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Sample records for history questionnaire ages

  1. Diet History Questionnaire: Suggested Citations

    Use of the Diet History Questionnaire and Diet*Calc Analysis Software for publication purposes should contain a citation which includes version information for the software, questionnaire, and nutrient database.

  2. Diet History Questionnaire: International Applications

    ARP staff adapted the Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ) for use by Canadian populations in collaboration with the Alberta Cancer Board. This questionnaire takes into account the different food fortification polices of the U.S. and Canada.

  3. Diet History Questionnaire: Canadian Version

    The Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ) and the DHQ nutrient database were modified for use in Canada through the collaborative efforts of Dr. Amy Subar and staff at the Risk Factor Monitoring and Methods Branch, and Dr. Ilona Csizmadi and colleagues in the Division of Population Health and Information at the Alberta Cancer Board in Canada.

  4. Diet History Questionnaire: Database Revision History

    The following details all additions and revisions made to the DHQ nutrient and food database. This revision history is provided as a reference for investigators who may have performed analyses with a previous release of the database.

  5. Diet History Questionnaire Paper-based Forms

    DHQ-1 is the standard version of the NCI's Diet History Questionnaire. It was originally printed in 1998, reprinted in 2002 with minor changes to the front page and the development of a Spanish translation, and reprinted again in 2007 with changes to the Today's Date field to include the years 2007-2011.

  6. Diet History Questionnaire II and Canadian Diet History Questionnaire II: Coding Guidelines

    A questionnaire data file is an ASCII text file containing data from completed Diet History Questionnaires. If using paper forms, this file can be created by a scanner or a data entry system. If using DHQ*Web, the questionnaire data file is created automatically.

  7. Diet History Questionnaire II FAQs | EGRP/DCCPS/NCI/NIH

    Answers to general questions about the Diet History Questionnaire II (DHQ II), as well as those related to DHQ II administration, validation, scanning, nutrient estimates, calculations, DHQ II modification, data quality, and more.

  8. History of the Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ) | EGRP/DCCPS/NCI/NIH

    Learn about the evolution of the Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ), developed by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) initially in 2001, to the DHQ II in 2010, up to the present version, DHQ III, launched in 2018.

  9. Predicting ADHD in school age when using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire in preschool age

    Rimvall, Martin K; Elberling, Hanne; Rask, Charlotte Ulrikka

    2014-01-01

    Indicated prevention of ADHD may reduce impairment and need of treatment in youth. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) is a brief questionnaire assessing child mental health, reported to be a valid screening instrument for concurrent ADHD. This study aimed to examine the validity o...... can identify a group of children with highly increased risk of later being diagnosed and/or treated for ADHD in school age....... of using the SDQ in preschool age to predict ADHD in school age in a longitudinal design. The study population included 2,315 children from the Copenhagen child cohort 2000 with no prior history of clinically diagnosed ADHD, who were assessed at age 5-7 years by the SDQ completed by parents and preschool...... regression analyses estimated the risk of later ADHD diagnosis for screen-positive children. A total of 2.94% of the study population were clinically diagnosed and/or were treated with central stimulants for ADHD before age 11-12. Children with possible/probable disorder according to the SDQ hyperactivity...

  10. IPRDS: component histories and nuclear plant aging

    Borkowski, R.J.; Kahl, W.K.

    1984-01-01

    A comprehensive assessment of nuclear power plant component operating histories, maintenance histories, and design and fabrication details is essential to understanding aging phenomena. As part of the In-Plant Reliability Data System (IPRDS), an attempt is being made to collect and analyze such information from a sampling of US nuclear power plants. Utilizing the IPRDS, one can reconstruct the failure history of the components and gain new insight into the causes and modes of failures resulting from normal or premature aging. This information assembled from the IPRDS can be combined with operating histories and postservice component inspection results for cradle-to-grave assessments of component aging under operating conditions. A comprehensive aging assessment can then be used to provide guidelines for improving the detection, monitoring, and mitigation of aging-related failures

  11. Developing a questionnaire for measuring epistemological beliefs in history education

    Stoel, Gerhard; Logtenberg, Albert; Wansink, Bjorn; Huijgen, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Developing pupils’ understanding of history with its own disciplinary and epistemological problems can contribute to the education of a critical and peaceful diverse society. This symposium discusses results of four studies from the Netherlands, Germany and the USA addressing theoretical,

  12. IPRDS - Component histories and nuclear plant aging

    Borkowski, R.J.; Kahl, W.K.

    1984-01-01

    A comprehensive assessment of nuclear power plant component operating histories, maintenance histories, and design and fabrication details is essential to understanding aging phenomena. As part of the In-Plant Reliability Data System (IPRDS), an attempt is being made to collect and analyze such information from a sampling of U.S. nuclear power plants. Utilizing the IPRDS, one can reconstruct the failure history of the components and gain new insight into the causes and modes of failures resulting from normal or premature aging. This information assembled from the IPRDS can be combined with operating histories and postservice component inspection results for ''cradle-to-grave'' assessments of component aging under operating conditions. A comprehensive aging assessment can then be used to provide guidelines for improving the detection, monitoring, and mitigation of aging-related failures. The examples chosen for this paper illustrate two aging-related areas: the effects of an improved preventive maintenance policy in mitigating aging of a feedwater pump and the identification of reoccuring failures in parts of diesel generators

  13. Clinical characteristics of patients with tinnitus evaluated with the Tinnitus Sample Case History Questionnaire in Japan: A case series.

    Takashi Kojima

    Full Text Available The Tinnitus Sample Case History Questionnaire was determined as a standardized questionnaire for obtaining patient case histories and for characterizing patients into subgroups at the Tinnitus Research Initiative in 2006. In this study, we developed a Japanese version of this questionnaire for evaluating the clinical characteristics of patients with tinnitus. The Japanese version of the questionnaire will be available for evaluating treatments for tinnitus and for comparing data on tinnitus in research centers.To evaluate the clinical characteristics of patients with tinnitus in Japan using a newly developed Japanese version of Tinnitus Sample Case History Questionnaire.This was a prospective study based on patient records.University hospitals, general hospitals, and clinics.We collected patient data using a Japanese translated version of the Tinnitus Sample Case History Questionnaire. In total, 584 patients who visited our institutions in Japan between August 2012 and March 2014 were included (280 males and 304 females; age 13-92 years; mean age, 60.8. We examined patients after dividing them into two groups according to the presence or absence of hyperacusis. The collected results were compared with those from the Tinnitus Research Initiative database.Compared with the TRI database, there were significantly more elderly female patients and fewer patients with trauma-associated tinnitus. There was a statistically lower ratio of patients with hyperacusis. We found that patients with tinnitus in addition to hyperacusis had greater tinnitus severity and exhibited higher rates of various complications.The Japanese version of the Tinnitus Sample Case History Questionnaire developed in this study can be a useful tool for evaluating patients with tinnitus in Japan. The results of this multicenter study reflect the characteristics of patients with tinnitus who require medical care in Japan. Our data provides a preliminary basis for an international

  14. Sending family history questionnaires to patients before a colonoscopy improves genetic counseling for hereditary colorectal cancer.

    Kessels, Koen; Eisinger, Joey D; Letteboer, Tom G; Offerhaus, G Johan A; Siersema, Peter D; Moons, Leon M G

    2017-06-01

    To investigate whether sending a family history questionnaire to patients prior to undergoing colonoscopy results in an increased availability of family history and better genetic counseling. A questionnaire was mailed to patients before they underwent outpatient colonoscopy at a university hospital in 2013. These patients' additional characteristics and referral for genetic evaluation were retrieved from the electronic medical records. Patients undergoing inpatient coloboscopy, with confirmed hereditary colorectal cancer (CRC) or inflammatory bowel disease were excluded. All study patients from 2010 to 2013 were matched with the database of the genetics department to determine who consulted a geneticist. A total of 6163 patients underwent colonoscopy from 2010 to 2013. Of 1421 who underwent colonoscopy in 2013, 53 (3.7%) consulted a geneticist, while 75 (1.6%) of 4742 patients undergoing colonoscopy between 2010 and 2012 did so (P history was not recorded in the electronic medical records of 393 (40.3%). In 129 (32.8%), family history was obtained from the completed questionnaire. In 2013, 49 (60.5%) out of 81 patients referred for genetic counseling were referred based on their family history. Eight (9.9%) patients were referred based on the completed questionnaire. Screening for hereditary CRC in a population undergoing outpatient colonoscopy with a questionnaire sent by mail resulted in an increased availability of family histories and genetic counseling. © 2017 Chinese Medical Association Shanghai Branch, Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  15. ADAPTING A PARENT-COMPLETED, SOCIOEMOTIONAL QUESTIONNAIRE IN CHINA: THE AGES & STAGES QUESTIONNAIRES: SOCIAL-EMOTIONAL.

    Bian, Xiaoyan; Xie, Huichao; Squires, Jane; Chen, Chieh-Yu

    2017-03-01

    The Ages & Stages Questionnaire: Social-Emotional (ASQ:SE; Squires, Bricker, & Twombly, 2002a), developed in the United States, was translated and adapted for use in China. Lack of valid and reliable instruments for identifying social and emotional delays in young children is a worldwide issue. Professionals in China have recently focused efforts on developing methods for early identification of social, emotional, and behavioral issues in the birth-to-5 population. Following the guidelines of the International Test Commission, the ASQ:SE was translated into Simplified Chinese (ASQ:SE-C) to collect a normative sample of 2,528 children across China. Data were analyzed to evaluate the psychometric properties of the ASQ:SE-C, using both classical test theory and item response theory, including generating cutoff points appropriate for the Chinese sample. A panel of Chinese experts was surveyed to assess face validity and estimated utility of the newly adapted tool. Discussions of research findings and implications for future studies are provided. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  16. Predicting dyslexia at age 11 from a risk index questionnaire at age 5.

    Helland, Turid; Plante, Elena; Hugdahl, Kenneth

    2011-08-01

    This study focused on predicting dyslexia in children ahead of formal literacy training. Because dyslexia is a constitutional impairment, risk factors should be seen in preschool. It was hypothesized that data gathered at age 5 using questions targeting the dyslexia endophenotype should be reliable and valid predictors of dyslexia at age 11. A questionnaire was given to caretakers of 120 5-year-old children, and a risk index score was calculated based on questions regarding health, laterality, motor skills, language, special needs education and heredity. An at-risk group (n = 25) and matched controls (n = 24) were followed until age 11, when a similar questionnaire and literacy tests were administered to the children who participated in the follow-up study (22 at risk and 20 control). Half of the at-risk children and two of the control children at age 5 were identified as having dyslexia at age 11 (8 girls and 5 boys). It is concluded that it is possible to identify children at the age of 5 who will have dyslexia at the age of 11 through a questionnaire approach. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Family history assessment for colorectal cancer (CRC) risk analysis - comparison of diagram- and questionnaire-based web interfaces.

    Schultz, Michael; Seo, Steven Bohwan; Holt, Alec; Regenbrecht, Holger

    2015-11-18

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) has a high incidence, especially in New Zealand. The reasons for this are unknown. While most cancers develop sporadically, a positive family history, determined by the number and age at diagnosis of affected first and second degree relatives with CRC is one of the major factors, which may increase an individual's lifetime risk. Before a patient can be enrolled in a surveillance program a detailed assessment and documentation of the family history is important but time consuming and often inaccurate. The documentation is usually paper-based. Our aim was therefore to develop and validate the usability and efficacy of a web-based family history assessment tool for CRC suitable for the general population. The tool was also to calculate the risk and make a recommendation for surveillance. Two versions of an electronic assessment tool, diagram-based and questionnaire-based, were developed with the risk analysis and recommendations for surveillance based on the New Zealand Guidelines Group recommendations. Accuracy of our tool was tested prior to the study by comparing risk calculations based on family history by experienced gastroenterologists with the electronic assessment. The general public, visiting a local science fair were asked to use and comment on the usability of the two interfaces. Ninety people assessed and commented on the two interfaces. Both interfaces were effective in assessing the risk to develop CRC through their familial history for CRC. However, the questionnaire-based interface performed with significantly better satisfaction (p = 0.001) than the diagram-based interface. There was no difference in efficacy though. We conclude that a web-based questionnaire tool can assist in the accurate documentation and analysis of the family history relevant to determine the individual risk of CRC based on local guidelines. The calculator is now implemented and assessable through the web-page of a local charity for colorectal cancer

  18. The genetic history of Ice Age Europe

    Fu, Qiaomei; Posth, Cosimo; Hajdinjak, Mateja; Petr, Martin; Mallick, Swapan; Fernandes, Daniel; Furtwängler, Anja; Haak, Wolfgang; Meyer, Matthias; Mittnik, Alissa; Nickel, Birgit; Peltzer, Alexander; Rohland, Nadin; Slon, Viviane; Talamo, Sahra; Lazaridis, Iosif; Lipson, Mark; Mathieson, Iain; Schiffels, Stephan; Skoglund, Pontus; Derevianko, Anatoly P.; Drozdov, Nikolai; Slavinsky, Vyacheslav; Tsybankov, Alexander; Cremonesi, Renata Grifoni; Mallegni, Francesco; Gély, Bernard; Vacca, Eligio; González Morales, Manuel R.; Straus, Lawrence G.; Neugebauer-Maresch, Christine; Teschler-Nicola, Maria; Constantin, Silviu; Moldovan, Oana Teodora; Benazzi, Stefano; Peresani, Marco; Coppola, Donato; Lari, Martina; Ricci, Stefano; Ronchitelli, Annamaria; Valentin, Frédérique; Thevenet, Corinne; Wehrberger, Kurt; Grigorescu, Dan; Rougier, Hélène; Crevecoeur, Isabelle; Flas, Damien; Semal, Patrick; Mannino, Marcello A.; Cupillard, Christophe; Bocherens, Hervé; Conard, Nicholas J.; Harvati, Katerina; Moiseyev, Vyacheslav; Drucker, Dorothée G.; Svoboda, Jiří; Richards, Michael P.; Caramelli, David; Pinhasi, Ron; Kelso, Janet; Patterson, Nick; Krause, Johannes; Pääbo, Svante; Reich, David

    2016-01-01

    Modern humans arrived in Europe ~45,000 years ago, but little is known about their genetic composition before the start of farming ~8,500 years ago. We analyze genome-wide data from 51 Eurasians from ~45,000-7,000 years ago. Over this time, the proportion of Neanderthal DNA decreased from 3–6% to around 2%, consistent with natural selection against Neanderthal variants in modern humans. Whereas the earliest modern humans in Europe did not contribute substantially to present-day Europeans, all individuals between ~37,000 and ~14,000 years ago descended from a single founder population which forms part of the ancestry of present-day Europeans. A ~35,000 year old individual from northwest Europe represents an early branch of this founder population which was then displaced across a broad region, before reappearing in southwest Europe during the Ice Age ~19,000 years ago. During the major warming period after ~14,000 years ago, a new genetic component related to present-day Near Easterners appears in Europe. These results document how population turnover and migration have been recurring themes of European pre-history. PMID:27135931

  19. Level of Agreement and Factors Associated With Discrepancies Between Nationwide Medical History Questionnaires and Hospital Claims Data

    Yeon-Yong Kim

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The objectives of this study were to investigate the agreement between medical history questionnaire data and claims data and to identify the factors that were associated with discrepancies between these data types. Methods Data from self-reported questionnaires that assessed an individual’s history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, stroke, heart disease, and pulmonary tuberculosis were collected from a general health screening database for 2014. Data for these diseases were collected from a healthcare utilization claims database between 2009 and 2014. Overall agreement, sensitivity, specificity, and kappa values were calculated. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with discrepancies and was adjusted for age, gender, insurance type, insurance contribution, residential area, and comorbidities. Results Agreement was highest between questionnaire data and claims data based on primary codes up to 1 year before the completion of self-reported questionnaires and was lowest for claims data based on primary and secondary codes up to 5 years before the completion of self-reported questionnaires. When comparing data based on primary codes up to 1 year before the completion of self-reported questionnaires, the overall agreement, sensitivity, specificity, and kappa values ranged from 93.2 to 98.8%, 26.2 to 84.3%, 95.7 to 99.6%, and 0.09 to 0.78, respectively. Agreement was excellent for hypertension and diabetes, fair to good for stroke and heart disease, and poor for pulmonary tuberculosis and dyslipidemia. Women, younger individuals, and employed individuals were most likely to under-report disease. Conclusions Detailed patient characteristics that had an impact on information bias were identified through the differing levels of agreement.

  20. Level of Agreement and Factors Associated With Discrepancies Between Nationwide Medical History Questionnaires and Hospital Claims Data.

    Kim, Yeon-Yong; Park, Jong Heon; Kang, Hee-Jin; Lee, Eun Joo; Ha, Seongjun; Shin, Soon-Ae

    2017-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the agreement between medical history questionnaire data and claims data and to identify the factors that were associated with discrepancies between these data types. Data from self-reported questionnaires that assessed an individual's history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, stroke, heart disease, and pulmonary tuberculosis were collected from a general health screening database for 2014. Data for these diseases were collected from a healthcare utilization claims database between 2009 and 2014. Overall agreement, sensitivity, specificity, and kappa values were calculated. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with discrepancies and was adjusted for age, gender, insurance type, insurance contribution, residential area, and comorbidities. Agreement was highest between questionnaire data and claims data based on primary codes up to 1 year before the completion of self-reported questionnaires and was lowest for claims data based on primary and secondary codes up to 5 years before the completion of self-reported questionnaires. When comparing data based on primary codes up to 1 year before the completion of self-reported questionnaires, the overall agreement, sensitivity, specificity, and kappa values ranged from 93.2 to 98.8%, 26.2 to 84.3%, 95.7 to 99.6%, and 0.09 to 0.78, respectively. Agreement was excellent for hypertension and diabetes, fair to good for stroke and heart disease, and poor for pulmonary tuberculosis and dyslipidemia. Women, younger individuals, and employed individuals were most likely to under-report disease. Detailed patient characteristics that had an impact on information bias were identified through the differing levels of agreement.

  1. Psychometric properties and validation of Portuguese version of Ages & Stages Questionnaires (3rd edition): 9, 18 and 30 Questionnaires.

    Lopes, Sónia; Graça, Patrícia; Teixeira, Salete; Serrano, Ana Maria; Squires, Jane

    2015-09-01

    The essential underlying foundations of Early Intervention (EI), in which parents/family play a critical role in their child's development, leads us to conclude that their contribution assessing early detection of problems is fundamental. The Ages & Stages Questionnaires (ASQ) is a standardized screening instrument that has been successfully studied in different countries and cultures. Translate and study the psychometrics proprieties of the Portuguese version of the 9, 18 and 30month questionnaires of the Ages and Stages Questionnaires, 3rd edition (ASQ-3). Cross-sectional study. Validity and reliability were studied in a sample of 234 parents of children within 9, 18 and 30months. The results indicated that the questionnaires had good internal consistency, strong agreement between observers and between observations with two weeks interval, and strong Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients between the overall and the total for each domain. The cutoff points (i.e. 2 standard deviations below the mean domain score), that identifies children who should receive further referral for more comprehensive assessment, were close to those determined in the original ASQ-3 psychometric studies. Cronbach's alpha ranging from .42 to .70 and Pearson's r values varies from .22 to .60. Although some weaknesses were noted in psychometric qualities analysis, it can be concluded that the ASQ-PT of 9, 18 and 30months of age fulfills the requirements of a screening tool validated for the Portuguese population. To allow the early identification of children with developmental problems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A Danish reference chart for assessment of psychomotor development based on the Ages & Stages Questionnaire

    Østergaard, Katrine Kure; Lando, Ane Vibeke; Hansen, Bo Mølholm

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) scores from the background population so that these may be used as a reference group to extremely preterm children at nine and 18 months of corrected age....

  3. Iodine removal adsorbent histories, aging and regeneration

    Hunt, J.R.; Rankovic, L.; Lubbers, R.; Kovach, J.L.

    1976-01-01

    The experience of efficiency changes with life under various test conditions is described. The adsorbents were periodically removed from both standby and continuously operating systems and tested under various test methods for residual iodine adsorption efficiency. Adsorbent from several conventional ''sampler'' cartridges versus the bulk adsorbent was also tested showing deficiency in the use of cartridge type sampling. Currently required test conditions were found inadequate to follow the aging of the adsorbent because pre-equilibration of the sample acts as a regenerant and the sample is not tested in the ''as is'' condition. The most stringent test was found to be the ambient temperature, high humidity test to follow the aging of the adsorbent. Several methods were evaluated to regenerate used adsorbents; of these high temperature steaming and partial reimpregnation were found to produce adsorbents with near identical properties of freshly prepared adsorbents

  4. The genetic history of Ice Age Europe.

    Fu, Qiaomei; Posth, Cosimo; Hajdinjak, Mateja; Petr, Martin; Mallick, Swapan; Fernandes, Daniel; Furtwängler, Anja; Haak, Wolfgang; Meyer, Matthias; Mittnik, Alissa; Nickel, Birgit; Peltzer, Alexander; Rohland, Nadin; Slon, Viviane; Talamo, Sahra; Lazaridis, Iosif; Lipson, Mark; Mathieson, Iain; Schiffels, Stephan; Skoglund, Pontus; Derevianko, Anatoly P; Drozdov, Nikolai; Slavinsky, Vyacheslav; Tsybankov, Alexander; Cremonesi, Renata Grifoni; Mallegni, Francesco; Gély, Bernard; Vacca, Eligio; Morales, Manuel R González; Straus, Lawrence G; Neugebauer-Maresch, Christine; Teschler-Nicola, Maria; Constantin, Silviu; Moldovan, Oana Teodora; Benazzi, Stefano; Peresani, Marco; Coppola, Donato; Lari, Martina; Ricci, Stefano; Ronchitelli, Annamaria; Valentin, Frédérique; Thevenet, Corinne; Wehrberger, Kurt; Grigorescu, Dan; Rougier, Hélène; Crevecoeur, Isabelle; Flas, Damien; Semal, Patrick; Mannino, Marcello A; Cupillard, Christophe; Bocherens, Hervé; Conard, Nicholas J; Harvati, Katerina; Moiseyev, Vyacheslav; Drucker, Dorothée G; Svoboda, Jiří; Richards, Michael P; Caramelli, David; Pinhasi, Ron; Kelso, Janet; Patterson, Nick; Krause, Johannes; Pääbo, Svante; Reich, David

    2016-06-09

    Modern humans arrived in Europe ~45,000 years ago, but little is known about their genetic composition before the start of farming ~8,500 years ago. Here we analyse genome-wide data from 51 Eurasians from ~45,000-7,000 years ago. Over this time, the proportion of Neanderthal DNA decreased from 3-6% to around 2%, consistent with natural selection against Neanderthal variants in modern humans. Whereas there is no evidence of the earliest modern humans in Europe contributing to the genetic composition of present-day Europeans, all individuals between ~37,000 and ~14,000 years ago descended from a single founder population which forms part of the ancestry of present-day Europeans. An ~35,000-year-old individual from northwest Europe represents an early branch of this founder population which was then displaced across a broad region, before reappearing in southwest Europe at the height of the last Ice Age ~19,000 years ago. During the major warming period after ~14,000 years ago, a genetic component related to present-day Near Easterners became widespread in Europe. These results document how population turnover and migration have been recurring themes of European prehistory.

  5. Ages and Stages Questionnaire used to measure cognitive deficit in children born extremely preterm

    Klamer, Anja; Lando, Ane; Pinborg, Anja

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To validate the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) and to measure average cognitive deficit in children born extremely preterm. METHODS: Parents of 30 term children aged 36-42 mo completed the ASQ and the children underwent the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scales of Intelligence--Revised.......AIM: To validate the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) and to measure average cognitive deficit in children born extremely preterm. METHODS: Parents of 30 term children aged 36-42 mo completed the ASQ and the children underwent the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scales of Intelligence...

  6. How Applicable Are "Ages and Stages Questionnaires" for Use with Turkish Children?

    Kapci, Emine Gul; Kucuker, Sevgi; Uslu, Runa I.

    2010-01-01

    The majority of eligible children cannot access early intervention services in Turkey, often because they are not assessed. The authors adapted the "Ages and Stages Questionnaires" (ASQ) for Turkish children ages 3 to 72 months. Study participants consisted of 375 children who were classified as at risk for developmental delays, 564…

  7. Ages and Stages Questionnaire used to measure cognitive deficit in children born extremely preterm

    Klamer, Anja; Lando, Ane; Pinborg, Anja

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To validate the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) and to measure average cognitive deficit in children born extremely preterm. METHODS: Parents of 30 term children aged 36-42 mo completed the ASQ and the children underwent the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scales of Intelligence...

  8. Patient-Reported Outcome (PRO) questionnaires for young-aged to middle-aged adults with hip and groin disability

    Thorborg, K.; Tijssen, M.; Habets, B.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIM: To recommend Patient-Reported Outcome (PRO) questionnaires to measure hip and groin disability in young-aged to middle-aged adults. METHODS: A systematic review was performed in June 2014. The methodological quality of the studies included was determined using the COnsensus......-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments list (COSMIN) together with standardised evaluations of measurement properties of each PRO. RESULTS: Twenty studies were included. Nine different questionnaires for patients with hip disability, and one for hip and groin disability, were...

  9. The Inextricable Link between Age and Criminal History in Sentencing

    Bushway, Shawn D.; Piehl, Anne Morrison

    2007-01-01

    In sentencing research, significant negative coefficients on age research have been interpreted as evidence that actors in the criminal justice system discriminate against younger people. This interpretation is incomplete. Criminal sentencing laws generally specify punishment in terms of the number of past events in a defendant's criminal history.…

  10. Physical Activity and Adiposity Markers at Older Ages: Accelerometer Vs Questionnaire Data

    Sabia, Séverine; Cogranne, Pol; van Hees, Vincent T.; Bell, Joshua A.; Elbaz, Alexis; Kivimaki, Mika; Singh-Manoux, Archana

    2015-01-01

    Objective Physical activity is critically important for successful aging, but its effect on adiposity markers at older ages is unclear as much of the evidence comes from self-reported data on physical activity. We assessed the associations of questionnaire-assessed and accelerometer-assessed physical activity with adiposity markers in older adults. Design/Setting/Participants This was a cross-sectional study on 3940 participants (age range 60-83 years) of the Whitehall II study who completed a 20-item physical activity questionnaire and wore a wrist-mounted accelerometer for 9 days in 2012 and 2013. Measurements Total physical activity was estimated using metabolic equivalent hours/week for the questionnaire and mean acceleration for the accelerometer. Time spent in moderate-and-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was also assessed by questionnaire and accelerometer. Adiposity assessment included body mass index, waist circumference, and fat mass index. Fat mass index was calculated as fat mass/height² (kg/m²), with fat mass estimated using bioimpedance. Results Greater total physical activity was associated with lower adiposity for all adiposity markers in a dose-response manner. In men, the strength of this association was 2.4 to 2.8 times stronger with the accelerometer than with questionnaire data. In women, it was 1.9 to 2.3 times stronger. For MVPA, questionnaire data in men suggested no further benefit for adiposity markers past 1 hour/week of activity. This was not the case for accelerometer-assessed MVPA where, for example, compared with men undertaking physical activity with adiposity markers in older adults was stronger when physical activity was assessed by accelerometer compared with questionnaire, suggesting that physical activity might be more important for adiposity than previously estimated. PMID:25752539

  11. Parental questionnaire as a screening instrument for motor function at age five

    Nordbye-Nielsen, Kirsten; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler

    2014-01-01

    , Pearson’s χ2-test, logistic regression analyses and sensitivity and specificity were used to assess the correlation between the questionnaire and the M-ABC test. Results: The best screening tool was six questions in combination: sensitivity 39.8%, specificity 87.1%. Asking if a health professional ever......Introduction: No standardised method is used to determine motor function in children in general practice in Denmark. Our aim was to evaluate the correlation between a parental questionnaire assessing motor function at the age of five years and the clinical test Movement Assessment Battery...... for Children (M-ABC), and to assess whether one or more questions could be used to screen for motor problems at the age of five years. Methods: This study was based on a parental questionnaire containing ten questions. The M-ABC was used as the gold standard. n = 755 children. The Mann-Whitney rank sum test...

  12. Developmental Screening Using the Ages and Stages Questionnaire: Standardized versus Real-World Conditions

    San Antonio, Marianne C.; Fenick, Ada M.; Shabanova, Veronika; Leventhal, John M.; Weitzman, Carol C.

    2014-01-01

    Developmental screens are often used in nonstandardized conditions, such as pediatric waiting rooms, despite validation under standardized conditions. We examined the reproducibility of the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ), a developmental screening instrument commonly used in pediatric practices, under standardized versus nonstandardized…

  13. Telomere biology in aging and cancer: early history and perspectives.

    Hayashi, Makoto T

    2018-01-20

    The ends of eukaryotic linear chromosomes are protected from undesired enzymatic activities by a nucleoprotein complex called the telomere. Expanding evidence indicates that telomeres have central functions in human aging and tumorigenesis. While it is undoubtedly important to follow current advances in telomere biology, it is also fruitful to be well informed in seminal historical studies for a comprehensive understanding of telomere biology, and for the anticipation of future directions. With this in mind, I here summarize the early history of telomere biology and current advances in the field, mostly focusing on mammalian studies relevant to aging and cancer.

  14. Ages and stages questionnaires: adaptation to an Arabic speaking population and cultural sensitivity.

    Charafeddine, Lama; Sinno, Durriyah; Ammous, Farah; Yassin, Walid; Al-Shaar, Laila; Mikati, Mohamad A

    2013-09-01

    Early detection of developmental delay is essential to initiate early intervention. The Ages and Stages Questionnaires (ASQ) correlate well with physician's assessment and have high predictive value. No such tool exists in Arabic. Translate and test the applicability and reliability of Arabic translated Ages and Stages Questionnaires (A-ASQ) in an Arabic speaking population. 733 healthy children were assessed. ASQ-II for 10 age groups (4-60 months) were translated to Arabic, back translations and cultural adaptation were performed. Test-retest reliability and internal consistency were evaluated using Pearson Correlation Coefficient (CC) and Cronbach's alpha (Cα). Mean scores per domain were compared to US normative scores using t-test. A-ASQ, after culturally relevant adaptations, was easily administered for 4-36 months age groups but not for 4-5 year old due to numerous cultural differences in the later. For the 4-36 month age groups Pearson CC ranged from 0.345 to 0.833. The internal consistency coefficients Cα scores ranged from 0.111 to 0.816. Significant differences were found in the mean domain scores of all age groups between Lebanese and US normative sample (p-value internal consistency and reliability in the younger age groups. It proved to be culturally sensitive, which should be taken into consideration when adapting such tool to non-western populations. Copyright © 2013 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Diagnosing Sexual Dysfunction in Men and Women: Sexual History Taking and the Role of Symptom Scales and Questionnaires.

    Hatzichristou, Dimitris; Kirana, Paraskevi-Sofia; Banner, Linda; Althof, Stanley E; Lonnee-Hoffmann, Risa A M; Dennerstein, Lorraine; Rosen, Raymond C

    2016-08-01

    A detailed sexual history is the cornerstone for all sexual problem assessments and sexual dysfunction diagnoses. Diagnostic evaluation is based on an in-depth sexual history, including sexual and gender identity and orientation, sexual activity and function, current level of sexual function, overall health and comorbidities, partner relationship and interpersonal factors, and the role of cultural and personal expectations and attitudes. To propose key steps in the diagnostic evaluation of sexual dysfunctions, with special focus on the use of symptom scales and questionnaires. Critical assessment of the current literature by the International Consultation on Sexual Medicine committee. A revised algorithm for the management of sexual dysfunctions, level of evidence, and recommendation for scales and questionnaires. The International Consultation on Sexual Medicine proposes an updated algorithm for diagnostic evaluation of sexual dysfunction in men and women, with specific recommendations for sexual history taking and diagnostic evaluation. Standardized scales, checklists, and validated questionnaires are additional adjuncts that should be used routinely in sexual problem evaluation. Scales developed for specific patient groups are included. Results of this evaluation are presented with recommendations for clinical and research uses. Defined principles, an algorithm and a range of scales may provide coherent and evidence based management for sexual dysfunctions. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Reproductive history, socioeconomic status and disability in the women aged 65 years or older in Turkey.

    Akin, Belgin; Ege, Emel; Koçoğlu, Deniz; Arslan, Selda Y; Bilgili, Naile

    2010-01-01

    Pregnancy and childbirth are an important physiological and emotional phenomenon in their lives for most women and studies have shown that this process may have a significant impact on their health at later ages. The objective of the study is to examine the relationship between functional disabilities in women over the age of 65 and their reproductive history and socioeconomic status. This is a cross-sectional study. The study group consisted of 543 women aged 65 or over. A general questionnaire and the Brief Disability Questionnaire (BDQ) were used to collect data with face-to-face interview in home visits. Of the women 79.2% have disability. First childbirth was experienced at the average age of 19.6+/-3.3 and the average age at which the women experienced their last delivery was 32.5+/-6.3. Parity was 4.1+/-1.7. Advanced age, being widowed and illiterate, less income, being outside of the middle class and having more than four children are important determinants for later life disability. The study highlights the importance of focusing not just on the short-term effects of childbearing and socioeconomic factors, but also of taking into account the possibility of long-term effects on disability in older women.

  17. Study on the perception of orthodontic treatment according to age: A questionnaire survey.

    Kim, Yoonji

    2017-07-01

    This questionnaire study aimed to estimate the overall frequencies of positive perception towards orthodontic treatment among adults categorized according to age, sex, and area of living, and to identify barriers or negative perceptions preventing them from receiving orthodontic treatment. The participants included 598 adults aged over 20 years (230 men and 368 women) who visited the Dental Hospital of Seoul St. Mary's Hospital. The participants' opinions regarding their consideration of receiving orthodontic treatment were recorded using a specially designed questionnaire. The overall rate of positive perception towards orthodontic treatment was 48.5%. Compared to adults in their 20s (63.2%), those in their 40s and 50s had a lower percentage of interest in orthodontic treatment (46.2% and 45.1%, respectively; p orthodontic treatment. The middle-aged had a relatively high percentage of interest (above 45%) in orthodontic treatment. However, demographic characteristics were not significantly associated with the positive interest. These results highlight the need for educating the middle-aged about the limitations and possibilities of orthodontic treatment to increase its acceptance.

  18. Validity and Reliability of the Questionnaire for Assessing Women’s Reproductive History in Azar Cohort Study

    Mohammad Zakaria Pezeshki

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was done to evaluate the validity and reliability of women’s reproductive history questionnaire which will be used in Azar Cohort study; a cohort that is conducted by Tabriz University of Medical Science in Shabestar county for identifying risk factors of no communicable diseases. Content and face validity were evaluated by ten experts in the field and quantified as content validity index (CVI and content validity ratio (CVR. To assess the reliability, using test-retest approach, kappa statistic was calculated for categorical variables and intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC was used for the quantitative items. The calculated CVI and CVR were 0.91and 0.94, respectively. Reliability for all items was high. The ICC was 0.99 and kappa statistic was equal to 1. The final version of questionnaire was redesigned in 26 items with 7 subscales.

  19. Cross-sectional validation of the Aging Perceptions Questionnaire: a multidimensional instrument for assessing self-perceptions of aging.

    Barker, Maja

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Self-perceptions of aging have been implicated as independent predictors of functional disability and mortality in older adults. In spite of this, research on self-perceptions of aging is limited. One reason for this is the absence of adequate measures. Specifically, there is a need to develop a measure that is theoretically-derived, has good psychometric properties, and is multidimensional in nature. The present research seeks to address this need by adopting the Self-Regulation Model as a framework and using it to develop a comprehensive, multi-dimensional instrument for assessing self-perceptions of aging. This study describes the validation of this newly-developed instrument, the Aging Perceptions Questionnaire (APQ). METHODS: Participants were 2,033 randomly selected community-dwelling older (+65 yrs) Irish adults who completed the APQ alongside measures of physical and psychological health. The APQ assesses self-perceptions of aging along eight distinct domains or subscales; seven of these examine views about own aging, these are: timeline chronic, timeline cyclical, consequences positive, consequences negative, control positive, control negative, and emotional representations; the eighth domain is the identity domain and this examines the experience of health-related changes. RESULTS: Mokken scale analysis showed that the majority of items within the views about aging subscales were strongly scalable. Confirmatory factor analysis also indicated that the model provided a good fit for the data. Overall, subscales had good internal reliabilities. Hierarchical linear regression was conducted to investigate the independent contribution of APQ subscales to physical and psychological health and in doing so determine the construct validity of the APQ. Results showed that self-perceptions of aging were independently related to physical and psychological health. Mediation testing also supported a role for self-perceptions of aging as partial mediators in

  20. The history and illustration of anatomy in the Middle Ages.

    Gurunluoglu, Raffi; Gurunluoglu, Aslin; Williams, Susan A; Cavdar, Safiye

    2013-11-01

    This article reviews the influence of key figures on the pictorial representation of anatomy and the evolution of anatomical illustration during the Middle Ages until the time of the Renaissance, based on medical history books, journals and ancient medical books. During the early period in the Middle Ages, most illustrations were traditional drawings of emblematic nature, oftentimes unrealistic, not only because the precise knowledge of anatomy was lacking but also because the objective was to elucidate certain principles for teaching purposes. Five figure-series that came down to us through ancient manuscripts and textbooks represent the best examples of such traditional illustrations. With the advent of human dissection in the 13th and 14th centuries, a significant transformation in the depiction of anatomy began to project the practice of human dissection, as we see in the works of Mondino de Luzzi, Henri de Mondeville and Guido de Vigevano. After the invention of book printing in the second half of the 15th century, the reproduction of books was commonly practised and the woodcut made multiplication of pictures easier. Peter of Abano, Hieronymous Brunschwig, Johannes de Ketham, Johannes Peyligk, Gregory Reisch, Magnus Hundt, Laurentius Phryesen and many more included several anatomical illustrations in their treatises that demonstrated the development of anatomical illustration during the later Middle Ages.

  1. Psychometric properties of the Farsi version of Attitudes to Aging Questionnaire in Iranian older adults

    Rejeh N

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Nahid Rejeh,1 Majideh Heravi-Karimooi,1 Mojtaba Vaismoradi,2 Pauline Griffiths,3 Maryam Nikkhah,4 Tahereh Bahrami4 1Elderly Care Research Centre, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran; 2Faculty of Nursing and Health Sciences, Nord University, Bodø, Norway; 3College of Human and Health Sciences, Swansea University, Swansea, UK; 4Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran Background: Attitudes to the aging process are affected by the individual’s sociocultural background. The measurement of this important concept among older people in various societies requires the use of tools that are able to demonstrate both reliability and validity.Objective: The objectives of this study were to translate and validate the Attitudes to Aging Questionnaire (AAQ and investigate its psychometric features among Iranian older people.Methods: In this methodological study, the Farsi version of the AAQ was validated among 400 Iranian older adults who were members of citizen clubs in an urban area of Iran. Content, face and construct (exploratory factor analysis validities of the AAQ were assessed. In addition, its reliability was assessed in terms of internal consistency and stability. For discriminant validity, the discriminant power of the AAQ in terms of gender and education levels was evaluated. Criterion validity showed a significant correlation between the most subscales of the AAQ and the Short Form 36 (SF-36 and World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL questionnaires. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used for data analysis.Results: The exploratory factor analysis confirmed the construct validity of the AAQ. The result of the test–retest reliability with a 2-week interval was satisfactory and reported as r=0.90 (p<0.001. The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was reported as 0.75 for the whole instrument and 0.85–0.93 for its dimensions. There were associations between the AAQ subscales

  2. Family history of alcohol and drug abuse, childhood trauma, and age of first drug injection.

    Taplin, Chris; Saddichha, Sahoo; Li, Kathy; Krausz, Michael R

    2014-08-01

    Childhood maltreatment may lead to development of future substance use; however the contributions of a family history of substance use is unclear. To better understand the relationship between childhood abuse, family history of alcohol and drug abuse, and injecting drug use initiation in a cohort of chronic opioid users. A cross-sectional survey of long-term and difficult to treat intravenous opiate users of the North American Opiate Medication Initiative (NAOMI) cohort was conducted in two Canadian cities (Vancouver and Montreal). For the analysis, we selected a subsample (n = 87) of the population reported experiencing childhood abuse and completed a 12-month follow up. The sample was 41.4% female and 14.9% First Nations, with a mean age of 38 years. This sample then completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and the Addiction Severity Index (ASI) beside others. Maternal alcohol and drug use was significantly associated with childhood sexual abuse, emotional abuse, and physical neglect. Paternal alcohol and drug use was significantly associated with childhood physical abuse. Increased severity of all types of childhood trauma was related to an earlier age of first injection. CONCLUSIONS/IMPORTANCE: Family history of drug and alcohol use is strongly associated with childhood trauma, which may, in turn, lead to an earlier initiation to the dangerous routes of drug injection.

  3. Validation of a Dietary History Questionnaire against a 7-D Weighed Record for Estimating Nutrient Intake among Rural Elderly Malays.

    Shahar, S; Earland, J; Abdulrahman, S

    2000-03-01

    Energy and nutrient intake estimated using a pre-coded dietary history questionnaire (DHQ) was compared with results obtained from a 7-d weighed intake record (WI) in a group of 37 elderly Malays residing in rural areas of Mersing District, Johor, Malaysia to determine the validity of the DHQ. The DHQ consists of a pre-coded dietary history with a qualitative food frequency questionnaire which was developed to obtain information on food intake and usual dietary habits. The 7-d WI requires subjects to weigh each food immediately before eating and to weigh any leftovers. The medians of intake from the two methods were rather similar and varied by less than 30% for every nutrient, except for vitamin C (114%). For most of the nutrients, analysis of group means using the Wilcoxon matched pairs signed rank sum test showed no significant difference between the estimation of intake from the DHQ and from the WI, with the exceptions of vitamin C and niacin. The DHQ significantly overestimated the intake of vitamin C compared to the WI (ppopulation with a high prevalence of illiteracy, a specially designed DHQ can provide very similar estimations to that obtained from 7-d WI.

  4. Parental questionnaire as a screening instrument for motor function at age five.

    Nordbye-Nielsen, Kirsten; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler

    2014-12-01

    No standardised method is used to determine motor function in children in general practice in Denmark. Our aim was to evaluate the correlation between a parental questionnaire assessing motor function at the age of five years and the clinical test Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC), and to assess whether one or more questions could be used to screen for motor problems at the age of five years. This study was based on a parental questionnaire containing ten questions. The M-ABC was used as the gold standard. n = 755 children. The Mann-Whitney rank sum test, Pearson's χ(2)-test, logistic regression analyses and sensitivity and specificity were used to assess the correlation between the questionnaire and the M-ABC test. The best screening tool was six questions in combination: sensitivity 39.8%, specificity 87.1%. Asking if a health professional ever expressed concern about the childs motor development had a sensitivity of 17.0% and a specificity of 93.9%. A parental questionnaire used as a screening instrument to identify children with motor problems has a reasonable specificity, but a low sensitivity. The six questions can be used to identify children who do not have motor function difficulties with a relatively high certainty, and it can fairly well identify children with motor function problems. This study was primarily supported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Atlanta, Georgia, USA. Additional support was obtained from The Danish Health and Medicines Authority, the Lundbeck Foundation, Ludvig & Daara Elsass Foundation, the Augustinus Foundation, and Aase & Ejnar Danielsens Foundation. The Danish National Research Foundation has established the Danish Epidemiology Science Centre that initiated and created the Danish National Birth Cohort. The cohort is furthermore a result of a major grant from this Foundation. Additional support for the Danish National Birth Cohort is obtained from the Pharmacy Foundation, the Egmont

  5. The Comparative Reliability and Feasibility of the Past-Year Canadian Diet History Questionnaire II: Comparison of the Paper and Web Versions.

    Lo Siou, Geraldine; Csizmadi, Ilona; Boucher, Beatrice A; Akawung, Alianu K; Whelan, Heather K; Sharma, Michelle; Al Rajabi, Ala; Vena, Jennifer E; Kirkpatrick, Sharon I; Koushik, Anita; Massarelli, Isabelle; Rondeau, Isabelle; Robson, Paula J

    2017-02-13

    Advances in technology-enabled dietary assessment include the advent of web-based food frequency questionnaires, which may reduce costs and researcher burden but may introduce new challenges related to internet connectivity and computer literacy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the intra- and inter-version reliability, feasibility and acceptability of the paper and web Canadian Diet History Questionnaire II (CDHQ-II) in a sub-sample of 648 adults (aged 39-81 years) recruited from Alberta's Tomorrow Project. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two groups: (1) paper, web, paper; or (2) web, paper, web over a six-week period. With few exceptions, no statistically significant differences in mean nutrient intake were found in the intra- and inter-version reliability analyses. The majority of participants indicated future willingness to complete the CDHQ-II online, and 59% indicated a preference for the web over the paper version. Findings indicate that, in this population of adults drawn from an existing cohort, the CDHQ-II may be administered in paper or web modalities (increasing flexibility for questionnaire delivery), and the nutrient estimates obtained with either version are comparable. We recommend that other studies explore the feasibility and reliability of different modes of administration of dietary assessment instruments prior to widespread implementation.

  6. The Comparative Reliability and Feasibility of the Past-Year Canadian Diet History Questionnaire II: Comparison of the Paper and Web Versions

    Lo Siou, Geraldine; Csizmadi, Ilona; Boucher, Beatrice A.; Akawung, Alianu K.; Whelan, Heather K.; Sharma, Michelle; Al Rajabi, Ala; Vena, Jennifer E.; Kirkpatrick, Sharon I.; Koushik, Anita; Massarelli, Isabelle; Rondeau, Isabelle; Robson, Paula J.

    2017-01-01

    Advances in technology-enabled dietary assessment include the advent of web-based food frequency questionnaires, which may reduce costs and researcher burden but may introduce new challenges related to internet connectivity and computer literacy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the intra- and inter-version reliability, feasibility and acceptability of the paper and web Canadian Diet History Questionnaire II (CDHQ-II) in a sub-sample of 648 adults (aged 39–81 years) recruited from Alberta’s Tomorrow Project. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two groups: (1) paper, web, paper; or (2) web, paper, web over a six-week period. With few exceptions, no statistically significant differences in mean nutrient intake were found in the intra- and inter-version reliability analyses. The majority of participants indicated future willingness to complete the CDHQ-II online, and 59% indicated a preference for the web over the paper version. Findings indicate that, in this population of adults drawn from an existing cohort, the CDHQ-II may be administered in paper or web modalities (increasing flexibility for questionnaire delivery), and the nutrient estimates obtained with either version are comparable. We recommend that other studies explore the feasibility and reliability of different modes of administration of dietary assessment instruments prior to widespread implementation. PMID:28208819

  7. Age influence on attitudes of office workers faced with new computerized technologies: a questionnaire analysis.

    Marquié, J C; Thon, B; Baracat, B

    1994-06-01

    The study of Bue and Gollac (1988) provided evidence that a significantly lower proportion of workers aged 45 years and over make use of computer technology compared with younger ones. The aim of the present survey was to explain this fact by a more intensive analysis of the older workers' attitude with respect to the computerization of work situations in relation to other individual and organizational factors. Six hundred and twenty office workers from 18 to 70 years old, either users or non-users of computerized devices, were asked to complete a questionnaire. The questions allowed the assessment of various aspects of the workers' current situation, such as the computer training they had received, the degree of consultation they were subjected to during the computerization process, their representation of the effects of these new technologies on working conditions and employment, the rate of use of new technologies outside the work context, and the perceived usefulness of computers for their own work. The analysis of the questionnaire revealed that as long as the step towards using computer tools, even minimally, has not been taken, then attitudes with respect to computerization are on the whole not very positive and are a source of anxiety for many workers. Age, and even more, seniority in the department, increase such negative representations. The effects of age and seniority were also found among users, as well as the effects of other factors such as qualification, education level, type and rate of computer use, and size of the firm. For the older workers, the expectation of less positive consequences for their career, or even the fear that computerization might be accompanied by threats to their own employment and the less clear knowledge of how computers operate, appeared to account for a significant part of the observed age and seniority differences in attitudes. Although the difference in the amount of computer training between age groups was smaller than

  8. The sensitivity and specificity of the social communication questionnaire for autism spectrum with respect to age.

    Barnard-Brak, Lucy; Brewer, Adam; Chesnut, Steven; Richman, David; Schaeffer, Anna Marie

    2016-08-01

    The age neutrality of the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) was examined as a common screener for ASD. Mixed findings have been reported regarding the recommended cutoff score's ability to accurately classify an individual as at-risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (sensitivity) versus accurately classifying an individual as not at-risk for ASD (specificity). With a sample from the National Database for Autism Research, this study examined the SCQ's sensitivity versus specificity. Analyses indicated that the actual sensitivity and specificity scores were lower than initially reported by the creators of the SCQ. Autism Res 2016, 9: 838-845. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Validation and clinical utility of a bowel habit questionnaire in school-age children.

