WorldWideScience

Sample records for history theory practice

  1. Early Childhood Education: History, Theory, and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Harry

    2006-01-01

    In this book, the author covers the history, theory, and practices that influence early childhood education along with an emphasis on infant and toddler care and education. He also presents a comparison of the conflict between education planners who support early childhood studies and state school systems whose cost-saving measures are dismantling…

  2. Interactive digital narrative history, theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Koenitz, Hartmut; Haahr, Mads; Sezen, Digdem; Sezen, Tonguç Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    The book is concerned with narrative in digital media that changes according to user input-Interactive Digital Narrative (IDN). It provides a broad overview of current issues and future directions in this multi-disciplinary field that includes humanities-based and computational perspectives. It assembles the voices of leading researchers and practitioners like Janet Murray, Marie-Laure Ryan, Scott Rettberg and Martin Rieser. In three sections, it covers history, theoretical perspectives and varieties of practice including narrative game design, with a special focus on changes in the power rela

  3. Early Childhood Education: History, Theory, and Practice. Second Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Harry

    2010-01-01

    Harry Morgan lays the foundations of what early childhood education is by integrating the history of the field with the philosophy and theories behind this discipline. From birth to age eight, when children become integrated into society through their education at school and at home, "Early Childhood Education" examines the education of this age…

  4. History of Astronomy in Portugal: Theories, Institutions and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiva, Luis

    2014-01-01

    In Portugal, throughout its history, astronomy was developed in the context of the mathematical sciences. During the times of Portugal's Maritime Discoveries, astronomical navigation was based on spherical trigonometry, and therefore it was the mathematicians who taught astronomy to the pilots. During the 17th century, basic notions of astronomy were taught in mathematical courses in the University and in the main Jesuit colleges. This tradition continued in the 18th century, so it is no wonder that one of the most influent Portuguese astronomers during this period was the mathematician José Monteiro da Rocha. During the 19th century the new centres of science teaching, as the Polytechnic School in Lisbon, or the Polytechnic Academy in Oporto, developed astronomy teaching and research in the context of the mathematics subjects. The inheritors of these 19th century institutions, respectively the Faculties of Sciences of Lisbon and Oporto, upheld this tradition until the final decades of 20th century and continued to consider astronomy as a subject to be taught in their mathematics departments. This Meeting aims at outlining several perspectives on the history of astronomy in Portugal, particularly analysing its ties with mathematical sciences and astronomy applications. The Meeting is organised by the Museum of Science of the University of Lisbon (MCUL) with CMAF, CMUC, CMUP and the CIUHCT, and is included in CIM events. It is integrated in the commemorations of the International Year of Astronomy (IYA2009).

  5. Extended piano techniques : in theory, history and performance practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaes, Luc Paul Frank

    2009-01-01

    So-called "extended techniques" have suffered a consistent lack of understanding from a theoretical, historical and practical point of view. Although most of them – e.g. playing directly on the strings, cluster- and glissando-techniques – exist in a substantial part of the repertoire for the piano

  6. Exploring the Role of Music in Secondary English and History Classrooms through Personal Practical Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goering, Christian Z.; Burenheide, Bradley J.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the development of utilizing music as a Personal Practical Theory (PPT) in the teaching of English and history. Specifically, the authors explore the nature of PPT's, the benefits of utilizing music, and the process through which teachers begin using a new approach in their pedagogy. Unique contributions are the application…

  7. Theory and Practice in In-Service Teacher Learning: Teachers' Reconceptualisation of Curriculum in History Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyo, Nathan; Modiba, Maropeng

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the findings of a qualitative interpretive study that was undertaken to determine how in-service teachers at Great Zimbabwe University were able (or not) to translate a theory that they were exposed to into practice during history lessons. Drawing on a range of data, the study explored how the teachers, who were purposively…

  8. Practical theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Klaus Bruhn

    2016-01-01

    This article revisits the place of normative and other practical issues in the wider conceptual architecture of communication theory, building on the tradition of philosophical pragmatism. The article first characterizes everyday concepts of communication as the accumulated outcome of natural...... evolution and history: practical resources for human existence and social coexistence. Such practical concepts have served as the point of departure for diverse theoretical conceptions of what communication is. The second part of the article highlights the past neglect and current potential of normative...... communication theories that ask, in addition, what communication ought to be, and what it could be, taking the relationship between communication and justice as a case in point. The final section returns to empirical conceptualizations of different institutions, practices and discourses of communication...

  9. The relevance of the early history of probability theory to current risk assessment practices in mental health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Large, Matthew

    2013-12-01

    Probability theory is at the base of modern concepts of risk assessment in mental health. The aim of the current paper is to review the key developments in the early history of probability theory in order to enrich our understanding of current risk assessment practices.

  10. Musealization without museology: national museums and fashion exhibitions between history, theory and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Žarić

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies of the theory and history of fashion, which were up until recently grouped with culture studies, gender studies, communicology, art history and anthropology are, on the academic map of the 21st century being established as separate disciplines. Consolidating these contexts, the affirmation of fashion studies has been most prevalent within the museology of fashion, as it - or rather – fashion museology is becoming one of the leading tendencies within contemporary museum practices. This paper views fashion as a specific kind of system, coded through sociocultural codes, and finds the reason for the ever-increasing number of exhibitions of fashion on the international as well as the national museum scene in the codes of fashion which oscillate between the aesthetic and the commercial. By affirming fashion as an art form on the one hand and increasing the profitability of the institution on the other, fashion exhibitions enable museums to become „fashionable“ – to keep up with contemporary, more liberal exhibition concepts. Despite the fact that in this year there have been a large number of fashion exhibitions in national museums, fashion is still without its own museology, a scientific theory which would explain it as a museum phenomenon. The exhibits are interpreted historically, while explaining their utilitarian and aesthetic value, while the question of why fashion is exhibited as an art form or a kind of cultural production to the consumer of the exhibition - the visitor – remains unanswered. By analyzing historical events which conditioned the museum exhibiting of fashion as well as the different conceptions of its exhibition, the author strives to – through the juxtaposition of international and national exhibitions catch sight of the causes of the lack of a museology of fashion, and open up the issue of its affirmation within the professional academic and museum community of Serbia.

  11. History, Theory, and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rury, John L.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the question of theory as it may pertain to the history of education, with particular attention to the United States. Historians, like everyone else, have little choice regarding the use of theory; to one extent or another they must. The question is how much and to what end. The author aims to consider the…

  12. History of quantum theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hund, F.

    1980-01-01

    History of quantum theory from quantum representations (1900) to the formation of quantum mechanics is systematically stated in the monograph. A special attention is paid to the development of ideas of quantum physics, given are schemes of this development. Quantum theory is abstractly presented as the teaching about a role, which value h characterizing elementary quantum of action, plays in the nature: in statistics - as a unit for calculating the number of possible states; in corpuscular-wave dualism for light - as a value determining the interaction of light and substance and as a component of atom dynamics; in corpuscular-wave dualism for substance. Accordingly, history of the quantum theory development is considered in the following sequence: h discovery; history of quantum statistics, history of light quanta and initial atom dynamics; crysis of this dynamics and its settlement; substance waves and in conclusion - the completion of quantum mechanics including applications and its further development

  13. Microemulsions theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Prince, Leon

    1977-01-01

    Microemulsions: Theory and Practice covers the development of the theory and practice of microemulsion systems. This book is divided into seven chapters that explore the physics and chemistry of microemulsions. This book deals first with the commercial history of microemulsions, from the discovery of carnauba wax emulsions to polymer emulsions. This topic is followed by discussions on the theoretical aspects of microemulsion formulation techniques and the design of other products. The subsequent chapter describes the microemulsion formulation with less solubilizer or emulsifier together wi

  14. Historicizing as a feminist practice : The places of history in Judith Butler’s constructivist theories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honkanen, K.

    2004-01-01

    The dissertation explores feminist uses of history and historicity. It discusses the way historicity is used in feminist constructivist arguments and it uses Judith Butler’s work as an example. The dissertation elaborates on the predominant theoretical requirement to historicize. It is a

  15. Linking Theory and Practice: Teacher Research in History and Geography Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Admiraal, Wilfried; Buijs, Maartje; Claessens, Wout; Honing, Terence; Karkdijk, Jan

    2017-01-01

    The impact of scholarly research in education on the educational practice in secondary school is low. Academics examine problems that teachers in school perceive as irrelevant, want to publish in peer-reviewed journals instead of disseminate their work, and aim at generalizing insights rather than improving school practice. Teacher research might…

  16. Theory, practice, and history in critical GIS: Reports on an AAG panel session

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, M.W.; Poore, B.S.

    2009-01-01

    Extending a special session held at the 2008 annual meeting of the Association of American Geographers in Boston, this commentary collection highlights elements of the critical GIS research agenda that are particularly pressing. Responding to a Progress report on critical GIS written by David O'Sullivan in 2006, these six commentaries discuss how different interpretations of 'critical' are traced through critical GIS research. Participants in the panel session discussed the need for a continued discussion of a code of ethics in GIS use in the context of ongoing efforts to alter or remake the software and its associated practices, of neo-geographies and volunteered geographies. There were continued calls for hope and practical ways to actualize this hope, and a recognition that critical GIS needs to remain relevant to the technology. This 'relevance' can be variously defined, and in doing so, researchers should consider their positioning vis-??-vis the technology. Throughout the commentaries collected here, a question remains as to what kind of work disciplinary sub-fields such as critical GIS and GIScience perform. This is a question about language, specifically the distance that language can create among practitioners and theoreticians, both in the case of critical GIS and more broadly throughout GIScience.

  17. Narrative History and Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Eileen H.

    2011-01-01

    While narrative history has been the prevailing mode in historical scholarship, its preeminence has not gone unquestioned. In the 1980s, the role of narrative in historical writing was "the subject of extraordinarily intense debate." The historical backdrop of this debate can be traced to the preceding two decades, when four groups of thinkers…

  18. Minisuperspace models in histories theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anastopoulos, Charis; Savvidou, Ntina

    2005-01-01

    We study the Robertson-Walker minisuperspace model in histories theory, motivated by the results that emerged from the histories approach to general relativity. We examine, in particular, the issue of time reparametrization in such systems. The model is quantized using an adaptation of reduced state space quantization. We finally discuss the classical limit, the implementation of initial cosmological conditions and estimation of probabilities in the histories context

  19. The history of ecosystem services in economic theory and practice: From early notions to markets and payment schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gómez-Baggethun, E.; Groot, de R.S.; Lomas, P.; Sotelo Montes, C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the historic development of the conceptualization of ecosystem services and examines critical landmarks in economic theory and practice with regard to the incorporation of ecosystem services into markets and payment schemes. The review presented here suggests that the trend

  20. Between Theory and Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dindler, Christian; Dalsgaard, Peter

    2014-01-01

    We present the notion of ‘bridging concepts’ as a particular form of intermediary knowledge in HCI research, residing between theory and practice. We argue that bridging concepts address the challenge of facilitating exchange between theory and practice in HCI, and we compare it to other....... These constituents specify how bridging concepts, as a form of knowledge, are accountable to both theory and practice. We present an analysis of the concept of ‘peepholes’ as an example of a bridging concept aimed at spurring user curiosity and engagement....

  1. Pragmatism and practice theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Anders; Elkjær, Bente

    Proponents of the ‘practice turn’ in the social sciences rarely mention American pragmatism as a source of inspiration or refer to pragmatist philosophy. This strikes us as not only odd, but also a disadvantage since the pragmatist legacy has much to offer practice theory in the study of organiza......Proponents of the ‘practice turn’ in the social sciences rarely mention American pragmatism as a source of inspiration or refer to pragmatist philosophy. This strikes us as not only odd, but also a disadvantage since the pragmatist legacy has much to offer practice theory in the study...... of organizations. In this paper we want to spell out the theoretical similarities and divergences between practice theory and pragmatism to consider whether the two traditions can find common ground when gazing upon organization studies. We suggest that pragmatism should be included in the ‘tool-kit’ of practice...

  2. Rotation therapy for maniacs, melancholics and idiots: theory, practice and perception in European medical and literary case histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Sheila

    2018-03-01

    This article examines the development and use of rotation therapy in the emerging field of psychiatry at the beginning of the 19th century, and the cross-fertilization between British, Irish, German, French and other European proponents of 'Cox's Swing'. Its short-lived popularity is linked to prevalent Enlightenment thought, to the development of an industrial and technological society, to the modern medical theories of irritability, and to the new practice of 'moral management' of the mentally ill. Case studies documenting the use of the Swing are considered from these perspectives, and are compared with contemporary public reactions in the form of publications in newspapers and of a literary text by German Romantic author Ludwig Achim von Arnim.

  3. Theory Meets Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlamovitz, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    Process thinking and process-based theory are receiving increased attention in the field of organization studies and organization theory development (Tsoukas & Chia, 2002; Langley & Tsoukas, 2010; Hernes, 2014). The aim has been to study processes rather than structures, in organizations. This has...... recently inspired research on the organizing of projects and the development of a (new) theory of temporary organizations (Bakker, 2010; Blomquist et al. 2010; Söderlund, 2013). These theories are still under development and need empirical studies that can show their relevance for practice. This paper...... will give an overview of this theoretical development and discuss the consequences for the practice of project management. The paper finds that the focus on processes such as time and temporality, meaning structures, and articulation are covered in project management research, but sparsely documented...

  4. Leadership theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Northouse, Peter G

    1997-01-01

    Leadership: Theory and Practice provides a description and analysis of a wide variety of different theoretical approaches to leadership, giving special attention to how each theory can be employed to improve leadership in real-world organizations. Written in a clear, concise manner, the first edition has been widely used in undergraduate and graduate courses in business, organizational communication, political science, public administration, training and development, and health services.

  5. Troubling Histories and Theories: Gender and the History of Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Joyce

    2003-01-01

    Discusses gender influences and ways that history and theory have interacted in influencing women's contribution and recognition in educational history. Focuses on several historians' views and how some have eventually written women back into the historical picture of education. (KDR)

  6. Where theory and practice of global health intersect: the developmental history of a Canadian global health initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daibes, Ibrahim; Sridharan, Sanjeev

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the scope of practice of global health, drawing on the practical experience of a global health initiative of the Government of Canada--the Teasdale-Corti Global Health Research Partnership Program. A number of challenges in the practical application of theoretical definitions and understandings of global health are addressed. These challenges are grouped under five areas that form essential characteristics of global health: equity and egalitarian North-South partnerships, interdisciplinary scope, focus on upstream determinants of health, global conceptualization, and global health as an area of both research and practice. Information in this paper is based on the results of an external evaluation of the program, which involved analysis of project proposals and technical reports, surveys with grantees and interviews with grantees and program designers, as well as case studies of three projects and a review of relevant literature. The philosophy and recent definitions of global health represent a significant and important departure from the international health paradigm. However, the practical applicability of this maturing area of research and practice still faces significant systemic and structural impediments that, if not acknowledged and addressed, will continue to undermine the development of global health as an effective means to addressing health inequities globally and to better understanding, and acting upon, upstream determinants of health toward health for all. While it strives to redress global inequities, global health continues to be a construct that is promoted, studied, and dictated mostly by Northern institutions and scholars. Until practical mechanisms are put in place for truly egalitarian partnerships between North and South for both the study and practice of global health, the emerging philosophy of global health cannot be effectively put into practice.

  7. Sintering Theory and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, Randall M.

    1996-01-01

    Although sintering is an essential process in the manufacture of ceramics and certain metals, as well as several other industrial operations, until now, no single book has treated both the background theory and the practical application of this complex and often delicate procedure. In Sintering Theory and Practice, leading researcher and materials engineer Randall M. German presents a comprehensive treatment of this subject that will be of great use to manufacturers and scientists alike. This practical guide to sintering considers the fact that while the bonding process improves strength and other engineering properties of the compacted material, inappropriate methods of control may lead to cracking, distortion, and other defects. It provides a working knowledge of sintering, and shows how to avoid problems while accounting for variables such as particle size, maximum temperature, time at that temperature, and other problems that may cause changes in processing. The book describes the fundamental atomic events that govern the transformation from particles to solid, covers all forms of the sintering process, and provides a summary of many actual production cycles. Building from the ground up, it begins with definitions and progresses to measurement techniques, easing the transition, especially for students, into advanced topics such as single-phase solid-state sintering, microstructure changes, the complications of mixed particles, and pressure-assisted sintering. German draws on some six thousand references to provide a coherent and lucid treatment of the subject, making scientific principles and practical applications accessible to both students and professionals. In the process, he also points out and avoids the pitfalls found in various competing theories, concepts, and mathematical disputes within the field. A unique opportunity to discover what sintering is all about--both in theory and in practice What is sintering? We see the end product of this thermal

  8. Tectonic Theory and Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frier, Marie; Fisker, Anna Marie; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2010-01-01

    ’ is an example of this sensuous interior transformation of a house into a home, a level of detailing which is, however, seldom represented in the prefabricated house. Consequently, this paper investigates whether interiority can be developed as a tectonic theory and design principle for uniting home and system...... and assembly processes, seems a paradoxical challenge which has left prefabricated houses raw constructions rather than inhabitable homes. Based on the hypothesis that home is determined spatially via sensuous impressions of interiority at the threshold of furniture: The bath in Le Corbusier’s ‘Villa Savoye...... in the development of novel prefab solutions. This is pursued trough a deductive study comparing Gottfried Semper’s theories on the origins of construction with Werner Blaser’s technical and practical studies of the joint. In combining Blaser’s constructive understanding of the joint with the interior softness...

  9. Theory into practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Christian

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the paper is to explore how theory is integrated into practice in students’ academic work within upper secondary education. In order to study this, the paper develops an analytical framework for situated reflection that conceptualises reflective processes in direct relation...... to practical activities of students. The framework develops a distinction between empirical and theoretical reflection, which is used as a basis for an empirical study of nine product-oriented courses in four Danish upper secondary schools. The main finding of the study is the identification of four different...... in product-oriented courses. Based on the study, the paper argues that these identified sub-processes are educationally valuable because they contain processes of reflection. The developed analytical framework can help increase awareness of these processes of situated learning and reflection that are often...

  10. Liberal Internationalism: Theory, History, Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Stuenkel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available While liberalism keeps adapting to circumstances, its underlying dynamic is the same: Liberalism, Jahn, argues, is a political project that aims to establish individual freedom through private property and to protect and extend this freedom through government by consent - yet, it pursues this goal through the privatization and expropriation of common property and hence requires the production and reproduction of unequal power relations domestically and internationally. Liberalism is thus, in essence, made viable through power politics, with the mere difference that is uses liberal rhetoric as a fig leaf to conceal the ultimate goal: To provide a justification for American hegemony.

  11. Sites of theory and practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamstrup, Anne Katrine

    2015-01-01

    The connection between theory and practice is an established challenge in professional education. In much of the literature on the area, theory and practice are considered a dichotomy with specific understandings of what they each contain. With a point of departure in an extensive fieldwork at bo...... theory and practice are being enacted in multiple ways. Through that analysis I show that enactments of theory and practice are simultaneously connected and disconnected.......The connection between theory and practice is an established challenge in professional education. In much of the literature on the area, theory and practice are considered a dichotomy with specific understandings of what they each contain. With a point of departure in an extensive fieldwork at both...

  12. Civic ecology practices: insights from practice theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne E. Krasny

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to explore the use of practice theory as an approach to studying urban environmental stewardship. Urban environmental stewardship, or civic ecology practice, contributes to ecosystem services and community well-being and has been studied using social-ecological systems resilience, property rights, communities of practice, and governance frameworks. Practice theory, which previously has been applied in studies of consumer behaviors, adds a new perspective to urban stewardship research, focusing on how elements of a practice, such as competencies, meanings, and physical resource, together define the practice. We applied practice theory to eight different civic ecology practices, including oyster gardening in New York City, a civil society group engaged in litter cleanup in Iran, and village grove restoration in South Korea. Our analysis suggests that in applying practice theory to the civic ecology context, consideration should be given to social and communication competencies, how meanings can motivate volunteers and sustain practice, and the nature of the resource that is being stewarded. Future studies may want to focus on how practice elements interact within and vary across practices and may be used to more systematically analyze and share ideas among diverse civic ecology practices.

  13. Antennas from theory to practice

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Yi

    2008-01-01

    Practical, concise and complete reference for the basics of modern antenna design Antennas: from Theory to Practice discusses the basics of modern antenna design and theory. Developed specifically for engineers and designers who work with radio communications, radar and RF engineering, this book offers practical and hands-on treatment of antenna theory and techniques, and provides its readers the skills to analyse, design and measure various antennas. Key features: Provides thorough coverage on the basics of transmission lines, radio waves and propag

  14. Linear spaces: history and theory

    OpenAIRE

    Albrecht Beutelspracher

    1990-01-01

    Linear spaces belong to the most fundamental geometric and combinatorial structures. In this paper I would like to give an onerview about the theory of embedding finite linear spaces in finite projective planes.

  15. Theories of Practice in Tourism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    themes and fields which are usually addressed separately within tourism research: consumption and production; travel and the everyday; governance and policy; technology and the social. The book critically engages with practices as a fruitful approach to tourism research as well as how the particularities......Tourism research that is inspired by theories of practice is currently gaining in prominence. This book provides a much-needed introduction to the potential applications of theories of practice in tourism studies. It brings together a variety of approaches exploring how theories of practice bridge...... of tourism might inform our understanding of practice theories. This book contributes to conceptual and methodological debates providing insights from authors who have engaged with practice theory as an entry point to researching tourism. It offers a solid starting point for researchers and students alike...

  16. Probing the Deep: Theory and History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beadie, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    Professor Tamura, in her paper "Narrative History and Theory," poses an issue with which the author has lately wrestled. She reviews some of the challenges to the tradition of narrative history presented by "social-scientifically oriented historians" like Fernand Braudel and "analytic philosophers" like Hayden White in the 1960s and 1970s, and…

  17. A history of chaos theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oestreicher, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Whether every effect can be precisely linked to a given cause or to a list of causes has been a matter of debate for centuries, particularly during the 17th century, when astronomers became capable of predicting the trajectories of planets. Recent mathematical models applied to physics have included the idea that given phenomena cannot be predicted precisely, although they can be predicted to some extent, in line with the chaos theory. Concepts such as deterministic models, sensitivity to initial conditions, strange attractors, and fractal dimensions are inherent to the development of this theory A few situations involving normal or abnormal endogenous rhythms in biology have been analyzed following the principles of chaos theory. This is particularly the case with cardiac arrhythmias, but less so with biological clocks and circadian rhythms.

  18. A history of chaos theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oestreicher, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Whether every effect can be precisely linked to a given cause or to a list of causes has been a matter of debate for centuries, particularly during the 17th century when astronomers became capable of predicting the trajectories of planets. Recent mathematical models applied to physics have included the idea that given phenomena cannot be predicted precisely although they can be predicted to some extent in line with the chaos theory Concepts such as deterministic models, sensitivity to initial conditions, strange attractors, and fractal dimensions are inherent to the development of this theory, A few situations involving normal or abnormal endogenous rhythms in biology have been analyzed following the principles of chaos theory This is particularly the case with cardiac arrhythmias, but less so with biological clocks and circadian rhythms. PMID:17969865

  19. Number theory and its history

    CERN Document Server

    Ore, Oystein

    1988-01-01

    A prominent mathematician presents the principal ideas and methods of number theory within a historical and cultural framework. Oystein Ore's fascinating, accessible treatment requires only a basic knowledge of algebra. Topics include prime numbers, the Aliquot parts, linear indeterminate problems, congruences, Euler's theorem, classical construction problems, and many other subjects.

  20. Reflections on History, Education, and Social Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, V. P.

    2011-01-01

    Historians need social theories to conduct their research whether they are acknowledged or not. Positivist social theories underpinned the professionalization of the writing of history as well as the establishment of the social sciences as "disciplines," in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. August Comte's "science of society" and…

  1. Theory in practice

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    With the start of next year, CERN's Theory Division and Experimental Physics Division will merge to form the new Department of Physics. The Bulletin looks back at an era, has a closer a look at what the Theory Division is and what makes it so special.

  2. Data structures theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Berztiss, A T

    1971-01-01

    Computer Science and Applied Mathematics: Data Structures: Theory and Practice focuses on the processes, methodologies, principles, and approaches involved in data structures, including algorithms, decision trees, Boolean functions, lattices, and matrices. The book first offers information on set theory, functions, and relations, and graph theory. Discussions focus on linear formulas of digraphs, isomorphism of digraphs, basic definitions in the theory of digraphs, Boolean functions and forms, lattices, indexed sets, algebra of sets, and order pair and related concepts. The text then examines

  3. Consistent histories and operational quantum theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudolph, O.

    1996-01-01

    In this work a generalization of the consistent histories approach to quantum mechanics is presented. We first critically review the consistent histories approach to nonrelativistic quantum mechanics in a mathematically rigorous way and give some general comments about it. We investigate to what extent the consistent histories scheme is compatible with the results of the operational formulation of quantum mechanics. According to the operational approach, nonrelativistic quantum mechanics is most generally formulated in terms of effects, states, and operations. We formulate a generalized consistent histories theory using the concepts and the terminology which have proven useful in the operational formulation of quantum mechanics. The logical rule of the logical interpretation of quantum mechanics is generalized to the present context. The algebraic structure of the generalized theory is studied in detail

  4. Stakeholders: theory and practice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Friedman, Andrew L; Miles, Samantha

    2006-01-01

    ... of the concept on practice and policy. However, as the concept has become more popular, the path has become tangled with the many different ways the concept has been used. For example, different practices have come to be called stakeholder activities, particularly by those seeking to use the label to legitimize their actions. Also, a range of different definitions as to what a stakeholder is has emerged. Concentrating on these issues encourages a view of a second future path of the stake...

  5. History of the theory of numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Dickson, Leonard Eugene

    2005-01-01

    The three-volume series History of the Theory of Numbers is the work of the distinguished mathematician Leonard Eugene Dickson, who taught at the University of Chicago for four decades and is celebrated for his many contributions to number theory and group theory. This second volume in the series, which is suitable for upper-level undergraduates and graduate students, is devoted to the subject of diophantine analysis. It can be read independently of the preceding volume, which explores divisibility and primality, and volume III, which examines quadratic and higher forms.Featured topics include

  6. Using Schema Theory to Teach American History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duis, Mac

    1996-01-01

    Asserts that the most effective use of schema theory in history instruction requires placing students in the decision- making roles of historical figures. A more detailed discussion of the same historical event follows this initial exercise. Students then compare their decisions with their historical counterparts. (MJP)

  7. Deconstruction and Graphic Design: History Meets Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupton, Ellen; Miller, J. Abbott

    1994-01-01

    Considers the reception and use of deconstruction in the recent history of graphic design. Considers the place of graphics within the theory of deconstruction in the work of philosopher Jacques Derrida. Argues that deconstruction is not a style but a mode of questioning through and about the technologies, formal devices, social institutions and…

  8. From theory to practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinisalmi, T.; Oesch, P.

    1997-01-01

    Extensive research conducted at the Oulujoki River has led to practical measures aimed at alleviating the impact of short-term regulation. Amongst other things, the power plants on the river have begun to implement a fish management plan conceived for each individual reservoir and to create spawning areas for river-spawning fish. The raising of the reservoir level at Merikoski, the lowermost of the river plants, will be started in the autumn of 1997 and will considerably enhance recreational opportunities along the section of the river below the Montta plant, where the adverse effects of fluctuations in the river's water level have been the most severe

  9. From theory to practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinisalmi, T.; Oesch, P. [ed.

    1997-11-01

    Extensive research conducted at the Oulujoki River has led to practical measures aimed at alleviating the impact of short-term regulation. Amongst other things, the power plants on the river have begun to implement a fish management plan conceived for each individual reservoir and to create spawning areas for river-spawning fish. The raising of the reservoir level at Merikoski, the lowermost of the river plants, will be started in the autumn of 1997 and will considerably enhance recreational opportunities along the section of the river below the Montta plant, where the adverse effects of fluctuations in the river`s water level have been the most severe

  10. Random vibrations theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Wirsching, Paul H; Ortiz, Keith

    1995-01-01

    Random Vibrations: Theory and Practice covers the theory and analysis of mechanical and structural systems undergoing random oscillations due to any number of phenomena— from engine noise, turbulent flow, and acoustic noise to wind, ocean waves, earthquakes, and rough pavement. For systems operating in such environments, a random vibration analysis is essential to the safety and reliability of the system. By far the most comprehensive text available on random vibrations, Random Vibrations: Theory and Practice is designed for readers who are new to the subject as well as those who are familiar with the fundamentals and wish to study a particular topic or use the text as an authoritative reference. It is divided into three major sections: fundamental background, random vibration development and applications to design, and random signal analysis. Introductory chapters cover topics in probability, statistics, and random processes that prepare the reader for the development of the theory of random vibrations a...

  11. Electromigration techniques theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Dziubakiewicz, Ewelina; Szumski, Michal

    2013-01-01

    The book provides the broad knowledge on electromigration techniques including: theory of CE, description of instrumentation, theory and practice in micellar electrokinetic chromatography, isotachophoresis, capillary isoelectric focusing, capillary and planar electrochromatography (including description of instrumentation and packed and monolithic column preparation), 2D-gel electrophoresis (including sample preparation) and lab-on-a-chip systems. The book also provides the most recent examples of applications including food, environmental, pharmaceutical analysis as well as proteomics.

  12. The Theory of Practice and the Practice of Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Michael L.; Murphy, Steven A.

    2016-01-01

    As academics who interact with senior and mid-level business managers on a regular basis, both informally and as consultants, the authors often note that ideas of theory and practice are not well developed among people outside of academia. It is posited that this deficit offers the prospect of less than optimal approaches to matters such as…

  13. Electronics from theory into practice

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, J E; Hammond, P

    1976-01-01

    Electronics - From Theory Into Practice deals with design procedures in electronics and bridges the gap between theoretical knowledge and practice. It provides design examples and discusses the use of the Laplace Transform for solving engineering problems. The book introduces bipolar and field effect transistor, the unijunction transistor and the silicon-controlled rectifier, and shows how data sheets are used in design calculations. It then examines the development of integrated circuits and their characteristics. Following this discussion are chapters that contain a brief treatment of theory

  14. Correspondence analysis theory, practice and new strategies

    CERN Document Server

    Beh, Eric J

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive overview of the internationalisation of correspondence analysis Correspondence Analysis: Theory, Practice and New Strategies examines the key issues of correspondence analysis, and discusses the new advances that have been made over the last 20 years. The main focus of this book is to provide a comprehensive discussion of some of the key technical and practical aspects of correspondence analysis, and to demonstrate how they may be put to use.  Particular attention is given to the history and mathematical links of the developments made. These links include not just those majo

  15. [Linking learning theory with practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávalos-Carranza, María Teresa; Amador-Olvera, Eric; Zerón-Gutiérrez, Lydia

    2016-01-01

    It is often said that it is easier to learn what is observed and practiced on a daily basis; to the need to effectively link theory with practice considered in the process of teaching and learning, many strategies have been developed to allow this process to be carried out in a more efficiently maner. It is, therefore, very important to recognize that an appropriate teacher/student relationship is essential for students to acquire the skills and abilities required.

  16. Heat comfort and practice theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten

    2008-01-01

      This paper has both a theoretical and a practical idea and content. The theoretical aim is to use and develop practice theory from Schatzki, Reckwitz and Warde to be more applicable in understanding everyday routines. The theoretical development will focus on how routines exist in close...... of ventilating and regulating the heat. Analysis in this paper builds on qualitative interviews with households living in identical houses, where those using the least energy for heating use one third of those using the most do. Focus is on describing similarities and differences in practices as well...

  17. History and theory of Scripture Translations | Loba-Mkole | HTS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    History and theory of Scripture Translations. ... the functional equivalence, relevance, literaryfunctional equivalence and intercultural mediation. ... on Bible translation theories the article aims to focus on the role of Africa in translation history.

  18. Aligning Literacy Practices in Secondary History Classes with Research on Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nokes, Jeffery D.

    2008-01-01

    Literacy is a basic element of the discipline of history and of traditional secondary history instruction. However neither the growing body of research on learning with texts nor modern learning theories support the traditional literacy practices that are taking place in many secondary history classrooms. Nor are classroom literacy practices a…

  19. On the History of Unified Field Theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goenner Hubert F.M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is intended to give a review of the history of the classical aspects of unified field theories in the 20th century. It includes brief technical descriptions of the theories suggested, short biographical notes concerning the scientists involved, and an extensive bibliography. The present first installment covers the time span between 1914 and 1933, i.e., when Einstein was living and working in Berlin - with occasional digressions into other periods. Thus, the main theme is the unification of the electromagnetic and gravitational fields augmented by short-lived attempts to include the matter field described by Schrödinger's or Dirac's equations. While my focus lies on the conceptual development of the field, by also paying attention to the interaction of various schools of mathematicians with the research done by physicists, some prosopocraphical remarks are included.

  20. History and theory of Scripture translations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Claude Loba-Mkole

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article argues for the importance of Bible translations through its historical achievements and theoretical frames of reference. The missionary expansion of Christianity owes its very being to translations. The early Christian communities knew the Bible through the LXX translations while churches today still continue to use various translations. Translations shape Scripture interpretations, especially when a given interpretation depends on a particular translation. A particular interpretation can also influence a given translation. The article shows how translation theories have been developed to clarify and how the transaction source-target is culturally handled. The articles discuss some of these “theoretical frames”, namely the functional equivalence, relevance, literary functional equivalence and intercultural mediation. By means of a historical overview and a reflection on Bible translation theories the article aims to focus on the role of Africa in translation history.

  1. Machine vision theory, algorithms, practicalities

    CERN Document Server

    Davies, E R

    2005-01-01

    In the last 40 years, machine vision has evolved into a mature field embracing a wide range of applications including surveillance, automated inspection, robot assembly, vehicle guidance, traffic monitoring and control, signature verification, biometric measurement, and analysis of remotely sensed images. While researchers and industry specialists continue to document their work in this area, it has become increasingly difficult for professionals and graduate students to understand the essential theory and practicalities well enough to design their own algorithms and systems. This book directl

  2. Leadership theory in clinical practice

    OpenAIRE

    Jie-Hui Xu

    2017-01-01

    In current clinical settings, effective clinical leadership ensures a high-quality health care system that consistently provides safe and efficient care. It is useful, then, for health care professionals to be able to identify the leadership styles and theories relevant to their nursing practice. Being adept in recognizing these styles not only enables nurses to develop their skills to become better leaders but also improves relationships with colleagues and leaders who have previously been c...

  3. Theory and practice of VHDL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ju Min; Lee, Beyong Yeob; Lee, Jong Gun; Jong, Duc Jin

    2006-06-01

    This book describes theory and practice of VHDL in easy way. It starts introduction of HDL, the design process with VHDL, the constitution of VHDL code, design structure of CHDL, basics for using of VHDL, language grammar of VHDL, design of combinational circuit, synchronizing circuit and asynchronizing circuit design, finite state machine, using of Quartus, parity, 7-segment decode, 4bit adder, 4 X I multiplexer, I X 4 demulitplexer, duodecimal counter, a second counter, LED sequential switch and a traffic signal controller.

  4. Practising family history: 'identity' as a category of social practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottero, Wendy

    2015-09-01

    Research on family history argues it performs the task of anchoring a sense of 'self' through tracing ancestral connection and cultural belonging, seeing it as a form of storied 'identity-work'. This paper draws on a small-scale qualitative study to think further on the identity-work of family history. Using practice theory, and a disaggregated notion of 'identity', it explores how the storying of family histories relates to genealogy as a leisure hobby, a form of historical research, and an information-processing activity; and examines the social organization of that narrativity, where various practical engagements render certain kinds of genealogical information more, or less, 'storyable'. Key features of 'identity-work' in family history, such as the construction of genealogy as a personal journey of discovery and identification with particular ancestors, emerge as a consequence of the procedures of family history, organized as a set of practical tasks. The paper explores 'identity-work' as a consequence of people's engagement in specific social practices which provide an internal logic to their actions, with various components of 'identity' emerging as categories of practice shaped within, and for, use. Focusing on 'identity' as something produced when we are engaged in doing other things, the paper examines how the practical organization of 'doing other things' helps produce 'identity' in particular ways. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2015.

  5. The History and Practice of Ancient Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, James

    1998-01-01

    The History and Practice of Ancient Astronomy combines new scholarship with hands-on science to bring readers into direct contact with the work of ancient astronomers. While tracing ideas from ancient Babylon to sixteenth-century Europe, the book places its greatest emphasis on the Greek period, when astronomers developed the geometric and philosophical ideas that have determined the subsequent character of Western astronomy. The author approaches this history through the concrete details of ancient astronomical practice. Carefully organized and generously illustrated, the book can teach reade

  6. Ubicool - From Theory to Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Alves

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Recruitment and management of volunteers in non-profit organizations is a fundamental activity in increasing these organizations’ capacity and one that can benefit considerably from applying marketing principles. However, these organizations are found to have difficulty in applying marketing principles due to the lack of capacity in this professional area. This article aims to draw a parallel between theory and practice based on the literature in this field and the case study of CooLabora in its activity of university volunteerism - UBICool. The case study shows that many of the principles suggested by theory are applied in this specific case, although often informally and unplanned, and so recognizing the positive and less positive factors can contribute to future improvement with benefits for the organization, volunteers and society.

  7. How Advertising History Helps Explain Current Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanfranco, Leonard W.

    Students majoring in advertising can benefit from a study of that field in its historical context because such study helps them to understand current practices and to foresee future developments. One model of teaching advertising history within a required course about advertising and society begins with some basic definitions of the advertising…

  8. Speech enhancement theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Loizou, Philipos C

    2013-01-01

    With the proliferation of mobile devices and hearing devices, including hearing aids and cochlear implants, there is a growing and pressing need to design algorithms that can improve speech intelligibility without sacrificing quality. Responding to this need, Speech Enhancement: Theory and Practice, Second Edition introduces readers to the basic problems of speech enhancement and the various algorithms proposed to solve these problems. Updated and expanded, this second edition of the bestselling textbook broadens its scope to include evaluation measures and enhancement algorithms aimed at impr

  9. Pumping machinery theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Badr, Hassan M

    2014-01-01

    Pumping Machinery Theory and Practice comprehensively covers the theoretical foundation and applications of pumping machinery. Key features: Covers characteristics of centrifugal pumps, axial flow pumps and displacement pumpsConsiders pumping machinery performance and operational-type problemsCovers advanced topics in pumping machinery including multiphase flow principles, and two and three-phase flow pumping systemsCovers different methods of flow rate control and relevance to machine efficiency and energy consumptionCovers different methods of flow rate control and relevance to machine effi

  10. Cloud computing theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Marinescu, Dan C

    2013-01-01

    Cloud Computing: Theory and Practice provides students and IT professionals with an in-depth analysis of the cloud from the ground up. Beginning with a discussion of parallel computing and architectures and distributed systems, the book turns to contemporary cloud infrastructures, how they are being deployed at leading companies such as Amazon, Google and Apple, and how they can be applied in fields such as healthcare, banking and science. The volume also examines how to successfully deploy a cloud application across the enterprise using virtualization, resource management and the ri

  11. Reliability engineering theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Birolini, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    This book shows how to build in, evaluate, and demonstrate reliability and availability of components, equipment, systems. It presents the state-of-theart of reliability engineering, both in theory and practice, and is based on the author's more than 30 years experience in this field, half in industry and half as Professor of Reliability Engineering at the ETH, Zurich. The structure of the book allows rapid access to practical results. This final edition extend and replace all previous editions. New are, in particular, a strategy to mitigate incomplete coverage, a comprehensive introduction to human reliability with design guidelines and new models, and a refinement of reliability allocation, design guidelines for maintainability, and concepts related to regenerative stochastic processes. The set of problems for homework has been extended. Methods & tools are given in a way that they can be tailored to cover different reliability requirement levels and be used for safety analysis. Because of the Appendice...

  12. Moral Exemplars in Theory and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagzebski, Linda

    2013-01-01

    In this article I outline an original form of ethical theory that I call exemplarist virtue theory. The theory is intended to serve the philosophical purposes of a comprehensive moral theory, but it is also intended to serve the practical purpose of moral education by structuring the theory around a motivating emotion--the emotion of admiration.…

  13. Informal Theory: The Ignored Link in Theory-to-Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Applying theory to practice in student affairs is dominated by the assumption that formal theory is directly applied to practice. Among the problems with this assumption is that many practitioners believe they must choose between their lived experiences and formal theory, and that graduate students are taught that their experience "does not…

  14. Practice Theory: Viewing Leadership as Leading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Jane; Kemmis, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Inspired by Theodore Schatzki's "societist" approach--in which he advocates a notion of "site ontologies"--in this article, we outline our theory of practice architectures (a theory about what practices are composed of) and ecologies of practices (how practices relate to one another). Drawing on case studies of four Australian…

  15. Theory, Practice, and Modernity: Leo Strauss on Rousseau's Epicureanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holley, Jared

    2017-01-01

    This article reconstructs Leo Strauss's reading of Rousseau's Epicureanism to argue that his work is unified by an abiding concern with the problem of theory and practice. Strauss sought to clarify the distinction between theory and practice he considered a fundamental precondition of any properly philosophical reflection on political life, and he explained the pernicious obscuring of that distinction through a narrative tracing the modern modifications of classical Epicureanism. Strauss's critical history of modern political thought is thus part of his attempt to restore the classical distinction between theory and practice to the status of a philosophical problem in modernity.

  16. Infusing Theory into Practice, Practice into Theory: Small Wins and Big Gains for Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rog, Debra J.

