, we have developed an assay system based on the infection of CD4+ CCR-5+ HeLa cells with a Semliki Forest virus recombinant expressing the gp120/gp41 envelope (Env) from a primary clade B HIV-1 isolate (BX08), or from a laboratory T cell line-adapted strain (LAI). In this system, gp120/gp41 of the “nonsyncytium-ind...

  1. Inhibition of HIV-1 subtype C by 2’F-RNA aptamers isolated against enveloped pseudovirus

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    London, GG

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus type-I (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein (Env) mediates the first step of entry and represents an attractive target . However, the genetic diversity of Env among HIV-1 subtypes poses a challenge. Although evidence suggest...

  2. Functional organization of the HIV lipid envelope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huarte, Nerea; Carravilla, Pablo; Cruz, Antonio; Lorizate, Maier; Nieto-Garai, Jon A.; Kräusslich, Hans-Georg; Pérez-Gil, Jesús; Requejo-Isidro, Jose; Nieva, José L.

    2016-01-01

    The chemical composition of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) membrane is critical for fusion and entry into target cells, suggesting that preservation of a functional lipid bilayer organization may be required for efficient infection. HIV-1 acquires its envelope from the host cell plasma membrane at sites enriched in raft-type lipids. Furthermore, infectious particles display aminophospholipids on their surface, indicative of dissipation of the inter-leaflet lipid asymmetry metabolically generated at cellular membranes. By combining two-photon excited Laurdan fluorescence imaging and atomic force microscopy, we have obtained unprecedented insights into the phase state of membranes reconstituted from viral lipids (i.e., extracted from infectious HIV-1 particles), established the role played by the different specimens in the mixtures, and characterized the effects of membrane-active virucidal agents on membrane organization. In determining the molecular basis underlying lipid packing and lateral heterogeneity of the HIV-1 membrane, our results may help develop compounds with antiviral activity acting by perturbing the functional organization of the lipid envelope. PMID:27678107

  3. HIV-envelope-dependent cell-cell fusion: quantitative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta, Leonor; López-Balderas, Nayali; Rivera-Toledo, Evelyn; Sandoval, Guadalupe; Gómez-Icazbalceta, Guillermo; Villarreal, Carlos; Lamoyi, Edmundo; Larralde, Carlos

    2009-08-11

    Interaction in vitro between cells infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and surrounding, uninfected, target cells often leads to cell fusion and the formation of multinucleated cells, called syncytia. The presence in HIV-infected individuals of virus strains able to induce syncytia in cultures of T cells is associated with disease progression and AIDS. Even in the asymptomatic stage of infection, multinucleated cells have been observed in different organs, indicating that fused cells may be generated and remain viable in the tissues of patients. We used lymphocytic cells transfected for the expression of the HIV-envelope (Env) glycoproteins to develop a method for the direct quantification of fusion events by flow cytometry (Huerta et al., 2006, J. Virol. Methods 138, 17-23; López-Balderas et al., 2007, Virus Res. 123, 138-146). The method involves the staining of fusion partners with lipophilic probes and the use of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) to distinguish between fused and aggregated cells. We have shown that such a flow-cytometry assay is appropriate for the screening of compounds that have the potential to modulate HIV-Env-mediated cell fusion. Even those syncytia that are small or few in numbers can be detected. Quantitative analysis of the fusion products was performed with this technique; the results indicated that the time of reaction and initial proportion of fusion partners determine the number, relative size, and average cellular composition of syncytia. Heterogeneity of syncytia generated by HIV-Env-mediated cell-cell fusion may result in a variety of possible outcomes that, in turn, may influence the biological properties of the syncytia and surrounding cells, as well as replication of virus. Given the myriad immune abnormalities leading to AIDS, the full understanding of the extent, diverse composition, and role of fused cells in the pathogenesis of, and immune response to, HIV infection is an important, pending issue.

  4. Identification and antigenicity of the major envelope glycoprotein of lymphadenopathy-associated virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montagnier, L.; Clavel, F.; Krust, B.; Chamaret, S.; Rey, F.; Barre-Sinoussi, F.; Chermann, J.C.

    1985-07-15

    The major envelope glycoprotein of the causative agent of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) has been identified and characterized. The glycoprotein has an apparent molecular weight of 110,000-120,000 under denaturing conditions in polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Upon deglycosylation by a specific endoglycosydase, its size is reduced to 80,000. Cellular precursors of this glycoprotein have been detected with apparent molecular weight of 150,000 and 135,000. Nearly all AIDS and pre-AIDS patients have detectable antibodies against this viral glycoprotein.

  5. Prokaryotic Expression and Functional Study of HIV-1 Envelope Glycoprotein gp41 Helical Bundle%HIV-1跨膜蛋白gp41螺旋结构的原核表达及功能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘斌; 何红秋; 程绍辉; 陈慰祖; 王存新

    2008-01-01

    HIV-1跨膜蛋白gp41是HIV-1包膜与靶细胞膜的融合过程中的关键蛋白,是理想的HIV-1融合抑制剂靶点.为开展以gr41为靶点的抑制剂筛选,以HIV-1 B亚型病毒基因为模板,通过PCR、酶切、连接等方法构建得到gp41 5-helix与6-helix重组质粒,转入大肠杆菌BL21(DE3)进行表述,经变性和复性后亲和层析纯化蛋白.经SDS-PAGE鉴定,纯化后蛋白纯度较高.通过非变性凝胶电泳证明gp415-helix与C-多肽衍生物T-20存在相互作用,为下一步药物筛选模型的建立奠定了基础.

  6. HIV包膜蛋白的结构及其相应的病毒进入抑制剂%Research progress on the structure of HIV envelope glycoprotein and related HIV entry inhibitors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏承来; 姜世勃; 刘叔文

    2009-01-01

    HIV-1病毒包膜蛋白gp120和gp41在病毒感染中起着重要的作用.在病毒进入细胞的过程中,gp120先和CD4分子结合,发生构象改变,进而导致gp41构象的变化,使病毒包膜和细胞膜融合而感染细胞.与gp120或者gp41相结合的多肽、大分子和小分子化合物,都可能影响HIV-1病毒包膜和靶细胞膜结合的过程,从而起到抗HIV-1病毒的作用.该文对gp120和gp41的结构及其相互作用,以及以HIV-1包膜糖蛋白为靶点的病毒进入抑制剂类抗艾滋病药物进行综述.

  7. Biochemical reconstitution of hemorrhagic-fever arenavirus envelope glycoprotein-mediated membrane fusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celestine J Thomas

    Full Text Available The membrane-anchored proteins of enveloped viruses form labile spikes on the virion surface, primed to undergo large-scale conformational changes culminating in virus-cell membrane fusion and viral entry. The prefusion form of these envelope glycoproteins thus represents an important molecular target for antiviral intervention. A critical roadblock to this endeavor has been our inability to produce the prefusion envelope glycoprotein trimer for biochemical and structural analysis. Through our studies of the GPC envelope glycoprotein of the hemorrhagic fever arenaviruses, we have shown that GPC is unique among class I viral fusion proteins in that the mature complex retains a stable signal peptide (SSP in addition to the conventional receptor-binding and transmembrane fusion subunits. In this report we show that the recombinant GPC precursor can be produced as a discrete native-like trimer and that its proteolytic cleavage generates the mature glycoprotein. Proteoliposomes containing the cleaved GPC mediate pH-dependent membrane fusion, a characteristic feature of arenavirus entry. This reaction is inhibited by arenavirus-specific monoclonal antibodies and small-molecule fusion inhibitors. The in vitro reconstitution of GPC-mediated membrane-fusion activity offers unprecedented opportunities for biochemical and structural studies of arenavirus entry and its inhibition. To our knowledge, this report is the first to demonstrate functional reconstitution of membrane fusion by a viral envelope glycoprotein.

  8. Genetic Signatures of HIV-1 Envelope-mediated Bystander Apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Anjali; Lee, Raphael T. C.; Mohl, Jonathan; Sedano, Melina; Khong, Wei Xin; Ng, Oon Tek; Maurer-Stroh, Sebastian; Garg, Himanshu

    2014-01-01

    The envelope (Env) glycoprotein of HIV is an important determinant of viral pathogenesis. Several lines of evidence support the role of HIV-1 Env in inducing bystander apoptosis that may be a contributing factor in CD4+ T cell loss. However, most of the studies testing this phenomenon have been conducted with laboratory-adapted HIV-1 isolates. This raises the question of whether primary Envs derived from HIV-infected patients are capable of inducing bystander apoptosis and whether specific Env signatures are associated with this phenomenon. We developed a high throughput assay to determine the bystander apoptosis inducing activity of a panel of primary Envs. We tested 38 different Envs for bystander apoptosis, virion infectivity, neutralizing antibody sensitivity, and putative N-linked glycosylation sites along with a comprehensive sequence analysis to determine if specific sequence signatures within the viral Env are associated with bystander apoptosis. Our studies show that primary Envs vary considerably in their bystander apoptosis-inducing potential, a phenomenon that correlates inversely with putative N-linked glycosylation sites and positively with virion infectivity. By use of a novel phylogenetic analysis that avoids subtype bias coupled with structural considerations, we found specific residues like Arg-476 and Asn-425 that were associated with differences in bystander apoptosis induction. A specific role of these residues was also confirmed experimentally. These data demonstrate for the first time the potential of primary R5 Envs to mediate bystander apoptosis in CD4+ T cells. Furthermore, we identify specific genetic signatures within the Env that may be associated with the bystander apoptosis-inducing phenotype. PMID:24265318

  9. Isolation of coronavirus envelope glycoproteins and interaction with the viral nucleocapsid.

    OpenAIRE

    Sturman, L S; Holmes, K V; Behnke, J.

    1980-01-01

    The two envelope glycoproteins and the viral nucleocapsid of the coronavirus A59 were isolated by solubilization of the viral membrane with Nonidet P-40 at 4 degrees C followed by sucrose density gradient sedimentation. Isolated E2 consisted of rosettes of peplomers, whereas E1, the membrane glycoprotein, was irregular and amorphous. Under certain conditions significant interactions occurred between components of Nonidet P-40-disrupted virions. Incubation of the Nonidet P-40-disrupted virus a...

  10. Identification of active pocket and protein druggability within envelope glycoprotein GP2 from Ebola virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Beuy Joob; Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2014-01-01

    The drug searching for combating the present outbreak of Ebola virus infection is the urgent activity at present. Finding the new effective drug at present must base on the molecular analysis of the pathogenic virus. The in-depth analysis of the viral protein to find the binding site, active pocket is needed. Here, the authors analyzed the envelope glycoprotein GP2 from Ebola virus. Identification of active pocket and protein druggability within envelope glycoprotein GP2 from Ebola virus was done. According to this assessment, 7 active pockets with varied druggability could be identified.

  11. Identification of active pocket and protein druggability within envelope glycoprotein GP2 from Ebola virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Beuy; Joob; Viroj; Wiwanitkit

    2014-01-01

    The drug searching for combating the present outbreak of Ebola virus infection is the urgent activity at present.Finding the new effective drug at present must base on the molecular analysis of the pathogenic virus.The in-depth analysis of the viral protein to find the binding site,active pocket is needed.Here,the authors analyzed the envelope glycoprotein GP2 from Ebola virus.Identification of active pocket and protein draggability within envelope glycoprotein GP2 from Ebola virus was done.According to this assessment,7 active pockets with varied draggability could be identified.

  12. Folding of viral envelope glycoproteins in the endoplasmic reticulum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braakman, L.J.; Anken, E. van

    2000-01-01

    Viral glycoproteins fold and oligomerize in the endoplasmic reticulum of the host cell. They employ the cellular machinery and receive assistance from cellular folding factors. During the folding process, they are retained in the compartment and their structural quality is checked by the quality con

  13. Secretion of hepatitis C virus envelope glycoproteins depends on assembly of apolipoprotein B positive lipoproteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinca Icard

    Full Text Available The density of circulating hepatitis C virus (HCV particles in the blood of chronically infected patients is very heterogeneous. The very low density of some particles has been attributed to an association of the virus with apolipoprotein B (apoB positive and triglyceride rich lipoproteins (TRL likely resulting in hybrid lipoproteins known as lipo-viro-particles (LVP containing the viral envelope glycoproteins E1 and E2, capsid and viral RNA. The specific infectivity of these particles has been shown to be higher than the infectivity of particles of higher density. The nature of the association of HCV particles with lipoproteins remains elusive and the role of apolipoproteins in the synthesis and assembly of the viral particles is unknown. The human intestinal Caco-2 cell line differentiates in vitro into polarized and apoB secreting cells during asymmetric culture on porous filters. By using this cell culture system, cells stably expressing E1 and E2 secreted the glycoproteins into the basal culture medium after one week of differentiation concomitantly with TRL secretion. Secreted glycoproteins were only detected in apoB containing density fractions. The E1-E2 and apoB containing particles were unique complexes bearing the envelope glycoproteins at their surface since apoB could be co-immunoprecipitated with E2-specific antibodies. Envelope protein secretion was reduced by inhibiting the lipidation of apoB with an inhibitor of the microsomal triglyceride transfer protein. HCV glycoproteins were similarly secreted in association with TRL from the human liver cell line HepG2 but not by Huh-7 and Huh-7.5 hepatoma cells that proved deficient for lipoprotein assembly. These data indicate that HCV envelope glycoproteins have the intrinsic capacity to utilize apoB synthesis and lipoprotein assembly machinery even in the absence of the other HCV proteins. A model for LVP assembly is proposed.

  14. Recent advances in the study of active endogenous retrovirus envelope glycoproteins in the mammalian placenta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yufei; Zhang; Jing; Shi; Shuying; Liu

    2015-01-01

    Endogenous retroviruses(ERVs) are a component of the vertebrate genome and originate from exogenous infections of retroviruses in the germline of the host. ERVs have coevolved with their hosts over millions of years. Envelope glycoproteins of endogenous retroviruses are often expressed in the mammalian placenta, and their potential function has aroused considerable research interest, including the manipulation of maternal physiology to benefit the fetus. In most mammalian species, trophoblast fusion in the placenta is an important event, involving the formation of a multinucleated syncytiotrophoblast layer to fulfill essential fetomaternal exchange functions. The key function in this process derives from the envelope genes of endogenous retroviruses, namely syncytins, which show fusogenic properties and placenta-specific expression. This review discusses the important role of the recognized endogenous retrovirus envelope glycoproteins in the mammalian placenta.

  15. Structure of a Pestivirus Envelope Glycoprotein E2 Clarifies Its Role in Cell Entry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamel El Omari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Enveloped viruses have developed various adroit mechanisms to invade their host cells. This process requires one or more viral envelope glycoprotein to achieve cell attachment and membrane fusion. Members of the Flaviviridae such as flaviviruses possess only one envelope glycoprotein, E, whereas pestiviruses and hepacivirus encode two glycoproteins, E1 and E2. Although E2 is involved in cell attachment, it has been unclear which protein is responsible for membrane fusion. We report the crystal structures of the homodimeric glycoprotein E2 from the pestivirus bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 (BVDV1 at both neutral and low pH. Unexpectedly, BVDV1 E2 does not have a class II fusion protein fold, and at low pH the N-terminal domain is disordered, similarly to the intermediate postfusion state of E2 from sindbis virus, an alphavirus. Our results suggest that the pestivirus and possibly the hepacivirus fusion machinery are unlike any previously observed.

  16. Pseudotyping of vesicular stomatitis virus with the envelope glycoproteins of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Gert; Locher, Samira; Berger Rentsch, Marianne; Halbherr, Stefan J

    2014-08-01

    Pseudotype viruses are useful for studying the envelope proteins of harmful viruses. This work describes the pseudotyping of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) with the envelope glycoproteins of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses. VSV lacking the homotypic glycoprotein (G) gene (VSVΔG) was used to express haemagglutinin (HA), neuraminidase (NA) or the combination of both. Propagation-competent pseudotype viruses were only obtained when HA and NA were expressed from the same vector genome. Pseudotype viruses containing HA from different H5 clades were neutralized specifically by immune sera directed against the corresponding clade. Fast and sensitive reading of test results was achieved by vector-mediated expression of GFP. Pseudotype viruses expressing a mutant VSV matrix protein showed restricted spread in IFN-competent cells. This pseudotype system will facilitate the detection of neutralizing antibodies against virulent influenza viruses, circumventing the need for high-level biosafety containment. © 2014 The Authors.

  17. Envelope-specific antibodies and antibody-derived molecules for treating and curing HIV infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Guido; Haynes, Barton F.; Koenig, Scott; Nordstrom, Jeffrey L.; Margolis, David M.; Tomaras, Georgia D.

    2017-01-01

    HIV-1 is a retrovirus that integrates into host chromatin and can remain transcriptionally quiescent in a pool of immune cells. This characteristic enables HIV-1 to evade both host immune responses and antiretroviral drugs, leading to persistent infection. Upon reactivation of proviral gene expression, HIV-1 envelope (HIV-1 Env) glycoproteins are expressed on the cell surface, transforming latently infected cells into targets for HIV-1 Env-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), which can engage immune effector cells to kill productively infected CD4+ T cells and thus limit the spread of progeny virus. Recent innovations in antibody engineering have resulted in novel immunotherapeutics such as bispecific dual-affinity re-targeting (DART) molecules and other bi- and trispecific antibody designs that can recognize HIV-1 Env and recruit cytotoxic effector cells to kill CD4+ T cells latently infected with HIV‑1. Here, we review these immunotherapies, which are designed with the goal of curing HIV-1 infection. PMID:27725635

  18. Boosting of HIV-1 neutralizing antibody responses by a distally related retroviral envelope protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchtenhagen, Hannes; Schiffner, Torben; Bowles, Emma; Heyndrickx, Leo; LaBranche, Celia; Applequist, Steven E; Jansson, Marianne; De Silva, Thushan; Back, Jaap Willem; Achour, Adnane; Scarlatti, Gabriella; Fomsgaard, Anders; Montefiori, David; Stewart-Jones, Guillaume; Spetz, Anna-Lena

    2014-06-15

    Our knowledge of the binding sites for neutralizing Abs (NAb) that recognize a broad range of HIV-1 strains (bNAb) has substantially increased in recent years. However, gaps remain in our understanding of how to focus B cell responses to vulnerable conserved sites within the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env). In this article, we report an immunization strategy composed of a trivalent HIV-1 (clade B envs) DNA prime, followed by a SIVmac239 gp140 Env protein boost that aimed to focus the immune response to structurally conserved parts of the HIV-1 and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) Envs. Heterologous NAb titers, primarily to tier 1 HIV-1 isolates, elicited during the trivalent HIV-1 env prime, were significantly increased by the SIVmac239 gp140 protein boost in rabbits. Epitope mapping of Ab-binding reactivity revealed preferential recognition of the C1, C2, V2, V3, and V5 regions. These results provide a proof of concept that a distally related retroviral SIV Env protein boost can increase pre-existing NAb responses against HIV-1.

  19. Evolutionary interactions between N-linked glycosylation sites in the HIV-1 envelope.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Art F Y Poon

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The addition of asparagine (N-linked polysaccharide chains (i.e., glycans to the gp120 and gp41 glycoproteins of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 envelope is not only required for correct protein folding, but also may provide protection against neutralizing antibodies as a "glycan shield." As a result, strong host-specific selection is frequently associated with codon positions where nonsynonymous substitutions can create or disrupt potential N-linked glycosylation sites (PNGSs. Moreover, empirical data suggest that the individual contribution of PNGSs to the neutralization sensitivity or infectivity of HIV-1 may be critically dependent on the presence or absence of other PNGSs in the envelope sequence. Here we evaluate how glycan-glycan interactions have shaped the evolution of HIV-1 envelope sequences by analyzing the distribution of PNGSs in a large-sequence alignment. Using a "covarion"-type phylogenetic model, we find that the rates at which individual PNGSs are gained or lost vary significantly over time, suggesting that the selective advantage of having a PNGS may depend on the presence or absence of other PNGSs in the sequence. Consequently, we identify specific interactions between PNGSs in the alignment using a new paired-character phylogenetic model of evolution, and a Bayesian graphical model. Despite the fundamental differences between these two methods, several interactions are jointly identified by both. Mapping these interactions onto a structural model of HIV-1 gp120 reveals that negative (exclusive interactions occur significantly more often between colocalized glycans, while positive (inclusive interactions are restricted to more distant glycans. Our results imply that the adaptive repertoire of alternative configurations in the HIV-1 glycan shield is limited by functional interactions between the N-linked glycans. This represents a potential vulnerability of rapidly evolving HIV-1 populations that may provide useful

  20. Palmitoylation of the feline immunodeficiency virus envelope glycoprotein and its effect on fusion activity and envelope incorporation into virions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, Silvia A.; Paladino, Monica G. [Laboratorio de Virologia, CONICET-Universidad de Belgrano (UB), Villanueva 1324 (C1426BMJ), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Affranchino, Jose L., E-mail: jose.affranchino@comunidad.ub.edu.ar [Laboratorio de Virologia, CONICET-Universidad de Belgrano (UB), Villanueva 1324 (C1426BMJ), Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2012-06-20

    The feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) envelope glycoprotein (Env) possesses a short cytoplasmic domain of 53 amino acids containing four highly conserved cysteines at Env positions 804, 811, 815 and 848. Since palmitoylation of transmembrane proteins occurs at or near the membrane anchor, we investigated whether cysteines 804, 811 and 815 are acylated and analyzed the relevance of these residues for Env functions. Replacement of cysteines 804, 811 and 815 individually or in combination by serine residues resulted in Env glycoproteins that were efficiently expressed and processed. However, mutations C804S and C811S reduced Env fusogenicity by 93% and 84%, respectively, compared with wild-type Env. By contrast, mutant C815S exhibited a fusogenic capacity representing 50% of the wild-type value. Remarkably, the double mutation C804S/C811S abrogated both Env fusion activity and Env incorporation into virions. Finally, by means of Click chemistry assays we demonstrated that the four FIV Env cytoplasmic cysteines are palmitoylated.

  1. Truncation of the membrane-spanning domain of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoprotein defines elements required for fusion, incorporation, and infectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Ling; Shang, Liang; Hunter, Eric

    2009-11-01

    The membrane-spanning domain (MSD) of the envelope (Env) glycoprotein from human (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency viruses plays a key role in anchoring the Env complex into the viral membrane but also contributes to its biological function in fusion and virus entry. In HIV type 1 (HIV-1), it has been predicted to span 27 amino acids, from lysine residue 681 to arginine 707, and encompasses an internal arginine at residue 694. By examining a series of C-terminal-truncation mutants of the HIV-1 gp41 glycoprotein that substituted termination codons for amino acids 682 to 708, we show that this entire region is required for efficient viral infection of target cells. Truncation to the arginine at residue 694 resulted in an Env complex that was secreted from the cells. In contrast, a region from residues 681 to 698, which contains highly conserved hydrophobic residues and glycine motifs and extends 4 amino acids beyond 694R, can effectively anchor the protein in the membrane, allow efficient transport to the plasma membrane, and mediate wild-type levels of cell-cell fusion. However, these fusogenic truncated Env mutants are inefficiently incorporated into budding virions. Based on the analysis of these mutants, a "snorkeling" model, in which the flanking charged amino acid residues at 681 and 694 are buried in the lipid while their side chains interact with polar head groups, is proposed for the HIV-1 MSD.

  2. Uncleaved prefusion-optimized gp140 trimers derived from analysis of HIV-1 envelope metastability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Leopold; He, Linling; de Val, Natalia; Vora, Nemil; Morris, Charles D.; Azadnia, Parisa; Sok, Devin; Zhou, Bin; Burton, Dennis R.; Ward, Andrew B.; Wilson, Ian A.; Zhu, Jiang

    2016-06-01

    The trimeric HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) is critical for host immune recognition and neutralization. Despite advances in trimer design, the roots of Env trimer metastability remain elusive. Here we investigate the contribution of two Env regions to metastability. First, we computationally redesign a largely disordered bend in heptad region 1 (HR1) of SOSIP trimers that connects the long, central HR1 helix to the fusion peptide, substantially improving the yield of soluble, well-folded trimers. Structural and antigenic analyses of two distinct HR1 redesigns confirm that redesigned Env closely mimics the native, prefusion trimer with a more stable gp41. Next, we replace the cleavage site between gp120 and gp41 with various linkers in the context of an HR1 redesign. Electron microscopy reveals a potential fusion intermediate state for uncleaved trimers containing short but not long linkers. Together, these results outline a general approach for stabilization of Env trimers from diverse HIV-1 strains.

  3. CTA1-DD adjuvant promotes strong immunity against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoproteins following mucosal immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundling, Christopher; Schön, Karin; Mörner, Andreas; Forsell, Mattias N E; Wyatt, Richard T; Thorstensson, Rigmor; Karlsson Hedestam, Gunilla B; Lycke, Nils Y

    2008-12-01

    Strategies to induce potent and broad antibody responses against the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoproteins (Env) at both systemic and mucosal sites represent a central goal for HIV-1 vaccine development. Here, we show that the non-toxic CTA1-DD adjuvant promoted mucosal and systemic humoral and cell-mediated immune responses following intranasal (i.n.) immunizations with trimeric or monomeric forms of HIV-1 Env in mice and in non-human primates. Env-specific IgG subclasses in the serum of immunized mice reflected a balanced Th1/Th2 type of response. Strikingly, i.n. immunizations with Env and the CTA1-DD adjuvant induced substantial levels of mucosal anti-Env IgA in bronchial alveolar lavage and also detectable levels in vaginal secretions. By contrast, parenteral immunizations of Env formulated in Ribi did not stimulate mucosal IgA responses, while the two adjuvants induced a similar distribution of Env-specific IgG-subclasses in serum. A single parenteral boost with Env in Ribi adjuvant into mice previously primed i.n. with Env and CTA1-DD, augmented the serum anti-Env IgG levels to similar magnitudes as those observed after three intraperitoneal immunizations with Env in Ribi. The augmenting potency of CTA1-DD was similar to that of LTK63 or CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN). However, in contrast to CpG ODN, the effect of CTA1-DD and LTK63 appeared to be independent of MyD88 and toll-like receptor signalling. This is the first demonstration that CTA1-DD augments specific immune responses also in non-human primates, suggesting that this adjuvant could be explored further as a clinically safe mucosal vaccine adjuvant for humoral and cell-mediated immunity against HIV-1 Env.

  4. Humoral immune response to the entire human immunodeficiency virus envelope glycoprotein made in insect cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rusche, J.R.; Lynn, D.L.; Robert-Guroff, M.; Langlois, A.J.; Lyerly, H.K.; Carson, H.; Krohn, K.; Ranki, A.; Gallo, R.C.; Bolognesi, D.P.; Putney, S.D.

    1987-10-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus envelope gene was expressed in insect cells by using a Baculovirus expression vector. The protein has an apparent molecular mass of 160 kDa, appears on the surface of infected insect cells, and does not appear to be cleaved to glycoproteins gp120 and gp41. Goats immunized with the 160-kDa protein have high titers of antibody that neutralizes virus infection as measured by viral gene expression or cell cytolysis. In addition, immune sera can block fusion of human immunodeficiency virus-infected cells in culture. Both neutralization and fusion-blocking activities are bound to and eluted from immobilized gp120.

  5. Drift of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120 toward increased neutralization resistance over the course of the epidemic: a comprehensive study using the most potent and broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvin-Pley, M; Morgand, M; Meyer, L; Goujard, C; Moreau, A; Mouquet, H; Nussenzweig, M; Pace, C; Ho, D; Bjorkman, P J; Baty, D; Chames, P; Pancera, M; Kwong, P D; Poignard, P; Barin, F; Braibant, M

    2014-12-01

    Extending our previous analyses to the most recently described monoclonal broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs), we confirmed a drift of HIV-1 clade B variants over 2 decades toward higher resistance to bNAbs targeting almost all the identified gp120-neutralizing epitopes. In contrast, the sensitivity to bNAbs targeting the gp41 membrane-proximal external region remained stable, suggesting a selective pressure on gp120 preferentially. Despite this evolution, selected combinations of bNAbs remain capable of neutralizing efficiently most of the circulating variants.

  6. Human broadly neutralizing antibodies to the envelope glycoprotein complex of hepatitis C virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giang, Erick; Dorner, Marcus; Prentoe, Jannick C

    2012-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects ∼2% of the world's population. It is estimated that there are more than 500,000 new infections annually in Egypt, the country with the highest HCV prevalence. An effective vaccine would help control this expanding global health burden. HCV is highly variable......, and an effective vaccine should target conserved T- and B-cell epitopes of the virus. Conserved B-cell epitopes overlapping the CD81 receptor-binding site (CD81bs) on the E2 viral envelope glycoprotein have been reported previously and provide promising vaccine targets. In this study, we isolated 73 human m......Abs recognizing five distinct antigenic regions on the virus envelope glycoprotein complex E1E2 from an HCV-immune phage-display antibody library by using an exhaustive-panning strategy. Many of these mAbs were broadly neutralizing. In particular, the mAb AR4A, recognizing a discontinuous epitope outside the CD81...

  7. Neutralizing antibody responses in macaques induced by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 monovalent or trivalent envelope glycoproteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald V Quinnan

    Full Text Available A major goal of efforts to develop a vaccine to prevent HIV-1 infection is induction of broadly cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies (bcnAb. In previous studies we have demonstrated induction of neutralizing antibodies that did cross-react among multiple primary and laboratory strains of HIV-1, but neutralized with limited potency. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that immunization with multiple HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins (Envs would result in a more potent and cross-reactive neutralizing response. One Env, CM243(N610Q, was selected on the basis of studies of the effects of single and multiple mutations of the four gp41 glycosylation sites. The other two Envs included R2 (subtype B and 14/00/4 (subtype F, both of which were obtained from donors with bcnAb. Rhesus monkeys were immunized using a prime boost regimen as in previous studies. Individual groups of monkeys were immunized with either one of the three Envs or all three. The single N610Q and N615Q mutations of CM243 Env did not disrupt protein secretion, processing into, or reactivity with mAbs, unlike other single or multiple deglycosylation mutations. In rabbit studies the N610Q mutation alone or in combination was associated with an enhanced neutralizing response against homologous and heterologous subtype E viruses. In the subsequent monkey study the response induced by the R2 Env regimen was equivalent to the trivalent regimen and superior to the other monovalent regimens against the virus panel used for testing. The 14/00/4 Env induced responses superior to CM243(N610Q. The results indicate that elimination of the glycosylation site near the gp41 loop results in enhanced immunogenicity, but that immunization of monkeys with these three distinct Envs was not more immunogenic than with one.

  8. Antigenic properties of the human immunodeficiency virus envelope glycoprotein gp120 on virions bound to target cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meron Mengistu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein, gp120, undergoes multiple molecular interactions and structural rearrangements during the course of host cell attachment and viral entry, which are being increasingly defined at the atomic level using isolated proteins. In comparison, antigenic markers of these dynamic changes are essentially unknown for single HIV-1 particles bound to target cells. Such markers should indicate how neutralizing and/or non-neutralizing antibodies might interdict infection by either blocking infection or sensitizing host cells for elimination by Fc-mediated effector function. Here we address this deficit by imaging fluorescently labeled CCR5-tropic HIV-1 pseudoviruses using confocal and superresolution microscopy to track the exposure of neutralizing and non-neutralizing epitopes as they appear on single HIV-1 particles bound to target cells. Epitope exposure was followed under conditions permissive or non-permissive for viral entry to delimit changes associated with virion binding from those associated with post-attachment events. We find that a previously unexpected array of gp120 epitopes is exposed rapidly upon target cell binding. This array comprises both neutralizing and non-neutralizing epitopes, the latter being hidden on free virions yet capable of serving as potent targets for Fc-mediated effector function. Under non-permissive conditions for viral entry, both neutralizing and non-neutralizing epitope exposures were relatively static over time for the majority of bound virions. Under entry-permissive conditions, epitope exposure patterns changed over time on subsets of virions that exhibited concurrent variations in virion contents. These studies reveal that bound virions are distinguished by a broad array of both neutralizing and non-neutralizing gp120 epitopes that potentially sensitize a freshly engaged target cell for destruction by Fc-mediated effector function and/or for direct neutralization at a post-binding step

  9. Characterization of virulence-associated determinants in the envelope glycoprotein of Pichinde virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Naveen; Wang, Jialong; Lan, Shuiyun; Danzy, Shamika; McLay Schelde, Lisa; Seladi-Schulman, Jill; Ly, Hinh; Liang, Yuying

    2012-11-10

    We use a small animal model, based on guinea pigs infected with a non-pathogenic Pichinde virus (PICV), to understand the virulence mechanisms of arenavirus infections in the hosts. PICV P2 strain causes a mild febrile reaction in guinea pigs, while P18 causes severe disease with clinical and pathological features reminiscent of Lassa hemorrhagic fever in humans. The envelope glycoproteins (GPC) of P2 and P18 viruses differ at positions 119, 140, and 164, all localized to the receptor-binding G1 subunit. We found that lentiviral pseudotyped virions (VLPs) bearing P18 GPC show more efficient cell entry than those with P2 GPC, and that the E140 residue plays a critical role in this process. Infection of guinea pigs with the recombinant viruses containing the E140K change demonstrated that E140 of GPC is a necessary virulence determinant of P18 infections, possibly by enhancing the ability of virus to enter target cells.

  10. Optimization of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoproteins with V1/V2 deleted, using virus evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bontjer, I.; Land, A.; Eggink, D.; Verkade, E.; Tuin, K.; Baldwin, C.; Pollakis, G.; Paxton, W.A.; Braakman, L.J.; Berkhout, B.; Sanders, R.W.

    2009-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) complex is the principal focus of neutralizing antibody-based vaccines. The functional Env complex is a trimer consisting of six individual subunits: three gp120 molecules and three gp41 molecules. The individual subunits have prove

  11. Chemical inactivation of recombinant vaccinia viruses and the effects on antigenicity and immunogenicity of recombinant simian immunodeficiency virus envelope glycoproteins.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.G.J. Hulskotte (Ellen); M.E.M. Dings (Marlinda); S.G. Norley (Stephen); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractThe efficiency of paraformaldehyde (PFA) and binary ethylenimine (BEI) in inactivating recombinant vaccinia virus (rVV), present in baby hamster kidney cells expressing simian immunodeficiency virus envelope glycoproteins (SIV-Env), was measured in a series of inactivation studies. Both

  12. Monoclonal antibody mapping of the envelope glycoprotein of the dengue 2 virus, Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roehrig, J T; Bolin, R A; Kelly, R G

    1998-07-05

    Although dengue (DEN) virus is the etiologic agent of dengue fever, the most prevalent vector-borne viral disease in the world, precise information on the antigenic structure of the dengue virion is limited. We have prepared a set of murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific for the envelope (E) glycoprotein of DEN 2 virus and used these antibodies in a comprehensive biological and biochemical analysis to identify 16 epitopes. Following domain nomenclature developed for the related flavivirus, tick-borne encephalitis, three functional domains were identified. Five epitopes associated with domain A were arranged in three spatially independent regions. These A-domain epitopes were destroyed by reduction, and antibodies reactive with these epitopes were able to block virus hemagglutination, neutralize virus infectivity, and block virus-mediated cell membrane fusion. Domain-A epitopes were present on the full-length E glycoprotein, a 45-kDa tryptic peptide representing its first 400 amino acids (aa) and a 22-kDa tryptic peptide representing at least aa 1-120. Four epitopes mapped into domain B, as determined by their partial resistance to reduction and the localization of these epitopes on a 9-kDa tryptic or chymotryptic peptide fragment (aa 300-400). One domain-B-reactive MAb was also capable of binding to a DEN 2 synthetic peptide corresponding to aa 333-351 of the E glycoprotein, confirming the location of this domain. Domain-B epitopes elicited MAbs that were potent neutralizers of virus infectivity and blocked hemagglutination, but they did not block virus-mediated cell-membrane fusion. Domains A and B were spatially associated. As with tick-borne encephalitis virus, determination of domain C was more problematic; however, at least four epitopes had biochemical characteristics consistent with C-domain epitopes.

  13. Assembly of arenavirus envelope glycoprotein GPC in detergent-soluble membrane microdomains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnihothram, Sudhakar S; Dancho, Brooke; Grant, Kenneth W; Grimes, Mark L; Lyles, Douglas S; Nunberg, Jack H

    2009-10-01

    The family Arenaviridae includes a number of highly pathogenic viruses that are responsible for acute hemorrhagic fevers in humans. Genetic diversity among arenavirus species in their respective rodent hosts supports the continued emergence of new pathogens. In the absence of available vaccines or therapeutic agents, the hemorrhagic fever arenaviruses remain a serious public health and biodefense concern. Arenaviruses are enveloped virions that assemble and bud from the plasma membrane. In this study, we have characterized the microdomain organization of the virus envelope glycoprotein (GPC) on the cell surface by using immunogold electron microscopy. We find that Junín virus (JUNV) GPC clusters into discrete microdomains of 120 to 160 nm in diameter and that this property of GPC is independent of its myristoylation and of coexpression with the virus matrix protein Z. In cells infected with the Candid#1 strain of JUNV, and in purified Candid#1 virions, these GPC microdomains are soluble in cold Triton X-100 detergent and are thus distinct from conventional lipid rafts, which are utilized by numerous other viruses for assembly. Virion morphogenesis ultimately requires colocalization of viral components, yet our dual-label immunogold staining studies failed to reveal a spatial association of Z with GPC microdomains. This observation may reflect either rapid Z-dependent budding of virus-like particles upon coassociation or a requirement for additional viral components in the assembly process. Together, these results provide new insight into the molecular basis for arenavirus morphogenesis.

  14. A sensitive HIV-1 envelope induced fusion assay identifies fusion enhancement of thrombin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, De-Chun; Zhong, Guo-Cai; Su, Ju-Xiang [Department of Microbiology, Harbin Medical University, 194 Xuefu Road, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150081 (China); Liu, Yan-Hong [Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, 246 Xuefu Road, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150081 (China); Li, Yan; Wang, Jia-Ye [Department of Microbiology, Harbin Medical University, 194 Xuefu Road, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150081 (China); Hattori, Toshio [Department of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Division of Internal Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Tohoku University, Sendai 9808574 (Japan); Ling, Hong, E-mail: lingh@ems.hrbmu.edu.cn [Department of Microbiology, Harbin Medical University, 194 Xuefu Road, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150081 (China); Department of Parasitology, Harbin Medical University, 194 Xuefu Road, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150081 (China); Key Lab of Heilongjiang Province for Infection and Immunity, Key Lab of Heilongjiang Province Education Bureau for Etiology, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150081 (China); Zhang, Feng-Min, E-mail: fengminzhang@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Microbiology, Harbin Medical University, 194 Xuefu Road, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150081 (China); Key Lab of Heilongjiang Province for Infection and Immunity, Key Lab of Heilongjiang Province Education Bureau for Etiology, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150081 (China)

    2010-01-22

    To evaluate the interaction between HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) and target cell receptors, various cell-cell-fusion assays have been developed. In the present study, we established a novel fusion system. In this system, the expression of the sensitive reporter gene, firefly luciferase (FL) gene, in the target cells was used to evaluate cell fusion event. Simultaneously, constitutively expressed Renilla luciferase (RL) gene was used to monitor effector cell number and viability. FL gave a wider dynamic range than other known reporters and the introduction of RL made the assay accurate and reproducible. This system is especially beneficial for investigation of potential entry-influencing agents, for its power of ruling out the false inhibition or enhancement caused by the artificial cell-number variation. As a case study, we applied this fusion system to observe the effect of a serine protease, thrombin, on HIV Env-mediated cell-cell fusion and have found the fusion enhancement activity of thrombin over two R5-tropic HIV strains.

  15. Generation and evaluation of avian leukosis virus subgroup J envelope glycoprotein recombinant pseudovirions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenjie; Cui, Lina; Wang, Liang; Yang, Zhikun; Cui, Zhizhong; Chang, Weishan

    2014-06-01

    Retroviral and lentiviral vector pseudotypes (based on human immunodeficiency virus type 1, HIV-1) have been used for stable and safe gene transfer because of their broad host ranges and high mechanical strength. In the present study, a recombinant avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) polypeptide pseudotyped with lentivirus membrane glycoproteins gp85 and gp37, HIV/env-ALV, was generated, characterized in vitro and evaluated for its ability to infect natural host cells. We optimized the newly developed micro-neutralization (MN) assay using recombinant pseudovirion HIV/env-ALV expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein and well-characterized sera from chickens with confirmed ALV-J disease or virus-free controls. HIV/env-ALV could infect CEF and DF-1 but not pk15, 293FT, MDCK or VERO E6 cells, therefore demonstrating a cellular tropism similar to the wild-type ALV-J. The MN assay indicated that the IC50 values of positive sera offered a considerable advantage in both speed and accuracy. These results suggest that this pseudotyped lentivirus is a good model for studying the functions of ALV-J env and that the MN assay is a reliable serological method for assessing antibody levels in investigating the actual status of the current ALV-J epidemic. These recombinant pseudovirions may prove to be useful for studying ALV-J biology in lower biosafety level laboratory environments, and also for the detection and quantification of neutralizing antibodies to ALV-J in a manner akin to ELISA assays, but that would also be applicable to other viruses.

  16. Herpes simplex virus glycoproteins gB and gD function in a redundant fashion to promote secondary envelopment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, David C; Wisner, Todd W; Wright, Catherine C

    2011-05-01

    Egress of herpes simplex virus (HSV) and other herpesviruses from cells involves extensive modification of cellular membranes and sequential envelopment and deenvelopment steps. HSV glycoproteins are important in these processes, and frequently two or more glycoproteins can largely suffice in any step. Capsids in the nucleus undergo primary envelopment at the inner nuclear membrane (INM), and then enveloped virus particles undergo deenvelopment by fusing with the outer nuclear membrane (ONM). Capsids delivered into the cytoplasm then undergo secondary envelopment, involving trans-Golgi network (TGN) membranes. The deenvelopment step involves HSV glycoproteins gB and gH/gL acting in a redundant fashion. This fusion has features common to the fusion that occurs between the virion envelope and cellular membranes when HSV enters cells, a process requiring gB, gD, and gH/gL. Whether HSV gD also participates (in a redundant fashion with gB or gH/gL) in deenvelopment has not been characterized. Secondary envelopment in the cytoplasm is known to involve HSV gD and gE/gI, also acting in a redundant fashion. Whether gB might also contribute to secondary envelopment, collaborating with gD and gE/gI, is also not clear. To address these questions, we constructed an HSV double mutant lacking gB and gD. The HSV gB(-)/gD(-) mutant exhibited no substantial defects in nuclear egress. In contrast, secondary envelopment was markedly reduced, and there were numerous unenveloped capsids that accumulated in the cytoplasm, as well as increased numbers of partially enveloped capsids and morphologically aberrant enveloped particles with thicker, oblong tegument layers. These defects were different from those observed with HSV gD(-)/gE(-)/gI(-) mutants, which accumulated capsids in large, aggregated masses in the cytoplasm. Our results suggest that HSV gB functions in secondary envelopment, apparently acting downstream of gE/gI.

  17. Genotypic and functional properties of early infant HIV-1 envelopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sullivan John L

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the properties of HIV-1 variants that are transmitted from women to their infants is crucial to improving strategies to prevent transmission. In this study, 162 full-length envelope (env clones were generated from plasma RNA obtained from 5 HIV-1 Clade B infected mother-infant pairs. Following extensive genotypic and phylogenetic analyses, 35 representative clones were selected for functional studies. Results Infant quasispecies were highly homogeneous and generally represented minor maternal variants, consistent with transmission across a selective bottleneck. Infant clones did not differ from the maternal in env length, or glycosylation. All infant variants utilized the CCR5 co-receptor, but were not macrophage tropic. Relatively high levels (IC50 ≥ 100 μg/ml of autologous maternal plasma IgG were required to neutralize maternal and infant viruses; however, all infant viruses were neutralized by pooled sera from HIV-1 infected individuals, implying that they were not inherently neutralization-resistant. All infant viruses were sensitive to the HIV-1 entry inhibitors Enfuvirtide and soluble CD4; none were resistant to Maraviroc. Sensitivity to human monoclonal antibodies 4E10, 2F5, b12 and 2G12 varied. Conclusions This study provides extensive characterization of the genotypic and functional properties of HIV-1 env shortly after transmission. We present the first detailed comparisons of the macrophage tropism of infant and maternal env variants and their sensitivity to Maraviroc, the only CCR5 antagonist approved for therapeutic use. These findings may have implications for improving approaches to prevent mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission.

  18. HIV-1 envelope subregion length variation during disease progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel E Curlin

    Full Text Available The V3 loop of the HIV-1 Env protein is the primary determinant of viral coreceptor usage, whereas the V1V2 loop region is thought to influence coreceptor binding and participate in shielding of neutralization-sensitive regions of the Env glycoprotein gp120 from antibody responses. The functional properties and antigenicity of V1V2 are influenced by changes in amino acid sequence, sequence length and patterns of N-linked glycosylation. However, how these polymorphisms relate to HIV pathogenesis is not fully understood. We examined 5185 HIV-1 gp120 nucleotide sequence fragments and clinical data from 154 individuals (152 were infected with HIV-1 Subtype B. Sequences were aligned, translated, manually edited and separated into V1V2, C2, V3, C3, V4, C4 and V5 subregions. V1-V5 and subregion lengths were calculated, and potential N-linked glycosylation sites (PNLGS counted. Loop lengths and PNLGS were examined as a function of time since infection, CD4 count, viral load, and calendar year in cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. V1V2 length and PNLGS increased significantly through chronic infection before declining in late-stage infection. In cross-sectional analyses, V1V2 length also increased by calendar year between 1984 and 2004 in subjects with early and mid-stage illness. Our observations suggest that there is little selection for loop length at the time of transmission; following infection, HIV-1 adapts to host immune responses through increased V1V2 length and/or addition of carbohydrate moieties at N-linked glycosylation sites. V1V2 shortening during early and late-stage infection may reflect ineffective host immunity. Transmission from donors with chronic illness may have caused the modest increase in V1V2 length observed during the course of the pandemic.

  19. Recruitment of HIV-1 envelope occurs subsequent to lipid mixing: a fluorescence microscopic evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Chi-Hui

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Entry of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV into the target cell is initiated by fusion with the cell membrane, mediated through the envelope glycoproteins gp120 and gp41, following engagement to CD4 and the co-receptor. Previous fusion kinetics studies on the HXB2 envelope protein (Env revealed that Env recruitment occurred at about 13 min concurrent with the lipid mixing. To resolve the temporal sequence of lipid mixing and recruitment, we employed an inhibitory assay monitored by fluorescence microscopy using a gp41 ectodomain (gp41e fragment, which blocked Env recruitment in stark contrast to the lack of gp41e effect on the lipid mixing. In addition, to demonstrate the mode of action for the inhibition of gp41e, our results strongly suggested that lipid mixing precedes the Env recruitment because lipid mixing can proceed with Env recruitment inhibited by exogeneous gp41e molecules. Importantly, it was found that the random clustering of Env molecules on the membrane surface occurred at ~1 minute whereas the Env recruitment was observed at 13 minutes after the attachment of Env-expressing cell to the target cell. This > 10-fold temporal discrepancy highlights that the productive assembly of Env molecules leading to fusion requires spatio-temporal coordination of several adjacent Env trimers aggregated via directed movement.

  20. Mutations altering the gammaretrovirus endoproteolytic motif affect glycosylation of the envelope glycoprotein and early events of the virus life cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argaw, Takele; Wilson, Carolyn A., E-mail: carolyn.wilson@fda.hhs.gov

    2015-01-15

    Previously, we found that mutation of glutamine to proline in the endoproteolytic cleavage signal of the PERV-C envelope (RQKK to RPKK) resulted in non-infectious vectors. Here, we show that RPKK results in a non-infectious vector when placed in not only a PERV envelope, but also the envelope of a related gammaretrovirus, FeLV-B. The amino acid substitutions do not prevent envelope precursor cleavage, viral core and genome assembly, or receptor binding. Rather, the mutations result in the formation of hyperglycosylated glycoprotein and a reduction in the reverse transcribed minus strand synthesis and undetectable 2-LTR circular DNA in cells exposed to vectors with these mutated envelopes. Our findings suggest novel functions associated with the cleavage signal sequence that may affect trafficking through the glycosylation machinery of the cell. Further, the glycosylation status of the envelope appears to impact post-binding events of the viral life cycle, either membrane fusion, internalization, or reverse transcription. - Highlights: • Env cleavage signal impacts infectivity of gammaretroviruses. • Non-infectious mutants have hyper-glycosylated envelope that bind target cells. • Non-infectious mutants have defects in the formation of the double-stranded DNA. • Env cleavage motif has functions beyond cleavage of the env precursor.

  1. Crystal Structure of West Nile Virus Envelope Glycoprotein Reveals Viral Surface Epitopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanai,R.; Kar, K.; Anthony, K.; Gould, L.; Ledizet, M.; Fikrig, E.; Marasco, W.; Koski, R.; Modis, Y.

    2006-01-01

    West Nile virus, a member of the Flavivirus genus, causes fever that can progress to life-threatening encephalitis. The major envelope glycoprotein, E, of these viruses mediates viral attachment and entry by membrane fusion. We have determined the crystal structure of a soluble fragment of West Nile virus E. The structure adopts the same overall fold as that of the E proteins from dengue and tick-borne encephalitis viruses. The conformation of domain II is different from that in other prefusion E structures, however, and resembles the conformation of domain II in postfusion E structures. The epitopes of neutralizing West Nile virus-specific antibodies map to a region of domain III that is exposed on the viral surface and has been implicated in receptor binding. In contrast, we show that certain recombinant therapeutic antibodies, which cross-neutralize West Nile and dengue viruses, bind a peptide from domain I that is exposed only during the membrane fusion transition. By revealing the details of the molecular landscape of the West Nile virus surface, our structure will assist the design of antiviral vaccines and therapeutics.

  2. Identification of Aptamer-Binding Sites in Hepatitis C Virus Envelope Glycoprotein E2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C Virus (HCV encodes two envelope glycoproteins, E1 and E2. Our previous work selected a specific aptamer ZE2, which could bind to E2 with high affinity, with a great potential for developing new molecular probes as an early diagnostic reagents or therapeutic drugs targeting HCV. In this study, the binding sites between E2 and aptamer ZE2 were further explored. E2 was truncated to 15 peptides (P1 to P15 and these peptides were used to detect the affinity with ZE2 by ELISA respectively. The peptide with high affinity was then further truncated, detected and compared with six kinds of HCV genotypes. The basic amino acid in 500 aa bound to ZE2 with high affinity, while acidic amino acid in 501 aa reduced the reaction between E2 and ZE2. The results showed the 500 aa and 501 aa of E2 were the key sites that bound to ZE2.

  3. Detection of Receptor-Induced Glycoprotein Conformational Changes on Enveloped Virions by Using Confocal Micro-Raman Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaonan; Liu, Qian; Benavides-Montano, Javier A.; Nicola, Anthony V.; Aston, D. Eric; Rasco, Barbara A.

    2013-01-01

    Conformational changes in the glycoproteins of enveloped viruses are critical for membrane fusion, which enables viral entry into cells and the pathological cell-cell fusion (syncytia) associated with some viral infections. However, technological capabilities for identifying viral glycoproteins and their conformational changes on actual enveloped virus surfaces are generally scarce, challenging, and time-consuming. Our model, Nipah virus (NiV), is a syncytium-forming biosafety level 4 pathogen with a high mortality rate (40 to 75%) in humans. Once the NiV attachment glycoprotein (G) (NiV-G) binds the cell receptor ephrinB2 or -B3, G triggers conformational changes in the fusion glycoprotein (F) that result in membrane fusion and viral entry. We demonstrate that confocal micro-Raman spectroscopy can, within minutes, simultaneously identify specific G and F glycoprotein signals and receptor-induced conformational changes in NiV-F on NiV virus-like particles (VLPs). First, we identified reproducible G- and F-specific Raman spectral features on NiV VLPs containing M (assembly matrix protein), G, and/or F or on NiV/vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) pseudotyped virions via second-derivative transformations and principal component analysis (PCA). Statistical analyses validated our PCA models. Dynamic temperature-induced conformational changes in F and G or receptor-induced target membrane-dependent conformational changes in F were monitored in NiV pseudovirions in situ in real time by confocal micro-Raman spectroscopy. Advantageously, Raman spectroscopy can identify specific protein signals in relatively impure samples. Thus, this proof-of-principle technological development has implications for the rapid identification and biostability characterization of viruses in medical, veterinary, and food samples and for the analysis of virion glycoprotein conformational changes in situ during viral entry. PMID:23283947

  4. Engineering HIV envelope protein to activate germline B cell receptors of broadly neutralizing anti-CD4 binding site antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Andrew T; Hoot, Sam; Dreyer, Anita M; Lippy, Adriana; Stuart, Andrew; Cohen, Kristen W; Jardine, Joseph; Menis, Sergey; Scheid, Johannes F; West, Anthony P; Schief, William R; Stamatatos, Leonidas

    2013-04-08

    Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) against HIV are believed to be a critical component of the protective responses elicited by an effective HIV vaccine. Neutralizing antibodies against the evolutionarily conserved CD4-binding site (CD4-BS) on the HIV envelope glycoprotein (Env) are capable of inhibiting infection of diverse HIV strains, and have been isolated from HIV-infected individuals. Despite the presence of anti-CD4-BS broadly neutralizing antibody (bnAb) epitopes on recombinant Env, Env immunization has so far failed to elicit such antibodies. Here, we show that Env immunogens fail to engage the germline-reverted forms of known bnAbs that target the CD4-BS. However, we found that the elimination of a conserved glycosylation site located in Loop D and two glycosylation sites located in variable region 5 of Env allows Env-binding to, and activation of, B cells expressing the germline-reverted BCRs of two potent broadly neutralizing antibodies, VRC01 and NIH45-46. Our results offer a possible explanation as to why Env immunogens have been ineffective in stimulating the production of such bNAbs. Importantly, they provide key information as to how such immunogens can be engineered to initiate the process of antibody-affinity maturation against one of the most conserved Env regions.

  5. Genetic Diversity Underlying the Envelope Glycoproteins of Hepatitis C Virus: Structural and Functional Consequences and the Implications for Vaccine Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander W. Tarr

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In the 26 years since the discovery of Hepatitis C virus (HCV a major global research effort has illuminated many aspects of the viral life cycle, facilitating the development of targeted antivirals. Recently, effective direct-acting antiviral (DAA regimens with >90% cure rates have become available for treatment of chronic HCV infection in developed nations, representing a significant advance towards global eradication. However, the high cost of these treatments results in highly restricted access in developing nations, where the disease burden is greatest. Additionally, the largely asymptomatic nature of infection facilitates continued transmission in at risk groups and resource constrained settings due to limited surveillance. Consequently a prophylactic vaccine is much needed. The HCV envelope glycoproteins E1 and E2 are located on the surface of viral lipid envelope, facilitate viral entry and are the targets for host immunity, in addition to other functions. Unfortunately, the extreme global genetic and antigenic diversity exhibited by the HCV glycoproteins represents a significant obstacle to vaccine development. Here we review current knowledge of HCV envelope protein structure, integrating knowledge of genetic, antigenic and functional diversity to inform rational immunogen design.

  6. HSV-2包膜糖蛋白与疫苗的研究进展%Advances in the research of HSV-2 envelope glycoproteins and vaccines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜倩; 王一飞

    2010-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 2 is a major pathogen causing genital herpes. It can create lifelong incubation period in the host and increase the risk of HIV infection. Currently, at least 12 viral glycoproteins are known. They play a vital role in the virus replication cycle and pathogenicity. They are also the targets of cell-mediated and humoral immunity and important candidates for subunit vaccines, DNA vaccines and peptide vaccines to prevent HSV-2 infection. In this review, the characteristics of HSV-2 envelope glycoproteins and the glycoprotein-based vaccines are discussed.%单纯疱疹病毒(herpes simplex virus,HSV)2型是一种主要引起生殖器疱疹的病原体,它可以在宿主体内终身潜伏并增加人们感染HIV的几率.HSV-2有12个已命名的特异性包膜糖蛋白,它们在病毒的复制和致病中起着至关重要的作用,是细胞免疫和体液免疫的主要靶标,也是预防和治疗HSV-2感染的亚单位疫苗、DNA疫苗或多肽疫苗的候选蛋白.此文综述了HSV-2包膜糖蛋白的特性及以这些糖蛋白为基础的疫苗的研究进展.

  7. Use of silver nanoparticles increased inhibition of cell-associated HIV-1 infection by neutralizing antibodies developed against HIV-1 envelope proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garza Treviño Elsa N

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV/AIDS pandemic is a worldwide public health issue. There is a need for new approaches to develop new antiviral compounds or other therapeutic strategies to limit viral transmission. The envelope glycoproteins gp120 and gp41 of HIV are the main targets for both silver nanoparticles (AgNPs and neutralizing antibodies. There is an urgency to optimize the efficiency of the neutralizing antibodies (NABs. In this study, we demonstrated that there is an additive effect between the four NABs and AgNPs when combined against cell-associated HIV-1 infection in vitro Results Four NABs (Monoclonal antibody to HIV-1 gp41 126-7, HIV-1 gp120 Antiserum PB1 Sub 2, HIV-1 gp120 Antiserum PB1, HIV-1 gp120 Monoclonal Antibody F425 B4e8 with or without AgNPs of 30-50 nm in size were tested against cell free and cell-associated HIVIIIB virus. All NABs inhibited HIV-1 cell free infection at a dose response manner, but with AgNPs an antiviral additive effect was not achieved Although there was no inhibition of infection with cell-associated virus by the NABs itself, AgNPs alone were able to inhibit cell associated virus infection and more importantly, when mixed together with NABs they inhibited the HIV-1 cell associated infection in an additive manner. Discussion The most attractive strategies to deal with the HIV problem are the development of a prophylactic vaccine and the development of effective topical vaginal microbicide. For two decades a potent vaccine that inhibits transmission of infection of HIV has been searched. There are vaccines that elicit NABs but none of them has the efficacy to stop transmission of HIV-1 infection. We propose that with the addition of AgNPs, NABs will have an additive effect and become more potent to inhibit cell-associated HIV-1 transmission/infection. Conclusions The addition of AgNPs to NABs has significantly increased the neutralizing potency of NABs in prevention of cell-associated HIV-1 transmission

  8. Purification of the envelope glycoproteins of western equine encephalitis virus by glass wool column chromatography.

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamoto, K.; Simizu, B

    1980-01-01

    Glass wool column chromatography was used for separation of the two glycoproteins of western equine encephalitis virus. Cross-contamination of each protein separated was confirmed to be negligible by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

  9. Boosting of HIV-1 neutralizing antibody responses by a distally related retroviral envelope protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uchtenhagen, Hannes; Schiffner, Torben; Bowles, Emma

    2014-01-01

    Our knowledge of the binding sites for neutralizing Abs (NAb) that recognize a broad range of HIV-1 strains (bNAb) has substantially increased in recent years. However, gaps remain in our understanding of how to focus B cell responses to vulnerable conserved sites within the HIV-1 envelope glycop...

  10. Binding of inferred germline precursors of broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibodies to native-like envelope trimers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliepen, Kwinten; Medina-Ramírez, Max; Yasmeen, Anila; Moore, John P; Klasse, Per Johan; Sanders, Rogier W

    2015-12-01

    HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins (Env) and Env-based immunogens usually do not interact efficiently with the inferred germline precursors of known broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs). This deficiency may be one reason why Env and Env-based immunogens are not efficient at inducing bNAbs. We evaluated the binding of 15 inferred germline precursors of bNAbs directed to different epitope clusters to three soluble native-like SOSIP.664 Env trimers. We found that native-like SOSIP.664 trimers bind to some inferred germline precursors of bNAbs, particularly ones involving the V1/V2 loops at the apex of the trimer. The data imply that native-like SOSIP.664 trimers will be an appropriate platform for structure-guided design improvements intended to create immunogens able to target the germline precursors of bNAbs.

  11. HIV-1 envelope, integrins and co-receptor use in mucosal transmission of HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cicala Claudia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract It is well established that HIV-1 infection typically involves an interaction between the viral envelope protein gp120/41 and the CD4 molecule followed by a second interaction with a chemokine receptor, usually CCR5 or CXCR4. In the early stages of an HIV-1 infection CCR5 using viruses (R5 viruses predominate. In some viral subtypes there is a propensity to switch to CXCR4 usage (X4 viruses. The receptor switch occurs in ~ 40% of the infected individuals and is associated with faster disease progression. This holds for subtypes B and D, but occurs less frequently in subtypes A and C. There are several hypotheses to explain the preferential transmission of R5 viruses and the mechanisms that lead to switching of co-receptor usage; however, there is no definitive explanation for either. One important consideration regarding transmission is that signaling by R5 gp120 may facilitate transmission of R5 viruses by inducing a permissive environment for HIV replication. In the case of sexual transmission, infection by HIV requires the virus to breach the mucosal barrier to gain access to the immune cell targets that it infects; however, the immediate events that follow HIV exposure at genital mucosal sites are not well understood. Upon transmission, the HIV quasispecies that is replicating in an infected donor contracts through a “genetic bottleneck”, and often infection results from a single infectious event. Many details surrounding this initial infection remain unresolved. In mucosal tissues, CD4+ T cells express high levels of CCR5, and a subset of these CD4+/CCR5high cells express the integrin α4β7, the gut homing receptor. CD4+/CCR5high/ α4β7high T cells are highly susceptible to infection by HIV-1 and are ideal targets for an efficient productive infection at the point of transmission. In this context we have demonstrated that the HIV-1 envelope protein gp120 binds to α4β7 on CD4+ T cells. On CD4+/CCR5high/ α4β7high T cells,

  12. Myristoylation of the Arenavirus Envelope Glycoprotein Stable Signal Peptide Is Critical for Membrane Fusion but Dispensable for Virion Morphogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Arenaviruses are responsible for severe and often fatal hemorrhagic disease. In the absence of effective antiviral therapies and vaccines, these viruses pose serious threats to public health and biodefense. Arenaviruses enter the host cell by fusion of the viral and endosomal membranes, a process mediated by the virus envelope glycoprotein GPC. Unlike other class I viral fusion proteins, GPC retains its stable signal peptide (SSP) as an essential third subunit in the mature complex. SSP spans the membrane twice and is myristoylated at its cytoplasmic N terminus. Mutations that abolish SSP myristoylation have been shown to reduce pH-induced cell-cell fusion activity of ectopically expressed GPC to ∼20% of wild-type levels. In order to examine the role of SSP myristoylation in the context of the intact virus, we used reverse genetics to generate Junín viruses (Candid #1 isolate) in which the critical glycine-2 residue in SSP was either replaced by alanine (G2A) or deleted (ΔG2). These mutant viruses produced smaller foci of infection in Vero cells and showed an ∼5-fold reduction in specific infectivity, commensurate with the defect in cell-cell fusion. However, virus assembly and GPC incorporation into budded virions were unaffected. Our findings suggest that the myristate moiety is cryptically disposed in the prefusion GPC complex and may function late in the fusion process to promote merging of the viral and cellular membranes. IMPORTANCE Hemorrhagic fever arenaviruses pose significant threats to public health and biodefense. Arenavirus entry into the host cell is promoted by the virus envelope glycoprotein GPC. Unlike other viral envelope glycoproteins, GPC contains a myristoylated stable signal peptide (SSP) as an essential third subunit. Myristoylation has been shown to be important for the membrane fusion activity of recombinantly expressed GPC. Here, we use reverse genetics to study the role of SSP myristoylation in the context of the intact

  13. Deacylation of the transmembrane domains of Sindbis virus envelope glycoproteins E1 and E2 does not affect low-pH-induced viral membrane fusion activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, JM; Bittman, R; Wilschut, J

    2001-01-01

    The envelope glycoproteins E1 and E2 of Sindbis virus are palmitoylated at cysteine residues within their transmembrane domains (E1 at position 430, and E2 at positions 388 and 390), Here, we investigated the in vitro membrane fusion activity of Sindbis virus variants (derived from the Tote 1101 inf

  14. Antibodies against the Envelope Glycoprotein Promote Infectivity of Immature Dengue Virus Serotype 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorham, Julia M. da Silva; Rodenhuis-Zybert, Izabela A.; Nunez, Nilda Vanesa Ayala; Colpitts, Tonya M.; van der Ende-Metselaar, Heidi; Fikrig, Erol; Diamond, Michael S.; Wilschut, Jan; Smit, Jolanda M.

