WorldWideScience

Sample records for history space refers

  1. Iodine frequency references for space

    Schuldt, Thilo; Braxmaier, Claus; Döringshoff, Klaus; Peters, Achim; Oswald, Markus; Johann, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    Optical frequency references are a key element for the realization of future space missions. They are needed for missions related to tests of fundamental physics, gravitational wave detection, Earth observation and navigation and ranging. In missions such as GRACE follow-on or LISA the optical frequency reference is used as light source for high-sensitivity inter-satellite distance metrology. While cavity-based systems are current baseline e.g. for LISA, frequency stabilization on a hyperfine transition in molecular iodine near 532 nm is a promising alternative. Due to its absolute frequency, iodine standards crucially simplify the initial spacecraft acquisition procedures. Current setups fulfill the GRACE-FO and LISA frequency stability requirements and are realized near Engineering Model level. We present the current status of our developments on Elegant Breadboard (EBB) and Engineering Model (EM) level taking into account specific design criteria for space compatibility such as compactness (size iodine spectroscopy EM: 38 × 18 × 10 cm 3 ) and robustness. Both setups achieved similar frequency stabilities of ∼ 1 · 10 −14 at an integration time of 1 s and below 5 · 10 −15 at integration times between 10 s and 1000 s. Furthermore, we present an even more compact design currently developed for a sounding rocket mission with launch in 2017. (paper)

  2. History of Space Shuttle Rendezvous

    Goodman, John L.

    2011-01-01

    This technical history is intended to provide a technical audience with an introduction to the rendezvous and proximity operations history of the Space Shuttle Program. It details the programmatic constraints and technical challenges encountered during shuttle development in the 1970s and over thirty years of shuttle missions. An overview of rendezvous and proximity operations on many shuttle missions is provided, as well as how some shuttle rendezvous and proximity operations systems and flight techniques evolved to meet new programmatic objectives. This revised edition provides additional information on Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, and Apollo/Soyuz. Some chapters on the Space Shuttle have been updated and expanded. Four special focus chapters have been added to provide more detailed information on shuttle rendezvous. A chapter on the STS-39 mission of April/May 1991 describes the most complex deploy/retrieve mission flown by the shuttle. Another chapter focuses on the Hubble Space Telescope servicing missions. A third chapter gives the reader a detailed look at the February 2010 STS-130 mission to the International Space Station. The fourth chapter answers the question why rendezvous was not completely automated on the Gemini, Apollo, and Space Shuttle vehicles.

  3. Space-Time Reference Systems

    Soffel, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The high accuracy of modern astronomical spatial-temporal reference systems has made them considerably complex. This book offers a comprehensive overview of such systems. It begins with a discussion of ‘The Problem of Time’, including recent developments in the art of clock making (e.g., optical clocks) and various time scales. The authors address  the definitions and realization of spatial coordinates by reference to remote celestial objects such as quasars. After an extensive treatment of classical equinox-based coordinates, new paradigms for setting up a celestial reference system are introduced that no longer refer to the translational and rotational motion of the Earth. The role of relativity in the definition and realization of such systems is clarified. The topics presented in this book are complemented by exercises (with solutions). The authors offer a series of files, written in Maple, a standard computer algebra system, to help readers get a feel for the various models and orders of magnitude. ...

  4. Atomic power in space: A history

    1987-03-01

    ''Atomic Power in Space,'' a history of the Space Isotope Power Program of the United States, covers the period from the program's inception in the mid-1950s through 1982. Written in non-technical language, the history is addressed to both the general public and those more specialized in nuclear and space technologies. 19 figs., 3 tabs

  5. Atomic Power in Space: A History

    1987-03-01

    "Atomic Power in Space," a history of the Space Isotope Power Program of the United States, covers the period from the program's inception in the mid-1950s through 1982. Written in non-technical language, the history is addressed to both the general public and those more specialized in nuclear and space technologies. Interplanetary space exploration successes and achievements have been made possible by this technology, for which there is no known substitue.

  6. Linear spaces: history and theory

    Albrecht Beutelspracher

    1990-01-01

    Linear spaces belong to the most fundamental geometric and combinatorial structures. In this paper I would like to give an onerview about the theory of embedding finite linear spaces in finite projective planes.

  7. Atomic power in space: A history

    1987-03-01

    ''Atomic Power in Space,'' a history of the Space Isotope Power Program of the United States, covers the period from the program's inception in the mid-1950s through 1982. Written in non-technical language, the history is addressed to both the general public and those more specialized in nuclear and space technologies. 19 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. A Reference Architecture for Space Information Management

    Mattmann, Chris A.; Crichton, Daniel J.; Hughes, J. Steven; Ramirez, Paul M.; Berrios, Daniel C.

    2006-01-01

    We describe a reference architecture for space information management systems that elegantly overcomes the rigid design of common information systems in many domains. The reference architecture consists of a set of flexible, reusable, independent models and software components that function in unison, but remain separately managed entities. The main guiding principle of the reference architecture is to separate the various models of information (e.g., data, metadata, etc.) from implemented system code, allowing each to evolve independently. System modularity, systems interoperability, and dynamic evolution of information system components are the primary benefits of the design of the architecture. The architecture requires the use of information models that are substantially more advanced than those used by the vast majority of information systems. These models are more expressive and can be more easily modularized, distributed and maintained than simpler models e.g., configuration files and data dictionaries. Our current work focuses on formalizing the architecture within a CCSDS Green Book and evaluating the architecture within the context of the C3I initiative.

  9. Space Science Reference Guide, 2nd Edition

    Dotson, Renee (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    This Edition contains the following reports: GRACE: Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment; Impact Craters in the Solar System; 1997 Apparition of Comet Hale-Bopp Historical Comet Observations; Baby Stars in Orion Solve Solar System Mystery; The Center of the Galaxy; The First Rock in the Solar System; Fun Times with Cosmic Rays; The Gamma-Ray Burst Next Door; The Genesis Mission: An Overview; The Genesis Solar Wind Sample Return Mission; How to Build a Supermassive Black Hole; Journey to the Center of a Neutron Star; Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion; The Kuiper Belt and Oort Cloud ; Mapping the Baby Universe; More Hidden Black Hole Dangers; A Polarized Universe; Presolar Grains of Star Dust: Astronomy Studied with Microscopes; Ring Around the Black Hole; Searching Antarctic Ice for Meteorites; The Sun; Astrobiology: The Search for Life in the Universe; Europa and Titan: Oceans in the Outer Solar System?; Rules for Identifying Ancient Life; Inspire ; Remote Sensing; What is the Electromagnetic Spectrum? What is Infrared? How was the Infrared Discovered?; Brief History of Gyroscopes ; Genesis Discovery Mission: Science Canister Processing at JSC; Genesis Solar-Wind Sample Return Mission: The Materials ; ICESat: Ice, Cloud, and Land Elevation Satellite ICESat: Ice, Cloud, and Land; Elevation Satellite ICESat: Ice, Cloud, and Land Elevation Satellite ICESat: Ice, Cloud, and Land Elevation Satellite ICESat: Ice, Cloud, and Land Elevation Satellite Measuring Temperature Reading; The Optical Telescope ; Space Instruments General Considerations; Damage by Impact: The Case at Meteor Crater, Arizona; Mercury Unveiled; New Data, New Ideas, and Lively Debate about Mercury; Origin of the Earth and Moon; Space Weather: The Invisible Foe; Uranus, Neptune, and the Mountains of the Moon; Dirty Ice on Mars; For a Cup of Water on Mars; Life on Mars?; The Martian Interior; Meteorites from Mars, Rocks from Canada; Organic Compounds in Martian Meteorites May be Terrestrial

  10. Reference nuclear data for space technology

    Burrows, T.W.; Holden, N.E.; Pearlstein, S.

    1977-01-01

    Specialized bibliographic searches, data compilations, and data evaluations help the basic and applied research scientist in his work. The National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC) collates and analyzes nuclear physics information, and is concerned with the timely production and revision of reference nuclear data. A frequently revised reference data base in computerized form has the advantage of large quantities of data available without publication delays. The information normally handled by coordinated efforts of NNDC consists of neutron, charged-particle, nuclear structure, radioactive decay, and photonuclear data. 2 figures

  11. Discrete Optimization in Chemical Space Reference Manual

    2012-10-01

    includes instructions on setting up constrained optimizations of substitutional frameworks and the full application programming interface ( API ) necessary...space size • bool space size computed • ulong bits • bool bits computed • string Nam 4.26.1 Detailed Description This class provides the API that...1, 0) 1102 (O, 0, 1.4, -3, 120, -2, 180) 1103 (C, 1, 1.5, 0, 120, -3, -30(150)) 1104 (H, 2, 1.1, 1, 109.47, 0,180) 1105 (H, 2, 1.1, 1, 109.47, 3, 120

  12. Diffeomorphisms as symplectomorphisms in history phase space: Bosonic string model

    Kouletsis, I.; Kuchar, K.V.

    2002-01-01

    The structure of the history phase space G of a covariant field system and its history group (in the sense of Isham and Linden) is analyzed on an example of a bosonic string. The history space G includes the time map T from the spacetime manifold (the two-sheet) Y to a one-dimensional time manifold T as one of its configuration variables. A canonical history action is posited on G such that its restriction to the configuration history space yields the familiar Polyakov action. The standard Dirac-ADM action is shown to be identical with the canonical history action, the only difference being that the underlying action is expressed in two different coordinate charts on G. The canonical history action encompasses all individual Dirac-ADM actions corresponding to different choices T of foliating Y. The history Poisson brackets of spacetime fields on G induce the ordinary Poisson brackets of spatial fields in the instantaneous phase space G 0 of the Dirac-ADM formalism. The canonical history action is manifestly invariant both under spacetime diffeomorphisms Diff Y and temporal diffeomorphisms Diff T. Both of these diffeomorphisms are explicitly represented by symplectomorphisms on the history phase space G. The resulting classical history phase space formalism is offered as a starting point for projection operator quantization and consistent histories interpretation of the bosonic string model

  13. A First Look at the Upcoming SISO Space Reference FOM

    Mueller, Bjorn; Crues, Edwin Z.; Dexter, Dan; Garro, Alfredo; Skuratovskiy, Anton; Vankov, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Spaceflight is difficult, dangerous and expensive; human spaceflight even more so. In order to mitigate some of the danger and expense, professionals in the space domain have relied, and continue to rely, on computer simulation. Simulation is used at every level including concept, design, analysis, construction, testing, training and ultimately flight. As space systems have grown more complex, new simulation technologies have been developed, adopted and applied. Distributed simulation is one those technologies. Distributed simulation provides a base technology for segmenting these complex space systems into smaller, and usually simpler, component systems or subsystems. This segmentation also supports the separation of responsibilities between participating organizations. This segmentation is particularly useful for complex space systems like the International Space Station (ISS), which is composed of many elements from many nations along with visiting vehicles from many nations. This is likely to be the case for future human space exploration activities. Over the years, a number of distributed simulations have been built within the space domain. While many use the High Level Architecture (HLA) to provide the infrastructure for interoperability, HLA without a Federation Object Model (FOM) is insufficient by itself to insure interoperability. As a result, the Simulation Interoperability Standards Organization (SISO) is developing a Space Reference FOM. The Space Reference FOM Product Development Group is composed of members from several countries. They contribute experiences from projects within NASA, ESA and other organizations and represent government, academia and industry. The initial version of the Space Reference FOM is focusing on time and space and will provide the following: (i) a flexible positioning system using reference frames for arbitrary bodies in space, (ii) a naming conventions for well-known reference frames, (iii) definitions of common time scales

  14. A reference model for space data system interconnection services

    Pietras, John; Theis, Gerhard

    1993-01-01

    The widespread adoption of standard packet-based data communication protocols and services for spaceflight missions provides the foundation for other standard space data handling services. These space data handling services can be defined as increasingly sophisticated processing of data or information received from lower-level services, using a layering approach made famous in the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Open System Interconnection Reference Model (OSI-RM). The Space Data System Interconnection Reference Model (SDSI-RM) incorporates the conventions of the OSIRM to provide a framework within which a complete set of space data handling services can be defined. The use of the SDSI-RM is illustrated through its application to data handling services and protocols that have been defined by, or are under consideration by, the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS).

  15. MARGINAL IDENTITIES, HISTORIES AND NEGOTIATING SPACES ...

    User

    Foremost, children or young people are considered to be born (and remain) .... I first got to know one of the boys from Egodini and I started hanging around with him ..... Tracking Zimbabwe's political history: The Zimbabwe Defence Force from.

  16. Perception of space by multiple intrinsic frames of reference.

    Yanlong Sun

    Full Text Available It has been documented that when memorizing a physical space, the person's mental representation of that space is biased with distortion and segmentation. Two experiments reported here suggest that distortion and segmentation arise due to a hierarchical organization of the spatial representation. The spatial relations associated with salient landmarks are more strongly encoded and easier to recall than those associated with non-salient landmarks. In the presence of multiple salient landmarks, multiple intrinsic frames of reference are formed and spatial relations are anchored to each individual frame of reference. Multiple such representations may co-exist and interactively determine a person's spatial performance.

  17. History and Evolution of Active Learning Spaces

    Beichner, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter examines active learning spaces as they have developed over the years. Consistently well-designed classrooms can facilitate active learning even though the details of implementing pedagogies may differ.

  18. Space-time reference with an optical link

    Berceau, P; Hollberg, L; Taylor, M; Kahn, J

    2016-01-01

    We describe a concept for realizing a high performance space-time reference using a stable atomic clock in a precisely defined orbit and synchronizing the orbiting clock to high-accuracy atomic clocks on the ground. The synchronization would be accomplished using a two-way lasercom link between ground and space. The basic approach is to take advantage of the highest-performance cold-atom atomic clocks at national standards laboratories on the ground and to transfer that performance to an orbiting clock that has good stability and that serves as a ‘frequency-flywheel’ over time-scales of a few hours. The two-way lasercom link would also provide precise range information and thus precise orbit determination. With a well-defined orbit and a synchronized clock, the satellite could serve as a high-accuracy space-time reference, providing precise time worldwide, a valuable reference frame for geodesy, and independent high-accuracy measurements of GNSS clocks. Under reasonable assumptions, a practical system would be able to deliver picosecond timing worldwide and millimeter orbit determination, and could serve as an enabling subsystem for other proposed space-gravity missions, which are briefly reviewed. (paper)

  19. Visualizing the history of living spaces.

    Ivanov, Yuri; Wren, Christopher; Sorokin, Alexander; Kaur, Ishwinder

    2007-01-01

    The technology available to building designers now makes it possible to monitor buildings on a very large scale. Video cameras and motion sensors are commonplace in practically every office space, and are slowly making their way into living spaces. The application of such technologies, in particular video cameras, while improving security, also violates privacy. On the other hand, motion sensors, while being privacy-conscious, typically do not provide enough information for a human operator to maintain the same degree of awareness about the space that can be achieved by using video cameras. We propose a novel approach in which we use a large number of simple motion sensors and a small set of video cameras to monitor a large office space. In our system we deployed 215 motion sensors and six video cameras to monitor the 3,000-square-meter office space occupied by 80 people for a period of about one year. The main problem in operating such systems is finding a way to present this highly multidimensional data, which includes both spatial and temporal components, to a human operator to allow browsing and searching recorded data in an efficient and intuitive way. In this paper we present our experiences and the solutions that we have developed in the course of our work on the system. We consider this work to be the first step in helping designers and managers of building systems gain access to information about occupants' behavior in the context of an entire building in a way that is only minimally intrusive to the occupants' privacy.

  20. Time and Space Partitioning the EagleEye Reference Misson

    Bos, Victor; Mendham, Peter; Kauppinen, Panu; Holsti, Niklas; Crespo, Alfons; Masmano, Miguel; de la Puente, Juan A.; Zamorano, Juan

    2013-08-01

    We discuss experiences gained by porting a Software Validation Facility (SVF) and a satellite Central Software (CSW) to a platform with support for Time and Space Partitioning (TSP). The SVF and CSW are part of the EagleEye Reference mission of the European Space Agency (ESA). As a reference mission, EagleEye is a perfect candidate to evaluate practical aspects of developing satellite CSW for and on TSP platforms. The specific TSP platform we used consists of a simulated LEON3 CPU controlled by the XtratuM separation micro-kernel. On top of this, we run five separate partitions. Each partition runs its own real-time operating system or Ada run-time kernel, which in turn are running the application software of the CSW. We describe issues related to partitioning; inter-partition communication; scheduling; I/O; and fault-detection, isolation, and recovery (FDIR).

  1. Concepts of space the history of theories of space in physics

    Jammer, Max

    1993-01-01

    Historical surveys consider Judeo-Christian notions of space, Newtonian absolute space, perceptions from 18th century to the present, more. Numerous quotations and references. "Admirably compact and swiftly paced style." - Philosophy of Science.

  2. A future large-aperture UVOIR space observatory: reference designs

    Rioux, Norman; Thronson, Harley; Feinberg, Lee; Stahl, H. Philip; Redding, Dave; Jones, Andrew; Sturm, James; Collins, Christine; Liu, Alice

    2015-09-01

    Our joint NASA GSFC/JPL/MSFC/STScI study team has used community-provided science goals to derive mission needs, requirements, and candidate mission architectures for a future large-aperture, non-cryogenic UVOIR space observatory. We describe the feasibility assessment of system thermal and dynamic stability for supporting coronagraphy. The observatory is in a Sun-Earth L2 orbit providing a stable thermal environment and excellent field of regard. Reference designs include a 36-segment 9.2 m aperture telescope that stows within a five meter diameter launch vehicle fairing. Performance needs developed under the study are traceable to a variety of reference designs including options for a monolithic primary mirror.

  3. An abridged history of federal involvement in space weather forecasting

    Caldwell, Becaja; McCarron, Eoin; Jonas, Seth

    2017-10-01

    Public awareness of space weather and its adverse effects on critical infrastructure systems, services, and technologies (e.g., the electric grid, telecommunications, and satellites) has grown through recent media coverage and scientific research. However, federal interest and involvement in space weather dates back to the decades between World War I and World War II when the National Bureau of Standards led efforts to observe, forecast, and provide warnings of space weather events that could interfere with high-frequency radio transmissions. The efforts to observe and predict space weather continued through the 1960s during the rise of the Cold War and into the present with U.S. government efforts to prepare the nation for space weather events. This paper provides a brief overview of the history of federal involvement in space weather forecasting from World War II, through the Apollo Program, and into the present.

  4. Classical field theory in the space of reference frames. [Space-time manifold, action principle

    Toller, M [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Libera Universita, Trento (Italy)

    1978-03-11

    The formalism of classical field theory is generalized by replacing the space-time manifold M by the ten-dimensional manifold S of all the local reference frames. The geometry of the manifold S is determined by ten vector fields corresponding to ten operationally defined infinitesimal transformations of the reference frames. The action principle is written in terms of a differential 4-form in the space S (the Lagrangian form). Densities and currents are represented by differential 3-forms in S. The field equations and the connection between symmetries and conservation laws (Noether's theorem) are derived from the action principle. Einstein's theory of gravitation and Maxwell's theory of electromagnetism are reformulated in this language. The general formalism can also be used to formulate theories in which charge, energy and momentum cannot be localized in space-time and even theories in which a space-time manifold cannot be defined exactly in any useful way.

  5. An ultra-stable optical frequency reference for space

    Schuldt, T.; Döringshoff, K.; Kovalchuk, E.; Pahl, J.; Gohlke, M.; Weise, D.; Johann, U.; Peters, A.; Braxmaier, C.

    2017-11-01

    We realized ultra-stable optical frequency references on elegant breadboard (EBB) and engineering model (EM) level utilizing Doppler-free spectroscopy of molecular iodine near 532nm. A frequency stability of about 1•10-14 at an integration time of 1 s and below 5•10-15 at integration times between 10 s and 100 s was achieved. These values are comparable to the currently best laboratory setups. Both setups use a baseplate made of glass material where the optical components are joint using a specific assembly-integration technology. Compared to the EBB setup, the EM setup is further developed with respect to compactness and mechanical and thermal stability. The EM setup uses a baseplate made of fused silica with dimensions of 380 x 180 x 40 mm3 and a specifically designed 100 x 100 x 30 mm3 rectangular iodine cell in nine-pass configuration with a specific robust cold finger design. The EM setup was subjected to thermal cycling and vibrational testing. Applications of such an optical frequency reference in space can be found in fundamental physics, geoscience, Earth observation, and navigation & ranging. One example is the proposed mSTAR (mini SpaceTime Asymmetry Research) mission, dedicated to perform a Kennedy-Thorndike experiment on a satellite in a sunsynchronous low-Earth orbit. By comparing an iodine standard to a cavity-based frequency reference and integration over 2 year mission lifetime, the Kennedy-Thorndike coefficient will be determined with up to two orders of magnitude higher accuracy than the current best ground experiment. In a current study, the compatibility of the payload with the SaudiSat-4 host vehicle is investigated.

  6. A study on the optimization of referring method about medical images using MIH (Medical Image History)

    Kim, Sun Chil; Kim, Jung Min

    2002-01-01

    The recent development of embodiment technology of the medical images makes most medical institutions introduce PACS (Picture Archiving and Communication System) in haste. However lots of PACS solutions, currently developed and distributed, haven't been able to serve the convenience of users and to satisfy user's demand because of economic limitations and administrator-oriented con-siderations in the process of development. So we have developed MIH (Medical Image History), by which we can search and refer to the patient's medical images and information with few restrictions of time and space for diagnosis and treatment. The program will contribute to the improvement in the medical environment and meet the clients' need. We'll make more effort to develop the application which insures the better quality of medical images. MIH manages the patient's image files and medical records like film chart in connection with time. This trial will contribute to the reduction of the economical loss caused by unnecessary references and improve the quality in the medical services. The demand on the development of the program which refers to the medical data quickly and keeps them stable will be continued by the medical institute. This will satisfy the client's demand and improve the service to the patients in that the program will be modified from the standpoint of the users. MIH is trying to keep user-oriented policy and to apply the benefit of the analog system to the digital environment. It is necessary to lead the public to the better understanding that the systematic management and referring of the medical images is as important as the quality of the images

  7. A study on the optimization of referring method about medical images using MIH (Medical Image History)

    Kim, Sun Chil; Kim, Jung Min [College of Health Sciences, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-09-15

    The recent development of embodiment technology of the medical images makes most medical institutions introduce PACS (Picture Archiving and Communication System) in haste. However lots of PACS solutions, currently developed and distributed, haven't been able to serve the convenience of users and to satisfy user's demand because of economic limitations and administrator-oriented con-siderations in the process of development. So we have developed MIH (Medical Image History), by which we can search and refer to the patient's medical images and information with few restrictions of time and space for diagnosis and treatment. The program will contribute to the improvement in the medical environment and meet the clients' need. We'll make more effort to develop the application which insures the better quality of medical images. MIH manages the patient's image files and medical records like film chart in connection with time. This trial will contribute to the reduction of the economical loss caused by unnecessary references and improve the quality in the medical services. The demand on the development of the program which refers to the medical data quickly and keeps them stable will be continued by the medical institute. This will satisfy the client's demand and improve the service to the patients in that the program will be modified from the standpoint of the users. MIH is trying to keep user-oriented policy and to apply the benefit of the analog system to the digital environment. It is necessary to lead the public to the better understanding that the systematic management and referring of the medical images is as important as the quality of the images.

  8. Space Shuttle GN and C Development History and Evolution

    Zimpfer, Douglas; Hattis, Phil; Ruppert, John; Gavert, Don

    2011-01-01

    Completion of the final Space Shuttle flight marks the end of a significant era in Human Spaceflight. Developed in the 1970 s, first launched in 1981, the Space Shuttle embodies many significant engineering achievements. One of these is the development and operation of the first extensive fly-by-wire human space transportation Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN&C) System. Development of the Space Shuttle GN&C represented first time inclusions of modern techniques for electronics, software, algorithms, systems and management in a complex system. Numerous technical design trades and lessons learned continue to drive current vehicle development. For example, the Space Shuttle GN&C system incorporated redundant systems, complex algorithms and flight software rigorously verified through integrated vehicle simulations and avionics integration testing techniques. Over the past thirty years, the Shuttle GN&C continued to go through a series of upgrades to improve safety, performance and to enable the complex flight operations required for assembly of the international space station. Upgrades to the GN&C ranged from the addition of nose wheel steering to modifications that extend capabilities to control of the large flexible configurations while being docked to the Space Station. This paper provides a history of the development and evolution of the Space Shuttle GN&C system. Emphasis is placed on key architecture decisions, design trades and the lessons learned for future complex space transportation system developments. Finally, some of the interesting flight operations experience is provided to inform future developers of flight experiences.

  9. Detecting space-time cancer clusters using residential histories

    Jacquez, Geoffrey M.; Meliker, Jaymie R.

    2007-04-01

    Methods for analyzing geographic clusters of disease typically ignore the space-time variability inherent in epidemiologic datasets, do not adequately account for known risk factors (e.g., smoking and education) or covariates (e.g., age, gender, and race), and do not permit investigation of the latency window between exposure and disease. Our research group recently developed Q-statistics for evaluating space-time clustering in cancer case-control studies with residential histories. This technique relies on time-dependent nearest neighbor relationships to examine clustering at any moment in the life-course of the residential histories of cases relative to that of controls. In addition, in place of the widely used null hypothesis of spatial randomness, each individual's probability of being a case is instead based on his/her risk factors and covariates. Case-control clusters will be presented using residential histories of 220 bladder cancer cases and 440 controls in Michigan. In preliminary analyses of this dataset, smoking, age, gender, race and education were sufficient to explain the majority of the clustering of residential histories of the cases. Clusters of unexplained risk, however, were identified surrounding the business address histories of 10 industries that emit known or suspected bladder cancer carcinogens. The clustering of 5 of these industries began in the 1970's and persisted through the 1990's. This systematic approach for evaluating space-time clustering has the potential to generate novel hypotheses about environmental risk factors. These methods may be extended to detect differences in space-time patterns of any two groups of people, making them valuable for security intelligence and surveillance operations.

  10. "Life history space": a multivariate analysis of life history variation in extant and extinct Malagasy lemurs.

    Catlett, Kierstin K; Schwartz, Gary T; Godfrey, Laurie R; Jungers, William L

    2010-07-01

    Studies of primate life history variation are constrained by the fact that all large-bodied extant primates are haplorhines. However, large-bodied strepsirrhines recently existed. If we can extract life history information from their skeletons, these species can contribute to our understanding of primate life history variation. This is particularly important in light of new critiques of the classic "fast-slow continuum" as a descriptor of variation in life history profiles across mammals in general. We use established dental histological methods to estimate gestation length and age at weaning for five extinct lemur species. On the basis of these estimates, we reconstruct minimum interbirth intervals and maximum reproductive rates. We utilize principal components analysis to create a multivariate "life history space" that captures the relationships among reproductive parameters and brain and body size in extinct and extant lemurs. Our data show that, whereas large-bodied extinct lemurs can be described as "slow" in some fashion, they also varied greatly in their life history profiles. Those with relatively large brains also weaned their offspring late and had long interbirth intervals. These were not the largest of extinct lemurs. Thus, we distinguish size-related life history variation from variation that linked more strongly to ecological factors. Because all lemur species larger than 10 kg, regardless of life history profile, succumbed to extinction after humans arrived in Madagascar, we argue that large body size increased the probability of extinction independently of reproductive rate. We also provide some evidence that, among lemurs, brain size predicts reproductive rate better than body size. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. About the Infinite Repetition of Histories in Space

    Manuel Alfonseca

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes two different proposals, one by Ellis and Brundrit, based on classical relativistic cosmology, the other by Garriga and Vilenkin, based on the DH interpretation of quantum mechanics, both concluding that, in an infinite universe, planets and beings must be repeated an infinite number of times. We point to possible shortcomings in these arguments. We conclude that the idea of an infinite repetition of histories in space cannot be considered strictly speaking a consequence of current physics and cosmology. Such ideas should be seen rather as examples of «ironic science» in the terminology of John Horgan.

  12. Space-time clusters of breast cancer using residential histories

    Nordsborg, Rikke Baastrup; Meliker, Jaymie R; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A large proportion of breast cancer cases are thought related to environmental factors. Identification of specific geographical areas with high risk (clusters) may give clues to potential environmental risk factors. The aim of this study was to investigate whether clusters of breast...... cancer existed in space and time in Denmark, using 33 years of residential histories. METHODS: We conducted a population-based case-control study of 3138 female cases from the Danish Cancer Registry, diagnosed with breast cancer in 2003 and two independent control groups of 3138 women each, randomly...

  13. Consider the category: The effect of spacing depends on individual learning histories.

    Slone, Lauren K; Sandhofer, Catherine M

    2017-07-01

    The spacing effect refers to increased retention following learning instances that are spaced out in time compared with massed together in time. By one account, the advantages of spaced learning should be independent of task particulars and previous learning experiences given that spacing effects have been demonstrated in a variety of tasks across the lifespan. However, by another account, spaced learning should be affected by previous learning because past learning affects the memory and attention processes that form the crux of the spacing effect. The current study investigated whether individuals' learning histories affect the role of spacing in category learning. We examined the effect of spacing on 24 2- to 3.5-year-old children's learning of categories organized by properties to which children's previous learning experiences have biased them to attend (i.e., shape) and properties to which children are less biased to attend (i.e., texture and color). Spaced presentations led to significantly better learning of shape categories, but not of texture or color categories, compared with massed presentations. In addition, generalized estimating equations analyses revealed positive relations between the size of children's "shape-side" productive vocabularies and their shape category learning and between the size of children's "against-the-system" productive vocabularies and their texture category learning. These results suggest that children's attention to and memory for novel object categories are strongly related to their individual word-learning histories. Moreover, children's learned attentional biases affected the types of categories for which spacing facilitated learning. These findings highlight the importance of considering how learners' previous experiences may influence future learning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. History of Los Alamos Participation in Active Experiments in Space

    Pongratz, Morris B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-02-06

    Beginning with the Teak nuclear test in 1958, Los Alamos has a long history of participation in active experiments in space. The last pertinent nuclear tests were the five explosions as part of the Dominic series in 1962. The Partial Test Ban Treaty signed in August 1963 prohibited all test detonations of nuclear weapons except for those conducted underground. Beginning with the “Apple” thermite barium release in June 1968 Los Alamos has participated in nearly 100 non-nuclear experiments in space, the last being the NASA-sponsored “AA-2” strontium and europium doped barium thermite releases in the Arecibo beam in July of 1992. The rationale for these experiments ranged from studying basic plasma processes such as gradientdriven structuring and velocity-space instabilities to illuminating the convection of plasmas in the ionosphere and polar cap to ionospheric depletion experiments to the B.E.A.R. 1-MeV neutral particle beam test in 1989. This report reviews the objectives, techniques and diagnostics of Los Alamos participation in active experiments in space.

  15. Writing the History of Space Missions: Rosetta and Mars Express

    Coradini, M.; Russo, A.

    2011-10-01

    Mars Express is the first planetary mission accomplished by the European Space Agency (ESA). Launched in early June 2003, the spacecraft entered Mars's orbit on Christmas day of that year, demonstrating the new European commitment to planetary exploration. Following a failed attempt in the mid-­-1980s, two valid proposals for a European mission to Mars were submitted to ESA's decision-­-making bodies in the early 1990s, in step with renewed international interest in Mars exploration. Both were rejected, however, in the competitive selection process for the agency's Science Programme. Eventually, the Mars Express proposal emerged during a severe budgetary crisis in the mid-­-1990s as an exemplar of a "flexible mission" that could reduce project costs and development time. Its successful maneuvering through financial difficulties and conflicting scientific interests was due to the new management approach as well as to the public appeal of Mars exploration. In addition to providing a case study in the functioning of the ESA's Science Programme, the story of Mars Express discussed in this paper provides a case study in the functioning of the European Space Agency's Science Programme and suggests some general considerations on the peculiar position of space research in the general field of the history of science and technology.

  16. Phenomenology, psychiatric comorbidity and family history in referred preschool children with obsessive-compulsive disorder

    Coskun Murat

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The study aimed to investigate phenomenology, psychiatric comorbidity, and family history of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD in a clinical sample of normally developing preschool children with OCD. Method Subjects in this study were recruited from a clinical sample of preschool children (under 72 months of age who were referred to a university clinic. Subjects with a normal developmental history and significant impairment related to OCD symptoms were included in the study. Children’s Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale was used to assess OCD symptoms. Each subject was assessed for comorbid DSM-IV psychiatric disorders using a semi-structured interview. Parents were evaluated for lifetime history of OCD in individual sessions. Results Fifteen boys and ten girls (age range: 28 to 69 months; 54.12±9.08 months were included. Mean age of onset of OCD was 35.64±13.42 months. All subjects received at least one comorbid diagnosis. The most frequent comorbid disorders were non-OCD anxiety disorders (n=17; 68.0%, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD (n=15; 60.0%, oppositional defiant disorder (ODD (n=12; 48.0%, and tic disorders (n=6; 24.0%. Mean number of comorbid disorders was 3.65 and 2.35 for boys and girls, respectively. At least one parent received lifetime OCD diagnosis in 68 percent of the subjects. Conclusions The results indicated that OCD in referred preschool children is more common in males, highly comorbid with other psychiatric disorders, and associated with high rates of family history of OCD. Given the high rates of comorbidity and family history, OCD should be considered in referred preschool children with disruptive behavior disorders and/or with family history of OCD.

  17. Analysis of Life Histories: A State Space Approach

    Rajulton, Fernando

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available EnglishThe computer package LIFEHIST written by the author, is meant for analyzinglife histories through a state-space approach. Basic ideas on which the various programs have beenbuilt are described in this paper in a non-mathematical language. Users can use various programs formultistate analyses based on Markov and semi-Markov frameworks and sequences of transitions implied inlife histories. The package is under constant revision and programs for using a few specific modelsthe author thinks will be useful for analyzing longitudinal data will be incorporated in the nearfuture.FrenchLe système d'ordinateur LIFEHIST écrit par l'auteur est établi pour analyser desévénements au cours de la vie par une approche qui tient compte des états aucours du temps. Les idées fondamentales à la base des divers programmes dumodule sont décrites dans un langage non-mathématique. Le systèmeLIFEHIST peut être utilisé pour des analyses Markov et semi-Markov desséquences d’événements au cours de la vie. Le module est sous révisionconstante, et des programmes que l’auteur compte ajouter pour l'usage dedonnées longitudinales sont décrit.

  18. New Search Space Reduction Algorithm for Vertical Reference Trajectory Optimization

    Alejandro MURRIETA-MENDOZA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Burning the fuel required to sustain a given flight releases pollution such as carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxides, and the amount of fuel consumed is also a significant expense for airlines. It is desirable to reduce fuel consumption to reduce both pollution and flight costs. To increase fuel savings in a given flight, one option is to compute the most economical vertical reference trajectory (or flight plan. A deterministic algorithm was developed using a numerical aircraft performance model to determine the most economical vertical flight profile considering take-off weight, flight distance, step climb and weather conditions. This algorithm is based on linear interpolations of the performance model using the Lagrange interpolation method. The algorithm downloads the latest available forecast from Environment Canada according to the departure date and flight coordinates, and calculates the optimal trajectory taking into account the effects of wind and temperature. Techniques to avoid unnecessary calculations are implemented to reduce the computation time. The costs of the reference trajectories proposed by the algorithm are compared with the costs of the reference trajectories proposed by a commercial flight management system using the fuel consumption estimated by the FlightSim® simulator made by Presagis®.

  19. An alternative reference space for H&E color normalization.

    Mark D Zarella

    Full Text Available Digital imaging of H&E stained slides has enabled the application of image processing to support pathology workflows. Potential applications include computer-aided diagnostics, advanced quantification tools, and innovative visualization platforms. However, the intrinsic variability of biological tissue and the vast differences in tissue preparation protocols often lead to significant image variability that can hamper the effectiveness of these computational tools. We developed an alternative representation for H&E images that operates within a space that is more amenable to many of these image processing tools. The algorithm to derive this representation operates by exploiting the correlation between color and the spatial properties of the biological structures present in most H&E images. In this way, images are transformed into a structure-centric space in which images are segregated into tissue structure channels. We demonstrate that this framework can be extended to achieve color normalization, effectively reducing inter-slide variability.

  20. History of Shock Waves, Explosions and Impact A Chronological and Biographical Reference

    Krehl, Peter O. K

    2009-01-01

    This unique and encyclopedic reference work charts the evolution of the physics of shock waves and detonations from the earliest investigations into percussion and impact phenomena right up to the most recent groundbreaking research in the field. The history of this long and complex process is first reviewed in a general survey that encompasses everything from the earliest observations and interpretations of puzzling high-rate dynamic phenomena associated with natural and man-made explosions to a discussion of the merits of modern numerical computer simulations. The subject is then treated in more detail and in chronological order in the central section of the book, while also being richly illustrated in form of a picture gallery. The bibliographic index provides 122 short biographies of eminent researchers who have contributed to the field. Further references for biographical sources are given, and both name and subject indices (with over 4500 and 2700 entries, respectively) are provided. "This book is of tr...

  1. Reference Concepts for a Space-Based Hydrogen-Oxygen Combustion, Turboalternator, Burst Power System

    Edenburn, Michael

    1990-01-01

    This report describes reference concepts for a hydrogen-oxygen combustion, turboalternator power system that supplies power during battle engagement to a space-based, ballistic missile defense platform...

  2. A history of the INTERNIST-1 and Quick Medical Reference (QMR) computer-assisted diagnosis projects, with lessons learned.

    Miller, R A

    2010-01-01

    The INTERNIST-1/Quick Medical Reference (QMR) diagnostic decision support project spans four decades, from 1971-onward. This paper describes the history of the project and details insights gained of relevance to the general clinical and informatics communities.

  3. Google Sets, Google Suggest, and Google Search History: Three More Tools for the Reference Librarian's Bag of Tricks

    Cirasella, Jill

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the features, quirks, and uses of Google Sets, Google Suggest, and Google Search History and argues that these three lesser-known Google tools warrant inclusion in the resourceful reference librarian’s bag of tricks.

  4. Earth observations from space: History, promise, and reality. Executive summary

    1995-01-01

    In this report the Committee on Earth Studies (CES), a standing committee of the Space Studies Board (SSB) within the National Research Council (NRC), reviews the recent history (nominally from 1981 to 1995) of the U.S. earth observations programs that serve civilian needs. The principal observations programs examined are those of NASA and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The Air Force' s Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) is discussed, but only from the perspective of its relationship to civil needs and the planned merger with the NOAA polar-orbiting system. The report also reviews the interfaces between the earth observations satellite programs and the major national and international environmental monitoring and research programs. The monitoring and research programs discussed are the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP), the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program (IGBP), the World Climate Research Program (WCRP), related international scientific campaigns, and operational programs for the sharing and application of environmental data. The purpose of this report is to provide a broad historical review and commentary based on the views of the CES members, with particular emphasis on tracing the lengthy record of advisory committee recommendations. Any individual topic could be the subject of an extended report in its own right. Indeed, extensive further reviews are already under way to that end. If the CES has succeeded in the task it has undertaken. This report will serve as a useful starting point for any such more intensive study. The report is divided into eight chapters: ( I ) an introduction, (2) the evolution of the MTPE, (3) its relationship to the USGCRP, (4) applications of earth observations data, (5) the role that smaller satellites can play in research and operational remote sensing, (6) earth system modeling and information systems, (7) a number of associated activities that contribute to the MTPE

  5. A short history of fractal-Cantorian space-time

    Marek-Crnjac, L.

    2009-01-01

    The article attempts to give a short historical overview of the discovery of fractal-Cantorian space-time starting from the 17th century up to the present. In the last 25 years a great number of scientists worked on fractal space-time notably Garnet Ord in Canada, Laurent Nottale in France and Mohamed El Naschie in England who gave an exact mathematical procedure for the derivation of the dimensionality and curvature of fractal space-time fuzzy manifold.

  6. Time, Space and the History of Agricultural Landscapes

    Svenningsen, Stig Roar; Christensen, Andreas Aagaard

    history, especially as the rate of changes in cultural landscapes has increased during the last 40 years as the result of the development in the agro-industrial sector. However landscape changes rarely occur as abrupt and sudden breaks, but more as gradual process over long time periods corresponding...... with development in farming technology, modes of production and social organization. The majority of sources material to landscape history are of geographic nature, such as cartographic material, aerial imagery, photographs and paintings and opposite to the gradual nature of changes in the landscape, most sources...... to the physical structure of landscapes has a fixed temporal nature depicting the landscape at time of record, often at different spatial scales. This creates a challenge for Environmental history of European agricultural landscapes to produce a framework, which can incorporate these differences in temporal...

  7. Space Agriculture, Tourism and Health - Lessons from British Imperial History

    Sivier, D. J.

    Advocates of space commercialisation and colonisation have drawn on previous centuries' experience of the exploration and exploitation of terrestrial New Worlds. Although so far chiefly confined to the colonisation of the Americas and exploration of the Antarctic, a proper examination of the problems and solutions faced and found by the late 19th - early 20th century Jamaican tourist trade, mid-Victorian planter agriculturalists in Sri Lanka and the impact of climatic theories of health on early 20th century White colonists in Kenya and Rhodesia, can, if properly applied to today's conditions affecting modern space businesses, offer important insights to the psychological impact and aetiology of disease amongst future space colonists, and the success- ful establishment and management of tourism and agriculture in space. By following the precedents set by the imperial pioneers, it should be possible to apply their founding principles in these sectors successfully, while avoiding the pitfalls and excesses of terrestrial imperialism.

  8. Do We Need Separate Space Theory: The Lessons of History

    Marheine, Fred

    2001-01-01

    .... Professionals throughout the Department of Defense and other branches of the US government have long debated the need to produce separate space theory or whether a modified version of air theory...

  9. History of Reliability and Quality Assurance at Kennedy Space Center

    Childers, Frank M.

    2004-01-01

    This Kennedy Historical Document (KHD) provides a unique historical perspective of the organizational and functional responsibilities for the manned and un-manned programs at Kennedy Space Center, Florida. As systems become more complex and hazardous, the attention to detailed planning and execution continues to be a challenge. The need for a robust reliability and quality assurance program will always be a necessity to ensure mission success. As new space missions are defined and technology allows for continued access to space, these programs cannot be compromised. The organizational structure that has provided the reliability and quality assurance functions for both the manned and unmanned programs has seen many changes since the first group came to Florida in the 1950's. The roles of government and contractor personnel have changed with each program and organizational alignment has changed based on that responsibility. The organizational alignment of the personnel performing these functions must ensure independent assessment of the processes.

  10. Memories in Motion: Learning, Process, History and Art in Public Space

    Qadri, Debbie

    2015-01-01

    This essay presents an art project as an example of two aspects of public pedagogy. The first, is that the project critically examined how history is made, and through art-making and installation it performed an alternative publishing of history. Secondly, the art project was utilised as both a process and outcome within public space, and through…

  11. Community History as a Male-Constructed Space: Challenging Gendered Memories among South African Muslim Women

    Daniels, Doria

    2009-01-01

    The post-Apartheid community history is a male-constructed space, narrated into present-day consciousness by male community leaders and history writers. The patriarchal worldview disparages women's contributions and activisms. This article reports on how Muslim women from a small fishing village in South Africa in the early 1900s strategized to…

  12. Modal-space reference-model-tracking fuzzy control of earthquake excited structures

    Park, Kwan-Soon; Ok, Seung-Yong

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes an adaptive modal-space reference-model-tracking fuzzy control technique for the vibration control of earthquake-excited structures. In the proposed approach, the fuzzy logic is introduced to update optimal control force so that the controlled structural response can track the desired response of a reference model. For easy and practical implementation, the reference model is constructed by assigning the target damping ratios to the first few dominant modes in modal space. The numerical simulation results demonstrate that the proposed approach successfully achieves not only the adaptive fault-tolerant control system against partial actuator failures but also the robust performance against the variations of the uncertain system properties by redistributing the feedback control forces to the available actuators.

  13. Space science for applications - The history of Landsat

    Mach, P. E.

    1981-01-01

    The history of the Landsat project is discussed in terms of three historical phases, each characterized by a dominant problem. From 1964 to 1967, the challenge was to develop interagency cooperation and to achieve consensus on basic plans for the satellite. Between 1968 and 1971, the cooperating agencies had to persuade the Bureau of the Budget to provide funding for the project. Since 1972, the challenge to NASA has been to encourage applications of the Landsat data and plan the shift from an experimental program to an operational one. The tension between experimental and operational goals has run through all these phases, and the conflicts between agencies is detailed, as well as the interaction between technological and political systems.

  14. Land-Use History and Contemporary Management Inform an Ecological Reference Model for Longleaf Pine Woodland Understory Plant Communities.

    Brudvig, Lars A. [Department of Plant Biology, Michigan State University; Orrock, John L. [Department of Zoology, University of Wisconsin; Damschen, Ellen I. [Department of Zoology, University of Wisconsin; et al, et al

    2014-01-23

    Ecological restoration is frequently guided by reference conditions describing a successfully restored ecosystem; however, the causes and magnitude of ecosystem degradation vary, making simple knowledge of reference conditions insufficient for prioritizing and guiding restoration. Ecological reference models provide further guidance by quantifying reference conditions, as well as conditions at degraded states that deviate from reference conditions. Many reference models remain qualitative, however, limiting their utility. We quantified and evaluated a reference model for southeastern U.S. longleaf pine woodland understory plant communities. We used regression trees to classify 232 longleaf pine woodland sites at three locations along the Atlantic coastal plain based on relationships between understory plant community composition, soils lol(which broadly structure these communities), and factors associated with understory degradation, including fire frequency, agricultural history, and tree basal area. To understand the spatial generality of this model, we classified all sites together. and for each of three study locations separately. Both the regional and location-specific models produced quantifiable degradation gradients–i.e., progressive deviation from conditions at 38 reference sites, based on understory species composition, diversity and total cover, litter depth, and other attributes. Regionally, fire suppression was the most important degrading factor, followed by agricultural history, but at individual locations, agricultural history or tree basal area was most important. At one location, the influence of a degrading factor depended on soil attributes. We suggest that our regional model can help prioritize longleaf pine woodland restoration across our study region; however, due to substantial landscape-to-landscape variation, local management decisions should take into account additional factors (e.g., soil attributes). Our study demonstrates the utility

  15. Land-Use History and Contemporary Management Inform an Ecological Reference Model for Longleaf Pine Woodland Understory Plant Communities

    Brudvig, Lars A.; Orrock, John L.; Damschen, Ellen I.; Collins, Cathy D.; Hahn, Philip G.; Mattingly, W. Brett; Veldman, Joseph W.; Walker, Joan L.

    2014-01-01

    Ecological restoration is frequently guided by reference conditions describing a successfully restored ecosystem; however, the causes and magnitude of ecosystem degradation vary, making simple knowledge of reference conditions insufficient for prioritizing and guiding restoration. Ecological reference models provide further guidance by quantifying reference conditions, as well as conditions at degraded states that deviate from reference conditions. Many reference models remain qualitative, however, limiting their utility. We quantified and evaluated a reference model for southeastern U.S. longleaf pine woodland understory plant communities. We used regression trees to classify 232 longleaf pine woodland sites at three locations along the Atlantic coastal plain based on relationships between understory plant community composition, soils (which broadly structure these communities), and factors associated with understory degradation, including fire frequency, agricultural history, and tree basal area. To understand the spatial generality of this model, we classified all sites together and for each of three study locations separately. Both the regional and location-specific models produced quantifiable degradation gradients–i.e., progressive deviation from conditions at 38 reference sites, based on understory species composition, diversity and total cover, litter depth, and other attributes. Regionally, fire suppression was the most important degrading factor, followed by agricultural history, but at individual locations, agricultural history or tree basal area was most important. At one location, the influence of a degrading factor depended on soil attributes. We suggest that our regional model can help prioritize longleaf pine woodland restoration across our study region; however, due to substantial landscape-to-landscape variation, local management decisions should take into account additional factors (e.g., soil attributes). Our study demonstrates the utility of

  16. Land-use history and contemporary management inform an ecological reference model for longleaf pine woodland understory plant communities.

    Lars A Brudvig

    Full Text Available Ecological restoration is frequently guided by reference conditions describing a successfully restored ecosystem; however, the causes and magnitude of ecosystem degradation vary, making simple knowledge of reference conditions insufficient for prioritizing and guiding restoration. Ecological reference models provide further guidance by quantifying reference conditions, as well as conditions at degraded states that deviate from reference conditions. Many reference models remain qualitative, however, limiting their utility. We quantified and evaluated a reference model for southeastern U.S. longleaf pine woodland understory plant communities. We used regression trees to classify 232 longleaf pine woodland sites at three locations along the Atlantic coastal plain based on relationships between understory plant community composition, soils (which broadly structure these communities, and factors associated with understory degradation, including fire frequency, agricultural history, and tree basal area. To understand the spatial generality of this model, we classified all sites together and for each of three study locations separately. Both the regional and location-specific models produced quantifiable degradation gradients-i.e., progressive deviation from conditions at 38 reference sites, based on understory species composition, diversity and total cover, litter depth, and other attributes. Regionally, fire suppression was the most important degrading factor, followed by agricultural history, but at individual locations, agricultural history or tree basal area was most important. At one location, the influence of a degrading factor depended on soil attributes. We suggest that our regional model can help prioritize longleaf pine woodland restoration across our study region; however, due to substantial landscape-to-landscape variation, local management decisions should take into account additional factors (e.g., soil attributes. Our study demonstrates

  17. THE HISTORY OF SCIENCE IN THE INTERACTIVE SPACE OF CBME

    D.F.B Ovigli

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Considering that since the 1980’s it has a paradigm change, strengtheningthe perception of Science as a human construction and not as "natural truth", newapproaches of teaching emphasizes the importance of the History of Science inthe educational process, also recommended by the Brazilian PCNs. In thiscontext, it is presented the conclusion of the elaboration and evaluation of anillustrated historical panel that is in permanent exposition in the Interactive Spaceof Biotechnology of the CBME. It presents 25 pictures, inserted in a timeline thatselects important events related to cell biology, microbiology and immunology. Thetimeline is initiated in century XVI, with the microbial theory of the illnesses;spontaneous generation and the experiments of Needham and Spallanzani alsoare commented, as well as the production of the first vaccine. Koch, in centuryXIX, is remembered with its postulates and the discovery of some illnessescausative agents. Brazilians’ researchers - Adolfo Lutz, Oswaldo Cruz, Vital Braziland Carlos Chagas – and institutes are presented too. The panel revealed itself asan important source of information, awakening the interest of the visitors for thesubject. The idea was based on presenting Science as a human knowledgeadventure, emphasizing the scientific process in the construction of theknowledge, based on procedures, needs and different interests and values.