    2015-01-01

    This article illustrates the synergistic role between practice and theory in evaluation. Using reflective practice, the author reviews her own work as well as the work of other evaluators to illustrate how theory can influence practice and, in turn, how evaluation practice can inform and grow theory, especially evaluation theory. The following…

  17. Geschichte, Theorie und Ethik der Medizin [History, Theory and Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Möller, Mareike

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available [english] In view of the new German curriculum regulations, inaugural teachings in the integrated course "History, Theory and Ethics of Medicine" were taking place during winter semester 2003/04. The survey examines the degree of implementation of this new integrated class at all German Medical Universities. It details questions about the organisation of the class, the importance of different course contents and the type of assessment and evaluation methods. Differences and difficulties in organising the courses are analysed. The results show a heterogeneous picture: the courses differ significantly regarding form, course contents, teaching methods and used resources. The establishment of new classes and teaching contents within the medical curriculum is discussed based on the results of this survey. [german] Zum Wintersemester 2003/04 wurden im Rahmen der neuen Approbationsordnung erstmals Lehrveranstaltungen im Querschnittsbereich "Geschichte, Theorie, Ethik der Medizin" (GTE angeboten. Die vorliegende Umfrage erhebt den Stand der Implementierung von GTE an allen deutschen Fakultäten. Sie umfasst Fragen zur Organisation des Kursangebotes, zur Gewichtung von Lehrinhalten, zur Art der Leistungskontrolle und Evaluation. Unterschiede und Schwierigkeiten bei der Umsetzung der Lehre werden analysiert. Die Ergebnisse zeigen ein interuniversitär heterogenes Bild: Die Kurse unterscheiden sich deutlich hinsichtlich Form, Unterrichtsinhalten, Lehrmethoden und verwendeter Ressourcen. Die Etablierung neuer Fächer und Inhalte im Medizinstudium wird exemplarisch diskutiert.

  18. Reliability engineering theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Birolini, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    This book shows how to build in and assess reliability, availability, maintainability, and safety (RAMS) of components, equipment, and systems. It presents the state of the art of reliability (RAMS) engineering, in theory & practice, and is based on over 30 years author's experience in this field, half in industry and half as Professor of Reliability Engineering at the ETH, Zurich. The book structure allows rapid access to practical results. Methods & tools are given in a way that they can be tailored to cover different RAMS requirement levels. Thanks to Appendices A6 - A8 the book is mathematically self-contained, and can be used as a textbook or as a desktop reference with a large number of tables (60), figures (210), and examples / exercises^ 10,000 per year since 2013) were the motivation for this final edition, the 13th since 1985, including German editions. Extended and carefully reviewed to improve accuracy, it represents the continuous improvement effort to satisfy reader's needs and confidenc...

  19. Althusserian Theory: From Scientific Truth to Institutional History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Goldstein

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Scholars have emphasized the scientific and the rationalist features of Althusser's work, but few have noted its post-structuralist aspects, especially its Foucauldian accounts of discourse and power. In the early Pour Marx , Althusser divides ideological practices from objective science and theoretical norms from empirical facts; however, in several later essays Althusser repudiates his earlier faith in theory's normative force as well as his broad distinction between science and ideology. He argues that every discipline establishes its own relationship between its ideological history and its formal, scientific ideals. This argument, together with Althusser's earlier rejection of totalizing approaches, establishes important parallels with Foucault's archaeological studies. The literary theory of Tony Bennett, who develops a Foucauldian critique of traditional and Marxist aesthetics, illuminates the rich implications of these parallels for cultural analyses.

  20. Comparing Theory and Practice: An Application of Complexity Theory to General Ridgway’s Success in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-02

    will face in an uncertain future. Complexity Theory , History, Practice, Military Theory , Leadership 14. SUBJECT TERMS 70 15. NUMBER OF PAGES...complexity theory : scale, adaptive leadership , and bottom up feedback from the agents (the soldiers in the field). These are all key sub components of...Approved for Public Release; Distribution is Unlimited COMPARING THEORY AND PRACTICE: AN APPLICATION OF COMPLEXITY THEORY TO GENERAL RIDGWAY’S

  1. ARTEMIS: Reinvigorating History and Theory in Art and Design Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janet, Jeff; Miles, Melissa

    2009-01-01

    ARTEMIS (Art Educational Multiplayer Interactive Space) is an online multi-user virtual environment that is designed around the objects, artefacts, philosophies, personalities and critical discourses of the histories and theories of art and design. Conceived as a means of reinvigorating art history and theory education in the digital age, ARTEMIS…

  2. Critical Theory: Implications for School Leadership Theory and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peca, Kathy

    The school leader's behaviors are inspired by theories, and theories are intrinsic to practice. This paper provides an overview of an emerging perspective in educational administration, critical theory. The paper first highlights the philosophies of Immanuel Kant, Fichte, Hegel, Marx, and the Frankfurt School. It then discusses critical theory…

  3. History of the theory of superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frohlich, H.

    1983-01-01

    This chapter points out that in the years from Onnes' discovery that the electric resistivity of mercury completely disappeared at about 4K in 1911 up to 1950, many attempts to develop a theory of superconductivity failed, and the subject became an outstanding problem in physics. Discusses the introduction of field theory into solid state physics, which proved to be the decisive step toward a theory. Describes how Schrieffer's suggestion of a wave function for the multielectron problem in terms of electron pairs led to the theory of superconductivity, or the so called B.C.S. theory

  4. Conservation of ecosystems : theory and practice

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Siegfried, WR

    1982-09-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Conservation of Ecosystems Theory and Practice.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 102 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Conservation of Ecosystems Theory and Practice.pdf.txt Content...-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  5. Theory Loves Practice: A Teacher Researcher Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochtritt, Lisa; Thulson, Anne; Delaney, Rachael; Dornbush, Talya; Shay, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Once a month, art educators from the Denver metro area have been gathering together in the spirit of inquiry to explore issues of the perceived theory and daily practice divide. The Theory Loves Practice (TLP) group was started in 2010 by Professors Rachael Delaney and Anne Thulson from Metropolitan State University of Denver (MSU) and now has 40…

  6. Linking Theory with Practice in Basic Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Archie B.

    1974-01-01

    Instructors of management in higher education have not been cautious in explaining the relation between practice and theory in their basic courses. The author distinguished between the two in suggesting that management theory is based on observed practices and may or may not have broader application. (AG)

  7. Theory and practice in mathematics teacher education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Kaj

    2016-01-01

    to the ATD, it is illustrated with an example on addition of fractions how the notions of didactic transposition and praxeology can be used to analyse the theory-practice relation in this situation. Build on this analysis, the two models are combined into a more comprehensive model for describing......The challenge of establishing an interplay between theory and practice in mathematics teacher education is examined by the use of the anthropological theory of the didactic (ATD). The theory-practice problem is described both in an international and a Danish context. After a brief introduction...

  8. Theory and practice in professional education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Trine Kløveager

    the relationship between theory and practice in teacher, nurse, social work and engineering education, and to contribute with knowledge about how to bridge the gap between theory and practice in these educations. Aim: The aim of the present study is to identify the most promising strategies for improving......, nursing, engineering and social work and in other professional bachelor education programs regarding health, teaching and technology, and how?”. The systematic review consists of a research mapping which will identify and characterize the empirical research concerning the review question and a synthesis......Background: A fundamental component in professional education is the link between theory and practice. However, many students in professional education programs experience a lack of coherence between theory and practice which is often described as the theory practice gap. This PhD-project is part...

  9. Perspectives on Rhetorical History: Aristotle's Rhetorical Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, Reed

    The most important historical theory of persuasion is Aristotelian Rhetorical Theory. Aristotle's work, "The Rhetoric," is divided into three books, each of which discuss principles relevant to persuasion. Book One establishes the philosophical position of rhetoric to logic; establishes the purposes of rhetoric; discusses three types of…

  10. A resuscitation "dilemma" theory-practice-ethics. Is there a theory-practice-ethics gap?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortell, Manfred

    2009-07-01

    The theory-practice-ethics gap - a new paradigm to contemplate. Practices based on tradition, rituals and outdated information are placed into a nonscientific paradigm called the theory-practice gap. Within this paradigm there is often a gap between theoretical knowledge and its application in practice. This theory-practice gap has always existed [Allmark, P., 1995. A classical view of the theory-practice gap in nursing. J. Adv. Nurs. 22 (1), 18-23; Hewison, A. et al., 1996. The theory-practice gap in nursing: a new dimension. J. Adv. Nurs. 24 (4), 754-761]. Its creation is often sited as a culmination of theory being idealistic and impractical, even if practical and beneficial, are often ignored. Most of the evidence relating to the non integration of theory and practice makes the assumption that environmental factors are responsible and will affect learning and practice outcomes, hence the "gap". In fact, it is the author's belief, that to "bridge the gap" between theory and practice an additional component is required, called ethics. A moral duty and obligation ensuring theory and practice integrate. In order to effectively implement new practices, one must deem these practices are worthy and relevant to their role as healthcare providers. Otherwise, we fall victims to providing nothing more than a lip service. This introduces a new concept which the author refers to as the theory-practice-ethics gap. This theory-practice-ethics gap must be considered when reviewing some of the unacceptable outcomes in health care practice. The author believes that there is a crisis of ethics where theory and practice integrate, and as a consequence, malfeasance. We are failing to fulfill our duty as healthcare providers and as patient advocates. One practice of major concern, which the author will endeavor to unfold relates to adult and pediatric resuscitation.

  11. middle range theory evaluation: bridging the theory-practice gap

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The importance underlying the practice of nursing education must continue ... describes selected middle range theory evaluation as a tool for bridging ... engaging in innovative ways of acquiring competency. ..... performances, that guides learners attitudes towards ... Reference knowledge acquired by work experience.

  12. Management Accounting in Denmark; Theory and Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Israelsen, Poul; Andersen, Michael; Rohde, Carsten

    1996-01-01

    The article describes the present state of cost and management accounting in Denmark within “mainstream accounting”, both as regards theory and practice. In the case of theory, there has been a gradual convergence of views. The essence of these views is briefly described. Concerning practice......, the main results of two new empirical studies are presented one on product costing and the other on identifying the adoption of “modern cost management techniques” in Denmark. The article places both current theory and practice in their historical context. In the former, this is done through an outline...

  13. Middle range theory evaluation: bridging the theory-practice gap ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nurse education is being challenged to maintain quality in light of shortage of practice professionals, societal demands and rapid changes in health care delivery. The importance underlying the practice of nursing education must continue to be explored through theories to bring about refinement of educational strategies for ...

  14. What’s the Theory in International Practice Theory?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    . This distinction is crucial to determining where we look for practices in international relations and how we study them. I will also argue that symbolic interactionism should be included in the practice theory landscape, as it can help us understand the making and unmaking of international orders....

  15. Theory and practice of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-02-01

    This book deals with theory of the atomic energy; nuclear physics, radiochemistry, radiation chemistry and radiobiology. Also it says about protection radiation, management of waste of radiation, dealing of radiation including measuring the radiation energy and a neutron content and explanation of the laws and ordinances of nuclear energy. This is a book of preparations for examinations.

  16. Work Motivation: Theory and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzell, Raymond A.; Thompson, Donna E.

    1990-01-01

    Presents theories of motivation classified as those dealing either with exogenous causes or with endogenous processes. The following strategies for improving work motivation are discussed: (1) personal motives; (2) incentives and rewards; (3) reinforcement; (4) goal-setting techniques; (5) personal and material resources; (6) social and group…

  17. Gestalt therapy: theory and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A

    Gestalt therapy, a particular type of psychotherapy, draws on existential and various Eastern philosophies, and aims to enable the individual to seek his or her own solutions to personal problems. Literally translated as 'whole', Gestalt focuses the individual to appreciate and experience the present. This article examines the Gestalt theory and considers its application to a terminally ill client and his wife.

  18. Pragmatism and Practice Theory: Convergences or collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkjaer, Bente; Buch, Anders

    of organizations. In this paper we want to spell out the theoretical similarities and divergences between practice theory and pragmatism to consider whether the two traditions can find common ground when gazing upon organization studies. We suggest that pragmatism should be included in the ‘tool-kit’ of practice......Proponents of the ‘practice turn’ in the social sciences rarely mention American pragmatism as a source of inspiration or refer to pragmatist philosophy. This strikes us as not only odd, but also a disadvantage since the pragmatist legacy has much to offer practice theory in the study...

  19. History and future. In commemoration of quantum theory's centenary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Guangzhao

    2001-01-01

    The history of the discovery of quantum theory and the debate around its interpretation is reviewed. The strong influence of quantum mechanics on the development of science ad philosophy is emphasized and its impact on social technological and economic development is discussed. Possible directions for further development of quantum theory are also mentioned

  20. A Short History of Probability Theory and Its Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnath, Lokenath; Basu, Kanadpriya

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with a brief history of probability theory and its applications to Jacob Bernoulli's famous law of large numbers and theory of errors in observations or measurements. Included are the major contributions of Jacob Bernoulli and Laplace. It is written to pay the tricentennial tribute to Jacob Bernoulli, since the year 2013…

  1. Understanding structural engineering from theory to practice

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Wai-Fah

    2011-01-01

    In our world of seemingly unlimited computing, numerous analytical approaches to the estimation of stress, strain, and displacement, including analytical, numerical, physical, and analog techniques, have greatly advanced the practice of engineering. Combining theory and experimentation, computer simulation has emerged as a third path for engineering design and performance evaluation. As a result, structural engineers working in the practical world of engineering must apply, and ideally, thrive, on these idealizations of science-based theories. Analyzing the major achievements in the field, Und

  2. Alara - from theory towards practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lochard, J.; Lombard, J.; Stokell, P.J.; Croft, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    The Alara principle states that all exposures shall be kept as low as reasonably achievable, economic and social factors being taken into account. It is a simple concept - the idea behind it is widely used in nearly all spheres of life, i.e. to do the best one can under the given circumstances. This book aims to help define what is meant by best in the context of radiation protection. It describes a procedure that is useful in structuring one's approach to any particular situation where a decision as to the best course of action is required. It also provides practical guidance on how the concept can be incorporated into radiation protection programmes. This book has been written as a reference manual on both the theoretical and practical aspects of the subject. But it is especially targeted at those involved in radiation protection at the practical level

  3. The foliation operator in history quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isham, C.J.; Savvidou, K.

    2002-01-01

    As a preliminary to discussing the quantization of the foliation in a history form of general relativity, we show how the discussion in an earlier work [J. Math. Phys. 43, 3053 (2002)] of a history version of free, scalar quantum field theory can be augmented in such a way as to include the quantization of the unit-length, timelike vector that determines a Lorentzian foliation of Minkowski space-time. We employ a Hilbert bundle construction that is motivated by (i) discussing the role of the external Lorentz group in the existing history quantum field theory [J. Math. Phys. 43, 3053 (2002)] and (ii) considering a specific representation of the extended history algebra obtained from the multi-symplectic representation of scalar field theory

  4. Computer and machine vision theory, algorithms, practicalities

    CERN Document Server

    Davies, E R

    2012-01-01

    Computer and Machine Vision: Theory, Algorithms, Practicalities (previously entitled Machine Vision) clearly and systematically presents the basic methodology of computer and machine vision, covering the essential elements of the theory while emphasizing algorithmic and practical design constraints. This fully revised fourth edition has brought in more of the concepts and applications of computer vision, making it a very comprehensive and up-to-date tutorial text suitable for graduate students, researchers and R&D engineers working in this vibrant subject. Key features include: Practical examples and case studies give the 'ins and outs' of developing real-world vision systems, giving engineers the realities of implementing the principles in practice New chapters containing case studies on surveillance and driver assistance systems give practical methods on these cutting-edge applications in computer vision Necessary mathematics and essential theory are made approachable by careful explanations and well-il...

  5. Extrapolation methods theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Brezinski, C

    1991-01-01

    This volume is a self-contained, exhaustive exposition of the extrapolation methods theory, and of the various algorithms and procedures for accelerating the convergence of scalar and vector sequences. Many subroutines (written in FORTRAN 77) with instructions for their use are provided on a floppy disk in order to demonstrate to those working with sequences the advantages of the use of extrapolation methods. Many numerical examples showing the effectiveness of the procedures and a consequent chapter on applications are also provided - including some never before published results and applicat

  6. Digital curation theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Hedges, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Digital curation is a multi-skilled profession with a key role to play not only in domains traditionally associated with the management of information, such as libraries and archives, but in a broad range of market sectors. Digital information is a defining feature of our age. As individuals we increasingly communicate and record our lives and memories in digital form, whether consciously or as a by-product of broader social, cultural and business activities. Throughout government and industry, there is a pressing need to manage complex information assets and to exploit their social, cultural and commercial value. This book addresses the key strategic, technical and practical issues around digital curation, curatorial practice, and locating the discussions within an appropriate theoretical context.

  7. Practical impact of group communication theory

    OpenAIRE

    Schiper, A.

    2003-01-01

    Practical impact of group communication theory Andre Schiper Group communication is an important topic in fault-tolerant distributed applications. The paper summarizes the main contributions of practical importance that contributed to our current understanding of group communication. These contributions are classified into ''abstractions'' and ''specifications'', ''paradigms'', ''system models'', ''algorithms'', and ''theoretical results''. Some open issues are discussed at the end of the ...

  8. History and theory in "applied ethics".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchamp, Tom L

    2007-03-01

    Robert Baker and Laurence McCullough argue that the "applied ethics model" is deficient and in need of a replacement model. However, they supply no clear meaning to "applied ethics" and miss most of what is important in the literature on methodology that treats this question. The Baker-McCullough account of medical and applied ethics is a straw man that has had no influence in these fields or in philosophical ethics. The authors are also on shaky historical grounds in dealing with two problems: (1) the historical source of the notion of "practical ethics" and (2) the historical source of and the assimilation of the term "autonomy" into applied philosophy and professional ethics. They mistakenly hold (1) that the expression "practical ethics" was first used in a publication by Thomas Percival and (2) that Kant is the primary historical source of the notion of autonomy as that notion is used in contemporary applied ethics.

  9. Interrupting History: Rethinking History Curriculum after "The End of History". Counterpoints: Studies in the Postmodern Theory of Education. Volume 404

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkes, Robert John

    2011-01-01

    Since the emergence of postmodern social theory, history has been haunted by predictions of its imminent end. Postmodernism has been accused of making historical research and writing untenable, encouraging the proliferation of revisionist histories, providing fertile ground for historical denial, and promoting the adoption of a mournful view of…

  10. TENORM legislation - Theory and practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsurikov, N.; Koperski, J.

    2002-01-01

    Processing of minerals often increases concentrations of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in mineral concentrates, products and waste streams. This so-called TENORM (Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials) phenomenon can result in usually very small increases of radiation exposures to workers and the public. However, proposed international radiation protection standards are likely to bring the TENORM issue into the realm of regulatory concern. Verbatim adoption by the national legislation's of the radiation protection standards like those proposed in the IAEA's 1996 Basic Safety Standards (BSS) would present enormous practical problems. Many industries and industrial practices would, for the first time, become subjected to the provisions of radiation protection legislation. Consequently, registration, licensing, occupational and environmental monitoring, statutory reporting, appointment of appropriately qualified staff, new approaches to the management of minerals and waste labeled as 'radioactive', etc. would be required. This would be mirrored by corresponding demands on the regulatory authorities, needing to provide an increased radiation protection regulatory control. In response to new Australian and other national radiation protection legislation that have incorporated the BSS criteria, this paper illustrates their impact on a number of industries that historically have not been considered as dealing with radioactive materials. The paper also proposes a number of initiatives that could be considered. Nationally, those initiatives should aim at adopting radiation protection legislation that is commensurate with the nature of the minerals industry operations, national circumstances, conditions and interests without compromising rational radiation protection practices. Otherwise, non-judicious application of the BSS would result in major diversions of resources from well recognized occupational health and safety issues

  11. Integrated care: theory to practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Jonathan; Checkland, Kath; Kristensen, Søren Rud

    2016-10-01

    'Integrated care' is pitched as the solution to current health system challenges. In the literature, what integrated care actually involves is complex and contested. Multi-disciplinary team case management is frequently the primary focus of integrated care when implemented internationally. We examine the practical application of integrated care in the NHS in England to exemplify the prevalence of the case management focus. We look at the evidence for effectiveness of multi-disciplinary team case management, for the focus on high-risk groups and for integrated care more generally. We suggest realistic expectations of what integration of care alone can achieve and additional research questions. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. Background subtraction theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Elgammal, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Background subtraction is a widely used concept for detection of moving objects in videos. In the last two decades there has been a lot of development in designing algorithms for background subtraction, as well as wide use of these algorithms in various important applications, such as visual surveillance, sports video analysis, motion capture, etc. Various statistical approaches have been proposed to model scene backgrounds. The concept of background subtraction also has been extended to detect objects from videos captured from moving cameras. This book reviews the concept and practice of back

  13. The theory and practice of the Dewey Decimal Classification system

    CERN Document Server

    Satija, M P

    2013-01-01

    The Dewey Decimal Classification system (DDC) is the world's most popular library classification system. The 23rd edition of the DDC was published in 2011. This second edition of The Theory and Practice of the Dewey Decimal Classification System examines the history, management and technical aspects of the DDC up to its latest edition. The book places emphasis on explaining the structure and number building techniques in the DDC and reviews all aspects of subject analysis and number building by the most recent version of the DDC. A history of, and introduction to, the DDC is followed by subjec

  14. PEDAGOGICAL PRACTICE WAY OF CONNECTING PEDAGOGICAL THEORY AND PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božo Obradović

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of linking educational theory to educational practice (educational work with young people is highly topical and important issue for the science of pedagogy. One way of achieving this task is a pedagogical practice (PP students. In paper we deal with identifying, comparing, and analyzing the curricula of vocational (Curriculum for Preschool Teacher (2007 and academic (Curriculum for Educators (2007. Studies Teacher Training in Serbia, as well as educational disciplines and areas of pedagogical science derived from them. The results showed many similarities, but also differences when it comes to educational disciplines that are taught, the name of pedagogical practice, the number of classes to implement, ECTS (European Credit Transfer System, which affect the quality and coherence of educational theory and educational practice. In order to identify similarities and overcome weaknesses that accompany the pedagogical practice analysis, we came to know about the specifics of each of the six pedagogical practice. For each pedagogical practice defined specific goals and tasks arising from the curriculum, and in particular pedagogical disciplines taught at university. Each of these pedagogical practices is the ability to connect educational theory and educational practice and direct way to increase the quality of training and competence of future teachers for direct work with children.

  15. Life histories in occupational therapy clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, G

    1996-04-01

    This article defines and compares several narrative methods used to describe and interpret patients' lives. The biographical methods presented are case histories, life-charts, life histories, life stories, assisted autobiography, hermeneutic case reconstruction, therapeutic employment, volitional narratives, and occupational storytelling and story making. Emphasis is placed the clinician as a collaborator and interpreter of the patient's life through ongoing interactions and dialogue.

  16. Intervention principles: Theory and practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, P.H.; Crick, M.J.

    2000-01-01

    After the Chernobyl accident, it became clear that some clarification of the basic principles for intervention was necessary as well as more internationally recognised numerical guidance on intervention levels. There was in the former USSR and in Europe much confusion over, and lack of recognition of, the very different origins and purposes of dose limits for controlling deliberate increases in radiation exposure for practices and dose levels at which intervention is prompted to decrease existing radiation exposure. In the latest recommendations from ICRP in its Publication 60, a clear distinction is made between the radiation protection systems for a practice and for intervention. According to ICRP, the protective measures forming a program of intervention, which always have some disadvantages, should each be justified on their own merit in the sense that they should do more good than harm, and their form, scale, and duration should be optimised so as to do the most good. Intervention levels for protective actions can be established for many possible accident scenarios. For planning and preparedness purposes, a generic optimisation based on generic accident scenario calculations, should result in optimised generic intervention levels for each protective measure. The factors entering such an optimisation will on the benefit side include avertable doses and avertable risks as well as reassurance. On the harm side the factors include monetary costs, collective and individual risk for the action itself, social disruption and anxiety. More precise optimisation analyses based on real site and accident specific data can be carried out and result in specific intervention levels. It is desirable that values for easily measurable quantities such as dose rate and surface contamination density be developed as surrogates for intervention levels of avertable dose. However, it is important that these quantities should be used carefully and applied taking account of local

  17. Aerosol science: theory and practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, M.M.R.; Loyalka, S.K.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this book is twofold. First, it is intended to give a thorough treatment of the fundamentals of aerosol behavior with rigorous proofs and detailed derivations of the basic equations and removal mechanisms. Second, it is intended to provide practical examples with special attention to radioactive particles and their distribution in size following a radioactive release arising from an accident with a nuclear system. We start with a brief introduction to the applications of aerosol science and the characteristics of aerosols in Chapter 1. In Chapter 2, we devote considerable attention to single and two particle motion with respect to both translation and rotation. Chapter 3 contains extensive discussion of the aerosol general dynamical equation and the dependences of aerosol distributions on size, shape, space, composition, radioactivity, and charge. Important particle rate processes of coagulation, condensation, and deposition/resuspension are discussed in the chapters 4, 6 and 7, respectively. In Chapter 5, we provide a thorough treatment of the analytical and numerical methods used in solving the various forms of the aerosol dynamical equation. We discuss the importance and applications of aerosol science to nuclear technology and, in particular, the nuclear source term in Chapter 8. Our focus in this chapter is on discussions of nuclear accidents that can potentially release large amount of radioactivity to environment. We also discuss the progress that has been made in understanding the natural and engineered aerosol processes that limit or affect such releases. (author)

  18. Medical ethics research between theory and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Have, H A; Lelie, A

    1998-06-01

    The main object of criticism of present-day medical ethics is the standard view of the relationship between theory and practice. Medical ethics is more than the application of moral theories and principles, and health care is more than the domain of application of moral theories. Moral theories and principles are necessarily abstract, and therefore fail to take account of the sometimes idiosyncratic reality of clinical work and the actual experiences of practitioners. Suggestions to remedy the illness of contemporary medical ethics focus on re-establishing the connection between the internal and external morality of medicine. This article discusses the question how to develop a theoretical perspective on medical ethical issues that connects philosophical reflection with the everyday realities of medical practice. Four steps in a comprehensive approach of medical ethics research are distinguished: (1) examine health care contexts in order to obtain a better understanding of the internal morality of these practices; this requires empirical research; (2) analyze and interpret the external morality governing health care practices; sociological study of prevalent values, norms, and attitudes concerning medical-ethical issues is required; (3) creation of new theoretical perspectives on health care practices; Jensen's theory of healthcare practices will be useful here; (4) develop a new conception of bioethics that illuminates and clarifies the complex interaction between the internal and external morality of health care practices. Hermeneutical ethics can be helpful for integrating the experiences disclosed in the empirical ethical studies, as well as utilizing the insights gained from describing the value-contexts of health care practices. For a critical and normative perspective, hermeneutical ethics has to examine and explain the moral experiences uncovered, in order to understand what they tell us.

  19. Life history theory predicts fish assemblage response to hydrologic regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mims, Meryl C; Olden, Julian D

    2012-01-01

    The hydrologic regime is regarded as the primary driver of freshwater ecosystems, structuring the physical habitat template, providing connectivity, framing biotic interactions, and ultimately selecting for specific life histories of aquatic organisms. In the present study, we tested ecological theory predicting directional relationships between major dimensions of the flow regime and life history composition of fish assemblages in perennial free-flowing rivers throughout the continental United States. Using long-term discharge records and fish trait and survey data for 109 stream locations, we found that 11 out of 18 relationships (61%) tested between the three life history strategies (opportunistic, periodic, and equilibrium) and six hydrologic metrics (two each describing flow variability, predictability, and seasonality) were statistically significant (P history strategies, with 82% of all significant relationships observed supporting predictions from life history theory. Specifically, we found that (1) opportunistic strategists were positively related to measures of flow variability and negatively related to predictability and seasonality, (2) periodic strategists were positively related to high flow seasonality and negatively related to variability, and (3) the equilibrium strategists were negatively related to flow variability and positively related to predictability. Our study provides important empirical evidence illustrating the value of using life history theory to understand both the patterns and processes by which fish assemblage structure is shaped by adaptation to natural regimes of variability, predictability, and seasonality of critical flow events over broad biogeographic scales.

  20. Motivational theory applied to hospital pharmacy practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, M

    1980-12-01

    In recent years a great deal of attention has been paid to motivation and job satisfaction among hospital pharmacy practitioners. Institutional pharmacy managers should become more aware of ways in which they can motivate members of their staff. Specifically, Frederick Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory is discussed in reference to its origination, major tenets, and practical applications in institutional pharmacy practice settings. Principally, Herzberg's theory explains needs of workers in terms of extrinsic factors called "hygienes" and intrinsic factors called "motivators." The theory suggests that job satisfaction and dissatisfaction are not opposites but two separate dimensions. According to this theory, an employee will be motivated if the task allows for the following: 1)actual achievement, 2) recognition for achievement, 3) increased responsibility, 4) opportunity for growth (professionally), and 5) chance for advancement. It is concluded that some of these suggested applications can be useful to managers who are faced with low morale among the members of their staff.

  1. Building Theory for Management Science and Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanchez, Ron; Heene, Aimé

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we examine some fundamental epistemological issues in building theory for applied management science, by which we mean theory that can be usefully applied in a scientific approach to management research and practice. We first define and distinguish “grand theory” from “mid......-range theory” in the social and management sciences. We then elaborate and contrast epistemologies for (i) building “grand theory” intended to be applicable to all cases and contexts, and (ii) building “mid-range theory” intended to apply to specific kinds of contexts. We illustrate the epistemological...... challenges in building grand theory in management science by considering important differences in the abilities of two “grand theories” in strategic management – industry structure theory and firm resources theory – to support development of conceptually consistent models and propositions for empirical...

  2. Time Safety Margin: Theory and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Air Education and Training Command Handbook 99-107, T-38 Road to Wings, Randolph Air Force Base, Texas, July 2013. 65 This page was intentionally left...412TW-TIH-16-01 TIME SAFETY MARGIN: THEORY AND PRACTICE WILLIAM R. GRAY, III Chief Test Pilot USAF Test Pilot School SEPTEMBER 2016... Safety Margin: The01y and Practice) was submitted by the Commander, 4 I 2th Test Wing, Edwards AFB, Ca lifornia 93524-6843. Foreign announcement and

  3. Adsorption--from theory to practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabrowski, A

    2001-10-08

    of adsorption up to the 1918s has been following rather a zig-zag path, this arm of surface science is now generally considered to have become a well-defined branch of physical science representing an intrinsically interdisciplinary area between chemistry, physics, biology and engineering. This review presents in brief the history of adsorption and highlights the progress in theoretical description of the phenomenon under consideration. The paper deals with the above problems critically, showing the development of adsorption, presenting some of the latest important results and giving a source of up-to-date literature on it. Moreover, in this paper the most important aspects are overviewed referring to today's trends and visions in application of adsorption science in industry, environmental protection and in environmental analysis. The relationship between development of adsorption theory and adsorption practice is pointed out. Current understanding and perspectives pertaining to applications of adsorption phenomena on laboratory and on industrial scale as well as environmental protection are discussed and illustrated by means of a few spectacular examples.

  4. Natural selection. VII. History and interpretation of kin selection theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, S A

    2013-06-01

    Kin selection theory is a kind of causal analysis. The initial form of kin selection ascribed cause to costs, benefits and genetic relatedness. The theory then slowly developed a deeper and more sophisticated approach to partitioning the causes of social evolution. Controversy followed because causal analysis inevitably attracts opposing views. It is always possible to separate total effects into different component causes. Alternative causal schemes emphasize different aspects of a problem, reflecting the distinct goals, interests and biases of different perspectives. For example, group selection is a particular causal scheme with certain advantages and significant limitations. Ultimately, to use kin selection theory to analyse natural patterns and to understand the history of debates over different approaches, one must follow the underlying history of causal analysis. This article describes the history of kin selection theory, with emphasis on how the causal perspective improved through the study of key patterns of natural history, such as dispersal and sex ratio, and through a unified approach to demographic and social processes. Independent historical developments in the multivariate analysis of quantitative traits merged with the causal analysis of social evolution by kin selection. © 2013 The Author. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2013 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  5. An Overview of the History of Learning Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illeris, Knud

    2018-01-01

    This article is an account of the history of learning theory as the author has come to know and interpret it by dealing with this subject for almost half a century during which he has also himself gradually developed the broad understanding of human learning which is presented in his well known books on "How We Learn" and a lot of other…

  6. PEDAGOGICAL PRACTICE WAY OF CONNECTING PEDAGOGICAL THEORY AND PRACTICE

    OpenAIRE

    Božo Obradović

    2013-01-01

    The issue of linking educational theory to educational practice (educational work with young people) is highly topical and important issue for the science of pedagogy. One way of achieving this task is a pedagogical practice (PP) students. In paper we deal with identifying, comparing, and analyzing the curricula of vocational (Curriculum for Preschool Teacher (2007) and academic (Curriculum for Educators (2007). Studies Teacher Training in Serbia, as well as educational disciplines and areas ...

  7. Teaching Civic Journalism: Integrating Theory and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDevitt, Michael

    2000-01-01

    Describes a journalism course that used an integrative approach to teaching about the principles, practice, and effects of civic journalism, combining theory, news writing, and evaluation. Describes the class project on the controversial issue of panhandling. Discusses goals of civic journalism and of the project, journalistic methods used,…

  8. Leadership Pedagogy: Putting Theory to Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosch, David M.; Anthony, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Building leadership capacity in college students is both an art and a science. Knowledge of college student development and specifically college leadership development, as well as research in leadership theory and practices, can help college leadership educators become more effective. International Leadership Association (ILA) Guiding Questions…

  9. Leadership: Theory and Practice. Sixth Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northouse, Peter G.

    2012-01-01

    Adopted at more than 1,000 colleges and universities worldwide, the market-leading text owes its success to the unique way in which it combines an academically robust account of the major theories and models of leadership with an accessible style and practical exercises that help students apply what they learn. Each chapter of Peter…

  10. Practical Theory: Teaching Political and Economic Citizenship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J. Wesley

    2010-01-01

    How can philosophical instruction inform practical analysis and decision making among college students in a way that demonstrably benefits them as individual members of our polity and economy? I pose this question because each year, I introduce classic political theory to first- and second-year college students who simultaneously confront a fiscal…

  11. Theory and practice in the workshop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haastrup, Lisbeth

    2015-01-01

    of Education. Proclamation of Professional Bachelor Teacher Education Programme. Retrieved May 2014 from, https://www.retsinformation. dk/Forms/R0710.aspx?id=25302]. In this article, we reflect on the epistemological challenges we faced during a research project on the correlation between theory and practice...

  12. Application of empowerment theory for CNS practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson-Catalano, J M

    1993-11-01

    Power is necessary for the clinical nurse specialist (CNS) to successfully conduct objectives of practice in bureaucratic hospital settings. To obtain power, the CNS could use strategies of an empowerment theory to fully operationalize roles in hospitals. This article will discuss how the CNS may be empowered utilizing strategies in four empowering categories. In addition, the many benefits of empowering the CNS are reviewed.

  13. Translanguaging as a Practical Theory of Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Li

    2018-01-01

    This article seeks to develop Translanguaging as a theory of language and discuss the theoretical motivations behind and the added values of the concept. I contextualize Translanguaging in the linguistic realities of the 21st century, especially the fluid and dynamic practices that transcend the boundaries between named languages, language…

  14. Workplace Innovation: Theory, Research and Practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oeij, P.R.A.; Rus, D.; Pot, F.D.

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on workplace innovation, which is a key element in ensuring that organizations and the people within them can adapt to and engage in healthy, sustainable change. It features a collection of multi-level, multi-disciplinary contributions that combine theory, research and practical

  15. Nursing history: from conformity to challenging practice.

    OpenAIRE

    Rosser, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Elizabeth Rosser, Deputy Dean (Education and Professional Practice) and Professor of Nursing at Bournemouth University, considers the lessons that the nursing profession has learned since its early days.

  16. Africentric education leadership: Theory and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KMT G. SHOCKLEY

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This article unveils the largely unknown theories and practices of “cultural reattachment Africentric education leaders,” because many people of African descent are now choosing to reattach (in whole or in part to aspects of certain African cultures (such as Wolof or Akan. The article offers a brief background of African-centered education, discusses the theories and philosophies of Africentric education leaders, and explicates the methodology of this Africentric research project. Africentric education leaders are concerned about black communities becoming more avaricious but less unified; therefore, they offer African cultural ethos to combat both miseducation and individualism. This article also provides policy recommendations for instituting Africentric education as a comprehensive approach to address myriad problems being faced by black children and communities. In this research I advocate for Africentric theory and also employ ethnographic methods as I examine Africentric education practice.

  17. Improving Bridging from Informatics Practice to Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, C U; Gundlapalli, A V

    2015-01-01

    In 1962, Methods of Information in Medicine ( MIM ) began to publish papers on the methodology and scientific fundamentals of organizing, representing, and analyzing data, information, and knowledge in biomedicine and health care. Considered a companion journal, Applied Clinical Informatics ( ACI ) was launched in 2009 with a mission to establish a platform that allows sharing of knowledge between clinical medicine and health IT specialists as well as to bridge gaps between visionary design and successful and pragmatic deployment of clinical information systems. Both journals are official journals of the International Medical Informatics Association. As a follow-up to prior work, we set out to explore congruencies and interdependencies in publications of ACI and MIM. The objectives were to describe the major topics discussed in articles published in ACI in 2014 and to determine if there was evidence that theory in 2014 MIM publications was informed by practice described in ACI publications in any year. We also set out to describe lessons learned in the context of bridging informatics practice and theory and offer opinions on how ACI editorial policies could evolve to foster and improve such bridging. We conducted a retrospective observational study and reviewed all articles published in ACI during the calendar year 2014 (Volume 5) for their main theme, conclusions, and key words. We then reviewed the citations of all MIM papers from 2014 to determine if there were references to ACI articles from any year. Lessons learned in the context of bridging informatics practice and theory and opinions on ACI editorial policies were developed by consensus among the two authors. A total of 70 articles were published in ACI in 2014. Clinical decision support, clinical documentation, usability, Meaningful Use, health information exchange, patient portals, and clinical research informatics emerged as major themes. Only one MIM article from 2014 cited an ACI article. There

  18. Configuration management theory, practice, and application

    CERN Document Server

    Quigley, Jon M

    2015-01-01

    Configuration Management: Theory, Practice, and Application details a comprehensive approach to configuration management from a variety of product development perspectives, including embedded and IT. It provides authoritative advice on how to extend products for a variety of markets due to configuration options. The book also describes the importance of configuration management to other parts of the organization. It supplies an overview of configuration management and its process elements to provide readers with a contextual understanding of the theory, practice, and application of CM. Explaining what a configuration item is and what it implies, the book illustrates the interplay of configuration and data management with all enterprise resources during each phase of a product lifecycle. It also demonstrates the interrelationship of CM to functional resources. Shedding light on current practice, the book describes CM baselines, configuration identification, management baseline changes, and acceptance criteria ...

  19. Measurement Errors and Uncertainties Theory and Practice

    CERN Document Server

    Rabinovich, Semyon G

    2006-01-01

    Measurement Errors and Uncertainties addresses the most important problems that physicists and engineers encounter when estimating errors and uncertainty. Building from the fundamentals of measurement theory, the author develops the theory of accuracy of measurements and offers a wealth of practical recommendations and examples of applications. This new edition covers a wide range of subjects, including: - Basic concepts of metrology - Measuring instruments characterization, standardization and calibration -Estimation of errors and uncertainty of single and multiple measurements - Modern probability-based methods of estimating measurement uncertainty With this new edition, the author completes the development of the new theory of indirect measurements. This theory provides more accurate and efficient methods for processing indirect measurement data. It eliminates the need to calculate the correlation coefficient - a stumbling block in measurement data processing - and offers for the first time a way to obtain...

  20. The Theory and Practice of Islamism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Анна Александровна Петрухина

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis of a general characteristic of political Islam which has got now the big popularity as Islamism. In Islamism the concept jihad as the political slogan and the military-political practice is widely used by the Islamic extremist organizations in Islamic regions. In the article is considered the theoretical heritage of Islamic extremism in the history of political thought. Three waves of Islamism are analyzed: their reasons of occurrence, motive forces and methods of achievement of the purposes. The phenomenon of Islamism is considered as the practical activities which are carried out at local, national, regional, global levels.

  1. Feminist Social Work: Practice and Theory of Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyal-Lubling, Roni; Krumer-Nevo, Michal

    2016-07-01

    Although feminist social work has been practiced in Israel since the 1970s, little has been written about it. This qualitative study aims to fill this gap by documenting and conceptualizing feminist theory of practice and actual practice based on interviews with 12 feminist social workers. Findings reveal that the interviewees perceive feminist practice as significantly different from traditional social work practice based on four analytical principles: (1) gender analysis, (2) awareness of power relations, (3) analysis of welfare services as structures of oppression, and (4) utilization of feminist language, as well as 10 principles of action. The principles are discussed in the context of feminist social work in Israel and in light of feminist principles described in international literature.

  2. Theory and practice in teacher education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lars Emmerik Damgaard

    Abstract for NERA 2013, Iceland Theory and Practice – Knowledge Forms, Culture Analysis and Embodiment Lars Emmerik Damgaard Knudsen ‘Teacher Education Network’ Compared to other Nordic teacher education programs the Danish teacher education is as designated to the teacher profession but not nece......Abstract for NERA 2013, Iceland Theory and Practice – Knowledge Forms, Culture Analysis and Embodiment Lars Emmerik Damgaard Knudsen ‘Teacher Education Network’ Compared to other Nordic teacher education programs the Danish teacher education is as designated to the teacher profession...... and videotaped in the last placement period and in the students’ phase of writing the bachelor thesis. The analysis demonstrates that the intended and practiced knowledge forms are cultural structured and bodily anchored in the self-images of the placement and teaching sites which points to a significant...... there are still significant contradictions between placement and teaching sites in the understandings of the means and ends of the teacher education program and in the relations between theory and practice. 3. The process of becoming academic and professional formation is in an interpellation process headed...

  3. Giants in the Nursery: A Biographical History of Developmentally Appropriate Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkind, David

    2015-01-01

    "Giants in the Nursery" examines the evolution of developmentally appropriate practice in this biographical history of early childhood education. This book, from David Elkind, explores the theory's progression--from its beginnings in writings of sixteenth- and seventeenth-century philosophers, its experimental implementation by…

  4. Patient stoma care: educational theory in practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jenny

    Patients undergoing stoma formation encounter many challenges including psychosocial issues, relationship concerns and fear of leakage. Leakage, inappropriate product usage and poor patient adaptation post stoma formation has cost implications for the NHS. Developing good, practical stoma care skills has been identified as improving patient outcomes, promoting the provision of quality care and improving efficiency within the NHS. However, a thorough literature search indicated that there is little research available on patient stoma care education. This is considered surprising by Metcalf (1999), O'Connor (2005) and the author of this article. This article considers and adapts generic educational theory to make it pertinent to patient stoma care education in order to bridge the gap between theory and practice.