    2012-01-01

    Cross-reactive dengue virus (DENV) antibodies directed against the envelope (E) and precursor membrane (prM) proteins are believed to contribute to the development of severe dengue disease by facilitating antibody-dependent enhancement of infection. We and others recently demonstrated that anti-prM

  15. Signal peptide replacements enhance expression and secretion of hepatitis C virus envelope glycoproteins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo Wen; Yao Deng; Jie Guan; Weizheng Yan; Yue Wang; Wenjie Tan; Jimin Gao

    2011-01-01

    A large number of researches focused on glycoproteins E1 and E2 of hepatitis C virus (HCV) aimed at the develop-ment of anti-HCV vaccines and inhibitors. Enhancement of E1/E2 expression and secretion is critical for the charac-terization of these glycoproteins and thus for subunit vaccine development. In this study, we designed and syn-thesized three signal peptide sequences based on onlineprograms SignalP, TargetP, and PSORT, then removed and replaced the signal peptide preceding E1/E2 by over-lapping the polymerase chain reaction method. We assessed the effect of this alteration on E1/E2 expression and secretion in mammalian cells, using western blot analysis, dot blot, and Galanthus nivalis agglutinin iectin capture enzyme immunoassay. Replacing the peptides pre-ceding E1 and E2 with the signal peptides of the tissue plasminogen activator and Gaussia luciferase resulted in maximum enhancement of E1/E2 expression and secretion of E1 in mammalian cells, without altering glycosylation.Such an advance would help to facilitate both the research of E1/E2 biology and the development of an effective HCV subunit vaccine. The strategy used in this study could be applied to the expression and production of other glyco-proteins in mammalian ceil line-based systems.

  16. South African mutations of the CCR5 coreceptor for HIV modify interaction with chemokines and HIV Envelope protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folefoc, Asongna T; Fromme, Bernhard J; Katz, Arieh A; Flanagan, Colleen A

    2010-08-01

    The CCR5 chemokine receptor is the major coreceptor for HIV-1 and the receptor for CC-chemokines, MIP-1alpha, MIP-1beta, and regulated upon activation normal T-cell-expressed and secreted. Individuals, who are homozygous for the nonfunctional CCR5Delta32 allele, are largely resistant to HIV-1 infection. Four unique mutations that affect the amino acid sequence of CCR5 have been identified in South Africa. We have assessed the effect of these mutations on CCR5 interactions with chemokines and HIV Envelope protein. The LeuPhe mutation did not affect CCR5 expression, chemokine binding, intracellular signaling, or interaction with Envelope. The ArgGln mutant was similar to wild-type CCR5, but ligand-independent intracellular signaling suggests that it is partially constitutively active. The AspVal mutation decreased chemokine-binding affinity, chemokine-stimulated intracellular signaling, and receptor expression. It also decreased HIV Envelope-mediated cell fusion. The ArgStop mutant showed no measurable chemokine binding or signaling and no measurable expression of CCR5 at the cell surface or within the cell. Consistent with lack of cell surface expression, it did not support envelope-mediated cell fusion. These results show that South African CCR5 variants have a range of phenotypes in vitro that may reflect altered chemokine responses and susceptibility to HIV infection in individuals who carry these alleles.

  17. Interaction of hepatitis C virus envelope glycoprotein E2 with the large extracellular loop of tupaia CD81

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhan-Fei Tian; Hong Shen; Xi-Hua Fu; Yi-Chun Chen; Hubert E Blum; Thomas F Baumert; Xi-Ping Zhao

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To further analyze the interaction of tupaia CD81 with hepatitis C virus (HCV) envelope protein E2. METHODS: A tupaia CD81 large extracellular loop (CD81 LEL), which binds to HCV E2 protein, was cloned and expressed as a GST-fusion protein, and interaction of HCV E2 protein with a tupaia CD81 LEL was evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (EIA). RESULTS: Although tupaia and human CD81 LEL differed in 6 amino acid changes, tupaia CD81 LEL was strongly recognized by anti-CD81 antibodies against human CD81 LEL conformation-dependent epitopes. Investigating LEL CD81-E2 interactions by EIA, we demonstrated that binding of tupaia CD81 LEL GST fusion protein to recombinant HCV E2 protein was markedly reduced compared to binding of human CD81 LEL GST fusion protein to recombinant HCV E2 protein. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that the structural differences in-between the tupaia and human CD81 may alter the interaction of the large extracellular loop with HCV envelope glycoprotein E2. These findings may be important for the understanding of the mechanisms of binding and entry of HCV to PTHs.

  18. Immunization of rabbits with highly purified, soluble, trimeric human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoprotein induces a vigorous B cell response and broadly cross-reactive neutralization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald V Quinnan

    Full Text Available Previously we described induction of cross-reactive HIV-1 neutralizing antibody responses in rabbits using a soluble HIV-1 gp140 envelope glycoprotein (Env in an adjuvant containing monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL and QS21 (AS02A. Here, we compared different forms of the same HIV-1 strain R2 Env for antigenic and biophysical characteristics, and in rabbits characterized the extent of B cell induction for specific antibody expression and secretion and neutralizing responses. The forms of this Env that were produced in and purified from stably transformed 293T cells included a primarily dimeric gp140, a trimeric gp140 appended to a GCN4 trimerization domain (gp140-GCN4, gp140-GCN4 with a 15 amino acid flexible linker between the gp120 and gp41 ectodomain (gp140-GCN4-L, also trimeric, and a gp140 with the flexible linker purified from cell culture supernatants as either dimer (gp140-L(D or monomer (gp140-L(M. Multimeric states of the Env proteins were assessed by native gel electrophoresis and analytical ultracentrifugation. The different forms of gp140 bound broadly cross-reactive neutralizing (BCN human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs similarly in ELISA and immunoprecipitation assays. All Envs bound CD4i mAbs in the presence and absence of sCD4, as reported for the R2 Env. Weak neutralization of some strains of HIV-1 was seen after two additional doses in AS02A. Rabbits that were given a seventh dose of gp140-GCN4-L developed BCN responses that were weak to moderate, similar to our previous report. The specificity of these responses did not appear similar to that of any of the known BCN human mAbs. Induction of spleen B cell and plasma cells producing immunoglobulins that bound trimeric gp140-GCN4-L was vigorous, based on ELISpot and flow cytometry analyses. The results demonstrate that highly purified gp140-GCN4-L trimer in adjuvant elicits BCN responses in rabbits accompanied by vigorous B cell induction.

  19. Distinct Mechanisms of Entry by Envelope Glycoproteins of Marburg and Ebola (Zaire) Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Stephen Y.; Speck, Roberto F.; Ma, Melissa C.; Goldsmith, Mark A.

    2000-01-01

    Since the Marburg (MBG) and Ebola (EBO) viruses have sequence homology and cause similar diseases, we hypothesized that they associate with target cells by similar mechanisms. Pseudotype viruses prepared with a luciferase-containing human immunodeficiency virus type 1 backbone and packaged by the MBG virus or the Zaire subtype EBO virus glycoproteins (GP) mediated infection of a comparable wide range of mammalian cell types, and both were inhibited by ammonium chloride. In contrast, they exhibited differential sensitivities to treatment of target cells with tunicamycin, endoglycosidase H, or protease (pronase). Therefore, while they exhibit certain functional similarities, the MBG and EBO virus GP interact with target cells by distinct processes. PMID:10775638

  20. Nuclear Envelope Protein SUN2 Promotes Cyclophilin-A-Dependent Steps of HIV Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahaye, Xavier; Satoh, Takeshi; Gentili, Matteo; Cerboni, Silvia; Silvin, Aymeric; Conrad, Cécile; Ahmed-Belkacem, Abdelhakim; Rodriguez, Elisa C.; Guichou, Jean-François; Bosquet, Nathalie; Piel, Matthieu; Le Grand, Roger; King, Megan C.; Pawlotsky, Jean-Michel; Manel, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Summary During the early phase of replication, HIV reverse transcribes its RNA and crosses the nuclear envelope while escaping host antiviral defenses. The host factor Cyclophilin A (CypA) is essential for these steps and binds the HIV capsid; however, the mechanism underlying this effect remains elusive. Here, we identify related capsid mutants in HIV-1, HIV-2, and SIVmac that are restricted by CypA. This antiviral restriction of mutated viruses is conserved across species and prevents nuclear import of the viral cDNA. Importantly, the inner nuclear envelope protein SUN2 is required for the antiviral activity of CypA. We show that wild-type HIV exploits SUN2 in primary CD4+ T cells as an essential host factor that is required for the positive effects of CypA on reverse transcription and infection. Altogether, these results establish essential CypA-dependent functions of SUN2 in HIV infection at the nuclear envelope. PMID:27149839

  1. Nuclear Envelope Protein SUN2 Promotes Cyclophilin-A-Dependent Steps of HIV Replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Lahaye

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available During the early phase of replication, HIV reverse transcribes its RNA and crosses the nuclear envelope while escaping host antiviral defenses. The host factor Cyclophilin A (CypA is essential for these steps and binds the HIV capsid; however, the mechanism underlying this effect remains elusive. Here, we identify related capsid mutants in HIV-1, HIV-2, and SIVmac that are restricted by CypA. This antiviral restriction of mutated viruses is conserved across species and prevents nuclear import of the viral cDNA. Importantly, the inner nuclear envelope protein SUN2 is required for the antiviral activity of CypA. We show that wild-type HIV exploits SUN2 in primary CD4+ T cells as an essential host factor that is required for the positive effects of CypA on reverse transcription and infection. Altogether, these results establish essential CypA-dependent functions of SUN2 in HIV infection at the nuclear envelope.

  2. Structure of HIV-1 gp120 with gp41-interactive region reveals layered envelope architecture and basis of conformational mobility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pancera, Marie; Majeed, Shahzad; Ban, Yih-En Andrew; Chen, Lei; Huang, Chih-chin; Kong, Leopold; Kwon, Young Do; Stuckey, Jonathan; Zhou, Tongqing; Robinson, James E.; Schief, William R.; Sodroski, Joseph; Wyatt, Richard; Kwong, Peter D. (UWASH); (NIH); (Tulane); (DFCI)

    2010-04-15

    The viral spike of HIV-1 is composed of three gp120 envelope glycoproteins attached noncovalently to three gp41 transmembrane molecules. Viral entry is initiated by binding to the CD4 receptor on the cell surface, which induces large conformational changes in gp120. These changes not only provide a model for receptor-triggered entry, but affect spike sensitivity to drug- and antibody-mediated neutralization. Although some of the details of the CD4-induced conformational change have been visualized by crystal structures and cryoelectron tomograms, the critical gp41-interactive region of gp120 was missing from previous atomic-level characterizations. Here we determine the crystal structure of an HIV-1 gp120 core with intact gp41-interactive region in its CD4-bound state, compare this structure to unliganded and antibody-bound forms to identify structurally invariant and plastic components, and use ligand-oriented cryoelectron tomograms to define component mobility in the viral spike context. Newly defined gp120 elements proximal to the gp41 interface complete a 7-stranded {beta}-sandwich, which appeared invariant in conformation. Loop excursions emanating from the sandwich form three topologically separate - and structurally plastic - layers, topped off by the highly glycosylated gp120 outer domain. Crystal structures, cryoelectron tomograms, and interlayer chemistry were consistent with a mechanism in which the layers act as a shape-changing spacer, facilitating movement between outer domain and gp41-associated {beta}-sandwich and providing for conformational diversity used in immune evasion. A 'layered' gp120 architecture thus allows movement among alternative glycoprotein conformations required for virus entry and immune evasion, whereas a {beta}-sandwich clamp maintains gp120-gp41 interaction and regulates gp41 transitions.

  3. Gamete Interactions in Xenopus laevis: Identification of Sperm Binding Glycoproteins in the Egg Vitelline Envelope

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, Jingdong; Gong, Hui; Thomsen, Gerald H.; Lennarz, William J.

    1997-01-01

    A quantitative assay was developed to study the interaction of Xenopus laevis sperm and eggs. Using this assay it was found that sperm bound in approximately equal numbers to the surface of both hemispheres of the unfertilized egg, but not to the surface of the fertilized egg. To understand the molecular basis of sperm binding to the egg vitelline envelope (VE), a competition assay was used and it was found that solubilized total VE proteins inhibited sperm-egg binding in a concentration-depe...

  4. Analysis of Dengue Virus Enhancing Epitopes Using Peptide Antigens Derived from the Envelope Glycoprotein Gene Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-11-27

    WE. 1990. Development of dengue and Japanese encephalitis Vaccines . J Infect Dis 162:577-83. 2. Brandt WE, McCown JM, Gentry MK, and Russell PK. i982...7. 19. Roehrig JT, Johnson AJ, Hunt AR, Bolin RA, •d Chu MC. 1990. Antibodies to dengue 2 Jamaica E-glycopr tein synthetic peptides identify antigenic...AD________ AD-A230 976 ARMY PROJECT NO: 89PP9961 TITLE: ANALYSIS OF DENGUE VIRUS ENHANCING EPITOPES USING PEPTIDE ANTIGENS DERIVED FROM THE ENVELOPE

  5. Structural models of the membrane anchors of envelope glycoproteins E1 and E2 from pestiviruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jimin, E-mail: jimin.wang@yale.edu; Li, Yue; Modis, Yorgo, E-mail: yorgo.modis@yale.edu

    2014-04-15

    The membrane anchors of viral envelope proteins play essential roles in cell entry. Recent crystal structures of the ectodomain of envelope protein E2 from a pestivirus suggest that E2 belongs to a novel structural class of membrane fusion machinery. Based on geometric constraints from the E2 structures, we generated atomic models of the E1 and E2 membrane anchors using computational approaches. The E1 anchor contains two amphipathic perimembrane helices and one transmembrane helix; the E2 anchor contains a short helical hairpin stabilized in the membrane by an arginine residue, similar to flaviviruses. A pair of histidine residues in the E2 ectodomain may participate in pH sensing. The proposed atomic models point to Cys987 in E2 as the site of disulfide bond linkage with E1 to form E1–E2 heterodimers. The membrane anchor models provide structural constraints for the disulfide bonding pattern and overall backbone conformation of the E1 ectodomain. - Highlights: • Structures of pestivirus E2 proteins impose constraints on E1, E2 membrane anchors. • Atomic models of the E1 and E2 membrane anchors were generated in silico. • A “snorkeling” arginine completes the short helical hairpin in the E2 membrane anchor. • Roles in pH sensing and E1–E2 disulfide bond formation are proposed for E1 residues. • Implications for E1 ectodomain structure and disulfide bonding pattern are discussed.

  6. Rapid, Quantitative Mapping of Anti-HIV Type 1 Envelope Serum Antibody Specificities

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    Powell, Rebecca L.R.; Lindsay, Ross W.B.; Wilson, Aaron; Carpov, Alexei; Rabinovich, Svetlana; Hoffenberg, Simon; Caulfield, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    A new generation of extremely broad and potent neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) has been isolated from HIV-infected subjects. This has refocused interest in the sites of vulnerability targeted by these bNAbs and in the potential for designing Envelope (Env) immunogens that display these sites. Standard methods for evaluating HIV-1 vaccine candidates do not enable epitope mapping on the HIV Env spike, the target for NAbs. To meet the need for rapid analysis of Ab specificity, we designed a mult...

  7. Nine Crystal Structures Determine the Substrate Envelope of the MDR HIV-1 Protease

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    Liu, Zhigang; Wang, Yong; Brunzelle, Joseph; Kovari, Iulia A.; Kovari, Ladislau C. (WSU-MED); (NWU)

    2012-03-27

    Under drug selection pressure, emerging mutations render HIV-1 protease drug resistant, leading to the therapy failure in anti-HIV treatment. It is known that nine substrate cleavage site peptides bind to wild type (WT) HIV-1 protease in a conserved pattern. However, how the multidrug-resistant (MDR) HIV-1 protease binds to the substrate cleavage site peptides is yet to be determined. MDR769 HIV-1 protease (resistant mutations at residues 10, 36, 46, 54, 62, 63, 71, 82, 84, and 90) was selected for present study to understand the binding to its natural substrates. MDR769 HIV-1 protease was co-crystallized with nine substrate cleavage site hepta-peptides. Crystallographic studies show that MDR769 HIV-1 protease has an expanded substrate envelope with wide open flaps. Furthermore, ligand binding energy calculations indicate weaker binding in MDR769 HIV-1 protease-substrate complexes. These results help in designing the next generation of HIV-1 protease inhibitors by targeting the MDR HIV-1 protease.

  8. Infection of rhesus macaques with a pool of simian immunodeficiency virus with the envelope genes from acute HIV-1 infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Kendall C; Tian, Meijuan; Asmal, Mohammed; Ling, Binhua; Nelson, Kenneth; Henry, Kenneth; Gibson, Richard; Li, Yuejin; Han, Weining; Shattock, Robin J; Veazey, Ronald S; Letvin, Norman; Arts, Eric J; Gao, Yong

    2016-11-25

    New simian-human immunodeficiency chimeric viruses with an HIV-1 env (SHIVenv) are critical for studies on HIV pathogenesis, vaccine development, and microbicide testing. Macaques are typically exposed to single CCR5-using SHIVenv which in most instances does not reflect the conditions during acute/early HIV infection (AHI) in humans. Instead of individual and serial testing new SHIV constructs, a pool of SHIVenv_B derived from 16 acute HIV-1 infections were constructed using a novel yeast-based SHIV cloning approach and then used to infect macaques. Even though none of the 16 SHIVenvs contained the recently reported mutations in env genes that could significantly enhance their binding affinity to RhCD4, one SHIVenv (i.e. SHIVenv_B3-PRB926) established infection in macaques exposed to this pool. AHI SHIVenv_B viruses as well as their HIVenv_B counterparts were analyzed for viral protein content, function, and fitness to identify possible difference between SHIVenv_B3-PRB926 and the other 15 SHIVenvs in the pool. All of the constructs produced SHIV or HIV chimeric with wild type levels of capsid (p27 and p24) content, reverse transcriptase (RT) activity, and expressed envelope glycoproteins that could bind to cell receptors CD4/CCR5 and mediate virus entry. HIV-1env_B chimeric viruses were propagated in susceptible cell lines but the 16 SHIVenv_B variants showed only limited replication in macaque peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and 174×CEM.CCR5 cell line. AHI chimeric viruses including HIVenv_B3 showed only minor variations in cell entry efficiency and kinetics as well as replicative fitness in human PBMCs. Reduced number of N-link glycosylation sites and slightly greater CCR5 affinity/avidity was the only distinguishing feature of env_B3 versus other AHI env's in the pool, a feature also observed in the HIV establishing new infections in humans. Despite the inability to propagate in primary cells and cell lines, a pool of 16 SHIVenv viruses could

  9. Identification of continuous human B-cell epitopes in the envelope glycoprotein of dengue virus type 3 (DENV-3.

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    Andréa N M Rangel da Silva

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dengue virus infection is a growing global public health concern in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Dengue vaccine development has been hampered by concerns that cross-reactive immunological memory elicited by a candidate vaccine could increase the risk of development of more severe clinical forms. One possible strategy to reduce risks associated with a dengue vaccine is the development of a vaccine composed of selected critical epitopes of each of the serotypes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Synthetic peptides were used to identify B-cell epitopes in the envelope (E glycoprotein of dengue virus type 3 (DENV-3. Eleven linear, immunodominant epitopes distributed in five regions at amino acid (aa positions: 51-65, 71-90, 131-170, 196-210 and 246-260 were identified by employing an enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, using a pool of human sera from dengue type 3 infected individuals. Peptides 11 (aa51-65, 27 and 28 (aa131-150 also reacted with dengue 1 (DENV-1 and dengue 2 (DENV-2 patient sera as analyzed through the ROC curves generated for each peptide by ELISA and might have serotype specific diagnostic potential. Mice immunized against each one of the five immunogenic regions showed epitopes 51-65, 131-170, 196-210 and 246-260 elicited the highest antibody response and epitopes131-170, 196-210 and 246-260, elicited IFN-gamma production and T CD4+ cell response, as evaluated by ELISA and ELISPOT assays respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study identified several useful immunodominant IgG-specific epitopes on the envelope of DENV-3. They are important tools for understanding the mechanisms involved in antibody dependent enhancement and immunity. If proven protective and safe, in conjunction with others well-documented epitopes, they might be included into a candidate epitope-based vaccine.

  10. Comparative analysis of the fusion efficiency elicited by the envelope glycoprotein V1-V5 regions derived from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transmitted perinatally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hongyan; Abrahamyan, Levon G; Liu, Chang; Waltke, Mackenzie; Geng, Yunqi; Chen, Qimin; Wood, Charles; Kong, Xiaohong

    2012-12-01

    Understanding the properties of viruses preferentially establishing infection during perinatal transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is critical for the development of effective measures to prevent transmission. A previous study demonstrated that the newly transmitted viruses (in infants) of chronically infected mother-infant pairs (MIPs) were fitter in terms of growth, which was imparted by their envelope (Env) glycoprotein V1-V5 regions, than those in the corresponding chronically infected mothers. In order to investigate whether the higher fitness of transmitted viruses was conferred by their higher entry efficiency directed by the V1-V5 regions during perinatal transmission, the fusogenicity of Env containing V1-V5 regions derived from transmitted and non-tranmsmitted viruses of five chronically infected MIPs and two acutely infected MIPs was analysed using two different cell-cell fusion assays. The results showed that, in one chronically infected MIP, a higher fusion efficiency was induced by the infant Env V1-V5 compared with that of the corresponding mother. Moreover, the V4-V5 regions played an important role in discriminating the transmitted and non-transmitted viruses in this pair. However, neither a consistent pattern nor significant differences in fusogenicity mediated by the V1-V5 regions between maternal and infant variants was observed in the other MIPs. This study suggests that there is no consistent and significant correlation between viral fitness selection and entry efficiency directed by the V1-V5 regions during perinatal transmission. Other factors such as the route and timing of transmission may also be involved.

  11. Antigenicity of peptides comprising the immunosuppressive domain of the retroviral envelope glycoprotein [version 1; referees: 2 approved

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    Bryony Jenkins

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available To achieve persistent infection of the host, viruses often subvert or suppress host immunity through mechanisms that are not entirely understood. The envelope glycoprotein of several retroviruses is thought to possess potent immunosuppressive activity, mapped to a 17-amino acid residue conserved domain. Synthetic peptides corresponding to this immunosuppressive domain can inhibit lymphocyte activation, whereas mutation of key domain residues can increase the lymphocyte response to linked antigenic epitopes. Using three T cell receptors (TCRs of defined specificity, we examine the effect of the immunosuppressive domain on the T cell response to their respective antigenic peptides. We find that fusion of a T cell epitope to the immunosuppressive domain can greatly modulate its potency. However, the effects heavily depend on the particular combination of TCR and peptide-major histocompatibility complex class II (pMHC II, and are mimicked by sequence-scrambled peptides of similar length, suggesting they operate at the level of TCR-pMHC interaction. These results offer an alternative explanation for the immunogenicity of T cell epitopes comprising the putative immunosuppressive domain, which is more consistent with an effect on peptide antigenicity than true immunosuppressive activity.

  12. Antigenicity of peptides comprising the immunosuppressive domain of the retroviral envelope glycoprotein [version 2; referees: 2 approved

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    Bryony Jenkins

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available To achieve persistent infection of the host, viruses often subvert or suppress host immunity through mechanisms that are not entirely understood. The envelope glycoprotein of several retroviruses is thought to possess potent immunosuppressive activity, mapped to a 17-amino acid residue conserved domain. Synthetic peptides corresponding to this immunosuppressive domain can inhibit lymphocyte activation, whereas mutation of key domain residues can increase the lymphocyte response to linked antigenic epitopes. Using three T cell receptors (TCRs of defined specificity, we examine the effect of the immunosuppressive domain on the T cell response to their respective antigenic peptides. We find that fusion of a T cell epitope to the immunosuppressive domain can greatly modulate its potency. However, the effects heavily depend on the particular combination of TCR and peptide-major histocompatibility complex class II (pMHC II, and are mimicked by sequence-scrambled peptides of similar length, suggesting they operate at the level of pMHC formation or TCR-pMHC interaction. These results offer an alternative explanation for the immunogenicity of T cell epitopes comprising the putative immunosuppressive domain, which is more consistent with an effect on peptide antigenicity than true immunosuppressive activity.

  13. Dissection of the role of the stable signal peptide of the arenavirus envelope glycoprotein in membrane fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Emily L; York, Joanne; Nunberg, Jack H

    2012-06-01

    The arenavirus envelope glycoprotein (GPC) retains a stable signal peptide (SSP) as an essential subunit in the mature complex. The 58-amino-acid residue SSP comprises two membrane-spanning hydrophobic regions separated by a short ectodomain loop that interacts with the G2 fusion subunit to promote pH-dependent membrane fusion. Small-molecule compounds that target this unique SSP-G2 interaction prevent arenavirus entry and infection. The interaction between SSP and G2 is sensitive to the phylogenetic distance between New World (Junín) and Old World (Lassa) arenaviruses. For example, heterotypic GPC complexes are unable to support virion entry. In this report, we demonstrate that the hybrid GPC complexes are properly assembled, proteolytically cleaved, and transported to the cell surface but are specifically defective in their membrane fusion activity. Chimeric SSP constructs reveal that this incompatibility is localized to the first transmembrane segment of SSP (TM1). Genetic changes in TM1 also affect sensitivity to small-molecule fusion inhibitors, generating resistance in some cases and inhibitor dependence in others. Our studies suggest that interactions of SSP TM1 with the transmembrane domain of G2 may be important for GPC-mediated membrane fusion and its inhibition.

  14. Arenavirus envelope glycoproteins mimic autoprocessing sites of the cellular proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin isozyme-1/site-1 protease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquato, Antonella; Burri, Dominique J; Traba, Esther Gomez-Ibarlucea; Hanna-El-Daher, Layane; Seidah, Nabil G; Kunz, Stefan

    2011-08-15

    A crucial step in the arenavirus life cycle is the proteolytic processing of the viral envelope glycoprotein precursor (GPC) by the cellular proprotein convertase (PC) subtilisin kexin isozyme-1 (SKI-1)/site-1 protease (S1P). Here we conducted a systematic and quantitative analysis of SKI-1/S1P processing of peptides derived from the recognition sites of GPCs of different Old World and New World arenaviruses. We found that SKI-1/S1P showed a strong preference for arenaviral sequences resembling its autoprocessing sites, which are recurrent motifs in arenaviral GPCs. The African arenaviruses Lassa, Mobala, and Mopeia resemble the SKI-1/S1P autoprocessing C-site, whereas sequences derived from Clade B New World viruses Junin and Tacaribe have similarities to the autoprocessing B-site. In contrast, analogous peptides derived from cellular SKI-1/S1P substrates were remarkably poor substrates. The data suggest that arenavirus GPCs evolved to mimic SKI-1/S1P autoprocessing sites, likely ensuring efficient cleavage and perhaps avoiding competition with SKI-1/S1P's cellular substrates.

  15. Purifying selection in porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus ORF5a protein influences variation in envelope glycoprotein 5 glycosylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Sally R; Abrahante, Juan E; Johnson, Craig R; Murtaugh, Michael P

    2013-12-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus ORF5a protein is encoded in an alternate open reading frame upstream of the major envelope glycoprotein (GP5) in subgenomic mRNA5. Bioinformatic analysis of 3466 type 2 PRRSV sequences showed that the two proteins have co-evolved through a fine balance of purifying codon usage to maintain a conserved RQ-rich motif in ORF5a protein, while eliciting a variable N-linked glycosylation motif in the alternative GP5 reading frame. Conservation of the ORF5a protein RQ-motif also explains an anomalous uracil desert in GP5 hypervariable glycosylation region. The N-terminus of the mature GP5 protein was confirmed to start with amino acid 32, the hypervariable region of the ectodomain. Since GP5 glycosylation variability is assumed to result from immunological selection against neutralizing antibodies, these findings show that an alternative possibility unrelated to immunological selection not only exists, but provides a foundation for investigating previously unsuspected aspects of PRRSV biology. Understanding functional consequences of subtle nucleotide sequence modifications in the region responsible for critical function in ORF5a protein and GP5 glycosylation is essential for rational design of new vaccines against PRRS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Recognition of helper T cell epitopes in envelope (E) glycoprotein of Japanese encephalitis, west Nile and Dengue viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutubuddin, M; Kolaskar, A S; Galande, S; Gore, M M; Ghosh, S N; Banerjee, K

    1991-01-01

    Helper T (Th) cell antigenic sites were predicted from the primary amino acid sequence (approximately 500 in length) of the envelope (E) glycoprotein (gp) of Japanese encephalitis (JE), West Nile (WN) and Dengue (DEN) I-IV flaviviruses. Prediction of Th epitopes was done by analyzing the occurrence of amphipathic segments, Rothbard-Taylor tetra/pentamer motifs and presence of alpha helix-preferring amino acids. The simultaneous occurrence of all these parameters in segments of E gp were used as criteria for prediction as Th epitopes. Only one cross reactive epitope was predicted in the C-terminal region of the E gp predicted segments of all flaviviruses analyzed. This region is one of the longest amphipathic stretch (approximately from 420 to 455) and also has a fairly large amphipathic score. Based on the predicted findings three selected peptides were synthesized and analyzed for their ability to induce in vitro T cell proliferative response in different inbred strains of mice (Balb/c, C57BL6, C3H/HeJ). Synthetic peptide I and II prepared from C-terminal region gave a cross reactive response to JE, WN and Den-II in Balb/c and C3H/HeJ mice. Synthetic peptide III prepared from N-terminal region gave a proliferative response to DEN-II in Balb/c strain only, indicating differential antigen presentation.

  17. Venezuelan equine encephalitis emergence: Enhanced vector infection from a single amino acid substitution in the envelope glycoprotein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brault, Aaron C.; Powers, Ann M.; Ortiz, Diana; Estrada-Franco, Jose G.; Navarro-Lopez, Roberto; Weaver, Scott C.

    2004-01-01

    In 1993 and 1996, subtype IE Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) virus caused epizootics in the Mexican states of Chiapas and Oaxaca. Previously, only subtype IAB and IC VEE virus strains had been associated with major outbreaks of equine and human disease. The IAB and IC epizootics are believed to emerge via adaptation of enzootic (sylvatic, equine-avirulent) strains for high titer equine viremia that results in efficient infection of mosquito vectors. However, experimental equine infections with subtype IE equine isolates from the Mexican outbreaks demonstrated neuro-virulence but little viremia, inconsistent with typical VEE emergence mechanisms. Therefore, we hypothesized that changes in the mosquito vector host range might have contributed to the Mexican emergence. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated the susceptibility of the most abundant mosquito in the deforested Pacific coastal locations of the VEE outbreaks and a proven epizootic vector, Ochlerotatus taeniorhynchus. The Mexican epizootic equine isolates exhibited significantly greater infectivity compared with closely related enzootic strains, supporting the hypothesis that adaptation to an efficient epizootic vector contributed to disease emergence. Reverse genetic studies implicated a Ser → Asn substitution in the E2 envelope glycoprotein as the major determinant of the increased vector infectivity phenotype. Our findings underscore the capacity of RNA viruses to alter their vector host range through minor genetic changes, resulting in the potential for disease emergence. PMID:15277679

  18. Standardized assessment of NAb responses elicited in rhesus monkeys immunized with single- or multi-clade HIV-1 envelope immunogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaman, Michael S; Leblanc, Daniel F; Grandpre, Lauren E; Bartman, Melissa T; Montefiori, David C; Letvin, Norman L; Mascola, John R

    2007-10-10

    The genetic diversity of HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins (Env) remains a major obstacle to the development of an antibody-based AIDS vaccine. The present studies examine the breadth and magnitude of neutralizing antibody (NAb) responses in rhesus monkeys after immunization with DNA prime-recombinant adenovirus (rAd) boost vaccines encoding either single or multiple genetically distant Env immunogens, and subsequently challenged with a pathogenic simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV-89.6P). Using a standardized multi-tier panel of reference Env pseudoviruses for NAb assessment, we show that monkeys immunized with a mixture of Env immunogens (clades A, B, and C) exhibited a greater breadth of NAb activity against neutralization-sensitive Tier 1 viruses following both vaccination and challenge compared to monkeys immunized with a single Env immunogen (clade B or C). However, all groups of Env-vaccinated monkeys demonstrated only limited neutralizing activity against Tier 2 pseudoviruses, which are more characteristic of the neutralization sensitivity of circulating HIV-1. Notably, the development of a post-challenge NAb response against SHIV-89.6P was similar in monkeys receiving either clade B, clade C, or clade A+B+C Env immunogens, suggesting cross-clade priming of NAb responses. In addition, vaccines encoding Env immunogens heterologous to SHIV-89.6P primed for a rapid anamnestic NAb response following infection compared to vaccines lacking an Env component. These results show that DNA/rAd immunization with multiple diverse Env immunogens is a viable approach for enhancing the breadth of NAb responses against HIV-1, and suggest that Env immunogens can prime for anamnestic NAb responses against a heterologous challenge virus.

  19. HIV-1 subtype C envelope characteristics associated with divergent rates of chronic disease progression

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    Goulder Philip JR

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV-1 envelope diversity remains a significant challenge for the development of an efficacious vaccine. The evolutionary forces that shape the diversity of envelope are incompletely understood. HIV-1 subtype C envelope in particular shows significant differences and unique characteristics compared to its subtype B counterpart. Here we applied the single genome sequencing strategy of plasma derived virus from a cohort of therapy naïve chronically infected individuals in order to study diversity, divergence patterns and envelope characteristics across the entire HIV-1 subtype C gp160 in 4 slow progressors and 4 progressors over an average of 19.5 months. Results Sequence analysis indicated that intra-patient nucleotide diversity within the entire envelope was higher in slow progressors, but did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.07. However, intra-patient nucleotide diversity was significantly higher in slow progressors compared to progressors in the C2 (p = 0.0006, V3 (p = 0.01 and C3 (p = 0.005 regions. Increased amino acid length and fewer potential N-linked glycosylation sites (PNGs were observed in the V1-V4 in slow progressors compared to progressors (p = 0.009 and p = 0.02 respectively. Similarly, gp41 in the progressors was significantly longer and had fewer PNGs compared to slow progressors (p = 0.02 and p = 0.02 respectively. Positive selection hotspots mapped mainly to V1, C3, V4, C4 and gp41 in slow progressors, whereas hotspots mapped mainly to gp41 in progressors. Signature consensus sequence differences between the groups occurred mainly in gp41. Conclusions These data suggest that separate regions of envelope are under differential selective forces, and that envelope evolution differs based on disease course. Differences between slow progressors and progressors may reflect differences in immunological pressure and immune evasion mechanisms. These data also indicate that the pattern of envelope evolution

  20. Antibodies against the Envelope Glycoprotein Promote Infectivity of Immature Dengue Virus Serotype 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Voorham, Júlia M.; Rodenhuis-Zybert, Izabela A.; Ayala Nuñez, Nilda Vanesa; Colpitts, Tonya M.; van der Ende-Metselaar, Heidi; Fikrig, Erol; Diamond, Michael S.; Wilschut, Jan; Smit, Jolanda M.

    2012-01-01

    Cross-reactive dengue virus (DENV) antibodies directed against the envelope (E) and precursor membrane (prM) proteins are believed to contribute to the development of severe dengue disease by facilitating antibody-dependent enhancement of infection. We and others recently demonstrated that anti-prM antibodies render essentially non-infectious immature DENV infectious in Fcγ-receptor-expressing cells. Immature DENV particles are abundantly present in standard (st) virus preparations due to inefficient processing of prM to M during virus maturation. Structural analysis has revealed that the E protein is exposed in immature particles and this prompted us to investigate whether antibodies to E render immature particles infectious. To this end, we analyzed the enhancing properties of 27 anti-E antibodies directed against distinct structural domains. Of these, 23 bound to immature particles, and 15 enhanced infectivity of immature DENV in a furin-dependent manner. The significance of these findings was subsequently tested in vivo using the well-established West Nile virus (WNV) mouse model. Remarkably, mice injected with immature WNV opsonized with anti-E mAbs or immune serum produced a lethal infection in a dose-dependent manner, whereas in the absence of antibody immature WNV virions caused no morbidity or mortality. Furthermore, enhancement infection studies with standard (st) DENV preparations opsonized with anti-E mAbs in the presence or absence of furin inhibitor revealed that prM-containing particles present within st virus preparations contribute to antibody-dependent enhancement of infection. Taken together, our results support the notion that antibodies against the structural proteins prM and E both can promote pathogenesis by enhancing infectivity of prM-containing immature and partially mature flavivirus particles. PMID:22431958

  1. Antibodies against the envelope glycoprotein promote infectivity of immature dengue virus serotype 2.

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    Júlia M da Silva Voorham

    Full Text Available Cross-reactive dengue virus (DENV antibodies directed against the envelope (E and precursor membrane (prM proteins are believed to contribute to the development of severe dengue disease by facilitating antibody-dependent enhancement of infection. We and others recently demonstrated that anti-prM antibodies render essentially non-infectious immature DENV infectious in Fcγ-receptor-expressing cells. Immature DENV particles are abundantly present in standard (st virus preparations due to inefficient processing of prM to M during virus maturation. Structural analysis has revealed that the E protein is exposed in immature particles and this prompted us to investigate whether antibodies to E render immature particles infectious. To this end, we analyzed the enhancing properties of 27 anti-E antibodies directed against distinct structural domains. Of these, 23 bound to immature particles, and 15 enhanced infectivity of immature DENV in a furin-dependent manner. The significance of these findings was subsequently tested in vivo using the well-established West Nile virus (WNV mouse model. Remarkably, mice injected with immature WNV opsonized with anti-E mAbs or immune serum produced a lethal infection in a dose-dependent manner, whereas in the absence of antibody immature WNV virions caused no morbidity or mortality. Furthermore, enhancement infection studies with standard (st DENV preparations opsonized with anti-E mAbs in the presence or absence of furin inhibitor revealed that prM-containing particles present within st virus preparations contribute to antibody-dependent enhancement of infection. Taken together, our results support the notion that antibodies against the structural proteins prM and E both can promote pathogenesis by enhancing infectivity of prM-containing immature and partially mature flavivirus particles.

  2. Participation of the 39-kDa glycoprotein (gp39) of the vitelline envelope of Bufo arenarum eggs in sperm-egg interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, Daniel; Llanos, Ricardo J; Miceli, Dora C

    2012-05-01

    The acquisition of egg fertilizability in Bufo arenarum takes place during the oviductal transit and during this process the extracellular coelomic envelope (CE) of the eggs is converted into the vitelline envelope (VE). It has been stated that one of the necessary events leading to a fertilizable state is the proteolytic cleavage of CE glycoproteins in the oviductal pars recta by oviductin, a serine protease. Consequently, there is a marked increase in the relative quantity of glycoproteins with 39 (gp39) and 42 kDa (gp42) in the VE. In the present study, sperm-VE binding assays using heat-solubilized biotin-conjugated VE glycoproteins revealed that both gp39 and gp42 have sperm binding capacity. According to this result, our study was focused on gp39, a glycoprotein that we have previously reported as a homologue of mammalian ZPC. For this purpose, rabbit polyclonal antibodies against gp39 were generated at our laboratory. The specificity of the antibodies was confirmed with western blot of VE glycoproteins separated on SDS-PAGE. Immunohistochemical and immunoelectron studies showed gp39 distributed throughout the width of the VE. In addition, immunofluorescence assays probed that gp39 bound to the sperm head. Finally, as an approach to elucidate the possible involvement of gp39 in fertilization, inhibition assays showed that pretreatment of eggs with antibodies against gp39 generated a significant decrease in the fertilization rate. Therefore, our findings suggest that gp39, which is modified by oviductal action, participates as a VE glycoprotein ligand for sperm in Bufo arenarum fertilization.

  3. Efficient trapping of HIV-1 envelope protein by hetero-oligomerization with an N-helix chimera

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    Silver Jonathan

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The N-heptad repeat region of the HIV-1 Transmembrane Envelope protein is a trimerization domain that forms part of a "six helix bundle" crucial to Envelope-mediated membrane fusion. N-heptad repeat peptides have been used as extracellular reagents to inhibit virus fusion. Results When expressed intracellularly with wild-type HIV-1 Envelope protein, the N-heptad repeat domain efficiently hetero-oligomerized with Envelope and trapped it in the endoplasmic reticulum or early Golgi, as indicated by lack of transport to the cell surface, absent proteolytic processing, and aberrant glycosylation. Conclusion Post-translational processing of HIV Envelope is very sensitive to an agent that binds to the N-heptad repeat during synthesis, suggesting that it might be possible to modify drugs that bind to this region to have transport-blocking properties.

  4. Herpes simplex virus glycoproteins gB and gH function in fusion between the virion envelope and the outer nuclear membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnsworth, Aaron; Wisner, Todd W; Webb, Michael; Roller, Richard; Cohen, Gary; Eisenberg, Roselyn; Johnson, David C

    2007-06-12

    Herpesviruses must traverse the nuclear envelope to gain access to the cytoplasm and, ultimately, to exit cells. It is believed that herpesvirus nucleocapsids enter the perinuclear space by budding through the inner nuclear membrane (NM). To reach the cytoplasm these enveloped particles must fuse with the outer NM and the unenveloped capsids then acquire a second envelope in the trans-Golgi network. Little is known about the process by which herpesviruses virions fuse with the outer NM. Here we show that a herpes simplex virus (HSV) mutant lacking both the two putative fusion glycoproteins gB and gH failed to cross the nuclear envelope. Enveloped virions accumulated in the perinuclear space or in membrane vesicles that bulged into the nucleoplasm (herniations). By contrast, mutants lacking just gB or gH showed only minor or no defects in nuclear egress. We concluded that either HSV gB or gH can promote fusion between the virion envelope and the outer NM. It is noteworthy that fusion associated with HSV entry requires the cooperative action of both gB and gH, suggesting that the two types of fusion (egress versus entry) are dissimilar processes.

  5. Molecular characterization of the processing of arenavirus envelope glycoprotein precursors by subtilisin kexin isozyme-1/site-1 protease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burri, Dominique J; Pasqual, Giulia; Rochat, Cylia; Seidah, Nabil G; Pasquato, Antonella; Kunz, Stefan

    2012-05-01

    A crucial step in the life cycle of arenaviruses is the biosynthesis of the mature fusion-active viral envelope glycoprotein (GP) that is essential for virus-host cell attachment and entry. The maturation of the arenavirus GP precursor (GPC) critically depends on proteolytic processing by the cellular proprotein convertase (PC) subtilisin kexin isozyme-1 (SKI-1)/site-1 protease (S1P). Here we undertook a molecular characterization of the SKI-1/S1P processing of the GPCs of the prototypic arenavirus lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) and the pathogenic Lassa virus (LASV). Previous studies showed that the GPC of LASV undergoes processing in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)/cis-Golgi compartment, whereas the LCMV GPC is cleaved in a late Golgi compartment. Herein we confirm these findings and provide evidence that the SKI-1/S1P recognition site RRLL, present in the SKI-1/S1P prodomain and LASV GPC, but not in the LCMV GPC, is crucial for the processing of the LASV GPC in the ER/cis-Golgi compartment. Our structure-function analysis revealed that the cleavage of arenavirus GPCs, but not cellular substrates, critically depends on the autoprocessing of SKI-1/S1P, suggesting differences in the processing of cellular and viral substrates. Deletion mutagenesis showed that the transmembrane and intracellular domains of SKI-1/S1P are dispensable for arenavirus GPC processing. The expression of a soluble form of the protease in SKI-I/S1P-deficient cells resulted in the efficient processing of arenavirus GPCs and rescued productive virus infection. However, exogenous soluble SKI-1/S1P was unable to process LCMV and LASV GPCs displayed at the surface of SKI-I/S1P-deficient cells, indicating that GPC processing occurs in an intracellular compartment. In sum, our study reveals important differences in the SKI-1/S1P processing of viral and cellular substrates.

  6. Evidence for immune selection of hepatitis C virus (HCV) putative envelope glycoprotein variants: potential role in chronic HCV infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, A J; Geysen, H M; Christopherson, C; Hall, J E; Mason, T J; Saracco, G; Bonino, F; Crawford, K; Marion, C D; Crawford, K A

    1992-01-01

    E2/nonstructural protein 1, the putative envelope glycoprotein (gp72) of HCV, possesses an N-terminal hypervariable (E2 HV) domain from amino acids 384 to 414 of unknown significance. The high degree of amino acid sequence variation in the E2 HV domain appears to be comparable to that observed in the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120 V3 domain. This observation and the observation that the HCV E2 HV domain lacks conserved secondary structure imply that, like the V3 loop of human immunodeficiency virus 1 gp120, the N-terminal E2 region may encode protective epitopes that are subject to immune selection. Antibody-epitope binding studies revealed five isolate-specific linear epitopes located in the E2 HV region. These results suggest that the E2 HV domain is a target for the human immune response and that, in addition to the three major groups of HCV, defined by nucleotide and amino acid sequence identity among HCV isolates, E2 HV-specific subgroups also exist. Analysis of the partial or complete E2 sequences of two individuals indicated that E2 HV variants can either coexist simultaneously in a single individual or that a particular variant may predominate during different episodes of disease. In the latter situation, we found one individual who developed antibodies to a subregion of the E2 HV domain (amino acids 396-407) specific to a variant that was predominant during one major episode of hepatitis but who lacked detectable antibodies to the corresponding region of a second variant that was predominant during a later episode of disease. The data suggest that the variability in the E2 HV domain may result from immune selection. The findings of this report could impact vaccine strategies and drug therapy programs designed to control and eliminate HCV. PMID:1314389

  7. Sequence and functional analysis of the envelope glycoproteins of hepatitis C virus variants selectively transmitted to a new host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Arienzo, Valentina; Moreau, Alain; D'Alteroche, Louis; Gissot, Valérie; Blanchard, Emmanuelle; Gaudy-Graffin, Catherine; Roch, Emmanuelle; Dubois, Frédéric; Giraudeau, Bruno; Plantier, Jean-Christophe; Goudeau, Alain; Roingeard, Philippe; Brand, Denys

    2013-12-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) remains a challenging public health problem worldwide. The identification of viral variants establishing de novo infections and definition of the phenotypic requirements for transmission would facilitate the design of preventive strategies. We explored the transmission of HCV variants in three cases of acute hepatitis following needlestick accidents. We used single-genome amplification of glycoprotein E1E2 gene sequences to map the genetic bottleneck upon transmission accurately. We found that infection was likely established by a single variant in two cases and six variants in the third case. Studies of donor samples showed that the transmitted variant E1E2 amino acid sequences were identical or closely related to those of variants from the donor virus populations. The transmitted variants harbored a common signature site at position 394, within hypervariable region 1 of E2, together with additional signature amino acids specific to each transmission pair. Surprisingly, these E1E2 variants conferred no greater capacity for entry than the E1E2 derived from nontransmitted variants in lentiviral pseudoparticle assays. Mutants escaping the antibodies of donor sera did not predominate among the transmitted variants either. The fitness parameters affecting the selective outgrowth of HCV variants after transmission in an immunocompetent host may thus be more complex than those suggested by mouse models. Human antibodies directed against HCV envelope effectively cross-neutralized the lentiviral particles bearing E1E2 derived from transmitted variants. These findings provide insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying HCV transmission and suggest that viral entry is a potential target for the prevention of HCV infection.

  8. HIV and influenza share a similar structural blueprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIV uses a protein called the envelope glycoprotein spike to attach itself and fuse with the cell membrane; NCI scientists have now defined the structure of this spike in its pre-fusion state using cryo-electron microscopy

  9. Prime-Boost Vaccination Using Chemokine-Fused gp120 DNA and HIV Envelope Peptides Activates Both Immediate and Long-Term Memory Cellular Responses in Rhesus Macaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Qin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available HIV vaccine candidates with improved immunogenicity and induction of mucosal T-cell immunity are needed. A prime-boost strategy using a novel HIV glycoprotein 120 DNA vaccine was employed to immunize rhesus macaques. The DNA vaccine encoded a chimeric gp120 protein in fusion with monocyte chemoattractant protein-3, which was hypothesized to improve the ability of antigen-presenting cells to capture viral antigen through chemokine receptor-mediated endocytosis. DNA vaccination induced virus-reactive T cells in peripheral blood, detectable by T cell proliferation, INFγ ELISPOT and sustained IL-6 production, without humoral responses. With a peptide-cocktail vaccine containing a set of conserved polypeptides of HIV-1 envelope protein, given by nasogastric administration, primed T-cell immunity was significantly boosted. Surprisingly, long-term and peptide-specific mucosal memory T-cell immunity was detected in both vaccinated macaques after one year. Therefore, data from this investigation offer proof-of-principle for potential effectiveness of the prime-boost strategy with a chemokine-fused gp120 DNA and warrant further testing in the nonhuman primate models for developing as a potential HIV vaccine candidate in humans.

  10. Surfactant protein D binds to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) envelope protein gp120 and inhibits HIV replication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meschi, Joseph; Crouch, Erika C; Skolnik, Paul;

    2005-01-01

    The envelope protein (gp120) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) contains highly conserved mannosylated oligosaccharides. These glycoconjugates contribute to resistance to antibody neutralization, and binding to cell surface lectins on macrophages and dendritic cells. Mannose-binding lectin (MBL......) binds to gp120 and plays a role in defence against the virus. In this study it is demonstrated that surfactant protein D (SP-D) binds to gp120 and inhibits HIV infectivity at significantly lower concentrations than MBL. The binding of SP-D was mediated by its calcium-dependent carbohydrate...... defence against HIV. A chimeric protein containing the N-terminal and collagen domains of SP-D linked to the neck and carbohydrate-recognition domains of MBL (called SP-D/MBL(neck+CRD)) had greater ability to bind to gp120 and inhibit virus replication than either SP-D or MBL. The enhanced binding of SP...

  11. Recombinant HIV envelope proteins fail to engage germline versions of anti-CD4bs bNAbs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Hoot

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vaccine candidates for HIV-1 so far have not been able to elicit broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs although they express the epitopes recognized by bNAbs to the HIV envelope glycoprotein (Env. To understand whether and how Env immunogens interact with the predicted germline versions of known bNAbs, we screened a large panel (N:56 of recombinant Envs (from clades A, B and C for binding to the germline predecessors of the broadly neutralizing anti-CD4 binding site antibodies b12, NIH45-46 and 3BNC60. Although the mature antibodies reacted with diverse Envs, the corresponding germline antibodies did not display Env-reactivity. Experiments conducted with engineered chimeric antibodies combining the mature and germline heavy and light chains, respectively and vice-versa, revealed that both antibody chains are important for the known cross-reactivity of these antibodies. Our results also indicate that in order for b12 to display its broad cross-reactivity, multiple somatic mutations within its VH region are required. A consequence of the failure of the germline b12 to bind recombinant soluble Env is that Env-induced B-cell activation through the germline b12 BCR does not take place. Our study provides a new explanation for the difficulties in eliciting bNAbs with recombinant soluble Env immunogens. Our study also highlights the need for intense efforts to identify rare naturally occurring or engineered Envs that may engage the germline BCR versions of bNAbs.

  12. Recombinant HIV envelope proteins fail to engage germline versions of anti-CD4bs bNAbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoot, Sam; McGuire, Andrew T; Cohen, Kristen W; Strong, Roland K; Hangartner, Lars; Klein, Florian; Diskin, Ron; Scheid, Johannes F; Sather, D Noah; Burton, Dennis R; Stamatatos, Leonidas

    2013-01-01

    Vaccine candidates for HIV-1 so far have not been able to elicit broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) although they express the epitopes recognized by bNAbs to the HIV envelope glycoprotein (Env). To understand whether and how Env immunogens interact with the predicted germline versions of known bNAbs, we screened a large panel (N:56) of recombinant Envs (from clades A, B and C) for binding to the germline predecessors of the broadly neutralizing anti-CD4 binding site antibodies b12, NIH45-46 and 3BNC60. Although the mature antibodies reacted with diverse Envs, the corresponding germline antibodies did not display Env-reactivity. Experiments conducted with engineered chimeric antibodies combining the mature and germline heavy and light chains, respectively and vice-versa, revealed that both antibody chains are important for the known cross-reactivity of these antibodies. Our results also indicate that in order for b12 to display its broad cross-reactivity, multiple somatic mutations within its VH region are required. A consequence of the failure of the germline b12 to bind recombinant soluble Env is that Env-induced B-cell activation through the germline b12 BCR does not take place. Our study provides a new explanation for the difficulties in eliciting bNAbs with recombinant soluble Env immunogens. Our study also highlights the need for intense efforts to identify rare naturally occurring or engineered Envs that may engage the germline BCR versions of bNAbs.

  13. Inhibition of HIV type 1 infectivity by coexpression of a wild-type and a defective glycoprotein 120

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, O S; Losman, B; Schønning, Kristian;

    1998-01-01

    An amino acid substitution (D --> K) in the C3 region of HIV-1 gp120 has previously been shown to inhibit binding of virions to CD4+ cells. We have introduced the same mutation into the HIV-1 isolate LAV-I(BRU), in which the mutation is denoted D373K. Here we show that the D373K envelope protein ...

  14. Incompatible Natures of the HIV-1 Envelope in Resistance to the CCR5 Antagonist Cenicriviroc and to Neutralizing Antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwata, Takeo; Enomoto, Ikumi; Baba, Masanori; Matsushita, Shuzo

    2015-11-02

    Cenicriviroc is a CCR5 antagonist which prevents human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) from cellular entry. The CCR5-binding regions of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein are important targets for neutralizing antibodies (NAbs), and mutations conferring cenicriviroc resistance may therefore affect sensitivity to NAbs. Here, we used the in vitro induction of HIV-1 variants resistant to cenicriviroc or NAbs to examine the relationship between resistance to cenicriviroc and resistance to NAbs. The cenicriviroc-resistant variant KK652-67 (strain KK passaged 67 times in the presence of increasing concentrations of cenicriviroc) was sensitive to neutralization by NAbs against the V3 loop, the CD4-induced (CD4i) region, and the CD4-binding site (CD4bs), whereas the wild-type (WT) parental HIV-1 strain KKWT from which cenicriviroc-resistant strain KK652-67 was obtained was resistant to these NAbs. The V3 region of KK652-67 was important for cenicriviroc resistance and critical to the high sensitivity of the V3, CD4i, and CD4bs epitopes to NAbs. Moreover, induction of variants resistant to anti-V3 NAb 0.5γ and anti-CD4i NAb 4E9C from cenicriviroc-resistant strain KK652-67 resulted in reversion to the cenicriviroc-sensitive phenotype comparable to that of the parental strain, KKWT. Resistance to 0.5γ and 4E9C was caused by the novel substitutions R315K, G324R, and E381K in the V3 and C3 regions near the substitutions conferring cenicriviroc resistance. Importantly, these amino acid changes in the CCR5-binding region were also responsible for reversion to the cenicriviroc-sensitive phenotype. These results suggest the presence of key amino acid residues where resistance to cenicriviroc is incompatible with resistance to NAbs. This implies that cenicriviroc and neutralizing antibodies may restrict the emergence of variants resistant to each other.

  15. Reciprocal functional pseudotyping of HIV-1 and HTLV-1 viral genomes by the heterologous counterpart envelope proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klase, Zachary; Jeang, Kuan-Teh

    2013-08-15

    HIV-1 and HTLV-1 can infect CD4+ T cells and can co-infect the same individual. In principle, it is possible that both viruses can infect the same CD4+ T cells in dually infected persons. Currently, how efficiently HTLV-1 and HIV-1 co-infects the same cell and the full extent of their biological interactions are not well-understood. Here, we report evidence confirming that both viruses can infect the same cells and that HTLV-1 envelope (Env) can pseudotype HIV-1 viral particles and HIV-1 envelope (Env) can pseudotype HTLV-1 virions to mediate subsequent infections of substrate cells. We also show that the construction of a chimeric HTLV-1 molecular clone carrying the HIV-1 Env in place of its HTLV-1 counterpart results in a replication competent moiety. These findings raise new implications of viral complementation and assortment between HIV-1 and HTLV-1 in dually infected persons.

  16. Constitutively active CCR5 chemokine receptors differ in mediating HIV envelope-dependent fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Voux, Alex; Chan, Mei-Chi; Folefoc, Asongna T; Madziva, Michael T; Flanagan, Colleen A

    2013-01-01

    The CCR5 chemokine receptor is a rhodopsin-like G protein-coupled receptor that mediates the effects of pro-inflammatory β-chemokines. CCR5 is also the major co-receptor for entry of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) into human cells. G protein-coupled receptors exist in ensembles of active and inactive conformations. Active receptor conformations can be stabilized by mutations. Although binding of the HIV envelope protein to CCR5 stimulates cellular signaling, the CCR5 conformation that induces fusion of the viral membrane with cellular membranes is not known. We mutated conserved amino acids to generate constitutively active CCR5 receptors, which are stabilized in active conformations, and tested the ability of constitutively active CCR5 receptors to mediate HIV envelope-directed membrane fusion. Mutation of the Asp³·⁴⁹(¹²⁵) and Arg⁶·³²(²²⁵) residues of CCR5 did not cause constitutive activity, but Lys or Pro substitutions for Thr²·⁵⁶(⁸²), in the TxP motif, caused high basal inositol phosphate signaling. Signaling did not increase in response to MIP-1β, suggesting that the Thr²·⁵⁶(⁸²) mutants were fully stabilized in active conformations. The Thr²·⁵⁶(⁸²)Lys mutation severely decreased cell surface CCR5 expression. Combining the Thr²·⁵⁶(⁸²)Lys mutation with an Arg⁶·³²(²²⁵)Gln mutation partially reversed the decrease in expression. Mutants with Thr²·⁵⁶(⁸²)Lys substitutions were poor mediators of HIV envelope-directed membrane fusion, but mutants with the Thr²·⁶⁵(⁸²)Pro substitution exhibited full co-receptor function. Our results suggest that the Thr²·⁶⁵(⁸²)Lys and Thr²·⁶⁵(⁸²)Pro mutations stabilize distinct constitutively active CCR5 conformations. Lys in position 2.65(82) stabilizes activated receptor conformations that appear to be constitutively internalized and do not induce envelope-dependent membrane fusion, whereas Pro stabilizes activated conformations

  17. Constitutively active CCR5 chemokine receptors differ in mediating HIV envelope-dependent fusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex de Voux

    Full Text Available The CCR5 chemokine receptor is a rhodopsin-like G protein-coupled receptor that mediates the effects of pro-inflammatory β-chemokines. CCR5 is also the major co-receptor for entry of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV into human cells. G protein-coupled receptors exist in ensembles of active and inactive conformations. Active receptor conformations can be stabilized by mutations. Although binding of the HIV envelope protein to CCR5 stimulates cellular signaling, the CCR5 conformation that induces fusion of the viral membrane with cellular membranes is not known. We mutated conserved amino acids to generate constitutively active CCR5 receptors, which are stabilized in active conformations, and tested the ability of constitutively active CCR5 receptors to mediate HIV envelope-directed membrane fusion. Mutation of the Asp³·⁴⁹(¹²⁵ and Arg⁶·³²(²²⁵ residues of CCR5 did not cause constitutive activity, but Lys or Pro substitutions for Thr²·⁵⁶(⁸², in the TxP motif, caused high basal inositol phosphate signaling. Signaling did not increase in response to MIP-1β, suggesting that the Thr²·⁵⁶(⁸² mutants were fully stabilized in active conformations. The Thr²·⁵⁶(⁸²Lys mutation severely decreased cell surface CCR5 expression. Combining the Thr²·⁵⁶(⁸²Lys mutation with an Arg⁶·³²(²²⁵Gln mutation partially reversed the decrease in expression. Mutants with Thr²·⁵⁶(⁸²Lys substitutions were poor mediators of HIV envelope-directed membrane fusion, but mutants with the Thr²·⁶⁵(⁸²Pro substitution exhibited full co-receptor function. Our results suggest that the Thr²·⁶⁵(⁸²Lys and Thr²·⁶⁵(⁸²Pro mutations stabilize distinct constitutively active CCR5 conformations. Lys in position 2.65(82 stabilizes activated receptor conformations that appear to be constitutively internalized and do not induce envelope-dependent membrane fusion, whereas Pro stabilizes activated

  18. Expanded breadth of the T-cell response to mosaic HIV-1 envelope DNA vaccination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korber, Bette [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fischer, William [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wallstrom, Timothy [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    An effective AIDS vaccine must control highly diverse circulating strains of HIV-1. Among HIV -I gene products, the envelope (Env) protein contains variable as well as conserved regions. In this report, an informatic approach to the design of T-cell vaccines directed to HIV -I Env M group global sequences was tested. Synthetic Env antigens were designed to express mosaics that maximize the inclusion of common potential Tcell epitope (PTE) 9-mers and minimize the inclusion of rare epitopes likely to elicit strain-specific responses. DNA vaccines were evaluated using intracellular cytokine staining (ICS) in inbred mice with a standardized panel of highly conserved 15-mer PTE peptides. I, 2 and 3 mosaic sets were developed that increased theoretical epitope coverage. The breadth and magnitude ofT-cell immunity stimulated by these vaccines were compared to natural strain Env's; additional comparisons were performed on mutant Env's, including gpl60 or gpl45 with or without V regions and gp41 deletions. Among them, the 2 or 3 mosaic Env sets elicited the optimal CD4 and CD8 responses. These responses were most evident in CD8 T cells; the 3 mosaic set elicited responses to an average of 8 peptide pools compared to 2 pools for a set of3 natural Env's. Synthetic mosaic HIV -I antigens can therefore induce T-cell responses with expanded breadth and may facilitate the development of effective T -cell-based HIV -1 vaccines.