  18. A time-domain method to generate artificial time history from a given reference response spectrum

    Shin, Gang Sik [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Song, Oh Seop [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Seismic qualification by test is widely used as a way to show the integrity and functionality of equipment that is related to the overall safety of nuclear power plants. Another means of seismic qualification is by direct integration analysis. Both approaches require a series of time histories as an input. However, in most cases, the possibility of using real earthquake data is limited. Thus, artificial time histories are widely used instead. In many cases, however, response spectra are given. Thus, most of the artificial time histories are generated from the given response spectra. Obtaining the response spectrum from a given time history is straightforward. However, the procedure for generating artificial time histories from a given response spectrum is difficult and complex to understand. Thus, this paper presents a simple time-domain method for generating a time history from a given response spectrum; the method was shown to satisfy conditions derived from nuclear regulatory guidance.

  19. A time-domain method to generate artificial time history from a given reference response spectrum

    Shin, Gang Sik; Song, Oh Seop

    2016-01-01

    Seismic qualification by test is widely used as a way to show the integrity and functionality of equipment that is related to the overall safety of nuclear power plants. Another means of seismic qualification is by direct integration analysis. Both approaches require a series of time histories as an input. However, in most cases, the possibility of using real earthquake data is limited. Thus, artificial time histories are widely used instead. In many cases, however, response spectra are given. Thus, most of the artificial time histories are generated from the given response spectra. Obtaining the response spectrum from a given time history is straightforward. However, the procedure for generating artificial time histories from a given response spectrum is difficult and complex to understand. Thus, this paper presents a simple time-domain method for generating a time history from a given response spectrum; the method was shown to satisfy conditions derived from nuclear regulatory guidance

  20. History of space medicine: the formative years at NASA.

    Berry, Charles A; Hoffler, G Wyckliffe; Jernigan, Clarence A; Kerwin, Joseph P; Mohler, Stanley R

    2009-04-01

    Almost nothing was known about the effects of spaceflight on human physiology when, in May of 1961, President John F. Kennedy committed the United States to land a man on the Moon and return him safely to Earth within the decade. There were more questions than answers regarding the effects of acceleration, vibration, cabin pressure, CO2 concentration, and microgravity. There were known external threats to life, such as solar and ultraviolet radiation, meteorites, and extreme temperatures as well as issues for which the physicians and scientists could not even formulate the questions. And there was no time for controlled experiments with the required numbers of animal or human subjects. Of necessity, risks were evaluated and mitigated or accepted based on minimal data. This article summarizes presentations originally given as a panel at the 79th Annual Scientific Meeting of the Aerospace Medical Association in Boston in 2008. In it, five pioneers in space medicine at NASA looked back on the development of their field. The authors related personal anecdotes, discussed the roles of various people and presented examples of contributions to emerging U.S. initiatives for human spaceflight. Topics included the development of quarantine facilities for returning Apollo astronauts, the struggles between operational medicine and research personnel, and observations from the first U.S. medical officer to experience weightlessness on orbit. Brief biographies of the authors are appended to document their participation in these historic events.

  1. An Engineering Design Reference Mission for a Future Large-Aperture UVOIR Space Observatory

    Thronson, Harley A.; Bolcar, Matthew R.; Clampin, Mark; Crooke, Julie A.; Redding, David; Rioux, Norman; Stahl, H. Philip

    2016-01-01

    From the 2010 NRC Decadal Survey and the NASA Thirty-Year Roadmap, Enduring Quests, Daring Visions, to the recent AURA report, From Cosmic Birth to Living Earths, multiple community assessments have recommended development of a large-aperture UVOIR space observatory capable of achieving a broad range of compelling scientific goals. Of these priority science goals, the most technically challenging is the search for spectroscopic biomarkers in the atmospheres of exoplanets in the solar neighborhood. Here we present an engineering design reference mission (EDRM) for the Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST), which was conceived from the start as capable of breakthrough science paired with an emphasis on cost control and cost effectiveness. An EDRM allows the engineering design trade space to be explored in depth to determine what are the most demanding requirements and where there are opportunities for margin against requirements. Our joint NASA GSFC/JPL/MSFC/STScI study team has used community-provided science goals to derive mission needs, requirements, and candidate mission architectures for a future large-aperture, non-cryogenic UVOIR space observatory. The ATLAST observatory is designed to operate at a Sun-Earth L2 orbit, which provides a stable thermal environment and excellent field of regard. Our reference designs have emphasized a serviceable 36-segment 9.2 m aperture telescope that stows within a five-meter diameter launch vehicle fairing. As part of our cost-management effort, this particular reference mission builds upon the engineering design for JWST. Moreover, it is scalable to a variety of launch vehicle fairings. Performance needs developed under the study are traceable to a variety of additional reference designs, including options for a monolithic primary mirror.

  2. Analytically continued Fock space multi-reference coupled-cluster theory: Application to the shape resonance

    Pal, Sourav; Sajeev, Y.; Vaval, Nayana

    2006-01-01

    The Fock space multi-reference coupled-cluster (FSMRCC) method is used for the study of the shape resonance energy and width in an electron-atom/molecule collision. The procedure is based upon combining a complex absorbing potential (CAP) with FSMRCC theory. Accurate resonance parameters are obtained by solving a small non-Hermitian eigen-value problem. We study the shape resonances in e - -C 2 H 4 and e - -Mg

  3. Face-infringement space: the frame of reference of the ventral intraparietal area.

    McCollum, Gin; Klam, François; Graf, Werner

    2012-07-01

    Experimental studies have shown that responses of ventral intraparietal area (VIP) neurons specialize in head movements and the environment near the head. VIP neurons respond to visual, auditory, and tactile stimuli, smooth pursuit eye movements, and passive and active movements of the head. This study demonstrates mathematical structure on a higher organizational level created within VIP by the integration of a complete set of variables covering face-infringement. Rather than positing dynamics in an a priori defined coordinate system such as those of physical space, we assemble neuronal receptive fields to find out what space of variables VIP neurons together cover. Section 1 presents a view of neurons as multidimensional mathematical objects. Each VIP neuron occupies or is responsive to a region in a sensorimotor phase space, thus unifying variables relevant to the disparate sensory modalities and movements. Convergence on one neuron joins variables functionally, as space and time are joined in relativistic physics to form a unified spacetime. The space of position and motion together forms a neuronal phase space, bridging neurophysiology and the physics of face-infringement. After a brief review of the experimental literature, the neuronal phase space natural to VIP is sequentially characterized, based on experimental data. Responses of neurons indicate variables that may serve as axes of neural reference frames, and neuronal responses have been so used in this study. The space of sensory and movement variables covered by VIP receptive fields joins visual and auditory space to body-bound sensory modalities: somatosensation and the inertial senses. This joining of allocentric and egocentric modalities is in keeping with the known relationship of the parietal lobe to the sense of self in space and to hemineglect, in both humans and monkeys. Following this inductive step, variables are formalized in terms of the mathematics of graph theory to deduce which

  4. Civic space: questions of society, history and politics to make a new public space

    Dinneen, Marian

    2012-01-01

    non-peer-reviewed The ambition of my thesis project is to design civic space, space for civic engagement. Taking inspiration from the various voices who have identified a democratic crisis and who are themselves more civilly engaged, I am designing for a society that has revolutionised itself to be more active in its own governance. I propose an alternative local government whose public face is dissolved into the street into an aggregation of rooms rather than on...

  5. A Ka-Band Celestial Reference Frame with Applications to Deep Space Navigation

    Jacobs, Christopher S.; Clark, J. Eric; Garcia-Miro, Cristina; Horiuchi, Shinji; Sotuela, Ioana

    2011-01-01

    The Ka-band radio spectrum is now being used for a wide variety of applications. This paper highlights the use of Ka-band as a frequency for precise deep space navigation based on a set of reference beacons provided by extragalactic quasars which emit broadband noise at Ka-band. This quasar-based celestial reference frame is constructed using X/Ka-band (8.4/32 GHz) from fifty-five 24-hour sessions with the Deep Space Network antennas in California, Australia, and Spain. We report on observations which have detected 464 sources covering the full 24 hours of Right Ascension and declinations down to -45 deg. Comparison of this X/Ka-band frame to the international standard S/X-band (2.3/8.4 GHz) ICRF2 shows wRMS agreement of approximately 200 micro-arcsec in alpha cos(delta) and approximately 300 micro-arcsec in delta. There is evidence for systematic errors at the 100 micro-arcsec level. Known errors include limited SNR, lack of instrumental phase calibration, tropospheric refraction mis-modeling, and limited southern geometry. The motivation for extending the celestial reference frame to frequencies above 8 GHz is to access more compact source morphology for improved frame stability and to support spacecraft navigation for Ka-band based NASA missions.

  6. Reference Data Layers for Earth and Environmental Science: History, Frameworks, Science Needs, Approaches, and New Technologies

    Lenhardt, W. C.

    2015-12-01

    Global Mapping Project, Web-enabled Landsat Data (WELD), International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project (ISLSCP), hydrology, solid earth dynamics, sedimentary geology, climate modeling, integrated assessments and so on all have needs for or have worked to develop consistently integrated data layers for Earth and environmental science. This paper will present an overview of an abstract notion of data layers of this types, what we are referring to as reference data layers for Earth and environmental science, highlight some historical examples, and delve into new approaches. The concept of reference data layers in this context combines data availability, cyberinfrastructure and data science, as well as domain science drivers. We argue that current advances in cyberinfrastructure such as iPython notebooks and integrated science processing environments such as iPlant's Discovery Environment coupled with vast arrays of new data sources warrant another look at the how to create, maintain, and provide reference data layers. The goal is to provide a context for understanding science needs for reference data layers to conduct their research. In addition, to the topics described above this presentation will also outline some of the challenges to and present some ideas for new approaches to addressing these needs. Promoting the idea of reference data layers is relevant to a number of existing related activities such as EarthCube, RDA, ESIP, the nascent NSF Regional Big Data Innovation Hubs and others.

  7. Hybrid state‐space time integration in a rotating frame of reference

    Krenk, Steen; Nielsen, Martin Bjerre

    2011-01-01

    displacements and the global velocities are represented by the same shape functions. This leads to a simple generalization of the corresponding equations of motion in a stationary frame in which all inertial effects are represented via the classic global mass matrix. The formulation introduces two gyroscopic......A time integration algorithm is developed for the equations of motion of a flexible body in a rotating frame of reference. The equations are formulated in a hybrid state‐space, formed by the local displacement components and the global velocity components. In the spatial discretization the local...... terms, while the centrifugal forces are represented implicitly via the hybrid state‐space format. An angular momentum and energy conserving algorithm is developed, in which the angular velocity of the frame is represented by its mean value. A consistent algorithmic damping scheme is identified...

  8. CHANGING PARADIGMS IN SPACE THEORIES: Recapturing 20th Century Architectural History

    Gül Kaçmaz Erk

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The concept of space entered architectural history as late as 1893. Studies in art opened up the discussion, and it has been studied in various ways in architecture ever since. This article aims to instigate an additional reading to architectural history, one that is not supported by “isms” but based on space theories in the 20th century. Objectives of the article are to bring the concept of space and its changing paradigms to the attention of architectural researchers, to introduce a conceptual framework to classify and clarify theories of space, and to enrich the discussions on the 20th century architecture through theories that are beyond styles. The introduction of space in architecture will revolve around subject-object relationships, three-dimensionality and senses. Modern space will be discussed through concepts such as empathy, perception, abstraction, and geometry. A scientific approach will follow to study the concept of place through environment, event, behavior, and design methods. Finally, the reearch will look at contemporary approaches related to digitally  supported space via concepts like reality-virtuality, mediated experience, and relationship with machines.

  9. A History of Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) Redline Limits Management

    Arnold, Thomas M.

    2011-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) has several "redlines", which are operational limits designated to preclude a catastrophic shutdown of the SSME. The Space Shuttle Orbiter utilizes a combination of hardware and software to enable or disable the automated redline shutdown capability. The Space Shuttle is launched with the automated SSME redline limits enabled, but there are many scenarios which may result in the manual disabling of the software by the onboard crew. The operational philosophy for manually enabling and disabling the redline limits software has evolved continuously throughout the history of the Space Shuttle Program, due to events such as SSME hardware changes and updates to Space Shuttle contingency abort software. In this paper, the evolution of SSME redline limits management will be fully reviewed, including the operational scenarios which call for manual intervention, and the events that triggered changes to the philosophy. Following this review, improvements to the management of redline limits for future spacecraft will be proposed.

  10. An ultra-stable iodine-based frequency reference for space applications

    Schuldt, Thilo; Braxmaier, Claus; Doeringshoff, Klaus; Keetman, Anja; Reggentin, Matthias; Kovalchuk, Evgeny; Peters, Achim

    2012-07-01

    Future space missions require for ultra-stable optical frequency references. Examples are the gravitational wave detector LISA/eLISA (Laser Interferometer Space Antenna), the SpaceTime Asymmetry Research (STAR) program, the aperture-synthesis telescope Darwin and the GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) follow on mission exploring Earth's gravity. As high long-term frequency stability is required, lasers stabilized to atomic or molecular transitions are preferred, also offering an absolute frequency reference. Frequency stabilities in the 10 ^{-15} domains at longer integration times (up to several hours) are demonstrated in laboratory experiments using setups based on Doppler-free spectroscopy. Such setups with a frequency stability comparable to the hydrogen maser in the microwave domain, have the potential to be developed space compatible on a relatively short time scale. Here, we present the development of ultra-stable optical frequency references based on modulation-transfer spectroscopy of molecular iodine. Noise levels of 2\\cdot10 ^{-14} at an integration time of 1 s and below 3\\cdot10 ^{-15} at integration times between 100 s and 1000 s are demonstrated with a laboratory setup using an 80 cm long iodine cell in single-pass configuration in combination with a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser and standard optical components and optomechanic mounts. The frequency stability at longer integration times is (amongst other things) limited by the dimensional stability of the optical setup, i.e. by th pointing stability of the two counter-propagating beams overlapped in the iodine cell. With the goal of a future space compatible setup, a compact frequency standard on EBB (elegant breadboard) level was realized. The spectroscopy unit utilizes a baseplate made of Clearceram-HS, a glass ceramics with an ultra-low coefficient of thermal expansion of 2\\cdot10 ^{-8} K ^{-1}. The optical components are joint to the baseplate using adhesive bonding technology

  11. Exploring the Unknown: Selected Documents in the History of the U.S. Civil Space Program. Volume 4; Accessing Space

    Logsdon, John M. (Editor); Williamson, Ray A. (Editor); Launius, Roger D. (Editor); Acker, Russell J. (Editor); Garber, Stephen J. (Editor); Friedman, Jonathan L. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    The documents selected for inclusion in this volume are presented in four major chapters, each covering a particular aspect of access to space and the manner in which it has developed over time. These chapters focus on the evolution toward the giant Saturn V rocket, the development of the Space Shuttle, space transportation commercialization, and future space transportation possibilities. Each chapter in this volume is introduced by an overview essay, prepared by individuals who are particularly well qualified to write on the topic. In the main, these essays are intended to introduce and complement the documents in the chapter and to place them, for the most part, in a chronological and substantive context. Each essay contains references to the documents in the chapter it introduces, and many also contain references to documents in other chapters of the collection. These introductory essays are the responsibility of their individual authors, and the views and conclusions contained therein do not necessarily represent the opinions of either George Washington University or NASA.

  12. The Mass-Longevity Triangle: Pareto Optimality and the Geometry of Life-History Trait Space

    Szekely, Pablo; Korem, Yael; Moran, Uri; Mayo, Avi; Alon, Uri

    2015-01-01

    When organisms need to perform multiple tasks they face a fundamental tradeoff: no phenotype can be optimal at all tasks. This situation was recently analyzed using Pareto optimality, showing that tradeoffs between tasks lead to phenotypes distributed on low dimensional polygons in trait space. The vertices of these polygons are archetypes—phenotypes optimal at a single task. This theory was applied to examples from animal morphology and gene expression. Here we ask whether Pareto optimality theory can apply to life history traits, which include longevity, fecundity and mass. To comprehensively explore the geometry of life history trait space, we analyze a dataset of life history traits of 2105 endothermic species. We find that, to a first approximation, life history traits fall on a triangle in log-mass log-longevity space. The vertices of the triangle suggest three archetypal strategies, exemplified by bats, shrews and whales, with specialists near the vertices and generalists in the middle of the triangle. To a second approximation, the data lies in a tetrahedron, whose extra vertex above the mass-longevity triangle suggests a fourth strategy related to carnivory. Each animal species can thus be placed in a coordinate system according to its distance from the archetypes, which may be useful for genome-scale comparative studies of mammalian aging and other biological aspects. We further demonstrate that Pareto optimality can explain a range of previous studies which found animal and plant phenotypes which lie in triangles in trait space. This study demonstrates the applicability of multi-objective optimization principles to understand life history traits and to infer archetypal strategies that suggest why some mammalian species live much longer than others of similar mass. PMID:26465336

  13. The Mass-Longevity Triangle: Pareto Optimality and the Geometry of Life-History Trait Space.

    Szekely, Pablo; Korem, Yael; Moran, Uri; Mayo, Avi; Alon, Uri

    2015-10-01

    When organisms need to perform multiple tasks they face a fundamental tradeoff: no phenotype can be optimal at all tasks. This situation was recently analyzed using Pareto optimality, showing that tradeoffs between tasks lead to phenotypes distributed on low dimensional polygons in trait space. The vertices of these polygons are archetypes--phenotypes optimal at a single task. This theory was applied to examples from animal morphology and gene expression. Here we ask whether Pareto optimality theory can apply to life history traits, which include longevity, fecundity and mass. To comprehensively explore the geometry of life history trait space, we analyze a dataset of life history traits of 2105 endothermic species. We find that, to a first approximation, life history traits fall on a triangle in log-mass log-longevity space. The vertices of the triangle suggest three archetypal strategies, exemplified by bats, shrews and whales, with specialists near the vertices and generalists in the middle of the triangle. To a second approximation, the data lies in a tetrahedron, whose extra vertex above the mass-longevity triangle suggests a fourth strategy related to carnivory. Each animal species can thus be placed in a coordinate system according to its distance from the archetypes, which may be useful for genome-scale comparative studies of mammalian aging and other biological aspects. We further demonstrate that Pareto optimality can explain a range of previous studies which found animal and plant phenotypes which lie in triangles in trait space. This study demonstrates the applicability of multi-objective optimization principles to understand life history traits and to infer archetypal strategies that suggest why some mammalian species live much longer than others of similar mass.

  14. The Mass-Longevity Triangle: Pareto Optimality and the Geometry of Life-History Trait Space.

    Pablo Szekely

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available When organisms need to perform multiple tasks they face a fundamental tradeoff: no phenotype can be optimal at all tasks. This situation was recently analyzed using Pareto optimality, showing that tradeoffs between tasks lead to phenotypes distributed on low dimensional polygons in trait space. The vertices of these polygons are archetypes--phenotypes optimal at a single task. This theory was applied to examples from animal morphology and gene expression. Here we ask whether Pareto optimality theory can apply to life history traits, which include longevity, fecundity and mass. To comprehensively explore the geometry of life history trait space, we analyze a dataset of life history traits of 2105 endothermic species. We find that, to a first approximation, life history traits fall on a triangle in log-mass log-longevity space. The vertices of the triangle suggest three archetypal strategies, exemplified by bats, shrews and whales, with specialists near the vertices and generalists in the middle of the triangle. To a second approximation, the data lies in a tetrahedron, whose extra vertex above the mass-longevity triangle suggests a fourth strategy related to carnivory. Each animal species can thus be placed in a coordinate system according to its distance from the archetypes, which may be useful for genome-scale comparative studies of mammalian aging and other biological aspects. We further demonstrate that Pareto optimality can explain a range of previous studies which found animal and plant phenotypes which lie in triangles in trait space. This study demonstrates the applicability of multi-objective optimization principles to understand life history traits and to infer archetypal strategies that suggest why some mammalian species live much longer than others of similar mass.

  15. A Reference Database for Circular Dichroism Spectroscopy Covering Fold and Secondary Structure Space

    Lees, J.; Miles, A.; Wien, F.; Wallace, B.

    2006-01-01

    Circular Dichroism (CD) spectroscopy is a long-established technique for studying protein secondary structures in solution. Empirical analyses of CD data rely on the availability of reference datasets comprised of far-UV CD spectra of proteins whose crystal structures have been determined. This article reports on the creation of a new reference dataset which effectively covers both secondary structure and fold space, and uses the higher information content available in synchrotron radiation circular dichroism (SRCD) spectra to more accurately predict secondary structure than has been possible with existing reference datasets. It also examines the effects of wavelength range, structural redundancy and different means of categorizing secondary structures on the accuracy of the analyses. In addition, it describes a novel use of hierarchical cluster analyses to identify protein relatedness based on spectral properties alone. The databases are shown to be applicable in both conventional CD and SRCD spectroscopic analyses of proteins. Hence, by combining new bioinformatics and biophysical methods, a database has been produced that should have wide applicability as a tool for structural molecular biology

  16. James Webb Space Telescope Optical Telescope Element Mirror Development History and Results

    Feinber, Lee D.; Clampin, Mark; Keski-Kuha, Ritva; Atkinson, Charlie; Texter, Scott; Bergeland, Mark; Gallagher, Benjamin B.

    2012-01-01

    In a little under a decade, the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) program has designed, manufactured, assembled and tested 21 flight beryllium mirrors for the James Webb Space Telescope Optical Telescope Element. This paper will summarize the mirror development history starting with the selection of beryllium as the mirror material and ending with the final test results. It will provide an overview of the technological roadmap and schedules and the key challenges that were overcome. It will also provide a summary or the key tests that were performed and the results of these tests.

  17. Demonstration of free-space reference frame independent quantum key distribution

    Wabnig, J; Bitauld, D; Li, H W; Niskanen, A O; Laing, A; O'Brien, J L

    2013-01-01

    Quantum key distribution (QKD) is moving from research laboratories towards applications. As computing becomes more mobile, cashless as well as cardless payment solutions are introduced. A possible route to increase the security of wireless communications is to incorporate QKD in a mobile device. Handheld devices present a particular challenge as the orientation and the phase of a qubit will depend on device motion. This problem is addressed by the reference frame independent (RFI) QKD scheme. The scheme tolerates an unknown phase between logical states that vary slowly compared to the rate of particle repetition. Here we experimentally demonstrate the feasibility of RFI QKD over a free-space link in a prepare and measure scheme using polarization encoding. We extend the security analysis of the RFI QKD scheme to be able to deal with uncalibrated devices and a finite number of measurements. Together these advances are an important step towards mass production of handheld QKD devices. (paper)

  18. SHORT DIGRESSION IN THE HISTORY REFERRING TO THE CONTROL OF CONSTITUTIONALITY IN ROMANIA

    Alexandra OANŢĂ (NACU

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This short excursion in the history of the control over the constitutionality of laws in Romania, shows us that, in the period prior to 1912, in Romania, there used to be an incipient and accidental form of control of constitutionality, exercised by the Court of Cassation. Between 1912 and 1923, it was exercised by the judges from all the courts, regardless their degree, while the Constitutions from 1923 and 1938 were stipulating that only the Court of Cassation and Justice, in joint sections, had the competence to judge the constitutionality of laws. The socialist constitutions stipulated the political control over the constitutionality of laws, exercised by the Grand National Assembly, and, in 1991, the Romanian constituent legislator implemented, for the first time in Romania, the institution of the control over the constitutionality of laws, exercised by an independent and specialised jurisdictional body, appointed by the Constitutional Court.

  19. Gravity in the Brain as a Reference for Space and Time Perception.

    Lacquaniti, Francesco; Bosco, Gianfranco; Gravano, Silvio; Indovina, Iole; La Scaleia, Barbara; Maffei, Vincenzo; Zago, Myrka

    2015-01-01

    Moving and interacting with the environment require a reference for orientation and a scale for calibration in space and time. There is a wide variety of environmental clues and calibrated frames at different locales, but the reference of gravity is ubiquitous on Earth. The pull of gravity on static objects provides a plummet which, together with the horizontal plane, defines a three-dimensional Cartesian frame for visual images. On the other hand, the gravitational acceleration of falling objects can provide a time-stamp on events, because the motion duration of an object accelerated by gravity over a given path is fixed. Indeed, since ancient times, man has been using plumb bobs for spatial surveying, and water clocks or pendulum clocks for time keeping. Here we review behavioral evidence in favor of the hypothesis that the brain is endowed with mechanisms that exploit the presence of gravity to estimate the spatial orientation and the passage of time. Several visual and non-visual (vestibular, haptic, visceral) cues are merged to estimate the orientation of the visual vertical. However, the relative weight of each cue is not fixed, but depends on the specific task. Next, we show that an internal model of the effects of gravity is combined with multisensory signals to time the interception of falling objects, to time the passage through spatial landmarks during virtual navigation, to assess the duration of a gravitational motion, and to judge the naturalness of periodic motion under gravity.

  20. Personal equations: reflections on the history of fieldwork, with special reference to sociocultural anthropology.

    Kuklick, Henrika

    2011-03-01

    In the latter part of the nineteenth century, diverse sciences grounded in natural history made a virtue of field research that somehow tested scientists' endurance; disciplinary change derived from the premise that witnesses were made reliable by character-molding trials. The turn to the field was a function of structural transformations in various quarters, including (but hardly limited to) global politics, communications systems, and scientific institutions, and it conduced to biogeographical explanations, taxonomic schemes that admitted of heterogeneity, and affective research styles. Sociocultural anthropology, which took specialized shape at the beginning of the twentieth century, shared many properties with other field sciences, but its method--participant observation-was distinctive. Critical to the method's definition were the efforts of the British experimental psychologist-anthropologist W. H. R. Rivers, who relied on notions then widespread in Europe and the United States. The discipline's future mythic hero, Bronislaw Malinowski, embraced Rivers's model. For both men, proper fieldwork meant using the researcher's body as an instrument and entailed understanding both the anthropologist's body and the research subject's body as energy systems; this symmetry facilitated a relativist perspective. Participant observation remains central to sociocultural anthropology, but the discipline's pedagogic habits contributed to loss of memory of its energetic conceptualization.

  1. The history of modern spinal traction with particular reference to neural disorders.

    Shterenshis, M V

    1997-03-01

    The last 200 years of the history of spinal traction is described in the present article. The study starts at the end of the 18th century with the works of JA Venel (1789) who tried to apply the Hippocratic idea to modern surgery. Orthopedic specialists of the last century were mostly preoccupied with corsets and the method gained broader popularity when neurologists paid attention to the similar method of suspension. The Russian neurologist Osip Mochutkovsky described suspension as a method for the treatment of tabes dorsalis in an article published in the Russian magazine 'Vratch' in 1883. His works became known in Europe when JM Charcot paid attention to it and published a special short monograph on this subject in 1889. This work was translated into English (1889) and Russian (1890) and the method became popular in the treatment of tabes dorsalis and other neurological diseases. The eminent Russian neurologist VM Bekhterev proposed the combination of body suspension with cervical traction (1893). Some years later Gilles de la Tourette promoted the use of spinal traction in his neurological clinic (1897). Unfortunately neurologists worked without the cooperation of orthopedic specialists. During the first decades of the 20th century suspension was also replaced by traction in neurology. This method was used by both neurologists and orthopedic specialists but in the last decades neurologists lost their interests in it and it found greater use in traumatology and in spinal surgery where it is still in use today.

  2. Assessing Crowdsourced POI Quality: Combining Methods Based on Reference Data, History, and Spatial Relations

    Guillaume Touya

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available With the development of location-aware devices and the success and high use of Web 2.0 techniques, citizens are able to act as sensors by contributing geographic information. In this context, data quality is an important aspect that should be taken into account when using this source of data for different purposes. The goal of the paper is to analyze the quality of crowdsourced data and to study its evolution over time. We propose two types of approaches: (1 use the intrinsic characteristics of the crowdsourced datasets; or (2 evaluate crowdsourced Points of Interest (POIs using external datasets (i.e., authoritative reference or other crowdsourced datasets, and two different methods for each approach. The potential of the combination of these approaches is then demonstrated, to overcome the limitations associated with each individual method. In this paper, we focus on POIs and places coming from the very successful crowdsourcing project: OpenStreetMap. The results show that the proposed approaches are complementary in assessing data quality. The positive results obtained for data matching show that the analysis of data quality through automatic data matching is possible but considerable effort and attention are needed for schema matching given the heterogeneity of OSM and the representation of authoritative datasets. For the features studied, it can be noted that change over time is sometimes due to disagreements between contributors, but in most cases the change improves the quality of the data.

  3. Experimental validation of the buildings energy performance (PEC assessment methods with reference to occupied spaces heating

    Cristian PETCU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is part of the series of pre-standardization research aimed to analyze the existing methods of calculating the Buildings Energy Performance (PEC in view of their correction of completing. The entire research activity aims to experimentally validate the PEC Calculation Algorithm as well as the comparative application, on the support of several case studies focused on representative buildings of the stock of buildings in Romania, of the PEC calculation methodology for buildings equipped with occupied spaces heating systems. The targets of the report are the experimental testing of the calculation models so far known (NP 048-2000, Mc 001-2006, SR EN 13790:2009, on the support provided by the CE INCERC Bucharest experimental building, together with the complex calculation algorithms specific to the dynamic modeling, for the evaluation of the occupied spaces heat demand in the cold season, specific to the traditional buildings and to modern buildings equipped with solar radiation passive systems, of the ventilated solar space type. The schedule of the measurements performed in the 2008-2009 cold season is presented as well as the primary processing of the measured data and the experimental validation of the heat demand monthly calculation methods, on the support of CE INCERC Bucharest. The calculation error per heating season (153 days of measurements between the measured heat demand and the calculated one was of 0.61%, an exceptional value confirming the phenomenological nature of the INCERC method, NP 048-2006. The mathematical model specific to the hourly thermal balance is recurrent – decisional with alternating paces. The experimental validation of the theoretical model is based on the measurements performed on the CE INCERC Bucharest building, within a time lag of 57 days (06.01-04.03.2009. The measurements performed on the CE INCERC Bucharest building confirm the accuracy of the hourly calculation model by comparison to the values

  4. Gravity field recovery in the framework of a Geodesy and Time Reference in Space (GETRIS)

    Hauk, Markus; Schlicht, Anja; Pail, Roland; Murböck, Michael

    2017-04-01

    The study ;Geodesy and Time Reference in Space; (GETRIS), funded by European Space Agency (ESA), evaluates the potential and opportunities coming along with a global space-borne infrastructure for data transfer, clock synchronization and ranging. Gravity field recovery could be one of the first beneficiary applications of such an infrastructure. This paper analyzes and evaluates the two-way high-low satellite-to-satellite-tracking as a novel method and as a long-term perspective for the determination of the Earth's gravitational field, using it as a synergy of one-way high-low combined with low-low satellite-to-satellite-tracking, in order to generate adequate de-aliasing products. First planned as a constellation of geostationary satellites, it turned out, that an integration of European Union Global Navigation Satellite System (Galileo) satellites (equipped with inter-Galileo links) into a Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) constellation would extend the capability of such a mission constellation remarkably. We report about simulations of different Galileo and Low Earth Orbiter (LEO) satellite constellations, computed using time variable geophysical background models, to determine temporal changes in the Earth's gravitational field. Our work aims at an error analysis of this new satellite/instrument scenario by investigating the impact of different error sources. Compared to a low-low satellite-to-satellite-tracking mission, results show reduced temporal aliasing errors due to a more isotropic error behavior caused by an improved observation geometry, predominantly in near-radial direction within the inter-satellite-links, as well as the potential of an improved gravity recovery with higher spatial and temporal resolution. The major error contributors of temporal gravity retrieval are aliasing errors due to undersampling of high frequency signals (mainly atmosphere, ocean and ocean tides). In this context, we investigate adequate methods to reduce these errors. We

  5. A reference radiation facility for dosimetry at flight altitude and in space

    Ferrari, A; Silari, Marco

    2001-01-01

    A reference facility for the intercomparison of active and passive detectors in high-energy neutron fields is available at CERN since 1993. A positive charged hadron beam (a mixture of protons and pions) with momentum of 120 GeV/c hits a copper target, 50 cm thick and 7 cm in diameter. The secondary particles produced in the interaction are filtered by a shielding of either 80 cm of concrete or 40 cm of iron. Behind the iron shielding, the resulting neutron spectrum has a maximum at about 1 MeV, with an additional high-energy component. Behind the concrete shielding, the neutron spectrum has a pronounced maximum at about 70 MeV and resembles the high-energy component of the radiation field created by cosmic rays at commercial flight altitudes. The facility is used for a variety of investigations with active and passive neutron dosimeters. Its use for measurements related to the space programme is discussed. (21 refs).

  6. Origins Space Telescope: Science Case and Design Reference Mission for Concept 1

    Meixner, Margaret; Cooray, Asantha; Pope, Alexandra; Armus, Lee; Vieira, Joaquin Daniel; Milam, Stefanie N.; Melnick, Gary; Leisawitz, David; Staguhn, Johannes G.; Bergin, Edwin; Origins Space Telescope Science and Technology Definition Team

    2018-01-01

    The Origins Space Telescope (OST) is the mission concept for the Far-Infrared Surveyor, one of the four science and technology definition studies of NASA Headquarters for the 2020 Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal survey. The science case for OST covers four themes: Tracing the Signature of Life and the Ingredients of Habitable Worlds; Charting the Rise of Metals, Dust and the First Galaxies, Unraveling the Co-evolution of Black Holes and Galaxies and Understanding Our Solar System in the Context of Planetary System Formation. Using a set of proposed observing programs from the community, we estimate a design reference mission for OST mission concept 1. The mission will complete significant programs in these four themes and have time for other programs from the community. Origins will enable flagship-quality general observing programs led by the astronomical community in the 2030s. We welcome you to contact the Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT) with your science needs and ideas by emailing us at ost_info@lists.ipac.caltech.edu.

  7. Space-based gravitational-wave detectors can determine the thermal history of the early Universe

    Nakayama, Kazunori; Saito, Shun; Suwa, Yudai; Yokoyama, Jun'ichi

    2008-01-01

    It is shown that space-based gravitational-wave detectors such as DECIGO and/or the Big Bang Observer will provide us with invaluable information on the cosmic thermal history after inflation, and they will be able to determine the reheat temperature T R provided that it lies in the range preferred by the cosmological gravitino problem, T R ∼10 5-9 GeV. Therefore it is strongly desired that they will be put into practice as soon as possible

  8. Gossip on the Doxiadis ‘Gossip Square’: Unpacking the Histories of an Unglamorous Public Space

    Panayiota Pyla

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the historical complexities surrounding Doxiadis Associates’ idea of ‘gossip squares’ in housing projects helps frame larger theoretical questions about the potential significance of the ‘gossip square’ as an everyday public space. The focus of this paper is the gossip square as a spatial and social concept. The idea of 'gossip square' was discussed among Doxiadis Associates' designers and patrons, to eventually become entwined with larger visions of urban development. In examining the ‘gossip square’, new ‘gossip’ arises about how the term reflected ambivalent alignments with mid-twentieth-century modernism, and how it advanced particular agendas of nation-building and modernization. Unpacking the history of the term and the way the concept was appropriated (or not by the firm of Doxiadis Associates provides insights into such public hubs in the larger context of social relations and the space of a city.

  9. Probabilistic risk analysis for the NASA space shuttle: a brief history and current work

    Pate-Cornell, Elisabeth; Dillon, Robin

    2001-01-01

    While NASA managers have always relied on risk analysis tools for the development and maintenance of space projects, quantitative and especially probabilistic techniques have been gaining acceptance in recent years. In some cases, the studies have been required, for example, to launch the Galileo spacecraft with plutonium fuel, but these successful applications have helped to demonstrate the benefits of these tools. This paper reviews the history of probabilistic risk analysis (PRA) by NASA for the space shuttle program and discusses the status of the on-going development of the Quantitative Risk Assessment System (QRAS) software that performs PRA. The goal is to have within NASA a tool that can be used when needed to update previous risk estimates and to assess the benefits of possible upgrades to the system

  10. Battle Mound: Exploring space, place, and history of a Red River Caddo community in southwest Arkansas

    McKinnon, Duncan Paul

    This research is a synthesis of archaeogeophysical and archaeohistorical data collected from the Battle Mound site (3LA1). Using these data, this research seeks to understand how the site is organized in terms of architectural variability and how differential use areas, such as domestic or community space, can be compared to ethnographic and archaeological data concerning Caddo community structure and landscape use. The research is formulated around three research questions related to spatial organization and settlement patterning, intrasite behavioral practices, and Caddo culture history. Results show that an examination at multiple scales of resolution can inform about the spatial organization and settlement patterning of Caddo communities and how these underlying principles that define space have endured or been modified over time. It also proposes a new intrasite model that can be productively tested with geophysical methods and the mapping of the distribution of features within large village areas.

  11. Biological effects of space radiation on human cells. History, advances and outcomes

    Maalouf, M.; Foray, N.; Durante, M.

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to radiation is one of the main concerns for space exploration by humans. By focusing deliberately on the works performed on human cells, we endeavored to review, decade by decade, the technological developments and conceptual advances of space radiation biology. Despite considerable efforts, the cancer and the toxicity risks remain to be quantified: the nature and the frequency of secondary heavy ions need to be better characterized in order to estimate their contribution to the dose and to the final biological response; the diversity of radiation history of each astronaut and the impact of individual susceptibility make very difficult any epidemiological analysis for estimating hazards specifically due to space radiation exposure. Cytogenetic data undoubtedly revealed that space radiation exposure produce significant damage in cells. However, our knowledge of the basic mechanisms specific to low-dose, to repeated doses and to adaptive response is still poor. The application of new radiobiological techniques, like immunofluorescence, and the use of human tissue models different from blood, like skin fibroblasts, may help in clarifying all the above items. (author)

  12. Examining egocentric and allocentric frames of reference in virtual space systems

    Friedman, A.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the egocentric and allocentric frames of reference, through evidence from both gesture and linguistic communication. The action of frames of reference, helps the user refer to the agent as a base for movement or to the object as a guiding point. We will show that

  13. A History of H i Stripping in Virgo: A Phase-space View of VIVA Galaxies

    Yoon, Hyein; Chung, Aeree; Smith, Rory [Department of Astronomy, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 03722 (Korea, Republic of); Jaffé, Yara L., E-mail: hiyoon@galaxy.yonsei.ac.kr, E-mail: achung@yonsei.ac.kr [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Córdova 3107, Vitacura, Casilla 19001, Santiago (Chile)

    2017-04-01

    We investigate the orbital histories of Virgo galaxies at various stages of H i gas stripping. In particular, we compare the location of galaxies with different H i morphology in phase space. This method is a great tool for tracing the gas stripping histories of galaxies as they fall into the cluster. Most galaxies at the early stage of H i stripping are found in the first infall region of Virgo, while galaxies undergoing active H i stripping mostly appear to be falling in or moving out near the cluster core for the first time. Galaxies with severely stripped, yet symmetric, H i disks are found in one of two locations. Some are deep inside the cluster, but others are found in the cluster outskirts with low orbital velocities. We suggest that the latter group of galaxies belong to a “backsplash” population. These present the clearest candidates for backsplashed galaxies observationally identified to date. We further investigate the distribution of a large sample of H i-detected galaxies toward Virgo in phase space, confirming that most galaxies are stripped of their gas as they settle into the gravitational potential of the cluster. In addition, we discuss the impact of tidal interactions between galaxies and group preprocessing on the H i properties of the cluster galaxies, and link the associated star formation evolution to the stripping sequence of cluster galaxies.

  14. The Lyman alpha reference sample. II. Hubble space telescope imaging results, integrated properties, and trends

    Hayes, Matthew; Östlin, Göran; Duval, Florent; Sandberg, Andreas; Guaita, Lucia; Melinder, Jens; Rivera-Thorsen, Thøger [Department of Astronomy, Oskar Klein Centre, Stockholm University, AlbaNova University Centre, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Adamo, Angela [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Schaerer, Daniel [Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, F-31000 Toulouse (France); Verhamme, Anne; Orlitová, Ivana [Geneva Observatory, University of Geneva, 51 Chemin des Maillettes, CH-1290 Versoix (Switzerland); Mas-Hesse, J. Miguel; Otí-Floranes, Héctor [Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Departamento de Astrofísica, P.O. Box 78, E-28691 Villanueva de la Cañada (Spain); Cannon, John M.; Pardy, Stephen [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macalester College, 1600 Grand Avenue, Saint Paul, MN 55105 (United States); Atek, Hakim [Laboratoire dAstrophysique, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Observatoire, CH-1290 Sauverny (Switzerland); Kunth, Daniel [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, UMR 7095, CNRS and UPMC, 98 bis Bd Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); Laursen, Peter [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Herenz, E. Christian, E-mail: matthew@astro.su.se [Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany)

    2014-02-10

    We report new results regarding the Lyα output of galaxies, derived from the Lyman Alpha Reference Sample, and focused on Hubble Space Telescope imaging. For 14 galaxies we present intensity images in Lyα, Hα, and UV, and maps of Hα/Hβ, Lyα equivalent width (EW), and Lyα/Hα. We present Lyα and UV radial light profiles and show they are well-fitted by Sérsic profiles, but Lyα profiles show indices systematically lower than those of the UV (n ≈ 1-2 instead of ≳ 4). This reveals a general lack of the central concentration in Lyα that is ubiquitous in the UV. Photometric growth curves increase more slowly for Lyα than the far ultraviolet, showing that small apertures may underestimate the EW. For most galaxies, however, flux and EW curves flatten by radii ≈10 kpc, suggesting that if placed at high-z only a few of our galaxies would suffer from large flux losses. We compute global properties of the sample in large apertures, and show total Lyα luminosities to be independent of all other quantities. Normalized Lyα throughput, however, shows significant correlations: escape is found to be higher in galaxies of lower star formation rate, dust content, mass, and nebular quantities that suggest harder ionizing continuum and lower metallicity. Six galaxies would be selected as high-z Lyα emitters, based upon their luminosity and EW. We discuss the results in the context of high-z Lyα and UV samples. A few galaxies have EWs above 50 Å, and one shows f{sub esc}{sup Lyα} of 80%; such objects have not previously been reported at low-z.

  15. The Lyman alpha reference sample. II. Hubble space telescope imaging results, integrated properties, and trends

    Hayes, Matthew; Östlin, Göran; Duval, Florent; Sandberg, Andreas; Guaita, Lucia; Melinder, Jens; Rivera-Thorsen, Thøger; Adamo, Angela; Schaerer, Daniel; Verhamme, Anne; Orlitová, Ivana; Mas-Hesse, J. Miguel; Otí-Floranes, Héctor; Cannon, John M.; Pardy, Stephen; Atek, Hakim; Kunth, Daniel; Laursen, Peter; Herenz, E. Christian

    2014-01-01

    We report new results regarding the Lyα output of galaxies, derived from the Lyman Alpha Reference Sample, and focused on Hubble Space Telescope imaging. For 14 galaxies we present intensity images in Lyα, Hα, and UV, and maps of Hα/Hβ, Lyα equivalent width (EW), and Lyα/Hα. We present Lyα and UV radial light profiles and show they are well-fitted by Sérsic profiles, but Lyα profiles show indices systematically lower than those of the UV (n ≈ 1-2 instead of ≳ 4). This reveals a general lack of the central concentration in Lyα that is ubiquitous in the UV. Photometric growth curves increase more slowly for Lyα than the far ultraviolet, showing that small apertures may underestimate the EW. For most galaxies, however, flux and EW curves flatten by radii ≈10 kpc, suggesting that if placed at high-z only a few of our galaxies would suffer from large flux losses. We compute global properties of the sample in large apertures, and show total Lyα luminosities to be independent of all other quantities. Normalized Lyα throughput, however, shows significant correlations: escape is found to be higher in galaxies of lower star formation rate, dust content, mass, and nebular quantities that suggest harder ionizing continuum and lower metallicity. Six galaxies would be selected as high-z Lyα emitters, based upon their luminosity and EW. We discuss the results in the context of high-z Lyα and UV samples. A few galaxies have EWs above 50 Å, and one shows f esc Lyα of 80%; such objects have not previously been reported at low-z.

  16. Uplink-Downlink: A History of the Deep Space Network, 1957-1997

    Mudgway, Douglas J.; Launius, Roger (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    In these pages, the informed reader will discover a simple description of what the Deep Space Network (DSN) is about, and how it works an aspect of NASA's spectacular planetary program that seldom found its way into the popular media coverage of those major events. Future historical researchers will find a complete record of the origin and birth of the DSN, its subsequent development and expansion over the ensuing four decades, and a description of the way in which the DSN was used to fulfill the purpose for which it was created. At the same time, the specialist reader is provided with an abundant source of technical references that address every aspect of the advanced telecommunications technology on which the success of the DSN depended. And finally, archivists, educators, outreach managers, and article writers will have ready recourse to the inner workings of the DSN and how they related to the more publicly visible events of the planetary space program.

  17. Why do women not return family history forms when referred to breast cancer genetics services? A mixed-method study.

    Hanning, Kirstie A; Steel, Michael; Goudie, David; McLeish, Lorna; Dunlop, Jackie; Myring, Jessica; Sullivan, Frank; Berg, Jonathan; Humphris, Gerry; Ozakinci, Gozde

    2015-10-01

    Personal and family data forms, completed by women referred to breast cancer genetics clinics, are valuable tools for verification and extension of family history, crucial steps in accurate risk evaluation. A significant minority of women do not complete and return these forms, despite reminders, even when completion is a pre-requisite for a clinic appointment. To facilitate access of women at increased familial risk of breast cancer to screening and counselling services by investigating reasons for non-return of the forms. Based on a single regional 'breast cancer family' service in the UK, Analysis of quantitative data comparing women who did not return forms (n = 55) with those who had done so (n = 59), together with qualitative evaluation of potential barriers to form-completion through semi-structured telephone interviews with a random subset of 'non-returners' (n = 23). Non-returners have higher proportions of the very young (below the age at which surveillance could be offered) and of women from lower social deprivation categories. Interviews revealed that the majority of non-returners are anxious, rather than unconcerned about their breast cancer risk and circumstances and attitudes contributed to non-compliance. Twenty-one participants confirmed that they would welcome an appointment at a 'breast cancer family' clinic, but nine did not attend for the appointment. They were significantly younger than those who attend, but were not at lower familial risk. Many women who fail to complete and return a family history form would benefit from risk assessment and genetic counselling. Several steps are suggested that might help them access the relevant services. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. A method of camera calibration in the measurement process with reference mark for approaching observation space target

    Zhang, Hua; Zeng, Luan

    2017-11-01

    Binocular stereoscopic vision can be used for space-based space targets near observation. In order to solve the problem that the traditional binocular vision system cannot work normally after interference, an online calibration method of binocular stereo measuring camera with self-reference is proposed. The method uses an auxiliary optical imaging device to insert the image of the standard reference object into the edge of the main optical path and image with the target on the same focal plane, which is equivalent to a standard reference in the binocular imaging optical system; When the position of the system and the imaging device parameters are disturbed, the image of the standard reference will change accordingly in the imaging plane, and the position of the standard reference object does not change. The camera's external parameters can be re-calibrated by the visual relationship of the standard reference object. The experimental results show that the maximum mean square error of the same object can be reduced from the original 72.88mm to 1.65mm when the right camera is deflected by 0.4 degrees and the left camera is high and low with 0.2° rotation. This method can realize the online calibration of binocular stereoscopic vision measurement system, which can effectively improve the anti - jamming ability of the system.

  19. Life Sciences Space Station planning document: A reference payload for the Life Sciences Research Facility

    1986-01-01

    The Space Station, projected for construction in the early 1990s, will be an orbiting, low-gravity, permanently manned facility providing unprecedented opportunities for scientific research. Facilities for Life Sciences research will include a pressurized research laboratory, attached payloads, and platforms which will allow investigators to perform experiments in the crucial areas of Space Medicine, Space Biology, Exobiology, Biospherics and Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS). These studies are designed to determine the consequences of long-term exposure to space conditions, with particular emphasis on assuring the permanent presence of humans in space. The applied and basic research to be performed, using humans, animals, and plants, will increase our understanding of the effects of the space environment on basic life processes. Facilities being planned for remote observations from platforms and attached payloads of biologically important elements and compounds in space and on other planets (Exobiology) will permit exploration of the relationship between the evolution of life and the universe. Space-based, global scale observations of terrestrial biology (Biospherics) will provide data critical for understanding and ultimately managing changes in the Earth's ecosystem. The life sciences community is encouraged to participate in the research potential the Space Station facilities will make possible. This document provides the range and scope of typical life sciences experiments which could be performed within a pressurized laboratory module on Space Station.