    Wald, Ellen R; Jagodzinski, Tanya D; Moyer, Stacey C L; Wald, Arnold; Eickhoff, Jens C; Edmonson, M Bruce

    2011-11-01

    The aim of the study was to validate a brief Bowel Habit Questionnaire (BHQ) with prospectively obtained data from a 14-day diary and to determine whether the BHQ predicts the development of medically significant constipation (MSC) during the following year. The BHQ was distributed to parents of children ages 5 to 8 years during health supervision visits. Both the BHQ and subsequent diary were scored to indicate constipation if at least 2 of the following were reported: infrequent bowel movements, stool accidents, straining, avoidance, discomfort with defecation, or passing large stools >25% of the time. One year later, the BHQ was repeated to assess for MSC, defined as medical encounters about constipation or use of enemas, suppositories, laxatives, or stool softeners. MSC was reported for 57 (13.7%) of 416 children on the first BHQ. Paired BHQ and diary data were obtained for 269 children; 54 (20.1%) had diary scores indicating constipation. BHQ had a sensitivity of 59.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] 46.7%-71.4%) and a specificity of 82.6% (95% CI 77.0%-87.1%). One year later, 11 children (5.2%) had developed new-onset MSC; 7 (63.6%) of these children had initial BHQ scores of at least 2. Positive and negative predictive values for MSC were 19.4% (95% CI 9.8%-35.0%) and 97.7% (94.2%-99.1%), respectively. Parents often do not recognize constipation in young school-age children and most constipated children remain untreated. A brief screening questionnaire in this population proved to be valid but only moderately sensitive; efforts to improve sensitivity are needed before recommending it for routine use.

  10. In mortal hands. A cautionary history of the nuclear age

    Cooke, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    This provocative history of nuclear power is perfectly timed. Americans are gravely concerned with nuclear terrorism even as a nuclear renaissance is seen as a possible solution to global warming. Few have truly come to terms with the complexities of an issue that may determine the future of the planet. It was once hoped nuclear weapons would bring wars to an end. Instead they spurred a massive arms race that has recently expanded to include North Korea and Iran. Once seen as a source of unlimited electricity, nuclear reactors breed contamination and have been used as covers for secret weapons programs from India and Pakistan to Iraq and Iran. The evolving story of nuclear power, as told by industry insider Stephanie Cooke, reveals the gradual deepening of our understanding of the pros and cons of this controversial energy source. Drawing on her unprecedented access, Cooke shows us how, time and again, the stewards of the nuclear age - the more-is-better military commanders and civilian nuclear boosters - have fallen into the traps of their own hubris and wishful thinking as they tried to manage the unmanageable. Their mistakes are on the verge of being repeated again, which is why this book deserves especially close attention.

  11. PAR-Q & YOU Questionnaire and cardiovascular history of elderly patients on dialysis engaged in physical activity

    Jorge Enrique Moreno-Collazos

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: During the last few years, physical activity has become a therapeutic tool and a protective mechanism for the elderly; it reduces cardiovascular risk in patients undergoing different types of dialysis and receiving palliative care. Objective: The aim of this study was to establish the inclusion criteria for a therapeutic physical activity program through the use of the PAR-Q & YOU Questionnaire with elderly patients treated with different types of hemodialysis, and to relate it with cardiovascular risk factors. Methods: Pearson's chi-squared test was used to determine the possible association among variables, considering the medical history and discomfort caused by physical activity against the results of PAR-Q & YOU. Binary logistic regression was used with the variables in the chi-squared test. Conclusions: Through logistic regression, we found that cardiovascular history was 10.44 times more significant to establish the relevance of the PAR-Q & YOU as a basic assessment instrument for the inclusion in a physical activity program which is part of a physiotherapy-led renal rehabilitation.

  12. Teaching History in a Post-Industrial Age

    Bianchetti, Ann

    2004-01-01

    As a social studies teacher, the author emphasizes the story of history (sticking to the facts as much as they are known) and the human qualities of the players. Middle school kids are in the throes of exploring self-identity and attempting to define their worlds. They love drama, and history provides plenty of it. The author finds that teaching…

  13. Psychometric Analysis of the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire-R18V2 in Adolescent and Young Adult-Aged Central Nervous System Tumor Survivors.

    Swartz, Maria C; Basen-Engquist, Karen M; Markham, Christine; Lyons, Elizabeth J; Cox, Matthew; Chandra, Joya; Ater, Joann L; Askins, Martha A; Scheurer, Michael E; Lupo, Philip J; Hill, Rachel; Murray, Jeffrey; Chan, Wenyaw; Swank, Paul R

    2016-09-01

    Adolescent and young adult (AYA)-aged central nervous system (CNS) tumor survivors are an understudied population that is at risk of developing adverse health outcomes, such as obesity. Long-term follow-up guidelines recommend monitoring those at risk of obesity, thus motivating the need for an eating behavior questionnaire. An abbreviated online version of the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ-R18v2) has been developed, but its applicability to this population is not yet known. This study investigated the instrument's factor structure and reliability in this population. AYA-aged CNS tumor survivors (n = 114) aged 15-39 years completed the TFEQ-R18V2 questionnaire online. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to examine the fit of the three-factor structure (uncontrollable eating, cognitive restraint, and emotional eating [EE]) and reliability (internal consistency of the TFEQ-R18v2). Associations between the three factors and body mass index (BMI) were assessed by linear regression. The theorized three-factor structure was supported in our population (RMSEA = 0.056 and CFI = 0.98) and demonstrated good reliability (α of 0.81-0.93). EE (β = 0.07, 95% CI 0.02-0.13) was positively associated with BMI, whereas the other two subscale scores were not. The TFEQ-R18v2 instrument holds promise for research and clinical use among AYA-aged CNS tumor survivors. The instrument may be a useful tool for researchers to develop tailored weight management strategies. It also may be a valuable tool for clinicians to monitor survivors who are at risk of obesity and to facilitate referral. Our results also suggest that EE in this population should be further investigated as a potential target for intervention.

  14. Systematically extracting metal- and solvent-related occupational information from free-text responses to lifetime occupational history questionnaires.

    Friesen, Melissa C; Locke, Sarah J; Tornow, Carina; Chen, Yu-Cheng; Koh, Dong-Hee; Stewart, Patricia A; Purdue, Mark; Colt, Joanne S

    2014-06-01

    Lifetime occupational history (OH) questionnaires often use open-ended questions to capture detailed information about study participants' jobs. Exposure assessors use this information, along with responses to job- and industry-specific questionnaires, to assign exposure estimates on a job-by-job basis. An alternative approach is to use information from the OH responses and the job- and industry-specific questionnaires to develop programmable decision rules for assigning exposures. As a first step in this process, we developed a systematic approach to extract the free-text OH responses and convert them into standardized variables that represented exposure scenarios. Our study population comprised 2408 subjects, reporting 11991 jobs, from a case-control study of renal cell carcinoma. Each subject completed a lifetime OH questionnaire that included verbatim responses, for each job, to open-ended questions including job title, main tasks and activities (task), tools and equipment used (tools), and chemicals and materials handled (chemicals). Based on a review of the literature, we identified exposure scenarios (occupations, industries, tasks/tools/chemicals) expected to involve possible exposure to chlorinated solvents, trichloroethylene (TCE) in particular, lead, and cadmium. We then used a SAS macro to review the information reported by study participants to identify jobs associated with each exposure scenario; this was done using previously coded standardized occupation and industry classification codes, and a priori lists of associated key words and phrases related to possibly exposed tasks, tools, and chemicals. Exposure variables representing the occupation, industry, and task/tool/chemicals exposure scenarios were added to the work history records of the study respondents. Our identification of possibly TCE-exposed scenarios in the OH responses was compared to an expert's independently assigned probability ratings to evaluate whether we missed identifying

  15. Clinical history and biologic age predicted falls better than objective functional tests.

    Gerdhem, Paul; Ringsberg, Karin A M; Akesson, Kristina; Obrant, Karl J

    2005-03-01

    Fall risk assessment is important because the consequences, such as a fracture, may be devastating. The objective of this study was to find the test or tests that best predicted falls in a population-based sample of elderly women. The fall-predictive ability of a questionnaire, a subjective estimate of biologic age and objective functional tests (gait, balance [Romberg and sway test], thigh muscle strength, and visual acuity) were compared in 984 randomly selected women, all 75 years of age. A recalled fall was the most important predictor for future falls. Only recalled falls and intake of psycho-active drugs independently predicted future falls. Women with at least five of the most important fall predictors (previous falls, conditions affecting the balance, tendency to fall, intake of psychoactive medication, inability to stand on one leg, high biologic age) had an odds ratio of 11.27 (95% confidence interval 4.61-27.60) for a fall (sensitivity 70%, specificity 79%). The more time-consuming objective functional tests were of limited importance for fall prediction. A simple clinical history, the inability to stand on one leg, and a subjective estimate of biologic age were more important as part of the fall risk assessment.

  16. The Ages and Stages Questionnaire and Neurodevelopmental Impairment in Two-Year-Old Preterm-Born Children

    Kerstjens, Jorien M.; Nijhuis, Ard; Hulzebos, Christian V.; van Imhoff, Deirdre E.; van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, Aleid G.; van Haastert, Ingrid C.; Lopriore, Enrico; Katgert, Titia; Swarte, Renate M.; van Lingen, Richard A.; Mulder, Twan L.; Laarman, Celeste R.; Steiner, Katerina; Dijk, Peter H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To test the ability of the Ages and Stages Questionnaire, Third Edition (ASQ3) to help identify or exclude neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) in very preterm-born children at the corrected age of two. Methods We studied the test results of 224 children, born at <32 postmenstrual weeks,

  17. The Ages and Stages Questionnaire and Neurodevelopmental Impairment in Two-Year-Old Preterm-Born Children

    Kerstjens, Jorien M.; Nijhuis, Ard; Hulzebos, Christian V.; van Imhoff, Deirdre E.; van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, Aleid G.; van Haastert, Ingrid C.; Lopriore, Enrico; Katgert, Titia; Swarte, Renate M.; van Lingen, Richard A.; Mulder, Twan L.; Laarman, Céleste R.; Steiner, Katerina; Dijk, Peter H.

    2015-01-01

    To test the ability of the Ages and Stages Questionnaire, Third Edition (ASQ3) to help identify or exclude neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) in very preterm-born children at the corrected age of two. We studied the test results of 224 children, born at <32 postmenstrual weeks, who had scores on

  18. [Predictive value of Ages & Stages Questionnaires for cognitive performance at early years of schooling].

    Schonhaut B, Luisa; Pérez R, Marcela; Castilla F, Ana María; Castro M, Sonia; Salinas A, Patricia; Armijo R, Iván

    2016-10-13

    The Ages and Stages questionnaires (ASQ) has been recently validated in our country for developmental screening. The objective of this study is evaluate the validity of ASQ to predict low cognitive performance in the early years of schooling. Diagnostic test studies conducted on a sample of children of medium-high socioeconomic level were evaluated using ASQ at least once at 8, 18 and/or 30 months old, and later, between 6 and 9 years old, reevaluated using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-third edition (WISC-III). Each ASQ evaluation was recorded independently. WISC-III was standardized, considering underperformance when the total score were under -1 standard deviation RESULTS: 123 children, corresponding to 174 ASQ assessments (42 of them were 8 months old, 55 were 18 months and 77 were 30 months of age) were included. An area under the ROC curve of 80.7% was obtained, showing higher values at 8 months (98.0%) compared to 18 and 30 months old (78.1 and 79.3%, respectively). Considering different ASQ scoring criteria, a low sensitivity (27.8 to 50.0%), but a high specificity (78.8 to 96.2%) were obtained; the positive predictive value ranged between 21 and 46%, while the negative value was 92.0-93.2%. ASQ has low sensitivity but excellent specificity to predict a low cognitive performance during the first years of schooling, being a good alternative to monitor psychomotor development in children who attend the private sector healthcare in our country. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Development and Initial Reliability Testing of NAK-50+: A Nutrition Attitude and Knowledge Questionnaire for Adults 50+ Years of Age.

    Ducak, Kate; Keller, Heather

    2016-03-01

    Few questionnaires to test nutrition knowledge and attitudes of older adults living independently in the community have been developed and tested to assess self-management tools such as Nutri-eSCREEN and other education programs. This study is a first step in the development of a questionnaire designed to evaluate the nutrition knowledge and attitudes of independent older adults (NAK-50+). The steps involved in this study were: (i) drafting initial questions based on the content of the Nutri-eSCREEN education material, (ii) using cognitive interviewing to determine if these questions were understandable and relevant (n = 9 adults ≥50 years of age), and (iii) completing test-retest reliability in a convenient community sample (n = 60 adults ≥50 years of age). Intra-class coefficients (ICC) and kappa were used to determine reliability. A 33-item questionnaire resulted from this development and analysis. ICC for the total score was 0.68 indicating good agreement and thus initial reliability. NAK-50+ is a face valid and reliable questionnaire that assesses nutrition knowledge and attitudes in independent adults aged ≥50 years. Further work to determine construct validity and to refine the questionnaire is warranted. Availability of the questionnaire for this age group will support rigorous evaluation of education and self-management interventions for this segment of the population.

  20. Meta-Analysis at Middle Age: A Personal History

    Glass, Gene V.

    2015-01-01

    The 40-year history of meta-analysis is traced from the vantage point of one of its originators. Research syntheses leading to the first examples of meta-analysis are identified. Early meta-analyses of the literature on psychotherapy outcomes and school class size are recounted. The influence on the development of meta-analysis of several…

  1. Haute Couture in the Bronze Age: A History of Minoan Female Costumes from Thera

    Nosch, Marie-Louise Bech

    2008-01-01

    Haute Couture in the Bronze Age from Thera is investigated via frescoes and with a historiographical approach on the reception of Minoan culture in contemporary Greek history......Haute Couture in the Bronze Age from Thera is investigated via frescoes and with a historiographical approach on the reception of Minoan culture in contemporary Greek history...

  2. [Active ageing and success: A brief history of conceptual models].

    Petretto, Donatella Rita; Pili, Roberto; Gaviano, Luca; Matos López, Cristina; Zuddas, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse and describe different conceptual models of successful ageing, active and healthy ageing developed in Europe and in America in the 20° century, starting from Rowe and Kahn's original model (1987, 1997). A narrative review was conducted on the literature on successful ageing. Our review included definition of successful ageing from European and American scholars. Models were found that aimed to describe indexes of active and healthy ageing, models devoted to describe processes involved in successful ageing, and additional views that emphasise subjective and objective perception of successful ageing. A description is also given of critiques on previous models and remedies according to Martin et al. (2014) and strategies for successful ageing according to Jeste and Depp (2014). The need is discussed for the enhancement of Rowe and Kahn's model and other models with a more inclusive, universal description of ageing, incorporating scientific evidence regarding active ageing. Copyright © 2015 SEGG. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Validity of the Fine Motor Area of the 12-Month Ages and Stages Questionnaire in Infants Following Major Surgery

    Smith, Cally; Wallen, Margaret; Walker, Karen; Bundy, Anita; Rolinson, Rachel; Badawi, Nadia

    2012-01-01

    The Ages and Stages Questionnaires (ASQ) are parent-report screening tools to identify infants at risk of developmental difficulties. The purpose of this study was to examine validity and internal reliability of the fine motor developmental area of the ASQ, 2nd edition (ASQ2-FM) for screening 12-month-old infants following major surgery. The…

  4. Ramble Bahamas: Pioneering Bahamian History & Culture in the Digital Age

    Jessica R. Dawson

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The digital humanities offer a unique vehicle for bridging the past and present. Interactive media formats encourage user engagement while maintaining the integrity of historical methodologies. Digital platforms enable audiences located far and wide to access information that is not easily available in print format. All these advantages carry special value for students, educators, and scholars who are investigating twentieth-century Bahamian history. Such audiences are met with a grave shortage of resources, whether in physical format or web-based format, which illuminate the Bahamian experience. The challenge of accessing resources confronts, in particular, audiences which are located within the Bahamian archipelago yet outside the central island of New Providence as well audiences that are located abroad. Ramble Bahamas seeks to remedy this deficit by providing a curated collection of easily accessible place-based exhibits in an innovative medium. Each geo-tagged exhibit includes a cohesive narrative which centers on the story of an historically significant site or object. Additional context is built through the inclusion of historical images, newspapers, other documents, and contemporary photographs. Select audio clips taken from oral history interviews with authoritative narrators are also featured within each exhibit to deepen the sense of place, further stimulate the sensory experience of the visitor, and extend each visitor's knowledge about events associated with the location and about circumstances prevailing during the era. Techniques for constructing the product include carrying out oral history interviews, conducting documentary and archival research, and performing audio-visual digitization and editing, as well as deploying and customizing the Omeka content management system powered by Curatescape.

  5. Component aging illustrated in maintenance histories from IPRDS

    Kahl, W.K.; Borkowski, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    The centerpiece of the In-Plant Reliability Data (IPRD) program is a nuclear power plant component data base developed from corrective maintenance records. The primary objective of this program is to establish a comprehensive source of information for reliability analyses, including the compilation of maintenance histories for failure statistics. The IPRD program is currently a pilot effort that has 36 reactor-years of data on pumps, valves, diesel generators, batteries, battery chargers and inverters from five nuclear plants. The data are collected under the auspices of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) to certify anonymity of the participating plants, and is funded by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission

  6. Octopus life history relative to age, in a multi-geared developmental fishery

    Leporati, S.C.; Hart, A.M.; Larsen, R.; Franken, Linda E; De Graaf, M.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to obtain broad-scale age information for an exploited octopus population enables the identification of essential life history information, such as age at maturity, recruitment pulses and seasonal effects on growth. This study uses stylet weight (reduced internal shell) as a proxy to age

  7. Road traffic offending, stress, age, and accident history among male and female drivers.

    Simon, F; Corbett, C

    1996-05-01

    This paper draws on data gathered during a larger study of driving behaviour to explore possible connections between stress, offending against the traffic laws, and accident rates, and gives particular attention to comparisons between male and female drivers. Data were gathered from 422 drivers by a postal questionnaire, and further measures of stress were obtained during semi-structured interviews with a specially selected subset of 66 of them. Analyses of variance investigated links between offending rates, accident history, and up to seven measures of stress, taking age and gender into account. In the results accident history, although positively related to offending, played little part in links involving stress variables. The principal findings were that (a) stress, both on and off the road, was positively associated with offending among both male and female drivers, and (b) although females overall offended less than males, females experienced more stress than males whatever their level of offending. One possible interpretation of these results is suggested by the feminist literature, which could account for both the higher levels of stress and lower levels of offending found among women drivers. However, there is unlikely to be a clear-cut gender divide in offending-stress relationships, and some small groups of female drivers in the study behaved like male ones. It is suggested that people's driving reflects their lifestyles, and that women drivers' patterns of offending and stress will resemble those of male drivers to the extent that their lives and concerns are similar to men's. It is concluded that this position warrants further research.

  8. Age, place of living and education influences the pregnancy universal thyroid function screening program attendance - questionnaire study.

    Milewicz, Tomasz; Zuk, Małgorzata; Stochmal, Ewa; Hubalewska-Dydejczyk, Alicja; Galicka-Latała, Danuta; Juszczyk, Leszek; Krzysiek, Józef

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess attendance at the universal screening programme for thyroid function in pregnancy and attempt to evaluate the influence of age, number of past pregnancies, level of education, and place of residence on the attendance. The study was performed by means of a questionnaire. Our study was performed on the basis of an anonymous questionnaire handed out to 543 women aged 16-45 years, on the third day of their puerperal stay in one of five obstetric wards in southern Poland. The questionnaire contained questions about participation in plasma level measurements of TSH, fT4, total T4, thyroid antibodies or thyroid ultrasound scanning at least once in pregnancy. The rate of attendance at any examination of thyroid function among pregnant women was 26.7%. The highest attendance rate (32.7%) was found among women living in provincial capitals or with higher education (41.3%), whereas the lowest was among women who had completed only primary school (11%) and those living in county towns (15%). The number of previous pregnancies did not influence the thyroid screening attendance. Women over 21 years of age participated in this screening programme more frequently (27.1-30%). Less than one third of pregnant women participated in the thyroid function screening. Place of living, education level, and age were the main factors influencing the attendance rate.

  9. Two-year follow-up study on neurodevelopmental outcomes after term intrapartum asphyxia using age and stages questionnaire.

    Keihani-Doust, Zarrin; Saeedi, Maryam; Esmaeilni, Tahere; Habibi, Massoud; Nazari, Seyed Saeed Hashemi

    2013-12-01

    Birth asphyxia is one of the multiple causes of neonatal encephalopathy. The objective of this study was to evaluate neurodevelopmental outcomes of newborn term infants with definitive asphyxia. Thirty infants met study criteria for asphyxia. The 5-year incidence of asphyxia was estimated to be 5.5 in 1000. According to the Age and Stage Questionnaire, 10.5% of 6-month-old infants, 14.3% of 12- and 18-month-old infants, and 5.3% of 24-month-old infants had neurodevelopmental delay in gross motor function in the absence of cerebral palsy. In 7.3% of 18-month-old infants, neurodevelopmental delay in problem-solving ability was observed. Higher values of Apgar score and bicarbonate levels were associated with higher Age and Stage Questionnaire total score. Delivery type, maternal age, gravidity of mother, and existence of mother disease during pregnancy were also associated with lower Age and Stage Questionnaire total score in different stages of life.

  10. An audit comparing the discrepancies between a verbal enquiry, a written history, and an electronic medical history questionnaire: a suggested medical history/social history form for clinical practice.

    Carey, Barbara

    2011-04-01

    In everyday practice, dentists are confronted with an increasing number of patients with complex medical problems. There is divergence of opinion among dentists regarding how to obtain a thorough medical\\/social history.

  11. Development and Psychometric Testing of a Novel Food Service Satisfaction Questionnaire for Food Service Staff of Aged Care Homes.

    Miller, M; Hamilton, J; Scupham, R; Matwiejczyk, L; Prichard, I; Farrer, O; Yaxley, A

    2018-01-01

    Food service staff are integral to delivery of quality food in aged care homes yet measurement of their satisfaction is unable to be performed due to an absence of a valid and reliable questionnaire. The aim of this study was to develop and perform psychometric testing for a new Food Service Satisfaction Questionnaire developed in Australia specifically for use by food service staff working in residential aged care homes (Flinders FSSQFSAC). A mixed methods design utilizing both a qualitative (in-depth interviews, focus groups) and a quantitative approach (cross sectional survey) was used. Content validity was determined from focus groups and interviews with food service staff currently working in aged care homes, related questionnaires from the literature and consultation with an expert panel. The questionnaire was tested for construct validity and internal consistency using data from food service staff currently working in aged care homes that responded to an electronic invitation circulated to Australian aged care homes using a national database of email addresses. Construct validity was tested via principle components analysis and internal consistency through Cronbach's alpha. Temporal stability of the questionnaire was determined from food service staff undertaking the Flinders FSSQFSAC on two occasions, two weeks apart, and analysed using Pearson's correlations. Content validity for the Flinders FSSQFSAC was established from a panel of experts and stakeholders. Principle components analysis revealed food service staff satisfaction was represented by 61-items divided into eight domains: job satisfaction (α=0.832), food quality (α=0.871), staff training (α=0.922), consultation (α=0.840), eating environment (α=0.777), reliability (α=0.695), family expectations (α=0.781) and resident relationships (α=0.429), establishing construct validity in all domains, and internal consistency in all (α>0.5) except for "resident relationships" (α=0.429). Test

  12. From the Axial Age to the New Age: Religion as a Dynamic of World History.

    Tucker, Carlton H.

    In order to broaden student understanding of past and contemporary situations, the world history survey course needs to consider religion as a vehicle through which history moves. The course proposal includes prehistory and paleolithic times to contemporary Islamic culture. The course is thematic and comparative in orientation, but moves through…

  13. Daily life historyasmodern direction of urban history of Englandof High Middle Ages

    O. S. Okhrimenko

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Historiographical review of recent research is an important aspect of the scientific study of the problems of medieval urban history of England. In 2000s there was marked the beginning of years of studying the history of everyday of medieval towns. The most important works in this field are the studies of Professor C. Dyer. Studying the history of everyday life of the city the researcher has identified as «standards of living». One of the modern directions of the history of everyday life is a history of food. There is the significant research of Professor M. Carlin on the history of English feasting of urban residents of the Middle Ages. In the article Fast food and urban living standards in medieval England, she looked anew at the narrative sources XII-XIV centuries. Another area of daily life history is a history of clothes (fashion. L. A. Wilson in his work De novo modo: The birth of fashion in the Middle Ages analyzes comprehensively the written, visual, and archaeological evidence. Modern interpretations of medieval hygiene (including sanitation of medieval towns related to research in the area of a history body. Its appointed destination for British urban sources dealing D. Jorgensen, D. Keene, U. Ewert, G. Geltner, J. Lee etc. They revised the traditional view medievalists of the nineteenth century. At the present period the historiography of medieval towns of England are mostly social history. Towards the history of everyday life there is a tendency to positive characteristics of urban life in the English Middle Ages. Contemporary scholars refer to the current trends in the world. Active urbanization processes forced researchers to seek appeal of such a way of life in previous centuries, particularly in the Middle Ages. The key features of everyday modern city (commercialization, fast food, fashion, high standards of hygiene etc. historians find their roots in the past.

  14. Baking, ageing, diabetes: a short history of the Maillard reaction.

    Hellwig, Michael; Henle, Thomas

    2014-09-22

    The reaction of reducing carbohydrates with amino compounds described in 1912 by Louis-Camille Maillard is responsible for the aroma, taste, and appearance of thermally processed food. The discovery that non-enzymatic conversions also occur in organisms led to intensive investigation of the pathophysiological significance of the Maillard reaction in diabetes and ageing processes. Dietary Maillard products are discussed as "glycotoxins" and thus as a nutritional risk, but also increasingly with regard to positive effects in the human body. In this Review we give an overview of the most important discoveries in Maillard research since it was first described and show that the complex reaction, even after over one hundred years, has lost none of its interdisciplinary actuality. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. The validation of a French-language version of the Aging Perceptions Questionnaire (APQ) and its extension to a population aged 55 and over

    Ingrand, Isabelle

    2012-04-30

    AbstractBackgroundSeveral studies have shown the influence of the perceptions of aging on the cognitive functioning and the mental and physical health of older people. These relationships have not to date been studied in France where validated instruments are lacking. The primary objective of this study was to validate a French-language version of the Aging Perceptions Questionnaire (APQ) in the French general population aged 65 and over. The secondary objective was to study the stability of the dimensions of this instrument among participants aged 55 to 64.MethodsThe study was proposed to the cohort of the Observatoire Régional du Vieillissement (OPREVI) (observatory of aging), located in a small town in Poitou-Charentes (western France). An anonymous questionnaire including the APQ was sent by mail to inhabitants aged 55 and over. The original English language APQ was described with adults aged 65 and older. It has 32 items distributed on 7 dimensions: timeline chronic and cyclical, positive and negative consequences, positive and negative control and emotional representations.Results656 adults participated in this survey (286 men, 370 women). Among those aged 65 and over (n = 394), the seven-factor structure estimated by confirmatory factor analysis was coherent with original findings. Internal consistency as evaluated by Cronbach alpha, was between 0.83 for consequences negative and 0.52 for control negative. Several dimensions were strongly correlated. Among participants aged 55 to 64 (n = 262), the same factorial model yielded an acceptable fit. Multi-group confirmatory factor analysis concluded to approximate factorial invariance between the two age groups with a null delta in comparative fit index.ConclusionThis study among French people aged 65 and over, added further evidence of the multidimensional structure of the French version of the APQ which is superimposed to the dimensions of the original Irish version. The same factorial structure

  16. Validation of the translated Oxford ankle foot questionnaire in 82 Danish children aged between five and 16 years.

    Martinkevich, P; Møller-Madsen, B; Gottliebsen, M; Kjeldgaard Pedersen, L; Rahbek, O

    2015-03-01

    We present the validation of a translation into Danish of the Oxford ankle foot questionnaire (OxAFQ). We followed the Isis Pros guidelines for translation and pilot-tested the questionnaire on ten children and their parents. Following modifications we tested the validity of the final questionnaire on 82 children (36 boys and 45 girls) with a mean age of 11.7 years (5.5 to 16.0) and their parents. We tested the reliability (repeatability (test-retest), child-parent agreement, internal consistency), feasibility (response rate, time to completion, floor and ceiling effects) and construct validity. The generic child health questionnaire was used for comparison. We found good internal consistency for the physical and the school and play domains, but lower internal consistency for the emotional domain. Overall, good repeatability was found within children and parents as well as agreement between children and parents. The OxAFQ was fast and easy to complete, but we observed a tendency towards ceiling effects in the school and play and emotional domains. To our knowledge this is the first independent validation of the OxAFQ in any language. We found it valid and feasible for use in the clinic to assess the impact on children's lives of foot and/or ankle disorders. It is a valuable research tool. ©2015 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  17. Searching for the Kinkeepers: Historian Gender, Age, and Type 2 Diabetes Family History

    Giordimaina, Alicia M.; Sheldon, Jane P.; Kiedrowski, Lesli A.; Jayaratne, Toby Epstein

    2015-01-01

    Kinkeepers facilitate family communication and may be key to family medical history collection and dissemination. Middle-aged women are frequently kinkeepers. Using type 2 diabetes (T2DM) as a model, we explored whether the predicted gender and age effects of kinkeeping can be extended to family medical historians. Through a U.S. telephone survey,…

  18. Natural history and parental experience of children with trisomy 18 based on a questionnaire given to a Japanese trisomy 18 parental support group.

    Kosho, Tomoki; Kuniba, Hideo; Tanikawa, Yuko; Hashimoto, Yoko; Sakurai, Hiroko

    2013-07-01

    We conducted a questionnaire-based study in collaboration with a Japanese trisomy 18 parental support group. Sixty-five children (female, 68%) with full trisomy 18 were evaluated. Diagnosis was made prenatally in 17% (11/65) and 57% (37/65) were born following a cesarean. The mean gestational age at delivery was 38 weeks and 6 days, and the mean birth weight was 1,920 g (-2.6SD). A total of 51% (24/47) of children had apneic episodes. Thirteen children experienced generalized seizures, and a minority was seizure-free with medication. Parents of 36% (18/50) of children were offered intensive treatment. A total of 45% (27/60) of children received intermittent mandatory ventilation, which was weaned off in half of them. Nine had surgeries, including esophageal atresia/omphalocele correction, cardiac surgery, and tracheostomy. A total of 15% (8/55) were fed fully orally, and 45% (29/64) were discharged home. Slow but constant psychomotor development was observed, and in four long-term survivors over 10 years, two walked unassisted. Factors significantly associated with survival over 1 year included diagnosis after birth, absence of prematurity, heavier birth weight, absence of esophageal atresia, extubation, ability to feed orally without medical assistance, and home discharge. Parents appeared to be positive about caring for their children, and the children seemed to interact with parents and siblings as long as they lived, resulting in quality family time. The family point of view, as well as knowledge of natural history, should be considered when policy statements about the care of children with trisomy 18 are made. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Performance of the quantitative food frequency questionnaire used in the Brazilian center of the prospective study Natural History of Human Papillomavirus Infection in Men: The HIM Study.

    Teixeira, Juliana Araujo; Baggio, Maria Luiza; Giuliano, Anna R; Fisberg, Regina Mara; Marchioni, Dirce Maria Lobo

    2011-07-01

    The Natural History of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Infection in Men: The HIM Study is a prospective multicenter cohort study that, among other factors, analyzes participants' diet. A parallel cross-sectional study was designed to evaluate the validity and reproducibility of the quantitative food frequency questionnaire (QFFQ) used in the Brazilian center from the HIM Study. For this, a convenience subsample of 98 men aged 18 to 70 years from the HIM Study in Brazil answered three 54-item QFFQ and three 24-hour recall interviews, with 6-month intervals between them (data collection January to September 2007). A Bland-Altman analysis indicated that the difference between instruments was dependent on the magnitude of the intake for energy and most nutrients included in the validity analysis, with the exception of carbohydrates, fiber, polyunsaturated fat, vitamin C, and vitamin E. The correlation between the QFFQ and the 24-hour recall for the deattenuated and energy-adjusted data ranged from 0.05 (total fat) to 0.57 (calcium). For the energy and nutrients consumption included in the validity analysis, 33.5% of participants on average were correctly classified into quartiles, and the average value of 0.26 for weighted kappa shows a reasonable agreement. The intraclass correlation coefficients for all nutrients were greater than 0.40 in the reproducibility analysis. The QFFQ demonstrated good reproducibility and acceptable validity. The results support the use of this instrument in the HIM Study. Copyright © 2011 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire for use in epidemiologic research among the elderly: Validation by comparison with dietary history

    Grootenhuis, P.A.; Westenbrink, S.; Sie, C.M.T.L.; Neeling, J.N.D. de; Kok, F.J.; Bouter, L.M.

    1995-01-01

    A self-administered semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire including 75 food items and providing information on the habitual intake of 31 nutritional parameters, based on the intake of protein, fat, carbohydrate, fiber and 11 vitamins and minerals, was developed for use in epidemiologic

  1. A semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire for use in epidemiologic research among the elderly : Validation by comparison with dietary history

    Grootenhuis, Peter A.; Westenbrink, Susanne; Sie, Claudia M.T.L.; De Neeling, J. Nico D.; Kok, Frans J.; Bouter, Lex M.

    1995-01-01

    A self-administered semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire including 75 food items and providing information on the habitual intake of 31 nutritional parameters, based on the intake of protein, fat, carbohydrate, fiber and 11 vitamins and minerals, was developed for use in epidemiologic

  2. Age-related macular degeneration: the importance of family history as a risk factor.

    Shahid, Humma; Khan, Jane C; Cipriani, Valentina; Sepp, Tiina; Matharu, Baljinder K; Bunce, Catey; Harding, Simon P; Clayton, David G; Moore, Anthony T; Yates, John R W

    2012-03-01

    Family history is considered a risk factor for age-related macular degeneration (AMD). With the advent of effective therapy for the disease, the importance of family history merits further investigation. This study quantifies the risk associated with family history, first, by a case-control study of reported family history and, second, by examining the siblings of AMD cases. The authors recruited cases with advanced AMD, spouses and siblings. All subjects were carefully phenotyped. Clinical findings in the siblings were compared with spouses. Information about family history was collected. The ORs for reported family history of AMD were calculated. Analyses were adjusted for age, smoking and genotype. 495 AMD cases, 259 spouses and 171 siblings were recruited. The OR for AMD was 27.8 (CI 3.8 to 203.0; p=0.001) with a reported family history of an affected parent and 12.0 (CI 3.7 to 38.6; p<0.0001) with a history of an affected sibling. ORs adjusted for age and smoking were higher. Examination of siblings confirmed their increased risk with 23% affected by AMD and an OR of 10.8 (4.5 to 25.8; p<0.0001). Adjusting for age increased the OR to 16.1 (6.2 to 41.8). The risk of AMD is greatly increased by having an affected first-degree relative. Those at risk need to be made aware of this and AMD patients should advise siblings and children to seek prompt ophthalmological advice if they develop visual symptoms of distortion or reduced vision.

  3. A SIMPLE FRAILTY QUESTIONNAIRE (FRAIL) PREDICTS OUTCOMES IN MIDDLE AGED AFRICAN AMERICANS

    MORLEY, J.E.; MALMSTROM, T.K.; MILLER, D.K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To validate the FRAIL scale. Design Longitudinal study. Setting Community. Participants Representative sample of African Americans age 49 to 65 years at onset of study. Measurements The 5-item FRAIL scale (Fatigue, Resistance, Ambulation, Illnesses, & Loss of Weight), at baseline and activities of daily living (ADLs), instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs), mortality, short physical performance battery (SPPB), gait speed, one-leg stand, grip strength and injurious falls at baseline and 9 years. Blood tests for CRP, SIL6R, STNFR1, STNFR2 and 25 (OH) vitamin D at baseline. Results Cross-sectionally the FRAIL scale correlated significantly with IADL difficulties, SPPB, grip strength and one-leg stand among participants with no baseline ADL difficulties (N=703) and those outcomes plus gait speed in those with no baseline ADL dependencies (N=883). TNFR1 was increased in pre-frail and frail subjects and CRP in some subgroups. Longitudinally (N=423 with no baseline ADL difficulties or N=528 with no baseline ADL dependencies), and adjusted for the baseline value for each outcome, being pre-frail at baseline significantly predicted future ADL difficulties, worse one-leg stand scores, and mortality in both groups, plus IADL difficulties in the dependence-excluded group. Being frail at baseline significantly predicted future ADL difficulties, IADL difficulties, and mortality in both groups, plus worse SPPB in the dependence-excluded group. Conclusion This study has validated the FRAIL scale in a late middle-aged African American population. This simple 5-question scale is an excellent screening test for clinicians to identify frail persons at risk of developing disability as well as decline in health functioning and mortality. PMID:22836700

  4. Availability of two self-administered diet history questionnaires for pregnant Japanese women: A validation study using 24-hour urinary markers.

    Shiraishi, Mie; Haruna, Megumi; Matsuzaki, Masayo; Murayama, Ryoko; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2017-04-01

    Accurate and easy dietary assessment methods that can be used during pregnancy are required in both epidemiological studies and clinical settings. To verify the utility of dietary assessment questionnaires in pregnancy, we examined the validity and reliability of a self-administered diet history questionnaire (DHQ) and a brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire (BDHQ) to measure energy, protein, sodium, and potassium intake among pregnant Japanese women. The research was conducted at a university hospital in Tokyo, Japan, between 2010 and 2011. The urinary urea nitrogen, sodium, and potassium levels were used as reference values in the validation study. For the reliability assessment, participants completed the questionnaires twice within a 4-week interval. For the DHQ (n = 115), the correlation coefficients between survey-assessed energy-adjusted intake and urinary protein, sodium, and potassium levels were 0.359, 0.341, and 0.368, respectively; for the BDHQ (n = 112), corresponding values were 0.302, 0.314, and 0.401, respectively. The DHQ-measured unadjusted protein and potassium intake levels were significantly correlated with the corresponding urinary levels (r s  = 0.307 and r s  = 0.342, respectively). The intra-class correlation coefficients for energy, protein, sodium, and potassium between the time 1 and time 2 DHQ (n = 58) and between the time 1 and time 2 BDHQ (n = 54) ranged from 0.505 to 0.796. Both the DHQ and the BDHQ were valid and reliable questionnaires for assessing the energy-adjusted intake of protein, sodium, and potassium during pregnancy. In addition, given the observed validity of unadjusted protein and potassium intake measures, the DHQ can be a useful tool to estimate energy intake of pregnant Japanese women. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Availability of two self-administered diet history questionnaires for pregnant Japanese women: A validation study using 24-hour urinary markers

    Mie Shiraishi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Accurate and easy dietary assessment methods that can be used during pregnancy are required in both epidemiological studies and clinical settings. To verify the utility of dietary assessment questionnaires in pregnancy, we examined the validity and reliability of a self-administered diet history questionnaire (DHQ and a brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire (BDHQ to measure energy, protein, sodium, and potassium intake among pregnant Japanese women. Methods: The research was conducted at a university hospital in Tokyo, Japan, between 2010 and 2011. The urinary urea nitrogen, sodium, and potassium levels were used as reference values in the validation study. For the reliability assessment, participants completed the questionnaires twice within a 4-week interval. Results: For the DHQ (n = 115, the correlation coefficients between survey-assessed energy-adjusted intake and urinary protein, sodium, and potassium levels were 0.359, 0.341, and 0.368, respectively; for the BDHQ (n = 112, corresponding values were 0.302, 0.314, and 0.401, respectively. The DHQ-measured unadjusted protein and potassium intake levels were significantly correlated with the corresponding urinary levels (rs = 0.307 and rs = 0.342, respectively. The intra-class correlation coefficients for energy, protein, sodium, and potassium between the time 1 and time 2 DHQ (n = 58 and between the time 1 and time 2 BDHQ (n = 54 ranged from 0.505 to 0.796. Conclusions: Both the DHQ and the BDHQ were valid and reliable questionnaires for assessing the energy-adjusted intake of protein, sodium, and potassium during pregnancy. In addition, given the observed validity of unadjusted protein and potassium intake measures, the DHQ can be a useful tool to estimate energy intake of pregnant Japanese women.

  6. Prevalence and Sociodemographic Determinants of Hypertension History among Women in Reproductive Age in Ghana

    Samuel H. Nyarko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hypertension is a global health problem. Yet, studies on hypertension rarely focus on women in Ghana. The purpose of this study is to ascertain the prevalence and sociodemographic determinants of hypertension history among Ghanaian women in reproductive age. Methods. This study used data from the 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey. Bivariate and logistic regression analyses were carried out to ascertain the prevalence and determinants of hypertension history among the respondents. Results. The study found that the overall prevalence of hypertension history among the respondents was 7.5%; however, there were vast variations within most of the sociodemographic categories. Age, level of education, marital status, work status, and wealth status had a significant relationship with hypertension history among the respondents. Women in advanced age groups, highly educated, married, and widowed/divorced/separated, nonworking women, and women from wealthy households were at higher risk of having hypertension history. Conclusion. Myriads of sociodemographic factors determine the hypertension history of women in Ghana. It is therefore essential to target medical and psychosocial hypertension interventions at Ghanaian women in the higher risk groups.

  7. The Ages and Stages Questionnaire and Neurodevelopmental Impairment in Two-Year-Old Preterm-Born Children.

    Jorien M Kerstjens

    Full Text Available To test the ability of the Ages and Stages Questionnaire, Third Edition (ASQ3 to help identify or exclude neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI in very preterm-born children at the corrected age of two.We studied the test results of 224 children, born at <32 postmenstrual weeks, who had scores on ASQ3 and Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition (BSIDIII and neurological examination at 22-26 months' corrected age. We defined NDI as a score of <70 on the cognitive--or motor composite scale of BSIDIII, or impairment on neurological examination or audiovisual screening. We compared NDI with abnormal ASQ3 scores, i.e., < -2SDs on any domain, and with ASQ3 total scores. To correct for possible overestimation of BSIDIII, we also analyzed the adjusted BSIDIII thresholds for NDI, i.e., scores <80 and <85.We found 61 (27% children with abnormal ASQ3 scores, and 10 (4.5% children who had NDI with original BSIDIII thresholds (<70. Twelve children had NDI at BSIDIII thresholds at <80, and 15 had <85. None of the 163 (73% children who passed ASQ3 had NDI. The sensitivity of ASQ3 to detect NDI was excellent (100%, its specificity was acceptable (76%, and its negative predictive value (NPV was 100%. Sensitivity and NPV remained high with the adjusted BSIDIII thresholds.The Ages and Stages Questionnaire is a simple, valid and cost-effective screening tool to help identify and exclude NDI in very preterm-born children at the corrected age of two years.

  8. DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF TWO FOOD FREQUENCY QUESTIONNAIRES TO ASSESS GLUTEN INTAKE IN CHILDREN UP TO 36 MONTHS OF AGE.

    Crespo Escobar, Paula; Calvo Lerma, Joaquim; Hervas Marin, David; Donat Aliaga, Ester; Masip Simó, Etna; Polo Miquel, Begoña; Ribes Koninckx, Carmen

    2015-11-01

    precise information on gluten consumption is crucial for specifically studying the impact of gluten introduction and gluten intake in celiac disease development. Our aim was to develop and validate tools (food frequency questionnaires, FFQs) for the assessment of gluten consumption in Spanish children aged 7-36 months. a total of 342 children, who attended primary healthcare centers for routine health surveys or La Fe Hospital for minor health problems as well as healthy children (recruited in nurseries and primary schools) participated in this survey. We have developed two different FFQs (one for 7-12 months and other for 13-36 months). For validation, results from two FFQs were compared with results of 2-day food records and also with the gold standard 7-day records. The mean gluten intake obtained by the 2DR vs. FFQ and the 7DR vs. FFQ, were compared using the Bland Altman plot method and also Lin's concordance correlation coefficient. we found a good agreement between our FFQs and the 2DR and 7DR according to the results of both the Bland-Altman plots and Lin's concordance correlation coefficient. our two new FFQs are therefore the only validated questionnaires available to determine gluten consumption in Spanish children. They are user-friendly and offer excellent instruments to assess gluten intake in children up to 36 months of age. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  9. The validity and reliability of a home environment preschool-age physical activity questionnaire (Pre-PAQ

    Peat Jennifer K

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a need for valid population level measures of physical activity in young children. The aim of this paper is to report the development, and the reliability and validity, of the Preschool-age Children's Physical Activity Questionnaire (Pre-PAQ which was designed to measure activity of preschool-age children in the home environment in population studies. Methods Pre-PAQ was completed by 103 families, and validated against accelerometry for 67 children (mean age 3.8 years, SD 0.74; males 53%. Pre-PAQ categorizes activity into five progressive levels (stationary no movement, stationary with limb or trunk movement, slow, medium, or fast-paced activity. Pre-PAQ Levels 1-2 (stationary activities were combined for analyses. Accelerometer data were categorized for stationary, sedentary (SED, non-sedentary (non-SED, light (LPA, moderate (MPA and vigorous (VPA physical activity using manufacturer's advice (stationary or the cut-points described by Sirard et al and Reilly et al. Bland-Altman methods were used to assess agreement between the questionnaire and the accelerometer measures for corresponding activity levels. Reliability of the Pre-PAQ over one week was determined using intraclass correlations (ICC or kappa (κ values and percentage of agreement of responses between the two questionnaire administrations. Results Pre-PAQ had good agreement with LPA (mean difference 1.9 mins.day-1 and VPA (mean difference -4.8 mins.day-1, was adequate for stationary activity (mean difference 7.6 mins.day-1 and poor for sedentary activity, whether defined using the cut-points of Sirard et al (mean difference -235.4 mins.day-1 or Reilly et al (mean difference -208.6 mins.day-1 cut-points. Mean difference between the measures for total activity (i.e. Reilly's non-sedentary or Sirard's LMVPA was 20.9 mins.day-1 and 45.2 mins.day-1. The limits of agreement were wide for all categories. The reliability of Pre-PAQ question responses ranged from

  10. The validity and reliability of a home environment preschool-age physical activity questionnaire (Pre-PAQ).

    Dwyer, Genevieve M; Hardy, Louise L; Peat, Jennifer K; Baur, Louise A

    2011-08-04

    There is a need for valid population level measures of physical activity in young children. The aim of this paper is to report the development, and the reliability and validity, of the Preschool-age Children's Physical Activity Questionnaire (Pre-PAQ) which was designed to measure activity of preschool-age children in the home environment in population studies. Pre-PAQ was completed by 103 families, and validated against accelerometry for 67 children (mean age 3.8 years, SD 0.74; males 53%). Pre-PAQ categorizes activity into five progressive levels (stationary no movement, stationary with limb or trunk movement, slow, medium, or fast-paced activity). Pre-PAQ Levels 1-2 (stationary activities) were combined for analyses. Accelerometer data were categorized for stationary, sedentary (SED), non-sedentary (non-SED), light (LPA), moderate (MPA) and vigorous (VPA) physical activity using manufacturer's advice (stationary) or the cut-points described by Sirard et al and Reilly et al. Bland-Altman methods were used to assess agreement between the questionnaire and the accelerometer measures for corresponding activity levels. Reliability of the Pre-PAQ over one week was determined using intraclass correlations (ICC) or kappa (κ) values and percentage of agreement of responses between the two questionnaire administrations. Pre-PAQ had good agreement with LPA (mean difference 1.9 mins.day⁻¹) and VPA (mean difference -4.8 mins.day⁻¹), was adequate for stationary activity (mean difference 7.6 mins.day⁻¹) and poor for sedentary activity, whether defined using the cut-points of Sirard et al (mean difference -235.4 mins.day⁻¹) or Reilly et al (mean difference -208.6 mins.day⁻¹) cut-points. Mean difference between the measures for total activity (i.e. Reilly's non-sedentary or Sirard's LMVPA) was 20.9 mins.day⁻¹ and 45.2 mins.day⁻¹. The limits of agreement were wide for all categories. The reliability of Pre-PAQ question responses ranged from 0.31-1.00 (ICC (2

  11. Exploring opportunities for healthy aging among older persons with a history of homelessness in Toronto, Canada.

    Waldbrook, Natalie

    2015-03-01

    Within the areas of literature on both population aging and health and homelessness, little attention has been given to the opportunities and barriers to healthy aging among older persons with a history of homelessness. Set in the context of inner-city Toronto, Canada, this article reports on the findings from qualitative interviews with 29 formerly homeless older persons. The findings illustrate participants' experiences of positive health change since moving into a stable housing environment and the aspects of housing they perceive to have improved their health and wellbeing. The qualitative findings also draw attention to the ongoing barriers to healthy aging that can be experienced among older persons with a history of homelessness. Overall, this study draws on the lived experiences of formerly homeless older persons to offer a better understanding of the long-term effects of homelessness on health, wellbeing, and aging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Colonoscopy screening among US adults aged 40 or older with a family history of colorectal cancer.

    Tsai, Meng-Han; Xirasagar, Sudha; Li, Yi-Jhen; de Groen, Piet C

    2015-05-21

    Colonoscopy screening reduces colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality. CRC screening is recommended at age 50 for average-risk people. Screening of first-degree relatives of CRC patients is recommended to begin at age 40 or 10 years before the age at diagnosis of the youngest relative diagnosed with CRC. CRC incidence has increased recently among younger Americans while it has declined among older Americans. The objective of this study was to determine whether first-degree relatives of CRC patients are being screened according to recommended guidelines. We studied colonoscopy screening rates among the US population reporting a CRC family history using 2005 and 2010 National Health Interview Survey data. Of 26,064 study-eligible respondents, 2,470 reported a CRC family history; of those with a family history, 45.6% had a colonoscopy (25.2% in 2005 and 65.8% 2010). The colonoscopy rate among first-degree relatives aged 40 to 49 in 2010 (38.3%) was about half that of first-degree relatives aged 50 or older (69.7%). First-degree relatives were nearly twice as likely as nonfirst-degree relatives to have a colonoscopy (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.5-1.9), but those aged 40 to 49 were less likely to have a colonoscopy than those in older age groups (AOR, 2.6 for age 50-64; AOR, 3.6 for age ≥65). Interactions with age, insurance, and race/ethnicity were not significant. Having health insurance tripled the likelihood of screening. Despite a 5-fold increase in colonoscopy screening rates since 2005, rates among first-degree relatives younger than the conventional screening age have lagged. Screening promotion targeted to this group may halt the recent rising trend of CRC among younger Americans.