  19. Interfacial Cavity Filling To Optimize CD4-Mimetic Miniprotein Interactions with HIV-1 Surface Glycoprotein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morellato-Castillo, Laurence; Acharya, Priyamvada; Combes, Olivier; Michiels, Johan; Descours, Anne; Ramos, Oscar H.P.; Yang, Yongping; Vanham, Guido; Ariën, Kevin K.; Kwong, Peter D.; Martin, Loïc; Kessler, Pascal [ITM-Antwerp; (CEA-CNRS); (NIH)

    2013-08-05

    Ligand affinities can be optimized by interfacial cavity filling. A hollow (Phe43 cavity) between HIV-1 surface glycoprotein (gp120) and cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) receptor extends beyond residue phenylalanine 43 of CD4 and cannot be fully accessed by natural amino acids. To increase HIV-1 gp120 affinity for a family of CD4-mimetic miniproteins (miniCD4s), we targeted the gp120 Phe43 cavity with 11 non-natural phenylalanine derivatives, introduced into a miniCD4 named M48 (1). The best derivative, named M48U12 (13), bound HIV-1 YU2 gp120 with 8 pM affinity and showed potent HIV-1 neutralization. It contained a methylcyclohexyl derivative of 4-aminophenylalanine, and its cocrystal structure with gp120 revealed the cyclohexane ring buried within the gp120 hydrophobic core but able to assume multiple orientations in the binding pocket, and the aniline nitrogen potentially providing a focus for further improvement. Altogether, the results provide a framework for filling the interfacial Phe43 cavity to enhance miniCD4 affinity.

  20. λ Light Chain Bias Associated With Enhanced Binding and Function of Anti-HIV Env Glycoprotein Antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajadi, Mohammad M; Farshidpour, Maham; Brown, Eric P; Ouyang, Xin; Seaman, Michael S; Pazgier, Marzena; Ackerman, Margaret E; Robinson, Harriet; Tomaras, Georgia; Parsons, Matthew S; Charurat, Manhattan; DeVico, Anthony L; Redfield, Robert R; Lewis, George K

    2016-01-01

    The humoral response to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remains incompletely understood. In this report, we describe biased λ light chain use during the HIV Env glycoprotein (Env) response in HIV infection and vaccination. We examined HIV Env binding (and neutralization) in the context of light chain use in subjects with acute HIV infection, chronic HIV infection, and among HIV vaccinees. In all populations tested, there was a λ chain bias for HIV Env binding antibodies, compared with other HIV antigens (such as p24) or tetanus toxoid. In subjects with chronic HIV infection, a λ bias was noted for neutralization, with λ antibodies accounting for up to 90% of all neutralization activity observed. This is the first report of antibody function in a human infection being tied to light chain use. In HIV infection, antibodies expressing λ light chains tended to have longer CDRL3s, increased light chain contact with HIV Env, and less hypermutation in the heavy chain, compared with antibodies using the κ light chain. These data also support an evolutionary model for the understanding the various κ to λ light chain ratios observed across species and suggest that the λ light chain bias against HIV provides the host an advantage in developing a more efficient humoral response. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. HIV-1 integrase inhibitors are substrates for the multidrug transporter MDR1-P-glycoprotein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cara Andrea

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The discovery of diketoacid-containing derivatives as inhibitors of HIV-1 Integrase (IN (IN inhibitors, IINs has played a major role in validating this enzyme as an important target for antiretroviral therapy. Since the in vivo efficacy depends on access of these drugs to intracellular sites where HIV-1 replicates, we determined whether the IINs are recognized by the multidrug transporter MDR1-P-glycoprotein (P-gp thereby reducing their intracellular accumulation. To address the effect of IINs on drug transport, nine quinolonyl diketo acid (DKA derivatives active on the HIV-1 IN strand transfer (ST step and with EC50 ranging from 1.83 to >50 μm in cell-based assays were tested for their in vitro interaction with P-gp in the CEM-MDR cell system. IINs were investigated for the inhibition and induction of the P-gp function and expression as well as for multidrug resistance (MDR reversing ability. Results The HIV-1 IINs act as genuine P-gp substrates by inhibiting doxorubicin efflux and inducing P-gp functional conformation changes as evaluated by the modulation of UIC2 mAb epitope. Further, IINs chemosensitize MDR cells to vinblastine and induce P-gp expression in drug sensitive revertants of CEM-MDR cells. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that HIV-1 IINs are P-gp substrates. This biological property may influence the absorption, distribution and elimination of these novels anti HIV-1 compounds.

  2. Transmitted/founder and chronic HIV-1 envelope proteins are distinguished by differential utilization of CCR5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Zahra F; Iyer, Shilpa S; Wilen, Craig B; Parrish, Nicholas F; Chikere, Kelechi C; Lee, Fang-Hua; Didigu, Chuka A; Berro, Reem; Klasse, Per Johan; Lee, Benhur; Moore, John P; Shaw, George M; Hahn, Beatrice H; Doms, Robert W

    2013-03-01

    Infection by HIV-1 most often results from the successful transmission and propagation of a single virus variant, termed the transmitted/founder (T/F) virus. Here, we compared the attachment and entry properties of envelope (Env) glycoproteins from T/F and chronic control (CC) viruses. Using a panel of 40 T/F and 47 CC Envs, all derived by single genome amplification, we found that 52% of clade C and B CC Envs exhibited partial resistance to the CCR5 antagonist maraviroc (MVC) on cells expressing high levels of CCR5, while only 15% of T/F Envs exhibited this same property. Moreover, subtle differences in the magnitude with which MVC inhibited infection on cells expressing low levels of CCR5, including primary CD4(+) T cells, were highly predictive of MVC resistance when CCR5 expression levels were high. These results are consistent with previous observations showing a greater sensitivity of T/F Envs to MVC inhibition on cells expressing very high levels of CCR5 and indicate that CC Envs are often capable of recognizing MVC-bound CCR5, albeit inefficiently on cells expressing physiologic levels of CCR5. When CCR5 expression levels are high, this phenotype becomes readily detectable. The utilization of drug-bound CCR5 conformations by many CC Envs was seen with other CCR5 antagonists, with replication-competent viruses, and did not obviously correlate with other phenotypic traits. The striking ability of clade C and B CC Envs to use MVC-bound CCR5 relative to T/F Envs argues that the more promiscuous use of CCR5 by these Env proteins is selected against at the level of virus transmission and is selected for during chronic infection.

  3. Evolutionary and structural features of the C2, V3 and C3 envelope regions underlying the differences in HIV-1 and HIV-2 biology and infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Barroso

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Unlike in HIV-1 infection, the majority of HIV-2 patients produce broadly reactive neutralizing antibodies, control viral replication and survive as elite controllers. The identification of the molecular, structural and evolutionary footprints underlying these very distinct immunological and clinical outcomes may lead to the development of new strategies for the prevention and treatment of HIV infection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed a side-by-side molecular, evolutionary and structural comparison of the C2, V3 and C3 envelope regions from HIV-1 and HIV-2. These regions contain major antigenic targets and are important for receptor binding. In HIV-2, these regions also have immune modulatory properties. We found that these regions are significantly more variable in HIV-1 than in HIV-2. Within each virus, C3 is the most entropic region followed by either C2 (HIV-2 or V3 (HIV-1. The C3 region is well exposed in the HIV-2 envelope and is under strong diversifying selection suggesting that, like in HIV-1, it may harbour neutralizing epitopes. Notably, however, extreme diversification of C2 and C3 seems to be deleterious for HIV-2 and prevent its transmission. Computer modelling simulations showed that in HIV-2 the V3 loop is much less exposed than C2 and C3 and has a retractile conformation due to a physical interaction with both C2 and C3. The concealed and conserved nature of V3 in the HIV-2 is consistent with its lack of immunodominancy in vivo and with its role in preventing immune activation. In contrast, HIV-1 had an extended and accessible V3 loop that is consistent with its immunodominant and neutralizing nature. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We identify significant structural and functional constrains to the diversification and evolution of C2, V3 and C3 in the HIV-2 envelope but not in HIV-1. These studies highlight fundamental differences in the biology and infection of HIV-1 and HIV-2 and in their mode of

  4. Genetic and functional analysis of a set of HIV-1 envelope genes obtained from biological clones with varying syncytium-inducing capacities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.C. Andeweg (Arno); M. Groenink (Maarten); P. Leeflang; R.E.Y. de Goede; A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Ab); M. Tersmette; M.L. Bosch (Marnix)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractTo study HIV-1 envelope-mediated syncytium formation we have amplified, cloned, expressed, and sequenced individual envelope genes from a set of eight biological HIV-1 clones. These clones were obtained from two patients and display either a syncytium-inducing (SI) or nonsyncytium-induci

  5. Functional diversity of HIV-1 envelope proteins expressed by contemporaneous plasma viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clavel François

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous studies have shown that viral quasi-species with genetically diverse envelope proteins (Env replicate simultaneously in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1. Less information is available concerning the extent that envelope sequence diversity translates into a diversity of phenotypic properties, including infectivity and resistance to entry inhibitors. Methods To study these questions, we isolated genetically distinct contemporaneous clonal viral populations from the plasma of 5 HIV-1 infected individuals (n = 70, and evaluated the infectivity of recombinant viruses expressing Env proteins from the clonal viruses in several target cells. The sensitivity to entry inhibitors (enfuvirtide, TAK-799, soluble CD4 and monoclonal antibodies (2G12, 48d, 2F5 was also evaluated for a subset of the recombinant viruses (n = 20. Results Even when comparisons were restricted to viruses with similar tropism, the infectivity for a given target cell of viruses carrying different Env proteins from the same patient varied over an approximately 10-fold range, and differences in their relative ability to infect different target cells were also observed. Variable region haplotypes associated with high and low infectivity could be identified for one patient. In addition, clones carrying unique mutations in V3 often displayed low infectivity. No correlation was observed between viral infectivity and sensitivity to inhibition by any of the six entry inhibitors evaluated, indicating that these properties can be dissociated. Significant inter-patient differences, independent of infectivity, were observed for the sensitivity of Env proteins to several entry inhibitors and their ability to infect different target cells. Conclusion These findings demonstrate the marked functional heterogeneity of HIV-1 Env proteins expressed by contemporaneous circulating viruses, and underscore the advantage of clonal analyses in

  6. Immunization with Cytomegalovirus Envelope Glycoprotein M and Glycoprotein N DNA Vaccines can Provide Mice with Complete Protection against a Lethal Murine Cytomegalovirus Challenge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huadong Wang; Yanfeng Yao; Chaoyang Huang; Quanjiao Chen; Jianjun Chen; Ze Chen

    2013-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus virions contain three major glycoprotein complexes (gC Ⅰ,Ⅱ,Ⅲ),all of which are required for CMV infectivity.These complexes also represent major antigenic targets for anti-viral immune responses.The gC Ⅱ complex consists of two glycoproteins,gM and gN.In the current study,DNA vaccines expressing the murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) homologs of the gM and gN proteins were evaluated for protection against lethal MCMV infection in a mouse model.Humoral and cellular immune responses,spleen viral titers,and mice survival and body-weight changes were examined.The results showed that immunization with gM or gN DNA vaccine alone was not able to offer good protection,whereas co-immunization with both gM and gN induced an effective neutralizing antibody response and cellular immune response,and provided mice with complete protection against a lethal MCMV challenge.This study provides the first in vivo evidence that the gC Ⅱ (gM-gN) complex may be able to serve as a protective subunit antigen for future HCMV vaccine development.

  7. Isolation and characterization of 20'-F-RNA aptamers against whole HIV-1 subtype C envelope pseudovirus

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    London, GM

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aptamers, which are artificial nucleic acid ligands akin to antibodies in function, represent a new class of molecules that can prevent HIV infection. In this study, we isolated RNA aptamers against whole HV-1CAP45 enveloped pseudotyped virus...

  8. Temporal expression of HIV-1 envelope proteins in baculovirus-infected insect cells: Implications for glycosylation and CD4 binding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, C.I.; Lennick, M.; Lehar, S.M.; Beltz, G.A.; Young, E. (Cambridge Bioscience Corporation, Worcester, MA (USA))

    1990-10-01

    Three different human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1) envelope derived recombinant proteins and the full length human CD4 polypeptide were expressed in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells. DNA constructs encoding CD4, gp120, gp160, and gp160 delta were cloned into the baculovirus expression vector pVL941 or a derivative and used to generate recombinant viruses in a cotransfection with DNA from Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcMNPV). Western blotting of cell extracts of the recombinant HIV-1 proteins showed that for each construct two major bands specifically reacted with anti-HIV-1 envelope antiserum. These bands corresponded to glycosylated and nonglycosylated versions of the HIV proteins as determined by 3H-mannose labeling and tunicamycin treatment of infected cells. A time course of HIV envelope expression revealed that at early times post-infection (24 hours) the proteins were fully glycosylated and soluble in nonionic detergents. However, at later times postinfection (48 hours), expression levels of recombinant protein reached a maximum but most of the increase was due to a rise in the level of the nonglycosylated species, which was largely insoluble in nonionic detergents. Thus, it appears that Sf9 cells cannot process large amounts of glycosylated recombinant proteins efficiently. As a measure of biological activity, the CD4 binding ability of both glycosylated and nonglycosylated recombinant HIV envelope proteins was tested in a coimmunoprecipitation assay. The results showed that CD4 and the glycosylated versions of recombinant gp120 or gp160 delta specifically associated with one another in this analysis. Nonglycosylated gp120 or gp160 delta proteins from tunicamycin-treated cultures did immunoprecipitate with anti-HIV-1 antiserum but did not interact with CD4.

  9. Structural dynamics of HIV-1 envelope Gp120 outer domain with V3 loop.

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    Masaru Yokoyama

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The net charge of the hypervariable V3 loop on the HIV-1 envelope gp120 outer domain plays a key role in modulating viral phenotype. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the modulation remain poorly understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: By combining computational and experimental approaches, we examined how V3 net charge could influence the phenotype of the gp120 interaction surface. Molecular dynamics simulations of the identical gp120 outer domain, carrying a V3 loop with net charge of +3 or +7, showed that the V3 change alone could induce global changes in fluctuation and conformation of the loops involved in binding to CD4, coreceptor and antibodies. A neutralization study using the V3 recombinant HIV-1 infectious clones showed that the virus carrying the gp120 with +3 V3, but not with +7 V3, was resistant to neutralization by anti-CD4 binding site monoclonal antibodies. An information entropy study shows that otherwise variable surface of the gp120 outer domain, such as V3 and a region around the CD4 binding loop, are less heterogeneous in the gp120 subpopulation with +3 V3. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that the HIV-1 gp120 V3 loop acts as an electrostatic modulator that influences the global structure and diversity of the interaction surface of the gp120 outer domain. Our findings will provide a novel structural basis to understand how HIV-1 adjusts relative replication fitness by V3 mutations.

  10. Evaluation of the safety, immunogenicity, and protective efficacy of whole inactivated simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) vaccines with conformationally and functionally intact envelope glycoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifson, Jeffrey D; Rossio, Jeffrey L; Piatak, Michael; Bess, Julian; Chertova, Elena; Schneider, Douglas K; Coalter, Vicky J; Poore, Barbara; Kiser, Rebecca F; Imming, Robert J; Scarzello, Anthony J; Henderson, Louis E; Alvord, W Gregory; Hirsch, Vanessa M; Benveniste, Raoul E; Arthur, Larry O

    2004-07-01

    A novel, general approach to chemical inactivation of retroviruses was used to produce inactivated simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) particles with functional envelope glycoproteins. Inactivated virions of three different virus isolates (SIVmne E11S, SIVmac239, and SIVmac239 g4,5), prepared by treatment with 2,2'-dithiodipyridine (aldrithol-2, AT-2), were not detectably infectious, in vitro or in vivo. Immunization of pigtailed macaques with inactivated SIVmne E11S particles, without adjuvant, induced both humoral and cellular immune responses. Four of six animals immunized with the inactivated particles did not show measurable SIV RNA in plasma (virus (SIVmne E11S), compared to peak values of > or =10(6) copy Eq/ml in challenged SIV-naive control animals (p = 0.0001). Despite the absence of measurable viral RNA in plasma in these animals, culturable virus and viral DNA were initially detectable in blood and lymph node specimens; in contrast to control animals, SIV DNA could no longer be detected in PBMC by 10 weeks postchallenge in five of six SIV-immunized animals (p = 0.0001). However, vaccines did not resist a sequential rechallenge with the heterologous pathogenic virus SIVsm E660. AT-2-inactivated virus with functional envelope glycoproteins is a novel class of vaccine immunogen and was noninfectious, under conditions of rigorous in vivo challenge, and induced both binding and neutralizing antibody responses, along with cellular immune responses. Results suggest that immunization facilitated effective containment of pathogenic homologous challenge virus. With further optimization, AT-2-inactivated viral particles may be a useful class of immunogen in the development of a vaccine to prevent AIDS.

  11. Characterization and Enhanced Processing of Soluble, Oligomeric gp140 Envelope Glycoproteins Derived from Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type-1 Primary Isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-05-01

    gene therapy applied in the context of HIV-1 infection shows promise. Successful transduction and engraftment of hematopoietic stem cells (CD34+) in...of the CKR5 structural gene . Hemophilia Growth and Development Study, Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study, Multicenter Hemophilia Cohort Study, San...of truncated env genes from primary isolates of several different HIV-1 clades. Recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing these genes produce a

  12. Inhibition of P-glycoprotein by HIV protease inhibitors increases intracellular accumulation of berberine in murine and human macrophages.

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    Weibin Zha

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HIV protease inhibitor (PI-induced inflammatory response in macrophages is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. We have previously reported that berberine (BBR, a traditional herbal medicine, prevents HIV PI-induced inflammatory response through inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress in macrophages. We also found that HIV PIs significantly increased the intracellular concentrations of BBR in macrophages. However, the underlying mechanisms of HIV PI-induced BBR accumulation are unknown. This study examined the role of P-glycoprotein (P-gp in HIV PI-mediated accumulation of BBR in macrophages. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Cultured mouse RAW264.7 macrophages, human THP-1-derived macrophages, Wild type MDCK (MDCK/WT and human P-gp transfected (MDCK/P-gp cells were used in this study. The intracellular concentration of BBR was determined by HPLC. The activity of P-gp was assessed by measuring digoxin and rhodamine 123 (Rh123 efflux. The interaction between P-gp and BBR or HIV PIs was predicated by Glide docking using Schrodinger program. The results indicate that P-gp contributed to the efflux of BBR in macrophages. HIV PIs significantly increased BBR concentrations in macrophages; however, BBR did not alter cellular HIV PI concentrations. Although HIV PIs did not affect P-gp expression, P-gp transport activities were significantly inhibited in HIV PI-treated macrophages. Furthermore, the molecular docking study suggests that both HIV PIs and BBR fit the binding pocket of P-gp, and HIV PIs may compete with BBR to bind P-gp. CONCLUSION AND SIGNIFICANCE: HIV PIs increase the concentration of BBR by modulating the transport activity of P-gp in macrophages. Understanding the cellular mechanisms of potential drug-drug interactions is critical prior to applying successful combinational therapy in the clinic.

  13. The external domains of the HIV-1 envelope are a mutational cold spot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Ron; Domingo-Calap, Pilar; Cuevas, José M.; Rossolillo, Paola; Negroni, Matteo; Sanjuán, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    In RNA viruses, mutations occur fast and have large fitness effects. While this affords remarkable adaptability, it can also endanger viral survival due to the accumulation of deleterious mutations. How RNA viruses reconcile these two opposed facets of mutation is still unknown. Here we show that, in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1), spontaneous mutations are not randomly located along the viral genome. We find that the viral mutation rate experiences a threefold reduction in the region encoding the most external domains of the viral envelope, which are strongly targeted by neutralizing antibodies. This contrasts with the hypermutation mechanisms deployed by other, more slowly mutating pathogens such as DNA viruses and bacteria, in response to immune pressure. We show that downregulation of the mutation rate in HIV-1 is exerted by the template RNA through changes in sequence context and secondary structure, which control the activity of apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide-like 3 (A3)-mediated cytidine deamination and the fidelity of the viral reverse transcriptase. PMID:26450412

  14. The external domains of the HIV-1 envelope are a mutational cold spot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Ron; Domingo-Calap, Pilar; Cuevas, José M; Rossolillo, Paola; Negroni, Matteo; Sanjuán, Rafael

    2015-10-09

    In RNA viruses, mutations occur fast and have large fitness effects. While this affords remarkable adaptability, it can also endanger viral survival due to the accumulation of deleterious mutations. How RNA viruses reconcile these two opposed facets of mutation is still unknown. Here we show that, in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1), spontaneous mutations are not randomly located along the viral genome. We find that the viral mutation rate experiences a threefold reduction in the region encoding the most external domains of the viral envelope, which are strongly targeted by neutralizing antibodies. This contrasts with the hypermutation mechanisms deployed by other, more slowly mutating pathogens such as DNA viruses and bacteria, in response to immune pressure. We show that downregulation of the mutation rate in HIV-1 is exerted by the template RNA through changes in sequence context and secondary structure, which control the activity of apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide-like 3 (A3)-mediated cytidine deamination and the fidelity of the viral reverse transcriptase.

  15. HIV-1包膜单基因Nest-PCR体系优化及包膜基因准种扩增%Optimization of HIV-1 envelope gene PCR amplification system and amplification of envelope gene quasispecies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    全红; 刘松; 张昊天; 任彩云; 庄敏; 凌虹; 李妍

    2012-01-01

    目的 确定HIV-1包膜(envelope,env)单基因扩增(single genome amplification,SGA)的最优反应体系,获得env单基因扩增产物.方法 采用SGA及Nest-PCR扩增HIV-1 env全长基因,并对Nest-PCR反应体系中各成分量进行优化;在此基础上,适当稀释HIV-1感染者cDNA模板进行Nest-PCR,以获得PCR扩增产物阳性率不超过30%的模板稀释度.结果 SGA Nest-PCR扩增HIV-1 env全长基因,引物浓度为0.3 μmol/L,dNTP浓度为0.25 μmol/L时可获得特异性高的env全长基因;凝胶回收纯化及稀释第一轮PCR产物可有效提高特异性条带的产量.采用优化反应体系成功从一名HIV-1感染者体内扩增出18株env单基因序列.结论 优化了HIV-1 env基因SGA Nest-PCR的反应体系,并从HIV-1感染者获得了病毒包膜基因准种,为后续进行准种分析奠定了基础.%Objective To optimize the PCR conditions for single genome amplification (SGA) of HIV-1 envelope (env) gene. Methods The efficiency of the SGA-PCR was assessed based on the amplification results of env gene using the non-diluted cDNA template, the optimal dilution of cDNA template that may result in no more than 30% positive amplification was predicted. Results The elements of SGA and Nested-PCR such as the amounts of primers were 0. 3 μmol/L, dNTP were 0. 25 μmol/L, purification of products of the first-round PCR reactions and diluting cDNA templates increased the amount of interest products effectively. One HIV-1 infected individual after the env gene SGA, 18 interest products confirmed by sequencing env sequence. Conclusion Optimization of the HIV-1 env gene the SGA Nest-PCR reaction system, and the viral envelope gene quasispecies from HIV-1 infection, laid the foundation for subsequent analysis of the quasispecies.

  16. Cryoelectron tomography of HIV-1 envelope spikes: further evidence for tripod-like legs.

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    Ping Zhu

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A detailed understanding of the morphology of the HIV-1 envelope (Env spike is key to understanding viral pathogenesis and for informed vaccine design. We have previously presented a cryoelectron microscopic tomogram (cryoET of the Env spikes on SIV virions. Several structural features were noted in the gp120 head and gp41 stalk regions. Perhaps most notable was the presence of three splayed legs projecting obliquely from the base of the spike head toward the viral membrane. Subsequently, a second 3D image of SIV spikes, also obtained by cryoET, was published by another group which featured a compact vertical stalk. We now report the cryoET analysis of HIV-1 virion-associated Env spikes using enhanced analytical cryoET procedures. More than 2,000 Env spike volumes were initially selected, aligned, and sorted into structural classes using algorithms that compensate for the "missing wedge" and do not impose any symmetry. The results show varying morphologies between structural classes: some classes showed trimers in the head domains; nearly all showed two or three legs, though unambiguous three-fold symmetry was not observed either in the heads or the legs. Subsequently, clearer evidence of trimeric head domains and three splayed legs emerged when head and leg volumes were independently aligned and classified. These data show that HIV-1, like SIV, also displays the tripod-like leg configuration, and, unexpectedly, shows considerable gp41 leg flexibility/heteromorphology. The tripod-like model for gp41 is consistent with, and helps explain, many of the unique biophysical and immunological features of this region.

  17. HIVBrainSeqDB: a database of annotated HIV envelope sequences from brain and other anatomical sites

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    O'Connor Niall

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The population of HIV replicating within a host consists of independently evolving and interacting sub-populations that can be genetically distinct within anatomical compartments. HIV replicating within the brain causes neurocognitive disorders in up to 20-30% of infected individuals and is a viral sanctuary site for the development of drug resistance. The primary determinant of HIV neurotropism is macrophage tropism, which is primarily determined by the viral envelope (env gene. However, studies of genetic aspects of HIV replicating in the brain are hindered because existing repositories of HIV sequences are not focused on neurotropic virus nor annotated with neurocognitive and neuropathological status. To address this need, we constructed the HIV Brain Sequence Database. Results The HIV Brain Sequence Database is a public database of HIV envelope sequences, directly sequenced from brain and other tissues from the same patients. Sequences are annotated with clinical data including viral load, CD4 count, antiretroviral status, neurocognitive impairment, and neuropathological diagnosis, all curated from the original publication. Tissue source is coded using an anatomical ontology, the Foundational Model of Anatomy, to capture the maximum level of detail available, while maintaining ontological relationships between tissues and their subparts. 44 tissue types are represented within the database, grouped into 4 categories: (i brain, brainstem, and spinal cord; (ii meninges, choroid plexus, and CSF; (iii blood and lymphoid; and (iv other (bone marrow, colon, lung, liver, etc. Patient coding is correlated across studies, allowing sequences from the same patient to be grouped to increase statistical power. Using Cytoscape, we visualized relationships between studies, patients and sequences, illustrating interconnections between studies and the varying depth of sequencing, patient number, and tissue representation across studies

  18. Alteration of Methamphetamine-induced stereotypic behaviour in transgenic mice expressing HIV-1 envelope protein gp120.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Amanda J; Maung, Ricky; Sejbuk, Natalia E; Ake, Christopher; Kaul, Marcus

    2010-02-15

    The use of drugs for recreational purposes, in particular Methamphetamine, is associated with an increased risk of infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1. HIV-1 infection in turn can lead to HIV-associated neurological disorders (HAND) that range from mild cognitive and motor impairment to HIV-associated dementia (HAD). Interestingly, post mortem brain specimens from HAD patients and transgenic (tg) mice expressing the viral envelope protein gp120 in the central nervous system display similar neuropathological signs. In HIV patients, the use of Methamphetamine appears to aggravate neurocognitive alterations. In the present study, we injected HIV/gp120tg mice and non-transgenic littermate control animals with Methamphetamine dissolved in Saline or Saline vehicle and assessed locomotion and stereotyped behaviour. We found that HIVgp120-transgenic mice differ significantly from non-transgenic controls in certain domains of their behavioural response to Methamphetamine. Thus this experimental model system may be useful to further study the mechanistic interaction of both the viral envelope protein and the psychostimulant drug in behavioural alterations and neurodegenerative disease.

  19. Mutagenesis of tyrosine and di-leucine motifs in the HIV-1 envelope cytoplasmic domain results in a loss of Env-mediated fusion and infectivity

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    Claiborne Daniel T

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The gp41 component of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV envelope glycoprotein (Env contains a long cytoplasmic domain (CD with multiple highly conserved tyrosine (Y and dileucine (LL motifs. Studies suggest that the motifs distal to major endocytosis motif (Y712HRL, located at residues 712-715 of Env, may contribute to Env functionality in the viral life cycle. In order to examine the biological contribution of these motifs in the biosynthesis, transport, and function of Env, we constructed two panels of mutants in which the conserved Y- and LL-motifs were sequentially substituted by alternative residues, either in the presence or absence of Y712. Additional mutants targeting individual motifs were then constructed. Results All mutant Envs, when expressed in the absence of other viral proteins, maintained at least WT levels of Env surface staining by multiple antibodies. The Y712 mutation (Y712C contributed to at least a 4-fold increase in surface expression for all mutants containing this change. Sequential mutagenesis of the Y- and LL-motifs resulted in a generally progressive decrease in Env fusogenicity. However, additive mutation of dileucine and tyrosine motifs beyond the tyrosine at residue 768 resulted in the most dramatic effects on Env incorporation into virions, viral infectivity, and virus fusion with target cells. Conclusions From the studies reported here, we show that mutations of the Y- and LL-motifs, which effectively eliminate the amphipathic nature of the lytic peptide 2 (LLP2 domain or disrupt YW and LL motifs in a region spanning residues 795-803 (YWWNLLQYW, just C-terminal of LLP2, can dramatically interfere with biological functions of HIV-1 Env and abrogate virus replication. Because these mutant proteins are expressed at the cell surface, we conclude that tyrosine and di-leucine residues within the cytoplasmic domain of gp41 play critical roles in HIV-1 replication that are distinct from that of

  20. VSV-G Viral Envelope Glycoprotein Prepared from Pichia pastoris Enhances Transfection of DNA into Animal Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Dong, Ying; Wang, Jingquan; Li, Long; Zhong, Zhenmin; Li, Yun-Pan; Chen, Shao-Jun; Fu, Yu-Cai; Xu, Wen-Can; Wei, Chi-Ju

    2017-06-28

    Vesicular stomatitis virus G glycoprotein (VSV-G) has been widely used for pseudotyping retroviral, lentiviral, and artificial viral vectors. The objective of this study was to establish a potential approach for large-scale production of VSV-G. To this end, VSV-G was cloned with an N-terminal His-tag into Pichia pastoris expression vector pPIC3.5K. Three clones (Mut(s)) containing the VSV-G expression cassette were identified by PCR. All clones proliferated normally in expansion medium, whereas the proliferation was reduced significantly under induction conditions. VSV-G protein was detected in cell lysates by western blot analysis, and the highest expression level was observed at 96 h post induction. VSV-G could also be obtained from the condition medium of yeast protoplasts. Furthermore, VSV-G could be incorporated into Ad293 cells and was able to induce cell fusion, leading to the transfer of cytoplasmic protein. Finally, VSV-G-mediated DNA transfection was assayed by flow cytometry and luciferase measurement. Incubation of VSV-G lysate with the pGL3-control DNA complex increased the luciferase activity in Ad293 and HeLa cells by about 3-fold. Likewise, incubation of VSV-G lysate with the pCMV-DsRed DNA complex improved the transfection efficiency into Ad293 by 10% and into HeLa cells by about 1-fold. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that VSV-G could be produced from P. pastoris with biofunctionalities, demonstrating that large-scale production of the viral glycoprotein is feasible.

  1. Small-Molecule Fusion Inhibitors Bind the pH-Sensing Stable Signal Peptide-GP2 Subunit Interface of the Lassa Virus Envelope Glycoprotein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, Sundaresh; Whitby, Landon R.; Casquilho-Gray, Hedi E.; York, Joanne; Boger, Dale L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Arenavirus species are responsible for severe life-threatening hemorrhagic fevers in western Africa and South America. Without effective antiviral therapies or vaccines, these viruses pose serious public health and biodefense concerns. Chemically distinct small-molecule inhibitors of arenavirus entry have recently been identified and shown to act on the arenavirus envelope glycoprotein (GPC) to prevent membrane fusion. In the tripartite GPC complex, pH-dependent membrane fusion is triggered through a poorly understood interaction between the stable signal peptide (SSP) and the transmembrane fusion subunit GP2, and our genetic studies have suggested that these small-molecule inhibitors act at this interface to antagonize fusion activation. Here, we have designed and synthesized photoaffinity derivatives of the 4-acyl-1,6-dialkylpiperazin-2-one class of fusion inhibitors and demonstrate specific labeling of both the SSP and GP2 subunits in a native-like Lassa virus (LASV) GPC trimer expressed in insect cells. Photoaddition is competed by the parental inhibitor and other chemically distinct compounds active against LASV, but not those specific to New World arenaviruses. These studies provide direct physical evidence that these inhibitors bind at the SSP-GP2 interface. We also find that GPC containing the uncleaved GP1-GP2 precursor is not susceptible to photo-cross-linking, suggesting that proteolytic maturation is accompanied by conformational changes at this site. Detailed mapping of residues modified by the photoaffinity adducts may provide insight to guide the further development of these promising lead compounds as potential therapeutic agents to treat Lassa hemorrhagic fever. IMPORTANCE Hemorrhagic fever arenaviruses cause lethal infections in humans and, in the absence of licensed vaccines or specific antiviral therapies, are recognized to pose significant threats to public health and biodefense. Lead small-molecule inhibitors that target the

  2. Characterization and Enhanced Processing of Soluble, Oligomeric GP140 Envelope Glycoproteins Derived from Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type-1 Primary Isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    1185-1187. 115. Gherardi, M. M., J. C. Ramirez, and M. Esteban 2000. Interleukin-12 (IL-12) enhancement of the cellular immune response against...immunodeficiency virus type 1 J. Virol. 63:2674-2679. 225. Pollard, S. R., M. D. Rosa , J. J. Rosa , and D. C. Wiley 1992. Truncated variants of...Verhofstede, G. Burtonboy, M. Georges , T. Imai, S. Rana, Y. Yi, R. J. Smyth, R. G. Collman, R. W. Doms, G. Vassart, and M. Parmentier 1996. Resistance to HIV

  3. Seven new ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV) field isolates from Dubois Idaho sheep comprise part of OPPV clade II based on surface envelope glycoprotein (SU) sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Lynn M; Hötzel, Isidro; Cheevers, William P; On Top, Kathy Pretty; Lewis, Gregory S; Knowles, Donald P

    2004-06-15

    Seven new ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV) field isolates were derived from colostrum and milk of 10 naturally OPPV-infected sheep from the US Sheep Experiment Station in Dubois, Idaho, USA. Sixteen sequences of the surface envelope glycoprotein (SU) from these seven Dubois OPPV field isolates and SU sequence from OPPV WLC1 were obtained, aligned with published SRLV SU sequences, and analyzed using phylogenetic analysis using parsimony (PAUP). Percent nucleotide identity in SU was greater than 95.8% among clones from individual Dubois OPPVs and ranged from 85.5 to 93.8% between different Dubois OPPV clones. SU sequences from Dubois OPPVs and WLC1 OPPV had significantly higher percent nucleotide identity to SU sequences from the North American OPPVs (85/34 and S93) than caprine-arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEVs) or MVVs. PAUP analysis also showed that SU sequences from the Dubois OPPVs and OPPV WLC1 grouped with other North American OPPVs (85/34 and S93) with a bootstrap value of 100 and formed one OPPV clade II group. In addition, Dubois and WLC1 SU amino acid sequences had significantly higher identity to SU sequences from North American OPPVs than CAEV or MVV. These data indicate that the seven new Dubois OPPV field isolates along with WLC1 OPPV are part of the OPPV clade II and are distinct from CAEVs and MVVs.

  4. Expression of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Envelope Glycoprotein E2 in Yeast Pichia pastoris and its Application to an ELISA for Detection of BVDV Neutralizing Antibodies in Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behera, Sthita Pragnya; Mishra, Niranjan; Nema, Ram Kumar; Pandey, Pooja Dubey; Kalaiyarasu, Semmannan; Rajukumar, Katherukamem; Prakash, Anil

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to express envelope glycoprotein E2 of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in yeast Pichia pastoris and its utility as a diagnostic antigen in ELISA. The BVDV E2 gene was cloned into the pPICZαA vector followed by integration into the Pichia pastoris strain X-33 genome for methanol-induced expression. SDS-PAGE and Western blot results showed that the recombinant BVDV E2 protein (72 kDa) was expressed and secreted into the medium at a concentration of 40 mg/L of culture under optimized conditions. An indirect ELISA was then developed by using the yeast-expressed E2 protein. Preliminary testing of 300 field cattle serum samples showed that the E2 ELISA showed a sensitivity of 91.07% and a specificity of 92.02% compared to the reference virus neutralization test. The concordance between the E2 ELISA and VNT was 91.67%. This study demonstrates feasibility of BVDV E2 protein expression in yeast Pichia pastoris for the first time and its efficacy as an antigen in ELISA for detecting BVDV neutralizing antibodies in cattle.

  5. Computational prediction and analysis of envelop glycoprotein epitopes of DENV-2 and DENV-3 Pakistani isolates: a first step towards Dengue vaccine development.

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    Hafsa Amat-ur-Rasool

    Full Text Available Dengue fever of tropics is a mosquito transmitted devastating disease caused by dengue virus (DENV. There is no effective vaccine available, so far, against any of its four serotypes (DENV-1, DENV-2, DENV-3, and DENV-4. There is a need for the development of preventive and therapeutic vaccines against DENV to decrease the prevalence of dengue fever, especially in Pakistan. In this research, linear and conformational B-cell epitopes of envelope glycoprotein of DENV-2 and DENV-3 (the most prevalent serotypes in Pakistan were predicted. We used Kolaskar and Tongaonkar method for linear epitope prediction, Emini's method for surface accessibility prediction and Karplus and Schulz's algorithm for flexibility determination. To propose three dimensional epitopes, the E proteins for both serotypes were homology modeled by using Phyre2 V 2.0 server, and ElliPro was used for the prediction of surface epitopes on their globular structure. Total 21 and 19 linear epitopes were predicted for DENV-2 and DENV-3 Pakistani isolates respectively. Whereas, 5 and 4 discontinuous epitopes were proposed for DENV-2 and DENV-3 Pakistani isolates respectively. Moreover, the values of surface accessibility, flexibility and solvent-accessibility can be helpful in analyzing vaccines against DENV-2 and DENV-3. In conclusion, the proposed continuous and discontinuous antigenic peptides can be valuable candidates for diagnostic and therapeutics of DENV.

  6. The hr1 and fusion peptide regions of the subgroup B avian sarcoma and leukosis virus envelope glycoprotein influence low pH-dependent membrane fusion.

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    Angeline Rose Babel

    Full Text Available The avian sarcoma and leukosis virus (ASLV envelope glycoprotein (Env is activated to trigger fusion by a two-step mechanism involving receptor-priming and low pH fusion activation. In order to identify regions of ASLV Env that can regulate this process, a genetic selection method was used to identify subgroup B (ASLV-B virus-infected cells resistant to low pH-triggered fusion when incubated with cells expressing the cognate TVB receptor. The subgroup B viral Env (envB genes were then isolated from these cells and characterized by DNA sequencing. This led to identification of two frequent EnvB alterations which allowed TVB receptor-binding but altered the pH-threshold of membrane fusion activation: a 13 amino acid deletion in the host range 1 (hr1 region of the surface (SU EnvB subunit, and the A32V amino acid change within the fusion peptide of the transmembrane (TM EnvB subunit. These data indicate that these two regions of EnvB can influence the pH threshold of fusion activation.

  7. Potent in vitro antiviral activity of Cistus incanus extract against HIV and Filoviruses targets viral envelope proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebensburg, Stephanie; Helfer, Markus; Schneider, Martha; Koppensteiner, Herwig; Eberle, Josef; Schindler, Michael; Gürtler, Lutz; Brack-Werner, Ruth

    2016-02-02

    Novel therapeutic options are urgently needed to improve global treatment of virus infections. Herbal products with confirmed clinical safety features are attractive starting material for the identification of new antiviral activities. Here we demonstrate that Cistus incanus (Ci) herbal products inhibit human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections in vitro. Ci extract inhibited clinical HIV-1 and HIV-2 isolates, and, importantly, a virus isolate with multiple drug resistances, confirming broad anti-HIV activity. Antiviral activity was highly selective for virus particles, preventing primary attachment of the virus to the cell surface and viral envelope proteins from binding to heparin. Bioassay-guided fractionation indicated that Ci extract contains numerous antiviral compounds and therefore has favorably low propensity to induce virus resistance. Indeed, no resistant viruses emerged during 24 weeks of continuous propagation of the virus in the presence of Ci extracts. Finally, Ci extracts also inhibited infection by virus particles pseudotyped with Ebola and Marburg virus envelope proteins, indicating that antiviral activity of Ci extract extends to emerging viral pathogens. These results demonstrate that Ci extracts show potent and broad in vitro antiviral activity against viruses that cause life-threatening diseases in humans and are promising sources of agents that target virus particles.

  8. Mechanistic Insight into Bunyavirus-Induced Membrane Fusion from Structure-Function Analyses of the Hantavirus Envelope Glycoprotein Gc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stettner, Eva; Jeffers, Scott Allen; Pérez-Vargas, Jimena; Pehau-Arnaudet, Gerard; Tortorici, M. Alejandra; Jestin, Jean-Luc; England, Patrick; Tischler, Nicole D.; Rey, Félix A.

    2016-01-01

    Hantaviruses are zoonotic viruses transmitted to humans by persistently infected rodents, giving rise to serious outbreaks of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) or of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS), depending on the virus, which are associated with high case fatality rates. There is only limited knowledge about the organization of the viral particles and in particular, about the hantavirus membrane fusion glycoprotein Gc, the function of which is essential for virus entry. We describe here the X-ray structures of Gc from Hantaan virus, the type species hantavirus and responsible for HFRS, both in its neutral pH, monomeric pre-fusion conformation, and in its acidic pH, trimeric post-fusion form. The structures confirm the prediction that Gc is a class II fusion protein, containing the characteristic β-sheet rich domains termed I, II and III as initially identified in the fusion proteins of arboviruses such as alpha- and flaviviruses. The structures also show a number of features of Gc that are distinct from arbovirus class II proteins. In particular, hantavirus Gc inserts residues from three different loops into the target membrane to drive fusion, as confirmed functionally by structure-guided mutagenesis on the HPS-inducing Andes virus, instead of having a single “fusion loop”. We further show that the membrane interacting region of Gc becomes structured only at acidic pH via a set of polar and electrostatic interactions. Furthermore, the structure reveals that hantavirus Gc has an additional N-terminal “tail” that is crucial in stabilizing the post-fusion trimer, accompanying the swapping of domain III in the quaternary arrangement of the trimer as compared to the standard class II fusion proteins. The mechanistic understandings derived from these data are likely to provide a unique handle for devising treatments against these human pathogens. PMID:27783711

  9. Effect of HIV-1 envelope cytoplasmic tail on adenovirus primed virus encoded virus-like particle immunizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Anne Marie C; Ragonnaud, Emeline; Seaton, Kelly E.

    2016-01-01

    /c mice followed by sequential boosting with chimpanzee type 63, and chimpanzee type 3 adenoviral vectors encoding SIVmac239 Gag and full length consensus Env. Both vaccine regimens induced increasing titers of binding antibody responses after each immunization, and significant differences in immune......The low number of envelope (Env) spikes presented on native HIV-1 particles is a major impediment for HIV-1 prophylactic vaccine development. We designed virus-like particle encoding adenoviral vectors utilizing SIVmac239 Gag as an anchor for full length and truncated HIV-1 M consensus Env....... Truncated Env overexpressed VRC01 and 17b binding antigen on the surface of transduced cells while the full length Env vaccine presented more and similar amounts of antigen binding to the trimer conformation sensitive antibodies PGT151 and PGT145, respectively. The adenoviral vectors were used to prime Balb...

  10. Holes in the Glycan Shield of the Native HIV Envelope Are a Target of Trimer-Elicited Neutralizing Antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura E. McCoy

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A major advance in the search for an HIV vaccine has been the development of a near-native Envelope trimer (BG505 SOSIP.664 that can induce robust autologous Tier 2 neutralization. Here, potently neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (nAbs from rabbits immunized with BG505 SOSIP.664 are shown to recognize an immunodominant region of gp120 centered on residue 241. Residue 241 occupies a hole in the glycan defenses of the BG505 isolate, with fewer than 3% of global isolates lacking a glycan site at this position. However, at least one conserved glycan site is missing in 89% of viruses, suggesting the presence of glycan holes in most HIV isolates. Serum evidence is consistent with targeting of holes in natural infection. The immunogenic nature of breaches in the glycan shield has been under-appreciated in previous attempts to understand autologous neutralizing antibody responses and has important potential consequences for HIV vaccine design.

  11. The cholesterol-binding motif of the HIV-1 glycoprotein gp41 regulates lateral sorting and oligomerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzer, Roland; Levental, Ilya; Gramatica, Andrea; Scolari, Silvia; Buschmann, Volker; Veit, Michael; Herrmann, Andreas

    2014-10-01

    Enveloped viruses often use membrane lipid rafts to assemble and bud, augment infection and spread efficiently. However, the molecular bases and functional consequences of the partitioning of viral glycoproteins into microdomains remain intriguing questions in virus biology. Here, we measured Foerster resonance energy transfer by fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM-FRET) to study the role of distinct membrane proximal regions of the human immunodeficiency virus glycoprotein gp41 for lipid raft partitioning in living Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO-K1). Gp41 was labelled with a fluorescent protein at the exoplasmic face of the membrane, preventing any interference of the fluorophore with the proposed role of the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains in lateral organization of gp41. Raft localization was deduced from interaction with an established raft marker, a fluorescently tagged glycophosphatidylinositol anchor and the cholesterol recognition amino acid consensus (CRAC) was identified as the crucial lateral sorting determinant in CHO-K1 cells. Interestingly, the raft association of gp41 indicates a substantial cell-to-cell heterogeneity of the plasma membrane microdomains. In complementary fluorescence polarization microscopy, a distinct CRAC requirement was found for the oligomerization of the gp41 variants. Our data provide further insight into the molecular basis and biological implications of the cholesterol dependent lateral sorting of viral glycoproteins for virus assembly at cellular membranes. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Comprehensive antigenic map of a cleaved soluble HIV-1 envelope trimer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Derking

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The trimeric envelope (Env spike is the focus of vaccine design efforts aimed at generating broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs to protect against HIV-1 infection. Three recent developments have facilitated a thorough investigation of the antigenic structure of the Env trimer: 1 the isolation of many bNAbs against multiple different epitopes; 2 the generation of a soluble trimer mimic, BG505 SOSIP.664 gp140, that expresses most bNAb epitopes; 3 facile binding assays involving the oriented immobilization of tagged trimers. Using these tools, we generated an antigenic map of the trimer by antibody cross-competition. Our analysis delineates three well-defined epitope clusters (CD4 binding site, quaternary V1V2 and Asn332-centered oligomannose patch and new epitopes at the gp120-gp41 interface. It also identifies the relationships among these clusters. In addition to epitope overlap, we defined three more ways in which antibodies can cross-compete: steric competition from binding to proximal but non-overlapping epitopes (e.g., PGT151 inhibition of 8ANC195 binding; allosteric inhibition (e.g., PGT145 inhibition of 1NC9, 8ANC195, PGT151 and CD4 binding; and competition by reorientation of glycans (e.g., PGT135 inhibition of CD4bs bNAbs, and CD4bs bNAb inhibition of 8ANC195. We further demonstrate that bNAb binding can be complex, often affecting several other areas of the trimer surface beyond the epitope. This extensive analysis of the antigenic structure and the epitope interrelationships of the Env trimer should aid in design of both bNAb-based therapies and vaccines intended to induce bNAbs.

  13. An evolutionary-network model reveals stratified interactions in the V3 loop of the HIV-1 envelope.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Art F Y Poon

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The third variable loop (V3 of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 envelope is a principal determinant of antibody neutralization and progression to AIDS. Although it is undoubtedly an important target for vaccine research, extensive genetic variation in V3 remains an obstacle to the development of an effective vaccine. Comparative methods that exploit the abundance of sequence data can detect interactions between residues of rapidly evolving proteins such as the HIV-1 envelope, revealing biological constraints on their variability. However, previous studies have relied implicitly on two biologically unrealistic assumptions: (1 that founder effects in the evolutionary history of the sequences can be ignored, and; (2 that statistical associations between residues occur exclusively in pairs. We show that comparative methods that neglect the evolutionary history of extant sequences are susceptible to a high rate of false positives (20%-40%. Therefore, we propose a new method to detect interactions that relaxes both of these assumptions. First, we reconstruct the evolutionary history of extant sequences by maximum likelihood, shifting focus from extant sequence variation to the underlying substitution events. Second, we analyze the joint distribution of substitution events among positions in the sequence as a Bayesian graphical model, in which each branch in the phylogeny is a unit of observation. We perform extensive validation of our models using both simulations and a control case of known interactions in HIV-1 protease, and apply this method to detect interactions within V3 from a sample of 1,154 HIV-1 envelope sequences. Our method greatly reduces the number of false positives due to founder effects, while capturing several higher-order interactions among V3 residues. By mapping these interactions to a structural model of the V3 loop, we find that the loop is stratified into distinct evolutionary clusters. We extend our model to

  14. Two double-blinded, randomized, comparative trials of 4 human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope vaccines in HIV-1-infected individuals across a spectrum of disease severity: AIDS Clinical Trials Groups 209 and 214.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schooley, R T; Spino, C; Kuritzkes, D; Walker, B D; Valentine, F A; Hirsch, M S; Cooney, E; Friedland, G; Kundu, S; Merigan, T C; McElrath, M J; Collier, A; Plaeger, S; Mitsuyasu, R; Kahn, J; Haslett, P; Uherova, P; deGruttola, V; Chiu, S; Zhang, B; Jones, G; Bell, D; Ketter, N; Twadell, T; Chernoff, D; Rosandich, M

    2000-11-01

    The potential role of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-specific immune responses in controlling viral replication in vivo has stimulated interest in enhancing virus-specific immunity by vaccinating infected individuals with HIV-1 or its components. These studies were undertaken to define patient populations most likely to respond to vaccination, with the induction of novel HIV-1-specific cellular immune responses, and to compare the safety and immunogenicity of several candidate recombinant HIV-1 envelope vaccines and adjuvants. New lymphoproliferative responses (LPRs) developed in 350 cells/mm(3) and were usually strain restricted. Responders tended to be more likely than nonresponders to have an undetectable level of HIV-1 RNA at baseline (P=.067). Induction of new cellular immune responses by HIV-1 envelope vaccines is a function of the immunologic stage of disease and baseline plasma HIV-1 RNA level and exhibits considerable vaccine strain specificity.

  15. Three-Dimensional Visualizations in Teaching Genomics and Bioinformatics: Mutations in HIV Envelope Proteins and Their Consequences for Vaccine Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathy Takayama

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This project addresses the need to provide a visual context to teach the practical applications of genome sequencing and bioinformatics. Present-day research relies on indirect visualization techniques (e.g., fluorescence-labeling of DNA in sequencing reactions and sophisticated computer analysis. Such methods are impractical and prohibitively expensive for laboratory classes. More importantly, there is a need for curriculum resources that visually demonstrate the application of genome sequence information rather than the DNA sequencing methodology itself. This project is a computer-based lesson plan that engages students in collaborative, problem-based learning. The specific example focuses on approaches to Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV-1 vaccine design based on HIV-1 genome sequences using a case study. Students performed comparative alignments of variant HIV-1 sequences available from a public database. Students then examined the consequences of HIV-1 mutations by applying the alignments to three-dimensional images of the HIV-1 envelope protein structure, thus visualizing the implications for applications such as vaccine design. The lesson enhances problem solving through the application of one type of information (genomic or protein sequence into concrete visual conceptualizations. Assessment of student comprehension and problem-solving ability revealed marked improvement after the computer tutorial. Furthermore, contextual presentation of these concepts within a case study resulted in student responses that demonstrated higher levels of cognitive ability than was expected by the instructor.

  16. Differential recognition of Old World and New World arenavirus envelope glycoproteins by subtilisin kexin isozyme 1 (SKI-1)/site 1 protease (S1P).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burri, Dominique J; da Palma, Joel Ramos; Seidah, Nabil G; Zanotti, Giuseppe; Cendron, Laura; Pasquato, Antonella; Kunz, Stefan

    2013-06-01

    The arenaviruses are an important family of emerging viruses that includes several causative agents of severe hemorrhagic fevers in humans that represent serious public health problems. A crucial step of the arenavirus life cycle is maturation of the envelope glycoprotein precursor (GPC) by the cellular subtilisin kexin isozyme 1 (SKI-1)/site 1 protease (S1P). Comparison of the currently known sequences of arenavirus GPCs revealed the presence of a highly conserved aromatic residue at position P7 relative to the SKI-1/S1P cleavage side in Old World and clade C New World arenaviruses but not in New World viruses of clades A and B or cellular substrates of SKI-1/S1P. Using a combination of molecular modeling and structure-function analysis, we found that residue Y285 of SKI-1/S1P, distal from the catalytic triad, is implicated in the molecular recognition of the aromatic "signature residue" at P7 in the GPC of Old World Lassa virus. Using a quantitative biochemical approach, we show that Y285 of SKI-1/S1P is crucial for the efficient processing of peptides derived from Old World and clade C New World arenavirus GPCs but not of those from clade A and B New World arenavirus GPCs. The data suggest that during coevolution with their mammalian hosts, GPCs of Old World and clade C New World viruses expanded the molecular contacts with SKI-1/S1P beyond the classical four-amino-acid recognition sequences and currently occupy an extended binding pocket.

  17. Role of the Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Us3 Kinase Phosphorylation Site and Endocytosis Motifs in the Intracellular Transport and Neurovirulence of Envelope Glycoprotein B ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Takahiko; Arii, Jun; Minowa, Atsuko; Kakimoto, Aya; Koyanagi, Naoto; Kato, Akihisa; Kawaguchi, Yasushi

    2011-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) Us3 protein kinase phosphorylates threonine at position 887 (Thr-887) in the cytoplasmic tail of envelope glycoprotein B (gB) in infected cells. This phosphorylation downregulates cell surface expression of gB and plays a role in viral pathogenesis in the mouse herpes stromal keratitis model. In the present study, we demonstrated that Us3 phosphorylation of gB Thr-887 upregulated the accumulation of endocytosed gB from the surfaces of infected cells. We also showed that two motifs in the cytoplasmic tail of gB, tyrosine at position 889 (Tyr-889) and dileucines at positions 871 and 872, were required for efficient downregulation of gB cell surface expression and upregulation of accumulation of endocytosed gB in infected cells. A systematic analysis of mutations in these three sequences in gB suggested that the expression of gB on the surfaces of infected cells was downregulated in part by the increase in the accumulation of endocytosed gB, which was coordinately and tightly regulated by the three gB trafficking signals. Tyr-889 appeared to be of predominant importance in regulating the intracellular transport of gB and was linked to HSV-1 neurovirulence in mice following intracerebral infection. These observations support the hypothesis that HSV-1 evolved the three gB sequences for proper regulation of gB intracellular transport and that this regulation plays a critical role in diverse aspects of HSV-1 pathogenesis. PMID:21389132

  18. Oral Cyclosporin A Inhibits CD4 T cell P-glycoprotein Activity in HIV-Infected Adults Initiating Treatment with Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulgan, Todd; Donahue, John P.; Smeaton, Laura; Pu, Minya; Wang, Hongying; Lederman, Michael M.; Smith, Kimberly; Valdez, Hernan; Pilcher, Christopher; Haas, David W.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose P-glycoprotein limits tissue penetration of many antiretroviral drugs. We characterized effects of the P-glycoprotein substrate cyclosporin A on T cell P-glycoprotein activity in HIV-infected AIDS Clinical Trials Group study A5138 participants. Methods We studied P-glycoprotein activity on CD4 and CD8 T cells in 16 participants randomized to receive oral cyclosporin A (n=9) or not (n=7) during initiation antiretroviral therapy (ART) that did not include protease or non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. Results CD4 T cell P-glycoprotein activity decreased by a median of 8 percentage points with cyclosporin A/ART (difference between cyclosporin A/ART versus ART only P=0.001). Plasma trough cyclosporin A concentrations correlated with change in P-glycoprotein activity in several T cell subsets. Conclusions Oral cyclosporin A can inhibit peripheral blood CD4 T cell P-glycoprotein activity. Targeted P-glycoprotein inhibition might enhance delivery of ART to T cells. PMID:19779705

  19. 巨细胞病毒包膜糖蛋白 B、H、N 及其基因型的研究进展%Research progress of cytomegalovirus envelope glycoprotein B,H and N and their genotypes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董妞妞; 徐锦

    2016-01-01

    巨细胞病毒(CMV)感染在人群当中非常普遍,大多数 CMV 感染为无症状感染,但有症状的 CMV 感染可在儿童中引起严重后遗症。CMV 包膜糖蛋白是病毒最外层的脂质双层包膜的主要成分,对于病毒进入细胞以及病毒的扩散有重要的作用。文章针对 CMV 3种包膜糖蛋白[糖蛋白 B(gB)、糖蛋白 H(gH)和糖蛋白 N (gN)]各自的基因亚型与疾病相关性的国内外研究现状和进展作一综述,期望为 CMV 的研究提供新的思路。%Cytomegalovirus(CMV)infections are very common in human beings. Most of the CMV infections are asymptomatic,however,symptomatic CMV infections in children can cause serious complications. CMV envelope glycoprotein is the main component of the outermost lipid bilayer membrane of CMV and plays an important role in CMV entry and spread between cells. The current situation and prospect of the relationship between gene subtypes and 3 envelope glycoproteins [glycoprotein B(gB),glycoprotein H( gH )and glycoprotein N( gN )] are reviewed and summarized in this review,in order to provide new ideas for CMV studies.

  20. Boosting of HIV envelope CD4 binding site antibodies with long variable heavy third complementarity determining region in the randomized double blind RV305 HIV-1 vaccine trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Margaret; Saunders, Kevin O.; Pollara, Justin; Vandergrift, Nathan; Parks, Rob; Michael, Nelson L.; O’Connell, Robert J.; Vasan, Sandhya; Rerks-Ngarm, Supachai; Kaewkungwal, Jaranit; Pitisuttithum, Punnee; Nitayaphan, Sorachai; Sinangil, Faruk; Phogat, Sanjay; Alam, S. Munir; Liao, Hua-Xin; Ferrari, Guido; Seaman, Michael S.; Montefiori, David C.; Harrison, Stephen C.; Haynes, Barton F.

    2017-01-01

    The canary pox vector and gp120 vaccine (ALVAC-HIV and AIDSVAX B/E gp120) in the RV144 HIV-1 vaccine trial conferred an estimated 31% vaccine efficacy. Although the vaccine Env AE.A244 gp120 is antigenic for the unmutated common ancestor of V1V2 broadly neutralizing antibody (bnAbs), no plasma bnAb activity was induced. The RV305 (NCT01435135) HIV-1 clinical trial was a placebo-controlled randomized double-blinded study that assessed the safety and efficacy of vaccine boosting on B cell repertoires. HIV-1-uninfected RV144 vaccine recipients were reimmunized 6–8 years later with AIDSVAX B/E gp120 alone, ALVAC-HIV alone, or a combination of ALVAC-HIV and AIDSVAX B/E gp120 in the RV305 trial. Env-specific post-RV144 and RV305 boost memory B cell VH mutation frequencies increased from 2.9% post-RV144 to 6.7% post-RV305. The vaccine was well tolerated with no adverse events reports. While post-boost plasma did not have bnAb activity, the vaccine boosts expanded a pool of envelope CD4 binding site (bs)-reactive memory B cells with long third heavy chain complementarity determining regions (HCDR3) whose germline precursors and affinity matured B cell clonal lineage members neutralized the HIV-1 CRF01 AE tier 2 (difficult to neutralize) primary isolate, CNE8. Electron microscopy of two of these antibodies bound with near-native gp140 trimers showed that they recognized an open conformation of the Env trimer. Although late boosting of RV144 vaccinees expanded a novel pool of neutralizing B cell clonal lineages, we hypothesize that boosts with stably closed trimers would be necessary to elicit antibodies with greater breadth of tier 2 HIV-1 strains. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01435135 PMID:28235027

  1. Boosting of HIV envelope CD4 binding site antibodies with long variable heavy third complementarity determining region in the randomized double blind RV305 HIV-1 vaccine trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easterhoff, David; Moody, M Anthony; Fera, Daniela; Cheng, Hao; Ackerman, Margaret; Wiehe, Kevin; Saunders, Kevin O; Pollara, Justin; Vandergrift, Nathan; Parks, Rob; Kim, Jerome; Michael, Nelson L; O'Connell, Robert J; Excler, Jean-Louis; Robb, Merlin L; Vasan, Sandhya; Rerks-Ngarm, Supachai; Kaewkungwal, Jaranit; Pitisuttithum, Punnee; Nitayaphan, Sorachai; Sinangil, Faruk; Tartaglia, James; Phogat, Sanjay; Kepler, Thomas B; Alam, S Munir; Liao, Hua-Xin; Ferrari, Guido; Seaman, Michael S; Montefiori, David C; Tomaras, Georgia D; Harrison, Stephen C; Haynes, Barton F

    2017-02-01

    The canary pox vector and gp120 vaccine (ALVAC-HIV and AIDSVAX B/E gp120) in the RV144 HIV-1 vaccine trial conferred an estimated 31% vaccine efficacy. Although the vaccine Env AE.A244 gp120 is antigenic for the unmutated common ancestor of V1V2 broadly neutralizing antibody (bnAbs), no plasma bnAb activity was induced. The RV305 (NCT01435135) HIV-1 clinical trial was a placebo-controlled randomized double-blinded study that assessed the safety and efficacy of vaccine boosting on B cell repertoires. HIV-1-uninfected RV144 vaccine recipients were reimmunized 6-8 years later with AIDSVAX B/E gp120 alone, ALVAC-HIV alone, or a combination of ALVAC-HIV and AIDSVAX B/E gp120 in the RV305 trial. Env-specific post-RV144 and RV305 boost memory B cell VH mutation frequencies increased from 2.9% post-RV144 to 6.7% post-RV305. The vaccine was well tolerated with no adverse events reports. While post-boost plasma did not have bnAb activity, the vaccine boosts expanded a pool of envelope CD4 binding site (bs)-reactive memory B cells with long third heavy chain complementarity determining regions (HCDR3) whose germline precursors and affinity matured B cell clonal lineage members neutralized the HIV-1 CRF01 AE tier 2 (difficult to neutralize) primary isolate, CNE8. Electron microscopy of two of these antibodies bound with near-native gp140 trimers showed that they recognized an open conformation of the Env trimer. Although late boosting of RV144 vaccinees expanded a novel pool of neutralizing B cell clonal lineages, we hypothesize that boosts with stably closed trimers would be necessary to elicit antibodies with greater breadth of tier 2 HIV-1 strains. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01435135.