  20. Reference Management Methodologies for Large Structural Models at Kennedy Space Center

    Jones, Corey; Bingham, Ryan; Schmidt, Rick

    2011-01-01

    There have been many challenges associated with modeling some of NASA KSC's largest structures. Given the size of the welded structures here at KSC, it was critically important to properly organize model struc.ture and carefully manage references. Additionally, because of the amount of hardware to be installed on these structures, it was very important to have a means to coordinate between different design teams and organizations, check for interferences, produce consistent drawings, and allow for simple release processes. Facing these challenges, the modeling team developed a unique reference management methodology and model fidelity methodology. This presentation will describe the techniques and methodologies that were developed for these projects. The attendees will learn about KSC's reference management and model fidelity methodologies for large structures. The attendees will understand the goals of these methodologies. The attendees will appreciate the advantages of developing a reference management methodology.

  1. Model Reference Adaptive Control of the Air Flow Rate of Centrifugal Compressor Using State Space Method

    Han, Jaeyoung; Jung, Mooncheong; Yu, Sangseok; Yi, Sun

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a model reference adaptive controller is developed to regulate the outlet air flow rate of centrifugal compressor for automotive supercharger. The centrifugal compressor is developed using the analytical based method to predict the transient behavior of operating and the designed model is validated with experimental data to confirm the system accuracy. The model reference adaptive control structure consists of a compressor model and a MRAC(model reference adaptive control) mechanism. The feedback control do not robust with variation of system parameter but the applied adaptive control is robust even if the system parameter is changed. As a result, the MRAC was regulated to reference air flow rate. Also MRAC was found to be more robust control compared with the feedback control even if the system parameter is changed.

  2. Model Reference Adaptive Control of the Air Flow Rate of Centrifugal Compressor Using State Space Method

    Han, Jaeyoung; Jung, Mooncheong; Yu, Sangseok [Chungnam Nat’l Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Sun [North Carolina A and T State Univ., Raleigh (United States)

    2016-08-15

    In this study, a model reference adaptive controller is developed to regulate the outlet air flow rate of centrifugal compressor for automotive supercharger. The centrifugal compressor is developed using the analytical based method to predict the transient behavior of operating and the designed model is validated with experimental data to confirm the system accuracy. The model reference adaptive control structure consists of a compressor model and a MRAC(model reference adaptive control) mechanism. The feedback control do not robust with variation of system parameter but the applied adaptive control is robust even if the system parameter is changed. As a result, the MRAC was regulated to reference air flow rate. Also MRAC was found to be more robust control compared with the feedback control even if the system parameter is changed.

  3. A History of Welding on the Space Shuttle Main Engine (1975 to 2010)

    Zimmerman, Frank R.; Russell, Carolyn K.

    2010-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) is a high performance, throttleable, liquid hydrogen fueled rocket engine. High thrust and specific impulse (Isp) are achieved through a staged combustion engine cycle, combined with high combustion pressure (approx.3000psi) generated by the two-stage pump and combustion process. The SSME is continuously throttleable from 67% to 109% of design thrust level. The design criteria for this engine maximize performance and weight, resulting in a 7,800 pound rocket engine that produces over a half million pounds of thrust in vacuum with a specific impulse of 452/sec. It is the most reliable rocket engine in the world, accumulating over one million seconds of hot-fire time and achieving 100% flight success in the Space Shuttle program. A rocket engine with the unique combination of high reliability, performance, and reusability comes at the expense of manufacturing simplicity. Several innovative design features and fabrication techniques are unique to this engine. This is as true for welding as any other manufacturing process. For many of the weld joints it seemed mean cheating physics and metallurgy to meet the requirements. This paper will present a history of the welding used to produce the world s highest performance throttleable rocket engine.

  4. Land-use history and contemporary management inform an ecological reference model for longleaf pine woodland understory plant communities

    Lars A. Brudvig; John L. Orrock; Ellen I. Damschen; Cathy D. Collins; Philip G. Hahn; W. Brett Mattingly; Joseph W. Veldman; Joan L. Walker

    2014-01-01

    Ecological restoration is frequently guided by reference conditions describing a successfully restored ecosystem; however, the causes and magnitude of ecosystem degradation vary, making simple knowledge of reference conditions insufficient for prioritizing and guiding restoration. Ecological reference models provide further guidance by quantifying reference conditions...

  5. An Interdisciplinary Undergraduate Space Physics Course: Understanding the Process of Science Through One Field's Colorful History

    Lopez, Ramon E.

    1996-01-01

    Science education in this country is in its greatest period of ferment since the post-Sputnik frenzy a generation ago. In that earlier time, however, educators' emphasis was on producing more scientists and engineers. Today we recognize that all Americans need a good science background. The ability to observe, measure, think quantitatively, and reach logical conclusions based on available evidence is a set of skills that everyone entering the workforce needs to acquire if our country is to be competitive in a global economy. Moreover, as public policy increasingly crystallizes around scientific issues, it is critical that citizens be educated in science so that they may provide informed debate and on these issues. In order to develop this idea more fully, I proposed to teach a historically based course about space physics as an honors course at the University of Maryland-College Park (UMCP). The honors program at UMCP was established to foster broad-based undergraduate courses that utilize innovative teaching techniques to provide exemplary education to a select group of students. I designed an introductory course that would have four basic goals: to acquaint students with geomagnetic and auroral phenomena and their relationship to the space environment; to examine issues related to the history of science using the evolution of the field as an example; to develop familiarity with basic skills such as describing and interpreting observations, analyzing scientific papers, and communicating the results of their own research; and to provide some understanding of basic physics, especially those aspect that play a role in the near-earth space environment.

  6. Habituation to novel visual vestibular environments with special reference to space flight

    Young, L. R.; Kenyon, R. V.; Oman, C. M.

    1981-01-01

    The etiology of space motion sickness and the underlying physiological mechanisms associated with spatial orientation in a space environment were investigated. Human psychophysical experiments were used as the basis for the research concerning the interaction of visual and vestibular cues in the development of motion sickness. Particular emphasis is placed on the conflict theory in terms of explaining these interactions. Research on the plasticity of the vestibulo-ocular reflex is discussed.

  7. Docking Offset Between the Space Shuttle and the International Space Station and Resulting Impacts to the Transfer of Attitude Reference and Control

    Helms, W. Jason; Pohlkamp, Kara M.

    2011-01-01

    The Space Shuttle does not dock at an exact 90 degrees to the International Space Station (ISS) x-body axis. This offset from 90 degrees, along with error sources within their respective attitude knowledge, causes the two vehicles to never completely agree on their attitude, even though they operate as a single, mated stack while docked. The docking offset can be measured in flight when both vehicles have good attitude reference and is a critical component in calculations to transfer attitude reference from one vehicle to another. This paper will describe how the docking offset and attitude reference errors between both vehicles are measured and how this information would be used to recover Shuttle attitude reference from ISS in the event of multiple failures. During STS-117, ISS on-board Guidance, Navigation and Control (GNC) computers began having problems and after several continuous restarts, the systems failed. The failure took the ability for ISS to maintain attitude knowledge. This paper will also demonstrate how with knowledge of the docking offset, the contingency procedure to recover Shuttle attitude reference from ISS was reversed in order to provide ISS an attitude reference from Shuttle. Finally, this paper will show how knowledge of the docking offset can be used to speed up attitude control handovers from Shuttle to ISS momentum management. By taking into account the docking offset, Shuttle can be commanded to hold a more precise attitude which better agrees with the ISS commanded attitude such that start up transients with the ISS momentum management controllers are reduced. By reducing start-up transients, attitude control can be transferred from Shuttle to ISS without the use of ISS thrusters saving precious on-board propellant, crew time and minimizing loads placed upon the mated stack.

  8. A History of Space Toxicology Mishaps: Lessons Learned and Risk Management

    James, John T.

    2009-01-01

    After several decades of human spaceflight, the community of space-faring nations has accumulated a diverse and sometimes harrowing history of toxicological events that have plagued human space endeavors almost from the very beginning. Lessons have been learned in ground-based test beds and others were discovered the hard way - when human lives were at stake in space. From such lessons one can build a risk-management framework for toxicological events to minimize the probability of a harmful exposure, while recognizing that we cannot foresee all events. Space toxicologists have learned that relatively harmless compounds can be converted by air revitalization systems into compounds that cause serious harm to the crew. Our toxic risk management strategy now includes an assessment of the fate of any compound that might be released into the atmosphere. Propellants are highly toxic compounds, yet we have not always been able to thoroughly isolate the crew from exposure to these toxicants. Leakage of fluids from systems has resulted in hazardous conditions at times, and the behavior of such compounds inside a spacecraft has taught us how to manage potentially harmful escapes should they occur. Potential combustion events are an ever-present threat to the wellbeing of the crew. Such events have been sufficiently common that we have learned that one cannot judge the health threat of a given fire by the magnitude of the event. Management of such risks demands monitoring of combustion products. In the category of unpredictable toxic events, if one assumes that fires are predictable, we can place experience with toxic microbial metabolites, upsets during repair operations, and discharges from filters that have accumulated a substantial load of pollutants in their absorption beds. Management of such events requires a broad-spectrum, real-time analytical capability to discern the identity and concentrations of pollutants if they enter the atmosphere. Adverse events are an

  9. Assessment of the possible contribution of space ties on-board GNSS satellites to the terrestrial reference frame

    Bruni, Sara; Rebischung, Paul; Zerbini, Susanna; Altamimi, Zuheir; Errico, Maddalena; Santi, Efisio

    2018-04-01

    The realization of the international terrestrial reference frame (ITRF) is currently based on the data provided by four space geodetic techniques. The accuracy of the different technique-dependent materializations of the frame physical parameters (origin and scale) varies according to the nature of the relevant observables and to the impact of technique-specific errors. A reliable computation of the ITRF requires combining the different inputs, so that the strengths of each technique can compensate for the weaknesses of the others. This combination, however, can only be performed providing some additional information which allows tying together the independent technique networks. At present, the links used for that purpose are topometric surveys (local/terrestrial ties) available at ITRF sites hosting instruments of different techniques. In principle, a possible alternative could be offered by spacecrafts accommodating the positioning payloads of multiple geodetic techniques realizing their co-location in orbit (space ties). In this paper, the GNSS-SLR space ties on-board GPS and GLONASS satellites are thoroughly examined in the framework of global reference frame computations. The investigation focuses on the quality of the realized physical frame parameters. According to the achieved results, the space ties on-board GNSS satellites cannot, at present, substitute terrestrial ties in the computation of the ITRF. The study is completed by a series of synthetic simulations investigating the impact that substantial improvements in the volume and quality of SLR observations to GNSS satellites would have on the precision of the GNSS frame parameters.

  10. Out of body, out of space: Impaired reference frame processing in eating disorders.

    Serino, Silvia; Dakanalis, Antonios; Gaudio, Santino; Carrà, Giuseppe; Cipresso, Pietro; Clerici, Massimo; Riva, Giuseppe

    2015-12-15

    A distorted body representation is a core symptom in eating disorders (EDs), though its mechanism is unclear. Allocentric lock theory, emphasising the role of reference frame processing in body image, suggests that ED patients may be (b)locked to an (allocentric) representation of their own body stored in long-term memory (e.g., my body is fat) that is not updated (modified) by the (real-time egocentric) perception-driven experience of the physical body. Employing a well-validated virtual reality-based procedure, relative to healthy controls, ED patients showed deficits in the ability to refer to and update a long-term stored (allocentric) representation with (egocentric) perceptual-driven inputs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Evolution of Technology in the Deep Space Network: A History of the Advanced Systems Program

    Layland, J. W.; Rauch, L. L.

    1994-01-01

    The Deep Space Network (DSN) of 1995 might be described as the evolutionary result of 45 years of deep space communication and navigation, together with the synergistic activities of radio science and radar and radio astronomy. But the evolution of the DSN did not just happen - it was carefully planned and created. The evolution of the DSN has been an ongoing engineering activity, and engineering is a process of problem solving under constraints, one of which is technology. In turn, technology is the knowledge base providing the capability and experience for practical application of various areas of science, when needed. The best engineering solutions result from optimization under the fewest constraints, and if technology needs are well anticipated (ready when needed), then the most effective engineering solution is possible. Throughout the history of the DSN it has been the goal and function of DSN advanced technology development (designated the DSN Advanced Systems Program from 1963 through 1994) to supply the technology needs of the DSN when needed, and thus to minimize this constraint on DSN engineering. Technology often takes considerable time to develop, and when that happens, it is important to have anticipated engineering needs; at times, this anticipation has been by as much as 15 years. Also, on a number of occasions, mission malfunctions or emergencies have resulted in unplanned needs for technology that has, in fact, been available from the reservoir of advanced technology provided by the DSN Advanced Systems Program. Sometimes, even DSN engineering personnel fail to realize that the organization of JPL permits an overlap of DSN advanced technology activities with subsequent engineering activities. This can result in the flow of advanced technology into DSN engineering in a natural and sometimes almost unnoticed way. In the following pages, we will explore some of the many contributions of the DSN Advanced Systems Program that were provided to DSN

  12. The role of space communication in promoting national development with specific reference to experiments conducted in India

    Chitnis, E. V.

    The paper describes the role of space communication in promoting national development with special reference to experiments conducted in India, namely SITE (1975-1976), STEP (1977-1979) and APPLE (1981 onwards). The impact of these experiments in economic, cultural and educational terms are discussed, pointing out social implications involved in using advance space communication technology for instruction and information in the areas of education, national integration and development. The paper covers special requirements which arise when a communication system covers backward and remote rural areas in a developing country. The impact on the population measured by conducting social surveys has been discussed - especially the gains of predominently illiterate new media - participants have been highlighted. Possibilities of improving skills of teachers, the quality of the primary and higher education have been covered. The preparation required both on ground as well as space to derive benefits of space technology are considered. A profile of INSAT which marks the culmination of the experimental phase and the beginning of operational domestic satellite system is sketched.

  13. Sustainable Spaces with Psychological Values: Historical Architecture as Reference Book for Biomimetic Models with Biophilic Qualities

    Nely Ramzy

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Biomimicry is a growing area of interest in architecture due to the potentials it offers for innovative architectural solutions and for more sustainable, regenerative built environment. Yet, a growing body of research identified various deficiencies to the employment of this approach in architecture. Of particular note are that: first, some biomimetic technologies are not inherently more sustainable or Nature-friendly than conventional equivalents; second, they lack any spatial expression of Nature and are visually ill-integrated into it. In a trial to redeem these deficiencies, this paper suggests a frame-work for more sustainable strategy that combines this approach with the relative approach of "Biophilia", with reference to examples from historical architecture. Using pioneering strategies and applications from different historical styles, the paper shows that the combination of these two approaches may lead to enhanced outcomes in terms of sustainability as well as human psychology and well-being. In doing so, architects may go beyond simply mimicking Nature to synthesizing architecture in tune with it and bringing in bio-inspired solutions that is more responsive to human needs and well-being.

  14. Considering World History as a Space for Developing Global Citizenship Competencies

    Girard, Brian; Harris, Lauren McArthur

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses how we might teach for global citizenship in world history classrooms. Despite the name, secondary world history courses in the United States have not consistently focused on global interconnections, multiple perspectives, and inquiry into global issues. We explore why this might be, as well as suggest specific learning…

  15. Space science comes of age: Perspectives in the history of the space sciences Proceedings of the Symposium, Washington, DC, March 23, 24, 1981

    Hanle, P.A.; Chamberlain, V.D.

    1981-01-01

    The development of space science is recounted in two parts, the first written by founders and pioneers in the field who recount some of the important scientific discoveries in their areas, the second offering a preliminary view of space science by professional historians. The subjects of the first part are solar physics, rocket astronomy, the ultraviolet spectra of stars, lunar exploration and geology. James Van Allen's lecture first disclosing his discovery of the radiation belts surrounding the earth is reprinted. The second part includes the story of the development of theories about the origin of the solar system before 1960, a discussion of studies of the upper atmosphere, a concise history of space-launch vehicles, and a review of the politics and funding of the Landsat project

  16. Space-time clustering of non-hodgkin lymphoma using residential histories in a danish case-control study

    Baastrup Nordsborg, Rikke; Meliker, Jaymie R; Kjær Ersbøll, Annette

    2013-01-01

    Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is a frequent cancer and incidence rates have increased markedly during the second half of the 20(th) century; however, the few established risk factors cannot explain this rise and still little is known about the aetiology of NHL. Spatial analyses have been applied...... the two control groups; thus we interpret the results as chance findings. We found no evidence for clustering of NHL in space and time using 33 years of residential histories, suggesting that if the rise in incidence of NHL is a result of risk factors that vary across space and time, the spatio...

  17. Identification of risk products for fragrance contact allergy: a case-referent study based on patients' histories.

    Johansen, J D; Andersen, T F; Kjøller, M; Veien, N; Avnstorp, C; Andersen, K E; Menné, T

    1998-06-01

    Fragrances are the first or second most common cause of contact allergy in dermatitis patients. The aim of this study was to identify risk products for fragrance contact allergy. The design was a case-control study with a case group of 78 fragrance-mix-positive eczema patients and two control groups, one consisting of 1,279 subjects selected as a random sample of the general population and the other consisting of 806 fragrance-mix-negative eczema patients. The identification of risk products was based on the patients' histories of rash to scented products. Analysis of the associations between first-time rash caused by different specified product categories and fragrance mix sensitivity was performed using logistic regression. It was found that first-time rash caused by deodorant sprays and/or perfumes were related to fragrance contact allergy in a comparison with both control groups. The risk (odds ratio) of being diagnosed as fragrance allergic was 2.3 to 2.9 greater in cases of a history of first-time rash to deodorant sprays and 3.3 to 3.4 greater in cases of a history of rash to perfumes than if no such history were present. First-time rash to cleansing agents, deodorant sticks, or hand lotions was also statistically significant but only in comparison with one of the control groups. Safety evaluation of fragrance materials used in perfumes and deodorant sprays should be performed with special attention.

  18. The Public Community College in America: Its History, Present Condition, and Future Outlook with Special Reference to Finance.

    Edwards, Nancy Joan

    The development, current status, and future prospects of community colleges are examined in this study with special emphasis on finance and funding concerns. Introductory material outlines study objectives, methodology, and purposes; defines key terms; and emphasizes the importance of college planning. Chapter 1 presents a history of the community…

  19. China's space development history: A comparison of the rocket and satellite sectors

    Erickson, Andrew S.

    2014-10-01

    China is the most recent great power to emerge in aerospace. It has become the first developing nation to achieve some measure of aerospace production capability across the board. Outside the developed aerospace powers, only China has demonstrated competence concerning all aspects of a world-class aerospace industry: production of advanced rockets, satellites, and aircraft and of their supporting engineering, materials, and systems. As an emerging great power during the Cold War, China was still limited in resources, technology access, and capabilities. It thereby faced difficult choices and constraints. Yet it achieved increasing, though uneven, technological levels in different aerospace sub-sectors. Explaining this variance can elucidate challenges and opportunities confronting developing nations sharing limitations that previously constrained China. Rockets (missiles and space launch vehicles/SLVs) and satellites (military and civilian) were two areas of early achievement for China, and represent this article's two in-depth case studies. Initial import of American and Soviet knowledge and technology, coupled with national resources focused under centralized leadership, enabled China to master missiles and satellites ahead of other systems. Early in the Cold War, great power status hinged on atomic development. China devoted much of its limited technical resources to producing nuclear weapons in order to “prevent nuclear blackmail,” “break the superpowers' monopoly,” and thereby secure great power status. Beijing's second strategic priority was to develop reliable ballistic missiles to credibly deliver warheads, thereby supporting nuclear deterrence. Under Chairman Mao Zedong's direction and the guidance of the American-educated Dr. Qian Xuesen (H.S. Tsien), missile development became China's top aerospace priority. Satellites were also prioritized for military-strategic reasons and because they could not be purchased from abroad following the Sino

  20. Reference Values for the Marx Activity Rating Scale in a Young Athletic Population: History of Knee Ligament Injury Is Associated With Higher Scores.

    Cameron, Kenneth L; Peck, Karen Y; Thompson, Brandon S; Svoboda, Steven J; Owens, Brett D; Marshall, Stephen W

    2015-01-01

    Activity-related patient-reported outcome measures are an important component of assessment after knee ligament injury in young and physically active patients; however, normative data for most activity scales are limited. To present reference values by sex for the Marx Activity Rating Scale (MARS) within a young and physically active population while accounting for knee ligament injury history and sex. Cross-sectional study. Level 2. All incoming freshman entering a US Service Academy in June of 2011 were recruited to participate in this study. MARS was administered to 1169 incoming freshmen (203 women) who consented to participate within the first week of matriculation. All subjects were deemed healthy and medically fit for military service on admission. Subjects also completed a baseline questionnaire that asked for basic demographic information and injury history. We calculated means with standard deviations, medians with interquartile ranges, and percentiles for ordinal and continuous variables, and frequencies and proportions for dichotomous variables. We also compared median scores by sex and history of knee ligament injury using the Kruskal-Wallis test. MARS was the primary outcome of interest. The median MARS score was significantly higher for men when compared with women (χ(2) = 13.22, df = 1, P MARS scores between men and women (χ(2) = 0.47, df = 1, P = 0.493) who reported a history of injury. Overall, median MARS scores were significantly higher among those who reported a history of knee ligament injury when compared with those who did not (χ(2) = 9.06, df = 1, P = 0.003). Assessing activity as a patient-reported outcome after knee ligament injury is important, and reference values for these instruments need to account for the influence of prior injury and sex. © 2015 The Author(s).

  1. PHOTOMETRIC OBSERVATIONS OF SELECTED, OPTICALLY BRIGHT QUASARS FOR SPACE INTERFEROMETRY MISSION AND OTHER FUTURE CELESTIAL REFERENCE FRAMES

    Ojha, Roopesh; Zacharias, Norbert; Hennessy, Gregory S.; Gaume, Ralph A.; Johnston, Kenneth J.

    2009-01-01

    Photometric observations of 235 extragalactic objects that are potential targets for the Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) are presented. Mean B, V, R, I magnitudes at the 5% level are obtained at 1-4 epochs between 2005 and 2007 using the 1 m telescopes at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory and the Naval Observatory Flagstaff Station. Of the 134 sources that have V magnitudes in the Veron and Veron-Cetty catalog, a difference of over 1.0 mag is found for the observed-catalog magnitudes for about 36% of the common sources, and 10 sources show over 3 mag difference. Our first set of observations presented here form the basis of a long-term photometric variability study of the selected reference frame sources to assist in mission target selection and to support QSO multicolor photometric variability studies in general.

  2. Monographs in Aerospace History Series No. 11. Together in Orbit: The Origins of International Participation in the Space Station

    Logsdon, John M.

    1998-01-01

    This essay is a history and analysis of the steps leading to the origins of the space station partnership between the United States and its closest allies. It traces the process that led to the decision to invite other countries to participate in the project and their reasons for accepting that invitation. Not covered in this account are the difficult negotiations during the 1984-1988 period that led first to an initial set of agreements that allowed the prospective partners to work together during the early stages of the space station program and then to the final set of agreements creating the original space station partnership. Also, the 1993 invitation to the Russian Federation to join the original partners is not discussed, nor are the subsequent negotiations to revise the 1988 agreements.

  3. Class Explorations in Space: From the Blackboard and History to the Outdoors and Future

    Cavicchi, Elizabeth

    2011-11-01

    Our everyday activities occur so seamlessly in the space around us as to leave us unawares of space, its properties, and our use of it. What might we notice, wonder about and learn through interacting with space exploratively? My seminar class took on that question as an opening for personal and group experiences during this semester. In the process, they observe space locally and in the sky, read historical works of science involving space, and invent and construct forms in space. All these actions arise responsively, as we respond to: physical materials and space; historical resources; our seminar participants, and future learners. Checks, revisions and further developments -- on our findings, geometrical constructions, shared or personal inferences---come about observationally and collaboratively. I teach this seminar as an expression of the research pedagogy of critical exploration, developed by Eleanor Duckworth from the work of Jean Piaget, B"arbel Inhelder and the Elementary Science Study. This practice applies the quest for understanding of a researcher to spontaneous interactions evolving within a classroom. The teacher supports students in satisfying and developing their curiosities, which often results in exploring the subject matter by routes that are novel to both teacher and student. As my students ``mess about'' with geometry, string and chalk at the blackboard, in their notebooks, and in response to propositions in Euclid's Elements, they continually imagine further novel venues for using geometry to explore space. Where might their explorations go in the future? I invite you to hear from them directly!

  4. Navigating the Problem Space: The Medium of Simulation Games in the Teaching of History

    McCall, Jeremiah

    2012-01-01

    Simulation games can play a critical role in enabling students to navigate the problem spaces of the past while simultaneously critiquing the models designers offer to represent those problem spaces. There is much to be gained through their use. This includes rich opportunities for students to engage the past as independent historians; to consider…

  5. Improving rehabilitation standards to meet changing community concerns: A history of uranium mine rehabilitation with particular reference to Northern Australia

    Waggitt, P.W.; Zapantis, A.

    2002-01-01

    Rehabilitation of land after mining is an issue that society has been wrestling with for at least 400 years. The issue is made even more emotive when the mineral extracted has been uranium. Over the past 50 years or so society has become ever more aware of the environment and the level of concern for proper environmental management has also increased. Today the community expects that mining in general, and uranium mining in particular, will be undertaken in an environmentally sensitive manner. As a consequence the expectations and standards for rehabilitation demanded by the community and regulators have been increasing and improving over time. Today the rehabilitation process is driven by issues of sustainable development, stakeholder involvement and consultation, inter-and intragenerational equity and a strong desire for environmental protection to be of the highest order. The paper describes this progressive improvement in rehabilitation standards using the uranium mines of northern Australia as case histories. (author)

  6. Entering the Historical Problem Space: Whole-Class Text-Based Discussion in History Class

    Reisman, Abby

    2015-01-01

    Background/Context: The Common Core State Standards Initiative reveals how little we understand about the components of effective discussion-based instruction in disciplinary history. Although the case for classroom discussion as a core method for subject matter learning stands on stable theoretical and empirical ground, to date, none of the…

  7. Canoe Pedagogy and Colonial History: Exploring Contested Spaces of Outdoor Environmental Education

    Newbery, Liz

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, I explore how histories of colonialism are integral to the Euro-Western idea of wilderness at the heart of much outdoor environmental education. In the context of canoe tripping, I speculate about why the politics of land rarely enters into teaching on the land. Finally, because learning from difficult knowledge often troubles the…

  8. Celebrating a history of excellence : the Federal Aviation Administration and Space Education Outreach Program.

    2011-01-01

    Building on 75 years of experience, the FAAs : aviation and space education outreach : program is earning an A+ for encouraging elementary, : secondary, and even college students to study math, : science, technology, engineering, and a host of : o...

  9. Space Shuttle Launch Probability Analysis: Understanding History so We Can Predict the Future

    Cates, Grant R.

    2014-01-01

    The Space Shuttle was launched 135 times and nearly half of those launches required 2 or more launch attempts. The Space Shuttle launch countdown historical data of 250 launch attempts provides a wealth of data that is important to analyze for strictly historical purposes as well as for use in predicting future launch vehicle launch countdown performance. This paper provides a statistical analysis of all Space Shuttle launch attempts including the empirical probability of launch on any given attempt and the cumulative probability of launch relative to the planned launch date at the start of the initial launch countdown. This information can be used to facilitate launch probability predictions of future launch vehicles such as NASA's Space Shuttle derived SLS. Understanding the cumulative probability of launch is particularly important for missions to Mars since the launch opportunities are relatively short in duration and one must wait for 2 years before a subsequent attempt can begin.

  10. History of Nutrition: The Long Road Leading to the Dietary Reference Intakes for the United States and Canada.

    Murphy, Suzanne P; Yates, Allison A; Atkinson, Stephanie A; Barr, Susan I; Dwyer, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    The Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) are reference values to guide the planning and assessing of nutrient intakes in the United States and Canada. The DRI framework was conceptualized in 1994, and the first reports were issued from 1997–2004, based on work by expert panels and subcommittees under the guidance of the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine. Numerous conventions, challenges, and controversies were encountered during the process of defining and setting the DRIs, including the definition of the framework, the use of chronic disease endpoints, lack of data on requirements for children and youth, and methods for addressing nonessential bioactive substances with potential health benefits. DRIs may be used to plan and assess the nutrient intakes of both individuals and population groups, but the new paradigm particularly improved methods used for groups. It is now possible to estimate both the prevalence of inadequate intake and the prevalence of potentially excessive intake within a group. The DRIs have served as a potent influence on national nutrition policies, including those related to dietary guidance, food labeling, nutrition monitoring, food assistance programs, and military nutrition standards. Because of this important impact on nutrition policy, the DRIs must be based on the best possible and most up-to-date science. Unfortunately, no updates to specific DRIs are currently planned. Despite the long and challenging road that led to the current DRIs, it must not finish in a dead end. Monetary resources and political will are crucial to maintaining and continuously updating the DRIs.

  11. Radiation: Time, Space and Spirit--Keys to Scientific Literacy Series.

    Stonebarger, Bill

    This discussion of radiation considers the spectrum of electromagnetic energy including light, x-rays, radioactivity, and other waves. Radiation is considered from three aspects; time, space, and spirit. Time refers to a sense of history; space refers to geography; and spirit refers to life and thought. Several chapters on the history and concepts…

  12. The Renaissance Concept of Space: Notes on the Interaction between Arts and Sciences in History

    Rein Undusk

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available “Renaissance concept of space” harbors surely some definite bonuses for anybody embarking on a study of the inventive role that philosophy has had, in its happiest moments of life, for human cognition. First, the new suppositions related to physical space emerge in the Renaissance as derivative from the theological-philosophical assumptions of the era: what Renaissance space is can be enunciated quite convincingly on the basis of the intellectual collisions that the era was allotted to deal with. Thus, as a re-generator of classical culture, the Renaissance had to a degree dug up the finite substructure of ancient thinking; however, as an inheritor of the Middle Ages, it had been requested to square finitism with transcendency. Second, much of what we can today fit under Renaissance space is in fact delivered to us in the artistic form of painting, which means that, in addition to the challenge set by philosophy to the spatial knowledge of the era, there was postulated as well a mediatory agency of art in the realization and conveyance of this new knowledge. Thus we can suppose that the solution offered by Renaissance art to the problem of space on its fictional plane comprised the germ of some modern knowledge about space in reality.

  13. The Decision to Send Humans Back to the Moon and on to Mars: Space Exploration Initiative History Project

    McCurdy, Howard E.

    1992-01-01

    This folder contains working papers collected to date on a NASA-sponsored history project to document the events leading up to the July 20, 1989 speech setting forth the objectives of the Space Exploration Initiative. Included are a chronology of events, briefing papers produced by the NASA Working Group laying out proposal, briefing charts used to present the proposal, a copy of the President's speech, and an essay summarizing the events that led up to the announcement. Additionally, two fo the interviews conducted as part of the project are enclosed.

  14. Cities as Creative Spaces for Cultural Tourism: A Plea for the Consideration of History

    Marian Walker

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Cultural tourism around the world is big business. Tourism stakeholders within tourism destinations understandably work hard to develop brands and images that entice cultural tourists to visit. However, when tourism stakeholders involved in this process do not prioritise host community selfknowledge, cultural integrity is compromised and cultural distortion inevitably arises. The purpose of this paper is to raise the issue of congruity between tourism brand and tourist experience, and to make a plea for the consideration of history in the imaging, branding and interpretation processes. The conclusion is that the effective use of local history can illuminate host community self-knowledge for the benefit of both cultural tourist and host community.

  15. HELP (INFORMATION ELECTRONIC RESOURCE "CHRONICLE OF ONU: DATES, FACTS, EVENTS": HISTORY OF UNIVERSITY IN INFORMATION SPACE

    А. М. Гавриленко

    2016-03-01

    Object of research is the help information resource "The chronicle of the Odessa national university of I. I. Mechnikov: dates, facts, events". The main objective of our article – to state the main methodological bases of creation of information resource. One of advantages of information resource is possibility of continuous updating and replenishment by new information. Main objective of creation of this information resource is systematization of material on stories of the Odessa national university of I. I. Mechnikov from the date of his basis to the present, ensuring interactive access to information on the main dates, the most significant events in life of university. The base of research are sources on the history of university, chronology of historical development, formation of infrastructure, cadres and scientific researches. In information resource the main stages of development, functioning and transformation of the Odessa University are analyzed, information on its divisions is collected. For creation of this information resource in Scientific library the method of work was developed, the main selection criteria of data are allocated. This information resource have practical value for all who is interested in history of university, historians, scientists-researchers of history of science and the city of Odessa.

  16. Space-time clustering of non-hodgkin lymphoma using residential histories in a Danish case-control study.

    Rikke Baastrup Nordsborg

    Full Text Available Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL is a frequent cancer and incidence rates have increased markedly during the second half of the 20(th century; however, the few established risk factors cannot explain this rise and still little is known about the aetiology of NHL. Spatial analyses have been applied in an attempt to identify environmental risk factors, but most studies do not take human mobility into account. The aim of this study was to identify clustering of NHL in space and time in Denmark, using 33 years of residential addresses. We utilised the nation-wide Danish registers and unique personal identification number that all Danish citizens have to conduct a register-based case-control study of 3210 NHL cases and two independent control groups of 3210 each. Cases were identified in the Danish Cancer Registry and controls were matched by age and sex and randomly selected from the Civil Registration System. Residential addresses of cases and controls from 1971 to 2003 were collected from the Civil Registration System and geocoded. Data on pervious hospital diagnoses and operations were obtained from the National Patient Register. We applied the methods of the newly developed Q-statistics to identify space-time clustering of NHL. All analyses were conducted with each of the two control groups, and we adjusted for previous history of autoimmune disease, HIV/AIDS or organ transplantation. Some areas with statistically significant clustering were identified; however, results were not consistent across the two control groups; thus we interpret the results as chance findings. We found no evidence for clustering of NHL in space and time using 33 years of residential histories, suggesting that if the rise in incidence of NHL is a result of risk factors that vary across space and time, the spatio-temporal variation of such factors in Denmark is too small to be detected with the applied method.

  17. Hugh L. Dryden's Career in Aviation and Space. No. 5; Monographs in Aerospace History

    Gorn, Michael H.

    1996-01-01

    Hugh Latimer Dryden led a life rich in paradox. Born in obsurity, he attained international prominence. Indifferent to self-advancement, he nonetheless rose to the pinnacle of the aeronautics profession and subsequently assumed a pivotal role in the initial period of space exploration. Although a research scientist of the first order, he nurtured within himself a profoundly spiritual outlook.

  18. The CERN-EU high-energy reference field (CERF) facility for dosimetry at commercial flight altitudes and in space.

    Mitaroff, A; Cern, M Silari

    2002-01-01

    A reference facility for the calibration and intercomparison of active and passive detectors in broad neutron fields has been available at CERN since 1992. A positively charged hadron beam (a mixture of protons and pions) with momentum of 120 GeV/c hits a copper target, 50 cm thick and 7 cm in diameter. The secondary particles produced in the interaction traverse a shield, at 90 degrees with respect to the direction of the incoming beam. made of either 80 to 160 cm of concrete or 40 cm of iron. Behind the iron shield, the resulting neutron spectrum has a maximum at about 1 MeV, with an additional high-energy component. Behind the 80 cm concrete shield, the neutron spectrum has a second pronounced maximum at about 70 MeV and resembles the high-energy component of the radiation field created by cosmic rays at commercial flight altitudes. This paper describes the facility, reports on the latest neutron spectral measurements, gives an overview of the most important experiments performed by the various collaborating institutions over recent years and briefly addresses the possible application of the facility to measurements related to the space programme.

  19. The relationship between history and physical examination findings and the outcome of electrodiagnostic testing in patients with sciatica referred to physical therapy.

    Savage, Nathan J; Fritz, Julie M; Thackeray, Anne

    2014-07-01

    Cross-sectional diagnostic accuracy study. To investigate the relationship between history and physical examination findings and the outcome of electrodiagnostic testing in patients with sciatica referred to physical therapy. Electrodiagnostic testing is routinely used to evaluate patients with sciatica. Recent evidence suggests that the presence of radiculopathy identified with electrodiagnostic testing may predict better functional outcomes in these patients. While some patient history and physical examination findings have been shown to predict the presence of disc herniation or neurological insult, little is known about their relationship to the results of electrodiagnostic testing. Electrodiagnostic testing was performed on 38 patients with sciatica who participated in a randomized trial that compared different physical therapy interventions. The diagnostic gold standard was the presence or absence of radiculopathy, based on the results of the needle electromyographic examination. Diagnostic sensitivity and specificity values were calculated, along with corresponding likelihood ratios, for select patient history and physical examination variables. No significant relationship was found between select patient history and physical examination findings, analyzed individually or in combination, and the outcome of electrodiagnostic testing. Diagnostic sensitivity values ranged from 0.03 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.00, 0.24) to a high of 0.95 (95% CI: 0.72, 0.99), and specificity values ranged from 0.10 (95% CI: 0.02, 0.34) to a high of 0.95 (95% CI: 0.72, 0.99). Positive likelihood ratios ranged from 0.15 (95% CI: 0.01, 2.87) to a high of 2.33 (95% CI: 0.71, 7.70), and negative likelihood ratios ranged from 2.00 (95% CI: 0.35, 11.48) to a low of 0.50 (95% CI: 0.03, 8.10). In this investigation, the relationship between patient history and physical examination findings and the outcome of electrodiagnostic testing among patients with sciatica was not found to be

  20. The History of the Animal Care Program at NASA Johnson Space Center

    Khan-Mayberry, Noreen; Bassett, Stephanie

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the work of the Animal Care Program (ACP). Animals have been used early in space exploration to ascertain if it were possible to launch a manned spacecraft. The program is currently involved in many studies that assist in enhancing the scientific knowledge of the effect of space travel. The responsibilities of the ACP are: (1) Organize and supervise animal care operations & activities (research, testing & demonstration). (2) Maintain full accreditation by the International Association for the Assessment and Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care (AAALAC) (3) Ensure protocol compliance with IACUC recommendations (4) Training astronauts for in-flight animal experiments (5) Maintain accurate & timely records for all animal research testing approved by JSC IACUC (6) Organize IACUC meetings and assist IACUC members (7) Coordinate IACUC review of the Institutional Program for Humane Care and Use of Animals (every 6 mos)

  1. The growth of materials processing in space - A history of government support for new technology

    Mckannan, E. C.

    1983-01-01

    Development of a given technology for national defense and large systems developments when the task is too large or risky for entrepreneurs, yet is clearly in the best interest of the nation are discussed. Advanced research to identify areas of interest was completed. Examples of commercial opportunities are the McDonnell-Douglas Corporation purification process for pharmaceutical products and the Microgravity Research Associates process for growing gallium arsenide crystals in space.

  2. Space-Time Analysis of Testicular Cancer Clusters Using Residential Histories: A Case-Control Study in Denmark

    Sloan, Chantel D.; Nordsborg, Rikke B.; Jacquez, Geoffrey M.; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Meliker, Jaymie R.

    2015-01-01

    Though the etiology is largely unknown, testicular cancer incidence has seen recent significant increases in northern Europe and throughout many Western regions. The most common cancer in males under age 40, age period cohort models have posited exposures in the in utero environment or in early childhood as possible causes of increased risk of testicular cancer. Some of these factors may be tied to geography through being associated with behavioral, cultural, sociodemographic or built environment characteristics. If so, this could result in detectable geographic clusters of cases that could lead to hypotheses regarding environmental targets for intervention. Given a latency period between exposure to an environmental carcinogen and testicular cancer diagnosis, mobility histories are beneficial for spatial cluster analyses. Nearest-neighbor based Q-statistics allow for the incorporation of changes in residency in spatial disease cluster detection. Using these methods, a space-time cluster analysis was conducted on a population-wide case-control population selected from the Danish Cancer Registry with mobility histories since 1971 extracted from the Danish Civil Registration System. Cases (N=3297) were diagnosed between 1991 and 2003, and two sets of controls (N=3297 for each set) matched on sex and date of birth were included in the study. We also examined spatial patterns in maternal residential history for those cases and controls born in 1971 or later (N= 589 case-control pairs). Several small clusters were detected when aligning individuals by year prior to diagnosis, age at diagnosis and calendar year of diagnosis. However, the largest of these clusters contained only 2 statistically significant individuals at their center, and were not replicated in SaTScan spatial-only analyses which are less susceptible to multiple testing bias. We found little evidence of local clusters in residential histories of testicular cancer cases in this Danish population. PMID

  3. Space-time analysis of testicular cancer clusters using residential histories: a case-control study in Denmark.

    Chantel D Sloan

    Full Text Available Though the etiology is largely unknown, testicular cancer incidence has seen recent significant increases in northern Europe and throughout many Western regions. The most common cancer in males under age 40, age period cohort models have posited exposures in the in utero environment or in early childhood as possible causes of increased risk of testicular cancer. Some of these factors may be tied to geography through being associated with behavioral, cultural, sociodemographic or built environment characteristics. If so, this could result in detectable geographic clusters of cases that could lead to hypotheses regarding environmental targets for intervention. Given a latency period between exposure to an environmental carcinogen and testicular cancer diagnosis, mobility histories are beneficial for spatial cluster analyses. Nearest-neighbor based Q-statistics allow for the incorporation of changes in residency in spatial disease cluster detection. Using these methods, a space-time cluster analysis was conducted on a population-wide case-control population selected from the Danish Cancer Registry with mobility histories since 1971 extracted from the Danish Civil Registration System. Cases (N=3297 were diagnosed between 1991 and 2003, and two sets of controls (N=3297 for each set matched on sex and date of birth were included in the study. We also examined spatial patterns in maternal residential history for those cases and controls born in 1971 or later (N= 589 case-control pairs. Several small clusters were detected when aligning individuals by year prior to diagnosis, age at diagnosis and calendar year of diagnosis. However, the largest of these clusters contained only 2 statistically significant individuals at their center, and were not replicated in SaTScan spatial-only analyses which are less susceptible to multiple testing bias. We found little evidence of local clusters in residential histories of testicular cancer cases in this Danish

  4. Space-time analysis of testicular cancer clusters using residential histories: a case-control study in Denmark.

    Sloan, Chantel D; Nordsborg, Rikke B; Jacquez, Geoffrey M; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Meliker, Jaymie R

    2015-01-01

    Though the etiology is largely unknown, testicular cancer incidence has seen recent significant increases in northern Europe and throughout many Western regions. The most common cancer in males under age 40, age period cohort models have posited exposures in the in utero environment or in early childhood as possible causes of increased risk of testicular cancer. Some of these factors may be tied to geography through being associated with behavioral, cultural, sociodemographic or built environment characteristics. If so, this could result in detectable geographic clusters of cases that could lead to hypotheses regarding environmental targets for intervention. Given a latency period between exposure to an environmental carcinogen and testicular cancer diagnosis, mobility histories are beneficial for spatial cluster analyses. Nearest-neighbor based Q-statistics allow for the incorporation of changes in residency in spatial disease cluster detection. Using these methods, a space-time cluster analysis was conducted on a population-wide case-control population selected from the Danish Cancer Registry with mobility histories since 1971 extracted from the Danish Civil Registration System. Cases (N=3297) were diagnosed between 1991 and 2003, and two sets of controls (N=3297 for each set) matched on sex and date of birth were included in the study. We also examined spatial patterns in maternal residential history for those cases and controls born in 1971 or later (N= 589 case-control pairs). Several small clusters were detected when aligning individuals by year prior to diagnosis, age at diagnosis and calendar year of diagnosis. However, the largest of these clusters contained only 2 statistically significant individuals at their center, and were not replicated in SaTScan spatial-only analyses which are less susceptible to multiple testing bias. We found little evidence of local clusters in residential histories of testicular cancer cases in this Danish population.

  5. Can space ties on board GNSS satellites replace terrestrial ties in the implementation of Terrestrial Reference Frames?

    Bruni, Sara; Zerbini, Susanna; Altamimi, Zuheir; Rebischung, Paul; Errico, Maddalena; Santi, Efisio

    2016-04-01

    The realization of Terrestrial Reference Frames (TRFs) must be periodically updated in order to account for newly acquired observations and for upgrades in data analysis procedures and/or combination techniques. Any innovative computation strategy should ameliorate the definition of the frame physical parameters, upon which a number of scientific applications critically rely. On the basis of the requirements of scientific cutting edge studies, the geodetic community has estimated that the present day challenge in the determination of TRFs is to provide a frame that is accurate and long-term stable at the level of 1 mm and 0.1 mm/y respectively. This work aims at characterizing the frame realized by a combination of Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) and Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) observations via their co-location on board GNSS spacecrafts. In particular, it is established how such a frame compares to the traditional ITRF computation and what is the impact on the realization of the frame origin and scale. Four years of data from a global network encompassing about one hundred GNSS stations and all SLR sites have been analyzed. In order to ensure the highest possible consistency, the raw data of both techniques are treated with the same analysis Software (Bernese GNSS Software 5.2) following IERS2010 Conventions. Both weekly and long term solutions are carried out exploiting either the Bernese or the Combination and Analysis of Terrestrial Reference Frames (CATREF) Software packages. We present the results of a combination study involving GNSS data and SLR observations to the two LAGEOS and to the GNSS satellites equipped with retroreflector arrays. The latter type of measurements is currently not included in the computation of the official ITRF solutions. The assessment of the benefit that they could provide to the definition of the origin and scale of the ITRF is however worth investigating, as such data provide the potential for linking the GNSS and

  6. The spaces of the margin. History of Sexuality and LGBTIQ studies from an interdisciplinary perspective

    Elisabetta Bini

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The essay offers an overview of LGBTIQ studies, by analyzing several texts that have influenced the debate and research about the history of sexuality and LGBTIQ identities. The first part examines the forms of exchange and contamination between LGBTIQ and historical studies. The author argues that, since they emerged in the 1970s, LGBTIQ studies have aimed at challenging the specific forms of discrimination carried out against gays and lesbians, by highlighting the historical and social construction of sexuality and sexual identities. The essay focuses in particular on the importance of works by Michel Foucault, Adrienne Rich, Monique Wittig, Judith Butler, Teresa de Lauretis and American “women of color,” and their influence on historical research. The second part of the essay examines the photographs taken by several artists whose work focuses on sexual identities, such as Claude Cahun, Nan Goldin, Catherine Opie and Del LaGrace Volcano.

  7. The Role of Plants in Space Exploration: Some History and Background

    Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2016-01-01

    For over 3 decades, NASA has sponsored research on crops for human life support in space. Specialized watering techniques have even been tested for weightless settings, but most studies used conventional watering, such as hydroponics, which should work well on surface settings of the Moon or Mars. NASAs testing has spanned a wide range of crops and studied innovative techniques to increase yields, reduce power, minimize growing volume, and recycle water and nutrients. These issues closely parallel challenges faced in terrestrial controlled environment agriculture, which is expanding around the world.

  8. Experience-based consumption in a dramatised space : the history of the Toyako Manga Anime Festa

    Yamamura, Takayoshi

    2015-01-01

    This paper uses the Toyako Manga Anime Festa (TMAF)—held at the onsen (hot spring) resort of Toyako in Hokkaido since 2010—as a case study and presents its start-up strategy and development rocess. By focusing on the TMAF cosplay event, for which the entire town is transformed into a ‘venue of cosplay’, the paper reveals the key element behind the event’s success: the town’s opening of its public space to tourists as a cosplay stage where they become primary characters in a journey and can in...

  9. Selected Legal Challenges Relating to the Military use of Outer Space, with Specific Reference to Article IV of the Outer Space Treaty

    Anél Ferreira-Snyman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the end of the Second World War the potential use of outer space for military purposes persisted to be intrinsically linked to the development of space technology and space flight. The launch of the first artificial satellite, Sputnik 1, by the USSR in 1957 made Western states realise that a surprise attack from space was a real possibility, resulting in the so-called "space-race" between the USA and the USSR. During the Cold War space activities were intrinsically linked to the political objectives, priorities and national security concerns of the USA and the Soviet Union. After the Cold War the political relevance and benefits of space continued to be recognised by states. In view of the recent emergence of new major space powers such as China, the focus has again shifted to the military use of outer space and the potential that a state with advanced space technology may use it for military purposes in order to dominate other states. Article IV of the Outer Space Treaty prohibits the installation of nuclear weapons and weapons of mass destruction in outer space and determines that the moon and other celestial bodies shall be used for peaceful purposes only. Due to the dual-use character of many space assets, the distinction between military and non-military uses of outer space is becoming increasingly blurred. This article discusses a number of legal challenges presented by article IV of the Outer Space Treaty, relating specifically to the term peaceful, the distinction between the terms militarisation and weaponisation and the nature of a space weapon. It is concluded that article IV is in many respects outdated and that it cannot address the current legal issues relating to the military use of outer space. The legal vacuum in this area may have grave consequences not only for maintaining peace and security in outer space, but also on earth. Consequently, an international dialogue on the military uses of outer space should be

  10. Estimating mutation parameters, population history and genealogy simultaneously from temporally spaced sequence data.