  13. Psychosocial impact of dental aesthetics in adolescence: validity and reliability of a questionnaire across age-groups.

    Klages, Ulrich; Erbe, Christina; Sandru, Sandra Dinca; Brüllman, Dan; Wehrbein, Heinrich

    2015-02-01

    Dental malocclusion is a highly prevalent health condition in adolescence. Patients seek treatment primarily for aesthetic reasons. Therapy benefits are regarded, in the first place, to be psychosocial in nature. Therefore, it is mandatory to consider the perspective of the patient in treatment planning and control using a dental-aesthetics-related quality of life measure. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aesthetics Questionnaire (PIDAQ) developed in adult samples including the subscales Dental Self-Confidence, Social Impact, Psychological Impact and Aesthetic Concern is also applicable in adolescents aged 11 years and above. The psychometric properties were examined across three age-groups (11-12, 13-14, 15-17 year olds) with respect to factorial invariance, internal consistency, temporal stability, discriminant validity and gender- or age-associated scale mean differences and item response bias. Participants were 1,112 adolescents recruited from 4 institutions: orthodontic and dental practices, schools, and youth clubs. They answered the 23 partially reformulated items of the PIDAQ. Subjective and dentist evaluations of dental occlusion were assessed using the Perception of Occlusion Scale and the Aesthetic Component of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need. Both indices were aggregated to one Malocclusion Index (MI-S and MI-D). The fit indices using confirmatory factor analyses suggested that the factor structure and factor loadings underlying the PIDAQ items were invariant across ages (comparative fit index = 0.91, root-mean-square error of approximation = 0.04). Internal consistency and temporal stability were adequate within the age-groupings (Alpha = 0.71-0.88; intra-class correlations = 0.82-0.96). Adolescents with severe compared to slight malocclusion according to both self-evaluation and dentist evaluation were found to differ in all PIDAQ subscales at a level of p < 0.001 for all ages. PIDAQ

  14. [Reliability of the PRISCUS-PAQ. Questionnaire to assess physical activity of persons aged 70 years and older].

    Trampisch, U; Platen, P; Burghaus, I; Moschny, A; Wilm, S; Thiem, U; Hinrichs, T

    2010-12-01

    A questionnaire (Q) to measure physical activity (PA) of persons ≥70 years for epidemiological research is lacking. The aim was to develop the PRISCUS-PAQ and test the reliability in community-dwelling people (≥70 years). Validated PA questionnaires were translated and adapted to design the PRISCUS-PAQ. Its test-retest reliability for 91 randomly selected people (36% men) aged 70-98 (76±5) years ranged from 0.47 (walking) to 0.82 (riding a bicycle). The overall activity score was 0.59 as determined by the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Recording of general activities, e.g., housework (ICC=0.59), was in general less reliable than athletic activities, e.g., gymnastics (ICC=0.76). The PRISCUS-PAQ, which is a short instrument with acceptable reliability to collect the physical activity of the elderly in a telephone interview, will be used to collect data in a large cohort of older people in the German research consortium PRISCUS.

  15. A method for evaluating basement exhumation histories from closure age distributions of detrital minerals

    Lovera, Oscar M.; Grove, Marty; Kimbrough, David L.; Abbott, Patrick L.

    1999-01-01

    We have developed a two-dimensional, thermokinetic model that predicts the closure age distributions of detrital minerals from pervasively intruded and differentially exhumed basement. Using this model, we outline a method to determine the denudation history of orogenic regions on the basis of closure age distributions in synorogenic to postorogenic forearc strata. At relatively high mean denudation rates of 0.5 km m.y.-1 sustained over millions of years, magmatic heating events have minimal influence upon the age distributions of detrital minerals such as K-feldspar that are moderately retentive of radiogenic Ar. At lower rates, however, the effects of batholith emplacement may be substantial. We have applied the approach to detrital K-feldspars from forearc strata derived from the deeply denuded Peninsular Ranges batholith (PRB). Agreement of the denudation history deduced from the detrital K-feldspar data with thermochronologic constraints from exposed PRB basement lead us to conclude that exhumation histories of magmatic arcs should be decipherable solely from closure age distributions of detrital minerals whose depositional age is known. (c) 1999 American Geophysical Union

  16. The Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire: factorial validity and association with Body Mass Index in Dutch children aged 6–7

    Kremers Stef PJ

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ is a parent-report measure designed to assess variation in eating style among children. In the present study we translated the CEBQ and examined its factor structure in a sample of parents of 6- and 7-year-old children in the Netherlands. Additionally, associations between the mean scale scores of the instrument and children's body mass index (BMI were assessed. Methods In total, 135 parents of primary school children aged 6 and 7 completed the questionnaire (response rate 41.9%. Children's BMI was converted into standardised z-scores, adjusted for child gender and age to examine the association between mean scale scores and child weight status. Results Results generally confirmed the theoretical factor structure, with acceptable internal reliability and between-subscale correlations. Linear regression analyses revealed that BMI z-scores were positively associated with the 'food approach' subscales of the CEBQ (food responsiveness, enjoyment of food, emotional overeating (β's 0.15 to 0.22 and negatively with 'food avoidant' subscales (satiety responsiveness, slowness in eating, emotional undereating, and food fussiness (β's -0.09 to -0.25. Significant relations with child BMI z-scores were found for food responsiveness (p = 0.02, enjoyment of food (p = 0.03, satiety responsiveness (p = 0.01 and slowness in eating (p = 0.01. Conclusion The results support the use of the CEBQ as a psychometrically sound tool for assessing children's eating behaviours in Dutch children and the study demonstrates its applicability in overweight-related studies.

  17. Developing a theoretical model and questionnaire survey instrument to measure the success of electronic health records in residential aged care.

    Yu, Ping; Qian, Siyu

    2018-01-01

    Electronic health records (EHR) are introduced into healthcare organizations worldwide to improve patient safety, healthcare quality and efficiency. A rigorous evaluation of this technology is important to reduce potential negative effects on patient and staff, to provide decision makers with accurate information for system improvement and to ensure return on investment. Therefore, this study develops a theoretical model and questionnaire survey instrument to assess the success of organizational EHR in routine use from the viewpoint of nursing staff in residential aged care homes. The proposed research model incorporates six variables in the reformulated DeLone and McLean information systems success model: system quality, information quality, service quality, use, user satisfaction and net benefits. Two variables training and self-efficacy were also incorporated into the model. A questionnaire survey instrument was designed to measure the eight variables in the model. After a pilot test, the measurement scale was used to collect data from 243 nursing staff members in 10 residential aged care homes belonging to three management groups in Australia. Partial least squares path modeling was conducted to validate the model. The validated EHR systems success model predicts the impact of the four antecedent variables-training, self-efficacy, system quality and information quality-on the net benefits, the indicator of EHR systems success, through the intermittent variables use and user satisfaction. A 24-item measurement scale was developed to quantitatively evaluate the performance of an EHR system. The parsimonious EHR systems success model and the measurement scale can be used to benchmark EHR systems success across organizations and units and over time.

  18. Comparison of Patient Health History Questionnaires Used in General Internal and Family Medicine, Integrative Medicine, and Complementary and Alternative Medicine Clinics.

    Laube, Justin G R; Shapiro, Martin F

    2017-05-01

    Health history questionnaires (HHQs) are a set of self-administered questions completed by patients prior to a clinical encounter. Despite widespread use, minimal research has evaluated the content of HHQs used in general internal medicine and family medicine (GIM/FM), integrative medicine, and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM; chiropractic, naturopathic, and Traditional Chinese Medicine [TCM]) clinics. Integrative medicine and CAM claim greater emphasis on well-being than does GIM/FM. This study investigated whether integrative medicine and CAM clinics' HHQs include more well-being content and otherwise differ from GIM/FM HHQs. HHQs were obtained from GIM/FM (n = 9), integrative medicine (n = 11), naturopathic medicine (n = 5), chiropractic (n = 4), and TCM (n = 7) clinics in California. HHQs were coded for presence of medical history (chief complaint, past medical history, social history, family history, surgeries, hospitalizations, medications, allergies, review of systems), health maintenance procedures (immunization, screenings), and well-being components (nutrition, exercise, stress, sleep, spirituality). In HHQs of GIM/FM clinics, the average number of well-being components was 1.4 (standard deviation [SD], 1.4) compared with 4.0 (SD, 1.1) for integrative medicine (p medicine (p = 0.04), 2.0 (SD, 1.4) for chiropractic (p = 0.54), and 2.0 (SD, 1.5) for TCM (p = 0.47). In HHQs of GIM/FM clinics, the average number of medical history components was 6.4 (SD, 1.9) compared with 8.3 (SD, 1.2) for integrative medicine (p = 0.01), 9.0 (SD, 0) for naturopathic medicine (p = 0.01), 7.1 (SD, 2.8) for chiropractic (p = 0.58), and 7.1 (SD, 1.7) for TCM (p = 0.41). Integrative and naturopathic medicine HHQs included significantly more well-being and medical history components than did GIM/FM HHQs. Further investigation is warranted to determine the optimal HHQ content to support the clinical and preventive

  19. High neuroticism at age 20 predicts history of mental disorders and low self-esteem at age 35.

    Lönnqvist, Jan-Erik; Verkasalo, Markku; Mäkinen, Seppo; Henriksson, Markus

    2009-07-01

    The authors assessed whether neuroticism in emerging adulthood predicts mental disorders and self-esteem in early adulthood after controlling for possible confounding variables. A sample of 69 male military conscripts was initially assessed at age 20 and again as civilians at age 35. The initial assessment included a psychiatric interview, objective indicators of conscript competence, an intellectual performance test, and neuroticism questionnaires. The follow-up assessment included a Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID; First, Spitzer, Gibbon, & Williams, 1996) and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (Rosenberg, 1965). Neuroticism predicted future mental disorders and low self-esteem beyond more objective indicators of adjustment. The results support the use of neuroticism as a predictor of future mental disorders, even over periods of time when personality is subject to change.

  20. The Utilization of Local History in Teaching American Religious History: A Gilded Age and Progressive Era North Dakota Case Study

    Price, Christopher Neal

    2013-01-01

    Teachers of college-level courses on American religious history generally leave out the importance of local and regional histories when telling the story of religion in America. The study of local history provides a fertile ground for understanding broad national trends in a local context. This dissertation focuses upon a little-studied religious…

  1. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire: psychometric properties of the parent and teacher version in children aged 4-7.

    Stone, Lisanne L; Janssens, Jan M A M; Vermulst, Ad A; Van Der Maten, Marloes; Engels, Rutger C M E; Otten, Roy

    2015-01-01

    The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire is one of the most employed screening instruments. Although there is a large research body investigating its psychometric properties, reliability and validity are not yet fully tested using modern techniques. Therefore, we investigate reliability, construct validity, measurement invariance, and predictive validity of the parent and teacher version in children aged 4-7. Besides, we intend to replicate previous studies by investigating test-retest reliability and criterion validity. In a Dutch community sample 2,238 teachers and 1,513 parents filled out questionnaires regarding problem behaviors and parenting, while 1,831 children reported on sociometric measures at T1. These children were followed-up during three consecutive years. Reliability was examined using Cronbach's alpha and McDonald's omega, construct validity was examined by Confirmatory Factor Analysis, and predictive validity was examined by calculating developmental profiles and linking these to measures of inadequate parenting, parenting stress and social preference. Further, mean scores and percentiles were examined in order to establish norms. Omega was consistently higher than alpha regarding reliability. The original five-factor structure was replicated, and measurement invariance was established on a configural level. Further, higher SDQ scores were associated with future indices of higher inadequate parenting, higher parenting stress and lower social preference. Finally, previous results on test-retest reliability and criterion validity were replicated. This study is the first to show SDQ scores are predictively valid, attesting to the feasibility of the SDQ as a screening instrument. Future research into predictive validity of the SDQ is warranted.

  2. Iron Age and Anglo-Saxon genomes from East England reveal British migration history.

    Schiffels, Stephan; Haak, Wolfgang; Paajanen, Pirita; Llamas, Bastien; Popescu, Elizabeth; Loe, Louise; Clarke, Rachel; Lyons, Alice; Mortimer, Richard; Sayer, Duncan; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Cooper, Alan; Durbin, Richard

    2016-01-19

    British population history has been shaped by a series of immigrations, including the early Anglo-Saxon migrations after 400 CE. It remains an open question how these events affected the genetic composition of the current British population. Here, we present whole-genome sequences from 10 individuals excavated close to Cambridge in the East of England, ranging from the late Iron Age to the middle Anglo-Saxon period. By analysing shared rare variants with hundreds of modern samples from Britain and Europe, we estimate that on average the contemporary East English population derives 38% of its ancestry from Anglo-Saxon migrations. We gain further insight with a new method, rarecoal, which infers population history and identifies fine-scale genetic ancestry from rare variants. Using rarecoal we find that the Anglo-Saxon samples are closely related to modern Dutch and Danish populations, while the Iron Age samples share ancestors with multiple Northern European populations including Britain.

  3. Age-dependent male mating tactics in a spider mite-A life-history perspective.

    Sato, Yukie; Rühr, Peter T; Schmitz, Helmut; Egas, Martijn; Blanke, Alexander

    2016-10-01

    Males often fight with rival males for access to females. However, some males display nonfighting tactics such as sneaking, satellite behavior, or female mimicking. When these mating tactics comprise a conditional strategy, they are often thought to be explained by resource holding potential (RHP), that is, nonfighting tactics are displayed by less competitive males who are more likely to lose a fight. The alternative mating tactics, however, can also be explained by life-history theory, which predicts that young males avoid fighting, regardless of their RHP, if it pays off to wait for future reproduction. Here, we test whether the sneaking tactic displayed by young males of the two-spotted spider mite can be explained by life-history theory. We tested whether young sneaker males survive longer than young fighter males after a bout of mild or strong competition with old fighter males. We also investigated whether old males have a more protective outer skin-a possible proxy for RHP-by measuring cuticle hardness and elasticity using nanoindentation. We found that young sneaker males survived longer than young fighter males after mild male competition. This difference was not found after strong male competition, which suggests that induction of sneaking tactic is affected by male density. Hardness and elasticity of the skin did not vary with male age. Given that earlier work could also not detect morphometric differences between fighter and sneaker males, we conclude that there is no apparent increase in RHP with age in the mite and age-dependent male mating tactics in the mite can be explained only by life-history theory. Because it is likely that fighting incurs a survival cost, age-dependent alternative mating tactics may be explained by life-history theory in many species when reproduction of old males is a significant factor in fitness.

  4. The New North Korean Problem: History and Responsibilities in the Age of Kim Jong Un

    2012-03-29

    Kim Jong Un is the youngest of Kim Jong Il’s three male children. The oldest, Kim Jong Nam was once favored to...passport.49 In a series of interviews with Japanese reporter Yogi Gomi, Kim Jong Nam related his concerns about the future of North Korea and the...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE THE NEW NORTH KOREAN PROBLEM: HISTORY AND RESPONSIBILITIES IN THE AGE OF KIM JONG UN 5. FUNDING NUMBERS

  5. Role of Family Resources and Paternal History of Substance Use Problems in Psychosocial Adjustment among School-Aged Children

    Peleg-Oren, Neta; Rahav, Giora; Teichman, Meir

    2009-01-01

    The present study examines the role of family resources (parenting style and family cohesion) and paternal history of substance abuse on the psychosocial adjustment of their school-aged children. Data were collected from 148 children aged 8-11 (72 of fathers with history of substance use disorder, 76 children of fathers with no substance use…

  6. Interdependent effect of chemical composition and thermal history on artificial aging of AA6061

    Pogatscher, S.; Antrekowitsch, H.; Uggowitzer, P.J.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the interdependent effect of chemical composition and thermal history on artificial aging was investigated for the aluminum alloy AA6061. Based on thermodynamic calculations, including Al, Fe, Cr, Zn, Ti, Mg, Si and Cu, model alloys exhibiting a maximum variation of the reachable solute super-saturation of elements relevant for precipitation hardening within the compositional limits of AA6061 were produced. The artificial aging behavior of these alloys at 175 °C was studied by tensile testing for two thermal histories, including very short- and long-term room temperature storage after quenching. Precipitation during artificial aging was investigated by an analysis of yield strength data. As generally expected, precipitation kinetics was found to depend strongly on the solute super-saturation in the case of very short room temperature storage. For artificial aging after long-term room temperature storage the kinetics showed almost no dependence on the chemical composition. This seems to be an exception from simple precipitation kinetics and can be explained based on the complex role of quenched-in vacancies in artificial aging of AA6061.

  7. Self-reported activity level and knee function in amateur football players: the influence of age, gender, history of knee injury and level of competition.

    Frobell, R B; Svensson, E; Göthrick, M; Roos, E M

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate if self-reported activity level or knee functions are influenced by subject characteristics, level of competition and history of knee injury. Cross-Sectional study using questionnaires distributed at a personal visit. One hundred and eighty-eight (65 women) amateur football players in 10 football clubs from each division below national level participated in the study. Self-reported Tegner Activity Scale, and the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) are the main outcome measures. Older age, female gender and lower level of competition (football division) were independently associated with lower self-reported Tegner Activity Scale (P history of knee injury had significantly worse KOOS scores (P football players, KOOS scores do not need adjustment for age and gender.

  8. Global survey of star clusters in the Milky Way. VI. Age distribution and cluster formation history

    Piskunov, A. E.; Just, A.; Kharchenko, N. V.; Berczik, P.; Scholz, R.-D.; Reffert, S.; Yen, S. X.

    2018-06-01

    Context. The all-sky Milky Way Star Clusters (MWSC) survey provides uniform and precise ages, along with other relevant parameters, for a wide variety of clusters in the extended solar neighbourhood. Aims: In this study we aim to construct the cluster age distribution, investigate its spatial variations, and discuss constraints on cluster formation scenarios of the Galactic disk during the last 5 Gyrs. Methods: Due to the spatial extent of the MWSC, we have considered spatial variations of the age distribution along galactocentric radius RG, and along Z-axis. For the analysis of the age distribution we used 2242 clusters, which all lie within roughly 2.5 kpc of the Sun. To connect the observed age distribution to the cluster formation history we built an analytical model based on simple assumptions on the cluster initial mass function and on the cluster mass-lifetime relation, fit it to the observations, and determined the parameters of the cluster formation law. Results: Comparison with the literature shows that earlier results strongly underestimated the number of evolved clusters with ages t ≳ 100 Myr. Recent studies based on all-sky catalogues agree better with our data, but still lack the oldest clusters with ages t ≳ 1 Gyr. We do not observe a strong variation in the age distribution along RG, though we find an enhanced fraction of older clusters (t > 1 Gyr) in the inner disk. In contrast, the distribution strongly varies along Z. The high altitude distribution practically does not contain clusters with t < 1 Gyr. With simple assumptions on the cluster formation history, the cluster initial mass function and the cluster lifetime we can reproduce the observations. The cluster formation rate and the cluster lifetime are strongly degenerate, which does not allow us to disentangle different formation scenarios. In all cases the cluster formation rate is strongly declining with time, and the cluster initial mass function is very shallow at the high mass end.

  9. Altered postural control variability in older-aged individuals with a history of lateral ankle sprain.

    Terada, Masafumi; Kosik, Kyle; Johnson, Nathan; Gribble, Phillip

    2018-02-01

    The current study aimed to examine postural control performance during a single-leg balance task in elderly individuals with and without a previous history of lateral ankle sprain (LAS). Eighteen adults with a previous history of LAS (mean age = 66 years old) and 12 healthy controls (mean age = 65 years old) were included in the study. Participants performed three trials of a single-leg balance task during an eyes-opened condition for 20-s. Center of pressure (COP) trajectories in the anteroposterior (AP) and mediolateral (ML) directions were collected with a force plate. The following postural control measures were calculated in the AP and ML directions: 1) Sample Entropy (SampEn); 2) Approximate Entropy (ApEn); 3) mean of Time-to-Boundary minima (mean TTB); and 4) COP velocity (COPV). Older-age participants with a history LAS exhibited lower ApEn-AP, SampEn-AP, and SampEn-ML values compared to healthy controls (p postural control patterns, less adaptability, and more difficulty maintaining COP during a single-leg balance task in adults with a previous history of LAS. Our data suggest that there is a need to consider history of musculoskeletal injury when evaluating factors for postural control and fall risk in the elderly. Future investigations are needed to assess the effect of LAS on age-related declines in postural control and discern associations between potential risk factors of fall-related injuries and LAS in an elderly population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Family history and the risk of stomach cancer death in Japan: differences by age and gender.

    Yatsuya, Hiroshi; Toyoshima, Hideaki; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Kondo, Takaaki; Tamakoshi, Koji; Hori, Yoko; Tokui, Noritaka; Hoshiyama, Yoshiharu; Kikuchi, Shogo; Sakata, Kiyomi; Hayakawa, Norihiko; Tamakoshi, Akiko; Ohno, Yoshiyuki; Yoshimura, Takesumi

    2002-02-10

    Familial aggregation of stomach cancer has long been observed. The effect on disease risk of family history and its magnitude according to the type of affected relatives, however, is not well known. We conducted a prospective analysis using the JACC study (Japan Collaborative Cohort Study For Evaluation of Cancer Risk, sponsored by Monbusho) data. During the follow-up period, 662 stomach cancer deaths were documented. A positive history of stomach cancer in one or more first-degree relatives was associated with a significantly increased risk of death from the disease in both men (RR 1.60; 95% CI 1.11-2.31) and women (RR 2.47; 95% CI 1.50-4.06). In the subanalysis stratified by age, the association between positive family history and stomach cancer was stronger in the age group from 40-59 (RR 2.62; 95% CI 1.34-5.11 for men and RR 5.88; 95% CI 2.70-12.82 for women) than in the age group from 60-79 (RR 1.31; 95% CI 0.84-2.05 for men and RR 1.44; 95% CI 0.72-2.88 for women). In the age group from 40-59, men with father's history and women with mother's and sister's history of the disease had a significantly increased risk (RR 3.14; 95% CI 1.51-6.55, RR 10.46; 95% CI 4.54-24.12, RR 13.39; 95% CI 3.89-46.12, respectively). When 2 or more family members were affected, the increment in the risk was prominent especially in women (RR 9.45; 95% CI 4.46-20.05). These results suggest the existence of a certain subtype of stomach cancer that is inherited more often by women from one generation to the next in gender-influenced fashion. Any preventive strategy should take into account the degree of individual susceptibility. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Normative data and psychometric properties of the strengths and difficulties questionnaire among Japanese school-aged children.

    Moriwaki, Aiko; Kamio, Yoko

    2014-01-21

    Although child mental health problems are among the most important worldwide issues, development of culturally acceptable mental health services to serve the clinical needs of children and their families is especially lacking in regions outside Europe and North America. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), which was developed in the United Kingdom and is now one of the most widely used measurement tools for screening child psychiatric symptoms, has been translated into Japanese, but culturally calibrated norms for Japanese schoolchildren have yet to be established. To this end, we examined the applicability of the Japanese versions of the parent and teacher SDQs by establishing norms and extending validation of its psychometric properties to a large nationwide sample, as well as to a smaller clinical sample. The Japanese versions of the SDQ were completed by parents and teachers of schoolchildren aged 7 to 15 years attending mainstream classes in primary or secondary schools in Japan. Data were analyzed to describe the population distribution and gender/age effects by informant, cut-off scores according to banding, factor structure, cross-scale correlations, and internal consistency for 24,519 parent ratings and 7,977 teacher ratings from a large nationwide sample. Inter-rater and test-retest reliabilities and convergent and divergent validities were confirmed for a smaller validation sample (total n = 128) consisting of a clinical sample with any mental disorder and community children without any diagnoses. Means, standard deviations, and banding of normative data for this Japanese child population were obtained. Gender/age effects were significant for both parent and teacher ratings. The original five-factor structure was replicated, and strong cross-scale correlations and internal reliability were shown across all SDQ subscales for this population. Inter-rater agreement was satisfactory, test-retest reliability was excellent, and convergent

  12. Reproducibility and Validity of a Food Frequency Questionnaire Designed to Assess Diet in Children Aged 4-5 Years.

    Vioque, Jesus; Gimenez-Monzo, Daniel; Navarrete-Muñoz, Eva Maria; Garcia-de-la-Hera, Manuela; Gonzalez-Palacios, Sandra; Rebagliato, Marisa; Ballester, Ferran; Murcia, Mario; Iñiguez, Carmen; Granado, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    The food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) is the most efficient and cost-effective method to investigate the relationship between usual diet and disease in epidemiologic studies. Although FFQs have been validated in many adult populations worldwide, the number of valid FFQ in preschool children is very scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reproducibility and validity of a semi-quantitative FFQ designed for children aged 4 to 5 years. In this study, we have included 169 children aged 4-5 years from the INMA project in Valencia, a population-based prospective cohort study of mothers and children in Spain. The 105-items FFQ was administered twice to the parents or care-givers of children over a 9-month period. Reproducibility was explored by comparing intake of nutrients by the FFQs, while validity was examined by comparing the nutrient values from the FFQs with the average nutrient values of three 24 hour dietary recall (24hDR) taken in the period, and also, with the concentration in blood specimens for several vitamins (carotenoids, folate, vitamin B12, vitamin C and α-tocopherol). Pearson correlation coefficients and de-attenuated correlation coefficients were calculated and we also evaluated misclassification by quintile distribution. All correlation coefficients for reproducibility for nutrients and major food groups were statistically significant; the average correlation coefficients for daily intake were 0.43 for food groups and 0.41 for nutrients. The average correlation coefficients for validity for daily intakes against 24hDR was r = 0.30, and the average for de-attenuated correlation coefficients was r = 0.44. When evaluating validity against the blood concentration of vitamins, statistically significant correlations were observed for vitamin C (0.35), lycopene (0.31), β-Cryptoxantin (0.40), and vitamin E (0.29); the average of correlation coefficients was r = 0.21. Despite some low to moderate correlations for reproducibility and validity

  13. Psychometric Properties of the Chinese Version of the Kid-KINDLR Questionnaire for Measuring the Health-related Quality of Life of School-aged Children

    Phoebe L.C. Chan; Serena S.W. Ng; Dora Y.L. Chan

    2014-01-01

    Objective/Background: The reliability and validity of the Chinese version of the Kid-KINDLR questionnaire were examined with school-aged children in Hong Kong. Methods: A total of 112 healthy children were selected by convenience sampling from two primary schools and 30 children with global developmental delay were selected from an outpatient occupational therapy department of a convalescent hospital. The Kid-KINDLR questionnaire was translated using independent forward and backward transl...

  14. The age of the bomb: History of the atomic threat from Hiroshima through today

    Salewski, M.

    1995-01-01

    The booklet describes the history of the ''bomb'' from the ''Manhattan project'' to the present, tracing the drastic changes provoked by the nuclear weapons for world politics, but also for ethical thought and cultural conception of ourselves. Both the crises at the brink of nuclear war - Suez crisis, Berlin crisis, Cuba crisis - and the development of strategic doctrines, the arms race, the history of arms control, and the anti-atomic movement are dealt with in the contributions written by renowned authorities. The concluding paper on the role of nuclear weapons in a world politics that has become more intricate shows insistently that the age of the bomb is anything but over since the end of the East-West conflict. The example of North Korea or of the ''plutonium transfer deals'' from nuclear installations of the Soviet Union has recently shown that also the future will remain ''atomic''. (orig./HP) [de

  15. Smoking duration, respiratory symptoms, and COPD in adults aged ≥45 years with a smoking history

    Liu, Yong; Pleasants, Roy A; Croft, Janet B; Wheaton, Anne G; Heidari, Khosrow; Malarcher, Ann M; Ohar, Jill A; Kraft, Monica; Mannino, David M; Strange, Charlie

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship of smoking duration with respiratory symptoms and history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in the South Carolina Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey in 2012. Methods Data from 4,135 adults aged ≥45 years with a smoking history were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression that accounted for sex, age, race/ethnicity, education, and current smoking status, as well as the complex sampling design. Results The distribution of smoking duration ranged from 19.2% (1–9 years) to 36.2% (≥30 years). Among 1,454 respondents who had smoked for ≥30 years, 58.3% were current smokers, 25.0% had frequent productive cough, 11.2% had frequent shortness of breath, 16.7% strongly agreed that shortness of breath affected physical activity, and 25.6% had been diagnosed with COPD. Prevalence of COPD and each respiratory symptom was lower among former smokers who quit ≥10 years earlier compared with current smokers. Smoking duration had a linear relationship with COPD (Psmoking status and other covariates. While COPD prevalence increased with prolonged smoking duration in both men and women, women had a higher age-adjusted prevalence of COPD in the 1–9 years, 20–29 years, and ≥30 years duration periods. Conclusion These state population data confirm that prolonged tobacco use is associated with respiratory symptoms and COPD after controlling for current smoking behavior. PMID:26229460

  16. Age at menopause, reproductive history and venous thromboembolism risk among postmenopausal women

    Canonico, Marianne; Plu-Bureau, Geneviève; O’Sullivan, Mary Jo; Stefanick, Marcia L.; Cochrane, Barbara; Scarabin, Pierre-Yves; Manson, JoAnn E.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To investigate VTE risk in relation to age at menopause, age at menarche, parity, bilateral oophorectomy and time since menopause, as well as any interaction with randomized HT assignment among postmenopausal women. Methods Using pooled data from the Women’s Health Initiative HT clinical trials including 27,035 postmenopausal women ages 50 to 79 years with no history of VTE, we assessed the risk of VTE in relation to age at menopause, age at menarche, parity, bilateral oophorectomy and time since menopause by Cox proportional hazard models. Linear trends, quadratic relationships and interactions of reproductive life characteristics with HT on VTE risk were systematically tested. Results During the follow-up, 426 women reported a first VTE, including 294 nonprocedure-related events. No apparent interaction of reproductive life characteristics with HT assignment on VTE risk was detected and there was any significant association of VTE with age at menarche, age at menopause, parity, oophorectomy or time since menopause. However, analyses restricted to nonprocedure-related VTE showed a U-shaped relationship between age at menopause and thrombotic risk that persisted after multivariable analysis (pmenopause, those with early menopause (agemenopause (age>55 years) had a significant increased VTE risk (HR=1.8;95%CI:1.2–2.7 and HR=1.5;95%CI:1.0–2.4, respectively). Conclusion Reproductive life characteristics have little association with VTE and do not seem to influence the effect of HT on thrombotic risk among postmenopausal women. Nevertheless, early and late onset of menopause might be newly identified risk factors for nonprocedure-related VTE. PMID:23760439

  17. Impact of early personal-history characteristics on the Pace of Aging: implications for clinical trials of therapies to slow aging and extend healthspan.

    Belsky, Daniel W; Caspi, Avshalom; Cohen, Harvey J; Kraus, William E; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E

    2017-08-01

    Therapies to extend healthspan are poised to move from laboratory animal models to human clinical trials. Translation from mouse to human will entail challenges, among them the multifactorial heterogeneity of human aging. To inform clinical trials about this heterogeneity, we report how humans' pace of biological aging relates to personal-history characteristics. Because geroprotective therapies must be delivered by midlife to prevent age-related disease onset, we studied young-adult members of the Dunedin Study 1972-73 birth cohort (n = 954). Cohort members' Pace of Aging was measured as coordinated decline in the integrity of multiple organ systems, by quantifying rate of decline across repeated measurements of 18 biomarkers assayed when cohort members were ages 26, 32, and 38 years. The childhood personal-history characteristics studied were known predictors of age-related disease and mortality, and were measured prospectively during childhood. Personal-history characteristics of familial longevity, childhood social class, adverse childhood experiences, and childhood health, intelligence, and self-control all predicted differences in cohort members' adulthood Pace of Aging. Accumulation of more personal-history risks predicted faster Pace of Aging. Because trials of anti-aging therapies will need to ascertain personal histories retrospectively, we replicated results using cohort members' retrospective personal-history reports made in adulthood. Because many trials recruit participants from clinical settings, we replicated results in the cohort subset who had recent health system contact according to electronic medical records. Quick, inexpensive measures of trial participants' early personal histories can enable clinical trials to study who volunteers for trials, who adheres to treatment, and who responds to anti-aging therapies. © 2017 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Validation of a short food frequency questionnaire specific for iodine in U.K. females of childbearing age.

    Combet, E; Lean, M E J

    2014-12-01

    Widespread subclinical iodine insufficiency has recently been reported in Europe, based on urinary iodine using World Health Organization/Food and Agriculture Organization criteria, in particular among young women. Although urinary iodine concentration (UIC) is a useful measurement of the iodine status in a population, it does not provide an insight into the habitual iodine intake of this population. This is compounded by the fact that very few iodine-specific food frequency questionnaires (FFQ) have been validated so far. The present study aimed to develop and validate a new, simple, rapid survey tool to assess dietary iodine exposure in females of childbearing age. Iodine was measured in a duplicate 24-h urine collection. Iodine intake was measured with duplicate 4-day semi-quantitative food diaries and the FFQ. Correlation, cross-classification and Bland-Altman analyses were used to estimate agreement, bias and the reliability of the method. The triangular (triad) method was used to calculate validity coefficients. Forty-three women, aged 19-49 years, took part in the validation of the 17-items FFQ. Median (interquartile range) UIC was 74 (47-92) μg L(-1) , which is indicative of mild iodine insufficiency. The FFQ showed good agreement with food diaries with respect to classifying iodine intake (82% of subjects were classified in the same or adjacent quartile). The FFQ was moderately correlated with the food diaries (rs  = 0.45, P = 0.002) and urinary excretion in μg L(-1) (rs  = 0.34, P = 0.025) but not in μg day(-1) (P = 0.316). The validity coefficients were 0.69, 0.66 and 0.52 for the food diaries, FFQ and urinary iodine excretion, respectively. The FFQ provides a rapid and reliable estimate of dietary iodine exposure to identify those population subgroups at risk of iodine deficiency. © 2014 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  19. Associations Between Family History of Substance Use, Childhood Trauma, and Age of First Drug Use in Persons With Methamphetamine Dependence.

    Svingen, Leah; Dykstra, Rita E; Simpson, Jamie L; Jaffe, Anna E; Bevins, Rick A; Carlo, Gustavo; DiLillo, David; Grant, Kathleen M

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined the association among family history of substance use problems, childhood maltreatment, and age of first drug use in a sample of men and women seeking treatment for methamphetamine dependence. Various forms of childhood maltreatment were considered as mediators of the association between family history of substance use problems and age of first drug use. Participants (N = 99, 40% women, mean age 33) who were under treatment for methamphetamine dependence completed a baseline interview that obtained demographic information, past substance use by participants, history of drug/alcohol problems in their family of origin, and age at first use of any drug (excluding alcohol and tobacco). The Early Trauma Inventory Self-Report-Short Form was used to assess child maltreatment experiences before the age of 18. Family history of substance use problems and childhood physical (but not emotional or sexual) trauma significantly predicted age of first drug use. Further, childhood physical trauma mediated the association between family history of substance use problems and age of first drug use. These findings suggest that the experience of childhood physical abuse may be an important mechanism through which family history of substance use is associated with an earlier age of first drug use.

  20. Health maintenance in school-aged children: Part I. History, physical examination, screening, and immunizations.

    Riley, Margaret; Locke, Amy B; Skye, Eric P

    2011-03-15

    The goals of the well-child examination in school-aged children (kindergarten through early adolescence) are promoting health, detecting disease, and counseling to prevent injury and future health problems. A complete history should address any concerns from the patient and family and screen for lifestyle habits, including diet, physical activity, daily screen time (e.g., television, computer, video games), hours of sleep per night, dental care, and safety habits. School performance can be used for developmental surveillance. A full physical examination should be performed; however, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends against routine scoliosis screening and testicular examination. Children should be screened for obesity, which is defined as a body mass index at or above the 95th percentile for age and sex, and resources for comprehensive, intensive behavioral interventions should be provided to children with obesity. Although the evidence is mixed regarding screening for hypertension before 18 years of age, many experts recommend checking blood pressure annually beginning at three years of age. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends vision and hearing screening annually or every two years in school-aged children. There is insufficient evidence to recommend screening for dyslipidemia in children of any age, or screening for depression before 12 years of age. All children should receive at least 400 IU of vitamin D daily, with higher doses indicated in children with vitamin D deficiency. Children who live in areas with inadequate fluoride in the water (less than 0.6 ppm) should receive a daily fluoride supplement. Age-appropriate immunizations should be given, as well as any missed immunizations.

  1. Risk factors for human immunodeficiency virus among blood donors in Cameroon: evidence for the design of an Africa-specific donor history questionnaire.

    Tagny, Claude T; Nguefack-Tsague, Georges; Fopa, Diderot; Ashu, Celestin; Tante, Estel; Ngo Balogog, Pauline; Donfack, Olivier; Mbanya, Dora; Laperche, Syria; Murphy, Edward

    2017-08-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa improving the deferral of at-risk blood donors would be a cost-effective approach to reducing transfusion-transmitted human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections. We performed a pilot case-control study to identify the risk factors for HIV infection and to develop an adapted donor history questionnaire (DHQ) for sub-Saharan Africa. We recruited 137 HIV-positive donors (cases) and 256 HIV-negative donors (controls) and gathered risk factor data using audio computer-assisted self-interview. Variables with univariate associations were entered into a logistic regression model to assess independent associations. A scoring scheme to distinguish between HIV-positive and HIV-negative donors was developed using receiver operating characteristics curves. We identified 16 risk factors including sex with sex worker, past history or treatment for sexually transmitted infections, and having a partner who used injected or noninjected illegal drugs. Two novel risks were related to local behavior: polygamy (odds ratio [OR], 22.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.9-86.7) and medical or grooming treatment on the street (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.0-3.0). Using the 16 selected items the mean scores (>100) were 82.6 ± 6.7 (range, 53.2-95.1) and 85.1 ± 5.2 for HIV-negative donors versus 77.9 ± 6.8 for HIV-positive ones (p = 0.000). Donors who scored between 80 and 90 were more likely to be HIV negative than those who scored less (OR, 31.4; 95% CI, 3.1-313.9). We identified both typical and novel HIV risk factors among Cameroonian blood donors. An adapted DHQ and score that discriminate HIV-negative donors may be an inexpensive means of reducing transfusion-transmitted HIV through predonation screening. © 2017 AABB.

  2. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire: Psychometric properties of the parent and teacher version in children aged 4–7

    Stone, L.L.; Janssens, J.M.A.M.; Vermulst, A.A.; Maten, M.L. van der; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Otten, R.

    2015-01-01

    Background The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire is one of the most employed screening instruments. Although there is a large research body investigating its psychometric properties, reliability and validity are not yet fully tested using modern techniques. Therefore, we investigate

  3. MEAN AGE GRADIENT AND ASYMMETRY IN THE STAR FORMATION HISTORY OF THE SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    Cignoni, M.; Cole, A. A.; Tosi, M.; Gallagher, J. S.; Sabbi, E.; Anderson, J.; Nota, A.; Grebel, E. K.

    2013-01-01

    We derive the star formation history (SFH) in four regions of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) using the deepest VI color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) ever obtained for this galaxy. The images were obtained with the Advanced Camera for Surveys on board the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and are located at projected distances of 0.°5-2° from the SMC center, probing the main body and the wing of the galaxy. We derived the SFHs of the four fields using two independent procedures to fit synthetic CMDs to the data. We compare the SFHs derived here with our earlier results for the SMC bar to create a deep pencil-beam survey of the global history of the central SMC. We find in all the six fields observed with HST a slow star formation (SF) pace from 13 to 5-7 Gyr ago, followed by a ≈2-3 times higher activity. This is remarkable because dynamical models do not predict a strong influence of either the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) or the Milky Way at that time. The level of the intermediate-age SF rate enhancement systematically increases toward the center, resulting in a gradient in the mean age of the population, with the bar fields being systematically younger than the outer ones. SF over the most recent 500 Myr is strongly concentrated in the bar, the only exception being the area of the SMC wing. The strong current activity of the latter is likely driven by interaction with the LMC. At a given age, there is no significant difference in metallicity between the inner and outer fields, implying that metals are well mixed throughout the SMC. The age-metallicity relations we infer from our best-fitting models are monotonically increasing with time, with no evidence of dips. This may argue against the major merger scenario proposed by Tsujimoto and Bekki in 2009, although a minor merger cannot be ruled out

  4. The history of ironware in Japan revealed by the AMS-carbon 14 age method

    Fujio, Shin'ichirou

    2005-01-01

    This paper focuses on the influence what the AMS-carbon 14 age method attains to the history of the iron in the Japanese Islands. The research team in National Museum of Japanese History makes a clear that the Yayoi period began in 10 Cen. cal BC. However, there was a problem in this. It is iron. If the Yayoi period has started in the 10th Cen. BC, it means that the ironware in Japanese Islands had spread early rather than it spreads in China. The research team reexamined the ironware excavated from Magarita site in the Fukuoka Pref. considered to be the oldest ironware in Japan. Consequently, the excavation situation was indefinite and it turned out that we cannot specify the time to belong. Furthermore, 36 ironwares in the initial and early Yayoi were also already found by that time cannot be specified except for two points. Therefore, it turned out that Japanese ironware appeared in the 3rd century of B.C. What does this mean? Although it had been thought that the beginning of agriculture in Japan and the appearance of ironware were simultaneous, it turned out that agriculture has appeared early about in 700 years. Therefore, it became clear that agriculture of Japan started at the Stone Age. (author)

  5. Parity History Determines a Systemic Inflammatory Response to Spread of Ovarian Cancer in Naturally Aged Mice.

    Urzua, Ulises; Chacon, Carlos; Lizama, Luis; Sarmiento, Sebastián; Villalobos, Pía; Kroxato, Belén; Marcelain, Katherine; Gonzalez, María-Julieta

    2017-10-01

    Aging intersects with reproductive senescence in women by promoting a systemic low-grade chronic inflammation that predisposes women to several diseases including ovarian cancer (OC). OC risk at menopause is significantly modified by parity records during prior fertile life. To date, the combined effects of age and parity on the systemic inflammation markers that are particularly relevant to OC initiation and progression at menopause remain largely unknown. Herein, we profiled a panel of circulating cytokines in multiparous versus virgin C57BL/6 female mice at peri-estropausal age and investigated how cytokine levels were modulated by intraperitoneal tumor induction in a syngeneic immunocompetent OC mouse model. Serum FSH, LH and TSH levels increased with age in both groups while prolactin (PRL) was lower in multiparous respect to virgin mice, a finding previously observed in parous women. Serum CCL2, IL-10, IL-5, IL-4, TNF-α, IL1-β and IL-12p70 levels increased with age irrespective of parity status, but were specifically reduced following OC tumor induction only in multiparous mice. Animals developed hemorrhagic ascites and tumor implants in the omental fat band and other intraperitoneal organs by 12 weeks after induction, with multiparous mice showing a significantly extended survival. We conclude that previous parity history counteracts aging-associated systemic inflammation possibly by reducing the immunosuppression that typically allows tumor spread. Results suggest a partial impairment of the M2 shift in tumor-associated macrophages as well as decreased stimulation of regulatory B-cells in aged mice. This long term, tumor-concurrent effect of parity on inflammation markers at menopause would be a contributing factor leading to decreased OC risk.

  6. A Semi-Quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire Validated in Hispanic Infants and Toddlers Aged 0 to 24 Months.

    Palacios, Cristina; Rivas-Tumanyan, Sona; Santiago-Rodríguez, Eduardo J; Sinigaglia, Olga; Ríos, Elaine M; Campos, Maribel; Diaz, Beatriz; Willett, Walter

    2017-04-01

    There are limited validated food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) for infants and toddlers, most of which were evaluated in Europe or Oceania, and the ones available for use in the United States have important limitations. Our aim was to assess the validity of an FFQ developed for infants and toddlers. A semi-quantitative FFQ was developed that included 52 food items, their sources, and portion sizes. The FFQ inquired about diets over the previous 7 days. Its validity was assessed in a cross-sectional study. Participants completed the FFQ, followed by a 24-hour recall on two occasions with 1 week between data collection. A total of 296 caregivers of infants and toddlers aged 0 to 24 months enrolled in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children, Puerto Rico. Intake of nutrients and food groups were averaged for the two FFQs and the two 24-hour food recalls, and adjusted for energy intake. Spearman correlations were performed for intakes of energy, nutrients, and foods between administrations and between instruments. Correlation coefficients were de-attenuated to account for variation in the 24-hour recalls. A total of 241 participants completed the study. Intake of all nutrients and foods were significantly correlated between FFQs and 24-hour recalls and between the means of FFQs and 24-hour food recalls. The de-attenuated correlation for nutrients between the FFQs and 24-hour recalls ranged from 0.26 (folate) to 0.77 (energy), with a mean correlation of 0.53. The de-attenuated correlation for food groups between the FFQs and 24-hour recalls ranged from 0.28 (sweets) to 0.80 (breast milk), with a mean correlation of 0.55. When analyses were restricted to those consuming foods other than breast milk or formula (n=186), results were similar. This semi-quantitative FFQ is a tool that offers reasonably valid rankings for intake of energy, nutrients, foods, and food groups in this sample of infants and toddlers. Copyright © 2017 Academy

  7. Oral histories: a simple method of assigning chronological age to isotopic values from human dentine collagen.

    Beaumont, Julia; Montgomery, Janet

    2015-01-01

    Stable isotope ratios of carbon (δ(13)C) and nitrogen (δ(15)N) in bone and dentine collagen have been used for over 30 years to estimate palaeodiet, subsistence strategy, breastfeeding duration and migration within burial populations. Recent developments in dentine microsampling allow improved temporal resolution for dietary patterns. A simple method is proposed which could be applied to human teeth to estimate chronological age represented by dentine microsamples in the direction of tooth growth, allowing comparison of dietary patterns between individuals and populations. The method is tested using profiles from permanent and deciduous teeth of two individuals. Using a diagrammatic representation of dentine development by approximate age for each human tooth (based on the Queen Mary University of London Atlas), this study estimated the age represented by each dentine section. Two case studies are shown: comparison of M1 and M2 from a 19th century individual from London, England, and identification of an unknown tooth from an Iron Age female adult from Scotland. The isotopic profiles demonstrate that variations in consecutively-forming teeth can be aligned using this method to extend the dietary history of an individual or identify an unknown tooth by matching the profiles.

  8. Evaluation of the Turkish Version of the "Ages and Stages Questionnaires: Social-Emotional" in Identifying Children with Social-Emotional Problems

    Kucuker, Sevgi; Kapci, Emine Gul; Uslu, Runa Idil

    2011-01-01

    The applicability of the Age and Stages Questionnaires: Social Emotional (ASQ-SE; J. Squires, D. Bricker & E. Twombly, 2003) for Turkish children was examined. A total of 608 mothers completed the ASQ-SE's. Overall sensitivity and overall specificity were 83.7% and 89.9%, respectively. Test-retest reliability, assessed by classifying children…

  9. Early Childhood Psychosocial Screening in Culturally Diverse Populations: A Survey of Clinical Experience With the Ages and Stages Questionnaires: Social-Emotional (ASQ:SE)

    Lyman, D. Russell; Njoroge, Wanjiku F. M.; Willis, David W.

    2007-01-01

    The authors developed a qualitative study to seek the feedback of service providers with regard to the usefulness of the Ages and Stages Questionnaire: Social Emotional as a screening tool for multicultural populations. They addressed provider satisfaction with the tool by surveying a multidisciplinary sample of practitioners who provide a range…

  10. Association of Family History of Exceptional Longevity With Decline in Physical Function in Aging.

    Ayers, Emmeline; Barzilai, Nir; Crandall, Jill P; Milman, Sofiya; Verghese, Joe

    2017-11-09

    Although many genetic and nongenetic factors interact to determine an individual's physical phenotype, there has been limited examination of the contribution of family history of exceptional parental longevity on decline in physical function in aging. The LonGenity study recruited a relatively genetically homogenous cohort of Ashkenazi Jewish adults age 65 and older, who were defined as either offspring of parents with exceptional longevity ([OPEL]: having at least one parent who lived to age 95 or older) or offspring of parents with usual survival ([OPUS]: neither parent survived to age 95). Decline in performance on objective measures of strength (grip strength), balance (unipedal stance), and mobility (gait speed) as well as a composite physical function measure, the Short physical performance battery (SPPB), were compared between the two groups over a median follow-up of 3.2 years, accounting for age, sex, education, and comorbidities. Of the 984 LonGenity participants (mean age 76, 55% women), 448 were OPEL and 536 were OPUS. Compared to OPUS, OPEL had slower decline on measures of unipedal stance (-0.03 log-units/year, p = .026), repeated chair rise (0.13 s/year, p = .020) and SPPB (-0.11 points/year, p = .002). OPEL women had slower decline on chair rise and SPPB scores compared to OPUS women, although OPEL men had slower decline on unipedal stance compared to OPUS men. Our findings provide evidence that variation in late-life decline in physical function is associated with familial longevity, and may vary for men and women. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Screening accuracy of the parent-completed Ages and Stages Questionnaires - second edition as a broadband screener for motor problems in preschoolers with autism spectrum disorders.