  5. Spatial mathematics theory and practice through mapping

    CERN Document Server

    Arlinghaus, Sandra Lach

    2013-01-01

    In terms of statistics, GIS offers many connections. With GIS, data are gathered, displayed, summarized, examined, and interpreted to discover patterns. Spatial Mathematics: Theory and Practice through Mapping uses GIS as a platform to teach mathematical concepts and skills through visualization of numbers. It examines theory and practice from disparate academic disciplines such as geography, mathematics, physics, and general social science. This approach allows students to grapple with biodiversity, crime, natural hazards, climate, energy, water, and other relevant real-world issues of the twenty-first century. Includes QR Codes Linked to Animated Maps, a Mapping Activity Site, or to an Interactive Webpage, Creating an Interactive Resource That Stays Relevant The book integrates competing philosophical views of the world: synthesis and analysis. These two approaches yield different results and employ different tools. This book considers both approaches to looking at real-world issues that have mathematics as...

  6. Field theory approaches to new media practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willig, Ida; Waltorp, Karen; Hartley, Jannie Møller

    2015-01-01

    could benefit particularly from Pierre Bourdieu’s research on cultural production. We introduce some of the literature that concerns digital media use and has been significant for field theory’s development in this context. We then present the four thematic articles in this issue and the articles......This special issue of MedieKultur specifically addresses new media practices and asks how field theory approaches can help us understand how culture is (prod)used via various digital platforms. In this article introducing the theme of the special issue, we argue that studies of new media practices...... outside the theme, which include two translations of classic texts within communications and media research. This introductory article concludes by encouraging media scholars to embark on additional studies within a field theory framework: This framework’s comprehensive theoretical basis and ideal...

  7. Density functional theory a practical introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Sholl, David

    2009-01-01

    Demonstrates how anyone in math, science, and engineering can master DFT calculations Density functional theory (DFT) is one of the most frequently used computational tools for studying and predicting the properties of isolated molecules, bulk solids, and material interfaces, including surfaces. Although the theoretical underpinnings of DFT are quite complicated, this book demonstrates that the basic concepts underlying the calculations are simple enough to be understood by anyone with a background in chemistry, physics, engineering, or mathematics. The authors show how the widespread availability of powerful DFT codes makes it possible for students and researchers to apply this important computational technique to a broad range of fundamental and applied problems. Density Functional Theory: A Practical Introduction offers a concise, easy-to-follow introduction to the key concepts and practical applications of DFT, focusing on plane-wave DFT. The authors have many years of experience introducing DFT to studen...

  8. Bridging the Gap Between Theory and Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Roy H.M. Sembel

    2015-01-01

    Some concerns in the field of Business Management regarding the gap between theory and practice have been raised by practitioners and academicians. This keynote speech describes some lessons learned from the academic literature regarding this gap (whether the gap really exists, and if it exists, whether it needs to be bridged or closed, and how to bridge or close this gap), and shares the author's personal and professional experiences of living as both an academician and a practitioner. The m...

  9. Distributed computer systems theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Zedan, H S M

    2014-01-01

    Distributed Computer Systems: Theory and Practice is a collection of papers dealing with the design and implementation of operating systems, including distributed systems, such as the amoeba system, argus, Andrew, and grapevine. One paper discusses the concepts and notations for concurrent programming, particularly language notation used in computer programming, synchronization methods, and also compares three classes of languages. Another paper explains load balancing or load redistribution to improve system performance, namely, static balancing and adaptive load balancing. For program effici

  10. Theory and practice in engineering thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polak, P.

    1983-01-01

    The book is a new approach to engineering thermodynamics for students of mechanical engineering at diploma and degree levels. There is an explanation of the basic principles of thermodynamics, followed by several chapters illustrating these principles as applied to piston engines, the gas turbine, steam power, and refrigerators and heat pumps. The book aims to introduce some key features of theory and current practice in a way that students will find interesting

  11. Translanguaging as a Practical Theory of Language

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, L.

    2017-01-01

    This article seeks to develop Translanguaging as a theory of language and discuss the theoretical motivations behind and the added values of the concept. I contextualize Translanguaging in the linguistic realities of the 21st century, especially the fluid and dynamic practices that transcend the boundaries between named languages, language varieties, and language and other semiotic systems. I highlight the contributions Translanguaging as a theoretical concept can make to the debates over the...

  12. Telecommunications system reliability engineering theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Ayers, Mark L

    2012-01-01

    "Increasing system complexity require new, more sophisticated tools for system modeling and metric calculation. Bringing the field up to date, this book provides telecommunications engineers with practical tools for analyzing, calculating, and reporting availability, reliability, and maintainability metrics. It gives the background in system reliability theory and covers in-depth applications in fiber optic networks, microwave networks, satellite networks, power systems, and facilities management. Computer programming tools for simulating the approaches presented, using the Matlab software suite, are also provided"

  13. Experiential learning: transforming theory into practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yardley, Sarah; Teunissen, Pim W; Dornan, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Whilst much is debated about the importance of experiential learning in curriculum development, the concept only becomes effective if it is applied in an appropriate way. We believe that this effectiveness is directly related to a sound understanding of the theory, supporting the learning. The purpose of this article is to introduce readers to the theories underpinning experiential learning, which are then expanded further in an AMEE Guide, which considers the theoretical basis of experiential learning from a social learning, constructionist perspective and applies it to three stages of medical education: early workplace experience, clerkships and residency. This article argues for the importance and relevance of experiential learning and addresses questions that are commonly asked about it. First, we answer the questions 'what is experiential learning?' and 'how does it relate to social learning theory?' to orientate readers to the principles on which our arguments are based. Then, we consider why those ideas (theories) are relevant to educators--ranging from those with responsibilities for curriculum design to 'hands-on' teachers and workplace supervisors. The remainder of this article discusses how experiential learning theories and a socio-cultural perspective can be applied in practice. We hope that this will give readers a taste for our more detailed AMEE Guide and the further reading recommended at the end of it.

  14. Reliability engineering. Theory and practice. 6. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birolini, Alessandro

    2010-07-01

    This book shows how to build in, evaluate, and demonstrate reliability and availability of components, equipment, systems. It presents the state-of-the-art of reliability engineering, both in theory and practice, and is based on the author's 30 years experience in this field, half in industry and half as Professor of Reliability Engineering at the ETH, Zurich. The structure of the book allows rapid access to practical results. Besides extensions to cost models and approximate expressions, new in this edition are investigations on common cause failures, phased-mission systems, availability demonstration and estimation, confidence limits at system level, trend tests for early failures or wearout, as well as a review of maintenance strategies, an introduction to Petri nets and dynamic FTA, and a set of problems for home-work. Methods and tools are given in a way that they can be tailored to cover different reliability requirement levels and be used for safety analysis as well. This book is a textbook establishing a link between theory and practice, with a large number of tables, figures, and examples to support the practical aspects. (orig.)

  15. Gaming practices in everyday life. An analytical operationalization of field theory by means of practice theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claus Toft-Nielsen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates digital game play (gaming as a specific media field (Bourdieu, 1984, p. 72, in which especially gaming capital (Consalvo, 2007 functions as a theoretical lens. We aim to analyse the specific practices that constitute and are constituted in and around gaming. This multitude of practices is theoretically qualified by the second generation of practice theorists, including (Bruchler & Postill, 2010; Reckwitz, 2002; Schatzki, 2008; Warde, 2005. The empirical data are drawn from qualitative studies of gamers and gaming practices (focus groups as well as participant observations, and function as exemplary cases that illustrate our theoretical arguments. Our purpose is to analytically operationalize field theory, by means of practice theory, to enhance our understanding of digital games as new media and the specific contexts and media practices herein.

  16. Gaming practices in everyday life. An analytical operationalization of field theory by means of practice theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft-Nielsen, Claus; Krogager, Stinne Gunder Strøm

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates digital game play (gaming) as a specific media field (Bourdieu, 1984, p. 72), in which especially gaming capital (Consalvo, 2007) functions as a theoretical lens. We aim to analyse the specific practices that constitute and are constituted in and around gaming....... This multitude of practices is theoretically qualified by the second generation of practice theorists, including (Bruchler & Postill, 2010; Reckwitz, 2002; Schatzki, 2008; Warde, 2005). The empirical data are drawn from qualitative studies of gamers and gaming practices (focus groups as well as participant...... observations), and function as exemplary cases that illustrate our theoretical arguments. Our purpose is to analytically operationalize field theory, by means of practice theory, to enhance our understanding of digital games as new media and the specific contexts and media practices herein....

  17. Sexuality and psychoanalytic aggrandisement: Freud's 1908 theory of cultural history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotti, Patricia

    2011-03-01

    In 1908, in his article "'Civilized" sexual morality and modern nervous illness', Freud presented neuroses as the consequence of a restrictive state of cultural development and its 'civilized morality'. He found the inspiration for this idea by expanding upon previous formulations in this area by his predecessors (notably Christian von Ehrenfels) that focused on a cultural process earlier introduced by Kant, while also integrating in his analysis the principles of Haeckel's evolutionism (history of development, recapitulation) which eventually re-defined the psychoanalytic theory of neuroses. These new theoretical elements became the basis of psychoanalytic theory and thereby influenced subsequent thinking in the cultural process itself and in human sciences. This transformation of underlying theory provided a unique historical and analytical framework for psychoanalysis which allowed Freud to claim for it a pre-eminent position among the human sciences.

  18. Family medicine training and practice in Malawi: History, progress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Family medicine training and practice in Malawi: History, progress, and the anticipated role of the family physician in the Malawian health system. ... The idea of formal family medicine training and practice in Malawi started as early as 2001 but did not come to fruition until 2011, with the start of the undergraduate clerkship in ...

  19. A brief history of string theory. From dual models to M-theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rickles, Dean [Sydney Univ. (Australia). Unit for History and Philosophy of Science

    2014-04-01

    First monograph devoted to the history of superstring theory. Objective presentation of a controversial area of physics enabling readers to see through the divisive hype and hysteria forming the 'String Wars'. Interweaves conceptual issues with the wider historical development. Reveals string theory's historically close connections with other areas of physics. Self-contained approach brings string theory within the grasp of non-specialists. During its forty year lifespan, string theory has always had the power to divide, being called both a 'theory of everything' and a 'theory of nothing'. Critics have even questioned whether it qualifies as a scientific theory at all. This book adopts an objective stance, standing back from the question of the truth or falsity of string theory and instead focusing on how it came to be and how it came to occupy its present position in physics. An unexpectedly rich history is revealed, with deep connections to our most well-established physical theories. Fully self-contained and written in a lively fashion, the book will appeal to a wide variety of readers from novice to specialist.

  20. A brief history of string theory. From dual models to M-theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rickles, Dean

    2014-01-01

    First monograph devoted to the history of superstring theory. Objective presentation of a controversial area of physics enabling readers to see through the divisive hype and hysteria forming the 'String Wars'. Interweaves conceptual issues with the wider historical development. Reveals string theory's historically close connections with other areas of physics. Self-contained approach brings string theory within the grasp of non-specialists. During its forty year lifespan, string theory has always had the power to divide, being called both a 'theory of everything' and a 'theory of nothing'. Critics have even questioned whether it qualifies as a scientific theory at all. This book adopts an objective stance, standing back from the question of the truth or falsity of string theory and instead focusing on how it came to be and how it came to occupy its present position in physics. An unexpectedly rich history is revealed, with deep connections to our most well-established physical theories. Fully self-contained and written in a lively fashion, the book will appeal to a wide variety of readers from novice to specialist.

  1. Inverse Theory for Petroleum Reservoir Characterization and History Matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Dean S.; Reynolds, Albert C.; Liu, Ning

    This book is a guide to the use of inverse theory for estimation and conditional simulation of flow and transport parameters in porous media. It describes the theory and practice of estimating properties of underground petroleum reservoirs from measurements of flow in wells, and it explains how to characterize the uncertainty in such estimates. Early chapters present the reader with the necessary background in inverse theory, probability and spatial statistics. The book demonstrates how to calculate sensitivity coefficients and the linearized relationship between models and production data. It also shows how to develop iterative methods for generating estimates and conditional realizations. The text is written for researchers and graduates in petroleum engineering and groundwater hydrology and can be used as a textbook for advanced courses on inverse theory in petroleum engineering. It includes many worked examples to demonstrate the methodologies and a selection of exercises.

  2. A brief history of string theory from dual models to M-theory

    CERN Document Server

    Rickles, Dean

    2014-01-01

    During its forty year lifespan, string theory has always had the power to divide, being called both a 'theory of everything' and a 'theory of nothing'. Critics have even questioned whether it qualifies as a scientific theory at all. This book adopts an objective stance, standing back from the question of the truth or falsity of string theory and instead focusing on how it came to be and how it came to occupy its present position in physics. An unexpectedly rich history is revealed, with deep connections to our most well-established physical theories. Fully self-contained and written in a lively fashion, the book will appeal to a wide variety of readers from novice to specialist.

  3. Field theory approaches to new media practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartley, Jannie Møller; Willig, Ida; Waltorp, Karen

    2015-01-01

    In this article introducing the theme of the special issue we argue that studies of new media practices might benefit from especially Pierre Bourdieu’s research on cultural production. We introduce some of the literature, which deals with the use of digital media, and which have taken steps...... to develop field theory in this context. Secondly, we present the four thematic articles in this issue and the articles outside the theme, which includes two translations of classic texts within communication and media research. This introduction article concludes by encouraging media scholars to embark...... on more studies within a field theory framework, as the ability of the comprehensive theoretical work and the ideas of a reflexive sociology is able to trigger the good questions, more than it claims to offer a complete and self-sufficient sociology of media and inherent here also new media....

  4. Database theory and SQL practice using Access

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Gyeong Min; Lee, Myeong Jin

    2001-01-01

    This book introduces database theory and SQL practice using Access. It is comprised of seven chapters, which give description of understanding database with basic conception and DMBS, understanding relational database with examples of it, building database table and inputting data using access 2000, structured Query Language with introduction, management and making complex query using SQL, command for advanced SQL with understanding conception of join and virtual table, design on database for online bookstore with six steps and building of application with function, structure, component, understanding of the principle, operation and checking programming source for application menu.

  5. Environmental philosophy: from theory to practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Sahotra

    2014-03-01

    Environmental philosophy is a hybrid discipline drawing extensively from epistemology, ethics, and philosophy of science and analyzing disciplines such as conservation biology, restoration ecology, sustainability studies, and political ecology. The book being discussed both provides an overview of environmental philosophy and develops an anthropocentric framework for it. That framework treats natural values as deep cultural values. Tradeoffs between natural values are analyzed using decision theory to the extent possible, leaving many interesting question for philosophical deliberation. This framework is supposed to be applicable in practical contexts. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Data fusion mathematics theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Raol, Jitendra R

    2015-01-01

    Fills the Existing Gap of Mathematics for Data FusionData fusion (DF) combines large amounts of information from a variety of sources and fuses this data algorithmically, logically and, if required intelligently, using artificial intelligence (AI). Also, known as sensor data fusion (SDF), the DF fusion system is an important component for use in various applications that include the monitoring of vehicles, aerospace systems, large-scale structures, and large industrial automation plants. Data Fusion Mathematics: Theory and Practice offers a comprehensive overview of data fusion, and provides a

  7. Gas treating absorption theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Eimer, Dag

    2014-01-01

    Gas Treating: Absorption Theory and Practice provides an introduction to the treatment of natural gas, synthesis gas and flue gas, addressing why it is necessary and the challenges involved.  The book concentrates in particular on the absorption-desorption process and mass transfer coupled with chemical reaction. Following a general introduction to gas treatment, the chemistry of CO2, H2S and amine systems is described, and selected topics from physical chemistry with relevance to gas treating are presented. Thereafter the absorption process is discussed in detail, column hardware is explain

  8. Robustness and Contingent History: From Prisoner's Dilemma to Gaia Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Inman

    2018-01-01

    In both social systems and ecosystems there is a need to resolve potential conflicts between the interests of individuals and the collective interest of the community. The collective interests need to survive the turbulent dynamics of social and ecological interactions. To see how different systems with different sets of interactions have different degrees of robustness, we need to look at their different contingent histories. We analyze abstract artificial life models of such systems, and note that some prominent examples rely on explicitly ahistorical frameworks; we point out where analyses that ignore a contingent historical context can be fatally flawed. The mathematical foundations of Gaia theory are presented in a form whose very basic and general assumptions point to wide applicability across complex dynamical systems. This highlights surprising connections between robustness and accumulated contingent happenstance, regardless of whether Darwinian evolution is or is not implicated. Real-life studies highlight the role of history, and artificial life studies should do likewise.

  9. Physical Unclonable Functions in Theory and Practice

    CERN Document Server

    Böhm, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    In Physical Unclonable Functions in Theory and Practice, the authors present an in-depth overview of various topics concerning PUFs, providing theoretical background and application details. This book concentrates on the practical issues of PUF hardware design, focusing on dedicated microelectronic PUF circuits. Additionally, the authors discuss the whole process of circuit design, layout and chip verification. The book also offers coverage of: Different published approaches focusing on dedicated microelectronic PUF circuits Specification of PUF circuits and different error rate reducing pre-selection techniques General design issues and minimizing error rate from the circuit’s perspective Transistor modeling issues of Montecarlo mismatch simulation and solutions Examples of PUF circuits including an accurate description of the circuits and testing/measurement results  This monograph gives insight into PUFs in general and provides knowledge in the field of PUF circuit design and implementation. It coul...

  10. From field theory to phenomenology: the history of dispersion relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickering, A.

    1989-01-01

    The authors chart the history of quantum field theory (QFT) in the 1950s with reference to the ideas of dispersion relations. QFT failed to explain strong interaction physics and so was discarded. Connections are drawn between a central group of particle theorists working on applying Kramers-Kronig light scattering relations to high energy particle scattering and the way physics developed. The concepts of single and double dispersion relations and Regge poles, when connected with the large quantity of empirical data from the large particle accelerators of the 1950s, could not be embodied within QFT, which then fell into decline. (UK)

  11. Theories of social mobility in the history of sociological thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Baturenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article evolution of theories of social mobility in the history of social thought from the classical period of development until the end of the XX century is analyzed. The author describes the main directions of theoretical interest of research of this problem and their peculiar features. The main questions raised by classics of the sociological theory were actual during all XX century, and empirical research of a problem of social mobility resulted in concentration of attention of scientists on more specific questions, in particular such as studying of professional career, reproduction of the social statuses that promoted emergence of separate discipline in the western sociology, so-called to “sociology of a course of life”, investigating biographic mobility.

  12. Elements of quantum computing history, theories and engineering applications

    CERN Document Server

    Akama, Seiki

    2015-01-01

    A quantum computer is a computer based on a computational model which uses quantum mechanics, which is a subfield of physics to study phenomena at the micro level. There has been a growing interest on quantum computing in the 1990's, and some quantum computers at the experimental level were recently implemented. Quantum computers enable super-speed computation, and can solve some important problems whose solutions were regarded impossible or intractable with traditional computers. This book provides a quick introduction to quantum computing for readers who have no backgrounds of both theory of computation and quantum mechanics. “Elements of Quantum Computing” presents the history, theories, and engineering applications of quantum computing. The book is suitable to computer scientists, physicist, and software engineers.

  13. Bridging the Gap Between Theory and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy H.M. Sembel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Some concerns in the field of Business Management regarding the gap between theory and practice have been raised by practitioners and academicians. This keynote speech describes some lessons learned from the academic literature regarding this gap (whether the gap really exists, and if it exists, whether it needs to be bridged or closed, and how to bridge or close this gap, and shares the author's personal and professional experiences of living as both an academician and a practitioner. The main findings of this article are: (1 Yes the gap exists, however, it has to be viewed in a wider perspective to really understand the situation; (2 The gap in a specific area is bad and should become our concern, but in other areas it should not; (3 There are some ways to bridge or close the negative gap; (4 There exists hybrid career opportunities to become professionals that work both as an academician and a practitioner; (5 This new breed of hybrid professionals has a huge potential to bridge the bad theory-practice gap.

  14. Sleep-Wake State Tradeoffs, Impulsivity and Life History Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alissa A. Miller

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary ecological theory predicts that sleep-wake state tradeoffs may be related to local environmental conditions and should therefore correlate to alterations in behavioral life history strategies. It was predicted that firefighters who slept more and reported better quality sleep on average would exhibit lower impulsivity inclinations related to slower life history trajectories. UPPS impulsivity scores and self-reported sleep averages were analyzed and indicated a negative association between sleep variables and urgency and a positive association with premeditation. Perseverance, and in some cases premeditation, however, disclosed an unpredicted marginally significant positive association between increased and emergency nighttime waking-related sleep deprivation. Sensation seeking was not associated with sleep variables, but was strongly associated with number of biological children. This research contributes to understanding the implications of human sleep across ecological and behavioral contexts and implies further research is necessary for constructing evolutionarily oriented measures of impulsivity inclination and its meaning in the context of life history strategies.

  15. Learning medical history in Oslo: training for medical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, O

    1999-03-01

    The teaching in medical history at the University of Oslo, Norway, is given as an integrated part of the student training for practical work in health care and community health. I summarize here the underlying argumentation and the teaching experiences, concluding that this is felt as an effective way to convey relevant medical historical knowledge and skills to the future doctors.

  16. Discrete and continuous simulation theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Bandyopadhyay, Susmita

    2014-01-01

    When it comes to discovering glitches inherent in complex systems-be it a railway or banking, chemical production, medical, manufacturing, or inventory control system-developing a simulation of a system can identify problems with less time, effort, and disruption than it would take to employ the original. Advantageous to both academic and industrial practitioners, Discrete and Continuous Simulation: Theory and Practice offers a detailed view of simulation that is useful in several fields of study.This text concentrates on the simulation of complex systems, covering the basics in detail and exploring the diverse aspects, including continuous event simulation and optimization with simulation. It explores the connections between discrete and continuous simulation, and applies a specific focus to simulation in the supply chain and manufacturing field. It discusses the Monte Carlo simulation, which is the basic and traditional form of simulation. It addresses future trends and technologies for simulation, with par...

  17. Theory and practice in machining systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ito, Yoshimi

    2017-01-01

    This book describes machining technology from a wider perspective by considering it within the machining space. Machining technology is one of the metal removal activities that occur at the machining point within the machining space. The machining space consists of structural configuration entities, e.g., the main spindle, the turret head and attachments such the chuck and mandrel, and also the form-generating movement of the machine tool itself. The book describes fundamental topics, including the form-generating movement of the machine tool and the important roles of the attachments, before moving on to consider the supply of raw materials into the machining space, and the discharge of swarf from it, and then machining technology itself. Building on the latest research findings “Theory and Practice in Machining System” discusses current challenges in machining. Thus, with the inclusion of introductory and advanced topics, the book can be used as a guide and survey of machining technology for students an...

  18. Global positioning system theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Hofmann-Wellenhof, Bernhard; Collins, James

    2001-01-01

    This book is dedicated to Dr. Benjamin William Remondi for many reasons. The project of writing a Global Positioning System (GPS) book was con­ ceived in April 1988 at a GPS meeting in Darmstadt, Germany. Dr. Remondi discussed with me the need for an additional GPS textbook and suggested a possible joint effort. In 1989, I was willing to commit myself to such a project. Unfortunately, the timing was less than ideal for Dr. Remondi. Therefore, I decided to start the project with other coauthors. Dr. Remondi agreed and indicated his willingness to be a reviewer. I selected Dr. Herbert Lichtenegger, my colleague from the Technical University Graz, Austria, and Dr. James Collins from Rockville, Maryland, U.S.A. In my opinion, the knowledge ofthe three authors should cover the wide spectrum of GPS. Dr. Lichtenegger is a geodesist with broad experience in both theory and practice. He has specialized his research to geodetic astron­ omy including orbital theory and geodynamical phenomena. Since 1986, Dr. Lichteneg...

  19. Freud and history before 1905: from defending to questioning the theory of a glorious past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotti, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    By sticking closely to Freud's use of the German term Geschichte (history, story) between 1894 and 1905, I will reveal two conceptions of history. The first one, the theory of the glorious past and its archaeological metaphor, which accompanied and sustained the seduction theory of cultural history. I will define how this change was determined by an evolution in Freud's conceptions of childhood prehistory and original history. I will also question how the history problem interfered with Freud's auto-analysis.

  20. Treatment of adolescent sexual offenders: theory-based practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sermabeikian, P; Martinez, D

    1994-11-01

    The treatment of adolescent sexual offenders (ASO) has its theoretical underpinnings in social learning theory. Although social learning theory has been frequently cited in literature, a comprehensive application of this theory, as applied to practice, has not been mapped out. The social learning and social cognitive theories of Bandura appear to be particularly relevant to the group treatment of this population. The application of these theories to practice, as demonstrated in a program model, is discussed as a means of demonstrating how theory-driven practice methods can be developed.

  1. Accountability Practices in the History of Danish Primary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ydesen, Christian; Andreasen, Karen Egedal

    2014-01-01

    between different national settings. Furthermore, accountability measures and practices have an impact on both the ways and means by which societies approach their educational systems. Hence there is a need to clarify the characteristics and traits connected with the concept. One way of approaching......This paper focuses on primary education accountability as a concept and as an organizational practice in the histo-ry of Danish public education. Contemporary studies of education policy often address questions of accountability, but the manifestations of school accountability differ significantly...... this endeavor is to turn to the history of education, because the discourse and practice of accountability incorporates numerous historical antecedents, technologies, and arguments. Based on primary as well as secondary sources this article presents the case of Denmark, analyzing the period from 1660...

  2. BOOK REVIEW: Vortex Methods: Theory and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottet, G.-H.; Koumoutsakos, P. D.

    2001-03-01

    The book Vortex Methods: Theory and Practice presents a comprehensive account of the numerical technique for solving fluid flow problems. It provides a very nice balance between the theoretical development and analysis of the various techniques and their practical implementation. In fact, the presentation of the rigorous mathematical analysis of these methods instills confidence in their implementation. The book goes into some detail on the more recent developments that attempt to account for viscous effects, in particular the presence of viscous boundary layers in some flows of interest. The presentation is very readable, with most points illustrated with well-chosen examples, some quite sophisticated. It is a very worthy reference book that should appeal to a large body of readers, from those interested in the mathematical analysis of the methods to practitioners of computational fluid dynamics. The use of the book as a text is compromised by its lack of exercises for students, but it could form the basis of a graduate special topics course. Juan Lopez

  3. The implicit function theorem history, theory, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Krantz, Steven G

    2003-01-01

    The implicit function theorem is part of the bedrock of mathematics analysis and geometry. Finding its genesis in eighteenth century studies of real analytic functions and mechanics, the implicit and inverse function theorems have now blossomed into powerful tools in the theories of partial differential equations, differential geometry, and geometric analysis. There are many different forms of the implicit function theorem, including (i) the classical formulation for Ck functions, (ii) formulations in other function spaces, (iii) formulations for non-smooth function, (iv) formulations for functions with degenerate Jacobian. Particularly powerful implicit function theorems, such as the Nash-Moser theorem, have been developed for specific applications (e.g., the imbedding of Riemannian manifolds). All of these topics, and many more, are treated in the present volume. The history of the implicit function theorem is a lively and complex store, and intimately bound up with the development of fundamental ideas in a...

  4. Racial-Equity Policy as Leadership Practice: Using Social Practice Theory to Analyze Policy as Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Sue; Winchester, Ilana

    2015-01-01

    This, primarily theoretical, paper takes up the longstanding problem of the disconnection between education policy and leadership practice. The authors propose the use of social practice theory as a tool for educational leaders at the state, school district, and school levels, to eliminate the disconnection between policy design and leadership…

  5. [The Theory and Trend of Microhistory: History of Medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sul, Heasim

    2015-08-01

    Microhistory, first developed in the 1970s, is the study of the past on a very small scale applying zoom-in methodology. Although microhistory had been introduced to Korea during the late 1990s, there still exists much of misunderstanding and confusions surrounding its nature. Microhistory is to be distinguished from the monographs which deal with petty subject, or from the history of everyday life, and from the case studies. In the field of the history of medicine, there are not many microhistories proper. Several works that claim to utilize microhistorical approach, could not be categorized as microhistory because they carry strong characteristics of macrohistory, specifically those of the disciplinary history or the case studies. The well known work of Harold J. Cook, Trials of an Ordinary Doctor, is not an exception. These studies fail to materialize the critical mind of microhistory that pursues to write a history from below and to restore the agency of obscure people. However, Guido Ruggiero's "The Strange Death of Margarita Marcellini," David Cressy's Travesties and Transgressions in Tudor and Stuart England, and Laurel Thatcher Ulrich's A Midwife's Tale clearly demonstrate the attributes, characteristics, and methodologies of microhistory. These studies well display the emphasis of microhistory, which reveal the complexity of early modern medicine, and the complicated function of individual relationships within each and every social setting. Recently, some scholars begin to suggest that the rigid definition of microhistory should be softened, arguing that there could be various types of microhistory. The history of medicine has many advantage of aptly applying many virtues of microhistory: the de-territoriality of diseases, the peculiar elements of the training and practice in hospitals and medical schools which call for anthropological survey, and the possibility of utilizing doctor's records that contain the confessions of the patients. Also, medical

  6. Between practice and theory: Melanie Klein, Anna Freud and the development of child analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, G

    1996-04-01

    An examination of the early history of child analysis in the writings of Melanie Klein and Anna Freud reveals how two different and opposing approaches to child analysis arose at the same time. The two methods of child analysis are rooted in a differential emphasis on psychoanalytic theory and practice. The Kleinian method derives from the application of technique while the Anna Freudian method is driven by theory. Furthermore, by holding to the Freudian theory of child development Anna Freud was forced to limit the scope of child analysis, while Klein's application of Freudian practice has led to new discoveries about the development of the infant psyche.

  7. The History of Evidence-Based Practice in Nursing Education and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, April; Bassendowski, Sandra

    Beginning with Florence Nightingale in the 1800s and evolving again within the medical community, evidence-based practice continues to advance along with the nursing discipline. Evidence-based practice is foundational to undergraduate and graduate nursing education and is a way for the nursing discipline to minimize the theory to practice gap. This article discusses the concept of evidence-based practice from a historical perspective as it relates to nursing in the educational and practice domains. The concept evidence-based practice is defined, and the similarities and differences to evidence-based medicine are discussed. It is crucial that registered nurses be proactive in their quest for research knowledge, so the gap between theory and practice continues to close. Utilizing nursing best practice guidelines, reviewing and implementing applicable research evidence, and taking advantage of technological advances are all ways in which nursing can move forward as a well-informed discipline. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Theory-practice Dichotomy in Mathematics Teacher Education: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Theory-practice Dichotomy in Mathematics Teacher Education: An Analysis of Practicum ... Zimbabwe Journal of Educational Research ... practices in primary teacher education continue to create dichotomous gaps in this relationship.

  9. Advancing Evaluation Theory and Practice in South Asia ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Advancing Evaluation Theory and Practice in South Asia: Community of ... evidence-based policy development, decision-making, and practice in South Asia. ... International Water Resources Association, in close collaboration with IDRC, ...

  10. Theory and practice of Auto CAD, computer graphics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Si Won; Choe, Hong Yeong; Shin, Jae Yeon; Lee, Ryong Cheol

    1990-08-01

    This book describes theory and practice of Auto CAD, computer graphics, which deals with peripheral of computer, occurrence of digital line by DDA, BRM, theory of conversion, data base and display and shape modeling. This book gives descriptions of outline of CAD system, Auto CAD, basic function practice, simple figure practice, the third angle projection drawing a little complex single object, machine drawing I, function practice of improved Auto CAD, edit, set up layer, and 3D, and 3D display function.

  11. Moral Capital : Bourdieu’s theory of practice and moral climate theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hans Bennink

    2012-01-01

    To many scholars and researchers in organisation and management studies, Bourdieu’s theory of practice as one of the grand sociological conceptual framework turns out to be an appealing toolkit to think with. What can Bourdieu’s theory of practice entail for moral climate theory as a relative new

  12. Engendering Curriculum History. Studies in Curriculum Theory Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, Petra

    2011-01-01

    How can curriculum history be re-envisioned from a feminist, poststructuralist perspective? "Engendering Curriculum History" disrupts dominant notions of history as linear, as inevitable progress, and as embedded in the individual. This conversation requires a history that seeks "rememberance" not representation, "reflexivity" not linearity, and…

  13. On the history of creation of the microscopic theories of superfluidity and superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogolyubov, P.N.; Isaev, P.S.

    2002-01-01

    The history of creation of the microscopic theory of superfluidity (1947) and the microscopic theory of superconductivity (1957) is expounded. The paper is dedicated to the 90th anniversary of the birth of our genius contemporary Academician Nikolaj Nikolaevich Bogolyubov

  14. Conspiracy theories as part of history : The role of societal crisis situations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Prooijen, Jan Willem; Douglas, Karen M.

    2017-01-01

    In the present contribution, we examine the link between societal crisis situations and belief in conspiracy theories. Contrary to common assumptions, belief in conspiracy theories has been prevalent throughout human history. We first illustrate historical incidents suggesting that societal crisis

  15. Theory and practice of specialised online dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuertes-Olivera, Pedro A.; Tarp, Sven

    The book deals with various aspects of specialised lexicography: the discipline and its academic status; the function theory and the various arguments against it; competing theories, especially theories of terminography; various aspects of methodology; special problems related to online lexicogra......The book deals with various aspects of specialised lexicography: the discipline and its academic status; the function theory and the various arguments against it; competing theories, especially theories of terminography; various aspects of methodology; special problems related to online...... lexicography; and criticism of a number of existing specialised online dictionaries. Finally, the ideas put forward are exemplified by means of a detailed description of a specialised dictionary project from the planning phase to its publication, as well as recommendations for other types of specialised...

  16. Strategies for application of learning theories in art studio practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study highlights the link between learning theories and art studio practices. The paper is of the opinion that if these theories are critically understood and applied to the practical aspect of fine and applied arts then learning will be more functional. Nigerian Journal of Technology and Education in Nigeria Vol. 8(1) 2003: ...

  17. Practice Theory and Research: Exploring the Dynamics of Social Life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaargaren, G.; Weenink, D.; Lamers, M.

    2016-01-01

    There has been an upsurge in scholarship concerned with theories of social practices in various fields including sociology, geography and management studies. This book provides a systematic introduction and overview of recent formulations of practice theory organised around three important themes:

  18. 2012 Dewey Lecture: Making Meaning Together beyond Theory and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Jim

    2013-01-01

    Educators frequently fret over how to bridge the gap between theory and practice. In an important sense, it is a false problem. Theory is simply the thoughtful, reflective phase of good practice. We will approach Dewey's philosophy as one of continuous creation and re-creation or even more precisely, social co-creation, that requires making…

  19. Experience, theory, and practical wisdom in teaching and teacher education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lunenberg, Mieke; Korthagen, Fred

    In this contribution, we discuss what it means to be a professional teacher with practical wisdom, and how practical wisdom is related to theory and experience. These questions are especially relevant as nowadays, in many countries, teacher education becomes more school?based. Building on theories

  20. Experience, theory, and practical wisdom in teaching and teacher education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lunenberg, Mieke; Korthagen, Fred

    2009-01-01

    In this contribution, we discuss what it means to be a professional teacher with practical wisdom, and how practical wisdom is related to theory and experience. These questions are especially relevant as nowadays, in many countries, teacher education becomes more school-based. Building on theories

  1. From Theory to Practice: A Crisis Simulation Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aertsen, Tamara; Jaspaert, Koen; Van Gorp, Baldwin

    2013-01-01

    In this article, an educational project is described that was formulated with the aim to give master's students in business communication the opportunity to experience how theory could be applied to shape practice. A 4-week project was developed in which students were urged to use communication theory and linguistic theory to manage the…

  2. Examining Psychosocial Identity Development Theories: A Guideline for Professional Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkouti, Ibrahim Mohamad

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of Erikson's psychosocial identity development theory, identifies prominent theorists who extended his work, examines the limitations of the theory and explains how this theory can be applied to student affairs practices. Furthermore, two different studies that clarify the relationship between psychosocial factors…

  3. Leadership in academic libraries today connecting theory to practice

    CERN Document Server

    Eden, Bradford Lee

    2014-01-01

    This book connects leadership theories to academic libraries through case studies, analysis of survey results, and action research. By providing library examples of concepts such as transformational leadership, leadership frames, and other theories, the book breaks new ground in helping the profession develop a vision for its future leadership based on existing theory and current practice.

  4. Theory Development: A Bridge between Practice and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern, Stephen; Devlin, James

    2010-01-01

    Theory development is an intentional process by which marriage and family counselors may bridge the gap between research and practice. The theory building process includes inductive and deductive forms of reasoning, qualitative and quantitative approaches to knowledge development, and diffusion of innovations. Grounded theory provides an…

  5. Advancing Empirical Scholarship to Further Develop Evaluation Theory and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Christina A.

    2011-01-01

    Good theory development is grounded in empirical inquiry. In the context of educational evaluation, the development of empirically grounded theory has important benefits for the field and the practitioner. In particular, a shift to empirically derived theory will assist in advancing more systematic and contextually relevant evaluation practice, as…

  6. Deliberate practice theory: perceived relevance, effort, and inherent enjoyment of music practice: study II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyllegard, Randy; Bories, Tamara L

    2009-10-01

    This study, based on the theory of deliberate practice, examined the practice relevance, effort, and inherent enjoyment aspects of the theory. 25 college undergraduates practiced playing a melody on an electronic keyboard for three 20-min. practice sessions. Following each session, the perceived relevance of the practice for improving performance of the melody, the effort needed to learn the melody, and the inherent enjoyment of the practice were each rated on 10-point scales. Findings were consistent with theory and similar to previous studies also involving music practice and other tasks.

  7. On the histories of relativity. The propagation and elaboration of relativity theory in participant histories in Germany, 1905 - 1911.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staley, R.

    1998-06-01

    This essay explores the history and historiography of relativity through a study of the earliest, participant, histories of the subject. The author argues that participant histories from Einstein, Planck, Minkowski, and others provided an important means of shaping understandings of relativity - at a time when the theory was subject to major controversy and debate. One feature of the study is thus a detailed investigation of the use of historical resources in scientific research. Second, the accounts discussed provide a means of surveying the development of relativity in Germany. The study offers a new perspective on the complex process through which a plurality of approaches - many relativities with many histories - could become singular - one theory, one history - and through which the work of Einstein came to be sharply distinguished from that of others.

  8. Invitational Education: Theory, Research and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haigh, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Invitational Theory argues that learning is enhanced when learners are positively encouraged or "invited" into the educational experience. Arising from perceptual and self-concept theory, Invitational Pedagogy is constructed on four principles: respect for people, trust, optimism and intentionality, and upon five pillars: people, places, policies,…

  9. Political Science Theory for Public Health Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Tyler

    2014-01-01

    Community health educators are well versed in the behavior sciences, including intervention theories. However, most public health professionals are not familiar with the policy theories related to political advocacy. Because health educators are engaging in policy advocacy more frequently, and as a result of the profession including policy…

  10. Practice Theory and Pragmatism in Science & Technology Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Anders

    2015-01-01

    begin by an introduction to some of the proponents of practice theory and of pragmatism. Regarding the latter, I primarily present work by Dewey because this is what I am most familiar with. Although I recognize that practice theory and pragmatism differ on fundamental philosophical issues in relation...... to the normative evaluation of action, I show that the two intellectual traditions have much in common when it comes to what they do to STS studies. After this introduction to practice theory, my paper will proceed in the following steps. Firstly, I will briefly survey practice theoretical and pragmatist......Science & Technology Studies (STS) and social science has made a turn, a ‘practice turn’, and the notion ‘practice theory’ has made its way into the field of STS. But it is notable that proponents of this turn and theory rarely mention American pragmatism as a source of inspiration or refer...

  11. Introduction to the theory of infinite systems. Theory and practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, Foma M.

    2017-11-01

    A review of the author's work is given, which formed the basis for a new theory of general infinite systems. The Gaussian elimination and Cramer's rule have been extended to infinite systems. A special particular solution is obtained, it is called a strictly particular solution. Necessary and sufficient conditions for existence of the nontrivial solutions of homogeneous systems are given.

  12. Bridging between basic theory and clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Philip J

    2004-09-01

    This paper articulates and discusses the parts played by different processes and representations in the overall conduct of applied clinical science. It distinguishes two sorts of representation, theories in the science base and bridging representations needed to map from real world behaviour to basic theory and from theory back to the real world. It is then argued that macro-theories of the "normal" human mental architecture could help synthesise basic theoretical accounts of diverse psychopathologies, without recourse to special purpose clinical cognitive theories of particular psychopathologies or even specific symptoms. Using the Interacting Cognitive Subsystems model [Affect, Cognition and Change: Re-modelling Depressive Thought, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hove, 1993], some specific macro-theoretic variables are identified. Concrete illustrations are given of how the essence of quite complex basic theory can be translated into a simpler representational format to help clinicians conceptualise a psychopathological state and pinpoint relevant variables that might be changed by therapeutic interventions. Some suggestions are also offered about how the inevitable problem of complexity in multiple component theories might be directly confronted.

  13. What's Foucault Got to Do with It? History, Theory, and Becoming Subjected

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butchart, Ronald E.

    2011-01-01

    The three essays that make up this issue on theory in educational history by Eileen Tamura, Caroline Eick, and Roland Sintos Coloma constitute an indictment of the field of the history of education for its neglect of theory. Read linearly, from the Introduction through Coloma, the indictment becomes increasingly strident, moving from a gentle call…

  14. Love Styles in the Context of Life History Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzec Magdalena

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The evolutionary function of love is to create a strong bond between the partners with reproduction in view. In order to achieve this goal, humans use various sexual/reproductive strategies, which have evolved due to specific reproductive benefits. The use of particular strategies depends on many factors but one of the most important is early childhood experiences, on which life history theory (LHT focuses. John Lee (1973 identified 6 basic love styles: eros, ludus, storge, pragma, agape, and mania. Our goal was to check whether love styles may be treated as sexual/reproductive strategies in the context of LHT - slow or fast strategy. In our study (N = 177 we found that people who prefer the slow reproductive strategy are inclined to show passionate, pragmatic and friendly love, and those who prefer the fast strategy, treated love as a game. A low level of environmental stress in childhood results in preferring eros, storge and agape love styles, belonging to the slow strategy, and a high one results in preferring ludus, which belongs to the fast strategy. People representing eros, storge or pragma styles have restricted sociosexual orientation so they prefer long-term relationships, whereas those with the ludus style are people with unrestricted orientation, preferring short-term relationships. Besides, storge, agape and pragma seem to determine preferring qualities connected with parental effort in one’s partner, mania - with mating effort, and eros - with both kinds of effort. No correlation was found between the love style and the number of children.