  2. Mosaic clade M human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope immunogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korber, Bette T.; Fischer, William; Liao, Hua-Xin; Haynes, Barton F.; Letvin, Norman; Hahn; Beatrice H.

    2011-05-31

    The present invention relates to mosaic clade M HIV-1 Env polypeptides and to compositions comprising same. The polypeptides of the invention are suitable for use in inducing an immune response to HIV-1 in a human.

  3. Antibodies to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein in HIV-1 associated neurocognitive disorder: a cross-sectional cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berger Thomas

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neuroinflammation and demyelination have been suggested as mechanisms causing HIV-1 associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND. This cross-sectional cohort study explores the potential role of antibodies to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG, a putative autoantigen in multiple sclerosis, in the pathogenesis of HAND. Methods IgG antibodies against MOG were measured by ELISA in sera and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of 65 HIV-positive patients with HAND (n = 14, cerebral opportunistic infections (HIVOI, n = 25, primary HIV infection (HIVM, n = 5 and asymptomatic patients (HIVasy, n = 21. As control group HIV-negative patients with bacterial or viral CNS infections (OIND, n = 18 and other neurological diseases (OND, n = 22 were included. In a subset of HAND patients MOG antibodies were determined before and during antiviral therapy. Results In serum, significantly higher MOG antibody titers were observed in HAND compared to OND patients. In CSF, significantly higher antibody titers were observed in HAND and HIVOI patients compared to HIVasy and OND patients and in OIND compared to OND patients. CSF anti-MOG antibodies showed a high sensitivity and specificity (85.7% and 76.2% for discriminating patients with active HAND from asymptomatic HIV patients. MOG immunopositive HAND patients performed significantly worse on the HIV dementia scale and showed higher viral load in CSF. In longitudinally studied HAND patients, sustained antibody response was noted despite successful clearance of viral RNA. Conclusions Persistence of MOG antibodies despite viral clearance in a high percentage of HAND patients suggests ongoing neuroinflammation, possibly preventing recovery from HAND.

  4. Characterization of HIV type 1 envelope sequence among viral isolates circulating in the northern region of Colombia, South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, José-Luis; Gutiérrez, Jaime; Palacio, Lucy; Peñuela, Martha; Hernández, Robin; Lemay, Guy; Cervantes-Acosta, Guillermo

    2012-12-01

    To characterize human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) strains circulating in the Northern region of Colombia in South America, sequences of the viral envelope C2V3C3 region were obtained from patients with different high-risk practices. Close to 60% of the sequences were predicted to belong to macrophage-tropic viruses, according to the positions of acidic amino acids and putative N-linked glycosylation sites. This is in agreement with the fact that most of the patients were recently diagnosed individuals. Phylogenic analysis then allowed assignment of all 35 samples to subtype B viruses. This same subtype was found in previous studies carried out in other Colombian regions. This study thus expands previous analyses with previously missing data from the Northern region of the country. The number and the length of the sequences examined also help to provide a clearer picture of the prevailing situation of the present HIV epidemics in this country.

  5. The HIV-1 Envelope Transmembrane Domain Binds TLR2 through a Distinct Dimerization Motif and Inhibits TLR2-Mediated Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotem, Etai; Schwarzter, Roland; Gramatica, Andrea; Futerman, Anthony H.; Shai, Yechiel

    2014-01-01

    HIV-1 uses a number of means to manipulate the immune system, to avoid recognition and to highjack signaling pathways. HIV-1 infected cells show limited Toll-Like Receptor (TLR) responsiveness via as yet unknown mechanisms. Using biochemical and biophysical approaches, we demonstrate that the trans-membrane domain (TMD) of the HIV-1 envelope (ENV) directly interacts with TLR2 TMD within the membrane milieu. This interaction attenuates TNFα, IL-6 and MCP-1 secretion in macrophages, induced by natural ligands of TLR2 both in in vitro and in vivo models. This was associated with decreased levels of ERK phosphorylation. Furthermore, mutagenesis demonstrated the importance of a conserved GxxxG motif in driving this interaction within the membrane milieu. The administration of the ENV TMD in vivo to lipotechoic acid (LTA)/Galactosamine-mediated septic mice resulted in a significant decrease in mortality and in tissue damage, due to the weakening of systemic macrophage activation. Our findings suggest that the TMD of ENV is involved in modulation of the innate immune response during HIV infection. Furthermore, due to the high functional homology of viral ENV proteins this function may be a general character of viral-induced immune modulation. PMID:25121610

  6. The HIV-1 envelope transmembrane domain binds TLR2 through a distinct dimerization motif and inhibits TLR2-mediated responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuven, Eliran Moshe; Ali, Mohammad; Rotem, Etai; Schwarzer, Roland; Schwarzter, Roland; Gramatica, Andrea; Futerman, Anthony H; Shai, Yechiel

    2014-08-01

    HIV-1 uses a number of means to manipulate the immune system, to avoid recognition and to highjack signaling pathways. HIV-1 infected cells show limited Toll-Like Receptor (TLR) responsiveness via as yet unknown mechanisms. Using biochemical and biophysical approaches, we demonstrate that the trans-membrane domain (TMD) of the HIV-1 envelope (ENV) directly interacts with TLR2 TMD within the membrane milieu. This interaction attenuates TNFα, IL-6 and MCP-1 secretion in macrophages, induced by natural ligands of TLR2 both in in vitro and in vivo models. This was associated with decreased levels of ERK phosphorylation. Furthermore, mutagenesis demonstrated the importance of a conserved GxxxG motif in driving this interaction within the membrane milieu. The administration of the ENV TMD in vivo to lipotechoic acid (LTA)/Galactosamine-mediated septic mice resulted in a significant decrease in mortality and in tissue damage, due to the weakening of systemic macrophage activation. Our findings suggest that the TMD of ENV is involved in modulation of the innate immune response during HIV infection. Furthermore, due to the high functional homology of viral ENV proteins this function may be a general character of viral-induced immune modulation.

  7. The HIV-1 envelope transmembrane domain binds TLR2 through a distinct dimerization motif and inhibits TLR2-mediated responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliran Moshe Reuven

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available HIV-1 uses a number of means to manipulate the immune system, to avoid recognition and to highjack signaling pathways. HIV-1 infected cells show limited Toll-Like Receptor (TLR responsiveness via as yet unknown mechanisms. Using biochemical and biophysical approaches, we demonstrate that the trans-membrane domain (TMD of the HIV-1 envelope (ENV directly interacts with TLR2 TMD within the membrane milieu. This interaction attenuates TNFα, IL-6 and MCP-1 secretion in macrophages, induced by natural ligands of TLR2 both in in vitro and in vivo models. This was associated with decreased levels of ERK phosphorylation. Furthermore, mutagenesis demonstrated the importance of a conserved GxxxG motif in driving this interaction within the membrane milieu. The administration of the ENV TMD in vivo to lipotechoic acid (LTA/Galactosamine-mediated septic mice resulted in a significant decrease in mortality and in tissue damage, due to the weakening of systemic macrophage activation. Our findings suggest that the TMD of ENV is involved in modulation of the innate immune response during HIV infection. Furthermore, due to the high functional homology of viral ENV proteins this function may be a general character of viral-induced immune modulation.

  8. The chemokine CXCL12 and the HIV-1 envelope protein gp120 regulate spontaneous activity of Cajal-Retzius cells in opposite directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchionni, Ivan; Beaumont, Michael; Maccaferri, Gianmaria

    2012-07-01

    Activation of the CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) in Cajal–Retzius cells by CXC chemokine ligand 12 (CXCL12) is important for controlling their excitability. CXCR4 is also a co-receptor for the glycoprotein 120 (gp120) of the envelope of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), and binding of gp120 to CXCR4 may produce pathological effects. In order to study CXCR4-dependent modulation of membrane excitability, we recorded in cell-attached configuration spontaneous action currents from hippocampal stratum lacunosum-moleculare Cajal–Retzius cells of the CXCR4-EGFP mouse. CXCL12 (50 nM) powerfully inhibited firing independently of synaptic transmission, suggesting that CXCR4 regulates an intrinsic conductance. This effect was prevented by conditioning slices with BAPTA-AM (200 μM), and by blockers of the BK calcium-dependent potassium channels (TEA (1 mM), paxilline (10 μM) and iberiotoxin (100 nM)). In contrast, exposure to gp120 (pico- to nanomolar range, alone or in combination with soluble cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4)), enhanced spontaneous firing frequency. This effect was prevented by the CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100 (1 μM) and was absent in EGFP-negative stratum lacunosum-moleculare interneurons. Increased excitability was prevented by treating slices with BAPTA-AM or bumetanide, suggesting that gp120 activates a mechanism that is both calcium- and chloride-dependent. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that CXCL12 and gp120 modulate the excitability of Cajal–Retzius cells in opposite directions. We propose that CXCL12 and gp120 either generate calcium responses of different strength or activate distinct pools of intracellular calcium, leading to agonist-specific responses, mediated by BK channels in the case of CXCL12, and by a chloride-dependent mechanism in the case of gp120.

  9. Evidence that Vpu modulates HIV-1 Gag-envelope interaction towards envelope incorporation and infectivity in a cell type dependent manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana Gautam

    Full Text Available The HIV-1 Vpu is required for efficient virus particle release from the plasma membrane and intracellular CD4 degradation in infected cells. In the present study, we found that the loss of virus infectivity as a result of envelope (Env incorporation defect caused by a Gag matrix (MA mutation (L30E was significantly alleviated by introducing a start codon mutation in vpu. Inactivation of Vpu partially restored the Env incorporation defect imposed by L30E substitution in MA. This effect was found to be comparable in cell types such as 293T, HeLa, NP2 and GHOST as well as in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC and monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM. However, in HeLa cells BST-2 knockdown was found to further alleviate the effect of Vpu inactivation on infectivity of L30E mutant. Our data demonstrated that the impaired infectivity of virus particles due to Env incorporation defect caused by MA mutation was modulated by start codon mutation in Vpu.

  10. Quantitative and phenotypic analyses of lymphocyte-monocyte heterokaryons induced by the HIV envelope proteins: Significant loss of lymphoid markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Toledo, Evelyn; Huerta, Leonor; Larralde, Carlos; Lamoyi, Edmundo

    2011-04-01

    Cells infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) can fuse with CD4(+) cells leading to the formation of multinucleated cells. The presence of multinucleated cells infected with HIV in tissues of patients has been documented, although their cellular composition and role in AIDS pathogenesis is still under study. Here, we present evidence of in vitro heterotypic lymphocyte-monocyte fusion in cocultures of lymphocytic Jurkat T cells expressing the HIV-1 gp120/gp41 glycoproteins (Env) and CD4(+) monocytic THP-1 cells. Using a previously characterized method that involves differential labeling of fusion partners with fluorescent probes and flow cytometry analysis after coculture, up to 20% of double fluorescent cells were detected in 48h. This double fluorescent cell population was produced by heterotypic lymphocyte-monocyte fusion as it was not observed when Jurkat T cells expressing a mutant non-fusogenic Env protein were used. Heterokaryon formation was inhibited by an anti-CD4 monoclonal antibody and the HIV-fusion inhibitor peptide T-20. About 68% of heterokaryons remained alive and non-apoptotic after 2days of coculture. In heterokaryons, CD4 was barely detectable and the expression of the CD3 and CD28 lymphoid markers was greatly reduced, whereas the expression of CD32 and the intracellular antigen CD68, both markers of monocytic cells, remained unchanged. In contrast with unfused T cells, heterokaryons only expressed very low levels of the lymphoid activation marker CD25 following treatment with PMA plus ionomycin. These studies point to the possible generation of lymphocyte-monocyte heterokaryons with a myeloid phenotype during HIV infection, with unknown consequences for AIDS pathogenesis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A mammalian cell based FACS-panning platform for the selection of HIV-1 envelopes for vaccine development.

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    Tim-Henrik Bruun

    Full Text Available An increasing number of broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (bnMAb against the HIV-1 envelope (Env protein has been discovered recently. Despite this progress, vaccination efforts with the aim to re-elicit bnMAbs that provide protective immunity have failed so far. Herein, we describe the development of a mammalian cell based FACS-panning method in which bnMAbs are used as tools to select surface-exposed envelope variants according to their binding affinity. For that purpose, an HIV-1 derived lentiviral vector was developed to infect HEK293T cells at low multiplicity of infection (MOI in order to link Env phenotype and genotype. For proof of principle, a gp145 Env model-library was established in which the complete V3 domain was substituted by five strain specific V3 loop sequences with known binding affinities to nMAb 447-52D, respectively. Env genes were recovered from selected cells by PCR, subcloned into a lentiviral vector (i to determine and quantify the enrichment nMAb binders and (ii to generate a new batch of transduction competent particles. After 2 selection cycles the Env variant with highest affinity was enriched 20-fold and represented 80% of the remaining Env population. Exploiting the recently described bnMAbs, this procedure might prove useful in selecting Env proteins from large Env libraries with the potential to elicit bnMAbs when used as vaccine candidates.

  12. Phase I randomised clinical trial of an HIV-1(CN54, clade C, trimeric envelope vaccine candidate delivered vaginally.

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    David J Lewis

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: We conducted a phase 1 double-blind randomised controlled trial (RCT of a HIV-1 envelope protein (CN54 gp140 candidate vaccine delivered vaginally to assess immunogenicity and safety. It was hypothesised that repeated delivery of gp140 may facilitate antigen uptake and presentation at this mucosal surface. Twenty two healthy female volunteers aged 18-45 years were entered into the trial, the first receiving open-label active product. Subsequently, 16 women were randomised to receive 9 doses of 100 µg of gp140 in 3 ml of a Carbopol 974P based gel, 5 were randomised to placebo solution in the same gel, delivered vaginally via an applicator. Participants delivered the vaccine three times a week over three weeks during one menstrual cycle, and were followed up for two further months. There were no serious adverse events, and the vaccine was well tolerated. No sustained systemic or local IgG, IgA, or T cell responses to the gp140 were detected following vaginal immunisations. Repeated vaginal immunisation with a HIV-1 envelope protein alone formulated in Carbopol gel was safe, but did not induce local or systemic immune responses in healthy women. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00637962.

  13. UV-inactivated vaccinia virus (VV) in a multi-envelope DNA-VV-protein (DVP) HIV-1 vaccine protects macaques from lethal challenge with heterologous SHIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Bart G; Sealy, Robert E; Zhan, Xiaoyan; Freiden, Pamela J; Surman, Sherri L; Blanchard, James L.; Hurwitz, Julia L

    2012-01-01

    The pandemic of HIV-1 has continued for decades, yet there remains no licensed vaccine. Previous research has demonstrated the effectiveness of a multi-envelope, multi-vectored HIV-1 vaccine in a macaque-SHIV model, illustrating a potential means of combating HIV-1. Specifically, recombinant DNA, vaccinia virus (VV) and purified protein (DVP) delivery systems were used to vaccinate animals with dozens of antigenically-distinct HIV-1 envelopes for induction of immune breadth. The vaccinated animals controlled disease following challenge with a heterologous SHIV. This demonstration suggested that the antigenic cocktail vaccine strategy, which has succeeded in several other vaccine fields (e.g. pneumococcus), might also succeed against HIV-1. The strategy remains untested in an advanced clinical study, in part due to safety concerns associated with the use of replication-competent VV. To address this concern, we designed a macaque study in which psoralen/ultraviolet light-inactivated VV (UV VV) was substituted for replication-competent VV in the multi-envelope DVP protocol. Control animals received a vaccine encompassing no VV, or no vaccine. All VV vaccinated animals generated an immune response toward VV, and all vaccinated animals generated an immune response toward HIV-1 envelope. After challenge with heterologous SHIV 89.6P, animals that received replication-competent VV or UV VV experienced similar outcomes. They exhibited reduced peak viral loads, maintenance of CD4+ T cell counts and improved survival compared to control animals that received no VV or no vaccine; there were 0/15 deaths among all animals that received VV and 5/9 deaths among controls. Results define a practical means of improving VV safety, and encourage advancement of a promising multi-envelope DVP HIV-1 vaccine candidate. PMID:22425790

  14. Molecular interaction of gp120 and B40 aptamer: A potential new HIV-1 entry inhibitor drug

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Baron, MK

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available the HIV/Aids epidemic, we have recently discovered and described small nucleic acid ligands called aptamers with antiviral activity (1, 4). These aptamers prevent HIV-1 infection by binding to gp120, which is the viral surface envelope glycoprotein...

  15. Reactivation of Neutralized HIV-1 by Dendritic Cells Is Dependent on the Epitope Bound by the Antibody

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Montfort, Thijs; Thomas, Adri A M; Krawczyk, Przemek M; Berkhout, Ben; Sanders, Rogier W; Paxton, William A

    2015-01-01

    Ab-neutralized HIV-1 can be captured by dendritic cells (DCs), which subsequently transfer infectious HIV-1 to susceptible CD4(+) T cells. In this study, we examined the capacity of early Abs, as well as recently identified broadly neutralizing Abs (bNAbs) targeting different envelope glycoprotein (

  16. Nucleic acids encoding mosaic clade M human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope immunogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korber, Bette T; Fischer, William; Liao, Hua-Xin; Haynes, Barton F; Letvin, Norman; Hahn, Beatrice H

    2015-04-21

    The present invention relates to nucleic acids encoding mosaic clade M HIV-1 Env polypeptides and to compositions and vectors comprising same. The nucleic acids of the invention are suitable for use in inducing an immune response to HIV-1 in a human.

  17. Differential induction of anti-V3 crown antibodies with cradle- and ladle-binding modes in response to HIV-1 envelope vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Preetha; Kumar, Rajnish; Williams, Constance; Itri, Vincenza; Wang, Shixia; Lu, Shan; Hessell, Ann J; Haigwood, Nancy L; Sinangil, Faruk; Higgins, Keith W; Liu, Lily; Li, Liuzhe; Nyambi, Phillipe; Gorny, Miroslaw K; Totrov, Maxim; Nadas, Arthur; Kong, Xiang-Peng; Zolla-Pazner, Susan; Hioe, Catarina E

    2017-03-07

    The V3 loop in the HIV envelope gp120 is one of the immunogenic sites targeted by Abs. The V3 crown in particular has conserved structural elements recognized by cross-reactive neutralizing Abs, indicating its potential contribution in protection against HIV. Crystallographic analyses of anti-V3 crown mAbs in complex with the V3 peptides have revealed that these mAbs recognize the conserved sites on the V3 crown via two distinct strategies: a cradle-binding mode (V3C) and a ladle-binding (V3L) mode. However, almost all of the anti-V3 crown mAbs studied in the past were isolated from chronically HIV-infected individuals. The extents to which the two types of anti-V3 crown Abs are generated by vaccination are unknown. This study analyzed the prevalence of V3C-type and V3L-type Ab responses in HIV-infected individuals and in HIV envelope-immunized humans and animals using peptide mimotopes that distinguish the two Ab types. The results show that both V3L-type and V3C-type Abs were generated by the vast majority of chronically HIV-infected humans, although the V3L-type were more prevalent. In contrast, only one of the two V3 Ab types was elicited in vaccinated humans or animal models, irrespective of HIV-1 envelope clades, envelope constructs (oligomeric or monomeric), and protocols (DNA plus protein or protein alone) used for vaccinations. The V3C-type Abs were produced by vaccinated humans, macaques, and rabbits, whereas the V3L-type Abs were made by mice. The V3C-type and V3L-type Abs generated by the vaccinations were able to mediate virus neutralization. These data indicate the restricted repertoires and the species-specific differences in the functional V3-specific Ab responses induced by the HIV envelope vaccines. The study implies the need for improving immunogen designs and vaccination strategies to broaden the diversity of Abs in order to target the different conserved epitopes in the V3 loop and, by extension, in the entire HIV envelope. Published by

  18. An HIV-1 envelope immunogen with W427S mutation in CD4 binding site induced more T follicular helper memory cells and reduced non-specific antibody responses.

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    Hao-Tong Yu

    Full Text Available The CD4 binding site (CD4BS of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env contains epitopes for broadly neutralizing antibody (nAb and is the target for the vaccine development. However, the CD4BS core including residues 425-430 overlaps the B cell superantigen site and may be related to B cell exhaustion in HIV-1 infection. Furthermore, production of nAb and high-affinity plasma cells needs germinal center reaction and the help of T follicular helper (Tfh cells. We believe that strengthening the ability of Env CD4BS in inducing Tfh response and decreasing the effects of the superantigen are the strategies for eliciting nAb and development of HIV-1 vaccine. We constructed a gp120 mutant W427S of an HIV-1 primary R5 strain and examined its ability in the elicitation of Ab and the production of Tfh by immunization of BALB/c mice. We found that the trimeric wild-type gp120 can induce more non-specific antibody-secreting plasma cells, higher serum IgG secretion, and more Tfh cells by splenocyte. The modified W427S gp120 elicits higher levels of specific binding antibodies as well as nAbs though it produces less Tfh cells. Furthermore, higher Tfh cell frequency does not correlate to the specific binding Abs or nAbs indicating that the wild-type gp120 induced some non-specific Tfh that did not contribute to the production of specific Abs. This gp120 mutant led to more memory Tfh production, especially, the effector memory Tfh cells. Taken together, W427S gp120 could induce higher level of specific binding and neutralizing Ab production that may be associated with the reduction of non-specific Tfh but strengthening of the memory Tfh.

  19. [Interaction of human apolipoprotein AI and HIV-1 envelope proteins with the native and recombinant CD4 receptors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panin, L E; Kostina, N E

    2003-01-01

    The method of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to show an interaction of soluble recombinant CD4-receptor (rsCD4) with human apolipoprotein A-1. Competitive interactions between envelope proteins VIH-1 (gp120 and gp41), on the one hand, and human apolipoprotein A-1 with CD4 receptor, present in the cellular membranes of line MT4 human lymphocytes, were demonstrated by the method of flow cytofluorimetry. It was suggested that the competitive interactions between the above proteins could manifest in respect to the apolipoprotein A-1 receptor, which affects the involvement of the latter in the regulation of protein biosynthesis and which leads to a decrease in the body weight of HIV-infected patients.

  20. The V1 region of gp120 is preferentially selected during SIV/HIV transmission and is indispensable for envelope function and virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanpeng; Dittmer, Ulf; Wang, Yan; Song, Jiping; Sun, Binlian; Yang, Rongge

    2016-06-01

    A transmission bottleneck occurs during each human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission event, which allows only a few viruses to establish new infection. However, the genetic characteristics of the transmitted viruses that are preferentially selected have not been fully elucidated. Here, we analyzed amino acids changes in the envelope protein during simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)/HIV deep transmission history and current HIV evolution within the last 15-20 years. Our results confirmed that the V1V2 region of gp120 protein, particularly V1, was preferentially selected. A shorter V1 region was preferred during transmission history, while during epidemic, HIV may evolve to an expanded V1 region gradually and thus escape immune recognition. We then constructed different HIV-1 V1 mutants using different HIV-1 subtypes to elucidate the role of the V1 region in envelope function. We found that the V1 region, although highly variable, was indispensable for virus entry and infection, probably because V1 deletion mutants exhibited impaired processing of gp160 into mature gp120 and gp41. Additionally, the V1 region affected Env incorporation. These results indicated that the V1 region played a critical role in HIV transmission and infection.

  1. Envelope deglycosylation enhances antigenicity of HIV-1 gp41 epitopes for both broad neutralizing antibodies and their unmutated ancestor antibodies.

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    Ben-Jiang Ma

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The HIV-1 gp41 envelope (Env membrane proximal external region (MPER is an important vaccine target that in rare subjects can elicit neutralizing antibodies. One mechanism proposed for rarity of MPER neutralizing antibody generation is lack of reverted unmutated ancestor (putative naive B cell receptor antibody reactivity with HIV-1 envelope. We have studied the effect of partial deglycosylation under non-denaturing (native conditions on gp140 Env antigenicity for MPER neutralizing antibodies and their reverted unmutated ancestor antibodies. We found that native deglycosylation of clade B JRFL gp140 as well as group M consensus gp140 Env CON-S selectively increased the reactivity of Env with the broad neutralizing human mAbs, 2F5 and 4E10. Whereas fully glycosylated gp140 Env either did not bind (JRFL, or weakly bound (CON-S, 2F5 and 4E10 reverted unmutated ancestors, natively deglycosylated JRFL and CON-S gp140 Envs did bind well to these putative mimics of naive B cell receptors. These data predict that partially deglycoslated Env would bind better than fully glycosylated Env to gp41-specific naïve B cells with improved immunogenicity. In this regard, immunization of rhesus macaques demonstrated enhanced immunogenicity of the 2F5 MPER epitope on deglyosylated JRFL gp140 compared to glycosylated JRFL gp140. Thus, the lack of 2F5 and 4E10 reverted unmutated ancestor binding to gp140 Env may not always be due to lack of unmutated ancestor antibody reactivity with gp41 peptide epitopes, but rather, may be due to glycan interference of binding of unmutated ancestor antibodies of broad neutralizing mAb to Env gp41.

  2. Bispecific antibodies directed to CD4 domain 2 and HIV envelope exhibit exceptional breadth and picomolar potency against HIV-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, Craig S; Song, Ruijiang; Ochsenbauer, Christina; Andrews, Chasity D; Franco, David; Yu, Jian; Oren, Deena A; Seaman, Michael S; Ho, David D

    2013-08-13

    In the absence of an effective HIV-1 vaccine, passive immunization using broadly neutralizing Abs or Ab-like molecules could provide an alternative to the daily administration of oral antiretroviral agents that has recently shown promise as preexposure prophylaxis. Currently, no single broadly neutralizing Ab (bNAb) or combination of bNAbs neutralizes all HIV-1 strains at practically achievable concentrations in vivo. To address this problem, we created bispecific Abs that combine the HIV-1 inhibitory activity of ibalizumab (iMab), a humanized mAb directed to domain 2 of human CD4, with that of anti-gp120 bNAbs. These bispecific bNAbs (BibNAbs) exploit iMab's potent anti-HIV-1 activity and demonstrated clinical efficacy and safety to anchor and thereby concentrate a second broadly neutralizing agent at the site of viral entry. Two BibNabs, PG9-iMab and PG16-iMab, exhibit exceptional breadth and potency, neutralizing 100% of the 118 viruses tested at low picomolar concentrations, including viruses resistant to both parental mAbs. The enhanced potency of these BibNAbs was entirely dependent on CD4 anchoring, not on membrane anchoring per se, and required optimal Ab geometry and linker length. We propose that iMab-based BibNAbs, such as PG9-iMab and PG16-iMab, are promising candidates for passive immunization to prevent HIV-1 infection.

  3. Use of synthetic peptides to represent surface-exposed epitopes defined by neutralizing dengue complex- and flavivirus group-reactive monoclonal antibodies on the native dengue type-2 virus envelope glycoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconar, Andrew K I

    2008-07-01

    The reactions of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that defined dengue virus (DENV) complex, flavivirus subgroup or group neutralizing epitopes were tested against synthetic peptide sequences from domains I, II and III of the envelope (E) glycoproteins of different DENV-2 genotypes/strains. The DENV complex-reactive mAb identified the surface-exposed 304-GKFKV/IVKEIA-313 peptides and the DENV complex-conserved 393-KKGSSIGQ/KM-401 peptides in domain III, which were located adjacently in the native glycoprotein. Both flavivirus group-reactive mAbs reacted most strongly with fusion sequence peptides from domain II when they contained a cysteine (C) by glycine (G) substitution (underlined) (101-WGNGGGLFG-109) to represent the native rotated C side chain. The 393-401 sequence represents a newly identified epitope, present as a highly flexible coil located between the 385 and 393 cell-binding sequence and the 401 and 413 sequence involved in the E glycoprotein homo-trimer formation. The 101-109 sequence containing 105-C by G substitution and the 393-401 sequence are good candidates for diagnostic assays and cross-protection experiments.

  4. Identification and Characterization of a Broadly Cross-Reactive HIV-1 Human Monoclonal Antibody That Binds to Both gp120 and gp41

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Mei-Yun; Yuan, Tingting; Li, Jingjing; Borges, Andrew Rosa; Watkins, Jennifer D.; Guenaga, Javier; Yang, Zheng; Wang, Yanping; Wilson, Richard; Li, Yuxing; Polonis, Victoria R.; Pincus, Seth H.; Ruprecht, Ruth M.; Dimitrov, Dimiter S.

    2012-01-01

    Identification of broadly cross-reactive HIV-1-neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) may assist vaccine immunogen design. Here we report a novel human monoclonal antibody (mAb), designated m43, which co-targets the gp120 and gp41 subunits of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env). M43 bound to recombinant

  5. Change of positive selection pressure on HIV-1 envelope gene inferred by early and recent samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izumi Yoshida

    Full Text Available HIV-1 infection has been on the rise in Japan recently, and the main transmission route has changed from blood transmission in the 1980s to homo- and/or hetero-sexual transmission in the 2000s. The lack of early viral samples with clinical information made it difficult to investigate the possible virological changes over time. In this study, we sequenced 142 full-length env genes collected from 16 Japanese subjects infected with HIV-1 in the 1980s and in the 2000s. We examined the diversity change in sequences and potential adaptive evolution of the virus to the host population. We used a codon-based likelihood method under the branch-site and clade models to detect positive selection operating on the virus. The clade model was extended to account for different positive selection pressures in different viral populations. The result showed that the selection pressure was weaker in the 2000s than in the 1980s, indicating that it might have become easier for the HIV to infect a new host and to develop into AIDS now than 20 years ago and that the HIV may be becoming more virulent in the Japanese population. The study provides useful information on the surveillance of HIV infection and highlights the utility of the extended clade models in analysis of virus populations which may be under different selection pressures.

  6. V3 loop truncations in HIV-1 envelope impart resistance to coreceptor inhibitors and enhanced sensitivity to neutralizing antibodies.

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    Meg M Laakso

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The V1/V2 region and the V3 loop of the human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1 envelope (Env protein are targets for neutralizing antibodies and also play an important functional role, with the V3 loop largely determining whether a virus uses CCR5 (R5, CXCR4 (X4, or either coreceptor (R5X4 to infect cells. While the sequence of V3 is variable, its length is highly conserved. Structural studies indicate that V3 length may be important for interactions with the extracellular loops of the coreceptor. Consistent with this view, genetic truncation of the V3 loop is typically associated with loss of Env function. We removed approximately one-half of the V3 loop from three different HIV-1 strains, and found that only the Env protein from the R5X4 strain R3A retained some fusion activity. Loss of V1/V2 (DeltaV1/V2 was well tolerated by this virus. Passaging of virus with the truncated V3 loop resulted in the derivation of a virus strain that replicated with wild-type kinetics. This virus, termed TA1, retained the V3 loop truncation and acquired several adaptive changes in gp120 and gp41. TA1 could use CCR5 but not CXCR4 to infect cells, and was extremely sensitive to neutralization by HIV-1 positive human sera, and by antibodies to the CD4 binding site and to CD4-induced epitopes in the bridging sheet region of gp120. In addition, TA1 was completely resistant to CCR5 inhibitors, and was more dependent upon the N-terminal domain of CCR5, a region of the receptor that is thought to contact the bridging sheet of gp120 and the base of the V3 loop, and whose conformation may not be greatly affected by CCR5 inhibitors. These studies suggest that the V3 loop protects HIV from neutralization by antibodies prevalent in infected humans, that CCR5 inhibitors likely act by disrupting interactions between the V3 loop and the coreceptor, and that altered use of CCR5 by HIV-1 associated with increased sensitivity to changes in the N-terminal domain can be linked

  7. Subtle evolutionary changes in the distribution of N-glycosylation sequons in the HIV-I envelope glycoprotein 120

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rao, R Shyama Prasad; Wollenweber, Bernd

    2010-01-01

    domain. Related changes were also seen in the distribution probabilities of sequons in two domains. The results indicate that the gp120, chiefly in subtype B, is redistributing NXS/T sequons within the molecule with specific selection for NXS sequons. The subtle evolution of sequons in gp120 may have...

  8. Evolution of the HIV-1 Envelope Glycoprotein Genes and Neutralizing Antibody Response in an Individual with Broadly Cross Neutralizing Antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    foro ~ fO’b fOD) ~~ ~" ~’" ~" ,,0) ,,0) ,,0) ,,0...34OS "OS "OS "OS Year of Clone Sample 48d t=O.S8 p=O.Ol • -• -+- --- NS ~u....- --- --- • • NS • --- I • -• I -I foro ~ fO’b fOD) ~~ ~" Rl...Jt • • foro ~ fO’b feD) Rl~ Rl" Rl’" Rl’" ,,0) "OJ ,,0) "OS "OS "OS "OS "OS Year of Clone Sam pie Evolution of

  9. Variation in HIV-1 R5 macrophage-tropism correlates with sensitivity to reagents that block envelope: CD4 interactions but not with sensitivity to other entry inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simmonds Peter

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV-1 R5 viruses cause most of the AIDS cases worldwide and are preferentially transmitted compared to CXCR4-using viruses. Furthermore, R5 viruses vary extensively in capacity to infect macrophages and highly macrophage-tropic variants are frequently identified in the brains of patients with dementia. Here, we investigated the sensitivity of R5 envelopes to a range of inhibitors and antibodies that block HIV entry. We studied a large panel of R5 envelopes, derived by PCR amplification without culture from brain, lymph node, blood and semen. These R5 envelopes conferred a wide range of macrophage tropism and included highly macrophage-tropic variants from brain and non-macrophage-tropic variants from lymph node. Results R5 macrophage-tropism correlated with sensitivity to inhibition by reagents that inhibited gp120:CD4 interactions. Thus, increasing macrophage-tropism was associated with increased sensitivity to soluble CD4 and to IgG-CD4 (PRO 542, but with increased resistance to the anti-CD4 monoclonal antibody (mab, Q4120. These observations were highly significant and are consistent with an increased affinity of envelope for CD4 for macrophage-tropic envelopes. No overall correlations were noted between R5 macrophage-tropism and sensitivity to CCR5 antagonists or to gp41 specific reagents. Intriguingly, there was a relationship between increasing macrophage-tropism and increased sensitivity to the CD4 binding site mab, b12, but decreased sensitivity to 2G12, a mab that binds a glycan complex on gp120. Conclusion Variation in R5 macrophage-tropism is caused by envelope variation that predominantly influences sensitivity to reagents that block gp120:CD4 interactions. Such variation has important implications for therapy using viral entry inhibitors and for the design of envelope antigens for vaccines.

  10. Restricted isotype, distinct variable gene usage, and high rate of gp120 specificity of HIV-1 envelope-specific B cells in colostrum compared with those in blood of HIV-1-infected, lactating African women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacha, C R; Vandergrift, N; Jeffries, T L; McGuire, E; Fouda, G G; Liebl, B; Marshall, D J; Gurley, T C; Stiegel, L; Whitesides, J F; Friedman, J; Badiabo, A; Foulger, A; Yates, N L; Tomaras, G D; Kepler, T B; Liao, H X; Haynes, B F; Moody, M A; Permar, S R

    2015-03-01

    A successful HIV-1 vaccine must elicit immune responses that impede mucosal virus transmission, though functional roles of protective HIV-1 Envelope (Env)-specific mucosal antibodies remain unclear. Colostrum is a rich source of readily accessible mucosal B cells that may help define the mucosal antibody response contributing to prevention of postnatal HIV-1 transmission. To examine the HIV-1 Env-specific colostrum B-cell repertoire, single B cells were isolated from 17 chronically HIV-infected, lactating women, producing 51 blood and 39 colostrum HIV-1 Env-specific B-cell antibodies. All HIV-1 Env-specific colostrum-derived antibodies were immunoglobulin (Ig)G1 isotype and had mean heavy chain complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3) lengths and mutation frequencies similar to those isolated from blood. However, variable heavy chain (VH) gene subfamily 1(∼)69 usage was higher among colostrum than blood HIV-1 Env-reactive antibodies (49% vs. 20%, P=0.006, Fisher's exact test). Additionally, more HIV-1 Env-specific colostrum antibodies were gp120 specific than those isolated from blood (44% vs. 16%, P=0.005, Fisher's exact test). One cross-compartment HIV-1 Env-specific clonal B-cell lineage was identified. These unique characteristics of colostrum B-cell antibodies suggest selective homing of HIV-1-specific IgG1-secreting memory B cells to the mammary gland and have implications for targeting mucosal B-cell populations by vaccination.

  11. Specifically Binding of L-ficolin to N-glycans of HCV Envelope Glycoproteins E1 and E2 Leads to Complement Activation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Liu; Mohammed A.M.Ali; Yinghua Shi; Yinglan Zhao; Fenglin Luo; Jin Yu; Tian Xiang; Jie Tang; Dongqing Li; Quan Hu; Wenzhe Ho; Xiaolian Zhang

    2009-01-01

    L-ficolin and HCV E1 and E2 glycoproteins was attributed to the N-glycans of E1 and E2.These findings provide new insights into the biological functions of L-ficolin in clinically important hepatic viral diseases.

  12. The Patterns of Coevolution in Clade B HIV Envelope's N-Glycosylation Sites.

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    Swetha Garimalla

    Full Text Available The co-evolution of the potential N-glycosylation sites of HIV Clade B gp120 was mapped onto the coevolution network of the protein structure using mean field direct coupling analysis (mfDCA. This was possible for 327 positions with suitable entropy and gap content. Indications of pressure to preserve the evolving glycan shield are seen as well as strong dependencies between the majority of the potential N-glycosylation sites and the rest of the structure. These findings indicate that although mainly an adaptation against antibody neutralization, the evolving glycan shield is structurally related to the core polypeptide, which, thus, is also under pressure to reflect the changes in the N-glycosylation. The map we propose fills the gap in previous attempts to tease out sequon evolution by providing a more general molecular context. Thus, it will help design strategies guiding HIV gp120 evolution in a rational way.

  13. The Patterns of Coevolution in Clade B HIV Envelope's N-Glycosylation Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garimalla, Swetha; Kieber-Emmons, Thomas; Pashov, Anastas D.

    2015-01-01

    The co-evolution of the potential N-glycosylation sites of HIV Clade B gp120 was mapped onto the coevolution network of the protein structure using mean field direct coupling analysis (mfDCA). This was possible for 327 positions with suitable entropy and gap content. Indications of pressure to preserve the evolving glycan shield are seen as well as strong dependencies between the majority of the potential N-glycosylation sites and the rest of the structure. These findings indicate that although mainly an adaptation against antibody neutralization, the evolving glycan shield is structurally related to the core polypeptide, which, thus, is also under pressure to reflect the changes in the N-glycosylation. The map we propose fills the gap in previous attempts to tease out sequon evolution by providing a more general molecular context. Thus, it will help design strategies guiding HIV gp120 evolution in a rational way. PMID:26110648

  14. Activity of the HIV-1 attachment inhibitor BMS-626529, the active component of the prodrug BMS-663068, against CD4-independent viruses and HIV-1 envelopes resistant to other entry inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhufang; Zhou, Nannan; Sun, Yongnian; Ray, Neelanjana; Lataillade, Max; Hanna, George J; Krystal, Mark

    2013-09-01

    BMS-626529 is a novel small-molecule HIV-1 attachment inhibitor active against both CCR5- and CXCR4-tropic viruses. BMS-626529 functions by preventing gp120 from binding to CD4. A prodrug of this compound, BMS-663068, is currently in clinical development. As a theoretical resistance pathway to BMS-663068 could be the development of a CD4-independent phenotype, we examined the activity of BMS-626529 against CD4-independent viruses and investigated whether resistance to BMS-626529 could be associated with a CD4-independent phenotype. Finally, we evaluated whether cross-resistance exists between BMS-626529 and other HIV-1 entry inhibitors. Two laboratory-derived envelopes with a CD4-independent phenotype (one CXCR4 tropic and one CCR5 tropic), five envelopes from clinical isolates with preexisting BMS-626529 resistance, and several site-specific mutant BMS-626529-resistant envelopes were examined for their dependence on CD4 for infectivity or susceptibility to BMS-626529. Viruses resistant to other entry inhibitors (enfuvirtide, maraviroc, and ibalizumab) were also examined for susceptibility to BMS-626529. Both CD4-independent laboratory isolates retained sensitivity to BMS-626529 in CD4(-) cells, while HIV-1 envelopes from viruses resistant to BMS-626529 exhibited no evidence of a CD4-independent phenotype. BMS-626529 also exhibited inhibitory activity against ibalizumab- and enfuvirtide-resistant envelopes. While there appeared to be some association between maraviroc resistance and reduced susceptibility to BMS-626529, an absolute correlation cannot be presumed, since some CCR5-tropic maraviroc-resistant envelopes remained sensitive to BMS-626529. Clinical use of the prodrug BMS-663068 is unlikely to promote resistance via generation of CD4-independent virus. No cross-resistance between BMS-626529 and other HIV entry inhibitors was observed, which could allow for sequential or concurrent use with different classes of entry inhibitors.

  15. High-affinity binding of southern African HIV type 1 subtype C envelope protein, gp120, to the CCR5 coreceptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromme, Bernhard J; Coetsee, Marla; Van Der Watt, Pauline; Chan, Mei-Chi; Sperling, Karin M; Katz, Arieh A; Flanagan, Colleen A

    2008-12-01

    HIV-1 subtype C is the fastest spreading subtype worldwide and predominantly uses the CCR5 coreceptor, showing minimal transition to the X4 phenotype. This raises the possibility that envelope proteins of HIV-1 subtype C have structural features that favor interaction with CCR5. Preference for CCR5 could arise from enhanced affinity of HIV-1 subtype C for CCR5. To test this, we have characterized the interaction of gp120 envelope proteins from HIV-1 subtype C clones with CD4 and CCR5. Recombinant gp120 proteins from isolates of HIV-1 subtypes B and C were expressed, purified, and assessed in a CD4 binding assay and a CCR5 chemokine competition binding assay. All gp120 proteins bound to CD4-expressing cells, except one, 97ZA347ts, which had Arg substituted for the Cys239 in the conserved C2 loop. Reconstitution of Cys239, using site-directed mutagenesis, restored CD4 binding, while introducing Arg or Ser into position 239 of the functional Du151 gp120 protein abrogated CD4 binding. This shows that the Cys228-Cys239 disulfide bond of gp120 is required for high-affinity binding to CD4. Recombinant gp120 proteins from two HIV-1 subtype B clones bound CCR5 in the presence of CD4, while gp120 from the X4-tropic, HxB2, clone did not bind CCR5. gp120 from two functional HIV-1 subtype C clones, Du151 and MOLE1, bound CCR5 with high affinity in the presence of CD4 and Du151 showed significant CCR5 binding in the absence of CD4. A gp120 from a nonfunctional subtype C clone had lower affinity for CCR5. These results indicate that HIV-1 subtype C proteins have high affinity for CCR5 with variable dependence on CD4.

  16. NMR-assisted computational studies of peptidomimetic inhibitors bound in the hydrophobic pocket of HIV-1 glycoprotein 41

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gochin, Miriam; Whitby, Landon R.; Phillips, Aaron H.; Boger, Dale L.

    2013-07-01

    Due to the inherently flexible nature of a protein-protein interaction surface, it is difficult both to inhibit the association with a small molecule, and to predict how it might bind to the surface. In this study, we have examined small molecules that mediate the interaction between a WWI motif on the C-helix of HIV-1 glycoprotein-41 (gp41) and a deep hydrophobic pocket contained in the interior N-helical trimer. Association between these two components of gp41 leads to virus-cell and cell-cell fusion, which could be abrogated in the presence of an inhibitor that binds tightly in the pocket. We have studied a comprehensive combinatorial library of α-helical peptidomimetics, and found that compounds with strongly hydrophobic side chains had the highest affinity. Computational docking studies produced multiple possible binding modes due to the flexibility of both the binding site and the peptidomimetic compounds. We applied a transferred paramagnetic relaxation enhancement experiment to two selected members of the library, and showed that addition of a few experimental constraints enabled definitive identification of unique binding poses. Computational docking results were extremely sensitive to side chain conformations, and slight variations could preclude observation of the experimentally validated poses. Different receptor structures were required for docking simulations to sample the correct pose for the two compounds. The study demonstrated the sensitivity of predicted poses to receptor structure and indicated the importance of experimental verification when docking to a malleable protein-protein interaction surface.

  17. The role of the humoral immune response in the molecular evolution of the envelope C2, V3 and C3 regions in chronically HIV-2 infected patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novo Carlos

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was designed to investigate, for the first time, the short-term molecular evolution of the HIV-2 C2, V3 and C3 envelope regions and its association with the immune response. Clonal sequences of the env C2V3C3 region were obtained from a cohort of eighteen HIV-2 chronically infected patients followed prospectively during 2–4 years. Genetic diversity, divergence, positive selection and glycosylation in the C2V3C3 region were analysed as a function of the number of CD4+ T cells and the anti-C2V3C3 IgG and IgA antibody reactivity Results The mean intra-host nucleotide diversity was 2.1% (SD, 1.1%, increasing along the course of infection in most patients. Diversity at the amino acid level was significantly lower for the V3 region and higher for the C2 region. The average divergence rate was 0.014 substitutions/site/year, which is similar to that reported in chronic HIV-1 infection. The number and position of positively selected sites was highly variable, except for codons 267 and 270 in C2 that were under strong and persistent positive selection in most patients. N-glycosylation sites located in C2 and V3 were conserved in all patients along the course of infection. Intra-host variation of C2V3C3-specific IgG response over time was inversely associated with the variation in nucleotide and amino acid diversity of the C2V3C3 region. Variation of the C2V3C3-specific IgA response was inversely associated with variation in the number of N-glycosylation sites. Conclusion The evolutionary dynamics of HIV-2 envelope during chronic aviremic infection is similar to HIV-1 implying that the virus should be actively replicating in cellular compartments. Convergent evolution of N-glycosylation in C2 and V3, and the limited diversification of V3, indicates that there are important functional constraints to the potential diversity of the HIV-2 envelope. C2V3C3-specific IgG antibodies are effective at reducing viral population size

  18. The herpes simplex virus 1-encoded envelope glycoprotein B activates NF-κB through the Toll-like receptor 2 and MyD88/TRAF6-dependent signaling pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingsheng Cai

    Full Text Available The innate immune response plays a critical role in the host defense against invading pathogens, and TLR2, a member of the Toll-like receptor (TLR family, has been implicated in the immune response and initiation of inflammatory cytokine secretion against several human viruses. Previous studies have demonstrated that infectious and ultraviolet-inactivated herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1 virions lead to the activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines via TLR2. However, except for the envelope glycoprotein gH and gL, whether there are other determinants of HSV-1 responsible for TLR2 mediated biological effects is not known yet. Here, we demonstrated that the HSV-1-encoded envelope glycoprotein gB displays as molecular target recognized by TLR2. gB coimmunoprecipitated with TLR2, TLR1 and TLR6 in transfected and infected human embryonic kidney (HEK 293T cells. Treatment of TLR2-transfected HEK293T (HEK293T-TLR2 cells with purified gB results in the activation of NF-κB reporter, and this activation requires the recruitment of the adaptor molecules myeloid differentiation primary-response protein 88 (MyD88 and tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6 but not CD14. Furthermore, activation of NF-κB was abrogated by anti-gB and anti-TLR2 blocking antibodies. In addition, the expression of interleukin-8 induced by gB was abrogated by the treatment of the human monocytic cell line THP-1 with anti-TLR2 blocking antibody or by the incubation of gB with anti-gB antibody. Taken together, these results indicate the importance and potency of HSV-1 gB as one of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs molecule recognized by TLR2 with immediate kinetics.

  19. Broad and potent HIV-1 neutralization by a human antibody that binds the gp41-120 interface

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Jinghe; Kang, Byong H; Pancera, Marie; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Tong, Tommy; Feng, Yu; Georgiev, Ivelin S.; Chuang, Gwo-Yu; Druz, Aliaksandr; Doria-Rose, Nicole A.; Laub, Leo; Sliepen, Kwinten; van Gils, Marit J.; de la Peña, Alba Torrents; Derking, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    The isolation of human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) is providing important insights regarding the specificities that underlie broad neutralization of HIV-1 (reviewed in 1 ). Here we report a broad and extremely potent HIV-specific mAb, termed 35O22, which binds novel HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) epitope. 35O22 neutralized 62% of 181 pseudoviruses with an IC50

  20. Functional and structural analysis of GP64, the major envelope glycoprotein of the budded virus phenotype of Autographa californica and Orgyia pseudotsugata multicapsid nucleopolyhedroviruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oomens, A.G.P.

    1999-01-01

    The Baculoviridae are a family of large, enveloped, double-stranded DNA viruses, that cause severe disease in the larvae of mostly lepidopteran insects. Baculoviruses have been studied with the aim of developing alternatives to chemical pest control, and later for their potential as systems for fore

  1. Processing, fusogenicity, virion incorporation and CXCR4-binding activity of a feline immunodeficiency virus envelope glycoprotein lacking the two conserved N-glycosylation sites at the C-terminus of the V3 domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Silvia A; Affranchino, José L

    2016-07-01

    The process of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) entry into its target cells is initiated by the association of the surface (SU) subunit of the viral envelope glycoprotein (Env) with the cellular receptors CD134 and CXCR4. This event is followed by the fusion of the viral and cellular membranes, which is mediated by the transmembrane (TM) subunit of Env. We and others have previously demonstrated that the V3 domain of the SU subunit of Env is essential for CXCR4 binding. Of note, there are two contiguous and highly conserved potential N-glycosylation sites ((418)NST(420) and (422)NLT(424)) located at the C-terminal side of the V3 domain. We therefore decided to study the relevance for Env functions of these N-glycosylation motifs and found that disruption of both of them by introducing the N418Q/N422Q double amino acid substitution drastically impairs Env processing into the SU and TM subunits. Moreover, the simultaneous mutation of these N-glycosylation sites prevents Env incorporation into virions and Env-mediated cell-to-cell fusion. Notably, a recombinant soluble version of the SU glycoprotein carrying the double amino acid replacement N418Q/N422Q at the V3 C-terminal side binds to CXCR4 with an efficiency similar to that of wild-type SU.

  2. Inhibition of HIV type 1 infectivity by coexpression of a wild-type and a defective glycoprotein 120

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, O S; Losman, B; Schønning, Kristian;

    1998-01-01

    model: when virion formation is saturated with envelope protein, expression and incorporation of a defective envelope protein imply a corresponding dilution of wild-type protein on the surface of virions. The cooperative function of wild-type envelope proteins is subsequently compromised, and a trans...

  3. The Ability of an Oligomeric Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) Envelope Antigen To Elicit Neutralizing Antibodies against Primary HIV-1 Isolates Is Improved following Partial Deletion of the Second Hypervariable Region

    OpenAIRE

    Barnett, S. W.; Lu, S.; Srivastava, I.; Cherpelis, S.; Gettie, A.; Blanchard, J.; Wang, S.; Mboudjeka, I.; Leung, L; Lian, Y.; Fong, A.; Buckner, C.; Ly, A.; Hilt, S.; Ulmer, J.

    2001-01-01

    Partial deletion of the second hypervariable region from the envelope of the primary-like SF162 virus increases the exposure of certain neutralization epitopes and renders the virus, SF162ΔV2, highly susceptible to neutralization by clade B and non-clade B human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-positive) sera (L. Stamatatos and C. Cheng-Mayer, J. Virol. 78:7840–7845, 1998). This observation led us to propose that the modified, SF162ΔV2-derived envelope may elicit higher titers of cross-reactive ne...

  4. Selected HIV-1 Env trimeric formulations act as potent immunogens in a rabbit vaccination model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heyndrickx, Leo; Stewart-Jones, Guillaume; Jansson, Marianne Bendixen

    2013-01-01

    Ten to 30% of HIV-1 infected subjects develop broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) during chronic infection. We hypothesized that immunizing rabbits with viral envelope glycoproteins (Envs) from these patients may induce bNAbs, when formulated as a trimeric protein and in the presence...

  5. Monoclonal Antibodies Recognizing HIV-1 gp41 Could Inhibit Env-Mediated Syncytium Formation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Geng; CHEN Yinghua

    2005-01-01

    Some monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) could inhibit infection by HIV-1. In this study, four mAbs against HIV-1 gp41 were prepared in mice. All four mAbs could bind to the recombinant soluble gp41 and recognize the native envelope glycoprotein gp160 expressed on the HIV-Env+ CHO-WT cell in flow cytometry analysis. Interestingly, the results show that all four mAbs purified by affinity chromatography could inhibit HIV-1 Env-mediated membrane fusion (syncytium formation) by 40%-60% at 10 μg/mL, which implies potential inhibitory activities against HIV-1.

  6. Chemokines, lymphocytes, and HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farber J.M.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemokines are members of a family of more than 30 human cytokines whose best-described activities are as chemotactic factors for leukocytes and that are presumed to be important in leukocyte recruitment and trafficking. While many chemokines can act on lymphocytes, the roles of chemokines and their receptors in lymphocyte biology are poorly understood. The recent discoveries that chemokines can suppress infection by HIV-1 and that chemokine receptors serve, along with CD4, as obligate co-receptors for HIV-1 entry have lent urgency to studies on the relationships between chemokines and lymphocytes. My laboratory has characterized Mig and Crg-2/IP-10, chemokines that are induced by IFN-g and that specifically target lymphocytes, particularly activated T cells. We have demonstrated that the genes for these chemokines are widely expressed during experimental infections in mice with protozoan and viral pathogens, but that the patterns of mig and crg-2 expression differed, suggesting non-redundant roles in vivo. Our related studies to identify new chemokine receptors from activated lymphocytes resulted in the cloning of STRL22 and STRL33. We and others have shown that STRL22 is a receptor for the CC chemokine MIP-3a, and STRL22 has been re-named CCR6. Although STRL33 remains an orphan receptor, we have shown that it can function as a co-receptor for HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins, and that it is active with a broader range of HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins than the major co-receptors described to date. The ability of STRL33 to function with a wide variety of envelope glycoproteins may become particularly important if therapies are instituted to block other specific co-receptors. We presume that investigations into the roles of chemokines and their receptors in lymphocyte biology will provide information important for understanding the pathogenesis of AIDS and for manipulating immune and inflammatory responses for clinical benefit

  7. The NV gene of snakehead rhabdovirus (SHRV) is not required for pathogenesis, and a heterologous glycoprotein can be incorporated into the SHRV envelope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Marta; Kim, Carol H; Johnson, Marc C; Pressley, Meagan; Leong, Jo-Ann

    2004-06-01

    Snakehead rhabdovirus (SHRV) affects warm-water fish in Southeast Asia and belongs to the genus Novirhabdovirus by virtue of its "nonvirion" (NV) gene. To examine the function of the NV gene, we used a recently developed reverse genetic system to produce a viable recombinant SHRV carrying an NV gene deletion. The recombinant virus was produced at the same rate and same final concentrations as the wild-type virus in cultured fish cells in spite of the NV gene deletion. The role of the NV protein in fish pathogenesis was also investigated. Zebra fish (Danio rerio) were infected with the NV deletion mutant or with a recombinant virus containing a copy of the SHRV genome, and similar mortality rates as well as final mortalities were recorded, suggesting no apparent role for the NV protein in fish pathogenesis. Interestingly, the unsuccessful rescue of fully viable recombinants with genomes containing deletions in the G/NV gene junction suggested a role for the gene junction in virus transcription and replication. Finally, we demonstrated that the SHRV glycoprotein can be replaced by the glycoprotein of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) or by a hybrid protein composed of SHRV and IHNV sequences.

  8. N-Glycans on the Rift Valley Fever Virus Envelope Glycoproteins Gn and Gc Redundantly Support Viral Infection via DC-SIGN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoenix, Inaia; Nishiyama, Shoko; Lokugamage, Nandadeva; Hill, Terence E; Huante, Matthew B; Slack, Olga A L; Carpio, Victor H; Freiberg, Alexander N; Ikegami, Tetsuro

    2016-05-23

    Rift Valley fever is a mosquito-transmitted, zoonotic disease that infects humans and ruminants. Dendritic cell specific intercellular adhesion molecule 3 (ICAM-3) grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN) acts as a receptor for members of the phlebovirus genus. The Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) glycoproteins (Gn/Gc) encode five putative N-glycan sequons (asparagine (N)-any amino acid (X)-serine (S)/threonine (T)) at positions: N438 (Gn), and N794, N829, N1035, and N1077 (Gc). The N-glycosylation profile and significance in viral infection via DC-SIGN have not been elucidated. Gc N-glycosylation was first evaluated by using Gc asparagine (N) to glutamine (Q) mutants. Subsequently, we generated a series of recombinant RVFV MP-12 strain mutants, which encode N-to-Q mutations, and the infectivity of each mutant in Jurkat cells stably expressing DC-SIGN was evaluated. Results showed that Gc N794, N1035, and N1077 were N-glycosylated but N829 was not. Gc N1077 was heterogeneously N-glycosylated. RVFV Gc made two distinct N-glycoforms: "Gc-large" and "Gc-small", and N1077 was responsible for "Gc-large" band. RVFV showed increased infection of cells expressing DC-SIGN compared to cells lacking DC-SIGN. Infection via DC-SIGN was increased in the presence of either Gn N438 or Gc N1077. Our study showed that N-glycans on the Gc and Gn surface glycoproteins redundantly support RVFV infection via DC-SIGN.

  9. Experimental Estimation of the Effects of All Amino-Acid Mutations to HIV's Envelope Protein on Viral Replication in Cell Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddox, Hugh K; Dingens, Adam S; Bloom, Jesse D

    2016-12-01

    HIV is notorious for its capacity to evade immunity and anti-viral drugs through rapid sequence evolution. Knowledge of the functional effects of mutations to HIV is critical for understanding this evolution. HIV's most rapidly evolving protein is its envelope (Env). Here we use deep mutational scanning to experimentally estimate the effects of all amino-acid mutations to Env on viral replication in cell culture. Most mutations are under purifying selection in our experiments, although a few sites experience strong selection for mutations that enhance HIV's replication in cell culture. We compare our experimental measurements of each site's preference for each amino acid to the actual frequencies of these amino acids in naturally occurring HIV sequences. Our measured amino-acid preferences correlate with amino-acid frequencies in natural sequences for most sites. However, our measured preferences are less concordant with natural amino-acid frequencies at surface-exposed sites that are subject to pressures absent from our experiments such as antibody selection. Our data enable us to quantify the inherent mutational tolerance of each site in Env. We show that the epitopes of broadly neutralizing antibodies have a significantly reduced inherent capacity to tolerate mutations, rigorously validating a pervasive idea in the field. Overall, our results help disentangle the role of inherent functional constraints and external selection pressures in shaping Env's evolution.

  10. Effect of cytokines on Siglec-1 and HIV-1 entry in monocyte-derived macrophages: the importance of HIV-1 envelope V1V2 region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobe, Ousman; Trinh, Hung V; Kim, Jiae; Alsalmi, Wadad; Tovanabutra, Sodsai; Ehrenberg, Philip K; Peachman, Kristina K; Gao, Guofen; Thomas, Rasmi; Kim, Jerome H; Michael, Nelson L; Alving, Carl R; Rao, Venigalla B; Rao, Mangala

    2016-06-01

    Monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages express relatively low levels of CD4. Despite this, macrophages can be effectively infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Macrophages have a critical role in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transmission; however, the mechanism or mechanisms of virus infection are poorly understood. We report that growth factors, such as granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor and macrophage colony-stimulating factor affect the phenotypic profile and permissiveness of macrophages to human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection of monocyte-derived macrophages derived from granulocyte macrophage and macrophage colony-stimulating factors was predominantly facilitated by the sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin-1. The number of sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin receptors on macrophage colony-stimulating factor-derived monocyte-derived macrophages was significantly greater than on granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor-derived monocyte-derived macrophages, and correspondingly, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection was greater in the macrophage colony-stimulating factor-derived monocyte-derived macrophages. Single-genome analysis and quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction revealed that the differences in infectivity was not due to differences in viral fitness or in viral variants with differential infectivity but was due to reduced viral entry into the granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor-derived monocyte-derived macrophages. Anti-sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin, trimeric glycoprotein 145, and scaffolded V1V2 proteins were bound to sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin and significantly reduced human immunodeficiency virus type 1 entry and infection. Furthermore, sialic acid residues present in the V1V2 region of the envelope protein mediated human immunodeficiency virus type 1

  11. HIV-2 infection and chemokine receptors usage - clues to reduced virulence of HIV-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo-Pereira, José Miguel; Santos-Costa, Quirina; Moniz-Pereira, José

    2005-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and type 2 (HIV-2) are the causative agents of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Without therapeutic intervention, HIV-1 or HIV-2 infections in humans are characterized by a gradual and irreversible immunologic failure that ultimately leads to the onset of a severe immunodeficiency that constitutes the hallmark of AIDS. In the last two decades AIDS has evolved into a global epidemic affecting millions of persons worldwide. Although sharing several identical properties, HIV-1 and HIV-2 have shown some important differences in vivo. In fact, a significant amount of epidemiologic, clinical and virologic data suggest that HIV-2 is in general less virulent than HIV-1. This reduced virulence is revealed by the longer asymptomatic period and the smaller transmission rate that characteristically are observed in HIV-2 infection. In this context, studies using HIV-2 as a model of a naturally less pathogenic infection could bring important new insights to HIV pathogenesis opening to new strategies to vaccines or therapeutic design. The reasons underlying the reduced pathogenicity of HIV-2 are still essentially unknown and surely are the outcome of a combination of distinct factors. In this review we will discuss the importance and the possible implications in HIV-2 pathogenesis, particularly during the asymptomatic period, of a less fitted interaction between viral envelope glycoproteins and cellular receptors that have been described in the way HIV-2 and HIV-1 use these receptors.