    Vanvuchelen, Marleen; Van Schuerbeeck, Lise; Braeken, Marijke Aka

    2017-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders are at risk for motor problems. However, this area is often overlooked in the developmental evaluation in autism diagnostic clinics. An alternative can be to identify children who should receive intensive motor assessment by using a parent-based screener. The aim of this study was to examine whether the Ages and Stages Questionnaires - second edition may be used to identify gross and fine motor problems in children. High-functioning children with autism spectrum disorder (n = 43, 22-54 m) participated in this study. Sensitivity, specificity, predictive values and areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve were calculated by comparing the Ages and Stages Questionnaires - second edition scores to the developmental evaluation of the Peabody Developmental Motor Scale - second edition. The results revealed that both the Ages and Stages Questionnaires - second edition gross and fine motor domain may be used to identify children without motor problems. In contrast, sensitivity analyses revealed the likelihood of under screening motor problems in this population. The Ages and Stages Questionnaires - second edition met only the criteria of a fair to good accuracy to identify poor gross motor (sensitivity = 100%) and below-average fine motor development (sensitivity = 71%) in this sample. Hence, the capacity of the Ages and Stages Questionnaires - second edition to identify motor problems in preschoolers with autism spectrum disorder appears to be limited. It is recommended to include a formal standardized motor test in the diagnostic procedure for all children with autism spectrum disorder. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. Food allergy QoL questionnaire for children aged 0-12 years : content, construct, and cross-cultural validity

    DunnGalvin, A.; de BlokFlokstra, B. M. J.; Burks, A. W.; Dubois, A. E. J.; Hourihane, J. O'B.

    Background To date, there is no food allergy-specific questionnaire that allows parents to report children's health-related QoL (HRQL) from the child's perspective. Objective The aim of this study was to develop a sensitive, multi-dimensional measure to assess parental perception of HRQL in children

  13. Genetic History of Xinjiang's Uyghurs Suggests Bronze Age Multiple-Way Contacts in Eurasia.

    Feng, Qidi; Lu, Yan; Ni, Xumin; Yuan, Kai; Yang, Yajun; Yang, Xiong; Liu, Chang; Lou, Haiyi; Ning, Zhilin; Wang, Yuchen; Lu, Dongsheng; Zhang, Chao; Zhou, Ying; Shi, Meng; Tian, Lei; Wang, Xiaoji; Zhang, Xi; Li, Jing; Khan, Asifullah; Guan, Yaqun; Tang, Kun; Wang, Sijia; Xu, Shuhua

    2017-10-01

    The Uyghur people residing in Xinjiang, a territory located in the far west of China and crossed by the Silk Road, are a key ethnic group for understanding the history of human dispersion in Eurasia. Here we assessed the genetic structure and ancestry of 951 Xinjiang's Uyghurs (XJU) representing 14 geographical subpopulations. We observed a southwest and northeast differentiation within XJU, which was likely shaped jointly by the Tianshan Mountains, which traverses from east to west as a natural barrier, and gene flow from both east and west directions. In XJU, we identified four major ancestral components that were potentially derived from two earlier admixed groups: one from the West, harboring European (25-37%) and South Asian ancestries (12-20%), and the other from the East, with Siberian (15-17%) and East Asian (29-47%) ancestries. By using a newly developed method, MultiWaver, the complex admixture history of XJU was modeled as a two-wave admixture. An ancient wave was dated back to ∼3,750 years ago (ya), which is much earlier than that estimated by previous studies, but fits within the range of dating of mummies that exhibited European features that were discovered in the Tarim basin, which is situated in southern Xinjiang (4,000-2,000 ya); a more recent wave occurred around 750 ya, which is in agreement with the estimate from a recent study using other methods. We unveiled a more complex scenario of ancestral origins and admixture history in XJU than previously reported, which further suggests Bronze Age massive migrations in Eurasia and East-West contacts across the Silk Road. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Familial history, age and smoking are important risk factors for disc degeneration disease in Arabic pedigrees

    Livshits, Gregory; Cohen, Zvi; Higla, Orabi; Yakovenko, Konstantin

    2001-01-01

    The present study used computed tomography imaging to evaluate the extent and pattern of the intergenerational transmission of spinal disc degeneration disease (DDD) in complex pedigrees. Contribution of a number of the potential covariates was also studied using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis, as well as two types of complex segregation analysis models. Among 161 individuals studied, DDD was diagnosed in 60 individuals. The number of protruded discs varied from 1 to 4, mostly in lumbar or lumbosacral regions. The average age at onset of the disease was similar for both women (36.0 years) and men (34.8 years). The proportion of the individuals affected by the DDD status of their parents ranged from 10% in families of two healthy parents to 55.5% of two affected parents (p < 0.01). The results of the logistic regression analyses and complex segregation analysis were qualitatively the same: DDD status of parents, age and smoking were the main risk factors for disc herniation in the Arabic families we examined. All analyses showed a predominating role of the family history as a risk factor for DDD in offsprings. It showed, for example, four times higher risk at age 50 for individuals with two affected parents vs. those who have two non-affected parents. However, the results of models-fitting genetic analysis, did not confirm a monogenic Mendelian pattern of inheritance

  15. Natural history of diabetes mellitus with special reference to age of onset and vascular complications.

    Goto, Y; Toyota, T; Masuda, M; Komatsu, K; Kuriki, A

    1976-06-01

    Age and sex distribution of diabetics, seasonal incidence of diabetes, grade of hyperglycemia, frequency of vascular complications and daily living conditions were studied of 2771 diabetic patients experienced at five clinics. The cases consisted of 1587 male and 1184 female diabetics. The distribution of age of diabetes onset revealed that males predominate among diabetics but females predominate among child diabetics, and that the precentage of child was extremely low. This pattern was emphasized as characteristic of Japanese diabetic population. Distribution of fasting blood sugar at the diagnosis of diabetes was compared among the age groups of diabetes-onset and the results showed that percentage of the value exceeding 300 mg/100 ml was highest in the under 10 year-onset cases and decreased with age. The frequency of diabetic retinopathy and of ischemic ECG changes was analysed from the view point of age of diabetes onset and also the duration of the disease. The frequency of the retinopathy at the diabetes-onset was zero in the under 10 year-onset cases, 4.2% in the 10s-onset cases and increased with age. The longer the duration of the disease the higher the frequency of the retinopathy was. This increase along with the duration was most remarkable in the 10s- and 20s-onset cases and less remarkable in the 30s-onset cases. The retinopathy was significantly more frequent in female diabetics. Daily of the patients were studied by a questionnaire and the analysis of 1022 cases with diabetes of more than three years revealed that cases of patients working uneventfully and/or feeling fit were most frequent among the 30s- or 40s-onset cases and that cases of bed-disability were frequent among the cases whose diabetes was found in their twenties or younger. This study showed that the prognosis of the patients is quite different according to whether their diabetes occurred before of after 30 years of age.

  16. Using national dietary intake data to evaluate and adapt the US Diet History Questionnaire: the stepwise tailoring of an FFQ for Canadian use.

    Csizmadi, Ilona; Boucher, Beatrice A; Lo Siou, Geraldine; Massarelli, Isabelle; Rondeau, Isabelle; Garriguet, Didier; Koushik, Anita; Elenko, Janine; Subar, Amy F

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the Canadian Diet History Questionnaire I (C-DHQ I) food list and to adapt the US DHQ II for Canada using Canadian dietary survey data. Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls reported by adults in a national Canadian survey were analysed to create a food list corresponding to C-DHQ I food questions. The percentage contribution of the food list to the total survey intake of seventeen nutrients was used as the criterion to evaluate the suitability of the C-DHQ I to capture food intake in Canadian populations. The data were also analysed to identify foods and to modify portion sizes for the C-DHQ II. The Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) - Cycle 2.2 Nutrition (2004). Adults (n 20 159) who completed 24 h dietary recalls during in-person interviews. Four thousand five hundred and thirty-three foods and recipes were grouped into 268 Food Groups, of which 212 corresponded to questions on the C-DHQ I. Nutrient intakes captured by the C-DHQ I ranged from 79 % for fat to 100 % for alcohol. For the new C-DHQ II, some food questions were retained from the original US DHQ II while others were added based on foods reported in CCHS and foods available on the Canadian market since 2004. Of 153 questions, 143 were associated with portion sizes of which fifty-three were modified from US values. Sex-specific nutrient profiles for the C-DHQ II nutrient database were derived using CCHS data. The C-DHQ I and II are designed to optimize the capture of foods consumed by Canadian populations.

  17. The natural history of developmental dysplasia of the hip: sonographic findings in infants of 1-3 months of age

    Roovers, E.A.; Boere-Boonekamp, Magdalena M.; Mostert, Adriaan K.; Castelein, René M.; Zielhuis, Gerhard A.; Kerkhoff, Antoon

    2005-01-01

    The natural history of sonographic developmental dysplasia of the hip was determined in a population-based study in which 5170 infants were screened by ultrasound using Graf's method. Of the normal hips at the age of 1 month, 99.6% were still normal at the age of 3 months. Of the immature type

  18. Holocene glacial history of the west Greenland Ice Sheet inferred from cosmogenic exposure ages and threshold lakes

    Larsen, Nicolaj Krog; Kjaer, K. H.; Colding, Sune Oluf

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we use a combination of 10Be exposure ages and threshold lakes to constrain the ice sheet history in Godthåbs- and Buksefjorden, west Greenland (63-64°N) during the Holocene. The 10Be cosmogenic exposure ages have been used to quantify both the ice retreat and thinning of the west...

  19. Normative data and psychometric properties of the strengths and difficulties questionnaire among Japanese school-aged children

    Moriwaki, Aiko; Kamio, Yoko

    2014-01-01

    Background Although child mental health problems are among the most important worldwide issues, development of culturally acceptable mental health services to serve the clinical needs of children and their families is especially lacking in regions outside Europe and North America. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), which was developed in the United Kingdom and is now one of the most widely used measurement tools for screening child psychiatric symptoms, has been translated in...

  20. Ramathibodi Language Development Questionnaire: A Newly Developed Screening Tool for Detection of Delayed Language Development in Children Aged 18-30 Months.

    Chuthapisith, Jariya; Wantanakorn, Pornchanok; Roongpraiwan, Rawiwan

    2015-08-01

    To develop a parental questionnaire for screening children with delayed language development in primary care settings. Ramathibodi Language Development (RLD) questionnaire was developed and completed by groups of 40 typically developing children age 18 to 30 months old and 30 children with delayed language development. The mean score was significantly lower in the delay language group (6.7 ± 1.9), comparing with the typically developing group (9.6 ± 0.7). The optimal ROC curve cut-off score was 8 with corresponding sensitivity and specificity were 98% and 72%, respectively. The corresponding area under the curve was 0.96 (95% CI = 0.92-0.99). The RLD questionnaire was the promising language developmental screening instrument that easily utilized in well-child examination settings.

  1. Development, reliability, and validity testing of Toddler NutriSTEP: a nutrition risk screening questionnaire for children 18-35 months of age.

    Randall Simpson, Janis; Gumbley, Jillian; Whyte, Kylie; Lac, Jane; Morra, Crystal; Rysdale, Lee; Turfryer, Mary; McGibbon, Kim; Beyers, Joanne; Keller, Heather

    2015-09-01

    Nutrition is vital for optimal growth and development of young children. Nutrition risk screening can facilitate early intervention when followed by nutritional assessment and treatment. NutriSTEP (Nutrition Screening Tool for Every Preschooler) is a valid and reliable nutrition risk screening questionnaire for preschoolers (aged 3-5 years). A need was identified for a similar questionnaire for toddlers (aged 18-35 months). The purpose was to develop a reliable and valid Toddler NutriSTEP. Toddler NutriSTEP was developed in 4 phases. Content and face validity were determined with a literature review, parent focus groups (n = 6; 48 participants), and experts (n = 13) (phase A). A draft questionnaire was refined with key intercept interviews of 107 parents/caregivers (phase B). Test-retest reliability (phase C), based on intra-class correlations (ICC), Kappa (κ) statistics, and Wilcoxon tests was assessed with 133 parents/caregivers. Criterion validity (phase D) was assessed using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves by comparing scores on the Toddler NutriSTEP to a comprehensive nutritional assessment of 200 toddlers with a registered dietitian (RD). The Toddler NutriSTEP was reliable between 2 administrations (ICC = 0.951, F = 20.53, p Toddler NutriSTEP were correlated (r = 0.67, p Toddler NutriSTEP questionnaire is both reliable and valid for screening for nutritional risk in toddlers.

  2. Validity of the Food Frequency Questionnaire Assessing the Folate Intake in Women of Reproductive Age Living in a Country without Food Fortification: Application of the Method of Triads.

    Zekovic, Milica; Djekic-Ivankovic, Marija; Nikolic, Marina; Gurinovic, Mirjana; Krajnovic, Dusanka; Glibetic, Marija

    2017-02-13

    The study aimed to examine the external validity of the Folate Food Frequency Questionnaire (F-FFQ) designed for assessing the folate intake in Serbian women of reproductive age. The F-FFQ was tested against repeated 24 h dietary recalls and correspondent nutritional biomarkers (red blood cells (RBC) and serum folate concentrations) using the method of triads. In a cross sectional study, 503 women aged 18-49 years completed dietary questionnaires and representative validation subsample ( n = 50) provided fasting blood samples for biomarker analyses. Correlation coefficients were calculated between each of the dietary methods and three pair-wise correlations were applied for the calculation of validity coefficients. Correlation coefficients observed between F-FFQ and three 24 h recalls were r = 0.56 ( p food fortification.

  3. A comparison of cognitive functions in non-hypoxemic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients and age-matched healthy volunteers using mini-mental state examination questionnaire and event-related potential, P300 analysis

    Prem Parkash Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess sub-clinical cognitive dysfunctions in stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients having no hypoxemia vs. age-matched healthy volunteers using (i an electrophysiological test: Auditory event related potential, P300 test and (ii a questionnaire tool: Mini-mental state examination (MMSE questionnaire. Materials and Methods: Eighty male subjects were included: 40 stable COPD patients (smoking history >20 pack years and 40 healthy volunteers (HVs. Age, duration of illness, smoking pack years, and spirometric indices were assessed. MMSE scores were evaluated in these groups. Latency of P300 wave and amplitude of P300 wave were studied in both groups to detect P300 abnormalities in COPD group. Correlations of P300 abnormalities with patient characteristic parameters and MMSE scores were assessed. In addition, individual COPD patients having significant cognitive dysfunctions beyond cut-off value of 99 th percentile of HVs were analyzed. Results: We observed significantly prolonged P300 latency ( P 0.05 for all. Conclusions: Our study explores cognitive dysfunctions in stable COPD patients with no hypoxemia. This study highlights the relative importance of using MMSE and P300. Cognitive dysfunctions were detected both by MMSE and P300; however, MMSE abnormalities were more frequent compared to P300 abnormalities (27/40 vs. 10/40 in COPD patients.

  4. The natural history of prevalent ischaemic heart disease in middle-aged men.

    Lampe, F C; Whincup, P H; Wannamethee, S G; Shaper, A G; Walker, M; Ebrahim, S

    2000-07-01

    To describe the long-term outcome of different forms of symptomatic and asymptomatic ischaemic heart disease in middle-aged men. 7735 men aged 40-59, randomly selected from 24 general practices in Britain were classified into one of seven ischaemic heart disease groups according to a questionnaire and electrocardiogram (ECG): I=diagnosed myocardial infarction; II=unrecognized myocardial infarction; III= diagnosed angina; IV=angina symptoms; V=possible myocardial infarction symptoms; VI=ECG ischaemia or possible myocardial infarction; VII=no evidence of ischaemic heart disease. The association of disease group with a range of fatal and non-fatal outcomes during 15 years of follow-up was assessed. At baseline 25% of men had evidence of ischaemic heart disease (groups I-VI). Risks of major ischaemic heart disease events, total and cardiovascular mortality, stroke, and major cardiovascular events tended to increase strongly from group VII to I. Diagnosed myocardial infarction was associated with a much poorer prognosis than all other groups (including unrecognized infarction) for all cardiovascular outcomes other than stroke. The relative risk associated with ischaemic heart disease at baseline declined dramatically over time. However, men with myocardial infarction who survived event-free for 10 years continued to experience a high excess risk in the subsequent 5 years, in contrast to event-free survivors of angina and other ischaemic heart disease. Adjusted to an average age of 50, the percentage of men surviving for 15 years free of a new major cardiovascular event was 44 for diagnosed myocardial infarction, 52 for unrecognized myocardial infarction, 66 for diagnosed angina, 68 for angina symptoms, 73 for possible myocardial infarction symptoms, 73 for ECG ischaemia, and 79 for no ischaemic heart disease. Comparison of outcome between prevalent and incident myocardial infarction illustrated the improved prognosis of men surviving the initial years after their event

  5. The relationship between antibiotic therapy in early childhood and the symptoms of allergy in children aged 6-8 years - the questionnaire study results.

    Raciborski, Filip; Tomaszewska, Aneta; Komorowski, Jarosław; Samel-Kowalik, Piotr; Białoszewski, Artur Z; Walkiewicz, Artur; Lusawa, Adam; Szymański, Jakub; Opoczyńska, Dagmara; Drużba, Michał; Borowicz, Jacek; Lipiec, Agnieszka; Kapalczynski, Wojciech J; Samoliński, Bolesław

    2012-09-01

    Studies based on the ISAAC questionnaire suggest a correlation between the use of antibiotics and the prevalence of asthma and allergy in children aged 6-7 years. The number of courses of antibiotic therapy is an important factor. To investigate the relationship between the use of antibiotics during the first years of life and the prevalence of allergy and asthma among children (aged 6-8 years) in the urban population of Poland. A survey-based study with a self-completed questionnaire. The respondents were parents of children aged 6-8 years living in Warszawa, Poland. 1461 completed questionnaires were collected. Asthma was declared in 4.3% of the children. Wheezing and/or sibilant rhonchi within 12 months before the study was observed in 13.5% of the cases. Asthma medication was taken by 21.8% of the children. Allergic rhinitis was declared in 18.7% of the children. Problems with sneezing, rhinorrhea, and nasal congestion not associated with cold or fever were observed in 40.7% of the children. The analysis of the odds ratios between the use of antibiotics and the symptoms of allergic diseases revealed a clear correlation. The highest odds ratio was observed between the completion of over three courses of antibiotic therapy prior to the age of 12 months and the declaration of one of the following: asthma (OR = 5.59, 95% CI: 2.6-12.01), wheezing and/or sibilant rhonchi (OR = 4.68, 95% CI: 3.01-7.27) and taking medicines for breathlessness (OR = 5.12, 95% CI: 3.42-7.68). There is a direct relationship between antibiotic use in the first 3 years of life and asthma and allergy symptoms in children aged 6-8 years old.

  6. Mothers' Parenting Behaviors in Families of School-Aged Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: An Observational and Questionnaire Study

    Boonen, Hannah; van Esch, Lotte; Lambrechts, Greet; Maljaars, Jarymke; Zink, Inge; Van Leeuwen, Karla; Noens, Ilse

    2015-01-01

    Although parents of children with ASD face specific challenges in parenting, only a few studies have empirically investigated parenting behaviors among these parents. The current study examined differences in parenting behaviors between mothers of school-aged children with ASD (n = 30) and mothers of typically developing children (n = 39), using…

  7. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire-Parents for Italian School-Aged Children: Psychometric Properties and Norms.

    Tobia, Valentina; Marzocchi, Gian Marco

    2018-02-01

    The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire [SDQ; (1)] is a multi-informant instrument for screening developmental psychopathology. This study contributes to the validation of the Italian SDQ-Parent version (SDQ-P), analyzing its factorial structure, providing norms and investigating cross-informant agreement (parents-teachers). The SDQ-P and the SDQ-Teacher version (SDQ-T) were completed for 1917 primary and middle school students. Confirmatory factor analyses were performed to compare two factorial structures: the original five-factor model and the structure obtained in a past Italian study (2). The original model showed the best fit. Significant differences by gender and school grade were found; norms were provided separately for males and females attending 1st-2nd, 3rd-5th and 6th-8th grades. Finally, the analysis of parent-teacher agreement showed correlations ranging from small (prosocial behavior) to large (hyperactivity-inattention). This study offers some reflections on the best way to use this instrument in a community sample.

  8. Development and validation of the Brazilian version of the Attitudes to Aging Questionnaire (AAQ: An example of merging classical psychometric theory and the Rasch measurement model

    Trentini Clarissa M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aging has determined a demographic shift in the world, which is considered a major societal achievement, and a challenge. Aging is primarily a subjective experience, shaped by factors such as gender and culture. There is a lack of instruments to assess attitudes to aging adequately. In addition, there is no instrument developed or validated in developing region contexts, so that the particularities of ageing in these areas are not included in the measures available. This paper aims to develop and validate a reliable attitude to aging instrument by combining classical psychometric approach and Rasch analysis. Methods Pilot study and field trial are described in details. Statistical analysis included classic psychometric theory (EFA and CFA and Rasch measurement model. The latter was applied to examine unidimensionality, response scale and item fit. Results Sample was composed of 424 Brazilian old adults, which was compared to an international sample (n = 5238. The final instrument shows excellent psychometric performance (discriminant validity, confirmatory factor analysis and Rasch fit statistics. Rasch analysis indicated that modifications in the response scale and item deletions improved the initial solution derived from the classic approach. Conclusion The combination of classic and modern psychometric theories in a complementary way is fruitful for development and validation of instruments. The construction of a reliable Brazilian Attitudes to Aging Questionnaire is important for assessing cultural specificities of aging in a transcultural perspective and can be applied in international cross-cultural investigations running less risk of cultural bias.

  9. Test-retest reliability of selected items of Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC survey questionnaire in Beijing, China

    Liu Yang

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children's health and health behaviour are essential for their development and it is important to obtain abundant and accurate information to understand young people's health and health behaviour. The Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC study is among the first large-scale international surveys on adolescent health through self-report questionnaires. So far, more than 40 countries in Europe and North America have been involved in the HBSC study. The purpose of this study is to assess the test-retest reliability of selected items in the Chinese version of the HBSC survey questionnaire in a sample of adolescents in Beijing, China. Methods A sample of 95 male and female students aged 11 or 15 years old participated in a test and retest with a three weeks interval. Student Identity numbers of respondents were utilized to permit matching of test-retest questionnaires. 23 items concerning physical activity, sedentary behaviour, sleep and substance use were evaluated by using the percentage of response shifts and the single measure Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC with 95% confidence interval (CI for all respondents and stratified by gender and age. Items on substance use were only evaluated for school children aged 15 years old. Results The percentage of no response shift between test and retest varied from 32% for the item on computer use at weekends to 92% for the three items on smoking. Of all the 23 items evaluated, 6 items (26% showed a moderate reliability, 12 items (52% displayed a substantial reliability and 4 items (17% indicated almost perfect reliability. No gender and age group difference of the test-retest reliability was found except for a few items on sedentary behaviour. Conclusions The overall findings of this study suggest that most selected indicators in the HBSC survey questionnaire have satisfactory test-retest reliability for the students in Beijing. Further test-retest studies in a large

  10. Age-related changes in somatic condition and reproduction in the Eurasian beaver: Resource history influences onset of reproductive senescence.

    Ruairidh D Campbell

    Full Text Available Using 15 years of data from a stable population of wild Eurasian beavers (Castor fiber, we examine how annual and lifetime access to food resources affect individual age-related changes in reproduction and somatic condition. We found an age-related decline in annual maternal reproductive output, after a peak at age 5-6. Rainfall, an established negative proxy of annual resource availability for beavers, was consistently associated with lower reproductive output for females of all ages. In contrast, breeding territory quality, as a measure of local resource history over reproductive lifetimes, caused differences in individual patterns of reproductive senescence; animals from lower quality territories senesced when younger. Litter size was unrelated to maternal age, although adult body weight increased with age. In terms of resource effects, in poorer years but not in better years, older mothers produced larger offspring than did younger mothers, giving support to the constraint theory. Overall, our findings exemplify state-dependent life-history strategies, supporting an effect of resources on reproductive senescence, where cumulative differences in resource access, and not just reproductive strategy, mediate long-term reproductive trade-offs, consistent with the disposable soma and reproductive restraint theories. We propose that flexible life-history schedules could play a role in the dynamics of populations exhibiting reproductive skew, with earlier breeding opportunities leading to an earlier senescence schedule through resource dependent mechanisms.

  11. The age distributions of clusters and field stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud — implications for star formation histories

    Kruijssen, J.M.D.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/325799911; Lamers, H.J.G.L.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072834870

    2008-01-01

    Differences between the inferred star formation histories (SFHs) of star clusters and field stars seem to suggest distinct star formation processes for the two. The Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) is an example of a galaxy where such a discrepancy is observed. We model the observed age distributions of

  12. A study of radiological protection for women of reproductive age in diagnostic radiology. Questionnaire for medical radiation technologists

    Tsubone, Chie; Ban, Nobuhiko; Kai, Michiaki

    2005-01-01

    There has been great concern regarding the radiation protection for women of reproductive age when exposed to diagnostic radiation. The 10-day-rule proposed by the ICRP has not been recommended since 1983 because the risk to embryo and fetus within four weeks after menstruation may be small. However, some expects see that incomplete abandon of the 10-day-rule might cause confusion among the medical doctors and patients, and consequently unwarranted abortion happens. This paper surveyed the views of radiation technologies in hospitals and discussed how radiation exposure of women of reproductive age in medicine should be controlled. We found that the views to be 10-day-rule were spilt 50:50 and that radiation technologists do not necessarily think the 10-day-rule should be abandoned. Even the radiation technologists who are supposed to be able to explain to the patients the health risk following diagnostic exposure do not fully understand the risk involved. In conclusion, although a low-dose risk of diagnostic exposure should be sufficiently educated in order to obtain an exact understanding, the 10-day-rule may be useful in order to actually avoid any trouble in diagnostic radiology. (author)

  13. Obesity related eating behaviour patterns in Swedish preschool children and association with age, gender, relative weight and parental weight--factorial validation of the Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire.

    Svensson, Viktoria; Lundborg, Linda; Cao, Yingting; Nowicka, Paulina; Marcus, Claude; Sobko, Tanja

    2011-12-08

    The Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) is a multi-dimensional, parent-reported questionnaire measuring children's eating behaviours related to obesity risk, i.e. 'enjoyment of food', 'food responsiveness', 'slowness in eating' and 'satiety responsiveness'. It has not previously been validated in a Swedish population, neither on children under the age of 2 years. In the present study we examined the factor structure and the reliability of the Swedish version of the CEBQ, for use in an obesity intervention programme targeting preschool children 1-6 years. Further, the associations between eating behaviours and children's age, gender and relative weight (BMI SDS) and parental weight were investigated. Parents to 174 children aged 1-6 years (50% girls, mean age 3.8 years), recruited from five kindergartens in Stockholm, completed the Swedish version of the CEBQ. Data on children's weight and height, parental weight, height and educational level was collected. Children's relative weight was calculated for a subpopulation (mean BMI SDS -0.4, n = 47). Factorial validation (Principal Component Analysis) on all CEBQ items was performed. Differences in eating behaviours by age, gender and parental weight were examined. Correlations between eating behaviours and the child's BMI SDS were analysed controlling for age, gender, parental weight and education in linear regression analyses. The factor analysis revealed a seven factor solution with good psychometric properties, similar to the original structure. The behaviour scales 'overeating'/'food responsiveness', 'enjoyment of food' and 'emotional undereating' decreased with age and 'food fussiness' increased with age. Eating behaviours did not differ between girls and boys. The children's relative weight was not related to any of the eating behaviours when controlling for age, gender, parental weight and education, and only associated with parental weight status. Our results support the use of the CEBQ as a

  14. Obesity related eating behaviour patterns in Swedish preschool children and association with age, gender, relative weight and parental weight - factorial validation of the Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire

    Svensson Viktoria

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ is a multi-dimensional, parent-reported questionnaire measuring children's eating behaviours related to obesity risk, i.e. 'enjoyment of food', 'food responsiveness', 'slowness in eating' and 'satiety responsiveness'. It has not previously been validated in a Swedish population, neither on children under the age of 2 years. In the present study we examined the factor structure and the reliability of the Swedish version of the CEBQ, for use in an obesity intervention programme targeting preschool children 1-6 years. Further, the associations between eating behaviours and children's age, gender and relative weight (BMI SDS and parental weight were investigated. Methods Parents to 174 children aged 1-6 years (50% girls, mean age 3.8 years, recruited from five kindergartens in Stockholm, completed the Swedish version of the CEBQ. Data on children's weight and height, parental weight, height and educational level was collected. Children's relative weight was calculated for a subpopulation (mean BMI SDS -0.4, n = 47. Factorial validation (Principal Component Analysis on all CEBQ items was performed. Differences in eating behaviours by age, gender and parental weight were examined. Correlations between eating behaviours and the child's BMI SDS were analysed controlling for age, gender, parental weight and education in linear regression analyses. Results The factor analysis revealed a seven factor solution with good psychometric properties, similar to the original structure. The behaviour scales 'overeating'/'food responsiveness', 'enjoyment of food' and 'emotional undereating' decreased with age and 'food fussiness' increased with age. Eating behaviours did not differ between girls and boys. The children's relative weight was not related to any of the eating behaviours when controlling for age, gender, parental weight and education, and only associated with parental weight status

  15. Crustal growth history of the Korean Peninsula:Constraints from detrital zircon ages in modern river sediments

    Taejin Choi; Yong Il Lee; Yuji Orihashi

    2016-01-01

    U-Pb analyses were carried out on detrital zircon grains from major river-mouth sediments draining South Korea to infer provenance characteristics and the crustal growth history of the southern Korean Peninsula, using a laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (LA-ICP-MS). The Korean Peninsula is located in the East Asian continental margin and mainly comprises three Precambrian massifs and two metamorphic belts in between them. We obtained 515 concordant to slightly discordant zircon ages ranging from ca. 3566 to ca. 48 Ma. Regardless of river-mouth location, predominance of Mesozoic (249e79 Ma) and Paleoproterozoic (2491e1691 Ma) ages with subordinate Archean ages in-dicates that the zircon ages reflect present exposures of plutonic/metamorphic rocks in the drainage basins of the South Korean rivers and the crustal growth of the southern Korean Peninsula was focused in these two periods. Comparison of detrital zircon-age data between the North and South Korean river sediments reveals that the Paleoproterozoic zircon age distributions of both regions are nearly identical, while the NeoproterozoicePaleozoic ages exist and the Mesozoic ages are dominant in southern Korean Peninsula. This result suggests that Precambrian terrains in Korea record the similar pre-Mesozoic magmatic history and that the influence of Mesozoic magmatism was mainly focused in South Korea.

  16. Why do women stop reproducing before menopause? A life-history approach to age at last birth.

    Towner, Mary C; Nenko, Ilona; Walton, Savannah E

    2016-04-19

    Evolutionary biologists have long considered menopause to be a fundamental puzzle in understanding human fertility behaviour, as post-menopausal women are no longer physiologically capable of direct reproduction. Menopause typically occurs between 45 and 55 years of age, but across cultures and history, women often stop reproducing many years before menopause. Unlike age at first reproduction or even birth spacing, a woman nearing the end of her reproductive cycle is able to reflect upon the offspring she already has--their numbers and phenotypic qualities, including sexes. This paper reviews demographic data on age at last birth both across and within societies, and also presents a case study of age at last birth in rural Bangladeshi women. In this Bangladeshi sample, age at last birth preceded age at menopause by an average of 11 years, with marked variation around that mean, even during a period of high fertility. Moreover, age at last birth was not strongly related to age at menopause. Our literature review and case study provide evidence that stopping behaviour needs to be more closely examined as an important part of human reproductive strategies and life-history theory. Menopause may be a final marker of permanent reproductive cessation, but it is only one piece of the evolutionary puzzle. © 2016 The Author(s).

  17. Tree age, disturbance history, and carbon stocks and fluxes in subalpine Rocky Mountain forests

    J.B. Bradford; R.A. Birdsey; L.A. Joyce; M.G. Ryan

    2008-01-01

    Forest carbon stocks and fluxes vary with forest age, and relationships with forest age are often used to estimate fluxes for regional or national carbon inventories. Two methods are commonly used to estimate forest age: observed tree age or time since a known disturbance. To clarify the relationships between tree age, time since disturbance and forest carbon storage...

  18. The prevalence of PFS and prevalence and characteristics of reported food allergy; a survey of UK adults aged 18-75 incorporating a validated PFS diagnostic questionnaire.

    Skypala, I J; Bull, S; Deegan, K; Gruffydd-Jones, K; Holmes, S; Small, I; Emery, P W; Durham, S R

    2013-08-01

    Pollen-food syndrome (PFS), a food allergy affecting pollen-sensitized individuals, is likely to be the most prevalent food allergy in adults, estimated to affect 50-90% of people allergic to birch tree pollen. A validated PFS diagnostic questionnaire (PFSDQ2) was used to determine the prevalence of PFS and also to characterize those who report reactions to foods. Five UK General practices each sent the PFSDQ2 by post to 2000 patients aged 18-75 years randomly selected from their practice database. The validated questionnaire was accompanied by an additional set of questions to ascertain the demographic of the population, the foods involved and the age of onset. There were 3590 subjects who returned completed questionnaires, with an average return rate from each practice of 36% (range 22-47%). Of these, 73 were diagnosed with PFS according to the questionnaire (PFS+ve) giving a population prevalence of 2%. A further 482 subjects reported reactions to foods but did not fulfil the diagnostic criteria for PFS. The greatest prevalence of PFS was in the Croydon (SE England) urban practice (4.1%) and the lowest in the Aberdeen (Scotland) urban practice (0.8%) (P < 0.001).The most frequently reported trigger foods were apples, hazelnuts and kiwifruit and the majority of those with PFS first experienced symptoms below the age of 20 years. PFS+ve subjects were also more likely to be female and have a higher socio-economic status than those who did not report reactions to foods. The UK prevalence of PFS was 2%, although this varied according to the location of the practice population. The majority of PFS+ve subjects first reported symptoms in their teens. The reported age of onset has important implications for the diagnosis of primary and cross-reactive peanut and tree nut allergies in teenagers and young adults. The continuing rise in aeroallergen sensitization is likely to result in an increased frequency of PFS presenting in both primary and secondary care. © 2013

  19. Using Age-Based Life History Data to Investigate the Life Cycle and Vulnerability of Octopus cyanea

    Herwig, Jade N.; Depczynski, Martial; Roberts, John D.; Semmens, Jayson M.; Gagliano, Monica; Heyward, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    Octopus cyanea is taken as an unregulated, recreationally fished species from the intertidal reefs of Ningaloo, Western Australia. Yet despite its exploitation and importance in many artisanal fisheries throughout the world, little is known about its life history, ecology and vulnerability. We used stylet increment analysis to age a wild O. cyanea population for the first time and gonad histology to examine their reproductive characteristics. O. cyanea conforms to many cephalopod life history generalisations having rapid, non-asymptotic growth, a short life-span and high levels of mortality. Males were found to mature at much younger ages and sizes than females with reproductive activity concentrated in the spring and summer months. The female dominated sex-ratios in association with female brooding behaviours also suggest that larger conspicuous females may be more prone to capture and suggests that this intertidal octopus population has the potential to be negatively impacted in an unregulated fishery. Size at age and maturity comparisons between our temperate bordering population and lower latitude Tanzanian and Hawaiian populations indicated stark differences in growth rates that correlate with water temperatures. The variability in life history traits between global populations suggests that management of O. cyanea populations should be tailored to each unique set of life history characteristics and that stylet increment analysis may provide the integrity needed to accurately assess this. PMID:22912898

  20. Development and Validation of a Semi-Quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire to Assess Dietary Intake of Turkish School-Aged Children

    Güneş Fatma Esra

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop and validate a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ on the dietary intake of Turkish school-aged children. Fifty randomly selected students aged 7–12 from urban areas of Istanbul were included in this study. An FFQ, containing a list of 138 frequently consumed foods was developed. Dietary records (DRs including three days, and FFQs were collected during autumn and spring. Daily consumption of each food group was assessed and the nutrient compositions of diet were calculated. The Pearson correlation coefficient, weighted kappa, the Bland-Altman scatter plots between averages of the reported (FFQ and the references method (DR were used as validity coefficient.

  1. Evidence for an age-dependent influence of environmental variations on a long-lived seabird's life-history traits.

    Pardo, Deborah; Barbraud, Christophe; Authier, Matthieu; Weimerskirch, Henri

    2013-01-01

    Theoretical and empirical studies have highlighted the effects of age on several life-history traits in wild populations. There is also increasing evidence for environmental effects on their demographic traits. However, quantifying how individuals differentially respond to environmental variations according to their age remains a challenge in ecology. In a population of Black-browed Albatrosses monitored during 43 years, we analyzed how life-history traits varied according to age, and whether individuals of different ages responded in different ways to environmental conditions. To do so, we: (1) examined how age affected seven life-history traits, (2) investigated differences in temporal variance of demographic traits between age classes, and (3) tested for age-dependent effects of climate and fisheries covariates on demographic traits. Overall, there was a tendency for traits to improve during the first years of life (5-10 years), to peak and remain stable at middle age (10-30 years), and decline at old ages. At young ages, survival and reproductive parameters increased, except offspring body condition at fledging, suggesting that younger parents had already acquired good foraging capacities. However, they suffered from inexperience in breeding as suggested by their higher breeding failures during incubation. There was evidence for reproductive and actuarial senescence. In particular, breeding success and offspring body condition declined abruptly, suggesting altered foraging capacities of old individuals. Middle-aged individuals had the lowest temporal variance of demographic traits. Although this is predicted by the theory of environmental canalization, it could also results from a higher susceptibility of young and old birds due to their respective inexperience and senescence. The highest temporal variances were found in old individuals. Survival was significantly influenced by sea surface temperatures in the foraging zone of this albatross population during

  2. Eating behaviour patterns in Chinese children aged 12-18 months and association with relative weight - factorial validation of the Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire

    Cao Ying-Ting

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Eating behaviours have been suggested relating to obesity development. The Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ is a parent-report measure constructed to assess multiple dimensions of eating behavior for children. This study aimed to test the validity of the Chinese version of Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ in Chinese children aged 12-18 months. We examined factor structure and the reliability of the Chinese version of the CEBQ, the associations between children's eating behaviours and children's weight (BMI SDS were assessed. Methods 219 questionnaires were filled out by the caregivers, approached in community health care centers in two cities in China. BMI of each child was calculated and converted to BMI SDS. Factor validation (Principal Component Analysis, exploratory factor analysis on all CEBQ items was performed and gender difference in eating behaviours was examined. Correlations between eating behaviours and the child's BMI SDS were analyzed by linear regression analysis controlling for gender, parental combined weight, and education. Results The factor analysis revealed a seven-factor solution, with factor 'food responsiveness' (FR split into two. 'Satiety responsiveness' (SR and 'Enjoyment of food' (EF factors were not detected. Interestingly, boys scored higher than girls in the FR scales, whereas girls had a higher score in 'food fussiness' (FF scale. Conclusions We conclude that although a valuable psychometric instrument, CEBQ might be affected by age and cultural differences. Therefore, adjusting it in order to fit the Chinese population was suggested. We did not find an association between eating behaviours and children's BMI SDS, when it was controlled for gender and parental weight.

  3. The association of age, gender, ethnicity, family history, obesity and hypertension with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Trinidad.

    Nayak, B Shivananda; Sobrian, Arianne; Latiff, Khalif; Pope, Danielle; Rampersad, Akash; Lourenço, Kodi; Samuel, Nichole

    2014-01-01

    To assess the impact of risk factors such as age, gender, ethnicity, family history, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and hypertension, on the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Trinidadian population. A cross-sectional case control study comprised 146 non-diabetics and 147 type 2 diabetics ≥18 years of age, from North Central, South West and Eastern regions of Trinidad. Cross-tabulations revealed a significant difference between type 2-diabetes and age at pdiabetes and family history, ethnicity, waist circumference and hypertension at pdiabetics and type 2 diabetics being, 130.62 (±2.124) and 141.35 (±2.312), respectively. No significant difference was observed between type 2 diabetes and gender and BMI. Age was the most significant risk factor of type 2 diabetes. Therefore it can be concluded that family history, ethnicity, waist circumference and hypertension are more significant risk factors of this disease than BMI and gender in the Trinidadian population. Copyright © 2014 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Epidemiology of mixed, stress, and urgency urinary incontinence in middle-aged/older women: the importance of incontinence history.

    Komesu, Yuko M; Schrader, Ronald M; Ketai, Loren H; Rogers, Rebecca G; Dunivan, Gena C

    2016-05-01

    Urinary incontinence (UI) is common and the relationship among its subtypes complex. Our objective was to describe the natural history and predictors of the incontinence subtypes stress, urgency, and mixed, in middle-aged and older US women. We tested our hypothesis that UI subtype history predicted future occurrence, evaluating subtype incidence/remission over multiple time points in a stable cohort of women. We analyzed longitudinal urinary incontinence data in 10,572 community-dwelling women aged ≥50 in the 2004-2010 Health and Retirement Study. Mixed, stress, and urgency incontinence prevalence (2004, 2006, 2008, 2010) and 2-year cumulative incidence and remissions (2004-2006, 2006-2008, 2008-2010) were estimated. Patient characteristics and incontinence subtype status 2004-2008 were entered into a multivariable, transition model to determine predictors for incontinence subtype occurrence in 2010. The prevalence of each subtype in this population (median age 63-66) was 2.6-8.9 %. Subtype incidence equaled 2.1-3.5 % and remissions for each varied between 22.3 and 48.7 %. Incontinence subtype incidence predictors included ethnicity/race, age, body mass index, and functional limitations. Compared with white women, black women had decreased odds of incident stress incontinence and Hispanic women had increased odds of stress incontinence remission. The age range 80-90 and severe obesity predicted incident mixed incontinence. Functional limitations predicted mixed and urgency incontinence. The strongest predictor of incontinence subtype was subtype history. The presence of the respective incontinence subtypes in 2004 and 2006 strongly predicted 2010 recurrence (odds ratio [OR] stress incontinence = 30.7, urgency OR = 47.4, mixed OR = 42.1). Although the number of remissions was high, a previous history of incontinence subtypes predicted recurrence. Incontinence status is dynamic, but tends to recur over the longer term.

  5. Representation of Social History Factors Across Age Groups: A Topic Analysis of Free-Text Social Documentation.

    Lindemann, Elizabeth A; Chen, Elizabeth S; Wang, Yan; Skube, Steven J; Melton, Genevieve B

    2017-01-01

    As individuals age, there is potential for dramatic changes in the social and behavioral determinants that affect health status and outcomes. The importance of these determinants has been increasingly recognized in clinical decision-making. We sought to characterize how social and behavioral health determinants vary in different demographic groups using a previously established schema of 28 social history types through both manual analysis and automated topic analysis of social documentation in the electronic health record across the population of an entire integrated healthcare system. Our manual analysis generated 8,335 annotations over 1,400 documents, representing 24 (86%) social history types. In contrast, automated topic analysis generated 22 (79%) social history types. A comparative evaluation demonstrated both similarities and differences in coverage between the manual and topic analyses. Our findings validate the widespread nature of social and behavioral determinants that affect health status over populations of individuals over their lifespan.

  6. Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity and oropharynx in patients aged 18-45 years: A case-control study to evaluate the risk factors with emphasis on stress, diet, oral hygiene, and family history.

    Dholam, K P; Chouksey, G C

    2016-01-01

    Increasing incidence of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oral cavity and oropharynx is reported in young adults. However, there is a paucity regarding etiology and risk factors. To evaluate the exposure potential carcinogenic factors among a sample aged 45 years and younger, diagnosed with SCC of the oral cavity and oropharynx. Eighty-five case samples aged 18-45 years, diagnosed with SCC of the oral cavity and oropharynx were compared with 85 controls who had never had cancer, matched for age and sex. This study was conducted by questionnaire-based interviews. Questionnaire contained items about exposure to the following risk factors: Caries prevalence, oral hygiene status, dental trauma, dental visit, stress, family history of cancer, environmental exposure to potential carcinogens, diet, body mass index (BMI), habits such as smoking, tobacco chewing, betel quid/pan, or supari. Odds ratios (ORs) of oral and pharyngeal cancer and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals were estimated using multiple logistic regression models. Poral hygiene, stress, dental trauma, low BMI, family history of cancer, exposure to environmental carcinogens, and habit of placement of quid for 11-20 years. An increased risk of oral and pharyngeal cancer was seen in cases who had poor oral hygiene, stress, dental trauma, low BMI, family history of cancer, exposure to environmental carcinogens, and habit of placement of quid.

  7. Preliminary development of a new individualised questionnaire measuring quality of life in older men with age-related hormonal decline: the A-RHDQoL

    Giannoulis Manthos

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing interest in hormone replacement therapy to improve health and quality of life (QoL of older men with age-related decline in hormone levels. This paper reports the preliminary development and evaluation of the psychometric properties of a new individualised questionnaire, the A-RHDQoL, measuring perceived impact of age-related hormonal decline on QoL of older men. A-RHDQoL design was based on the HDQoL for people with growth hormone (GH deficiency and the ADDQoL (for diabetes. Methods Internal consistency reliability and some aspects of validity of the A-RHDQoL were investigated in a cross-sectional survey of 128 older men (age range: 64 – 80 yrs, being screened for inclusion in a trial of GH and testosterone (T replacement, and who completed the A-RHDQoL once. Respondents rated personally applicable life domains for importance and impact of their hormonal decline. A single overview item measured present QoL. Serum levels of Insulin-like Growth Factor-I and total T were measured. Results Of the 24 A-RHDQoL domains, 21 were rated as relevant and important for older men. All domains were perceived as negatively impacted by hormonal decline. The most negatively impacted domains were: memory (-4.54 ± 3.02, energy (-4.44 ± 2.49, sex life (-4.34 ± 3.08 and physical stamina (-4.29 ± 2.41, (maximum range -9 to +9. The shorter 21-domain A-RHDQoL had high internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's alpha coefficient = 0.935, N = 103 and applicable domains could be weighted and summed into an overall Average Weighted Impact score. The questionnaire was acceptable to the majority of respondents and content validity was good. The single overview item measuring present QoL correlated significantly with total T levels [r = 0.26, p Conclusion The new 21-item A-RHDQoL is an individualised questionnaire measuring perceived impact of age-related hormonal decline on the QoL of older men. The internal consistency

  8. Plasma long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and macular pigment in subjects with family history of age-related macular degeneration: the Limpia Study.

    Merle, Bénédicte M J; Buaud, Benjamin; Korobelnik, Jean-François; Bron, Alain; Delyfer, Marie-Noëlle; Rougier, Marie-Bénédicte; Savel, Hélène; Vaysse, Carole; Creuzot-Garcher, Catherine; Delcourt, Cécile

    2017-12-01

    In numerous epidemiological studies, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been associated with a decreased risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Beyond their structural, functional and neuroprotective roles, omega-3 PUFAs may favour the retinal accumulation of lutein and zeaxanthin and thus increase macular pigment optical density (MPOD). We examined the associations of MPOD with plasma omega-3 PUFAs in subjects with family history of AMD. The Limpia study is a double-blind, placebo-controlled, prospective randomized clinical trial performed in 120 subjects. Subjects with at least one parent treated for neovascular AMD, aged 40-70, with a best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) >20/25, free of late AMD and other major eye conditions and with no use of supplement containing lutein or zeaxanthin the preceding year were recruited in Bordeaux and Dijon, France. At baseline, MPOD within 1° of eccentricity was measured by modified Heidelberg retinal analyser (Heidelberg, Germany) and plasma omega-3 PUFAs by gas chromatography. Medical history and lifestyle data were collected from a standardized questionnaire. Associations of MPOD with plasma omega-3 PUFAs were assessed at the baseline examination, using mixed linear models adjusted for age, gender, centre, body mass index, smoking, plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and lutein+zeaxanthin. After multivariate adjustment, high MPOD was significantly associated with higher level of plasma docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) (β = 0.029, 95% CI: 0.003, 0.055; p = 0.03). Plasma alpha linolenic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids were not significantly associated with MPOD. In the Limpia study, high MPOD within 1° was significantly associated with higher plasma levels of omega-3 DPA. © 2017 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. What shall I do now? State-dependent variations of life-history traits with aging in Wandering Albatrosses.