  15. Compatibility of Adlerian Theory and Practice with the Philosophy and Practices of Alcoholics Anonymous.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Jane J.

    1999-01-01

    Tenets of Adlerian theory and practice are compatible with the philosophy and practices of Alcoholics Anonymous. Counselors can expect treatment approaches based on Adlerian counseling theory to be congruent with 12-step practices of individuals who are in recovery from alcohol dependence. (Author)

  16. CONNECTING THEORY AND PRACTICE IN EDUCATION FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of the authors' theory is provided by the .... borrowed from social, moral, political and ... the economic, political and cultural spheres of society, are conducive to ensuring that political economy develops ..... total relativism and accepting that it is.

  17. Networking of theories as a research practice in mathematics education

    CERN Document Server

    Bikner-Ahsbahs, Angelika

    2014-01-01

    How can we deal with the diversity of theories in mathematics education This was the main question that led the authors of this book to found the Networking Theories Group. Starting from the shared assumption that the existence of different theories is a resource for mathematics education research, the authors have explored the possibilities of interactions between theories, such as contrasting, coordinating, and locally integrating them. The book explains and illustrates what it means to network theories; it presents networking as a challenging but fruitful research practice and shows how the Group dealt with this challenge considering five theoretical approaches, namely the approach of Action, Production, and Communication (APC), the Theory of Didactical Situations (TDS), the Anthropological Theory of the Didactic (ATD), the approach of Abstraction in Context (AiC), and the Theory of Interest-Dense Situations (IDS). A synthetic presentation of each theory and their connections shows how the activity of netw...

  18. Can practice theory inspire studies of ICTs in everyday life?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Toke Haunstrup; Røpke, Inge

    2010-01-01

    a new ‘normality’ in everyday life: the expectations and conventions regarding a normal home’s necessary ‘infrastructure’ and the ordinary gear for a normal way of life are changing, and the changes are proceeding rapidly. This chapter takes a closer look at the construction of a new normality...... in everyday life and discusses how this development can be studied from the perspective of practice theory. We show how a practice theory approach shifts the analytic focus away from the consumption of ICT as such and toward the practices that integrate ICT as one element among many others. Thereby......, a practice theory approach helps us to avoid the risk of ending up with a ‘media-centric’ understanding of the use of new media and adds interesting details and subtleties to the study of the construction of a new normality in everyday life. Our application of practice theory in the study...

  19. Do We Need Separate Space Theory: The Lessons of History

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marheine, Fred

    2001-01-01

    .... Professionals throughout the Department of Defense and other branches of the US government have long debated the need to produce separate space theory or whether a modified version of air theory...

  20. Actant affordances: a brief history of affordance theory and a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Affordance theory provides a useful lens to explore the action opportunities that arise between users and technology, especially in education. However developments in the theory have resulted both in confusion and misapplication, due partly to issues related to affordance theory's ontology. This paper outlines two ...

  1. Working across difference : theory, practice and experience

    OpenAIRE

    Dobson, Rachael

    2017-01-01

    Back in October 2015 I had the opportunity to chair the book launch for all three works discussed in this review essay. At the event, Shirley Anne Tate said, “Black feminist theory is the theory”. The comment referred to how it is not ‘just’ that Black feminist theory is typically marginalised within institutional contexts and academic scholarship, ‘even’ within critical, feminist and poststructural work, but also to highlight the capacity of Black feminist scholarship to unpick and destabili...

  2. A (Theory and Pedagogy) Essay on the (History) Essay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Adrian N.

    2018-01-01

    Everyone who writes anything--even non-fiction!--knows you discover things as you go along. Writing is a heuristic. Writing history is no different. Yet senior-secondary and tertiary exponents of the teaching and learning of history are often strangely tongue-tied on the matter of writing and thinking as engines of discovery in historical studies…

  3. Chaos Theory for the Practical Military Mind

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Durham, Susan

    1997-01-01

    The military professional is a practically-minded individual. This is not, stereotypes aside, the result of an inflexible, unimaginative nature, but comes from pursuing a profession that emphasizes mission accomplishment above all else...

  4. Global positioning system: theory and practice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hofmann-Wellenhof, B; Lichtenegger, Herbert; Collins, James

    1993-01-01

    ... (i.e, surveying) is treated as well as navigation and attitude determination. The basic mathematical models for various modes of GPS operations and detailed explanation of the practical use of GPS are developed precisely in this book...

  5. Theory and Practice in Feminist Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Susan Amelia

    1977-01-01

    Traces the development feminist therapy. Discusses lack of definitions and systematic studies in the literature. Reports on research study, based on interviews with feminist therapists, which explores the nature and practice of this emerging mode of therapy. (Author/SMR)

  6. Film scoring today - Theory, practice and analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Flach, Paula Sophie

    2012-01-01

    This thesis considers film scoring by taking a closer look at the theoretical discourse throughout the last decades, examining current production practice of film music and showcasing a musical analysis of the film Inception (2010).

  7. Global Positioning System: theory and practice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hofmann-Wellenhof, B; Lichtenegger, Herbert; Collins, James

    2001-01-01

    ... (i.e., surveying) is treated as well as navigation and attitude determination. The basic mathematical models for various modes of GPS operations and detailed explanation of the practical use of GPS are developed precisely in this book...

  8. Birth Territory: a theory for midwifery practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahy, Kathleen M; Parratt, Jenny Anne

    2006-07-01

    The theory of Birth Territory describes, explains and predicts the relationships between the environment of the individual birth room, issues of power and control, and the way the woman experiences labour physiologically and emotionally. The theory was synthesised inductively from empirical data generated by the authors in their roles as midwives and researchers. It takes a critical post-structural feminist perspective and expands on some of the ideas of Michel Foucault. Theory synthesis was also informed by current research about the embodied self and the authors' scholarship in the fields of midwifery, human biology, sociology and psychology. In order to demonstrate the significance of the theory, it is applied to two clinical stories that both occur in hospital but are otherwise different. This analysis supports the central proposition that when midwives use 'midwifery guardianship' to create and maintain the ideal Birth Territory then the woman is most likely to give birth naturally, be satisfied with the experience and adapt with ease in the post-birth period. These benefits together with the reduction in medical interventions also benefit the baby. In addition, a positive Birth Territory is posited to have a broader impact on the woman's partner, family and society in general.

  9. Interviews: Linking Leadership Theory to Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Deborah N.; Roebuck, Deborah B.

    2010-01-01

    Leadership educators use various tools to enable their students to learn about leadership. This article describes the assignment "Interview with a Leader" which the authors have incorporated into several different leadership courses. Grounded in constructivist and social learning theories, the authors have found this assignment to be…

  10. Amplification in Technical Manuals: Theory and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killingsworth, M. Jimmie; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examines how amplification (rhetorical techniques by which discourse is extended to enhance its appeal and information value) tends to increase and improve the coverage, rationale, warnings, behavioral alternatives, examples, previews, and general emphasis of technical manuals. Shows how classical and modern rhetorical theories can be applied to…

  11. Leadership Theories--Managing Practices, Challenges, Suggestions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Cheryl

    2009-01-01

    A shortage of community college executives due to the number of retirements occurring among current leaders is predicted. An examination of three leadership theories--servant-leadership, business leadership and transformational leadership--suggests techniques for potential community college leaders. Servant-leaders focus on the needs of their…

  12. Concurrency meets probability: theory and practice (abstract)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katoen, Joost P.

    Treating random phenomena in concurrency theory has a long tradition. Petri nets [18, 10] and process algebras [14] have been extended with probabilities. The same applies to behavioural semantics such as strong and weak (bi)simulation [1], and testing pre-orders [5]. Beautiful connections between

  13. Planetary Rings: a Brief History of Observation and Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, P. D.

    2000-05-01

    Over several centuries, and extending down to today, the ring systems encircling Saturn and the other jovian planets have provided an endless source of speculation and theorizing for astronomers, theologians, and physicists. In the past two decades they have also become a testing ground for dynamical models of more distant astrophysical disks, such as those which surround protostars and even the stellar disks of spiral galaxies. I will review some of the early theories, and their sometimes rude confrontation with observational data, starting with Christiaan Huygens and touching on seminal contributions by Laplace, Bessel, Maxwell, Barnard, Russell (of H-R diagram fame) and Jeffreys. In the modern era, observations at infrared and radio wavelengths have revealed Saturn's rings to be composed of large chunks of almost pure water ice, and to have a vertical thickness measured in tens of meters. A renaissance in planetary rings studies occurred in the period 1977--1981, first with the discoveries of the narrow, dark and non-circular rings of Uranus and the tenuous jovian ring system, and capped off by the spectacular images returned during the twin Voyager flybys of Saturn. Along with the completely unsuspected wealth of detail these observations revealed came an unwelcome problem: are the rings ancient or are we privileged to live at a special time in history? The answer to this still-vexing question may lie in the complex gravitational interactions recent studies have revealed between the rings themselves and their retinues of attendant satellites. Between the four known ring systems, we see elegant examples of Lindblad and corotation resonances (first invoked in the galactic context), electromagnetic resonances, many-armed spiral density waves and bending waves, narrow ringlets which exhibit internal modes due to a collective instability, sharp-edged gaps maintained via tidal torques from embedded moonlets, and tenuous dust belts created by meteoroid impact onto

  14. Critical incidents: exploring theory policy and practice

    OpenAIRE

    Beeke, Matthew A.

    2011-01-01

    Responding to critical incidents in school communities has become an established part of the practice of educational psychologists (EPs). Despite this the EP professional journal literature is sparse, the last major study being conducted by Houghton in 1996. Within a mixed methods design this study aimed to explore various aspects of EP practice in response to critical incidents. Firstly, critical incident policy and EP journal literature was examined to provide a definition...

  15. The Development of an Attribution-Based Theory of Motivation: A History of Ideas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    The history of ideas guiding the development of an attribution-based theory of motivation is presented. These influences include the search for a "grand" theory of motivation (from drive and expectancy/value theory), an attempt to represent how the past may influence the present and the future (as Thorndike accomplished), and the…

  16. Theories and Modules Applied in Islamic Counseling Practices in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Norazlina; Mat Akhir, Noor Shakirah

    2017-04-01

    Some Malaysian scholars believe that the theoretical basis and models of intervention in Islamic counseling practices in Malaysia are deficient and not eminently identified. This study investigated and describes the nature of current Islamic counseling practices including the theories and modules of Islamic counseling that are been practiced in Malaysia. This qualitative research has employed data that mainly consist of texts gathered from literatures and semi-structured interviews of 18 informants. It employed grounded theory analysis, and the result shows that most of the practitioners had applied integrated conventional counseling theories with Islamic rituals, references, interventions and ethics. Some had also applied Islamic theories and modules formulated in Malaysia such as iCBT, al-Ghazali counseling theories, Cognitive ad-Deen, KBJ, Prophetic Counseling and Asma Allah al-Husna Counseling Therapy.

  17. Linking theory to practice in learning technology research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathy Gunn

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a case to reposition theory so that it plays a pivotal role in learning technology research and helps to build an ecology of learning. To support the case, we present a critique of current practice based on a review of articles published in two leading international journals from 2005 to 2010. Our study reveals that theory features only incidentally or not at all in many cases. We propose theory development as a unifying theme for learning technology research study design and reporting. The use of learning design as a strategy to develop and test theories in practice is integral to our argument. We conclude by supporting other researchers who recommend educational design research as a theory focused methodology to move the field forward in productive and consistent ways. The challenge of changing common practice will be involved. However, the potential to raise the profile of learning technology research and improve educational outcomes justifies the effort required.

  18. Knowledge Glyphs: Visualization Theory Development to Support C2 Practice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Whitaker, Randall; Thomas-Meyers, Gina

    2006-01-01

    Recent and ongoing research into the subject of knowledge glyphs illustrates how the state of the art in theory and practice interact and open up new requirements for innovation with respect to each...

  19. Performance improvement of professional printing systems : from theory to practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ezzeldin Mahdy Abdelmonem, M.

    2012-01-01

    Performance Improvement of Professional Printing Systems: from theory to practice Markets demand continuously for higher quality, higher speed, and more energy-efficient professional printers. In this thesis, control strategies have been developed to improve the performance of both professional

  20. Reclaiming Context : Architectural Theory, Pedagogy and Practice since 1950

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komez-Daglioglu, E.

    2017-01-01

    Context is a crucial concept in architecture, despite the frequent ambiguity around its use. It is present in many architectural thoughts and discussions, while a critical discursive reflection is absent from contemporary architectural theory and practice. Situated within this schizophrenic

  1. Mainstreaming Evaluation Theory and Practice in MENA using ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Mainstreaming Evaluation Theory and Practice in MENA using Outcome Mapping ... to improve livestock vaccine development and production to benefit farmers across ... by intensifying sexual and reproductive and adolescent health research.

  2. On the history of biological theories of homosexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrn, R

    1995-01-01

    Biological theories of homosexuality fit into the discourse on reproduction and sexuality that began in the nineteenth century. They arose in the context of the early homosexual rights movement, with its claim for natural rights, and the psychiatric discussions about sexual perversions. With the classification of homosexuality as a distinct category, homosexuals were excluded from the "normal". Biological theories of homosexuality were attempts not only to explain its causes, but also to maintain the exclusion of homosexuals as the "other". Biological explanations can be categorized as genetic, constitutional, endocrinological, and ethological. On the one hand, biological theories were used in the struggle for homosexual rights. On the other hand, they were used to "cure"e homosexuals. Every theory led to a specific therapy. This paper points out the roots of this thinking, traces the development of various theories, and shows the utilization of biological theories in treating homosexuality.

  3. Why practitioners do (not) apply crisis communication theory in practice

    OpenAIRE

    Claeys, An-Sofie; Opgenhaffen, Michaël

    2016-01-01

    Twenty-five in-depth interviews with Belgian crisis communication practitioners were conducted to examine the gap between theory and practice. Crisis communication has become an important research area within public relations. Several studies have resulted in theories and guidelines regarding the effective use of communication during organizational crises. Unfortunately, these findings are not always put into practice. This study examines to what extent public relations practitioners apply th...

  4. Making Theory Come Alive through Practice-based Design Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Thomas; Knutz, Eva; Rind Christensen, Poul

    The aim of this paper is to demonstrate how practice-based design research is able not only to challenge, but also to push toward further development of some of the basic assumpstions in emotion theories as used within design research. In so doing, we wish to increase knolwedge on a central...... epistemological question for design research, namely how practice-based design research can be a vehicle for the construction of new theory for design research....

  5. TQL in the Fleet: From Theory to Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-01

    distribution is unlimited. BEST-AVAILABLE Copy 94-04214 Total Quality Leadership , TQL, Total Quality Kanaginent, 191, i lo of pilo quality management ...703-602-8942). LINDA M. DOHERTY Director Department of the Navy Total Quality Leadership Office TOL In the Fleet: From Theory to Practice...the Fleet: From Theory to Practice ix OVERVIEW ) ver the past year, the Department of the Navy Total Quality Leadership Office (DON TQL Office) has

  6. Introduction to random matrices theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Livan, Giacomo; Vivo, Pierpaolo

    2018-01-01

    Modern developments of Random Matrix Theory as well as pedagogical approaches to the standard core of the discipline are surprisingly hard to find in a well-organized, readable and user-friendly fashion. This slim and agile book, written in a pedagogical and hands-on style, without sacrificing formal rigor fills this gap. It brings Ph.D. students in Physics, as well as more senior practitioners, through the standard tools and results on random matrices, with an eye on most recent developments that are not usually covered in introductory texts. The focus is mainly on random matrices with real spectrum. The main guiding threads throughout the book are the Gaussian Ensembles. In particular, Wigner’s semicircle law is derived multiple times to illustrate several techniques  (e.g., Coulomb gas approach, replica theory). Most chapters are accompanied by Matlab codes (stored in an online repository) to guide readers through the numerical check of most analytical results.

  7. Life Cycle Assessment - Theory and Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book is a uniquely pedagogical while still comprehensive state-of-the-art description of LCA-methodology and its broad range of applications. The five parts of the book conveniently provide: I) the history and context of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) with its central role as quantitative and s...... needed to perform an LCA. V) An appendix with an LCA report template, a full example LCA report serving as inspiration for students who write their first LCA report, and a more detailed overview of existing LCIA methods and their similarities and differences....

  8. Linking Theory to Practice in Learning Technology Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Cathy; Steel, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    We present a case to reposition theory so that it plays a pivotal role in learning technology research and helps to build an ecology of learning. To support the case, we present a critique of current practice based on a review of articles published in two leading international journals from 2005 to 2010. Our study reveals that theory features only…

  9. Collection and collation: theory and practice of Linnaean botany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Wille, Staffan

    2007-09-01

    Historians and philosophers of science have interpreted the taxonomic theory of Carl Linnaeus (1707-1778) as an 'essentialist', 'Aristotelian', or even 'scholastic' one. This interpretation is flatly contradicted by what Linnaeus himself had to say about taxonomy in Systema naturae (1735), Fundamenta botanica (1736) and Genera plantarum (1737). This paper straightens out some of the more basic misinterpretations by showing that: (1) Linnaeus's species concept took account of reproductive relations among organisms and was therefore not metaphysical, but biological; (2) Linnaeus did not favour classification by logical division, but criticized it for necessarily failing to represent what he called 'natural' genera; (3) Linnaeus's definitions of 'natural' genera and species were not essentialist, but descriptive and polytypic; (4) Linnaeus's method in establishing 'natural' definitions was not deductive, but consisted in an inductive, bottom-up procedure of comparing concrete specimens. The conclusion will discuss the fragmentary and provisional nature of Linnaeus's 'natural method'. I will argue in particular that Linnaeus opted for inductive strategies not on abstract epistemological grounds, but in order to confer stability and continuity to the explorative practices of contemporary natural history.

  10. Identities of the political theory: among science, normativity and history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Silva

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to present a brief overview of the evolving debates on the problem of the identity of political theory, mainly in the Anglophone academic context since the end of the 1950’s. At least three ways of identifying the nature of political theory have shaped those de-bates: the scientistic, the normative and the historical.

  11. One Health: From theory to practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Adam

    2012-01-01

    One Health approaches to human and veterinary medicine are critical to professionals addressing global issues of food security and disease prevention. However, we have yet to develop a sufficient strategy to translate our theoretical understanding to practical application. This paper will explore the current shortcomings of One Health, within both the medical and veterinary communities, and highlight solutions to overcome these challenges. PMID:23024395

  12. Contemporary Play Therapy: Theory, Research, and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Charles E., Ed.; Gerard Kaduson, Heidi, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    This highly practical book presents current developments in play therapy, including innovative applications for particular problems and populations. Contributors first discuss the latest ideas and techniques emerging from object-relations, experiential, dynamic, and narrative perspectives. Next, research evaluating the effectiveness of play…

  13. Theory and Practice in Communication Course Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szoke-Milinte, Eniko

    2013-01-01

    The textbook is an essential individual studying and learning tool which helps the student gain insight into the theoretical system as well as the practical issues of a particular field of study. It can also raise interest in and develop a commitment to a discipline with the aid of appropriate tasks and exercises. However, most importantly, the…

  14. Testing theory in practice: a simple experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terpstra, R.; Brezocnik, Z.; Kapus, T.; Ferreira Pires, Luis; Heerink, A.W.; Tretmans, G.J.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the experiences gained in conducting a simple testing experiment. The goal of this experiment is to apply the abstract, formal testing framework [8] in a practical setting, and to indicate the critical aspects in its application to realistic testing situations. For that

  15. Theory and practice of metal electrodeposition

    CERN Document Server

    Gamburg, Yuliy D

    2011-01-01

    fills the gap between modern developments in electrochemistry and outdated information on metals electrodeposition currently available in competing titles essential information on the theoretical and practical electrochemistry necessary to investigate modern metal deposition is provided part of the growing literature on electrodeposition

  16. Contemporary Cognitive Behavior Therapy: A Review of Theory, History, and Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoma, Nathan; Pilecki, Brian; McKay, Dean

    2015-09-01

    Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) has come to be a widely practiced psychotherapy throughout the world. The present article reviews theory, history, and evidence for CBT. It is meant as an effort to summarize the forms and scope of CBT to date for the uninitiated. Elements of CBT such as cognitive therapy, behavior therapy, and so-called "third wave" CBT, such as dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) and acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) are covered. The evidence for the efficacy of CBT for various disorders is reviewed, including depression, anxiety disorders, personality disorders, eating disorders, substance abuse, schizophrenia, chronic pain, insomnia, and child/adolescent disorders. The relative efficacy of medication and CBT, or their combination, is also briefly considered. Future directions for research and treatment development are proposed.

  17. Computers and languages theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Nijholt, A

    1988-01-01

    A global introduction to language technology and the areas of computer science where language technology plays a role. Surveyed in this volume are issues related to the parsing problem in the fields of natural languages, programming languages, and formal languages.Throughout the book attention is paid to the social forces which influenced the development of the various topics. Also illustrated are the development of the theory of language analysis, its role in compiler construction, and its role in computer applications with a natural language interface between men and machine. Parts of the ma

  18. Enriching Practical Knowledge : Exploring Student teachers’ Competences in Integrating Theory and Practice of Mathematics Teaching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oonk, W.; Verloop, N.; Gravemeijer, K.P.E.

    2015-01-01

    This study concentrated on the theory–practice problem in mathematics teacher education. We examined 13 student teachers’ use of theory when they reflected on teaching practice in a class specifically designed to optimize the chance for theory use. We developed a Reflection Analysis Instrument with

  19. Deliberate practice theory: relevance, effort, and inherent enjoyment of music practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyllegard, Randy; Bories, Tamara L

    2008-10-01

    This study examined three assumptions of the theory of deliberate practice for practice playing music on an electronic keyboard. 40 undergraduate students, divided into two separate groups, practiced one of two music sequences and rated the relevance of practice for improving performance on the sequences, the amount of effort needed to learn the sequences, and the inherent enjoyment of practice sessions. Findings for each assumption were consistent with those suggested by theory but also showed that perceptions are affected by the amount of practice completed and performance of the skill.

  20. Recurrence quantification analysis theory and best practices

    CERN Document Server

    Jr, Jr; Marwan, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of recurrences in dynamical systems by using recurrence plots and their quantification is still an emerging field.  Over the past decades recurrence plots have proven to be valuable data visualization and analysis tools in the theoretical study of complex, time-varying dynamical systems as well as in various applications in biology, neuroscience, kinesiology, psychology, physiology, engineering, physics, geosciences, linguistics, finance, economics, and other disciplines.   This multi-authored book intends to comprehensively introduce and showcase recent advances as well as established best practices concerning both theoretical and practical aspects of recurrence plot based analysis.  Edited and authored by leading researcher in the field, the various chapters address an interdisciplinary readership, ranging from theoretical physicists to application-oriented scientists in all data-providing disciplines.

  1. Innovation and entrepreneurship theory, policy and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Carayannis, Elias G; Bakouros, Yannis L

    2015-01-01

    This book aims to meet the needs of education and training in modern techniques of innovation and entrepreneurship, and focuses on the detailed presentation of successful business practices. As today's global economic landscape is changing rapidly, the ability of businesses to introduce new products and services to the market faster than their competitors is perhaps their most distinct competitive advantage. This becomes obvious by the significant market share that the most innovative companies gain while increasing profitability. Extensive research in this field has demonstrated that companies that are constantly innovating normally double their profits compared to others. Moreover, establishing successful practices and policies of innovation management, through which ideas evolve from conception through evaluation to implementation and commercialization, become the basis for economic growth at the firm, industry, national, regional, and global levels. Taking Greece as an example, this volume identifies syst...

  2. Theory is static, practice is dynamic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duus Henriksen, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a game-based approach to teaching change management. The aim is to provide participants with a ’knowing how’ understanding of change management, which is considered more viable for handling the dynamic complexity of change in practice than the usual ‘knowing what’ approach. Th....... This game-based approach is presented through the Danish designed learning game Mindsetter, which uses a combination of simulation, role-play, board-game and coaching-based processes to teach an operationalsable understanding of change to its participants.......This paper proposes a game-based approach to teaching change management. The aim is to provide participants with a ’knowing how’ understanding of change management, which is considered more viable for handling the dynamic complexity of change in practice than the usual ‘knowing what’ approach...

  3. EDITORIAL: Opposites attract: nanomagnetism in theory and practice Opposites attract: nanomagnetism in theory and practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2012-09-01

    Putting theory into practice in nanotechnology can be far from trivial. Magnetic artificial atoms have been an example of the gulf that can sometimes separate idea from experiment. The step from regular semiconductor artificial atoms to magnetic may not confound the imagination, but it poses no mean fabrication challenge to experimental physicists. In this issue researchers in Germany have successfully fabricated a magnetic artificial atom [1]. As the researchers point out, the systems look promising for further study of the transport properties of 0D magnetic objects. Magnetic behavior in nanoscale systems has inspired a number of technological developments, such as energetically efficient digital logic circuitry [2]. Theory dictates that less energy is dissipated in the manipulation of nanomagnet logic bits than in the manipulation of electrical charges in transistor switches. Among the challenges when putting this into practice is the issue of sequential clocking. The nanomagnets' polarizations need to be rotated through 90° from the easy to the hard axis ready to be set before propagating the logic bits from one stage to the next. Ideally this would be a localized process to allow the efficiencies of a pipe-line computer architecture. Researchers at Virginia Commonwealth University in the US showed that a small voltage applied to a multiferroic nanomagnet can cause this polarization rotation [3]. They further showed that the switching delay of this process is not impracticably long, suggesting that the process is promising for logic circuits that are very fast as well as energy efficient [4]. Researchers in Germany have demonstrated magnetic force microscopy for high resolution imaging using a carbon nanotube filled with iron [5]. A magnetic dipole moment in the iron extends from end to end of the iron nanowire in the carbon nanotube. As a result of the extreme aspect ratio of the nanowire only the pole at one end is involved in the imaging process. The

  4. Decision-making: Theory and practice

    OpenAIRE

    SM Turpin; MA Marais

    2004-01-01

    This paper compares a number of theoretical models of decision-making with the way in which senior managers make decisions in practice. Six prominent decision-makers were interviewed about their own decision-making style, as well as their use of decision support technology. Significant variation was found in personal decision-making styles. However, some central themes emerged, such as the importance of sensitivity to the decision-making context, attention to the presentation of information, ...

  5. Theory and Practice of Financial Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Jakova, Ivana

    2009-01-01

    Analysts, managers or other business executives and students have at their disposal wide variety analytical techniques when they want to evaluate company's financial position or when they wish to better understand the financial implication of business operational activities or investment. This thesis examines the uses of financial analysis as one of the main financial assessment techniques. After describing theoretically the main tools of financial analysis, this thesis determines the practic...

  6. Planting contemporary practice theory in the garden of information science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizing, A.; Cavanagh, M.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. The purpose of this paper is to introduce to information science in a coherent fashion the core premises of contemporary practice theory, and thus to engage the information research community in further debate and discussion. Method. Contemporary practice-based approaches are

  7. An Introduction to Music Therapy: Theory and Practice. Third Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, William B.; Gfeller, Kate E.; Thaut, Michael H.

    2008-01-01

    "An Introduction to Music Therapy: Theory and Practice, Third Edition," provides a comprehensive overview of the practice of music therapy for the 21st century. It looks at where we have been, where we are today, and where we might be in the future. Combining sound pedagogy with recent research findings, this new edition has been updated and…

  8. Early history of gauge theories and weak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straumann, N.

    1996-01-01

    The paper deals with Weyl's attempt to unify gravitation and electromagnetism, Weyl's 1929 classic 'Electron and gravitation', Yang-Mills theory, parity violation and 2-component neutrino, chiral invariance and universal V-A interaction. 3 figs., 38 refs

  9. Clinical neuropsychology in Israel: history, training, practice and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakil, Eli; Hoofien, Dan

    2016-11-01

    This is an invited paper for a special issue on international perspectives on training and practice in clinical neuropsychology. We provide a review of the status of clinical neuropsychology in Israel, including the history of neuropsychological, educational, and accreditation requirements to become a clinical neuropsychologist and to practice clinical neuropsychology. The information is based primarily on the personal knowledge of the authors who have been practicing clinical neuropsychology for over three decades and hold various administrative and academic positions in this field. Second, we conducted three ad hoc surveys among clinical and rehabilitation psychologists; heads of academic programs for rehabilitation and neuropsychology; and heads of accredited service providers. Third, we present a literature review of publications by clinical neuropsychologists in Israel. Most of the clinical neuropsychologists are graduates of either rehabilitation or clinical training programs. The vast majority of neuropsychologists are affiliated with rehabilitation psychology. The training programs (2-3 years of graduate school) provide solid therapeutic and diagnostic skills to the students. Seventy-five percent of the participants in this survey are employed at least part-time by public or state-funded institutions. Israeli neuropsychologists are heavily involved in case management, including vocational counseling, and rehabilitation psychotherapy. Conclusions and future goals: Although clinical neuropsychologists in Israel are well educated and valued by all health professionals, there are still several challenges that must be addressed in order to further advance the field and the profession. These included the need for Hebrew-language standardized and normalized neuropsychological tests and the application of evidence-based interventions in neuropsychological rehabilitation.

  10. German Translation Theories and Their Practicalness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Alexandru MOHR

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The translator should not be perceived as a simple producer of texts based on other texts, but as an expert, with skills, tasks and precise responsibilities, who works in cooperation with other "actors", that are part of the translating process. Text translating is not a simple linguistic act, but a complex one, that involves Linguistics, Hermeneutics (because texts must be interpreted and Semiology (because signs and symbols must be decoded. In this paper is being explained the difference between translation studies (or translatology and the linguistic theory of translation and why translatological concepts like “purpose”, “adequacy” and “actor” (as they were defined by Reiß, Vermeer and Mänttäri are essential and necessary required for a complete description and a responsible fulfillment of translating acts.

  11. Complex Decision Making Theory and Practice

    CERN Document Server

    Qudrat-Ullah, Hassan; Spector, J Michael

    2007-01-01

    The increasingly complex environment of today's world, characterized by technological innovation and global communication, generates myriads of possible and actual interactions while limited physical and intellectual resources severely impinge on decision makers, be it in the public or private domains. At the core of the decision-making process is the need for quality information that allows the decision maker to better assess the impact of decisions in terms of outcomes, nonlinear feedback processes and time delays on the performance of the complex system invoked. This volume is a timely review on the principles underlying complex decision making, the handling of uncertainties in dynamic envrionments and of the various modeling approaches used. The book consists of five parts, each composed of several chapters: I: Complex Decision Making: Concepts, Theories and Empirical Evidence II: Tools and Techniques for Decision Making in Complex Environments and Systems III: System Dynamics and Agent-Based Modeling IV:...

  12. Celestial mechanics and astrodynamics theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Gurfil, Pini

    2016-01-01

    This volume is designed as an introductory text and reference book for graduate students, researchers and practitioners in the fields of astronomy, astrodynamics, satellite systems, space sciences and astrophysics. The purpose of the book is to emphasize the similarities between celestial mechanics and astrodynamics, and to present recent advances in these two fields so that the reader can understand the inter-relations and mutual influences. The juxtaposition of celestial mechanics and astrodynamics is a unique approach that is expected to be a refreshing attempt to discuss both the mechanics of space flight and the dynamics of celestial objects. “Celestial Mechanics and Astrodynamics: Theory and Practice” also presents the main challenges and future prospects for the two fields in an elaborate, comprehensive and rigorous manner. The book presents homogenous and fluent discussions of the key problems, rendering a portrayal of recent advances in the field together with some basic concepts and essential in...

  13. Monological versus dialogical consciousness: two epistemological views on the use of theory in clinical ethical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnsorge, Kathrin; Widdershoven, Guy

    2011-09-01

    In this article, we argue that a critical examination of epistemological and anthropological presuppositions might lead to a more fruitful use of theory in clinical-ethical practice. We differentiate between two views of conceptualizing ethics, referring to Charles Taylors' two epistemological models: 'monological' versus 'dialogical consciousness'. We show that the conception of ethics in the model of 'dialogical consciousness' is radically different from the classical understanding of ethics in the model of 'monological consciousness'. To reach accountable moral judgments, ethics cannot be conceptualized as an individual enterprise, but has to be seen as a practical endeavor embedded in social interactions within which moral understandings are being negotiated. This view has specific implications for the nature and the role of ethical theory. Theory is not created in the individual mind of the ethicist; the use of theory is part of a joint learning process and embedded in a cultural context and social history. Theory is based upon practice, and serves practical purposes. Thus, clinical ethics support is both practical and theoretical. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Towards a Pragmatic Theory of Creative Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkjær, Bente; Simpson, Barbara

    specifically on the works of John Dewey and George Herbert Mead, who developed these general Pragmatist principles in ways that directly inform practice.  Dewey concentrated particularly on relational dynamics, emphasising the continuous transactions between subjects and worlds in the situated construction...... of meanings.  He argued that inquiry, which he saw as synonymous with critical and reflective thinking, is the foundation of all constructive activity, and that creative thinking and action are generated by a forward-looking, anticipative mode of inquiry.  Mead contributed considerable analytical detail...

  15. Elevator traffic handbook theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Barney, Gina

    2015-01-01

    This second edition of this well-respected book covers all aspects of the traffic design and control of vertical transportation systems in buildings, making it an essential reference for vertical transportation engineers, other members of the design team, and researchers. The book introduces the basic principles of circulation, outlines traffic design methods and examines and analyses traffic control using worked examples and case studies to illustrate key points. The latest analysis techniques are set out, and the book is up-to-date with current technology. A unique and well-established book, this much-needed new edition features extensive updates to technology and practice, drawing on the latest international research.

  16. Viscous flows the practical use of theory

    CERN Document Server

    Brenner, Howard

    1988-01-01

    Representing a unique approach to the study of fluid flows, Viscous Flows demonstrates the utility of theoretical concepts and solutions for interpreting and predicting fluid flow in practical applications. By critically comparing all relevant classes of theoretical solutions with experimental data and/or general numerical solutions, it focuses on the range of validity of theoretical expressions rather than on their intrinsic character.This book features extensive use of dimensional analysis on both models and variables, and extensive development of theoretically based correlating equations.

  17. EMPLOYEES’ BENEFITS, BETWEEN THEORY AND PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Sălceanu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The concept of “employee benefits” promotes economic security, offering a financial protection to a company’s employees and their families, thus contributing to increasing the living standards. This concept is put into practice through a partnership of government, economic entities and employees. In order to implement this concept, the state elaborates regulatory documents that legalize relations between the entity and employees and the economic entities receive services from employees and pay them by expending resources. A properly achievement of this partnership enables the achievement of at least two important objectives such as: the security of employees' incomes and the increasing of living standards.

  18. CERCON- SMART CERAMICS, FROM THEORY TO PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela POPA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction of the CAD/CAM systems in dentistry has resulted in highly accurate and quality dentures, meeting the needs of both dental technician and dentist. The present study aims at illustrating the benefits and peculiarities of using CAD/CAM systems in current practice. To this aim, the case of a 29 year-old patient who wanted to have a 2.1 coverage crown replaced, being dissatisfied with its aesthetics, was considered. The fixed single tooth prosthesis was restored with the CAD/CAM CERCON (DeguDent - Smart Ceramics.

  19. Decision-making: Theory and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SM Turpin

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares a number of theoretical models of decision-making with the way in which senior managers make decisions in practice. Six prominent decision-makers were interviewed about their own decision-making style, as well as their use of decision support technology. Significant variation was found in personal decision-making styles. However, some central themes emerged, such as the importance of sensitivity to the decision-making context, attention to the presentation of information, and the use of intuition. In terms of the use of decision support technology, the use of self-help tools, such as office software, was clearly favoured.

  20. Level design concept, theory, and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Kremers, Rudolf

    2009-01-01

    Good or bad level design can make or break any game, so it is surprising how little reference material exists for level designers. Beginning level designers have a limited understanding of the tools and techniques they can use to achieve their goals, or even define them. This book is the first to use a conceptual and theoretical foundation to build such a set of practical tools and techniques. It is tied to no particular technology or genre, so it will be a useful reference for many years to come. Kremers covers many concepts universal to level design, such as interactivity, world building, im

  1. SSL and TLS Theory and Practice

    CERN Document Server

    Oppliger, Rolf

    2009-01-01

    SSL (secure socket layer) and TLS (Transport Layer Security) are widely deployed security protocols that are used in all kinds of web-based e-commerce and e-business applications and are part of most contemporary security systems available today. This practical book provides a comprehensive introduction to these protocols, offering you a solid understanding of their design. You find discussions on the advantages and disadvantages of using SSL/TLS protocols compared to other Internet security protocols. This authoritative resource shows how to properly employ SSL and TLS and configure security

  2. Integrating clinical theory and practice in an epilepsy-specific electronic patient record.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Breen, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    This study\\'s objective was to assess the usability of the epilepsy history module of the electronic patient record, developed at Beaumont Hospital, and to identify opportunities for improvement. Observation, interview and document analysis methods were used. Results indicated that the module was useable but the design did not work as well in practice as anticipated by theory. The next iteration of the module included identified enhancements; this iteration is currently in use.

  3. Empirical and pragmatic adequacy of grounded theory: Advancing nurse empowerment theory for nurses' practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udod, Sonia A; Racine, Louise

    2017-12-01

    To draw on the findings of a grounded theory study aimed at exploring how power is exercised in nurse-manager relationships in the hospital setting, this paper examines the empirical and pragmatic adequacy of grounded theory as a methodology to advance the concept of empowerment in the area of nursing leadership and management. The evidence on staff nurse empowerment has highlighted the magnitude of individual and organisational outcomes, but has not fully explicated the micro-level processes underlying how power is exercised, shared or created within the nurse-manager relationship. Although grounded theory is a widely adopted nursing research methodology, it remains less used in nursing leadership because of the dominance of quantitative approaches to research. Grounded theory methodology provides the empirical and pragmatic relevance to inform nursing practice and policy. Grounded theory is a relevant qualitative approach to use in leadership research as it provides a fine and detailed analysis of the process underlying complexity and bureaucracy. Discursive paper. A critical examination of the empirical and pragmatic relevance of grounded theory by (Corbin & Strauss, , ) as a method for analysing and solving problems in nurses' practice is provided. This paper provides evidence to support the empirical and pragmatic adequacy of grounded theory methodology. Although the application of the ontological, epistemological and methodological assumptions of grounded theory is challenging, this methodology is useful to address real-life problems in nursing practice by developing theoretical explanations of nurse empowerment, or lack thereof, in the workplace. Grounded theory represents a relevant methodology to inform nursing leadership research. Grounded theory is anchored in the reality of practice. The strength of grounded theory is to provide results that can be readily applied to clinical practice and policy as they arise from problems that affect practice and that

  4. COPEPOD REPRODUCTIVE STRATEGIES: LIFE-HISTORY THEORY, PHYLOGENETIC PATTERN AND INVASION OF INLAND WATERS. (R824771)

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbstractLife-history theory predicts that different reproductive strategies should evolve in environments that differ in resource availability, mortality, seasonality, and in spatial or temporal variation. Within a population, the predicted optimal strategy is driven ...

  5. Damage correlation in theory and practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doran, D.G.; Odette, G.R.; Simons, R.L.; Mansur, L.K.

    1977-01-01

    Common to all reactor development work is the problem of differences between the irradiation environments used for materials testing and those typical of service conditions. Efforts are being made to develop damage models that incorporate irradiation parameters such as type and energy of radiation, flux, and exposure. Models relating radiation damage production and microstructural evolution to changes in mechanical properties are primitive. Nevertheless, they suggest that the inability to account quantitatively for differences in test and service neutron spectra leads to overly conservative design of out-of-core components. Direct experimental corroboration is difficult because of the low neutron fluxes associated with the desired soft spectra. Further development of mechanistic models and new approaches to model testing are needed. Models of the growth stage of swelling, on the other hand, are relatively advanced. These models are discussed briefly as an example of how damage models can be used to help guide and analyze irradiation experiments. Accelerated damage studies using charged particles are expected to continue. Current empirical correlations of damage rates can be given a firmer theoretical basis as analysis of experiments and modeling of damage continue to improve. Damage correlation methodology practices in reactor design must necessarily follow different rules from that practiced in materials research and development. Nevertheless, decreasing the gap between them is a laudable objective with potentially significant economic impact

  6. Risk Assessment in Finland: Theory and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannu Anttonen

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The Finnish risk assessment practice is based on the Occupational Safety and Health Act aiming to improve working conditions in order maintain the employees' work ability, and to prevent occupational accidents and diseases. In practice there are hundreds of risk assessment methods in use. A simple method is used in SME's and more complex risk evaluation methods in larger work places. Does the risk management function in the work places in Finland? According to our experience something more is needed. That is, understanding of common and company related benefits of risk management. The wider conclusion is that commitment for risk assessment in Finland is high enough. However, in those enterprises where OSH management was at an acceptable level or above it, there were also more varied and more successfully accomplished actions to remove or reduce the risks than in enterprises, where OSH management was in lower level. In risk assessment it is important to process active technical prevention and exact communication, increase work place attraction and increase job satisfaction and motivation. Investments in occupational safety and health are also good business. Low absenteeism due to illness or accidents increases directly the production results by improved quality and quantity of the product. In general Finnish studies have consistently shown that the return of an invested euro is three to seven-old. In national level, according to our calculations the savings could be even 20% of our gross national product.

  7. Maze Procedures for Atrial Fibrillation, From History to Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kik, Charles; Bogers, Ad J J C

    2011-10-01

    Atrial fibrillation may result in significant symptoms, (systemic) thrombo-embolism, as well as tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy with cardiac failure, and consequently be associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Nowadays symptomatic atrial fibrillation can be treated with catheter-based ablation, surgical ablation or hybrid approaches. In this setting a fairly large number of surgical approaches and procedures are described and being practised. It should be clear that the Cox-maze procedure resulted from building up evidence and experience in different steps, while some of the present surgical approaches and techniques are being based only on technical feasibility with limited experience, rather than on a process of consequent methodology. Some of the issues still under debate are whether or not the maze procedure can be limited to the left atrium or even to isolation of the pulmonary veins or that bi-atrial procedures are indicated, whether or not cardiopulmonary bypass is to be applied and which route of exposure facilitates an optimal result. In addition, maze procedures are not procedures guide by electrophysiological mapping. At least in theory not in all patients all lesions of the maze procedures are necessary. A history and aspects of current practise in surgical treatment of atrial fibrillation is presented.