  12. P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) activity decreases raltegravir disposition in primary CD4+P-gphigh cells and correlates with HIV-1 viral load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minuesa, Gerard; Arimany-Nardi, Cristina; Erkizia, Itziar; Cedeño, Samandhy; Moltó, José; Clotet, Bonaventura; Pastor-Anglada, Marçal; Martinez-Picado, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the role of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and multidrug-resistant-protein 1 (MRP1) on raltegravir intracellular drug disposition in CD4+ T cells, investigate the effect of HIV-1 infection on P-gp expression and correlate HIV-1 viraemia with P-gp activity in primary CD4+ T cell subsets. Methods The cellular accumulation ratio of [3H]raltegravir was quantified in CD4+ T cell lines overexpressing either P-gp (CEM-P-gp) or MRP1 (CEM-MRP1) and in primary CD3+CD4+ T cells with high (P-gphigh) and low P-gp activity (P-gplow); inhibition of efflux transporters was confirmed by the intracellular retention of calcein-AM. The correlation of P-gp activity with HIV-1 viraemia was assessed in naive and memory T cell subsets from 21 HIV-1-infected treatment-naive subjects. Results [3H]Raltegravir cellular accumulation ratio decreased in CEM-P-gp cells (P < 0.0001). XR9051 (a P-gp inhibitor) and HIV-1 PIs reversed this phenomenon. Primary CD4+P-gphigh cells accumulated less raltegravir (38.4% ± 9.6%) than P-gplow cells, whereas XR9051 also reversed this effect. In vitro HIV-1 infection of PBMCs and stimulation of CD4+ T cells increased P-gp mRNA and P-gp activity, respectively, while primary CD4+P-gphigh T cells sustained a higher HIV-1 replication than P-gplow cells. A significant correlation between HIV-1 viraemia and P-gp activity was found in different CD4+ T cell subsets, particularly memory CD4+ T cells (r = 0.792, P < 0.0001). Conclusions Raltegravir is a substrate of P-gp in CD4+ T cells. Primary CD4+P-gphigh T cells eliminate intracellular raltegravir more readily than P-gplow cells and HIV-1 viraemia correlates with P-gp overall activity. Specific CD4+P-gphigh T cell subsets could facilitate the persistence of viral replication in vivo and ultimately promote the appearance of drug resistance. PMID:27334660

  13. 人类免疫缺陷病毒-1包膜糖蛋白进化对抗原表位及病毒亲嗜性的影响%The influences of the evolution of HIV-1 envelope gene on the epitopes and the tropism of the virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨丹; 李妍; 周海舟; 王甲业; 王福祥; 程德春; 凌虹

    2010-01-01

    目的 调查同一供体来源的人类免疫缺陷病毒(HIV)-1感染不同个体后病毒包膜糖蛋白的变异、病毒侵入靶细胞能力以及包膜抗原主要中和表位的变化,为了解病毒感染规律及机体抗病毒免疫奠定基础.方法 对病毒包膜糖蛋白基因序列进行基因离散分析;用包膜蛋白表达质粒与HIV-1骨架质粒共转染293T细胞构建包膜包膜假病毒,用假病毒感染HIV-1靶细胞U87.CD4.CCR5或U87.CD4.CXCR4细胞检测假病毒侵入靶细胞的能力及病毒亲嗜性;对包膜糖蛋白中已知的广谱中和抗体识别表位进行分析.结果 24个有完整开放读码框的env基因克隆与河南省HIV-1毒株CNHN24的基因离散率为(7.91±0.78)%,与云南省分离毒株RL42的基因离散率为(6.90± 40.79)%.各可变区基因离散率呈现严重不均衡性,其中,V1/V2区的离散率最高,V4区的离散率次之,V3区离散率最小.包膜假病毒中既有CCR5亲嗜性和CXCR4亲嗜性的,也有双亲嗜性的包膜.而且上述包膜中主要中和表位IgG1b12、2F5和4E10抗体识别表位保守,但447-52D抗体识别表位变异较大.结论 同一来源的HIV包膜糖蛋白在4~7年间的不同受者体内发生了较大变异并影响了病毒侵入靶细胞的能力;主要广谱中和抗体的识别表位部分保守.%Objective To investigate the evolution of HIV-1 envelope (env) gene from the individuals infected by the virus from one donor, the entry mediated by the envelope glycoprotein and the variation in the main neutralizing epitopes of envelope. Methods The genetic distances of the HIV-1 envelope genes derived from previous studies were analyzed. A series of envelope-pseudotyped viruses were constructed by co-transfecting HEK293T cells with a HIV-1 plasmid bearing the firefly luciferase reporter gene and an envelope expression plasmid. The entry ability of the envelope-pseudotyped viruses into U87. CD4. CCR5 or U87. CD4. CXCR4 cell lines was examined. The ami

  14. Effect of an antiretroviral regimen containing ritonavir boosted lopinavir on intestinal and hepatic CYP3A, CYP2D6 and P-glycoprotein in HIV-infected patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wyen, C.; Fuhr, U.; Frank, D.; Aarnoutse, R.E.; Klaassen, T.; Lazar, A.; Seeringer, A.; Doroshyenko, O.; Kirchheiner, J.C.; Abdulrazik, F.; Schmeisser, N.; Lehmann, C.; Hein, W.; Schomig, E.; Burger, D.M.; Fatkenheuer, G.; Jetter, A.

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to quantify the inhibition of cytochrome P450 (CYP3A), CYP2D6, and P-glycoprotein in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients receiving an antiretroviral therapy (ART) containing ritonavir boosted lopinavir, and to identify factors influencing ritonavir and lopinavir pha

  15. Recent Advances on the Use of Structural Biology for the Design of Novel Envelope Immunogens of HIV-1

    OpenAIRE

    Xiang, Shi-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Many efforts have been made in the worldwide quest for a prophylactic HIV vaccine to end the AIDS pandemic, but none has yet succeeded. The lessons learned have repeatedly informed us that the traditional or conventional approaches directly using the pathogens or subunits will not be sufficient for an effective HIV/AIDS vaccine. Recent advances in structure-based technology have shown some promise in the quest for a better immunogen in HIV vaccine development. According to the basic binding s...

  16. Variations in the Biological Functions of HIV-1 Clade C Envelope in a SHIV-Infected Rhesus Macaque during Disease Progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    For Yue Tso

    Full Text Available A better understanding of how the biological functions of the HIV-1 envelope (Env changes during disease progression may aid the design of an efficacious anti-HIV-1 vaccine. Although studies from patient had provided some insights on this issue, the differences in the study cohorts and methodology had make it difficult to reach a consensus of the variations in the HIV-1 Env functions during disease progression. To this end, an animal model that can be infected under controlled environment and reflect the disease course of HIV-1 infection in human will be beneficial. Such an animal model was previously demonstrated by the infection of macaque with SHIV, expressing HIV-1 clade C Env V1-V5 region. By using this model, we examined the changes in biological functions of Env in the infected animal over the entire disease course. Our data showed an increase in the neutralization resistance phenotype over time and coincided with the decrease in the net charges of the V1-V5 region. Infection of PBMC with provirus expressing various Env clones, isolated from the infected animal over time, showed a surprisingly better replicative fitness for viruses expressing the Env from early time point. Biotinylation and ELISA data also indicated a decrease of cell-surface-associated Env and virion-associated gp120 content with disease progression. This decrease did not affect the CD4-binding capability of Env, but were positively correlated with the decrease of Env fusion ability. Interestingly, some of these changes in biological functions reverted to the pre-AIDS level during advance AIDS. These data suggested a dynamic relationship between the Env V1-V5 region with the host immune pressure. The observed changes of biological functions in this setting might reflect and predict those occurring during natural disease progression in human.

  17. A novel, live-attenuated vesicular stomatitis virus vector displaying conformationally intact, functional HIV-1 envelope trimers that elicits potent cellular and humoral responses in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Rabinovich

    Full Text Available Though vaccination with live-attenuated SIV provides the greatest protection from progressive disease caused by SIV challenge in rhesus macaques, attenuated HIV presents safety concerns as a vaccine; therefore, live viral vectors carrying HIV immunogens must be considered. We have designed a replication-competent vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV displaying immunogenic HIV-1 Env trimers and attenuating quantities of the native surface glycoprotein (G. The clade B Env immunogen is an Env-VSV G hybrid (EnvG in which the transmembrane and cytoplasmic tail regions are derived from G. Relocation of the G gene to the 5'terminus of the genome and insertion of EnvG into the natural G position induced a ∼1 log reduction in surface G, significant growth attenuation compared to wild-type, and incorporation of abundant EnvG. Western blot analysis indicated that ∼75% of incorporated EnvG was a mature proteolytically processed form. Flow cytometry showed that surface EnvG bound various conformationally- and trimer-specific antibodies (Abs, and in-vitro growth assays on CD4+CCR5+ cells demonstrated EnvG functionality. Neither intranasal (IN or intramuscular (IM administration in mice induced any observable pathology and all regimens tested generated potent Env-specific ELISA titers of 10(4-10(5, with an IM VSV prime/IN VSV boost regimen eliciting the highest binding and neutralizing Ab titers. Significant quantities of Env-specific CD4+ T cells were also detected, which were augmented as much as 70-fold by priming with IM electroporated plasmids encoding EnvG and IL-12. These data suggest that our novel vector can achieve balanced safety and immunogenicity and should be considered as an HIV vaccine platform.

  18. Down-regulation of cell surface CXCR4 by HIV-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vigh Sandor

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4, a member of the G-protein-coupled chemokine receptor family, can serve as a co-receptor along with CD4 for entry into the cell of T-cell tropic X4 human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 strains. Productive infection of T-lymphoblastoid cells by X4 HIV-1 markedly reduces cell-surface expression of CD4, but whether or not the co-receptor CXCR4 is down-regulated has not been conclusively determined. Results Infection of human T-lymphoblastoid cell line RH9 with HIV-1 resulted in down-regulation of cell surface CXCR4 expression. Down-regulation of surface CXCR4 correlated temporally with the increase in HIV-1 protein expression. CXCR4 was concentrated in intracellular compartments in H9 cells after HIV-1 infection. Immunofluorescence microscopy studies showed that CXCR4 and HIV-1 glycoproteins were co-localized in HIV infected cells. Inducible expression of HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins also resulted in down-regulation of CXCR4 from the cell surface. Conclusion These results indicated that cell surface CXCR4 was reduced in HIV-1 infected cells, whereas expression of another membrane antigen, CD3, was unaffected. CXCR4 down-regulation may be due to intracellular sequestering of HIV glycoprotein/CXCR4 complexes.

  19. Antibody-mediated protection against mucosal simian-human immunodeficiency virus challenge of macaques immunized with alphavirus replicon particles and boosted with trimeric envelope glycoprotein in MF59 adjuvant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Susan W; Burke, Brian; Sun, Yide; Kan, Elaine; Legg, Harold; Lian, Ying; Bost, Kristen; Zhou, Fengmin; Goodsell, Amanda; Zur Megede, Jan; Polo, John; Donnelly, John; Ulmer, Jeffrey; Otten, Gillis R; Miller, Christopher J; Vajdy, Michael; Srivastava, Indresh K

    2010-06-01

    We have previously shown that rhesus macaques were partially protected against high-dose intravenous challenge with simian-human immunodeficiency virus SHIV(SF162P4) following sequential immunization with alphavirus replicon particles (VRP) of a chimeric recombinant VEE/SIN alphavirus (derived from Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus [VEE] and the Sindbis virus [SIN]) encoding human immunodeficiency virus type 1 HIV-1(SF162) gp140DeltaV2 envelope (Env) and trimeric Env protein in MF59 adjuvant (R. Xu, I. K. Srivastava, C. E. Greer, I. Zarkikh, Z. Kraft, L. Kuller, J. M. Polo, S. W. Barnett, and L. Stamatatos, AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses 22:1022-1030, 2006). The protection did not require T-cell immune responses directed toward simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) Gag. We extend those findings here to demonstrate antibody-mediated protection against mucosal challenge in macaques using prime-boost regimens incorporating both intramuscular and mucosal routes of delivery. The macaques in the vaccination groups were primed with VRP and then boosted with Env protein in MF59 adjuvant, or they were given VRP intramuscular immunizations alone and then challenged with SHIV(SF162P4) (intrarectal challenge). The results demonstrated that these vaccines were able to effectively protect the macaques to different degrees against subsequent mucosal SHIV challenge, but most noteworthy, all macaques that received the intramuscular VRP prime plus Env protein boost were completely protected. A statistically significant association was observed between the titer of virus neutralizing and binding antibodies as well as the avidity of anti-Env antibodies measured prechallenge and protection from infection. These results highlight the merit of the alphavirus replicon vector prime plus Env protein boost vaccine approach for the induction of protective antibody responses and are of particular relevance to advancing our understanding of the potential correlates of immune protection against

  20. Chemokine co-receptor CCR5/CXCR4-dependent modulation of Kv2.1 channel confers acute neuroprotection to HIV-1 glycoprotein gp120 exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Shepherd

    Full Text Available Infection with human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1 within the brain has long been known to be associated with neurodegeneration and neurocognitive disorder (referred as HAND, a condition characterized in its early stages by declining cognitive function and behavioral disturbances. Mechanistically, the HIV-1 coat glycoprotein 120 (gp120 has been suggested to be a critical factor inducing apoptotic cell death in neurons via the activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK, upon chronic exposure to the virus. Here we show that acute exposure of neurons to HIV-1 gp120 elicits a homeostatic response, which provides protection against non-apoptotic cell death, involving the major somatodendritic voltage-gated K⁺ (Kv channel Kv2.1 as the key mediator. The Kv2.1 channel has recently been shown to provide homeostatic control of neuronal excitability under conditions of seizures, ischemia and neuromodulation/neuroinflammation. Following acute exposure to gp120, cultured rat hippocampal neurons show rapid dephosphorylation of the Kv2.1 protein, which ultimately leads to changes in specific sub-cellular localization and voltage-dependent channel activation properties of Kv2.1. Such modifications in Kv2.1 are dependent on the activation of the chemokine co-receptors CCR5 and CXCR4, and subsequent activation of the protein phosphatase calcineurin. This leads to the overall suppression of neuronal excitability and provides neurons with a homeostatic protective mechanism. Specific blockade of calcineurin and Kv2.1 channel activity led to significant enhancement of non-apoptotic neuronal death upon acute gp120 treatment. These observations shed new light on the intrinsic homeostatic mechanisms of neuronal resilience during the acute stages of neuro-HIV infections.

  1. Chemokine co-receptor CCR5/CXCR4-dependent modulation of Kv2.1 channel confers acute neuroprotection to HIV-1 glycoprotein gp120 exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Andrew J; Loo, Lipin; Mohapatra, Durga P

    2013-01-01

    Infection with human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) within the brain has long been known to be associated with neurodegeneration and neurocognitive disorder (referred as HAND), a condition characterized in its early stages by declining cognitive function and behavioral disturbances. Mechanistically, the HIV-1 coat glycoprotein 120 (gp120) has been suggested to be a critical factor inducing apoptotic cell death in neurons via the activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), upon chronic exposure to the virus. Here we show that acute exposure of neurons to HIV-1 gp120 elicits a homeostatic response, which provides protection against non-apoptotic cell death, involving the major somatodendritic voltage-gated K⁺ (Kv) channel Kv2.1 as the key mediator. The Kv2.1 channel has recently been shown to provide homeostatic control of neuronal excitability under conditions of seizures, ischemia and neuromodulation/neuroinflammation. Following acute exposure to gp120, cultured rat hippocampal neurons show rapid dephosphorylation of the Kv2.1 protein, which ultimately leads to changes in specific sub-cellular localization and voltage-dependent channel activation properties of Kv2.1. Such modifications in Kv2.1 are dependent on the activation of the chemokine co-receptors CCR5 and CXCR4, and subsequent activation of the protein phosphatase calcineurin. This leads to the overall suppression of neuronal excitability and provides neurons with a homeostatic protective mechanism. Specific blockade of calcineurin and Kv2.1 channel activity led to significant enhancement of non-apoptotic neuronal death upon acute gp120 treatment. These observations shed new light on the intrinsic homeostatic mechanisms of neuronal resilience during the acute stages of neuro-HIV infections.

  2. Host and Viral Factors in HIV-Mediated Bystander Apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Himanshu; Joshi, Anjali

    2017-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections lead to a progressive loss of CD4 T cells primarily via the process of apoptosis. With a limited number of infected cells and vastly disproportionate apoptosis in HIV infected patients, it is believed that apoptosis of uninfected bystander cells plays a significant role in this process. Disease progression in HIV infected individuals is highly variable suggesting that both host and viral factors may influence HIV mediated apoptosis. Amongst the viral factors, the role of Envelope (Env) glycoprotein in bystander apoptosis is well documented. Recent evidence on the variability in apoptosis induction by primary patient derived Envs underscores the role of Env glycoprotein in HIV disease. Amongst the host factors, the role of C-C Chemokine Receptor type 5 (CCR5), a coreceptor for HIV Env, is also becoming increasingly evident. Polymorphisms in the CCR5 gene and promoter affect CCR5 cell surface expression and correlate with both apoptosis and CD4 loss. Finally, chronic immune activation in HIV infections induces multiple defects in the immune system and has recently been shown to accelerate HIV Env mediated CD4 apoptosis. Consequently, those factors that affect CCR5 expression and/or immune activation in turn indirectly regulate HIV mediated apoptosis making this phenomenon both complex and multifactorial. This review explores the complex role of various host and viral factors in determining HIV mediated bystander apoptosis. PMID:28829402

  3. Postnatally-transmitted HIV-1 Envelope variants have similar neutralization-sensitivity and function to that of nontransmitted breast milk variants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fouda Genevieve G

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breastfeeding is a leading cause of infant HIV-1 infection in the developing world, yet only a minority of infants exposed to HIV-1 via breastfeeding become infected. As a genetic bottleneck severely restricts the number of postnatally-transmitted variants, genetic or phenotypic properties of the virus Envelope (Env could be important for the establishment of infant infection. We examined the efficiency of virologic functions required for initiation of infection in the gastrointestinal tract and the neutralization sensitivity of HIV-1 Env variants isolated from milk of three postnatally-transmitting mothers (n=13 viruses, five clinically-matched nontransmitting mothers (n=16 viruses, and seven postnatally-infected infants (n = 7 postnatally-transmitted/founder (T/F viruses. Results There was no difference in the efficiency of epithelial cell interactions between Env virus variants from the breast milk of transmitting and nontransmitting mothers. Moreover, there was similar efficiency of DC-mediated trans-infection, CCR5-usage, target cell fusion, and infectivity between HIV-1 Env-pseudoviruses from nontransmitting mothers and postnatal T/F viruses. Milk Env-pseudoviruses were generally sensitive to neutralization by autologous maternal plasma and resistant to breast milk neutralization. Infant T/F Env-pseudoviruses were equally sensitive to neutralization by broadly-neutralizing monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies as compared to nontransmitted breast milk Env variants. Conclusion Postnatally-T/F Env variants do not appear to possess a superior ability to interact with and cross a mucosal barrier or an exceptional resistance to neutralization that define their capability to initiate infection across the infant gastrointestinal tract in the setting of preexisting maternal antibodies.

  4. Multimeric scaffolds displaying the HIV-1 envelope MPER induce MPER-specific antibodies and cross-neutralizing antibodies when co-immunized with gp160 DNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelly J Krebs

    Full Text Available Developing a vaccine that overcomes the diversity of HIV-1 is likely to require a strategy that directs antibody (Ab responses toward conserved regions of the viral Envelope (Env. However, the generation of neutralizing Abs (NAbs targeting these regions through vaccination has proven to be difficult. One conserved region of particular interest is the membrane proximal external region (MPER of Env located within the gp41 ectodomain. In order to direct the immune response to this region, the MPER and gp41 ectodomain were expressed separately as N-terminal fusions to the E2 protein of Geobacillus stearothermophilus. The E2 protein acts as a scaffold by self-assembling into 60-mer particles, displaying up to 60 copies of the fused target on the surface. Rabbits were immunized with E2 particles displaying MPER and/or the gp41 ectodomain in conjunction with DNA encoding full-length gp160. Only vaccines including E2 particles displaying MPER elicited MPER-specific Ab responses. NAbs were elicited after two immunizations that largely targeted the V3 loop. To overcome V3 immunodominance in the DNA component, E2 particles displaying MPER were used in conjunction with gp160 DNA lacking hypervariable regions V2, V3, or combined V1V2V3. All rabbits had HIV binding Ab responses and NAbs following the second vaccination. Using HIV-2/HIV-1 MPER chimeric viruses as targets, NAbs were detected in 12/16 rabbits after three immunizations. Low levels of NAbs specific for Tier 1 and 2 viruses were observed in all groups. This study provides evidence that co-immunizing E2 particles displaying MPER and gp160 DNA can focus Ab responses toward conserved regions of Env.

  5. New connections: Cell to cell HIV-1 transmission, resistance to broadly neutralizing antibodies, and an envelope sorting motif.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S Abigail; Derdeyn, Cynthia A

    2017-03-01

    HIV-1 infection from cell to cell may provide an efficient mode of viral spread in vivo and could therefore present a significant challenge for preventative or therapeutic strategies based on broadly neutralizing antibodies. Indeed, Li et al show that the potency and magnitude of multiple HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibody classes are decreased during cell to cell infection in a context dependent manner. A functional motif in gp41 appears to contribute to this differential susceptibility by modulating exposure of neutralization epitopes.

  6. QUASI analysis of the HIV-1 envelope sequences in the Los Alamos National Laboratory HIV sequence database: pattern and distribution of positive selection sites and their frequencies over years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Binhua; Luo, Ma; Ball, T Blake; Plummer, Francis A

    2007-04-01

    The envelope (env) protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) plays a crucial role in virus entry and is a central target for HIV vaccine design. Using the QUASI program, we analyzed the conserved regions of all currently available env sequences in the Los Alamos National Laboratory HIV Sequence Database and identified positive selection (PS) sites that are likely to be restricted by host immune responses. We found that PS sites are dispersed across conserved regions of env sequence, and that the C3, C4, and C5 regions were the most targeted. Several regions were identified as being PS free and were mainly distributed in the C1 and C2 regions. When comparing individual QUASI PS site frequencies across clades and geographical regions with the overall frequency of the entire env database, the env sequences from North America showed significantly lower PS site frequency, while those from Asia were significantly higher using Student's t test. The QUASI PS site frequency of env proteins from viruses isolated from different years showed that the PS site frequencies of the env population increased over time. Our study provides an overview of PS sites across the conserved regions of HIV-1 env sequences.

  7. Increased, Durable B-Cell and ADCC Responses Associated with T-Helper Cell Responses to HIV-1 Envelope in Macaques Vaccinated with gp140 Occluded at the CD4 Receptor Binding Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogers, Willy M J M; Barnett, Susan W; Oostermeijer, Herman; Nieuwenhuis, Ivonne G; Beenhakker, Niels; Mortier, Daniella; Mooij, Petra; Koopman, Gerrit; Remarque, Edmund; Martin, Gregoire; Lai, Rachel Pei-Jen; Dey, Antu K; Sun, Yide; Burke, Brian; Ferrari, Guido; Montefiori, David; Martin, Loic; Davis, David; Srivastava, Indresh; Heeney, Jonathan L

    2017-10-01

    Strategies are needed to improve the immunogenicity of HIV-1 envelope (Env) antigens (Ag) for more long-lived, efficacious HIV-1 vaccine-induced B-cell responses. HIV-1 Env gp140 (native or uncleaved molecules) or gp120 monomeric proteins elicit relatively poor B-cell responses which are short-lived. We hypothesized that Env engagement of the CD4 receptor on T-helper cells results in anergic effects on T-cell recruitment and consequently a lack of strong, robust, and durable B-memory responses. To test this hypothesis, we occluded the CD4 binding site (CD4bs) of gp140 by stable cross-linking with a 3-kDa CD4 miniprotein mimetic, serving to block ligation of gp140 on CD4(+) T cells while preserving CD4-inducible (CDi) neutralizing epitopes targeted by antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) effector responses. Importantly, immunization of rhesus macaques consistently gave superior B-cell (P T-helper enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISpot) assays of the CD4bs-occluded group increased earlier (P = 0.025) during the inductive phase. Importantly, CD4bs-occluded gp140 antigen induced superior B-cell and ADCC responses, and the elevated B-cell responses proved to be remarkably durable, lasting more than 60 weeks postimmunization.IMPORTANCE Attempts to develop HIV vaccines capable of inducing potent and durable B-cell responses have been unsuccessful until now. Antigen-specific B-cell development and affinity maturation occurs in germinal centers in lymphoid follicles through a critical interaction between B cells and T follicular helper cells. The HIV envelope binds the CD4 receptor on T cells as soluble shed antigen or as antigen-antibody complexes, causing impairment in the activation of these specialized CD4-positive T cells. We proposed that CD4-binding impairment is partly responsible for the relatively poor B-cell responses to HIV envelope-based vaccines. To test this hypothesis, we blocked the CD4 binding site of the envelope antigen and compared it to

  8. CCR5 knockout prevents neuronal injury and behavioral impairment induced in a transgenic mouse model by a CXCR4-using HIV-1 glycoprotein 120.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maung, Ricky; Hoefer, Melanie M; Sanchez, Ana B; Sejbuk, Natalia E; Medders, Kathryn E; Desai, Maya K; Catalan, Irene C; Dowling, Cari C; de Rozieres, Cyrus M; Garden, Gwenn A; Russo, Rossella; Roberts, Amanda J; Williams, Roy; Kaul, Marcus

    2014-08-15

    The innate immune system has been implicated in several neurodegenerative diseases, including HIV-1-associated dementia. In this study, we show that genetic ablation of CCR5 prevents microglial activation and neuronal damage in a transgenic model of HIV-associated brain injury induced by a CXCR4-using viral envelope gp120. The CCR5 knockout (KO) also rescues spatial learning and memory in gp120-transgenic mice. However, the CCR5KO does not abrogate astrocytosis, indicating it can occur independently from neuronal injury and behavioral impairment. To characterize further the neuroprotective effect of CCR5 deficiency we performed a genome-wide gene expression analysis of brains from HIVgp120tg mice expressing or lacking CCR5 and nontransgenic controls. A comparison with a human brain microarray study reveals that brains of HIVgp120tg mice and HIV patients with neurocognitive impairment share numerous differentially regulated genes. Furthermore, brains of CCR5 wild-type and CCR5KO gp120tg mice express markers of an innate immune response. One of the most significantly upregulated factors is the acute phase protein lipocalin-2 (LCN2). Using cerebrocortical cell cultures, we find that LCN2 is neurotoxic in a CCR5-dependent fashion, whereas inhibition of CCR5 alone is not sufficient to abrogate neurotoxicity of a CXCR4-using gp120. However, the combination of pharmacologic CCR5 blockade and LCN2 protects neurons from toxicity of a CXCR4-using gp120, thus recapitulating the finding in CCR5-deficient gp120tg mouse brain. Our study provides evidence for an indirect pathologic role of CCR5 and a novel protective effect of LCN2 in combination with inhibition of CCR5 in HIV-associated brain injury.

  9. Comparison on virulence and immunogenicity of two recombinant vaccinia vaccines, Tian Tan and Guang9 strains, expressing the HIV-1 envelope gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Rong; Huang, Weijin; Wang, Wenbo; Liu, Qiang; Nie, Jianhui; Meng, Shufang; Yu, Yongxin; Wang, Youchun

    2012-01-01

    The vaccinia virus Guang9 strain (VG9), derived from the vaccinia virus Tian Tan strain (VTT) has been found to be less virulent than VTT. To investigate whether VG9 could be a potential replicating virus vector, the TK genes in VG9 and VTT were replaced with the HIV-1 envelope gene via homologous recombination, resulting in the recombinant viruses, VG9-E and VTT-E. The biology, virulence, humoral and cellular immunological responses of VG9-E and VTT-E were evaluated. Our results indicated no obvious difference in range of host cells and diffusion between two recombinant viruses. Neurovirulence for VG9-E in weanling and suckling mice, and skin virulence in rabbits, were lower than that of VTT-E. The humoral immune responses, including binding antibody and neutralizing antibody responses, induced by VG9-E were not significantly different from those for VTT-E whilst IFN-γ response which represented cellular immune response induced by VG9-E was significantly higher than that did by VTT-E. Our results indicated that VG9-E was less virulent, yet induced higher cellular immune response than VTT-E. Therefore, it could be an ideal replicating vaccinia vector for HIV vaccine research and development.

  10. Structure of a trimeric variant of the Epstein–Barr virus glycoprotein B

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) is a herpesvirus that is associated with development of malignancies of lymphoid tissue. EBV infections are life-long and occur in >90% of the population. Herpesviruses enter host cells in a process that involves fusion of viral and cellular membranes. The fusion apparatus is comprised of envelope glycoprotein B (gB) and a heterodimeric complex made of glycoproteins H and L. Glycoprotein B is the most conserved envelope glycoprotein in human herpesviruses, and the str...

  11. Boosting of HIV protease inhibitors by ritonavir in the intestine: the relative role of cytochrome P450 and P-glycoprotein inhibition based on Caco-2 monolayers versus in situ intestinal perfusion in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmstock, Nico; Annaert, Pieter; Augustijns, Patrick

    2012-08-01

    HIV protease inhibitors are essential components of most recommended treatment regimens for HIV infection. They are always coadministered with ritonavir as a pharmacokinetic booster. Their bioavailability may be impaired because they are substrates of CYP3A4 and several transporters, including P-glycoprotein. The aim of this study was to explore the impact of ritonavir on the intestinal absorption of HIV protease inhibitors in two models: the Caco-2 system and the in situ intestinal perfusion model with mesenteric blood sampling in mice. Using the Caco-2 system, the effect of ritonavir on the permeability of the other HIV protease inhibitors was significant for saquinavir (2-fold increase) and indinavir (3-fold increase), negligible for darunavir and amprenavir, and nonexistent for nelfinavir, lopinavir, tipranavir, and atazanavir. However, performing the in situ intestinal perfusion technique in mice for three selected HIV protease inhibitors showed a significant increase in the intestinal permeability for all: indinavir (3.2-fold), lopinavir (2.3-fold), and darunavir (3-fold). The effect of aminobenzotriazole (a nonspecific cytochrome P450 inhibitor) on lopinavir permeability was comparable with using ritonavir, whereas there was no effect for indinavir and darunavir. We conclude that ritonavir can boost drug absorption by inhibiting P-glycoprotein and/or metabolism, in a compound-specific manner. The results of this study illustrate that a combination of absorption models needs to be considered to elucidate drug-drug interactions at the level of the intestinal mucosa.

  12. HIV-1 exploits CCR5 conformational heterogeneity to escape inhibition by chemokines.

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    International audience; CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) is a receptor for chemokines and the coreceptor for R5 HIV-1 entry into CD4(+) T lymphocytes. Chemokines exert anti-HIV-1 activity in vitro, both by displacing the viral envelope glycoprotein gp120 from binding to CCR5 and by promoting CCR5 endocytosis, suggesting that they play a protective role in HIV infection. However, we showed here that different CCR5 conformations at the cell surface are differentially engaged by chemokines and gp1...

  13. The membrane-spanning domain of gp41 plays a critical role in intracellular trafficking of the HIV envelope protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kondo Naoyuki

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The sequences of membrane-spanning domains (MSDs on the gp41 subunit are highly conserved among many isolates of HIV-1. The GXXXG motif, a potential helix-helix interaction motif, and an arginine residue (rare in hydrophobic MSDs are especially well conserved. These two conserved elements are expected to locate on the opposite sides of the MSD, if the MSD takes a α-helical secondary structure. A scanning alanine-insertion mutagenesis was performed to elucidate the structure-function relationship of gp41 MSD. Results A circular dichroism analysis of a synthetic gp41 MSD peptide determined that the secondary structure of the gp41 MSD was α-helical. We then performed a scanning alanine-insertion mutagenesis of the entire gp41 MSD, progressively shifting the relative positions of MSD segments around the helix axis. Altering the position of Gly694, the last residue of the GXXXG motif, relative to Arg696 (the number indicates the position of the amino acid residues in HXB2 Env around the axis resulted in defective fusion. These mutants showed impaired processing of the gp160 precursor into gp120 and gp41. Furthermore, these Env mutants manifested inefficient intracellular transport in the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi regions. Indeed, a transplantation of the gp41 MSD portion into the transmembrane domain of another membrane protein, Tac, altered its intracellular distribution. Our data suggest that the intact MSD α-helix is critical in the intracellular trafficking of HIV-1 Env. Conclusions The relative position between the highly conserved GXXXG motif and an arginine residue around the gp41 MSD α-helix is critical for intracellular trafficking of HIV-1 Env. The gp41 MSD region not only modulates membrane fusion but also controls biosynthesis of HIV-1 Env.

  14. Stability of Retroviral Vectors Against Ultracentrifugation Is Determined by the Viral Internal Core and Envelope Proteins Used for Pseudotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo-Hyun; Lim, Kwang-Il

    2017-05-31

    Retroviral and lentiviral vectors are mostly pseudotyped and often purified and concentrated via ultracentrifugation. In this study, we quantified and compared the stabilities of retroviral [murine leukemia virus (MLV)-based] and lentiviral [human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1-based] vectors pseudotyped with relatively mechanically stable envelope proteins, vesicular stomatitis virus glycoproteins (VSVGs), and the influenza virus WSN strain envelope proteins against ultracentrifugation. Lentiviral genomic and functional particles were more stable than the corresponding retroviral particles against ultracentrifugation when pseudotyped with VSVGs. However, both retroviral and lentiviral particles were unstable when pseudotyped with the influenza virus WSN strain envelope proteins. Therefore, the stabilities of pseudotyped retroviral and lentiviral vectors against ultracentrifugation process are a function of not only the type of envelope proteins, but also the type of viral internal core (MLV or HIV-1 core). In addition, the fraction of functional viral particles among genomic viral particles greatly varied at times during packaging, depending on the type of envelope proteins used for pseudotyping and the viral internal core.

  15. Building envelope

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gibberd, Jeremy T

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This chapter describes the way building envelopes can contribute to developing green buildings and sets out some objectives that could be aimed for. It also proposes a number of approaches that can be used to help design green building envelopes...

  16. Influence of Alpha-1 Glycoprotein Acid Concentrations and Variants on Atazanavir Pharmacokinetics in HIV-Infected Patients Included in the ANRS 107 Trial▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrail-Tran, A.; Mentré, F.; Cosson, C.; Piketty, C.; Chazallon, C.; Gérard, L.; Girard, P. M.; Taburet, A. M.

    2010-01-01

    Atazanavir is an HIV-1 protease inhibitor with high protein binding in human plasma. The objectives were first to determine the in vitro binding characteristics of atazanavir and second to evaluate whether plasma protein binding to albumin and alpha-1 glycoprotein acid (AAG) influences the pharmacokinetics of atazanavir in HIV-infected patients. For the in vitro study, atazanavir protein binding characteristics were determined in AAG- and albumin-containing purified solutions. Atazanavir was found to bind AAG on a high-affinity saturable site (association constant, 4.61 × 105 liters/mol) and albumin on a low-affinity nonsaturable site. For the in vivo study, blood samples from 51 patients included in trial ANRS 107—Puzzle 2 were drawn prior to drug intake at week 6. For 10 patients included in the pharmacokinetic substudy, five additional blood samples were collected during one dosing interval at week 6. Atazanavir concentrations were assayed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Albumin concentrations, AAG concentrations, and phenotypes were also measured in these patients. Concentrations of atazanavir were modeled using a population approach. A one-compartment model with first-order absorption and elimination best described atazanavir pharmacokinetics. Atazanavir pharmacokinetic parameters and their interindividual variabilities were as follows: absorption rate constant (ka), 0.73 h−1 (139.3%); apparent clearance (CL/F), 13.3 liters/h (26.7%); and apparent volume of distribution (V/F), 79.7 liters (27.0%). Atazanavir CL/F decreased significantly when alanine aminotransferase and/or AAG levels increased (P < 0.01). The ORM1*S phenotype also significantly increased atazanavir V/F (P < 0.05). These in vivo results indicate that atazanavir pharmacokinetics is moderately influenced by its protein binding, especially to AAG, without expected clinical consequences. PMID:19995932

  17. Influence of alpha-1 glycoprotein acid concentrations and variants on atazanavir pharmacokinetics in HIV-infected patients included in the ANRS 107 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrail-Tran, A; Mentré, F; Cosson, C; Piketty, C; Chazallon, C; Gérard, L; Girard, P M; Taburet, A M

    2010-02-01

    Atazanavir is an HIV-1 protease inhibitor with high protein binding in human plasma. The objectives were first to determine the in vitro binding characteristics of atazanavir and second to evaluate whether plasma protein binding to albumin and alpha-1 glycoprotein acid (AAG) influences the pharmacokinetics of atazanavir in HIV-infected patients. For the in vitro study, atazanavir protein binding characteristics were determined in AAG- and albumin-containing purified solutions. Atazanavir was found to bind AAG on a high-affinity saturable site (association constant, 4.61x10(5) liters/mol) and albumin on a low-affinity nonsaturable site. For the in vivo study, blood samples from 51 patients included in trial ANRS 107--Puzzle 2 were drawn prior to drug intake at week 6. For 10 patients included in the pharmacokinetic substudy, five additional blood samples were collected during one dosing interval at week 6. Atazanavir concentrations were assayed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Albumin concentrations, AAG concentrations, and phenotypes were also measured in these patients. Concentrations of atazanavir were modeled using a population approach. A one-compartment model with first-order absorption and elimination best described atazanavir pharmacokinetics. Atazanavir pharmacokinetic parameters and their interindividual variabilities were as follows: absorption rate constant (ka), 0.73 h(-1) (139.3%); apparent clearance (CL/F), 13.3 liters/h (26.7%); and apparent volume of distribution (V/F), 79.7 liters (27.0%). Atazanavir CL/F decreased significantly when alanine aminotransferase and/or AAG levels increased (P<0.01). The ORM1*S phenotype also significantly increased atazanavir V/F (P<0.05). These in vivo results indicate that atazanavir pharmacokinetics is moderately influenced by its protein binding, especially to AAG, without expected clinical consequences.

  18. Natural killer T cell and TLR9 agonists as mucosal adjuvants for sublingual vaccination with clade C HIV-1 envelope protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shailbala; Yang, Guojun; Byrareddy, Siddappa N; Barry, Michael A; Sastry, K Jagannadha

    2014-12-05

    The vast majority of HIV-1 infections occur at mucosa during sexual contact. It may therefore be advantageous to provide mucosal barrier protection against this entry by mucosal vaccination. While a number of mucosal routes of vaccination are possible, many like enteric oral vaccines or intranasal vaccines have significant impediments that limit vaccine efficacy or pose safety risks. In contrast, immunogens applied to the sublingual region of the mouth could provide a simple route for mucosal vaccination. While sublingual immunization is appealing, this site does not always drive strong immune responses, particularly when using protein antigens. To address this issue, we have tested the ability of two mucosal adjuvants: alpha-galactosylceramide (αGalCer) that is a potent stimulator of natural killer T cells and CpG-oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG-ODN) a TLR9 agonist for their ability to amplify immune responses against clade C gp140 HIV-1 envelope protein antigen. Immunization with envelope protein alone resulted in a weak T cell and antibody responses. In contrast, CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells responses in systemic and mucosal tissues were significantly higher in mice immunized with gp140 in the presence of either αGalCer or CpG-ODN and these responses were further augmented when the two adjuvants were used together. While both the adjuvants effectively increased gp140-specific serum IgG and vaginal IgA antibody levels, combining both significantly improved these responses. Memory T cell responses 60 days after immunization revealed αGalCer to be more potent than CpG-ODN and the combination of the αGalCer and CpG-ODN adjuvants was more effective than either alone. Serum and vaginal washes collected 60 days after immunization with gp140 with both αGalCer and CpG-ODN adjuvants had significant neutralization activity against Tier 1 and Tier 2 SHIVs. These data support the utility of the sublingual route for mucosal vaccination particularly in combination with

  19. HIV-1 adaptation to low levels of CCR5 results in V3 and V2 loop changes that increase envelope pathogenicity, CCR5 affinity and decrease susceptibility to Maraviroc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Himanshu; Lee, Raphael T C; Maurer-Stroh, Sebastian; Joshi, Anjali

    2016-06-01

    Variability in CCR5 levels in the human population is suggested to affect virus evolution, fitness and the course of HIV disease. We previously demonstrated that cell surface CCR5 levels directly affect HIV Envelope mediated bystander apoptosis. In this study, we attempted to understand HIV evolution in the presence of low levels of CCR5, mimicking the limiting CCR5 levels inherent to the host. HIV-1 adaptation in a T cell line expressing low levels of CCR5 resulted in two specific mutations; N302Y and E172K. The N302Y mutation led to accelerated virus replication, increase in Maraviroc IC50 and an increase in Envelope mediated bystander apoptosis in low CCR5 expressing cells. Analysis of subtype B sequences showed that N302Y is over-represented in CXCR4 tropic viruses in comparison to CCR5 tropic isolates. Considering the variability in CCR5 levels between individuals, our findings have implications for virus evolution, MVC susceptibility as well as HIV pathogenesis.

  20. The evolution of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) envelope molecular properties and coreceptor use at all stages of infection in an HIV-1 donor-recipient pair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edo-Matas, Diana; Rachinger, Andrea; Setiawan, Laurentia C; Boeser-Nunnink, Brigitte D; van 't Wout, Angélique B; Lemey, Philippe; Schuitemaker, Hanneke

    2012-01-05

    To trace the evolutionary patterns underlying evolution of coreceptor use within a host, we studied an HIV-1 transmission pair involving a donor who exclusively harbored CCR5-using (R5) variants throughout his entire disease course and a recipient who developed CXCR4-using variants. Over time, R5 variants in the donor optimized coreceptor use, which was associated with an increased number of potential N-linked glycosylation sites (PNGS) and elevated V3 charge in the viral envelope. Interestingly, R5 variants that were transmitted to the recipient preserved the viral characteristics of this late stage genotype and phenotype. Following a selective sweep, CXCR4-using variants subsequently emerged in the recipient coinciding with a further increase in the number of PNGS and V3 charge in the envelope of R5 viruses. Although described in a single transmission pair, the transmission and subsequent persistence of R5 variants with late stage characteristics demonstrate the potential for coreceptor use adaptation at the population level. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Role of HIV-1 subtype C envelope V3 to V5 regions in viral entry, coreceptor utilization and replication efficiency in primary T-lymphocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopalan Sarla

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several subtypes of HIV-1 circulate in infected people worldwide, including subtype B in the United States and subtype C in Africa and India. To understand the biological properties of HIV-1 subtype C, including cellular tropism, virus entry, replication efficiency and cytopathic effects, we reciprocally inserted our previously characterized envelope V3–V5 regions derived from 9 subtype C infected patients from India into a subtype B molecular clone, pNL4-3. Equal amounts of the chimeric viruses were used to infect T-lymphocyte cell lines (A3.01 and MT-2, coreceptor cell lines (U373-MAGI-CCR5/CXCR4, primary blood T-lymphocytes (PBL and monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM. Results We found that subtype C envelope V3–V5 region chimeras failed to replicate in T-lymphocyte cell lines but replicated in PBL and MDM. In addition, these chimeras were able to infect U373MAGI-CD4+-CCR5+ but not U373MAGI-CD4+-CXCR4+ cell line, suggesting CCR5 coreceptor utilization and R5 phenotypes. These subtype C chimeras were unable to induce syncytia in MT-2 cells, indicative of non-syncytium inducing (NSI phenotypes. More importantly, the subtype C envelope chimeras replicated at higher levels in PBL and MDM compared with subtype B chimeras and isolates. Furthermore, the higher levels subtype C chimeras replication in PBL and MDM correlated with increased virus entry in U373MAGI-CD4+-CCR5+. Conclusion Taken together, these results suggest that the envelope V3 to V5 regions of subtype C contributed to higher levels of HIV-1 replication compared with subtype B chimeras, which may contribute to higher viral loads and faster disease progression in subtype C infected individuals than other subtypes as well as rapid HIV-1 subtype C spread in India.

  2. 登革2型病毒E基因的表达及应用于血清学检测%Expression on dengue virus type 2 envelope glycoprotein and application of recombinant protein in serologic diagnosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志珊; 严延生; 翁育伟

    2012-01-01

    To obtain dengue virus type 2 envelope glycoprotein used for serologic diagnosis of dengue virus infection, the truncated K protein deleting the carboxy-terminal - 100 aa of dengue virus type 2 was amplified by reverse transcription PCR. The products of PCR were ligated with plasmid pET-30a and transformed into Escherichia coli competent cells BL21 (DE3) to express recombinant protein. The expressed product was purified by electroelution. The purified recombinant protein was applied to test sera from patients infected with dengue virus type 2 by indirect ELISA. The results were compared with those tested by IFA or Panbio Dengue IgG capture ELISA. Results showed that the recombinant plasmid was successfully constructed and expressed in E. Colt. After the recombinant protein was used to detect sera from patients infected with dengue virus type 2, a sensitivity of 95. 6% and a specificity of 96. 8% were obtained by comparing with IFA. Furthermore, the results were in excellent agreement with those obtained by using a commercially available diagnostic kit, Dengue Duo rapid strip test from Panbio (P>0. 05). In conclusion, the truncated E protein of dengue virus type 2 was successfully expressed in E. Coli and the recombinant protein could be applied as antigens for dengue serum detection.%目的 利用大肠杆菌表达登革病毒2型外膜蛋白,获得重组抗原应用于血清学检测.方法 用RT-PCR法扩增登革2型病毒去除C端100个氨基酸的外膜蛋白基因片段,与表达载体pET-30a连接,构建重组表达载体,在大肠杆菌BL21(DE3)中表达,重组蛋白用电洗脱法进行纯化.纯化的重组蛋白用间接ELISA法检测登革2型感染者血清,检测结果 与间接免疫荧光法、澳大利亚Panbio试剂进行比较.结果 重组质粒构建成功,经IPTG诱导后在大肠杆菌中表达重组蛋白.纯化的重组蛋白用于检测登革2型感染者血清,以IFTA作为参照标准,其敏感性为95.6%,特异性为96.8%.

  3. HIV-1 Envelope Proteins and V1/V2 Domain Scaffolds with Mannose-5 to Improve the Magnitude and Quality of Protective Antibody Responses to HIV-1*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Javier F.; Morin, Trevor J.; Yu, Bin; Tatsuno, Gwen P.; O'Rourke, Sara M.; Theolis, Richard; Mesa, Kathryn A.; Berman, Phillip W.

    2014-01-01

    Two lines of investigation have highlighted the importance of antibodies to the V1/V2 domain of gp120 in providing protection from HIV-1 infection. First, the recent RV144 HIV-1 vaccine trial documented a correlation between non-neutralizing antibodies to the V2 domain and protection. Second, multiple broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies to the V1/V2 domain (e.g. PG9) have been isolated from rare infected individuals, termed elite neutralizers. Interestingly, the binding of both types of antibodies appears to depend on the same cluster of amino acids (positions 167–171) adjacent to the junction of the B and C strands of the four-stranded V1/V2 domain β-sheet structure. However, the broadly neutralizing mAb, PG9, additionally depends on mannose-5 glycans at positions 156 and 160 for binding. Because the gp120 vaccine immunogens used in previous HIV-1 vaccine trials were enriched for complex sialic acid-containing glycans, and lacked the high mannose structures required for the binding of PG9-like mAbs, we wondered if these immunogens could be improved by limiting glycosylation to mannose-5 glycans. Here, we describe the PG9 binding activity of monomeric gp120s from multiple strains of HIV-1 produced with mannose-5 glycans. We also describe the properties of glycopeptide scaffolds from the V1/V2 domain also expressed with mannose-5 glycans. The V1/V2 scaffold from the A244 isolate was able to bind the PG9, CH01, and CH03 mAbs with high affinity provided that the proper glycans were present. We further show that immunization with A244 V1/V2 fragments alone, or in a prime/boost regimen with gp120, enhanced the antibody response to sequences in the V1/V2 domain associated with protection in the RV144 trial. PMID:24872420

  4. The HIV glycan shield as a target for broadly neutralizing antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doores, Katie J

    2015-12-01

    The HIV envelope glycoprotein (Env) is the sole target for HIV broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs). HIV Env is one of the most heavily glycosylated proteins known, with approximately half of its mass consisting of host-derived N-linked glycans. The high density of glycans creates a shield that impedes antibody recognition but, critically, some of the most potent and broadly active bnAbs have evolved to recognize epitopes formed by these glycans. Although the virus hijacks the host protein synthesis and glycosylation machinery to generate glycosylated HIV Env, studies have shown that HIV Env glycosylation diverges from that typically observed on host-derived glycoproteins. In particular, the high density of glycans leads to a nonself motif of underprocessed oligomannose-type glycans that forms the target of some of the most broad and potent HIV bnAbs. This review discusses the changing perception of the HIV glycan shield, and summarizes the protein-directed and cell-directed factors controlling HIV Env glycosylation that impact on HIV bnAb recognition and HIV vaccine design strategies.

  5. Characterizing the Anti-HIV Activity of Papuamide A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis R. Barrows

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Papuamide A is representative of a class of marine derived cyclic depsipeptides, reported to have cytoprotective activity against HIV-1 in vitro. We show here that papuamide A acts as an entry inhibitor, preventing human immunodeficiency virus infection of host cells and that this inhibition is not specific to R5 or X4 tropic virus. This inhibition of viral entry was determined to not be due to papuamide A binding to CD4 or HIV gp120, the two proteins involved in the cell-virus recognition and binding. Furthermore, papuamide A was able to inhibit HIV pseudotype viruses expressing envelope glycoproteins from vesicular stomatitis virus or amphotropic murine leukemia virus indicating the mechanism of viral entry inhibition is not HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein specific. Time delayed addition studies with the pseudotyped viruses show that papuamide A inhibits viral infection only at the initial stage of the viral life cycle. Additionally, pretreatment studies revealed that the virus, and not the cell, is the target of papuamide A’s action. Together, these results suggest a direct virucidal mechanism of HIV-1 inhibition by papuamide A. We also demonstrate here that the other papuamides (B-D are able to inhibit viral entry indicating that the free amino moiety of 2,3-diaminobutanoic acid residue is not required for the virucidal activity.

  6. Characterizing the Anti-HIV Activity of Papuamide A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andjelic, Cynthia D; Planelles, Vicente; Barrows, Louis R

    2008-01-01

    Papuamide A is representative of a class of marine derived cyclic depsipeptides, reported to have cytoprotective activity against HIV-1 in vitro. We show here that papuamide A acts as an entry inhibitor, preventing human immunodeficiency virus infection of host cells and that this inhibition is not specific to R5 or X4 tropic virus. This inhibition of viral entry was determined to not be due to papuamide A binding to CD4 or HIV gp120, the two proteins involved in the cell-virus recognition and binding. Furthermore, papuamide A was able to inhibit HIV pseudotype viruses expressing envelope glycoproteins from vesicular stomatitis virus or amphotropic murine leukemia virus indicating the mechanism of viral entry inhibition is not HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein specific. Time delayed addition studies with the pseudotyped viruses show that papuamide A inhibits viral infection only at the initial stage of the viral life cycle. Additionally, pretreatment studies revealed that the virus, and not the cell, is the target of papuamide A’s action. Together, these results suggest a direct virucidal mechanism of HIV-1 inhibition by papuamide A. We also demonstrate here that the other papuamides (B-D) are able to inhibit viral entry indicating that the free amino moiety of 2,3-diaminobutanoic acid residue is not required for the virucidal activity. PMID:19172193

  7. Unique C2V3 sequence in HIV-1 envelope obtained from broadly neutralizing plasma of a slow progressing patient conferred enhanced virus neutralization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Ringe

    Full Text Available Broadly neutralizing antibodies to HIV-1 usually develops in chronic infections. Here, we examined the basis of enhanced sensitivity of an env clone amplified from cross neutralizing plasma of an antiretroviral naïve chronically infected Indian patient (ID50 >600-fold higher compared to other autologous env clones. The enhanced autologous neutralization of pseudotyped viruses expressing the sensitive envelope (Env was associated with increased sensitivity to reagents and monoclonal antibodies targeting distinct sites in Env. Chimeric viruses constructed by swapping fragments of sensitive Env into resistant Env backbone revealed that the presence of unique residues within C2V3 region of gp120 governed increased neutralization. The enhanced virus neutralization was also associated with low CD4 dependence as well as increased binding of Env trimers to IgG1b12 and CD4-IgG2 and was independent of gp120 shedding. Our data highlighted vulnerabilities in the Env obtained from cross neutralizing plasma associated with the exposure of discontinuous neutralizing epitopes and enhanced autologous neutralization. Such information may aid in Env-based vaccine immunogen design.

  8. Flow cytometry analysis of cell population dynamics and cell cycle during HIV-1 envelope-mediated formation of syncytia in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Castro, Israel; Cortés-Rubio, César N; Sandoval, Guadalupe; Lamoyi, Edmundo; Larralde, Carlos; Huerta, Leonor

    2014-01-01

    Cell fusion occurs in physiological and pathological conditions and plays a role in regulation of cell fate. The analysis of cell population dynamics and cell cycle in cell-cell fusion experiments is necessary to determine changes in the quantitative equilibrium of cell populations and to identify potential bystander effects. Here, using cocultures of Jurkat HIV-1 envelope expressing cells and CD4(+) cells as a model system and flow cytometry for the analysis, the number, viability, and cell cycle status of the populations participating in fusion were determined. In 3-day cocultures, a sustained reduction of the number of CD4(+) cells was observed while they showed high viability and normal cell cycle progression; fusion, but not inhibition of proliferation or death, accounted for their decrease. In contrast, the number of Env(+) cells decreased in cocultures due to fusion, death, and an inherent arrest at G1. Most of syncytia formed in the first 6 h of coculture showed DNA synthesis activity, indicating that the efficient recruitment of proliferating cells contributed to amplify the removal of CD4(+) cells by syncytia formation. Late in cocultures, approximately 50% of syncytia were viable and a subpopulation still underwent DNA synthesis, even when the recruitment of additional cells was prevented by the addition of the fusion inhibitor T-20, indicating that a population of syncytia may progress into the cell cycle. These results show that the quantitative analysis of cellular outcomes of cell-cell fusion can be performed by flow cytometry.

  9. Drogas anti-VIH: passado, presente e perspectivas futuras Drugs anti-HIV: past, present and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Vinícius Nora de Souza

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Currently available anti-HIV drugs can be classified into three categories: nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs and protease inhibitors (PIs. In addition to the reverse transcriptase (RT and protease reaction, various other events in the HIV replicative cycle can be considered as potential targets for chemotherapeutic intervention: (1 viral adsorption, through binding to the viral envelope glycoprotein gp120; (2 viral entry, through blockage of the viral coreceptors CXCR4 and CCR5; (3 virus-cell fusion, through binding to the viral envelope glycoprotein gp 41; (4 viral assembly and disassembly through NCp7 zinc finger-targeted agents; (5 proviral DNA integration, through integrase inhibitors and (6 viral mRNA transcription, through inhibitors of the transcription (transactivation process. Also, various new NRTIs, NNRTIs and PIs have been developed, possessing different improved characteristics.

  10. HIV-1 gp41 Fusion Intermediate: A Target for HIV Therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chungen Pan

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 infection is initiated by the binding of gp120 envelope glyco-protein to its cell receptor (CD4 and a coreceptor (CXCR4 or CCR5, followed by a series of conformational changes in the gp41 transmembrane subunit. These changes include insertion of fusion peptide into the target cell membrane and association of C-heptad repeat (CHR peptide with the N-heptad repeat (NHR trimer, a pre-hairpin fusion intermediate. A stable six-helix bundle core is then formed, bringing the viral envelope and target cell membrane into close proximity for fusion. Peptides derived from the CHR region, such as T20 and C34, inhibit HIV-1 fusion by interacting with the gp41 fusion intermediate. A number of anti-HIV-1 peptides and small molecule compounds targeting the gp41 NHR-trimer have been identified. By combining HIV fusion/entry inhibitors targeting different sites in the gp41 fusion intermediate, a potent synergistic effect takes place, resulting in a potential new therapeutic strategy for the HIV infection/AIDS. Here, we present an overview of the current development of anti-HIV drugs, particularly those targeting the gp41 fusion intermediate.

  11. Glycoprotein synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, Peter G. (La Jolla, CA); Wang, Lei (San Diego, CA); Zhang, Zhiwen (San Diego, CA)

    2010-11-16

    Methods for making glycoproteins, both in vitro and in vivo, are provided. One method involves incorporating an unnatural amino acid into a protein and attaching one or more saccharide moieties to the unnatural amino acid. Another method involves incorporating an unnatural amino acid that includes a saccharide moiety into a protein. Proteins made by both methods can be further modified with additional sugars.

  12. Glycoprotein synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, Peter G. (La Jolla, CA); Wang, Lei (San Diego, CA); Zhang, Zhiwen (San Diego, CA)

    2010-11-02

    Methods for making glycoproteins, both in vitro and in vivo, are provided. One method involves incorporating an unnatural amino acid into a protein and attaching one or more saccharide moieties to the unnatural amino acid. Another method involves incorporating an unnatural amino acid that includes a saccharide moiety into a protein. Proteins made by both methods can be further modified with additional sugars.

  13. Glycoprotein synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Methods for making glycoproteins, both in vitro and in vivo, are provided. One method involves incorporating an unnatural amino acid into a protein and attaching one or more saccharide moieties to the unnatural amino acid. Another method involves incorporating an unnatural amino acid that includes a saccharide moiety into a protein. Proteins made by both methods can be further modified with additional sugars.

    2009-07-14

    Methods for making glycoproteins, both in vitro and in vivo, are provided. One method involves incorporating an unnatural amino acid into a protein and attaching one or more saccharide moieties to the unnatural amino acid. Another method involves incorporating an unnatural amino acid that includes a saccharide moiety into a protein. Proteins made by both methods can be further modified with additional sugars.

  14. Is an HIV vaccine possible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy A. Wilson

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The road to the discovery of a vaccine for HIV has been arduous and will continue to be difficult over the ensuing twenty years. Most vaccines are developed by inducing neutralizing antibodies against the target pathogen or by using attenuated strains of the particular pathogen to engender a variety of protective immune responses. Unfortunately, simple methods of generating anti-HIV antibodies have already failed in a phase III clinical trial. While attenuated SIV variants work well against homologous challenges in non-human primates, the potential for reversion to a more pathogenic virus and recombination with challenge viruses will preclude the use of attenuated HIV in the field. It has been exceedingly frustrating to vaccinate for HIV-specific neutralizing antibodies given the enormous diversity of the Envelope (Env glycoprotein and its well-developed glycan shield. However, there are several antibodies that will neutralize many different strains of HIV and inducing these types of antibodies in vaccinees remains the goal of a vigorous effort to develop a vaccine for HIV based on neutralizing antibodies. Given the difficulty in generating broadly reactive neutralizing antibodies, the HIV vaccine field has turned its attention to inducing T cell responses against the virus using a variety of vectors. Unfortunately, the results from Merck's phase IIb STEP trial proved to be disappointing. Vaccinees received Adenovirus type 5 (Ad5 expressing Gag, Pol, and Nef of HIV. This vaccine regimen failed to either prevent infection or reduce the level of HIV replication after challenge. These results mirrored those in non-human primate testing of Ad5 using rigorous SIV challenge models. This review will focus on recent developments in HIV vaccine development. We will deal largely with attempts to develop a T cell-based vaccine using the non-human primate SIV challenge model.

  15. Is an HIV vaccine possible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy A. Wilson

    Full Text Available The road to the discovery of a vaccine for HIV has been arduous and will continue to be difficult over the ensuing twenty years. Most vaccines are developed by inducing neutralizing antibodies against the target pathogen or by using attenuated strains of the particular pathogen to engender a variety of protective immune responses. Unfortunately, simple methods of generating anti-HIV antibodies have already failed in a phase III clinical trial. While attenuated SIV variants work well against homologous challenges in non-human primates, the potential for reversion to a more pathogenic virus and recombination with challenge viruses will preclude the use of attenuated HIV in the field. It has been exceedingly frustrating to vaccinate for HIV-specific neutralizing antibodies given the enormous diversity of the Envelope (Env glycoprotein and its well-developed glycan shield. However, there are several antibodies that will neutralize many different strains of HIV and inducing these types of antibodies in vaccinees remains the goal of a vigorous effort to develop a vaccine for HIV based on neutralizing antibodies. Given the difficulty in generating broadly reactive neutralizing antibodies, the HIV vaccine field has turned its attention to inducing T cell responses against the virus using a variety of vectors. Unfortunately, the results from Merck's phase IIb STEP trial proved to be disappointing. Vaccinees received Adenovirus type 5 (Ad5 expressing Gag, Pol, and Nef of HIV. This vaccine regimen failed to either prevent infection or reduce the level of HIV replication after challenge. These results mirrored those in non-human primate testing of Ad5 using rigorous SIV challenge models. This review will focus on recent developments in HIV vaccine development. We will deal largely with attempts to develop a T cell-based vaccine using the non-human primate SIV challenge model.

  16. Longitudinal Analysis of CCR5 and CXCR4 Usage in a Cohort of Antiretroviral Therapy-Naïve Subjects with Progressive HIV-1 Subtype C Infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Martin Roelsgaard; Cashin, Kieran; Roche, Michael;

    2013-01-01

    -HIV infection. Nor do we completely understand the molecular determinants of coreceptor switching by C-HIV variants. Here, we characterized a panel of HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins (Envs) (n = 300) cloned sequentially from plasma of 21 antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naïve subjects who experienced progression from...... and replacement of the V3 "Gly-Pro-Gly" crown with a "Gly-Arg-Gly" motif, but that the accumulation of additional gp120 "scaffold" mutations was required for these V3 loop changes to confer functional effects. In this context, either of the V3 loop changes could confer possible transitional R5X4 phenotypes...