    Pardo, Deborah; Barbraud, Christophe; Weimerskirch, Henri

    2014-02-01

    Allocation decisions depend on an organism's condition which can change with age. Two opposite changes in life-history traits are predicted in the presence of senescence: either an increase in breeding performance in late age associated with terminal investment or a decrease due to either life-history trade-offs between current breeding and future survival or decreased efficiency at old age. Age variation in several life-history traits has been detected in a number of species, and demographic performances of individuals in a given year are influenced by their reproductive state the previous year. Few studies have, however, examined state-dependent variation in life-history traits with aging, and they focused mainly on a dichotomy of successful versus failed breeding and non-breeding birds. Using a 50-year dataset on the long-lived quasi-biennial breeding wandering albatross, we investigated variations in life-history traits with aging according to a gradient of states corresponding to potential costs of reproduction the previous year (in ascending order): non-breeding birds staying at sea or present at breeding grounds, breeding birds that failed early, late or were successful. We used multistate models to study survival and decompose reproduction into four components (probabilities of return, breeding, hatching, and fledging), while accounting for imperfect detection. Our results suggest the possible existence of two strategies in the population: strict biennial breeders that exhibited almost no reproductive senescence and quasi-biennial breeders that showed an increased breeding frequency with a strong and moderate senescence on hatching and fledging probabilities, respectively. The patterns observed on survival were contrary to our predictions, suggesting an influence of individual quality rather than trade-offs between reproduction and survival at late ages. This work represents a step further into understanding the evolutionary ecology of senescence and its

  10. The impact of dysphagia on quality of life in ageing and Parkinson's disease as measured by the swallowing quality of life (SWAL-QOL) questionnaire.

    Leow, Li Pyn; Huckabee, Maggie-Lee; Anderson, Tim; Beckert, Lutz

    2010-09-01

    This prospective, cross-sectional study evaluated the impact of dysphagia on quality of life in healthy ageing and in subjects with Parkinson's disease (PD) using the Swallowing Quality of Life (SWAL-QOL) questionnaire. Sixteen healthy young adults (8 males, mean age = 25.1 years) and 16 healthy elders (8 males, mean age = 72.8 years) were recruited. Thirty-two subjects with idiopathic PD (mean age = 68.5 years) were recruited from a movement disorders clinic. The severity of PD was staged using the Hoehn and Yahr scale. Results revealed that elders experienced symptoms of dysphagia more frequently than young adults but the overall SWAL-QOL scores were not significantly different. Subjects with PD who experienced dysphagia reported greatly reduced QOL, and significant differences were found in all but one subsection of the SWAL-QOL. Disease progression detrimentally impacts QOL, with subjects in later-stage PD experiencing further reduction in the desire to eat, difficulty with food selection, and prolonged eating duration. These features, which increase with disease severity, are likely to impact negatively upon nutritional status, which is already under threat from PD-related dysphagia.

  11. Towards A New Digital Historicism? Doing History In The Age Of Abundance

    Andreas Fickers

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This article argues that the contemporary hype in digitization and dissemination of our cultural heritage – especially of audiovisual sources – is comparable to the boom of critical source editions in the late 19th century. But while the dramatic rise of accessibility to and availability of sources in the 19th century went hand in hand with the development of new scholarly skills of source interpretation and was paralleled by the institutionalization of history as an academic profession, a similar trend of an emerging digital historicism today seems absent. This essay aims at reflecting on the challenges and chances that the discipline of history – and the field of television history in particular – is actually facing. It offers some thoughts and ideas on how the digitization of sources and their online availability affects the established practices of source criticism. 

  12. [Integral obstetrics impeded by history? Midwives and gynaecologists through the ages].

    van der Lee, N; Scheele, F

    2016-01-01

    There is a long and complicated history concerning the interprofessional collaboration between midwives and gynaecologists, which is still evident in current practice. Yet, in the analysis of collaborative problems, history and its lessons are often overlooked. Consequently, less effective solutions to problems may be found, because the root cause of a problem is not addressed. In this historical perspective we show how policies of the respective professions have often focused on self-preservation and competition, rather than on effective collaboration. We also highlight how the independent midwives lost and regained authorisation, status and income. Finally, using a theoretical model for interprofessional collaboration, we reflect on where history impedes the development of integral obstetrics. The focus must be averted away from professional self-interest and power struggles, but this proves to be a complex exercise.

  13. Psychometric properties of the Dresden Body Image Questionnaire: A multiple-group confirmatory factor analysis across sex and age in a Dutch non-clinical sample.

    Mia Scheffers

    Full Text Available Body image has implications for psychosocial functioning and quality of life and its disturbance is reported in a broad range of psychiatric disorders. In view of the lack of instruments in Dutch measuring body image as a broad concept, we set out to make an instrument available that reflects the multidimensional character of this construct by including more dimensions than physical appearance. The Dresden Körperbildfragebogen (DBIQ, Dresden Body Image Questionnaire particularly served this purpose. The DBIQ consists of 35 items and five subscales: body acceptance, sexual fulfillment, physical contact, vitality, and self-aggrandizement. The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Dutch translation of the Dresden Body Image Questionnaire (DBIQ-NL in a non-clinical sample.The psychometric properties of the DBIQ-NL were examined in a non-clinical sample of 988 respondents aged between 18 and 65. We investigated the subscales' internal consistency and test-retest reliability. In order to establish construct validity we evaluated the association with a related construct, body cathexis, and with indices of self-esteem and psychological wellbeing. The factor structure of the DBIQ-NL was examined via confirmatory factor analysis (CFA. The equivalence of the measurement model across sex and age was evaluated by multiplegroup confirmatory factor analyses.Confirmatory factor analyses showed a structure in accordance with the original scale, where model fit was improved significantly by moving one item to another subscale. Multiple group confirmatory factor analysis across sex and age demonstrated partial strong invariance. Internal consistency was good with little overlap between the subscales. Temporal reliability and construct validity were satisfactory.Results indicate that the DBIQ-NL is a reliable and valid instrument for non-clinical subjects. This provides a sound basis for further investigation of the

  14. Psychometric properties of the Dresden Body Image Questionnaire: A multiple-group confirmatory factor analysis across sex and age in a Dutch non-clinical sample.

    Scheffers, Mia; van Duijn, Marijtje A J; Bosscher, Ruud J; Wiersma, Durk; Schoevers, Robert A; van Busschbach, Jooske T

    2017-01-01

    Body image has implications for psychosocial functioning and quality of life and its disturbance is reported in a broad range of psychiatric disorders. In view of the lack of instruments in Dutch measuring body image as a broad concept, we set out to make an instrument available that reflects the multidimensional character of this construct by including more dimensions than physical appearance. The Dresden Körperbildfragebogen (DBIQ, Dresden Body Image Questionnaire) particularly served this purpose. The DBIQ consists of 35 items and five subscales: body acceptance, sexual fulfillment, physical contact, vitality, and self-aggrandizement. The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Dutch translation of the Dresden Body Image Questionnaire (DBIQ-NL) in a non-clinical sample. The psychometric properties of the DBIQ-NL were examined in a non-clinical sample of 988 respondents aged between 18 and 65. We investigated the subscales' internal consistency and test-retest reliability. In order to establish construct validity we evaluated the association with a related construct, body cathexis, and with indices of self-esteem and psychological wellbeing. The factor structure of the DBIQ-NL was examined via confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The equivalence of the measurement model across sex and age was evaluated by multiplegroup confirmatory factor analyses. Confirmatory factor analyses showed a structure in accordance with the original scale, where model fit was improved significantly by moving one item to another subscale. Multiple group confirmatory factor analysis across sex and age demonstrated partial strong invariance. Internal consistency was good with little overlap between the subscales. Temporal reliability and construct validity were satisfactory. Results indicate that the DBIQ-NL is a reliable and valid instrument for non-clinical subjects. This provides a sound basis for further investigation of the DBIQ-NL in a

  15. Investigation of the age and geological thermal history of the strata containing dinosaurs fossil in Tianzhen county of Shanxi Province

    Kang Tiesheng; Wang Lanfen; Wang Shicheng; Cheng Zhengwu

    1996-01-01

    The age and thermal history of the strata containing dinosaurs fossil in Tianzhen County of Shanxi Province have been studied using apatite and zircon fission track analysis. It is shown that the burial age of dinosaurs skeletons is not earlier than Late Cretaceous. The provenance area of the strata had experienced heating events with temperature higher than 200-250 degree C 73 Ma ago. But the strata has been at environmental temperature and never been affected by heating events since the dinosaurs skeletons were buried

  16. Investigation of the age and geological thermal history of the strata containing dinosaurs fossil in Tianzhen county of Shanxi Province

    Tiesheng, Kang; Lanfen, Wang; Shicheng, Wang [Academia Sinica, Beijing, BJ (China). Inst. of High Energy Physics; Qiqing, Pang [Hebei College of Geology, Shijiazhuang (China); Zhengwu, Cheng [Institute of Geology, MGMR, Beijing (China)

    1996-10-01

    The age and thermal history of the strata containing dinosaurs fossil in Tianzhen County of Shanxi Province have been studied using apatite and zircon fission track analysis. It is shown that the burial age of dinosaurs skeletons is not earlier than Late Cretaceous. The provenance area of the strata had experienced heating events with temperature higher than 200-250 degree C 73 Ma ago. But the strata has been at environmental temperature and never been affected by heating events since the dinosaurs skeletons were buried.

  17. Always in the Mood for Moody: Teaching History through Anne Moody's "Coming of Age in Mississippi"

    Boisseau, T. J.

    2014-01-01

    In searching for a way of teaching American history as something that truly belongs to women, and men, to the powerful as well as to those who lack power in a formal sense, as something that is not the story of white people with an interesting person of color charitably thrown in for good measure, Boisseau writes that while many influential…

  18. Revisiting the nuclear age : state of the art research in nuclear history

    Kalmbach, K.

    This article provides an overview of recent research developments in the field of nuclear history, focusing on Western European and Northern American research perspectives and topics. The analysis of these developments reveals under-researched areas which merit more focus from humanities and social

  19. Learning US History in an Age of Globalization and Transnational Migration

    An, Sohyun

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines US Korean youth's perspectives on US history and the impact of their sociocultural backgrounds, particularly their migration status, on their historical interpretations. Based on in-depth interviews with 42 US Korean high school students, the study opens up the question of diversity within an ethnic group, while it also begins…

  20. Sociodemographic, Delinquency-Abuse History, and Psychosocial Functioning Differences among Juvenile Offenders of Various Ages.

    Dembo, Richard; Schmeidler, James; Nini-Gough, Banni; Manning, Darrell

    1998-01-01

    Sociodemographic characteristics, delinquency and dependency referral histories, and psychosocial functioning were compared for three groups of youth (N=9,583) at a juvenile assessment center. Findings indicate that eight- to twelve- year olds tend to be ethnic minorities, live in mother-headed households of low economic status, and have a…

  1. Dentition and Life History of a 16-year-old Known-age Free-living Male Lion Panthera leo (Linnaeus, 1758 from the Kruger National Park

    I.J. Whyte

    1988-10-01

    Full Text Available Wear in the dentition of a known-age, free-living, 16-year-old male lion is described and compared to existing age-determination techniques. Aspects of his life history are described as they are in some contrast to what is known of male lions' life history strategies.

  2. Development and validation of a food frequency questionnaire for dietary intake assessment among multi-ethnic primary school-aged children

    Fatihah, Fadil; Ng, Boon Koon; Hazwanie, Husin; Norimah, A Karim; Shanita, Safii Nik; Ruzita, Abd Talib; Poh, Bee Koon

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION This study aimed to develop and validate a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to assess habitual diets of multi-ethnic Malaysian children aged 7–12 years. METHODS A total of 236 primary school children participated in the development of the FFQ and 209 subjects participated in the validation study, with a subsample of 30 subjects participating in the reproducibility study. The FFQ, consisting of 94 food items from 12 food groups, was compared with a three-day dietary record (3DR) as the reference method. The reproducibility of the FFQ was assessed through repeat administration (FFQ2), seven days after the first administration (FFQ1). RESULTS The results of the validation study demonstrated good acceptance of the FFQ. Mean intake of macronutrients in FFQ1 and 3DR correlated well, although the FFQ intake data tended to be higher. Cross-classification of nutrient intake between the two methods showed that Malaysia. PMID:26702165

  3. 40Ar/39Ar age and thermal history of the Kirin chondrite

    Wang, S.; McDougall, I.; Tetley, N.; Harrison, T.M.

    1980-01-01

    The Kirin meteorite, a large (> 2800 kg) H5 chondrite, fell in Kirin Province, China in 1976. A sample from each of the two largest fragments (K-1. K-2) yield 40 Ar/ 39 Ar total fusion ages of 3.63 +- 0.02 b.y. and 2.78 +- 0.02 b.y. respectively. 40 Ar/ 40 Ar age spectra show typical diffusional argon loss profiles. Maximum apparent ages of 4.36 b.y. (K-1) and approx. 4.0 b.y. (K-2) are interpreted as possible minimum estimates for the age of crystallization of the parent body. (orig./ME)

  4. Age- and Sex-Specific Criterion Validity of the Health Survey for England Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior Assessment Questionnaire as Compared With Accelerometry

    Scholes, Shaun; Coombs, Ngaire; Pedisic, Zeljko; Mindell, Jennifer S.; Bauman, Adrian; Rowlands, Alex V.; Stamatakis, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    The criterion validity of the 2008 Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior Assessment Questionnaire (PASBAQ) was examined in a nationally representative sample of 2,175 persons aged ≥16 years in England using accelerometry. Using accelerometer minutes/day greater than or equal to 200 counts as a criterion, Spearman's correlation coefficient (ρ) for PASBAQ-assessed total activity was 0.30 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.25, 0.35) in women and 0.20 (95% CI: 0.15, 0.26) in men. Correlations between accelerometer counts/minute of wear time and questionnaire-assessed relative energy expenditure (metabolic equivalent-minutes/day) were higher in women (ρ = 0.41, 95% CI: 0.36, 0.46) than in men (ρ = 0.32, 95% CI: 0.26, 0.38). Similar correlations were observed for minutes/day spent in vigorous activity (women: ρ = 0.39, 95% CI: 0.33, 0.46; men: ρ = 0.31, 95% CI: 0.26, 0.36) and moderate-to-vigorous activity (women: ρ = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.36, 0.48; men: ρ = 0.38, 95% CI: 0.32, 0.45). Correlations for time spent being sedentary (physical activity was higher in older age groups, but validity was higher in younger persons for vigorous-intensity activity. The PASBAQ is a useful and valid instrument for ranking individuals according to levels of physical activity and sedentary behavior. PMID:24863551

  5. Adolescents' Age Preferences for Dating Partners: Support for an Evolutionary Model of Life-History Strategies.

    Kenrick, Douglas T.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Explored sex differences in adolescent preference for older versus younger mates. Found that teenage males were willing to date females of a wide age range, whereas teenage females prefer dating males from their own age to several years older. Data suggested viewing development of sex differences in dating partner preference from the perspective…

  6. Sex differences in cognitive ageing: testing predictions derived from life-history theory in a dioecious nematode.

    Zwoinska, Martyna K; Kolm, Niclas; Maklakov, Alexei A

    2013-12-01

    Life-history theory maintains that organisms allocate limited resources to different traits to maximize fitness. Learning ability and memory are costly and known to trade-off with longevity in invertebrates. However, since the relationship between longevity and fitness often differs between the sexes, it is likely that sexes will differentially resolve the trade-off between learning and longevity. We used an established associative learning paradigm in the dioecious nematode Caenorhabditis remanei, which is sexually dimorphic for lifespan, to study age-related learning ability in males and females. In particular, we tested the hypothesis that females (the shorter-lived sex) show higher learning ability than males early in life but senesce faster. Indeed, young females outperformed young males in learning a novel association between an odour (butanone) and food (bacteria). However, while learning ability and offspring production declined rapidly with age in females, males maintained high levels of these traits until mid-age. These results not only demonstrate sexual dimorphism in age-related learning ability but also suggest that it conforms to predictions derived from the life-history theory. © 2013.

  7. Towards a Social History of Archaeology: The Case of the Excavators of Early Iron Age Burial Mounds in Southern Germany

    Nils Müller-Scheessel

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available While the general history of archaeology has received a growing interest lately1, these efforts still lack a common research-guiding agenda. Furthermore, most of the studies still concentrate on biographies and event history. The embedding of archaeology in the structures and conditions of its time is still a kind of terra incognita. The few well known publications (e. g. Hudson 1981; Kristiansen 1981; Patterson 1986; 1995 emphasize the gap only more. The lack of a significant amount of literature especially on the social history of archaeology is all the more surprising as the early interest in archaeology shows a clear social bias: archaeology was (and still is? a recreational activity for the educated and the well-off. While Hudson’s book in particular is very readable, it is clearly meant to provide only a very broad picture. Along with the other publications mentioned above it is now somewhat dated; the lack of recent works on this topic thus highlight the lack of interest in the social history of archaeology even more.2 However, this essay does not deal with this deplorable fact, but seeks to present some ‘hard’ data on only one, albeit important activity of early archaeological excavations, particularly those of burial mounds. Its focus is on Southern Germany and on graves from the early Iron Age.3

  8. From papyrus to the electronic tablet: a brief history of the clinical medical record with lessons for the digital age.

    Gillum, Richard F

    2013-10-01

    A major transition is underway in documentation of patient-related data in clinical settings with rapidly accelerating adoption of the electronic health record and electronic medical record. This article examines the history of the development of medical records in the West in order to suggest lessons applicable to the current transition. The first documented major transition in the evolution of the clinical medical record occurred in antiquity, with the development of written case history reports for didactic purposes. Benefiting from Classical and Hellenistic models earlier than physicians in the West, medieval Islamic physicians continued the development of case histories for didactic use. A forerunner of modern medical records first appeared in Paris and Berlin by the early 19th century. Development of the clinical record in America was pioneered in the 19th century in major teaching hospitals. However, a clinical medical record useful for direct patient care in hospital and ambulatory settings was not developed until the 20th century. Several lessons are drawn from the 4000-year history of the medical record that may help physicians improve patient care in the digital age. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Pathways from fertility history to later life health: Results from analyses of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing

    Emily Grundy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous research shows associations between fertility histories and later life health. The childless, those with large families, and those with a young age at entry to parenthood generally have higher mortality and worse health than parents of two or three children. These associations are hypothesised to reflect a range of biosocial influences, but underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Objective: To identify pathways from fertility histories to later life health by examining mediation through health-related behaviours, social support and strain, and wealth. Additionally to examine mediation through allostatic load - an indicator of multisystem physical dysregulation, hypothesised to be an outcome of chronic stress. Methods: Associations between fertility histories, mediators, and outcomes were analysed using path models. Data were drawn from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Outcomes studied were a measure of allostatic load based on 9 biomarkers and self-reported long-term illness which limited activities. Results: Early parenthood (Conclusions: In England early parenthood and larger family size are associated with less wealth and poorer health behaviours and this accounts for much of the association with health. At least part of this operates through stress-related physiological dysfunction (allostatic load.

  10. Intellectual History

    In the 5 Questions book series, this volume presents a range of leading scholars in Intellectual History and the History of Ideas through their answers to a brief questionnaire. Respondents include Michael Friedman, Jacques le Goff, Hans Ulrich Gumbrecht, Jonathan Israel, Phiip Pettit, John Pocock...

  11. Alternative life histories in Xiphophorus multilineatus: evidence for different ages at sexual maturity and growth responses in the wild.

    Bono, L M; Rios-Cardenas, O; Morris, M R

    2011-05-01

    In order to examine potential trade-offs in alternative life histories of the high-backed pygmy swordtail Xiphophorus multilineatus, otoliths were used from wild-caught males to determine if sneaker males had the advantage of maturing earlier in natural environments. The sneakers matured significantly earlier than courters, but there was no difference among the three courter variants. In addition, analyses suggested that the effect of the pituitary locus on size at sexual maturity and growth rates was a consequence of age at sexual maturity. Finally, one of the courter variants had a significantly different relationship between age and size at sexual maturity than the other variants, suggesting that in this variant, age at sexual maturity may be more closely related to size and therefore may be less plastic in its growth responses. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2011 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  12. Age at menopause, reproductive history, and venous thromboembolism risk among postmenopausal women: the Women's Health Initiative Hormone Therapy clinical trials.

    Canonico, Marianne; Plu-Bureau, Geneviève; O'Sullivan, Mary Jo; Stefanick, Marcia L; Cochrane, Barbara; Scarabin, Pierre-Yves; Manson, Joann E

    2014-03-01

    This study aims to investigate venous thromboembolism (VTE) risk in relation to age at menopause, age at menarche, parity, bilateral oophorectomy, and time since menopause, as well as any interaction with randomized hormone therapy (HT) assignment, among postmenopausal women. Using pooled data from the Women's Health Initiative HT clinical trials including 27,035 postmenopausal women aged 50 to 79 years who had no history of VTE, we assessed the risk of VTE in relation to age at menopause, age at menarche, parity, bilateral oophorectomy, and time since menopause by Cox proportional hazards models. Linear trends, quadratic relationships, and interactions of reproductive life characteristics with HT on VTE risk were systematically tested. During follow-up, 426 women reported a first VTE, including 294 non-procedure-related events. No apparent interaction of reproductive life characteristics with HT assignment on VTE risk was detected, and there was not a significant association between VTE and age at menarche, age at menopause, parity, oophorectomy, or time since menopause. However, analyses restricted to non-procedure-related VTE showed a U-shaped relationship between age at menopause and thrombotic risk that persisted after multivariable analysis (P menopause, those who had early menopause (age menopause (age >55 y) had a significantly increased VTE risk (hazard ratio [95% CI]: 1.8 [1.2-2.7] and 1.5 [1.0-2.4], respectively). Reproductive life characteristics have little association with VTE and do not seem to influence the effect of HT on thrombotic risk among postmenopausal women. Nevertheless, early and late onset of menopause might be newly identified risk factors for non-procedure-related VTE.

  13. Geographical information and landscape history in tourism communication in the age of Web 2.0

    Nielsen, Niels Christian; Liburd, Janne J.

    2008-01-01

    -foremost cellular telephony-and Global Positioning System (GPS). Focusing on a national park in the U.S. Virgin Islands, we take stock of available geographic data and their potential use in tourist communication. It is argued that Internet-based neogeography offers strong potential for multilayered interpretation...... and dissemination to specific visitor groups. Due to a contested history and controversial designation of the area as a national park it is argued that caution must be taken in the interpretation and communication of especially historical maps and population data. Three possible user scenarios centered on visitor...

  14. The dual influences of age and obstetric history on fecal continence in parous women.

    Eogan, Maeve

    2011-02-01

    To assess whether women who underwent forceps delivery were more likely than those who delivered either normally (spontaneous vaginal delivery [SVD]) or by cesarean to experience deterioration in fecal continence as they aged.

  15. Operational Definition of Active and Healthy Aging (AHA): The European Innovation Partnership (EIP) on AHA Reference Site Questionnaire: Montpellier October 20-21, 2014, Lisbon July 2, 2015.

    Bousquet, Jean; Malva, Joao; Nogues, Michel; Mañas, Leocadio Rodriguez; Vellas, Bruno; Farrell, John

    2015-12-01

    A core operational definition of active and healthy aging (AHA) is needed to conduct comparisons. A conceptual AHA framework proposed by the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing Reference Site Network includes several items such as functioning (individual capability and underlying body systems), well-being, activities and participation, and diseases (including noncommunicable diseases, frailty, mental and oral health disorders). The instruments proposed to assess the conceptual framework of AHA have common applicability and availability attributes. The approach includes core and optional domains/instruments depending on the needs and the questions. A major common domain is function, as measured by the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0). WHODAS 2.0 can be used across all diseases and healthy individuals. It covers many of the AHA dimensions proposed by the Reference Site network. However, WHODAS 2.0 does not include all dimensions proposed for AHA assessment. The second common domain is health-related quality of life (HRQoL). A report of the AHA questionnaire in the form of a spider net has been proposed to facilitate usual comparisons across individuals and groups of interest. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Development and validation of a food frequency questionnaire to assess omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid intake in Australian children aged 9-13 years.

    Rahmawaty, S; Charlton, K; Lyons-Wall, P; Meyer, B J

    2017-08-01

    The present study aimed to develop a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) assessing dietary omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LCPUFA) intake in Australian children and to validate the FFQ against a 7-day food diary. The investigation comprised a cross-sectional and validation study. The study setting was two private primary schools in the in the Illawarra region of New South Wales. Twenty-two Australian children, aged 9-13 years, who were not on a special diet or receiving medical care that limited their food choice in the 3 months prior to recruitment, were recruited into the study. A total of 131 items, classified according to seven food group categories, was included in the n-3 LCPUFA FFQ, as identified from published dietary surveys and a supermarket survey. Good correlations between the FFQ and the 7-day food diary were observed for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) [r = 0.691, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.51-0.83, P food diary. However, the mean EPA, DHA and total n-3 LCPUFA intakes estimated from the FFQ were significantly higher than those from the average 7-day food diary estimates (P < 0.001). A novel n-3 LCPUFA FFQ that has been developed to estimate dietary n-3 LCPUFA intakes in Australian children has been shown to have relative validity. The FFQ provides a useful contribution to dietary assessment methodology in this age group; however, reproducibility remains to be demonstrated. © 2016 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  17. Development and validation testing of a short nutrition questionnaire to identify dietary risk factors in preschoolers aged 12–36 months

    Niamh Rice

    2015-06-01

    risk factors has potential negative effects for both short and longer term health. Hence, screening tools, such as NutricheQ described here, offer an opportunity for early identification and subsequent appropriate timely intervention from 12 months of age. This paper describes the development and validation of NutricheQ, a short user-friendly questionnaire. Designed to be administered by parents or carers, it aims to help healthcare professionals identify children at risk based on known, evidence-based nutritional risk factors. It is hoped in the longer term that this tool can be adapted for use globally and improve child health through early identification, which can be followed up by targeted, cost-effective interventions.

  18. [History and poetry in women's biological twilight: menopause and old age].

    Cruz y Hermida, Julio

    2011-01-01

    This is a poetical and historical approach to the last biological stages of the evolutive development of women, namely menopause and old age. It starts with the passages found in Egyptian Papirii such as Ebers or Smith, dated 1500-2000 BC, which describe, among other symptoms, the sweating and hig body temperatures caused by the diminishing hormon secretion of the ovaries. Other important works on the subject, some of them written in the 20th century and some others composed before that date, are also quoted, such as the Edad Crítica (Critical Age) by Dr. Marañon. The final stage of a woman's life, old age, is presented through the famous sonet "Alfa y Omega" (Alpha and Omega) by poet Manuel Machado. Using poetical strokes, the author conveys an image of the many phisiopatological consequences of old age in women: osteoporosis, genital prolapse, urine incontinence and "wrinkles" ("old age is neither shown by white hair nor by wrinkles but by the heart"). The work finishes with the famous statement uttered by Napoleon Bona-parte: "God wanted to be a writer: Man is His prose; His poetry, Women". The same poetry that Dr. Cruz y Hermida has found through the complexities of the evolutive process of feminine biology.

  19. 'Just give me the best quality of life questionnaire': the Karnofsky scale and the history of quality of life measurements in cancer trials.

    Timmermann, Carsten

    2013-09-01

    To use the history of the Karnofsky Performance Scale as a case study illustrating the emergence of interest in the measurement and standardisation of quality of life; to understand the origins of current-day practices. Articles referring to the Karnofsky scale and quality of life measurements published from the 1940s to the 1990s were identified by searching databases and screening journals, and analysed using close-reading techniques. Secondary literature was consulted to understand the context in which articles were written. The Karnofsky scale was devised for a different purpose than measuring quality of life: as a standardisation device that helped quantify effects of chemotherapeutic agents less easily measurable than survival time. Interest in measuring quality of life only emerged around 1970. When quality of life measurements were increasingly widely discussed in the medical press from the late 1970s onwards, a consensus emerged that the Karnofsky scale was not a very good tool. More sophisticated approaches were developed, but Karnofsky continued to be used. I argue that the scale provided a quick and simple, approximate assessment of the 'soft' effects of treatment by physicians, overlapping but not identical with quality of life.

  20. The nuclear age in popular media a transnational history, 1945-1965

    van Lente, Dick

    2012-01-01

    Among the many technical innovations that were introduced after World War II, none left as strong an impression on the public as the atom bombs that destroyed two Japanese cities in August 1945. People spoke of the ""atomic age"" that had now begun, as if this technological innovation would, all by itself, shape a new world. The atomic age was described as one that might soon end in the destruction of human civilization, but from the beginning, utopian images were attached to it as well. Nuclear technology offered the promise of applications in medicine, agriculture, and engineering, and nucle

  1. Head shape at age 36 months among children with and without a history of positional skull deformation.

    Collett, Brent R; Leroux, Brian G; Wallace, Erin R; Gallagher, Emily; Shao, Jason; Speltz, Matthew L

    2018-03-01

    OBJECTIVE In this study, the authors examined head shape through age 36 months for children with and without a history of positional plagiocephaly and/or brachycephaly (PPB). METHODS Infants with PPB (cases) were identified through a craniofacial clinic at the time of diagnosis. Infants without diagnosed PPB were identified through a participant registry. Clinician ratings of 3D cranial images were used to confirm the presence or absence of PPB. The cohort included 235 case infants (diagnosed PPB, confirmed with 3D imaging), 167 unaffected controls (no diagnosed PPB, no deformation detected), and 70 affected controls (no diagnosed PPB, discernible skull deformation). Participants were seen in infancy (age 7 months, on average) and again at ages 18 and 36 months. At each visit, automated 3D measures of skull deformation quantified posterior flattening and generated an absolute asymmetry score. The authors also used automated 2D measures to approximate overall asymmetry (approximate oblique cranial length ratio) and calculate the cephalic index. They used linear regression to compare cases to unaffected controls and to compare affected versus unaffected controls on all measures. They also calculated the proportion of children in each group with "persistent PPB," defined as one or more head shape measures above the 95th percentile relative to unaffected controls at 36 months. RESULTS Head shape became more rounded and symmetric for children with and without PPB, particularly between infancy and age 18 months. However, children with PPB continued to show greater skull deformation and asymmetry than unaffected controls at age 36 months. These differences were large in magnitude, ranging from 1 to 2 standard deviations (SDs), and in most (85.6%) of the cases, there was evidence of persistent PPB at 36 months. Similarly, although differences were more modest (i.e., 0.26-0.94 SD), affected controls continued to exhibit skull deformation on most measures relative to

  2. First Episode of Psychosis in a Middle-Aged Patient with a 14-Year History of Conversion Disorder

    Vaios Peritogiannis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of a middle-aged male patient with a long history of conversion disorder and histrionic personality, who presented with newly onset psychotic symptoms while being engaged to treatment with a community mental health team in a primary care setting. The symptoms could not be attributed to an organic cause. After a short course of olanzapine treatment which caused adverse effects, the symptomatology responded well to low dose amisulpride. Conversion symptoms were stable throughout the psychotic episode. This case illustrates the complex interplay between disorders classified in different categories (somatoform versus psychotic disorders.

  3. Validity of the ages and stages questionnaires in Korean compared to Bayley Scales of infant development-II for screening preterm infants at corrected age of 18-24 months for neurodevelopmental delay.

    Kwun, Yoojin; Park, Hye Won; Kim, Min-Ju; Lee, Byong Sop; Kim, Ellen Ai-Rhan

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the validity of the ages and stages questionnaire in Korean (ASQ 1st edition, Korean Questionnaires, Seoul Community Rehabilitation Center, 2000) for premature infants. The study population consisted of 90 premature infants born between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2011, who were tested using the ASQ (Korean) and Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID) (II) at a corrected age of 18-24 months. The validity of the ASQ (Korean) using cut-off values set at < -2 SD was examined by comparing it to the BSID (II) components, namely, the mental developmental index (MDI) or psychomotor developmental index (PDI), which were both set at < 85. The calculation of the sensitivities, specificities, positive predictive values, and negative predictive values of the ASQ (Korean) components revealed that they detected infants with neurodevelopmental delay with low sensitivity and positive predictive values, however, the communication domain showed moderate correlations with MDI. The failure in more than one domain of the ASQ (Korean) was significantly correlated with the failure in MDI. The ASQ (Korean) showed low validity for screening neurodevelopmentally delayed premature infants.

  4. Muslim Minorities in the Mediterranean. Towards an Integration in the General History of the Middle Ages?

    Ana ECHEVARRÍA ARSUAGA

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the latest books focused on Muslims living under Christian rule in the lands which were to become part of the Crown of Aragon in the thirteenth century. Sicilian and Italian Muslims, as well as Aragon’s Mudejars, show a number of parallelisms. First, concerning their sources and secondly, in the negotiation of their spaces with regard to the Christian groups, by means of the royal dynasties who ruled in the area. The vicissitudes of chancery records, as well as particular cases justify different approaches by contemporary historiography. A greater effort in comparative studies between the Islamic minorities of Mediterranean Europe would be necessary. These groups should have their economic and social importance in the Mediterranean framework acknowledged, so that they can find their place in general books of European Medieval History, the same as the Jewish minority.

  5. HISTORY OF SUNLIGHT EXPOSURE IS A RISK FACTOR FOR AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION

    Schick, T.; Ersoy, L.; Lechanteur, Y.T.; Saksens, N.T.; Hoyng, C.B.; Hollander, A.I. den; Kirchhof, B.; Fauser, S.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate effects of current and past sunlight exposure and iris color on early and late age-related macular degeneration (AMD). METHODS: Of 3,701 individuals from the EUGENDA database, 752 (20.3%) showed early AMD, 1,179 (31.9%) late AMD, and 1,770 (47.8%) were controls. Information

  6. Effects of zinc and female aging on nymphal life history in a grasshopper from polluted sites.

    Augustyniak, Maria; Babczyńska, Agnieszka; Kozłowski, Michał; Sawczyn, Tomasz; Augustyniak, Michał

    2008-01-01

    Insect reproduction is influenced by various factors, including food quality and quantity, temperature, population density and female age. Contamination, including heavy metals, may disturb reproductive processes. The aim of this work was to assess interactions between effects of aging in female Chorthippus brunneus and environmental pollution on their reproduction measured in number of laid eggs. We also compared basic developmental parameters (number of hatchlings, body mass, embryonic developmental rate) in grasshopper nymphs additionally exposed to zinc during diapause. Aging grasshoppers from heavily polluted areas (Olkusz and Szopienice) lay significantly fewer eggs than insects from the reference site (Pilica). Zinc application caused the decrease in hatching success and duration of embryogenesis in insects from each site. This suggests a cumulative effect of female age, pollutants and additional stressing factors. The intensity of this process differed between populations. In insects from the reference site, it was shown in a moderate degree. In insects from Szopienice, an additional stressor exerted a weaker effect than in insects from Pilica. In grasshoppers from Olkusz, we found the strongest decrease of hatching percentage and increase in duration of embryogenesis after zinc intoxication. This may indicate that the population from Olkusz exists at the limit of its energetic abilities.

  7. Incidence and Risk of Concussions in Youth Athletes: Comparisons of Age, Sex, Concussion History, Sport, and Football Position.

    Tsushima, William T; Siu, Andrea M; Ahn, Hyeong Jun; Chang, Bolin L; Murata, Nathan M

    2018-03-15

    This study was designed to determine concussion incidence, risk, and relative risk among middle and high school athletes participating in various sports. Data were retrospectively obtained from 10,334 athletes of 12 different sports in Hawaii. In addition to determining the overall concussion incidence, comparisons of incidence, risk, and relative risk were made according to age, sex, concussion history, sport, and football position. The overall incidence of concussion among youth athletes was 1,250 (12.1%). The relative risk for a concussion was almost two times greater in 18-year olds than in 13-year-old athletes. In comparable sports, girls had a 1.5 times higher concussion risk than boys. Athletes with a prior concussion had 3-5 times greater risk to sustain a concussion than those with no history of a concussion. Among varied sports, wrestling and martial arts had the highest relative risk of a concussion, followed by cheerleading, football, and track and field. No differences in concussion risks were found among the football players in different positions. Older youths, females, those with a history of concussion, and those participating in high contact sports were found to have higher risks of sustaining a concussion. The findings increase awareness of concussion patterns in young athletes and raise concerns regarding protective strategies and concussion management in youth sports.

  8. Development and validation of a food frequency questionnaire for dietary intake assessment among multi-ethnic primary school-aged children.

    Fatihah, Fadil; Ng, Boon Koon; Hazwanie, Husin; Norimah, A Karim; Shanita, Safii Nik; Ruzita, Abd Talib; Poh, Bee Koon

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to develop and validate a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to assess habitual diets of multi-ethnic Malaysian children aged 7-12 years. A total of 236 primary school children participated in the development of the FFQ and 209 subjects participated in the validation study, with a subsample of 30 subjects participating in the reproducibility study. The FFQ, consisting of 94 food items from 12 food groups, was compared with a three-day dietary record (3DR) as the reference method. The reproducibility of the FFQ was assessed through repeat administration (FFQ2), seven days after the first administration (FFQ1). The results of the validation study demonstrated good acceptance of the FFQ. Mean intake of macronutrients in FFQ1 and 3DR correlated well, although the FFQ intake data tended to be higher. Cross-classification of nutrient intake between the two methods showed that < 7% of subjects were grossly misclassified. Moderate correlations noted between the two methods ranged from r = 0.310 (p < 0.001) for fat to r = 0.497 (p < 0.001) for energy. The reproducibility of the FFQ, as assessed by Cronbach's alpha, ranged from 0.61 (protein) to 0.70 (energy, carbohydrates and fat). Spearman's correlations between FFQ1 and FFQ2 ranged from rho = 0.333 (p = 0.072) for protein to rho = 0.479 (p < 0.01) for fat. These findings indicate that the FFQ is valid and reliable for measuring the average intake of energy and macronutrients in a population of multi-ethnic children aged 7-12 years in Malaysia.

  9. A method comparison of a food frequency questionnaire to measure folate, choline, betaine, vitamin C and carotenoids with 24-h dietary recalls in women of reproductive age.

    Coathup, V; Wheeler, S; Smith, L

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to conduct a method comparison of a modified food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), designed to estimate usual dietary intake of selected micronutrients and antioxidants including folate, choline, betaine, vitamin C and carotenoids (α-carotene, β-carotene, lutein, lycopene and β-cryptoxanthin) with 24-h dietary recalls (24-HR) in women of reproductive age. Sixty-four British women of reproductive age (18-40 years) were recruited in Oxford, UK and provided complete dietary data for analysis. We compared micronutrient estimates from the FFQ against estimates derived from three multiple-pass, 24-HR interviews, by evaluating Pearson's correlation coefficients and Bland-Altman plots. Median intakes of most nutrients were higher when measured by FFQ compared with 24-HR. Strong correlation coefficients were observed for folate (r=0.80) and choline (r=0.68), whereas moderate correlation coefficients were observed for vitamin C (0.50) and lycopene (0.43). Weak correlation coefficients were observed for betaine (0.39) and other carotenoids (r=0.26-0.38). Bland-Altman plots indicated that there was a large amount of variability in the FFQ estimates of nutrient intakes compared to those using 24-HR, particularly for carotenoids. The findings indicate that this FFQ estimated higher mean intakes for most nutrients. Pearson's correlation coefficients were comparable with previous research; however, the Bland-Altman plots suggest a high variability in mean nutrient estimates between the FFQ and 24-h. We recommend further investigation of the validity of this FFQ before use.

  10. Questionnaires for assessment of female sexual dysfunction

    Giraldi, Annamaria; Rellini, Alessandra; Pfaus, James G

    2011-01-01

    There are many methods to evaluate female sexual function and dysfunction (FSD) in clinical and research settings, including questionnaires, structured interviews, and detailed case histories. Of these, questionnaires have become an easy first choice to screen individuals into different categories...

  11. Comparison of the Block Kid's Food Frequency Questionnaire with a 24 h dietary recall methodology among Hmong-American children, 9-18 years of age.

    Mulasi-Pokhriyal, Urvashi; Smith, Chery

    2013-01-28

    Hmong are one of the immigrant Asian subgroups with increasing rates of obesity, type 2 diabetes and CVD. Despite their population growth in the USA and declining health status, no research has investigated the appropriateness of dietary assessment measures, including FFQ and 24 h dietary recalls among Hmong. The present study compared the nutrient information obtained through a 24 h dietary recall method with that collected using the Block Kid's Food Frequency Questionnaire (Block FFQ) among Hmong-American children (n 335) of 9-18 years of age. For this purpose, two 24 h dietary recalls were collected during non-consecutive days and averaged for comparison. The Block FFQ was administered on the day of the second 24 h recall and the two methodologies were also compared using t tests. Among all children, Block FFQ nutrient estimates for vitamin A, vitamin C and food group servings for vegetables and fruits were significantly higher than those assessed through the 24 h dietary recalls (Pfood group servings for grains and meat and beans were significantly higher among all participants when assessed through the 24 h dietary recalls than through the Block FFQ (Pfood options otherwise missed in the Block FFQ. We recommend the modification of the current Block FFQ to appropriately reflect cultural food/beverage items of the population in interest.

  12. Psychological impact of genetic counseling for hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer: the role of cancer history, gender, age, and psychological distress.

    Hasenbring, Monika I; Kreddig, Nina; Deges, Gabriele; Epplen, Joerg T; Kunstmann, Erdmute; Stemmler, Susanne; Schulmann, Karsten; Willert, Joerg; Schmiegel, Wolf

    2011-04-01

    We prospectively examined the impact of an initial interdisciplinary genetic counseling (human geneticist, oncologist, and psycho-oncologist) on feelings of anxiety with a special focus on subgroups related to personal cancer history, gender, age, and education. At baseline, cancer-affected men revealed a significantly higher level of anxiety than unaffected men (pDepression Scale-A cases can be predicted by general distress (Brief Symptom Inventory) as well as by hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer-related cognitions of intrusion and avoidance (impact of event scale) with a correct classification of 86%. Although initial hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer counseling leads to an overall reduction of anxiety, differential effects of cancer history, gender, and age focus on subgroups of cancer-affected men, who may display unexpectedly high anxiety scores at baseline. Especially younger men do not seem to reduce this high anxiety level. Baseline anxiety was mainly determined by maladaptive situation-specific cognitions. Therefore, consulters should be more aware of anxiety-related cognitions in cancer-affected younger men.

  13. The Effect of Age and History of Recurrent Otitis Media on Dichotic Listening and Verbal Memory in Children.

    Jafari, Zahra; Malayeri, Saeed; Bahramian, Elahe

    2016-12-01

    To explore the possible effects of recurrent otitis media (ROM) in early childhood on binaural processing and verbal memory in school-aged children. Two hundred eleven children, including 31 children with and 180 children without a history of ROM, were examined. A dichotic digit test (DDT) and a forward and backward digit memory span test (DMST) were administered. A significant difference was observed between age groups among ROM-free children. The ROM-positive group earned significantly poorer results than the ROM-free group in all measurements, except for the right DDT (rDDT) score. Furthermore, a significant correlation was found between the DDT and EA scores with both DMST scores in the ROM-free group. The correlation between the rDDT and forward DMST scores was not significant in the ROM-positive group, and no significant correlation was observed between the EA score and either DMST score. Our findings support that a history of OM in early childhood based on a parental survey of children is associated with differences in DDT and DMST outcomes. © The Author(s) 2016.

  14. Association of parental history of type 2 diabetes with age, lifestyle, anthropometric factors, and clinical severity at type 2 diabetes diagnosis

    Svensson, Elisabeth; Berencsi, Klara; Sander, Simone

    2016-01-01

    in Type 2 Diabetes cohort. We examined the prevalence ratios (PR) of demographic, lifestyle, anthropometric, and clinical factors according to parental history, using Poisson regression adjusting for age and gender. RESULTS: Of 2825 T2D patients, 34% (n = 964) had a parental history of T2D. Parental......BACKGROUND: We investigated whether parental history of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) is associated with age, lifestyle, anthropometric factors, and clinical severity at the time of T2D diagnosis. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study based on the Danish Centre for Strategic Research...... history was associated with younger age at diagnosis [adjusted (a)PR 1.66, 95% confidence interval: 1.19, 2.31) for age

  15. Metamorphic history and age of aluminous gneisses of the Belomorian belt of the Baltic shield

    Bibikova, E.V.; Borisova, E.Yu.; Makarov, V.A.; Drugova, G.M.

    1997-01-01

    Metamorphic conditions and age are determined for the early metamorphic stage of aluminous gneisses in the Chupa nappe in the Belomorian Mobile Belt. The granulite-facies metamorphic conditions during Late Archean time are determined based on the composition of garnet and biotie from the metapelites. The early metamorphic stage was dated at 2860 ± 30 Ma based on the U-Pb systematics of granulitic zircon from the metapelites. The U-Pb isotopic system of the zircon was strongly affected by Svecogennian metamorphism (at 1750 Ma). The geodynamic evolution of the Belomorian Mobile Belt is discussed in light of the data of this work

  16. Lessons from history: Surviving old age during The Great Depression in the United States.

    Matthews, Sarah H; Dunkle, Ruth E

    2013-12-01

    This paper focuses on 30 couples who received a pension and other services from two private trusts in Detroit, Michigan beginning in 1929 or 1930. Results of the qualitative analysis of case files, which contain notes recorded chronologically for 17 of the couples and then surviving spouses, provide a portrait of older couples' lives prior to a partner's death, circumstances surrounding the death, and changes in the social support systems of widows and widowers until their deaths. Close examination of the experiences of these couples is a reminder of how old age and widowhood were experienced prior to the enactment of public pensions and health insurance in the United States. © 2013.

  17. THE STAR FORMATION AND NUCLEAR ACCRETION HISTORIES OF NORMAL GALAXIES IN THE AGES SURVEY

    Watson, Casey R.; Kochanek, Christopher S.; Forman, William R.; Hickox, Ryan C.; Jones, Christine J.; Kenter, Almus T.; Murray, Steve S.; Vikhlinin, Alexey; Fazio, Giovani G.; Green, Paul J.; Brown, Michael J. I.; Brand, Kate; Dey, Arjun; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Rieke, Marcia; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; McNamara, Brian R.; Shields, Joseph C.

    2009-01-01

    We combine IR, optical, and X-ray data from the overlapping, 9.3 deg 2 NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey, AGN and Galaxy Evolution Survey (AGES), and XBooetes Survey to measure the X-ray evolution of 6146 normal galaxies as a function of absolute optical luminosity, redshift, and spectral type over the largely unexplored redshift range 0.1 ∼ 3±1 , in agreement with the trends found for samples of bright, individually detectable starburst galaxies and AGN. Our work also corroborates the results of many previous stacking analyses of faint source populations, with improved statistics.

  18. Impact of radiation history, gender and age on bone quality in sites for orthodontic skeletal anchorage device placement.

    Konermann, A; Appel, T; Wenghoefer, M; Sirokay, S; Dirk, C; Jäger, A; Götz, W

    2015-05-01

    Stability of orthodontic miniscrew implants is prerequisite to their success and durability in orthodontic treatment. As investigations revealed a positive correlation of miniscrew stability to periimplant bone quality, it has been the aim of this study to analyze the bone structure of resection preparations of human mandibles histologically by investigating the samples according to age, gender and exposure to radiotherapy. Inflammation- and tumor-free alveolar bone sections from human mandibles (n = 31) with previously diagnosed carcinoma, chronic osteomyelitis or cysts were analyzed histomorphologically and histomorphometrically as to the dimension of trabeculae in cancellous areas. Group A investigated the impact of a history of radiation therapy, group B of gender and group C contrasted biopsies from individuals aging under 60 or over 60 years. Statistics were performed using the Kruskal-Wallis-test. Radiation, gender and age did not significantly influence bone density. The mean bone density averaged 40.7 ± 15.0% of spongiosa for the total collective with a median age of 58.4 years ± 14.7 years. Our findings provide new information on bone quality, thus contributing to a more precise evaluation of the parameters affecting and those not affecting miniscrew implant stability. On the basis of these results, the formulation of clinical guidelines for risk assessment of therapeutic approaches in patients prior to insertion of orthodontic skeletal anchorage devices seems to be conceivable. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Detrital zircon ages in Buller and Takaka terranes, New Zealand : constraints on early Zealandia history

    Adams, C.J.; Mortimer, N.; Campbell, H.J.; Griffin, W.L.

    2015-01-01

    Detrital zircon ages are presented for 34 early Palaeozoic sandstones from Buller and Takaka terranes, New Zealand, and formerly adjacent parts of Australia-Antarctica. The Buller-Takaka datasets always have two major groups: Ordovician-late Neoproterozoic, 444-700 Ma (but mainly 540-700 Ma), termed 'Gondwana Assembly' (GA), and early Neoproterozoic-Mesoproterozoic, 700-1600 Ma (but mainly 900-1200 Ma), termed 'Rodinia Assembly' (RA). In both terranes, significant age components within these groups are strikingly similar and also have RA/GA ratios, 0.6-1.8. The Cambrian volcanic arc of the Takaka Terrane has contributed little to the zircon patterns. Proportions of Late Cambrian-Early Ordovician zircons, characteristic of granitoid sources in the Ross-Delamerian Orogen are low. The zircons are predominantly reworked with contemporary zircons only evident in a few Buller datasets. The zircon patterns suggest that two major sources (late Mesoproterozoic and late Neoproterozoic), enduring over 120 Ma, were widely distributed and it is postulated they form Precambrian basement beneath southern Zealandia. (author).

  20. Back to the future: a history of ACOG in social media's golden age.

    DeNicola, Nathaniel; Good, Meadow; Newton, Luke

    2014-12-01

    To chronicle a medical professional society's adoption of innovation and to describe themes pertinent to the adoption. In September 2013, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) published a Committee Opinion on Toxic Environmental Agents that included an infographic and social media awareness campaign. To date, it claims one of the highest total audience reaches for an ACOG Facebook post reaching nearly 18 000 viewers. Despite this powerful promise, ACOG's timely and successful social media campaign did not always appear an obvious strategy. Although social media took hold of popular culture in the early 2000s, social media's professional etiquette remained uncharted and rife, with cautionary tales through the latter half of the decade. Through a thoughtful and dedicated process, the ACOG Fellow and Junior Fellow leadership partnered to navigate the appropriate balance of innovation and prudence that propelled ACOG into social media's golden age, and paved the pathway for more progressive institutional changes.