  8. An Introduction to Plum Blossom Boxing: History, Culture and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guodong Zhang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Meihuaquan (“Plum Blossom Fist [Boxing]” has traditionally been practiced as vernacular (folk art practiced among the Han ethnic group residing in the Shandong, Henan and Hebei Provinces of China. Historical documentation dates Plum Blossom Boxing to the seventeenth century. The classic Chinese novel, Shuǐhǔ Zhuàn (Marsh Chronicles recounts the martial exploits of Shandong’s twelfth century outlaw heroes who may have been Mei Boxers, also. Thus, for perhaps a millennium, the region has been noted for vernacular martial arts and social banditry. The region’s rampant lawlessness promoted highly-developed martial prowess among both lawbreakers and those who were required to protect themselves against the brigands. Cultural, economic, and environmental factors in the region gave rise to heterodox political and religious beliefs that frequently served as a catalyst for martial sects, most notably the “Boxers” who at the turn of the twentieth century, came into conflict with the imperial government. These factors laid the groundwork for the “character traits” of the art while Taoism, the Five Elements theory, and a concept of predictable change shaped Plum Boxing’s strategic and mechanical principles. In the past decade, there have been efforts to globalize this vernacular martial art. Rather than driving Plum Boxing to extinction it is likely that the folk and the “larger than local” will co-exist.

  9. A History of Design Theory in Art Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nanyoung

    2006-01-01

    Since Discipline-Based Art Education (DBAE) began to advocate the teaching of art based on art subjects and knowledge rather than creative self-expression, the elements and principles of design have taken a firm place in various art curricula, textbooks, and national and state Visual Arts Standards. This article intends to trace the history of…

  10. Who's Afraid of Foucault? History, Theory, and Becoming Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coloma, Roland Sintos

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the epistemological innocence of the field of history of education. The author's interrogation of the field's regime of truth and its effects intends to enact what he is conceptualizing as a "self-reflexive historiography," a historiography that attends to the ways in which the field has constituted and turned historians of…

  11. Poverty Lines in History, Theory, and Current International Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Allen

    2013-01-01

    This paper compares historical poverty baskets to modern food security and poverty lines. Changes in the historical baskets and indexing methods are proposed to bring historical studies into better alignment with modern measures as well as with historically based estimates of energy requirements. In addition, it is argued that modern poverty measures could be improved by emulating the historical methods.

  12. The Development of a Regional Nursing History Collection: Its Relevance to Practice, Education, and Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hezel, Linda F.; Linebach, Laura M.

    1991-01-01

    The Nursing History Collection at the University of Missouri-Kansas City preserves artifacts and memorabilia of regional nursing history. Such collections are essential to practice, education, and research in nursing. (SK)

  13. Culture Care Theory: a proposed practice theory guide for nurse practitioners in primary care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Marilyn M; Eipperle, Marilyn K

    2008-04-01

    Leininger's Theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality is presented as a foundational basis for the educational preparation, primary care contextual practice, and outcomes-focused research endeavours of advanced practice nursing. Discussion emphasises the value of care and caring as the essence of advanced practice nursing through the use of three modes of care, use of the Sunrise and other enablers, and the ethnonursing method. Education, research, practice, and key concepts of the theory are connected as essential components toward the provision of culturally congruent care to meet the healthcare needs of diverse individuals, families, groups, and communities by family nurse practitioners.

  14. Behavioral interventions for insomnia: Theory and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Mahendra P; Andrade, Chittaranjan

    2012-10-01

    Insomnia is a general clinical term that refers to a difficulty in initiating or maintaining sleep. Insomnia is widely prevalent in the general population, especially in the elderly and in those with medical and psychiatric disorders. Hypnotic drug treatments of insomnia are effective but are associated with potential disadvantages. This article presents an overview of behavioral interventions for insomnia. Behavioral interventions for insomnia include relaxation training, stimulus control therapy, sleep restriction therapy, sleep hygiene, paradoxical intention therapy, cognitive restructuring, and other approaches. These are briefly explained. Research indicates that behavioral interventions are efficacious, effective, and likely cost-effective treatments for insomnia that yield reliable, robust, and long-term benefits in adults of all ages. Detailed guidance is provided for the practical management of patients with insomnia.

  15. GP METHOD - BETWEEN THEORY AND PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta ISAI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Wherever manufacturing activities where services are provided and work, there are costs. In circumstances where resources are relatively limited, companies should try to achieve what is needed for business. Competition is becoming tougher and tougher after 1990 the economic environment has made it costly the decision error caused by the reduced amount of information on costs. The work aims to analyze the theoretical and practical calculation method Georges Perrin. It will consider on the one hand to analyze the importance of the right choice of costing methods in an economic entity, on the other hand highlight the advantages and disadvantages of the method and analyzed the situations in which is opportunity or its use.

  16. Mitigating tin whisker risks theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Handwerker, Carol A; Bath, Jasbir

    2016-01-01

    Discusses the growth mechanisms of tin whiskers and the effective mitigation strategies necessary to reduce whisker growth risks. This book covers key tin whisker topics, ranging from fundamental science to practical mitigation strategies. The text begins with a review of the characteristic properties of local microstructures around whisker and hillock grains to identify why these particular grains and locations become predisposed to forming whiskers and hillocks. The book discusses the basic properties of tin-based alloy finishes and the effects of various alloying elements on whisker formation, with a focus on potential mechanisms for whisker suppression or enhancement for each element. Tin whisker risk mitigation strategies for each tier of the supply chain for high reliability electronic systems are also described.

  17. Mechanism of indictment. Problems, theory and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timur A. Gumerov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective to determine the stages of the mechanism of pretrial adoption of indictment to identify the main mistakes made when making an indictment and offer ways of their elimination. Methods logical comparativelegal normativelogical and statistical as well as the method of complex study of phenomena and processes of legal reality. Results within the framework of the proposed mechanism of prejudicial indictment adoption and basing on the analysis of 45 indictments and their receipts in various categories of cases the common errors were identified of the subjects of criminal procedural law involved in the mechanism of indictment preparation and adoption. These include the presence of smudges underlined places and erasures in the text of the indictment the discrepancy between the indictment and the charges set out in the resolution on impleading of a defendant confusion referred to the approval of the indictment by the head of the investigative body etc. Therefore it is proposed to supplement Part 1 of Article 39 of the Russian CriminalProcedural Code with paragraph 9.1. quotTo agree on the indictment after its signing by the investigatorquot to extend the term of preliminary investigation and to assign additional days for the indictment approval to put into practice the meeting of all actors of the criminal process involved in the mechanism of the indictment adoption in order to analyze the quality and completeness of the investigation typical investigation errors and violations of criminalprocedural legislation. Scientific novelty as a result of the study frequent errors arising from the adoption of the indictment were identified occurring since the end of the preliminary investigation with indictment till the adoption of the criminal case with the indictment by the court suggestions on avoiding them were formulated. Practical significance the main provisions and conclusions of the article can be used in scientific and teaching activities in

  18. Practical Clinical Training in Skills Labs: Theory and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bugaj, T. J.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Today, skills laboratories or “skills labs”, i.e. specific practical skill training facilities, are a firmly established part of medical education offering the possibility of training clinical procedures in a safe and fault-forging environment prior to real life application at bedside or in the operating room. Skills lab training follows a structured teaching concept, takes place under supervision and in consideration of methodological-didactic concepts, ideally creating an atmosphere that allows the repeated, anxiety- and risk-free practice of targeted skills.In this selective literature review, the first section is devoted to (I the development and dissemination of the skills lab concept. There follows (II an outline of the underlying idea and (III an analysis of key efficacy factors. Thereafter, (IV the training method’s effectiveness and transference are illuminated, before (V the use of student tutors, in the sense of peer-assisted-learning, in skills labs is discussed separately. Finally, (VI the efficiency of the skills lab concept is analyzed, followed by an outlook on future developments and trends in the field of skills lab training.

  19. Life History Theory and Social Deviance: The Mediating Role of Executive Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenner, C. J.; Bianchi, J.; Figueredo, A. J.; Rushton, J. Philippe; Jacobs, W. J.

    2013-01-01

    The present work examined predicted relations among Life History strategies, Executive Functions, socially antagonistic attitudes, socially antagonistic behaviors, and general intelligence. Life History (LH) theory predicts that Executive Functions and socially antagonistic attitudes and behaviors underpin an interrelated and coherent set of…

  20. Consilience and Life History Theory: From Genes to Brain to Reproductive Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueredo, Aurelio Jose; Vasquez, Geneva; Brumbach, Barbara H.; Schneider, Stephanie M. R.; Sefcek, Jon A.; Tal, Ilanit R.; Hill, Dawn; Wenner, Christopher J.; Jacobs, W. Jake

    2006-01-01

    We describe an integrated theory of individual differences that traces the behavioral development of life history from genes to brain to reproductive strategy. We provide evidence that a single common factor, the K-Factor, underpins a variety of life-history parameters, including an assortment of sexual, reproductive, parental, familial, and…

  1. Theory to practice: the humanbecoming leading-following model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursel, Karen L

    2015-01-01

    Guided by the humanbecoming leading-following model, the author designed a nursing theories course with the intention of creating a meaningful nursing theory to practice link. The author perceived that with the implementation of Situation-Background-Assessment-Recommendations (SBAR) communication, nursing staff had drifted away from using the Kardex™ in shift to shift reporting. Nurse students, faculty, and staff members supported the creation of a theories project which would engage nursing students in the pursuit of clinical excellence. The project chosen was to revise the existing Kardex™ (predominant nursing communication tool). In the project, guided by a nursing theory, nursing students focused on the unique patient's experience, depicting the specific role of nursing knowledge and the contributions of the registered nurse to the patient's healthcare journey. The emphasis of this theoretical learning was the application of a nursing theory to real-life clinical challenges with communication of relevant, timely, and accurate patient information, recognizing that real problems are often complex and require multi-perspective approaches. This project created learning opportunities where a nursing theory would be chosen by the nursing student clinical group and applied in their clinical specialty area. This practice activity served to broaden student understandings of the role of nursing knowledge and nursing theories in their professional practice. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Personalized health care: from theory to practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyderman, Ralph

    2012-08-01

    The practice of medicine stands at the threshold of a transformation from its current focus on the treatment of disease events to an emphasis on enhancing health, preventing disease and personalizing care to meet each individual's specific health needs. Personalized health care is a new and strategic approach that is driven by personalized health planning empowered by personalized medicine tools, which are facilitated by advances in science and technology. These tools improve the capability to predict health risks, to determine and quantify the dynamics of disease development, and to target therapeutic approaches to the needs of the individual. Personalized health care can be implemented today using currently available technologies and know-how and thereby provide a market for the rational introduction of new personalized medicine tools. The need for early adoption of personalized health care stems from the necessity to reduce the egregious and wasteful burden of preventable chronic diseases, which is not effectively addressed by our current approach to care. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Number theory an approach through history from Hammurapi to Legendre

    CERN Document Server

    Weil, André

    2007-01-01

    Number Theory or arithmetic, as some prefer to call it, is the oldest, purest, liveliest, most elementary yet sophisticated field of mathematics. It is no coincidence that the fundamental science of numbers has come to be known as the "Queen of Mathematics." Indeed some of the most complex conventions of the mathematical mind have evolved from the study of basic problems of number theory. André Weil, one of the outstanding contributors to number theory, has written an historical exposition of this subject; his study examines texts that span roughly thirty-six centuries of arithmetical work — from an Old Babylonian tablet, datable to the time of Hammurapi to Legendre’s Essai sur la Théorie des Nombres (1798). Motivated by a desire to present the substance of his field to the educated reader, Weil employs an historical approach in the analysis of problems and evolving methods of number theory and their significance within mathematics. In the course of his study Weil accompanies the reader into the worksho...

  4. Memory, Critical Theory and the Argument from History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, J. Robert

    1990-01-01

    Explores the function of memory in critical theory, particularly in the work of Herbert Marcuse, as the basis for a critical argumentation. Argues that Marcuse's view suggests that argument is a "re-membering" of what had been split asunder--reason, imagination, and the capacity of action. Discusses other implications of Marcuse's…

  5. Early history of gauge theories and weak interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straumann, N [Zurich Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    1996-11-01

    The paper deals with Weyl`s attempt to unify gravitation and electromagnetism, Weyl`s 1929 classic `Electron and gravitation`, Yang-Mills theory, parity violation and 2-component neutrino, chiral invariance and universal V-A interaction. 3 figs., 38 refs.

  6. History, research and practice of forensic anthropology in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traithepchanapai, Pongpon; Mahakkanukrauh, Pasuk; Kranioti, Elena F

    2016-04-01

    Forensic anthropology is an increasingly developing discipline born about a century ago in the United States with the objective to contribute the knowledge of bone biology and physical anthropology to the emerging needs of the court of law. The development of research in biological and forensic anthropology has made rapid progress worldwide in the past few years, however, in most countries--with the exception of the United States--forensic anthropology work is still considered within the duties of the forensic pathologist. This paper attempts to summarise the history and development of forensic anthropology in Thailand by providing information on past and current research and practice that can help forensic practitioners to apply existing methods in forensic cases and mass disasters. It is hoped that the lessons learned from the tsunami catastrophe and the emerging need for positive identification in medicolegal settings will lead to rapid advances in education, training and professional engagement of anthropologists from the forensic departments and the law enforcement agencies in Thailand. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Pyramiding for Resistance Durability: Theory and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundt, Chris

    2018-04-12

    Durable disease resistance is a key component of global food security, and combining resistance genes into "pyramids" is an important way to increase durability of resistance. The mechanisms by which pyramids impact durability are not well known. The traditional view of resistance pyramids considers the use of major resistance gene (R-gene) combinations deployed against pathogens that are primarily asexual. Interestingly, published examples of the successful use of pyramids in the traditional sense are rare. In contrast, most published descriptions of durable pyramids in practice are for cereal rusts, and tend to indicate an association between durability and cultivars combining major R-genes with incompletely expressed, adult plant resistance genes. Pyramids have been investigated experimentally for a diversity of pathogens, and many reduce disease levels below that of the single best gene. Resistance gene combinations have been identified through phenotypic reactions, molecular markers, and challenge against effector genes. As resistance genes do not express equally in all genetic backgrounds, however, a combination of genetic information and phenotypic analyses provide the ideal scenario for testing of putative pyramids. Not all resistance genes contribute equally to pyramids, and approaches have been suggested to identify the best genes and combinations of genes for inclusion. Combining multiple resistance genes into a single plant genotype quickly is a challenge that is being addressed through alternative breeding approaches, as well as through genomics tools such as resistance gene cassettes and gene editing. Experimental and modeling tests of pyramid durability are in their infancy, but have promise to help direct future studies of pyramids. Several areas for further work on resistance gene pyramids are suggested.

  8. THEORY OF O.M. MEDUSHEVSKAYA’S COGNITIVE HISTORY: PRECISE KNOWLEDGE IN HUMANITIES AND PROFESSIONAL CHOICE OF ACADEMIC COMMUNITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Инна Николаевна Сабенникова

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The theory of cognitive history elaborated by Olga M. Medushevskaia (1922-2007 has obviously been the most important and influential paradigm in Russian philosophy of history and historiography since the collapse of the official Soviet version of Marxist-Leninist methodology at the end of the 20 th century. In this regard the author analyzes the main intellectual roots of the paradigm, its structure and influence on inter-disciplinary debates on the possibility of the precise and verifiable reconstruction of historical past. The author emphasizes the fundamental role of the cognitive theory in the current process of paradigm-change in Russian historiography, in the creation of new research areas, pedagogical practices and the establishment of new professional ethics of academic community.

  9. Some Recent Developments in the Endochronic Theory with Application to Cyclic Histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valanis, K. C.; Lee, C. F.

    1983-01-01

    Constitutive equations with only two easily determined material constants predict the stress (strain) response of normalized mild steel to a variety of general strain (stress) histories, without a need for special unloading-reloading rules. The equations are derived from the endochronic theory of plasticity of isotropic materials with an intrinsic time scale defined in the plastic strain space. Agreement between theoretical predictions and experiments are are excellent quantitatively in cases of various uniaxial constant amplitude histories, variable uniaxial strain amplitude histories and cyclic relaxation. The cyclic ratcheting phenomenon is predicted by the present theory.

  10. Persuasion: The Theory and Practice of Manipulative Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, George N.

    Drawing together both the history of persuasion as an historical facet of civilization and current practice, and speculation concerning its many manifestation in modern life, this book attempts to review persuasive communication--interpersonal, social, and mass-oriented--from the influences of society to the influences of the mass media. The first…

  11. Keldysh theory of strong field ionization: history, applications, difficulties and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    V Popruzhenko, S

    2014-01-01

    The history and current status of the Keldysh theory of strong field ionization are reviewed. The focus is on the fundamentals of the theory, its most important applications and those aspects which still raise difficulties and remain under discussion. The Keldysh theory is compared with other nonperturbative analytic methods of strong field atomic physics and its important generalizations are discussed. Among the difficulties, the gauge invariance problem, the tunneling time concept, the conditions of applicability and the application of the theory to ionization of systems more complex than atoms, including molecules and dielectrics, are considered. Possible prospects for the future development of the theory are also discussed. (review article)

  12. Cooperation between territorial communities: theory and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    П. М. Любченко

    2015-05-01

    infrastructure. The fifth form – creations by cooperation parties joint body of management - complex, not properly regulated, so there is no example of this type of cooperation in Ukraine. The basic directions of improvement of legal regulation of relations in this area proposed by author. These are formation of associations (Union of Communities, public legal structures with significantly higher levels of integrated territorial cooperation to jointly address most or all local matters, however local communities united in an alliance should not lose their legal status. Conclusions. The inter-municipal cooperation relatively new direction of local government in Ukraine and therefore requires a broad coverage of positive practices and benefits of voluntary restrictions of their own local communities autonomy for improving the quality of life of citizens in the territory. Cooperation should be based on clear goals and desired by strengthening solidarity and partnership to achieve result.

  13. Training in virtual environments: putting theory into practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskaliuk, Johannes; Bertram, Johanna; Cress, Ulrike

    2013-01-01

    Virtual training environments are used when training in reality is challenging because of the high costs, danger, time or effort involved. In this paper we argue for a theory-driven development of such environments, with the aim of connecting theory to practice and ensuring that the training provided fits the needs of the trained persons and their organisations. As an example, we describe the development of VirtualPolice (ViPOL), a training environment for police officers in a federal state of Germany. We provided the theoretical foundation for ViPOL concerning the feeling of being present, social context, learning motivation and perspective-taking. We developed a framework to put theory into practice. To evaluate our framework we interviewed the stakeholders of ViPOL and surveyed current challenges and limitations of virtual training. The results led to a review of a theory-into-practice framework which is presented in the conclusion. Feeling of presence, social context, learning motivation and perspective-taking are relevant for training in virtual environments. The theory-into-practice framework presented here supports developers and trainers in implementing virtual training tools. The framework was validated with an interview study of stakeholders of a virtual training project. We identified limitations, opportunities and challenges.

  14. The history of imitation in learning theory: the language acquisition process.

    OpenAIRE

    Kymissis, E; Poulson, C L

    1990-01-01

    The concept of imitation has undergone different analyses in the hands of different learning theorists throughout the history of psychology. From Thorndike's connectionism to Pavlov's classical conditioning, Hull's monistic theory, Mowrer's two-factor theory, and Skinner's operant theory, there have been several divergent accounts of the conditions that produce imitation and the conditions under which imitation itself may facilitate language acquisition. In tracing the roots of the concept of...

  15. [From literature to academic history:the position and pathway of acupuncture theory research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shujian

    2017-03-12

    There are two clues in academic inheritance of acupuncture, including theoretical inheritance and empirical inheritance. Up to now, the mainstream of acupuncture theory has not been in conformity with empirical clinic, and could not explain new clinical techniques. The existing acupuncture theories are in need of strict re-examination, and new academic achievements shall be carefully absorbed. The literature review, concepts research and academic history study are considered as key pathways of acupuncture theory research.

  16. Scalar-tensor Theories of Gravity: Some personal history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brans, Carl H.

    2008-12-01

    From a perspective of some 50 years or more, this paper reviews my recall of the early days of scalar-tensor alternatives to standard Einstein general relativistic theory of gravity. Of course, the story begins long before my involvement, going back to the proposals of Nordström in 1914, and that of Kaluza, Klein, et al., a few years later, sol include reviews of these seminal ideas and those that followed in the 1920's through the 1940's. This early work concerned the search for a Unified Field Theory, unifying gravity and Electromagnetism, using five dimensional manifolds. This formalism included not only the electromagnetic spacetime vector potential within the five-metric, but also a spacetime scalar as the five-five metric component. Although this was at first regarded more as a nuisance, to be set to a constant, it turned out later that Fierz, Jordan, Einstein and Bergmann noticed that this scalar could be a field, possibly related to the Newtonian gravitational constant. Relatively little theoretical and experimental attention was given to these ideas until after the second world war when Bob Dicke, motivated by the ideas of Mach, Dirac, and others, suggested that this additional scalar, coupled only to the metric and matter, could provide a reasonable and viable alternative to standard Einstein theory. This is the point of my direct involvement with these topics. However, it was Dicke's prominence and expertise in experimental work, together with the blossoming of NASA's experimental tools, that caused the explosion of interest, experimental and theoretical, in this possible alternative to standard Einstein theory. This interest has waxed and waned over the last 50 years, and we summarize some of this work.

  17. SOFSEM 2009: Theory and Practice of Computer Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 35th Conference on Current Trends in Theory and Practice of Computer Science, SOFSEM 2009, held in Špindleruv Mlýn, Czech Republic, in January 2009. The 49 revised full papers, presented together with 9 invited contributions, were carefully...... reviewed and selected from 132 submissions. SOFSEM 2009 was organized around the following four tracks: Foundations of Computer Science; Theory and Practice of Software Services; Game Theoretic Aspects of E-commerce; and Techniques and Tools for Formal Verification....

  18. Linking theory to practice in learning technology research

    OpenAIRE

    Cathy Gunn; Caroline Steel

    2012-01-01

    We present a case to reposition theory so that it plays a pivotal role in learning technology research and helps to build an ecology of learning. To support the case, we present a critique of current practice based on a review of articles published in two leading international journals from 2005 to 2010. Our study reveals that theory features only incidentally or not at all in many cases. We propose theory development as a unifying theme for learning technology research study design and repor...

  19. Responsible Business: A Textbook for Theory; Practice and Change

    OpenAIRE

    Laasch, Oliver; Conaway, Roger

    2014-01-01

    his eBook provides a theoretically sound, but highly relevant, introduction to the topic of socially and environmentally responsible business. While the eBook strongly draws from the classic background theories such as business ethics, sustainable development, and corporate social responsibility, those concepts are applied to the most current practices. Practice boxes highlight interesting details, cases and statistics; figures extensively illustrate the theoretical concepts; and end-of-chapt...

  20. Derivative instruments a guide to theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Eales, Brian

    2003-01-01

    The authors concentrate on the practicalities of each class of derivative, so that readers can apply the techniques in practice. Product descriptions are supported by detailed spreadsheet models, illustrating the techniques employed, some which are available on the accompanying companion website. This book is ideal reading for derivatives traders, salespersons, financial engineers, risk managers, and other professionals involved to any extent in the application and analysis of OTC derivatives.* Combines theory with valuation to provide overall coverage of the topic area* Pr

  1. To the Issue of the Practice Theory Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. K. Tchapayev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the theoretical analysis of practical training as one of the two main forms of vocational training. Industrial practice is regarded as poly-systematic, alternative existence of students entering the adults’ world, the means for developing students’ functional responsibility and subjective world outlook, etc. The paper overcomes the existing utilitarian one-sided approach to the place and value of practice, its impact on the specialist’s professional development and opportunities for professional growth being explored. Regarding the practical training as psycho-pedagogical and educational phenomenon, the authors developed the theoretical and methodological bases for its designing and conducting in vocational schools. The research conclu- sions contain some heuristic innovative potential facilitating both the foundation of independent theory of practical training and organization of practice oriented training in vocational schools. 

  2. The information a history, a theory, a flood

    CERN Document Server

    Gleick, James

    2011-01-01

    Winner of the Royal Society Winton Prize for Science Books 2012, the world's leading prize for popular science writing. We live in the information age. But every era of history has had its own information revolution: the invention of writing, the composition of dictionaries, the creation of the charts that made navigation possible, the discovery of the electronic signal, the cracking of the genetic code. In 'The Information' James Gleick tells the story of how human beings use, transmit and keep what they know. From African talking drums to Wikipedia, from Morse code to the 'bit', it is a fascinating account of the modern age's defining idea and a brilliant exploration of how information has revolutionised our lives.

  3. Early History of BELL'S Theorem Theory and Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauser, John F.

    Before 1980 it was unfashionable for a physicist to admit that he either did not understand and/or doubted the Truth and/or Orthodoxy of Quantum Mechanics (QM). Contemporary wisdom deemed it impossible that it may lead to incorrect predictions. Thus, it was foolish to suggest that it warranted further testing. Said wisdom proclaimed that nothing would ever be gained by any such pursuit. Bohr had won his debates with Einstein. Von Neumann had proven all other interpretations wrong. That was the end to it! Only an iconoclast dared think otherwise. Here I provide a brief history of some of my encounters with a few fellow iconoclasts, past denizens of a QM doubter's subculture.

  4. Milestones of the history of modern Western theory of migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A M Adediran

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article outlines the key stages in the development of modern theory of migration following the historical sequence and continuity of its basic conceptual constructs’ formation. Although the author refers to the twentieth century as a chronological framework of the text, the narrative begins from the works of E. Ravenstein published at the end of the XIX century, for they laid the foundation for future theoretical studies on migration issues. In particular, many well-known scientists still use concepts “laws of migration” and “attracting and push factors of migration” proposed by Ravenstein claiming their timeless validity or, on the contrary, criticizing them for the loss of relevance in the new social and cultural realities. The author considers as milestones of the modern theory of migration the works of the representatives of Chicago school of sociology that enriched the conceptual apparatus of the analysis of migration processes and the typology of driving causes of migration; the works of S. Stouffer, G. Zipf, E. Lee and W. Lewis, W. Zelinsky and D. Massey. Finally, the article summarizes the objective trends in today’s global development that force scientists to introduce new accents in the study of migration processes, although upon closer inspection it turns out that all “new” ideas had already been formulated in early migration studies and just got a new sound in another historical period.

  5. Psychoacoustic entropy theory and its implications for performance practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohman, Gregory J.

    This dissertation attempts to motivate, derive and imply potential uses for a generalized perceptual theory of musical harmony called psychoacoustic entropy theory. This theory treats the human auditory system as a physical system which takes acoustic measurements. As a result, the human auditory system is subject to all the appropriate uncertainties and limitations of other physical measurement systems. This is the theoretic basis for defining psychoacoustic entropy. Psychoacoustic entropy is a numerical quantity which indexes the degree to which the human auditory system perceives instantaneous disorder within a sound pressure wave. Chapter one explains the importance of harmonic analysis as a tool for performance practice. It also outlines the critical limitations for many of the most influential historical approaches to modeling harmonic stability, particularly when compared to available scientific research in psychoacoustics. Rather than analyze a musical excerpt, psychoacoustic entropy is calculated directly from sound pressure waves themselves. This frames psychoacoustic entropy theory in the most general possible terms as a theory of musical harmony, enabling it to be invoked for any perceivable sound. Chapter two provides and examines many widely accepted mathematical models of the acoustics and psychoacoustics of these sound pressure waves. Chapter three introduces entropy as a precise way of measuring perceived uncertainty in sound pressure waves. Entropy is used, in combination with the acoustic and psychoacoustic models introduced in chapter two, to motivate the mathematical formulation of psychoacoustic entropy theory. Chapter four shows how to use psychoacoustic entropy theory to analyze the certain types of musical harmonies, while chapter five applies the analytical tools developed in chapter four to two short musical excerpts to influence their interpretation. Almost every form of harmonic analysis invokes some degree of mathematical reasoning

  6. Symmetry and history quantum theory: An analog of Wigner close-quote s theorem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreckenberg, S.

    1996-01-01

    The basic ingredients of the open-quote open-quote consistent histories close-quote close-quote approach to quantum theory are a space UP of open-quote open-quote history propositions close-quote close-quote and a space D of open-quote open-quote decoherence functionals.close-quote close-quote In this article we consider such history quantum theories in the case where UP is given by the set of projectors P(V) on some Hilbert space V. We define the notion of a open-quote open-quote physical symmetry of a history quantum theory close-quote close-quote (PSHQT) and specify such objects exhaustively with the aid of an analog of Wigner close-quote s theorem. In order to prove this theorem we investigate the structure of D, define the notion of an open-quote open-quote elementary decoherence functional,close-quote close-quote and show that each decoherence functional can be expanded as a certain combination of these functionals. We call two history quantum theories that are related by a PSHQT open-quote open-quote physically equivalent close-quote close-quote and show explicitly, in the case of history quantum mechanics, how this notion is compatible with one that has appeared previously. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  7. Bridging Theory and Practice in an Applied Retail Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Fredrik; Rosengren, Sara; Colliander, Jonas; Hernant, Mikael; Liljedal, Karina T.

    2018-01-01

    In this article, we present an educational approach that bridges theory and practice: an applied retail track. The track has been co-created by faculty and 10 partnering retail companies and runs in parallel with traditional courses during a 3-year bachelor's degree program in retail management. The underlying pedagogical concept is to move retail…

  8. Introduction to Educational Administration: Standards, Theories, and Practice. Second Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore, Douglas J.

    2009-01-01

    Organized around the ISLLC standards, this text introduces students to the concepts and theories of educational leadership. The new edition adds coverage of such topics as data usage, ethics, innovative hiring practices, and student discipline. Appearing in the second edition are chapter-ending sections called "Point-Counterpoint" which prompt…

  9. Bringing Cultural Diversity to Feminist Psychology. Theory, Research, and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landrine, Hope, Ed.

    This book focuses on the theoretical, empirical and practice-based implications of recognizing cultural diversity in the psychology of women. Contributors to this volume share the common objective of keeping feminist psychology robust and useful. Chapters in the first section, "Cultural Diversity in Theory and Methodology in Feminist…

  10. Social Engagements with Contemporary Art: Connecting Theory with Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leake, Maria D.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, Leake is arguing for the relevance of contemporary art as a way to bridge the gap between theory and practice in the spaces of art education. Graeme Sullivan develops a similar argument in his "Studies" article, "The Art of Research." Where Leake looks to possibilities for contemporary art as it is presented in…

  11. Advancing Evaluation Theory and Practice in South Asia : Building a ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Advancing Evaluation Theory and Practice in South Asia : Building a Community of Experts. This grant will allow the Association for ... to other evaluation practitioners in the region. It is expected that the project will help strengthen evaluation in South Asia, leading to more effective and efficient development interventions.

  12. Practical application of the theory of errors in measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter addresses the practical application of the theory of errors in measurement. The topics of the chapter include fixing on a maximum desired error, selecting a maximum error, the procedure for limiting the error, utilizing a standard procedure, setting specifications for a standard procedure, and selecting the number of measurements to be made

  13. Theory in Practice: Helping Providers Address Depression in Diabetes Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, Chandra Y.; Kozak, Cindy; Wagner, Julie

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: A continuing education (CE) program based on the theory of planned behavior was designed to understand and improve health care providers' practice patterns in screening, assessing, and treating and/or referring patients with diabetes for depression treatment. Methods: Participants completed assessments of attitudes, confidence,…

  14. Elise Boulding and Peace Education: Theory, Practice, and Quaker Faith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Carolyn M.

    2012-01-01

    Elise Boulding wrote academically to help to create and influence the field of peace education, and lived a life that exemplified it. Her life integrated theory and practice and exemplified peace "praxis" as the "craft and skills of doing peace" and "the integration of thought and action". For Boulding, peace education occurred at all levels,…

  15. Otherness in Pedagogical Theory and Practice: The Case of Roma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirova, Anna; Prochner, Larry

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the topic of the inclusion of Roma children in education in Europe through an examination of theory and practice in relation to the issues of Otherness and foreignness. Roma children entering school encounter a vastly different world from their home culture, with different expectations for teaching and learning, for…

  16. Theory and practice in EFL teacher education bridging the gap

    CERN Document Server

    Hüttner, Dr Julia; Reichl, Susanne; Schiftner, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    This book brings together research by experts in the field of language teacher education from a variety of contexts, with a particular focus on EFL. It addresses the dynamic relationship between theory and practice in language teacher education by considering teacher learning as a basis for the development of professionalism.

  17. Integrating Social Class into Vocational Psychology: Theory and Practice Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diemer, Matthew A.; Ali, Saba Rasheed

    2009-01-01

    Although social class plays a salient and significant role in career development and occupational attainment, social class is underrepresented in vocational psychology theory, scholarship, and practice. Vocational psychologists are in a unique position to meet the career development needs of persons from all social classes by integrating a fuller…

  18. Physics Content and Pedagogical Changes: Ramification of Theory and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobbinah, Charles; Bayaga, Anass

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore physics teachers' ramification of theory and practices as a result of physics content and pedagogical changes in the Further Education and Training (FET) phase. The researchers adopted the mixed method research approach. The quantitative aspect involved 109 physics teachers and the qualitative approach used ten…

  19. Charter School Autonomy: The Mismatch between Theory and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnigan, Kara S.

    2007-01-01

    In theory, the charter school concept is based on a trade-off or exchange: greater autonomy for increased accountability. Although charter schools have been operating for more than 10 years, little is known about charter school autonomy in practice. This mixed-methods study used survey and case study data to examine the degree of autonomy of…

  20. EDITORIAL: Focus on Quantum Cryptography: Theory and Practice FOCUS ON QUANTUM CRYPTOGRAPHY: THEORY AND PRACTICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lütkenhaus, N.; Shields, A. J.

    2009-04-01

    descriptions and are based on observable tests during the run of QKD sessions. It is now 25 years since the first proposal for QKD was published and 20 since the first experimental realization. The intervening years have brought several technological and theoretical advances, which have driven new insights into the application of quantum theory to the wider field of information technology. We are looking forward to the new twists and turns this field will take in the next 25 years! Focus on Quantum Cryptography: Theory and Practice Contents Security of continuous-variable quantum key distribution: towards a de Finetti theorem for rotation symmetry in phase space A Leverrier, E Karpov, P Grangier and N J Cerf Optical networking for quantum key distribution and quantum communications T E Chapuran, P Toliver, N A Peters, J Jackel, M S Goodman, R J Runser, S R McNown, N Dallmann, R J Hughes, K P McCabe, J E Nordholt, C G Peterson, K T Tyagi, L Mercer and H Dardy Proof-of-concept of real-world quantum key distribution with quantum frames I Lucio-Martinez, P Chan, X Mo, S Hosier and W Tittel Composability in quantum cryptography Jörn Müller-Quade and Renato Renner Distributed authentication for randomly compromised networks Travis R Beals, Kevin P Hynes and Barry C Sanders Feasibility of 300 km quantum key distribution with entangled states Thomas Scheidl, Rupert Ursin, Alessandro Fedrizzi, Sven Ramelow, Xiao-Song Ma, Thomas Herbst, Robert Prevedel, Lothar Ratschbacher, Johannes Kofler, Thomas Jennewein and Anton Zeilinger Decoy-state quantum key distribution with both source errors and statistical fluctuations Xiang-Bin Wang, Lin Yang, Cheng-Zhi Peng and Jian-Wei Pan High rate, long-distance quantum key distribution over 250 km of ultra low loss fibres D Stucki, N Walenta, F Vannel, R T Thew, N Gisin, H Zbinden, S Gray, C R Towery and S Ten Topological optimization of quantum key distribution networks R Alléaume, F Roueff, E Diamanti and N Lütkenhaus The SECOQC quantum key

  1. History of nonlinear oscillations theory in France (1880-1940)

    CERN Document Server

    Ginoux, Jean-Marc

    2017-01-01

    This book reveals the French scientific contribution to the mathematical theory of nonlinear oscillations and its development. The work offers a critical examination of sources with a focus on the twentieth century, especially the period between the wars. Readers will see that, contrary to what is often written, France's role has been significant. Important contributions were made through both the work of French scholars from within diverse disciplines (mathematicians, physicists, engineers), and through the geographical crossroads that France provided to scientific communication at the time. This study includes an examination of the period before the First World War which is vital to understanding the work of the later period. By examining literature sources such as periodicals on the topic of electricity from that era, the author has unearthed a very important text by Henri Poincaré, dating from 1908. In this work Poincaré applied the concept of limit cycle (which he had introduced in 1882 through his own...

  2. The curious history of relativity how Einstein's theory of gravity was lost and found again

    CERN Document Server

    Eisenstaedt, Jean

    2006-01-01

    Black holes may obliterate most things that come near them, but they saved the theory of general relativity. Einstein's theory was quickly accepted as the true theory of gravity after its publication in 1915, but soon took a back seat in physics to quantum mechanics and languished for decades on the blackboards of mathematicians. Not until the existence of black holes by Stephen Hawking and Roger Penrose in the 1960s, after Einstein's death, was the theory revived. Almost one hundred years after general relativity replaced Newton's theory of gravitation, The Curious History of Relativity tells the story of both events surrounding general relativity and the techniques employed by Einstein and the relativists to construct, develop, and understand his almost impenetrable theory. Jean Eisenstaedt, one of the world's leading experts on the subject, also discusses the theory's place in the evolution of twentieth-century physics. He describes the main stages in the development of general relativity: its beginnings,...

  3. Use of empathy in psychiatric practice: constructivist grounded theory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watling, Chris

    2017-01-01

    Background Psychiatry has faced significant criticism for overreliance on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) and medications with purported disregard for empathetic, humanistic interventions. Aims To develop an empirically based qualitative theory explaining how psychiatrists use empathy in day-to-day practice, to inform practice and teaching approaches. Method This study used constructivist grounded theory methodology to ask (a) ‘How do psychiatrists understand and use empathetic engagement in the day-to-day practice of psychiatry?’ and (b) ‘How do psychiatrists learn and teach the skills of empathetic engagement?’ The authors interviewed 17 academic psychiatrists and 4 residents and developed a theory by iterative coding of the collected data. Results This constructivist grounded theory of empathetic engagement in psychiatric practice considered three major elements: relational empathy, transactional empathy and instrumental empathy. As one moves from relational empathy through transactional empathy to instrumental empathy, the actions of the psychiatrist become more deliberate and interventional. Conclusions Participants were described by empathy-based interventions which are presented in a theory of ’empathetic engagement’. This is in contrast to a paradigm that sees psychiatry as purely based on neurobiological interventions, with psychotherapy and interpersonal interventions as completely separate activities from day-to-day psychiatric practice. Declaration of interest None. Copyright and usage © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2017. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) license. PMID:28243463

  4. Judicial astrology in theory and practice in later medieval Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Hilary M

    2010-06-01

    Interrogations and elections were two branches of Arabic judicial astrology made available in Latin translation to readers in western Europe from the twelfth century. Through an analysis of the theory and practice of interrogations and elections, including the writing of the Jewish astrologer Sahl b. Bishr, this essay considers the extent to which judicial astrology was practiced in the medieval west. Consideration is given to historical examples of interrogations and elections mostly from late medieval English manuscripts. These include the work of John Dunstaple (ca. 1390-1453), the musician and astrologer who is known have served at the court of John, duke of Bedford. On the basis of the relatively small number of surviving historical horoscopes, it is argued that the practice of interrogations and elections lagged behind the theory.

  5. Theory and interpretation in qualitative studies from general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malterud, Kirsti

    2016-01-01

    Objective: In this article, I want to promote theoretical awareness and commitment among qualitative researchers in general practice and suggest adequate and feasible theoretical approaches.  Approach: I discuss different theoretical aspects of qualitative research and present the basic foundations...... theory is a consistent and soundly based set of assumptions about a specific aspect of the world, predicting or explaining a phenomenon. Qualitative research is situated in an interpretative paradigm where notions about particular human experiences in context are recognized from different subject...... in qualitative analysis are presented, emphasizing substantive theories to sharpen the interpretative focus. Such approaches are clearly within reach for a general practice researcher contributing to clinical practice by doing more than summarizing what the participants talked about, without trying to become...

  6. There is no gap 'per se' between theory and practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kristian; Adamsen, Lis; Bjerregaard, Lene Berit Skov

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this article is to highlight relations between theory and practice and the genesis of professional action in clinical nursing and among researchers. With use of a sociologically based empirical approach, focus is placed on the knowledge involved in the work of researchers and practitio...... nurses are inspired and learn from the context, including each other, and they are active producers of knowledge, not simply recipients of knowledge. This study, therefore, claims that there is no research-practice gap “in itself” (per se) as argued in the “barriers paradigm.”......The aim of this article is to highlight relations between theory and practice and the genesis of professional action in clinical nursing and among researchers. With use of a sociologically based empirical approach, focus is placed on the knowledge involved in the work of researchers...

  7. Nursing intellectual capital theory: implications for research and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covell, Christine L; Sidani, Souraya

    2013-05-31

    Due to rising costs of healthcare, determining how registered nurses and knowledge resources influence the quality of patient care is critical. Studies that have investigated the relationship between nursing knowledge and outcomes have been plagued with conceptual and methodological issues. This has resulted in limited empirical evidence of the impact of nursing knowledge on patient or organizational outcomes. The nursing intellectual capital theory was developed to assist with this area of inquiry. Nursing intellectual capital theory conceptualizes the sources of nursing knowledge available within an organization and delineates its relationship to patient and organizational outcomes. In this article, we review the nursing intellectual capital theory and discuss its implications for research and practice. We explain why the theory shows promise for guiding research on quality work environments and how it may assist with administrative decision-making related to nursing human resource management and continuing professional development.

  8. The seeds and the worms: Ludwik Fleck and the early history of germ theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorson, Stig

    2006-01-01

    -scientific "proto-ideas." In 1935, Fleck proposed that the history of germ theories could be approached through his thesis on proto-ideas. His proposal, however, remained little more than a vague suggestion and was never developed in further detail. This paper introduces the concept of proto-ideas and discusses...... the central epistemological and historiographical implications of Fleck's thesis. The Fleckian approach offers an attractive alternative to positivist reconstructions of the early history of germ theories and provides a useful framework for a deeper understanding of the sociocultural background......The Polish microbiologist and philosopher of science, Ludwik Fleck (1896-1961), was a pioneer in constructivist history and philosophy of science. Based on studies in the history of syphilis, Fleck hypothesized that many established scientific facts are linked, in their development, to pre...