    Drummond, Alexei J; Nicholls, Geoff K; Rodrigo, Allen G; Solomon, Wiremu

    2002-07-01

    Molecular sequences obtained at different sampling times from populations of rapidly evolving pathogens and from ancient subfossil and fossil sources are increasingly available with modern sequencing technology. Here, we present a Bayesian statistical inference approach to the joint estimation of mutation rate and population size that incorporates the uncertainty in the genealogy of such temporally spaced sequences by using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) integration. The Kingman coalescent model is used to describe the time structure of the ancestral tree. We recover information about the unknown true ancestral coalescent tree, population size, and the overall mutation rate from temporally spaced data, that is, from nucleotide sequences gathered at different times, from different individuals, in an evolving haploid population. We briefly discuss the methodological implications and show what can be inferred, in various practically relevant states of prior knowledge. We develop extensions for exponentially growing population size and joint estimation of substitution model parameters. We illustrate some of the important features of this approach on a genealogy of HIV-1 envelope (env) partial sequences.

  11. Histories electromagnetism

    Burch, Aidan

    2004-01-01

    Working within the HPO (History Projection Operator) Consistent Histories formalism, we follow the work of Savvidou on (scalar) field theory [J. Math. Phys. 43, 3053 (2002)] and that of Savvidou and Anastopoulos on (first-class) constrained systems [Class. Quantum Gravt. 17, 2463 (2000)] to write a histories theory (both classical and quantum) of Electromagnetism. We focus particularly on the foliation-dependence of the histories phase space/Hilbert space and the action thereon of the two Poincare groups that arise in histories field theory. We quantize in the spirit of the Dirac scheme for constrained systems

  12. The history and visions of African American psychology: multiple pathways to place, space, and authority.

    Holliday, Bertha Garrett

    2009-10-01

    The author describes the multiple pathways of events and strategies that served to nurture African American psychology in the United States. Special attention is given to strategies for inclusion and empowerment used in 4 psychological professional and scholarly associations: the American Counseling Association, the American Psychological Association, the Association of Black Psychologists, and the Society for Research in Child Development. In addition, the author describes 4 major intellectual traditions that informed not only the strategies of inclusion but also the theoretical, research, and intervention perspectives and other professional and academic efforts of African American psychologists. Those perspectives are the Afrocentric/African-centered tradition derived from longstanding nationalist/Pan-African and culturally centered traditions within African American communities; the social contextual/multidisciplinary research tradition of the University of Chicago School of Social Science; the empirical social science research tradition of the University of Michigan; and the Black scholar/activist tradition of Howard University. This article also presents a chronological timeline of major events in the history of African American psychology. Copyright 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. Probing features in inflaton potential and reionization history with future CMB space observations

    Hazra, Dhiraj Kumar; Paoletti, Daniela; Ballardini, Mario; Finelli, Fabio; Shafieloo, Arman; Smoot, George F.; Starobinsky, Alexei A.

    2018-02-01

    We consider the prospects of probing features in the primordial power spectrum with future Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) polarization measurements. In the scope of the inflationary scenario, such features in the spectrum can be produced by local non-smooth pieces in an inflaton potential (smooth and quasi-flat in general) which in turn may originate from fast phase transitions during inflation in other quantum fields interacting with the inflaton. They can fit some outliers in the CMB temperature power spectrum which are unaddressed within the standard inflationary ΛCDM model. We consider Wiggly Whipped Inflation (WWI) as a theoretical framework leading to improvements in the fit to the Planck 2015 temperature and polarization data in comparison with the standard inflationary models, although not at a statistically significant level. We show that some type of features in the potential within the WWI models, leading to oscillations in the primordial power spectrum that extend to intermediate and small scales can be constrained with high confidence (at 3σ or higher confidence level) by an instrument as the Cosmic ORigins Explorer (CORE). In order to investigate the possible confusion between inflationary features and footprints from the reionization era, we consider an extended reionization history with monotonic increase of free electrons with decrease in redshift. We discuss the present constraints on this model of extended reionization and future predictions with CORE. We also project, to what extent, this extended reionization can create confusion in identifying inflationary features in the data.

  14. Inference on network statistics by restricting to the network space: applications to sexual history data.

    Goyal, Ravi; De Gruttola, Victor

    2018-01-30

    Analysis of sexual history data intended to describe sexual networks presents many challenges arising from the fact that most surveys collect information on only a very small fraction of the population of interest. In addition, partners are rarely identified and responses are subject to reporting biases. Typically, each network statistic of interest, such as mean number of sexual partners for men or women, is estimated independently of other network statistics. There is, however, a complex relationship among networks statistics; and knowledge of these relationships can aid in addressing concerns mentioned earlier. We develop a novel method that constrains a posterior predictive distribution of a collection of network statistics in order to leverage the relationships among network statistics in making inference about network properties of interest. The method ensures that inference on network properties is compatible with an actual network. Through extensive simulation studies, we also demonstrate that use of this method can improve estimates in settings where there is uncertainty that arises both from sampling and from systematic reporting bias compared with currently available approaches to estimation. To illustrate the method, we apply it to estimate network statistics using data from the Chicago Health and Social Life Survey. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. History of the development of radiation protection standards for space activities

    Sinclair, W.K.

    1997-01-01

    Initial recommendations for limitations on radiation exposures in space were made in 1970 by the Radiobiological Advisory Panel of the Committee on Space Medicine, National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council (NAS/NRC). Using a risk-based approach and taking into consideration a range of factors, the Panel recommended an overall career limit of 4 Sv. Because it was assumed that only small numbers of people would be involved, most of whom would be in excess of 30 y of age, the question of genetic effects did not appear to be of concern. On the basis of subsequent epidemiological findings, the values of the risk coefficients were increased. As a result of this and other considerations, NASA in the early 1980s asked the NCRP to re-examine both the risks and the philosophy for protecting astronauts. In undertaking this task, the NCRP decided to treat the radiation exposures of crew members and payload specialists as an occupational hazard and to evaluate their risks in terms of those to radiation workers and to workers in other industries. Noting that in the less safe but not the most hazardous occupations, workers had an average lifetime risk of mortality of about three percent, the NCRP concluded that a reasonable career limit for astronauts should be based on a lifetime absolute excess risk of mortality of three percent. Using this as a base, the NCRP recommended a career limit for 25 y olds of 1 Sv for females and 1.5 Sv for males. Since the risk decreases the older the age at which the exposures begin, the limits culminated with a career limit of 3 Sv for females and 4 Sv for males whose initial exposure occurred at age 55. These recommendations were based on an assumed nominal value of a lifetime risk of fatal cancers for all ages of about 2 x 10 -2 Sv -1

  16. Genocide in World History Textbooks.

    Fleming, Dan

    1987-01-01

    Analyzes the treatment of genocide in secondary world history textbooks. Acknowledges that textbook space is limited, but argues that all should contain some reference to the subject. Concludes that the Armenian genocide, as well as the genocidal acts of Hitler, Stalin, and Mao Tse-tung should be presented in all survey texts. (GEA)

  17. Museum spaces as psychological affordances: representations of immigration history and national identity

    Mukherjee, Sahana; Salter, Phia S.; Molina, Ludwin E.

    2015-01-01

    The present research draws upon a cultural psychological perspective to consider how psychological phenomena are grounded in socio-cultural contexts. Specifically, we examine the association between representations of history at Ellis Island Immigration Museum and identity-relevant concerns. Pilot study participants (N = 13) took a total of 114 photographs of exhibits that they considered as most important in the museum. Results indicate that a majority of the photographs reflected neutral themes (n = 81), followed by nation-glorifying images (n = 24), and then critical themes that highlight injustices and barriers faced by immigrants (n = 9). Study 1 examines whether there is a preference for glorifying images, and if that preference is related to cultural-assimilationist conceptions of national identity (i.e., defining American identity in dominant group standards). We exposed a new sample of participants (N = 119) to photographs reflecting all three themes. Results indicate that participants expressed greater liking for glorifying images, followed by neutral images, and critical images. National identity moderated within-subject variation in liking scores. Study 2 included 35 visitors who completed a survey before engaging with the museum or after their visit. Results indicate that participants who had completed their visit, compared to participants who had not entered the museum, reported (i) higher endorsement of cultural-assimilationist identity, and (ii) increased support for exclusive immigration policies. Study 3 exposed participants (N = 257) to glorifying, critical, or neutral images. Results indicate that participants who were exposed to glorifying images, especially those endorsing cultural-assimilationist identity, demonstrate decreased perception of current-day racial injustice, and increased ethnocentric enforcement bias. We discuss how engagement with privileged narratives may serve dominant group ends and reproduce systems of privilege. PMID

  18. History and Benefits of Engine Level Testing Throughout the Space Shuttle Main Engine Program

    VanHooser, Katherine; Kan, Kenneth; Maddux, Lewis; Runkle, Everett

    2010-01-01

    Rocket engine testing is important throughout a program s life and is essential to the overall success of the program. Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) testing can be divided into three phases: development, certification, and operational. Development tests are conducted on the basic design and are used to develop safe start and shutdown transients and to demonstrate mainstage operation. This phase helps form the foundation of the program, demands navigation of a very steep learning curve, and yields results that shape the final engine design. Certification testing involves multiple engine samples and more aggressive test profiles that explore the boundaries of the engine to vehicle interface requirements. The hardware being tested may have evolved slightly from that in the development phase. Operational testing is conducted with mature hardware and includes acceptance testing of flight assets, resolving anomalies that occur in flight, continuing to expand the performance envelope, and implementing design upgrades. This paper will examine these phases of testing and their importance to the SSME program. Examples of tests conducted in each phase will also be presented.

  19. The History and Promise of Combined Cycle Engines for Access to Space Applications

    Clark, Casie

    2010-01-01

    For the summer of 2010, I have been working in the Aerodynamics and Propulsion Branch at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center studying combined-cycle engines, a high speed propulsion concept. Combined cycle engines integrate multiple propulsion systems into a single engine capable of running in multiple modes. These different modes allow the engine to be extremely versatile and efficient in varied flight conditions. The two most common types of combined cycle engines are Rocket-Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) and Turbine Based Combined Cycle (TBCC). The RBCC essentially combines a rocket and ramjet engine, while the TBCC integrates a turbojet and ramjet1. These two engines are able to switch between different propulsion modes to achieve maximum performance. Extensive conceptual and ground test studies of RBCC engines have been undertaken; however, an RBCC engine has never, to my knowledge, been demonstrated in flight. RBCC engines are of particular interest because they could potentially power a reusable launch vehicle (RLV) into space. The TBCC has been flight tested and shown to be effective at reaching supersonic speeds, most notably in the SR-71 Blackbird2.

  20. Triangles in ROC space: History and theory of "nonparametric" measures of sensitivity and response bias.

    Macmillan, N A; Creelman, C D

    1996-06-01

    Can accuracy and response bias in two-stimulus, two-response recognition or detection experiments be measured nonparametrically? Pollack and Norman (1964) answered this question affirmatively for sensitivity, Hodos (1970) for bias: Both proposed measures based on triangular areas in receiver-operating characteristic space. Their papers, and especially a paper by Grier (1971) that provided computing formulas for the measures, continue to be heavily cited in a wide range of content areas. In our sample of articles, most authors described triangle-based measures as making fewer assumptions than measures associated with detection theory. However, we show that statistics based on products or ratios of right triangle areas, including a recently proposed bias index and a not-yetproposed but apparently plausible sensitivity index, are consistent with a decision process based on logistic distributions. Even the Pollack and Norman measure, which is based on non-right triangles, is approximately logistic for low values of sensitivity. Simple geometric models for sensitivity and bias are not nonparametric, even if their implications are not acknowledged in the defining publications.

  1. Social scaling of extrapersonal space: target objects are judged as closer when the reference frame is a human agent with available movement potentialities.

    Fini, C; Brass, M; Committeri, G

    2015-01-01

    Space perception depends on our motion potentialities and our intended actions are affected by space perception. Research on peripersonal space (the space in reaching distance) shows that we perceive an object as being closer when we (Witt, Proffitt, & Epstein, 2005; Witt & Proffitt, 2008) or another actor (Costantini, Ambrosini, Sinigaglia, & Gallese, 2011; Bloesch, Davoli, Roth, Brockmole, & Abrams, 2012) can interact with it. Similarly, an object only triggers specific movements when it is placed in our peripersonal space (Costantini, Ambrosini, Tieri, Sinigaglia, & Committeri, 2010) or in the other's peripersonal space (Costantini, Committeri, & Sinigaglia, 2011; Cardellicchio, Sinigaglia, & Costantini, 2013). Moreover, also the extrapersonal space (the space outside reaching distance) seems to be perceived in relation to our movement capabilities: the more effort it takes to cover a distance, the greater we perceive the distance to be (Proffitt, Stefanucci, Banton, & Epstein, 2003; Sugovic & Witt, 2013). However, not much is known about the influence of the other's movement potentialities on our extrapersonal space perception. Three experiments were carried out investigating the categorization of distance in extrapersonal space using human or non-human allocentric reference frames (RF). Subjects were asked to judge the distance ("Near" or "Far") of a target object (a beach umbrella) placed at progressively increasing or decreasing distances until a change from near to far or vice versa was reported. In the first experiment we found a significant "Near space extension" when the allocentric RF was a human virtual agent instead of a static, inanimate object. In the second experiment we tested whether the "Near space extension" depended on the anatomical structure of the RF or its movement potentialities by adding a wooden dummy. The "Near space extension" was only observed for the human agent but not for the dummy. Finally, to rule out the possibility that the

  2. Tiempo, espacio y el futuro del pasado: los horizontes de la Historia = Time, space and the future of the past: The horizons of History

    David Armitage

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Es mucho lo que ha quedado atrás en un amplio abanico de campos históricos. Numerosos historiadores están ensanchando los espacios para crear historias internacionales, transnacionales y globales. Otros están expandiendo el tiempo, para perseguir una Big History, una Deep History y la historia del Antropoceno. ¿Cuál es la explicación para esta expansión de los horizontes? ¿Y que significa para el futuro de la Historia? Este artículo presenta un alegato para la consideración de la historia como una disciplina de las transformaciones sociales y políticas en medio de las crisis de gobernanza global, creciente desigualdad y cambio climático antropogénico.Big is back across a wide range of historical fields. Many historians are stretching space, to create international, transnational and global histories. Others are expanding time, to pursue Big History, Deep History and the history of the Anthropocene. What explains this broadening of horizons? And what does it mean for the future of history? This article makes a case for history as a discipline of social and political transformation amid crises of global governance, rising inequality, and anthropogenic climate change.

  3. The history of the UV radiation climate of the earth--theoretical and space-based observations.

    Cockell, C S; Horneck, G

    2001-04-01

    In the Archean era (3.8-2.5 Ga ago) the Earth probably lacked a protective ozone column. Using data obtained in the Earth's orbit on the inactivation of Bacillus subtilis spores we quantitatively estimate the potential biological effects of such an environment. We combine this practical data with theoretical calculations to propose a history of the potential UV stress on the surface of the Earth over time. The data suggest that an effective ozone column was established at a pO2 of approximately 5 x 10(-3) present atmospheric level. The improvement in the UV environment on the early Proterozoic Earth might have been a much more rapid event than has previously been supposed, with DNA damage rates dropping by two orders of magnitude in the space of just a few tens of millions of years. We postulate that a coupling between reduced UV stress and increased pO2 production could have contributed toward a positive feedback in the production of ozone in the early Proterozoic atmosphere. This would contribute to the apparent rapidity of the oxidation event. The data provide an evolutionary perspective on present-day Antarctic ozone depletion.

  4. Connecting the Pioneers, Current Leaders and the Nature and History of Space Weather with K-12 Classrooms and the General Public

    Ng, C.; Thompson, B. J.; Cline, T.; Lewis, E.; Barbier, B.; Odenwald, S.; Spadaccini, J.; James, N.; Stephenson, B.; Davis, H. B.; Major, E. R.; Space Weather Living History

    2011-12-01

    The Space Weather Living History program will explore and share the breakthrough new science and captivating stories of space environments and space weather by interviewing space physics pioneers and leaders active from the International Geophysical Year (IGY) to the present. Our multi-mission project will capture, document and preserve the living history of space weather utilizing original historical materials (primary sources). The resulting products will allow us to tell the stories of those involved in interactive new media to address important STEM needs, inspire the next generation of explorers, and feature women as role models. The project is divided into several stages, and the first stage, which began in mid-2011, focuses on resource gathering. The goal is to capture not just anecdotes, but the careful analogies and insights of researchers and historians associated with the programs and events. The Space Weather Living History Program has a Scientific Advisory Board, and with the Board's input our team will determine the chronology, key researchers, events, missions and discoveries for interviews. Education activities will be designed to utilize autobiographies, newspapers, interviews, research reports, journal articles, conference proceedings, dissertations, websites, diaries, letters, and artworks. With the help of a multimedia firm, we will use some of these materials to develop an interactive timeline on the web, and as a downloadable application in a kiosk and on tablet computers. In summary, our project augments the existing historical records with education technologies, connect the pioneers, current leaders and the nature and history of space weather with K-12 classrooms and the general public, covering all areas of studies in Heliophysics. The project is supported by NASA award NNX11AJ61G.

  5. A Novel Robust H∞ Filter Based on Krein Space Theory in the SINS/CNS Attitude Reference System

    Fei Yu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Owing to their numerous merits, such as compact, autonomous and independence, the strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS and celestial navigation system (CNS can be used in marine applications. What is more, due to the complementary navigation information obtained from two different kinds of sensors, the accuracy of the SINS/CNS integrated navigation system can be enhanced availably. Thus, the SINS/CNS system is widely used in the marine navigation field. However, the CNS is easily interfered with by the surroundings, which will lead to the output being discontinuous. Thus, the uncertainty problem caused by the lost measurement will reduce the system accuracy. In this paper, a robust H∞ filter based on the Krein space theory is proposed. The Krein space theory is introduced firstly, and then, the linear state and observation models of the SINS/CNS integrated navigation system are established reasonably. By taking the uncertainty problem into account, in this paper, a new robust H∞ filter is proposed to improve the robustness of the integrated system. At last, this new robust filter based on the Krein space theory is estimated by numerical simulations and actual experiments. Additionally, the simulation and experiment results and analysis show that the attitude errors can be reduced by utilizing the proposed robust filter effectively when the measurements are missing discontinuous. Compared to the traditional Kalman filter (KF method, the accuracy of the SINS/CNS integrated system is improved, verifying the robustness and the availability of the proposed robust H∞ filter.

  6. CT findings of the infraorbital space. Special reference to odontogenic infection caused by periapical lesions of the maxillary canine

    Ikarugi, Yuko; Tanaka, Ray; Hayashi, Takafumi

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the clinical significance of the infraorbital space demonstrated on CT for the diagnosis of odontogenic infection caused by periapical lesions of the maxillary canine tooth. We evaluated the radiological appearance of the labial cortical bone and the surrounding soft tissue adjacent to the root apex of the maxillary canine in 12 patients with infraorbital space infection demonstrated on CT. The patients consisted of 6 males and 6 females, and age ranged from 33 to 84 years with a mean age of 58.7 years. On CT, disruption of the labial cortical bone around the root apex of the maxillary canine accompanied with pathological soft tissue density adjacent to the disrupted cortical bone was observed in all of the cases. Swelling of the facial muscles (levator labii superioris muscle, levator anguli oris muscle) was shown in 6 (50%) of 12 cases. Deviation of the levator labii superioris muscle was demonstrated in 9 cases (75%), whereas that of the levator anguli oris muscle was observed only in 2 cases (17%). The anatomical appearance of the infraorbital space which is clearly demonstrated on CT might be useful in diagnosing the spread of odontogenic infection caused by periapical lesions of the maxillary canine. (author)

  7. Delayed star formation in isolated dwarf galaxies: Hubble space telescope star formation history of the Aquarius dwarf irregular

    Cole, Andrew A. [School of Physical Sciences, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 37, Hobart, Tasmania, 7001 Australia (Australia); Weisz, Daniel R. [Department of Astronomy, University of California at Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew E. [Raytheon, 1151 East Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85706 (United States); Skillman, Evan D. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55441 (United States); McConnachie, Alan W. [NRC Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, Dominion Astrophysical Observatory, Victoria, BC, V9E 2E7 Canada (Canada); Brooks, Alyson M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 136 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Leaman, Ryan, E-mail: andrew.cole@utas.edu.au, E-mail: drw@ucsc.edu, E-mail: adolphin@raytheon.com, E-mail: skillman@astro.umn.edu, E-mail: alan.mcconnachie@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca, E-mail: abrooks@physics.rutgers.edu, E-mail: rleaman@iac.es [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2014-11-01

    We have obtained deep images of the highly isolated (d = 1 Mpc) Aquarius dwarf irregular galaxy (DDO 210) with the Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys. The resulting color-magnitude diagram (CMD) reaches more than a magnitude below the oldest main-sequence turnoff, allowing us to derive the star formation history (SFH) over the entire lifetime of the galaxy with a timing precision of ≈10% of the lookback time. Using a maximum likelihood fit to the CMD we find that only ≈10% of all star formation in Aquarius took place more than 10 Gyr ago (lookback time equivalent to redshift z ≈ 2). The star formation rate increased dramatically ≈6-8 Gyr ago (z ≈ 0.7-1.1) and then declined until the present time. The only known galaxy with a more extreme confirmed delay in star formation is Leo A, a galaxy of similar M {sub H} {sub I}/M {sub *}, dynamical mass, mean metallicity, and degree of isolation. The delayed stellar mass growth in these galaxies does not track the mean dark matter accretion rate from CDM simulations. The similarities between Leo A and Aquarius suggest that if gas is not removed from dwarf galaxies by interactions or feedback, it can linger for several gigayears without cooling in sufficient quantity to form stars efficiently. We discuss possible causes for the delay in star formation including suppression by reionization and late-time mergers. We find reasonable agreement between our measured SFHs and select cosmological simulations of isolated dwarfs. Because star formation and merger processes are both stochastic in nature, delayed star formation in various degrees is predicted to be a characteristic (but not a universal) feature of isolated small galaxies.

  8. The star formation histories of local group dwarf galaxies. I. Hubble space telescope/wide field planetary camera 2 observations

    Weisz, Daniel R. [Department of Astronomy, University of California at Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew E. [Raytheon Company, 1151 East Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85756 (United States); Skillman, Evan D. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Holtzman, Jon [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, Box 30001, 1320 Frenger Street, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); Gilbert, Karoline M.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Williams, Benjamin F., E-mail: drw@ucsc.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2014-07-10

    We present uniformly measured star formation histories (SFHs) of 40 Local Group (LG) dwarf galaxies based on color-magnitude diagram (CMD) analysis from archival Hubble Space Telescope imaging. We demonstrate that accurate SFHs can be recovered from CMDs that do not reach the oldest main sequence turn-off (MSTO), but emphasize that the oldest MSTO is critical for precisely constraining the earliest epochs of star formation. We find that: (1) the average lifetime SFHs of dwarf spheroidals (dSphs) can be approximated by an exponentially declining SFH with τ ∼ 5 Gyr; (2) lower luminosity dSphs are less likely to have extended SFHs than more luminous dSphs; (3) the average SFHs of dwarf irregulars (dIrrs), transition dwarfs, and dwarf ellipticals can be approximated by the combination of an exponentially declining SFH (τ ∼ 3-4 Gyr) for lookback ages >10-12 Gyr ago and a constant SFH thereafter; (4) the observed fraction of stellar mass formed prior to z = 2 ranges considerably (80% for galaxies with M < 10{sup 5} M{sub ☉} to 30% for galaxies with M > 10{sup 7} M{sub ☉}) and is largely explained by environment; (5) the distinction between 'ultra-faint' and 'classical' dSphs is arbitrary; (6) LG dIrrs formed a significantly higher fraction of stellar mass prior to z = 2 than the Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxies from Leitner and the SFHs from the abundance matching models of Behroozi et al. This may indicate higher than expected star formation efficiencies at early times in low mass galaxies. Finally, we provide all the SFHs in tabulated electronic format for use by the community.

  9. The star formation histories of local group dwarf galaxies. I. Hubble space telescope/wide field planetary camera 2 observations

    Weisz, Daniel R.; Dolphin, Andrew E.; Skillman, Evan D.; Holtzman, Jon; Gilbert, Karoline M.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Williams, Benjamin F.

    2014-01-01

    We present uniformly measured star formation histories (SFHs) of 40 Local Group (LG) dwarf galaxies based on color-magnitude diagram (CMD) analysis from archival Hubble Space Telescope imaging. We demonstrate that accurate SFHs can be recovered from CMDs that do not reach the oldest main sequence turn-off (MSTO), but emphasize that the oldest MSTO is critical for precisely constraining the earliest epochs of star formation. We find that: (1) the average lifetime SFHs of dwarf spheroidals (dSphs) can be approximated by an exponentially declining SFH with τ ∼ 5 Gyr; (2) lower luminosity dSphs are less likely to have extended SFHs than more luminous dSphs; (3) the average SFHs of dwarf irregulars (dIrrs), transition dwarfs, and dwarf ellipticals can be approximated by the combination of an exponentially declining SFH (τ ∼ 3-4 Gyr) for lookback ages >10-12 Gyr ago and a constant SFH thereafter; (4) the observed fraction of stellar mass formed prior to z = 2 ranges considerably (80% for galaxies with M < 10 5 M ☉ to 30% for galaxies with M > 10 7 M ☉ ) and is largely explained by environment; (5) the distinction between 'ultra-faint' and 'classical' dSphs is arbitrary; (6) LG dIrrs formed a significantly higher fraction of stellar mass prior to z = 2 than the Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxies from Leitner and the SFHs from the abundance matching models of Behroozi et al. This may indicate higher than expected star formation efficiencies at early times in low mass galaxies. Finally, we provide all the SFHs in tabulated electronic format for use by the community.

  10. NASA/NBS (National Aeronautics and Space Administration/National Bureau of Standards) standard reference model for telerobot control system architecture (NASREM)

    Albus, James S.; Mccain, Harry G.; Lumia, Ronald

    1989-01-01

    The document describes the NASA Standard Reference Model (NASREM) Architecture for the Space Station Telerobot Control System. It defines the functional requirements and high level specifications of the control system for the NASA space Station document for the functional specification, and a guideline for the development of the control system architecture, of the 10C Flight Telerobot Servicer. The NASREM telerobot control system architecture defines a set of standard modules and interfaces which facilitates software design, development, validation, and test, and make possible the integration of telerobotics software from a wide variety of sources. Standard interfaces also provide the software hooks necessary to incrementally upgrade future Flight Telerobot Systems as new capabilities develop in computer science, robotics, and autonomous system control.

  11. Co-location of space geodetic techniques carried out at the Geodetic Observatory Wettzell using a closure in time and a multi-technique reference target

    Kodet, J.; Schreiber, K. U.; Eckl, J.; Plötz, C.; Mähler, S.; Schüler, T.; Klügel, T.; Riepl, S.

    2018-01-01

    The quality of the links between the different space geodetic techniques (VLBI, SLR, GNSS and DORIS) is still one of the major limiting factors for the realization of a unique global terrestrial reference frame that is accurate enough to allow the monitoring of the Earth system, i.e., of processes like sea level change, postglacial rebound and silent earthquakes. According to the specifications of the global geodetic observing system of the International Association of Geodesy, such a reference frame should be accurate to 1 mm over decades, with rates of change stable at the level of 0.1 mm/year. The deficiencies arise from inaccurate or incomplete local ties at many fundamental sites as well as from systematic instrumental biases in the individual space geodetic techniques. Frequently repeated surveys, the continuous monitoring of antenna heights and the geometrical mount stability (Lösler et al. in J Geod 90:467-486, 2016. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00190-016-0887-8) have not provided evidence for insufficient antenna stability. Therefore, we have investigated variations in the respective system delays caused by electronic circuits, which is not adequately captured by the calibration process, either because of subtle differences in the circuitry between geodetic measurement and calibration, high temporal variability or because of lacking resolving bandwidth. The measured system delay variations in the electric chain of both VLBI- and SLR systems reach the order of 100 ps, which is equivalent to 3 cm of path length. Most of this variability is usually removed by the calibrations but by far not all. This paper focuses on the development of new technologies and procedures for co-located geodetic instrumentation in order to identify and remove systematic measurement biases within and between the individual measurement techniques. A closed-loop optical time and frequency distribution system and a common inter-technique reference target provide the possibility to remove

  12. The Gene: Time, Space and Spirit--Keys to Scientific Literacy Series.

    Stonebarger, Bill

    It has only been since the late nineteenth century that people have understood the mechanics of heredity and the discoveries of genes and DNA are even more recent. This booklet considers three aspects of genetics; time, space, and spirit. Time refers to a sense of history; space refers to geography; and spirit refers to life and thought. Several…

  13. The Expanding Universe: Time, Space and Spirit--Keys to Scientific Literacy Series.

    Stonebarger, Bill

    Nearly every culture has made important discoveries about the universe. Most cultures have searched for a better understanding of the cosmos and how the earth and human life relate. The discussion in this booklet considers time, space, and spirit. Time refers to a sense of history; space refers to geography; and spirit refers to life and thought.…

  14. The CERN-EU high-energy reference field (CERF) facility for dosimetry at commercial flight altitudes and in space

    Mitaroff, Angela

    2002-01-01

    A reference facility for the calibration and intercomparison of active and passive detectors in broad neutron fields has been available at CERN since 1992. A positively charged hadron beam (a mixture of protons and pions) with momentum of 120 GeV/c hits a copper target, 50 cm thick and 7 cut in diameter. The secondary particles produced in the interaction traverse a shield, at 90 degrees with respect to the direction of the incoming beam, made of either 80 to 160 cm of concrete or 40 cm of iron. Behind the iron shield, the resulting neutron spectrum has a maximum at about 1 MeV, with an additional high-energy component. Behind the 80 cm concrete shield, the neutron spectrum has a second pronounced maximum at about 70 MeV and resembles the high-energy component of the radiation field created by cosmic rays at commercial flight altitudes. This paper describes the facility, reports on the latest neutron spectral measurements, gives an overview of the most important experiments performed by the various collaborat...

  15. Experience and Perspectives of Art History Development in Educational Space of Siberia at the Turn of XX-XXI ?enturies

    Nekhvyadovich, Larisa Ivanovna; Chernyaeva, Irina Valerievna

    2016-01-01

    The article has a program-analytical nature, contains an analysis and assessment of the scientific school of T. M. Stepanskaya, Doctor of Arts, professor, member of Russian Union of Artists. The goal of T. M. Stepanskaya's professional activity is incorporation of Art History in higher educational institutions in Siberia. The authors consider the…

  16. Argumentation Tasks in Secondary English Language Arts, History, and Science: Variations in Instructional Focus and Inquiry Space

    Litman, Cindy; Greenleaf, Cynthia

    2018-01-01

    This study drew on observations of 40 secondary English language arts, history, and science lessons to describe variation in opportunities for students to engage in argumentation and possible implications for student engagement and learning. The authors focused their analysis on two broad dimensions of argumentation tasks: (1) "Instructional…

  17. Mixed quantum/classical theory of rotationally and vibrationally inelastic scattering in space-fixed and body-fixed reference frames.

    Semenov, Alexander; Babikov, Dmitri

    2013-11-07

    We formulated the mixed quantum/classical theory for rotationally and vibrationally inelastic scattering process in the diatomic molecule + atom system. Two versions of theory are presented, first in the space-fixed and second in the body-fixed reference frame. First version is easy to derive and the resultant equations of motion are transparent, but the state-to-state transition matrix is complex-valued and dense. Such calculations may be computationally demanding for heavier molecules and/or higher temperatures, when the number of accessible channels becomes large. In contrast, the second version of theory requires some tedious derivations and the final equations of motion are rather complicated (not particularly intuitive). However, the state-to-state transitions are driven by real-valued sparse matrixes of much smaller size. Thus, this formulation is the method of choice from the computational point of view, while the space-fixed formulation can serve as a test of the body-fixed equations of motion, and the code. Rigorous numerical tests were carried out for a model system to ensure that all equations, matrixes, and computer codes in both formulations are correct.

  18. Mixed quantum/classical theory of rotationally and vibrationally inelastic scattering in space-fixed and body-fixed reference frames

    Semenov, Alexander; Babikov, Dmitri

    2013-01-01

    We formulated the mixed quantum/classical theory for rotationally and vibrationally inelastic scattering process in the diatomic molecule + atom system. Two versions of theory are presented, first in the space-fixed and second in the body-fixed reference frame. First version is easy to derive and the resultant equations of motion are transparent, but the state-to-state transition matrix is complex-valued and dense. Such calculations may be computationally demanding for heavier molecules and/or higher temperatures, when the number of accessible channels becomes large. In contrast, the second version of theory requires some tedious derivations and the final equations of motion are rather complicated (not particularly intuitive). However, the state-to-state transitions are driven by real-valued sparse matrixes of much smaller size. Thus, this formulation is the method of choice from the computational point of view, while the space-fixed formulation can serve as a test of the body-fixed equations of motion, and the code. Rigorous numerical tests were carried out for a model system to ensure that all equations, matrixes, and computer codes in both formulations are correct

  19. The role of structural dynamics in the design and operations of space systems: The history, the lessons, the technical challenges of the future

    Ryan, Robert S.

    1994-01-01

    Structural dynamics and its auxiliary fields are the most progressive and challenging areas space system engineering design and operations face. Aerospace systems are dependent on structural dynamicists for their success. Past experiences (history) are colored with many dynamic issues, some producing ground or flight test failures. The innovation and creativity that was brought to these issues and problems are the aura from the past that lights the path to the future. Using this illumination to guide understanding of the dynamic phenomena and designing for its potential occurrence are the keys to successful space systems. Our great paradox, or challenge, is how we remain in depth specialists, yet become generalists to the degree that we make good team members and set the right priorities. This paper will deal with how we performed with acclaim in the past, the basic characteristics of structural dynamics (loads cycle, for example), and the challenges of the future.

  20. Why and how to measure stock market fluctuations? The early history of stock market indices, with special reference to the French case

    Pierre-Cyrille Hautcoeur

    2006-01-01

    Stock market indices are today a vital and daily tool for both economists and actors in the financial world. The multiplication and the very importance given to these indices raise the question of their accuracy and of the reliability of the methods that are used to construct them. We begin an investigation on these questions by studying the early history of these indices. We show that stock market indices appeared in the daily press in the United States at the end of the 19th century; that a...

  1. Using the human eye to image space radiation or the history and status of the light flash phenomena

    Fuglesang, C [European Astronaut Centre, ESA, Cologne, Germany and Royal Institute of Technolgy (KTH), Stockholm (Sweden)], E-mail: Christer.fuglesang@esa.int

    2007-10-01

    About 80% of people who travel in space experience sudden phosphenes, commonly called light flashes (LF). Although the detailed physiological process is still not known, the LFs are caused by particles in the cosmic radiation field. Indeed, by counting LFs one can even make a crude image of the radiation environment around the Earth. Studies on the space station Mir with the SilEye experiment correlated LFs with charged particles traversing the eye. It was found that a nucleus in the radiation environment has roughly a 1% probability of causing a light flash, whereas the proton's probability is almost three orders of magnitude less. As a function of linear energy transfer (LET), the probability increased with ionization above 10 keV/{mu}m, reaching about 5% at 50 keV/{mu}m. The investigations are continuing on the International Space Station (ISS) with the Alteino/SileEye-3 detector, which is also a precursor to the large Anomalous Long Term Effects on Astronauts (ALTEA) facility. These detectors are also measuring-imaging-the radiation environment inside the ISS, which will be compared to Geant4 simulations from the DESIRE project. To further the understanding of the LF phenomena, a survey among current NASA and ESA astronauts was recently conducted. The LFs are predominantly noticed before sleep and some respondents even thought it disturbed their sleep. The LFs appear white, have elongated shapes, and most interestingly, often come with a sense of motion. Comparing the shapes quoted from space observations with ground experiments done by researchers in the 1970s, it seems likely that some 5-10% of the LFs in space are due to Cherenkov light in the eye. However, the majority is most likely caused by some direct interaction in the retina.

  2. Age and growth of three Odontesthes species from Southern Brazil (Atherinopsidae, with reference to phylogenetic constraints in their life-history

    Becker F. G.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The age and growth of three silverside species are described, and a discussion on possible phylogenetic constraints on life-history characteristics is presented. Samples were collected monthly between March 1992 and February 1993 in three freshwater coastal lakes. Standard length-total length (Ls-Lt and weight-length (Wt-Lt relationships studied showed interspecific differences in comparisons between juveniles and adults, males and females. Age was determined by scales. The three species presented a life-cycle duration of 4 to 5 years, with growth coefficients values (K between 0.37 and 0.63, and asymptotic lengths between 211 and 257 mm. Some interspecific differences may be useful for distinguishing between species (sexual and life-stage related patterns in Ls-Lt and Wt-Lt. The observed life-cycle ranges and maximum sizes were compared to those of other silversides and revealed a pattern coherent with available phylogenetic hypotheses at the supra-generic level, indicating that some life-history characteristics may be subject to phylogenetic constraints.

  3. A morphological and life history comparison between desert populations of a sit-and-pursue antlion, in reference to a co-occurring pit-building antlion.

    Scharf, Inon; Filin, Ido; Subach, Aziz; Ovadia, Ofer

    2009-10-01

    Although most antlion species do not construct pits, the vast majority of studies on antlions focused on pit-building species. We report here on a transplant experiment aiming to test for morphological and life history differences between two desert populations of a sit-and-pursue antlion species, Lopezus fedtschenkoi (Neuroptera: Myrmeleontidae), originating from habitats, which mainly differ in plant cover and productivity. We raised the antlion larvae in environmental chambers simulating either hyper-arid or Mediterranean climate. We found significant differences in the morphology and life history of L. fedtschenkoi larvae between the two populations. For example, the larvae originating from the more productive habitat pupated faster and had a higher growth rate. In agreement with the temperature-size rule, antlions reached higher final mass in the colder Mediterranean climate and exhibited a higher growth rate, but there was no difference in their developmental time. Observed differences in morphology between populations as well as those triggered by climate growing conditions could be explained by differences in size allometry. We also provide a quantitative description of the allometric growth axis, based on 12 morphological traits. Comparing the responses of L. fedtschenkoi with those observed in a co-occurring pit-building antlion indicated that there were neither shape differences that are independent of size nor was there a difference in the plasticity level between the two species.

  4. A new velocity field for Africa from combined GPS and DORIS space geodetic Solutions: Contribution to the definition of the African reference frame (AFREF)

    Saria, E.; Calais, E.; Altamimi, Z.; Willis, P.; Farah, H.

    2013-04-01

    We analyzed 16 years of GPS and 17 years of Doppler orbitography and radiopositioning integrated by satellite (DORIS) data at continuously operating geodetic sites in Africa and surroundings to describe the present-day kinematics of the Nubian and Somalian plates and constrain relative motions across the East African Rift. The resulting velocity field describes horizontal and vertical motion at 133 GPS sites and 9 DORIS sites. Horizontal velocities at sites located on stable Nubia fit a single plate model with a weighted root mean square residual of 0.6 mm/yr (maximum residual 1 mm/yr), an upper bound for plate-wide motions and for regional-scale deformation in the seismically active southern Africa and Cameroon volcanic line. We confirm significant southward motion ( ˜ 1.5 mm/yr) in Morocco with respect to Nubia, consistent with earlier findings. We propose an updated angular velocity for the divergence between Nubia and Somalia, which provides the kinematic boundary conditions to rifting in East Africa. We update a plate motion model for the East African Rift and revise the counterclockwise rotation of the Victoria plate and clockwise rotation of the Rovuma plate with respect to Nubia. Vertical velocities range from - 2 to +2 mm/yr, close to their uncertainties, with no clear geographic pattern. This study provides the first continent-wide position/velocity solution for Africa, expressed in International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF2008), a contribution to the upcoming African Reference Frame (AFREF). Except for a few regions, the African continent remains largely under-sampled by continuous space geodetic data. Efforts are needed to augment the geodetic infrastructure and openly share existing data sets so that the objectives of AFREF can be fully reached.

  5. Potential means of support for materials processing in space. A history of government support for new technology

    Mckannan, E. C.

    1983-01-01

    Development of a given technology for national defense and large systems developments when the task is too large or risky for entrepreneurs, yet is clearly in the best interest of the nation are discussed. Advanced research to identify areas of interest was completed. Examples of commercial opportunities are the McDonnell-Douglas Corporation purification process for pharmaceutical products and the Microgravity Research Associates process for growing gallium arsenide crystals in space.

  6. Avoided crossings, conical intersections, and low-lying excited states with a single reference method: the restricted active space spin-flip configuration interaction approach.

    Casanova, David

    2012-08-28

    The restricted active space spin-flip CI (RASCI-SF) performance is tested in the electronic structure computation of the ground and the lowest electronically excited states in the presence of near-degeneracies. The feasibility of the method is demonstrated by analyzing the avoided crossing between the ionic and neutral singlet states of LiF along the molecular dissociation. The two potential energy surfaces (PESs) are explored by means of the energies of computed adiabatic and approximated diabatic states, dipole moments, and natural orbital electronic occupancies of both states. The RASCI-SF methodology is also used to study the ground and first excited singlet surface crossing involved in the double bond isomerization of ethylene, as a model case. The two-dimensional PESs of the ground (S(0)) and excited (S(1)) states are calculated for the complete configuration space of torsion and pyramidalization molecular distortions. The parameters that define the state energetics in the vicinity of the S(0)/S(1) conical intersection region are compared to complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) results. These examples show that it is possible to describe strongly correlated electronic states using a single reference methodology without the need to expand the wavefunction to high levels of collective excitations. Finally, RASCI is also examined in the electronic structure characterization of the ground and 2(1)A(g)(-), 1(1)B(u)(+), 1(1)B(u)(-), and 1(3)B(u)(-) states of all-trans polyenes with two to seven double bonds and beyond. Transition energies are compared to configuration interaction singles, time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT), CASSCF, and its second-order perturbation correction calculations, and to experimental data. The capability of RASCI-SF to describe the nature and properties of each electronic state is discussed in detail. This example is also used to expose the properties of different truncations of the RASCI wavefunction and to

  7. THE RECENT STRUCTURE AND THE ASSUMED HISTORY OF FORMATION OF THE CRUST IN THE SOUTH-EASTERN SEGMENT OF THE NORTH ASIAN CRATON ALONG REFERENCE PROFILE 3-DV

    E. Yu. Goshko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents results of specialized processing of the deep seismic profile along a part of Reference Profile 3-DV which crosses the Aldan-Stanovoi shield in the meridian direction and goes across its buried northern slope. The study is aimed at determining frequency-energy characteristics of the seismic wave field which are related to physical conditions of geological features of the crust. Based on analysis and interpretation of the dynamic profiles, it is possible to reveal and contour the Archean cores of consolidation of the Aldan shield and its buried continuation that is covered by sediments of the Middle Lena monocline and to input new facts in the proposed geodynamic model showing formation of the crust in the south-eastern segment of the North Asian craton.

  8. Design of Dwellings and Interior Family Space in China: Understanding the History of Change and Opportunities for Improved Sustainability Practices

    Adrian Pitts

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews briefly the recent history of dwelling design in China. It notes the rapid changes that have taken place since the 1980s and identifies the way contemporary procurement processes leave out the final fit-out and decoration/refurbishment. A range of stakeholders were interviewed, and access was gained to drawings and other technical data that indicated how the secondary processes were carried out. These are largely ungoverned by regulation in the same way necessary for initial design. The key group is the occupants who drive the fit-out and decoration according to personal and cultural requirements, but often with less than perfect understanding of sustainability. The interior design industry has developed rapidly over the same period and was initially lacking in professional knowledge and understanding (something which can still be found. Advice provided to dwelling occupants was based more on appearance than function and efficiency. Over the same period, beneficial modifications to construction processes have been introduced in relation to structural design, and it should be possible to do the same for sustainability-related design issues. The paper advocates: more regulation; better assessment techniques; more information and guidance for home-owners; and a greater focus on energy issues.

  9. Android quick APIs reference

    Cinar, Onur

    2015-01-01

    The Android Quick APIs Reference is a condensed code and APIs reference for the new Google Android 5.0 SDK. It presents the essential Android APIs in a well-organized format that can be used as a handy reference. You won't find any technical jargon, bloated samples, drawn out history lessons, or witty stories in this book. What you will find is a software development kit and APIs reference that is concise, to the point and highly accessible. The book is packed with useful information and is a must-have for any mobile or Android app developer or programmer. In the Android Quick APIs Refe

  10. Observations of the Hubble Deep Field with the Infrared Space Observatory .5. Spectral energy distributions, starburst models and star formation history

    Rowan Robinson, M.; Mann, R.G.; Oliver, S.J.

    1997-01-01

    We have modelled the spectral energy distributions of the 13 Hubble Deep Field (HDF) galaxies reliably detected by the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). For two galaxies the emission detected by ISO is consistent with being starlight or the infrared 'cirrus' in the galaxies. For the remaining II...... galaxies there is a clear midinfrared excess, which we interpret as emission from dust associated with a strong starburst. 10 of these galaxies are spirals or interacting pairs, while the remaining one is an elliptical with a prominent nucleus and broad emission lines. We give a new discussion of how...... compared with nearby normal galaxies, We discuss the implications of our detections for the history of star and heavy element formation in the Universe, Although uncertainties in the calibration, reliability of source detection, associations and starburst models remain, it is clear that dust plays...

  11. Diet History Questionnaire: Database Revision History

    The following details all additions and revisions made to the DHQ nutrient and food database. This revision history is provided as a reference for investigators who may have performed analyses with a previous release of the database.

  12. The Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis: History and achievements with special reference to annual single-dose treatment with diethylcarbamazine in Samoa and Fiji.