  1. Reliability and validity of the Dutch version of the American Burn Association/Shriners Hospital for Children Burn Outcomes Questionnaire (5-18 years of age)

    van Baar, Margriet E.; Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise; Oen, Irma M. M. H.; Dokter, Jan; Boxma, Han; Hinson, Michelle I.; van Loey, Nancy E. E.; Faber, Albertus W.; van Beeck, Ed F.

    2006-01-01

    The American Burn Association/Shriners Hospital for Children Burn Outcomes Questionnaire (BOQ) is a self-administered questionnaire to monitor functional outcome after burns in children and adolescents. This study aimed to assess feasibility, reliability, and validity of the Dutch BOQ. The BOQ was

  2. Do Age and Anticoagulants Affect the Natural History of Acute Subdural Hematomas?

    Lucke-Wold, Brandon P.; Turner, Ryan C.; Josiah, Darnell; Knotts, Chelsea; Bhatia, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Acute subdural hematoma is a serious complication following traumatic brain injury. Large volume hematomas or those with underlying brain injury can cause mass effect, midline shift, and eventually herniation of the brain. Acute subdural hematomas in the young are associated with high-energy trauma and often have underlying contusions, while acute subdural hematomas in the elderly are associated with minor trauma and an absence of underlying contusions, even though the elderly are more likely to be on anticoagulants or anti-platelet therapy. In the young patients with high impact injuries the hematomas tend to be small and the underlying brain injury and swelling is responsible for the increased intracranial pressure and midline shift. In the elderly, the injuries are low impact (e.g fall from standing), the underlying brain is intact, and the volume of the hematoma itself produces symptoms. In addition the use of anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents in the elderly population has been thought to be a poor prognostic indicator and is considered to be responsible for larger hematomas and poor outcome. When managed conservatively, acute subdural hematomas can sometimes progress to chronic subdural hematoma formation, further enlargement, seizures, and progressive midline shift. Another potential difference in the young and the elderly is brain atrophy, which increases the potential space to accommodate a larger hematoma. It is not known if these two groups differ in other ways that might have implications for treatment or prognosis. In this paper, we investigate the clinical course of 80 patients admitted to our institution with acute subdural hematomas, to identify differences in patients above or below the age of 65 years. The natural progression/resolution of acute subdural hematomas was mapped by measuring volume expansion/regression over time. In this retrospective chart review, we investigated clinical baseline metrics and subsequent volumetric expansion

  3. Do Age and Anticoagulants Affect the Natural History of Acute Subdural Hematomas?

    Lucke-Wold, Brandon P; Turner, Ryan C; Josiah, Darnell; Knotts, Chelsea; Bhatia, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Acute subdural hematoma is a serious complication following traumatic brain injury. Large volume hematomas or those with underlying brain injury can cause mass effect, midline shift, and eventually herniation of the brain. Acute subdural hematomas in the young are associated with high-energy trauma and often have underlying contusions, while acute subdural hematomas in the elderly are associated with minor trauma and an absence of underlying contusions, even though the elderly are more likely to be on anticoagulants or anti-platelet therapy. In the young patients with high impact injuries the hematomas tend to be small and the underlying brain injury and swelling is responsible for the increased intracranial pressure and midline shift. In the elderly, the injuries are low impact (e.g fall from standing), the underlying brain is intact, and the volume of the hematoma itself produces symptoms. In addition the use of anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents in the elderly population has been thought to be a poor prognostic indicator and is considered to be responsible for larger hematomas and poor outcome. When managed conservatively, acute subdural hematomas can sometimes progress to chronic subdural hematoma formation, further enlargement, seizures, and progressive midline shift. Another potential difference in the young and the elderly is brain atrophy, which increases the potential space to accommodate a larger hematoma. It is not known if these two groups differ in other ways that might have implications for treatment or prognosis. In this paper, we investigate the clinical course of 80 patients admitted to our institution with acute subdural hematomas, to identify differences in patients above or below the age of 65 years. The natural progression/resolution of acute subdural hematomas was mapped by measuring volume expansion/regression over time. In this retrospective chart review, we investigated clinical baseline metrics and subsequent volumetric expansion

  4. [Validity and reproducibility of an Internet-based questionnaire (Web-CAAFE) to evaluate the food consumption of students aged 7 to 15 years].

    Jesus, Gilmar Mercês de; Assis, Maria Alice Altenburg de; Kupek, Emil

    2017-06-05

    The study evaluated the validity and reproducibility of the food consumption section of the questionnaire Food Intake and Physical Activity of School Children (Web-CAAFE), an Internet-based software for the qualitative measurement of food consumption by recalling the previous day. A total of 390 students in grades 2 to 5 (7 to 15 years) of a semi-integral public school participated in the study. The validity was tested by comparing the report in the Web-CAAFE and the direct observation of food consumed in the school in the previous day. The reproducibility was evaluated in a sub-sample of 92 schoolchildren, by comparing repeated reports in the Web-CAAFE on the same day. Probabilities of accuracy in the Web-CAAFE report in relation to the observation (matches, omissions and intrusions and respective 95% confidence intervals) among seven food groups were estimated through multinomial logistic regression. The average for the match rate was 81.4% (variation: 62% sweets and 98% beans); for the omission rate was 16.2% (variation between 2.1% dairy products and 28.5% sweets); for the intrusion rate was 7.1% (variation between 1.3% beans and 13.8% cereals). Sweets, cereals and processed foods, snack foods and fried foods simultaneously exhibited higher rates of omission and intrusion. Students 10 years of age or older had lower probabilities of intruding food items. There were no significant variations in the accuracy of the report between repeated measures. The Web-CAAFE was a valid and reliable instrument for the evaluation of food consumption, when applied to students in grades 2 to 5 of public schools.

  5. Prediction of Serum Zinc Levels in Mexican Children at 2 Years of Age Using a Food Frequency Questionnaire and Different Zinc Bioavailability Criteria.

    Cantoral, Alejandra; Téllez-Rojo, Martha; Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Schnaas, Lourdes; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio; Peterson, Karen E; Ettinger, Adrienne S

    2015-06-01

    The 2006 Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey documented a prevalence of zinc deficiency of almost 30% in children under 2 years of age. We sought to validate a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for quantifying dietary bioavailable zinc intake in 2-year-old Mexican children accounting for phytic acid intake and using serum zinc as a reference. This cross-sectional study was nested within a longitudinal birth cohort of 333 young children in Mexico City. Nonfasting serum zinc concentration was measured and dietary zinc intake was calculated on the basis of a semiquantitative FFQ administered to their mothers. The relationship between dietary zinc intake and serum zinc was assessed using linear regression, adjusting for phytic acid intake, and analyzed according to two distinct international criteria to estimate bioavailable zinc. Models were stratified by zinc deficiency status. Dietary zinc, adjusted for phytic acid intake, explained the greatest proportion of the variance of serum zinc. For each milligram of dietary zinc intake, serum zinc increased on average by 0.95 μg/dL (0.15 μmol/L) (p = .06). When stratified by zinc status, this increase was 0.74 μg/dL (p = .12) for each milligram of zinc consumed among children with adequate serum zinc (n = 276), whereas among those children with zinc deficiency (n = 57), serum zinc increased by only 0.11 μg/dL (p = .82). A semiquantitative FFQ can be used for predicting serum zinc in relation to dietary intake in young children, particularly among those who are zinc-replete, and when phytic acid or phytate intake is considered. Future studies should be conducted accounting for both zinc status and dietary zinc inhibitors to further elucidate and validate these findings. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Building Bridges Using the Shriners Hospitals for Children/American Burn Association Burn Outcome Questionnaires to Follow Teenagers and Young Adults Across the Age Spans.

    Kaat, Aaron J; Chen, Liang; Kazis, Lewis E; Lee, Austin F; Shapiro, Gabriel D; Sheridan, Robert L; Ryan, Colleen M; Schneider, Jeffrey C

    2017-05-04

    The Shriners Hospitals for Children/American Burn Association Burn Outcomes Questionnaires (BOQ) are well-established, reliable, and valid outcome measures. The adolescent (BOQ11-18 years) and young adult version (18-30 years) have similar overlapping domains, but the scores are not comparable. This study objective was to build bridges across these forms. Datasets were from the Multi-Center Benchmarking Study Group. The comparable subscales from the BOQ11-18 and the young adult version were bridged using item response theory cocalibration. The item response theory scale scores were then transformed into an expected raw score on the alternative form, from which normative scores are available. A sensitivity analysis using up to three time points, as opposed to one randomly selected occasion, was also conducted to ensure robust results. Data were available on 353 unique adolescents and 148 young adults. The comparable subscales were successfully bridged across forms (adolescent reliability from 0.67 to 0.85; young adult from 0.69 to 0.88). Compared with adolescents, young adults on average reported more pain and itch, less symptom and role satisfaction, and poorer work/school reintegration (Cohen's d = 0.39-0.77; P family/parental concern were comparable across ages (d = -0.01 to 0.09; P > .05). Family functioning was better for young adults than adolescents (d = -0.25; P = .006). BOQ11-18 scores can be mapped from adolescence into young adulthood. Physical and psychosocial outcomes change across this life span. Bridges provide a highly useful approach to track changes across this part of the lifespan.

  7. The Italian version of the 92-item Prodromal Questionnaire: Concurrent validity with the SIPS and factor analysis in a sample of 258 outpatients aged 11-36years.

    Kotzalidis, Georgios D; Solfanelli, Andrea; Piacentino, Daria; Savoja, Valeria; Fiori Nastro, Paolo; Curto, Martina; Lindau, Juliana Fortes; Masillo, Alice; Brandizzi, Martina; Fagioli, Francesca; Raballo, Andrea; Gebhardt, Eva; Preti, Antonio; D'Alema, Marco; Fucci, Maria Rosa; Miletto, Roberto; Andropoli, Daniela; Leccisi, Donato; Girardi, Paolo; Loewy, Rachel L; Schultze-Lutter, Frauke

    2017-11-01

    Current early screeners for psychosis-risk states have still to prove ability in identifying at-risk individuals. Among screeners, the 92-item Prodromal Questionnaire (PQ-92) is often used. We aimed to assess the validity of its Italian translation in a large Italian adolescent and young adult help-seeking sample. We included all individuals aged 12-36years seeking help at psychiatric mental health services in a large semirural Roman area (534,600 population) who accepted to participate. Participants completed the Italian version of the PQ-92 and were subsequently assessed with the Structured Interview of Prodromal/Psychosis-Risk Syndromes (SIPS). We examined diagnostic accuracy (sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and positive and negative likelihood ratios) and content, concurrent, and convergent validity between PQ-92 and SIPS using Cronbach's alpha, Cohen's kappa, and Spearman's rho, respectively. We tested the validity of adopted cut-offs through Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves plotted against SIPS diagnoses and the instrument's factor-structure through Principal Component Analysis. PQ-92 showed high internal consistency, acceptable diagnostic accuracy and concurrent validity, and excellent convergent validity. ROC analyses pointed to scores of 18 on the Positive subscale and 36 on the total PQ-92 as best cut-offs. The Scree-test identified a four-factor solution as fitting best. Psychometric properties of Italian PQ-92 were satisfactory. Optimal cut-offs were confirmed at ≥18 on the positive subscale, but at ≥36 on the total scale was able to identify more SIPS-positive cases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Natural variation in life history and aging phenotypes is associated with mitochondrial DNA deletion frequency in Caenorhabditis briggsae

    Smith Samson W

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mutations that impair mitochondrial functioning are associated with a variety of metabolic and age-related disorders. A barrier to rigorous tests of the role of mitochondrial dysfunction in aging processes has been the lack of model systems with relevant, naturally occurring mitochondrial genetic variation. Toward the goal of developing such a model system, we studied natural variation in life history, metabolic, and aging phenotypes as it relates to levels of a naturally-occurring heteroplasmic mitochondrial ND5 deletion recently discovered to segregate among wild populations of the soil nematode, Caenorhabditis briggsae. The normal product of ND5 is a central component of the mitochondrial electron transport chain and integral to cellular energy metabolism. Results We quantified significant variation among C. briggsae isolates for all phenotypes measured, only some of which was statistically associated with isolate-specific ND5 deletion frequency. We found that fecundity-related traits and pharyngeal pumping rate were strongly inversely related to ND5 deletion level and that C. briggsae isolates with high ND5 deletion levels experienced a tradeoff between early fecundity and lifespan. Conversely, oxidative stress resistance was only weakly associated with ND5 deletion level while ATP content was unrelated to deletion level. Finally, mean levels of reactive oxygen species measured in vivo showed a significant non-linear relationship with ND5 deletion level, a pattern that may be driven by among-isolate variation in antioxidant or other compensatory mechanisms. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the ND5 deletion may adversely affect fitness and mitochondrial functioning while promoting aging in natural populations, and help to further establish this species as a useful model for explicit tests of hypotheses in aging biology and mitochondrial genetics.

  9. The impact of Wolbachia, male age and mating history on cytoplasmic incompatibility and sperm transfer in Drosophila simulans.

    Awrahman, Z A; Champion de Crespigny, F; Wedell, N

    2014-01-01

    Most insects harbour a variety of maternally inherited endosymbionts, the most widespread being Wolbachia pipientis that commonly induce cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) and reduced hatching success in crosses between infected males and uninfected females. High temperature and increasing male age are known to reduce the level of CI in a variety of insects. In Drosophila simulans, infected males have been shown to mate at a higher rate than uninfected males. By examining the impact of mating rate independent of age, this study investigates whether a high mating rate confers an advantage to infected males through restoring their compatibility with uninfected females over and above the effect of age. The impact of Wolbachia infection, male mating rate and age on the number of sperm transferred to females during copulation and how it relates to CI expression was also assessed. As predicted, we found that reproductive compatibility was restored faster in males that mate at higher rate than that of low mating and virgin males, and that the effect of mating history was over and above the effect of male age. Nonvirgin infected males transferred fewer sperm than uninfected males during copulation, and mating at a high rate resulted in the transfer of fewer sperm per mating irrespective of infection status. These results indicate that the advantage to infected males of mating at a high rate is through restoration of reproductive compatibility with uninfected females, whereas uninfected males appear to trade off the number of sperm transferred per mating with female encounter rate and success in sperm competition. This study highlights the importance Wolbachia may play in sexual selection by affecting male reproductive strategies. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2013 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  10. Is the onset of the 6th century 'dark age' in Maya history related to explosive volcanism?

    Nooren, Kees; Hoek, Wim Z.; Van der Plicht, Hans; Sigl, Michael; Galop, Didier; Torrescano-Valle, Nuria; Islebe, Gerald; Huizinga, Annika; Winkels, Tim; Middelkoop, Hans; Van Bergen, Manfred

    2016-04-01

    Maya societies in Southern Mexico, Guatemala and Belize experienced a 'dark age' during the second half of the 6th century. This period, also known as the 'Maya Hiatus', is characterized by cultural downturn, political instability and abandonment of many sites in the Central Maya Lowlands. Many theories have been postulated to explain the occurrence of this 'dark age' in Maya history. A possible key role of a large volcanic eruption in the onset of this 'dark age' will be discussed. Volcanic deposits recovered from the sedimentary archive of lake Tuspán and the Usumacinta-Grijalva delta were studied in detail and the combination of multiple dating techniques allowed the reconstruction of the timing of a large 6th century eruption. Volcanic glass shards were fingerprinted to indicate the source volcano and high resolution pollen records were constructed to indicate the environmental impact of the eruption. Results are compared with available archaeological data and causality with the disruption of Maya civilization will be evaluated.

  11. History of the great Kanto earthquakes inferred from the ages of Holocene marine terraces revealed by a comprehensive drilling survey

    Komori, Junki; Shishikura, Masanobu; Ando, Ryosuke; Yokoyama, Yusuke; Miyairi, Yosuke

    2017-08-01

    We measured the emergence ages of four marine terraces in the Chikura lowland, which lies to the southeast of the Boso Peninsula, in eastern Japan, to reevaluate the history of the great earthquake occurrences along the Sagami Trough over the past 10,000 years. The dates of the marine terraces are measured via radiocarbon dating of shell fossils obtained from the marine deposits. The sampling method employed in this study collects core samples using a dense and systematic drilling survey, which increased the reliability when correlating shell fossils with marine terraces. In addition, radiocarbon dating was performed with accelerator mass spectrometry, which produces more highly accurate measurements than those measured in previous studies. Moreover, we explored the surface profiles of the terraces with detailed digital elevation model (DEM) data obtained using LiDAR. The maximum emergence ages of the marine terraces were dated at 6300 cal yBP, 3000 cal yBP, and 2200 cal yBP from the top terrace excepting the lowest terrace (which was estimated at AD1703). In addition, another previously unrecognized terrace was detected between the highest and the second terrace in both the dating and the geomorphological analyses and was dated at 5800 cal yBP. The newly obtained ages are nearly a thousand of years younger than previously estimated ages; consequently, the intervals of the great earthquakes that occurred along the Sagami Trough are estimated to be much shorter and more varied than those of previous estimations. This result revises the data used in the current assessment of the probabilities of earthquakes along the Sagami Trough, which could devastate the Tokyo metropolitan area. Furthermore, it demonstrates that the current approach could be a powerful tool to increase the accuracy of assessments of the other areas with depositional marine terraces.

  12. Natural history of drusenoid pigment epithelial detachment in age-related macular degeneration: Age-Related Eye Disease Study Report No. 28.

    Cukras, Catherine; Agrón, Elvira; Klein, Michael L; Ferris, Frederick L; Chew, Emily Y; Gensler, Gary; Wong, Wai T

    2010-03-01

    To describe the natural history of eyes with drusenoid pigment epithelial detachments (DPEDs) associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Multicenter, clinic-based, prospective cohort study. Among 4757 participants enrolled in the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS), 255 were identified as having DPED in at least 1 eye and having 5 or more years of follow-up after the initial detection of the DPED. Baseline and annual fundus photographs were evaluated for the evolution of the fundus features and the development of advanced AMD in the forms of central geographic atrophy (CGA) or neovascular (NV) AMD. Kaplan-Meier analyses of progression to advanced AMD and of moderate vision loss (> or =15 letters compared with baseline) were performed. Rate of progression to advanced AMD and change in visual acuity from baseline (in terms of mean letters lost and proportion losing > or =15 letters). A total of 311 eyes (from 255 participants) with DPED were followed for a median follow-up time of 8 years subsequent to the initial detection of a DPED. Of the 282 eyes that did not have advanced AMD at baseline, advanced AMD developed within 5 years in 119 eyes (42%) (19% progressing to CGA and 23% progressing to NV-AMD). In the remaining eyes that did not develop advanced AMD (n=163), progressive fundus changes, typified by the development of calcified drusen and pigmentary changes, were detected. Visual decline was prominent among study eyes, with approximately 40% of all eyes decreasing in visual acuity by > or =15 letters at 5 years follow-up. Mean visual acuity decreased from 76 letters ( approximately 20/30) at baseline to 61 letters ( approximately 20/60) at 5 years. Five-year decreases in mean visual acuity averaged 26 letters for eyes progressing to advanced AMD and 8 letters for non-progressing eyes. The natural history of eyes containing DPED is characterized by a high rate of progression to both CGA and NV-AMD. Among eyes not progressing to advanced AMD

  13. Age at onset of major depressive disorder in Han Chinese women: relationship with clinical features and family history.

    Yang, Fuzhong; Li, Yihan; Xie, Dong; Shao, Chunhong; Ren, Jianer; Wu, Wenyuan; Zhang, Ning; Zhang, Zhen; Zou, Ying; Zhang, Jiulong; Qiao, Dongdong; Gao, Chengge; Li, Youhui; Hu, Jian; Deng, Hong; Wang, Gang; Du, Bo; Wang, Xumei; Liu, Tiebang; Gan, Zhaoyu; Peng, Juyi; Wei, Bo; Pan, Jiyang; Chen, Honghui; Sun, Shufan; Jia, Hong; Liu, Ying; Chen, Qiaoling; Wang, Xueyi; Cao, Juling; Lv, Luxian; Chen, Yunchun; Ha, Baowei; Ning, Yuping; Chen, Yiping; Kendler, Kenneth S; Flint, Jonathan; Shi, Shenxun

    2011-12-01

    Individuals with early-onset depression may be a clinically distinct group with particular symptom patterns, illness course, comorbidity and family history. This question has not been previously investigated in a Han Chinese population. We examined the clinical features of 1970 Han Chinese women with DSM-IV major depressive disorder (MDD) between 30 and 60 years of age across China. Analysis of linear, logistic and multiple logistic regression models was used to determine the association between age at onset (AAO) with continuous, binary and discrete characteristic clinical features of MDD. Earlier AAO was associated with more suicidal ideation and attempts and higher neuroticism, but fewer sleep, appetite and weight changes. Patients with an earlier AAO were more likely to suffer a chronic course (longer illness duration, more MDD episodes and longer index episode), increased rates of MDD in their parents and a lower likelihood of marriage. They tend to have higher comorbidity with anxiety disorders (general anxiety disorder, social phobia and agoraphobia) and dysthymia. Early AAO in MDD may be an index of a more severe, highly comorbid and familial disorder. Our findings indicate that the features of MDD in China are similar to those reported elsewhere in the world. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The reasonable reliability of a self-administered food frequency questionnaire for an urban, Japanese, middle-aged population: the Suita study.

    Maruyama, Koutatsu; Kokubo, Yoshihiro; Yamanaka, Tamami; Watanabe, Makoto; Iso, Hiroyasu; Okamura, Tomonori; Miyamoto, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    Because few studies have developed food frequency questionnaires (FFQ) and examined their reliability for Japanese urban populations, FFQ developed for urban Japanese populations may show reasonable reliability for estimating intakes of nutrients and food groups. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine the reliability of an FFQ developed for a prospective cohort study in a Japanese urban area. A total of 29 men and 29 women aged 47 to 78 years were selected from participants in the Suita study from February 1997 to February 1998. Seven-consecutive-day dietary records (DR) was collected in each season (28-day DR). The FFQ were administered 3 times in total in each season, except in autumn. We calculated Spearman correlation coefficients to assess the validation of the first and third FFQ compared with 28-day DR and to assess the repeatability for 3-, 6-, and 9-month intervals. Reasonable validity of each FFQ compared with 28-day DR were observed for energy intake and for 27 nutrients, and 11 food groups were selected. Median (range) Spearman rank correlation coefficients for energy-adjusted nutrient and food group intakes of the first FFQ were 0.52 (0.14-0.88) and 0.53 (0.24-0.74), and those of the third FFQ were 0.51 (0.07-0.84) and 0.57 (0.16-0.75), respectively. The repeatability of each interval was relatively good; median (range) Spearman correlation coefficients of nutrients for 3-, 6-, and 9-month intervals were 0.67 (0.40-0.85), 0.63 (0.25-0.93), and 0.62 (0.31-0.87), respectively; those for food groups were 0.58 (0.42-0.76), 0.56 (0.24-0.80), and 0.65 (0.30-0.76), respectively. In conclusion, this FFQ is useful for evaluating the associations of nutrient and food intakes with cardiovascular diseases and their risk factors in Japanese urban populations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Infertile women below the age of 40 have similar anti-Müllerian hormone levels and antral follicle count compared with women of the same age with no history of infertility

    Hvidman, H. W.; Bentzen, J. G.; Thuesen, L. L.

    2016-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Do infertile patients below the age of 40 years have a lower ovarian reserve, estimated by anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) and total antral follicle count (AFC), than women of the same age with no history of infertility? SUMMARY ANSWER: Serum AMH and AFC were not lower in infertile p...

  16. Emotional Arousal and Regulation: Further Evidence of the Validity of the "How I Feel" Questionnaire for Use with School-Age Children

    Ciucci, Enrica; Baroncelli, Andrea; Grazzani, Ilaria; Ornaghi, Veronica; Caprin, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Background: The ability to understand and manage emotional experience is critical to children's health. This study confirmed the validity of the How I Feel (HIF) Questionnaire, a measure of children's emotional arousal and regulation, exploring its associations with measures of emotional and social functioning. Methods: The sample was comprised of…

  17. The effect of age and recent influenza vaccination history on the immunogenicity and efficacy of 2009-10 seasonal trivalent inactivated influenza vaccination in children.

    Sophia Ng

    Full Text Available There is some evidence that annual vaccination of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV may lead to reduced vaccine immunogenicity but evidence is lacking on whether vaccine efficacy is affected by prior vaccination history. The efficacy of one dose of TIV in children 6-8 y of age against influenza B is uncertain. We examined whether immunogenicity and efficacy of influenza vaccination in school-age children varied by age and past vaccination history.We conducted a randomized controlled trial of 2009-10 TIV. Influenza vaccination history in the two preceding years was recorded. Immunogenicity was assessed by comparison of HI titers before and one month after receipt of TIV/placebo. Subjects were followed up for 11 months with symptom diaries, and respiratory specimens were collected during acute respiratory illnesses to permit confirmation of influenza virus infections. We found that previous vaccination was associated with reduced antibody responses to TIV against seasonal A(H1N1 and A(H3N2 particularly in children 9-17 y of age, but increased antibody responses to the same lineage of influenza B virus in children 6-8 y of age. Serological responses to the influenza A vaccine viruses were high regardless of vaccination history. One dose of TIV appeared to be efficacious against confirmed influenza B in children 6-8 y of age regardless of vaccination history.Prior vaccination was associated with lower antibody titer rises following vaccination against seasonal influenza A vaccine viruses, but higher responses to influenza B among individuals primed with viruses from the same lineage in preceding years. In a year in which influenza B virus predominated, no impact of prior vaccination history was observed on vaccine efficacy against influenza B. The strains that circulated in the year of study did not allow us to study the effect of prior vaccination on vaccine efficacy against influenza A.

  18. Screening for Autistic Spectrum in Children Aged 14 to 15 Months. I: The Development of the Early Screening of Autistic Traits Questionnaire (ESAT)

    Swinkels, Sophie H. N.; Dietz, Claudine; van Daalen, Emma; Kerkhof, Ine H. G. M.; van Engeland, Herman; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the development of a screening instrument for young children. Screening items were tested first in a non-selected population of children aged 8-20 months (n = 478). Then, parents of children with clinically diagnosed ASD (n = 153, average age 87 months) or ADHD (n = 76, average age 112 months) were asked to score the items…

  19. The co-viewing 2.0: Detaching from History and Applying in the New Media Age

    Fernanda Pires de Sá

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the advent of digital media and the 2.0 environments, the way we watch television and consume audiovisual media has changed. The audience can now be also called users, users who generate content and therefore share experiences online and offline. This has an impact on how the user understands TV content. For instance, the proliferation of user–generated content has made a strong impact on the different spheres of society, as people are able to access online information from anywhere (computers, mobile phones, tablets and also share, create, contribute or view together new and mass media content. In other words, it has generated a new way of co-viewing. This concept of co-viewing comes after an experiment made with Sesame Street in 1970 whereby it was shown that when children watch television together with adults, their capacity of learning increases. Hence why I found it necessary, in this study, to develop a brief history review of co-viewing. After having examined the concept we also try to apply generate a new definition of co-viewing, what we call co-viewing 2.0. It is done to attach the concept in the actual environment. This intent also includes the use of this concept not just in the scope of children but in general as co-viewing and discussing media content with others can be an enhancing experience in terms of acquiring knowledge at any age.

  20. Psychometric Properties of the Chinese Version of the Kid-KINDLR Questionnaire for Measuring the Health-related Quality of Life of School-aged Children

    Phoebe L.C. Chan

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: The Chinese version of the Kid-KINDLR questionnaire exhibited good psychometric properties, but the internal consistency of the translated instrument needs further improvement. It is recommended that practitioners focus on the Kid-KINDLR total score when interpreting the Kid-KINDLR data. Overall, the study findings indicate that the Chinese version of the Kid-KINDLR is an important tool for use in clinical practice.

  1. Depression in Old Age

    MAŠTEROVÁ, Monika

    2008-01-01

    This thesis is theoretical and it engage in problems of the depression, in particular depression in old age. It divide in four chapters. In first chapter mentioned a characteristic deppresion. Here is a description, what is the depression and that exit some questionnaires, what make find, whether is a man it distress. Further here is mentioned it occurrence, history, mythes, causes, symptoms, types, treatment and consequences. In second chapter talk about age and growing old and their concomi...

  2. Evaluation of mammographic surveillance services in women aged 40-49 years with a moderate family history of breast cancer: a single-arm cohort study.

    Duffy, S W; Mackay, J; Thomas, S; Anderson, E; Chen, T H H; Ellis, I; Evans, G; Fielder, H; Fox, R; Gui, G; Macmillan, D; Moss, S; Rogers, C; Sibbering, M; Wallis, M; Warren, R; Watson, E; Whynes, D; Allgood, P; Caunt, J

    2013-03-01

    Women with a significant family history of breast cancer are often offered more intensive and earlier surveillance than is offered to the general population in the National Breast Screening Programme. Up to now, this strategy has not been fully evaluated. To evaluate the benefit of mammographic surveillance for women aged 40-49 years at moderate risk of breast cancer due to family history. The study is referred to as FH01. This was a single-arm cohort study with recruitment taking place between January 2003 and February 2007. Recruits were women aged women were offered annual mammography for at least 5 years and observed for the occurrence of breast cancer during the surveillance period. The age group 40-44 years was targeted so that they would still be aged women, 94% of whom were aged women aged 40-49 years with a significant family history of breast or ovarian cancer is both clinically effective in reducing breast cancer mortality and cost-effective. There is a need to further standardise familial risk assessment, to research the impact of digital mammography and to clarify the role of breast density in this population. National Research Register N0484114809. This project was funded by the NIHR Health Technology Assessment programme and will be published in full in Health Technology Assessment; Vol. 17, No. 11. See the HTA programme website for further project information.

  3. Tree microhabitat structures as indicators of biodiversity in Douglas-fir forests of different stand ages and management histories in the Pacific Northwest, U.S.A.

    Alexa K. Michel; Susanne. Winter

    2009-01-01

    In this study, microhabitat structures in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) forests were defined and their frequency and abundance in natural stands and stands of varying active management histories and stand ages was compared. Indicator microhabitat structures for natural forests were determined and the relationship of the abundance of...

  4. Prevalence of Eligibility Criteria for the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial in US Adults Among Excluded Groups: Age Diabetes Mellitus, or a History of Stroke.

    Bress, Adam P; Tanner, Rikki M; Hess, Rachel; Gidding, Samuel S; Colantonio, Lisandro D; Shimbo, Daichi; Muntner, Paul

    2016-07-12

    Adults diabetes mellitus, or a history of stroke were not enrolled in the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT). Estimating the size and characteristics of these excluded groups who meet the other SPRINT eligibility criteria may provide information on the potential impact of providers extending the SPRINT findings to these populations. We analyzed the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2012 (n=25 076) to estimate the percentage and characteristics of US adults ≥20 years in 3 populations (age diabetes mellitus, or history of stroke) excluded from SPRINT who otherwise meet the trial eligibility criteria: age ≥50 years, systolic blood pressure (SBP) 130-180 mm Hg, high cardiovascular disease risk, and not having trial exclusion criteria. Overall, 1.0% (95% CI 0.8-1.3) of US adults age diabetes mellitus, and 19.0% (95% CI 16.0-22.4) with history of stroke met the other SPRINT eligibility criteria. Among US adults with SBP ≥130 mm Hg, other SPRINT eligibility criteria were met by 7.5% (95% CI 6.1-9.2) of those age diabetes mellitus, and 23.0% (95% CI 19.4-27.0) with history of stroke. Among US adults meeting the other SPRINT eligibility criteria, antihypertensive medication was being taken by 31.0% (95% CI 23.9-41.3) of those diabetes mellitus, and 68.9% (95% CI 59.4-77.1) with a history of stroke. A substantial percentage of US adults with diabetes mellitus or history of stroke and a small percentage <50 years old meet the other SPRINT eligibility criteria. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  5. An age-structured approach to modelling behavioural variation maintained by life-history trade-offs.

    Matthew H T Chan

    Full Text Available There have been numerous empirical studies on the fitness consequences of behavioural syndromes in various animal taxa; however, the ecological and evolutionary implications on a population level are still poorly understood. To better understand these implications, we develop a non-linear age-structured mathematical model to qualitatively examine the evolutionary consequences of a heritable boldness personality trait within an animal population. We assume that this heritable boldness trait is positively correlated with boldness towards predators and intraspecific aggressiveness. This assumption leads to a growth/reproductive success versus mortality trade-off, which is thoroughly investigated and documented in the literature. Another life-history trade-off we include in the model is future versus current reproduction, which was shown by Wolf et al. to be a possible mechanism for the evolution of behavioural syndromes within an animal population. The stability of the system is analysed, whereby the characteristic equation is in the form of a homogeneous Fredholm equation of the second kind which depends on both the perturbation and equilibrium solution. The system is found to be stable due to the competition between individuals of similar boldness acting as a negative feedback mechanism. Using numerical simulations we examine the qualitative features of the solution to the system. In particular, we investigate the interplay between the mutation and competition strength between two individuals with different boldness, whereby we find that an increasing competition range acts to push individuals to both extremes of the shy-bold axis, while an increasing mutation range counteracts this effect. This qualitative trait of aggregation of individuals around the shy and bold extremes is also found when examining different birth, mortality and competition functions.

  6. The history of a continent from U-Pb ages of zircons from Orinoco River sand and Sm-Nd isotopes in Orinoco basin river sediments

    Goldstein, S.L.; Arndt, N.T.; Stallard, R.F.

    1997-01-01

    We report SHRIMP U-Pb ages of 49 zircons from a sand sample from the lower Orinoco River, Venezuela, and Nd model ages of the fine sediment load from the main river and tributaries. The U-Pb ages reflect individual magmatic or metamorphic events, the Sm-Nd model ages reflect average crustal-residence ages of the sediment sources. Together they allow delineation of the crust-formation history of the basement precursors of the sediments. The U-Pb ages range from 2.83 to 0.15 Ga, and most are concordant or nearly so. Discrete age groupings occur at ??? 2.8, ??? 2.1, and ??? 1.1 Ga. The oldest group contains only three samples but is isolated from its closest neighbors by a ??? 600 Ma age gap. Larger age groupings at ??? 2.1 and ??? 1.1 Ga make up about a third and a quarter of the total number of analyses, respectively. The remaining analyses scatter along concordia, and most are younger than 1.6 Ga. The ??? 2.8 and ??? 2.1 Ga ages correspond to periods of crust formation of the Imataca and Trans-Amazonian provinces of the Guyana Shield, respectively, and record intervals of short but intensive continental growth. These ages coincide with ??? 2.9 and ??? 2.1 Ga Nd model ages of sediments from tributaries draining the Archean and Proterozoic provinces of the Guyana Shield, respectively, indicating that the U-Pb ages record the geological history of the crystalline basement of the Orinoco basin. Zircons with ages corresponding to the major orogenies of the North Atlantic continents (the Superior at ??? 2.7 Ga and Hudsonian at 1.7-1.9 Ga) were not found in the Orinoco sample. The age distribution may indicate that South and North America were separated throughout their history. Nd model ages of sediments from the lower Orinoco River and Andean tributaries are ??? 1.9 Ga, broadly within the range displayed by major rivers and dusts. This age does not coincide with known thermal events in the region and reflects mixing of sources with different crust-formation ages. The

  7. Correlation of improved erectile function and rate of successful intercourse with improved emotional well-being assessed with the Self-Esteem And Relationship questionnaire in men treated with sildenafil for erectile dysfunction and stratified by age.

    Steidle, Christopher P; Stecher, Vera J; Pace, Cindy; Tseng, Li-Jung

    2006-05-01

    The quality of life consequences of erectile dysfunction (ED) include depression, anxiety, and loss of self-esteem. The Self-Esteem And Relationship (SEAR) questionnaire is a validated, patient-administered, psychometric instrument specific to ED. To determine correlations between erectile function (EF), intercourse success, and emotional well-being measured with the SEAR questionnaire in men treated with sildenafil citrate for ED and stratified by age ( 65 years). This was an open-label, flexible-dose trial of sildenafil (25, 50 and 100 mg) administered for 10 weeks to 382 men with ED (mean +/- SD age, 55 +/- 13 years; mean ED duration, 4 years), which was conducted at 62 centers in the United States. Analysis (by intent-to-treat, n = 368) of the change from baseline to the week-10 endpoint in the SEAR questionnaire Self-Esteem subscale, the intercourse success rate (percent of occasions at which an erection that lasted long enough for successful intercourse was achieved), and their correlation. For the overall population, there was mean +/- SD improvement (p Erectile Function; event log frequency of erection hard enough for sexual intercourse and of ejaculation/orgasm) also improved (p 65 years, and six were positive in men aged erectile function and an increased intercourse success rate, which correlated positively with improvement in SEAR measures of self-esteem and sexual relationship.

  8. Effect of a family history of psoriasis and age on comorbidities and quality of life in patients with moderate to severe psoriasis: Results from the ARIZONA study.

    López-Estebaranz, Jose Luis; Sánchez-Carazo, Jose Luis; Sulleiro, Sara

    2016-04-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease whose clinical characteristics vary from patient to patient. We aimed to analyze how comorbidities and quality of life (QoL, as per the Dermatology Life Quality Index [DLQI]) may be affected by a family history of psoriasis and by age. The ARIZONA study was a multicenter, cross-sectional study in 1022 adult patients diagnosed with moderate to severe psoriasis at least 6 months prior to inclusion. The severity of psoriasis and the proportion of patients with comorbidities were not affected by the presence of a family history. The regression analysis revealed that the presence of a family history of psoriasis was associated with the effect on the patient's QoL (P = 0.002), regardless of disease severity. The mean DLQI total score varied significantly across age groups (5.1 ± 5.3 for the 18-30-year group, 5.7 ± 6.5 for the 31-60-year group and 3.8 ± 5.1 for the >60-year group; P = 0.001). In conclusion, the presence of a family history of psoriasis appears to disrupt QoL in patients with moderate to severe psoriasis, but it hardly affected the prevalence of comorbid conditions. The effect of age on QoL was particularly noticeable in younger patients, highlighting its negative impact. As expected, older patients appeared to be burdened with a higher number of comorbidities than their younger counterparts. © 2015 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  9. The Relative Importance of Family History, Gender, Mode of Onset, and Age at Onsetin Predicting Clinical Features of First-Episode Psychotic Disorders.

    Compton, Michael T; Berez, Chantal; Walker, Elaine F

    Family history of psychosis, gender, mode of onset, and age at onset are considered prognostic factors important to clinicians evaluating first-episode psychosis; yet, clinicians have little guidance as to how these four factors differentially predict early-course substance abuse, symptomatology, and functioning. We conducted a "head-to-head comparison" of these four factors regarding their associations with key clinical features at initial hospitalization. We also assessed potential interactions between gender and family history with regard to age at onset of psychosis and symptom severity. Consecutively admitted first-episode patients (n=334) were evaluated in two studies that rigorously assessed a number of early-course variables. Associations among variables of interest were examined using Pearson correlations, χ 2 tests, Student's t-tests, and 2×2 factorial analyses of variance. Substance (nicotine, alcohol, and cannabis) abuse and positive symptom severity were predicted only by male gender. Negative symptom severity and global functioning impairments were predicted by earlier age at onset of psychosis. General psychopathology symptom severity was predicted by both mode of onset and age at onset. Interaction effects were not observed with regard to gender and family history in predicting age at onset or symptom severity. The four prognostic features have differential associations with substance abuse, domains of symptom severity, and global functioning. Gender and age at onset of psychosis appear to be more predictive of clinical features at the time of initial evaluation (and thus presumably longer term outcomes) than the presence of a family history of psychosis and a more gradual mode of onset.

  10. Screening for autistic spectrum disorder in children aged 14-15 months. II: population screening with the Early Screening of Autistic Traits Questionnaire (ESAT). Design and general findings.

    Dietz, C.; Swinkels, S.H.N.; Daalen, E. van; Engeland, H.M. van; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2006-01-01

    A two-stage protocol for screening for autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) was evaluated in a random population of 31,724 children aged 14-15 months. Children were first pre-screened by physicians at well-baby clinics using a 4-item screening instrument. Infants that screened positive were then

  11. Validation of Questionnaire-Assessed Physical Activity in Comparison With Objective Measures Using Accelerometers and Physical Performance Measures Among Community-Dwelling Adults Aged ≥85 Years in Tokyo, Japan.

    Oguma, Yuko; Osawa, Yusuke; Takayama, Michiyo; Abe, Yukiko; Tanaka, Shigeho; Lee, I-Min; Arai, Yasumichi

    2017-04-01

    To date, there is no physical activity (PA) questionnaire with convergent and construct validity for the oldest-old. The aim of the current study was to investigate the validity of questionnaire-assessed PA in comparison with objective measures determined by uniaxial and triaxial accelerometers and physical performance measures in the oldest-old. Participants were 155 elderly (mean age 90 years) who were examined at the university and agreed to wear an accelerometer for 7 days in the 3-year-follow-up survey of the Tokyo Oldest-Old Survey of Total Health. Fifty-nine participants wore a uniaxial and triaxial accelerometer simultaneously. Self-rated walking, exercise, and household PA were measured using a modified Zutphen PA Questionnaire (PAQ). Several physical performance tests were done, and the associations among PAQ, accelerometer-assessed PA, and physical performances were compared by Spearman's correlation coefficients. Significant, low to moderate correlations between PA measures were seen on questionnaire and accelerometer assessments (ρ = 0.19 to 0.34). Questionnaireassessed PA measure were correlated with a range of lower extremity performance (ρ = 0.21 to 0.29). This PAQ demonstrated convergent and construct validity. Our findings suggest that the PAQ can reasonably be used in this oldest-old population to rank their PA level.

  12. Validity and reproducibility of a revised semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (SQFFQ) for women of age-group 12-44 years in Chengdu.

    Tang, Ying; Liu, Ying; Xu, Liangzhi; Jia, Yujian; Shan, Dan; Li, Wenjuan; Pan, Xin; Kang, Deying; Huang, Chengyu; Li, Xiaosong; Zhang, Jing; Hu, Ying; Konglin, Lingli; Zhuang, Jing

    2015-03-01

    To find a credible nutritional screening tool for evaluating relationship between nutritional status and diseases in Chengdu female residents, the reliability and validity of a revised semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (SQFFQ) were tested. The validity was assessed by comparing the SQFFQ with the 'standard' method of 3 days' dietary recall, and the reliability was assessed by comparing the first SQFFQ with the second SQFFQ at 4 weeks interval. Correlation analysis showed that, for reliability, the average correlation coefficient (CC) of 22 kinds of nutrients was 0.66 and reduced to 0.60 after adjusting for energy; the average of intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) was 0.65. For validity, the average CC was 0.35 and remained stable after adjusting for CC of energy or nutrients. Validity of 17 nutrients in SQFFQ survey had correlation with result of 3 days' dietary recall. The results showed that the revised SQFFQ can be used for investigating the role of nutrients in development of disease in Chengdu female residents.

  13. Reliability of the information about the history of diagnosis and treatment of hypertension. Differences in regard to sex, age, and educational level. The pró-saúde study

    Faerstein Eduardo

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the intraobserver reliability of the information about the history of diagnosis and treatment of hypertension. METHODS: A multidimensional health questionnaire, which was filled out by the interviewees, was applied twice with an interval of 2 weeks, in July '99, to 192 employees of the University of the State of Rio de Janeiro (UERJ, stratified by sex, age, and educational level. The intraobserver reliability of the answers provided was estimated by the kappa statistic and by the coefficient of intraclass correlation (CICC. RESULTS: The general kappa (k statistic was 0.75 (95% CI=0.73-0.77. Reliability was higher among females (k=0.88, 95% CI=0.85-0.91 than among males (k=0.62, 95% CI=0.59-0.65.The reliability was higher among individuals 40 years of age or older (k=0.79; 95% CI=0.73-0.84 than those from 18 to 39 years (k=0.52; 95% CI=0.45-0.57. Finally, the kappa statistic was higher among individuals with a university educational level (k=0.86; 95% CI=0.81-0.91 than among those with high school educational level (k=0.61; 95% CI=0.53-0.70 or those with middle school educational level (k=0.68; 95% CI=0.64-0.72. The coefficient of intraclass correlation estimated by the intraobserver agreement in regard to age at the time of the diagnosis of hypertension was 0.74. A perfect agreement between the 2 answers (k=1.00 was observed for 22 interviewees who reported prior prescription of antihypertensive medication. CONCLUSION: In the population studied, estimates of the reliability of the history of medical diagnosis of hypertension and its treatment ranged from substantial to almost perfect reliability.

  14. Evaluation of life quality associated with health of girls aged 13–14 in groups with menstrual disorders and no disorders in health and development in the light of the questionnaire KIDSCREEN-52

    Ewa Zięba

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Quality of life is a multidimensional and interdisciplinary concept, combining a number of important areas of life. In terms of sociology, it is the degree of satisfying the essential human needs, while in terms of psychology it is psychological well-being. The most common understanding of life quality, accepted by the World Health Organization, is as follows: quality of life is how individuals perceive their status in life in terms of culture and value system in which they live and in relation to their goals, expectations, standards and interests. Aim of the research : To compare two groups of girls, aged 13–14, with menstrual disorders and no disorders in health and development from urban and rural environments in the light of the questionnaire KIDSCREEN-52 with respect to individual dimensions. Material and methods : We examined 122 girls with menstrual disorders and 240 girls without any disorders in health and development from primary and lower secondary schools from urban and rural environments. The study included girls attending primary and lower secondary schools at the age of 13–14. In the study we applied the standardized tool KIDSCREEN-52 Health Related Quality of Life Questionnaire for Children and Young People, in the Polish version of the questionnaire, to test the quality of life related to health of children and adolescents. Results : Lower results with respect to all dimensions were obtained in the group of girls with menstrual disorders compared to girls without disorders in health and development in particular dimensions of the questionnaire KIDSCREEN-52. Conclusions : Dissemination of activities which raise the quality of life, with particular emphasis on girls with menstrual disorders, is likely to affect significantly the health and quality of life in the future.

  15. A study on social life and mental health of middle-aged and elderly atomic bomb survivors. Analysis of general health questionnaire (GHQ-30)

    Ohta, Yasuyuki; Mine, Mariko; Honda, Sumihisa; Toriyama, Fumiko; Sugasaki, Hiroyuki.

    1996-01-01

    The psychological state of middle aged and elderly atomic bomb survivors was analyzed by GHQ, which had been done from September to November, 1992. Subjects were 1,399 Nagasaki survivors of the average age of 61.3 y and 1,054 non-irradiated people of 62.2 y living in the countryside of Nagasaki prefecture as the control. Analyses were performed with χ square method and t-test. When the subordinate measure derived from factor analysis of GHQ was compared with that of the control group, the score possibly attributable to anxiety reaction to the stress was significantly higher in the survivors. However, the two scores attributable to obstacle in personal relations and to avoidance of social activities were significantly lower, which suggested that the survivors are able to have rich personal and social interactions. Besides, it was suggested that the GHQ score was increased possibly by anxiety for the future in the essential part of life such as loss of feeling of healthiness and dissatisfaction for the present life conditions. It was confirmed that systematic and continuous examinations are necessary from the bio-psycho-social viewpoint. (H.O.)

  16. Health Professionals' Responses to Disclosure of Child Sexual Abuse History: Female Child Sexual Abuse Survivors' Experiences

    McGregor, Kim; Julich, Shirley; Glover, Marewa; Gautam, Jeny

    2010-01-01

    This study reports on a postal questionnaire, conducted in 2004, with female survivors of historic child sexual abuse. The questionnaire explored their experiences of health professionals' responsiveness to disclosure of child sexual abuse history. Of 61 participants, aged between 22 and 65, 69% had disclosed to health professionals. Those who had…

  17. Validez y confiabilidad del cuestionario del ENASEM para la depresión en adultos mayores Validity and reliability of the screening questionnaire for geriatric depression used in the Mexican Health and Age Study

    Sara Gloria Aguilar-Navarro

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar la validez y confiabilidad de un instrumento para detectar depresión en adultos mayores. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: El estudio se realizó en la consulta externa del Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán (INCMNSZ, entre mayo de 2005 y marzo de 2006. Se utilizaron el diagnóstico clínico de depresión a través de el Manual Diagnóstico y Estadístico de Trastornos Mentales, en su cuarta versión revisada (DSM-IV-TR, y la Escala de depresión geriátrica (EDG de Yesavage, para establecer las propiedades clinimétricas de un cuestionario dicotómico de nueve reactivos, desprendido del Estudio Nacional sobre Salud y Envejecimiento en México (ENASEM. RESULTADOS: En el proceso de validación participaron 199 individuos de edad media de 79.5 años. El resultado del cuestionario de la ENASEM estuvo significativamente correlacionado con el diagnóstico clínico de depresión (pOBJECTIVE: To assess the validity and reliability of a geriatric depression questionnaire used in the Mexican Health and Age Study (MHAS. METHODS: The study was conducted at the Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán (INCMNSZ clinic from May 2005 to March 2006. This depression screening nine-item questionnaire was validated using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR (fourth revised version and Yesavage's 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15 criteria. The instrument belongs to the MHAS, a prospective panel study of health and aging in Mexico. RESULTS: A total of 199 subjects 65 years of age and older participated in the validation process (median age= 79.5 years. MHAS questionnaire result was significantly correlated to the clinical depression diagnosis (p<0.001 and to the GDS-15 score (p<0.001. Internal consistency was adequate (alpha coefficient: 0.74. The cutoff point e" 5/9 points yielded an 80.7% and 68.7% sensitivity and specificity respectively. The fidelity

  18. An Examination of the Food Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaire Performance in a Countrywide American Sample of Children: Cross-Cultural Differences in Age and Impact in the United States and Europe.