  17. X-ray, Cryo-EM, and computationally predicted protein structures used in integrative modeling of HIV Env glycoprotein gp120 in complex with CD4 and 17b

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhibur Rasheed

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We present the data used for an integrative approach to computational modeling of proteins with large variable domains, specifically applied in this context to model HIV Env glycoprotein gp120 in its CD4 and 17b bound state. The initial data involved X-ray structure PDBID:1GC1 and electron microscopy image EMD:5020. Other existing X-ray structures were used as controls to validate and hierarchically refine partial and complete computational models. A summary of the experiment protocol and data was published (Rasheed et al., 2015 [26], along with detailed analysis of the final model (PDBID:3J70 and its implications.

  18. 不孕女性中人巨细胞病毒包膜糖蛋白B基因的分型%Genotypes of human cytomegalovirus envelope glycoprotein B gene in infertile women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑静; 卓越; 李彩玉; 孙大康; 胡凤爱; 倪娜

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨不孕女性中人巨细胞病毒(HCMV)感染流行株的包膜糖蛋白B(gB)基因型分布及其与不孕的相关性.方法:采用酶联免疫吸附试验(ELISA)检测300例女性不孕患者血清中HCMV-IgM抗体,ELISA阳性的患者采集晨尿接种于人胚肺成纤维细胞(HELF),提取细胞病变(CPE)阳性培养液中的病毒DNA,以巢式PCR (nest PCR)法扩增HCMVgB基因,利用限制性核酸内切酶HinfI、RsaI对HCMV gB基因进行限制性片段长度多态性(RFLP)分析判断基因型别;随机抽取11例送检测序,测序结果使用Clustal X软件与GenBank标准病毒株进行序列比对,用MEGA4.1构建核苷酸序列的基因树.结果:300例女性不孕患者中HCMV-IgM抗体阳性45例,阳性率为15.0%.45例患者晨尿接种HELF细胞,观察1月后检测到的病毒阳性37例,阳性率为12.3%.37例病毒阳性患者中最常见的基因型为gB 1型25例(67.6%),其次为gB 3型7例(18.9%)和gB 2型5例(13.5%),没有检测到gB4基因型.测序结果与GenBank标准病毒株HCMVADl69和Towne进行序列比对后,用MEGA4.1成功构建基因树.结论:女性不孕症的发生与HCMV感染有明显相关性,HCMV感染导致的不孕中最常见的gB基因型为gB 1型,其次是gB 3、gB 2型,未检测到gB 4型.%Objective: To explore the distribution of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) envelope glycoprotein B (gB) genotypes in infertile human and its correlation with infertility. Methods: ELISA was used to detect HCMV - IgM antibody in serum samples of 300 infertile women, the morning urine samples of ELISA positive patients were obtained to inoculate human embryonic lung fibroblasts (HELF) , HCMV DNA was abstracted from cytopathic positive culture solution, nest PCR was used to amplify HCMV gB gene, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) was performed by restriction endonucleases Hinf I and Rsa 1 to analyze and determine genotypes; 11 cases were randomly selected to conduct gene sequencing, then the

  19. The Envelope Cytoplasmic Tail of HIV-1 Subtype C Contributes to Poor Replication Capacity through Low Viral Infectivity and Cell-to-Cell Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaire, Morgane; Masquelier, Cécile; Beraud, Cyprien; Rybicki, Arkadiusz; Servais, Jean-Yves; Iserentant, Gilles; Schmit, Jean-Claude; Seguin-Devaux, Carole; Perez Bercoff, Danielle

    2016-01-01

    The cytoplasmic tail (gp41CT) of the HIV-1 envelope (Env) mediates Env incorporation into virions and regulates Env intracellular trafficking. Little is known about the functional impact of variability in this domain. To address this issue, we compared the replication of recombinant virus pairs carrying the full Env (Env viruses) or the Env ectodomain fused to the gp41CT of NL4.3 (EnvEC viruses) (12 subtype C and 10 subtype B pairs) in primary CD4+ T-cells and monocyte-derived-macrophages (MDMs). In CD4+ T-cells, replication was as follows: B-EnvEC = B-Env>C-EnvEC>C-Env, indicating that the gp41CT of subtype C contributes to the low replicative capacity of this subtype. In MDMs, in contrast, replication capacity was comparable for all viruses regardless of subtype and of gp41CT. In CD4+ T-cells, viral entry, viral release and viral gene expression were similar. However, infectivity of free virions and cell-to-cell transmission of C-Env viruses released by CD4+ T-cells was lower, suggestive of lower Env incorporation into virions. Subtype C matrix only minimally rescued viral replication and failed to restore infectivity of free viruses and cell-to-cell transmission. Taken together, these results show that polymorphisms in the gp41CT contribute to viral replication capacity and suggest that the number of Env spikes per virion may vary across subtypes. These findings should be taken into consideration in the design of vaccines. PMID:27598717

  20. HIV-1 envelope gp41 peptides promote migration of human Fc epsilon RI+ cells and inhibit IL-13 synthesis through interaction with formyl peptide receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paulis, Amato; Florio, Giovanni; Prevete, Nella; Triggiani, Massimo; Fiorentino, Isabella; Genovese, Arturo; Marone, Gianni

    2002-10-15

    We evaluated the effects of synthetic peptides (2017, 2019, 2020, 2021, 2023, 2027, 2029, 2030, 2031, and 2035) encompassing the structure of HIV-1(MN) envelope gp41 on both chemotaxis of human basophils and the release of preformed mediators (histamine) and of cytokines (IL-13). Peptides 2019 and 2021 were potent basophil chemoattractants, whereas the other peptides examined were ineffective. Preincubation of basophils with FMLP or gp41 2019 resulted in complete desensitization to a subsequent challenge with homologous stimulus. Incubation of basophils with low concentration (5 x 10(-7) M) of FMLP, which binds with high affinity to N-formyl peptide receptor (FPR), but not to FPR-like 1, did not affect the chemotactic response to a heterologous stimulus (gp41 2019). In contrast, a high concentration (10(-4) M) of FMLP, which binds also to FPR-like 1, significantly reduced the chemotactic response to gp41 2019. The FPR antagonist cyclosporin H inhibited chemotaxis induced by FMLP, but not by gp41 2019. None of these peptides singly induced the release of histamine or cytokines (IL-4 and IL-13) from basophils. However, low concentrations of peptides 2019 and 2021 (10(-8)-10(-6) M) inhibited histamine release from basophils challenged with FMLP but not the secretion caused by anti-IgE and gp120. Preincubation of basophils with peptides 2019 and 2021 inhibited the expression of both IL-13 mRNA, and the FMLP-induced release of IL-13 from basophils. These data highlight the complexity of the interactions between viral and bacterial peptides with FPR subtypes on human basophils.

  1. Conformational alterations in the CD4 binding cavity of HIV-1 gp120 influencing gp120-CD4 interactions and fusogenicity of HIV-1 envelopes derived from brain and other tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramsland Paul A

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CD4-binding site (CD4bs alterations in gp120 contribute to HIV-1 envelope (Env mediated fusogenicity and the ability of gp120 to utilize low levels of cell-surface CD4. In a recent study, we constructed three-dimensional models of gp120 to illustrate CD4bs conformations associated with enhanced fusogenicity and enhanced CD4-usage of a modestly-sized panel of blood-derived HIV-1 Envs (n = 16. These conformations were characterized by a wider aperture of the CD4bs cavity, as constrained by the inner-most atoms at the gp120 V1V2 stem and the V5 loop. Here, we sought to provide further validation of the utility of these models for understanding mechanisms that influence Env function, by characterizing the structure-function relationships of a larger panel of Envs derived from brain and other tissues (n = 81. Findings Three-dimensional models of gp120 were generated by our recently validated homology modelling protocol. Analysis of predicted CD4bs structures showed correlations between the aperture width of the CD4bs cavity and ability of the Envs to mediate cell-cell fusion, scavenge low-levels of cell-surface CD4, bind directly to soluble CD4, and bind to the Env mAb IgG1b12 whose epitope overlaps the gp120 CD4bs. These structural alterations in the CD4bs cavity were associated with repositioning of the V5 loop. Conclusions Using a large, independent panel of Envs, we can confirm the utility of three-dimensional gp120 structural models for illustrating CD4bs alterations that can affect Env function. Furthermore, we now provide new evidence that these CD4bs alterations augment the ability of gp120 to interact with CD4 by increasing the exposure of the CD4bs.

  2. Antibodies specific for hypervariable regions 3 to 5 of the feline immunodeficiency virus envelope glycoprotein are not solely responsible for vaccine-induced acceleration of challenge infection in cats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Huisman (Willem); E.J.A. Schrauwen (Eefje); S.D. Pas (Suzan); J.A. Karlas (Jos); G.F. Rimmelzwaan (Guus); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractIn a previous vaccination study in cats, the authors reported on accelerated feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) replication upon challenge in animals vaccinated with a candidate envelope subunit vaccine. Plasma transfer studies as well as antibody profiles in vaccinated cats indicated a

  3. HIV gp120 induces, NF-kappaB dependent, HIV replication that requires procaspase 8.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary D Bren

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HIV envelope glycoprotein gp120 causes cellular activation resulting in anergy, apoptosis, proinflammatory cytokine production, and through an unknown mechanism, enhanced HIV replication. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We describe that the signals which promote apoptosis are also responsible for the enhanced HIV replication. Specifically, we demonstrate that the caspase 8 cleavage fragment Caspase8p43, activates p50/p65 Nuclear Factor kappaB (NF-kappaB, in a manner which is inhibited by dominant negative IkappaBalpha. This caspase 8 dependent NF-kappaB activation occurs following stimulation with gp120, TNF, or CD3/CD28 crosslinking, but these treatments do not activate NF-kappaB in cells deficient in caspase 8. The Casp8p43 cleavage fragment also transactivates the HIV LTR through NF-kappaB, and the absence of caspase 8 following HIV infection greatly inhibits HIV replication. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Gp120 induced caspase 8 dependent NF-kappaB activation is a novel pathway of HIV replication which increases understanding of the biology of T-cell death, as well as having implications for understanding treatment and prevention of HIV infection.

  4. Gold manno-glyconanoparticles for intervening in HIV gp120 carbohydrate-mediated processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Gianvincenzo, Paolo; Chiodo, Fabrizio; Marradi, Marco; Penadés, Soledad

    2012-01-01

    After nearly three decades since the discovery of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (1983), no effective vaccine or microbicide is available, and the virus continues to infect millions of people worldwide each year. HIV antiretroviral drugs reduce the death rate and improve the quality of life in infected patients, but they are not able to completely remove HIV from the body. The glycoprotein gp120, part of the envelope glycoprotein (Env) of HIV, is responsible for virus entry and infection of host cells. High-mannose type glycans that decorate gp120 are involved in different carbohydrate-mediated HIV binding. We have demonstrated that oligomannoside-coated gold nanoparticles (manno-GNPs) are able to interfere with HIV high-mannose glycan-mediated processes. In this chapter, we describe the methods for the preparation and characterization of manno-GNPs and the experiments performed by means of SPR and STD-NMR techniques to evaluate the ability of manno-GNPs to inhibit 2G12 antibody binding to gp120. The antibody 2G12-mediated HIV neutralization and the lectin DC-SIGN-mediated HIV trans-infection in cellular systems are also described.

  5. Electron tomography of the contact between T cells and SIV/HIV-1: implications for viral entry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachid Sougrat

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The envelope glycoproteins of primate lentiviruses, including human and simian immunodeficiency viruses (HIV and SIV, are heterodimers of a transmembrane glycoprotein (usually gp41, and a surface glycoprotein (gp120, which binds CD4 on target cells to initiate viral entry. We have used electron tomography to determine the three-dimensional architectures of purified SIV virions in isolation and in contact with CD4+ target cells. The trimeric viral envelope glycoprotein surface spikes are heterogeneous in appearance and typically approximately 120 A long and approximately 120 A wide at the distal end. Docking of SIV or HIV-1 on the T cell surface occurs via a neck-shaped contact region that is approximately 400 A wide and consistently consists of a closely spaced cluster of five to seven rod-shaped features, each approximately 100 A long and approximately 100 A wide. This distinctive structure is not observed when viruses are incubated with T lymphocytes in the presence of anti-CD4 antibodies, the CCR5 antagonist TAK779, or the peptide entry inhibitor SIVmac251 C34. For virions bound to cells, few trimers were observed away from this cluster at the virion-cell interface, even in cases where virus preparations showing as many as 70 envelope glycoprotein trimers per virus particle were used. This contact zone, which we term the "entry claw", provides a spatial context to understand the molecular mechanisms of viral entry. Determination of the molecular composition and structure of the entry claw may facilitate the identification of improved drugs for the inhibition of HIV-1 entry.

  6. Pre-clinical evaluation of a 213Bi-labeled 2556 antibody to HIV-1 gp41 glycoprotein in HIV-1 mouse models as a reagent for HIV eradication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Dadachova

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Any strategy for curing HIV infection must include a method to eliminate viral-infected cells. Based on our earlier proof-of-principle results targeting HIV-1 infected cells with radiolabeled antibody (mAb to gp41 viral antigen, we embarked on identifying a suitable candidate mAb for preclinical development. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Among the several human mAbs to gp41 tested, mAb 2556 was found to have high affinity, reactivity with multimeric forms of gp41 present on both the surface of virus particles and cells expressing HIV-1 Env, and recognition of a highly conserved epitope of gp41 shared by all HIV-1 subtypes. Also, mAb 2556 was the best in competition with HIV-1+ serum antibodies, which is an extremely important consideration for efficacy in the treatment of HIV patients. When radiolabeled with alpha-emitting radionuclide 213-Bismuth ((213Bi - (213Bi-2556 efficiently and specifically killed ACH-2 human lymphocytes chronically infected with HIV-1, and HIV-1 infected human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hPBMCs. The number of binding sites for (213Bi-2556 on the surface of the infected cells was >10(6. The in vivo experiments were performed in two HIV-1 mouse models--splenic and intraperitoneal. In both models, the decrease in HIV-1 infected hPBMCs from the spleens and peritoneum, respectively, was dose-dependent with the most pronounced killing of hPBMCs observed in the 100 µCi (213Bi-2556 group (P = 0.01. Measurement of the blood platelet counts and gross pathology of the treated mice demonstrated the lack of toxicity for (213Bi-2556. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We describe the preclinical development of a novel radiolabeled mAb reagent that could potentially be part of an HIV eradication strategy that is ready for translation into the clinic as the next step in its development. As viral antigens are very different from "self" human antigens - this approach promises high selectivity, increased efficacy and low

  7. The changing face of HIV vaccine research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary J Nabel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available While there has been remarkable progress in understanding the biology of HIV-1 and its recognition by the human immune system, we have not yet developed an efficacious HIV-1 vaccine. Vaccine challenges include the genetic diversity and mutability of HIV-1 which create a plethora of constantly changing antigens, the structural features of the viral envelope glycoprotein that disguise conserved receptor-binding sites from the immune system, and the presence of carbohydrate moieties that shield potential epitopes from antibodies. Despite these challenges, there has been significant scientific progress in recent years. In 2009, a large-scale clinical trial known as RV144 demonstrated that a HIV-1 vaccine could modestly reduce the incidence of HIV-1 infection. Further, the identification of broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (such as VRC01, a human monoclonal antibody capable of neutralizing over 90% of natural HIV-1 isolates, as well as PG and PGT antibodies that recognize conserved glycopeptide epitopes has revealed new opportunities for vaccine design. Our ability to understand HIV-1 structure and antibody epitopes at the atomic level, the rapid advance of computational and bioinformatics approaches to immunogen design, and our newly acquired knowledge that it is possible for a vaccine to reduce the risk of HIV-1 infection, have all opened up new and promising pathways towards the development of an urgently needed effective HIV-1 vaccine. This article summarizes challenges to the development of an HIV-1 vaccine, lessons learned from scientific investigation and completed vaccine trials, and promising developments in HIV-1 vaccine design.

  8. Expression of external glycoprotein gp105 and transmembrane glycoprotein gp36 of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 in insect cell by Bac-to-Bac system%用细菌/杆状病毒系统在昆虫细胞中表达HIV-2 外膜糖蛋白gp105和跨膜糖蛋白gp36

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张应玖; 金宁一; 金善荣; 王宏伟; 沈家骢

    2001-01-01

    目的 用细菌/杆状病毒(BactoBac)表达系统在昆虫细胞Sf9中表达HIV-2外膜糖蛋白gp105和跨膜糖蛋白gp36,为研制艾滋病疫苗和诊断试剂奠定基础。方法 分别将HIV-2外膜蛋白gp105和跨膜蛋白gp36全基因序列克隆到杆状病毒转座载体pFastBacHTa和pFastBacHTb中多角体启动子下游,构建成重组转座载体pFastBacHTa-gp105和pFastBacHTb-gp36,利用细菌/杆状病毒(BactoBac)表达系统筛选重组杆状病毒,并在昆虫细胞Sf9中表达HIV-2的gp105和gp36。结果 SDS-PAGE分析结果表明,gp105基因表达产物为一66000u糖蛋白,gp36基因则表达一41000u糖蛋白,与天然产物一致。Westernblot结果显示:两者均具有抗原特异性。结论 gp105和gp36在昆虫细胞中得到了高效表达,并均被糖基化;gp105接近天然产物,gp36与天然产物一致。%Objective To develop effective vaccine and diagnostic agents ofAIDS, the external glycoprotein gp105 and transmembrane glycoprotein gp36 of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 were expressed in insect cells Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) using baculovirus expression system : Bac-to-Bac system. Methods The recombinant transfer vector pFast Bac HTa-gp105 and pFast Bac HTb-gp36 were constructed by cloning HIV-2 gp105 gene and gp36 gene into the end of polyhedrin promoter of baculovirus transfer vector pFast Bac HTa and pFast Bac HTb respectively. HIV-2 external glycoprotein gp105 and transmembrane glycoprotein gp36 were expressed in insect cells Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) by transposing these two foreign genes to shuttle vector bacmid respectively using Bac-to-Bac system. Results The resulting products determined by SDS-PAGE showed that recombinant baculovirusescontaining gp105 gene expressed a 66 kDa glycoprotein, whereas those contai-ning gp36 gene generated a 41 000u glycoprotein, the apparent molecular weight of which is equivalent to that of natural gp36. Western blot indicated that

  9. Anti-HIV-1 activity of anionic polymers: a comparative study of candidate microbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yun-Yao

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP in soluble form blocks coreceptor binding sites on the virus envelope glycoprotein gp120 and elicits gp41 six-helix bundle formation, processes involved in virus inactivation. CAP is not soluble at pH Methods Enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA were used to (1 study HIV-1 IIIB and BaL binding to micronized CAP; (2 detect virus disintegration; and (3 measure gp41 six-helix bundle formation. Cells containing integrated HIV-1 LTR linked to the β-gal gene and expressing CD4 and coreceptors CXCR4 or CCR5 were used to measure virus infectivity. Results 1 HIV-1 IIIB and BaL, respectively, effectively bound to micronized CAP. 2 The interaction between HIV-1 and micronized CAP led to: (a gp41 six-helix bundle formation; (b virus disintegration and shedding of envelope glycoproteins; and (c rapid loss of infectivity. Polymers other than CAP, except Carbomer 974P, elicited gp41 six-helix bundle formation in HIV-1 IIIB but only poly(napthalene sulfonate, in addition to CAP, had this effect on HIV-1 BaL. These polymers differed with respect to their virucidal activities, the differences being more pronounced for HIV-1 BaL. Conclusions Micronized CAP is the only candidate topical microbicide with the capacity to remove rapidly by adsorption from physiological fluids HIV-1 of both the X4 and R5 biotypes and is likely to prevent virus contact with target cells. The interaction between micronized CAP and HIV-1 leads to rapid virus inactivation. Among other anionic polymers, cellulose sulfate, BufferGel and aryl sulfonates appear most effective in this respect.

  10. Immunogenicity of a polyvalent HIV-1 candidate vaccine based on fourteen wild type gp120 proteins in golden hamsters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghorbani Masoud

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the major obstacles in the design of an effective vaccine against HIV-1 is the hypervariability of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein. Most HIV-1 vaccine candidates have utilized envelope glycoprotein from a single virus isolate, but to date, none of them elicited broadly reactive humoral immunity. Herein, we hypothesised that a cocktail of HIV-1 gp120 proteins containing multiple epitopes may increase the breadth of immune responses against HIV-1. We compared and evaluated the immunogenicity of HIV-1 vaccines containing either gp120 protein alone or in combinations of four or fourteen gp120s from different primary HIV-1 isolates in immunized hamsters. Results We amplified and characterized 14 different gp120s from primary subtype B isolates with both syncytium and non-syncytium inducing properties, and expressed the proteins in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO cell lines. Purified proteins were used either alone or in combinations of four or fourteen different gp120s to vaccinate golden hamsters. The polyvalent vaccine showed higher antibody titers to HIV-1 subtype B isolates MN and SF162 compared to the groups that received one or four gp120 proteins. However, the polyvalent vaccine was not able to show higher neutralizing antibody responses against HIV-1 primary isolates. Interestingly, the polyvalent vaccine group had the highest proliferative immune responses and showed a substantial proportion of cross-subtype CD4 reactivity to HIV-1 subtypes B, C, and A/E Conclusion Although the polyvalent approach achieved only a modest increase in the breadth of humoral and cellular immunity, the qualitative change in the vaccine (14 vs. 1 gp120 resulted in a quantitative improvement in vaccine-induced immunity.

  11. Short Communication Phylogenetic Characterization of HIV Type 1 CRF01_AE V3 Envelope Sequences in Pregnant Women in Northern Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caridha, Rozina; Ha, Tran Thi Thanh; Gaseitsiwe, Simani; Hung, Pham Viet; Anh, Nguyen Mai; Bao, Nguyen Huy; Khang, Dinh Duy; Hien, Nguyen Tran; Cam, Phung Dac; Chiodi, Francesca

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Characterization of HIV-1 strains is important for surveillance of the HIV-1 epidemic. In Vietnam HIV-1-infected pregnant women often fail to receive the care they are entitled to. Here, we analyzed phylogenetically HIV-1 env sequences from 37 HIV-1-infected pregnant women from Ha Noi (n=22) and Hai Phong (n=15), where they delivered in 2005–2007. All carried CRF01_AE in the gp120 V3 region. In 21 women CRF01_AE was also found in the reverse transcriptase gene. We compared their env gp120 V3 sequences phylogenetically in a maximum likelihood tree to those of 198 other CRF01_AE sequences in Vietnam and 229 from neighboring countries, predominantly Thailand, from the HIV-1 database. Altogether 464 sequences were analyzed. All but one of the maternal sequences colocalized with sequences from northern Vietnam. The maternal sequences had evolved the least when compared to sequences collected in Ha Noi in 2002, as shown by analysis of synonymous and nonsynonymous changes, than to other Vietnamese sequences collected earlier and/or elsewhere. Since the HIV-1 epidemic in women in Vietnam may still be underestimated, characterization of HIV-1 in pregnant women is important to observe how HIV-1 has evolved and follow its molecular epidemiology. PMID:21936713

  12. Short communication: phylogenetic characterization of HIV type 1 CRF01_AE V3 envelope sequences in pregnant women in Northern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caridha, Rozina; Ha, Tran Thi Thanh; Gaseitsiwe, Simani; Hung, Pham Viet; Anh, Nguyen Mai; Bao, Nguyen Huy; Khang, Dinh Duy; Hien, Nguyen Tran; Cam, Phung Dac; Chiodi, Francesca; Ehrnst, Anneka

    2012-08-01

    Characterization of HIV-1 strains is important for surveillance of the HIV-1 epidemic. In Vietnam HIV-1-infected pregnant women often fail to receive the care they are entitled to. Here, we analyzed phylogenetically HIV-1 env sequences from 37 HIV-1-infected pregnant women from Ha Noi (n=22) and Hai Phong (n=15), where they delivered in 2005-2007. All carried CRF01_AE in the gp120 V3 region. In 21 women CRF01_AE was also found in the reverse transcriptase gene. We compared their env gp120 V3 sequences phylogenetically in a maximum likelihood tree to those of 198 other CRF01_AE sequences in Vietnam and 229 from neighboring countries, predominantly Thailand, from the HIV-1 database. Altogether 464 sequences were analyzed. All but one of the maternal sequences colocalized with sequences from northern Vietnam. The maternal sequences had evolved the least when compared to sequences collected in Ha Noi in 2002, as shown by analysis of synonymous and nonsynonymous changes, than to other Vietnamese sequences collected earlier and/or elsewhere. Since the HIV-1 epidemic in women in Vietnam may still be underestimated, characterization of HIV-1 in pregnant women is important to observe how HIV-1 has evolved and follow its molecular epidemiology.

  13. SAFEGUARDS ENVELOPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duc Cao; Richard Metcalf

    2010-07-01

    The Safeguards Envelope is a strategy to determine a set of specific operating parameters within which nuclear facilities may operate to maximize safeguards effectiveness without sacrificing safety or plant efficiency. This paper details advanced statistical techniques that will be applied to real plant process monitoring (PM) data from the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). In a simulation based on this data, multi-tank and multi-attribute correlations were tested against synthetic diversion scenarios. Kernel regression smoothing was used to fit a curve to the historical data, and multivariable, residual analysis and cumulative sum techniques set parameters for operating conditions. Diversion scenarios were created and tested, showing improved results when compared with a previous study utilizing only one-variable Z-testing. A brief analysis of the impact of the safeguards optimization on the rest of plant efficiency, criticality concerns, and overall requirements is presented.

  14. Structural Basis for Broad and Potent Neutralization of HIV-1 by Antibody VRC01

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Tongqing; Georgiev, Ivelin; Wu, Xueling; Yang, Zhi-Yong; Dai, Kaifan; Finzi, Andrés; Kwon, Young Do; Scheid, Johannes F.; Shi, Wei; Xu, Ling; Yang, Yongping; Zhu, Jiang; Nussenzweig, Michel C.; Sodroski, Joseph; Shapiro, Lawrence; Nabel, Gary J.; Mascola, John R.; Kwong, Peter D. (NIH); (Rockefeller); (DFCI)

    2010-08-26

    During HIV-1 infection, antibodies are generated against the region of the viral gp120 envelope glycoprotein that binds CD4, the primary receptor for HIV-1. Among these antibodies, VRC01 achieves broad neutralization of diverse viral strains. We determined the crystal structure of VRC01 in complex with a human immunodeficiency virus HIV-1 gp120 core. VRC01 partially mimics CD4 interaction with gp120. A shift from the CD4-defined orientation, however, focuses VRC01 onto the vulnerable site of initial CD4 attachment, allowing it to overcome the glycan and conformational masking that diminishes the neutralization potency of most CD4-binding-site antibodies. To achieve this recognition, VRC01 contacts gp120 mainly through immunoglobulin V-gene regions substantially altered from their genomic precursors. Partial receptor mimicry and extensive affinity maturation thus facilitate neutralization of HIV-1 by natural human antibodies.

  15. Peptide Paratope Mimics of the Broadly Neutralizing HIV-1 Antibody b12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haußner, Christina; Damm, Dominik; Nirschl, Sandra; Rohrhofer, Anette; Schmidt, Barbara; Eichler, Jutta

    2017-01-26

    The broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibody b12 recognizes the CD4 binding site of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120 and efficiently neutralizes HIV-1 infections in vitro and in vivo. Based on the 3D structure of a b12⋅gp120 complex, we have designed an assembled peptide (b12-M) that presents the parts of the three heavy-chain complementarity-determining regions (CDRs) of b12, which contain the contact sites of the antibody for gp120. This b12-mimetic peptide, as well as a truncated peptide presenting only two of the three heavy-chain CDRs of b12, were shown to recognize gp120 in a similar manner to b12, as well as to inhibit HIV-1 infection, demonstrating functional mimicry of b12 by the paratope mimetic peptides.

  16. Extensive complement-dependent enhancement of HIV-1 by autologous non-neutralising antibodies at early stages of infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Ian

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-neutralising antibodies to the envelope glycoprotein are elicited during acute HIV-1 infection and are abundant throughout the course of disease progression. Although these antibodies appear to have negligible effects on HIV-1 infection when assayed in standard neutralisation assays, they have the potential to exert either inhibitory or enhancing effects through interactions with complement and/or Fc receptors. Here we report that non-neutralising antibodies produced early in response to HIV-1 infection can enhance viral infectivity. Results We investigated this complement-mediated antibody-dependent enhancement (C'-ADE of early HIV infection by carrying out longitudinal studies with primary viruses and autologous sera derived sequentially from recently infected individuals, using a T cell line naturally expressing the complement receptor 2 (CR2; CD21. The C'-ADE was consistently observed and in some cases achieved infection-enhancing levels of greater than 350-fold, converting a low-level infection to a highly destructive one. C'-ADE activity declined as a neutralising response to the early virus emerged, but later virus isolates that had escaped the neutralising response demonstrated an increased capacity for enhanced infection by autologous antibodies. Moreover, sera with autologous enhancing activity were capable of C'ADE of heterologous viral isolates, suggesting the targeting of conserved epitopes on the envelope glycoprotein. Ectopic expression of CR2 on cell lines expressing HIV-1 receptors was sufficient to render them sensitive to C'ADE. Conclusions Taken together, these results suggest that non-neutralising antibodies to the HIV-1 envelope that arise during acute infection are not 'passive', but in concert with complement and complement receptors may have consequences for HIV-1 dissemination and pathogenesis.

  17. Extensive complement-dependent enhancement of HIV-1 by autologous non-neutralising antibodies at early stages of infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willey, Suzanne; Aasa-Chapman, Marlén M I; O'Farrell, Stephen; Pellegrino, Pierre; Williams, Ian; Weiss, Robin A; Neil, Stuart J D

    2011-03-14

    Non-neutralising antibodies to the envelope glycoprotein are elicited during acute HIV-1 infection and are abundant throughout the course of disease progression. Although these antibodies appear to have negligible effects on HIV-1 infection when assayed in standard neutralisation assays, they have the potential to exert either inhibitory or enhancing effects through interactions with complement and/or Fc receptors. Here we report that non-neutralising antibodies produced early in response to HIV-1 infection can enhance viral infectivity. We investigated this complement-mediated antibody-dependent enhancement (C'-ADE) of early HIV infection by carrying out longitudinal studies with primary viruses and autologous sera derived sequentially from recently infected individuals, using a T cell line naturally expressing the complement receptor 2 (CR2; CD21). The C'-ADE was consistently observed and in some cases achieved infection-enhancing levels of greater than 350-fold, converting a low-level infection to a highly destructive one. C'-ADE activity declined as a neutralising response to the early virus emerged, but later virus isolates that had escaped the neutralising response demonstrated an increased capacity for enhanced infection by autologous antibodies. Moreover, sera with autologous enhancing activity were capable of C'ADE of heterologous viral isolates, suggesting the targeting of conserved epitopes on the envelope glycoprotein. Ectopic expression of CR2 on cell lines expressing HIV-1 receptors was sufficient to render them sensitive to C'ADE. Taken together, these results suggest that non-neutralising antibodies to the HIV-1 envelope that arise during acute infection are not 'passive', but in concert with complement and complement receptors may have consequences for HIV-1 dissemination and pathogenesis.

  18. Induction and Characterization of Immune Responses in Small Animals Using a Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus (VEE) Replicon System, Expressing Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) Envelope Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    59 6. Baldinotti, F., D. Matteucci, P. Mazzetti, C. Giannelli, P. Bandecchi, F. Tozzini, and M. Bendinelli. 1994. Serum neutralization of feline ...immunodeficiency virus type 1 pseudotyped with vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein. Methods 12:337-42. 9. Beaumont, T., A. van Nuenen, S. Broersen, W...Maggi, A. Leonildi, S. Giannecchini, C. Bergamini, and D. Matteucci. 2001. During readaptation in vivo, a tissue culture-adapted strain of feline

  19. Glycosphingolipid-functionalized nanoparticles recapitulate CD169-dependent HIV-1 uptake and trafficking in dendritic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xinwei; Feizpour, Amin; Ramirez, Nora-Guadalupe P.; Wu, Linxi; Akiyama, Hisashi; Xu, Fangda; Gummuluru, Suryaram; Reinhard, Björn M.

    2014-06-01

    Ganglioside GM3, a host-derived glycosphingolipid incorporated in the membrane of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) viral particles, mediates interactions between HIV-1 and Siglec1/CD169, a protein expressed on dendritic cells (DCs). Such interactions, which seem to be independent of viral envelope glycoprotein gp120, are poorly understood. Here we develop a model system consisting of self-assembled artificial virus nanoparticles (AVNs) that are free of viral glycoproteins or other host-derived glycolipids and glycoproteins. These plasmonic AVNs contain a membrane of defined composition wrapped around a solid metal core. GM3-containing AVNs are captured by CD169-expressing HeLa cells or mature DCs, and are sequestered within non-lysosomal tetraspanin-positive compartments. This distribution is reminiscent of CD169-dependent HIV-1 sequestration in mature DCs. Our results highlight GM3-CD169 binding as a gp120-independent signal for sequestration and preservation of HIV-1 infectivity. They also indicate that plasmonic AVNs offer improved features over liposome-based systems and represent a versatile tool for probing specific virus-cell interactions.

  20. Bioinformatic analysis of neurotropic HIV envelope sequences identifies polymorphisms in the gp120 bridging sheet that increase macrophage-tropism through enhanced interactions with CCR5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mefford, Megan E., E-mail: megan_mefford@hms.harvard.edu [Department of Cancer Immunology and AIDS, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States); Kunstman, Kevin, E-mail: kunstman@northwestern.edu [Northwestern University Medical School, Chicago, IL (United States); Wolinsky, Steven M., E-mail: s-wolinsky@northwestern.edu [Northwestern University Medical School, Chicago, IL (United States); Gabuzda, Dana, E-mail: dana_gabuzda@dfci.harvard.edu [Department of Cancer Immunology and AIDS, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States); Department of Neurology (Microbiology and Immunobiology), Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Macrophages express low levels of the CD4 receptor compared to T-cells. Macrophage-tropic HIV strains replicating in brain of untreated patients with HIV-associated dementia (HAD) express Envs that are adapted to overcome this restriction through mechanisms that are poorly understood. Here, bioinformatic analysis of env sequence datasets together with functional studies identified polymorphisms in the β3 strand of the HIV gp120 bridging sheet that increase M-tropism. D197, which results in loss of an N-glycan located near the HIV Env trimer apex, was detected in brain in some HAD patients, while position 200 was estimated to be under positive selection. D197 and T/V200 increased fusion and infection of cells expressing low CD4 by enhancing gp120 binding to CCR5. These results identify polymorphisms in the HIV gp120 bridging sheet that overcome the restriction to macrophage infection imposed by low CD4 through enhanced gp120–CCR5 interactions, thereby promoting infection of brain and other macrophage-rich tissues. - Highlights: • We analyze HIV Env sequences and identify amino acids in beta 3 of the gp120 bridging sheet that enhance macrophage tropism. • These amino acids at positions 197 and 200 are present in brain of some patients with HIV-associated dementia. • D197 results in loss of a glycan near the HIV Env trimer apex, which may increase exposure of V3. • These variants may promote infection of macrophages in the brain by enhancing gp120–CCR5 interactions.

  1. Vaccine-Induced Plasma IgA Specific for the C1 Region of the HIV-1 Envelope Blocks Binding and Effector Function of IgG

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-28

    Bangkok 10400, Thailand; iArmed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences, Bangkok 10400, Thailand; jClinical Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University... Bangkok 10400, Thailand; kDepartment of Disease Control, Ministry of Public Health, Nonthaburi 11000, Thailand; and lUS Military HIV Research Program...HIV-vaccine efficacy. J Infect Dis 196(11):1637–1644. 20. Nitayaphan S, et al.; Thai AIDS Vaccine Evaluation Group (2004) Safety and immuno- genicity

  2. Candidate antibody-based therapeutics against HIV-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Rui; Chen, Weizao; Dimitrov, Dimiter S

    2012-06-01

    Antibody-based therapeutics have been successfully used for the treatment of various diseases and as research tools. Several well characterized, broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (bnmAbs) targeting HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins or related host cell surface proteins show sterilizing protection of animals, but they are not effective when used for therapy of an established infection in humans. Recently, a number of novel bnmAbs, engineered antibody domains (eAds), and multifunctional fusion proteins have been reported which exhibit exceptionally potent and broad neutralizing activity against a wide range of HIV-1 isolates from diverse genetic subtypes. eAds could be more effective in vivo than conventional full-size antibodies generated by the human immune system. Because of their small size (12∼15 kD), they can better access sterically restricted epitopes and penetrate densely packed tissue where HIV-1 replicates than the larger full-size antibodies. HIV-1 possesses a number of mechanisms to escape neutralization by full-size antibodies but could be less likely to develop resistance to eAds. Here, we review the in vitro and in vivo antiviral efficacies of existing HIV-1 bnmAbs, summarize the development of eAds and multispecific fusion proteins as novel types of HIV-1 inhibitors, and discuss possible strategies to generate more potent antibody-based candidate therapeutics against HIV-1, including some that could be used to eradicate the virus.

  3. N-terminal Slit2 inhibits HIV-1 replication by regulating the actin cytoskeleton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Appakkudal R

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Slit2 is a ~ 200 kDa secreted glycoprotein that has been recently shown to regulate immune functions. However, not much is known about its role in HIV (human immunodeficiency virus-1 pathogenesis. Results In the present study, we have shown that the N-terminal fragment of Slit2 (Slit2N (~120 kDa inhibits replication of both CXCR4 and CCR5-tropic HIV-1 viruses in T-cell lines and peripheral blood T-cells. Furthermore, we demonstrated inhibition of HIV-1 infection in resting CD4+ T-cells. In addition, we showed that Slit2N blocks cell-to-cell transmission of HIV-1. We have shown that Slit2N inhibits HIV-1 infection by blocking viral entry into T-cells. We also ruled out Slit2N-mediated inhibition of various other steps in the life cycle including binding, integration and viral transcription. Elucidation of the molecular mechanism revealed that Slit2N mediates its functional effects by binding to Robo1 receptor. Furthermore, we found that Slit2N inhibited Gp120-induced Robo1-actin association suggesting that Slit2N may inhibit cytoskeletal rearrangements facilitating HIV-1 entry. Studies into the mechanism of inhibition of HIV-1 revealed that Slit2N abrogated HIV-1 envelope-induced actin cytoskeletal dynamics in both T-cell lines and primary T-cells. We further showed that Slit2N specifically attenuated the HIV-1 envelope-induced signaling pathway consisting of Rac1, LIMK and cofilin that regulates actin polymerization. Conclusions Taken together, our results show that Slit2N inhibits HIV-1 replication through novel mechanisms involving modulation of cytoskeletal dynamics. Our study, thus, provides insights into the role of Slit2N in HIV-1 infection and underscores its potential in limiting viral replication in T-cells.

  4. Incorporation of Spike and Membrane Glycoproteins into Coronavirus Virions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Ujike

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The envelopes of coronaviruses (CoVs contain primarily three proteins; the two major glycoproteins spike (S and membrane (M, and envelope (E, a non-glycosylated protein. Unlike other enveloped viruses, CoVs bud and assemble at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER-Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC. For efficient virion assembly, these proteins must be targeted to the budding site and to interact with each other or the ribonucleoprotein. Thus, the efficient incorporation of viral envelope proteins into CoV virions depends on protein trafficking and protein–protein interactions near the ERGIC. The goal of this review is to summarize recent findings on the mechanism of incorporation of the M and S glycoproteins into the CoV virion, focusing on protein trafficking and protein–protein interactions.

  5. Multivalent dendrimeric compounds containing carbohydrates expressed on immune cells inhibit infection by primary isolates of HIV-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Andrew Rosa; Wieczorek, Lindsay; Johnson, Benitra; Benesi, Alan J.; Brown, Bruce K.; Kensinger, Richard D.; Krebs, Fred C.; Wigdahl, Brian; Blumenthal, Robert; Puri, Anu; McCutchan, Francine E.; Birx, Deborah L.; Polonis, Victoria R.; Schengrund, Cara-Lynne

    2010-01-01

    Specific glycosphingolipids (GSL), found on the surface of target immune cells, are recognized as alternate cell surface receptors by the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) external envelope glycoprotein. In this study, the globotriose and 3’-sialyllactose carbohydrate head groups found on two GSL were covalently attached to a dendrimer core to produce two types of unique multivalent carbohydrates (MVC). These MVC inhibited HIV-1 infection of T cell lines and primary peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) by T cell line-adapted viruses or primary isolates, with IC50s ranging from 0.1 – 7.4 µg/ml. Inhibition of Env-mediated membrane fusion by MVC was also observed using a dye-transfer assay. These carbohydrate compounds warrant further investigation as a potential new class of HIV-1 entry inhibitors. The data presented also shed light on the role of carbohydrate moieties in HIV-1 virus-host cell interactions. PMID:20880566

  6. Characterization of humoral responses to soluble trimeric HIV gp140 from a clade A Ugandan field isolate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visciano, Maria Luisa; Tagliamonte, Maria; Stewart-Jones, Guillaume

    2013-01-01

    broadened by possible structural modifications of the clade A gp14094UG018. Our results provide a rationale for the design and evaluation of immunogens and the clade A gp14094UG018 shows promising characteristics for potential involvement in an effective HIV vaccine with broad activity.......Trimeric soluble forms of HIV gp140 envelope glycoproteins represent one of the closest molecular structures compared to native spikes present on intact virus particles. Trimeric soluble gp140 have been generated by several groups and such molecules have been shown to induce antibodies...... with neutralizing activity against homologous and heterologous viruses. In the present study, we generated a recombinant trimeric soluble gp140, derived from a previously identified Ugandan A-clade HIV field isolate (gp14094UG018). Antibodies elicited in immunized rabbits show a broad binding pattern to HIV...

  7. Co-evolution of a broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibody and founder virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hua-Xin; Lynch, Rebecca; Zhou, Tongqing; Gao, Feng; Alam, S Munir; Boyd, Scott D; Fire, Andrew Z; Roskin, Krishna M; Schramm, Chaim A; Zhang, Zhenhai; Zhu, Jiang; Shapiro, Lawrence; Mullikin, James C; Gnanakaran, S; Hraber, Peter; Wiehe, Kevin; Kelsoe, Garnett; Yang, Guang; Xia, Shi-Mao; Montefiori, David C; Parks, Robert; Lloyd, Krissey E; Scearce, Richard M; Soderberg, Kelly A; Cohen, Myron; Kamanga, Gift; Louder, Mark K; Tran, Lillian M; Chen, Yue; Cai, Fangping; Chen, Sheri; Moquin, Stephanie; Du, Xiulian; Joyce, M Gordon; Srivatsan, Sanjay; Zhang, Baoshan; Zheng, Anqi; Shaw, George M; Hahn, Beatrice H; Kepler, Thomas B; Korber, Bette T M; Kwong, Peter D; Mascola, John R; Haynes, Barton F

    2013-04-25

    Current human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) vaccines elicit strain-specific neutralizing antibodies. However, cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies arise in approximately 20% of HIV-1-infected individuals, and details of their generation could provide a blueprint for effective vaccination. Here we report the isolation, evolution and structure of a broadly neutralizing antibody from an African donor followed from the time of infection. The mature antibody, CH103, neutralized approximately 55% of HIV-1 isolates, and its co-crystal structure with the HIV-1 envelope protein gp120 revealed a new loop-based mechanism of CD4-binding-site recognition. Virus and antibody gene sequencing revealed concomitant virus evolution and antibody maturation. Notably, the unmutated common ancestor of the CH103 lineage avidly bound the transmitted/founder HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein, and evolution of antibody neutralization breadth was preceded by extensive viral diversification in and near the CH103 epitope. These data determine the viral and antibody evolution leading to induction of a lineage of HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibodies, and provide insights into strategies to elicit similar antibodies by vaccination.

  8. Recombinant envelope glycoprotein domain Ⅲ of dengue virus inhibit virus infection%重组登革病毒E蛋白结构域Ⅲ抑制登革病毒感染的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆鹏; 杭小同; 梁米芳; 李德新; 韦艳; 曹守春; 李建东; 刘琴芝; 张全福; 李川; 苗芳; 张硕

    2008-01-01

    目的 了解原核表达的登革病毒(dengue virus, DV)的E蛋白结构域Ⅲ直接抑制登革病毒感染及其抗体的中和作用.方法 在大肠埃希菌中表达1~4型登革病毒E蛋白结构域Ⅲ(EⅢ).重组蛋白纯化后,进行阻断DV-2感染BHK~21细胞试验.用重组蛋白制备免疫血清,检测抗体中和作用.结果 在大肠埃希菌中成功表达了1-4型登革病毒E蛋白结构域埃希菌,4型重组E蛋白结构域Ⅲ均能够阻断2型DV感染,4型重组蛋白的免疫血清均能中和2型DV,但中和抗体效价不同.结论 原核表达的登革病毒结构域Ⅲ可以直接抑制病毒感染,所产生的抗体具有中和作用.直接抑制和中和抗体均对同型病毒作用较强.%Objective To observe the ability of dengue virus recombinant envelope protein domain expressed in E. coil to inhibit virus infection and induce the neutralizing antibody. Methods E Ⅲ protein of Dengue virus serotypes 1-4 were expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3) then purified. Recombinant proteins were tested to inhibit DV2 from infecting BHK-21 cell. Rabbits were immunized with recombinant proteins to produce anti-E Ⅲserum. Antibody titers were determined by neutralizing assay. Results The recombinant E Ⅲ proteins of Dengue virus serotypes 1-4 were expressed in E. coli. They effectively protected BHK cells in culture against DV2infection. All four type anti-E Ⅲ sera can neutralize DV2 but their efficacies are different. Conclusion E Ⅲproteins of dengue virus expressed in E. coli can directly inhibit DV2 infection. Neutralizing antibodies were induced by E Ⅲ proteins. Both E Ⅲ protein of dengue virus and the neutralizing antibodies they induced are more efficient in inhibiting homologous dengue serotypes infection than heterologous serotypes.

  9. Bioinformatic analysis of neurotropic HIV envelope sequences identifies polymorphisms in the gp120 bridging sheet that increase macrophage-tropism through enhanced interactions with CCR5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mefford, Megan E; Kunstman, Kevin; Wolinsky, Steven M; Gabuzda, Dana

    2015-07-01

    Macrophages express low levels of the CD4 receptor compared to T-cells. Macrophage-tropic HIV strains replicating in brain of untreated patients with HIV-associated dementia (HAD) express Envs that are adapted to overcome this restriction through mechanisms that are poorly understood. Here, bioinformatic analysis of env sequence datasets together with functional studies identified polymorphisms in the β3 strand of the HIV gp120 bridging sheet that increase M-tropism. D197, which results in loss of an N-glycan located near the HIV Env trimer apex, was detected in brain in some HAD patients, while position 200 was estimated to be under positive selection. D197 and T/V200 increased fusion and infection of cells expressing low CD4 by enhancing gp120 binding to CCR5. These results identify polymorphisms in the HIV gp120 bridging sheet that overcome the restriction to macrophage infection imposed by low CD4 through enhanced gp120-CCR5 interactions, thereby promoting infection of brain and other macrophage-rich tissues.

  10. Human immunodeficiency virus envelope-dependent cell-cell fusion: a quantitative fluorescence cytometric assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta, Leonor; Lamoyi, Edmundo; Báez-Saldaña, Armida; Larralde, Carlos

    2002-02-01

    In vitro fusion of transfected cells expressing the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) envelope proteins gp120/gp41, with target cells expressing CD4, and a suitable chemokine coreceptor is used widely to investigate the mechanisms of molecular recognition and membrane fusion involved in the entry of the HIV genome into cells and in syncytia formation. We developed an assay that uses two different fluorescent lipophilic probes to single label each reacting cell population and flow cytometry to quantify the extent of cellular fusion after coculture. Fused cells are detected as double-fluorescent particles in this assay, therefore permitting measurement of their proportion in the total cell population. The time course and extent of HIV-glycoprotein-related cellular fusion, the optimal cell ratio, the size and cell composition of the fusion products, and the inhibition of fusion caused by soluble CD4 and anti-CXCR4 antibody 12G5 were determined. The assay was applied to measure fusion between gp120/gp41 and CD4-expressing cells growing as monolayers (HeLa/CHO fusion), as well as to suspension lymphocyte cultures (Jurkat/Jurkat fusion). The method's simple technical and minimal cell-invasive procedures, as well as its non-ambiguous automatic numerical quantification should be useful for the study of factors influencing cell-cell fusion. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Broadly neutralizing antibodies developed by an HIV-positive elite neutralizer exact a replication fitness cost on the contemporaneous virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sather, D Noah; Carbonetti, Sara; Kehayia, Jenny; Kraft, Zane; Mikell, Iliyana; Scheid, Johannes F; Klein, Florian; Stamatatos, Leonidas

    2012-12-01

    Approximately 1% of those infected with HIV-1 develop broad and potent serum cross-neutralizing antibody activities. It is unknown whether or not the development of such immune responses affects the replication of the contemporaneous autologous virus. Here, we defined a pathway of autologous viral escape from contemporaneous potent and broad serum neutralizing antibodies developed by an elite HIV-1-positive (HIV-1(+)) neutralizer. These antibodies potently neutralize diverse isolates from different clades and target primarily the CD4-binding site (CD4-BS) of the viral envelope glycoprotein. Viral escape required mutations in the viral envelope glycoprotein which limited the accessibility of the CD4-binding site to the autologous broadly neutralizing anti-CD4-BS antibodies but which allowed the virus to infect cells by utilizing CD4 receptors on their surface. The acquisition of neutralization resistance, however, resulted in reduced cell entry potential and slower viral replication kinetics. Our results indicate that in vivo escape from autologous broadly neutralizing antibodies exacts fitness costs to HIV-1.

  12. Phenotype and envelope gene diversity of nef-deleted HIV-1 isolated from long-term survivors infected from a single source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sullivan John S

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Sydney blood bank cohort (SBBC of long-term survivors consists of multiple individuals infected with attenuated, nef-deleted variants of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 acquired from a single source. Long-term prospective studies have demonstrated that the SBBC now comprises slow progressors (SP as well as long-term nonprogressors (LTNP. Convergent evolution of nef sequences in SBBC SP and LTNP indicates the in vivo pathogenicity of HIV-1 in SBBC members is dictated by factors other than nef. To better understand mechanisms underlying the pathogenicity of nef-deleted HIV-1, we examined the phenotype and env sequence diversity of sequentially isolated viruses (n = 2 from 3 SBBC members. Results The viruses characterized here were isolated from two SP spanning a three or six year period during progressive HIV-1 infection (subjects D36 and C98, respectively and from a LTNP spanning a two year period during asymptomatic, nonprogressive infection (subject C18. Both isolates from D36 were R5X4 phenotype and, compared to control HIV-1 strains, replicated to low levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC. In contrast, both isolates from C98 and C18 were CCR5-restricted. Both viruses isolated from C98 replicated to barely detectable levels in PBMC, whereas both viruses isolated from C18 replicated to low levels, similar to those isolated from D36. Analysis of env by V1V2 and V3 heteroduplex tracking assay, V1V2 length polymorphisms, sequencing and phylogenetic analysis showed distinct intra- and inter-patient env evolution. Conclusion Independent evolution of env despite convergent evolution of nef may contribute to the in vivo pathogenicity of nef-deleted HIV-1 in SBBC members, which may not necessarily be associated with changes in replication capacity or viral coreceptor specificity.

  13. Analysis of Determinants in Filovirus Glycoproteins Required for Tetherin Antagonism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Gnirß

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The host cell protein tetherin can restrict the release of enveloped viruses from infected cells. The HIV-1 protein Vpu counteracts tetherin by removing it from the site of viral budding, the plasma membrane, and this process depends on specific interactions between the transmembrane domains of Vpu and tetherin. In contrast, the glycoproteins (GPs of two filoviruses, Ebola and Marburg virus, antagonize tetherin without reducing surface expression, and the domains in GP required for tetherin counteraction are unknown. Here, we show that filovirus GPs depend on the presence of their authentic transmembrane domains for virus-cell fusion and tetherin antagonism. However, conserved residues within the transmembrane domain were dispensable for membrane fusion and tetherin counteraction. Moreover, the insertion of the transmembrane domain into a heterologous viral GP, Lassa virus GPC, was not sufficient to confer tetherin antagonism to the recipient. Finally, mutation of conserved residues within the fusion peptide of Ebola virus GP inhibited virus-cell fusion but did not ablate tetherin counteraction, indicating that the fusion peptide and the ability of GP to drive host cell entry are not required for tetherin counteraction. These results suggest that the transmembrane domains of filoviral GPs contribute to tetherin antagonism but are not the sole determinants.

  14. Anti-HIV-1 activity of cellulose acetate phthalate: Synergy with soluble CD4 and induction of "dead-end" gp41 six-helix bundles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yun-Yao

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP, a promising candidate microbicide for prevention of sexual transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 and other sexually transmitted disease (STD pathogens, was shown to inactivate HIV-1 and to block the coreceptor binding site on the virus envelope glycoprotein gp120. It did not interfere with virus binding to CD4. Since CD4 is the primary cellular receptor for HIV-1, it was of interest to study CAP binding to HIV-1 complexes with soluble CD4 (sCD4 and its consequences, including changes in the conformation of the envelope glycoprotein gp41 within virus particles. Methods Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA were used to study CAP binding to HIV-1-sCD4 complexes and to detect gp41 six-helix bundles accessible on virus particles using antibodies specific for the α-helical core domain of gp41. Results 1 Pretreatment of HIV-1 with sCD4 augments subsequent binding of CAP; 2 there is synergism between CAP and sCD4 for inhibition of HIV-1 infection; 3 treatment of HIV-1 with CAP induced the formation of gp41 six-helix bundles. Conclusions CAP and sCD4 bind to distinct sites on HIV-1 IIIB and BaL virions and their simultaneous binding has profound effects on virus structure and infectivity. The formation of gp41 six-helical bundles, induced by CAP, is known to render the virus incompetent for fusion with target cells thus preventing infection.

  15. Siglec-1 is a novel dendritic cell receptor that mediates HIV-1 trans-infection through recognition of viral membrane gangliosides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Izquierdo-Useros

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DCs are essential antigen-presenting cells for the induction of immunity against pathogens. However, HIV-1 spread is strongly enhanced in clusters of DCs and CD4(+ T cells. Uninfected DCs capture HIV-1 and mediate viral transfer to bystander CD4(+ T cells through a process termed trans-infection. Initial studies identified the C-type lectin DC-SIGN as the HIV-1 binding factor on DCs, which interacts with the viral envelope glycoproteins. Upon DC maturation, however, DC-SIGN is down-regulated, while HIV-1 capture and trans-infection is strongly enhanced via a glycoprotein-independent capture pathway that recognizes sialyllactose-containing membrane gangliosides. Here we show that the sialic acid-binding Ig-like lectin 1 (Siglec-1, CD169, which is highly expressed on mature DCs, specifically binds HIV-1 and vesicles carrying sialyllactose. Furthermore, Siglec-1 is essential for trans-infection by mature DCs. These findings identify Siglec-1 as a key factor for HIV-1 spread via infectious DC/T-cell synapses, highlighting a novel mechanism that mediates HIV-1 dissemination in activated tissues.

  16. Immunogenicities of Env glycoproteins from circulating HIV-1 isolates in China focusing on the strategy of "DNA prime plus protein boost"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zheng; WANG Shi-xia; LIU Si-yang; BAO Zuo-yi; ZHUANG Dao-min; LI Lin; ZHANG Chun-hua; ZHANG Lu; LI Jing-yun; LU Shan

    2009-01-01

    Background The adenovirus-based HIV-1 vaccine developed by Merck Company suffered from an unexpected failure in September 2007. This generated a big shift in the strategy of HIV vaccine development with renewed focus on the induction of neutralizing antibodies. A major challenge in developing an HIV-1 vaccine is to identify immunogens and adopt delivery methods that can elicit broadly neutralizing antibodies against primary isolates of different genetic subtypes.Methods Most circulating HIV-1 isolates in China are composed of clades Thai-B, CRF_BC and CRF01_AE. In order to construct DNA vaccines against these 3 HIV-1 subtypes, DNA vaccines carrying the gp120 regions from HIV-1 isolates of GX48(AE), GX79(AE), NX22(BC), GS22(BC), HN24(Thai-B) were constructed. Expression of gp120 from these DNA vaccines was detected by Western blotting in transiently transfected 293T cells. Pilot immunizations of New Zealand white rabbits were performed using the strategy of "DNA prime plus protein boost" and the neutralizing antibody response was detected in a Tzm-bl cell based assay against different HIV-1 strains.Results Response of gp120-specific antibody was relatively low after DNA primes (mean titer=10~(4.72)); however, the titer of gp120-specific antibody went up with 2 protein boosts (mean titer=10~(6.81)). Above all, neutralizing antibody (Nab) titers induced by this combined approach were much better than those elicited by DNA or protein used alone (P <0.01). Neutralizing activities of immunized rabbit sera against several pseudoviruses and laboratorial strains were evaluated, most rabbit sera primed with monovalent vaccine were capable of neutralizing only 1 of 5 viruses, however, sera primed with the polyvalent DNA vaccines were able to neutralize at least 2 of 5 viruses.Conclusion Polyvalent DNA prime plus protein boost is an effective immunization strategy to broaden the neutralization breadth and further research should be performed on the basis of this pilot study.

  17. Blocking of HIV-1 Infectivity by a Soluble, Secreted Form of the CD4 Antigen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Douglas H.; Byrn, Randal A.; Marsters, Scot A.; Gregory, Timothy; Groopman, Jerome E.; Capon, Daniel J.

    1987-12-01

    The initial event in the infection of human T lymphocytes, macrophages, and other cells by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) is the attachment of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120 to its cellular receptor, CD4. As a step toward designing antagonists of this binding event, soluble, secreted forms of CD4 were produced by transfection of mammalian cells with vectors encoding versions of CD4 lacking its transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains. The soluble CD4 so produced binds gp120 with an affinity and specificity comparable to intact CD4 and is capable of neutralizing the infectivity of HIV-1. These studies reveal that the high-affinity CD4-gp120 interaction does not require other cell or viral components and may establish a novel basis for therapeutic intervention in the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).

  18. Multitasking: Making the Most out of the Retroviral Envelope

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    Mariana Varela

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Evasion of the host’s immune system is a required step for the establishment of viral infection. In this article, we discuss the recent findings of Heidmann and colleagues demonstrating that some retroviruses possess an immune suppressive (IS domain "encrypted" within their envelope glycoprotein that is required to establish a successful infection in immunocompetent hosts [1].

  19. Binding of HIV-1 virions to α4β7 expressing cells and impact of antagonizing α4β7 on HIV-1 infection of primary CD4+ T cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang; Li; Wei; Jin; Tao; Du; Biao; Wu; Yalan; Liu; Robin; J; Shattock; Qinxue; Hu

    2014-01-01

    HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein is reported to interact with α4β7, an integrin mediating the homing of lymphocytes to gut-associated lymphoid tissue, but the significance of α4β7 in HIV-1 infection remains controversial. Here, using HIV-1 strain Ba L, the gp120 of which was previously shown to be capable of interacting with α4β7, we demonstrated that α4β7 can mediate the binding of whole HIV-1 virions to α4β7-expressing transfectants. We further constructed a cell line stably expressing α4β7 and confirmed the α4β7-mediated HIV-1 binding. In primary lymphocytes with activated α4β7 expression, we also observed significant virus binding which can be inhibited by an anti-α4β7 antibody. Moreover, we investigated the impact of antagonizing α4β7 on HIV-1 infection of primary CD4+ T cells. In α4β7-activated CD4+ T cells, both anti-α4β7 antibodies and introduction of shorthairpin RNAs specifically targeting α4β7 resulted in a decreased HIV-1 infection. Our findings indicate that α4β7 may serve as an attachment factor at least for some HIV-1 strains. The established approach provides a promising means for the investigation of other viral strains to understand the potential roles of α4β7 in HIV-1 infection.

  20. Envelope residue 375 substitutions in simian-human immunodeficiency viruses enhance CD4 binding and replication in rhesus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Wang, Shuyi; Kong, Rui; Ding, Wenge; Lee, Fang-Hua; Parker, Zahra; Kim, Eunlim; Learn, Gerald H; Hahn, Paul; Policicchio, Ben; Brocca-Cofano, Egidio; Deleage, Claire; Hao, Xingpei; Chuang, Gwo-Yu; Gorman, Jason; Gardner, Matthew; Lewis, Mark G; Hatziioannou, Theodora; Santra, Sampa; Apetrei, Cristian; Pandrea, Ivona; Alam, S Munir; Liao, Hua-Xin; Shen, Xiaoying; Tomaras, Georgia D; Farzan, Michael; Chertova, Elena; Keele, Brandon F; Estes, Jacob D; Lifson, Jeffrey D; Doms, Robert W; Montefiori, David C; Haynes, Barton F; Sodroski, Joseph G; Kwong, Peter D; Hahn, Beatrice H; Shaw, George M

    2016-06-14

    Most simian-human immunodeficiency viruses (SHIVs) bearing envelope (Env) glycoproteins from primary HIV-1 strains fail to infect rhesus macaques (RMs). We hypothesized that inefficient Env binding to rhesus CD4 (rhCD4) limits virus entry and replication and could be enhanced by substituting naturally occurring simian immunodeficiency virus Env residues at position 375, which resides at a critical location in the CD4-binding pocket and is under strong positive evolutionary pressure across the broad spectrum of primate lentiviruses. SHIVs containing primary or transmitted/founder HIV-1 subtype A, B, C, or D Envs with genotypic variants at residue 375 were constructed and analyzed in vitro and in vivo. Bulky hydrophobic or basic amino acids substituted for serine-375 enhanced Env affinity for rhCD4, virus entry into cells bearing rhCD4, and virus replication in primary rhCD4 T cells without appreciably affecting antigenicity or antibody-mediated neutralization sensitivity. Twenty-four RMs inoculated with subtype A, B, C, or D SHIVs all became productively infected with different Env375 variants-S, M, Y, H, W, or F-that were differentially selected in different Env backbones. Notably, SHIVs replicated persistently at titers comparable to HIV-1 in humans and elicited autologous neutralizing antibody responses typical of HIV-1. Seven animals succumbed to AIDS. These findings identify Env-rhCD4 binding as a critical determinant for productive SHIV infection in RMs and validate a novel and generalizable strategy for constructing SHIVs with Env glycoproteins of interest, including those that in humans elicit broadly neutralizing antibodies or bind particular Ig germ-line B-cell receptors.