  9. Family medicine residents' practice intentions: Theory of planned behaviour evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grierson, Lawrence E M; Fowler, Nancy; Kwan, Matthew Y W

    2015-11-01

    To assess residents' practice intentions since the introduction of the College of Family Physicians of Canada's Triple C curriculum, which focuses on graduating family physicians who will provide comprehensive care within traditional and newer models of family practice. A survey based on Ajzen's theory of planned behaviour was administered on 2 occasions. McMaster University in Hamilton, Ont. Residents (n = 135) who were enrolled in the Department of Family Medicine Postgraduate Residency Program at McMaster University in July 2012 and July 2013; 54 of the 60 first-year residents who completed the survey in 2012 completed it again in 2013. The survey was modeled so as to measure the respondents' intentions to practise with a comprehensive scope; determine the degree to which their attitudes, subjective norms, and perceptions of control about comprehensive practice influence those intentions; and investigate how these relationships change as residents progress through the curriculum. The survey also queried the respondents about their intentions with respect to particular medical services that underpin comprehensive practice. The responses indicate that the factors modeled by the theory of planned behaviour survey account for 60% of the variance in the residents' intentions to adopt a comprehensive scope of practice upon graduation, that there is room for curricular improvement with respect to encouraging residents to practise comprehensive care, and that targeting subjective norms about comprehensive practice might have the greatest influence on improving resident intentions. The theory of planned behaviour presents an effective approach to assessing curricular effects on resident practice intentions while also providing meaningful information for guiding further program evaluation efforts in the Department of Family Medicine at McMaster University.

  10. Interpretation, Cognition: From Multivector Translation Theory To Efficient Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Nikolaevna Usacheva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses Translation Studies state-of-the-art which can be described as the existence of both traditional linguistic theories and many other concepts and models of translation offered by scientists from different countries in recent decades. The authors of this paper focus on the three concepts significant for the modern Translation Studies – the Skopos Theory, the Interpretative Theory and the Cognitive Theory. The paper compares several current points of view presented by Translation Studies researchers from Russia and abroad. The differences in these views are determined by some social and cultural peculiarities of different native speakers as well as by cultural specificity of linguistic signs' semantics, hence the problem of linguistic world-image compatibility. We describe the analysis results of some conceptual components of communicative and functional approach, as well as fundamental provisions of cognitive and pragmatic approaches to the translation process interpretation. Basing on their professional activity, the authors offer proven assessment of possible usage of the theories under consideration in training will-be translators and interpreters to ensure their future practice efficiency. The article describes didactic tools summarizing the best practice of Russian and Western Translation Studies schools. It gives clear examples illustrating the possibility of using the results of high-quality multi-vector and multicultural theoretical research results in specialized university training courses.

  11. Theory-based practice in a major medical centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alligood, Martha Raile

    2011-11-01

    This project was designed to improve care quality and nursing staff satisfaction. Nursing theory structures thought and action as demonstrated by evidence of improvement in complex health-care settings. Nursing administrators selected Modelling and Role-Modelling (MRM) for the theory-based practice goal in their strategic plan. An action research approach structured implementation of MRM in a 1-year consultation project in 2001-2002. Quality of health care improved according to national quality assessment ratings, as well as patient satisfaction and nurse satisfaction. Modelling and Role-Modelling demonstrated capacity to structure nursing thought and action in patient care in a major medical centre. Uniformity of patient care language was valued by nurses as well as by allied health providers who wished to learn the holistic MRM style of practice. The processes of MRM and action research contributed to project success. A positive health-care change project was carried out in a large medical centre with action research. Introducing MRM theory-based practice was a beneficial decision by nursing administration that improved care and nurse satisfaction. Attention to nursing practice stimulated career development among the nurses to pursue bachelors, masters, and doctoral degrees. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Storming a Citadel: Mathematical Theory and Experimental Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sichau, Christian

    2006-09-01

    Based upon a comparison of the viscosity experiments of James Clerk Maxwell (1831 1879) and Oskar Emil Meyer (1834 1909) in the 1860s, I argue that mathematical theory plays a significant role in both aspects of experimental practice, the design and construction of an experimental apparatus and the transformation of the observed experimental data into the value of a physical quantity. I argue further that Maxwell’s and Meyer’s evaluation of each other’s theoretical and experimental work depended significantly on the mathematical tools they employed in their theories.

  13. RETRACTED: Bridging the Gap Between Theory and Practice With Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kat Peoples

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Because existential counseling is sometimes difficult to teach due to the philosophical concepts of the theory, counselor-educators can use films to help students understand, synthesize, and apply existential concepts. Constructivist teaching methods and experiential exercises give to students a structure that helps them understand existential concepts within the context of their own worldviews and how those concepts could operate in a therapeutic practice. By providing a detailed explanation of Fight Club, educators assist students in grasping the philosophical underpinnings of existential counseling theory concretely. Specific activities are then used to help students apply the concepts with clients.

  14. Grounded theory for radiotherapy practitioners: Informing clinical practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, N.A.

    2010-01-01

    Radiotherapy practitioners may be best placed to undertake qualitative research within the context of cancer, due to specialist knowledge of radiation treatment and sensitivity to radiotherapy patient's needs. The grounded theory approach to data collection and analysis is a unique method of identifying a theory directly based on data collected within a clinical context. Research for radiotherapy practitioners is integral to role expansion within the government's directive for evidence-based practice. Due to the paucity of information on qualitative research undertaken by radiotherapy radiographers, this article aims to assess the potential impact of qualitative research on radiotherapy patient and service outcomes.

  15. Homogenization and structural topology optimization theory, practice and software

    CERN Document Server

    Hassani, Behrooz

    1999-01-01

    Structural topology optimization is a fast growing field that is finding numerous applications in automotive, aerospace and mechanical design processes. Homogenization is a mathematical theory with applications in several engineering problems that are governed by partial differential equations with rapidly oscillating coefficients Homogenization and Structural Topology Optimization brings the two concepts together and successfully bridges the previously overlooked gap between the mathematical theory and the practical implementation of the homogenization method. The book is presented in a unique self-teaching style that includes numerous illustrative examples, figures and detailed explanations of concepts. The text is divided into three parts which maintains the book's reader-friendly appeal.

  16. Theory and practice in psychoanalysis: psychoanalytic praxis. 1969.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleger, José

    2012-08-01

    The author systematises and examines the relation between theory and practice in psychoanalysis in three directions: one, eminently epistemological, which is only mentioned because it pertains not only to psychoanalysis but to all the sciences; another, the relation between theory and technique; and the third, the relation between theory and the institutional organisation of psychoanalysis and psychoanalysts. All the problems described, especially the second and third points, together define psychoanalytic praxis. With regard to contradictions between theory and technique, the author points out that psychoanalytic theory is constructed fundamentally on the basis of an approach that is historico-genetic, dynamic and consistent with formal logic, whereas psychoanalytic practice occurs within a transference–countertransference relation, in a situation configured as an analytic field, a ‘here and now’, within a dramatic explanation and in a dialectic process. This triple diagnosis involves naturalistic and phenomenological approaches, the problem of objectivity and the role given to sexuality as a privileged parameter in psychoanalytic theory. In relation to the third direction mentioned above,the author refers briefly to the problem of psychoanalytic organisations, in the sense that they come into conflict with the development of psychoanalytic theory and the deepening of investigation. In reference to the latter, the author emphasises the need to widen the perspective of what constitutes psychoanalytic praxis. He points out that praxis is always replete with contradictions and that it is not a question of ignoring,denying or impeding these contradictions themselves (which would in any case be totally ineffective), but that by taking them into account, scientific development could be managed in a more planned way, less blindly; that is to say, less abandoned to spontaneity.

  17. History of consumer demand theory 1871-1971: A Neo-Kantian rational reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Moscati Ivan

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the history of the neoclassical theory of consumer demand from 1871 to 1971 by bringing into play the knowledge theory of the Marburg School, a Neo-Kantian philosophical movement. The work aims to show the usefulness of a Marburg-inspired epistemology in rationalizing the development of consumer analysis and, more generally, to understand the principles that regulate the process of knowing in neoclassical economics.

  18. History of consumer demand theory 1871-1971: A Neo-Kantian rational reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Moscati

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the history of the neoclassical theory of consumer demand from 1871 to 1971 by bringing into play the knowledge theory of the Marburg School, a Neo-Kantian philosophical movement. The work aims to show the usefulness of a Marburg-inspired epistemology in rationalizing the development of consumer analysis and, more generally, to understand the principles that regulate the process of knowing in neoclassical economics.

  19. Theory-Generating Practice: Proposing a principle for learning design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mie Buhl

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This contribution proposes a principle for learning design: Theory-Generating Practice (TGP as an alternative to the way university courses often are taught and structured with a series of theoretical lectures separate from practical experience and concluding with an exam or a project. The aim is to contribute to a development of theoretical frameworks for learning designs by suggesting TGP which may lead to new practices and turn the traditional dramaturgy for teaching upside down. TGP focuses on embodied experience prior to text reading and lectures to enhance theoretical knowledge building and takes tacit knowledge into account. The article introduces TGP and contextualizes it to a Danish tradition of didactics as well as discusses it in relation to contemporary conceptual currents of didactic design and learning design. This is followed by a theoretical framing of TGP, and is discussed through three empirical examples from bachelor and master programs involving technology, and showing three ways of practicing it.

  20. Theory-Generating Practice: Proposing a principle for learning design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mie Buhl

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This contribution proposes a principle for learning design: Theory-Generating Practice (TGP as an alternative to the way university courses often are taught and structured with a series of theoretical lectures separate from practical experience and concluding with an exam or a project. The aim is to contribute to a development of theoretical frameworks for learning designs by suggesting TGP which may lead to new practices and turn the traditional dramaturgy for teaching upside down. TGP focuses on embodied experience prior to text reading and lectures to enhance theoretical knowledge building and takes tacit knowledge into account. The article introduces TGP and contextualizes it to a Danish tradition of didactics as well as discusses it in relation to contemporary conceptual currents of didactic design and learning design. This is followed by a theoretical framing of TGP, and is discussed through three empirical examples from bachelor and master programs involving technology, and showing three ways of practicing it.

  1. Development of lobbying in Russia: theory and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Kanevskiy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lobbying studies have a long history in Russia, although there is still no profound understanding among scientists, politicians, business and civil society representatives what are the objects and goals of this process, who are actors of lobbying, where are the lines between formal and informal sides of lobbying. Current article examines lobbying in wider angle - through the mechanism of articulation of interests in the political system. Author also analyzes dynamics of lobbying as an informal institution using Gretchen Helmke and Steven Levitsky’s theory of comparative politics.

  2. Theory versus practice in Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobos, Víctor; Partidario, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Could the theory of Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) be ahead of its time and decoupled from its practice? This paper evolved in search for this leading research question. Over the years the discourse on SEA experienced a gradual shift from the technocratic and rationalist thinking that supported its origin to more strategic approaches and integrated concepts, suggested since the mid 1990's. In this paper we share the results of our analysis of international thinking and practical experience with SEA. Results reveal that SEA practice changes very slowly when compared to advanced thinking supporting the noted shift. Current SEA practice shows to be still predominantly rooted in the logic of projects' environmental impact assessment (EIA). It is strongly bound to legal and regulatory requirements, and the motivation for its application persists being the delivery of environmental (or final) reports to meet legal obligations. Even though advanced SEA theoretical thinking claim its potential to help decisions to look forward, change mind-sets and the rationale of decision-making to meet sustainability challenges and enhance societal values, we note a weak relationship between the theoretical development of SEA and its practice. Why is this happening? Which factors explain this apparent inertia, resistance to change, in the SEA practice? Results appear to demonstrate the influence of assumptions, understandings, concepts, and beliefs in the use of SEA, which in turn suggest the political sensitivity of the instrument. - Highlights: • Theoretical thinking in SEA is ahead of its time. • SEA international practice reveals inertia to move out of project’ EIA comfort zone. • World current SEA practice show similar understandings of 30 years ago. • 100 world reports and survey of practitioners supported world review. • SEA great challenge is to change paradigms into new scientific complexity theories

  3. Theory versus practice in Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobos, Víctor, E-mail: vlobosg@gmail.com [CEG-IST, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Research Group on Strategic Approaches to Environment and Sustainability (SENSU), 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Centro de Estudios del Desarrollo, San Crescente 551, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile); Partidario, Maria [CEG-IST, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Research Group on Strategic Approaches to Environment and Sustainability (SENSU), 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2014-09-15

    Could the theory of Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) be ahead of its time and decoupled from its practice? This paper evolved in search for this leading research question. Over the years the discourse on SEA experienced a gradual shift from the technocratic and rationalist thinking that supported its origin to more strategic approaches and integrated concepts, suggested since the mid 1990's. In this paper we share the results of our analysis of international thinking and practical experience with SEA. Results reveal that SEA practice changes very slowly when compared to advanced thinking supporting the noted shift. Current SEA practice shows to be still predominantly rooted in the logic of projects' environmental impact assessment (EIA). It is strongly bound to legal and regulatory requirements, and the motivation for its application persists being the delivery of environmental (or final) reports to meet legal obligations. Even though advanced SEA theoretical thinking claim its potential to help decisions to look forward, change mind-sets and the rationale of decision-making to meet sustainability challenges and enhance societal values, we note a weak relationship between the theoretical development of SEA and its practice. Why is this happening? Which factors explain this apparent inertia, resistance to change, in the SEA practice? Results appear to demonstrate the influence of assumptions, understandings, concepts, and beliefs in the use of SEA, which in turn suggest the political sensitivity of the instrument. - Highlights: • Theoretical thinking in SEA is ahead of its time. • SEA international practice reveals inertia to move out of project’ EIA comfort zone. • World current SEA practice show similar understandings of 30 years ago. • 100 world reports and survey of practitioners supported world review. • SEA great challenge is to change paradigms into new scientific complexity theories.

  4. Theory Interpretation of Control System and Design Practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Heon Sul

    2003-11-01

    This book tells of theory interpretation of control system and design practice using automatic balancing weighing machine , including what control is, basic use of CEM Tool such as summary, work environment of CEM Tool, Symbol of CEM Tool, instruction of CEM Tool, drawing graph, and practice of making of CEM Tool, basic use of SIM Tool, driving test of sensor measurement motor such as LED, Pulse pick-up, answer test of RC circuit, structure of balancing weighing machine and wheel mathematical model, analysis of time response and frequency response of balancing weighing machine, and mathematical model and material property of balancing weighing machine.

  5. Theory-generating practice. Proposing a principle for learning design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Mie

    2016-01-01

    This contribution proposes a principle for learning design – Theory-Generating Practice (TGP) – as an alternative to the way university courses are traditionally taught and structured, with a series of theoretical lectures isolated from practical experience and concluding with an exam or a project...... building, and takes tacit knowledge into account. The article introduces TGP, contextualizes it to a Danish tradition of didactics, and discusses it in relation to contemporary conceptual currents of didactic design and learning design. This is followed by a theoretical framing of TGP. Finally, three...

  6. Towards a new theory of practice for community health psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolas, Sevasti-Melissa

    2014-01-01

    The article sets out the value of theorizing collective action from a social science perspective that engages with the messy actuality of practice. It argues that community health psychology relies on an abstract version of Paulo Freire's earlier writing, the Pedagogy of the Oppressed, which provides scholar-activists with a 'map' approach to collective action. The article revisits Freire's later work, the Pedagogy of Hope, and argues for the importance of developing a 'journey' approach to collective action. Theories of practice are discussed for their value in theorizing such journeys, and in bringing maps (intentions) and journeys (actuality) closer together.

  7. The theory and practice of worm gear drives

    CERN Document Server

    Dudás, Ilés

    2005-01-01

    Worm gears are special gears that resemble screws, and can be used to drive other gears. Worm gears, enable two non-touching shafts in a machine to mesh (join) together. This publication, unique in that it combines both theoretical and practical design aspects, including the latest results of research and development, provides detailed treatment of the theory and production of worm drives, as well as the overarching subject of production geometry of helicoidal surfaces.Included are mathematical models for a number of practical applications; a description of dressing equipment r

  8. The theory, practice, and measurement of Music Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moore, Kimberly Sena; Hanson-Abromeit, Deanna; Magee, Wendy L.

    2013-01-01

    from an understanding of music perception and cognition. Given the diversity of practice, there are several key challenges for the discipline. One is developing a theory-based clinical and research approach. This supports a deeper understanding of the complex music stimulus and therapeutic interactions......Music therapy is a clinical healthcare discipline that draws its evidence base from music neuroscience and psychology to improve the health and well-being in individuals from varied clinical populations. Working with individuals across the lifespan, evidence-based therapeutic methods are developed...... of interest. This symposium will bring together some of the latest research from the discipline of music therapy relating to the clinical needs of complex neurological and psychiatric populations. The papers offer diverse perspectives reflecting interdisciplinary influences on the theory and practice of music...

  9. Supply Chain Disruptions Theory and Practice of Managing Risk

    CERN Document Server

    Mehrotra, Anuj; Ray, Saibal

    2012-01-01

    One of the most critical issues facing supply chain managers in today’s globalized and highly uncertain business environments is how to deal proactively with disruptions that might affect the complicated supply networks characterizing modern enterprises. Supply Chain Disruptions: Theory and Practice of Managing Risk presents a state-of the-art perspective on this particular issue. Supply Chain Disruptions: Theory and Practice of Managing Risk demonstrates that effective management of supply disruptions necessitates both strategic and tactical measures – the former involving optimal design of supply networks; the latter involving inventory, finance and demand management. It shows that managers ought to use all available levers at their disposal throughout the supply network – like sourcing and pricing strategies, providing financial subsidies, encouraging information sharing and incentive alignment between supply chain partners – in order to tackle supply disruptions. The editors combine up-to-date aca...

  10. Theory and Practice: thinking styles in engineering and science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanspeter Schmid

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes knowledge as an element of thinking styles, which are properties of thinking collectives. According to the theory outlined here, the choice of a thinking style to solve a certain problem is relative, but once the thinking has been chosen, realism prevails. This paper also describes the genesis and development of thinking styles and, with them, of facts. The theoretical concepts are illustrated with two examples of thinking styles: a description of the thinking styles of circuit theorists and circuit designers (theory vs. practice, and a comparison of the thinking styles of two closely related technical societies of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE. Applications of the theory are also presented in this paper; they include information management, documentation tools, and writing styles, and mainly draw from the author's own experience with these topics.

  11. Post-Crash Neoliberalism in Theory and Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Whitham, Ben

    2017-01-01

    The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link. Despite the massive state interventions into financial markets following the crash of 2007, the academic literature on the political-economic theory and practice of neoliberalism – a phenomenon often (mis)identified as equivalent to ‘free market’ fundamentalism or a second wave of laissez-faire – has continued to flourish, rather than decline i...

  12. Applying thematic analysis theory to practice: a researcher's experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuckett, Anthony G

    2005-01-01

    This article describes an experience of thematic analysis. In order to answer the question 'What does analysis look like in practice?' it describes in brief how the methodology of grounded theory, the epistemology of social constructionism, and the theoretical stance of symbolic interactionism inform analysis. Additionally, analysis is examined by evidencing the systematic processes--here termed organising, coding, writing, theorising, and reading--that led the researcher to develop a final thematic schema.

  13. Bourdieu's theory of practice and its potential in nursing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhynas, Sarah J

    2005-04-01

    This paper seeks to consider the utility of Bourdieu's "Theory of Practice" in nursing, and considers specifically its use as a framework for research exploring nurses' conceptualizations of illness and the patients in their care. Bourdieu's work uses the concepts of field, capital and habitus to explain interactions within the social world. This paper describes these concepts and their relationship with nursing is discussed using dementia care as an example. The work of French scholar Pierre Bourdieu has contributed to debates throughout the social sciences, but has had relatively little attention in the nursing literature. Pierre Bourdieu's work developed against a backdrop of change in the academic world. The emergence of the social sciences and the debate around objective and subjective styles of research were influential in the development of his "Theory of Practice". The importance of the conceptualization process is discussed, and the considerable potential influence of conceptualization on patient care is highlighted. Reflexivity is a cornerstone of Bourdieu's work, and is an important feature of nursing research. Examples of health care research using his work as a framework are discussed, and some of the challenges of the approach are outlined. The use of Bourdieu's "Theory of Practice" as a research framework could allow nurse researchers to explore the interactions of nurses with the structures, agents and symbols of illness within the field of care. This work could enhance understanding of how nurses view and react to patients in their care, and promote the development of practice innovations and policy change. The theory may, therefore, have much to offer future nursing research.

  14. Russian and Chinese Information Warfare: Theory and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-01

    Integral neurolinguistic programming •Placing essential programs into the conscious or sub- conscious mind •Subconscious suggestions that modify human...Generators of special rays •Optical systems • Neurolinguistic programming •Computer psychotechnology •The mass media •Audiovisual effects •Special effects...Information Warfare: Theory and Practice 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e

  15. Basil Bernstein's Theory of the Pedagogic Device and Formal Music Schooling: Putting the Theory into Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Ruth; Froehlich, Hildegard

    2012-01-01

    This article describes Basil Bernstein's theory of the pedagogic device as applied to school music instruction. Showing that educational practices are not personal choices alone, but the result of socio-political mandates, the article traces how education functions as a vehicle for social reproduction. Bernstein called this process the…

  16. Authentic Leadership, Social Cognitive Theory, and Character Education: The Transforming of Theories Into Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Jerome; Mhunpiew, Nathara

    2012-01-01

    Character development must balance academic achievement. International school environments are diverse and multicultural settings, containing a learning-focused culture. This investigation constructs the sophisticated elements of authentic leadership and the complexities of the social cognitive theory as factors that produce a practical approach…

  17. Common sense and the common morality in theory and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Patrick

    2014-06-01

    The unfinished nature of Beauchamp and Childress's account of the common morality after 34 years and seven editions raises questions about what is lacking, specifically in the way they carry out their project, more generally in the presuppositions of the classical liberal tradition on which they rely. Their wide-ranging review of ethical theories has not provided a method by which to move beyond a hypothetical approach to justification or, on a practical level regarding values conflict, beyond a questionable appeal to consensus. My major purpose in this paper is to introduce the thought of Bernard Lonergan as offering a way toward such a methodological breakthrough. In the first section, I consider Beauchamp and Childress's defense of their theory of the common morality. In the second, I relate a persisting vacillation in their argument regarding the relative importance of reason and experience to a similar tension in classical liberal theory. In the third, I consider aspects of Lonergan's generalized empirical method as a way to address problems that surface in the first two sections of the paper: (1) the structural relation of reason and experience in human action; and (2) the importance of theory for practice in terms of what Lonergan calls "common sense" and "general bias."

  18. History of optical theory of reflecting telescopes and implications for future projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Raymond N.

    1997-03-01

    This contribution, The History of Optical Theory of Reflecting Telescopes and Implications for Future Projects, is a shortened form of the Karl Schwarzschild lecture given in Bochum in September 1993. Some material has been added from an invited paper given in Padua in December 1992. For a full account, with figures and tables, the reader is referred to these two papers.

  19. Executive Risk Propensity and Accounting Conservatism Through the Lens of Life History Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Morten; Schneider, Melanie L.

    First, we intend to investigate the impact of CFO risk propensity on accounting conservatism. Second, we will examine the role of CEOs in this context. By drawing on life history theory, we propose variables reflecting executive risk propensity. Based on this, we hypothesize that CFO risk...

  20. Neutral Theory: From Complex Population History to Natural Selection and Sociocultural Phenomena in Human Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austerlitz, Frédéric; Heyer, Evelyne

    2018-06-01

    Here, we present a synthetic view on how Kimura's Neutral theory has helped us gaining insight on the different evolutionary forces that shape human evolution. We put this perspective in the frame of recent emerging challenges: the use of whole genome data for reconstructing population histories, natural selection on complex polygenic traits, and integrating cultural processes in human evolution.

  1. Language standardization in sociolinguistics and international business: Theory and practice across the table

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linn, Andrew; Sanden, Guro Refsum; Piekkari, Rebecca

    2018-01-01

    Haugen to explain the history of modern Norwegian. The table is then turned and a model from international business by Piekkari, Welch and Welch is used to illuminate recent Norwegian language planning. It is found that the Grundfos case works well with the Haugen model, and the international business...... model provides a valuable practical lesson for national language planners, both showing that a “comparative standardology” is a valuable undertaking. More voices “at the table” will allow both theory and practice to be further refined and for the role of standards across society to be better understood.......This chapter addresses the issue of language standardization from two perspectives, bringing together a theoretical perspective offered by the discipline of sociolinguistics with a practical example from international business. We introduce the broad concept of standardization and embed the study...

  2. A Practice-Based Theory of Healing Through Therapeutic Touch: Advancing Holistic Nursing Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Mary Anne; Coppa, Denise; Shields, Deborah

    2017-08-01

    For nearly 50 years, Therapeutic Touch (TT) has contributed to advancing holistic nursing practice and has been recognized as a uniquely human approach to healing. This narrative explores the development of a practice-based theory of healing through TT, which occurred between 2010 and 2016. Through the in-depth self-inquiry of participatory reflective dialogue in concert with constant narrative analysis, TT practitioners revealed the meaning of healing within the context of their TT practice. As the community of TT experts participated in an iterative process of small group and community dialogues with analysis and synthesis of emerging themes, the assumptions and concepts central to a theory of healing emerged, were clarified and verified. Exemplars of practice illustrate the concepts. A model of the theory of healing illuminates the movement and relationship among concepts and evolved over time. Feedback from nursing and inter-professional practitioners indicate that the theory of healing, while situated within the context of TT, may be useful in advancing holistic nursing practice, informing healing and caring approaches, stimulating research and education, and contributing to future transformations in health care.

  3. Qigong in Cancer Care: Theory, Evidence-Base, and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penelope Klein

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this discussion is to explore the theory, evidence base, and practice of Qigong for individuals with cancer. Questions addressed are: What is qigong? How does it work? What evidence exists supporting its practice in integrative oncology? What barriers to wide-spread programming access exist? Methods: Sources for this discussion include a review of scholarly texts, the Internet, PubMed, field observations, and expert opinion. Results: Qigong is a gentle, mind/body exercise integral within Chinese medicine. Theoretical foundations include Chinese medicine energy theory, psychoneuroimmunology, the relaxation response, the meditation effect, and epigenetics. Research supports positive effects on quality of life (QOL, fatigue, immune function and cortisol levels, and cognition for individuals with cancer. There is indirect, scientific evidence suggesting that qigong practice may positively influence cancer prevention and survival. No one Qigong exercise regimen has been established as superior. Effective protocols do have common elements: slow mindful exercise, easy to learn, breath regulation, meditation, emphasis on relaxation, and energy cultivation including mental intent and self-massage. Conclusions: Regular practice of Qigong exercise therapy has the potential to improve cancer-related QOL and is indirectly linked to cancer prevention and survival. Wide-spread access to quality Qigong in cancer care programming may be challenged by the availability of existing programming and work force capacity.

  4. Theory-practice integration in selected clinical situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Davhana-Maselesele

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The current changes in health care systems challenge knowledgeable, mature and independent practitioners to integrate theoretical content with practice. The aim of this study was to investigate the problems of integrating theory with practice in selected clinical nursing situations. The study focused on rendering of family planning services to clients as a component of Community Nursing Science. Structured observation schedules were used to observe the theoretical content of the curriculum as well as the practical application of what has been taught in the clinical area. The findings of the study revealed that there was a need for an integrated holistic curriculum, which would address the needs of the community. It was concluded that a problem-based and community-based curriculum, intersectoral collaboration between college and hospital managements and student involvement in all processes of teaching and learning would improve the integration of theory and practice. There also appeared to be a need for tutors to be more involved in clinical teaching and accompaniment.

  5. The understanding of theory and practice in nursing education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dau, Susanne; Nielsen, Gitte

    This project deals with the matter of nursing education on professional bachelor level in Denmark. It is a fact that opinions differ in the matter of what can and must be learned in respectively clinical practice and in theoretical practice in a professional nursing training. The aim...... of this project is to investigate the understandings of clinical as well as theoretical training in nursing education, and to discuss which implications and problems these opinions can have for the nursing students’ competences to develop the profession. The method of this project consists of three qualitative...... focus group interviews. The informants are nursing students, teachers from a university college and clinical instructors from a university hospital. The three focus group interviews are conducted from a theoretical frame of reference regarding the matter of theory and practice. The method of data...

  6. Acupuncture: History from the Yellow Emperor to Modern Anesthesia Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faircloth, Amanda

    2015-08-01

    Acupuncture and acupressure are components of Oriental medicine that have been in existence for thousands of years. These practices have transcended from Asia into Western culture. In the context of anesthesia practice, acupuncture and acupressure have demonstrated clinical usefulness in the perioperative setting. Acupuncture and acupressure can successfully decrease preoperative anxiety, decrease intraoperative anesthetic requirements, assuage postoperative pain, decrease the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting, and support chronic pain management.

  7. Who Needs Theory Anyway? The Relationship between Theory and Practice of Music Education in a Philosophical Outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerlund, Heidi; Vakeva, Lauri

    2011-01-01

    For a practicing arts educator, the relationship between theory and practice is often unproblematic: theory is considered to be irrelevant for the good practice. Considering the matter from an academic standpoint, one faces the distinction between poietic, or productive, and contemplative, or responsive, mindsets stemming from the classical…

  8. Practice of Laparoscopy Principles from Pages of Ancient History and Mythology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misro, Aswini

    2015-12-01

    The principles of laparoscopic and robotic surgery are fascinating. These have brought unprecedented transformation in the field of surgery. It is quite interesting to note the practice of the same core principles in the pages of history and mythology.

  9. Closing the gap between theory and practice in Nuclear Medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, E.J.; Poulos, A.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: The ultimate goal for any clinical teaching program is to have students who demonstrate clinical competence. The Nuclear Medicine Technologist like any health professional should graduate from their course: attaining a defined standard of core knowledge; demonstrating appropriate behaviour for the workplace; and, achieving a predetermined level of clinical skill. In the University of Sydney Nuclear Medicine course, revisions were made to the Clinical Education assessment tools to create a more incremental approach and define competencies that required a higher level of achievement. Nuclear Medicine theory delivery was changed to create a more contextual environment where the student was better prepared for the workplace. The aim of this study is firstly to analyse the relationship between assessment of contextual theory and assessment of clinical practice. A secondary aim is to investigate any relationship between individual clinical assessment tools. Clinical assessment tools include: clinical competencies; observed clinical skills examinations (OSCE); clinical and university supervisor assessments; and assignments. Nuclear Medicine theory assessment tools include: problem oriented teamwork presentations; assignment; and written examination. Method: Correlation of the students' overall marks in the subjects' Nuclear Medicine theory and Clinical Education in the years 2000 and 2001 was undertaken using SPSS. Correlation of the students' scores in the individual clinical assessment tools: Clinical Supervisor to University supervisor; Clinical Supervisor to OSCE; and University Supervisor to OSCE, was completed for the years 2000 and 2001. Results: A statistically significant correlation was found for the students' marks in Nuclear Medicine theory and Clinical Education for the same year. The University and Clinical Supervisors' results significantly correlated for all years. Correlation between the individual assessment tools used in Clinical Education was not

  10. Exploring an Historical Gaze: A Language of Description for the Practice of School History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, Carol

    2012-01-01

    This paper brings a sociology of knowledge lens to the practice of school history. It is set against a backdrop of curriculum reform in post-apartheid South Africa, which has embraced a competence curriculum with a strong focus on the generic skills (outcomes) that learners should develop at school. This study argues that history as a discipline…

  11. Reviewing History and IR Journals : Academic Publication Practices and Dominance in World Society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijvendak, Maarten; de Wilde, J.H.

    2016-01-01

    1 Reviewing History and IR Journals: Academic Publication Practices and dominance in World Society Maarten Duijvendak & Jaap de Wilde Groningen, 2016 This article reflects on analyses of academic History journals and International Relations (IR) journals conducted by students in our Research

  12. Judith Butler's theories: reflections for nursing research and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagington, Maurice G

    2016-10-01

    Judith Butler is one of the most influential late 20th and early 21st century philosophers in regard to left wing politics, as well as an active campaigner for social justice within the United States and worldwide. Her academic work has been foundational to the academic discipline of queer theory and has been extensively critiqued and applied across a hugely wide range of disciplines. In addition, Butler's work itself is extensive covering topics such as gender, sexuality, race, literary theory, and warfare. This article can only serve as a taster for the potential application of her work in relation to nursing, which is in its infancy. This introduction covers three of the potentially most productive themes in Butler's work, namely power, performativity, and ethics. Each of these themes are critically explored in turn, sometimes in relation to their actual application in nursing literature, but also in relation to their potential for producing novel critiques of nursing practice. Suggestions are made about how Butler's work can develop nursing research and practice. The article concludes with a short summary of Butler's key works as well as suggested reading for people interested in examining how her theories have been applied across different academic settings. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Articulating nurse practitioner practice using King's theory of goal attainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leon-Demare, Kathleen; MacDonald, Jane; Gregory, David M; Katz, Alan; Halas, Gayle

    2015-11-01

    To further understand the interactions between nurse practitioners (NPs) and patients, King's nursing theory of goal attainment was applied as the conceptual framework to describe the interactions between NPs and patients in the primary care setting. Six dyads of NPs and their patients were video- and audio-taped over three consecutive clinic visits. For the purposes of this arm of the study, the audio-taped interactions were transcribed and then coded using King's concepts in her theory of goal attainment. King's theory was applicable to describe NP practice. King's concepts and processes of nurse-patient interactions, such as disturbances, mutual goal setting, and transactions, were observed in NP-patient interactions. Disturbances during clinical encounters were essential in the progression toward goal attainment. Elements, such as social exchange, symptom reporting, role explanation, and information around clinical processes facilitated relationship building. NPs as practitioners need to be reflective of their own practice, embrace disturbances in the clinical encounter, and attend to these as opportunities for mutual goal setting. ©2015 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  14. Cognitive load theory: Practical implications and an important challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimmie Leppink, Ph.D.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The field of medical education has adopted a wide variety of theories from other fields. A fairly recent example is cognitive load theory, which originated in educational psychology. Several empirical studies inspired by cognitive load theory and reviews of practical implications of cognitive load theory have contributed to guidelines for the design of medical education. Simultaneously, several research groups have developed instruments for the measurement of cognitive load in a medical education context. These developments notwithstanding, obtaining evidence for different types of cognitive load remains an important challenge. Therefore, the aim of this article is twofold: to provide medical educators with three key guidelines for the design of instruction and assessment and to discuss several fundamental issues in the remaining challenges presented by different types of cognitive load. The guidelines revolve around minimizing cognitive activity that does not contribute to learning, working with specific learning goals in mind, and appreciating the multifaceted relation between learning and assessment. Key issues around the types of cognitive load include the context in which learning occurs, the continued use of single-item mental effort ratings, and the timing of cognitive load and learning outcome measurements.

  15. Linguistic Theory in the Practical Lexicography of the African Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Chabata

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: In this article, we look at the relationship between linguistics and lexicography. We specifically look at the relevance of data derived from theoretical linguistic investigations to the compilation of diction-aries in African languages. Our point of departure is that since it is language description that lies at the core of both lexicography and linguistic theory, lexicographers can improve their work by using insights from theoretically-guided linguistic investigations. Our view is that as long as lexicographers focus on words and their existence in the linguistic system, they cannot work effectively without referring to linguistic theory, consciously or unconsciously. Lexicography is not only concerned with dictionary creation, that is, with the collection of lexical units and their proper description in dictionary entries, but also with the theoretical aspects concerning the lexicon. It is necessary for dictionaries to capture all lexical interrelationships of a phonetic, morphological, syntactic or semantic nature. Drawing examples from a few dictionaries on African languages, we try to show how dictionary compilers have benefited from specific theoretical investigations in general linguistics. We look at how the different linguistic theories have contributed to the improvement in the quality of the contents of some dictionaries of African languages. Our conclusion is that there is a stronger bond between linguistic theory and lexicographic practice than is generally assumed. Ways must therefore be found to understand the various links between the two disciplines. There should be a deliberate move from mutual neglect to collaboration between the two disciplines.

  16. Life-history variation of a neotropical thrush challenges food limitation theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferretti, V.; Llambias, P.E.; Martin, T.E.

    2005-01-01

    Since David Lack first proposed that birds rear as many young as they can nourish, food limitation has been accepted as the primary explanation for variation in clutch size and other life-history traits in birds. The importance of food limitation in life-history variation, however, was recently questioned on theoretical grounds. Here, we show that clutch size differences between two populations of a neotropical thrush were contrary to expectations under Lack's food limitation hypothesis. Larger clutch sizes were found in a population with higher nestling starvation rate (i.e. greater food limitation). We experimentally equalized clutches between populations to verify this difference in food limitation. Our experiment confirmed greater food limitation in the population with larger mean clutch size. In addition, incubation bout length and nestling growth rate were also contrary to predictions of food limitation theory. Our results demonstrate the inability of food limitation to explain differences in several life-history traits: clutch size, incubation behaviour, parental feeding rate and nestling growth rate. These life-history traits were better explained by inter-population differences in nest predation rates. Food limitation may be less important to life history evolution in birds than suggested by traditional theory. ?? 2005 The Royal Society.

  17. Theories in action and how nursing practice changed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasovsky, Deborah A; Morrow, Mary R; Clementi, Pamela S; Hindle, Paula A

    2010-01-01

    Rogers' theoretical framework of diffusion of innovation guided the successful infusion of the educational training and implementation of the Magis model of care at a 570 bed hospital in the Chicagoland area. The Magis model of care was derived from several nursing theories along with information from the Institute of Family-Centered Care. By incorporating the components that relate to the institution's values and Magnet theme, the stages of innovation were readily adopted and sustained over the first year of implementation. The model has spread beyond the original and sister units as demonstrated by another department creating the Magnet poster with the various elements that they have incorporated into daily care delivery. What is so invigorating to the nursing administration is hearing how nursing staff articulates the care they give to the various components of the model and the theory that supports this practice.

  18. Gauge theories in particle physics a practical introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Aitchison, Ian J R

    2013-01-01

    The fourth edition of this well-established, highly regarded two-volume set continues to provide a fundamental introduction to advanced particle physics while incorporating substantial new experimental results, especially in the areas of CP violation and neutrino oscillations. It offers an accessible and practical introduction to the three gauge theories included in the Standard Model of particle physics: quantum electrodynamics (QED), quantum chromodynamics (QCD), and the Glashow-Salam-Weinberg (GSW) electroweak theory. In the first volume, a new chapter on Lorentz transformations and discrete symmetries presents a simple treatment of Lorentz transformations of Dirac spinors. Along with updating experimental results, this edition also introduces Majorana fermions at an early stage, making the material suitable for a first course in relativistic quantum mechanics. Covering much of the experimental progress made in the last ten years, the second volume remains focused on the two non-Abelian quantum gauge field...

  19. Building an exceptional imaging management team: from theory to practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Laurie

    2010-01-01

    Building a strong, cohesive, and talented managerial team is a critical endeavor for imaging administrators, as the job will be enhanced if supported by a group of high-performing, well-developed managers. For the purposes of this article, leadership and management are discussed as two separate, yet equally important, components of an imaging administrator's role. The difference between the two is defined as: leadership relates to people, management relates to process. There are abundant leadership and management theories that can help imaging administrators develop managers and ultimately build a better team. Administrators who apply these theories in practical and meaningful ways will improve their teams' leadership and management aptitude. Imaging administrators will find it rewarding to coach and develop managers and witness transformations that result from improved leadership and management abilities.

  20. Nuclear energy technology: theory and practice of commercial nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knief, R.A.

    1982-01-01

    Reviews Nuclear Energy Technology: Theory and Practice of Commercial Nuclear Power by Ronald Allen Knief, whose contents include an overview of the basic concepts of reactors and the nuclear fuel cycle; the basics of nuclear physics; reactor theory; heat removal; economics; current concerns at the front and back ends of the fuel cycle; design descriptions of domestic and foreign reactor systems; reactor safety and safeguards; Three Mile Island; and a brief overview of the basic concepts of nuclear fusion. Both magnetic and inertial confinement techniques are clearly outlined. Also reviews Nuclear Fuel Management by Harry W. Graves, Jr., consisting of introductory subjects (e.g. front end of fuel cycle); core physics methodology required for fuel depletion calculations; power capability evaluation (analyzes physical parameters that limit potential core power density); and fuel management topics (economics, loading arrangements and core operation strategies)

  1. Online interprofessional health sciences education: From theory to practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, Robert; Solomon, Patty; Baptiste, Sue; Hall, Pippa; Orchard, Carole; Rukholm, Ellen; Carter, Lorraine

    2009-01-01

    Online learning (e-learning) has a nascent but established history. Its application to interprofessional education (IPE), however, is relatively new. Over the past 2 decades the Internet has been used increasingly to mediate education. We have come past the point of "should we use the Internet for education" to "how should we use the Internet for education." Research has begun on the optimal development of online learning environments to support IPE. Developing online IPE should follow best practices in e-learning generally, though there are some special considerations for acknowledging the interprofessional context and clinical environments that online IPE is designed to support. The design, development, and deployment of effective online IPE must therefore pay special attention to the particular constraints of the health care worker educational matrix, both pre- and postlicensure. In this article we outline the design of online, interprofessional health sciences education. Our work has involved 4 educational and 4 clinical service institutions. We establish the context in which we situate our development activities that created learning modules designed to support IPE and its transfer into new interprofessional health care practices. We illustrate some best practices for the design of effective online IPE, and show how this design can create effective learning for IPE. Challenges exist regarding the full implementation of interprofessional clinical practice that are beginning to be met by coordinated efforts of multiple health care education silos.

  2. Simplified non-linear time-history analysis based on the Theory of Plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costa, Joao Domingues

    2005-01-01

    This paper aims at giving a contribution to the problem of developing simplified non-linear time-history (NLTH) analysis of structures which dynamical response is mainly governed by plastic deformations, able to provide designers with sufficiently accurate results. The method to be presented...... is based on the Theory of Plasticity. Firstly, the formulation and the computational procedure to perform time-history analysis of a rigid-plastic single degree of freedom (SDOF) system are presented. The necessary conditions for the method to incorporate pinching as well as strength degradation...