    Kimura, Eisaku

    2011-03-01

    Samoa in relation to the annual single-dose MDAs revealed that low density mf carriers, who have a very low mf count of 1-20/ml of venous blood, could not play a significant role in filariasis transmission.From around 1990, studies on spaced low-dose DEC treatments and various types of combination chemotherapy with DEC and ivermectin increased. Albendazole, a well-known anti-intestinal helminths agent, was later added to the combination. The main findings of these studies with W. bancrofti are: (i) a single dose of DEC at 6 mg/kg reduced mean mf density by ca. 90% 1 year after treatment; (ii) the same dose could damage/kill adult worms; (iii) a single dose of ivermectin at ca. 400 µg/kg was more effective than DEC in reducing mf density during the first year and was similarly or less effective in the second year; (iv) ivermectin probably could not kill adult worms; (v) a single combined dose of albendazole (400 mg) and DEC (6 mg/kg) was effective to reduce mf density by 85 to nearly 100% 12-24 months after treatment; and (vi) ivermectin or albendazole included in the combination chemotherapy produced "beyond-filariasis" benefits: clearance/reduction of intestinal helminths, and, additionally, in the case of ivermectin, skin-dwelling ectoparasites.The Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF) started its worldwide activities in 2000, with the target of elimination by 2020. The basic strategy is to conduct annual single-dose MDAs for 4-6 years. In 2000-2007, a minimum of 570 million individuals were treated in 48 of 83 endemic countries. The drugs used are DEC 6 mg/kg plus albendazole 400 mg in most countries, or ivermectin 200-400 µg/kg plus albendazole 400 mg particularly in onchocerciasis endemic countries in Africa. (MDAs with DEC alone had been used in India.)The GPELF achieved impressive results in terms of parasitological cure/improvement, clinical benefits, social and economic impacts, etc. However, the most impressive result of all was the

  13. Electronics engineer's reference book

    Turner, L W

    1976-01-01

    Electronics Engineer's Reference Book, 4th Edition is a reference book for electronic engineers that reviews the knowledge and techniques in electronics engineering and covers topics ranging from basics to materials and components, devices, circuits, measurements, and applications. This edition is comprised of 27 chapters; the first of which presents general information on electronics engineering, including terminology, mathematical equations, mathematical signs and symbols, and Greek alphabet and symbols. Attention then turns to the history of electronics; electromagnetic and nuclear radiatio

  14. The contribution of 3D quantitative meniscal and cartilage measures to variation in normal radiographic joint space width—Data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative healthy reference cohort

    Roth, Melanie; Wirth, Wolfgang; Emmanuel, Katja; Culvenor, Adam G.; Eckstein, Felix

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To explore to what extent three-dimensional measures of the meniscus and femorotibial cartilage explain the variation in medial and lateral femorotibial radiographic joint space width (JSW), in healthy men and women. Methods: The right knees of 87 Osteoarthritis Initiative healthy reference participants (no symptoms, radiographic signs or risk factors of osteoarthritis; 37 men, 50 women; age 55.0 ± 7.6; BMI 24.4 ± 3.1) were assessed. Quantitative measures of subregional femorotibial cartilage thickness and meniscal position and morphology were computed from segmented magnetic resonance images. Minimal and medial/lateral fixed-location JSW were determined from fixed-flexion radiographs. Correlation and regression analyses were used to explore the contribution of demographic, cartilage and meniscal parameters to JSW in healthy subjects. Results: The correlation with (medial) minimal JSW was somewhat stronger for cartilage thickness (0.54 ≤ r ≤ 0.67) than for meniscal (−0.31 ≤ r ≤ 0.50) or demographic measures (−0.15 ≤ r ≤ 0.48), in particular in men. In women, in contrast, the strength of the correlations of cartilage thickness and meniscal measures with minimal JSW were in the same range. Fixed-location JSW measures showed stronger correlations with cartilage thickness (r ≥ 0.68 medially; r ≥ 0.59 laterally) than with meniscal measures (r ≤ |0.32| medially; r ≤ |0.32| laterally). Stepwise regression models revealed that meniscal measures added significant independent information to the total variance explained in minimal JSW (adjusted multiple r 2 = 58%) but not in medial or lateral fixed-location JSW (r 2 = 60/51%, respectively). Conclusions: In healthy subjects, minimal JSW was observed to reflect a combination of cartilage and meniscal measures, particularly in women. Fixed-location JSW, in contrast, was found to be dominated by variance in cartilage thickness in both men and women, with somewhat higher correlations between

  15. The contribution of 3D quantitative meniscal and cartilage measures to variation in normal radiographic joint space width—Data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative healthy reference cohort

    Roth, Melanie, E-mail: melanie.roth@pmu.ac.at [Institute of Anatomy, Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg & Nuremberg, Strubergasse 21, 5020, Salzburg (Austria); Wirth, Wolfgang, E-mail: wolfgang.wirth@pmu.ac.at [Institute of Anatomy, Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg & Nuremberg, Strubergasse 21, 5020, Salzburg (Austria); Chondrometrics GmbH, Ulrichshöglerstrasse 23, 83404, Ainring (Germany); Emmanuel, Katja, E-mail: katja.emmanuel@icloud.com [Institute of Anatomy, Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg & Nuremberg, Strubergasse 21, 5020, Salzburg (Austria); Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Paracelsus Medical University, Müllner Hauptstraße 48, 5020, Salzburg (Austria); Culvenor, Adam G., E-mail: adam.culvenor@pmu.ac.at [Institute of Anatomy, Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg & Nuremberg, Strubergasse 21, 5020, Salzburg (Austria); School of Allied Health, La Trobe University, Plenty Road, Bundoora, 3086, Victoria (Australia); Eckstein, Felix, E-mail: felix.eckstein@pmu.ac.at [Institute of Anatomy, Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg & Nuremberg, Strubergasse 21, 5020, Salzburg (Austria); Chondrometrics GmbH, Ulrichshöglerstrasse 23, 83404, Ainring (Germany)

    2017-02-15

    Objective: To explore to what extent three-dimensional measures of the meniscus and femorotibial cartilage explain the variation in medial and lateral femorotibial radiographic joint space width (JSW), in healthy men and women. Methods: The right knees of 87 Osteoarthritis Initiative healthy reference participants (no symptoms, radiographic signs or risk factors of osteoarthritis; 37 men, 50 women; age 55.0 ± 7.6; BMI 24.4 ± 3.1) were assessed. Quantitative measures of subregional femorotibial cartilage thickness and meniscal position and morphology were computed from segmented magnetic resonance images. Minimal and medial/lateral fixed-location JSW were determined from fixed-flexion radiographs. Correlation and regression analyses were used to explore the contribution of demographic, cartilage and meniscal parameters to JSW in healthy subjects. Results: The correlation with (medial) minimal JSW was somewhat stronger for cartilage thickness (0.54 ≤ r ≤ 0.67) than for meniscal (−0.31 ≤ r ≤ 0.50) or demographic measures (−0.15 ≤ r ≤ 0.48), in particular in men. In women, in contrast, the strength of the correlations of cartilage thickness and meniscal measures with minimal JSW were in the same range. Fixed-location JSW measures showed stronger correlations with cartilage thickness (r ≥ 0.68 medially; r ≥ 0.59 laterally) than with meniscal measures (r ≤ |0.32| medially; r ≤ |0.32| laterally). Stepwise regression models revealed that meniscal measures added significant independent information to the total variance explained in minimal JSW (adjusted multiple r{sup 2} = 58%) but not in medial or lateral fixed-location JSW (r{sup 2} = 60/51%, respectively). Conclusions: In healthy subjects, minimal JSW was observed to reflect a combination of cartilage and meniscal measures, particularly in women. Fixed-location JSW, in contrast, was found to be dominated by variance in cartilage thickness in both men and women, with somewhat higher correlations

  16. Growth references

    Buuren, S. van

    2007-01-01

    A growth reference describes the variation of an anthropometric measurement within a group of individuals. A reference is a tool for grouping and analyzing data and provides a common basis for comparing populations.1 A well known type of reference is the age-conditional growth diagram. The

  17. Mediality and Materiality in the History of Religions. A Medieval Case Study about Religion and Gender in In-Between Spaces

    Bärbel Beinhauer-Köhler

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses possible terminologies for labelling historical materials. Drawing on the history of the city of Cairo around the 12th century – to the Fatimid era and to later Ayyubid times – it looks at the documents of three religions on religious infrastructure donated by women. This reveals women’s ability to shape the public sphere. At least to a certain extent, the segregation of the sexes and the concept of the harem are questionable. This topic requires the reconstruction and re-reading of fragmental materials. Methodological reflections are helpful for dealing with different sources, mostly combinations of texts and archaeology, embedded in the current debate about material culture and media as well as materialization and mediation. It might seem anachronistic, but to specify these categories it is useful to compare this example with a contemporary study by Mia Lövheim on female Internet bloggers. In both cases we find women as self-confident agents in public spaces.

  18. Deep Space Gateway Facilitates Exploration of Planetary Crusts: A Human/Robotic Exploration Design Reference Campaign to the Lunar Orientale Basin

    Head, J. W.; Pieters, C. M.; Scott, D. R.

    2018-02-01

    We outline an Orientale Basin Human/Robotic Architecture that can be facilitated by a Deep Space Gateway International Science Operations Center (DSG-ISOC) (like McMurdo/Antarctica) to address fundamental scientific problems about the Moon and Mars.

  19. [Reference citation].

    Brkić, Silvija

    2013-01-01

    Scientific and professional papers represent the information basis for scientific research and professional work. References important for the paper should be cited within the text, and listed at the end of the paper. This paper deals with different styles of reference citation. Special emphasis was placed on the Vancouver Style for reference citation in biomedical journals established by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. It includes original samples for citing various types of articles, both printed and electronic, as well as recommendations related to reference citation in accordance with the methodology and ethics of scientific research and guidelines for preparing manuscripts for publication.

  20. Assessing the suitability of American National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) agro-climatology archive to predict daily meteorological variables and reference evapotranspiration in Sicily, Italy

    For decades, the importance of evapotranspiration processes has been recognized in many disciplines, including hydrologic and drainage studies, irrigation systems design and management. A wide number of equations have been proposed to estimate crop reference evapotranspiration, ET0, based on the var...

  1. Reference Assessment

    Bivens-Tatum, Wayne

    2006-01-01

    This article presents interesting articles that explore several different areas of reference assessment, including practical case studies and theoretical articles that address a range of issues such as librarian behavior, patron satisfaction, virtual reference, or evaluation design. They include: (1) "Evaluating the Quality of a Chat Service"…

  2. Space space space

    Trembach, Vera

    2014-01-01

    Space is an introduction to the mysteries of the Universe. Included are Task Cards for independent learning, Journal Word Cards for creative writing, and Hands-On Activities for reinforcing skills in Math and Language Arts. Space is a perfect introduction to further research of the Solar System.

  3. Recent references

    Ramavataram, S.

    1991-01-01

    In support of a continuing program of systematic evaluation of nuclear structure data, the National Nuclear Data Center maintains a complete computer file of references to the nuclear physics literature. Each reference is tagged by a keyword string, which indicates the kinds of data contained in the article. This master file of Nuclear Structure References (NSR) contains complete keyword indexes to literature published since 1969, with partial indexing of older references. Any reader who finds errors in the keyword descriptions is urged to report them to the National Nuclear Data Center so that the master NSR file can be corrected. In 1966, the first collection of Recent References was published as a separate issue of Nuclear Data Sheets. Every four months since 1970, a similar indexed bibliography to new nuclear experiments has been prepared from additions to the NSR file and published. Beginning in 1978, Recent References was cumulated annually, with the third issue completely superseding the two issues previously published during a given year. Due to publication policy changes, cumulation of Recent Reference was discontinued in 1986. The volume and issue number of all the cumulative issues published to date are given. NNDC will continue to respond to individual requests for special bibliographies on nuclear physics topics, in addition to those easily obtained from Recent References. If the required information is available from the keyword string, a reference list can be prepared automatically from the computer files. This service can be provided on request, in exchange for the timely communication of new nuclear physics results (e.g., preprints). A current copy of the NSR file may also be obtained in a standard format on magnetic tape from NNDC. Requests for special searches of the NSR file may also be directed to the National Nuclear Data Center

  4. Sobolev spaces

    Adams, Robert A

    2003-01-01

    Sobolev Spaces presents an introduction to the theory of Sobolev Spaces and other related spaces of function, also to the imbedding characteristics of these spaces. This theory is widely used in pure and Applied Mathematics and in the Physical Sciences.This second edition of Adam''s ''classic'' reference text contains many additions and much modernizing and refining of material. The basic premise of the book remains unchanged: Sobolev Spaces is intended to provide a solid foundation in these spaces for graduate students and researchers alike.* Self-contained and accessible for readers in other disciplines.* Written at elementary level making it accessible to graduate students.

  5. Three concepts of history

    Antonio Campillo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is twofold. On the one hand, I will outline the diverse usages that the concept of history has taken on throughout Western history. These different usages may be grouped together in three semantic fields (history as a way of knowing, as a way of being and as a way of doing, which correspond to three ways of understanding the Philosophy of History: as Epistemology of History, as Ontology of historicity and as ethical-political Critique of the present. On the other hand, I will show that these three concepts of history (and, accordingly, the three ways of understanding the Philosophy of History refer mutually to each other and, thus, are inseparable from each other.

  6. Setting reference targets

    Ruland, R.E.

    1997-04-01

    Reference Targets are used to represent virtual quantities like the magnetic axis of a magnet or the definition of a coordinate system. To explain the function of reference targets in the sequence of the alignment process, this paper will first briefly discuss the geometry of the trajectory design space and of the surveying space, then continue with an overview of a typical alignment process. This is followed by a discussion on magnet fiducialization. While the magnetic measurement methods to determine the magnetic centerline are only listed (they will be discussed in detail in a subsequent talk), emphasis is given to the optical/mechanical methods and to the task of transferring the centerline position to reference targets

  7. BRST Quantisation of Histories Electrodynamics

    Noltingk, D.

    2001-01-01

    This paper is a continuation of earlier work where a classical history theory of pure electrodynamics was developed in which the the history fields have \\emph{five} components. The extra component is associated with an extra constraint, thus enlarging the gauge group of histories electrodynamics. In this paper we quantise the classical theory developed previously by two methods. Firstly we quantise the reduced classical history space, to obtain a reduced quantum history theory. Secondly we qu...

  8. References: BSCW

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Benchmark Supercritical Wing was also tested on the OTT with oscillations in Pitch. Only one row of pressure transducers were acquired during these tests. The time...

  9. The pharmaco-kinetics of angiographic contrast media with special reference to the extravascular spaces. Fundamental studies on dogs for the characterization of angiographic media. Pt. 1

    Lagemann, K.

    1975-01-01

    The pharmaco-kinetics of angiographic contrast media in the extra-vascular space, which are largely unknown, were investigated experimentally in dogs. As part of a basic study, using radio-active contrast media, it was possible to determine the concentration and rate of elimination in practically all organs and tissues. Measurements were carried out first after prolonged infusion of contrast under conditions of balanced flow, and secondly six hours after the end of the infusion. It was therefore possible to determine the inflow and loss of contrast medium in various organs, or organs systems. The most commonly used angiographic contrast media in Germany were investigated. Their kinetic behaviour is largely identical, their pattern of distribution and elimination depended principally on the organ or tissue. (orig.) [de

  10. "EWS Matrix" and "EWG Matrix": "De-sign for All" tools referred to the development of a enabling communication system for public spaces.

    Di Bucchianico, Giuseppe; Camplone, Stefania; Picciani, Stefano; Vallese, Valeria

    2012-01-01

    The widespread sense of spatial disorientation that can be experienced in many public places (buildings and open spaces),generally depends on a design approach that doesn't take into account both the "communication skills" of the different parts of the spatial organization, both the variability of people and their ways of interacting with environments, orienteering themselves. Nevertheless, "not find the way" often has some obvious practical costs (loss of time, failure to achieve a target) and some more intangible, but no less important, emotional costs. That's why the design of signage systems must take into account both the specificities of places and the extreme variability of its users. The paper presents the results of a study on this specific issue. In particular, the study focuses on the description of some tools useful for the analysis and design of a signage system that is truly "for All".

  11. Space Science in Action: Space Exploration [Videotape].

    1999

    In this videotape recording, students learn about the human quest to discover what is out in space. Students see the challenges and benefits of space exploration including the development of rocket science, a look back at the space race, and a history of manned space travel. A special section on the Saturn V rocket gives students insight into the…

  12. Rev 12 as a theology of history

    Joanna Nowińska

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The Biblical writers notice history as the space of God’s rule. He is the director, who comes into contact with human being through signs – events and words, and also He is the history’s perpetuum mobile. Rev 12 specifically reflect nowadays and the previous in the context of the whole world’s vision and mix the reference to facts (lack of the temple, ark, faithful people, horrible experiences, the death danger, places (the temple, a desert, persons (the Child-Ruler, Michael with the Old Testament figurative exposing, a typical one for such a book (the Woman with Child, the heaven, the dragon, enriched with a lot of symbols (a crown, a horn, the moon under feet. God’s interference into World history is presented through lightning, voices, thunder, an earthquake and great hail, that stress His power and supremacy. The biblical writer refers to events, which make place whole the time in the natural- and supernatural space, like: the war between God and evil, persecutions, hiding, God’s care of men.  The specific literary structure of Rev 12, contrary to the other parts of that book, seem to help to put an accent for the fundamental truths for transcendental theology of history of which the most important is the eternal rule of God and only accidental, finished in the time perspective of Satan’s position.

  13. A steady state solution for ditch drainage problem with special reference to seepage face and unsaturated zone flow contribution: Derivation of a new drainage spacing eqaution

    Yousfi, Ammar; Mechergui, Mohammed

    2016-04-01

    al. (2001). In this work, a novel solution based on theoretical approach will be adapted to incorporate both the seepage face and the unsaturated zone flow contribution for solving ditch drained aquifers problems. This problem will be tackled on the basis of the approximate 2D solution given by Castro-Orgaz et al. (2012). This given solution yields the generalized water table profile function with a suitable boundary condition to be determined and provides a modified DF theory which permits as an outcome the analytical determination of the seepage face. To assess the ability of the developed equation for water-table estimations, the obtained results were compared with numerical solutions to the 2-D problem under different conditions. It is shown that results are in fair agreement and thus the resulting model can be used for designing ditch drainage systems. With respect to drainage design, the spacings calculated with the newly derived equation are compared with those computed from the DF theory. It is shown that the effect of the unsaturated zone flow contribution is limited to sandy soils and The calculated maximum increase in drain spacing is about 30%. Keywords: subsurface ditch drainage; unsaturated zone; seepage face; water-table, ditch spacing equation

  14. [Oral communication: short history and some rules].

    Panini, Roberta; Fiorini, Fulvio

    2015-01-01

    The verbal communication represents the first human communication, that even more used and one most immediate. History and the development of communication is divided into historical periods, is complex and is bound to the period contingencies and to the social reference community. The oral communication is never isolated but is always taken by the not verbal one, including the silences, the position and the spaces (c.d. proxemics). The good communicator stimulates the cooperation through the conversation rule respect (qualities, amounts, way and relation) and reduces the possible asymmetry between broadcaster and receiver fitting its code to that of the interlocutor.

  15. Rev 12 as a theology of history

    Joanna Nowińska

    2009-01-01

    The Biblical writers notice history as the space of God’s rule. He is the director, who comes into contact with human being through signs – events and words, and also He is the history’s perpetuum mobile. Rev 12 specifically reflect nowadays and the previous in the context of the whole world’s vision and mix the reference to facts (lack of the temple, ark, faithful people, horrible experiences, the death danger), places (the temple, a desert), persons (the Child-Ruler, Michael) with the Old T...

  16. History of Education and the Struggle for Intellectual Liberation in Post-Soviet Baltic Space after the Fall of the Berlin Wall

    Kestere, Iveta

    2014-01-01

    This study on a "new" history of education is written from the perspective of a participant in the process of discarding Soviet intellectual and physical boundaries. The fall of the Berlin Wall has, over the past two decades, become a continuous process in post-Soviet societies, when the now liberated historians of education were faced…

  17. Observing photons in space a guide to experimental space astronomy

    Pauluhn, Anuschka; Culhane, J; Timothy, J; Wilhelm, Klaus; Zehnder, Alex

    2013-01-01

    An ideal resource for lecturers, this book provides a comprehensive review of experimental space astronomy. The number of astronomers whose knowledge and interest is concentrated on interpreting observations has grown substantially in the past decades; yet, the number of scientists who are familiar with and capable of dealing with instrumentation has dwindled.  All of the authors of this work are leading and experienced experts and practitioners who have designed, built, tested, calibrated, launched and operated advanced observing equipment for space astronomy. This book also contains concise information on the history of the field, supported by appropriate references. Moreover, scientists working in other fields will be able to get a quick overview of the salient issues of observing photons in any one of the various energy, wavelength and frequency ranges accessible in space. This book was written with the intention to make it accessible to advanced undergraduate and graduate students.

  18. Enterprise Reference Library

    Bickham, Grandin; Saile, Lynn; Havelka, Jacque; Fitts, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Johnson Space Center (JSC) offers two extensive libraries that contain journals, research literature and electronic resources. Searching capabilities are available to those individuals residing onsite or through a librarian s search. Many individuals have rich collections of references, but no mechanisms to share reference libraries across researchers, projects, or directorates exist. Likewise, information regarding which references are provided to which individuals is not available, resulting in duplicate requests, redundant labor costs and associated copying fees. In addition, this tends to limit collaboration between colleagues and promotes the establishment of individual, unshared silos of information The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) team has utilized a centralized reference management tool during the development, test, and operational phases of this project. The Enterprise Reference Library project expands the capabilities developed for IMM to address the above issues and enhance collaboration across JSC. Method: After significant market analysis for a multi-user reference management tool, no available commercial tool was found to meet this need, so a software program was built around a commercial tool, Reference Manager 12 by The Thomson Corporation. A use case approach guided the requirements development phase. The premise of the design is that individuals use their own reference management software and export to SharePoint when their library is incorporated into the Enterprise Reference Library. This results in a searchable user-specific library application. An accompanying share folder will warehouse the electronic full-text articles, which allows the global user community to access full -text articles. Discussion: An enterprise reference library solution can provide a multidisciplinary collection of full text articles. This approach improves efficiency in obtaining and storing reference material while greatly reducing labor, purchasing and

  19. Bohmian histories and decoherent histories

    Hartle, James B.

    2004-01-01

    The predictions of the Bohmian and the decoherent (or consistent) histories formulations of the quantum mechanics of a closed system are compared for histories--sequences of alternatives at a series of times. For certain kinds of histories, Bohmian mechanics and decoherent histories may both be formulated in the same mathematical framework within which they can be compared. In that framework, Bohmian mechanics and decoherent histories represent a given history by different operators. Their predictions for the probabilities of histories of a closed system therefore generally differ. However, in an idealized model of measurement, the predictions of Bohmian mechanics and decoherent histories coincide for the probabilities of records of measurement outcomes. The formulations are thus difficult to distinguish experimentally. They may differ in their accounts of the past history of the Universe in quantum cosmology

  20. The ESA Mice in Space (MIS) habitat: effects of cage confinement on neuromusculoskeletal structure and function and stress/behavior using wild-type C57Bl/6JRj mice in a modular science reference model (MSRM) test on ground

    Blottner, Dieter; Vico, Laurence; Jamon, D. Berckmansp L. Vicop Y. Liup R. Canceddap M.

    Background: Environmental conditions likely affect physiology and behaviour of mice used for Life Sciences Research on Earth and in Space. Thus, mice habitats with sufficient statistical numbers should be developed for adequate life support and care and that should meet all nesces-sary ethical and scientific requirements needed to successfully perform animal experimentation in Space. Aim of study: We here analysed the effects of cage confinement on the weightbear-ing musculoskeletal system, behaviour and stress of wild-type mice (C57BL/6JRj, 30 g b.wt., total n = 24) housed for 25 days in a prototypical ground-based MSRM (modular science ref-erence module) in the frame of breadboard activities for a fully automated life support habitat called "Mice in Space" (MIS) at the Leuven University, Belgium. Results: Compared with control housing (individually ventilated cages, IVC-mice) the MIS mice revealed no significant changes in soleus muscle size and myofiber distribution (type I vs. II) and quality of bone (3-D microarchitecture and mineralisation of calvaria, spine and femur) determined by confocal and micro-computed tomography. Corticosterone metabolism measured non-invasively (faeces) monitored elevated adrenocortical activity at only start of the MIS cage confinement (day 1). Behavioural tests (i.e., grip strength, rotarod, L/D box, elevated plus-maze, open field, ag-gressiveness) performed subsequently revealed only minor changes in motor performance (MIS vs. controls). Conclusions: The MIS habitat will not, on its own, produce major effects that could confound interpretation of data induced by microgravity exposure on orbit as planned for future biosatellite programmes. Sponsors: ESA-ESTEC, Noordwijk, NL

  1. History Matters

    2017-01-01

    In 2002, she began working as alecturer at Minzu University of China.Now, she teaches English, historicalliterature, ancient Chinese history,historical theory and method, ancientsocial history of China, ancient palacepolitical history of China and the historyof the Sui and Tang dynasties and thePeriod of Five Dynasties.

  2. Human Rights: The Essential Reference.

    Devine, Carol; Hansen, Carol Rae; Wilde, Ralph; Bronkhorst, Daan; Moritz, Frederic A.; Rolle, Baptiste; Sherman, Rebecca; Southard, Jo Lynn; Wilkinson, Robert; Poole, Hilary, Ed.

    This reference work documents the history of human rights theory, explains each article of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, explores the contemporary human rights movement, and examines the major human rights issues facing the world today. This book is the first to combine historical and contemporary perspectives on these critical…

  3. Selected Reference Books of 1998.

    McIlvaine, Eileen

    1999-01-01

    Reviews a selection of recent scholarly and general reference works under the categories of Periodicals and Newspapers, Philosophy, Literature, Film and Radio, Art and Architecture, Music, Political Science, Women's Studies, and History. A brief summary of new editions of standard works is provided at the end of the articles. (AEF)

  4. The Geometry of Nutrient Space-Based Life-History Trade-Offs: Sex-Specific Effects of Macronutrient Intake on the Trade-Off between Encapsulation Ability and Reproductive Effort in Decorated Crickets.

    Rapkin, James; Jensen, Kim; Archer, C Ruth; House, Clarissa M; Sakaluk, Scott K; Castillo, Enrique Del; Hunt, John

    2018-04-01

    Life-history theory assumes that traits compete for limited resources, resulting in trade-offs. The most commonly manipulated resource in empirical studies is the quantity or quality of diet. Recent studies using the geometric framework for nutrition, however, suggest that trade-offs are often regulated by the intake of specific nutrients, but a formal approach to identify and quantify the strength of such trade-offs is lacking. We posit that trade-offs occur whenever life-history traits are maximized in different regions of nutrient space, as evidenced by nonoverlapping 95% confidence regions of the global maximum for each trait and large angles (θ) between linear nutritional vectors and Euclidean distances (d) between global maxima. We then examined the effects of protein and carbohydrate intake on the trade-off between reproduction and aspects of immune function in male and female Gryllodes sigillatus. Female encapsulation ability and egg production increased with the intake of both nutrients, whereas male encapsulation ability increased with protein intake but calling effort increased with carbohydrate intake. The trade-offs between traits was therefore larger in males than in females, as demonstrated by significant negative correlations between the traits in males, nonoverlapping 95% confidence regions, and larger estimates of θ and d. Under dietary choice, the sexes had similar regulated intakes, but neither optimally regulated nutrient intake for maximal trait expression. We highlight the fact that greater consideration of specific nutrient intake is needed when examining nutrient space-based trade-offs.

  5. Entangled histories

    Cotler, Jordan; Wilczek, Frank

    2016-01-01

    We introduce quantum history states and their mathematical framework, thereby reinterpreting and extending the consistent histories approach to quantum theory. Through thought experiments, we demonstrate that our formalism allows us to analyze a quantum version of history in which we reconstruct the past by observations. In particular, we can pass from measurements to inferences about ‘what happened’ in a way that is sensible and free of paradox. Our framework allows for a richer understanding of the temporal structure of quantum theory, and we construct history states that embody peculiar, non-classical correlations in time. (paper)

  6. Selected Reference Books of 1998-99.

    McIlvaine, Eileen

    1999-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography of selected reference books published between 1998 and 1999 under subject headings for biography, journalism, mythology, languages and literature, architecture and city planning, political science, economics, history, and new editions and supplements. (LRW)

  7. História da química e da geologia: Joseph Black e James Hutton como referências para educação em ciências History of chemistry and geology: Joseph Black and James Hutton as references for science education

    Natalina Aparecida L. Sicca

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The second half of eighteenth century is marked by the advancement of chemistry and geology. The first science acquired the law of conservation of mass and this science represented a important support to geology and mineralogy. We say that both became modern science that time. Our aim is to show up some interrelations between history of chemistry and history of geology by means of the study of Joseph Black's and James Hutton's works. We defend that it is positive to science education to understand and approach the relations among different and disciplinary areas of science.

  8. Minisuperspace models in histories theory

    Anastopoulos, Charis; Savvidou, Ntina

    2005-01-01

    We study the Robertson-Walker minisuperspace model in histories theory, motivated by the results that emerged from the histories approach to general relativity. We examine, in particular, the issue of time reparametrization in such systems. The model is quantized using an adaptation of reduced state space quantization. We finally discuss the classical limit, the implementation of initial cosmological conditions and estimation of probabilities in the histories context

  9. The Case for "Big History."

    Christian, David

    1991-01-01

    Urges an approach to the teaching of history that takes the largest possible perspective, crossing time as well as space. Discusses the problems and advantages of such an approach. Describes a course on "big" history that begins with time, creation myths, and astronomy, and moves on to paleontology and evolution. (DK)

  10. Intellectual History

    In the 5 Questions book series, this volume presents a range of leading scholars in Intellectual History and the History of Ideas through their answers to a brief questionnaire. Respondents include Michael Friedman, Jacques le Goff, Hans Ulrich Gumbrecht, Jonathan Israel, Phiip Pettit, John Pocock...

  11. Tank characterization reference guide

    De Lorenzo, D.S.; DiCenso, A.T.; Hiller, D.B.; Johnson, K.W.; Rutherford, J.H.; Smith, D.J.; Simpson, B.C.

    1994-09-01

    Characterization of the Hanford Site high-level waste storage tanks supports safety issue resolution; operations and maintenance requirements; and retrieval, pretreatment, vitrification, and disposal technology development. Technical, historical, and programmatic information about the waste tanks is often scattered among many sources, if it is documented at all. This Tank Characterization Reference Guide, therefore, serves as a common location for much of the generic tank information that is otherwise contained in many documents. The report is intended to be an introduction to the issues and history surrounding the generation, storage, and management of the liquid process wastes, and a presentation of the sampling, analysis, and modeling activities that support the current waste characterization. This report should provide a basis upon which those unfamiliar with the Hanford Site tank farms can start their research

  12. History of Solid Rockets

    Green, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    Solid rockets are of interest to the space program because they are commonly used as boosters that provide the additional thrust needed for the space launch vehicle to escape the gravitational pull of the Earth. Larger, more advanced solid rockets allow for space launch vehicles with larger payload capacities, enabling mankind to reach new depths of space. This presentation will discuss, in detail, the history of solid rockets. The history begins with the invention and origin of the solid rocket, and then goes into the early uses and design of the solid rocket. The evolution of solid rockets is depicted by a description of how solid rockets changed and improved and how they were used throughout the 16th, 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries. Modern uses of the solid rocket include the Solid Rocket Boosters (SRBs) on the Space Shuttle and the solid rockets used on current space launch vehicles. The functions and design of the SRB and the advancements in solid rocket technology since the use of the SRB are discussed as well. Common failure modes and design difficulties are discussed as well.

  13. public spaces

    Elena Grigoryeva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The topic of this issue is PUBLIC SPACES. It is familiar and clear to every citizen. The streets and courtyards as childhood experiences remain with us forever. And these are the places where we come with our parents at weekends, where we meet friends, where we have dates and where we already come for a walk with our children.The history of public spaces is long and captivating. It was the main city squares where the most important events took place in history. The Agoras of Ancient Greece and the Roman Forums, the squares of Vatican, Paris and London, Moscow and Saint Petersburg… Greve, Trafalgar, Senate, Palace, Red, Bolotnaya – behind every name there is life of capitals, countries and nations.Public spaces, their shapes, image and development greatly influence the perception of the city as a whole. Both visitors and inhabitants can see in public spaces not only the visage but the heart, the soul and the mind of the city.Unfortunately, sometimes we have to prove the value of public spaces and defend them from those who consider them nothing but a blank space, nobody’s land destined for barbarous development.What should happen to make citizens perceive public spaces as their own and to make authorities consider development and maintenance of squares and parks their priority task against the  background of increasing competition between cities and the fight for human capital? Lately they more often say about “a high-quality human capital”. And now, when they say “the city should be liveable” they add “for all groups of citizens, including the creative class”.

  14. The Lyman alpha reference sample

    Hayes, M.; Östlin, G.; Schaerer, D.

    2013-01-01

    We report on new imaging observations of the Lyman alpha emission line (Lyα), performed with the Hubble Space Telescope, that comprise the backbone of the Lyman alpha Reference Sample. We present images of 14 starburst galaxies at redshifts 0.028

  15. Family History

    Your family history includes health information about you and your close relatives. Families have many factors in common, including their genes, ... as heart disease, stroke, and cancer. Having a family member with a disease raises your risk, but ...

  16. Hubble space telescope grism spectroscopy of extreme starbursts across cosmic time: The role of dwarf galaxies in the star formation history of the universe

    Atek, Hakim; Kneib, Jean-Paul [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique, EPFL, CH-1290 Sauverny (Switzerland); Pacifici, Camilla [Yonsei University Observatory, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Malkan, Matthew; Ross, Nathaniel [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Charlot, Stephane; Lehnert, Matthew [UPMC-CNRS, UMR7095, Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, F-75014 Paris (France); Lee, Janice [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Bedregal, Alejandro [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Bunker, Andrew J. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, OX13RH (United Kingdom); Colbert, James W.; Rafelski, Marc [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Dressler, Alan; McCarthy, Patrick [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Hathi, Nimish [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, F-13388 Marseille (France); Martin, Crystal L. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Siana, Brian [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Teplitz, Harry I. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2014-07-10

    Near infrared slitless spectroscopy with the Wide Field Camera 3, on board the Hubble Space Telescope, offers a unique opportunity to study low-mass galaxy populations at high redshift (z ∼ 1-2). While most high-z surveys are biased toward massive galaxies, we are able to select sources via their emission lines that have very faint continua. We investigate the star formation rate (SFR)-stellar mass (M{sub *}) relation for about 1000 emission line galaxies identified over a wide redshift range of 0.3 ≲ z ≲ 2.3. We use the Hα emission as an accurate SFR indicator and correct the broadband photometry for the strong nebular contribution to derive accurate stellar masses down to M{sub *} ∼10{sup 7} M{sub ☉}. We focus here on a subsample of galaxies that show extremely strong emission lines (EELGs) with rest-frame equivalent widths ranging from 200 to 1500 Å. This population consists of outliers to the normal SFR-M{sub *} sequence with much higher specific SFRs (>10 Gyr{sup –1}). While on-sequence galaxies follow continuous star formation processes, EELGs are thought to be caught during an extreme burst of star formation that can double their stellar mass in a period of less than 100 Myr. The contribution of the starburst population to the total star formation density appears to be larger than what has been reported for more massive galaxies in previous studies. In the complete mass range 8.2 < log(M{sub *}/M{sub ☉}) <10 and a SFR lower completeness limit of about 2 M{sub ☉} yr{sup –1} (10 M{sub ☉} yr{sup –1}) at z ∼ 1 (z ∼ 2), we find that starbursts having EW{sub rest}(Hα) > 300, 200, and 100 Å contribute up to ∼13%, 18%, and 34%, respectively, to the total SFR of emission-line-selected sample at z ∼ 1-2. The comparison with samples of massive galaxies shows an increase in the contribution of starbursts toward lower masses.

  17. UV Luminosity Functions at z~4, 5, and 6 from the Hubble Ultra Deep Field and Other Deep Hubble Space Telescope ACS Fields: Evolution and Star Formation History

    Bouwens, R. J.; Illingworth, G. D.; Franx, Marijn; Ford, Holland

    2007-12-01

    We use the ACS BViz data from the HUDF and all other deep HST ACS fields (including the GOODS fields) to find large samples of star-forming galaxies at z~4 and ~5 and to extend our previous z~6 sample. These samples contain 4671, 1416, and 627 B-, V-, and i-dropouts, respectively, and reach to extremely low luminosities [(0.01-0.04)L*z=3 or MUV~-16 to -17], allowing us to determine the rest-frame UV LF and faint-end slope α at z~4-6 to high accuracy. We find faint-end slopes α=-1.73+/-0.05, -1.66+/-0.09, and -1.74+/-0.16 at z~4, ~5, and ~6, respectively, suggesting that the faint-end slope is very steep and shows little evolution with cosmic time. We find that M*UV brightens considerably in the 0.7 Gyr from z~6 to ~4 (by ~0.7 mag from M*UV=-20.24+/-0.19 to -20.98+/-0.10). The observed increase in the characteristic luminosity over this range is almost identical to that expected for the halo mass function, suggesting that the observed evolution is likely due to the hierarchical coalescence and merging of galaxies. The evolution in φ* is not significant. The UV luminosity density at z~6 is modestly lower than (0.45+/-0.09 times) that at z~4 (integrated to -17.5 mag) although a larger change is seen in the dust-corrected SFR density. We thoroughly examine published LF results and assess the reasons for their wide dispersion. We argue that the results reported here are the most robust available. The extremely steep faint-end slopes α found here suggest that lower luminosity galaxies play a significant role in reionizing the universe. Finally, recent search results for galaxies at z~7-8 are used to extend our estimates of the evolution of M* from z~7-8 to z~4. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with programs 9425, 9575, 9803, 9978, 10189, 10339, 10340, and 10632.

  18. Transit space

    Raahauge, Kirsten Marie

    2008-01-01

    This article deals with representations of one specific city, Århus, Denmark, especially its central district. The analysis is based on anthropological fieldwork conducted in Skåde Bakker and Fedet, two well-off neighborhoods. The overall purpose of the project is to study perceptions of space...... and the interaction of cultural, social, and spatial organizations, as seen from the point of view of people living in Skåde Bakker and Fedet. The focus is on the city dwellers’ representations of the central district of Århus with specific reference to the concept of transit space. When applied to various Århusian...

  19. Space Rescue

    Muratore, John F.

    2007-01-01

    Space Rescue has been a topic of speculation for a wide community of people for decades. Astronauts, aerospace engineers, diplomats, medical and rescue professionals, inventors and science fiction writers have all speculated on this problem. Martin Caidin's 1964 novel Marooned dealt with the problems of rescuing a crew stranded in low earth orbit. Legend at the Johnson Space Center says that Caidin's portrayal of a Russian attempt to save the American crew played a pivotal role in convincing the Russians to join the real joint Apollo-Soyuz mission. Space Rescue has been a staple in science fiction television and movies portrayed in programs such as Star Trek, Stargate-SG1 and Space 1999 and movies such as Mission To Mars and Red Planet. As dramatic and as difficult as rescue appears in fictional accounts, in the real world it has even greater drama and greater difficulty. Space rescue is still in its infancy as a discipline and the purpose of this chapter is to describe the issues associated with space rescue and the work done so far in this field. For the purposes of this chapter, the term space rescue will refer to any system which allows for rescue or escape of personnel from situations which endanger human life in a spaceflight operation. This will span the period from crew ingress prior to flight through crew egress postlanding. For the purposes of this chapter, the term primary system will refer to the spacecraft system that a crew is either attempting to escape from or from which an attempt is being made to rescue the crew.

  20. History of Virtual Work Laws A History of Mechanics Prospective

    Capecchi, Danilo

    2012-01-01

     The book presents a history of classical mechanics by focusing on issues of equilibrium. The historical point of view adopted here restricts attention to cases where the effectiveness of forces is assessed on the basis of the virtual motion of their points of application. For completeness, hints of the alternative approach are also referred, the Archimedean for ancient mechanics and the Newtonian for modern mechanics. The laws resulting from consideration of virtual motions are named laws of virtual work. The modern formulations of the principle of virtual work are only a particular form of them. The book begins with the first documented formulations of laws of virtual work in the IV century BC in Greece and proceeds to the end of the XIX century AD in Europe. A significant space is devoted to Arabic and Latin mechanics of Middle Ages. With the Renaissance it began to appear slightly different wordings of the laws, which were often proposed as unique principles of statics. The process reached its apex with ...

  1. History lessons.

    Metcalfe, Sarah

    2013-08-01

    There was a time when epidemics were solely the province of infectious diseases. Indeed, most dictionary definitions of the term refer first to contagious diseases that spread rapidly among a given population.

  2. Environmental history

    Pawson, Eric; Christensen, Andreas Aagaard

    2017-01-01

    Environmental history is an interdisciplinary pursuit that has developed as a form of conscience to counter an increasingly powerful, forward-looking liberal theory of the environment. It deals with the relations between environmental ideas and materialities, from the work of the geographers George...... risks”. These are exposed by environmental history’s focus on long-run analysis and its narrative form that identifies the stories that we tell ourselves about nature. How a better understanding of past environmental transformations helps to analyse society and agency, and what this can mean...... for solutions and policies, is the agenda for an engaged environmental history from now on....

  3. Ildens historier

    Lassen, Henrik Roesgaard

    have been written by Andersen. In several chapters the curiously forgotten history of fire-lighting technology is outlined, and it is demonstrated that "Tællelyset" is written by a person with a modern perspective on how to light a candle - among other things. The central argument in the book springs...... from a point-by-point tracing of 'the origins and history' of Hans Christian Andersen's famous fairy tales. Where did the come from? How did they become the iconic texts that we know today? On this background it becomes quite clear that "Tællelyset" is a modern pastiche and not a genuine Hans Christian...

  4. Business History

    Hansen, Per H.

    2012-01-01

    This article argues that a cultural and narrative perspective can enrich the business history field, encourage new and different questions and answers, and provide new ways of thinking about methods and empirical material. It discusses what culture is and how it relates to narratives. Taking...

  5. LCA History

    Bjørn, Anders; Owsianiak, Mikołaj; Molin, Christine

    2018-01-01

    The idea of LCA was conceived in the 1960s when environmental degradation and in particular the limited access to resources started becoming a concern. This chapter gives a brief summary of the history of LCA since then with a focus on the fields of methodological development, application...

  6. Rewriting History.

    Ramirez, Catherine Clark

    1994-01-01

    Suggests that the telling of vivid stories can help engage elementary students' emotions and increase the chances of fostering an interest in Texas history. Suggests that incorporating elements of the process approach to writing can merge with social studies objectives in creating a curriculum for wisdom. (RS)

  7. Our History

    Alamos National Laboratory Delivering science and technology to protect our nation and promote world . Feynman Center for Innovation Research Capabilities Deploying Innovation Technology Opportunities Information Science & Technology Institute Center for Space and Earth Science Institute for Materials

  8. Reference - PLACE | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Full Text Available switchLanguage; BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Data ...ailable. Data file File name: place_reference.zip File URL: ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/place/LATEST/...ber About This Database Database Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Reference - PLACE | LSDB Archive ...

  9. AREVA 2009 reference document

    2009-01-01

    This Reference Document contains information on the AREVA group's objectives, prospects and development strategies. It contains information on the markets, market shares and competitive position of the AREVA group. This information provides an adequate picture of the size of these markets and of the AREVA group's competitive position. Content: 1 - Person responsible for the Reference Document and Attestation by the person responsible for the Reference Document; 2 - Statutory and Deputy Auditors; 3 - Selected financial information; 4 - Risks: Risk management and coverage, Legal risk, Industrial and environmental risk, Operating risk, Risk related to major projects, Liquidity and market risk, Other risk; 5 - Information about the issuer: History and development, Investments; 6 - Business overview: Markets for nuclear power and renewable energies, AREVA customers and suppliers, Overview and strategy of the group, Business divisions, Discontinued operations: AREVA Transmission and Distribution; 7 - Organizational structure; 8 - Property, plant and equipment: Principal sites of the AREVA group, Environmental issues that may affect the issuer's; 9 - Analysis of and comments on the group's financial position and performance: Overview, Financial position, Cash flow, Statement of financial position, Events subsequent to year-end closing for 2009; 10 - Capital Resources; 11 - Research and development programs, patents and licenses; 12 -trend information: Current situation, Financial objectives; 13 - Profit forecasts or estimates; 14 - Administrative, management and supervisory bodies and senior management; 15 - Compensation and benefits; 16 - Functioning of corporate bodies; 17 - Employees; 18 - Principal shareholders; 19 - Transactions with related parties: French state, CEA, EDF group; 20 - Financial information concerning assets, financial positions and financial performance; 21 - Additional information: Share capital, Certificate of incorporation and by-laws; 22 - Major

  10. History by history statistical estimators in the BEAM code system

    Walters, B.R.B.; Kawrakow, I.; Rogers, D.W.O.

    2002-01-01

    A history by history method for estimating uncertainties has been implemented in the BEAMnrc and DOSXYZnrc codes replacing the method of statistical batches. This method groups scored quantities (e.g., dose) by primary history. When phase-space sources are used, this method groups incident particles according to the primary histories that generated them. This necessitated adding markers (negative energy) to phase-space files to indicate the first particle generated by a new primary history. The new method greatly reduces the uncertainty in the uncertainty estimate. The new method eliminates one dimension (which kept the results for each batch) from all scoring arrays, resulting in memory requirement being decreased by a factor of 2. Correlations between particles in phase-space sources are taken into account. The only correlations with any significant impact on uncertainty are those introduced by particle recycling. Failure to account for these correlations can result in a significant underestimate of the uncertainty. The previous method of accounting for correlations due to recycling by placing all recycled particles in the same batch did work. Neither the new method nor the batch method take into account correlations between incident particles when a phase-space source is restarted so one must avoid restarts

  11. Standard Reference Tables -

    Department of Transportation — The Standard Reference Tables (SRT) provide consistent reference data for the various applications that support Flight Standards Service (AFS) business processes and...

  12. Business History as Cultural History

    Lunde Jørgensen, Ida

    The paper engages with the larger question of how cultural heritage becomes taken for granted and offers a complimentary view to the anthropological ʻCopenhagen School’ of business history, one that draws attention to the way corporate wealth directly and indirectly influences the culture available...

  13. River history.

    Vita-Finzi, Claudio

    2012-05-13

    During the last half century, advances in geomorphology-abetted by conceptual and technical developments in geophysics, geochemistry, remote sensing, geodesy, computing and ecology-have enhanced the potential value of fluvial history for reconstructing erosional and depositional sequences on the Earth and on Mars and for evaluating climatic and tectonic changes, the impact of fluvial processes on human settlement and health, and the problems faced in managing unstable fluvial systems. This journal is © 2012 The Royal Society

  14. Environmental History

    Kearns, Gerard

    2004-01-01

    There was a time when almost all Western geography could be termed environmental history. In the late nineteenth century, physical geographers explained landscapes by describing how they had evolved. Likewise, human geographers saw society as shaped by the directing hands of the environment. By the 1960s this had very much changed. Process studies shortened the temporal framework in geographical explanation and cut the cord between nature and society. Now, physical and human...

  15. Quantum histories and their implications

    Kent, A.

    2000-01-01

    Classical mechanics and standard Copenhagen quantum mechanics respect subspace implications. For example, if a particle is confined in a particular region R of space, then in these theories we can deduce that it is confined in regions containing R. However, subspace implications are generally violated by versions of quantum theory that assign probabilities to histories, such as the consistent histories approach. I define here a new criterion, ordered consistency, which refines the criterion of consistency and has the property that inferences made by ordered consistent sets do not violate subspace relations. This raises the question: do the operators defining our observations form an ordered consistent history? If so, ordered consistency defines a version of quantum theory with greater predictive power than the consistent histories formalism. If not, and our observations are defined by a non-ordered consistent quantum history, then subspace implications are not generally valid. (orig.)

  16. International Space Station exhibit

    2000-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) exhibit in StenniSphere at John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., gives visitors an up-close look at the largest international peacetime project in history. Step inside a module of the ISS and glimpse how astronauts will live and work in space. Currently, 16 countries contribute resources and hardware to the ISS. When complete, the orbiting research facility will be larger than a football field.

  17. Cold fusion and hot history

    Lewenstein, B.

    1996-01-01

    The history of cold fusion research following the announcement of the Pons-Fleischmann experiment is described in detail, including all the confusion, responses of scientists, personal impressions, personal quotations, reactions of the media, references to contemporary sources, etc. (P.A.). 5 figs

  18. Uncovering History for Future History Teachers

    Fischer, Fritz

    2010-01-01

    The art of history teaching is at a crossroads. Recent scholarship focuses on the need to change the teaching of history so students can better learn history, and insists that history teachers must move beyond traditional structures and methods of teaching in order to improve their students' abilities to think with history. This article presents…

  19. NewSpace: The Emerging Commercial Space Industry

    Martin, Gary

    2016-01-01

    A lecture to students at the International Space University. Topics include: - We are at a turning point in the history of space exploration and development the cusp of a revolution, new industries are being born that use space in many non-traditional ways - The established military industrial space sector is no longer the only game in town - Increased competition and new capabilities will change the marketplace forever - Everyone interested in working in the space sector will be affected.

  20. 2002 reference document; Document de reference 2002

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This 2002 reference document of the group Areva, provides information on the society. Organized in seven chapters, it presents the persons responsible for the reference document and for auditing the financial statements, information pertaining to the transaction, general information on the company and share capital, information on company operation, changes and future prospects, assets, financial position, financial performance, information on company management and executive board and supervisory board, recent developments and future prospects. (A.L.B.)

  1. Representations of locally symmetric spaces

    Rahman, M.S.

    1995-09-01

    Locally symmetric spaces in reference to globally and Hermitian symmetric Riemannian spaces are studied. Some relations between locally and globally symmetric spaces are exhibited. A lucid account of results on relevant spaces, motivated by fundamental problems, are formulated as theorems and propositions. (author). 10 refs

  2. Directory of History of Medicine Collections (DHMC)

    Federal Geographic Data Committee — The collections described in this Directory database provide research and reference services to scholars interested in the history of the health sciences. Some of...

  3. Communication spaces.

    Coiera, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Annotations to physical workspaces such as signs and notes are ubiquitous. When densely annotated, work areas become communication spaces. This study aims to characterize the types and purpose of such annotations. A qualitative observational study was undertaken in two wards and the radiology department of a 440-bed metropolitan teaching hospital. Images were purposefully sampled; 39 were analyzed after excluding inferior images. Annotation functions included signaling identity, location, capability, status, availability, and operation. They encoded data, rules or procedural descriptions. Most aggregated into groups that either created a workflow by referencing each other, supported a common workflow without reference to each other, or were heterogeneous, referring to many workflows. Higher-level assemblies of such groupings were also observed. Annotations make visible the gap between work done and the capability of a space to support work. Annotations are repairs of an environment, improving fitness for purpose, fixing inadequacy in design, or meeting emergent needs. Annotations thus record the missing information needed to undertake tasks, typically added post-implemented. Measuring annotation levels post-implementation could help assess the fit of technology to task. Physical and digital spaces could meet broader user needs by formally supporting user customization, 'programming through annotation'. Augmented reality systems could also directly support annotation, addressing existing information gaps, and enhancing work with context sensitive annotation. Communication spaces offer a model of how work unfolds. Annotations make visible local adaptation that makes technology fit for purpose post-implementation and suggest an important role for annotatable information systems and digital augmentation of the physical environment.

  4. Historical spaces of social psychology

    Kalampalikis , Nikos; Delouvée , Sylvain; Pétard , Jean-Pierre

    2006-01-01

    International audience; An extensive analysis of all social psychology textbooks published, in french, between 1947 and 2001, including a history chapter, provides a rich corpus for the study of the history of social psychology. In this article we choose to study the historical spaces of social psychology, in order to show how the discipline was located in geographical, urban, institutional and collective spaces. We argue that, into this specific corpus, spaces are essentially related to some...

  5. Systematic design of active spaces for multi-reference calculations of singlet-triplet gaps of organic diradicals, with benchmarks against doubly electron-attached coupled-cluster data

    Stoneburner, Samuel J.; Shen, Jun; Ajala, Adeayo O.; Piecuch, Piotr; Truhlar, Donald G.; Gagliardi, Laura

    2017-10-01

    Singlet-triplet gaps in diradical organic π-systems are of interest in many applications. In this study, we calculate them in a series of molecules, including cyclobutadiene and its derivatives and cyclopentadienyl cation, by using correlated participating orbitals within the complete active space (CAS) and restricted active space (RAS) self-consistent field frameworks, followed by second-order perturbation theory (CASPT2 and RASPT2). These calculations are evaluated by comparison with the results of doubly electron-attached (DEA) equation-of-motion (EOM) coupled-cluster (CC) calculations with up to 4-particle-2-hole (4p-2h) excitations. We find active spaces that can accurately reproduce the DEA-EOMCC(4p-2h) data while being small enough to be applicable to larger organic diradicals.