  1. Antiretrovirals, Methamphetamine, and HIV-1 Envelope Protein gp120 Compromise Neuronal Energy Homeostasis in Association with Various Degrees of Synaptic and Neuritic Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Ana B; Varano, Giuseppe P; de Rozieres, Cyrus M; Maung, Ricky; Catalan, Irene C; Dowling, Cari C; Sejbuk, Natalia E; Hoefer, Melanie M; Kaul, Marcus

    2015-10-19

    HIV-1 infection frequently causes HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) despite combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Evidence is accumulating that components of cART can themselves be neurotoxic upon long-term exposure. In addition, abuse of psychostimulants, such as methamphetamine, seems to aggravate HAND and compromise antiretroviral therapy. However, the combined effect of virus and recreational and therapeutic drugs on the brain is poorly understood. Therefore, we exposed mixed neuronal-glial cerebrocortical cells to antiretrovirals (ARVs) (zidovudine [AZT], nevirapine [NVP], saquinavir [SQV], and 118-D-24) of four different pharmacological categories and to methamphetamine and, in some experiments, the HIV-1 gp120 protein for 24 h and 7 days. Subsequently, we assessed neuronal injury by fluorescence microscopy, using specific markers for neuronal dendrites and presynaptic terminals. We also analyzed the disturbance of neuronal ATP levels and assessed the involvement of autophagy by using immunofluorescence and Western blotting. ARVs caused alterations of neurites and presynaptic terminals primarily during the 7-day incubation and depending on the specific compounds and their combinations with and without methamphetamine. Similarly, the loss of neuronal ATP was context specific for each of the drugs or combinations thereof, with and without methamphetamine or viral gp120. Loss of ATP was associated with activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and autophagy, which, however, failed to restore normal levels of neuronal ATP. In contrast, boosting autophagy with rapamycin prevented the long-term drop of ATP during exposure to cART in combination with methamphetamine or gp120. Our findings indicate that the overall positive effect of cART on HIV infection is accompanied by detectable neurotoxicity, which in turn may be aggravated by methamphetamine.

  2. A novel bispecific peptide HIV-1 fusion inhibitor targeting the N-terminal heptad repeat and fusion peptide domains in gp41.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xifeng; Jia, Qiyan; Lu, Lu; Yu, Fei; Zheng, Jishen; Shi, Weiguo; Cai, Lifeng; Jiang, Shibo; Liu, Keliang

    2016-12-01

    HIV-1 fusion with the target cell is initiated by the insertion of the gp41 fusion peptide (FP) into the target cell membrane and the interaction between the gp41 N- and C-terminal heptad repeats (NHR and CHR), followed by the formation of the six-helix bundle (6-HB) fusion core. Therefore, both FP and NHR are important targets for HIV-1 fusion inhibitors. Here, we designed and synthesized a dual-target peptidic HIV-1 fusion inhibitor, 4HR-LBD-VIRIP, in which 4HR-LBD is able to bind to the gp41 NHR domain, while VIRIP is able to interact with gp41 FP. We found that 4HR-LBD-VIRIP is about tenfold more potent than 4HR-LBD and VIRIP in inhibiting HIV-1IIIB infection and HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env)-mediated cell-cell fusion, suggesting that this dual-target HIV-1 fusion inhibitor possesses a strong synergistic antiviral effect. A biophysical analysis indicates that 4HR-LBD-VIRIP can interact with N70 peptide that contains the gp41 NHR and FP domains and binds with lipid membrane. This study provides a new approach for designing novel viral fusion inhibitors against HIV and other enveloped viruses with class I membrane fusion proteins.

  3. Relatively Flat Envelopes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁南庆

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate relatively flat envelopes. A necessary and sufficient condition is given for a relatively-finitely presented module to have a (mono-morphic or epic) relatively flat envelope. Then those rings are characterized whose every relatively-finitely presented module has a relatively flat envelope which coincides with its in-jective envelope. Some known results are obtained as corollaries.

  4. Identification of a binding site of the human immunodeficiency virus envelope protein gp120 to neuronal specific tubulin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avdoshina, Valeria; Taraballi, Francesca; Dedoni, Simona; Corbo, Claudia; Paige, Mikell; Kont, Yasemin Saygideğer; Üren, Aykut; Tasciotti, Ennio; Mocchetti, Italo

    2016-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV) promotes synaptic simplification and neuronal apoptosis, and causes neurological impairments termed HIV-associated neurological disorders (HAND). HIV-associated neurotoxicity may be brought about by acute and chronic mechanisms that still remain to be fully characterized. The HIV envelope glycoprotein gp120 causes neuronal degeneration similar to that observed in HAND subjects. The present study was undertaken to discover novel mechanisms of gp120 neurotoxicity that could explain how the envelope protein promotes neurite pruning. Gp120 has been shown to associate with various intracellular organelles as well as microtubules in neurons. We then analyzed lysates of neurons exposed to gp120 with liquid chromatography mass spectrometry for potential protein interactors. We found that one of the proteins interacting with gp120 is tubulin β-3 (TUBB3), a major component of neuronal microtubules. We then tested the hypothesis that gp120 binds to neuronal microtubules. Using surface plasmon resonance we confirmed that gp120 binds with high affinity to neuronal specific TUBB3. We have also identified the binding site of gp120 to TUBB3. We then designed a small peptide (Helix-A) that displaced gp120 from binding to TUBB3. To determine whether this peptide could prevent gp120-mediated neurotoxicity, we crosslinked Helix-A to mesoporous silica nanoparticles (Helix-A nano) to enhance the intracellular delivery of the peptide. We then tested the neuroprotective property of Helix-A nano against three strains of gp120 in rat cortical neurons. Helix-A nano prevented gp120-mediated neurite simplification as well as neuronal loss. These data propose that gp120 binding to TUBB3 could be another mechanism of gp120 neurotoxicity. PMID:26826352

  5. The C-terminal sequence of IFITM1 regulates its anti-HIV-1 activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Jia

    Full Text Available The interferon-inducible transmembrane (IFITM proteins inhibit a wide range of viruses. We previously reported the inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 strain BH10 by human IFITM1, 2 and 3. It is unknown whether other HIV-1 strains are similarly inhibited by IFITMs and whether there exists viral countermeasure to overcome IFITM inhibition. We report here that the HIV-1 NL4-3 strain (HIV-1NL4-3 is not restricted by IFITM1 and its viral envelope glycoprotein is partly responsible for this insensitivity. However, HIV-1NL4-3 is profoundly inhibited by an IFITM1 mutant, known as Δ(117-125, which is deleted of 9 amino acids at the C-terminus. In contrast to the wild type IFITM1, which does not affect HIV-1 entry, the Δ(117-125 mutant diminishes HIV-1NL4-3 entry by 3-fold. This inhibition correlates with the predominant localization of Δ(117-125 to the plasma membrane where HIV-1 entry occurs. In spite of strong conservation of IFITM1 among most species, mouse IFITM1 is 19 amino acids shorter at its C-terminus as compared to human IFITM1 and, like the human IFITM1 mutant Δ(117-125, mouse IFITM1 also inhibits HIV-1 entry. This is the first report illustrating the role of viral envelope protein in overcoming IFITM1 restriction. The results also demonstrate the importance of the C-terminal region of IFITM1 in modulating the antiviral function through controlling protein subcellular localization.

  6. Transplanting supersites of HIV-1 vulnerability.

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    Tongqing Zhou

    Full Text Available One strategy for isolating or eliciting antibodies against a specific target region on the envelope glycoprotein trimer (Env of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 involves the creation of site transplants, which present the target region on a heterologous protein scaffold with preserved antibody-binding properties. If the target region is a supersite of HIV-1 vulnerability, recognized by a collection of broadly neutralizing antibodies, this strategy affords the creation of "supersite transplants", capable of binding (and potentially eliciting antibodies similar to the template collection of effective antibodies. Here we transplant three supersites of HIV-1 vulnerability, each targeted by effective neutralizing antibodies from multiple donors. To implement our strategy, we chose a single representative antibody against each of the target supersites: antibody 10E8, which recognizes the membrane-proximal external region (MPER on the HIV-1 gp41 glycoprotein; antibody PG9, which recognizes variable regions one and two (V1V2 on the HIV-1 gp120 glycoprotein; and antibody PGT128 which recognizes a glycopeptide supersite in variable region 3 (glycan V3 on gp120. We used a structural alignment algorithm to identify suitable acceptor proteins, and then designed, expressed, and tested antigenically over 100-supersite transplants in a 96-well microtiter-plate format. The majority of the supersite transplants failed to maintain the antigenic properties of their respective template supersite. However, seven of the glycan V3-supersite transplants exhibited nanomolar affinity to effective neutralizing antibodies from at least three donors and recapitulated the mannose9-N-linked glycan requirement of the template supersite. The binding of these transplants could be further enhanced by placement into self-assembling nanoparticles. Essential elements of the glycan V3 supersite, embodied by as few as 3 N-linked glycans and ∼ 25 Env residues, can be

  7. Decreased CD4 and wide-ranging expression of other immune receptors after HIV-envelope-mediated formation of syncytia in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Toledo, Evelyn; López-Balderas, Nayali; Huerta, Leonor; Lamoyi, Edmundo; Larralde, Carlos

    2010-08-01

    In human HIV infection, multinucleated cells (syncytia) are formed by fusion of HIV-infected cells with CD4+ cells. In order to examine possible functional implications of syncytia formation for the immune response, the expression of important surface molecules by T-cell syncytia and surrounding cells that remain unfused (bystander cells) was analyzed in cocultures of HIV-Env- and CD4-expressing E6 Jurkat T cells. Fusion partners were differentially labeled with lipophilic probes, and syncytia and bystander cells were identified by flow cytometry. The cellular phenotype and response to activation stimulus after fusion were analyzed with antibodies coupled to third-party fluorochromes. Cocultured unfused E6 cells showed a marked decrease in CD4 expression, suggesting the selective recruitment of cells strongly expressing CD4 into syncytia. However, the incorporated CD4 was not detected in the syncytia, whereas the range of expression of CD28, ICAM-1, CXCR4 and CD3 was wider than that of unfused cells. Limited expression of CD4 in the bystander unfused population, as well as in the newly formed syncytia, would result in limitation of further viral entry and a failure to identify these cells, and it could partially contribute to functional impairment and a decrease in the number of CD4+ T cells in AIDS. Most of the syncytia were viable and expressed CD25 and IL-2 in response to activation by phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and ionomicyn. Thus, syncytia populations harboring widely heterogeneous levels of receptors would constitute a potential source of anomalous immune function.

  8. HIV-1自然感染中的中和抗体反应%Neutralizing antibodies responses during natural HIV-1 infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任彩云; 李妍; 凌虹

    2012-01-01

    中和抗体(Nab)可以防止I型人类免疫缺陷病毒(HIV-1)侵入靶细胞.HIV-1感染数周后即可诱导产生Nab,这些早期抗体只能特异性地中和自体病毒但不能中和异源性病毒.在一些慢性感染者体内则可以检测到可同时中和同源性和异源性病毒的广谱中和抗体(BNab).BNab的靶点通常位于包膜蛋白的保守区域.HIV-1 BNab的产生还受到病毒变异及结构遮盖等因素的限制,同时Nab的中和广度与病毒载量具有相关性.%Neutralizing antibodies can protect a host against the infection by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1).Neutralizing antibodies can be induced several weeks after infection.However,the antibodies induced in the early stage can neutralize only the autologous but not heterologous viruses.Nevertheless,broad neutralizing antibodies,which can neutralize both autologous and heterologous viruses,have been found in some chronic patients.Inaddition,broad neutralizing antibodies usually target the conserved regions of HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein.However,the envelope glycoprotein mutation and its structure shielding limit the induction of these antibodies.

  9. Characterization of Lassa virus glycoprotein oligomerization and influence of cholesterol on virus replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlie, Katrin; Maisa, Anna; Lennartz, Frank; Ströher, Ute; Garten, Wolfgang; Strecker, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Mature glycoprotein spikes are inserted in the Lassa virus envelope and consist of the distal subunit GP-1, the transmembrane-spanning subunit GP-2, and the signal peptide, which originate from the precursor glycoprotein pre-GP-C by proteolytic processing. In this study, we analyzed the oligomeric structure of the viral surface glycoprotein. Chemical cross-linking studies of mature glycoprotein spikes from purified virus revealed the formation of trimers. Interestingly, sucrose density gradient analysis of cellularly expressed glycoprotein showed that in contrast to trimeric mature glycoprotein complexes, the noncleaved glycoprotein forms monomers and oligomers spanning a wide size range, indicating that maturation cleavage of GP by the cellular subtilase SKI-1/S1P is critical for formation of the correct oligomeric state. To shed light on a potential relation between cholesterol and GP trimer stability, we performed cholesterol depletion experiments. Although depletion of cholesterol had no effect on trimerization of the glycoprotein spike complex, our studies revealed that the cholesterol content of the viral envelope is important for the infectivity of Lassa virus. Analyses of the distribution of viral proteins in cholesterol-rich detergent-resistant membrane areas showed that Lassa virus buds from membrane areas other than those responsible for impaired infectivity due to cholesterol depletion of lipid rafts. Thus, derivation of the viral envelope from cholesterol-rich membrane areas is not a prerequisite for the impact of cholesterol on virus infectivity.

  10. Identification of a human protein-derived HIV-1 fusion inhibitor targeting the gp41 fusion core structure.

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    Lijun Chao

    Full Text Available The HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env gp41 plays a crucial role in the viral fusion process. The peptides derived from the C-terminal heptad repeat (CHR of gp41 are potent HIV fusion inhibitors. However, the activity of these anti-HIV-1 peptides in vivo may be attenuated by their induction of anti-gp41 antibodies. Thus, it is essential to identify antiviral peptides or proteins with low, or no, immunogenicity to humans. Here, we found that the C-terminal fragment (aa 462-521 of the human POB1 (the partner of RalBP1, designated C60, is an HIV-1 fusion inhibitor. It bound to N36, the peptide derived from the N-terminal heptad repeat (NHR of gp41, and to the six-helix bundle (6-HB formed by N36 and C34, a CHR-peptide, but it did not bind to C34. Unlike the CHR-peptides, C60 did not block gp41 6-HB formation. Rather, results suggest that C60 inhibits HIV-1 fusion by binding to the 6-HB, in particular, the residues in the gp41 NHR domain that are exposed on the surface of 6-HB. Since 6-HB plays a crucial role in the late stage of fusion between the viral envelope and endosomal membrane during the endocytic process of HIV-1, C60 may serve as a host restriction factor to suppress HIV-1 entry into CD4+ T lymphocytes. Taken together, it can be concluded from these results that C60 can be used as a lead for the development of anti-HIV-1 therapeutics or microbicides for the treatment and prevention of HIV-1 infection, as well as a molecular probe to study the fusogenic mechanism of HIV-1.

  11. Studies in a Murine Model Confirm the Safety of Griffithsin and Advocate Its Further Development as a Microbicide Targeting HIV-1 and Other Enveloped Viruses

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    Joseph Calvin Kouokam

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Griffithsin (GRFT, a lectin from Griffithsia species, inhibits human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1 replication at sub-nanomolar concentrations, with limited cellular toxicity. However, in vivo safety of GRFT is not fully understood, especially following parenteral administration. We first assessed GRFT’s effects in vitro, on mouse peripheral blood mononuclear cell (mPBMC viability, mitogenicity, and activation using flow-cytometry, as well as cytokine secretion through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Toxicological properties of GRFT were determined after a single subcutaneous administration of 50 mg/kg or 14 daily doses of 10 mg/kg in BALB/c mice. In the context of microbicide development, toxicity of GRFT at 2 mg/kg was determined after subcutaneous, intravaginal, and intraperitoneal administrations, respectively. Interestingly, GRFT caused no significant cell death, mitogenicity, activation, or cytokine release in mPBMCs, validating the usefulness of a mouse model. An excellent safety profile for GRFT was obtained in vivo: no overt changes were observed in animal fitness, blood chemistry or CBC parameters. Following GRFT treatment, reversible splenomegaly was observed with activation of certain spleen B and T cells. However, spleen tissues were not pathologically altered by GRFT (either with a single high dose or chronic doses. Finally, no detectable toxicity was found after mucosal or systemic treatment with 2 mg/kg GRFT, which should be further developed as a microbicide for HIV prevention.

  12. Increased functional stability and homogeneity of viral envelope spikes through directed evolution.

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    Daniel P Leaman

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The functional HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env trimer, the target of anti-HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies (Abs, is innately labile and coexists with non-native forms of Env. This lability and heterogeneity in Env has been associated with its tendency to elicit non-neutralizing Abs. Here, we use directed evolution to overcome instability and heterogeneity of a primary Env spike. HIV-1 virions were subjected to iterative cycles of destabilization followed by replication to select for Envs with enhanced stability. Two separate pools of stable Env variants with distinct sequence changes were selected using this method. Clones isolated from these viral pools could withstand heat, denaturants and other destabilizing conditions. Seven mutations in Env were associated with increased trimer stability, primarily in the heptad repeat regions of gp41, but also in V1 of gp120. Combining the seven mutations generated a variant Env with superior homogeneity and stability. This variant spike moreover showed resistance to proteolysis and to dissociation by detergent. Heterogeneity within the functional population of hyper-stable Envs was also reduced, as evidenced by a relative decrease in a proportion of virus that is resistant to the neutralizing Ab, PG9. The latter result may reflect a change in glycans on the stabilized Envs. The stabilizing mutations also increased the proportion of secreted gp140 existing in a trimeric conformation. Finally, several Env-stabilizing substitutions could stabilize Env spikes from HIV-1 clades A, B and C. Spike stabilizing mutations may be useful in the development of Env immunogens that stably retain native, trimeric structure.

  13. Aptamer-targeted RNAi for HIV-1 therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiehua; Rossi, John J

    2011-01-01

    The highly specific mechanism of RNA (RNAi) that inhibits the expression of disease genes is increasingly being harnessed to develop a new class of therapeutics for a wide variety of human maladies. The successful use of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) for therapeutic purposes requires safe and efficient delivery to specific cells and tissues. Herein, we demonstrate novel cell type-specific dual inhibitory function anti-gp120 aptamer-siRNA delivery systems for HIV-1 therapy, in which both the aptamer and the siRNA portions have potent anti-HIV activities. The envelope glycoprotein is expressed on the surface of HIV-1 infected cells, allowing binding and internalization of the aptamer-siRNA chimeric molecules. The Dicer substrate siRNA delivered by the aptamers is functionally processed by Dicer, resulting in specific inhibition of HIV-1 replication and infectivity in cultured CEM T-cells and primary blood mononuclear cells. Our results provide a set of novel aptamer-targeted RNAi therapeutics to combat HIV and further validate the use of anti-gp120 aptamers for delivery of Dicer substrate siRNAs.

  14. HIV-1 neutralization: mechanisms and relevance to vaccine design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwick, Michael B; Burton, Dennis R

    2007-11-01

    Antibody (Ab) mediated neutralization is a crucial means of host resistance to many pathogens and will most likely be required in the development of a vaccine to protect against HIV-1. Here we examine mechanistic aspects of HIV-1 neutralization with attention to recent studies on the stoichiometric, kinetic and thermodynamic parameters involved. Neutralization of HIV-1, as with any microbe, minimally requires an initial molecular encounter with Ab. Ab occupancy of functional heterotrimers of the envelope glycoproteins, gp120 and gp41 (Env), indeed appears to be the dominant mechanism of neutralization for HIV-1. However, the Ab-binding site, the parameters mentioned above, as well as the stages and duration of vulnerability to Ab recognition, prior to and leading up to viral entry, each have a distinct impact on the mechanism of neutralization for any given Ab specificity. With HIV-1, the problems of mutational variation and neutralization resistance, coupled with the lability and conformational heterogeneity in Env, have stimulated the search for rational approaches to Env immunogen design that are unprecedented in vaccinology.

  15. Induction of neutralizing antibody in mice by plasmid DNA encoding envelope glycoprotein of Ebola virus%埃博拉病毒包膜蛋白DNA表达质粒对小鼠中和抗体的诱导作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何丽芳; 武雯俊; 王丽丽; 陈敏; 王馨; 杨宁; 黄镇

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the induction of neutralizing antibody in mice by plasmid DNA encoding envelope glycoprotein (GP) of Ebola virus.Methods BALB/c mice were injected i.m.with plasmids pcDNA3.1,pcDNA3.1-GP (full length GP),pcDNA3.1-GP△TM (GP with transmembrane domain deleted) and pcDNA3.1-GP△Met (GP with original codon deleted) respectively,and determined for serum antibody titer against GP by ELISA,for specificity of antibody by Western blot,and for neutralizing efficiency by Ebola pseudovirus mock infection in 293E cells.Results Both full-length GP and the GP with transmembrane domain deleted induced effective immune response,and the induced GP antibody showed high specificity.GP antiserum inhibited the entry of Ebola pseudovirus into 293E cells.Conclusion Plasmid DNA encoding GP of Ebola virus induced high titer neutralizing antibody which neutralized Ebola pseudovirus effectively.%目的 探讨埃博拉病毒(Ebola virus)包膜蛋白GP DNA表达质粒对小鼠中和抗体的诱导作用.方法 将质粒pcDNA3.1、pcDNA3.1-GP(全长GP)、pcDNA3.1-GPATM(去跨膜段的GP)和pcDNA3.1-GP△Met(去起始密码子的GP)分别经肌肉注射免疫BALB/c小鼠,ELISA法检测血清GP抗体滴度;Western blot法检测抗体的特异性;利用埃博拉假病毒感染293E细胞模型观察中和抗体对埃博拉假病毒的中和作用.结果 全长的埃博拉病毒GP和去跨膜段的GP可诱导有效的免疫反应,且诱导生成的GP抗体特异性良好;GP抗血清可有效抑制埃博拉假病毒进入293E细胞.结论 埃博拉病毒GP DNA表达质粒可诱导高滴度的中和抗体,并可有效中和埃博拉假病毒.

  16. Gp120/CD4 blocking antibodies are frequently elicited in ART-naive chronically HIV-1 infected individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Carrillo

    Full Text Available Antibodies with the ability to block the interaction of HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env gp120 with CD4, including those overlapping the CD4 binding site (CD4bs antibodies, can protect from infection by HIV-1, and their elicitation may be an interesting goal for any vaccination strategy. To identify gp120/CD4 blocking antibodies in plasma samples from HIV-1 infected individuals we have developed a competitive flow cytometry-based functional assay. In a cohort of treatment-naïve chronically infected patients, we showed that gp120/CD4 blocking antibodies were frequently elicited (detected in 97% plasma samples and correlated with binding to trimeric HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins. However, no correlation was observed between functional CD4 binding blockade data and titer of CD4bs antibodies determined by ELISA using resurfaced gp120 proteins. Consistently, plasma samples lacking CD4bs antibodies were able to block the interaction between gp120 and its receptor, indicating that antibodies recognizing other epitopes, such as PGT126 and PG16, can also play the same role. Antibodies blocking CD4 binding increased over time and correlated positively with the capacity of plasma samples to neutralize the laboratory-adapted NL4.3 and BaL virus isolates, suggesting their potential contribution to the neutralizing workforce of plasma in vivo. Determining whether this response can be boosted to achieve broadly neutralizing antibodies may provide valuable information for the design of new strategies aimed to improve the anti-HIV-1 humoral response and to develop a successful HIV-1 vaccine.

  17. Host Immune Responses in HIV-1 Infection: The Emerging Pathogenic Role of Siglecs and Their Clinical Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulak, Joanna; Di Vito, Clara; Zaghi, Elisa; Mavilio, Domenico

    2017-01-01

    A better understanding of the mechanisms employed by HIV-1 to escape immune responses still represents one of the major tasks required for the development of novel therapeutic approaches targeting a disease still lacking a definitive cure. Host innate immune responses against HIV-1 are key in the early phases of the infection as they could prevent the development and the establishment of two hallmarks of the infection: chronic inflammation and viral reservoirs. Sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectins (Siglecs) belong to a family of transmembrane proteins able to dampen host immune responses and set appropriate immune activation thresholds upon ligation with their natural ligands, the sialylated carbohydrates. This immune-modulatory function is also targeted by many pathogens that have evolved to express sialic acids on their surface in order to escape host immune responses. HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein 120 (gp120) is extensively covered by carbohydrates playing active roles in life cycle of the virus. Indeed, besides forming a protecting shield from antibody recognition, this coat of N-linked glycans interferes with the folding of viral glycoproteins and enhances virus infectivity. In particular, the sialic acid residues present on gp120 can bind Siglec-7 on natural killer and monocytes/macrophages and Siglec-1 on monocytes/macrophages and dendritic cells. The interactions between these two members of the Siglec family and the sialylated glycans present on HIV-1 envelope either induce or increase HIV-1 entry in conventional and unconventional target cells, thus contributing to viral dissemination and disease progression. In this review, we address the impact of Siglecs in the pathogenesis of HIV-1 infection and discuss how they could be employed as clinic and therapeutic targets.

  18. Design and Characterization of a Peptide Mimotope of the HIV-1 gp120 Bridging Sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Poli

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The Bridging Sheet domain of HIV-1 gp120 is highly conserved among the HIV-1 strains and allows HIV-1 binding to host cells via the HIV-1 coreceptors. Further, the bridging sheet domain is a major target to neutralize HIV-1 infection. We rationally designed four linear peptide epitopes that mimic the three-dimensional structure of bridging sheet by using molecular modeling. Chemically synthesized peptides BS3 and BS4 showed a fair degree of antigenicity when tested in ELISA with IgG purified from HIV+ broadly neutralizing sera while the production of synthetic peptides BS1 and BS2 failed due to their high degree of hydrophobicity. To overcome this limitation, we linked all four BS peptides to the COOH-terminus of GST protein to test both their antigenicity and immunogenicity. Only the BS1 peptide showed good antigenicity; however, no envelope specific antibodies were elicited upon mice immunization. Therefore we performed further analyses by linking BS1 peptide to the NH2-terminus of the E2 scaffold from the Geobacillus Stearothermophylus PDH complex. The E2-BS1 fusion peptide showed good antigenic results, however only one immunized rabbit elicited good antibody titers towards both the monomeric and oligomeric viral envelope glycoprotein (Env. In addition, moderate neutralizing antibodies response was elicited against two HIV-1 clade B and one clade C primary isolates. These preliminary data validate the peptide mimotope approach as a promising tool to obtain an effective HIV-1 vaccine.

  19. Hyperimmune antisera against synthetic peptides representing the glycoprotein of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 can mediate neutralization and antibody-dependent cytotoxic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björling, E; Broliden, K; Bernardi, D; Utter, G; Thorstensson, R; Chiodi, F; Norrby, E

    1991-01-01

    Twenty-five 13- to 35-amino-acid-long peptides representing regions of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2), strain SBL6669, envelope proteins were evaluated for their immunogenic activity in guinea pigs. The peptides were selected to provide homologous representation of sites in the HIV-1 envelope proteins that were previously documented to have a particular immunogenic importance. A number of the HIV-2 peptides were found to be capable of inducing strain SBL6669 neutralizing and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) antibodies. Two overlapping peptides covering amino acids 311-337 representing the central and C-terminal part of the variable third (V3) region, terminology according to Modrow et al. [Modrow, S., Hahn, B., Shaw, G. M., Gallo, R. C., Wong-Staal, F. & Wolf, H. (1987) J. Virol. 61, 570-578], showed the most pronounced capacity to induce neutralizing antibodies. One of the peptides (amino acids 318-337) also induced antibodies mediating ADCC. Two additional regions in the large glycoprotein, gp125, containing linear sites reacting with neutralizing antibodies were identified (amino acids, 119-137 and 472-509). The transmembrane protein, gp36, of HIV-2 harbored two regions of importance for induction of neutralizing antibodies (amino acids 595-614 and 714-729). ADCC activity was induced by two additional gp125-specific peptides (amino acids 291-311 and 446-461). Thus, except for the single V3-specific site there was no correlation between linear immunogenic sites stimulating neutralizing antibody and ADCC activity. These findings pave the way for development of synthetic vaccines against HIV-2 and possibly also simian immunodeficiency virus infections. The capacity of such a product to induce protective immunity can be evaluated in macaque monkeys. Images PMID:2068087

  20. Requirements for ER-Arrest and Sequential Exit to the Golgi of Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus Glycoproteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribeiro, D.M.O.G.; Goldbach, R.W.; Kormelink, R.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    The envelope glycoproteins Gn and Gc are major determinants in the assembly of Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) particles at the Golgi complex. In this article, the ER-arrest of singly expressed Gc and the transport of both glycoproteins to the Golgi upon co-expression have been analyzed. While prel

  1. Engineering and exploitation of a fluorescent HIV-1 gp120 for live cell CD4 binding assays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costantini, Lindsey M. [Department of Anatomy and Structural Biology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Avenue, Bronx, NY 10461 (United States); Irvin, Susan C. [Department of Pediatrics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Avenue, Bronx, NY 10461 (United States); Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Avenue, Bronx, NY 10461 (United States); Kennedy, Steven C. [Department of Pediatrics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Avenue, Bronx, NY 10461 (United States); Guo, Feng [Department of Anatomy and Structural Biology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Avenue, Bronx, NY 10461 (United States); Goldstein, Harris; Herold, Betsy C. [Department of Pediatrics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Avenue, Bronx, NY 10461 (United States); Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Avenue, Bronx, NY 10461 (United States); Snapp, Erik L., E-mail: erik-lee.snapp@einstein.yu.edu [Department of Anatomy and Structural Biology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Avenue, Bronx, NY 10461 (United States)

    2015-02-15

    The HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein, gp120, binds the host cell receptor, CD4, in the initial step of HIV viral entry and infection. This process is an appealing target for the development of inhibitory drugs and neutralizing antibodies. To study gp120 binding and intracellular trafficking, we engineered a fluorescent fusion of the humanized gp120 JRFL HIV-1 variant and GFP. Gp120-sfGFP is glycosylated with human sugars, robustly expressed, and secreted from cultured human cells. Protein dynamics, quality control, and trafficking can be visualized in live cells. The fusion protein can be readily modified with different gp120 variants or fluorescent proteins. Finally, secreted gp120-sfGFP enables a sensitive and easy binding assay that can quantitatively screen potential inhibitors of gp120-CD4 binding on live cells via fluorescence imaging or laser scanning cytometry. This adaptable research tool should aid in studies of gp120 cell biology and the development of novel anti-HIV drugs. - Highlights: • Development of fluorescent protein labeled HIV-1 envelope gp120. • Imaging of gp120 dynamics and trafficking in live cells. • Quantitative visual assay of antibody-mediated inhibition of gp120 binding to CD4 on live cells.

  2. Chemokines and chemokine receptors in HIV infection: Role in pathogenesis and therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh P

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemokines are known to function as regulatory molecules in leukocyte maturation, traffic, homing of lymphocytes and in the development of lymphoid tissues. Besides these functions in the immune system, certain chemokines and their receptors are involved in HIV pathogenesis. In order to infect a target cell, the HIV envelope glycoprotein gp120 has to interact with the cellular receptor CD-4 and co-receptor, CC or CXC chemokine receptors. Genetic findings have yielded major insights into the in vivo roles of individual co-receptors and their ligands in providing resistance to HIV infection. Mutations in chemokine receptor genes are associated with protection against HIV infections and also involved in delayed progression to AIDS in infected individuals. Blocking of chemokine receptors interrupts HIV infection in vitro and this offers new options for therapeutic strategies. Approaches have been made to study the CCR-5 inhibitors as antiviral therapies and possibly as components of a topical microbicide to prevent HIV-1 sexual transmission. Immune strategies aimed at generating anti-CCR-5 antibodies at the level of the genital mucosa might be feasible and represent a strategy to induce mucosal HIV- protective immunity. It also remains to be seen how these types of agents will act in synergy with existing HIV-1 targeted anti viral, or those currently in developments. Beyond providing new perspectives in fundamental aspects of the HIV-1 transmission and pathogenesis, chemokines and their receptors suggest new areas for developing novel therapeutic and preventive strategies against HIV infections. Studies in this review were identified through a search for relevant literature in the pubmed database of the national library of medicine. In this review, some developments in chemokine research with particular focus on their roles in HIV pathogenesis, resistance and therapeutic applications have been discussed.

  3. Tegument Assembly and Secondary Envelopment of Alphaherpesviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle J. Owen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Alphaherpesviruses like herpes simplex virus are large DNA viruses characterized by their ability to establish lifelong latent infection in neurons. As for all herpesviruses, alphaherpesvirus virions contain a protein-rich layer called “tegument” that links the DNA-containing capsid to the glycoprotein-studded membrane envelope. Tegument proteins mediate a diverse range of functions during the virus lifecycle, including modulation of the host-cell environment immediately after entry, transport of virus capsids to the nucleus during infection, and wrapping of cytoplasmic capsids with membranes (secondary envelopment during virion assembly. Eleven tegument proteins that are conserved across alphaherpesviruses have been implicated in the formation of the tegument layer or in secondary envelopment. Tegument is assembled via a dense network of interactions between tegument proteins, with the redundancy of these interactions making it challenging to determine the precise function of any specific tegument protein. However, recent studies have made great headway in defining the interactions between tegument proteins, conserved across alphaherpesviruses, which facilitate tegument assembly and secondary envelopment. We summarize these recent advances and review what remains to be learned about the molecular interactions required to assemble mature alphaherpesvirus virions following the release of capsids from infected cell nuclei.

  4. A New Method for Rapid Screening of End-Point PCR Products: Application to Single Genome Amplified HIV and SIV Envelope Amplicons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Houzet

    Full Text Available PCR is the most widely applied technique for large scale screening of bacterial clones, mouse genotypes, virus genomes etc. A drawback of large PCR screening is that amplicon analysis is usually performed using gel electrophoresis, a step that is very labor intensive, tedious and chemical waste generating. Single genome amplification (SGA is used to characterize the diversity and evolutionary dynamics of virus populations within infected hosts. SGA is based on the isolation of single template molecule using limiting dilution followed by nested PCR amplification and requires the analysis of hundreds of reactions per sample, making large scale SGA studies very challenging. Here we present a novel approach entitled Long Amplicon Melt Profiling (LAMP based on the analysis of the melting profile of the PCR reactions using SYBR Green and/or EvaGreen fluorescent dyes. The LAMP method represents an attractive alternative to gel electrophoresis and enables the quick discrimination of positive reactions. We validate LAMP for SIV and HIV env-SGA, in 96- and 384-well plate formats. Because the melt profiling allows the screening of several thousands of PCR reactions in a cost-effective, rapid and robust way, we believe it will greatly facilitate any large scale PCR screening.

  5. Labeling of multiple HIV-1 proteins with the biarsenical-tetracysteine system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cândida F Pereira

    Full Text Available Due to its small size and versatility, the biarsenical-tetracysteine system is an attractive way to label viral proteins for live cell imaging. This study describes the genetic labeling of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 structural proteins (matrix, capsid and nucleocapsid, enzymes (protease, reverse transcriptase, RNAse H and integrase and envelope glycoprotein 120 with a tetracysteine tag in the context of a full-length virus. We measure the impact of these modifications on the natural virus infection and, most importantly, present the first infectious HIV-1 construct containing a fluorescently-labeled nucleocapsid protein. Furthermore, due to the high background levels normally associated with the labeling of tetracysteine-tagged proteins we have also optimized a metabolic labeling system that produces infectious virus containing the natural envelope glycoproteins and specifically labeled tetracysteine-tagged proteins that can easily be detected after virus infection of T-lymphocytes. This approach can be adapted to other viral systems for the visualization of the interplay between virus and host cell during infection.

  6. Morphogenesis of the infectious HIV-1 virion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Ichi eSakuragi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The virion of HIV-1 is spherical and viral glycoprotein spikes (gp120, gp41 protrude from its envelope. The characteristic cone-shaped core exists within the virion, caging the ribonucleoprotein (RNP complex, which is comprised of viral RNA, nucleocapsid (NC and viral enzymes. The HIV-1 virion is budded and released from the infected cell as an immature donut-shaped particle. During or immediately after release, viral protease (PR is activated and subsequently processes the viral structural protein Gag. Through this maturation process, virions acquire infectivity, but its mechanism and transition of morphology largely remain unclear. Recent technological advances in experimental devices and techniques have made it possible to closely dissect the viral production site on the cell, the exterior – or even the interior – of an individual virion, and many new aspects on virion morphology and maturation. In this manuscript, I review the morphogenesis of HIV-1 virions. I focus on several studies, including some of our recent findings, which examined virion formation and/or maturation processes. The story of novel compound, which inhibits virion maturation, and the importance of maturation research are also discussed.

  7. Raman spectroscopic study on structure of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hypericin-induced photosensitive damage of HIV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU; Yiming; LU; Chuanzong

    2005-01-01

    The first Raman spectra of HIV1- HIV2 in human sera and hypericin-induced photosensitive damage of the virus have been obtained. The prominent Raman lines in the spectra are assigned respectively to the carbohydrates of viral glycoprotein, RNA, protein and lipid. The spectra are dominated by Raman scattering of the carbohydrates. The lines of D-Mannose and N-acetylglucosamine in carbohydrates are obvious and there is a β-configuration in the anomeric C1 position in D-Mannose. The viral RNA duplexes bound assumes an A-form geometry. The lines of backbone phosphate group, bases (involving interbase hydrogen bonding) and ribose of the RNA are complete and distinct. The secondary structure of the viral protein maintains β-helix, β-sheet, β-turn and random coil. Its side chains are rich and vary from tryptophan, phenylalanine and "buried" tyrosine; the stable conformation of the S-S bond of gauche-gauche-gauche; the two forms of C-S bonds of gauche and trans ; to sulfhydrl group and ionized and unionized carboxyl groups. The viral lipid bilayer molecules are probably in the liquid ordered phase or the gel phase. It was observed that the hypericin-induced photosensitive damage of HIV1-HIV2 in human sera changed various components of HIV1-HIV2 in different degrees : The orderly A-form viral RNA would become a disordered viral RNA. There were a breakage of interbase hydrogen bonds and disruption of vertical base-base stacking interactions. In addition, the groups of ribos and four bases were damaged obviously. A decrease in ordered structure (α-helix and α-sheet) of viral protein is accompanied by an increase in random coil. The Tyr buried in the three-dimensional structure of protein was damaged, but it was still "buried" and the damage of C-S bond of trans form was stronger. The groups of carbohydrates, including D-Mannos and N-acetyl glucosamine, in viral envelope glycoprotein had also been changed. The hydrophilic C-N bond of choline in viral lipid was damaged

  8. HIV-1跨膜蛋白gp41重组抗原的表达及其免疫反应性%HIV-1 transmembrane glycoprotein 41:Expression of recombinant antigen and antigenicity analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王林定; 付碧石; 李宝林; 钟平

    2008-01-01

    目的 为开发和建立敏感、特异的抗HIV-1抗体的检测方法研制重组gp41抗原.方法 根据HIV-1的基因序列,设计并合成了1对PCR扩增引物,应用PCR技术从HIV-1 外膜基因组中扩增出HIV-1的gp41截短体,将扩增的基因片段插入质粒pET-28a中构建成重组表达质粒pET-gp41.诱导表达并纯化gp41重组抗原,对gp41进行了初步应用分析.结果 gp41在大肠埃希菌BL21 (DE3)中获得高表达,表达量占菌体总蛋白量的26.08%.纯化后截短体gp41的纯度为97.94%.经间接ELISA和免疫印迹检测,纯化后的表达产物gp41具有很高的抗原特异性和免疫反应性.结论 研制的重组抗原gp41有较强的抗原性和潜在的应用价值.

  9. Glycoproteins: Occurrence and Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, Valentin

    Protein glycosylation is regarded as the most complex form of post-translational modification leading to a heterogeneous expression of glycoproteins as mixtures of glycoforms. This chapter describes the structure and occurrence of glycoproteins with respect to their glycan chains. Discussed are different carbohydrate-peptide linkages including GPI anchors, common structures of N- and O-glycans, and the structure of glycosaminoglycans contained in proteoglycans. Also covered are the bacterial cell wall polymer peptidoglycan and the glycopeptide antibiotics of the vancomycin group. Properties and functions of the glycans contained in glycoproteins are dealt with in the next chapter of this book.

  10. A Strategy for O-Glycoproteomics of Enveloped Viruses-the O-Glycoproteome of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagdonaite, Ieva; Nordén, Rickard; Joshi, Hiren J

    2015-01-01

    present a novel proteome-wide discovery strategy for O-glycosylation sites on viral envelope proteins using herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) as a model. We identified 74 O-linked glycosylation sites on 8 out of the 12 HSV-1 envelope proteins. Two of the identified glycosites found in glycoprotein B...

  11. Functional, non-clonal IgMa-restricted B cell receptor interactions with the HIV-1 envelope gp41 membrane proximal external region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Verkoczy

    Full Text Available The membrane proximal external region (MPER of HIV-1 gp41 has several features that make it an attractive antibody-based vaccine target, but eliciting an effective gp41 MPER-specific protective antibody response remains elusive. One fundamental issue is whether the failure to make gp41 MPER-specific broadly neutralizing antibodies like 2F5 and 4E10 is due to structural constraints with the gp41 MPER, or alternatively, if gp41 MPER epitope-specific B cells are lost to immunological tolerance. An equally important question is how B cells interact with, and respond to, the gp41 MPER epitope, including whether they engage this epitope in a non-canonical manner i.e., by non-paratopic recognition via B cell receptors (BCR. To begin understanding how B cells engage the gp41 MPER, we characterized B cell-gp41 MPER interactions in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. Surprisingly, we found that a significant (approximately 7% fraction of splenic B cells from BALB/c, but not C57BL/6 mice, bound the gp41 MPER via their BCRs. This strain-specific binding was concentrated in IgM(hi subsets, including marginal zone and peritoneal B1 B cells, and correlated with enriched fractions (approximately 15% of gp41 MPER-specific IgM secreted by in vitro-activated splenic B cells. Analysis of Igh(a (BALB/c and Igh(b (C57BL/6 congenic mice demonstrated that gp41 MPER binding was controlled by determinants of the Igh(a locus. Mapping of MPER gp41 interactions with IgM(a identified MPER residues distinct from those to which mAb 2F5 binds and demonstrated the requirement of Fc C(H regions. Importantly, gp41 MPER ligation produced detectable BCR-proximal signaling events, suggesting that interactions between gp41 MPER and IgM(a determinants may elicit partial B cell activation. These data suggest that low avidity, non-paratopic interactions between the gp41 MPER and membrane Ig on naïve B cells may interfere with or divert bnAb responses.

  12. Conserved Structural Elements in the V3 Crown of HIV-1 gp120

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, X.; Burke, V; Totrov, M; Williams, C; Cardozo, T; Gorny, M; Zolla-Pazner, S; Kong, X

    2010-01-01

    Binding of the third variable region (V3) of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120 to the cell-surface coreceptors CCR5 or CXCR4 during viral entry suggests that there are conserved structural elements in this sequence-variable region. These conserved elements could serve as epitopes to be targeted by a vaccine against HIV-1. Here we perform a systematic structural analysis of representative human anti-V3 monoclonal antibodies in complex with V3 peptides, revealing that the crown of V3 has four conserved structural elements: an arch, a band, a hydrophobic core and the peptide backbone. These are either unaffected by or are subject to minimal sequence variation. As these regions are targeted by cross-clade neutralizing human antibodies, they provide a blueprint for the design of vaccine immunogens that could elicit broadly cross-reactive protective antibodies.

  13. Antibody persistence and T-cell balance: Two key factors confronting HIV vaccine development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, George K.; DeVico, Anthony L.; Gallo, Robert C.

    2014-01-01

    The quest for a prophylactic AIDS vaccine is ongoing, but it is now clear that the successful vaccine must elicit protective antibody responses. Accordingly, intense efforts are underway to identify immunogens that elicit these responses. Regardless of the mechanism of antibody-mediated protection, be it neutralization, Fc-mediated effector function, or both, antibody persistence and appropriate T-cell help are significant problems confronting the development of a successful AIDS vaccine. Here, we discuss the evidence illustrating the poor persistence of antibody responses to Env, the envelope glycoprotein of HIV-1, and the related problem of CD4+ T-cell responses that compromise vaccine efficacy by creating excess cellular targets of HIV-1 infection. Finally, we propose solutions to both problems that are applicable to all Env-based AIDS vaccines regardless of the mechanism of antibody-mediated protection. PMID:25349379

  14. Safety and immunogenicity of a live recombinant canarypox virus expressing HIV type 1 gp120 MN MN tm/gag/protease LAI (ALVAC-HIV, vCP205) followed by a p24E-V3 MN synthetic peptide (CLTB-36) administered in healthy volunteers at low risk for HIV infection. AGIS Group and L'Agence Nationale de Recherches sur Le Sida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon-Céron, D; Excler, J L; Finkielsztejn, L; Autran, B; Gluckman, J C; Sicard, D; Matthews, T J; Meignier, B; Valentin, C; El Habib, R; Blondeau, C; Raux, M; Moog, C; Tartaglia, J; Chong, P; Klein, M; Milcamps, B; Heshmati, F; Plotkin, S

    1999-05-01

    A live recombinant canarypox vector expressing HIV-1 gpl20 MN tm/gag/protease LAI (ALVAC-HIV, vCP205) alone or boosted by a p24E-V3 MN synthetic peptide (CLTB-36) was tested in healthy volunteers at low risk for HIV infection for their safety and immunogenicity. Both antigens were well tolerated. ALVAC-HIV (vCP205) induced low levels of neutralizing antibodies against HIV-1 MN in 33% of the volunteers. None of them had detectable neutralizing antibodies against a nonsyncytium-inducing HIV-1 clade B primary isolate (Bx08). After the fourth injection of vCP205, CTL activity was detected in 33% of the volunteers and was directed against Env, Gag, and Pol. This activity was mediated by both CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes. On the other hand, the CLTB-36 peptide was poorly immunogenic and induced no neutralizing antibodies or CTLs. Although the ALVAC-HIV (vCP205) and CLTB-36 prime-boost regimen was not optimal, further studies with ALVAC-HIV (vCP205) are warranted because of its clear induction of a cellular immune response and utility as a priming agent for other subunit antigens such as envelope glycoproteins, pseudoparticles, or new peptides.

  15. Computational Design of Hypothetical New Peptides Based on a Cyclotide Scaffold as HIV gp120 Inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangphukieo, Apiwat; Nawae, Wanapinun; Laomettachit, Teeraphan; Supasitthimethee, Umaporn; Ruengjitchatchawalya, Marasri

    2015-01-01

    Cyclotides are a family of triple disulfide cyclic peptides with exceptional resistance to thermal/chemical denaturation and enzymatic degradation. Several cyclotides have been shown to possess anti-HIV activity, including kalata B1 (KB1). However, the use of cyclotides as anti-HIV therapies remains limited due to the high toxicity in normal cells. Therefore, grafting anti-HIV epitopes onto a cyclotide might be a promising approach for reducing toxicity and simultaneously improving anti-HIV activity. Viral envelope glycoprotein gp120 is required for entry of HIV into CD4+ T cells. However, due to a high degree of variability and physical shielding, the design of drugs targeting gp120 remains challenging. We created a computational protocol in which molecular modeling techniques were combined with a genetic algorithm (GA) to automate the design of new cyclotides with improved binding to HIV gp120. We found that the group of modified cyclotides has better binding scores (23.1%) compared to the KB1. By using molecular dynamic (MD) simulation as a post filter for the final candidates, we identified two novel cyclotides, GA763 and GA190, which exhibited better interaction energies (36.6% and 22.8%, respectively) when binding to gp120 compared to KB1. This computational design represents an alternative tool for modifying peptides, including cyclotides and other stable peptides, as therapeutic agents before the synthesis process.

  16. Molecular Gymnastics: Mechanisms of HIV-1 Resistance to CCR5 Antagonists and Impact on Virus Phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Michael; Borm, Katharina; Flynn, Jacqueline K; Lewin, Sharon R; Churchill, Melissa J; Gorry, Paul R

    2016-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) enters host cells through the binding of its envelope glycoproteins (Env) to the host cell receptor CD4 and then subsequent binding to a chemokine coreceptor, either CCR5 or CXCR4. CCR5 antagonists are a relatively recent class addition to the armamentarium of anti-HIV-1 drugs. These compounds act by binding to a hydrophobic pocket formed by the transmembrane helices of CCR5 and altering the conformation of the extracellular domains, such that they are no longer recognized by Env. Maraviroc is the first drug within this class to be licenced for use in HIV-1 therapy regimens. HIV resistance to CCR5 antagonists occurs either through outgrowth of pre-existing CXCR4-using viruses, or through acquisition of the ability of CCR5-using HIV-1 to use the antagonist bound form of CCR5. In the latter scenario, the mechanism underlying resistance is through complex alterations in the way that resistant Envs engage CCR5. These significant changes are unlikely to occur without consequence to the viral entry phenotype and may also open up new avenues to target CCR5 antagonist resistant viruses. This review discusses the mechanism of action of CCR5 antagonists, how HIV resistance to CCR5 antagonists occurs, and the subsequent effects on Env function.

  17. Computational Design of Hypothetical New Peptides Based on a Cyclotide Scaffold as HIV gp120 Inhibitor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apiwat Sangphukieo

    Full Text Available Cyclotides are a family of triple disulfide cyclic peptides with exceptional resistance to thermal/chemical denaturation and enzymatic degradation. Several cyclotides have been shown to possess anti-HIV activity, including kalata B1 (KB1. However, the use of cyclotides as anti-HIV therapies remains limited due to the high toxicity in normal cells. Therefore, grafting anti-HIV epitopes onto a cyclotide might be a promising approach for reducing toxicity and simultaneously improving anti-HIV activity. Viral envelope glycoprotein gp120 is required for entry of HIV into CD4+ T cells. However, due to a high degree of variability and physical shielding, the design of drugs targeting gp120 remains challenging. We created a computational protocol in which molecular modeling techniques were combined with a genetic algorithm (GA to automate the design of new cyclotides with improved binding to HIV gp120. We found that the group of modified cyclotides has better binding scores (23.1% compared to the KB1. By using molecular dynamic (MD simulation as a post filter for the final candidates, we identified two novel cyclotides, GA763 and GA190, which exhibited better interaction energies (36.6% and 22.8%, respectively when binding to gp120 compared to KB1. This computational design represents an alternative tool for modifying peptides, including cyclotides and other stable peptides, as therapeutic agents before the synthesis process.

  18. Activity of the HIV-1 Attachment Inhibitor BMS-626529, the Active Component of the Prodrug BMS-663068, against CD4-Independent Viruses and HIV-1 Envelopes Resistant to Other Entry Inhibitors

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Zhufang; Zhou, Nannan; Sun, Yongnian; Ray, Neelanjana; Lataillade, Max; Hanna, George J.; Krystal, Mark

    2013-01-01

    BMS-626529 is a novel small-molecule HIV-1 attachment inhibitor active against both CCR5- and CXCR4-tropic viruses. BMS-626529 functions by preventing gp120 from binding to CD4. A prodrug of this compound, BMS-663068, is currently in clinical development. As a theoretical resistance pathway to BMS-663068 could be the development of a CD4-independent phenotype, we examined the activity of BMS-626529 against CD4-independent viruses and investigated whether resistance to BMS-626529 could be asso...

  19. HIV entry inhibitors targeting HIV-1 gp120:research advances%作用于HIV gp120的进入抑制剂研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘叔文; 陈之朋; 王玉芹

    2011-01-01

    HIV-1 is an envelope virus. Two glycoprotein subunits, gp120 and gp41, are on the virus membrane and mediate the virus entry. The membrane fusion events leading to HIV entry into the target cell are initiated by the binding of gp120 to CD4 and subsequently to a co-receptor, CXCR4 or CCR5. Then the conformation of gp41 has also changed, resulting in the fusion between the viral and cellular membranes. Many antibodies, proteins, saccharides, peptides and small molecule compounds which bind to gp120 can deter the progress of virus entry. This review discusses recent progress in the development of anti-HIV agents targeting gp120.%HIV-1病毒为包膜病毒,其感染靶细胞的第一步是由HIV包膜蛋白表面亚基gp120与靶细胞上的CD4分子和辅助受体(趋化因子受体CCR5或CXCR4等)结合,导致gp41的构型发生改变,启动病毒包膜与靶细胞膜的融合.与gp120相结合的一些抗体、蛋白、多糖、多肽和小分子化合物,都可能影响HIV-1病毒包膜和靶细胞膜融合的过程,从而起到抗HIV-1病毒的作用.该文对近年来以HIV gp120为靶点的HIV进入抑制剂的研究进展进行综述.

  20. Kinetics of interaction of HIV fusion protein (gp41) with lipid membranes studied by real-time AFM imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bitler, Arkady, E-mail: arkady.bitler@weizmann.ac.il [Department of Chemical Research Support (Israel); Lev, Naama; Fridmann-Sirkis, Yael; Blank, Lior [Department of Biological Chemistry, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Cohen, Sidney R. [Department of Chemical Research Support (Israel); Shai, Yechiel [Department of Biological Chemistry, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel)

    2010-05-15

    One of the most important steps in the process of viral infection is a fusion between cell membrane and virus, which is mediated by the viral envelope glycoprotein. The study of activity of the glycoprotein in the post-fusion state is important for understanding the progression of infection. Here we present a first real-time kinetic study of the activity of gp41 (the viral envelope glycoprotein of human immunodeficiency virus-HIV) and its two mutants in the post-fusion state with nanometer resolution by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Tracking the changes in the phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylcholine-phosphatidylserine (PC:PS) membrane integrity over one hour by a set of AFM images revealed differences in the interaction of the three types of protein with zwitterionic and negatively charged membranes. A quantitative analysis of the slow kinetics of hole formation in the negatively charged lipid bilayer is presented. Specifically, analysis of the rate of roughness change for the three types of proteins suggests that they exhibit different types of kinetic behavior.

  1. Characterization and secreted expression of dengue virus type Ⅰ- Ⅳ envelope glycoprotein domain Ⅲ in Pichia pastoris%Ⅰ~Ⅳ型登革病毒E蛋白Ⅲ区在毕赤酵母中的分泌表达及鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡建飘; 钱菲; 王嘉颖; 赵莹; 徐晓晶; 金维荣; 车小燕

    2010-01-01

    目的 利用毕赤酵母真核系统表达Ⅰ~Ⅳ型登革病毒E蛋白Ⅲ区(DENV-1~4EDⅢ),获得可分泌表达的重组蛋白ED Ⅲ.方法 PCR分别扩增Ⅰ~Ⅳ型DENV EDⅢ区基因,构建至pPIC9K毕赤酵母表达质粒.酶切线性化后电转化毕赤酵母菌GS115,涂板后经G418梯度浓度筛选,获得多株抗G418 4.0 mg/ml的高拷贝菌株,扩大培养后,利用甲醇诱导分泌表达重组蛋白,表达上清用Ni-NTA亲和树脂纯化后以免疫印迹鉴定.结果 成功构建pPIC9K-DENV-1~4 EDⅢ重组质粒,高拷贝菌株经甲醇诱导后分泌表达Ⅰ~Ⅳ型DENV EDⅢ重组蛋白,纯化后获得的可溶性重组蛋白经变性凝胶电泳,相对分子质量约为12×103,与实际相符.免疫印迹鉴定结果表明该重组蛋白能与抗His单抗和抗Ⅰ~Ⅳ型DENV小鼠血清特异结合.结论 成功通过毕赤酵母高效分泌表达Ⅰ~Ⅳ型DENV EDⅢ蛋白,这些重组蛋白可进一步用于疫苗、诊断试剂和E蛋白生物学功能的研究.%Objective To achieve secretory and extracellular production of recombinant dengue virus serotypesⅠ - Ⅳ envelope glycoprotein domain Ⅲ ( DENV-1 - 4 ED Ⅲ ) in Pichia pastoris. Methods ED Ⅲ genes of DENV Ⅰ- Ⅳ were amplified and cloned into vector pPIC9K, respectively. These recombinant plasmids were then linearized and transferred into Pichia pastoris strain GS115. Clones highly produced in 4.0 mg/ml G418 were amplified and induced by methanol to achieve the secreted recombinant proteins. NiNTA agarose beads were used for purification, while SDS-PAGE and Western blotting were used for identification. Results The recombinant plasmids pPIC9K-DENV-1-4 ED Ⅲ were constructed and successfully transferred into Pichia pastoris strain GS115. The recombinant ED Ⅲ proteins were expressed in a secretory way with the molecular weight about 12 × 103 and specifically identified by anti-His monoclonal antibody and anti-DENV Ⅰ - Ⅳ mice sera. Conclusion DENV Ⅰ -

  2. Maturation Pathways of Cross-Reactive HIV-1 Neutralizing Antibodies

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    Dimiter S. Dimitrov

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Several human monoclonal antibodies (hmAbs and antibody fragments, including the best characterized in terms of structure-function b12 and Fab X5, exhibit relatively potent and broad HIV-1 neutralizing activity. However, the elicitation of b12 or b12-like antibodies in vivo by vaccine immunogens based on the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env has not been successful. B12 is highly divergent from the closest corresponding germline antibody while X5 is less divergent. We have hypothesized that the relatively high degree of specific somatic hypermutations may preclude binding of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env to closest germline antibodies, and that identifying antibodies that are intermediates in the pathways to maturation could help design novel vaccine immunogens to guide the immune system for their enhanced elicitation. In support of this hypothesis we have previously found that a germline-like b12 (monovalent and bivalent scFv as an Fc fusion protein or IgG lacks measurable binding to an Env as measured by ELISA with a sensitivity in the μM range [1]; here we present evidence confirming and expanding these findings for a panel of Envs. In contrast, a germline-like scFv X5 bound Env with high (nM affinity. To begin to explore the maturation pathways of these antibodies we identified several possible b12 intermediate antibodies and tested their neutralizing activity. These intermediate antibodies neutralized only some HIV-1 isolates and with relatively weak potency. In contrast, germline-like scFv X5 neutralized a subset of the tested HIV-1 isolates with comparable efficiencies to that of the mature X5. These results could help explain the relatively high immunogenicity of the coreceptor binding site on gp120 and the abundance of CD4-induced (CD4i antibodies in HIV-1-infected patients (X5 is a CD4i antibody as well as the maturation pathway of X5. They also can help identify antigens that can bind specifically to b12 germline and

  3. Envelopes of Commutative Rings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rafael PARRA; Manuel SAOR(I)N

    2012-01-01

    Given a significative class F of commutative rings,we study the precise conditions under which a commutative ring R has an F-envelope.A full answer is obtained when.F is the class of fields,semisimple commutative rings or integral domains.When F is the class of Noetherian rings,we give a full answer when the Krull dimension of R is zero and when the envelope is required to be epimorphic.The general problem is reduced to identifying the class of non-Noetherian rings having a monomorphic Noetherian envelope,which we conjecture is the empty class.

  4. Machupo Virus Glycoprotein Determinants for Human Transferrin Receptor 1 Binding and Cell Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    and form enveloped virions [1]. Seven arenaviruses cause viral hemorrhagic fever in humans: the Old World arenaviruses Lassa and ‘Lujo,’ and the New...hemorrhagic fever in humans. MACV, as well as other pathogenic New World arenaviruses, enter cells after their GP1 attachment glycoprotein binds to... fever in humans. MACV, as well as other pathogenic New World arenaviruses, enter cells after their GP1 attachment glycoprotein binds to their cellular

  5. HIV-associated disruption of tight and adherens junctions of oral epithelial cells facilitates HSV-1 infection and spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sufiawati, Irna; Tugizov, Sharof M

    2014-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2 are the most common opportunistic infections in HIV/AIDS. In these immunocompromised individuals, HSV-1 reactivates and replicates in oral epithelium, leading to oral disorders such as ulcers, gingivitis, and necrotic lesions. Although the increased risk of HSV infection may be mediated in part by HIV-induced immune dysfunction, direct or indirect interactions of HIV and HSV at the molecular level may also play a role. In this report we show that prolonged interaction of the HIV proteins tat and gp120 and cell-free HIV virions with polarized oral epithelial cells leads to disruption of tight and adherens junctions of epithelial cells through the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway. HIV-induced disruption of oral epithelial junctions facilitates HSV-1 paracellular spread between the epithelial cells. Furthermore, HIV-associated disruption of adherens junctions exposes sequestered nectin-1, an adhesion protein and critical receptor for HSV envelope glycoprotein D (gD). Exposure of nectin-1 facilitates binding of HSV-1 gD, which substantially increases HSV-1 infection of epithelial cells with disrupted junctions over that of cells with intact junctions. Exposed nectin-1 from disrupted adherens junctions also increases the cell-to-cell spread of HSV-1 from infected to uninfected oral epithelial cells. Antibodies to nectin-1 and HSV-1 gD substantially reduce HSV-1 infection and cell-to-cell spread, indicating that HIV-promoted HSV infection and spread are mediated by the interaction of HSV gD with HIV-exposed nectin-1. Our data suggest that HIV-associated disruption of oral epithelial junctions may potentiate HSV-1 infection and its paracellular and cell-to-cell spread within the oral mucosal epithelium. This could be one of the possible mechanisms of rapid development of HSV-associated oral lesions in HIV-infected individuals.

  6. HIV-associated disruption of tight and adherens junctions of oral epithelial cells facilitates HSV-1 infection and spread.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irna Sufiawati

    Full Text Available Herpes simplex virus (HSV types 1 and 2 are the most common opportunistic infections in HIV/AIDS. In these immunocompromised individuals, HSV-1 reactivates and replicates in oral epithelium, leading to oral disorders such as ulcers, gingivitis, and necrotic lesions. Although the increased risk of HSV infection may be mediated in part by HIV-induced immune dysfunction, direct or indirect interactions of HIV and HSV at the molecular level may also play a role. In this report we show that prolonged interaction of the HIV proteins tat and gp120 and cell-free HIV virions with polarized oral epithelial cells leads to disruption of tight and adherens junctions of epithelial cells through the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway. HIV-induced disruption of oral epithelial junctions facilitates HSV-1 paracellular spread between the epithelial cells. Furthermore, HIV-associated disruption of adherens junctions exposes sequestered nectin-1, an adhesion protein and critical receptor for HSV envelope glycoprotein D (gD. Exposure of nectin-1 facilitates binding of HSV-1 gD, which substantially increases HSV-1 infection of epithelial cells with disrupted junctions over that of cells with intact junctions. Exposed nectin-1 from disrupted adherens junctions also increases the cell-to-cell spread of HSV-1 from infected to uninfected oral epithelial cells. Antibodies to nectin-1 and HSV-1 gD substantially reduce HSV-1 infection and cell-to-cell spread, indicating that HIV-promoted HSV infection and spread are mediated by the interaction of HSV gD with HIV-exposed nectin-1. Our data suggest that HIV-associated disruption of oral epithelial junctions may potentiate HSV-1 infection and its paracellular and cell-to-cell spread within the oral mucosal epithelium. This could be one of the possible mechanisms of rapid development of HSV-associated oral lesions in HIV-infected individuals.