  3. [The theory of mechanical activity of lungs--a creation history, the present and development prospects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetenev, F F; Tetenev, K F

    2014-01-01

    In article the history of creation of the doctrine about respiratory movements of lungs, history of classical mechanics of breathing is stated. Supervision of the paradoxical facts which became a basis for hypothesis creation, then the theory of mechanical activity of lungs are presented. The facts proving mechanical activity of lungs on an inspiration and an expiration are given. Options of interaction of intra pulmonary and extra pulmonary sources of mechanical energy are considered. Theoretical justification for development of the new direction of studying of physiology of mechanical movements of the internal which does not have own skeleton is stated.

  4. Practicing from Theory: Thinking and Knowing to “Do” Child Protection Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Young

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Child protection practice in much of the Western world is performed using some specific models with limited attention paid to the underpinning of informing worldviews, theories for practice (explanatory theories and theories of practice (intervention theories. Over the past few years we have explored how child protection practice may be undertaken using a child rights perspective and community development principles and practices. From this we have developed a model which we here seek to support with worldviews, explanatory and intervention theories. We hope this theoretical framework answers some of the complexity found in the “wicked problem” of child abuse and provides guidance to the practice of protecting children.

  5. Patron-driven acquisitions history and best practices

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    About 40 percent of the books academic libraries purchase in traditional ways never circulate and another 40 percent circulate fewer than three times. By contrast, patron-driven acquisition allows a library to borrow or buy books only when a patron needs them. In a typical workflow, the library imports bibliographic records into its catalogue at no cost. When a patron finds a patron-driven record in the course of research, a short-term loan can allow him to borrow the book, and the transaction charge to the library will be a small percentage of the list price. Typically, a library will automatically buy a book on a third or fourth use. The contributions in this volume, written by experts, describe the genesis and brief history of patron-driven acquisitions, its current status, and its promise.

  6. Manual on theory and practical aspects of bioassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuraini Hambali.

    1985-06-01

    This manual is set to provide necessary basic guidance on theory and practical aspects of bioassay specially for the newcomer in this field and the man in the laboratory. The first part is a brief information on the entry of radionuclides into the body, the metabolism and the programs of bioassay. All other factors to be considered in assessing internal contamination in man have also been brought up. In the second part, various procedures of radiochemical separations, detection and measurements are abstracted from journals and other revisions. Some methods have been attempted and to be followed where appropriate. (author)

  7. Building next-generation converged networks theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Pathan, Al-Sakib Khan

    2013-01-01

    Supplying a comprehensive introduction to next-generation networks, Building Next-Generation Converged Networks: Theory and Practice strikes a balance between how and why things work and how to make them work. It compiles recent advancements along with basic issues from the wide range of fields related to next generation networks. Containing the contributions of 56 industry experts and researchers from 16 different countries, the book presents relevant theoretical frameworks and the latest research. It investigates new technologies such as IPv6 over Low Power Wireless Personal Area Network (6L

  8. Theory and practice of radon monitoring with charcoal adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, B L; Cohen, E S

    1983-08-01

    Because of interest in charcoal adsorption as an inexpensive radon monitoring technique that may be suitable for mass data collection, the theory of radon adsorption from air by a charcoal bed is developed, giving numerical estimates at all stages. The method is practical down to air concentrations of about 0.1 pCi/l. A simple charcoal bed is limited by the fact that its response is highly sensitive to the time interval before termination of the exposure, but two simple methods of avoiding this problem are developed. Simple methods for determining the diffusion constant for the charcoal being used, and for optimizing the depth of the charcoal bed, are presented.

  9. Object detection and recognition in digital images theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Cyganek, Boguslaw

    2013-01-01

    Object detection, tracking and recognition in images are key problems in computer vision. This book provides the reader with a balanced treatment between the theory and practice of selected methods in these areas to make the book accessible to a range of researchers, engineers, developers and postgraduate students working in computer vision and related fields. Key features: Explains the main theoretical ideas behind each method (which are augmented with a rigorous mathematical derivation of the formulas), their implementation (in C++) and demonstrated working in real applications.

  10. Practical example of game theory application for production route selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olender, M.; Krenczyk, D.

    2017-08-01

    The opportunity which opens before manufacturers on the dynamic market, especially before those from the sector of the small and medium-sized enterprises, is associated with the use of the virtual organizations concept. The planning stage of such organizations could be based on supporting decision-making tasks using the tools and formalisms taken from the game theory. In the paper the model of the virtual manufacturing network, along with the practical example of decision-making situation as two person game and the decision strategies with an analysis of calculation results are presented.

  11. TAPSOFT'95: Theory and Practice of Software Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This volume presents the proceedings of the Sixth International Joint Conference on the Theory and Practice of Software Engineering, TAPSOFT '95, held in Aarhus, Denmark in May 1995. TAPSOFT '95 celebrates the 10th anniversary of this conference series started in Berlin in 1985 to bring together...... theoretical computer scientists and software engineers (researchers and practitioners) with a view to discussing how formal methods can usefully be applied in software development. The volume contains seven invited papers, among them one by Vaugham Pratt on the recently revealed bug in the Pentium chip...

  12. A brief history of equine private practice in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.H.B. Marlow

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Horse breeding in South Africa started in 1652, shortly after the 1st European settlement in the Cape. African horsesickness posed a serious problem and after a devastating outbreak of the disease in 1719, horses were largely replaced by oxen for agricultural and transport purposes but remained important from a sporting and military point of view. Examples of the latter are the export of horses for military use to India in the mid-19th century and for use in the Crimean War in 1854, reaching a zenith in the Anglo-Boer war in which an estimated 450 000 horses succumbed. Research and disease control and initially also health services were the responsibility of state veterinary authorities. Private equine practice was pioneered by Jack Boswell in the late 1930s, mainly involving race horses and Thoroughbred studs as part of a general practice. Specialised equine private practices were only initiated 10 years later and developed further during the 2nd half of the 20th century. These developments are described in some detail, including resumés of the veterinarians involved, clinical challenges encountered, scientific advances as well as developments in the equine industry with the emphasis on Thoroughbreds and the racing community. The regulatory environment, especially regarding the import and export of horses, and the role of various organisations and associations are also briefly discussed.

  13. Generative Insights from the Eleanor Chelimsky Forum on Evaluation Theory and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leviton, Laura C.

    2014-01-01

    Both speakers at the Eleanor Chelimsky Forum on Theory and Practice in Evaluation pointed out the complexity and messiness of evaluation practice, and thus potential limits on theory and generalizable knowledge. The concept of reflective practice offers one way forward to build evaluation theory. Building generalizable knowledge about practice…

  14. If Theory and Practice Were the Same, Then What? A New Approach to Designing Professional Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderVen, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Professional education has for decades been based on the premise that theory and practice are dichotomous, and that somehow a way must be found to enable professional practitioners to translate theory (the knowledge they acquire) into practice (what they actually do). The article examines the relationship between theory and practice, contending…

  15. The Titius-Bode law of planetary distances its history and theory

    CERN Document Server

    Nieto, Michael Martin

    1972-01-01

    The Titius-Bode Law of Planetary Distances: Its History and Theory is a 15-chapter book that first discusses the prehistory of the Law from Kepler to Kant. The next chapter details the formulation of the Titius-Bode Law. Subsequent chapters describe the Law's early successes and failures, early modifications of the Law, the Blagg-Richardson formulation, and the significance of the Law with respect to the origin of the solar system. Other chapters discuss the theories of all types that have been proposed to explain the """"classical Titius-Bode Law"""", i.e. the geometric progression.

  16. An audit comparing the discrepancies between a verbal enquiry, a written history, and an electronic medical history questionnaire: a suggested medical history/social history form for clinical practice.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Carey, Barbara

    2011-04-01

    In everyday practice, dentists are confronted with an increasing number of patients with complex medical problems. There is divergence of opinion among dentists regarding how to obtain a thorough medical\\/social history.

  17. Action-Based Jurisprudence: Praxeological Legal Theory in Relation to Economic Theory, Ethics, and Legal Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrad Graf

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Action-based legal theory is a discrete branch of praxeology and the basis of an emerging school of jurisprudence related to, but distinct from, natural law. Legal theory and economic theory share content that is part of praxeology itself: the action axiom, the a priori of argumentation, universalizable property theory, and counterfactual-deductive methodology. Praxeological property-norm justification is separate from the strictly ethical “ought” question of selecting ends in an action context. Examples of action-based jurisprudence are found in existing “Austro-libertarian” literature. Legal theory and legal practice must remain distinct and work closely together if justice is to be found in real cases. Legal theorizing was shaped in religious ethical contexts, which contributed to confused field boundaries between law and ethics. The carrot and stick influence of rulers on theorists has distorted conventional economics and jurisprudence in particular directions over the course of centuries. An action-based approach is relatively immune to such sources of distortion in its methods and conclusions, but has tended historically to be marginalized from conventional institutions for this same reason.

  18. Core Practices for Teaching History: The Results of a Delphi Panel Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogo, Bradley

    2014-01-01

    Recent education literature and research has focused on identifying effective core teaching practices to inform and help shape teacher education and professional development. Although a rich literature on the teaching and learning of history has continued to develop over the past decade, core practice research has largely overlooked…

  19. Language standardization in sociolinguistics and international business: Theory and practice across the table

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linn, Andrew; Sanden, Guro Refsum; Piekkari, Rebecca

    2018-01-01

    Haugen to explain the history of modern Norwegian. The table is then turned and a model from international business by Piekkari, Welch and Welch is used to illuminate recent Norwegian language planning. It is found that the Grundfos case works well with the Haugen model, and the international business......This chapter addresses the issue of language standardization from two perspectives, bringing together a theoretical perspective offered by the discipline of sociolinguistics with a practical example from international business. We introduce the broad concept of standardization and embed the study...... of language standardization in the wider discussion of standards as a means of control across society. We analyze the language policy and practice of the Danish multinational, Grundfos, and use it as a “sociolinguistic laboratory” to “test” the theory of language standardization initially elaborated by Einar...

  20. Hegemonic masculinity: combining theory and practice in gender interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewkes, Rachel; Morrell, Robert; Hearn, Jeff; Lundqvist, Emma; Blackbeard, David; Lindegger, Graham; Quayle, Michael; Sikweyiya, Yandisa; Gottzén, Lucas

    2015-01-01

    The concept of hegemonic masculinity has been used in gender studies since the early-1980s to explain men's power over women. Stressing the legitimating power of consent (rather than crude physical or political power to ensure submission), it has been used to explain men's health behaviours and the use of violence. Gender activists and others seeking to change men's relations with women have mobilised the concept of hegemonic masculinity in interventions, but the links between gender theory and activism have often not been explored. The translation of 'hegemonic masculinity' into interventions is little examined. We show how, in South Africa and Sweden, the concept has been used to inform theoretically-based gender interventions and to ensure that men are brought into broader social efforts to build gender equity. We discuss the practical translational challenges of using gender theory broadly, and hegemonic masculinity in particular, in a Swedish case study, of the intervention Machofabriken [The Macho Factory], and illustrate how the concept is brought to life in this activist work with men. The concept has considerable practical application in developing a sustainable praxis of theoretically grounded interventions that are more likely to have enduring effect, but evaluating broader societal change in hegemonic masculinity remains an enduring challenge.

  1. A review of the decoherent histories approach to the arrival time problem in quantum theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yearsley, James M

    2011-01-01

    We review recent progress in understanding the arrival time problem in quantum mechanics, from the point of view of the decoherent histories approach to quantum theory. We begin by discussing the arrival time problem, focussing in particular on the role of the probability current in the expected classical solution. After a brief introduction to decoherent histories we review the use of complex potentials in the construction of appropriate class operators. We then discuss the arrival time problem for a particle coupled to an environment, and review how the arrival time probability can be expressed in terms of a POVM in this case. We turn finally to the question of decoherence of the corresponding histories, and we show that this can be achieved for simple states in the case of a free particle, and for general states for a particle coupled to an environment.

  2. From theory to practice: integrating instructional technology into veterinary medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Rush, Bonnie R; Wilkerson, Melinda; Herman, Cheryl; Miesner, Matt; Renter, David; Gehring, Ronette

    2013-01-01

    Technology has changed the landscape of teaching and learning. The integration of instructional technology into teaching for meaningful learning is an issue for all educators to consider. In this article, we introduce educational theories including constructivism, information-processing theory, and dual-coding theory, along with the seven principles of good practice in undergraduate education. We also discuss five practical instructional strategies and the relationship of these strategies to the educational theories. From theory to practice, the purpose of the article is to share our application of educational theory and practice to work toward more innovative teaching in veterinary medical education.

  3. Mechanisms That Link Parenting Practices to Adolescents' Risky Sexual Behavior: A Test of Six Competing Theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Leslie Gordon; Sutton, Tara E; Simons, Ronald L; Gibbons, Frederick X; Murry, Velma McBride

    2016-02-01

    Risky sexual behavior, particularly among adolescents, continues to be a major source of concern. In order to develop effective education and prevention programs, there is a need for research that identifies the antecedents of such behavior. This study investigated the mediators that link parenting experiences during early adolescence to subsequent risky sexual behaviors among a diverse sample of African American youth (N = 629, 55 % female). While there is ample evidence that parenting practices (e.g., supportive parenting, harsh parenting, parental management) are antecedent to risky sexual behavior, few studies have examined whether one approach to parenting is more strongly related to risky sex than others. Using a developmental approach, the current study focused on factors associated with six theories of risky sexual behavior. While past research has provided support for all of the theories, few studies have assessed the relative contribution of each while controlling for the processes proposed by the others. The current study addresses these gaps in the literature and reports results separately by gender. Longitudinal analyses using structural equation modeling revealed that the mediating mechanisms associated with social learning and attachment theories were significantly related to the risky sexual behavior of males and females. Additionally, there was support for social control and self-control theories only for females and for life history theory only for males. We did not find support for problem behavior theory, a perspective that dominates the risky sex literature, after controlling for the factors associated with the other theories. Finally, supportive parenting emerged as the parenting behavior most influential with regard to adolescents' risky sexual behavior. These results provide insight regarding efficacious approaches to education and preventative programs designed to reduce risky sexual behaviors among adolescents.

  4. Attachment within life history theory: an evolutionary perspective on individual differences in attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szepsenwol, Ohad; Simpson, Jeffry A

    2018-03-15

    In this article, we discuss theory and research on how individual differences in adult attachment mediate the adaptive calibration of reproductive strategies, cognitive schemas, and emotional expression and regulation. We first present an integration of attachment theory and life history theory. Then, we discuss how early harsh and/or unpredictable environments may promote insecure attachment by hampering parents' ability to provide sensitive and reliable care to their children. Finally, we discuss how, in the context of harsh and/or unpredictable environments, different types of insecure attachment (i.e. anxiety and avoidance) may promote evolutionary adaptive reproductive strategies, cognitive schemas, and emotional expression and regulation profiles. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. IT strategic planning in hospitals: from theory to practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaana, Mirou; Teitelbaum, Mari; Roffey, Tyson

    2014-07-01

    To date, IT strategic planning has been mostly theory-based with limited information on "best practices" in this area. This study presents the process and outcomes of IT strategic planning undertaken at a pediatric hospital (PH) in Canada. A five-stage sequential and incremental process was adopted. Various tools / approaches were used including review of existing documentation, internal survey (n = 111), fifteen interviews, and twelve workshops. IT strategic planning was informed by 230 individuals (12 percent of hospital community) and revealed consistency in the themes and concerns raised by participants (e.g., slow IT projects delivery rate, lack of understanding of IT priorities, strained communication with IT staff). Mobile and remote access to patients' information, and an integrated EMR were identified as top priorities. The methodology and used approach revealed effective, improved internal relationships, and ensured commitment to the final IT strategic plan. Several lessons were learned including: maintaining a dynamic approach capable of adapting to the fast technology evolution; involving stakeholders and ensuring continuous communication; using effective research tools to support strategic planning; and grounding the process and final product in existing models. This study contributes to the development of "best practices" in IT strategic planning, and illustrates "how" to apply the theoretical principles in this area. This is especially important as IT leaders are encouraged to integrate evidence-based management into their decision making and practices. The methodology and lessons learned may inform practitioners in other hospitals planning to engage in IT strategic planning in the future.

  6. The complement of research and theory in practice: contact theory at work in nonfamilial intergenerational programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrott, Shannon E; Smith, Cynthia L

    2011-02-01

    We assessed whether a shared site intergenerational care program informed by contact theory contributed to more desirable social behaviors of elders and children during intergenerational programming than a center with a more traditional programming approach that lacks some or all of the contact theory tenets. We observed 59 elder and child participants from the two sites during intergenerational activities. Using the Intergenerational Observation Scale, we coded participants' predominant behavior in 15-s intervals through each activity's duration. We then calculated for each individual the percentage of time frames each behavior code was predominant. Participants at the theory-based program demonstrated higher rates of intergenerational interaction, higher rates of solitary behavior, and lower rates of watching than at the traditional program. Contact theory tenets were optimized when coupled with evidence-based practices. Intergenerational programs with stakeholder support that promotes equal group status, cooperation toward a common goal, and mechanisms of friendship among participants can achieve important objectives for elder and child participants in care settings.

  7. Diagnosing the dangerous demography of manta rays using life history theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas K. Dulvy

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. The directed harvest and global trade in the gill plates of mantas, and devil rays, has led to increased fishing pressure and steep population declines in some locations. The slow life history, particularly of the manta rays, is cited as a key reason why such species have little capacity to withstand directed fisheries. Here, we place their life history and demography within the context of other sharks and rays.Methods. Despite the limited availability of data, we use life history theory and comparative analysis to estimate the intrinsic risk of extinction (as indexed by the maximum intrinsic rate of population increase rmax for a typical generic manta ray using a variant of the classic Euler–Lotka demographic model. This model requires only three traits to calculate the maximum intrinsic population growth rate rmax: von Bertalanffy growth rate, annual pup production and age at maturity. To account for the uncertainty in life history parameters, we created plausible parameter ranges and propagate these uncertainties through the model to calculate a distribution of the plausible range of rmax values.Results. The maximum population growth rate rmax of manta ray is most sensitive to the length of the reproductive cycle, and the median rmax of 0.116 year−1 95th percentile [0.089–0.139] is one of the lowest known of the 106 sharks and rays for which we have comparable demographic information.Discussion. In common with other unprotected, unmanaged, high-value large-bodied sharks and rays the combination of very low population growth rates of manta rays, combined with the high value of their gill rakers and the international nature of trade, is highly likely to lead to rapid depletion and potential local extinction unless a rapid conservation management response occurs worldwide. Furthermore, we show that it is possible to derive important insights into the demography extinction risk of data-poor species using well-established life

  8. Diagnosing the dangerous demography of manta rays using life history theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulvy, Nicholas K; Pardo, Sebastián A; Simpfendorfer, Colin A; Carlson, John K

    2014-01-01

    Background. The directed harvest and global trade in the gill plates of mantas, and devil rays, has led to increased fishing pressure and steep population declines in some locations. The slow life history, particularly of the manta rays, is cited as a key reason why such species have little capacity to withstand directed fisheries. Here, we place their life history and demography within the context of other sharks and rays. Methods. Despite the limited availability of data, we use life history theory and comparative analysis to estimate the intrinsic risk of extinction (as indexed by the maximum intrinsic rate of population increase r max) for a typical generic manta ray using a variant of the classic Euler-Lotka demographic model. This model requires only three traits to calculate the maximum intrinsic population growth rate r max: von Bertalanffy growth rate, annual pup production and age at maturity. To account for the uncertainty in life history parameters, we created plausible parameter ranges and propagate these uncertainties through the model to calculate a distribution of the plausible range of r max values. Results. The maximum population growth rate r max of manta ray is most sensitive to the length of the reproductive cycle, and the median r max of 0.116 year(-1) 95th percentile [0.089-0.139] is one of the lowest known of the 106 sharks and rays for which we have comparable demographic information. Discussion. In common with other unprotected, unmanaged, high-value large-bodied sharks and rays the combination of very low population growth rates of manta rays, combined with the high value of their gill rakers and the international nature of trade, is highly likely to lead to rapid depletion and potential local extinction unless a rapid conservation management response occurs worldwide. Furthermore, we show that it is possible to derive important insights into the demography extinction risk of data-poor species using well-established life history theory.

  9. Integrating mental health and social development in theory and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plagerson, Sophie

    2015-03-01

    In many low and middle income countries, attention to mental illness remains compartmentalized and consigned as a matter for specialist policy. Despite great advances in global mental health, mental health policy and practice dovetail only to a limited degree with social development efforts. They often lag behind broader approaches to health and development. This gap ignores the small but growing evidence that social development unavoidably impacts the mental health of those affected, and that this influence can be both positive and negative. This article examines the theoretical and practical challenges that need to be overcome for a more effective integration of social development and mental health policy. From a theoretical perspective, this article demonstrates compatibility between social development and mental health paradigms. In particular, the capability approach is shown to provide a strong framework for integrating mental health and development. Yet, capability-oriented critiques on 'happiness' have recently been applied to mental health with potentially detrimental outcomes. With regard to policy and practice, horizontal and vertical integration strategies are suggested. Horizontal strategies require stronger devolution of mental health care to the primary care level, more unified messages regarding mental health care provision and the gradual expansion of mental health packages of care. Vertical integration refers to the alignment of mental health with related policy domains (particularly the social, economic and political domains). Evidence from mental health research reinforces aspects of social development theory in a way that can have tangible implications on practice. First, it encourages a focus on avoiding exclusion of those affected by or at risk of mental illness. Secondly, it underscores the importance of the process of implementation as an integral component of successful policies. Finally, by retaining a focus on the individual, it seeks to

  10. The Changing Nature of Theory and Practice in Marketing: on the Value of Synchrony

    OpenAIRE

    O'Driscoll, Aidan; Murray, John

    1998-01-01

    Any academic discipline with a closely associated area of professional endeavour is profoundly affected by the relationship between its theory and practice. Synchrony in theory and practice adds value to the management of enterprise and to the advance of the discipline. Mindful of this assertion, this article explores the changing nature of theory and practice in marketing. It examines current trends in marketing practice which are occurring as a result of change in markets, technology and or...

  11. Russia’s Hybrid War in Theory and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banasik Mirosław

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The warfare is evolving and it is confirmed by last conflicts in which Russia was involved. They were asymmetric in nature and their objectives, developments, consequences in broader sense and end states have been a matter of research by many scholars. The nature of those conflicts is causing concerns and a question if there were randomly run or just perfectly synchronized operations? If so, should a hybrid war be considered a way of strategy and its objectives seen through the prism of the Russia’s interests? The answer to this question can be obtained after the evaluation of the theory and practice employed by the Russian Federation in the concept of hybrid war. This is the purpose of this article. The results of the research are presented by solving the following problem: What does the concept of the new generation warfare mean?

  12. Theory and Practice of Marine Regional Management in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shangjie; JI; Qunzhen; QU

    2014-01-01

    With the development of marine economy in coastal provinces and cities,there comes a series of environmental problems. Marine regional management,as a completely new marine management mode,transforms traditional management mode and can protect marine ecosystem. Thus,the marine regional management is feasible and applicable in China. This paper firstly discussed connotation and development of the marine regional management in China and pointed that the marine regional management is integrated management of a certain marine region. Next,it summarized characteristics of the marine regional management at current stage,for example,land-based pollution of trans-geographic system and marine management under regional government cooperative mechanism. Finally,it came up with recommendations including combining theory and practice of the marine regional management,and establishing marine regional management system as soon as possible,to realize benign interaction and sustainable development of marine economy and ecological environment.

  13. Multilingual Terminology Work in Theory – and in Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erdman Thomsen, Hanne; Madsen, Bodil Nistrup; Lassen, Tine

    2016-01-01

    In theory, multilingual terminology work is done by creating concept diagrams in each of the languages and comparing them to establish equivalences between concepts in the two languages. In practice, however, various terminology management systems (TMS) are used, end these systems hardly ever...... support the ideal working method. First of all, only very few integrate adequate tools for modelling concept systems. Second, the data structure and the user interface do not support the process of linking entries in two languages. Concerning the data structure, the understanding of “concept oriented......” plays a major role. In many cases the concept is perceived as a unit at the interlingual level, and in the data structure an entry corresponds to one concept with terms from several languages connected. In other cases, the concept is seen as language-specific, and in the data structure an entry contains...

  14. Evaluating candidate reactions to selection practices using organisational justice theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Fiona; Zibarras, Lara; Carr, Victoria; Irish, Bill; Gregory, Simon

    2011-03-01

    This study aimed to examine candidate reactions to selection practices in postgraduate medical training using organisational justice theory. We carried out three independent cross-sectional studies using samples from three consecutive annual recruitment rounds. Data were gathered from candidates applying for entry into UK general practice (GP) training during 2007, 2008 and 2009. Participants completed an evaluation questionnaire immediately after the short-listing stage and after the selection centre (interview) stage. Participants were doctors applying for GP training in the UK. Main outcome measures were participants' evaluations of the selection methods and perceptions of the overall fairness of each selection stage (short-listing and selection centre). A total of 23,855 evaluation questionnaires were completed (6893 in 2007, 10,497 in 2008 and 6465 in 2009). Absolute levels of perceptions of fairness of all the selection methods at both the short-listing and selection centre stages were consistently high over the 3years. Similarly, all selection methods were considered to be job-related by candidates. However, in general, candidates considered the selection centre stage to be significantly fairer than the short-listing stage. Of all the selection methods, the simulated patient consultation completed at the selection centre stage was rated as the most job-relevant. This is the first study to use a model of organisational justice theory to evaluate candidate reactions during selection into postgraduate specialty training. The high-fidelity selection methods are consistently viewed as more job-relevant and fairer by candidates. This has important implications for the design of recruitment systems for all specialties and, potentially, for medical school admissions. Using this approach, recruiters can systematically compare perceptions of the fairness and job relevance of various selection methods. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2011.

  15. Integrative mental health care: from theory to practice, part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, James

    2007-01-01

    Integrative approaches will lead to more accurate and different understandings of mental illness. Beneficial responses to complementary and alternative therapies provide important clues about the phenomenal nature of the human body in space-time and disparate biological, informational, and energetic factors associated with normal and abnormal psychological functioning. The conceptual framework of contemporary Western psychiatry includes multiple theoretical viewpoints, and there is no single best explanatory model of mental illness. Future theories of mental illness causation will not depend exclusively on empirical verification of strictly biological processes but will take into account both classically described biological processes and non-classical models, including complexity theory, resulting in more complete explanations of the characteristics and causes of symptoms and mechanisms of action that result in beneficial responses to treatments. Part 1 of this article examines the limitations of the theory and contemporary clinical methods employed in Western psychiatry and discusses implications of emerging paradigms in physics and the biological sciences for the future of psychiatry. In part 2, a practical methodology for planning integrative assessment and treatment strategies in mental health care is proposed. Using this methodology the integrative management of moderate and severe psychiatric symptoms is reviewed in detail. As the conceptual framework of Western medicine evolves toward an increasingly integrative perspective, novel understandings of complex relationships between biological, informational, and energetic processes associated with normal psychological functioning and mental illness will lead to more effective integrative assessment and treatment strategies addressing the causes or meanings of symptoms at multiple hierarchic levels of body-brain-mind.

  16. Integrative mental health care: from theory to practice, Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, James

    2008-01-01

    Integrative approaches will lead to more accurate and different understandings of mental illness. Beneficial responses to complementary and alternative therapies provide important clues about the phenomenal nature of the human body in space-time and disparate biological, informational, and energetic factors associated with normal and abnormal psychological functioning. The conceptual framework of contemporary Western psychiatry includes multiple theoretical viewpoints, and there is no single best explanatory model of mental illness. Future theories of mental illness causation will not depend exclusively on empirical verification of strictly biological processes but will take into account both classically described biological processes and non-classical models, including complexity theory, resulting in more complete explanations of the characteristics and causes of symptoms and mechanisms of action that result in beneficial responses to treatments. Part 1 of this article examined the limitations of the theory and contemporary clinical methods employed in Western psychiatry and discussed implications of emerging paradigms in physics and the biological sciences for the future of psychiatry. In part 2, a practical methodology, for planning integrative assessment and treatment strategies in mental health care is proposed. Using this methodology the integrative management of moderate and severe psychiatric symptoms is reviewed in detail. As the conceptual framework of Western medicine evolves toward an increasingly integrative perspective, novel understanding of complex relationships between biological, informational, and energetic processes associated with normal psychological functioning and mental illness will lead to more effective integrative assessment and treatment strategies addressing the causes or meanings of symptoms at multiple hierarchic levels of body-brain-mind.

  17. Revenue management of air cargo service in theory and practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budiarto, S.; Putro, H. P.; Pradono, P.; Yudoko, G.

    2018-05-01

    This study examines the air cargo service by comparing existing theories from previous research with the conditions on the ground. The object of the study is focused on the freight forwarder and the airport management. This study reviews the models and results of previous research that will be summarized and used to identify any issues related to the characteristics of air cargo operational services, as well as observing and monitoring literature with airlines, shipping companies, and airport management to explore and see the gap between prior research and implementation of its process in the air cargo service. The first phase in this study is to provide an overview of the air cargo industry. The second phase analyzes the characteristic differences between air cargo services and air passenger operating services. And the third phase is a literary bibliography study of air cargo operations, where the focus is on the studies using quantitative models from the perspective of the object of the study, which is the optimization of revenue management on air cargo services. From the results of the study, which is based on the gap between theory and practice, new research opportunities which are related to management of air cargo service revenue in the form of model development are found by adding booking timelines aspects of cargo that can affect the revenue of cargo airline companies and airports.

  18. Clinical Nurse Leader Integration Into Practice: Developing Theory To Guide Best Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Miriam

    2016-01-01

    Numerous policy bodies have identified the clinical nurse leader (CNL) as an innovative new role for meeting higher health care quality standards. Although there is growing evidence of improved care environment and patient safety and quality outcomes after redesigning care delivery microsystems to integrate CNL practice, significant variation in CNL implementation has been noted across reports, making it difficult to causally link CNL practice to reported outcomes. This variability reflects the overall absence in the literature of a well-defined CNL theoretical framework to help guide standardized application in practice. To address this knowledge gap, an interpretive synthesis with a grounded theory analysis of CNL narratives was conducted to develop a theoretical model for CNL practice. The model clarifies CNL practice domains and proposes mechanisms by which CNL-integrated care delivery microsystems improve health care quality. The model highlights the need for a systematic approach to CNL implementation including a well-thought out strategy for care delivery redesign; a consistent, competency-based CNL workflow; and sustained macro-to-micro system leadership support. CNL practice can be considered an effective approach to organizing nursing care that maximizes the scope of nursing to influence the ways care is delivered by all professions within a clinical microsystem. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The genetic theory of infectious diseases: a brief history and selected illustrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Abel, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    Until the mid-nineteenth century, life expectancy at birth averaged 20 years worldwide, owing mostly to childhood fevers. The germ theory of diseases then gradually overcame the belief that diseases were intrinsic. However, around the turn of the twentieth century, asymptomatic infection was discovered to be much more common than clinical disease. Paradoxically, this observation barely challenged the newly developed notion that infectious diseases were fundamentally extrinsic. Moreover, interindividual variability in the course of infection was typically explained by the emerging immunological (or somatic) theory of infectious diseases, best illustrated by the impact of vaccination. This powerful explanation is, however, best applicable to reactivation and secondary infections, particularly in adults; it can less easily account for interindividual variability in the course of primary infection during childhood. Population and clinical geneticists soon proposed a complementary hypothesis, a germline genetic theory of infectious diseases. Over the past century, this idea has gained some support, particularly among clinicians and geneticists, but has also encountered resistance, particularly among microbiologists and immunologists. We present here the genetic theory of infectious diseases and briefly discuss its history and the challenges encountered during its emergence in the context of the apparently competing but actually complementary microbiological and immunological theories. We also illustrate its recent achievements by highlighting inborn errors of immunity underlying eight life-threatening infectious diseases of children and young adults. Finally, we consider the far-reaching biological and clinical implications of the ongoing human genetic dissection of severe infectious diseases.

  20. The Genetic Theory of Infectious Diseases: A Brief History and Selected Illustrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Abel, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Until the mid-nineteenth century, life expectancy at birth averaged 20 years worldwide, owing mostly to childhood fevers. The germ theory of diseases then gradually overcame the belief that diseases were intrinsic. However, around the turn of the twentieth century, asymptomatic infection was discovered to be much more common than clinical disease. Paradoxically, this observation barely challenged the newly developed notion that infectious diseases were fundamentally extrinsic. Moreover, interindividual variability in the course of infection was typically explained by the emerging immunological (or somatic) theory of infectious diseases, best illustrated by the impact of vaccination. This powerful explanation is, however, best applicable to reactivation and secondary infections, particularly in adults; it can less easily account for interindividual variability in the course of primary infection during childhood. Population and clinical geneticists soon proposed a complementary hypothesis, a germline genetic theory of infectious diseases. Over the past century, this idea has gained some support, particularly among clinicians and geneticists, but has also encountered resistance, particularly among microbiologists and immunologists. We present here the genetic theory of infectious diseases and briefly discuss its history and the challenges encountered during its emergence in the context of the apparently competing but actually complementary microbiological and immunological theories. We also illustrate its recent achievements by highlighting inborn errors of immunity underlying eight life-threatening infectious diseases of children and young adults. Finally, we consider the far-reaching biological and clinical implications of the ongoing human genetic dissection of severe infectious diseases. PMID:23724903

  1. Conspiracy theories as part of history: The role of societal crisis situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Prooijen, Jan-Willem; Douglas, Karen M

    2017-07-01

    In the present contribution, we examine the link between societal crisis situations and belief in conspiracy theories. Contrary to common assumptions, belief in conspiracy theories has been prevalent throughout human history. We first illustrate historical incidents suggesting that societal crisis situations-defined as impactful and rapid societal change that calls established power structures, norms of conduct, or even the existence of specific people or groups into question-have stimulated belief in conspiracy theories. We then review the psychological literature to explain why this is the case. Evidence suggests that the aversive feelings that people experience when in crisis-fear, uncertainty, and the feeling of being out of control-stimulate a motivation to make sense of the situation, increasing the likelihood of perceiving conspiracies in social situations. We then explain that after being formed, conspiracy theories can become historical narratives that may spread through cultural transmission. We conclude that conspiracy theories originate particularly in crisis situations and may form the basis for how people subsequently remember and mentally represent a historical event.

  2. The Interaction of Theory, Philosophy, and Practice in ESL Writing Conferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckstein, Grant

    2013-01-01

    TESOL theory is intended to inform teacher practice, but studying what teachers actually do in a given teaching context can sometimes lead to better theory. This report illustrates an area in which practice informed theory in the context of 1-on-1 writing conferences for prematriculated ESL writers. This report describes the creation and…

  3. A New Theory-to-Practice Model for Student Affairs: Integrating Scholarship, Context, and Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reason, Robert D.; Kimball, Ezekiel W.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we synthesize existing theory-to-practice approaches within the student affairs literature to arrive at a new model that incorporates formal and informal theory, institutional context, and reflective practice. The new model arrives at a balance between the rigor necessary for scholarly theory development and the adaptability…

  4. DO TANZANIAN COMPANIES PRACTICE PECKING ORDER THEORY, AGENCY COST THEORY OR TRADE-OFF THEORY? AN EMPIRICAL STUDY IN TANZANIAN LISTED COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ntogwa Ng'habi Bundala

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The empirical study was focused predominantly on validity tests of the three theories on capital structures, the static trade-off theory, the pecking order theory (information asymmetry theory, and agency cost theory in the Tanzanian context. The study used secondary data from eight of the non-financial companies listed in Dar Es Salaam Stock Exchange (DSE from 2006-2012. The study used descriptive (quantitative approach to test the practicality of the theories in Tanzania. The multiple regressions model used to test the theoretical relationship between the financial leverage and characteristics of the company. The research found that there is no strong evidence for validation of static trade off theory, little support of pecking order theory, but the agency cost theory is confirmed to be valid and practiced in Tanzania. It recommended that Tanzanian companies should be adhering to the determinants of the capital structure in the Tanzanian context found by this study.

  5. CHANGING PARADIGMS IN SPACE THEORIES: Recapturing 20th Century Architectural History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gül Kaçmaz Erk

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The concept of space entered architectural history as late as 1893. Studies in art opened up the discussion, and it has been studied in various ways in architecture ever since. This article aims to instigate an additional reading to architectural history, one that is not supported by “isms” but based on space theories in the 20th century. Objectives of the article are to bring the concept of space and its changing paradigms to the attention of architectural researchers, to introduce a conceptual framework to classify and clarify theories of space, and to enrich the discussions on the 20th century architecture through theories that are beyond styles. The introduction of space in architecture will revolve around subject-object relationships, three-dimensionality and senses. Modern space will be discussed through concepts such as empathy, perception, abstraction, and geometry. A scientific approach will follow to study the concept of place through environment, event, behavior, and design methods. Finally, the reearch will look at contemporary approaches related to digitally  supported space via concepts like reality-virtuality, mediated experience, and relationship with machines.

  6. From Darwin's Origin of Species toward a theory of natural history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boero, Ferdinando

    2015-01-01

    Darwin is the father of evolutionary theory because he identified evolutionary patterns and, with Natural Selection, he ascertained the exquisitely ecological ultimate processes that lead to evolution. The proximate processes of evolution he proposed, however, predated the discovery of genetics, the backbone of modern evolutionary theory. The later discovery of the laws of inheritance by Mendel and the rediscovery of Mendel in the early 20th century led to two reforms of Darwinism: Neo-Darwinism and the Modern Synthesis (and subsequent refinements). If Darwin's evolutionary thought required much refinement, his ecological insight is still very modern. In the first edition of The Origin of Species, Darwin did not use either the word "evolution" or the word "ecology". "Ecology" was not coined until after the publication of the Origin. Evolution, for him, was the origin of varieties, then species, which he referred to as well-marked varieties, whereas, instead of using ecology, he used "the economy of nature". The Origin contains a high proportion of currently accepted ecological principles. Darwin labelled himself a naturalist. His discipline (natural history) was a blend of ecology and evolution in which he investigated both the patterns and the processes that determine the organization of life. Reductionist approaches, however, often keep the two disciplines separated from each other, undermining a full understanding of natural phenomena that might be favored by blending ecology and evolution through the development of a modern Theory of Natural History based on Darwin's vision of the study of life.

  7. Adaptive trials for tuberculosis: early reflections on theory and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, C M

    2016-08-01

    Adaptive designs (ADs) have been proposed for anti-tuberculosis treatment trials. This call for innovation occurs against the backdrop of fundamental changes in the acceptable evidence base in anti-tuberculosis treatment. To contextualise ADs for tuberculosis (TB) and explore early responses from those working in the field. In this qualitative study investigating processes of theoretical and practical change in randomised controlled trials, 24 interviews were conducted with professionals involved in AD trials, half of whom worked in the TB field. Clinical trialists working on AD trials in TB are positive about the efficiency these designs offer, but remain cautious about their suitability. In addition to technical concerns, informants discussed the challenges of implementing AD in developing countries, including limited regulatory capacity to evaluate proposals, investments needed in infrastructure and site capacity, and challenges regarding informed consent. Respondents identified funding, interdisciplinary communication and regulatory and policy responses as additional concerns potentially affecting the success of AD for TB. Empirical research is needed into patient experiences of AD, including informed consent. Further consideration of the contexts of innovation in trial design is needed. These are fundamental to the successful translation of theory into practice.

  8. Research in Architectural Education: Theory and Practice of Visual Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Jones

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Today, the significance of vision is often considered from multiple points of view including perceptual, cognitive, imaginative, historical, technical, ethical, cultural, and critical perspectives.  Visual Studies, Visual Communication and Visual Design are popular courses of study.  This paper brings to light a course in architectural education called Visual Training which aims to sharpen visual perception and enhance aesthetic judgment. The paper articulates the pedagogy of Visual Training linking the 78-year old practice with educational theory.  It describes the course structure, the conduct of the exercises and interpretation of course outcomes to inform teaching practice.  The discussion shows how Visual Training addresses enduring pedagogical concerns and establishes the grounds for architectural critique. The paper raises awareness of the role of vision in architectural education and brings attention to a program for developing the eye which acknowledges a connection between the sensory and the intellectual realms.  Looking at the grounds and potential of Visual Training in architectural education raises important questions about pedagogy in architecture that may stimulate further discussion and cause a rethinking of not only the importance of training the eye, but also the significance of the methods we use.

  9. Seismic to­mography; theory and practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iver, H.M.; Hirahara, Kazuro

    1993-01-01

    Although highly theoretical and computer-orientated, seismic tomography has created spectacular images of anomolies within the Earth with dimensions of thousands of kilometers to few tens of meters. These images have enabled Earth scientists working on diverse areas to attack fundamental problems relating to the deep dynamical processes within our planet. Additionally, this technique is being used extensively to study the Earth's hazardous regions such as earthquake fault zones and volcanoes, as well as features beneficial to man such as oil or mineral-bearing structures. This book has been written by world experts and describes the theories, experimental and analytical procedures and results of applying seismic tomography from global to purely local scale. It represents the collective global perspective on the state of the art and focusses not only on the theoretical and practical aspects, but also on the uses for hydrocarbon, mineral and geothermal exploitation. Students and researchers in the Earth sciences, and research and exploration geophysicists should find this a useful, practical reference book for all aspects of their work.

  10. Cognitive assessment of older adults in general practice: the collateral history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Adam H; Foley, Tony; O'Shea, Brendan; Kennelly, Sean P

    2017-12-02

    The collateral (or informant) history is a key component in the assessment of older adults presenting with a memory problem or concern over cognition. Despite this, it rarely features in medical literature and academic curricula. Its role in general practice has never been assessed. The aim of this study is to assess the role of the collateral history in the investigation of cognitive impairment in general practice. An online survey distributed to three nationally representative cohorts of GPs in Ireland (n = 692). Ninety-five (14%; 52.2% male) responded. Nearly all (87%; 83/95) indicate that it is most often a family member who brings possible cognitive impairment to the attention of their GP. The vast majority obtain a collateral history in > 90% of cases (72.6%; 69/95) and rate it very useful in their clinical assessment of cognition. GPs report the collateral history as readily available and rarely refused, with the general practice environment well-suited to obtaining collateral histories. A small minority routinely use the GPCOG informant section (3.2%; 3/95). Nearly all (92.6%; 88/95) report having received no training in obtaining collateral histories with most (79%; 75/95) welcoming of further training in this area. Despite recognition of the utility and importance of the collateral history, the vast majority of GPs report having never received training in obtaining one and do not use structured tools to guide their interview. Further emphasis on the informant history as a distinct clinical entity on medical curricula and increasing emphasis on the availability of structured informant tools are warranted.