  6. Cygnus History

    Henderson, David J.; Gignac, Raymond E.; Good, Douglas E.; Hansen, Mark D.; Mitton, Charles V.; Nelson, Daniel S.; Ormond, Eugene C.; Cordova, Steve R.; Molina, Isidro; Smith, John R.; Rose, Evan A.

    2009-01-01

    The Cygnus Dual Beam Radiographic Facility consists of two identical radiographic sources: Cygnus 1 and Cygnus 2. This Radiographic Facility is located in an underground tunnel test area at the Nevada Test Site. The sources were developed to produce high-resolution images for dynamic plutonium experiments. This work will recount and discuss salient maintenance and operational issues encountered during the history of Cygnus. A brief description of Cygnus systems and rational for design selections will set the stage for this historical narrative. It is intended to highlight the team-derived solutions for technical problems encountered during extended periods of maintenance and operation. While many of the issues are typical to pulsed power systems, some of the solutions are unique. It is hoped that other source teams will benefit from this presentation, as well as other necessary disciplines (e.g., source users, system architects, facility designers and managers, funding managers, and team leaders)

  7. Environmental history

    Pawson, Eric; Christensen, Andreas Aagaard

    2017-01-01

    Environmental history is an interdisciplinary pursuit that has developed as a form of conscience to counter an increasingly powerful, forward-looking liberal theory of the environment. It deals with the relations between environmental ideas and materialities, from the work of the geographers George...... Perkins Marsh, Carl Sauer, and Clarence Glacken, to more recent global-scale assessments of the impact of the “great acceleration” since 1950. Today’s “runaway world” paradoxically embraces risk management in an attempt to determine its own future whilst generating a whole new category of “manufactured...... risks”. These are exposed by environmental history’s focus on long-run analysis and its narrative form that identifies the stories that we tell ourselves about nature. How a better understanding of past environmental transformations helps to analyse society and agency, and what this can mean...

  8. Deep-Inelastic Final States in a Space-Time Description of Shower Development and Hadronization

    Ellis, John; Geiger, Klaus; Kowalski, Henryk

    1996-01-01

    We extend a quantum kinetic approach to the description of hadronic showers in space, time and momentum space to deep-inelastic $ep$ collisions, with particular reference to experiments at HERA. We follow the history of hard scattering events back to the initial hadronic state and forward to the formation of colour-singlet pre-hadronic clusters and their decays into hadrons. The time evolution of the space-like initial-state shower and the time-like secondary partons are treated similarly, an...

  9. VBE reference framework

    Afsarmanesh, H.; Camarinha-Matos, L.M.; Ermilova, E.; Camarinha-Matos, L.M.; Afsarmanesh, H.; Ollus, M.

    2008-01-01

    Defining a comprehensive and generic "reference framework" for Virtual organizations Breeding Environments (VBEs), addressing all their features and characteristics, is challenging. While the definition and modeling of VBEs has become more formalized during the last five years, "reference models"

  10. CMS Statistics Reference Booklet

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The annual CMS Statistics reference booklet provides a quick reference for summary information about health expenditures and the Medicare and Medicaid health...

  11. Changing quantum reference frames

    Palmer, Matthew C.; Girelli, Florian; Bartlett, Stephen D.

    2013-01-01

    We consider the process of changing reference frames in the case where the reference frames are quantum systems. We find that, as part of this process, decoherence is necessarily induced on any quantum system described relative to these frames. We explore this process with examples involving reference frames for phase and orientation. Quantifying the effect of changing quantum reference frames serves as a first step in developing a relativity principle for theories in which all objects includ...

  12. WATER AND THE HISTORY OF MAN

    The importance of water is presented from a myriad of aspects including its creation in cosmic history; its importance in the texts of ancient history; references within various religious writings; and significance with respect to modern science, art, music, transportation, archi...

  13. Public History

    Marta Gouveia de Oliveira Rovai

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como proposta apresentar o conceito e as práticas de História Pública como um novo posicionamento da ciência histórica em diálogo com profissionais da comunicação, no sentido de produzir e divulgar as experiências humanas. Para isso, discute-se a origem do conceito de História Pública e as diferentes formas de educação histórica que a utilização das novas tecnologias podem proporcionar (dentre elas a internet. Nesse sentido, convida-se o leitor para a reflexão sobre as possibilidades de publicização e de democratização do conhecimento histórico e da cultura, ampliando-se a oportunidade de produção, de divulgação e de acesso do público a diferentes formas experiências no tempo. O artigo também intenciona chamar atenção dos profissionais que lidam com a História e com a Comunicação para os perigos de produções exclusivamente submetidas ao mercado que transformam a popularização da História no reforço de estigmas culturais.   PALAVRAS-CHAVE: História Pública; Educação histórica e Comunicação; democratização e estigmatização.     ABSTRACT This article aims to present the concept and practices of Public History as a new positioning of historical science in dialogue with communication professionals, in the sense of producing and disseminating human experiences. For this, the origin of the concept of Public History and the different forms of historical education that the use of the new technologies can provide (among them the Internet is discussed. In this sense, the reader is invited to reflect on the possibilities of publicizing and democratizing historical knowledge and culture, expanding the opportunity for production, dissemination and public access to different forms of experience in time. The article also intends to draw attention from professionals dealing with History and Communication to the dangers of exclusively commercialized productions that transform the popularization

  14. Canadian Reference Sources 1980--A Selection.

    Ryder, Dorothy E.

    1981-01-01

    Provides a bibliography of 52 reference sources and 24 new editions and supplements, excluding annuals. Topics include science and technology, art, history, university courses, regional information, native languages, museums, law, geography, Canadian culture, dissertations, sports, antiques, botany, and a variety of directories. (CHC)

  15. A New Look at Teaching Music History.

    Borroff, Edith

    1992-01-01

    Contends that teaching music history has traditionally focused on five eras of Western music. Relates these periods to concepts of form, space, and understanding. Acknowledges that music education has been ethnocentric and recommends a more universal music education. (CFR)

  16. The past and space

    Lund, Christian

    2013-01-01

    of legitimate forms of land control, complex combinations of claims emerge. The ubiquity of ‘the past’ in African politics and the increasing competition over space suggest that the naturalness with which some refer to the past and others conceive of space should be under constant scrutiny. Based on work...... that competing social elite groups instrumentalize. Each group sees its interests best served by a particular reading of the past and a particular conception of space....

  17. IAEA biological reference materials

    Parr, R.M.; Schelenz, R.; Ballestra, S.

    1988-01-01

    The Analytical Quality Control Services programme of the IAEA encompasses a wide variety of intercomparisons and reference materials. This paper reviews only those aspects of the subject having to do with biological reference materials. The 1988 programme foresees 13 new intercomparison exercises, one for major, minor and trace elements, five for radionuclides, and seven for stable isotopes. Twenty-two natural matrix biological reference materials are available: twelve for major, minor and trace elements, six for radionuclides, and four for chlorinated hydrocarbons. Seven new intercomparisons and reference materials are in preparation or under active consideration. Guidelines on the correct use of reference materials are being prepared for publication in 1989 in consultation with other major international producers and users of biological reference materials. The IAEA database on available reference materials is being updated and expanded in scope, and a new publication is planned for 1989. (orig.)

  18. Development of beta reference radiations

    Wan Zhaoyong; Cai Shanyu; Li Yanbo; Yin Wei; Feng Jiamin; Sun Yuhua; Li Yongqiang

    1997-09-01

    A system of beta reference radiation has been developed, that is composed of 740 MBq 147 Pm beta source, 74 MBq and 740 MBq 90 Sr + 90 Y β sources, compensation filters, a source handling tool, a source jig, spacing bars, a shutter, a control unit and a beta dose meter calibration stand. For 740 MBq 147 Pm and 74 MBq 90 Sr + 90 Y beta reference radiations with compensation filters and 740 MBq 90 Sr + 90 Y beta reference radiation without compensation filter, at 20 cm, 30 cm and 30 cm distance separately; the residual energy of maximum is 0.14 MeV, 1.98 MeV and 2.18 MeV separately; the absorbed dose to tissue D (0.07) is 1.547 mGy/h (1996-05-20), 5.037 mGy/h (1996-05-10) and 93.57 mGy/h (1996-05-15) separately; the total uncertainty is 3.0%, 1.7% and 1.7% separately. For the first and the second beta reference radiation, the dose rate variability in the area of 18 cm diameter in the plane perpendicular to the beta-ray beam axis is within +-6% and +-3% separately. (3 refs., 2 tabs., 8 figs.)

  19. Reference design for LAMPF II

    Thiessen, H.A.

    1983-01-01

    A reference design for the 32-GeV LAMPF II proton accelerator is proposed. This design consists of a 30-Hz rapid-cycling synchrotron with a dc stretcher. A superiodicity 5 design with dispersion-free straight sections is suggested for both machines. Beam-dynamics calculations are partially complete and rf requirements are given. Apertures are calculated for 2 x 10 13 protons per pulse (100 μA average current). No significant problems are observed at any time in the cycle in a longitudinal beam-dynamics simulation including space charge

  20. Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin quantization of histories electrodynamics

    Noltingk, Duncan

    2002-01-01

    This article is a continuation of earlier work where a classical history theory of pure electrodynamics was developed in which the history fields have five components. The extra component is associated with an extra constraint, thus enlarging the gauge group of histories electrodynamics. In this article we quantize the classical theory developed previously by two methods. First we quantize the reduced classical history space to obtain a reduced quantum history theory. Second we quantize the classical BRST-extended history space, and use the Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin charge to define a 'cohomological' quantum history theory. Finally, we show that the reduced history theory is isomorphic (as a history theory) to the cohomological history theory

  1. Indoor air: Reference bibliography

    Campbell, D.; Staves, D.; McDonald, S.

    1989-07-01

    The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency initially established the indoor air Reference Bibliography in 1987 as an appendix to the Indoor Air Quality Implementation Plan. The document was submitted to Congress as required under Title IV--Radon Gas and Indoor Air Quality Research of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986. The Reference Bibliography is an extensive bibliography of reference materials on indoor air pollution. The Bibliography contains over 4500 citations and continues to increase as new articles appear

  2. Nostalgia: a conceptual history.

    Fuentenebro de Diego, Filiberto; Valiente Ots, Carmen

    2014-12-01

    The term nostalgia was first proposed in 1688 by Johannes Hofer as equivalent to the German term Heimweh. It referred to a state of moral pain associated with the forced separation from family and social environment. Consecutive clinical descriptions from the seventeenth century up to the present day have been subjected to the aetiopathogenic and clinical paradigms of each period. Golden-age descriptions of nostalgia that are of particular interest were derived from the observation of conscript soldiers in Napoleonic campaigns by authors such as Gerbois and Larrey. In 1909 Jaspers devoted his doctoral thesis to this topic (Nostalgia und Verbrechen). From a cultural history point of view, it could be considered today as an example of 'transient illness'. The nosological relay has taken place through clinical pictures such as the pathology associated with exile, forced displacements and psychosis of captivity. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Marketing Reference Services.

    Norman, O. Gene

    1995-01-01

    Relates the marketing concept to library reference services. Highlights include a review of the literature and an overview of marketing, including research, the marketing mix, strategic plan, marketing plan, and marketing audit. Marketing principles are applied to reference services through the marketing mix elements of product, price, place, and…

  4. Reference class forecasting

    Flyvbjerg, Bent

    optimisme og misinformation. RCF bygger på teorier, som vandt Daniel Kahneman Nobelprisen i økonomi i 2002. RCF estimerer budgettet for et givet projekt på grundlag af de faktiske udfald for budgetterne i en reference-klasse af projekter. RCF udføres i tre trin: 1. Identifikation af en relevant reference...

  5. 14 CFR 135.207 - VFR: Helicopter surface reference requirements.

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false VFR: Helicopter surface reference... VFR/IFR Operating Limitations and Weather Requirements § 135.207 VFR: Helicopter surface reference requirements. No person may operate a helicopter under VFR unless that person has visual surface reference or...

  6. Quantum mechanics with respect to different reference frames

    Mangiarotti, L.; Sardanashvily, G.

    2007-01-01

    Geometric (Schroedinger) quantization of nonrelativistic mechanics with respect to different reference frames is considered. In classical nonrelativistic mechanics, a reference frame is represented by a connection on a configuration space fibered over a time axis R. Under quantization, it yields a connection on the quantum algebra of Schroedinger operators. The operators of energy with respect to different reference frames are examined

  7. Understanding young stars - A history

    Stahler, S.W.

    1988-01-01

    The history of pre-main-sequence theory is briefly reviewed. The paper of Henyey et al. (1955) is seen as an important transitional work, one which abandoned previous simplifying assumptions yet failed to incorporate newer insights into the surface structure of late-type stars. The subsequent work of Hayashi and his contemporaries is outlined, with an emphasis on the underlying physical principles. Finally, the recent impact of protostar theory is discussed, and speculations are offered on future developments. 56 references

  8. The art of history taking.

    Trieger, N; Goldblatt, L

    1978-02-01

    The art of history taking involves the ability to recognize the interrelationship between the details of the medical history and the patient's personal history. For the oral surgeon, this provides important insights into how the patient has reacted to illness in the past as well as how he is most likely to react to current treatment. Specific problems have been reviewed as well as suggested interview techniques to guide the oral surgeon in his management of his patient's reactions. No one expects the doctor to be an iconoclast. He cannot be all things to all patients. He should recognize a problem, acknowledge it as a problem, and be flexible enough to deal with it or refer the patient to someone who can. This kind of understanding will enable the oral surgeon to fulfill his role with appreciation from his patients and an inner sense of professional and personal achievement.

  9. Celebrate Women's History.

    Leonard, Carolyn M.; Baradar, Mariam

    This teachers' guide to activities celebrating Women's History Month focuses on women whose important contributions have been omitted from history textbooks. Women's History Month grew from a 1977 celebration of Women's History Week and is intended to bring women's history into the school curriculum. International Women's Day, celebrated on March…

  10. Women's social space and the reference for breastfeeding practice El espacio social de mujeres y su referencia para el cuidado en la práctica de la lactancia O espaço social das mulheres e a referência para o cuidado na prática da amamentação

    Ana Márcia Spanó Nakano

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify agents or institutions taken as reference by women when breastfeeding. A qualitative study was carried out on 20 primiparous who were assisted, for reasons not related to breastfeeding, in the five health services selected by this study. Data were collected by semi-structured interviews carried out in the participants' households and were analyzed by content analysis in the thematic mode. We identified that health professionals play a standardize role of breastfeeding based on scientific knowledge. In the daily breastfeeding routine, the family is the first reference for women, transmitting beliefs, habits and behaviors. We believe in the valorization of the family context by the health professional, in which actions and interactions in the breastfeeding issue are developed in order to constitute the foundations for a new care model in breastfeeding. This model should, therefore, consider the practice diversity, adapting actions to the multiple roles of being mother/fortress/wife/worker in the social context.Este estudio tuvo como objetivo identificar los agentes o instituciones consideradas como referencia por las madres lactantes en la práctica de amamatación. Investigación cualitativa con 20 puérperas quienes buscaron por razones ajenas a la lactancia una de las 5 unidades básicas de salud seleccionadas en este estudio. Los datos fueron recolectados a través de entrevistas semi-estructuradas realizadas en su domicilio; su análisis se apoyó en el análisis de contenido, modalidad temática. Fue identificado que el profesional de salud asume un rol normativo en este proceso, apoyándose en conocimientos científicos. Dentro del proceso de amamantar, la familia ocupa el primer lugar de referencia para las mujeres, transmitiendo creencias, hábitos y conductas. Se cree que la valorización del contexto familiar por el profesional de salud, al desarrollar acciones e interacciones durante la lactancia, se

  11. Space and the historian. [rocketry

    Emme, E. M.

    1973-01-01

    The history of modern rocketry begins with the launching of rockets for vertical soundings in the upper atmosphere. The launchings of the first earth satellites sparked space endeavors including manned flight accomplishments largely unforeseen as to the scope and rapidity of their happening. The scope of historical inquiry should include the entire historical spectrum involving space science and technology, i.e., political, economic, and social aspects, and the international environment. The methodology of contemporary history is discussed.

  12. Uranium reference materials

    Donivan, S.; Chessmore, R.

    1987-07-01

    The Technical Measurements Center has prepared uranium mill tailings reference materials for use by remedial action contractors and cognizant federal and state agencies. Four materials were prepared with varying concentrations of radionuclides, using three tailings materials and a river-bottom soil diluent. All materials were ground, dried, and blended thoroughly to ensure homogeneity. The analyses on which the recommended values for nuclides in the reference materials are based were performed, using independent methods, by the UNC Geotech (UNC) Chemistry Laboratory, Grand Junction, Colorado, and by C.W. Sill (Sill), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho. Several statistical tests were performed on the analytical data to characterize the reference materials. Results of these tests reveal that the four reference materials are homogeneous and that no large systematic bias exists between the analytical methods used by Sill and those used by TMC. The average values for radionuclides of the two data sets, representing an unbiased estimate, were used as the recommended values for concentrations of nuclides in the reference materials. The recommended concentrations of radionuclides in the four reference materials are provided. Use of these reference materials will aid in providing uniform standardization among measurements made by remedial action contractors. 11 refs., 9 tabs

  13. Using the Guide of History

    Lanzerotti, Louis J.

    2010-03-01

    Earth's space environment often offers surprises upon the introduction of new technologies. The history of some space weather impacts on communications demonstrates this vividly. Such history was on my mind during a recent trip to Newfoundland, Canada. Nestled in an eastern inlet, the small fishing village of Heart's Content marks the landing site of the first transatlantic telegraph cable, in 1866, laid by the famous ship Great Eastern with the financial backing of Cyrus Field. The building and laying of this cable is an engineering saga in its own right; subsequent Europe-to-North America telegraph cables in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries also had Newfoundland coastal ports as their termini. Geomagnetic storm-produced ground currents that flowed through this and other telegraph cables seriously affected transmission and reception of signals.

  14. STL pocket reference

    Lischner, Ray

    2003-01-01

    The STL Pocket Reference describes the functions, classes, and templates in that part of the C++ standard library often referred to as the Standard Template Library (STL). The STL encompasses containers, iterators, algorithms, and function objects, which collectively represent one of the most important and widely used subsets of standard library functionality. The C++ standard library, even the subset known as the STL, is vast. It's next to impossible to work with the STL without some sort of reference at your side to remind you of template parameters, function invocations, return types--ind

  15. Handbook of reference electrodes

    Inzelt, György; Scholz, Fritz

    2013-01-01

    Reference Electrodes are a crucial part of any electrochemical system, yet an up-to-date and comprehensive handbook is long overdue. Here, an experienced team of electrochemists provides an in-depth source of information and data for the proper choice and construction of reference electrodes. This includes all kinds of applications such as aqueous and non-aqueous solutions, ionic liquids, glass melts, solid electrolyte systems, and membrane electrodes. Advanced technologies such as miniaturized, conducting-polymer-based, screen-printed or disposable reference electrodes are also covered. Essen

  16. Regular Expression Pocket Reference

    Stubblebine, Tony

    2007-01-01

    This handy little book offers programmers a complete overview of the syntax and semantics of regular expressions that are at the heart of every text-processing application. Ideal as a quick reference, Regular Expression Pocket Reference covers the regular expression APIs for Perl 5.8, Ruby (including some upcoming 1.9 features), Java, PHP, .NET and C#, Python, vi, JavaScript, and the PCRE regular expression libraries. This concise and easy-to-use reference puts a very powerful tool for manipulating text and data right at your fingertips. Composed of a mixture of symbols and text, regular exp

  17. Neptunium: a bibliographic reference

    Mosley, R.E.

    1979-06-01

    A comprehensive bibliograhy of the literature on the element neptunium published prior to January 1976 is presented. A short abstract is given for each listed reference, with a few exceptions. The references are divided into sections categorized as General, Man-Made Sources (Reactors), Man-Made Sources (Fuel Reprocessing), Chemistry (Solubility), Chemistry (Compounds), Chemistry (Isotopes), Analyses (Instrumental), Analyses (Chemical), Chemical (Animal), Biological (Effects), Biological (Animal-Metabolism-Retention), Biological (Air Movement), Biological (Human Inhalation), Measurement, and Dosimetry. The bibliography contains author and keyword indexes and was compiled to serve as a quick reference source for neptunium-related work. 184 citations

  18. CSS Pocket Reference

    Meyer, Eric

    2011-01-01

    When you're working with CSS and need a quick answer, CSS Pocket Reference delivers. This handy, concise book provides all of the essential information you need to implement CSS on the fly. Ideal for intermediate to advanced web designers and developers, the 4th edition is revised and updated for CSS3, the latest version of the Cascading Style Sheet specification. Along with a complete alphabetical reference to CSS3 selectors and properties, you'll also find a short introduction to the key concepts of CSS. Based on Cascading Style Sheets: The Definitive Guide, this reference is an easy-to-us

  19. Biomedical Engineering Desk Reference

    Ratner, Buddy D; Schoen, Frederick J; Lemons, Jack E; Dyro, Joseph; Martinsen, Orjan G; Kyle, Richard; Preim, Bernhard; Bartz, Dirk; Grimnes, Sverre; Vallero, Daniel; Semmlow, John; Murray, W Bosseau; Perez, Reinaldo; Bankman, Isaac; Dunn, Stanley; Ikada, Yoshito; Moghe, Prabhas V; Constantinides, Alkis

    2009-01-01

    A one-stop Desk Reference, for Biomedical Engineers involved in the ever expanding and very fast moving area; this is a book that will not gather dust on the shelf. It brings together the essential professional reference content from leading international contributors in the biomedical engineering field. Material covers a broad range of topics including: Biomechanics and Biomaterials; Tissue Engineering; and Biosignal Processing* A hard-working desk reference providing all the essential material needed by biomedical and clinical engineers on a day-to-day basis * Fundamentals, key techniques,

  20. LINQ Pocket Reference

    Albahari, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Ready to take advantage of LINQ with C# 3.0? This guide has the detail you need to grasp Microsoft's new querying technology, and concise explanations to help you learn it quickly. And once you begin to apply LINQ, the book serves as an on-the-job reference when you need immediate reminders. All the examples in the LINQ Pocket Reference are preloaded into LINQPad, the highly praised utility that lets you work with LINQ interactively. Created by the authors and free to download, LINQPad will not only help you learn LINQ, it will have you thinking in LINQ. This reference explains: LINQ's ke

  1. R quick syntax reference

    Tollefson, Margot

    2014-01-01

    The R Quick Syntax Reference is a handy reference book detailing the intricacies of the R language. Not only is R a free, open-source tool, R is powerful, flexible, and has state of the art statistical techniques available. With the many details which must be correct when using any language, however, the R Quick Syntax Reference makes using R easier.Starting with the basic structure of R, the book takes you on a journey through the terminology used in R and the syntax required to make R work. You will find looking up the correct form for an expression quick and easy. With a copy of the R Quick

  2. First observations of tropospheric δD data observed by ground- and space-based remote sensing and surface in-situ measurement techniques at MUSICA's principle reference station (Izaña Observatory, Spain)

    González, Yenny; Schneider, Matthias; Christner, Emanuel; Rodríguez, Omaira E.; Sepúlveda, Eliezer; Dyroff, Christoph; Wiegele, Andreas

    2013-04-01

    The main goal of the project MUSICA (Multiplatform remote Sensing of Isotopologues for investigating the Cycle of Atmospheric water) is the generation of a quasi global tropospheric water vapor isototopologue dataset of a good and well-documented quality. Therefore, new ground- and space-based remote sensing observations (NDACC-FTIR and IASI/METOP) are combined with in-situ measurements. This work presents the first comparison between in-situ and remote sensing observations made at the Izaña Atmospheric Research Centre (Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain). The in-situ measurements are made by a Picarro L2120-i water vapor isotopologue analyzer. At Izaña the in-situ data are affected by local small-scale mixing processes: during daylight, the thermally buoyant upslope flow prompts the mixing between the Marine Boundary Layer (MBL) and the low Free Troposphere (FT). However, the remote sensors detect δD values averaged over altitudes that are more representative for the free troposphere. This difference has to be considered for the comparison. In general, a good agreement between the MUSICA remote sensing and the in situ H2O-versus-δD plots is found, which demonstrates that the MUSICA δD remote sensing products add scientifically valuable information to the H2O data.

  3. Optimal primitive reference frames

    Jennings, David

    2011-01-01

    We consider the smallest possible directional reference frames allowed and determine the best one can ever do in preserving quantum information in various scenarios. We find that for the preservation of a single spin state, two orthogonal spins are optimal primitive reference frames; and in a product state, they do approximately 22% as well as an infinite-sized classical frame. By adding a small amount of entanglement to the reference frame, this can be raised to 2(2/3) 5 =26%. Under the different criterion of entanglement preservation, a very similar optimal reference frame is found; however, this time it is for spins aligned at an optimal angle of 87 deg. In this case 24% of the negativity is preserved. The classical limit is considered numerically, and indicates under the criterion of entanglement preservation, that 90 deg. is selected out nonmonotonically, with a peak optimal angle of 96.5 deg. for L=3 spins.

  4. Reference Climatological Stations

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Reference Climatological Stations (RCS) network represents the first effort by NOAA to create and maintain a nationwide network of stations located only in areas...

  5. Toxicity Reference Database

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Toxicity Reference Database (ToxRefDB) contains approximately 30 years and $2 billion worth of animal studies. ToxRefDB allows scientists and the interested...

  6. Python essential reference

    Beazley, David M

    2009-01-01

    Python Essential Reference is the definitive reference guide to the Python programming language — the one authoritative handbook that reliably untangles and explains both the core Python language and the most essential parts of the Python library. Designed for the professional programmer, the book is concise, to the point, and highly accessible. It also includes detailed information on the Python library and many advanced subjects that is not available in either the official Python documentation or any other single reference source. Thoroughly updated to reflect the significant new programming language features and library modules that have been introduced in Python 2.6 and Python 3, the fourth edition of Python Essential Reference is the definitive guide for programmers who need to modernize existing Python code or who are planning an eventual migration to Python 3. Programmers starting a new Python project will find detailed coverage of contemporary Python programming idioms.

  7. Collaborative networks: Reference modeling

    Camarinha-Matos, L.M.; Afsarmanesh, H.

    2008-01-01

    Collaborative Networks: Reference Modeling works to establish a theoretical foundation for Collaborative Networks. Particular emphasis is put on modeling multiple facets of collaborative networks and establishing a comprehensive modeling framework that captures and structures diverse perspectives of

  8. Ozone Standard Reference Photometer

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Standard Reference Photometer (SRP) Program began in the early 1980s as collaboration between NIST and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to design,...

  9. EARS: Electronic Access to Reference Service.

    Weise, F O; Borgendale, M

    1986-10-01

    Electronic Access to Reference Service (EARS) is a front end to the Health Sciences Library's electronic mail system, with links to the online public catalog. EARS, which became operational in September 1984, is accessed by users at remote sites with either a terminal or microcomputer. It is menu-driven, allowing users to request: a computerized literature search, reference information, a photocopy of a journal article, or a book. This paper traces the history of EARS and discusses its use, its impact on library staff and services, and factors that influence the diffusion of new technology.

  10. Comparability of reference values

    Rossbach, M.; Stoeppler, M.

    1993-01-01

    Harmonization of certified values in Reference Materials (RMs) can be carried out by applying nuclear analytical techniques to RMs of various matrix types and concentration levels. Although RMs generally should not be used as primary standards the cross evaluation of concentrations in RMs leads to better compatibility of reference values and thus to a greater agreement between analytical results from different laboratories using these RMs for instrument calibration and quality assurance. (orig.)

  11. 2002 reference document

    2002-01-01

    This 2002 reference document of the group Areva, provides information on the society. Organized in seven chapters, it presents the persons responsible for the reference document and for auditing the financial statements, information pertaining to the transaction, general information on the company and share capital, information on company operation, changes and future prospects, assets, financial position, financial performance, information on company management and executive board and supervisory board, recent developments and future prospects. (A.L.B.)

  12. Oscillating thermionic conversion for high-density space power

    Jacobson, D.L.; Morris, J.F.

    1988-01-01

    The compactness, maneuverability, and productive weight utilization of space nuclear reactors benefit from the use of thermionic converters at high temperature. Nuclear-thermionic-conversion power requirements are discussed, and the role of oscillations in thermionic energy conversion (TEC) history is examined. Proposed TEC oscillations are addressed, and the results of recent studies of TEC oscillations are reviewed. The possible use of high-frequency TEC oscillations to amplify low-frequency ones is considered. The accomplishments of various programs studying the use of high-temperature thermionic oscillators are examined. 16 references

  13. Spatializing the History of Ecology : Sites, Journeys, Mappings

    de Bont, Raf; Lachmund, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Throughout its history, the discipline of ecology has always been profoundly entangled with the history of space and place. On the one hand, ecology is a field science that has thrived on the study of concrete spatial entities, such as islands, forests or rivers. These spaces are the workplaces in

  14. Page | 1 ISSUES CONCERNING OUTER SPACE INVESTMENTS IN ...

    Fr. Ikenga

    1998-01-29

    Jan 29, 1998 ... United States (through the National Aeronautics and Space .... engineering project in history and the largest structure humans have ever put into space. It is a .... International Space Station Treaty (29 January, 1998) art.

  15. Life in an energy eigenstate: Decoherent histories analysis of a model timeless universe

    Halliwell, J.J.; Thorwart, J.

    2002-01-01

    Inspired by quantum cosmology, in which the wave function of the universe is annihilated by the total Hamiltonian, we consider the internal dynamics of a simple particle system in an energy eigenstate. Such a system does not possess a uniquely defined time parameter, and all physical questions about it must be posed without reference to time. We consider in particular the following question: what is the probability that the system's trajectory passes through a set of regions of configuration space without reference to time? We first consider the classical case, where the answer has a variety of forms in terms of a phase-space probability distribution function. We then consider the quantum case, and we analyze this question using the decoherent histories approach to quantum theory, adapted to questions which do not involve time. When the histories are decoherent, the probabilities approximately coincide with the classical case, with the phase-space probability distribution replaced by the Wigner function of the quantum state. For some initial states, decoherence requires an environment, and we compute the required influence functional and examine some of its properties. Special attention is given to the inner product used in the construction (the induced or Rieffel inner product), the construction of class operators describing the histories, and the extent to which reparametrization invariance is respected. Our results indicate that simple systems without an explicit time parameter may be quantized using the decoherent histories approach, with the expected classical limit extracted. The results support, for simple models, the usual heuristic proposals for the probability distribution function associated with a semiclassical wave function satisfying the Wheeler-DeWitt equation

  16. Genetics Home Reference: retinoblastoma

    ... Some studies suggest that additional genetic changes can influence the development of retinoblastoma ; these changes may help explain variations ... usually occurs in childhood, typically leading to the development of ... and there is no family history of the disease. Affected individuals are born ...

  17. Commercial Space Policy in the 1980s: Proceedings of a Roundtable Discussion

    Dahlstrom, Neil (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The Space Business Archives and the NASA History Office signed a Memorandum of Understanding in March of 1999. The MOU outlines several opportunities for cooperative endeavors between the two agencies in historical programming. This oral history, and subsequently this publication, are the first products of that cooperation. In accordance with the purpose of the Space Business Archives--to provide an impartial forum for lessons learned in the development of the commercial space industry--the idea for this roundtable discussion seemed appropriate as the Archives first public program. With the combined resources of the Archives and the NASA History Office we were fortunate to assemble a panel of individuals that served in both industry and government during the 1980s, many working in both sectors during that time. When envisioning the focus of this oral history, we decided that it was appropriate to highlight space policy in the 1980s, with an emphasis on the emerging commercial industry. Panelists were sent several documents in preparation, such as the Land Remote Sensing Commercialization Act and the Commercial Space Launch Act of 1984, President Reagan's 1982 National Space Policy, and other memoranda and letters that outline important policy issues of the decade. This discussion, we think, fills in some of the gaps that would otherwise be left unfilled when simply reading through the documents themselves. Some of these gaps include: how were these policy directives, legislation and decisions introduced and developed, by whom, and at what political and financial cost? This transcript is meant to serve as a reference to some of the issues, organizations and individuals involved in the creation and development of space policy during the 1980s. It is also the result of the first of many future roundtable discussions aimed at providing an open exchange of ideas concerning past success and failure in order to provide a stronger base for future endeavors in governmental

  18. Reference Japanese man

    Tanaka, Giichiro

    1985-01-01

    To make real and accurate dose assessment method so far, it is necessitated to provide ''Reference Japanese Man'' based on anotomical, physiological and biochemical data of Japanese people instead of the Reference Man presented in ICRP Publications 23 and 30. This review describes present status of researched for the purpose of establishing of Reference Japanese Man. The Reference Japanese Man is defined as a male or female adult who lives in Japan with a Japanese life-style and food custom. His stature and body weight, and the other data was decided as mean values of male or female people of Japan. As for food custom, Japanese people take significantly smaller amount of meat and milk products than Western people, while larger intake amount of cereals and marine products such as fish or seaweeds. Weight of organs is a principal factor for internal dose assessment and mean values for living Japanese adult has been investigated and the value employable for dose assessment for organs and tissues are shown. To employ these values of Reference Japanese Man, it should be taken into account of age. Metabolic parameters should also be considered. Iodine metabolism in Japanese is quite different from that of Western people. The above-mentioned data are now tentatively employing in modification of table of MIRD method and others. (Takagi, S.)

  19. NOAA History - Main Page

    NOAA History Banner gold bar divider home - takes you to index page about the site contacts noaa americas science and service noaa legacy 1807 - 2007 NOAA History is an intrinsic part of the history of Initiative scroll divider More NOAA History from Around the Nation scroll divider drawing of a tornado NOAA

  20. Reinventing Entrepreneurial History

    Wadhwani, R. Daniel; Lubinski, Christina

    2017-01-01

    Research on entrepreneurship remains fragmented in business history. A lack of conceptual clarity inhibits comparisons between studies and dialogue among scholars. To address these issues, we propose to reinvent entrepreneurial history as a research field. We define “new entrepreneurial history...... and reconfiguring resources, and legitimizing novelty. The article elaborates on the historiography, premises, and potential contributions of new entrepreneurial history....

  1. Kiropraktikkens historie i Danmark

    Jørgensen, Per

    Bogen er den første samlede, forskningsbaserede fremstilling om kiropraktikkens danske historie. Den har udblik til kiropraktikkens historie i USA.......Bogen er den første samlede, forskningsbaserede fremstilling om kiropraktikkens danske historie. Den har udblik til kiropraktikkens historie i USA....

  2. Reference costs of electricity

    Terraz, N.

    1997-01-01

    The calculation of electric power production reference costs is used in France, even in the present case of over-capacity, for comparing the relative interest of the various means of power generation (nuclear plants, coal plants, hydroelectricity, gas combined cycles, etc.) and as an aid for future investment decisions. Reference costs show a sharp decrease between 1993 and 1997 due to advancements in nuclear plant operating ability and fossil fuel price decrease. Actuarial rates, plant service life, fuel costs and exchange rates are important parameters. The various costs from the research stage to the waste processing stages are discussed and the reference costs of the various power generation systems are presented and compared together with their competitiveness; the future of wind energy and cogeneration and the prospective of the renewal of nuclear plants at the 2010 horizon are also addressed

  3. [Thoughts and methods of study on acupuncture medical history: an example of Mr. MA Ji-Xing].

    Yang, Feng; Zhu, Ling

    2014-03-01

    Mr. MA Ji-xing has devoted himself into the study of acupuncture medical history for more than 70 years. As a result, a great work of Zhenjiuxue Tongshi (see text), History of Acupuncture-Moxibustion) has been completed. The author has expensively studied for history of acupuncture medicine in time and space. Base on abundant historical materials, deliberate textual research as well as strategically situated academic view, it is considered as a masterpiece of acupuncture on real significance. It is worthwhile to note that the book has a systematic and profound explanation on Bian-stone therapy, unearthed literature relics of acupuncture, the bronze figure or illustration of acupoint as well as special topics of Japan and Korea acupuncture history. Filled several gaps of the field, and explored some significant new paths of study, it laid the groundwork for the profound study and unscramble of traditional acupuncture theory as well as the investigation of the academic history, which is considered to have a profound and persistent influence. The careful sorting and profound digging of many distinguish thoughts and methods of Mr. MA Ji-xing in the study of acupuncture medical history has significant meaning in references and enlightenment of the future research on acupuncture medical history.

  4. Micro-history of a Machokosh Family: Reflections on the Construction of Space and “Home” in Nairobi through the Short Story “An Ex-mas Feast”

    Jacqueline Rasgado Blas

    2016-05-01

    lence and juvenile delinquency. In these narratives Kenyan writers have used allegorical characters such as male criminals and female characters that deal with prostitution to portray the problems of the independent Kenya and postcolonial disillusionment. In “An Ex-mas Feast” Akpan explores these topics too. However, I argue that Akpan’s use of the children’s voices engages in a presentation of Nairobi as a place of negotiation and possibility, which differs from the approaches of postcolonial disorder and Nairobi as a place of crisis and crime as shown in the novels written between 1970 and 1990 and consequently the narrative contains different implications for the understanding of the urban space of Nairobi. Secondly, the article explores the formation of the urban space, even in cities with high social inequality and spatial polarization such as Nairobi, as not merely a consequence of the economic and political structures of the colonial and postcolonial state, but as De Certeau points out: “a product of microbe-like, singular and plural everyday practices of people who creatively remake it”. Hence, the exploration of the short story will demonstrate a family living on the street in Nairobi, from a position, apparently marginal remaking the urban order, turning the street space, a public space considered a “no place”, into their “home”, exerting the role of agents in the construction and transformation of the urban space.

  5. Cosmic growth history and expansion history

    Linder, Eric V.

    2005-01-01

    The cosmic expansion history tests the dynamics of the global evolution of the universe and its energy density contents, while the cosmic growth history tests the evolution of the inhomogeneous part of the energy density. Precision comparison of the two histories can distinguish the nature of the physics responsible for the accelerating cosmic expansion: an additional smooth component--dark energy--or a modification of the gravitational field equations. With the aid of a new fitting formula for linear perturbation growth accurate to 0.05%-0.2%, we separate out the growth dependence on the expansion history and introduce a new growth index parameter γ that quantifies the gravitational modification

  6. Electrical engineer's reference book

    Jones, G R

    2013-01-01

    A long established reference book: radical revision for the fifteenth edition includes complete rearrangement to take in chapters on new topics and regroup the subjects covered for easy access to information.The Electrical Engineer's Reference Book, first published in 1945, maintains its original aims: to reflect the state of the art in electrical science and technology and cater for the needs of practising engineers. Most chapters have been revised and many augmented so as to deal properly with both fundamental developments and new technology and applications that have come to the fore since

  7. Python pocket reference

    Lutz, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This is the book to reach for when you're coding on the fly and need an answer now. It's an easy-to-use reference to the core language, with descriptions of commonly used modules and toolkits, and a guide to recent changes, new features, and upgraded built-ins -- all updated to cover Python 3.X as well as version 2.6. You'll also quickly find exactly what you need with the handy index. Written by Mark Lutz -- widely recognized as the world's leading Python trainer -- Python Pocket Reference, Fourth Edition, is the perfect companion to O'Reilly's classic Python tutorials, also written by Mark

  8. The Reference Return Ratio

    Nicolaisen, Jeppe; Faber Frandsen, Tove

    2008-01-01

    The paper introduces a new journal impact measure called The Reference Return Ratio (3R). Unlike the traditional Journal Impact Factor (JIF), which is based on calculations of publications and citations, the new measure is based on calculations of bibliographic investments (references) and returns...... (citations). A comparative study of the two measures shows a strong relationship between the 3R and the JIF. Yet, the 3R appears to correct for citation habits, citation dynamics, and composition of document types - problems that typically are raised against the JIF. In addition, contrary to traditional...

  9. Perl Pocket Reference

    Vromans, Johan

    2011-01-01

    If you have a Perl programming question, you'll find the answer quickly in this handy, easy-to-use quick reference. The Perl Pocket Reference condenses and organizes stacks of documentation down to the most essential facts, so you can find what you need in a heartbeat. Updated for Perl 5.14, the 5th edition provides a summary of Perl syntax rules and a complete list of operators, built-in functions, and other features. It's the perfect companion to O'Reilly's authoritative and in-depth Perl programming books, including Learning Perl, Programming Perl, and the Perl Cookbook..

  10. HTML & XHTML Pocket Reference

    Robbins, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    After years of using spacer GIFs, layers of nested tables, and other improvised solutions for building your web sites, getting used to the more stringent standards-compliant design can be intimidating. HTML and XHTML Pocket Reference is the perfect little book when you need answers immediately. Jennifer Niederst-Robbins, author Web Design in a Nutshell, has revised and updated the fourth edition of this pocket guide by taking the top 20% of vital reference information from her Nutshell book, augmenting it judiciously, cross-referencing everything, and organizing it according to the most com

  11. CSS Pocket Reference

    Meyer, Eric A

    2007-01-01

    They say that good things come in small packages, and it's certainly true for this edition of CSS Pocket Reference. Completely revised and updated to reflect the latest Cascading Style Sheet specifications in CSS 2.1, this indispensable little book covers the most essential information that web designers and developers need to implement CSS effectively across all browsers. Inside, you'll find: A short introduction to the key concepts of CSS A complete alphabetical reference to all CSS 2.1 selectors and properties A chart displaying detailed information about CSS support for every style ele

  12. JDBC Pocket Reference

    Bales, Donald

    2003-01-01

    JDBC--the Java Database Connectivity specification--is a complex set of application programming interfaces (APIs) that developers need to understand if they want their Java applications to work with databases. JDBC is so complex that even the most experienced developers need to refresh their memories from time to time on specific methods and details. But, practically speaking, who wants to stop and thumb through a weighty tutorial volume each time a question arises? The answer is the JDBC Pocket Reference, a data-packed quick reference that is both a time-saver and a lifesaver. The JDBC P

  13. Reference values for electrooculography

    Barrientos Castanno, Alberto; Herrera Mora, Maritza; Garcia Baez, Obel

    2012-01-01

    Obtain electrooculographic reference values based on the patterns set by the Standardization Committee of the International Society for Clinical Electrophysiology of Vision (ISCEV). the lowest amplitude values of the potential ranged between 388 and 882 μv in the dark phase. The light peak was obtained between 9 and 10 minutes, and during this phase the potential reached an amplitude ranging between 808 and 1 963 μv. This amplitude variability may be related to the fact that the test was conducted without pupillary mydriasis. The reference value obtained for Arden index was 1,55 to 2,87

  14. NASCAP programmer's reference manual

    Mandell, M. J.; Stannard, P. R.; Katz, I.

    1993-05-01

    The NASA Charging Analyzer Program (NASCAP) is a computer program designed to model the electrostatic charging of complicated three-dimensional objects, both in a test tank and at geosynchronous altitudes. This document is a programmer's reference manual and user's guide. It is designed as a reference to experienced users of the code, as well as an introduction to its use for beginners. All of the many capabilities of NASCAP are covered in detail, together with examples of their use. These include the definition of objects, plasma environments, potential calculations, particle emission and detection simulations, and charging analysis.

  15. Physical meaning of the optical reference geometry

    Abramowicz, M.A.

    1990-09-01

    I show that contrary to a popular misconception the optical reference geometry, introduced a few years ago as a formally possible metric of a 3-space corresponding to a static spacetime, is quite satisfactory also from the physical point of view. The optical reference geometry has a clear physical meaning, as it may be constructed experimentally by measuring light round travel time between static observers. Distances and directions in the optical reference geometry are more strongly connected to experiment than distances and directions in the widely used directly projected metric (discussed e.g. in Landau and Lifshitz textbook. In addition, the optical reference geometry is more natural and convenient than the directly projected one in application to dynamics. In the optical geometry dynamical behaviour of matter is described by concepts and formulae identical to those well known in Newtonian dynamics on a given two dimensional (curved) surface. (author). 22 refs

  16. Our Future in Space

    Impey, Chris David

    2017-06-01

    The Space Age is half a century old. Its early successes were driven by a fierce superpower rivalry between the Soviet Union and the United States, which tended to obscure the fact that exploration and risk-taking is built into human DNA. Decades after we last set foot on the Moon, and years after the Space Shuttle was retired, the space activity is finally leaving the doldrums. A vibrant private sector led by SpaceX, Blue Origins, and Virgin Galactic plans to launch supplies cheaply into Earth orbit and give anyone the chance of a sub-orbital joy ride. New materials are being developed that could lead to space elevators and transform the economics of space travel. Fighting gravity will always be difficult but engineers are rethinking rockets and developing new propulsion technologies. Permanent bases on the Moon and Mars are now within reach, and a new Space Race is brewing, with China ascendant. Medical advances might even allow us to reach for the stars. The talk will review the history and landmarks of the international space program, give a snapshot of the current dynamic situation, and plot the trajectory of the future of space travel. The time has come to envision our future off-Earth.

  17. Book Catalogs; Selected References.

    Brandhorst, Wesley T.

    The 116 citations on book catalogs are divided into the following two main sections: (1) Selected References, in alphabetic sequence by personal or institutional author and (2) Anonymous Entries, in alphabetic sequence by title. One hundred and seven of the citations cover the years 1960 through March 1969. There are five scattered citations in…

  18. ROOT Reference Documentation

    Fuakye, Eric Gyabeng

    2017-01-01

    A ROOT Reference Documentation has been implemented to generate all the lists of libraries needed for each ROOT class. Doxygen has no option to generate or add the lists of libraries for each ROOT class. Therefore shell scripting and a basic C++ program was employed to import the lists of libraries needed by each ROOT class.

  19. Hospitality Services Reference Book.

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    This reference book provides information needed by employees in hospitality services occupations. It includes 29 chapters that cover the following topics: the hospitality services industry; professional ethics; organization and management structures; safety practices and emergency procedures; technology; property maintenance and repair; purchasing…

  20. Quantum frames of reference

    Kaufherr, T.

    1981-01-01

    The idea that only relative variables have physical meaning came to be known as Mach's principle. Carrying over this idea to quantum theory, has led to the consideration of finite mass, macroscopic reference frames, relative to which all physical quantities are measured. During the process of measurement, a finite mass observer receives a kickback, and this reaction of the measuring device is not negligible in quantum theory because of the quantization of the action. Hence, the observer himself has to be included in the system that is being considered. Using this as the starting point, a number of thought experiments involving finite mass observers is discussed which have quantum uncertainties in their time or in their position. These thought experiments serve to elucidate in a qualitative way some of the difficulties involved, as well as pointing out a direction to take in seeking solutions to them. When the discussion is extended to include more than one observer, the question of the covariance of the theory immediately arises. Because none of the frames of reference should be preferred, the theory should be covariant. This demand expresses an equivalence principle which here is extended to include reference frames which are in quantum uncertainties relative to each other. Formulating the problem in terms of canonical variables, the ensueing free Hamiltonian contains vector and scalar potentials which represent the kick that the reference frame receives during measurement. These are essentially gravitational type potentials, resulting, as it were, from the extension of the equivalence principle into the quantum domain

  1. Pollen reference collection digitization

    Ercan, F.E.Z.; Donders, T.H.; Bijl, P.K.; Wagner, F.

    2016-01-01

    The extensive Utrecht University pollen reference collection holds thousands of pollen samples of many species and genera from all over the world and has been a basis for the widely-used North West European Pollen Flora. These samples are fixed on glass slides for microscopy use, but the aging

  2. Virtual Reference Services.

    Brewer, Sally

    2003-01-01

    As the need to access information increases, school librarians must create virtual libraries. Linked to reliable reference resources, the virtual library extends the physical collection and library hours and lets students learn to use Web-based resources in a protected learning environment. The growing number of virtual schools increases the need…

  3. Reference-Dependent Sympathy

    Small, Deborah A.

    2010-01-01

    Natural disasters and other traumatic events often draw a greater charitable response than do ongoing misfortunes, even those that may cause even more widespread misery, such as famine or malaria. Why is the response disproportionate to need? The notion of reference dependence critical to Prospect Theory (Kahneman & Tversky, 1979) maintains that…

  4. Genetics Home Reference

    ... Page Search Home Health Conditions Genes Chromosomes & mtDNA Resources Help Me Understand Genetics Share: Email Facebook Twitter Genetics Home Reference provides consumer-friendly information about the effects of genetic variation on human health. Health Conditions More than 1,200 health ...

  5. Python library reference

    G. van Rossum (Guido)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractPython is an extensible, interpreted, object-oriented programming language. It supports a wide range of applications, from simple text processing scripts to interactive WWW browsers. While the Python Reference Manual describes the exact syntax and semantics of the language, it does not

  6. Maps into projective spaces

    Usha N Bhosle. Acknowledgements. This work was initiated during the author's visit to the Isaac Newton Institute, Cambridge,. UK as a visiting fellow to participate in the programme Moduli Spaces (MOS) during. June 2011. She would like to thank the Institute for hospitality and excellent working environment. References.

  7. I-space

    Helms, Niels Henrik; Tellerup, Susanne; Bryderup, Karin Jensen

    This paper presents I-Space. The purpose of this project is to improve the wellbeing and life quality of mentally impaired citizens through the development of new technologies, which could enhance learning and motivation. The project is used as reference to a discussion on structures within design...