    DunnGalvin, Audrey; Koman, Elizabeth; Raver, Elizabeth; Frome, Hayley; Adams, Melissa; Keena, Aisleen; Hourihane, Jonathan O'B; Gallagher, Patricia Leahy; Flokstra-de Blok, Bertine; Dubois, Anthony; Pyrz, Katarzyna; Bindslev-Jensen, Cartsen; Stensgaard, Anette; Boyle, Robert; Vickers, Bea; Smith, Jared; Thisanayagam, Umasunthar; Greenhawt, Matthew

    It is important to ensure that tools are valid and reliable in the context in which they are used. The development of age and country norms is part of this process. The primary aim of the present study was to examine the performance of the Food Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaire - Parent Form (FAQLQ-PF) in a countrywide American sample of children with food allergy. The secondary aim was to compare age differences in impact across 9 European countries. In a cross-sectional quantitative design, questionnaires were completed by the parents of 1029 food-allergic children (0-12 years). Participants were recruited via support groups and allergists. Data were analyzed by using multivariate analysis of variance and tests for internal consistency and validity. The average score was calculated for each age group in 15 studies in Ireland, Switzerland, the Netherlands, Spain, Portugal, Germany, Italy, Denmark, Israel, and the United Kingdom. The FAQLQ-PF has high convergent validity (child: r = 0.49, n = 695, P = .01; parent: r = 0.36, n = 696, P = .01) and discriminant validity, parent: t (719) = 4.67, P = .001 (anaphylaxis yes vs no); t (513), P = .009 (single vs multiple allergens). Internal consistency was excellent (r = 0.96). US health-related quality of life was worse than European health-related quality of life, as indicated by higher FAQLQ-PF scores in US samples. Burden increased with age in all populations. The FAQLQ-PF is appropriate for use in an American population. Findings will form the basis for further work in the development of an online manual with food allergy-normed age scores to allow for precise measurement, interpretation of scores, and comparison across countries and cultures, in clinical and research settings. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The Game Experience Questionnaire

    IJsselsteijn, W.A.; de Kort, Y.A.W.; Poels, K.

    2013-01-01

    This document contains the English version of the Game Experience Questionnaire. The development and testing of the Game Experience Questionnaire is described in project Deliverable 3.3. The Game Experience Questionnaire has a modular structure and consists of : 1. The core questionnaire 2. The

  20. Exhumation history of the NW Indian Himalaya revealed by fission track and 40Ar/39Ar ages

    Schlup, Micha; Steck, Albrecht; Carter, Andrew; Cosca, Michael; Epard, Jean-Luc; Hunziker, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    New fission track and Ar/Ar geochronological data provide time constraints on the exhumation history of the Himalayan nappes in the Mandi (Beas valley) — Tso Morari transect of the NW Indian Himalaya. Results from this and previous studies suggest that the SW-directed North Himalayan nappes were emplaced by detachment from the underthrusted upper Indian crust by 55 Ma and metamorphosed by ca. 48–40 Ma. The nappe stack was subsequently exhumed to shallow upper crustal depths (

  1. Estimating past hepatitis C infection risk from reported risk factor histories: implications for imputing age of infection and modeling fibrosis progression

    Busch Michael P

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic hepatitis C virus infection is prevalent and often causes hepatic fibrosis, which can progress to cirrhosis and cause liver cancer or liver failure. Study of fibrosis progression often relies on imputing the time of infection, often as the reported age of first injection drug use. We sought to examine the accuracy of such imputation and implications for modeling factors that influence progression rates. Methods We analyzed cross-sectional data on hepatitis C antibody status and reported risk factor histories from two large studies, the Women's Interagency HIV Study and the Urban Health Study, using modern survival analysis methods for current status data to model past infection risk year by year. We compared fitted distributions of past infection risk to reported age of first injection drug use. Results Although injection drug use appeared to be a very strong risk factor, models for both studies showed that many subjects had considerable probability of having been infected substantially before or after their reported age of first injection drug use. Persons reporting younger age of first injection drug use were more likely to have been infected after, and persons reporting older age of first injection drug use were more likely to have been infected before. Conclusion In cross-sectional studies of fibrosis progression where date of HCV infection is estimated from risk factor histories, modern methods such as multiple imputation should be used to account for the substantial uncertainty about when infection occurred. The models presented here can provide the inputs needed by such methods. Using reported age of first injection drug use as the time of infection in studies of fibrosis progression is likely to produce a spuriously strong association of younger age of infection with slower rate of progression.

  2. The History of Stuttering by 7 Years of Age: Follow-Up of a Prospective Community Cohort

    Kefalianos, Elaina; Onslow, Mark; Packman, Ann; Vogel, Adam; Pezic, Angela; Mensah, Fiona; Conway, Laura; Bavin, Edith; Block, Susan; Reilly, Sheena

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: For a community cohort of children confirmed to have stuttered by the age of 4 years, we report (a) the recovery rate from stuttering, (b) predictors of recovery, and (c) comorbidities at the age of 7 years. Method: This study was nested in the Early Language in Victoria Study. Predictors of stuttering recovery included child, family, and…

  3. Association between shift work history and performance on the trail making test in middle-aged and elderly humans: the EpiHealth study.

    Titova, Olga E; Lindberg, Eva; Elmståhl, Sölve; Lind, Lars; Schiöth, Helgi B; Benedict, Christian

    2016-09-01

    Shift work has been proposed to promote cognitive disturbances in humans; however, conflicting evidence is also present. By using data from 7143 middle-aged and elderly humans (45-75 years) who participated in the Swedish EpiHealth cohort study, the present analysis sought to investigate whether self-reported shift work history would be associated with performance on the trail making test (TMT). The TMT has been proposed to be a useful neuropsychological tool to evaluate humans' executive cognitive function, which is known to decrease with age. After adjustment for potential confounders (e.g., age, education, and sleep duration), it was observed that current and recent former shift workers (worked shifts during the past 5 years) performed worse on the TMT than nonshift workers. In contrast, performance on the TMT did not differ between past shift workers (off from shift work for more than 5 years) and nonshift workers. Collectively, our results indicate that shift work history is linked to poorer performance on the TMT in a cohort of middle-aged and elderly humans. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Origin and evolution of the free radical theory of aging: a brief personal history, 1954–2009.

    Harman, Denham

    2009-12-01

    Aging is the progressive accumulation in an organism of diverse, deleterious changes with time that increase the chance of disease and death. The basic chemical process underlying aging was first advanced by the free radical theory of aging (FRTA) in 1954: the reaction of active free radicals, normally produced in the organisms, with cellular constituents initiates the changes associated with aging. The involvement of free radicals in aging is related to their key role in the origin and evolution of life. The initial low acceptance of the FRTA by the scientific community, its slow growth, manifested by meetings and occasional papers based on the theory, prompted this account of the intermittent growth of acceptance of the theory over the past nearly 55 years.

  5. Age

    ... adults? How can you reduce anesthesia risks in older patients? Age Age may bring wisdom but it also brings ... Ask your physician to conduct a pre-surgery cognitive test — an assessment of your mental function. The physician can use the results as a ...

  6. The prevalence and correlates of the positive Androgen Deficiency in the Aging Male (ADAM questionnaire among psychiatric outpatients: a cross-sectional survey of 176 men in a general hospital in Taiwan

    Lee CP

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chin-Pang Lee,1,2 Yu Chen,2–4 Kun-Hao Jiang,2,4,5 Chun-Lin Chu,1,2,4 Shih-Chieh Hsu,1,2,4 Jiun-Liang Chen,2,4,5 Ching-Yen Chen1,2,41Department of Psychiatry, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, Taiwan; 2Men’s Health Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan; 3Department of Urology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, Taiwan; 4School of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan; 5Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, TaiwanIntroduction: The Androgen Deficiency in the Aging Male (ADAM questionnaire is widely used to screen for late-onset hypogonadism. The positive response to the ADAM questionnaire (positive ADAM has been associated with depression and poorer quality of life in a number of studies. It is unclear whether there is any value of the ADAM questionnaire in psychiatric populations. In this study, we aimed to determine the utility of the ADAM questionnaire in a convenient sample of male psychiatric outpatients.Methods: One hundred and seventy-six men (mean age: 54.3 years; standard deviation: 10.7 years; range: 40–80 years completed the ADAM questionnaire, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, and the Aging Males’ Symptoms (AMS scale. Anxiety was defined as a HADS anxiety subscore ≥8; depression as a HADS depression subscore ≥8; and moderate/severe impairment of health-related quality of life (HQoL as AMS ≥37. ADAM, anxiety, and depression was used to model the moderate/severe impairment of HQoL.Results: One hundred and sixty-four (93% men had positive ADAM. Positive ADAM was associated with a lower body mass index (P<0.05 and moderate/severe impairment of HQoL (P<0.001, but was not associated with anxiety or depression (P>0.05. Positive ADAM was associated with five symptoms of the AMS scale: “decline of one’s feeling of general well-being”, “depressive mood”, and three sexual symptoms. In regression analysis, positive ADAM was associated with

  7. Aggersborg through history

    Roesdahl, Else

    2014-01-01

    Aggersborg's history from the time of the end of the circular fortress till the present day, with a focus on the late Viking Age and the Middle Ages......Aggersborg's history from the time of the end of the circular fortress till the present day, with a focus on the late Viking Age and the Middle Ages...

  8. Effect of reproductive history, lactation, first pregnancy age and dietary habits on bone mineral density in natural postmenopausal women.

    Cavkaytar, Sabri; Seval, Mehmet Murat; Atak, Zeliha; Findik, Rahime Bedir; Ture, Sevgi; Kokanali, Demet

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possible risk factors related with osteoporosis in women with spontaneous menopause. Five hundred and one postmenopausal women were divided into three groups as normal, osteopenic and osteoporotic according to their bone mineral density (BMD). By face-to-face interview, parity, age at menarche, age at menopause, duration of fertility, duration of menopause, first pregnancy age, total lactation period, exercise, smoking were assessed. Women with menopause age before 40 years, surgical menopause, who had any anti-osteoporosis treatment, hormone replacement therapy at the time of BMD measurement and corticosteroid use longer than 6 months were excluded from the study. Among 501 postmenopausal women, 107 women were classified as normal, 170 as osteopenic and 224 as osteoporotic. Among demographic features of patients, there was statistically significant difference between the groups in age, BMI and parity (p osteoporosis (OR 0.42, CI 95 % 0.27-0.66; OR 0.36, CI 95 % 0.24-0.56, respectively), but age was positively correlated with osteoporosis (OR 1.13, CI 95 % 1.01-1.17) CONCLUSIONS: Duration of fertility (years of menstruation) longer than 33 years and body mass index higher than 32 seem to protect against postmenopausal osteoporosis. Age is also an independent risk factor for postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  9. The validated sun exposure questionnaire

    Køster, B; Søndergaard, J; Nielsen, J B

    2017-01-01

    Few questionnaires used in monitoring sun-related behavior have been tested for validity. We established criteria validity of a developed questionnaire for monitoring population sun-related behavior. During May-August 2013, 664 Danes wore a personal electronic UV-dosimeter for one week...... that measured the outdoor time and dose of erythemal UVR exposure. In the following week, they answered a questionnaire on their sun-related behavior in the measurement week. Outdoor time measured by dosimetry correlated strongly with both outdoor time and the developed exposure scale measured...... in the questionnaire. Exposure measured in SED by dosimetry correlated strongly with the exposure scale. In a linear regression model of UVR (SED) received, 41 percent of the variation was explained by skin type, age, week of participation and the exposure scale, with the exposure scale as the main contributor...

  10. Designing clinical trials for age-related geographic atrophy of the macula: enrollment data from the geographic atrophy natural history study.

    Sunness, Janet S; Applegate, Carol A; Bressler, Neil M; Hawkins, Barbara S

    2007-02-01

    To derive information from the Geographic Atrophy (GA) Natural History Study that is relevant to recruiting patients and designing clinical trials for GA. A prospective natural history study with annual follow-up enrolled patients with GA and no choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in at least one eye. Characteristics of recruited and enrolled patients are analyzed, in the context of progression data from the study. The data show that GA from age-related macular degeneration (AMD) was seen in 82% of the referred patients, there was an attrition rate of 14%, and 60% of the patients with GA from AMD had bilateral GA without CNV. Within the 83 patients in the bilateral GA group with follow-up, 50 patients (60%) met both the proposed visual acuity and the proposed GA area criteria for a treatment trial in one or both eyes. These data should be helpful in planning future treatment trials for GA.

  11. Functional ability and health status of community-dwelling late age elderly people with and without a history of falls

    Thiwabhorn Thaweewannakij, PT, PhD; Patcharawan Suwannarat, PT, PhD candidate; Lugkana Mato, PT, PhD; Sugalya Amatachaya, PT, PhD

    2016-01-01

    Background: Obvious functional deterioration is demonstrated in elderly people aged 75 years and older. However, there is only little objective evidence relating to falls in these individuals. Objective: This cross-sectional study compared functional abilities and health status in the elderly age at least 75 years with no fall, single fall (1 fall), and multiple falls (≥2 falls) during the past 6 months. Furthermore, the study describes fall information of the participants. Methods: Nin...

  12. Aging

    Sasaki, Hideo; Kodama, Kazunori; Yamada, Michiko

    1991-01-01

    The hypothesis that exposure to ionizing radiation accelerates the aging process has been actively investigated at ABCC-RERF since 1958, when longitudinal cohort studies of the Adult Health Study (AHS) and the Life Span Study (LSS) were initiated. In their 1975 overall review of aging studies related to the atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors, Finch and Beebe concluded that while most studies had shown no correlation between aging and radiation exposure, they had not involved the large numbers of subjects required to provide strong evidence for or against the hypothesis. Extending LSS mortality data up to 1978 did not alter the earlier conclusion that any observed life-shortening was associated primarily with cancer induction rather than with any nonspecific cause. The results of aging studies conducted during the intervening 15 years using data from the same populations are reviewed in the present paper. Using clinical, epidemiological, and laboratory techniques, a broad spectrum of aging parameters have been studied, such as postmortem morphological changes, tests of functional capacity, physical tests and measurements, laboratory tests, tissue changes, and morbidity. With respect to the aging process, the overall results have not been consistent and are generally thought to show no relation to radiation exposure. Although some preliminary results suggest a possible radiation-induced increase in atherosclerotic diseases and acceleration of aging in the T-cell-related immune system, further study is necessary to confirm these findings. In the future, applying the latest gerontological study techniques to data collected from subjects exposed 45 years ago to A-bomb radiation at relatively young ages will present a new body of data relevant to the study of late radiation effects. (author) 103 refs

  13. Aging

    Finch, S.C.; Beebe, G.W.

    1975-01-01

    The hypothesis that ionizing radiation accelerates natural aging has been under investigation at the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission since 1959. Postmortem observations of morphologic and chemical changes, tests of functional capacity, physical tests and measurements, clinical laboratory tests, tissue changes, morbidity, and mortality have all been examined by ABCC investigators interested in this hypothesis. These studies have been beset with conceptual difficulties centered on the definition and measurement of aging. An empirical approach early led to the calculation of an index of physiologic age as a linear combination of age-related tests of various organ systems. Most studies have been negative but have not involved the large numbers that might be required to provide strong evidence for or against the hypothesis. Mortality, however, has been examined on the basis of a large sample and over the period 1950-1972 had provided no support for the hypothesis of radiation-accelerated aging. Ionizing radiation dose, of course shorten human life, but its life-shortening effect appears to be the result of specific radiation-induced disease, especially neoplasms. The hypothesis is now much less attractive than it was 10-20 years ago but still has some value in stimulating research on aging. The experience of the A-bomb survivors provides an unusual opportunity for a definitive test of the hypothesis. (auth.)

  14. SECONDARY PREVENTION OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES AMONG PATIENTS OF DIFFERENT AGE GROUPS WITH A HISTORY OF MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION BY THE EXAMPLE OF OUTPATIENT CARDIOLOGY INSTITUTION

    S. B. Fitilev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases among patients of different age groups with a history of myocardial infarction by the example of outpatient cardiology institution.Material and methods. Retrospective pharmacoepidemiological study was conducted by analyzing the medical records of 825 patients with a history of myocardial infarction, who visited the outpatient cardiology institution for the first time in 2011. Patients were divided into two groups according to their age: younger than 60 years (n=308, and 60 years and older (n=517.Results. The population of elderly patients was more severe: significantly more often patients had disability and comorbidities. The prevalence of the main modifiable risk factors could not be assessed fully due to the lack of information in patients’ medical records. Elderly patients were significantly less likely to receive β-blockers (80.3% and statins (63.8%. No significant differences were found in daily doses of the main prescribed preventive drugs between two groups.Conclusion. Secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases among patients of different age groups could not be considered proper, as there is low level of attention to the modifiable risk factors and recommendation on their correction. A tendency to under-prescription of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors was revealed, as well as significantly lower number of recommendations for taking statins and β-adrenoblockers in the group of elderly patients.

  15. Behavioral Assessment: Questionnaires.

    Wilson, C. Chrisman

    1980-01-01

    This is a general discussion of the validity, reliability, function, and format of questionnaires designed to measure problem behavior, noncompliance, anxiety, social interaction, hyperactivity, drug use, and sexual behavior. Commonly used questionnaires are cited. (CP)

  16. The Rb/Sr ages for granitoids of the Middle Chukotka: a new approach to the geological history of the region

    Efremov, S.V.; Kozlov, V.D.; Sandimirova, G.P.

    2000-01-01

    For studying the history of geological evolution of the Middle Chukotka in the Mesozoic by the method of Rb-Sr dating the age of granitoids in the region was determined. It was ascertained that the granitoids have different genetic nature, their formation involving the most intensive tectonic restructuring. Magmatism was manifested in two stages. Formation of the first stage granitoids (126-144 mln. years) relates to orogenesis, while that of the second stage granitoids (∼ 80 mln. years) - to the process of the Chukotka folded region activation [ru

  17. Fire history and moisture influences on historical forest age structure in the sky islands of southern Arizona, USA

    Jose M. Iniguez; Thomas W. Swetnam; Christopher H. Baisan

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of moisture and fire on historical ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) age structure patterns. Location: We used a natural experiment created over time by the unique desert island geography of southern Arizona. Methods: We sampled tree establishment dates in two sites on Rincon Peak and...

  18. Intertemporal choice behavior in emerging adults and adults: effects of age interact with alcohol use and family history status

    Christopher T. Smith

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Adults with alcohol use disorders (AUDs show marked immediate reward selection (or Now bias in intertemporal choice tasks. This Now bias persists long into abstinence, suggesting an irreversible consequence of chronic alcohol abuse or a pre-existing AUD intermediate phenotype. However, some data show substantial Now bias among emerging adults (18-25, regardless of drinking behavior, suggesting age-dependent effects on Now bias. The objectives of the present study were to determine 1 whether Now bias is greater among emerging adults relative to adults, 2 whether any such age effect on Now bias is diminished in sub-clinical heavy alcohol users, and 3 whether having a problem drinking first degree relative is independently associated with elevated Now bias. To achieve these objectives, we used an intertemporal choice task to quantify Now bias in n=237 healthy participants (ages 18-40; 50% female, and a wide range of non-zero alcohol use, based on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT. We found that among non-heavy drinkers, Now bias inversely correlated with age; this relationship was not present among heavy drinkers. We found no significant relationship between AUDIT score and Now bias among emerging adults, but AUDIT scores and Now bias were positively correlated among 26-40 year olds.

  19. Infertile women below the age of 40 have similar anti-Müllerian hormone levels and antral follicle count compared with women of the same age with no history of infertility.

    Hvidman, H W; Bentzen, J G; Thuesen, L L; Lauritsen, M P; Forman, J L; Loft, A; Pinborg, A; Nyboe Andersen, A

    2016-05-01

    Do infertile patients below the age of 40 years have a lower ovarian reserve, estimated by anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) and total antral follicle count (AFC), than women of the same age with no history of infertility? Serum AMH and AFC were not lower in infertile patients aged 20-39 years compared with a control group of the same age with no history of infertility. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY?: The management of patients with a low ovarian reserve and a poor response to controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) remains a challenge in assisted reproductive technologies (ART). Both AMH levels and AFC reflect the ovarian reserve and are valuable predictors of the ovarian response to exogenous gonadotrophins. However, there is a large inter-individual variation in the age-related depletion of the ovarian reserve and a broad variability in the levels of AMH and AFC compatible with conception. Women with an early depletion of the ovarian reserve may experience infertility as a consequence of postponement of childbearing. Thus, low ovarian reserve is considered to be overrepresented among infertile patients. A prospective cohort study including 382 women with a male partner referred to fertility treatment at Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark during 2011-2013 compared with a control group of 350 non-users of hormonal contraception with no history of infertility recruited during 2008-2010. Included patients and controls were aged 20-39 years. Women with polycystic ovary syndrome were excluded. On Cycle Days 2-5, AFC and ovarian volume were measured by transvaginal sonography, and serum levels of AMH, FSH and LH were assessed. Infertile patients had similar AMH levels (11%, 95% confidence interval (CI): -1;24%) and AFC (1%, 95% CI: -7;8%) compared with controls with no history of infertility in an age-adjusted linear regression analysis. The prevalence of very low AMH levels (<5 pmol/l) was similar in the two cohorts (age-adjusted odds ratio: 0.9, 95% CI: 0.5;1.7). The findings

  20. Lung function and blood markers of nutritional status in non-COPD aging men with smoking history: A cross-sectional study

    Nobuyoshi Shiozawa

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Nobuyoshi Shiozawa1, Kanae Hayashimoto2, Etsuji Suzuki5, Hiroshi Kikuchi3, Shingo Takata3, Kozo Ashida3, Masutaka Watanabe4, Yasuhiro Hosaki6, Fumihiro Mitsunobu1,31Department of Geriatric Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama University, Misasa, Tottori, Japan; 2Nutrition Support Service and Divisions of 3Internal Medicine and 4Rehabilitation, Okayama University Hospital Misasa Medical Center, Misasa, Tottori, Japan; 5Department of Epidemiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama University, Okayama, Japan; 6Division of Internal Medicine, Hiroshima Teishin Hospital, Hiroshima, JapanPurpose: Cigarette smoking and advanced age are well known as risk factors for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, and nutritional abnormalities are important in patients with COPD. However, little is known about the nutritional status in non-COPD aging men with smoking history. We therefore investigated whether reduced lung function is associated with lower blood markers of nutritional status in those men.Subjects and methods: This association was examined in a cross-sectional study of 65 Japanese male current or former smokers aged 50 to 80 years: 48 without COPD (non-COPD group, divided into tertiles according to forced expiratory volume in one second as percent of forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC, and 17 with COPD (COPD group.Results: After adjustment for potential confounders, lower FEV1/FVC was significantly associated with lower red blood cell count (RBCc, hemoglobin, and total protein (TP; not with total energy intake. The difference in adjusted RBCc and TP among the non-COPD group tertiles was greater than that between the bottom tertile in the non-COPD group and the COPD group.Conclusion: In non-COPD aging men with smoking history, trends toward reduced nutritional status and anemia may independently emerge in blood components along with decreased lung function

  1. Oral biology in middle age: a history of the University at Buffalo Oral Biology PhD Program.

    Scannapieco, F A

    2014-05-01

    In 1960, the first Department of Oral Biology in the United States dedicated to the conduct of research, graduate biomedical research education, and the provision of basic oral science education for the DDS curriculum was established at the University at Buffalo. In 1963, the Department organized the first PhD Program in Oral Biology in the United States. This PhD program has produced a large cadre of oral health researchers, many of whom have gone on to make major contributions to dental research and education. This article provides a brief history of the program, the context within which the program was organized and developed, and a description of some of the many faculty, students, and fellows associated with the program. Additionally, to celebrate the 50th anniversary of this program, a symposium, entitled "The Oral Microbiome, Immunity and Chronic Disease", was held on June 12-14, 2013, in Buffalo, New York. The proceedings are published online in Advances in Dental Research (2014, Vol. 26).

  2. Can a structured questionnaire identify patients with reduced renal function?

    Azzouz, Manal; Rømsing, Janne; Thomsen, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate a structured questionnaire in identifying outpatients with renal dysfunction before MRI or CT in various age groups.......To evaluate a structured questionnaire in identifying outpatients with renal dysfunction before MRI or CT in various age groups....

  3. Evidence for differences in the thermal histories of Antarctic and non-Antarctic H chondrites with cosmic-ray exposure ages less than 20 Ma

    Sears, Derek W. G.; Benoit, Paul; Batchelor, J. David

    1991-01-01

    Antarctic H chondrites show a different range of induced thermoluminescence properties compared with those of H chondrites that have fallen elsewhere in the world. Recent noble gas data of Schultz et al. (1991) show that this difference is displayed most dramatically by meteorites with cosmic-ray exposure ages less than 20 Ma, and they confirm that the differences cannot be attributed to weathering or to the presence of a great many fragments of an unusual Antarctic meteorite. Annealing experiments on an H5 chondrite, and other measurements on a variety of ordinary chondrites, have shown that induced TL properties are sensitive to the thermal histories of the meteorities. It is concluded that the events(s) that released the less than 20 Ma samples, which are predominantly those with exposure ages of 8 + or - 2 Ma, produced two groups with different thermal histories, one that came to earth several 100,000 years ago and that are currently only found in Antarctica, and one that is currently falling on the earth.

  4. Age and growth of three Odontesthes species from Southern Brazil (Atherinopsidae, with reference to phylogenetic constraints in their life-history

    Becker F. G.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The age and growth of three silverside species are described, and a discussion on possible phylogenetic constraints on life-history characteristics is presented. Samples were collected monthly between March 1992 and February 1993 in three freshwater coastal lakes. Standard length-total length (Ls-Lt and weight-length (Wt-Lt relationships studied showed interspecific differences in comparisons between juveniles and adults, males and females. Age was determined by scales. The three species presented a life-cycle duration of 4 to 5 years, with growth coefficients values (K between 0.37 and 0.63, and asymptotic lengths between 211 and 257 mm. Some interspecific differences may be useful for distinguishing between species (sexual and life-stage related patterns in Ls-Lt and Wt-Lt. The observed life-cycle ranges and maximum sizes were compared to those of other silversides and revealed a pattern coherent with available phylogenetic hypotheses at the supra-generic level, indicating that some life-history characteristics may be subject to phylogenetic constraints.

  5. Rapid diagnosis of schistosomiasis in Yemen using a simple questionnaire and urine reagent strips.

    Bassiouny, H K; Hasab, A A; El-Nimr, N A; Al-Shibani, L A; Al-Waleedi, A A

    2014-05-01

    Schistosomiasis ranks second to malaria in terms of socioeconomic and public health importance in Yemen. This study assessed the validity of a morbidity questionnaire and urine reagent strips as a rapid tool for screening schoolchildren for urinary schistosomiasis as compared with the presence of eggs in urine as the gold-standard parasitological diagnosis. The study examined urine samples and interviewed 696 children (mean age 12.5 years) attending a primary-preparatory school in south Yemen. Urinary schistosomiasis was confirmed in 126 (18.1%) children. Diagnostic performance was poor for 2 items in the morbidity questionnaire (self-reported history of previous infection and self-reported history of antischistosomal treatment). However, self-reported dysuria, self-reported haematuria in the questionnaire and microhaematuria by reagent strips (alone or with macrohaematuria) revealed good diagnostic performance. The results indicated that reagent strips are a valid method for detection of microhaematuria for identifying individuals and communities infected with Schistosoma haematobium.

  6. Impact of age and vaccination history on long-term serological responses after symptomatic B. pertussis infection, a high dimensional data analysis

    van Twillert, Inonge; Bonačić Marinović, Axel A.; Kuipers, Betsy; van Gaans-van den Brink, Jacqueline A. M.; Sanders, Elisabeth A. M.; van Els, Cécile A. C. M.

    2017-01-01

    Capturing the complexity and waning patterns of co-occurring immunoglobulin (Ig) responses after clinical B. pertussis infection may help understand how the human host gradually loses protection against whooping cough. We applied bi-exponential modelling to characterise and compare B. pertussis specific serological dynamics in a comprehensive database of IgG, IgG subclass and IgA responses to Ptx, FHA, Prn, Fim2/3 and OMV antigens of (ex-) symptomatic pertussis cases across all age groups. The decay model revealed that antigen type and age group were major factors determining differences in levels and kinetics of Ig (sub) classes. IgG-Ptx waned fastest in all age groups, while IgA to Ptx, FHA, Prn and Fim2/3 decreased fast in the younger but remained high in older (ex-) cases, indicating an age-effect. While IgG1 was the main IgG subclass in response to most antigens, IgG2 and IgG3 dominated the anti-OMV response. Moreover, vaccination history plays an important role in post-infection Ig responses, demonstrated by low responsiveness to Fim2/3 in unvaccinated elderly and by elevated IgG4 responses to multiple antigens only in children primed with acellular pertussis vaccine (aP). This work highlights the complexity of the immune response to this re-emerging pathogen and factors determining its Ig quantity and quality. PMID:28091579

  7. Ichnologic evidence of a Cambrian age in the southern Amazon Craton: Implications for the onset of the Western Gondwana history

    Santos, Hudson P.; Mángano, M. Gabriela; Soares, Joelson L.; Nogueira, Afonso C. R.; Bandeira, José; Rudnitzki, Isaac D.

    2017-07-01

    Colonization of the infaunal ecospace by burrowing bilaterians is one of the most important behavioral innovations during the Ediacaran-Cambrian transition. The establishment of vertical burrows by suspension feeders in high-energy nearshore settings during Cambrian Age 2 is reflected by the appearance of the Skolithos Ichnofacies. For the first time, unquestionable vertical burrows typical of the Skolithos Ichnofacies, such as Skolithos linearis, Diplocraterion parallelum and Arenicolites isp., are recorded from nearshore siliciclastic deposits of the Raizama Formation, southeastern Amazon Craton, Brazil. Integration of ichnologic and sedimentologic datasets suggests that these trace fossils record colonization of high-energy and well-oxygenated nearshore sandy environments. Chronostratigraphically, the presence of these vertical burrows indicates an age not older than early Cambrian for the Raizama Formation, which traditionally has been regarded as Ediacaran. Therefore, the Raizama ichnofauna illustrates the advent of modern Phanerozoic ecology marked by the Agronomic Revolution. The discovery of the Skolithos Ichnofacies in these shallow-marine strata suggests possible connections between some central Western Gondwana basins.

  8. Late Pleistocene Age Model for Site U1460, Perth Basin, SW Australian Shelf: Implications for Leeuwin Current History

    Christensen, B. A.; Takayanagi, H.; Petrick, B.; Ishiwa, T.; Henderiks, J.; Groeneveld, J.; Mamo, B. L.; De Vleeschouwer, D.; Auer, G.; Deik, H.; Fulthorpe, C.; Gallagher, S. J.; McHugh, C.; Reuning, L.; Yokoyama, Y.

    2017-12-01

    The Leeuwin Current (LC) exerts an important control on modern Australian climate, but its onset is not well defined. The LC is the only southward flowing eastern boundary current. Driven by a pressure gradient set up in the Indonesian Throughflow, its warm waters support reefs to 29°S. It is seasonally controlled south of the Western Cape. Determination of the onset of the LC was a major objective of IODP Expedition 356. Expedition 356 drilling on the western Australian margin provides an opportunity to explore depositional patterns and timing in the region influenced by the current. Site U1460 was drilled in 214.5 m w.d. (Gallagher et al., 2017). Integrated calcareous nannofossil and planktonic foraminiferal biostratigraphy places the upper 86.5 m firmly within the late Pleistocene. However, the glacial- interglacial stratigraphy is uncertain because of the complexity of this shelfal depositional environment. Here we present a likely late Pleistocene stratigraphy based on integrated geochemical and paleontological datasets. A benthic foraminifer (Uvigerina peregrina) stable isotope record provides the foundation for the age model and the data are supported by SST estimates based on Tex86 and alkenones. Our age model places MIS 16 between 104 and 99 m-CSF-A, followed by an expanded MIS 15 section (99 - 50 m-CSF-A). We correlate the interval from 50 - 5 m-CSF-A with MIS 14 to MIS 8, with the largest magnitude glacial events (MIS 12, MIS 6) either condensed or represented as depositional hiatuses. A Recent 14C date at 0.34 mbsf constrains the interval from 2 - 0.5 m-CSF-A to MIS 4-3, which is in good agreement with the base of common Emiliania huxleyi (0.09 Ma) at 2.13 m-CSF-A. Thus MIS 5 is equivalent to the interval from 5 to 2 m-CSF-A. The expanded MIS 15 section follows a geometric change from slope to prograding shelf. It is associated with a shift to infaunal benthic foraminiferal assemblages, abundant sponge spicules, and a reduction in CaCO3%, suggesting

  9. History repeating itself with a difference: Telemachus’ and Milly Bloom’s coming-of-age arcs

    Kelly Lima

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Among the many references and multiple parallels between James Joyce's Ulysses and Homer's Odyssey, the mirroring between Leopold Bloom and Odysseus, Molly Bloom and Penelope, Stephen Dedalus and Telemachus stands out. However, although Stephen is the "spiritual son" of Leopold, the Blooms have a more literal heir: their daughter Milly Bloom. Just like Telemachus, Milly is the mirror of the family, has a clear preference for her father and clashes with her mother as she get older. Both are only children who carry the expectation of their parents, and when they hurriedly leave their homes for a world that will give them more experience, they continue to influence an unbalanced home. Therefore, in this paper, my aim is to point out how Telemachus coming-of-age, one of the three narrative strands of the Odyssey, relates to the references made throughout Ulysses to Milly's maturity, indicating how these two movements affect the actions of other characters and the development of the plot.

  10. A Church History of Denmark

    Lausten, Martin Schwarz

    A Church History of Denmark from the Missionary periode, through the Middle Ages, the Lutheran Reformation, the Ortodoxy, Pietisme, Enlightenment and det History of the 19. and 20. century......A Church History of Denmark from the Missionary periode, through the Middle Ages, the Lutheran Reformation, the Ortodoxy, Pietisme, Enlightenment and det History of the 19. and 20. century...

  11. Teacher Candidates' Attitudes to Using Oral History in History Education

    Demircioglu, Ebru

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research is to determine the views of history teacher candidates towards an oral history project carried out in the Special Teaching Method Course of the history pedagogy program of the Fatih Faculty of Education (FFE) at Karadeniz Technical University in Turkey. An open-ended questionnaire and semi-structured interview were the…

  12. The Value of History, Physical Examination, and Radiographic Findings in the Diagnosis of Symptomatic Meniscal Tear among Middle-Age Subjects with Knee Pain

    Katz, Jeffrey N.; Smith, Savannah R.; Yang, Heidi Y.; Martin, Scott D.; Wright, John; Donnell-Fink, Laurel A.; Losina, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the utility of clinical history, radiographic and physical exam findings in the diagnosis of symptomatic meniscal tear (SMT) in patients over age 45, in whom concomitant osteoarthritis is prevalent. Methods In a cross-sectional study of patients from two orthopedic surgeons’ clinics we assessed clinical history, physical examination and radiographic findings in patients over 45 with knee pain. The orthopedic surgeons rated their confidence that subjects’ symptoms were due to MT; we defined the diagnosis of SMT as at least 70% confidence. We used logistic regression to identify factors independently associated with diagnosis of SMT and we used the regression results to construct an index of the likelihood of SMT. Results In 174 participants, six findings were associated independently with the expert clinician having ≥70% confidence that symptoms were due to MT: localized pain, ability to fully bend the knee, pain duration <1 year, lack of varus alignment, lack of pes planus, and absence of joint space narrowing on radiographs. The index identified a low risk group with 3% likelihood of SMT. Conclusion While clinicians traditionally rely upon mechanical symptoms in this diagnostic setting, our findings did not support the conclusion that mechanical symptoms were associated with the expert’s confidence that symptoms were due to MT. An index that includes history of localized pain, full flexion, duration <1 year, pes planus, varus alignment, and joint space narrowing can be used to stratify patients according to their risk of SMT and it identifies a subgroup with very low risk. PMID:27390312

  13. Development of a simple binary response questionnaire to identify airflow obstruction in a smoking population in Argentina.

    Bergna, Miguel A; García, Gabriel R; Alchapar, Ramon; Altieri, Hector; Casas, Juan C Figueroa; Larrateguy, Luis; Nannini, Luis J; Pascansky, Daniel; Grabre, Pedro; Zabert, Gustavo; Miravitlles, Marc

    2015-06-01

    The CODE questionnaire (COPD detection questionnaire), a simple, binary response scale (yes/no), screening questionnaire, was developed for the identification of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We conducted a survey of 468 subjects with a smoking history in 10 public hospitals in Argentina. Patients with a previous diagnosis of COPD, asthma and other respiratory illness were excluded. Items that measured conceptual domains in terms of characteristics of symptoms, smoking history and demographics data were considered. 96 (20.5%) subjects had a diagnosis of COPD according to the 2010 Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease strategy document. The variables selected for the final questionnaire were based on univariate and multivariate analyses and clinical criteria. Finally, we selected the presence or absence of six variables (age ≥50 years, smoking history ≥30 pack-years, male sex, chronic cough, chronic phlegm and dyspnoea). Of patients without any of these six variables (0 points), none had COPD. The ability of the CODE questionnaire to discriminate between subjects with and without COPD was good (the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.75). Higher scores were associated with a greater probability of COPD. The CODE questionnaire is a brief, accurate questionnaire that can identify smoking individuals likely to have COPD. Copyright ©ERS 2015.

  14. Development of a simple binary response questionnaire to identify airflow obstruction in a smoking population in Argentina

    Miguel A. Bergna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The CODE questionnaire (COPD detection questionnaire, a simple, binary response scale (yes/no, screening questionnaire, was developed for the identification of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. We conducted a survey of 468 subjects with a smoking history in 10 public hospitals in Argentina. Patients with a previous diagnosis of COPD, asthma and other respiratory illness were excluded. Items that measured conceptual domains in terms of characteristics of symptoms, smoking history and demographics data were considered. 96 (20.5% subjects had a diagnosis of COPD according to the 2010 Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease strategy document. The variables selected for the final questionnaire were based on univariate and multivariate analyses and clinical criteria. Finally, we selected the presence or absence of six variables (age ≥50 years, smoking history ≥30 pack-years, male sex, chronic cough, chronic phlegm and dyspnoea. Of patients without any of these six variables (0 points, none had COPD. The ability of the CODE questionnaire to discriminate between subjects with and without COPD was good (the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.75. Higher scores were associated with a greater probability of COPD. The CODE questionnaire is a brief, accurate questionnaire that can identify smoking individuals likely to have COPD.

  15. How to score questionnaires

    Hofstee, W.K.B.; Ten Berge, J.M.F.; Hendriks, A.A.J.

    The standard practice in scoring questionnaires consists of adding item scores and standardizing these sums. We present a set of alternative procedures, consisting of (a) correcting for the acquiescence variance that disturbs the structure of the questionnaire; (b) establishing item weights through

  16. Constraining the Thermochronological History of the IAB Parent Body: High Resolution Ar-40-Ar-39 Ages on Plagioclase Separates from Silicate Inclusions of IAB Meteorites

    Vogel, N.; Renne, P. R.

    2004-12-01

    The processes that led to the assembly of primitive inclusions in a once molten metal matrix as represented by IAB meteorites have not yet been fully understood [1]. Ar-Ar dating of the inclusions provides important information about the thermal history of the IAB parent body [e.g., 2, 3], but the analysis of bulk inclusions, the standard procedure in the past, is often impaired by excess 40Ar and redistribution or loss of K and/or Ar during the history of the meteoriod and in the reactor. To minimize these problems, we prepared from silicate inclusions of four IABs pure plagioclase separates of different grain sizes and quality grades. On these we performed high resolution stepwise Ar-40-Ar-39 dating. Preliminary ages for the different separates of the inclusions are, in Ma, 4540(11) to 4459(12) for Caddo County, 4500(20) to 4380(30) for Landes, 4440(50) to 4340(30) for Ocotillo, and 4480(40) to 4200(30) and 4430(30) to 4300(30) for CDC2 and CDC1, respectively. The age ranges might reflect the residence time of each inclusion in the K-Ar blocking temperature range (ca. 600 K), and is narrowest for Caddo County, being also the oldest inclusion studied by us. Assuming that IABs resulted from a collision of a molten metal body with a chondritic planetesimal [4], Caddo County could represent a surface sample explaining the early and fast cooling, whereas the other samples might have been buried deeper within the IAB body, subject to prolonged residence at elevated temperatures. If IABs formed in impact metal melt pools peppered with chondritic host material [5] the different cooling ages, and age ranges recorded in each inclusion could reflect residence times in a certain metal melt pool, which indirectly would translate into pool sizes and the energies released by the previous impacts. Also, there may have been more than one IAB parent body. Whatever process led to the formation of IAB meteorites was active already very early in the history of the solar system, in

  17. Uranium uptake history, open-system behaviour and uranium-series ages of fossil Tridacna gigas from Huon Peninsula, Papua New Guinea

    Ayling, Bridget F.; Eggins, Stephen; McCulloch, Malcolm T.; Chappell, John; Grün, Rainer; Mortimer, Graham

    2017-09-01

    Molluscs incorporate negligible uranium into their skeleton while they are living, with any uranium uptake occurring post-mortem. As such, closed-system U-series dating of molluscs is unlikely to provide reliable age constraints for marine deposits. Even the application of open-system U-series modelling is challenging, because uranium uptake and loss histories can affect time-integrated uranium distributions and are difficult to constrain. We investigate the chemical and isotopic distribution of uranium in fossil Tridacna gigas (giant clams) from Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5e (128-116 ka) and MIS 11 (424-374 ka) reefs at Huon Peninsula in Papua New Guinea. The large size of the clams enables detailed chemical and isotopic mapping of uranium using LA-ICPMS and LA-MC-ICPMS techniques. Within each fossil Tridacna specimen, marked differences in uranium concentrations are observed across the three Tridacna growth zones (outer, inner, hinge), with the outer and hinge zones being relatively enriched. In MIS 5e and MIS 11 Tridacna, the outer and hinge zones contain approximately 1 ppm and 5 ppm uranium respectively. In addition to uptake of uranium, loss of uranium appears prevalent, especially in the MIS 11 specimens. The effect of uranium loss is to elevate measured [230Th/238U] values with little effect on [234U/238U] values. Closed-system age estimates are on average 50% too young for the MIS 5e Tridacna, and 25% too young for the MIS 11 Tridacna. A complex, multi-stage uptake and loss history is interpreted for the fossil Tridacna and we demonstrate that they cannot provide independent, reliable geochronological controls on the timing of past reef growth at Huon Peninsula.

  18. Validation of a Spanish Questionnaire on Mobile Phone Abuse

    María A. Olivencia-Carrión

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Mobile phone addiction has attracted much attention recently and is showing similarity to other substance use disorders. Because no studies on mobile phone addiction had yet been conducted in Spain, we developed and validated a questionnaire (Cuestionario de Abuso del Teléfono Móvil, ATeMo to measure mobile phone abuse among young adults in Spanish. The ATeMo questionnaire was designed based on relevant DSM-5 diagnostic criteria and included craving as a diagnostic symptom. Using stratified sampling, the ATeMo questionnaire was administered to 856 students (mean age 21, 62% women. The MULTICAGE questionnaire was administered to assess history of drug abuse and addiction. Using confirmatory factor analysis, we found evidence for the construct validity of the following factors: Craving, Loss of Control, Negative Life Consequences, and Withdrawal Syndrome, and their association with a second order factor related to mobile phone abuse. The four ATeMO factors were also associated with alcoholism, internet use, and compulsive buying. Important gender differences were found that should be considered when studying mobile phone addictions. The ATeMo is a valid and reliable instrument that can be used in further research on mobile phone abuse.

  19. Validation of a Spanish Questionnaire on Mobile Phone Abuse.

    Olivencia-Carrión, María A; Ramírez-Uclés, Isabel; Holgado-Tello, Pablo; López-Torrecillas, Francisca

    2018-01-01

    Mobile phone addiction has attracted much attention recently and is showing similarity to other substance use disorders. Because no studies on mobile phone addiction had yet been conducted in Spain, we developed and validated a questionnaire (Cuestionario de Abuso del Teléfono Móvil, ATeMo) to measure mobile phone abuse among young adults in Spanish. The ATeMo questionnaire was designed based on relevant DSM-5 diagnostic criteria and included craving as a diagnostic symptom. Using stratified sampling, the ATeMo questionnaire was administered to 856 students (mean age 21, 62% women). The MULTICAGE questionnaire was administered to assess history of drug abuse and addiction. Using confirmatory factor analysis, we found evidence for the construct validity of the following factors: Craving, Loss of Control, Negative Life Consequences, and Withdrawal Syndrome, and their association with a second order factor related to mobile phone abuse. The four ATeMO factors were also associated with alcoholism, internet use, and compulsive buying. Important gender differences were found that should be considered when studying mobile phone addictions. The ATeMo is a valid and reliable instrument that can be used in further research on mobile phone abuse.

  20. Validation of a Spanish Questionnaire on Mobile Phone Abuse

    Olivencia-Carrión, María A.; Ramírez-Uclés, Isabel; Holgado-Tello, Pablo; López-Torrecillas, Francisca

    2018-01-01

    Mobile phone addiction has attracted much attention recently and is showing similarity to other substance use disorders. Because no studies on mobile phone addiction had yet been conducted in Spain, we developed and validated a questionnaire (Cuestionario de Abuso del Teléfono Móvil, ATeMo) to measure mobile phone abuse among young adults in Spanish. The ATeMo questionnaire was designed based on relevant DSM-5 diagnostic criteria and included craving as a diagnostic symptom. Using stratified sampling, the ATeMo questionnaire was administered to 856 students (mean age 21, 62% women). The MULTICAGE questionnaire was administered to assess history of drug abuse and addiction. Using confirmatory factor analysis, we found evidence for the construct validity of the following factors: Craving, Loss of Control, Negative Life Consequences, and Withdrawal Syndrome, and their association with a second order factor related to mobile phone abuse. The four ATeMO factors were also associated with alcoholism, internet use, and compulsive buying. Important gender differences were found that should be considered when studying mobile phone addictions. The ATeMo is a valid and reliable instrument that can be used in further research on mobile phone abuse. PMID:29760674

  1. A physical activity questionnaire for the elderly

    Voorrips, L. E.; Ravelli, A. C.; Dongelmans, P. C.; Deurenberg, P.; van Staveren, W. A.

    1991-01-01

    A validated physical activity questionnaire for young adults was adapted and validated for use in free living, apparently healthy people, aged 63-80 yr. Test-retest reliability of the questionnaire on 29 participants was 0.89 as determined by Spearman's correlation coefficient. Further

  2. Validation of a questionnaire for asthma case identification in pre-schools in Latin America.

    Busi, Luciano E; Sly, Peter D; Llancaman, Lidia

    2015-08-01

    We recently developed and validated a screening questionnaire for determining which school-aged children may need further investigation to diagnose and manage asthma. In the present study we sought to extend this to pre-school aged children. Questions from the school-aged questionnaire and literature on pre-school asthma were used to inform a focus group of parents with pre-school-aged children with asthma to develop a screening questionnaire. Parents of children attending 6 randomly selected kindergartens in Trelew, Argentina (n = 639) were invited to respond to the questionnaire. A reliability test-retest was undertaken in 187 randomly selected parents who completed the same questionnaire twice within 2-5 weeks. Clinical assessment included a standardized history and physical examination, spirometry before and after a β-agonist inhaler, and chest X-ray. Asthma was diagnosed by the pulmonologist. Completed surveys were returned for 620 children, 607 of whom underwent clinical evaluation. The mean age was 4.21 years (range of 3.01-5.50) and included 82.5% white and 49.4% male children. Asthma was diagnosed in 103 (17.0%) children); 72 (69.9%) of these children did not have a previous diagnosis of asthma. The specificity, sensitivity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of the questionnaire were 93.2%, 86.1%, 57.8% and 98.4%, respectively. We have demonstrated the utility of a screening questionnaire for identifying pre-school-aged children who may benefit from further assessment for asthma. © 2015 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  3. Evaluation of low back pain using the Japanese Orthopaedic Association Back Pain Evaluation Questionnaire for lumbar spinal disease in a multicenter study. Differences in scores based on age, sex, and type of disease

    Ohtori, Seiji; Ito, Toshinori; Yamashita, Masaomi

    2010-01-01

    The Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) has investigated the JOA Back Pain Evaluation Questionnaire (JOABPEQ) to evaluate several aspects of low back pain in patients. The score includes five categories (25 items) selected from the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire and Short Form 36, and a visual analogue scale. Japanese physicians have recently used these scores to evaluate back pain; however, the efficacy has not been fully explored in large-scale studies. In the current study, we used the JOABPEQ to evaluate lumbar spinal disease in 555 patients (with lumbar disc herniation, lumbar spinal stenosis, and lumbar disc degeneration/spondylosis) in multiple spine centers and compared the results based on age, sex, and type of disease. A total of 555 patients who had low back or leg pain were selected in 22 hospitals in Chiba Prefecture. Spine surgeons diagnosed their disease type based on symptoms, physical examination, radiography images, and magnetic resonance imaging. In all, 486 patients were diagnosed with spinal stenosis (239 patients), disc degeneration/spondylosis (143 patients), or disc herniation (104 patients). The other 69 patients were diagnosed with spondylolysis (16 patients) or other diseases (53 patients). The pain score in all patients was evaluated using the JOABPEQ (from 0 to 100, with 0 indicating the worst pain). The age of the patients was 56.1±13.3 years (mean±standard deviation (SD)); the age of patients in the disc herniation and disc degeneration/spondylosis group was significantly lower than that in the spinal stenosis group. The average JOABPEQ scores in all patients were, for low back pain, 47.1; lumbar function, 53.6; walking ability, 54.8; social life function, 48.7; and mental health, 48.3. The low back pain score in men was significantly worse than that in women. In contrast, the mental health score in women was significantly higher than that in men. The low back pain score in patients 65 years old were significantly lower

  4. Parental authority questionnaire.

    Buri, J R

    1991-08-01

    A questionnaire was developed for the purpose of measuring Baumrind's (1971) permissive, authoritarian, and authoritative parental authority prototypes. It consists of 30 items per parent and yields permissive, authoritarian, and authoritative scores for both the mother and the father; each of these scores is derived from the phenomenological appraisals of the parents' authority by their son or daughter. The results of several studies have supported the Parental Authority Questionnaire as a psychometrically sound and valid measure of Baumrind's parental authority prototypes, and they have suggested that this questionnaire has considerable potential as a valuable tool in the investigation of correlates of parental permissiveness, authoritarianism, and authoritativeness.