  7. High prevalence of diverse forms of HIV-1 intersubtype recombinants in Central Myanmar: geographical hot spot of extensive recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takebe, Yutaka; Motomura, Kazushi; Tatsumi, Masashi; Lwin, Hla Htut; Zaw, Myint; Kusagawa, Shigeru

    2003-09-26

    To investigate the molecular epidemiology and genetic structure of HIV-1s causing the epidemic in Central Myanmar and to explore the genesis of HIV epidemic in this area. A molecular epidemiological investigation was conducted in 1999-2000 in the city of Mandalay among high-risk populations and the structural features of circulating HIV-1s were analyzed. HIV-1 genotypes of 59 specimens were screened based on gag (p17) and env (C2/V3) regions. Near full-length nucleotide sequences of HIV-1 isolates with subtype discordance were determined and their recombinant structures were characterized. Three lineages of HIV-1 strains, including CRF01_AE (27, 45.8%), subtype B' (Thailand variant of subtype B) (15, 25.4%) and subtype C (8, 13.6%), were distributed in Mandalay, while substantial portions (9, 15.3%) of specimens showed various patterns of subtype discordance in different regions of HIV-1 genomes. The study on six HIV-1 isolates with subtype discordance revealed that they were highly diverse types of unique recombinant forms (URFs) comprised of various combinations of three circulating subtypes. One URF was a particularly complex mosaic that contained 13 recombination breakpoints between three HIV-1 subtypes. Approximately half of recombinants showed 'pseudotype' virion structures, in which the external portions of envelope glycoproteins were exchanged with different lineages of HIV-1 strains, suggesting the potential selective advantage of 'pseudotype' viruses over parental strains. The study revealed the unique geographical hot spot in Central Myanmar where extensive recombination events appeared to be taking place continually. This reflects the presence of highly exposed individuals and social networks of HIV-1 transmission.

  8. Cleavage-Independent HIV-1 Env Trimers Engineered as Soluble Native Spike Mimetics for Vaccine Design

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    Shailendra Kumar Sharma

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Viral glycoproteins mediate entry by pH-activated or receptor-engaged activation and exist in metastable pre-fusogenic states that may be stabilized by directed rational design. As recently reported, the conformationally fixed HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env trimers in the pre-fusion state (SOSIP display molecular homogeneity and structural integrity at relatively high levels of resolution. However, the SOSIPs necessitate full Env precursor cleavage, which requires endogenous furin overexpression. Here, we developed an alternative strategy using flexible peptide covalent linkage of Env subdomains to produce soluble, homogeneous, and cleavage-independent Env mimics, called native flexibly linked (NFL trimers, as vaccine candidates. This simplified design avoids the need for furin co-expression and, in one case, antibody affinity purification to accelerate trimer scale-up for preclinical and clinical applications. We have successfully translated the NFL design to multiple HIV-1 subtypes, establishing the potential to become a general method of producing native-like, well-ordered Env trimers for HIV-1 or other viruses.

  9. Simultaneous introduction of distinct HIV-1 subtypes into different risk groups in Russia, Byelorussia and Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukashov, V V; Cornelissen, M T; Goudsmit, J; Papuashvilli, M N; Rytik, P G; Khaitov, R M; Karamov, E V; de Wolf, F

    1995-05-01

    HIV-1 variants show a relatively high level of genomic and antigenic diversity. This heterogeneity is particularly high in the V3 domain of envelope glycoprotein gp120, which is implicated in a number of biological properties of HIV-1, including cell tropism, infectivity, and cytopathogenicity; it is also a target for both humoral and cellular immune response. At least nine subtypes of HIV-1 have been identified. Subtypes A-H are phylogenetically equidistant and shown to be geographically associated with different subcontinents. Subtype B is most prevalent in North and South America and western Europe. Subtypes A, C, D, G, and H are found frequently in sub-Saharan countries, while subtype C is also found in India. Subtype E sequences have been found in patients from Thailand and Central Africa, and subtype F has been described in Romania and Brazil. This study reports findings from an investigation of genotypes and serotypes of HIV-1 variants in Russia, Byelorussia, and Lithuania. Sera from 15 HIV-1-infected men and 5 HIV-1-infected females were tested by ELISA with 19 V3 synthetic peptides with amplified and sequenced serum HIV-1 V3 RNA. Sequence comparison of the envelope V3 region among specimens tested revealed a 2-29% range of nucleotide divergence, with a mean of 19%. Distinct variants of HIV-1 were found in Russia, Byelorussia, and Lithuania, which were introduced simultaneously in the mid-1980s. The diversity was shown to be associated with the route of transmission. Homosexual men appeared to be infected with subtype B compared to heterosexually infected individuals with subtype C HIV-1 variants. HIV-1 subtypes A, C, D, and G were found among parenterally-infected individuals. These findings are based upon the three peptide reactivity patterns identified by ELISA. Serum samples from six out of seven homosexual men showed reactivity to peptides p108 or p110 representing V3 amino-acid sequences found in US/West European HIV-1 isolates. Serum samples from six

  10. An expanded model of HIV cell entry phenotype based on multi-parameter single-cell data

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    Bozek Katarzyna

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Entry of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 into the host cell involves interactions between the viral envelope glycoproteins (Env and the cellular receptor CD4 as well as a coreceptor molecule (most importantly CCR5 or CXCR4. Viral preference for a specific coreceptor (tropism is in particular determined by the third variable loop (V3 of the Env glycoprotein gp120. The approval and use of a coreceptor antagonist for antiretroviral therapy make detailed understanding of tropism and its accurate prediction from patient derived virus isolates essential. The aim of the present study is the development of an extended description of the HIV entry phenotype reflecting its co-dependence on several key determinants as the basis for a more accurate prediction of HIV-1 entry phenotype from genotypic data. Results Here, we established a new protocol of quantitation and computational analysis of the dependence of HIV entry efficiency on receptor and coreceptor cell surface levels as well as viral V3 loop sequence and the presence of two prototypic coreceptor antagonists in varying concentrations. Based on data collected at the single-cell level, we constructed regression models of the HIV-1 entry phenotype integrating the measured determinants. We developed a multivariate phenotype descriptor, termed phenotype vector, which facilitates a more detailed characterization of HIV entry phenotypes than currently used binary tropism classifications. For some of the tested virus variants, the multivariant phenotype vector revealed substantial divergences from existing tropism predictions. We also developed methods for computational prediction of the entry phenotypes based on the V3 sequence and performed an extrapolating calculation of the effectiveness of this computational procedure. Conclusions Our study of the HIV cell entry phenotype and the novel multivariate representation developed here contributes to a more detailed

  11. Glycoprotein biosynthesis in calf kidney. Glycoprotein sialyltransferase activities towards serum glycoproteins and calf Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, W; Lasthuis, A M; van den Eijnden, D H

    1979-04-18

    CMP-AcNeu:glycoprotein sialyltransltransltransltransltransferase of calf kidney cortex was characterized using serum glycoproteins and Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein, obtained from calf urine, as acceptors. Native calf Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein showed the best acceptor properties, followed by desialylated calf fetuin and desialylated human alpha 1-acid glycoprotein exhibiting V values of, respectively, 114, 63 and 41 nmol/h per g wet wt. of kidney cortex and Km values of 0.12, 0.16 and 0.26 mM glycoprotein acceptor. Desialylated ovine submaxillary mucine appeared to be a very poor acceptor. Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein sialyltransferase could be distinguished from serum glycoprotein sialyltransferase by competition studies. In addition the two glycoprotein sialyltransferase activities showed different distributions over the three regions of the calf kidney: the ratios of the Tamm-Horsfall to serum glycoprotein sialyltransferase activities decreased from 3.3 in the cortex to 0.8 and 0.4 in the medulla and the papilla, respectively. It was concluded that in calf kidney at least two different sialyltransferases exist. The high cortical Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein sialyltransferases activity corresponds markedly to the origin of the urinary Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein, namely the distal part of the kidney tubule. Inactivation of glycoprotein sialyltransferase activity by preincubation at various temperatures and during storage at 0 degree C, could be reduced by the addition of CMP-AcNeu. The possible relevance towards the in vivo sialylation of this finding is discussed.

  12. Vpu downmodulates two distinct targets, tetherin and gibbon ape leukemia virus envelope, through shared features in the Vpu cytoplasmic tail.

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    Tiffany M Lucas

    Full Text Available During human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1 assembly, the host proteins CD4 (the HIV-1 receptor and tetherin (an interferon stimulated anti-viral protein both reduce viral fitness. The HIV-1 accessory gene Vpu counteracts both of these proteins, but it is thought to do so through two distinct mechanisms. Modulation of CD4 likely occurs through proteasomal degradation from the endoplasmic reticulum. The exact mechanism of tetherin modulation is less clear, with possible roles for degradation and alteration of protein transport to the plasma membrane. Most investigations of Vpu function have used different assays for CD4 and tetherin. In addition, many of these investigations used exogenously expressed Vpu, which could result in variable expression levels. Thus, few studies have investigated these two Vpu functions in parallel assays, making direct comparisons difficult. Here, we present results from a rapid assay used to simultaneously investigate Vpu-targeting of both tetherin and a viral glycoprotein, gibbon ape leukemia virus envelope (GaLV Env. We previously reported that Vpu modulates GaLV Env and prevents its incorporation into HIV-1 particles through a recognition motif similar to that found in CD4. Using this assay, we performed a comprehensive mutagenic scan of Vpu in its native proviral context to identify features required for both types of activity. We observed considerable overlap in the Vpu sequences required to modulate tetherin and GaLV Env. We found that features in the cytoplasmic tail of Vpu, specifically within the cytoplasmic tail hinge region, were required for modulation of both tetherin and GaLV Env. Interestingly, these same regions features have been determined to be critical for CD4 downmodulation. We also observed a role for the transmembrane domain in the restriction of tetherin, as previously reported, but not of GaLV Env. We propose that Vpu may target both proteins in a mechanistically similar manner, albeit in

  13. Vpu Downmodulates Two Distinct Targets, Tetherin and Gibbon Ape Leukemia Virus Envelope, through Shared Features in the Vpu Cytoplasmic Tail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Edward B.; Johnson, Marc C.

    2012-01-01

    During human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) assembly, the host proteins CD4 (the HIV-1 receptor) and tetherin (an interferon stimulated anti-viral protein) both reduce viral fitness. The HIV-1 accessory gene Vpu counteracts both of these proteins, but it is thought to do so through two distinct mechanisms. Modulation of CD4 likely occurs through proteasomal degradation from the endoplasmic reticulum. The exact mechanism of tetherin modulation is less clear, with possible roles for degradation and alteration of protein transport to the plasma membrane. Most investigations of Vpu function have used different assays for CD4 and tetherin. In addition, many of these investigations used exogenously expressed Vpu, which could result in variable expression levels. Thus, few studies have investigated these two Vpu functions in parallel assays, making direct comparisons difficult. Here, we present results from a rapid assay used to simultaneously investigate Vpu-targeting of both tetherin and a viral glycoprotein, gibbon ape leukemia virus envelope (GaLV Env). We previously reported that Vpu modulates GaLV Env and prevents its incorporation into HIV-1 particles through a recognition motif similar to that found in CD4. Using this assay, we performed a comprehensive mutagenic scan of Vpu in its native proviral context to identify features required for both types of activity. We observed considerable overlap in the Vpu sequences required to modulate tetherin and GaLV Env. We found that features in the cytoplasmic tail of Vpu, specifically within the cytoplasmic tail hinge region, were required for modulation of both tetherin and GaLV Env. Interestingly, these same regions features have been determined to be critical for CD4 downmodulation. We also observed a role for the transmembrane domain in the restriction of tetherin, as previously reported, but not of GaLV Env. We propose that Vpu may target both proteins in a mechanistically similar manner, albeit in different cellular

  14. HIV-1 exploits CCR5 conformational heterogeneity to escape inhibition by chemokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colin, Philippe; Bénureau, Yann; Staropoli, Isabelle; Wang, Yongjin; Gonzalez, Nuria; Alcami, Jose; Hartley, Oliver; Brelot, Anne; Arenzana-Seisdedos, Fernando; Lagane, Bernard

    2013-06-04

    CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) is a receptor for chemokines and the coreceptor for R5 HIV-1 entry into CD4(+) T lymphocytes. Chemokines exert anti-HIV-1 activity in vitro, both by displacing the viral envelope glycoprotein gp120 from binding to CCR5 and by promoting CCR5 endocytosis, suggesting that they play a protective role in HIV infection. However, we showed here that different CCR5 conformations at the cell surface are differentially engaged by chemokines and gp120, making chemokines weaker inhibitors of HIV infection than would be expected from their binding affinity constants for CCR5. These distinct CCR5 conformations rely on CCR5 coupling to nucleotide-free G proteins ((NF)G proteins). Whereas native CCR5 chemokines bind with subnanomolar affinity to (NF)G protein-coupled CCR5, gp120/HIV-1 does not discriminate between (NF)G protein-coupled and uncoupled CCR5. Interestingly, the antiviral activity of chemokines is G protein independent, suggesting that "low-chemokine affinity" (NF)G protein-uncoupled conformations of CCR5 represent a portal for viral entry. Furthermore, chemokines are weak inducers of CCR5 endocytosis, as is revealed by EC50 values for chemokine-mediated endocytosis reflecting their low-affinity constant value for (NF)G protein-uncoupled CCR5. Abolishing CCR5 interaction with (NF)G proteins eliminates high-affinity binding of CCR5 chemokines but preserves receptor endocytosis, indicating that chemokines preferentially endocytose low-affinity receptors. Finally, we evidenced that chemokine analogs achieve highly potent HIV-1 inhibition due to high-affinity interactions with internalizing and/or gp120-binding receptors. These data are consistent with HIV-1 evading chemokine inhibition by exploiting CCR5 conformational heterogeneity, shed light into the inhibitory mechanisms of anti-HIV-1 chemokine analogs, and provide insights for the development of unique anti-HIV molecules.

  15. Sialoadhesin expressed on IFN-induced monocytes binds HIV-1 and enhances infectivity.

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    Hans Rempel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HIV-1 infection dysregulates the immune system and alters gene expression in circulating monocytes. Differential gene expression analysis of CD14(+ monocytes from subjects infected with HIV-1 revealed increased expression of sialoadhesin (Sn, CD169, Siglec 1, a cell adhesion molecule first described in a subset of macrophages activated in chronic inflammatory diseases. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed sialoadhesin expression on CD14(+ monocytes by flow cytometry and found significantly higher expression in subjects with elevated viral loads compared to subjects with undetectable viral loads. In cultured CD14(+ monocytes isolated from healthy individuals, sialoadhesin expression was induced by interferon-alpha and interferon-gamma but not tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Using a stringent binding assay, sialoadhesin-expressing monocytes adsorbed HIV-1 through interaction with the sialic acid residues on the viral envelope glycoprotein gp120. Furthermore, monocytes expressing sialoadhesin facilitated HIV-1 trans infection of permissive cells, which occurred in the absence of monocyte self-infection. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Increased sialoadhesin expression on CD14(+ monocytes occurred in response to HIV-1 infection with maximum expression associated with high viral load. We show that interferons induce sialoadhesin in primary CD14(+ monocytes, which is consistent with an antiviral response during viremia. Our findings suggest that circulating sialoadhesin-expressing monocytes are capable of binding HIV-1 and effectively delivering virus to target cells thereby enhancing the distribution of HIV-1. Sialoadhesin could disseminate HIV-1 to viral reservoirs during monocyte immunosurveillance or migration to sites of inflammation and then facilitate HIV-1 infection of permissive cells.

  16. Phylodynamics of HIV-1 from a phase III AIDS vaccine trial in Bangkok, Thailand.

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    Marcos Pérez-Losada

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In 2003, a phase III placebo-controlled trial (VAX003 was completed in Bangkok, Thailand. Of the 2,546 individuals enrolled in the trial based on high risk for infection through injection drug use (IDU, we obtained clinical samples and HIV-1 sequence data (envelope glycoprotein gene gp120 from 215 individuals who became infected during the trial. Here, we used these data in combination with other publicly available gp120 sequences to perform a molecular surveillance and phylodynamic analysis of HIV-1 in Thailand. METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS: Phylogenetic and population genetic estimators were used to assess HIV-1 gp120 diversity as a function of vaccination treatment, viral load (VL and CD4(+ counts, to identify transmission clusters and to investigate the timescale and demographics of HIV-1 in Thailand. Three HIV-1 subtypes were identified: CRF01_AE (85% of the infections, subtype B (13% and CRF15_AE (2%. The Bangkok IDU cohort showed more gp120 diversity than other Asian IDU cohorts and similar diversity to that observed in sexually infected individuals. Moreover, significant differences (P<0.02 in genetic diversity were observed in CRF01_AE IDU with different VL and CD4(+ counts. No phylogenetic structure was detected regarding any of the epidemiological and clinical factors tested, although high proportions (35% to 50% of early infections fell into clusters, which suggests that transmission chains associated with acute infection play a key role on HIV-1 spread among IDU. CRF01_AE was estimated to have emerged in Thailand in 1984.5 (1983-1986, 3-6 years before the first recognition of symptomatic patients (1989. The relative genetic diversity of the HIV-1 population has remained high despite decreasing prevalence rates since the mid 1990s. CONCLUSIONS: Our study and recent epidemiological reports indicate that HIV-1 is still a major threat in Thailand and suggest that HIV awareness and prevention needs to be strengthened to avoid

  17. Straightforward selection of broadly neutralizing single-domain antibodies targeting the conserved CD4 and coreceptor binding sites of HIV-1 gp120.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matz, Julie; Kessler, Pascal; Bouchet, Jérôme; Combes, Olivier; Ramos, Oscar Henrique Pereira; Barin, Francis; Baty, Daniel; Martin, Loïc; Benichou, Serge; Chames, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Few broadly neutralizing antibodies targeting determinants of the HIV-1 surface envelope glycoprotein (gp120) involved in sequential binding to host CD4 and chemokine receptors have been characterized. While these epitopes show low diversity among various isolates, HIV-1 employs many strategies to evade humoral immune response toward these sensitive sites, including a carbohydrate shield, low accessibility to these buried cavities, and conformational masking. Using trimeric gp140, free or bound to a CD4 mimic, as immunogens in llamas, we selected a panel of broadly neutralizing single-domain antibodies (sdAbs) that bind to either the CD4 or the coreceptor binding site (CD4BS and CoRBS, respectively). When analyzed as monomers or as homo- or heteromultimers, the best sdAb candidates could not only neutralize viruses carrying subtype B envelopes, corresponding to the Env molecule used for immunization and selection, but were also efficient in neutralizing a broad panel of envelopes from subtypes A, C, G, CRF01_AE, and CRF02_AG, including tier 3 viruses. Interestingly, sdAb multimers exhibited a broader neutralizing activity spectrum than the parental sdAb monomers. The extreme stability and high recombinant production yield combined with their broad neutralization capacity make these sdAbs new potential microbicide candidates for HIV-1 transmission prevention.

  18. Blood-Brain Barrier Abnormalities Caused by HIV-1 gp120: Mechanistic and Therapeutic Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre Louboutin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The blood-brain barrier (BBB is compromised in many systemic and CNS diseases, including HIV-1 infection of the brain. We studied BBB disruption caused by HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein 120 (gp120 as a model. Exposure to gp120, whether acute [by direct intra-caudate-putamen (CP injection] or chronic [using SV(gp120, an experimental model of ongoing production of gp120] disrupted the BBB, and led to leakage of vascular contents. Gp120 was directly toxic to brain endothelial cells. Abnormalities of the BBB reflect the activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs. These target laminin and attack the tight junctions between endothelial cells and BBB basal laminae. MMP-2 and MMP-9 were upregulated following gp120-injection. Gp120 reduced laminin and tight junction proteins. Reactive oxygen species (ROS activate MMPs. Injecting gp120 induced lipid peroxidation. Gene transfer of antioxidant enzymes protected against gp120-induced BBB abnormalities. NMDA upregulates the proform of MMP-9. Using the NMDA receptor (NMDAR-1 inhibitor, memantine, we observed partial protection from gp120-induced BBB injury. Thus, (1 HIV-envelope gp120 disrupts the BBB; (2 this occurs via lesions in brain microvessels, MMP activation and degradation of vascular basement membrane and vascular tight junctions; (3 NMDAR-1 activation plays a role in this BBB injury; and (4 antioxidant gene delivery as well as NMDAR-1 antagonists may protect the BBB.

  19. Critical involvement of the ATM-dependent DNA damage response in the apoptotic demise of HIV-1-elicited syncytia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Luc Perfettini

    Full Text Available DNA damage can activate the oncosuppressor protein ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM, which phosphorylates the histone H2AX within characteristic DNA damage foci. Here, we show that ATM undergoes an activating phosphorylation in syncytia elicited by the envelope glycoprotein complex (Env of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1 in vitro. This was accompanied by aggregation of ATM in discrete nuclear foci that also contained phospho-histone H2AX. DNA damage foci containing phosphorylated ATM and H2AX were detectable in syncytia present in the brain or lymph nodes from patients with HIV-1 infection, as well as in a fraction of blood leukocytes, correlating with viral status. Knockdown of ATM or of its obligate activating factor NBS1 (Nijmegen breakage syndrome 1 protein, as well as pharmacological inhibition of ATM with KU-55933, inhibited H2AX phosphorylation and prevented Env-elicited syncytia from undergoing apoptosis. ATM was found indispensable for the activation of MAP kinase p38, which catalyzes the activating phosphorylation of p53 on serine 46, thereby causing p53 dependent apoptosis. Both wild type HIV-1 and an HIV-1 mutant lacking integrase activity induced syncytial apoptosis, which could be suppressed by inhibiting ATM. HIV-1-infected T lymphoblasts from patients with inactivating ATM or NBS1 mutations also exhibited reduced syncytial apoptosis. Altogether these results indicate that apoptosis induced by a fusogenic HIV-1 Env follows a pro-apoptotic pathway involving the sequential activation of ATM, p38MAPK and p53.

  20. Gp120 V3-dependent impairment of R5 HIV-1 infectivity due to virion-incorporated CCR5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monde, Kazuaki; Maeda, Yosuke; Tanaka, Yuetsu; Harada, Shinji; Yusa, Keisuke

    2007-12-21

    Entry of R5 human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) into target cells requires sequential interactions of the envelope glycoprotein gp120 with the receptor CD4 and the coreceptor CCR5. We investigated replication of 45 R5 viral clones derived from the HIV-1JR-FLan library carrying 0-10 random amino acid substitutions in the gp120 V3 loop. It was found that 6.7% (3/45) of the viruses revealed >or=10-fold replication suppression in PM1/CCR5 cells expressing high levels of CCR5 compared with PM1 cells expressing low levels of CCR5. In HIV-1V3L#08, suppression of replication was not associated with entry events and viral production but with a marked decrease in infectivity of nascent progeny virus. HIV-1V3L#08, generated from infected PM1/CCR5 cells, was 98% immunoprecipitated by anti-CCR5 monoclonal antibody T21/8, whereas the other infectious viruses were only partially precipitated, suggesting that incorporation of larger amounts of CCR5 into the virions caused impairment of viral infectivity in HIV-1V3L#08. The results demonstrate the implications of an alternative influence of CCR5 on HIV-1 replication.

  1. Generation and Characterization of a Bivalent HIV-1 Subtype C gp120 Protein Boost for Proof-of-Concept HIV Vaccine Efficacy Trials in Southern Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Zambonelli

    Full Text Available The viral envelope glycoprotein (Env is the major target for antibody (Ab-mediated vaccine development against the Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1. Although several recombinant Env antigens have been evaluated in clinical trials, only the surface glycoprotein, gp120, (from HIV-1 subtype B, MN, and subtype CRF_01AE, A244 used in the ALVAC prime-AIDSVAX gp120 boost RV144 Phase III HIV vaccine trial was shown to contribute to protective efficacy, although modest and short-lived. Hence, for clinical trials in southern Africa, a bivalent protein boost of HIV-1 subtype C gp120 antigens composed of two complementary gp120s, from the TV1.C (chronic and 1086.C (transmitted founder HIV-1 strains, was selected. Stable Chinese Hamster Cell (CHO cell lines expressing these gp120s were generated, scalable purification methods were developed, and a detailed analytical analysis of the purified proteins was conducted that showed differences and complementarity in the antigenicity, glycan occupancy, and glycan content of the two gp120 molecules. Moreover, mass spectrometry revealed some disulfide heterogeneity in the expressed proteins, particularly in V1V2-C1 region and most prominently in the TV1 gp120 dimers. These dimers not only lacked binding to certain key CD4 binding site (CD4bs and V1V2 epitope-directed ligands but also elicited reduced Ab responses directed to those epitopes, in contrast to monomeric gp120, following immunization of rabbits. Both monomeric and dimeric gp120s elicited similarly high titer Tier 1 neutralizing Abs as measured in standard virus neutralization assays. These results provide support for clinical evaluations of bivalent preparations of purified monomeric TV1.C and 1086.C gp120 proteins.

  2. Tyrosine-sulfated V2 peptides inhibit HIV-1 infection via coreceptor mimicry

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    Raffaello Cimbro

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Tyrosine sulfation is a post-translational modification that facilitates protein-protein interaction. Two sulfated tyrosines (Tys173 and Tys177 were recently identified within the second variable (V2 loop of the major HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein, gp120, and shown to contribute to stabilizing the intramolecular interaction between V2 and the third variable (V3 loop. Here, we report that tyrosine-sulfated peptides derived from V2 act as structural and functional mimics of the CCR5 N-terminus and potently block HIV-1 infection. Nuclear magnetic and surface plasmon resonance analyses indicate that a tyrosine-sulfated V2 peptide (pV2α-Tys adopts a CCR5-like helical conformation and directly interacts with gp120 in a CD4-dependent fashion, competing with a CCR5 N-terminal peptide. Sulfated V2 mimics, but not their non-sulfated counterparts, inhibit HIV-1 entry and fusion by preventing coreceptor utilization, with the highly conserved C-terminal sulfotyrosine, Tys177, playing a dominant role. Unlike CCR5 N-terminal peptides, V2 mimics inhibit a broad range of HIV-1 strains irrespective of their coreceptor tropism, highlighting the overall structural conservation of the coreceptor-binding site in gp120. These results document the use of receptor mimicry by a retrovirus to occlude a key neutralization target site and provide leads for the design of therapeutic strategies against HIV-1.

  3. Collection of phage-peptide probes for HIV-1 immunodominant loop-epitope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios-Rodríguez, Yadira; Gazarian, Tatiana; Rowley, Merrill; Majluf-Cruz, Abraham; Gazarian, Karlen

    2007-02-01

    Early diagnosis and prevention of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) infection, which remains a serious public health threat, is inhibited by the lack of reagents that elicit antiviral responses in the immune system. To create mimotopes (peptide models of epitopes) of the most immunodominant epitope, CSGKLIC, that occurs as a loop on the envelope gp41 glycoprotein and is a key participant in infection, we used phage-display technology involving biopanning of large random libraries with IgG of HIV-1-infected patients. Under the conditions used, library screening with IgG from patient serum was directed to the CSGKLIC epitope. Three rounds of selection converted a 12 mer library of 10(9) sequences into a population in which up to 79% of phage bore a family of CxxKxxC sequences ("x" designates a non-epitope amino acid). Twenty-one phage clones displaying the most frequently selected peptides were obtained and were shown to display the principal structural (sequence and conformational), antigenic and immunogenic features of the HIV-1 immunodominant loop-epitope. Notably, when the mixture of the phage mimotopes was injected into mice, it induced 2- to 3-fold higher titers of antibody to the HIV-1 epitope than could be induced from individual mimotopes. The described approach could be applicable for accurately reproducing HIV-1 epitope structural and immunological patterns by generation of specialized viral epitope libraries for use in diagnosis and therapy.

  4. Aqueous extracts from peppermint, sage and lemon balm leaves display potent anti-HIV-1 activity by increasing the virion density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baumann Ingo

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aqueous extracts from leaves of well known species of the Lamiaceae family were examined for their potency to inhibit infection by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1. Results Extracts from lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L., peppermint (Mentha × piperita L., and sage (Salvia officinalis L. exhibited a high and concentration-dependent activity against the infection of HIV-1 in T-cell lines, primary macrophages, and in ex vivo tonsil histocultures with 50% inhibitory concentrations as low as 0.004%. The aqueous Lamiaceae extracts did not or only at very high concentrations interfere with cell viability. Mechanistically, extract exposure of free virions potently and rapidly inhibited infection, while exposure of surface-bound virions or target cells alone had virtually no antiviral effect. In line with this observation, a virion-fusion assay demonstrated that HIV-1 entry was drastically impaired following treatment of particles with Lamiaceae extracts, and the magnitude of this effect at the early stage of infection correlated with the inhibitory potency on HIV-1 replication. Extracts were active against virions carrying diverse envelopes (X4 and R5 HIV-1, vesicular stomatitis virus, ecotropic murine leukemia virus, but not against a non-enveloped adenovirus. Following exposure to Lamiaceae extracts, the stability of virions as well as virion-associated levels of envelope glycoprotein and processed Gag protein were unaffected, while, surprisingly, sucrose-density equilibrium gradient analyses disclosed a marked increase of virion density. Conclusion Aqueous extracts from Lamiaceae can drastically and rapidly reduce the infectivity of HIV-1 virions at non-cytotoxic concentrations. An extract-induced enhancement of the virion's density prior to its surface engagement appears to be the most likely mode of action. By harbouring also a strong activity against herpes simplex virus type 2, these extracts may provide a basis

  5. Identification of a Small Molecular Anti - HIV - 1 Compound that Interferes with Formation of the Fusion - active gp41 Core

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV - 1 ) envelope glycoprotein gp41 plays a critical role in the fusion of viral and target cell membranes. The gp41 extracellular domain, which contains fusion peptide (FP), N - and C - terminal hydrophobic heptad repeats (NHR and CHR, respectively). Peptides derived from NHR and CHR regions,designated N- and C- peptides, respectively, can interact with each other to form a six - stranded coiled - coil domain, representing the fusion-active gp41 core. Our previous studies demonstrated that the C- peptides have potent inhibitory activity against HIV- 1 infection.These peptides inhibit HIV- 1 -mediated membrane fusion by binding to NHR regions for preventing the formation of fusion- active gp41 core. One of the C - peptides, T - 20, which is in the phase Ⅲ clinical trails, is expected to become the first peptide HIV fusion inhibitory drug in the near future. However, this peptide HIV fusion inhibitor lacks oral availability and is sensitive to the proteolytic digestion.Therefore, it is essential to develop small molecular non -peptide HIV fusion inhibitors having similar mechanism of action as the C- peptides. We have established an ELISA- based screening assay using a unique monoclonal antibody, NC- 1, which can specifically bind to a conformational epitope on the gp41 core domain. Using this screening assay, we have identified a small molecular anti- HIV- 1 compound,named ADS-Jl, which inhibits HIV- 1- mediated membrane fusion by blocking the interaction between the NHR and CHR regions to form the fusion - active gp41 core. This compound will be used as a lead to design and develop novel HIV fusion inhibitors as new drugs for the treatment of HIV infection and/or AIDS.

  6. The envelopes of amphibian oocytes: physiological modifications in Bufo arenarum

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    Sánchez Mercedes

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A characterization of the Amphibian Bufo arenarum oocyte envelope is presented. It was made in different functional conditions of the oocyte: 1 when it has been released into the coelomic cavity during ovulation (surrounded by the coelomic envelope, (CE, 2 after it has passed through the oviduct and is deposed (surrounded by the viteline envelope, (VE, and 3 after oocyte activation (surrounded by the fertilization envelope, (FE. The characterization was made by SDS-PAGE followed by staining for protein and glycoproteins. Labeled lectins were used to identify glycosidic residues both in separated components on nitrocellulose membranes or in intact oocytes and embryos. Proteolytic properties of the content of the cortical granules were also analyzed. After SDS-PAGE of CE and VE, a different protein pattern was observed. This is probably due to the activity of a protease present in the pars recta of the oviduct. Comparison of the SDS-PAGE pattern of VE and FE showed a different mobility for one of the glycoproteins, gp75. VE and FE proved to have different sugar residues in their oligosaccharide chains. Mannose residues are only present in gp120 of the three envelopes. N-acetyl-galactosamine residues are present in all of the components, except for gp69 in the FE. Galactose residues are present mainly in gp120 of FE. Lectin-binding assays indicate the presence of glucosamine, galactose and N-acetyl galactosamine residues and the absence (or non-availability of N-acetyl-glucosamine or fucose residues on the envelopes surface. The cortical granule product (CGP shows proteolytic activity on gp75 of the VE.

  7. Linac Envelope Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Baartman, Rick

    2015-01-01

    I develop the formalism that allows calculation of beam envelopes through a linear accelerator given its on-axis electric field. Space charge can naturally be added using Sacherer formalism. A complicating feature is that the reference particle's energy-time coordinates are not known a priori. Since first order matrix formalism applies to deviations from the reference particle, this means the reference particle's time and energy must be calculated simultaneously with the beam envelope and transfer matrix. The code TRANSOPTR is used to track envelopes for general elements whose infinitesimal transfer matrices are known, and in the presence of space charge. Incorporation of the linac algorithm into TRANSOPTR is described, and some examples given.

  8. HIV-Envelope–Dependent Cell-Cell Fusion: Quantitative Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonor Huerta

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Interaction in vitro between cells infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and surrounding, uninfected, target cells often leads to cell fusion and the formation of multinucleated cells, called syncytia. The presence in HIV-infected individuals of virus strains able to induce syncytia in cultures of T cells is associated with disease progression and AIDS. Even in the asymptomatic stage of infection, multinucleated cells have been observed in different organs, indicating that fused cells may be generated and remain viable in the tissues of patients. We used lymphocytic cells transfected for the expression of the HIV-envelope (Env glycoproteins to develop a method for the direct quantification of fusion events by flow cytometry (Huerta et al., 2006, J. Virol. Methods 138, 17–23; López-Balderas et al., 2007, Virus Res. 123, 138–146. The method involves the staining of fusion partners with lipophilic probes and the use of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET to distinguish between fused and aggregated cells. We have shown that such a flow-cytometry assay is appropriate for the screening of compounds that have the potential to modulate HIV-Env–mediated cell fusion. Even those syncytia that are small or few in numbers can be detected. Quantitative analysis of the fusion products was performed with this technique; the results indicated that the time of reaction and initial proportion of fusion partners determine the number, relative size, and average cellular composition of syncytia. Heterogeneity of syncytia generated by HIV-Env–mediated cell-cell fusion may result in a variety of possible outcomes that, in turn, may influence the biological properties of the syncytia and surrounding cells, as well as replication of virus. Given the myriad immune abnormalities leading to AIDS, the full understanding of the extent, diverse composition, and role of fused cells in the pathogenesis of, and immune response to, HIV infection is an

  9. Structures and Functions of Pestivirus Glycoproteins: Not Simply Surface Matters

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    Fun-In Wang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pestiviruses, which include economically important animal pathogens such as bovine viral diarrhea virus and classical swine fever virus, possess three envelope glycoproteins, namely Erns, E1, and E2. This article discusses the structures and functions of these glycoproteins and their effects on viral pathogenicity in cells in culture and in animal hosts. E2 is the most important structural protein as it interacts with cell surface receptors that determine cell tropism and induces neutralizing antibody and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses. All three glycoproteins are involved in virus attachment and entry into target cells. E1-E2 heterodimers are essential for viral entry and infectivity. Erns is unique because it possesses intrinsic ribonuclease (RNase activity that can inhibit the production of type I interferons and assist in the development of persistent infections. These glycoproteins are localized to the virion surface; however, variations in amino acids and antigenic structures, disulfide bond formation, glycosylation, and RNase activity can ultimately affect the virulence of pestiviruses in animals. Along with mutations that are driven by selection pressure, antigenic differences in glycoproteins influence the efficacy of vaccines and determine the appropriateness of the vaccines that are currently being used in the field.

  10. Maraviroc: a review of its use in HIV infection and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woollard, Shawna M; Kanmogne, Georgette D

    2015-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) enters target cells by binding its envelope glycoprotein gp120 to the CD4 receptor and/or coreceptors such as C-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5; R5) and C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4; X4), and R5-tropic viruses predominate during the early stages of infection. CCR5 antagonists bind to CCR5 to prevent viral entry. Maraviroc (MVC) is the only CCR5 antagonist currently approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration, the European Commission, Health Canada, and several other countries for the treatment of patients infected with R5-tropic HIV-1. MVC has been shown to be effective at inhibiting HIV-1 entry into cells and is well tolerated. With expanding MVC use by HIV-1-infected humans, different clinical outcomes post-approval have been observed with MVC monotherapy or combination therapy with other antiretroviral drugs, with MVC use in humans infected with dual-R5- and X4-tropic HIV-1, infected with different HIV-1 genotype or infected with HIV-2. This review discuss the role of CCR5 in HIV-1 infection, the development of the CCR5 antagonist MVC, its pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, drug-drug interactions, and the implications of these interactions on treatment outcomes, including viral mutations and drug resistance, and the mechanisms associated with the development of resistance to MVC. This review also discusses available studies investigating the use of MVC in the treatment of other diseases such as cancer, graft-versus-host disease, and inflammatory diseases.

  11. The metastable state of nucleocapsids of enveloped viruses as probed by high hydrostatic pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, L P; Terezan, A F; Pinheiro, A S; Foguel, D; Rebello, M A; Silva, J L

    2001-03-09

    Enveloped viruses fuse their membranes with cellular membranes to transfer their genomes into cells at the beginning of infection. What is not clear, however, is the role of the envelope (lipid bilayer and glycoproteins) in the stability of the viral particle. To address this question, we compared the stability between enveloped and nucleocapsid particles of the alphavirus Mayaro using hydrostatic pressure and urea. The effects were monitored by intrinsic fluorescence, light scattering, and binding of fluorescent dyes, including bis(8-anilinonaphthalene-1-sulfonate) and ethidium bromide. Pressure caused a drastic dissociation of the nucleocapsids as determined by tryptophan fluorescence, light scattering, and gel filtration chromatography. Pressure-induced dissociation of the nucleocapsids was poorly reversible. In contrast, when the envelope was present, pressure effects were much less marked and were highly reversible. Binding of ethidium bromide occurred when nucleocapsids were dissociated under pressure, indicating exposure of the nucleic acid, whereas enveloped particles underwent no changes. Overall, our results demonstrate that removal of the envelope with the glycoproteins leads the particle to a metastable state and, during infection, may serve as the trigger for disassembly and delivery of the genome. The envelope acts as a "Trojan horse," gaining entry into the host cell to allow release of a metastable nucleocapsid prone to disassembly.

  12. Global N-Glycan Site Occupancy of HIV-1 gp120 by Metabolic Engineering and High-Resolution Intact Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struwe, Weston B; Stuckmann, Alexandra; Behrens, Anna-Janina; Pagel, Kevin; Crispin, Max

    2017-02-17

    A vital step in HIV vaccine development strategies has been the observation that some infected individuals generate broadly neutralizing antibodies that target the glycans on the surface of HIV-1 gp120. These antibodies target glycan epitopes on viral envelope spikes, and yet the positions and degree of occupancy of glycosylation sites is diverse. Therefore, there is a need to understand glycosylation occupancy on recombinant immunogens. The sheer number of potential glycosylation sites and degree of chemical heterogeneity impedes assessing the global sequon occupancy of gp120 glycoforms. Here, we trap the glycan processing of recombinant gp120 to generate homogeneous glycoforms, facilitating occupancy assessment by intact mass spectrometry. We show that gp120 monomers of the BG505 strain contain either fully occupied sequons or missing the equivalent of one and sometimes two glycans across the molecule. This biosynthetic engineering approach enables the analysis of therapeutically important glycoproteins otherwise recalcitrant to analysis by native mass spectrometry.

  13. Peptide Targeted by Human Antibodies Associated with HIV Vaccine-Associated Protection Assumes a Dynamic α-Helical Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, Lorenzo; Goger, Michael; Battacharya, Shibani; deCamp, Allan C.; Gilbert, Peter B.; Berman, Phillip W.; Cardozo, Timothy

    2017-01-01

    The only evidence of vaccine-induced protection from HIV acquisition in humans was obtained in the RV144 HIV vaccine clinical trial. One immune correlate of risk in RV144 was observed to be higher titers of vaccine-induced antibodies (Abs) reacting with a 23-mer non-glycosylated peptide with the same amino acid sequence as a segment in the second variable (V2) loop of the MN strain of HIV. We used NMR to analyze the dynamic 3D structure of this peptide. Distance restraints between spatially proximate inter-residue protons were calculated from NOE cross peak intensities and used to constrain a thorough search of all possible conformations of the peptide. α–helical folding was strongly preferred by part of the peptide. A high-throughput structure prediction of this segment in all circulating HIV strains demonstrated that α–helical conformations are preferred by this segment almost universally across all subtypes. Notably, α–helical conformations of this segment of the V2 loop cluster cross-subtype-conserved amino acids on one face of the helix and the variable amino acid positions on the other in a semblance of an amphipathic α–helix. Accordingly, some Abs that protected against HIV in RV144 may have targeted a specific, conserved α–helical peptide epitope in the V2 loop of HIV’s surface envelope glycoprotein. PMID:28107435

  14. Strategic addition of an N-linked glycan to a monoclonal antibody improves its HIV-1-neutralizing activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ruijiang; Oren, Deena A; Franco, David; Seaman, Michael S; Ho, David D

    2013-11-01

    Ibalizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody that binds human CD4--a key receptor for HIV--and blocks HIV-1 infection. However, HIV-1 strains with mutations resulting in loss of an N-linked glycan from the V5 loop of the envelope glycoprotein gp120 are resistant to ibalizumab. Previous structural analysis suggests that this glycan fills a void between the gp120 V5 loop and the ibalizumab light chain, perhaps causing steric hindrance that disrupts viral entry. If this void contributes to HIV-1 resistance to ibalizumab, we reasoned that 'refilling' it by engineering an N-linked glycan into the ibalizumab light chain at a position spatially proximal to gp120 V5 may restore susceptibility to ibalizumab. Indeed, one such ibalizumab variant neutralized 100% of 118 diverse HIV-1 strains tested in vitro, including 10 strains resistant to parental ibalizumab. These findings demonstrate that the strategic placement of a glycan in the variable region of a monoclonal antibody can substantially enhance its activity.

  15. Longitudinal Analysis of CCR5 and CXCR4 Usage in a Cohort of Antiretroviral Therapy-Naive Subjects with Progressive HIV-1 Subtype C Infection.

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    Martin R Jakobsen

    Full Text Available HIV-1 subtype C (C-HIV is responsible for most HIV-1 cases worldwide. Although the pathogenesis of C-HIV is thought to predominantly involve CCR5-restricted (R5 strains, we do not have a firm understanding of how frequently CXCR4-using (X4 and R5X4 variants emerge in subjects with progressive C-HIV infection. Nor do we completely understand the molecular determinants of coreceptor switching by C-HIV variants. Here, we characterized a panel of HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins (Envs (n = 300 cloned sequentially from plasma of 21 antiretroviral therapy (ART-naïve subjects who experienced progression from chronic to advanced stages of C-HIV infection, and show that CXCR4-using C-HIV variants emerged in only one individual. Mutagenesis studies and structural models suggest that the evolution of R5 to X4 variants in this subject principally involved acquisition of an "Ile-Gly" insertion in the gp120 V3 loop and replacement of the V3 "Gly-Pro-Gly" crown with a "Gly-Arg-Gly" motif, but that the accumulation of additional gp120 "scaffold" mutations was required for these V3 loop changes to confer functional effects. In this context, either of the V3 loop changes could confer possible transitional R5X4 phenotypes, but when present together they completely abolished CCR5 usage and conferred the X4 phenotype. Our results show that the emergence of CXCR4-using strains is rare in this cohort of untreated individuals with advanced C-HIV infection. In the subject where X4 variants did emerge, alterations in the gp120 V3 loop were necessary but not sufficient to confer CXCR4 usage.

  16. Data envelopment analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This review introduces the history and present status of data envelopment analysis (DEA) research, particularly the evaluation process. And extensions of some DEA models are also described. It is pointed out that mathematics, economics and management science are the main forces in the DEA development, optimization provides the fundamental method for the DEA research, and the wide range of applications enforces the rapid development of DEA.

  17. Internal mail envelopes

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Internal mail envelopes often finish up in large piles in certain offices, thus creating a shortage for other users of the mail service, who would be grateful if everyone with an unusual stock could deposit them in their mail box, after attaching them together with an elastic band or piece of string. The messengers will then collect them so that the Mail Office can put them back in circulation. Thank you for your understanding and collaboration. Mail Office

  18. URGENT - Internal Mail Envelopes

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Internal mail envelopes often finish up in large piles in certain offices, thus creating a shortage for other users of the mail service, who would be grateful if everyone with an unused stock could deposit them in their mail box, after attaching them together with an elastic band or piece of string. The messengers will then collect them so that the Mail Office can put them back in circulation. Thank you for your understanding and collaboration. Mail Office

  19. Thermal Activated Envelope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Isak Worre; Pasold, Anke

    2015-01-01

    search procedure, the combination of materials and their bonding temperature is found in relation to the envelope effect on a thermal environment inside a defined space. This allows the designer to articulate dynamic composites with time-based thermal functionality, related to the material dynamics......, environmental dynamics and occupancy dynamics. Lastly, a physical prototype is created, which illustrates the physical expression of the bi-materials and the problems related to manufacturing of these composite structures....

  20. Intracellular mannose binding lectin mediates subcellular trafficking of HIV-1 gp120 in neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodorof, C; Divakar, S; Soontornniyomkij, B; Achim, C L; Kaul, M; Singh, K K

    2014-09-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) enters the brain early during infection and leads to severe neuronal damage and central nervous system impairment. HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein 120 (gp120), a neurotoxin, undergoes intracellular trafficking and transport across neurons; however mechanisms of gp120 trafficking in neurons are unclear. Our results show that mannose binding lectin (MBL) that binds to the N-linked mannose residues on gp120, participates in intravesicular packaging of gp120 in neuronal subcellular organelles and also in subcellular trafficking of these vesicles in neuronal cells. Perinuclear MBL:gp120 vesicular complexes were observed and MBL facilitated the subcellular trafficking of gp120 via the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi vesicles. The functional carbohydrate recognition domain of MBL was required for perinuclear organization, distribution and subcellular trafficking of MBL:gp120 vesicular complexes. Nocodazole, an agent that depolymerizes the microtubule network, abolished the trafficking of MBL:gp120 vesicles, suggesting that these vesicular complexes were transported along the microtubule network. Live cell imaging confirmed the association of the MBL:gp120 complexes with dynamic subcellular vesicles that underwent trafficking in neuronal soma and along the neurites. Thus, our findings suggest that intracellular MBL mediates subcellular trafficking and transport of viral glycoproteins in a microtubule-dependent mechanism in the neurons.

  1. Harnessing the protective potential of HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Abigail Smith

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent biological, structural, and technical advances are converging within the HIV-1 vaccine field to harness the power of antibodies for prevention and therapy. Numerous monoclonal antibodies with broad neutralizing activity against diverse HIV-1 isolates have now been identified, revealing at least five sites of vulnerability on the envelope (Env glycoproteins. While there are practical and technological barriers blocking a clear path from broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAb to a protective vaccine, this is not a dead end. Scientists are revisiting old approaches with new technology, cutting new trails through unexplored territory, and paving new roads in the hopes of preventing HIV-1 infection. Other promising avenues to capitalize on the power of bNAbs are also being pursued, such as passive antibody immunotherapy and gene therapy approaches. Moreover, non-neutralizing antibodies have inhibitory activities that could have protective potential, alone or in combination with bNAbs. With a new generation of bNAbs, and a clinical trial that associated antibodies with reduced acquisition, the field is closer than ever to developing strategies to use antibodies against HIV-1.

  2. Distribution of surface glycoproteins on influenza A virus determined by electron cryotomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasilewski, Sebastian; Calder, Lesley J; Grant, Tim; Rosenthal, Peter B

    2012-12-07

    We use electron cryotomography to reconstruct virions of two influenza A H3N2 virus strains. The maps reveal the structure of the viral envelope containing hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) glycoproteins and the virus interior containing a matrix layer and an assembly of ribonucleoprotein particles (RNPs) that package the genome. We build a structural model for the viral surface by locating copies of the X-ray structure of the HA ectodomain into density peaks on the virus surface. We calculate inter-glycoprotein distances and the fractional volume occupied by glycoproteins. The models suggest that for typical HA densities on virus, Fabs can bind to epitopes on the HA stem domain. The models also show how membrane curvature may influence the number of glycoproteins that can simultaneously interact with a target surface of receptors.

  3. Folding and Dimerization of Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus Envelope Proteins prM and E in the Endoplasmic Reticulum

    OpenAIRE

    Ivo C. Lorenz; Allison, Steven L.; Heinz, Franz X; Helenius, Ari

    2002-01-01

    Flavivirus envelope proteins are synthesized as part of large polyproteins that are co- and posttranslationally cleaved into their individual chains. To investigate whether the interaction of neighboring proteins within the precursor protein is required to ensure proper maturation of the individual components, we have analyzed the folding of the flavivirus tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus envelope glycoproteins prM and E by using a recombinant plasmid expression system and virus-infected c...

  4. Potent and synergistic neutralization of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 primary isolates by hyperimmune anti-HIV immunoglobulin combined with monoclonal antibodies 2F5 and 2G12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascola, J R; Louder, M K; VanCott, T C; Sapan, C V; Lambert, J S; Muenz, L R; Bunow, B; Birx, D L; Robb, M L

    1997-10-01

    Three antibody reagents that neutralize primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) isolates were tested for magnitude and breadth of neutralization when used alone or in double or triple combinations. Hyperimmune anti-HIV immunoglobulin (HIVIG) is derived from the plasma of HIV-1-infected donors, and monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) 2F5 and 2G12 bind to distinct regions of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein. The antibodies were initially tested against a panel of 15 clade B HIV-1 isolates, using a single concentration that is achievable in vivo (HIVIG, 2,500 microg/ml; MAbs, 25 microg/ml). Individual antibody reagents neutralized many of the viruses tested, but antibody potency varied substantially among the viruses. The virus neutralization produced by double combinations of HIVIG plus 2F5 or 2G12, the two MAbs together, or the triple combination of HIVIG, 2F5, and 2G12 was generally equal to or greater than that predicted by the effect of individual antibodies. Overall, the triple combination displayed the greatest magnitude and breadth of neutralization. Synergistic neutralization was evaluated by analyzing data from dose-response curves of each individual antibody reagent compared to the triple combination and was demonstrated against each of four viruses tested. Therefore, combinations of polyclonal and monoclonal anti-HIV antibodies can produce additive or synergistic neutralization of primary HIV-1 isolates. Passive immunotherapy for treatment or prophylaxis of HIV-1 should consider mixtures of potent neutralizing antibody reagents to expand the magnitude and breadth of virus neutralization.

  5. Sensitivity of transmitted and founder human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelopes to carbohydrate-binding agents griffithsin, cyanovirin-N and Galanthus nivalis agglutinin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bodan; Du, Tao; Li, Chang; Luo, Sukun; Liu, Yalan; Huang, Xin; Hu, Qinxue

    2015-12-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transmission often results from infection by a single transmitted/founder (T/F) virus. Here, we investigated the sensitivity of T/F HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins (Envs) to microbicide candidate carbohydrate-binding agents (CBAs) griffithsin (GRFT), cyanovirin-N (CV-N) and Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA), showing that T/F Envs demonstrated different sensitivity to CBAs, with IC50 values ranging from 0.006 ± 0.0003 to >10 nM for GRFT, from 0.6 ± 0.2 to 28.9 ± 2.9 nM for CV-N and from 1.3 ± 0.2 to >500 nM for GNA. We further revealed that deglycosylation at position 295 or 448 decreased the sensitivity of T/F Env to GRFT, and at 339 to both CV-N and GNA. Mutation of all the three glcyans rendered a CBA-sensitive T/F Env largely resistant to GRFT, indicating that the sensitivity of T/F Env to GRFT is mainly determined by glycans at 295, 339 and 448. Our study identified specific T/F Env residues associated with CBA sensitivity.

  6. Functional Mimetics of the HIV-1 CCR5 Co-Receptor Displayed on the Surface of Magnetic Liposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmina, Alona; Vaknin, Karin; Gdalevsky, Garik; Vyazmensky, Maria; Marks, Robert S; Taube, Ran; Engel, Stanislav

    2015-01-01

    Chemokine G protein coupled receptors, principally CCR5 or CXCR4, function as co-receptors for HIV-1 entry into CD4+ T cells. Initial binding of the viral envelope glycoprotein (Env) gp120 subunit to the host CD4 receptor induces a cascade of structural conformational changes that lead to the formation of a high-affinity co-receptor-binding site on gp120. Interaction between gp120 and the co-receptor leads to the exposure of epitopes on the viral gp41 that mediates fusion between viral and cell membranes. Soluble CD4 (sCD4) mimetics can act as an activation-based inhibitor of HIV-1 entry in vitro, as it induces similar structural changes in gp120, leading to increased virus infectivity in the short term but to virus Env inactivation in the long term. Despite promising clinical implications, sCD4 displays low efficiency in vivo, and in multiple HIV strains, it does not inhibit viral infection. This has been attributed to the slow kinetics of the sCD4-induced HIV Env inactivation and to the failure to obtain sufficient sCD4 mimetic levels in the serum. Here we present uniquely structured CCR5 co-receptor mimetics. We hypothesized that such mimetics will enhance sCD4-induced HIV Env inactivation and inhibition of HIV entry. Co-receptor mimetics were derived from CCR5 gp120-binding epitopes and functionalized with a palmitoyl group, which mediated their display on the surface of lipid-coated magnetic beads. CCR5-peptidoliposome mimetics bound to soluble gp120 and inhibited HIV-1 infectivity in a sCD4-dependent manner. We concluded that CCR5-peptidoliposomes increase the efficiency of sCD4 to inhibit HIV infection by acting as bait for sCD4-primed virus, catalyzing the premature discharge of its fusion potential.

  7. Functional Mimetics of the HIV-1 CCR5 Co-Receptor Displayed on the Surface of Magnetic Liposomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alona Kuzmina

    Full Text Available Chemokine G protein coupled receptors, principally CCR5 or CXCR4, function as co-receptors for HIV-1 entry into CD4+ T cells. Initial binding of the viral envelope glycoprotein (Env gp120 subunit to the host CD4 receptor induces a cascade of structural conformational changes that lead to the formation of a high-affinity co-receptor-binding site on gp120. Interaction between gp120 and the co-receptor leads to the exposure of epitopes on the viral gp41 that mediates fusion between viral and cell membranes. Soluble CD4 (sCD4 mimetics can act as an activation-based inhibitor of HIV-1 entry in vitro, as it induces similar structural changes in gp120, leading to increased virus infectivity in the short term but to virus Env inactivation in the long term. Despite promising clinical implications, sCD4 displays low efficiency in vivo, and in multiple HIV strains, it does not inhibit viral infection. This has been attributed to the slow kinetics of the sCD4-induced HIV Env inactivation and to the failure to obtain sufficient sCD4 mimetic levels in the serum. Here we present uniquely structured CCR5 co-receptor mimetics. We hypothesized that such mimetics will enhance sCD4-induced HIV Env inactivation and inhibition of HIV entry. Co-receptor mimetics were derived from CCR5 gp120-binding epitopes and functionalized with a palmitoyl group, which mediated their display on the surface of lipid-coated magnetic beads. CCR5-peptidoliposome mimetics bound to soluble gp120 and inhibited HIV-1 infectivity in a sCD4-dependent manner. We concluded that CCR5-peptidoliposomes increase the efficiency of sCD4 to inhibit HIV infection by acting as bait for sCD4-primed virus, catalyzing the premature discharge of its fusion potential.

  8. Uncertain data envelopment analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Wen, Meilin

    2014-01-01

    This book is intended to present the milestones in the progression of uncertain Data envelopment analysis (DEA). Chapter 1 gives some basic introduction to uncertain theories, including probability theory, credibility theory, uncertainty theory and chance theory. Chapter 2 presents a comprehensive review and discussion of basic DEA models. The stochastic DEA is introduced in Chapter 3, in which the inputs and outputs are assumed to be random variables. To obtain the probability distribution of a random variable, a lot of samples are needed to apply the statistics inference approach. Chapter 4

  9. The Mechanism of Henipavirus Fusion: Examining the Relationships between the Attachment and Fusion Glycoproteins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrew C. Hickey; Christopher C. Broder

    2009-01-01

    The henipaviruses, represented by Nipah virus and Hendra virus, are emerging zoonotic viral pathogens responsible for repeated outbreaks associated with high morbidity and mortality in Australia, Southeast Asia, India and Bangladesh. These viruses enter host cells via a class I viral fusion mechanism mediated by their attachment and fusion envelope glycoproteins; efficient membrane fusion requires both these glycoproteins in conjunction with specific virus receptors present on susceptible host cells. The henipavirus attachment glycoprotein interacts with a cellular B class ephrin protein receptor triggering conformational alterations leading to the activation of the viral fusion (F) glycoprotein. The analysis of monoclonal antibody (mAb) reactivity with G has revealed measurable alterations in the antigenic structure of the glycoprotein following its binding interaction with receptor. These observations only appear to occur with full-length native G glycoprotein, which is a tetrameric oligomer, and not with soluble forms of G (sG), which are disulfide-linked dimers. Single amino acid mutations in a heptad repeat-like structure within the stalk domain of G can disrupt its association with F and subsequent membrane fusion promotion activity. Notably, these mutants of G also appear to confer a postreceptor bound conformation implicating the stalk domain as an important element in the G glycoprotein's structure and functional relationship with F. Together, these observations suggest fusion is dependent on a specific interaction between the F and G glycoproteins of the henipaviruses. Further, receptor binding induces measurable changes in the G glycoprotein that appear to be greatest in respect to the interactions between the pairs of dimers comprising its native tetrameric structure. These receptor-induced conformational changes may be associated with the G glycoprotein's promotion of the fusion activity of F.

  10. Salivary agglutinin/glycoprotein-340/DMBT1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ligtenberg, Antoon J M; Veerman, Enno C I; Nieuw Amerongen, Arie V

    2007-01-01

    Salivary agglutinin (SAG), lung glycoprotein-340 (gp-340) and Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumours 1 (DMBT1) are three names for identical proteins encoded by the dmbt1 gene. DMBT1/SAG/gp-340 belongs to the scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR) superfamily of proteins, a superfamily of secreted...... or membrane-bound proteins with SRCR domains that are highly conserved down to sponges, the most ancient metazoa. On the one hand, DMBT1 may represent an innate defence factor acting as a pattern recognition molecule. It interacts with a broad range of pathogens, including cariogenic streptococci...... and Helicobacter pylori, influenza viruses and HIV, but also with mucosal defence proteins, such as IgA, surfactant proteins and MUC5B. Stimulation of alveolar macrophage migration, suppression of neutrophil oxidative burst and activation of the complement cascade point further to an important role...

  11. Transduction of human primitive repopulating hematopoietic cells with lentiviral vectors pseudotyped with various envelope proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoon-Sang; Wielgosz, Matthew M; Hargrove, Phillip; Kepes, Steven; Gray, John; Persons, Derek A; Nienhuis, Arthur W

    2010-07-01

    Lentiviral vectors are useful for transducing primitive hematopoietic cells. We examined four envelope proteins for their ability to mediate lentiviral transduction of mobilized human CD34(+) peripheral blood cells. Lentiviral particles encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) were pseudotyped with the vesicular stomatitis virus envelope glycoprotein (VSV-G), the amphotropic (AMPHO) murine leukemia virus envelope protein, the endogenous feline leukemia viral envelope protein or the feline leukemia virus type C envelope protein. Because the relative amount of genome RNA per ml was similar for each pseudotype, we transduced CD34(+) cells with a fixed volume of each vector preparation. Following an overnight transduction, CD34(+) cells were transplanted into immunodeficient mice which were sacrificed 12 weeks later. The average percentages of engrafted human CD45(+) cells in total bone marrow were comparable to that of the control, mock-transduced group (37-45%). Lenti-particles pseudotyped with the VSV-G envelope protein transduced engrafting cells two- to tenfold better than particles pseudotyped with any of the gamma-retroviral envelope proteins. There was no correlation between receptor mRNA levels for the gamma-retroviral vectors and transduction efficiency of primitive hematopoietic cells. These results support the use of the VSV-G envelope protein for the development of lentiviral producer cell lines for manufacture of clinical-grade vector.

  12. HSV-1 Glycoproteins Are Delivered to Virus Assembly Sites Through Dynamin-Dependent Endocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albecka, Anna; Laine, Romain F; Janssen, Anne F J; Kaminski, Clemens F; Crump, Colin M

    2016-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) is a large enveloped DNA virus that belongs to the family of Herpesviridae. It has been recently shown that the cytoplasmic membranes that wrap the newly assembled capsids are endocytic compartments derived from the plasma membrane. Here, we show that dynamin-dependent endocytosis plays a major role in this process. Dominant-negative dynamin and clathrin adaptor AP180 significantly decrease virus production. Moreover, inhibitors targeting dynamin and clathrin lead to a decreased transport of glycoproteins to cytoplasmic capsids, confirming that glycoproteins are delivered to assembly sites via endocytosis. We also show that certain combinations of glycoproteins colocalize with each other and with the components of clathrin-dependent and -independent endocytosis pathways. Importantly, we demonstrate that the uptake of neutralizing antibodies that bind to glycoproteins when they become exposed on the cell surface during virus particle assembly leads to the production of non-infectious HSV-1. Our results demonstrate that transport of viral glycoproteins to the plasma membrane prior to endocytosis is the major route by which these proteins are localized to the cytoplasmic virus assembly compartments. This highlights the importance of endocytosis as a major protein-sorting event during HSV-1 envelopment.

  13. HLA-C increases HIV-1 infectivity and is associated with gp120

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)</