  11. General practice and the new science emerging from the theories of 'chaos' and complexity.

    OpenAIRE

    Griffiths, F; Byrne, D

    1998-01-01

    This paper outlines the general practice world view and introduces the main features of the theories of 'chaos' and complexity. From this, analogies are drawn between general practice and the theories, which suggest a different way of understanding general practice and point to future developments in general practice research. A conceptual and practical link between qualitative and quantitative methods of research is suggested. Methods of combining data about social context with data about in...

  12. Extending the theory of normative practices : an application to two cases of networked military operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burken, van C.G.; Vries, de M.J.

    2012-01-01

    The theory of normative practices has proven to be helpful in eliciting the normative dimension of social practices. In this article we apply the theory to military practice. Since current military missions are Network Enabled Operations, which mandate a strong focus on cooperation with other

  13. Interpersonal Relationships, Motivation, Engagement, and Achievement: Yields for Theory, Current Issues, and Educational Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Andrew J.; Dowson, Martin

    2009-01-01

    In this review, we scope the role of interpersonal relationships in students' academic motivation, engagement, and achievement. We argue that achievement motivation theory, current issues, and educational practice can be conceptualized in relational terms. Influential theorizing, including attribution theory, expectancy-value theory, goal theory,…

  14. Immediate survival focus: synthesizing life history theory and dual process models to explain substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, George B; Hardesty, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Researchers have recently applied evolutionary life history theory to the understanding of behaviors often conceived of as prosocial or antisocial. In addition, researchers have applied cognitive science to the understanding of substance use and used dual process models, where explicit cognitive processes are modeled as relatively distinct from implicit cognitive processes, to explain and predict substance use behaviors. In this paper we synthesized these two theoretical perspectives to produce an adaptive and cognitive framework for explaining substance use. We contend that this framework provides new insights into the nature of substance use that may be valuable for both clinicians and researchers.

  15. Immediate Survival Focus: Synthesizing Life History Theory and Dual Process Models to Explain Substance Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George B. Richardson

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Researchers have recently applied evolutionary life history theory to the understanding of behaviors often conceived of as prosocial or antisocial. In addition, researchers have applied cognitive science to the understanding of substance use and used dual process models, where explicit cognitive processes are modeled as relatively distinct from implicit cognitive processes, to explain and predict substance use behaviors. In this paper we synthesized these two theoretical perspectives to produce an adaptive and cognitive framework for explaining substance use. We contend that this framework provides new insights into the nature of substance use that may be valuable for both clinicians and researchers.

  16. The History and State of Neonatal Nursing Quality Improvement Practice and Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukla, Aniko; Dowling, Donna A; Dolansky, Mary A

    2018-03-01

    Quality improvement has evolved rapidly in neonatal nursing. This review outlines the history and current state of quality improvement practice and education in neonatal nursing. The future of neonatal nursing includes a stronger emphasis on quality improvement in advanced practice education that promotes doctoral projects that result in clinical improvements. A collective focus will ensure that neonatal nurses not only deliver evidence-based care, but also continually improve the care they deliver.

  17. The Basics: What's Essential about Theory for Community Development Practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hustedde, Ronald J.; Ganowicz, Jacek

    2002-01-01

    Relates three classical theories (structural functionalism, conflict theory, symbolic interactionism) to fundamental concerns of community development (structure, power, and shared meaning). Links these theories to Giddens' structuration theory, which connects macro and micro structures and community influence on change through cultural norms.…

  18. Sum-over-histories representation for the causal Green function of free scalar field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudolph, O.

    1993-10-01

    A set of Green functions G α (x-y), α element of [0, 2π], for free scalar field theory is introduced, varying between the Hadamard Green function Δ 1 (x-y) triple bond 0vertical stroke {φ(x), φ(y)}vertical stroke 0> and the causal Green function G π (x-y)=iΔ(x-y) triple bond [φ(x), φ(y)]. For every α element of [0, 2π] a path-integral representation for G α is obtained both in the configuration space and in the phase space of the classical relativistic particle. Especially setting α=π a sum-over-histories representation for the causal Green function is obtained. Furthermore using BRST theory an alternative path-integral representation for G α is presented. From these path integral representations the composition laws for the G α 's are derived using a modified path decomposition expansion. (orig.)

  19. How do technical improvements change radiographers' practice – A practice theory perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundvall, L.-L.; Abrandt-Dahlgren, M.; Wirell, S.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The two plane imaging techniques are gradually being replaced by multidimensional imaging. How it affects radiographers' professional practice has not been investigated. Aim: To explore how technical development affects the relations between different actors and their actions in the practice of Computer Tomography. Method: A qualitative design with data collection by open interviews (n = 8) and open observations (n = 10) of radiographers during their work with Computer Tomography. Data was first analyzed inductively resulting in seven codes. Secondly abduction was carried out by interpreting the content in the codes with a practice theory. This resulted in four themes. Result: First theme: Changed materiality makes the practical action easier. The actual image production has become practically easier. Second theme: Changed machines cause conflict between the arrangements of the work and the patients' needs. The time for the machine to carry out image production is easy to foresee, but information about the patient's individual status and needs is missing and this leads to difficulties in giving individual planned care. Third theme: Changing materiality prefigure learning. The different apparatus in use and the continuously changing methods of image production is co-constitutive of the practitioners' activities and learning. Fourth theme: Radiography is arranged for patient safety in relation to radiation doses and medical security risks. But the radiographers, who meet the patients, have to check the accuracy of the planned examination in relation to the clinical observed information about patient safety risks with the examination. - Highlights: • The arrangements of CT practice make it difficult to achieve individual planned care. • Continuously learning has become an essential part of radiographers' practice. • Radiographers' planning of each examination is important for secure patient safety

  20. Mathematics and biology: a Kantian view on the history of pattern formation theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Siegfried

    2011-12-01

    Driesch's statement, made around 1900, that the physics and chemistry of his day were unable to explain self-regulation during embryogenesis was correct and could be extended until the year 1972. The emergence of theories of self-organisation required progress in several areas including chemistry, physics, computing and cybernetics. Two parallel lines of development can be distinguished which both culminated in the early 1970s. Firstly, physicochemical theories of self-organisation arose from theoretical (Lotka 1910-1920) and experimental work (Bray 1920; Belousov 1951) on chemical oscillations. However, this research area gained broader acceptance only after thermodynamics was extended to systems far from equilibrium (1922-1967) and the mechanism of the prime example for a chemical oscillator, the Belousov-Zhabotinski reaction, was deciphered in the early 1970s. Secondly, biological theories of self-organisation were rooted in the intellectual environment of artificial intelligence and cybernetics. Turing wrote his The chemical basis of morphogenesis (1952) after working on the construction of one of the first electronic computers. Likewise, Gierer and Meinhardt's theory of local activation and lateral inhibition (1972) was influenced by ideas from cybernetics. The Gierer-Meinhardt theory provided an explanation for the first time of both spontaneous formation of spatial order and of self-regulation that proved to be extremely successful in elucidating a wide range of patterning processes. With the advent of developmental genetics in the 1980s, detailed molecular and functional data became available for complex developmental processes, allowing a new generation of data-driven theoretical approaches. Three examples of such approaches will be discussed. The successes and limitations of mathematical pattern formation theory throughout its history suggest a picture of the organism, which has structural similarity to views of the organic world held by the philosopher

  1. Topological insulators and C*-algebras: Theory and numerical practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hastings, Matthew B.; Loring, Terry A.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → We classify topological insulators using C* algebras. → We present new K-theory invariants. → We develop efficient numerical algorithms based on this technique. → We observe unexpected quantum phase transitions using our algorithm. - Abstract: We apply ideas from C*-algebra to the study of disordered topological insulators. We extract certain almost commuting matrices from the free Fermi Hamiltonian, describing band projected coordinate matrices. By considering topological obstructions to approximating these matrices by exactly commuting matrices, we are able to compute invariants quantifying different topological phases. We generalize previous two dimensional results to higher dimensions; we give a general expression for the topological invariants for arbitrary dimension and several symmetry classes, including chiral symmetry classes, and we present a detailed K-theory treatment of this expression for time reversal invariant three dimensional systems. We can use these results to show non-existence of localized Wannier functions for these systems. We use this approach to calculate the index for time-reversal invariant systems with spin-orbit scattering in three dimensions, on sizes up to 12 3 , averaging over a large number of samples. The results show an interesting separation between the localization transition and the point at which the average index (which can be viewed as an 'order parameter' for the topological insulator) begins to fluctuate from sample to sample, implying the existence of an unsuspected quantum phase transition separating two different delocalized phases in this system. One of the particular advantages of the C*-algebraic technique that we present is that it is significantly faster in practice than other methods of computing the index, allowing the study of larger systems. In this paper, we present a detailed discussion of numerical implementation of our method.

  2. Americanization and UK Higher Education: Towards a History of Transatlantic Influence on Policy and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David; Baston, Lewis; Bocock, Jean; Scott, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Investigates history of US influence on UK higher education policy and practice during the second half of the 20th century within broader context of cultural and policy encounters between the two nations during these years and considers relevance of the contested concept of "Americanization." Concludes that US exercised an important but…

  3. Effect of farming practices and farm history on incidence of coconut ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Management of coconut (Cocos nucifera) lethal yellowing disease (CLYD), which has killed about eight million coconut trees in Mozambique, has proved challenging. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of farming practices and related history, on the CLYD incidence in Mozambique. The methodology ...

  4. Some Reflections about Writing "A History of Thought and Practice in Educational Administration."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Roald F.

    A coauthor of a book on the history of thought and practice in educational administration reflects on issues raised during the writing of the book as follows: (1) Categories of administrative thought are difficult to establish. Two categories were derived from Richard Scott's rational systems approach--scientific management and bureaucracy. The…

  5. Two-Person Control: A Brief History and Modern Industry Practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, Robert Douglas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Physical asset protection is the principal objective of many security and safeguard measures. One well-known means of asset protection is two-person control. This paper reviews literature regarding two-person control to gain insight into its origin, first demonstrated uses, and its presence in several modern industries. This literature review of two-person control is intended to benefit people and organizations with a desire to understand its origins and how the practice has evolved over time, as well as give some insight into the flexibility of this safeguarding technique. The literature review is focused in four main sections: (1) defining two-person control, (2) early history, (3) two-person control in modern industry, and (4) a theory on how two- person control entered modern industry. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The author would like to thank Jarret Lafleur and Scott Paap of Sandia National Laboratories, California's Systems Analysis & Engineering organization for the opportunity to work on this project. Jarret Lafleur provided very constructive and helpful feedback through all stages of the work. Amanda Thompson of the Sandia California Technical Library maintained a great spirit and always had a quick document turnaround that very much helped out this project's completion. Additionally, yet perhaps most importantly, the author would like to thank his wife and daughter, along with the rest of his family, for continued support over the years. Sandia National Laboratories is a multimission laboratory managed and operated by National Technology and Engineering Solutions of Sandia, LLC., a wholly owned subsidiary of Honeywell International, Inc., for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-NA0003525.

  6. Theory and practice of population policies in the Soviet Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Elizarov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research, presented in the paper is the analysis for the formation and development of the basic theory of population policies in the scientific school of Professor Dmitry I.Valentey (Lomonosov Moscow State University. The research was dedicated to the 50th anniversary of the Population Chair of Economics Faculty of Lomonosov Moscow State University. The graduates of the Chair worked and continue to work actively in the field of fundamental and applied research in demography, demographic education, ministries and departments of the socio-economic unit.The works of the 1960s – early 90s (monographs, collections of scientific articles, tutorials, which dealt with the concepts and their interrelationships, approaches to understanding the ratio of social policy, population and demographic policies, the structure of these important components of social policy served as the basis for the analysis. In the study the comparative analysis of the positions of different authors has been made, including other research schools, discussion issues are highlighted, relating to the implementation of the population policies. This article shows the realization of the idea of an interdisciplinary approach to the study of problems of population management in practice, including the studies and discussions of representatives of different sciences (demographers, sociologists, historians, economists, geographers, lawyers, etc..In the final part of the paper the practical steps are considered to enhance the population policy in the USSR in the early 80s, regional peculiarities of the phased introduction of new measures to provide state support for families with children in 1981–1983, as well as approaches to development of regional programmes of population policies in the late 70’s and 80’s.The research has received a new analytical material that reveals the attitude on the definition and content of the basic concepts (demographic policy and

  7. Hand hygiene compliance: is there a theory-practice-ethics gap?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortell, Manfred

    Practice is usually based on tradition, rituals and outdated information; there is often an additional gap between theoretical knowledge and its application in practice. This theory-practice gap has long existed (Allmark, 1995; Hewison et al, 1996). It often arises when theory is ignored because it is seen as idealistic and impractical, even if it is practical and beneficial. Most research relating to the lack of integration between theory and practice has concluded that environmental factors are responsible and will affect learning and practice outcomes. The author believes an additional dimension of ethics is required to bridge the gap between theory and practice. This would be a moral obligation to ensure theory and practice are integrated. To implement new practices effectively, healthcare practitioners must deem these practices worthwhile and relevant to their role. This introduces a new concept that the author calls the theory-practice-ethics gap. This theory-practice-ethics gap must be considered when examining some of the unacceptable outcomes in healthcare practice (Mortell, 2009). The literature suggests that there is a crisis of ethics where theory and practice integrate, and practitioners are failing to fulfil their duty as providers of healthcare and as patient advocates. This article examines the theory-practice-ethics gap when applied to hand hygiene. Non-compliance exists in hand hygiene among practitioners, which may increase patient mortality and morbidity rates, and raise healthcare costs. Infection prevention and control programmes to improve hand hygiene among staff include: ongoing education and training; easy access to facilities such as wash basins; antiseptic/alcohol handgels that are convenient, effective, and skin- and user-friendly; and organisational recognition and support for clinicians in hand washing and handgel practices. Yet these all appear to have failed to achieve the required and desired compliance in hand hygiene.

  8. New approaches within the history and theory of medicine and their relevance for homeopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Josef M

    2014-04-01

    Conventional sciences have brought forth a wealth of knowledge and benefits, but they have not always been clear and precise about their legitimate scope and methodological limitations. In contrast, new and critical approaches in modern sciences question and reflect their own presuppositions, dependencies, and constraints. Examples are quantum physics, theory and history of science, as well as theory and history of medicine, sociology, and economics. In this way, deprecative dogmatism and animosity amongst sciences ought to be lessened, while the field opens up for each science to redefine its appropriate place in society. This would appear to be a chance for homeopathy, as new approaches, especially within the social and economic sciences, suggest that being a follower of Samuel Hahnemann (1755-1843) may have advantages and privileges that conventional medicine seems to be lacking and whose relevance was overlooked during the rise of economic thinking in the last two centuries. Copyright © 2013 The Faculty of Homeopathy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Sense of control under uncertainty depends on people's childhood environment: a life history theory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Chiraag; Griskevicius, Vladas

    2014-10-01

    Past research found that environmental uncertainty leads people to behave differently depending on their childhood environment. For example, economic uncertainty leads people from poor childhoods to become more impulsive while leading people from wealthy childhoods to become less impulsive. Drawing on life history theory, we examine the psychological mechanism driving such diverging responses to uncertainty. Five experiments show that uncertainty alters people's sense of control over the environment. Exposure to uncertainty led people from poorer childhoods to have a significantly lower sense of control than those from wealthier childhoods. In addition, perceptions of control statistically mediated the effect of uncertainty on impulsive behavior. These studies contribute by demonstrating that sense of control is a psychological driver of behaviors associated with fast and slow life history strategies. We discuss the implications of this for theory and future research, including that environmental uncertainty might lead people who grew up poor to quit challenging tasks sooner than people who grew up wealthy. 2014 APA, all rights reserved

  10. Interactions In Online Education Implications For Theory & Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Askim KURT

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This book was edited by, Charles Juwah, Senior EducationDevelopment Officer at Robert Gordon University, where heruns the postgraduate learning and teaching qualificationcourse. It was published by Routledge in 2006.Interaction is very important in open and flexible learning,and apparent at all levels of engagement, whether betweenstudents, students and tutors, online learning materials orinterfacing with the learning environment. A student whoactively engages with learning materials, interactions helpto improve learning by fortifying knowledge and providingcontext, encouraging reflection, questioning and deeplyunderstanding of a subject.This book provides international perspectives on key topics including analyzing and designing e-learning interactions, social and conceptual dimensions of learning, interactions in online discussions, interactions in pair learning, and professional development of online facilitators. In this book a collection of research and innovative case material drawn from practitioners and academicians and it covers the theory and the practical implications of related issues. It is essential reading for all those involved in the design,implementation, management and use of open and flexible learning.

  11. Corruption as a Problem of Political Theory and Political Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna V. Shashkova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article is dedicated to the analysis of "corruption" from point of view of political practice and political theory. The present article studies historical examples of corruption: corruption during the era of Alexander the Great, Carthage, Roman Republic. The article gives the evolution of the term "corruption", pointing out current aspects of the term. The article provides positive and negative results of corruption, gives resume. The present article analyses corruption results: economical, political and social. Most important economical consequences of corruption are the following: increase of shadow economy, decrease of tax payments, weakening of the state budget, breach of market competition, decrease of market effectiveness, destabilization of the idea of market economy. Most important social consequences of corruption are the following: great distinction between the declared and real values, which creates a "double standard" of the moral and behavior, distraction of great sums from public and humanitarian development, increase of property disproportion, increase of social tension. The present article names most important political consequences of corruption: shift of ideas from public development to the security of power of oligarchy, decrease of trust to the state, decrease of image of the country at the international arena, increase of its economical and political isolation, decrease of political competition. The present article gives one of the resumes that the globalization process increases corruption. Together with globalization most important role is given to corporations and corporate corruption comes to the front raw.

  12. Complementing theory with practice to enhance Students' learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suliman, Muhammad Imran; Imran, Faiqa; Ahmed, Syed Ahsanuddin; Rahim, Ikram Ur; Shafiq, Anser; Qayum, Iftikhar

    2016-01-01

    Combining cognitive skills teaching related to the techniques leads to better understanding in a skill training course; but still there a substantial disagreement in curriculum on such combinations. This study aims to help guide the designers in making the outline of instructional plan for a Clinical Skills Module (CSM) for the undergraduates. Objectives were to assess performance of students on a clinical skill after training by two different models of (hands-on only or with cognitive skills) instructions and explore their perception on the employment of educational strategies through Focus Group Discussions (FGD) through a Sequential mixed method study design: (1) Quantitative (Pre- and post-assessments and comparing their results (2) Qualitative (Exploration of perspectives through constructivist approach using qualitative phenomenological design) The study was conducted during the month of September, 2015 at Rabigh Medical College, King Abdul Aziz University, Jeddah. Students entering fourth year were randomized to two groups to participate in pre-post OSCE using global rating scale and their scores were compared. The examiners were kept blinded to the randomization of students undergoing two separate training methods. The test group (group A) was trained for both procedural as well as cognitive skills whereas the control group (Group-B) was trained only with hands-on practice. Later their perception about the addition of cognitive skills to improve of procedural skills was explored through focus group discussions. The recorded audio tapes of FGDs were transcribed and analysed thematically. Triangulation of themes and trends was achieved by relating the content analysis to the relevant frequency of quotes. Auditing of the data verification was done by all the authors separately.. A total of 42 students completed both pre- and post-tests. As a result, student performance in OSCE significantly increased from pre- to post-test (pdisadvantages of combining theory

  13. A history of plant biotechnology: from the Cell Theory of Schleiden and Schwann to biotech crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasil, Indra K

    2008-09-01

    Plant biotechnology is founded on the principles of cellular totipotency and genetic transformation, which can be traced back to the Cell Theory of Matthias Jakob Schleiden and Theodor Schwann, and the discovery of genetic transformation in bacteria by Frederick Griffith, respectively. On the 25th anniversary of the genetic transformation of plants, this review provides a historical account of the evolution of the theoretical concepts and experimental strategies that led to the production and commercialization of biotech (transformed or transgenic) plants expressing many useful genes, and emphasizes the beneficial effects of plant biotechnology on food security, human health, the environment, and conservation of biodiversity. In so doing, it celebrates and pays tribute to the contributions of scores of scientists who laid the foundation of modern plant biotechnology by their bold and unconventional thinking and experimentation. It highlights also the many important lessons to be learnt from the fascinating history of plant biotechnology, the significance of history in science teaching and research, and warns against the danger of the growing trends of ignoring history and historical illiteracy.

  14. Investigating uncertainty and emotions in conversations about family health history: a test of the theory of motivated information management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauscher, Emily A; Hesse, Colin

    2014-01-01

    Although the importance of being knowledgeable of one's family health history is widely known, very little research has investigated how families communicate about this important topic. This study investigated how young adults seek information from parents about family health history. The authors used the Theory of Motivated Information Management as a framework to understand the process of uncertainty discrepancy and emotion in seeking information about family health history. Results of this study show the Theory of Motivated Information Management to be a good model to explain the process young adults go through in deciding to seek information from parents about family health history. Results also show that emotions other than anxiety can be used with success in the Theory of Motivated Information Management framework.

  15. Life History Traits, Protein Evolution, and the Nearly Neutral Theory in Amniotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figuet, Emeric; Nabholz, Benoît; Bonneau, Manon; Mas Carrio, Eduard; Nadachowska-Brzyska, Krystyna; Ellegren, Hans; Galtier, Nicolas

    2016-06-01

    The nearly neutral theory of molecular evolution predicts that small populations should accumulate deleterious mutations at a faster rate than large populations. The analysis of nonsynonymous (dN) versus synonymous (dS) substitution rates in birds versus mammals, however, has provided contradictory results, questioning the generality of the nearly neutral theory. Here we analyzed the impact of life history traits, taken as proxies of the effective population size, on molecular evolutionary and population genetic processes in amniotes, including the so far neglected reptiles. We report a strong effect of species body mass, longevity, and age of sexual maturity on genome-wide patterns of polymorphism and divergence across the major groups of amniotes, in agreement with the nearly neutral theory. Our results indicate that the rate of protein evolution in amniotes is determined in the first place by the efficiency of purifying selection against deleterious mutations-and this is true of both radical and conservative amino acid changes. Interestingly, the among-species distribution of dN/dS in birds did not follow this general trend: dN/dS was not higher in large, long-lived than in small, short-lived species of birds. We show that this unexpected pattern is not due to a more narrow range of life history traits, a lack of correlation between traits and Ne, or a peculiar distribution of fitness effects of mutations in birds. Our analysis therefore highlights the bird dN/dS ratio as a molecular evolutionary paradox and a challenge for future research. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Family Change and Gender Differences: Implications for Theory and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare-Mustin, Rachel T.

    1988-01-01

    Examines theories of gender differences. Discusses alpha bias, exaggeration of gender opposition, as characteristic of psychodynamic and sex role theories; and beta bias, denial of gender differences, as evident in systems theories. Calls for new model of gender differences which recognizes asymmetry in women's and men's roles and…

  17. Taking spiritual history in clinical practice: a systematic review of instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchetti, Giancarlo; Bassi, Rodrigo M; Lucchetti, Alessandra L Granero

    2013-01-01

    To facilitate the addressing of spirituality in clinical practice, several authors have created instruments for obtaining a spiritual history. However, in only a few studies have authors compared these instruments. The aim of this study was to compare the most commonly used instruments for taking a spiritual history in a clinical setting. A systematic review of spiritual history assessment was conducted in five stages: identification of instruments used in the literature (databases searching); relevant articles from title and initial abstract review; exclusion and Inclusion criteria; full text retrieval and final analysis of each instrument. A total of 2,641 articles were retrieved and after the analysis, 25 instruments were included. The authors independently evaluated each instrument on 16 different aspects. The instruments with the greatest scores in the final analysis were FICA, SPIRITual History, FAITH, HOPE, and the Royal College of Psychiatrists. Concerning all 25 instruments, 20 of 25 inquire about the influence of spirituality on a person's life and 17 address religious coping. Nevertheless, only four inquire about medical practices not allowed, six deal with terminal events, nine have mnemonics to facilitate their use, and five were validated. FICA, SPIRITual History, FAITH, HOPE, and Royal College of Psychiatrists scored higher in our analysis. The use of each instrument must be individualized, according to the professional reality, time available, patient profile, and settings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. From c-number to q-numbers the classical analogy in the history of quantum theory

    CERN Document Server

    Darrigol, Olivier

    1992-01-01

    The history of quantum theory is a maze of conceptual problems, through which Olivier Darrigol provides a lucid and learned guide, tracking the role of formal analogies between classical and quantum theory. From Planck's first introduction of the quantum of action to Dirac's formulation of quantum mechanics, Darrigol illuminates not only the history of quantum theory but also the role of analogies in scientific thinking and theory change. Unlike previous works, which have tended to focus on qualitative, global arguments, Darrigol's study follows the lines of mathematical reasoning and symbolizing and so is able to show the motivations of early quantum theorists more precisely—and provocatively—than ever before. Erudite and original, From c-Numbers to q-Numbers sets a new standard as a philosophically perceptive and mathematically precise history of quantum mechanics. For years to come it will influence historical and philosophical discussions of twentieth-century physics.

  19. Economics of Distance and Online Learning Theory, Practice and Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    reviewed by TOJDE

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Economics of Distance and Online LearningTheory, Practice and ResearchBy William Bramble & Santosh PandaPrice: $125.00ISBN: 978-0-415-96388-6, Binding: Hardback, Publishedby: Routledge, New York, Publication Date: March 2008, Pages: 312TOJDEABOUT THE BOOKThis book provides a comprehensive overview of theorganizational models of distance and online learning froman international perspective and from the point of view ofeconomic planning, costing and management decisionmaking.The book points to directions for the further research anddevelopment in this area, and will promote furtherunderstanding and critical reflection on the part ofadministrators, practitioners and researchers of distanceeducation.The experiences and perspectives in distance education inthe US are balanced with those in other areas of the world.Table of ContentsPrefaceSECTION ONE: INTRODUCTIONChapter 1: Organizational and Cost Structures for Distanceand Online Learning, William J. Bramble and Santosh PandaSECTION TWO: PLANNING AND MANAGEMENTChapter 2: Changing Distance Education andChanging Organizational Issues, D. Randy Garrison and Heather KanukaChapter 3: Online Learning and the University, Chris Curran217Chapter 4: Virtual Schooling and Basic Education, Thomas ClarkChapter 5: Historical Perspectives on Distance Education in the United States, Paul J.Edelson and Von PittmanSECTION THREE: FUNDINGChapter 6: Funding of Distance and Online Learning in the United States, Mark J. Smithand William J. BrambleChapter 7: Funding Distance Education: A Regional Perspective, Santosh Panda andAshok GabaSECTION FOUR: COST STRUCTURES AND MODELSChapter 8: Costs and Quality of Online Learning, Alistair InglisChapter 9: Costing Virtual University Education, Insung JungChapter 10: Cost-Benefit of Student Retention Policies and Practices, Ormond SimpsonSECTION FIVE: DISTANCE TRAININGChapter 11: Cost Benefit of Online Learning, Zane Berge and Charlotte DonaldsonChapter 12: Transforming Workplace

  20. The Theory about didactical situations used to analyze practice related teaching and learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarkrog, Vibe

    2018-01-01

    Based on research showing that the students’ challenges in practice based learning can be located to the transitions between theory and practice, this study focuses on how teachers support the students in these transitions. The theoretical framework is mainly Brousseau’s ‘Theory about didactical...... the results show that the Theory of didactical situations can be a useful framework accomplishing practice related teaching and learning. In the discussion a number of challenges in relation to practice related teaching is highlighted focusing on the relation between the five situations in the theory...... situations’ that defines five situations of practice related teaching. The data includes observations combined with interviews of teachers in relation to various examples of practice related teaching in the social and health care programs. Based on the analysis of three examples of practice related teaching...

  1. Application of simplified Complexity Theory concepts for healthcare social systems to explain the implementation of evidence into practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Jacqueline; Rycroft-Malone, Jo; Hawkes, Claire; Noyes, Jane

    2016-02-01

    To examine the application of core concepts from Complexity Theory to explain the findings from a process evaluation undertaken in a trial evaluating implementation strategies for recommendations about reducing surgical fasting times. The proliferation of evidence-based guidance requires a greater focus on its implementation. Theory is required to explain the complex processes across the multiple healthcare organizational levels. This social healthcare context involves the interaction between professionals, patients and the organizational systems in care delivery. Complexity Theory may provide an explanatory framework to explain the complexities inherent in implementation in social healthcare contexts. A secondary thematic analysis of qualitative process evaluation data informed by Complexity Theory. Seminal texts applying Complexity Theory to the social context were annotated, key concepts extracted and core Complexity Theory concepts identified. These core concepts were applied as a theoretical lens to provide an explanation of themes from a process evaluation of a trial evaluating the implementation of strategies to reduce surgical fasting times. Sampled substantive texts provided a representative spread of theoretical development and application of Complexity Theory from late 1990's-2013 in social science, healthcare, management and philosophy. Five Complexity Theory core concepts extracted were 'self-organization', 'interaction', 'emergence', 'system history' and 'temporality'. Application of these concepts suggests routine surgical fasting practice is habituated in the social healthcare system and therefore it cannot easily be reversed. A reduction to fasting times requires an incentivised new approach to emerge in the surgical system's priority of completing the operating list. The application of Complexity Theory provides a useful explanation for resistance to change fasting practice. Its utility in implementation research warrants further attention and

  2. Physician 'defiance' towards hand hygiene compliance: Is there a theory-practice-ethics gap?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortell, Manfred; Balkhy, Hanan H; Tannous, Elias B; Jong, Mei Thiee

    2013-07-01

    The theory-practice gap has always existed [1,2]. This gap is often cited as a culmination of theory being idealistic and impractical, even if practical and beneficial, is often ignored. Most of the evidence relating to the non-integration of theory and practice assumes that environmental factors are responsible and will affect learning and practice outcomes, hence the gap. Therefore, the author believes that to 'bridge the gap' between theory and practice, an additional dimension is required: ethics. A moral duty and obligation ensuring theory and practice integrate. In order to effectively implement new practices, one must deem these practices as worthy and relevant to their role as healthcare providers (HCP). Hence, this introduces a new concept which the author refers to as the theory-practice-ethics gap. This theory-practice-ethics gap must be considered when reviewing some of the unacceptable outcomes in healthcare practice [3]. The literature suggests that there is a crisis of ethics where theory and practice integrate, and healthcare providers are failing to fulfill our duty as patient advocates. Physician hand hygiene practices and compliance at King Abdulaziz Cardiac Centre (KACC) are consistent with those of other physicians in the global healthcare arena. That is one of noncompliance to King Abdulaziz Medical City (KAMC) organizational expectations and the World Health Organization (WHO) requirements? An observational study was conducted on the compliance of cardiac surgeons, cardiologists and nurses in the authors' cardiac center from January 2010 to December 2011. The hand hygiene (HH) compliance elements that were evaluated pertained to the WHO's five moments of HH recommendations. The data was obtained through direct observation by KAMC infection prevention and control practitioners. Physician hand hygiene compliance at KACC was consistently less than 60%, with nurses regularly encouraging physicians to be diligent with hand hygiene practices in the

  3. A Social Practice Theory of Learning and Becoming across Contexts and Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penuel, William R.; DiGiacomo, Daniela K.; Van Horne, Katie; Kirshner, Ben

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a social practice theory of learning and becoming across contexts and time. Our perspective is rooted in the Danish tradition of critical psychology (Dreier, 1997; Mørck & Huniche, 2006; Nissen, 2005), and we use social practice theory to interpret the pathway of one adolescent whom we followed as part of a longitudinal…

  4. Toward an Understanding of the Use of Academic Theories in Public Relations Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelissen, Joep P.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses a focal issue in the public relations field: the way that practitioners use academic theories. Offers an exploration of the possible modes of use of academic or scientific theory in public relations practice. Notes that the premise of this model is that scientific knowledge is seldom used in an unaltered form in practice. Closes by…

  5. Cultivating Perspectival Acuity: The Value and Cost of Integrating Theory, Craft, Research, and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe Manganelli

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents reflections on integrating theory, craft, research, and practice to improve the accuracy and resiliency of each. The reflections build toward a set of statements about the value and the cost of integrating theory, craft, research, and practice. Specifically, the authors offer the Privileged Work / Non-Privileged Work Framework and concept of cultivating Perspectival Acuity.

  6. In practice, the theory is different: a processual analysis of breastfeeding in northeast Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scavenius, Michael; van Hulsel, Lonneke; Meijer, Julia; Wendte, Hans; Gurgel, Ricardo

    2007-01-01

    'Na prática, a teoria è outra' (in practice, the theory is different) is an old Brazilian saying. This phrase summarizes well the general practice of breastfeeding in Brazil: 'Breast is best' is central in the pregnant women's future oriented 'theory' of how their infant should be fed. In the

  7. Diffusion of Innovation Theory: A Bridge for the Research-Practice Gap in Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Christine E.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a diffusion of innovation theory-based framework for addressing the gap between research and practice in the counseling profession. The author describes the nature of the research-practice gap and presents an overview of diffusion of innovation theory. On the basis of the application of several major postulates of diffusion…

  8. Making Use of Theories about Literacy and Justice: Teachers Re-Searching Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comber, Barbara

    This paper explores the way teachers make use of and work on theory to disrupt and ultimately improve everyday educational practice. The paper argues that teachers working on and with theory can and do generate new forms of educative practices in the field of literacy education, which are based on explicit standpoints towards social justice in…

  9. Building a Practically Useful Theory of Goal Setting and Task Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Edwin A.; Latham, Gary P.

    2002-01-01

    Summarizes 35 years of empirical research on goal-setting theory, describing core findings of the theory, mechanisms by which goals operate, moderators of goal effects, the relation of goals and satisfaction, and the role of goals as mediators of incentives. Explains the external validity and practical significance of goal setting theory,…

  10. The design of patient decision support interventions: addressing the theory-practice gap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elwyn, G.; Stiel, M.; Durand, M.A.; Boivin, J.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although an increasing number of decision support interventions for patients (including decision aids) are produced, few make explicit use of theory. We argue the importance of using theory to guide design. The aim of this work was to address this theory-practice gap and to examine how a

  11. Life history theory and dental development in four species of catarrhine primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirks, Wendy; Bowman, Jacqui E

    2007-09-01

    Dental development was reconstructed in several individuals representing four species of catarrhine primates--Symphalangus syndactylus, Hylobates lar, Semnopithecus entellus priam, and Papio hamadryas--using the techniques of dental histology. Bar charts assumed to represent species-typical dental development were constructed from these data and estimated ages at first and third molar emergence were plotted on them along with ages at weaning, menarche, and first reproduction from the literature. The estimated age at first molar emergence appears to occur at weaning in the siamang, lar gibbon, and langur, and just after weaning in the baboon. Age at menarche and first reproduction occur earlier relative to dental development in both cercopithecoids than in the hylobatids, suggesting that early reproduction may be a derived trait in cercopithecoids. The results are examined in the context of life history theory.

  12. The KAM story a friendly introduction to the content, history, and significance of classical Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser theory

    CERN Document Server

    Dumas, H Scott

    2014-01-01

    This is a semi-popular mathematics book aimed at a broad readership of mathematically literate scientists, especially mathematicians and physicists who are not experts in classical mechanics or KAM theory, and scientific-minded readers. Parts of the book should also appeal to less mathematically trained readers with an interest in the history or philosophy of science. The scope of the book is broad: it not only describes KAM theory in some detail, but also presents its historical context (thus showing why it was a 'breakthrough'). Also discussed are applications of KAM theory (especially to celestial mechanics and statistical mechanics) and the parts of mathematics and physics in which KAM theory resides (dynamical systems, classical mechanics, and Hamiltonian perturbation theory). Although a number of sources on KAM theory are now available for experts, this book attempts to fill a long-standing gap at a more descriptive level. It stands out very clearly from existing publications on KAM theory because it ...

  13. Perigee: Zero, a Unified Theory of Cultural Heritage and Geological History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davias, M. E.

    2006-05-01

    Perigee: Zero proposes a unified theory to solve enigmas haunting our cultural heritage and the Earth's geological history. We maintain the theory is simple and provable. We document the terraforming of the Earth by the cratering and accretive action of impacting comets and resulting ejecta, during events occurring at regular intervals over the past 15,000 years. Visual evidence of geomorphed landscape is presented using the perspective of high-resolution satellite imaging and DEM data. Correlation of these images with physical and historic evidence has proven supportive. Sections of the lithosphere have been lofted thousands of kilometers. Excised trenches have filled with water, or left as barren desert. Blankets of ejecta have overlain the continents and their inhabitants. The atmosphere was disrupted by the influx of dust and energy. Composed of hydrated silica, the comets have added a significant percentage of the water and unusually pure silicate (as sand and clay) now present on earth. Human history is immersed in these events. Oral and written works comprising much of the world's cultural heritage provide us with accounts of catastrophic damage visited upon Earth and its inhabitants. Those accounts describe mountains being moved, large expanses of the earth being swept clean - or replaced with open ocean, civilizations buried, years of darkness, the world flooded. Our forefathers invoked deities from the heavens, or perhaps giant kangaroos. We invoke impactors from the Taurid Complex, a simple and natural process, as most of its progenitor's mass may be missing. The damage to the earth is interpreted as the result of hundreds of grazing and nearly tangential impacts, suggesting decaying orbits of earth-captured cosmic bodies as a plausible solution. The events are seen occurring when the low point of the orbit -the perigee- reaches the earth's surface; in effect Perigee: Zero.

  14. A somewhat unorthodox explanation for the rise and fall of physician practice management companies: the application of Gaia theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahey, Daniel F

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present an alternative theory to why publicly-traded physician practice management companies in the US were popular and successful for a limited number of years and then essentially self-destructed. The short history of publicly-traded practice management companies suggests that they had limited value and utility in the US healthcare industry. It is the premise of the paper that the sudden appearance these for-profit companies upset the natural order within the healthcare industry and created a disequilibria which ultimately resulted in their demise. While Gaia theory is most commonly applied to the natural sciences, it has been applied to a number of interdisciplinary issues. Physicians gravitated to these for-profit companies either out of fear of encroaching managed care or out a desire to sell their practice to the highest bidder. Physician practice management companies, on the other hand, saw a way to entice stockholders to invest in a growth industry. The paper suggests that the physician practice management companies added little new value to the health care industry and applies Gaia theory as a possible explanation for this phenomena. Gaia theory was first postulated in 1979 to address the evolution of the material environment and corresponding organisms as a tightly coupled system which attempt to manipulate the environment for the purpose of creating biologically favorable conditions. The paper is one of the first to suggest that the laws of nature, as understood from the perspective of Gaia theory, may have applicability to the US health care industry.

  15. bridging the gap between theory and practice in language

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    threatened languages…whose history and majority of their own former speakers have (apparently) .... illustrated by the situation of a farmer whose poultry are sick with a life threatening infection. .... The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Language.

  16. 110 Theory and Practice in Philosophy and Education: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    First Lady

    2013-01-28

    Jan 28, 2013 ... philosophy of education in its content and method is theoretical but must ... Philosophy, like psychology, sociology and history is an abstract, .... tested through the use and application of dialectics, logic and statistics among.

  17. Developing a Model of Theory-to-Practice-to-Theory in Student Affairs: An Extended Case Analysis of Theories of Student Learning and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, Ezekiel W.

    2012-01-01

    Recent literature suggests a problematic connection between theory and practice in higher education scholarship generally and the study of student learning and development specifically (e.g. Bensimon, 2007; Kezar, 2000; Love, 2012). Much of this disconnect stems from a lack of differentiation between various types of theory used in student affairs…

  18. Life-history theory and climate change: resolving population and parental investment paradoxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caudell, Mark; Quinlan, Robert

    2016-11-01

    Population growth in the next half-century is on pace to raise global carbon emissions by half. Carbon emissions are associated with fertility as a by-product of somatic and parental investment, which is predicted to involve time orientation/preference as a mediating psychological mechanism. Here, we draw upon life-history theory (LHT) to investigate associations between future orientation and fertility, and their impacts on carbon emissions. We argue ' K -strategy' life history (LH) in high-income countries has resulted in parental investment behaviours involving future orientation that, paradoxically, promote unsustainable carbon emissions, thereby lowering the Earth's K or carrying capacity. Increasing the rate of approach towards this capacity are ' r -strategy' LHs in low-income countries that promote population growth. We explore interactions between future orientation and development that might slow the rate of approach towards global K . Examination of 67 000 individuals across 75 countries suggests that future orientation interacts with the relationship between environmental risk and fertility and with development related parental investment, particularly investment in higher education, to slow population growth and mitigate per capita carbon emissions. Results emphasize that LHT will be an important tool in understanding the demographic and consumption patterns that drive anthropogenic climate change.

  19. Arguments for theory-based pharmacy practice research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Lotte Stig; Traulsen, Janine Marie; Bissell, Paul

    2000-01-01

    Nørgaard LS, Morgall JM, Bissell P. . International Journal of Pharmacy Practice 2000; 8 (2): 77-81.......Nørgaard LS, Morgall JM, Bissell P. . International Journal of Pharmacy Practice 2000; 8 (2): 77-81....

  20. The theory-practice relationship: reflective skills and theoretical knowledge as key factors in bridging the gap between theory and practice in initial nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatlevik, Ida Katrine Riksaasen

    2012-04-01

    This paper is a report of a correlational study of the relations of nursing students' acquired reflective skills, practical skills and theoretical knowledge on their perception of coherence between theory and practice. Reflection is considered a key factor in bridging the gap between theory and practice. However, it is not evident whether reflective skills are primarily generic in nature or whether they develop from a theoretical knowledge base or the acquisition of practical skills. This study is a secondary analysis of existing data. The data are part of a student survey that was conducted among third-year nursing students in Norway during the spring of 2007. A total of 446 nursing students participated in this study and the response rate was 71%. Structural equation modelling analyses were performed. The results indicate that students' perception of coherence between theory and practice during initial nursing education is directly influenced by reflective skills and theoretical knowledge. The results also reveal that reflective skills have mediating effects and that practical skills have a fully mediated and theoretical knowledge a partially mediated influence on students' perception of coherence. The findings imply that helping students perceive coherence between theory and practice in nursing education, developing students' reflective skills and strengthening the theoretical components of the initial nursing education programme might be beneficial. The results suggest that reflective thinking is not merely a generic skill but rather a skill that depends on the acquisition of relevant professional knowledge and experience. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.