  8. Space and composition

    Kjølner, Torunn

    2005-01-01

    The article takes concept art and Deleuze and Guattari's understanding of concept as  references for thinking theatre as an art form defined as a composition of elements in time and space. It offers a discussion of three different kinds of spatial approaches to theatre making and  a discussion...

  9. AREVA 2009 reference document; AREVA document de reference 2009

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This Reference Document contains information on the AREVA group's objectives, prospects and development strategies. It contains information on the markets, market shares and competitive position of the AREVA group. This information provides an adequate picture of the size of these markets and of the AREVA group's competitive position. Content: 1 - Person responsible for the Reference Document and Attestation by the person responsible for the Reference Document; 2 - Statutory and Deputy Auditors; 3 - Selected financial information; 4 - Risks: Risk management and coverage, Legal risk, Industrial and environmental risk, Operating risk, Risk related to major projects, Liquidity and market risk, Other risk; 5 - Information about the issuer: History and development, Investments; 6 - Business overview: Markets for nuclear power and renewable energies, AREVA customers and suppliers, Overview and strategy of the group, Business divisions, Discontinued operations: AREVA Transmission and Distribution; 7 - Organizational structure; 8 - Property, plant and equipment: Principal sites of the AREVA group, Environmental issues that may affect the issuer's; 9 - Analysis of and comments on the group's financial position and performance: Overview, Financial position, Cash flow, Statement of financial position, Events subsequent to year-end closing for 2009; 10 - Capital Resources; 11 - Research and development programs, patents and licenses; 12 -trend information: Current situation, Financial objectives; 13 - Profit forecasts or estimates; 14 - Administrative, management and supervisory bodies and senior management; 15 - Compensation and benefits; 16 - Functioning of corporate bodies; 17 - Employees; 18 - Principal shareholders; 19 - Transactions with related parties: French state, CEA, EDF group; 20 - Financial information concerning assets, financial positions and financial performance; 21 - Additional information: Share capital, Certificate of incorporation and

  10. Confabulations: a conceptual history.

    Berrios, G E

    1998-12-01

    Confabulations are inaccurate or false narratives purporting to convey information about world or self. It is the received view that they are uttered by subjects intent on "covering up" for a putative memory deficit. The epidemiology of confabulations is unknown. Speculated causes include amnesia, embarrassment, "frontal lobe" damage, a subtype of "personality", a dream-like event, and a disturbance of the self. Historical analysis shows that "confabulation" was constructed at the turn of the century as part of a network of concepts (e.g. delusion, fixed idea, etc.) meant to capture narratives with dubious content. This paper deals with the history of the construction of the word and concept of confabulation and with earlier recognitions of the behaviours that serve as their referent and puts forward a model based on historical data. Two phenomena are included under "confabulation": "untrue" utterances by subjects with memory impairment and "fantastic" utterances marshalled with conviction by subjects suffering from psychoses and no memory deficit. Under different disguises, the "covering up" or "gap filling" hypothesis is still going strong. Although superficially plausible, it poses problems in regards to the issue of "awareness of purpose": if full awareness is presumed then the semantics of the concept of "purpose" is severely stretched and confabulations cannot be differentiated from delusions.

  11. ``Frames of Reference'' revisited

    Steyn-Ross, Alistair; Ivey, Donald G.

    1992-12-01

    The PSSC teaching film, ``Frames of Reference,'' was made in 1960, and was one of the first audio-visual attempts at showing how your physical ``point of view,'' or frame of reference, necessarily alters both your perceptions and your observations of motion. The gentle humor and original demonstrations made a lasting impact on many audiences, and with its recent re-release as part of the AAPT Cinema Classics videodisc it is timely that we should review both the message and the methods of the film. An annotated script and photographs from the film are presented, followed by extension material on rotating frames which teachers may find appropriate for use in their classrooms: constructions, demonstrations, an example, and theory.

  12. Program reference schedule baseline

    1986-07-01

    This Program Reference Schedule Baseline (PRSB) provides the baseline Program-level milestones and associated schedules for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. It integrates all Program-level schedule-related activities. This schedule baseline will be used by the Director, Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), and his staff to monitor compliance with Program objectives. Chapter 1 includes brief discussions concerning the relationship of the PRSB to the Program Reference Cost Baseline (PRCB), the Mission Plan, the Project Decision Schedule, the Total System Life Cycle Cost report, the Program Management Information System report, the Program Milestone Review, annual budget preparation, and system element plans. Chapter 2 includes the identification of all Level 0, or Program-level, milestones, while Chapter 3 presents and discusses the critical path schedules that correspond to those Level 0 milestones

  13. OSH technical reference manual

    1993-11-01

    In an evaluation of the Department of Energy (DOE) Occupational Safety and Health programs for government-owned contractor-operated (GOCO) activities, the Department of Labor`s Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) recommended a technical information exchange program. The intent was to share written safety and health programs, plans, training manuals, and materials within the entire DOE community. The OSH Technical Reference (OTR) helps support the secretary`s response to the OSHA finding by providing a one-stop resource and referral for technical information that relates to safe operations and practice. It also serves as a technical information exchange tool to reference DOE-wide materials pertinent to specific safety topics and, with some modification, as a training aid. The OTR bridges the gap between general safety documents and very specific requirements documents. It is tailored to the DOE community and incorporates DOE field experience.

  14. Electrical engineer's reference book

    Laughton, M A

    1985-01-01

    Electrical Engineer's Reference Book, Fourteenth Edition focuses on electrical engineering. The book first discusses units, mathematics, and physical quantities, including the international unit system, physical properties, and electricity. The text also looks at network and control systems analysis. The book examines materials used in electrical engineering. Topics include conducting materials, superconductors, silicon, insulating materials, electrical steels, and soft irons and relay steels. The text underscores electrical metrology and instrumentation, steam-generating plants, turbines

  15. Reference Sources in Chemistry

    Sthapit, Dilip Man

    1995-01-01

    Information plays an important role in the development of every field. Therefore a brief knowledge regarding information sources is necessary to function in any field. There are many information sources about scientific and technical subjects. In this context there are many reference sources in Chemistry too. Chemistry is one important part of the science which deals with the study of the composition of substances and the chemical changes that they undergo. The purpose of this report is...

  16. Radioactive certified reference materials

    Watanabe, Kazuo

    2010-01-01

    Outline of radioactive certified reference materials (CRM) for the analysis of nuclear materials and radioactive nuclides were described. The nuclear fuel CRMs are supplied by the three institutes: NBL in the US, CETAMA in France and IRMM in Belgium. For the RI CRMs, the Japan Radioisotope Association is engaged in activities concerning supply. The natural-matrix CRMs for the analysis of trace levels of radio-nuclides are prepared and supplied by NIST in the US and the IAEA. (author)

  17. Reference Japanese man

    Tanaka, G.-I.; Kawamura, H.; Nakahara, Y.

    1979-01-01

    The weight of organs from autopsy cases of normal Japanese adults, children, and infants is presented for the purpose of approaching a Reference Japanese Man. The skeletal content and the daily intake of alkaline earth elements are given. A lower rate of transfer (K 2 ) to the thyroid gland of ingested radioiodine, as well as a remarkably shorter biological half-life than the data adopted by ICRP, is also proved as a result of this study. (author)

  18. Space Weather and Real-Time Monitoring

    S Watari

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent advance of information and communications technology enables to collect a large amount of ground-based and space-based observation data in real-time. The real-time data realize nowcast of space weather. This paper reports a history of space weather by the International Space Environment Service (ISES in association with the International Geophysical Year (IGY and importance of real-time monitoring in space weather.

  19. Reference handbook: Level detectors

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this handbook is to provide Rocky Flats personnel with the information necessary to understand level measurement and detection. Upon completion of this handbook you should be able to do the following: List three reasons for measuring level. Describe the basic operating principles of the sight glass. Demonstrate proper techniques for reading a sight glass. Describe the basic operating principles of a float level detector. Describe the basic operating principles of a bubbler level indicating system. Explain the differences between a wet and dry reference leg indicating system, and describe how each functions. This handbook is designed for use by experienced Rocky Flats operators to reinforce and improve their current knowledge level, and by entry-level operators to ensure that they possess a minimum level of fundamental knowledge. Level Detectors is applicable to many job classifications and can be used as a reference for classroom work or for self-study. Although this reference handbook is by no means all-encompassing, you will gain enough information about this subject area to assist you in contributing to the safe operation of Rocky Flats Plant

  20. Electroacoustical reference data

    Eargle, John M

    2002-01-01

    The need for a general collection of electroacoustical reference and design data in graphical form has been felt by acousticians and engineers for some time. This type of data can otherwise only be found in a collection of handbooks. Therefore, it is the author's intention that this book serve as a single source for many electroacoustical reference and system design requirements. In form, the volume closely resembles Frank Massa's Acoustic Design Charts, a handy book dating from 1942 that has long been out of print. The basic format of Massa's book has been followed here: For each entry, graphical data are presented on the right page, while text, examples, and refer­ ences appear on the left page. In this manner, the user can solve a given problem without thumbing from one page to the next. All graphs and charts have been scaled for ease in data entry and reading. The book is divided into the following sections: A. General Acoustical Relationships. This section covers the behavior of sound transmis­ sion in...

  1. EDF group - Reference Document 2004

    2005-01-01

    The EDF Group is an integrated energy supplier operating in a wide range of electricity-related businesses: generation, transmission, distribution, sale and trading of energy. It is the main operator in the French electricity market and one of the leading electricity groups in Europe. With an installed capacity of 125,4 GW, it contributes to the supply of energy and services to more than 42 million customers throughout the world (with approximately 36 million customers in Europe, more than 28 million of whom are in France). The EDF Group has built a business model balanced between deregulated and regulated operations in France and an international presence. In 2004, the Group recorded consolidated sales of euros 46,928 million, net income (Group share) of euros 1,341 million, and it achieved earnings before interests, taxes, depreciation and amortization of euros 12,127 million. This document is EDF Group's Reference Document for the year 2004. It contains information about: the Group activities, capital, relations with Gaz de France utility, strategy, industrial environment, history, activity in France, international activity, transverse activities and functions, disputes, arbitration and risk factors, Property, Plants and Equipment, Operating and Financial Review, Administrative, Management, and Supervisory Bodies and Senior Management, Remuneration and Benefits, recent trends and perspectives

  2. National Space Agencies vs. Commercial Space: Towards Improved Space Safety

    Pelton, J.

    2013-09-01

    Traditional space policies as developed at the national level includes many elements but they are most typically driven by economic and political objectives. Legislatively administered programs apportion limited public funds to achieve "gains" that can involve employment, stimulus to the economy, national defense or other advancements. Yet political advantage is seldom far from the picture.Within the context of traditional space policies, safety issues cannot truly be described as "afterthoughts", but they are usually, at best, a secondary or even tertiary consideration. "Space safety" is often simply assumed to be "in there" somewhere. The current key question is can "safety and risk minimization", within new commercial space programs actually be elevated in importance and effectively be "designed in" at the outset. This has long been the case with commercial aviation and there is at least reasonable hope that this could also be the case for the commercial space industry in coming years. The cooperative role that the insurance industry has now played for centuries in the shipping industry and for decades in aviation can perhaps now play a constructive role in risk minimization in the commercial space domain as well. This paper begins by examining two historical case studies in the context of traditional national space policy development to see how major space policy decisions involving "manned space programs" have given undue primacy to "political considerations" over "safety" and other factors. The specific case histories examined here include first the decision to undertake the Space Shuttle Program (i.e. 1970-1972) and the second is the International Space Station. In both cases the key and overarching decisions were driven by political, schedule and cost considerations, and safety seems absence as a prime consideration. In publicly funded space programs—whether in the United States, Europe, Russia, Japan, China, India or elsewhere—it seems realistic to

  3. Stennis observes Women's History Month

    2010-01-01

    NASA John C. Stennis Space Center employees observed Women's History Month on March 17 with a panel discussion that featured accomplished women of the facility. The gathering featured (l to r): Pam Covington, manager of the NASA Office of External Affairs at Stennis; Mary Jones, assistant chief of staff with the Navy Meterology & Oceanography Command; and Lauren Underwood, senior research scientist with Science Systems and Applications, Inc. In addition to the panel discussion, the Stennis Diversity Council and Patriot Technologies also hosted a pair of 'lunch-and-learn' sessions focused on women's issues and history. The luncheons featured videos on Sally Hemings, the slave widely recognized as the mistress of President Thomas Jefferson; and several mothers of U.S. presidents.

  4. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

    Full Text Available ... is Doing Blog: Public Health Matters Video: "The History of Bioterrorism" Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... as bioterrorist weapons. Watch the Complete Program "The History of Bioterroism" (26 min 38 sec) Watch Specific ...

  5. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

    ... is Doing Blog: Public Health Matters Video: "The History of Bioterrorism" Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... as bioterrorist weapons. Watch the Complete Program "The History of Bioterroism" (26 min 38 sec) Watch Specific ...

  6. "Hillary - en god historie"

    Bjerre, Thomas Ærvold

    2007-01-01

    Anmeldelse af Carl Bernsteins Hillary Rodham Clinton og Michael Ehrenreichs Hillary - En amerikansk historie Udgivelsesdato: 15. november......Anmeldelse af Carl Bernsteins Hillary Rodham Clinton og Michael Ehrenreichs Hillary - En amerikansk historie Udgivelsesdato: 15. november...

  7. Yearbook on space policy 2015 access to space and the evolution of space activities

    Baranes, Blandina; Hulsroj, Peter; Lahcen, Arne

    2017-01-01

    The Yearbook on Space Policy, edited by the European Space Policy Institute (ESPI), is the reference publication analysing space policy developments. Each year it presents issues and trends in space policy and the space sector as a whole. Its scope is global and its perspective is European. The Yearbook also links space policy with other policy areas. It highlights specific events and issues, and provides useful insights, data and information on space activities. The first part of the Yearbook sets out a comprehensive overview of the economic, political, technological and institutional trends that have affected space activities. The second part of the Yearbook offers a more analytical perspective on the yearly ESPI theme and consists of external contributions written by professionals with diverse backgrounds and areas of expertise. The third part of the Yearbook carries forward the character of the Yearbook as an archive of space activities. The Yearbook is designed for government decision-makers and agencies...

  8. Neighborhood spaces

    D. C. Kent; Won Keun Min

    2002-01-01

    Neighborhood spaces, pretopological spaces, and closure spaces are topological space generalizations which can be characterized by means of their associated interior (or closure) operators. The category NBD of neighborhood spaces and continuous maps contains PRTOP as a bicoreflective subcategory and CLS as a bireflective subcategory, whereas TOP is bireflectively embedded in PRTOP and bicoreflectively embedded in CLS. Initial and final structures are described in these categories, and it is s...

  9. Optical Reference Stars for Space Surveillance: Future Plans: Latest Developments

    2010-01-01

    Micron All Sky Survey ( 2MASS ) has imaged the entire sky in near-infrared J(1.25m), H(1.65 m), and Ks(2.16 m) bandpasses from Mt Hopkins, Arizona...and Cerro Tololo, Chile. The 10-sigma detection levels reached 15.8, 15.1, and 14.3 mag at the J, H, and Ks bands, respectively. The 2MASS data...no proper motions for the stars. Information on 2MASS can be found at http://www.ipac.caltech.edu/ 2mass . UCAC The basis of the USNO CCD

  10. Canadian petroleum history bibliography

    Cass, D.

    2003-09-27

    The Petroleum History Bibliography includes a list of more than 2,000 publications that record the history of the Canadian petroleum industry. The list includes books, theses, films, audio tapes, published articles, company histories, biographies, autobiographies, fiction, poetry, humour, and an author index. It was created over a period of several years to help with projects at the Petroleum History Society. It is an ongoing piece of work, and as such, invites comments and additions.

  11. On the consistent effect histories approach to quantum mechanics

    Rudolph, O.

    1996-01-01

    A formulation of the consistent histories approach to quantum mechanics in terms of generalized observables (POV measures) and effect operators is provided. The usual notion of open-quote open-quote history close-quote close-quote is generalized to the notion of open-quote open-quote effect history.close-quote close-quote The space of effect histories carries the structure of a D-poset. Recent results of J. D. Maitland Wright imply that every decoherence functional defined for ordinary histories can be uniquely extended to a bi-additive decoherence functional on the space of effect histories. Omngrave es close-quote logical interpretation is generalized to the present context. The result of this work considerably generalizes and simplifies the earlier formulation of the consistent effect histories approach to quantum mechanics communicated in a previous work of this author. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  12. Probes of Cosmic Star Formation History

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Introduction. I describe here the current status and future potentials of X-ray diagnostics of the history ... 1999, henceforth B99b, and references therein). .... of the technique), Bran01 estimate that the average X-ray luminosity of the bright ... source count (log N–log S) plots expected for HDF-N. Figure 2 shows the Ptak01 plot.

  13. Patient assessment: effective consultation and history taking.

    Kaufman, Gerri

    This article explores patient consultation with specific reference to the Calgary-Cambridge consultation guide. It provides an overview of history taking and explores the patient's perspective during the consultation. The article also discusses the skills required to provide information effectively. In addition, the article addresses 'safety netting' and emphasises the interdependence of communication and consultation skills.

  14. Comprehensive Essays for World History Finals.

    Feldman, Martha J.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a novel approach to comprehensive questions in world history examinations. Recommends using current events as illustrative reference points for complex subjects such as nationalism, liberalism, and international trade. Students receive information packets on the events for several weeks and must relate the subjects to these events. (MJP)

  15. Saha equation in Rindler space

    Sanchari De

    2017-05-31

    May 31, 2017 ... scenario, the flat local geometry is called the Rindler space. For an illustration, let us consider two reference ... the local acceleration of the frame. To investigate Saha equation in a uniformly acceler- ... the best of our knowledge, the study of Saha equa- tion in Rindler space has not been reported earlier.

  16. Motivational profile of astronauts at the International Space Station

    Brcic, Jelena

    2010-11-01

    Research has demonstrated that the motive triad of needs for achievement, power, and affiliation can predict variables such as occupational success and satisfaction, innovation, aggressiveness, susceptibility to illness, cooperation, conformity, and many others. The present study documents the motivational profiles of astronauts at three stages of their expedition. Thematic content analysis was employed for references to Winter's well-established motive markers in narratives (media interviews, journals, and oral histories) of 46 astronauts participating in International Space Station (ISS) expeditions. Significant pre-flight differences were found in relation to home agency and job status. NASA astronauts, compared with those from the Russian Space Agency, are motivated by higher need for power, as are commanders in comparison to flight engineers. The need for affiliation motive showed a significant change from pre-flight to in-flight stages. The implications of the relationship between the motivational profile of astronauts and the established behavioural correlates of such profiles are discussed.

  17. History of Science and History of Philologies.

    Daston, Lorraine; Most, Glenn W

    2015-06-01

    While both the sciences and the humanities, as currently defined, may be too heterogeneous to be encompassed within a unified historical framework, there is good reason to believe that the history of science and the history of philologies both have much to gain by joining forces. This collaboration has already yielded striking results in the case of the history of science and humanist learning in early modern Europe. This essay argues that first, philology and at least some of the sciences (e.g., astronomy) remained intertwined in consequential ways well into the modern period in Western cultures; and second, widening the scope of inquiry to include other philological traditions in non-Western cultures offers rich possibilities for a comparative history of learned practices. The focus on practices is key; by shifting the emphasis from what is studied to how it is studied, deep commonalities emerge among disciplines--and intellectual traditions--now classified as disparate.

  18. Modern History of Tibet

    2005-01-01

    Authored by Xu Guangzhi, this book is a subsidiary project of Research Into Traditional Culture and History (of the PRC Ministry of Education) conducted by China Tibetology Research Institute of Tibet University. The book combines modern history of Tibet with modern history of China as a whole. It tells the close ties between various members of the Chinese nation.

  19. History of Particle Physics

    back to history page Back Particle Physics Timeline For over two thousand years people have thought the Standard Model. We invite you to explore this history of particle physics with a focus on the : Quantum Theory 1964 - Present: The Modern View (the Standard Model) back to history page Back Sections of

  20. Teaching Women's History.

    Fain, George

    1995-01-01

    Argues that women's history should stress the broad sociological view of women's roles not only in politics but in mundane, day-to-day life throughout all of history, rather that reducing women's history to a few token figures. Notes that many college and secondary texts and testing materials have recognized the trend toward the inclusion of…

  1. Towards Household History

    van Rappard, J.F.H.

    1998-01-01

    It is maintained that in contradistinction to the natural sciences, in psychology (and other human sciences) ‘history is not past tense’. This is borne out by the contemporary relevance of a specific part of the history of psychology, which focuses on the internal-theoretical significance of history

  2. Film and History.

    Schaber, Robin L.

    2002-01-01

    Provides an annotated bibliography of Web sites that focus on using film to teach history. Includes Web sites in five areas: (1) film and education; (2) history of cinema; (3) film and history resources; (4) film and women; and (5) film organizations. (CMK)

  3. The Modern Space Domain: On the Eve of Weaponization

    2018-04-09

    Space Warfighting Domain; Weaponization of Space; Space history UNCLAS UNCLAS UNCLAS UNCLAS; Unlimited 59 Mark A. Hauser 618-795-3900 NATIONAL DEFENSE...humans have traced history and made scientific discoveries. Man has touched the moon and seeks interplanetary journeys. Space has inspired many...open to national security engagement. The United States responded to the Soviet advances by developing technology for satellite employment, space

  4. History of mathematics and history of science

    Mann, Tony

    2011-01-01

    This essay argues that the diversity of the history of mathematics community in the United Kingdom has influenced the development of the subject and is a significant factor behind the different concerns often evident in work on the history of mathematics when compared with that of historians of science. The heterogeneous nature of the community, which includes many who are not specialist historians, and the limited opportunities for academic\\ud careers open to practitioners have had a profoun...

  5. Lorentz Transformation from Symmetry of Reference Principle

    Petre, M.; Dima, M.; Dima, A.; Petre, C.; Precup, I.

    2010-01-01

    The Lorentz Transformation is traditionally derived requiring the Principle of Relativity and light-speed universality. While the latter can be relaxed, the Principle of Relativity is seen as core to the transformation. The present letter relaxes both statements to the weaker, Symmetry of Reference Principle. Thus the resulting Lorentz transformation and its consequences (time dilatation, length contraction) are, in turn, effects of how we manage space and time.

  6. Instrumentation reference book

    Boyes, Walt

    2002-01-01

    Instrumentation is not a clearly defined subject, having a 'fuzzy' boundary with a number of other disciplines. Often categorized as either 'techniques' or 'applications' this book addresses the various applications that may be needed with reference to the practical techniques that are available for the instrumentation or measurement of a specific physical quantity or quality. This makes it of direct interest to anyone working in the process, control and instrumentation fields where these measurements are essential.* Comprehensive and authoritative collection of technical information* Writte

  7. XSLT 10 Pocket Reference

    Lenz, Evan

    2008-01-01

    XSLT is an essential tool for converting XML into other kinds of documents: HTML, PDF file, and many others. It's a critical technology for XML-based platforms such as Microsoft .NET, Sun Microsystems' Sun One, as well as for most web browsers and authoring tools. As useful as XSLT is, however, most people have a difficult time getting used to its peculiar characteristics. The ability to use advanced techniques depends on a clear and exact understanding of how XSLT templates work and interact. The XSLT 1.0 Pocket Reference from O'Reilly wants to make sure you achieve that level of understan

  8. Electronics engineer's reference book

    Mazda, F F

    1989-01-01

    Electronics Engineer's Reference Book, Sixth Edition is a five-part book that begins with a synopsis of mathematical and electrical techniques used in the analysis of electronic systems. Part II covers physical phenomena, such as electricity, light, and radiation, often met with in electronic systems. Part III contains chapters on basic electronic components and materials, the building blocks of any electronic design. Part IV highlights electronic circuit design and instrumentation. The last part shows the application areas of electronics such as radar and computers.

  9. International Geomagnetic Reference Field

    Finlay, Chris; Maus, S.; Beggan, C. D.

    2010-01-01

    The eleventh generation of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) was adopted in December 2009 by the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy Working Group V‐MOD. It updates the previous IGRF generation with a definitive main field model for epoch 2005.0, a main field...... model for epoch 2010.0, and a linear predictive secular variation model for 2010.0–2015.0. In this note the equations defining the IGRF model are provided along with the spherical harmonic coefficients for the eleventh generation. Maps of the magnetic declination, inclination and total intensity...

  10. Mechanical engineer's reference book

    Parrish, A

    1973-01-01

    Mechanical Engineer's Reference Book: 11th Edition presents a comprehensive examination of the use of Systéme International d' Unités (SI) metrication. It discusses the effectiveness of such a system when used in the field of engineering. It addresses the basic concepts involved in thermodynamics and heat transfer. Some of the topics covered in the book are the metallurgy of iron and steel; screw threads and fasteners; hole basis and shaft basis fits; an introduction to geometrical tolerancing; mechanical working of steel; high strength alloy steels; advantages of making components as castings

  11. VBScript pocket reference

    Lomax, Paul; Petrusha, Ron

    2008-01-01

    Microsoft's Visual Basic Scripting Edition (VBScript), a subset of Visual Basic for Applications, is a powerful language for Internet application development, where it can serve as a scripting language for server-side, client-side, and system scripting. Whether you're developing code for Active Server Pages, client-side scripts for Internet Explorer, code for Outlook forms, or scripts for Windows Script Host, VBScript Pocket Reference will be your constant companion. Don't let the pocket-friendly format fool you. Based on the bestsellingVBScript in a Nutshell, this small book details every V

  12. Xcode 5 developer reference

    Wentk, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Design, code, and build amazing apps with Xcode 5 Thanks to Apple's awesome Xcode development environment, you can create the next big app for Macs, iPhones, iPads, or iPod touches. Xcode 5 contains gigabytes of great stuff to help you develop for both OS X and iOS devices - things like sample code, utilities, companion applications, documentation, and more. And with Xcode 5 Developer Reference, you now have the ultimate step-by-step guide to it all. Immerse yourself in the heady and lucrative world of Apple app development, see how to tame the latest features and functions, and find loads of

  13. NUnit Pocket Reference

    Hamilton, Bill

    2009-01-01

    The open source NUnit framework is an excellent way to test .NET code as it is written, saving hundreds of QA hours and headaches. Unfortunately, some of those hours saved can be wasted trying to master this popular but under-documented framework. Proof that good things come in small packages, the NUnit Pocket Reference is everything you need to get NUnit up and working for you. It's the only book you'll need on this popular and practical new open source framework.

  14. Coal Data: A reference

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of Coal Data: A Reference is to provide basic information on the mining and use of coal, an important source of energy in the United States. The report is written for a general audience. The goal is to cover basic material and strike a reasonable compromise between overly generalized statements and detailed analyses. The section ''Coal Terminology and Related Information'' provides additional information about terms mentioned in the text and introduces new terms. Topics covered are US coal deposits, resources and reserves, mining, production, employment and productivity, health and safety, preparation, transportation, supply and stocks, use, coal, the environment, and more. (VC)

  15. Areva - 2011 Reference document

    2011-01-01

    After having indicated the person responsible of this document and the legal account auditors, and provided some financial information, this document gives an overview of the different risk factors existing in the company: law risks, industrial and environmental risks, operational risks, risks related to large projects, market and liquidity risks. Then, after having recalled the history and evolution of the company and the evolution of its investments over the last five years, it proposes an overview of Areva's activities on the markets of nuclear energy and renewable energies, of its clients and suppliers, of its strategy, of the activities of its different departments. Other information are provided: company's flow chart, estate properties (plants, equipment), an analysis of its financial situation, its research and development policy, the present context, profit previsions or estimations, management organization and operation

  16. Roaming Reference: Reinvigorating Reference through Point of Need Service

    Kealin M. McCabe

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Roaming reference service was pursued as a way to address declining reference statistics. The service was staffed by librarians armed with iPads over a period of six months during the 2010-2011 academic year. Transactional statistics were collected in relation to query type (Research, Facilitative or Technology, location and approach (librarian to patron, patron to librarian or via chat widget. Overall, roaming reference resulted in an additional 228 reference questions, 67% (n=153 of which were research related. Two iterations of the service were implemented, roaming reference as a standalone service (Fall 2010 and roaming reference integrated with traditional reference desk duties (Winter 2011. The results demonstrate that although the Weller Library’s reference transactions are declining annually, they are not disappearing. For a roaming reference service to succeed, it must be a standalone service provided in addition to traditional reference services. The integration of the two reference models (roaming reference and reference desk resulted in a 56% decline in the total number of roaming reference questions from the previous term. The simple act of roaming has the potential to reinvigorate reference services as a whole, forcing librarians outside their comfort zones, allowing them to reach patrons at their point of need.

  17. World History Workshop (1983).

    1984-10-01

    history appeared tenuous. While the study of American history was viewed as necessary to "indoctrinate kids ," world history is unable to make such a...world" which is hard to avoid in world history, where one examines China in 1500, China in 1800, and so on. A pedagogical goal in the new course was to...the historian to make intelligent decisions about what information he is going to talk about. Viewing world history as a scenario also has a pedagogic

  18. Provincial practice: adopting the new reference levels for Radon

    Kennedy, Christine; Johnson, Darryl

    2008-01-01

    Full text: In June 2007 new reference levels for radon gas were announced from Health Canada. These new levels brought new attention to the issue of radon gas exposure in the Province of Newfoundland and Labrador. Research in radon gas exposure has a long history in the fluorspar mines of the Burin Peninsula, indeed, occupational data from the 1950 's and 60 's had been included in Darby et al. large scale occupational meta analyses. Radon was also implicated in a royal commission of occupational mining hazards in Newfoundland in 1968. Although, the occupational exposures of miners have been well documented, very little is known about population exposures in indoor spaces. Geological maps are currently being composed for national areas, but data for this province is not yet published. Information about mining tailings used in construction materials or as fill is very poor (unlike the data known for uranium mining tailings in Ontario and Manitoba). The challenges of estimating radon exposures for the province are myriad and these are explored here in this narrative study of how new information has to be generated, and then incorporated into new environmental public health policies for a population. The process by which new scientific information informs public health policy is described in this study of radon in Newfoundland and Labrador. Anticipated regulations for new buildings are discussed. (author)

  19. 7th international conference on case histories in geotechnical engineering.

    2013-08-01

    Funding used to enhance objectives of conference and to present successful case histories of varied project, orally, in posters and in : proceedings. This will become a storehouse of knowledge for future reference.

  20. AREVA - 2013 Reference document

    2014-01-01

    This Reference Document contains information on the AREVA group's objectives, prospects and development strategies, as well as estimates of the markets, market shares and competitive position of the AREVA group. Content: 1 - Person responsible for the Reference Document; 2 - Statutory auditors; 3 - Selected financial information; 4 - Description of major risks confronting the company; 5 - Information about the issuer; 6 - Business overview; 7 - Organizational structure; 8 - Property, plant and equipment; 9 - Situation and activities of the company and its subsidiaries; 10 - Capital resources; 11 - Research and development programs, patents and licenses; 12 - Trend information; 13 - Profit forecasts or estimates; 14 - Management and supervisory bodies; 15 - Compensation and benefits; 16 - Functioning of the management and supervisory bodies; 17 - Human resources information; 18 - Principal shareholders; 19 - Transactions with related parties; 20 - Financial information concerning assets, financial positions and financial performance; 21 - Additional information; 22 - Major contracts; 23 - Third party information, statements by experts and declarations of interest; 24 - Documents on display; 25 - Information on holdings; Appendix 1: report of the supervisory board chairman on the preparation and organization of the board's activities and internal control procedures; Appendix 2: statutory auditors' reports; Appendix 3: environmental report; Appendix 4: non-financial reporting methodology and independent third-party report on social, environmental and societal data; Appendix 5: ordinary and extraordinary general shareholders' meeting; Appendix 6: values charter; Appendix 7: table of concordance of the management report; glossaries

  1. Balinese Frame of Reference

    I Nyoman Aryawibawa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Balinese Frame of Reference. Wassmann and Dasen (1998 did a study on the acquisition of Balinese frames of reference. They pointed out that, in addition to the dominant use of absolute system, the use of relative system was also observed. This article aims at verifying Wassmann and Dasen’ study. Employing monolingual Balinese speakers and using linguistic and non-linguistic tasks, Aryawibawa (2010, 2012, 2015 showed that Balinese subjects used an absolute system dominantly in responding the two tasks, e.g. The man is north/south/east/west of the car. Unlike Wassmann and Dasen’s results, no relative system was used by the subjects in solving the tasks. Instead of the relative system, an intrinsic system was also observed in this study, even though it was unfrequent. The article concludes that the absolute system was dominantly employed by Balinese speakers in describing spatial relations in Balinese. The use of the system seems to affect their cognitive functions.

  2. Antares Reference Telescope System

    Viswanathan, V.K.; Kaprelian, E.; Swann, T.; Parker, J.; Wolfe, P.; Woodfin, G.; Knight, D.

    1983-01-01

    Antares is a 24-beam, 40-TW carbon-dioxide laser-fusion system currently nearing completion at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The 24 beams will be focused onto a tiny target (typically 300 to 1000 μm in diameter) located approximately at the center of a 7.3-m-diameter by 9.3-m-long vacuum (10 - 6 torr) chamber. The design goal is to position the targets to within 10 μm of a selected nominal position, which may be anywhere within a fixed spherical region 1 cm in diameter. The Antares Reference Telescope System is intended to help achieve this goal for alignment and viewing of the various targets used in the laser system. The Antares Reference Telescope System consists of two similar electro-optical systems positioned in a near orthogonal manner in the target chamber area of the laser. Each of these consists of four subsystems: (1) a fixed 9X optical imaging subsystem which produces an image of the target at the vidicon; (2) a reticle projection subsystem which superimposes an image of the reticle pattern at the vidicon; (3) an adjustable front-lighting subsystem which illuminates the target; and (4) an adjustable back-lighting subsystem which also can be used to illuminate the target. The various optical, mechanical, and vidicon design considerations and trade-offs are discussed. The final system chosen (which is being built) and its current status are described in detail

  3. Sacred Space.

    Adelstein, Pamela

    2018-01-01

    A space can be sacred, providing those who inhabit a particular space with sense of transcendence-being connected to something greater than oneself. The sacredness may be inherent in the space, as for a religious institution or a serene place outdoors. Alternatively, a space may be made sacred by the people within it and events that occur there. As medical providers, we have the opportunity to create sacred space in our examination rooms and with our patient interactions. This sacred space can be healing to our patients and can bring us providers opportunities for increased connection, joy, and gratitude in our daily work.

  4. Sensor employing internal reference electrode

    2013-01-01

    The present invention concerns a novel internal reference electrode as well as a novel sensing electrode for an improved internal reference oxygen sensor and the sensor employing same.......The present invention concerns a novel internal reference electrode as well as a novel sensing electrode for an improved internal reference oxygen sensor and the sensor employing same....

  5. Endogenizing Prospect Theory's Reference Point

    Ulrich Schmidt; Horst Zank

    2010-01-01

    In previous models of (cumulative) prospect theory reference-dependence of preferences is imposed beforehand and the location of the reference point is exogenously determined. This note provides a foundation of prospect theory, where reference-dependence is derived from preference conditions and a unique reference point arises endogenously.

  6. Mellem historie- og krigsvidenskab

    Hansen Schøning, Anna Sofie

    2016-01-01

    history was used to establish national and organisational identity. In the 1880s, military history was used as a means to find, explain and apply universal principles of war and, in the 1910s, military history should be used as a means to gain general insight that could potentially lead to a better......The article investigates how military history was taught as part of the Danish higher officer education from 1830 to 1920 and how the subject was affected by developments in academic history and the science of war. It argues that military history, as it was taught in the formal officer education......, could not be seen solely as a historic subject but also as a subject under the influence of the discipline of military science. Three very different understandings of how military history can contribute to higher officer education are shown through the analysis of textbooks. In the 1830s military...

  7. [Tips for taking history of pain].

    Noda, Kazutaka; Ikusaka, Masatomi

    2012-11-01

    Pain is physiologically classified as nociceptive pain, neuropathic pain, and psychogenic pain. Nociceptive pain is further divided into visceral pain, somatic pain, and referred pain. Visceral pain is dull, and it is difficult to locate the origin of such pain. Somatic pain is sharp, severe, and well localized. On receiving visceral input for pain, it affects somatic nerve inputting to the same spinal segments, then referred pain is felt in the skin and muscles supplied by it. Referred pain is felt in an area that is located at a distance from its cause. History taking is the most important factor for determining the cause of pain. Generally, all the necessary information regarding pain can be acquired if pain-related history is obtained using the "OPQRST" mnemonic, that is, onset, provocation/palliative factor, quality, region/radiation/related symptoms, severity, and time characteristics.

  8. New Maps for Old: a Topological Approach to "the Faerie Queene" and Shakespeare's History Plays

    Graney, Kathleen M.

    1994-01-01

    When Nicholas Copernicus published De revolutionibus in 1543, his announced discoveries both displaced humankind from its former place at the center of the universe and enlarged the boundaries of that universe beyond anything that had been imagined before. These discoveries evoked in men and women of the late-sixteenth century a new consciousness of both cosmic space and of psychological spaces within themselves, spaces for self-definition made available by the breakdown of the traditional, hierarchical world view. This re-vision of space is evident in almost every aspect of the culture of Elizabethan England, from its science and art to the accounts of New World voyagers. In the works of Edmund Spenser and William Shakespeare, this spatial awareness manifests itself "topologically" --that is, in the relationship between places in their epic and dramatic works that can be identified as "inside" or "outside" and in the kinds of actions associated with each place. In Books One and Two of The Faerie Queene Spenser uses space both topographically and topologically. He maps the journeys of his knights through Fairyland by means of references to allegorical structures and features of the mythical landscape. At the same time, he contrasts inside spaces, where the knights struggle psychologically to define themselves in terms of certain moral virtues, and outside spaces, where that "self" intersects with Spenser's myth of English history. In his earliest chronicle plays of the 1580s and '90s Shakespeare also depicts English history topographically, as a series of epic confrontations enacted in outside, public spaces bearing familiar place -names. With Richard III, however, he begins to dramatize that history as related to moments of self-discovery achieved by the central character within the privacy of inside spaces and involving some conflict between the values of public and private life. Unlike Spenser, whose characters ultimately define themselves in terms of some value

  9. Reference Specifications for SAVOIR Avionics Elements

    Hult, Torbjorn; Lindskog, Martin; Roques, Remi; Planche, Luc; Brunjes, Bernhard; Dellandrea, Brice; Terraillon, Jean-Loup

    2012-08-01

    Space industry and Agencies have been recognizing already for quite some time the need to raise the level of standardisation in the spacecraft avionics systems in order to increase efficiency and reduce development cost and schedule. This also includes the aspect of increasing competition in global space business, which is a challenge that European space companies are facing at all stages of involvement in the international markets.A number of initiatives towards this vision are driven both by the industry and ESA’s R&D programmes. However, today an intensified coordination of these activities is required in order to achieve the necessary synergy and to ensure they converge towards the shared vision. It has been proposed to federate these initiatives under the common Space Avionics Open Interface Architecture (SAVOIR) initiative. Within this initiative, the approach based on reference architectures and building blocks plays a key role.Following the principles outlined above, the overall goal of the SAVOIR is to establish a streamlined onboard architecture in order to standardize the development of avionics systems for space programmes. This reflects the need to increase efficiency and cost-effectiveness in the development process as well as account the trend towards more functionality implemented by the onboard building blocks, i.e. HW and SW components, and more complexity for the overall space mission objectives.

  10. The Warren Cup: Highlighting Hidden Histories

    Frost, Stuart

    2007-01-01

    Contemporary artists and art galleries have been more active than museums in representing gay and lesbian culture in public spaces in recent decades. However same-sex relationships have a long history that is reflected in the collections of museums that have material from the classical world. The culture of ancient Greece and Rome was less…

  11. 14 CFR 221.200 - Content and explanation of abbreviations, reference marks and symbols.

    2010-01-01

    ..., reference marks and symbols. 221.200 Section 221.200 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... § 221.200 Content and explanation of abbreviations, reference marks and symbols. (a) Content. The format..., reference marks and symbols. Abbreviations, reference marks and symbols which are used in the tariff shall...

  12. Areva - 2016 Reference document

    2017-01-01

    Areva supplies high added-value products and services to support the operation of the global nuclear fleet. The company is present throughout the entire nuclear cycle, from uranium mining to used fuel recycling, including nuclear reactor design and operating services. Areva is recognized by utilities around the world for its expertise, its skills in cutting-edge technologies and its dedication to the highest level of safety. Areva's 36,000 employees are helping build tomorrow's energy model: supplying ever safer, cleaner and more economical energy to the greatest number of people. This Reference Document contains information on Areva's objectives, prospects and development strategies. It contains estimates of the markets, market shares and competitive position of Areva

  13. A reference tristimulus colorimeter

    Eppeldauer, George P.

    2002-06-01

    A reference tristimulus colorimeter has been developed at NIST with a transmission-type silicon trap detector (1) and four temperature-controlled filter packages to realize the Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) x(λ), y(λ) and z(λ) color matching functions (2). Instead of lamp standards, high accuracy detector standards are used for the colorimeter calibration. A detector-based calibration procedure is being suggested for tristimulus colorimeters wehre the absolute spectral responsivity of the tristimulus channels is determined. Then, color (spectral) correct and peak (amplitude) normalization are applied to minimize uncertainties caused by the imperfect realizations of the CIE functions. As a result of the corrections, the chromaticity coordinates of stable light sources with different spectral power distributions can be measured with uncertainties less than 0.0005 (k=1).

  14. Areva, reference document 2006

    2006-01-01

    This reference document contains information on the AREVA group's objectives, prospects and development strategies, particularly in Chapters 4 and 7. It contains information on the markets, market shares and competitive position of the AREVA group. Content: - 1 Person responsible for the reference document and persons responsible for auditing the financial statements; - 2 Information pertaining to the transaction (Not applicable); - 3 General information on the company and its share capital: Information on AREVA, on share capital and voting rights, Investment certificate trading, Dividends, Organization chart of AREVA group companies, Equity interests, Shareholders' agreements; - 4 Information on company operations, new developments and future prospects: Overview and strategy of the AREVA group, The Nuclear Power and Transmission and Distribution markets, The energy businesses of the AREVA group, Front End division, Reactors and Services division, Back End division, Transmission and Distribution division, Major contracts, The principal sites of the AREVA group, AREVA's customers and suppliers, Sustainable Development and Continuous Improvement, Capital spending programs, Research and development programs, intellectual property and trademarks, Risk and insurance; - 5 Assets - Financial position - Financial performance: Analysis of and comments on the group's financial position and performance, 2006 Human Resources Report, Environmental Report, Consolidated financial statements, Notes to the consolidated financial statements, AREVA SA financial statements, Notes to the corporate financial statements; 6 - Corporate Governance: Composition and functioning of corporate bodies, Executive compensation, Profit-sharing plans, AREVA Values Charter, Annual Combined General Meeting of Shareholders of May 3, 2007; 7 - Recent developments and future prospects: Events subsequent to year-end closing for 2006, Outlook; 8 - Glossary; 9 - Table of concordance

  15. Areva reference document 2007

    2008-01-01

    This reference document contains information on the AREVA group's objectives, prospects and development strategies, particularly in Chapters 4 and 7. It contains also information on the markets, market shares and competitive position of the AREVA group. Content: 1 - Person responsible for the reference document and persons responsible for auditing the financial statements; 2 - Information pertaining to the transaction (not applicable); 3 - General information on the company and its share capital: Information on Areva, Information on share capital and voting rights, Investment certificate trading, Dividends, Organization chart of AREVA group companies, Equity interests, Shareholders' agreements; 4 - Information on company operations, new developments and future prospects: Overview and strategy of the AREVA group, The Nuclear Power and Transmission and Distribution markets, The energy businesses of the AREVA group, Front End division, Reactors and Services division, Back End division, Transmission and Distribution division, Major contracts 140 Principal sites of the AREVA group, AREVA's customers and suppliers, Sustainable Development and Continuous Improvement, Capital spending programs, Research and Development programs, Intellectual Property and Trademarks, Risk and insurance; 5 - Assets financial position financial performance: Analysis of and comments on the group's financial position and performance, Human Resources report, Environmental report, Consolidated financial statements 2007, Notes to the consolidated financial statements, Annual financial statements 2007, Notes to the corporate financial statements; 6 - Corporate governance: Composition and functioning of corporate bodies, Executive compensation, Profit-sharing plans, AREVA Values Charter, Annual Ordinary General Meeting of Shareholders of April 17, 2008; 7 - Recent developments and future prospects: Events subsequent to year-end closing for 2007, Outlook; Glossary; table of concordance

  16. History, Historical and Historicity in Heidegger

    José Manuel CHILLÓN

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to the “Historie” is possible as “Geschichte”, that is, so that the events are more than mere collections of past vestiges, it is necessary that the historical (geschichtlich of history is understood as enshrined in the historicity, in Geschichtlichkeit. In § 6 of the Introduction to ‘Being and Time’ Heidegger understands that the historicity refers to the temporality of Dasein, to its finitude. Thiking of the historicity requires, as its main task, overcoming history as history of entities, in terms of history of forgotten being. And, of course, to think the being, the happening of being and Dasein which, as such event, is being, is occurring , it is historicizing .

  17. History of mathematics and history of science.

    Mann, Tony

    2011-09-01

    This essay argues that the diversity of the history of mathematics community in the United Kingdom has influenced the development of the subject and is a significant factor behind the different concerns often evident in work on the history of mathematics when compared with that of historians of science. The heterogeneous nature of the community, which includes many who are not specialist historians, and the limited opportunities for academic careers open to practitioners have had a profound effect on the discipline, leading to a focus on elite mathematics and great mathematicians. More recently, reflecting earlier developments in the history of science, an increased interest in the context and culture of the practice of mathematics has become evident.

  18. The teaching of history through histories

    María Gabriela Calvas-Ojeda

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The comic strips have been introduced into the world of history as a didactic resource for their learning; However, there are still shortcomings in their use by teachers, motivated on many occasions due to lack of knowledge and insufficient methodological preparation; The purpose of this work is to socialize knowledge related to these didactic resources to contribute to the didactic-methodological enrichment of the teacher, in order to change this attitude. The methodological strategy responds to the quantitative-qualitative paradigm; in the collection of the information a participant observation guide was used to the history classes and interview to a sample of 9 teachers of Third Degree of the schools of the city of Machala randomly selected. We recorded the observations of the knowledge acquired by the 98 students who received the classes mediated by comic strips, which allowed us to conclude that comics for the teaching and learning of History constitute a powerful didactic resource.

  19. Space nuclear reactor safety

    Damon, D.; Temme, M.; Brown, N.

    1990-01-01

    Definition of safety requirements and design features of the SP-100 space reactor power system has been guided by a mission risk analysis. The analysis quantifies risk from accidental radiological consequences for a reference mission. Results show that the radiological risk from a space reactor can be made very low. The total mission risk from radiological consequences for a shuttle-launched, earth orbit SP-100 mission is estimated to be 0.05 Person-REM (expected values) based on a 1 mREM/yr de Minimus dose. Results are given for each mission phase. The safety benefits of specific design features are evaluated through risk sensitivity analyses

  20. Marine Environmental History

    Poulsen, Bo

    2012-01-01

    human society and natural marine resources. Within this broad topic, several trends and objectives are discernable. The essay argue that the so-called material marine environmental history has its main focus on trying to reconstruct the presence, development and environmental impact of past fisheries......This essay provides an overview of recent trends in the historiography of marine environmental history, a sub-field of environmental history which has grown tremendously in scope and size over the last c. 15 years. The object of marine environmental history is the changing relationship between...... and whaling operations. This ambition often entails a reconstruction also of how marine life has changed over time. The time frame rages from Paleolithicum to the present era. The field of marine environmental history also includes a more culturally oriented environmental history, which mainly has come...

  1. Ranking economic history journals

    Di Vaio, Gianfranco; Weisdorf, Jacob Louis

    2010-01-01

    This study ranks-for the first time-12 international academic journals that have economic history as their main topic. The ranking is based on data collected for the year 2007. Journals are ranked using standard citation analysis where we adjust for age, size and self-citation of journals. We also...... compare the leading economic history journals with the leading journals in economics in order to measure the influence on economics of economic history, and vice versa. With a few exceptions, our results confirm the general idea about what economic history journals are the most influential for economic...... history, and that, although economic history is quite independent from economics as a whole, knowledge exchange between the two fields is indeed going on....

  2. Ranking Economic History Journals

    Di Vaio, Gianfranco; Weisdorf, Jacob Louis

    This study ranks - for the first time - 12 international academic journals that have economic history as their main topic. The ranking is based on data collected for the year 2007. Journals are ranked using standard citation analysis where we adjust for age, size and self-citation of journals. We...... also compare the leading economic history journals with the leading journals in economics in order to measure the influence on economics of economic history, and vice versa. With a few exceptions, our results confirm the general idea about what economic history journals are the most influential...... for economic history, and that, although economic history is quite independent from economics as a whole, knowledge exchange between the two fields is indeed going on....

  3. The History of Education in Brazil: The Formation of the Field and Theoretical Influences

    Marisa Bittar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is concerned with the History of Education in Brazil in two key areas: the disciplinary field and the research field. As a discipline, the History of Education has formed a part of the school curriculum since the beginning of the 20th century. As a research field, it gained impetus in the 60s with the setting up of post-graduate courses and became one of the most consolidated areas of Brazilian education. In the light of this, there is a discussion about academic organisation and an attempt is being made to show how the field is characterised by theoretical renewal and is facing two key challenges: cultural exchanges involving the use of English and a recognition of the value of the History of Education as a discipline in the light of the fact that less space is being devoted to it in teacher-training curricula. How to reference this article Bittar, M., & Ferreira Jr., A. (2016. The History of Education in Brazil: The Formation of the Field and Theoretical Influences. Espacio, Tiempo y Educación, 3(1, 61-84. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.14516/ete.2016.003.001.5

  4. Feasible Histories, Maximum Entropy

    Pitowsky, I.

    1999-01-01

    We consider the broadest possible consistency condition for a family of histories, which extends all previous proposals. A family that satisfies this condition is called feasible. On each feasible family of histories we choose a probability measure by maximizing entropy, while keeping the probabilities of commuting histories to their quantum mechanical values. This procedure is justified by the assumption that decoherence increases entropy. Finally, a criterion for identifying the nearly classical families is proposed

  5. Design spaces

    2005-01-01

    Digital technologies and media are becoming increasingly embodied and entangled in the spaces and places at work and at home. However, our material environment is more than a geometric abstractions of space: it contains familiar places, social arenas for human action. For designers, the integration...... of digital technology with space poses new challenges that call for new approaches. Creative alternatives to traditional systems methodologies are called for when designers use digital media to create new possibilities for action in space. Design Spaces explores how design and media art can provide creative...... alternatives for integrating digital technology with space. Connecting practical design work with conceptual development and theorizing, art with technology, and usesr-centered methods with social sciences, Design Spaces provides a useful research paradigm for designing ubiquitous computing. This book...

  6. Cooperative Station History Forms

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Various forms, photographs and correspondence documenting the history of Cooperative station instrumentation, location changes, inspections, and...

  7. Public and popular history

    De Groot, Jerome

    2013-01-01

    This interdisciplinary collection considers public and popular history within a global framework, seeking to understand considerations of local, domestic histories and the ways they interact with broader discourses. Grounded in particular local and national situations, the book addresses the issues associated with popular history in a globalised cultural world, such as: how the study of popular history might work in the future; new ways in which the terms 'popular' and 'public' might inform one another and nuance scholarship; transnational, intercultural models of 'pastness'; cultural translat

  8. The physics and early history of the intergalactic medium

    Barkana, Rennan; Loeb, Abraham

    2007-01-01

    The intergalactic medium-the cosmic gas that fills the great spaces between the galaxies-is affected by processes ranging from quantum fluctuations in the very early Universe to radiative emission from newly formed stars. This gives the intergalactic medium a dual role as a powerful probe both of fundamental physics and of astrophysics. The heading of fundamental physics includes conditions in the very early Universe and cosmological parameters that determine the age of the Universe and its matter content. The astrophysics refers to chapters of the long cosmic history of stars and galaxies that are being revealed through the effects of stellar feedback on the cosmic gas. This review describes the physics of the intergalactic medium, focusing on recent theoretical and observational developments in understanding early cosmic history. In particular, the earliest generation of stars is thought to have transformed the Universe from darkness to light and to have had an enormous impact on the intergalactic medium. Half a million years after the Big Bang the Universe was filled with atomic hydrogen. As gravity pulled gas clouds together, the first stars ignited and their radiation turned the surrounding atoms back into free electrons and ions. From the observed spectral absorption signatures of the gas between us and distant sources, we know that the process of reionization pervaded most of space a billion years after the Big Bang, so that only a small fraction of the primordial hydrogen atoms remained between galaxies. Knowing exactly when and how the reionization process happened is a primary goal of cosmologists, because this would tell us when the early stars and black holes formed and in what kinds of galaxies. The distribution and clustering of these galaxies is particularly interesting since it is driven by primordial density fluctuations in the dark matter. Cosmic reionization is beginning to be understood with the help of theoretical models and computer

  9. AREVA - 2012 Reference document

    2013-03-01

    After a presentation of the person responsible for this Reference Document, of statutory auditors, and of a summary of financial information, this report address the different risk factors: risk management and coverage, legal risk, industrial and environmental risk, operational risk, risk related to major projects, liquidity and market risk, and other risks (related to political and economic conditions, to Group's structure, and to human resources). The next parts propose information about the issuer, a business overview (markets for nuclear power and renewable energies, customers and suppliers, group's strategy, operations), a brief presentation of the organizational structure, a presentation of properties, plants and equipment (principal sites, environmental issues which may affect these items), analysis and comments on the group's financial position and performance, a presentation of capital resources, a presentation of research and development activities (programs, patents and licenses), a brief description of financial objectives and profit forecasts or estimates, a presentation of administration, management and supervision bodies, a description of the operation of corporate bodies, an overview of personnel, of principal shareholders, and of transactions with related parties, a more detailed presentation of financial information concerning assets, financial positions and financial performance. Addition information regarding share capital is given, as well as an indication of major contracts, third party information, available documents, and information on holdings

  10. Reference thorium fuel cycle

    Driggers, F.E.

    1978-08-01

    In the reference fuel cycle for the TFCT program, fissile U will be denatured by mixing with 238 U; the plants will be located in secure areas, with Pu being recycled within these secure areas; Th will be recycled with recovered U and Pu; the head end will handle a variety of core and blanket fuel assembly designs for LWRs and HWRs; the fuel may be a homogeneous mixture either of U and Th oxide pellets or sol-gel microspheres; the cladding will be Zircaloy; and MgO may be added to the fuel to improve Th dissolution. Th is being considered as the fertile component of fuel in order to increase proliferation resistance. Spent U recovered from Th-based fuels must be re-enriched before recycle to prevent very rapid buildup of 238 U. Stainless steel will be considered as a backup to Zircaloy cladding in case Zr is incompatible with commercial aqueous dissolution. Storage of recovered irradiated Th will be considered as a backup to its use in the recycle of recovered Pu and U. Estimates are made of the time for introducing the Th fuel cycle into the LWR power industry. Since U fuel exposures in LWRs are likely to increase from 30,000 to 50,000 MWD/MT, the Th reprocessing plant should also be designed for Th fuel with 50,000 MWD/MT exposure

  11. Sensor Characteristics Reference Guide

    Cree, Johnathan V.; Dansu, A.; Fuhr, P.; Lanzisera, Steven M.; McIntyre, T.; Muehleisen, Ralph T.; Starke, M.; Banerjee, Pranab; Kuruganti, T.; Castello, C.

    2013-04-01

    The Buildings Technologies Office (BTO), within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), is initiating a new program in Sensor and Controls. The vision of this program is: • Buildings operating automatically and continuously at peak energy efficiency over their lifetimes and interoperating effectively with the electric power grid. • Buildings that are self-configuring, self-commissioning, self-learning, self-diagnosing, self-healing, and self-transacting to enable continuous peak performance. • Lower overall building operating costs and higher asset valuation. The overarching goal is to capture 30% energy savings by enhanced management of energy consuming assets and systems through development of cost-effective sensors and controls. One step in achieving this vision is the publication of this Sensor Characteristics Reference Guide. The purpose of the guide is to inform building owners and operators of the current status, capabilities, and limitations of sensor technologies. It is hoped that this guide will aid in the design and procurement process and result in successful implementation of building sensor and control systems. DOE will also use this guide to identify research priorities, develop future specifications for potential market adoption, and provide market clarity through unbiased information

  12. Uranium tailings reference materials

    Smith, C.W.; Steger, H.F.; Bowman, W.S.

    1984-01-01

    Samples of uranium tailings from Bancroft and Elliot Lake, Ontario, and from Beaverlodge and Rabbit Lake, Saskatchewan, have been prepared as compositional reference materials at the request of the National Uranium Tailings Research Program. The four samples, UTS-1 to UTS-4, were ground to minus 104 μm, each mixed in one lot and bottled in 200-g units for UTS-1 to UTS-3 and in 100-g units for UTS-4. The materials were tested for homogeneity with respect to uranium by neutron activation analysis and to iron by an acid-decomposition atomic absorption procedure. In a free choice analytical program, 18 laboratories contributed results for one or more of total iron, titanium, aluminum, calcium, barium, uranium, thorium, total sulphur, and sulphate for all four samples, and for nickel and arsenic in UTS-4 only. Based on a statistical analysis of the data, recommended values were assigned to all elements/constituents, except for sulphate in UTS-3 and nickel in UTS-4. The radioactivity of thorium-230, radium-226, lead-210, and polonium-210 in UTS-1 to UTS-4 and of thorium-232, radium-228, and thorium-228 in UTS-1 and UTS-2 was determined in a radioanalytical program composed of eight laboratories. Recommended values for the radioactivities and associated parameters were calculated by a statistical treatment of the results

  13. A history of the histories of econometrics

    Boumans, Marcel; Dupont-Kieffer, Ariane

    2011-01-01

    Econometricians have from the start considered historical knowledge of their own discipline as reflexive knowledge useful for delineating their discipline, that is, for setting its disciplinary boundaries with respect to its aims, its methods, and its scientific values. As such, the histories

  14. Space, time and causality

    Lucas, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    Originating from lectures given to first year undergraduates reading physics and philosophy or mathematics and philosophy, formal logic is applied to issues and the elucidation of problems in space, time and causality. No special knowledge of relativity theory or quantum mechanics is needed. The text is interspersed with exercises and each chapter is preceded by a suggested 'preliminary reading' and followed by 'further reading' references. (U.K.)

  15. Color in interior spaces

    Demirörs, Müge Bozbeyli

    1992-01-01

    Ankara : The Department of Interior Architecture and Environmental Design and the Institute of Fine Arts of Bilkent University, 1992. Thesis (Master's) -- -Bilkent University, 1992. Includes bibliographical references leaves 95-99. Color can be approached from different perspectives and disciplines such as, biology, theory, technology, and psychology. This thesis discusses color, from the stand point of interior spaces, which to some extent involves most of these discipli...

  16. Reference Atmosphere for Mercury

    Killen, Rosemary M.

    2002-01-01

    We propose that Ar-40 measured in the lunar atmosphere and that in Mercury's atmosphere is due to current diffusion into connected pore space within the crust. Higher temperatures at Mercury, along with more rapid loss from the atmosphere will lead to a smaller column abundance of argon at Mercury than at the Moon, given the same crustal abundance of potassium. Because the noble gas abundance in the Hermean atmosphere represents current effusion, it is a direct measure of the crustal potassium abundance. Ar-40 in the atmospheres of the planets is a measure of potassium abundance in the interiors, since Ar-40 is a product of radiogenic decay of K-40 by electron capture with the subsequent emission of a 1.46 eV gamma-ray. Although the Ar-40 in the Earth's atmosphere is expected to have accumulated since the late bombardment, Ar-40 in the atmospheres of Mercury and the Moon is eroded quickly by photoionization and electron impact ionization. Thus, the argon content in the exospheres of the Moon and Mercury is representative of current effusion rather than accumulation over the lifetime of the planet.

  17. ENRAF gauge reference level calculations

    Huber, J.H., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-06

    This document describes the method for calculating reference levels for Enraf Series 854 Level Detectors as installed in the tank farms. The reference level calculation for each installed level gauge is contained herein.

  18. Global Reference Tables Services Architecture

    Social Security Administration — This database stores the reference and transactional data used to provide a data-driven service access method to certain Global Reference Table (GRT) service tables.

  19. Genetics Home Reference: PURA syndrome

    ... TJ, Vreeburg M, Rouhl RPW, Stevens SJC, Stegmann APA, Schieving J, Pfundt R, van Dijk K, Smeets ... article on PubMed Central More from Genetics Home Reference Bulletins Genetics Home Reference Celebrates Its 15th Anniversary ...

  20. Space Commercialization

    Martin, Gary L.

    2011-01-01

    A robust and competitive commercial space sector is vital to continued progress in space. The United States is committed to encouraging and facilitating the growth of a U.S. commercial space sector that supports U.S. needs, is globally competitive, and advances U.S. leadership in the generation of new markets and innovation-driven entrepreneurship. Energize competitive domestic industries to participate in global markets and advance the development of: satellite manufacturing; satellite-based services; space launch; terrestrial applications; and increased entrepreneurship. Purchase and use commercial space capabilities and services to the maximum practical extent Actively explore the use of inventive, nontraditional arrangements for acquiring commercial space goods and services to meet United States Government requirements, including measures such as public-private partnerships, . Refrain from conducting United States Government space activities that preclude, discourage, or compete with U.S. commercial space activities. Pursue potential opportunities for transferring routine, operational space functions to the commercial space sector where beneficial and cost-effective.

  1. Teaching Black History as a Racial Literacy Project

    King, LaGarrett Jarriel

    2016-01-01

    Scholars have long promoted black history as an appropriate space to promote the development of racial literacy. Few research studies, however, have examined how teacher education uses black history as a heuristic to teach about race. Using racial literacy as a framework, this article examined the varied ways four social studies pre-service…

  2. Mapping the Teaching of History of Chemistry in Europe

    Suay-Matallana, Ignacio; Sanchez, Jose´ Ramon Bertomeu

    2017-01-01

    Recent developments in the field of history of chemistry have introduced new topics, challenges, and connections to a broad range of scientific, political, cultural, economic, and environmental issues. New audiences for the history of chemistry have emerged along with new topics, protagonists, spaces, and historical narratives. This paper…

  3. Teaching World History: One Path through the Forest

    Fisher, Eve

    2012-01-01

    Teaching world history presents any number of challenges. World history requires constantly shifting perspectives in order to keep students oriented in time and space while providing contemporary relevance, emphasizing themes with regularity, having a certain amount of fun, and moving at the warp speed that covering 10,000 years in 31 weeks…

  4. ARTEMIS: Reinvigorating History and Theory in Art and Design Education

    Janet, Jeff; Miles, Melissa

    2009-01-01

    ARTEMIS (Art Educational Multiplayer Interactive Space) is an online multi-user virtual environment that is designed around the objects, artefacts, philosophies, personalities and critical discourses of the histories and theories of art and design. Conceived as a means of reinvigorating art history and theory education in the digital age, ARTEMIS…

  5. Areva - 2014 Reference document

    2015-01-01

    Areva supplies high added-value products and services to support the operation of the global nuclear fleet. The company is present throughout the entire nuclear cycle, from uranium mining to used fuel recycling, including nuclear reactor design and operating services. Areva is recognized by utilities around the world for its expertise, its skills in cutting-edge technologies and its dedication to the highest level of safety. Areva's 44,000 employees are helping build tomorrow's energy model: supplying ever safer, cleaner and more economical energy to the greatest number of people. This Reference Document contains information on Areva's objectives, prospects and development strategies. It contains estimates of the markets, market shares and competitive position of Areva. Contents: 1 - Person responsible; 2 - Statutory auditors; 3 - Selected financial information; 4 - Risk factors; 5 - Information about the issuer; 6 - Business overview; 7 - Organizational structure; 8 - Property, plant and equipment; 9 - Analysis of and comments on the group's financial position and performance; 10 - Capital resources; 11 - Research and development programs, patents and licenses; 12 - Trend information; 13 - Profit forecasts; 14 - Administrative, management and supervisory bodies and senior management; 15 - Compensation and benefits; 16 - Functioning of administrative, management and supervisory bodies and senior management; 17 - Employees; 18 - Principal shareholders; 19 - Transactions with related parties; 20 - Financial information concerning assets, financial positions and financial performance; 21 - Additional information; 22 - Major contracts; 23 - Third party information, statements by experts and declarations of interest; 24 - Documents on display; 25 - information on holdings; appendix: Report of the Chairman of the Board of Directors on governance, internal control procedures and risk management, Statutory Auditors' report, Corporate social

  6. Kerlinger's Criterial Referents Theory Revisited.

    Zak, Itai; Birenbaum, Menucha

    1980-01-01

    Kerlinger's criterial referents theory of attitudes was tested cross-culturally by administering an education attitude referents summated-rating scale to 713 individuals in Israel. The response pattern to criterial and noncriterial referents was examined. Results indicated empirical cross-cultural validity of theory, but questioned measuring…

  7. Fundamentals of Managing Reference Collections

    Singer, Carol A.

    2012-01-01

    Whether a library's reference collection is large or small, it needs constant attention. Singer's book offers information and insight on best practices for reference collection management, no matter the size, and shows why managing without a plan is a recipe for clutter and confusion. In this very practical guide, reference librarians will learn:…

  8. Knowledge Management and Reference Services

    Gandhi, Smiti

    2004-01-01

    Many corporations are embracing knowledge management (KM) to capture the intellectual capital of their employees. This article focuses on KM applications for reference work in libraries. It defines key concepts of KM, establishes a need for KM for reference services, and reviews various KM initiatives for reference services.

  9. Schroedinger--Dirac spaces of entire functions

    De Branges, L.

    1977-01-01

    A study is made of some Hilbert spaces of entire function which appear in the quantum mechanical theory of the hydrogen atoms. These spaces are examples in the theory of Hilbert spaces whose elements are entire functions and which have certain given properties. 1 reference

  10. The International Reference Ionosphere 2012 – a model of international collaboration☆

    Bilitza Dieter

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The International Reference Ionosphere (IRI project was established jointly by the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR and the International Union of Radio Science (URSI in the late sixties with the goal to develop an international standard for the specification of plasma parameters in the Earth’s ionosphere. COSPAR needed such a specification for the evaluation of environmental effects on spacecraft and experiments in space, and URSI for radiowave propagation studies and applications. At the request of COSPAR and URSI, IRI was developed as a data-based model to avoid the uncertainty of theory-based models which are only as good as the evolving theoretical understanding. Being based on most of the available and reliable observations of the ionospheric plasma from the ground and from space, IRI describes monthly averages of electron density, electron temperature, ion temperature, ion composition, and several additional parameters in the altitude range from 60 km to 2000 km. A working group of about 50 international ionospheric experts is in charge of developing and improving the IRI model. Over time as new data became available and new modeling techniques emerged, steadily improved editions of the IRI model have been published. This paper gives a brief history of the IRI project and describes the latest version of the model, IRI-2012. It also briefly discusses efforts to develop a real-time IRI model. The IRI homepage is at http://IRImodel.org.

  11. Snowchange Oral History - Work Among the Kolyma River Indigenous Societies in Siberia, Russia, Version 1

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes oral history accounts from Indigenous people participating in the Snowchange project in Siberia, Russia. It provides geographic and...

  12. History of Mathematics

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard; Gray, Jeremy

    Volume 1 in Theme on "History of Mathematics", in "Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS), developed under the auspices of the UNESCO.......Volume 1 in Theme on "History of Mathematics", in "Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS), developed under the auspices of the UNESCO....

  13. Business history and risk

    Terry Gourvish

    2003-01-01

    CARR, in association with the Centre for Business History, University of Leeds, held a successful workshop on 'Business History and Risk' on 20 February 2002. The workshop, which was sponsored by the ESRC, brought together business historians, economists, accountants and risk analysts to develop an interdisciplinary discussion on understandings of risk by employers, workers and governments in different historical settings.

  14. Aggersborg through history

    Roesdahl, Else

    2014-01-01

    Aggersborg's history from the time of the end of the circular fortress till the present day, with a focus on the late Viking Age and the Middle Ages......Aggersborg's history from the time of the end of the circular fortress till the present day, with a focus on the late Viking Age and the Middle Ages...

  15. The Two World Histories

    Dunn, Ross E.

    2008-01-01

    In the arenas where the two world histories have taken shape, educators vigorously debate among themselves intellectual, pedagogical, and policy issues surrounding world history as a school subject. The people in each arena tend to share, despite internal disagreements, a common set of premises and assumptions for ordering the discussion of world…

  16. History of Science

    Oversby, John

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses why the history of science should be included in the science curriculum in schools. He also presents some opportunities that can come out of using historical contexts, and findings from a study assessing the place of history of science in readily available textbooks.

  17. Decoherent histories analysis of minisuperspace quantum cosmology

    Halliwell, J J, E-mail: j.halliwell@imperial.ac.uk [Blackett Laboratory Imperial College London SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-08

    Recent results on the decoherent histories quantization of simple cosmological models (minisuperspace models) are described. The most important issue is the construction, from the wave function, of a probability distribution answering various questions of physical interest, such as the probability of the system entering a given region of configuration space at any stage in its entire history. A standard but heuristic procedure is to use the flux of (components of) the wave function in a WKB approximation as the probability. This gives sensible semiclassical results but lacks an underlying operator formalism. Here, we supply the underlying formalism by deriving probability distributions linked to the Wheeler-DeWitt equation using the decoherent histories approach to quantum theory, building on the generalized quantum mechanics formalism developed by Hartle. The key step is the construction of class operators characterizing questions of physical interest. Taking advantage of a recent decoherent histories analysis of the arrival time problem in non-relativistic quantum mechanics, we show that the appropriate class operators in quantum cosmology are readily constructed using a complex potential. The class operator for not entering a region of configuration space is given by the S-matrix for scattering off a complex potential localized in that region. We thus derive the class operators for entering one or more regions in configuration space. The class operators commute with the Hamiltonian, have a sensible classical limit and are closely related to an intersection number operator. The corresponding probabilities coincide, in a semiclassical approximation, with standard heuristic procedures.

  18. Decoherent histories analysis of minisuperspace quantum cosmology

    Halliwell, J J

    2011-01-01

    Recent results on the decoherent histories quantization of simple cosmological models (minisuperspace models) are described. The most important issue is the construction, from the wave function, of a probability distribution answering various questions of physical interest, such as the probability of the system entering a given region of configuration space at any stage in its entire history. A standard but heuristic procedure is to use the flux of (components of) the wave function in a WKB approximation as the probability. This gives sensible semiclassical results but lacks an underlying operator formalism. Here, we supply the underlying formalism by deriving probability distributions linked to the Wheeler-DeWitt equation using the decoherent histories approach to quantum theory, building on the generalized quantum mechanics formalism developed by Hartle. The key step is the construction of class operators characterizing questions of physical interest. Taking advantage of a recent decoherent histories analysis of the arrival time problem in non-relativistic quantum mechanics, we show that the appropriate class operators in quantum cosmology are readily constructed using a complex potential. The class operator for not entering a region of configuration space is given by the S-matrix for scattering off a complex potential localized in that region. We thus derive the class operators for entering one or more regions in configuration space. The class operators commute with the Hamiltonian, have a sensible classical limit and are closely related to an intersection number operator. The corresponding probabilities coincide, in a semiclassical approximation, with standard heuristic procedures.

  19. History Making: The Historian as Consultant

    Jorma Kalela

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available History is not just a genre of knowledge but also a basic feature of human life. Accounting for the past, or creating histories, to quote David Thelen, is ‘as natural a part of life as eating or breathing’. Casual references to what has taken place make up the vast majority of these accounts. But there are also a great number of deliberately created expositions of the past. They are produced in every field of society and by a wide variety of actors, from private persons to, for example, politicians and various media. The totality of them can be called everyday history. These accounts of the past serve present purposes – histories have innumerable functions and are of countless types. Divergent accounts also influence each other, and my suggestion is that their interaction be called the never-ending social process of history-making. History making, in other words, is not the preserve of academically-trained historians. They are experts but not outside observers. Scholarly historians are inescapably involved in the social process of history making. Their work goes beyond prevailing histories: they seek interpretations that make better sense of the past than the existing ones. Embedded in this effort is another constructivist function: they demonstrate ways to think about the past and how to use it. When demonstrating ‘that’s not how it was’, historians at the same display ‘how the presentation should have been constructed’. Even if they don’t think of themselves as consultants on history making they act in this capacity.

  20. Learning Spaces

    Falmagne, Jean-Claude

    2011-01-01

    Learning spaces offer a rigorous mathematical foundation for practical systems of educational technology. Learning spaces generalize partially ordered sets and are special cases of knowledge spaces. The various structures are investigated from the standpoints of combinatorial properties and stochastic processes. Leaning spaces have become the essential structures to be used in assessing students' competence of various topics. A practical example is offered by ALEKS, a Web-based, artificially intelligent assessment and learning system in mathematics and other scholarly fields. At the heart of A

  1. Views from Space

    Kitmacher, Gary H.

    2002-01-01

    aircraft like the high-flying U-2 spy planes for. Weather satellites permitted weather predictions as never before. Satellites were developed in the first ten years of the space program for earth resources and mapping. In this paper and presentation we will observe some of the best views taken in space and from space...of the Earth, and the moon and beyond. We will travel in space with our astronauts. Some of the photographs we will see are famous and others not nearly so. We will discuss some of the history behind the pictures and some of the benefits that have been gained from the views from space.

  2. Alternate Reality Teaching: OurSpace

    2014-05-31

    Load System .............................................................................................. 27 5.15.3. Game Revision History ...STORY TELLING APPROACH The in-game approach to cinematic storytelling results in the following graphic novel approach to all RoboBall cinematics...Intific Inc. 5.15.3. GAME REVISION HISTORY Figure 1.0 – OurSpace game revision history diagram 5.15.4. CONFERENCES During Phase 2 the Intific team

  3. [History and psychoanalysis: the stakes of history].

    Chertok, L; Stengers, I

    1993-01-01

    Freud's definition of the relationship between hypnosis and psychoanalysis is a political one that even then pointed to the paradigmatical sciences as defined by Kuhn. Nevertheless, the historian who applies to psychoanalysis the technique of symetry elaborated for such sciences, runs up against a set of singularities that risk bringing him to a position of denouncer of a "fake science". We emphasize that, if the historian does not limit himself to the positivist position or to the history of ideas, he will inevitably find himself engaged in the history that he is analyzing, but with the responsibility of his mode of engagement. We propose to define hypnosis and psychoanalysis as fields inhabited by the question of science in the modern sense of the term, and raising the issue of pertinence, as far as they are concerned, of the theoretical experimental model that guided them.

  4. FCJ-133 The Scripted Spaces of Urban Ubiquitous Computing: The experience, poetics, and politics of public scripted space

    Christian Ulrik Andersen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes and introduces the concept of ‘scripted space’ as a new perspective on ubiquitous computing in urban environments. Drawing on urban history, computer games, and a workshop study of the city of Lund the article discusses the experience of digitally scripted spaces, and their relation to the history of public spaces. In conclusion, the article discusses the potential for employing scripted spaces as a reinvigoration of urban public space.

  5. a week in space

    collette, christian

    2016-04-01

    COLLETTE Christian Institut Saint Laurent Liège Belgium. I am a science teacher at a technical high school. Generally, my students don't come from a privileged social background and are not particularly motivated for studies. For 10 years, I organize, for one of my sections, a spatial (and special) school year that ends in a spatial week. Throughout this year, with the help of my colleagues, I will introduce into all themes a lot of concepts relating to space. French, history, geography, English, mathematics, technical courses, sciences, and even gymnastics will be training actors in space culture. In spring, I will accompany my class in the Euro Space Center (Redu- Belgium) where we will live one week 24 hours on "like astronauts" One third of the time is dedicated to astronaut training (moonwalk, remote manipulator system, mission simulation, weightless wall, building rockets, satellites, etc.), One third to more intellectual activities on space (lectures, research, discovery of the outside run) the last one third of time in outside visits (museums, site of ESA-Redu) or in movies about space (October sky, Apollo 13, etc.) During this year, the profits, so educational as human, are considerable!

  6. The Scripted Spaces of Urban Ubiquitous Computing

    Pold, Søren; Andersen, Christian Ulrik

    2011-01-01

    computing in urban environments. Drawing on urban history, computer games, and a workshop study of the city of Lund the article discusses the experience of digitally scripted spaces, and their relation to the history of public spaces. In conclusion, the article discusses the potential for employing scripted...... spaces as a reinvigoration of urban public space....

  7. Portraying User Interface History

    Jørgensen, Anker Helms

    2008-01-01

    history. Next the paper analyses a selected sample of papers on UI history at large. The analysis shows that the current state-of-art is featured by three aspects: Firstly internalism, in that the papers adress the tech­nologies in their own right with little con­text­ualization, secondly whiggism...... in that they largely address prevailing UI techno­logies, and thirdly history from above in that they focus on the great deeds of the visionaries. The paper then compares this state-of-art in UI history to the much more mature fields history of computing and history of technology. Based hereon, some speculations......The user interface is coming of age. Papers adressing UI history have appeared in fair amounts in the last 25 years. Most of them address particular aspects such as an in­novative interface paradigm or the contribution of a visionary or a research lab. Contrasting this, papers addres­sing UI...

  8. Space Microbiology

    Horneck, Gerda; Klaus, David M.; Mancinelli, Rocco L.

    2010-01-01

    Summary: The responses of microorganisms (viruses, bacterial cells, bacterial and fungal spores, and lichens) to selected factors of space (microgravity, galactic cosmic radiation, solar UV radiation, and space vacuum) were determined in space and laboratory simulation experiments. In general, microorganisms tend to thrive in the space flight environment in terms of enhanced growth parameters and a demonstrated ability to proliferate in the presence of normally inhibitory levels of antibiotics. The mechanisms responsible for the observed biological responses, however, are not yet fully understood. A hypothesized interaction of microgravity with radiation-induced DNA repair processes was experimentally refuted. The survival of microorganisms in outer space was investigated to tackle questions on the upper boundary of the biosphere and on the likelihood of interplanetary transport of microorganisms. It was found that extraterrestrial solar UV radiation was the most deleterious factor of space. Among all organisms tested, only lichens (Rhizocarpon geographicum and Xanthoria elegans) maintained full viability after 2 weeks in outer space, whereas all other test systems were inactivated by orders of magnitude. Using optical filters and spores of Bacillus subtilis as a biological UV dosimeter, it was found that the current ozone layer reduces the biological effectiveness of solar UV by 3 orders of magnitude. If shielded against solar UV, spores of B. subtilis were capable of surviving in space for up to 6 years, especially if embedded in clay or meteorite powder (artificial meteorites). The data support the likelihood of interplanetary transfer of microorganisms within meteorites, the so-called lithopanspermia hypothesis. PMID:20197502

  9. Space psychology

    Parin, V. V.; Gorbov, F. D.; Kosmolinskiy, F. P.

    1974-01-01

    Psychological selection of astronauts considers mental responses and adaptation to the following space flight stress factors: (1) confinement in a small space; (2) changes in three dimensional orientation; (3) effects of altered gravity and weightlessness; (4) decrease in afferent nerve pulses; (5) a sensation of novelty and danger; and (6) a sense of separation from earth.

  10. Borel Spaces

    Berberian, S K

    2002-01-01

    A detailed exposition of G.W. Mackey's theory of Borel spaces (standard, substandard, analytic), based on results in Chapter 9 of Bourbaki's General Topology. Appended are five informal lectures on the subject (given at the CIMPA/ICPAM Summer School, Nice, 1986), sketching the connection between Borel spaces and representations of operator algebras.

  11. Space engineering

    Alexander, Harold L.

    1991-01-01

    Human productivity was studied for extravehicular tasks performed in microgravity, particularly including in-space assembly of truss structures and other large objects. Human factors research probed the anthropometric constraints imposed on microgravity task performance and the associated workstation design requirements. Anthropometric experiments included reach envelope tests conducted using the 3-D Acoustic Positioning System (3DAPS), which permitted measuring the range of reach possible for persons using foot restraints in neutral buoyancy, both with and without space suits. Much neutral buoyancy research was conducted using the support of water to simulate the weightlessness environment of space. It became clear over time that the anticipated EVA requirement associated with the Space Station and with in-space construction of interplanetary probes would heavily burden astronauts, and remotely operated robots (teleoperators) were increasingly considered to absorb the workload. Experience in human EVA productivity led naturally to teleoperation research into the remote performance of tasks through human controlled robots.

  12. Tight Reference Frame–Independent Quantum Teleportation

    Dominic Verdon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We give a tight scheme for teleporting a quantum state between two parties whose reference frames are misaligned by an action of a finite symmetry group. Unlike previously proposed schemes, ours requires no additional tokens or data to be passed between the participants; the same amount of classical information is transferred as for ordinary quantum teleportation, and the Hilbert space of the entangled resource is of the same size. In the terminology of Peres and Scudo, our protocol relies on classical communication of unspeakable information.

  13. Generalized frame of reference with null congruence

    Ferrarese, G.; Antonelli, R.

    2000-01-01

    The paper derives the main properties of a generalized frame of reference with a null congruence (light flux), by means of adapted non-holonomic techniques; then it studies the geometry of the space-time in terms of non-orthogonal projection: longitudinal and transverse covariant derivatives and corresponding commutation formulae, decomposition of the Riemann and gravitational tensors, lie derivatives of the Ricci rotation coefficients, transverse Bianchi identity. Application to the (absolute and relative) light flux: kinematical characteristics and screen, Sachs theorems etc. are also given

  14. War in European history

    Howard, M.

    1981-01-01

    War history as a modern historic discipline is by far no longer a mere history of arms technique or a chronicle of battles. It deals with the change of warfare, shows how the wars of the various ages had determined society, and vice versay investigates the influence of social, economic, and -concerning mentality-historical changes on war. With this survey, which covers the period between the Middle Ages and the recent past, the author has presented a small masterpiece of the history of war. A book like this is particularly important and instructive in a time when all depends on the preventing of wars. (orig.) [de

  15. Science A history

    Gribbin, John

    2002-01-01

    From award-winning science writer John Gribbin, "Science: A History" is the enthralling story of the men and women who changed the way we see the world, and the turbulent times they lived in. From Galileo, tried by the Inquisition for his ideas, to Newton, who wrote his rivals out of the history books; from Marie Curie, forced to work apart from male students for fear she might excite them, to Louis Agassiz, who marched his colleagues up a mountain to prove that the ice ages had occurred. Filled with pioneers, visionaries, eccentrics and madmen, this is the history of science as it has never been told before.

  16. History of shoulder instability surgery.

    Randelli, Pietro; Cucchi, Davide; Butt, Usman

    2016-02-01

    The surgical management of shoulder instability is an expanding and increasingly complex area of study within orthopaedics. This article describes the history and evolution of shoulder instability surgery, examining the development of its key principles, the currently accepted concepts and available surgical interventions. A comprehensive review of the available literature was performed using PubMed. The reference lists of reviewed articles were also scrutinised to ensure relevant information was included. The various types of shoulder instability including anterior, posterior and multidirectional instability are discussed, focussing on the history of surgical management of these topics, the current concepts and the results of available surgical interventions. The last century has seen important advancements in the understanding and treatment of shoulder instability. The transition from open to arthroscopic surgery has allowed the discovery of previously unrecognised pathologic entities and facilitated techniques to treat these. Nevertheless, open surgery still produces comparable results in the treatment of many instability-related conditions and is often required in complex or revision cases, particularly in the presence of bone loss. More high-quality research is required to better understand and characterise this spectrum of conditions so that successful evidence-based management algorithms can be developed. IV.

  17. Importance of Engineering History Education

    Arakawa, Fumio

    It is needless to cite the importance of education for succeed of engineering. IEEJ called for the establishment of ICEE in 1994, where the education is thought highly of, though its discussion has not been well working. Generally speaking, education has been one of the most important national strategies particularly at a time of its political and economical development. The science and technology education is, of course, not the exemption. But in these days around 2000 it seems that the public pays little attention on the science and technology, as they are quite day to day matters. As the results, for instance, such engineering as power systems and electric heavy machines are referred to as “endangered”. So fur, many engineers have tried not to be involved in social issues. But currently they can not help facing with risks of social issues like patent rights, troubles and accidents due to application of high technology, information security in the use of computers and engineering ethics. One of the most appropriate ways for the risk management is to learn lessons in the past, that is, history, so that the idea suggested in it could be made full use for the risk management. The author cited the global importance of education, particularly of engineering history education for engineering ethics, in the ICEE 2010 held in Bussan, Korea, as the 16th anniversary.

  18. A history of Chinese mathematics

    Martzloff, Jean-Claude

    1997-01-01

    For the English language edition, this completely unique book of J.C. Martzloff has been fully revised and updated. It includes many new recent insights and illustrations, a new appendix on Chinese primary sources and a guide to the to the bibliography. From the reviews: "This book ranks with the most erudite Asian publications, and is the most informative and most broadly informed on its topic in any language." N. Sivin, China Quarterly "... crammed with insights, cautionary tales and a great deal of information about current research ... will surely become a standard reference for students, teachers, and researchers alike", J. N. Crossley, Annals of Science "... a truly scholarly and balanced exposition ... a book that the reviewer believes belongs in the library of every university or college, as well as in that of every individual seriously interested in the history of Chinese mathematics", B. L. McAllister, ZBfM "Martzloff History demonstrates clearly that while the Chinese were adept in applying their m...

  19. Can understanding squid life-history strategies and recruitment ...

    Current views of the links between life-history strategies and recruitment processes in fish are contrasted with the pattern emerging for squid. A general perspective is that the roles of space and time are reversed in the two groups, suggesting that management strategies also should differ. The space/time reversal appears to ...

  20. Reconstitution of Low Bandwidth Reaction History

    May, M.; Clancy, T.; Fittinghoff, D.; Gennaro, P.; Hagans, K.; Halvorson, G.; Lowry, M.; Perry, T.; Roberson, P.; Smith, D.; Teruya, A.; Blair, J.; Davis, B.; Hunt, E.; Emkeit, B.; Galbraith, J.; Kelly, B.; Montoya, R.; Nickel, G.; Ogle, J.; Wilson, K.; Wood, M.

    2004-01-01

    The goal of the Test Readiness Program is to transition to a 24 month test readiness posture and if approved move to an 18-month posture. One of the key components of the Test Readiness Program necessary to meet this goal is the reconstitution of the important diagnostics. Since the end of nuclear testing, the ability to field diagnostics on a nuclear test has deteriorated. Reconstitution of diagnostics before those who had experience in nuclear testing either retire or leave is essential to achieving a shorter test readiness posture. Also, the data recording systems have not been used since the end of testing. This report documents the reconstitution of one vital diagnostic: the low bandwidth reaction history diagnostic for FY04. Reaction history is one of the major diagnostics that has been used on all LLNL and LANL tests since the early days of nuclear testing. Reaction history refers to measuring the time history of the gamma and neutron output from a nuclear test. This gives direct information on the nuclear reactions taking place in the device. The reaction history measurements are one of the prime measurements the nuclear weapon scientists use to validate their models of device performance. All tests currently under consideration require the reaction history diagnostic. Thus moving to a shorter test readiness posture requires the reconstitution of the ability to make reaction history measurements. Reconstitution of reaction history was planned to be in two steps. Reaction history measurements that have been used in the past can be broadly placed into two categories. The most common type of reaction history and the one that has been performed on virtually all nuclear tests is termed low bandwidth reaction history. This measurement has a time response that is limited by the bandpass of kilometer length coaxial cables. When higher bandwidth has been required for specific measurements, fiber optic techniques have been used. This is referred to as high

  1. Multinational History of Strasbourg Astronomical Observatory

    Heck, André

    2005-01-01

    Strasbourg Astronomical Observatory is quite an interesting place for historians: several changes of nationality between France and Germany, high-profile scientists having been based there, big projects born or installed in its walls, and so on. Most of the documents circulating on the history of the Observatory and on related matters have however been so far poorly referenced, if at all. This made necessary the compilation of a volume such as this one, offering fully-documented historical facts and references on the first decades of the Observatory history, authored by both French and German specialists. The experts contributing to this book have done their best to write in a way understandable to readers not necessarily hyperspecialized in astronomy nor in the details of European history. After an introductory chapter by the Editor, contributions by Wolfschmidt and by Duerbeck respectively deal extensively with the German periods and review people and instrumentation, while another paper by Duerbeck is more...

  2. Concise encyclopedia of history of energy

    2009-01-01

    "The Concise Encyclopedia of the History of Energy" draws together in a single volume a comprehensive account of the field from the prestigious and award-winning "Encyclopedia of Energy" (2004). This volume covers all aspects of energy history with authoritative articles authoritatively contributed and edited by an interdisciplinary team of experts. Extensively revised since the original publication of the "Encylopedia of Energy", this work describes the most interesting historical developments of the past five years in the energy sector. It is a concise desk reference for researchers and those interested in any aspect of the history of energy science. It provides eminently cost-effective access to some of the most interesting articles in "Encyclopedia of Energy". It is significantly revised to accommodate the latest trends in each field of enquiry.

  3. Arizona transportation history.

    2011-12-01

    The Arizona transportation history project was conceived in anticipation of Arizonas centennial, which will be : celebrated in 2012. Following approval of the Arizona Centennial Plan in 2007, the Arizona Department of : Transportation (ADOT) recog...

  4. History of quantum theory

    Hund, F.

    1980-01-01

    History of quantum theory from quantum representations (1900) to the formation of quantum mechanics is systematically stated in the monograph. A special attention is paid to the development of ideas of quantum physics, given are schemes of this development. Quantum theory is abstractly presented as the teaching about a role, which value h characterizing elementary quantum of action, plays in the nature: in statistics - as a unit for calculating the number of possible states; in corpuscular-wave dualism for light - as a value determining the interaction of light and substance and as a component of atom dynamics; in corpuscular-wave dualism for substance. Accordingly, history of the quantum theory development is considered in the following sequence: h discovery; history of quantum statistics, history of light quanta and initial atom dynamics; crysis of this dynamics and its settlement; substance waves and in conclusion - the completion of quantum mechanics including applications and its further development

  5. Personal history, beyond narrative

    Køster, Allan

    2017-01-01

    on a distinction between history and narrative, I outline an account of historical becoming through a process of sedimentation and a rich notion of what I call historical selfhood on an embodied level. Five embodied existentials are suggested, sketching a preliminary understanding of how selves are concretely......Narrative theories currently dominate our understanding of how selfhood is constituted and concretely individuated throughout personal history. Despite this success, the narrative perspective has recently been exposed to a range of critiques. Whilst these critiques have been effective in pointing...... out the shortcomings of narrative theories of selfhood, they have been less willing and able to suggest alternative ways of understanding personal history. In this article, I assess the criticisms and argue that an adequate phenomenology of personal history must also go beyond narrative. Drawing...

  6. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

    Full Text Available ... is Doing Blog: Public Health Matters Video: "The History of Bioterrorism" Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... 6348 Email CDC-INFO U.S. Department of Health & Human Services HHS/Open USA.gov TOP

  7. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

    Full Text Available ... is Doing Blog: Public Health Matters Video: "The History of Bioterrorism" Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... OIG 1600 Clifton Road Atlanta , GA 30329-4027 USA 800-CDC-INFO (800-232-4636) , TTY: 888- ...

  8. Water Level Station History

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Images contain station history information for 175 stations in the National Water Level Observation Network (NWLON). The NWLON is a network of long-term,...

  9. IUTAM a short history

    Juhasz, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    This book presents extensive information related to the history of IUTAM. The initial chapters focus on IUTAM’s history and selected organizational aspects. Subsequent chapters provide extensive data and statistics, while the closing section showcases photos from all periods of the Union’s history. The history of IUTAM, the International Union on Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, began at a conference in 1922 in Innsbruck, Austria, where von Kármán put forward the idea of an international congress including the whole domain of applied mechanics. In 1946 IUTAM was then formally launched in Paris/France. IUTAM has since time organized more than 24 world congresses and 380 symposia, representing all fields of mechanics and highlighting advances by prominent international researchers. The efforts of IUTAM and its about 50 member countries serve to promote the mechanical sciences and the advancement of human society, addressing many key challenges. In this context, IUTAM preserves important traditions while...

  10. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

    Full Text Available ... as bioterrorist weapons. Watch the Complete Program "The History of Bioterroism" (26 min 38 sec) Watch ... Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID), the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and the Centers for Disease Control ...

  11. Life History Approach

    Olesen, Henning Salling

    2015-01-01

    as in everyday life. Life histories represent lived lives past, present and anticipated future. As such they are interpretations of individuals’ experiences of the way in which societal dynamics take place in the individual body and mind, either by the individual him/herself or by another biographer. The Life...... History approach was developing from interpreting autobiographical and later certain other forms of language interactive material as moments of life history, i.e. it is basically a hermeneutic approach. Talking about a psycho-societal approach indicates the ambition of attacking the dichotomy...... of the social and the psychic, both in the interpretation procedure and in some main theoretical understandings of language, body and mind. My article will present the reflections on the use of life history based methodology in learning and education research as a kind of learning story of research work....

  12. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

    Full Text Available ... Matters Video: "The History of Bioterrorism" Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir This video describes the Category ... RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs Funding LEGAL Policies Privacy FOIA No Fear Act OIG 1600 Clifton Road ...

  13. Oral history database

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Separately, each history provides an in depth view into the professional and personal lives of individual participants. Together, they have the power to illuminate...

  14. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

    Full Text Available ... Groups Resources for Emergency Health Professionals Training & Education Social Media What’s New Preparation & Planning More on Preparedness What CDC is Doing Blog: Public Health Matters Video: "The History of Bioterrorism" Recommend on Facebook Tweet ...

  15. Mercury's Early Geologic History

    Denevi, B. W.; Ernst, C. M.; Klima, R. L.; Robinson, M. S.

    2018-05-01

    A combination of geologic mapping, compositional information, and geochemical models are providing a better understanding of Mercury's early geologic history, and allow us to place it in the context of the Moon and the terrestrial planets.

  16. Space polypropulsion

    Kellett, B. J.; Griffin, D. K.; Bingham, R.; Campbell, R. N.; Forbes, A.; Michaelis, M. M.

    2008-05-01

    Hybrid space propulsion has been a feature of most space missions. Only the very early rocket propulsion experiments like the V2, employed a single form of propulsion. By the late fifties multi-staging was routine and the Space Shuttle employs three different kinds of fuel and rocket engines. During the development of chemical rockets, other forms of propulsion were being slowly tested, both theoretically and, relatively slowly, in practice. Rail and gas guns, ion engines, "slingshot" gravity assist, nuclear and solar power, tethers, solar sails have all seen some real applications. Yet the earliest type of non-chemical space propulsion to be thought of has never been attempted in space: laser and photon propulsion. The ideas of Eugen Saenger, Georgii Marx, Arthur Kantrowitz, Leik Myrabo, Claude Phipps and Robert Forward remain Earth-bound. In this paper we summarize the various forms of nonchemical propulsion and their results. We point out that missions beyond Saturn would benefit from a change of attitude to laser-propulsion as well as consideration of hybrid "polypropulsion" - which is to say using all the rocket "tools" available rather than possibly not the most appropriate. We conclude with three practical examples, two for the next decades and one for the next century; disposal of nuclear waste in space; a grand tour of the Jovian and Saturnian moons - with Huygens or Lunoxod type, landers; and eventually mankind's greatest space dream: robotic exploration of neighbouring planetary systems.

  17. Space Guiding Us

    Primikiri, Athina

    2016-04-01

    Taking into consideration the fact that general education provides the passport for a successful career the charting of Space consists of a constructive instrument available to every single teacher. Activities touching directly upon Space comprise a source of inspiration that encourages pupils to get acquainted with natural sciences and technology while consolidating their cross-curriculum knowledge. The applications and endeavors arising out of Space play a vital role for the further development and growth of our societies. Moreover, the prosperity of people is inextricably bound up with the implementation of Space policies adapted to different sectors such as the Environment, the phenomenon of climate change, matters affecting public or private safety, humanitarian aid and other technological issues. Therefore, the thorough analysis of Space endows us with insights about new products and innovative forms of industrial collaboration. As a teacher, I have consciously chosen to utilize the topic of Space in class as an instructive tool during the last 4 years. The lure of Space combined with the fascination provided by Space flights contributes to the enrichment of children's knowledge in the field of STEM. Space consists of the perfect cross-curriculum tool for the teaching of distinct subjects such as History, Geography, Science, Environment, Literature, Music, Religion and Physical Education. Following the Curriculum for pupils aged 9-10 I opted to teach the topic of Space under the title 'Space Guiding Us' as well as its subunits: • International Space Station • Cassini/Huygens, Mission to Titan • Rosetta & Philae • European Union and Space • Mission X: Train like an Astronaut The main purpose of choosing the module of 'Space' is to stimulate the scientific and critical thought of the pupils, to foster the co-operative spirit among them and to make them aware of how the application of Science affects their everyday lives. Aims • To incite pupils

  18. Transformation of History textbooks

    Haue, Harry

    2013-01-01

    Artiklen omhandler danske og tyske lærebøger i historie over de seneste to århundreder med hensyn til deres vægtning af det nationale og det globale stof.......Artiklen omhandler danske og tyske lærebøger i historie over de seneste to århundreder med hensyn til deres vægtning af det nationale og det globale stof....

  19. History, Passion, and Performance.

    Campbell, Kay N

    2017-04-01

    History, Passion, and Performance was chosen as the theme for the 75th anniversary of the American Association of Occupational Health Nurses (AAOHN) kickoff. The American Association of Occupational Health Nurses has a long history created by passionate, dedicated members. This article highlights historical foundations of the Association, describes the occupational health nurse's passion to drive quality care for workers and discusses future professional and organizational challenges.

  20. Measuring space radiation shielding effectiveness

    Bahadori Amir; Semones Edward; Ewert Michael; Broyan James; Walker Steven

    2017-01-01

    Passive radiation shielding is one strategy to mitigate the problem of space radiation exposure. While space vehicles are constructed largely of aluminum, polyethylene has been demonstrated to have superior shielding characteristics for both galactic cosmic rays and solar particle events due to the high hydrogen content. A method to calculate the shielding effectiveness of a material relative to reference material from Bragg peak measurements performed using energetic heavy charged particles ...