  5. Test–retest reliability and validity of a web-based food-frequency questionnaire for adolescents aged 13–14 to be used in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa)

    Øverby, Nina Cecilie; Johannesen, Elisabeth; Jensen, Grete; Skjaevesland, Anne-Kirsti; Haugen, Margaretha

    2014-01-01

    Background The assessment of food intake is challenging and prone to errors; it is therefore important to consider the reliability and validity of the assessment methods. Objective The aim of this study was to analyze the reproducibility and validity of a developed food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for use among adolescents. Design In total, 58 students (aged 13–14) from four different schools in the southern part of Norway participated in the reproducibility study of filling out the FFQ 4 weeks apart. In addition, 93 students participated in the relative validity study where the FFQ was compared to 2×24-hour dietary recalls, while 92 students participated in the absolute validity study where the intakes of fatty acids and vitamin D from the FFQ were compared to fatty acids and 25-hydroxy-vitamin D3 in whole blood. Results The median Spearman correlation coefficient for all nutrients in the test–retest reliability study was 0.57. The median Spearman correlation for all nutrients in the relative validity study was 0.26, while the correlations coefficients were low in the absolute validity study with n-3 fatty acid coefficients ranging from 0.05 to 0.25, and absent for vitamin D (r=0.000). Conclusion The test–retest reproducibility was considered good, the relative validity was considered poor to good, and the absolute validity was considered poor. However, the results are comparable to other studies among adolescents. PMID:25371661

  6. Test-retest reliability and validity of a web-based food-frequency questionnaire for adolescents aged 13-14 to be used in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa).

    Overby, Nina Cecilie; Johannesen, Elisabeth; Jensen, Grete; Skjaevesland, Anne-Kirsti; Haugen, Margaretha

    2014-01-01

    The assessment of food intake is challenging and prone to errors; it is therefore important to consider the reliability and validity of the assessment methods. The aim of this study was to analyze the reproducibility and validity of a developed food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for use among adolescents. In total, 58 students (aged 13-14) from four different schools in the southern part of Norway participated in the reproducibility study of filling out the FFQ 4 weeks apart. In addition, 93 students participated in the relative validity study where the FFQ was compared to 2×24-hour dietary recalls, while 92 students participated in the absolute validity study where the intakes of fatty acids and vitamin D from the FFQ were compared to fatty acids and 25-hydroxy-vitamin D3 in whole blood. The median Spearman correlation coefficient for all nutrients in the test-retest reliability study was 0.57. The median Spearman correlation for all nutrients in the relative validity study was 0.26, while the correlations coefficients were low in the absolute validity study with n-3 fatty acid coefficients ranging from 0.05 to 0.25, and absent for vitamin D (r=0.000). The test-retest reproducibility was considered good, the relative validity was considered poor to good, and the absolute validity was considered poor. However, the results are comparable to other studies among adolescents.

  7. Test–retest reliability and validity of a web-based food-frequency questionnaire for adolescents aged 13–14 to be used in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa

    Nina Cecilie Øverby

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The assessment of food intake is challenging and prone to errors; it is therefore important to consider the reliability and validity of the assessment methods. Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the reproducibility and validity of a developed food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ for use among adolescents. Design: In total, 58 students (aged 13–14 from four different schools in the southern part of Norway participated in the reproducibility study of filling out the FFQ 4 weeks apart. In addition, 93 students participated in the relative validity study where the FFQ was compared to 2×24-hour dietary recalls, while 92 students participated in the absolute validity study where the intakes of fatty acids and vitamin D from the FFQ were compared to fatty acids and 25-hydroxy-vitamin D3 in whole blood. Results: The median Spearman correlation coefficient for all nutrients in the test–retest reliability study was 0.57. The median Spearman correlation for all nutrients in the relative validity study was 0.26, while the correlations coefficients were low in the absolute validity study with n-3 fatty acid coefficients ranging from 0.05 to 0.25, and absent for vitamin D (r=0.000. Conclusion: The test–retest reproducibility was considered good, the relative validity was considered poor to good, and the absolute validity was considered poor. However, the results are comparable to other studies among adolescents.

  8. Stress-induced change in serum BDNF is related to quantitative family history of alcohol use disorder and age at first alcohol use.

    Sharma, Shobhit; Graham, Reiko; Rohde, Rodney; Ceballos, Natalie A

    2017-02-01

    Previous research in animal models suggests that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is involved in stress-modulated alcohol consumption. However, relatively few studies have investigated this issue in humans, and results of existing studies have been heterogeneous. The primary aim of the current study was to examine the within-subjects effect of acute stress (timed math plus cold pressor) on serum BDNF levels (ΔBDNF: post- minus pre-stress) in healthy social drinkers (N=68, 20 male). A secondary aim was to explore which heritable and environmental factors in our limited sample might exert the greatest influences on ΔBDNF. Importantly, presence versus absence of the BDNF Val 66 Met polymorphism (rs6265), which has often been discounted in studies of human serum BDNF, was included as a between-subjects control variable in all statistical analyses. Our results indicated that acute stress decreased serum BDNF. Further, multiple regression analyses revealed that quantitative family history of alcohol use disorder (qFH) and age at first alcohol use together accounted for 15% of the variance in ΔBDNF. Thus, the influences of qFH and age at first alcohol use may explain some of the heterogeneity that exists in previous studies of human serum BDNF. These results parallel findings in animal models and suggest that stress-related changes in serum BDNF are influenced by both heritable (qFH) and environmental (early alcohol consumption) factors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Contrasting effects of age on the plasma/whole blood lead ratio in men and women with a history of lead exposure

    Barbosa, Fernando; Ramires, Irene; Rodrigues, Maria Heloisa C.; Saint' Pierre, Tatiana D.; Curtius, Adilson J.; Buzalaf, Marilia R.; Gerlach, Raquel F.; Tanus-Santos, Jose E.

    2006-01-01

    We examined the effect of age and sex on the relationship between the concentrations of Pb in blood (Pb-B) and in plasma (Pb-P) in an adult population with a history of lead exposure. Pb-P was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and Pb-B by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF AAS). We studied 154 adults (56 men and 98 women) from 18 to 60-year old. Pb-B levels varied from 10.0 to 428.0 μg/L, with a mean of 76 μg/L. Blood lead levels varied from 10.0 to 428.0 μg/L in men (mean, 98.3 μg/L) and from 10.0 to 263.0 μg/L (mean, 62.8 μg/L) in women. Corresponding Pb-Ps were 0.02-2.9 μg/L (mean, 0.66 μg/L) and 0.02-1.5 μg/L (mean, 0.42 μg/L) in men and women, respectively. The relationship between Pb-B and Pb-P was found to be curvilinear (r=0.757, P 1492 (y=Pb-P, and x=Pb-B). The %Pb-P/Pb-B ratio ranged from 0.03% to 1.85%. A positive association was found between %Pb-P/Pb-B ratio and Pb-B levels. When data were separated by sex, this association was also relevant for men (y=0.0184x 0.702 ) and women (y=0.0534x 0.5209 ) (y=%Pb-P/Pb-B and x=Pb-B). Moreover, we found an interesting positive correlation between Log (Pb-P/Pb-B) and age for women (r=0.31, P<0.0001) and a negative correlation for men (r=-0.164, P=0.07). Taken together, these results suggest contrasting effects of age on the plasma/whole blood lead ratio in men and women with a history of lead exposure. Moreover, sex might play an important role in the metabolism of lead, implying further consideration on the kinetic models constructed of lead toxicity

  10. Childhood disability population-based surveillance: Assessment of the Ages and Stages Questionnaire Third Edition and Washington Group on Disability Statistics/UNICEF module on child functioning in a rural setting in South Africa.

    Visser, Marieta; Nel, Mariette; Bronkhorst, Caretha; Brown, Lara; Ezendam, Zaskia; Mackenzie, Kira; van der Merwe, Deidré; Venter, Marné

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological information on childhood disability provides the basis for a country to plan, implement and manage the provision of health, educational and social services for these vulnerable children. There is, however, currently no population-based surveillance instrument that is compatible with the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), internationally comparable, methodologically sound and comprehensively researched, to identify children under 5 years of age who are living with disability in South Africa and internationally. We conducted a descriptive pilot study to investigate the sensitivity and specificity of translated versions of the Ages and Stages Questionnaire Third Edition (ASQ-III) and the Washington Group on Disability Statistics/UNICEF module on child functioning (WG/UNICEF module) as parent-reported measures. The aim of our study was to identify early childhood disabilities in children aged 24-48 months in a rural area of South Africa, to determine the appropriateness of these instruments for population-based surveillance in similar contexts internationally. This study was conducted in the Xhariep District of the Free State Province in central South Africa, with 50 carers whose children were registered on the South African Social Security Agency (SASSA) database as recipients of a grant for one of the following: Care Dependency, Child Support or Foster Care. The researchers, assisted by community healthcare workers and SASSA staff members, conducted structured interviews using forward-backward translated versions of the ASQ-III and the WG/UNICEF module. Both measurement instruments had a clinically meaningful sensitivity of 60.0%, high specificity of 95.6% for the ASQ-III and 84.4% for the WG/UNICEF module, and the two instruments agreed moderately (Kappa = 0.6). Since the WG/UNICEF module is quicker to administer, easier to understand and based on the ICF, it can be considered as an appropriate parent

  11. A REVISED AGE FOR UPPER SCORPIUS AND THE STAR FORMATION HISTORY AMONG THE F-TYPE MEMBERS OF THE SCORPIUS-CENTAURUS OB ASSOCIATION

    Pecaut, Mark J.; Mamajek, Eric E.; Bubar, Eric J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627-0171 (United States)

    2012-02-20

    We present an analysis of the ages and star formation history of the F-type stars in the Upper Scorpius (US), Upper Centaurus-Lupus (UCL), and Lower Centaurus-Crux (LCC) subgroups of Scorpius-Centaurus (Sco-Cen), the nearest OB association. Our parent sample is the kinematically selected Hipparcos sample of de Zeeuw et al., restricted to the 138 F-type members. We have obtained classification-resolution optical spectra and have also determined the spectroscopic accretion disk fraction. With Hipparcos and 2MASS photometry, we estimate the reddening and extinction for each star and place the candidate members on a theoretical H-R diagram. For each subgroup we construct empirical isochrones and compare to published evolutionary tracks. We find that (1) our empirical isochrones are consistent with the previously published age-rank of the Sco-Cen subgroups; (2) subgroups LCC and UCL appear to reach the main-sequence turn-on at spectral types {approx}F4 and {approx}F2, respectively. An analysis of the A-type stars shows US reaching the main sequence at about spectral type {approx}A3. (3) The median ages for the pre-main-sequence members of UCL and LCC are 16 Myr and 17 Myr, respectively, in agreement with previous studies, however we find that (4) Upper Sco is much older than previously thought. The luminosities of the F-type stars in US are typically a factor of {approx}2.5 less luminous than predicted for a 5 Myr old population for four sets of evolutionary tracks. We re-examine the evolutionary state and isochronal ages for the B-, A-, and G-type Upper Sco members, as well as the evolved M supergiant Antares, and estimate a revised mean age for Upper Sco of 11 {+-} 1 {+-} 2 Myr (statistical, systematic). Using radial velocities and Hipparcos parallaxes we calculate a lower limit on the kinematic expansion age for Upper Sco of >10.5 Myr (99% confidence). However, the data are statistically consistent with no expansion. We reevaluate the inferred masses for the known

  12. Mental health assessed by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire for children born extremely preterm without severe disabilities at 11 years of age: a Norwegian, national population-based study.

    Fevang, Silje Katrine Elgen; Hysing, Mari; Sommerfelt, Kristian; Elgen, Irene

    2017-12-01

    The aims were to investigate mental health problems with the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) in children born extremely preterm/extremely low birth weight (EP/ELBW) without severe disabilities compared to controls, and to identify peri-, or neonatal factors possibly predicting later mental health problems. A national Norwegian cohort of 11-year-old EP/ELBW children, excluding those with intellectual disabilities, non-ambulatory cerebral palsy, blindness and/or deafness, was assessed. Parents and teachers completed the SDQ. Mean scores and scores ≥90th percentile for the control group, combined (parent and/or teacher reporting the child ≥90th percentile), and pervasive ratings (both parent and teacher reporting the child ≥90th percentile) were presented. The controls consisted of an unselected population of all 11-year-old children born in 1995 who attended public or private schools in Bergen. Of the eligible children, 216 (64%) EP/ELBW and 1882 (61%) control children participated. The EP/ELBW children had significantly higher scores and/or increased risk of parent, teacher, combined, and pervasive rated hyperactivity/inattention, emotional-, and peer problems (OR 2.1-6.3). Only parents reported the EP/ELBW children to be at an increased risk of conduct problems (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.1-2.6). Only low maternal education at birth was significantly associated with mental health problems at 11 years of age (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.2-5.4). EP/ELBW children without severe disabilities had increased risk of symptoms of hyperactivity/inattention, emotional-, and peer problems. None of the peri- or neonatal factors were significantly associated with later mental health problems, except for low maternal education.

  13. Population aging and migration - history and UN forecasts in the EU-28 and its east and south near neighborhood - one century perspective 1950-2050.

    Jakovljevic, Mihajlo Michael; Netz, Yael; Buttigieg, Sandra C; Adany, Roza; Laaser, Ulrich; Varjacic, Mirjana

    2018-03-16

    Protestant North is probably the peak of an iceberg in long migration routes history. However, in the decades to come acceleration of aging is likely to question sustainability of such movements of people.

  14. Family History of Early Infant Death Correlates with Earlier Age at Diagnosis But Not Shorter Time to Diagnosis for Severe Combined Immunodeficiency

    Anderson Dik Wai Luk

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundSevere combined immunodeficiency (SCID is fatal unless treated with hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Delay in diagnosis is common without newborn screening. Family history of infant death due to infection or known SCID (FH has been associated with earlier diagnosis.ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to identify the clinical features that affect age at diagnosis (AD and time to the diagnosis of SCID.MethodsFrom 2005 to 2016, 147 SCID patients were referred to the Asian Primary Immunodeficiency Network. Patients with genetic diagnosis, age at presentation (AP, and AD were selected for study.ResultsA total of 88 different SCID gene mutations were identified in 94 patients, including 49 IL2RG mutations, 12 RAG1 mutations, 8 RAG2 mutations, 7 JAK3 mutations, 4 DCLRE1C mutations, 4 IL7R mutations, 2 RFXANK mutations, and 2 ADA mutations. A total of 29 mutations were previously unreported. Eighty-three of the 94 patients fulfilled the selection criteria. Their median AD was 4 months, and the time to diagnosis was 2 months. The commonest SCID was X-linked (n = 57. A total of 29 patients had a positive FH. Candidiasis (n = 27 and bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG vaccine infection (n = 19 were the commonest infections. The median age for candidiasis and BCG infection documented were 3 months and 4 months, respectively. The median absolute lymphocyte count (ALC was 1.05 × 109/L with over 88% patients below 3 × 109/L. Positive FH was associated with earlier AP by 1 month (p = 0.002 and diagnosis by 2 months (p = 0.008, but not shorter time to diagnosis (p = 0.494. Candidiasis was associated with later AD by 2 months (p = 0.008 and longer time to diagnosis by 0.55 months (p = 0.003. BCG infections were not associated with age or time to diagnosis.ConclusionFH was useful to aid earlier diagnosis but was overlooked by clinicians and not by parents. Similarly, typical clinical features of

  15. The origins of the plebs Sanctae Agathae. Inscriptions lost and rediscovered on the history of Santhià in the Early Middle Ages

    Marco Aimone

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Two fragments of white marble are embedded in the apsis’ wall outside the parish church of St. Agatha in Santhià (near Vercelli, in Piedmont: the first one is engraved with the final part of a dedicatory inscription to a martyr by a clergyman named Vvalpertus (or Alpertus; the second one is a part of a small pillar or a lintel coming from a presbytery enclosure, and is decorated with a motif of intertwined gallons. The inscription stayed in the middle of a pluteus bordered by a carved frame, of which only a part of the lower band survives: the letters and the style of the decorations allow a chronology within the 8th century, while the fragment of pillar is to be traced back to a period between the 8th and the first half of the 9th. Of special interest are the Lombard onomastic of the dedicator and, in the final surviving text, the “signature” of a sculptor, which is present in a second inscription of Lombard age found in Piedmont, adorned with carved decorations as well. The analysis of these artefacts - hitherto unpublished - offered the opportunity to restudy two other inscriptions once existing in the church of St. Agatha, long lost and of uncertain authenticity: all these data allow various deductions about the history of Santhià over the centuries of the early Middle ages, the presence of a clergy in the countryside of the diocese of Vercelli, and the work of sculptors and engravers active between the 8th and 9th century in an area between Lombardy, Piedmont, Liguria and Provence, labelled in the past under the unifying name of “bottega delle Alpi Marittime”.

  16. Neuropsychological performance and family history in children at age 7 who develop adult schizophrenia or bipolar psychosis in the New England Family Studies.

    Seidman, L J; Cherkerzian, S; Goldstein, J M; Agnew-Blais, J; Tsuang, M T; Buka, S L

    2013-01-01

    Persons developing schizophrenia (SCZ) manifest various pre-morbid neuropsychological deficits, studied most often by measures of IQ. Far less is known about pre-morbid neuropsychological functioning in individuals who later develop bipolar psychoses (BP). We evaluated the specificity and impact of family history (FH) of psychosis on pre-morbid neuropsychological functioning. We conducted a nested case-control study investigating the associations of neuropsychological data collected systematically at age 7 years for 99 adults with psychotic diagnoses (including 45 SCZ and 35 BP) and 101 controls, drawn from the New England cohort of the Collaborative Perinatal Project (CPP). A mixed-model approach evaluated full-scale IQ, four neuropsychological factors derived from principal components analysis (PCA), and the profile of 10 intelligence and achievement tests, controlling for maternal education, race and intra-familial correlation. We used a deviant responder approach (children who later develop SCZ, especially in the SCZ FH+ subgroup, but less so in BP, suggesting especially impaired neurodevelopment underlying cognition in pre-SCZ children. Future work should assess genetic and environmental factors that explain this FH effect.

  17. Neuropsychological Performance and Family History in Children at Age 7 who Develop Adult Schizophrenia or Bipolar Psychosis in the New England Family Studies

    Seidman, Larry J.; Cherkerzian, Sara; Goldstein, Jill M.; Agnew-Blais, Jessica; Tsuang, Ming T.; Buka, Stephen L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Persons developing schizophrenia (SCZ) manifest various premorbid neuropsychological deficits, studied most often by measures of IQ. Far less is known about premorbid neuropsychological functioning in individuals who later develop bipolar psychoses (BP). We evaluated the specificity and impact of family history (FH) of psychosis on premorbid neuropsychological functioning. Methods We conducted a nested case-control study investigating the associations of neuropsychological data systematically collected at age 7 years for 99 adults with psychotic diagnoses (including 45 SCZ and 35 BP) and 101 controls, drawn from the New England cohort of the Collaborative Perinatal Project. A mixed model approach evaluated Full Scale IQ, four neuropsychological factors derived from principal components analysis, and the profile of 10 intelligence and achievement tests, controlling for maternal education, race, and intrafamilial correlation. We used a deviant responder approach (neuropsychologically impaired. Presence of psychosis in first-degree relatives (FH+) significantly increased the severity of childhood impairment for SCZ but not for BP. Conclusions Premorbid neuropsychological deficits are found in a substantial proportion of children who later develop SCZ, especially in the SCZ FH+ subgroup, but less so in BP, suggesting especially impaired neurodevelopment underlying cognition in pre-SCZ children. Future work should assess genetic and environmental factors that explain this FH effect. PMID:22575089

  18. [Subgroup Analysis of the Non-interventional REASON Study: PFS and OS According to Age, Smoking History, Gender, and Histology in NSCLC Patients Treated with Gefitinib or Chemotherapy].

    Schuette, W; Eberhardt, W E E; Waller, C; Schirmacher, P; Dietel, M; Zirrgiebel, U; Radke, S; Thomas, M

    2016-09-01

    Assessment of several clinical factors on progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in NSCLC patients (pts.) (stage IV) with mutated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFRm+) treated with gefitinib (gef) or with chemotherapy (CT) under real-world conditions. 285 EGFRm+ pts. of the non-interventional REASON study treated with gef (n = 206) or CT (n = 79) as first-line therapy or with gef (n = 213) or CT (n = 61) in any line throughout the course of therapy were analyzed according to age, gender, smoking history and histology. Compared with CT, patients treated with gef showed prolongation of PFS and OS in all subgroups. PFS was significantly increased in women and non-smokers. OS was significantly increased in women, non-smokers, (ex)-smokers, patients with adenocarcinoma and elderly patients when treated with gef compared to CT. Female gender turned out to be an independent positive predictive factor for OS in patients treated with gef (HRmale: 1.74, p = 0.0009). A clinical benefit of gef was shown for all analyzed clinical subgroups of EGFRm+ pts. This was confirmed for the female gender in a multivariate analysis. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Evaluation of Traffic Accident Risk in In-City Bus Drivers: The Use of Berlin Questionnaire

    Ekren, Pervin Korkmaz; Uysal, Funda Elmas; Başoğlu, Özen K.

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Traffic accidents associated with high mortality rate may produce serious problems especially in highways. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been associated with a high risk for traffic accidents due to excessive daytime sleepiness even in in-city drivers. In the present study, it was aimed to evaluate the rate of OSA symptoms and to identify risk factors associated with traffic accidents in in-city bus drivers. MATERIAL AND METHODS A self-administered questionnaire including demographic and anthropometric features, sleep and work schedules, Berlin questionnaire, Epworth sleepiness score (ESS), and history of traffic accidents was used. RESULTS The questionnaire was conducted for 1400 male bus drivers (mean age, 38.0±6.4 y, body mass index, 27.8±3.9 kg/m2). A total of 1058 (75.6%) drivers had one or more accidents while driving bus. According to the Berlin questionnaire, 176 (12.6%) drivers were found to have high OSA risk and the accident rate was 83.0% in high-risk group, whereas 74.5% of low-risk drivers had accidents (p=0.043). The drivers with a history of traffic accident were older (p=0.030), had higher ESS (p=0.019), and were more in the high-risk OSA group according to the Berlin questionnaire (p=0.015). In multivariate linear regression analysis, traffic accident was associated with only Berlin questionnaire (p=0.015). CONCLUSION The present results support that city bus drivers with high OSA risk according to Berlin questionnaire have increased accident rates. Therefore, we suggest using Berlin questionnaire for screening sleep apnea not only in highway drivers but also in in-city bus drivers. PMID:29755810

  20. Description of spatio-temporal gait parameters in elderly people and their association with history of falls: results of the population-based cross-sectional KORA-Age study.

    Thaler-Kall, Kathrin; Peters, Annette; Thorand, Barbara; Grill, Eva; Autenrieth, Christine S; Horsch, Alexander; Meisinger, Christa

    2015-03-25

    In this epidemiological study we described the characteristics of spatio-temporal gait parameters among a representative, population-based sample of 890 community-dwelling people aged 65 to 90 years. In addition, we investigated the associations between certain gait parameters and a history of falls in study participants. In descriptive analyses spatio-temporal gait parameters were assessed according to history of falls, frailty, multimorbidity, gender, multiple medication use, disability status, and age group. Logistic regression models were calculated to examine the association between gait velocity and stride length with a history of falls (at least one fall in the last 12 month). Data on gait were collected on an electronic walkway on which participants walked at their usual pace. We found significant differences within gait parameters when stratifying by frailty, multimorbidity, disability and multiple medication use as well as age (cut point 75 years) and sex, with p history of falls, only stride length showed a significant difference (p falls in men aged older than 74 years (OR 1.34 (CI: 1.05-1.70 per 10 cm decrease)), while this was neither the case for women of similar age nor for men or women aged 65 to 74 years. A decreased walking speed was not associated with falls. Age, frailty, multimorbidity, disability, history of falls, sex, and multiple medication use show an association with different gait parameters measured during gait assessment on an electronic walkway in elderly people. Furthermore, stride length is a good indicator to differentiate fallers from non-fallers in older men from the general population.

  1. Preservice Social Studies Teachers' Opinions Regarding History Education

    Alaca, Eray; Yildirim, Tercan

    2018-01-01

    In Turkey, preservice social studies teachers take history education courses such as Revolution History and Kemalism I-II, Ancient History and Civilization, Pre-Islamic Turkish History and Culture, History of Turkish Education, History of Medieval Age, Ottoman History and Civilization I-II, New and Contemporary History, Contemporary World History,…

  2. Questionnaire typography and production.

    Gray, M

    1975-06-01

    This article describes the typographic principles and practice which provide the basis of good design and print, the relevant printing processes which can be used, and the graphic designer's function in questionnaire production. As they impose constraints on design decisions to be discussed later in the text, the various methods of printing and production are discussed first.

  3. The Depression Coping Questionnaire.

    Kleinke, Chris L.

    College students (N=396), chronic pain patients (N=319), and schizophrenic veterans (N=43) completed the Depression Coping Questionnaire (DCQ) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Factor analysis of the DCQ identified eleven coping responses: social support, problem solving, self-blame/escape, aggression, indulgence, activities, medication,…

  4. Nuclear wastes, a questionnaire

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    Questionnaire giving basic information for the public on nuclear wastes and radioactive waste management. Risk and regulations to reduce the risk to permissible limits are more particularly developed. A survey of radioactive wastes is made along the fuel cycle: production, processing, transport, disposal to end on effect of waste management on the cost of nuclear kWh [fr

  5. Questionnaire Construction Manual

    1976-07-01

    fwiW ........ ..., „.,. , r-m-lili^fa^BMiai igMiit VI-C Page 3 1 Jul 76 (2) All questionnaire items should be gramatically correct. (3) All...kept in mind: a. All response alternatives should follow the stem both gramatically and logically, and if possible, be parallel in structure. b

  6. Questionnaire measuring training's impact

    Corfield, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    A questionnaire has been prepared to evaluate the impact of training of a nuclear power plant. Items covered are the degree to which training is systematic, the influence that should be exerted by INPO, and the costs of an effective training program

  7. The influence of young age and positive family history on local recurrence after three treatment strategies for ductal carcinoma in situ

    Szelei-Stevens, Kathleen A.; Kuske, Robert R.; Bolton, John S.; Bowen, John C.; Fuhrman, George M.; Fineberg, Barbara B.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Three recent studies have investigated the influence of a positive family history (+FH) of breast cancer on the prognosis of DCIS patients treated by conservative surgery and radiation therapy (CS+RT), with two studies showing a higher risk of locoregional relapse (LRR) in these patients (pts) and another showing no significant difference. Since three treatment strategies have been used for DCIS at our institution, we evaluated the influence of +FH and young age on outcome by treatment method. Materials and Methods: Between 1/1/82 and 12/31/92, one hundred and twenty-eight pts were treated for DCIS by mastectomy (Mast) (n=50, 39%), local excision alone (Loc Exc) (n=43, 34%), and CS+RT (n=35, 27%). No pts were lost to follow-up. Median follow-up (FUP) is 6.0 years. Median age was 59 years (range 28 to 86). Thirty-nine pts had a +FH of breast cancer, 26 in a first-degree relative (mother or sister), and 26 in a second-degree relative (grandmother, aunt, or cousin). Thirteen pts had a +FH in both first and second-degree relatives. Final margins of resection were positive in three pts, negative in 97, and unknown in 28. Thirty-four pts had comedo histologic subtype. Results: Six women developed a recurrence in the treated breast, and all of these were initially treated by Loc Exc. There were no recurrences in the Mast or CS+RT groups. The five year overall actuarial LRR rate was 95.2%. The 5- and 10-year overall survival (OS) rates were 95.4% and 85.7% respectively. The cause-specific survival (CSS) was 99.2% and 97.3% at 5 and 10 years. Pts with a +FH had a 10.3% LRR, versus a 2.3% LRR for pts with a negative FH (p 0.05). Four of 44 pts (9.1%) 50 years of age or younger recurred, compared to 2 of 84 pts (2.4%) over the age of 50 (p = 0.10). Fifteen pts in this study had both a +FH and were 50 years of age or younger. Among these women, the recurrence rate was 20%. Women in this group treated by Loc Exc had a LRR of 38% (3 of 8). Other factors such as

  8. Multiple sclerosis in the Faroe Islands. 7. Results of a case control questionnaire with multiple controls

    Kurtzke, J F; Hyllested, K; Arbuckle, J D

    1997-01-01

    Detailed questionnaires were completed in 1978-79 by 23 of the 28 then known resident Faroese multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and 127 controls. These controls were divided into 69 Group A (patient sibs and other relatives), 37 Group B (matched neighbor controls, their spouses and sibs, plus...... facilities, and nature of house construction or heating. Detailed dietary histories, available for half the subjects, revealed no differences, cases versus controls, for four age periods between age 0 and 30 years, and for 16 specified foodstuffs. Animal exposures showed overall no consistent differences...

  9. Validity of the international consultation on incontinence questionnaire-pediatric lower urinary tract symptoms: a screening questionnaire for children.

    De Gennaro, Mario; Niero, Mauro; Capitanucci, Maria Luisa; von Gontard, Alexander; Woodward, Mark; Tubaro, Andrea; Abrams, Paul

    2010-10-01

    Lower urinary tract symptoms are common in pediatric patients. To our knowledge no validated instruments properly designed to screen lower urinary tract symptoms in the pediatric population have been published to date. In the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire Committee the psychometric properties of a screening questionnaire for pediatric lower urinary tract symptoms were assessed. The 12-item International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Pediatric Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms was developed in child and parent self-administered versions, and produced in English, Italian and German using a standard cross-cultural adaptation process. The questionnaire was self-administered to children 5 to 18 years old and their parents presenting for lower urinary tract symptoms (cases) or to pediatric/urological clinics for other reasons (controls). A case report form included history, urinalysis, bladder diary, flowmetry/post-void residual urine volume and clinician judgment on whether each child did or did not have lower urinary tract symptoms. Questionnaire psychometric properties were evaluated and data were stratified into 3 age groups, including 5 to 9, 10 to 13 and 14 to 18 years. A total of 345 questionnaires were completed, of which 147 were negative and 198 were positive for lower urinary tract symptoms. A mean of 1.67% and 2.10% of items were missing in the child and parent versions, respectively. Reliability (Cronbach's α) was unacceptable in only the 5 to 9-year-old group. The high ICC of 0.847 suggested fair child/parent equivalence. Sensitivity and specificity were 89% and 76% in the child version, and 91% and 73.5% in the parent version, respectively. The questionnaire is an acceptable, reliable tool with high sensitivity and specificity to screen for lower urinary tract symptoms in pediatric practice. Problems related to literacy suggest use of the child versions for patients older than 9 years. In research this questionnaire

  10. The influence of young age and positive family history of breast cancer on the prognosis of ductal carcinoma in situ treated by excision with or without radiation therapy or by mastectomy

    Szelei-Stevens, Kathleen A.; Kuske, Robert R.; Yantsos, Valerie A.; Cederbom, Gunnar J.; Bolton, John S.; Fineberg, Barbara B.

    2000-01-01

    Background: Several recent studies have investigated the influence of family history on the progression of DCIS patients treated by tylectomy and radiation therapy. Since three treatment strategies have been used for DCIS at our institution, we evaluated the influence of family history and young age on outcome by treatment method. Methods: Between 1/1/82 and 12/31/92, 128 patients were treated for DCIS by mastectomy (n = 50, 39%), tylectomy alone (n = 43, 34%), and tylectomy with radiation therapy (n = 35, 27%). Median follow-up is 8.7 years. Thirty-nine patients had a positive family history of breast cancer; 26 in a mother, sister, or daughter (first-degree relative); and 26 in a grandmother, aunt, or cousin (second-degree relative). Thirteen patients had a positive family history in both first- and second-degree relatives. Results: Six women developed a recurrence in the treated breast; all of these were initially treated with tylectomy alone. There were no recurrences in the mastectomy group or the tylectomy patients treated with postoperative radiation therapy. Patients with a positive family history had a 10.3% local recurrence rate (LRR), vs. a 2.3% LRR in patients with a negative family history (p = 0.05). Four of 44 patients (9.1%) 50 years of age or younger recurred, compared to two of 84 patients (2.4%) over the age of 50 (p = 0.10). Fifteen patients had both a positive family history and were 50 years of age or younger. Among these women, the recurrence rate was 20%. Women in this group treated by lesionectomy alone had a LRR of 38% (3 of 8). Conclusion: The most important determinant of outcome was the selection of treatment modality, with all of the recurrences occurring in the tylectomy alone group. In addition to treatment method, a positive family history significantly influenced LRR in patients treated by tylectomy, especially in women 50 years of age or younger. These results suggest that DCIS patients, particularly premenopausal women with a

  11. Food frequency questionnaires.

    Pérez Rodrigo, Carmen; Aranceta, Javier; Salvador, Gemma; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio

    2015-02-26

    Food Frequency Questionnaires are dietary assessment tools widely used in epidemiological studies investigating the relationship between dietary intake and disease or risk factors since the early '90s. The three main components of these questionnaires are the list of foods, frequency of consumption and the portion size consumed. The food list should reflect the food habits of the study population at the time the data is collected. The frequency of consumption may be asked by open ended questions or by presenting frequency categories. Qualitative Food Frequency Questionnaires do not ask about the consumed portions; semi-quantitative include standard portions and quantitative questionnaires ask respondents to estimate the portion size consumed either in household measures or grams. The latter implies a greater participant burden. Some versions include only close-ended questions in a standardized format, while others add an open section with questions about some specific food habits and practices and admit additions to the food list for foods and beverages consumed which are not included. The method can be self-administered, on paper or web-based, or interview administered either face-to-face or by telephone. Due to the standard format, especially closed-ended versions, and method of administration, FFQs are highly cost-effective thus encouraging its widespread use in large scale epidemiological cohort studies and also in other study designs. Coding and processing data collected is also less costly and requires less nutrition expertise compared to other dietary intake assessment methods. However, the main limitations are systematic errors and biases in estimates. Important efforts are being developed to improve the quality of the information. It has been recommended the use of FFQs with other methods thus enabling the adjustments required. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2015. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  12. Relationship Between Tetanus Antitoxin Titration Level and Vaccination History

    Işıkgöz Taşbakan, Meltem; Durusoy, Raika; Tosun, Selma

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: We aimed to determine tetanus antitoxin levels and to evaluate their relationship with history of vaccination among patients applying to the outpatient clinics of a University hospital. Methods: A questionnaire including socio-demographic characteristics and tetanus vaccination status was applied and blood samples taken from 218 subjects between 1 and 30 June 2015. Participants were classified into five groups according to their vaccination timing. Results: The mean age of...

  13. Conversion of Questionnaire Data

    Powell, Danny H.; Elwood, Robert H. Jr.

    2011-01-01

    During the survey, respondents are asked to provide qualitative answers (well, adequate, needs improvement) on how well material control and accountability (MC and A) functions are being performed. These responses can be used to develop failure probabilities for basic events performed during routine operation of the MC and A systems. The failure frequencies for individual events may be used to estimate total system effectiveness using a fault tree in a probabilistic risk analysis (PRA). Numeric risk values are required for the PRA fault tree calculations that are performed to evaluate system effectiveness. So, the performance ratings in the questionnaire must be converted to relative risk values for all of the basic MC and A tasks performed in the facility. If a specific material protection, control, and accountability (MPC and A) task is being performed at the 'perfect' level, the task is considered to have a near zero risk of failure. If the task is performed at a less than perfect level, the deficiency in performance represents some risk of failure for the event. As the degree of deficiency in performance increases, the risk of failure increases. If a task that should be performed is not being performed, that task is in a state of failure. The failure probabilities of all basic events contribute to the total system risk. Conversion of questionnaire MPC and A system performance data to numeric values is a separate function from the process of completing the questionnaire. When specific questions in the questionnaire are answered, the focus is on correctly assessing and reporting, in an adjectival manner, the actual performance of the related MC and A function. Prior to conversion, consideration should not be given to the numeric value that will be assigned during the conversion process. In the conversion process, adjectival responses to questions on system performance are quantified based on a log normal scale typically used in human error analysis (see A

  14. QUESTIONNAIRE 5YR 2013

    Association du personnel

    2013-01-01

    CERN must remain the centre of excellence that it has been for the last sixty years. Therefore, the Organization must continue to be able to attract, motivate and retain the best specialists coming from all the Member States. This is why, every five years, on the occasion of a five-yearly review, our employment conditions are compared with bodies having similar activities.In order to prepare the next five-yearly review, the topics of which will be decided by the CERN Council in June 2014, the Staff Association has drawn up a questionnaire that gives you the opportunity to tell us what you think about your current employment conditions. You can also indicate how you wish to see them evolve, and to help you we present some proposals for improvement on which you can give your opinion. Above all, do not hesitate, by using the comments’ fields available in the questionnaire, to formulate your own suggestions in all areas of your conditions of employment that are of interest to you. Your replies will hel...

  15. War in European history

    Howard, M.

    1981-01-01

    War history as a modern historic discipline is by far no longer a mere history of arms technique or a chronicle of battles. It deals with the change of warfare, shows how the wars of the various ages had determined society, and vice versay investigates the influence of social, economic, and -concerning mentality-historical changes on war. With this survey, which covers the period between the Middle Ages and the recent past, the author has presented a small masterpiece of the history of war. A book like this is particularly important and instructive in a time when all depends on the preventing of wars. (orig.) [de

  16. Ranking economic history journals

    Di Vaio, Gianfranco; Weisdorf, Jacob Louis

    2010-01-01

    This study ranks-for the first time-12 international academic journals that have economic history as their main topic. The ranking is based on data collected for the year 2007. Journals are ranked using standard citation analysis where we adjust for age, size and self-citation of journals. We also...... compare the leading economic history journals with the leading journals in economics in order to measure the influence on economics of economic history, and vice versa. With a few exceptions, our results confirm the general idea about what economic history journals are the most influential for economic...... history, and that, although economic history is quite independent from economics as a whole, knowledge exchange between the two fields is indeed going on....

  17. Ranking Economic History Journals

    Di Vaio, Gianfranco; Weisdorf, Jacob Louis

    This study ranks - for the first time - 12 international academic journals that have economic history as their main topic. The ranking is based on data collected for the year 2007. Journals are ranked using standard citation analysis where we adjust for age, size and self-citation of journals. We...... also compare the leading economic history journals with the leading journals in economics in order to measure the influence on economics of economic history, and vice versa. With a few exceptions, our results confirm the general idea about what economic history journals are the most influential...... for economic history, and that, although economic history is quite independent from economics as a whole, knowledge exchange between the two fields is indeed going on....

  18. Bohmian histories and decoherent histories

    Hartle, James B.

    2004-01-01

    The predictions of the Bohmian and the decoherent (or consistent) histories formulations of the quantum mechanics of a closed system are compared for histories--sequences of alternatives at a series of times. For certain kinds of histories, Bohmian mechanics and decoherent histories may both be formulated in the same mathematical framework within which they can be compared. In that framework, Bohmian mechanics and decoherent histories represent a given history by different operators. Their predictions for the probabilities of histories of a closed system therefore generally differ. However, in an idealized model of measurement, the predictions of Bohmian mechanics and decoherent histories coincide for the probabilities of records of measurement outcomes. The formulations are thus difficult to distinguish experimentally. They may differ in their accounts of the past history of the Universe in quantum cosmology

  19. Mexican Parenting Questionnaire (MPQ)

    Halgunseth, Linda C.; Ispa, Jean M.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was conducted in four phases and constructed a self-report parenting instrument for use with Mexican immigrant mothers of children aged 6 to 10. The 14-item measure was based on semistructured qualitative interviews with Mexican immigrant mothers (N = 10), was refined by a focus group of Mexican immigrant mothers (N = 5), and was…

  20. History Matters

    2017-01-01

    In 2002, she began working as alecturer at Minzu University of China.Now, she teaches English, historicalliterature, ancient Chinese history,historical theory and method, ancientsocial history of China, ancient palacepolitical history of China and the historyof the Sui and Tang dynasties and thePeriod of Five Dynasties.

  1. [Experiences with the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire-R21 in young men].

    Czeglédi, Edit

    2017-09-01

    Eating behaviours play a crucial role in the development of obesity. To conduct a psychometric analysis of the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire-R21 and to investigate the correlates of obesogenic eating behaviours among males. Participants of the cross-sectional questionnaire-based study were male university students (n = 239, mean of age: 20.3 years, SD = 2.78 years). self-reported body weight and body height, Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire-R21, Trait Anxiety Scale of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Results of confirmatory factor analysis supported the theoretical model of the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire-R21 (χ 2 (186) = 366.1, peating behaviours, such as uncontrolled eating, cognitive restraint, and emotional eating. Results support the construct validity and reliability of the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire-R21 among males and highlight the importance of taking psychological factors into account in the prevention of obesity. Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(37): 1469-1477.

  2. Validation of the Child Sport Cohesion Questionnaire

    Martin, Luc J.; Carron, Albert V.; Eys, Mark A.; Loughead, Todd

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to test the validity evidence of the Child Sport Cohesion Questionnaire (CSCQ). To accomplish this task, convergent, discriminant, and known-group difference validity were examined, along with factorial validity via confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Child athletes (N = 290, M[subscript age] = 10.73 plus or…

  3. Equal Opportunities Questionnaire

    2007-01-01

    The initiative to promote Equal Opportunities at CERN started in 1993. The first Equal Opportunities Officer was appointed in 1996, which was followed by the creation of the Equal Opportunities Advisory Panel in 1998. Initially the concern was mainly the fair treatment of women in the work-place. Today the emphasis has evolved to ensuring that diversity is used to increase creativity and productivity in the work-place. In order to ensure that all aspects of Equal Opportunities and Diversity are covered, CERN’s Equal Opportunities team has prepared a survey to obtain your input. Your answers are confidential and will only be used for generating statistics. The questionnaire is on-line and can be accessed via: https://espace.cern.ch/EOQ. We hope that you will take a few minutes of your time to give your input and would be grateful if you could reply before 15/10/07. For further information about Equal Opportunities at CERN see: http://cern.ch/equal-opportunities The Equa...

  4. Equal Opportunities Questionnaire

    2007-01-01

    The initiative to promote Equal Opportunities at CERN started in 1993. The first Equal Opportunities Officer was appointed in 1996 followed by the creation of the Equal Opportunities Advisory Panel in 1998. Initially the concern was mainly the fair treatment of women in the work-place. Today the emphasis has evolved to ensuring that diversity is used to increase creativity and productivity in the work-place. In order to ensure that all aspects of Equal Opportunities and Diversity are covered, CERN’s Equal Opportunities team has prepared a survey to obtain your input. Your answers are confidential and will only be used for generating statistics. The questionnaire is on-line and can be accessed via: https://espace.cern.ch/EOQ. We hope that you will take a few minutes of your time to give your input and would be grateful if you could reply before 15/10/07. For further information about Equal Opportunities at CERN see: http://cern.ch/equal-opportunities The Equal Opportuni...

  5. Histories electromagnetism

    Burch, Aidan

    2004-01-01

    Working within the HPO (History Projection Operator) Consistent Histories formalism, we follow the work of Savvidou on (scalar) field theory [J. Math. Phys. 43, 3053 (2002)] and that of Savvidou and Anastopoulos on (first-class) constrained systems [Class. Quantum Gravt. 17, 2463 (2000)] to write a histories theory (both classical and quantum) of Electromagnetism. We focus particularly on the foliation-dependence of the histories phase space/Hilbert space and the action thereon of the two Poincare groups that arise in histories field theory. We quantize in the spirit of the Dirac scheme for constrained systems

  6. Questionnaire Based Assessment of Risk Factors for Primary Biliary Cirrhosis

    Lammert, Craig; Nguyen, Douglas L.; Juran, Brian D.; Schlicht, Erik; Larson, Joseph J.; Atkinson, Elizabeth J.; Lazaridis, Konstantinos N.

    2013-01-01

    Background Primary Biliary Cirrhosis is a cholestatic liver disease characterized by immune-mediated destruction of bile ducts. Its pathogenesis is largely unknown, although complex interactions between environment and genetic predisposition are proposed. Aims Identify disease risk factors using a detailed patient questionnaire and compare study findings to 3 published reports. Methods Questionnaire data were prospectively collected from 522 cases and 616 controls of the Mayo Clinic Primary Biliary Cirrhosis Genetic Epidemiology Registry. Case and control responses were compared using logistic regression, adjusting for recruitment age, sex, and education level. Results Cases reported ever regularly smoking cigarettes more frequently than controls (P < 0.001). History of urinary tract infection (UTI) was similar between groups; however, cases reported multiple UTIs more commonly than controls (P < 0.001). Frequency of other autoimmune disease was higher in cases than controls (P < 0.001). As well, prevalence of primary biliary cirrhosis among first-degree relatives was higher in case families than control families (P < 0.001). Conclusions Our study confirms prior reported risk factors associated with disease risk. Given the potential importance of gene and environment interactions, further examination of environmental risk factors considering genetic background may provide new insight into primary biliary cirrhosis pathogenesis. PMID:23490343

  7. Aetiology of thrombosed external haemorrhoids: a questionnaire study

    Rohde Henning

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is important to better understand the aetiology of thrombosed external haemorrhoids (TEH because recurrence rates are high, prophylaxis is unknown, and optimal therapy is highly debated. Findings We conducted a questionnaire study of individuals with and without TEH. Aetiology was studied by comparison of answers to a questionnaire given to individuals with and without TEH concerning demography, history, and published aetiologic hypotheses. Participants were evaluated consecutively at our institution from March 2004 through August 2005. One hundred forty-eight individuals were enrolled, including 72 patients with TEH and 76 individuals without TEH but with alternative diagnoses, such as a screening colonoscopy or colonic polyps. Out of 38 possible aetiologic factors evaluated, 20 showed no significant bivariate correlation to TEH and were no longer traced, and 16 factors showed a significant bivariate relationship to TEH. By multivariate analysis, six independent variables were found to predict TEH correctly in 79.1% of cases: age of 46 years or younger, use of excessive physical effort, and use of dry toilet paper combined with wet cleaning methods after defaecation were associated with a significantly higher risk of developing TEH; use of bathtub, use of the shower, and genital cleaning before sleep at least once a week were associated with a significantly lower risk of developing TEH. Conclusion Six hypotheses on the causes of TEH have a high probability of being correct and should be considered in future studies on aetiology, prophylaxis, and therapy of TEH.

  8. A "Necessary" Dictatorship: The "Age of Rosas" in Argentine History Textbooks Published between 1956 and 1983 and the Defence of Authoritarianism

    De Amezola, Gonzalo

    2007-01-01

    This paper aims to demonstrate that two traditionally opposed approaches--the official view and a revisionist approach--conflate in defence of authoritarianism in the teaching of History. The main focus is on school textbooks published between 1956, the year when an educational reform was introduced following President Peron's overthrow, and 1983,…

  9. The History of Actual School Lives and the Perspectives of "Learners"--Sickness of Secondary Students and Their Dropping out, in the Age that Lafcadio Hearn Observed--

    Saito, Toshihiko

    2009-01-01

    Numerous historical studies have been done regarding education in modern Japan from a great diversity of viewpoints. It is true that studies of educational systems and history of educational policies have made considerable progress. Still, there remains great room for improvement in terms of both quantity and quality for studies of everyday…

  10. Dupuytren’s Disease: Predicting Factors and Associated Conditions. A Single Center Questionnaire-Based CaseControl Study

    Ilaria Morelli

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Conflicting studies link several conditions and risk factors to Dupuytren’s disease (DD. A questionnaire-based case-control study was set to investigate associated conditions and clinical features of DD in a sample of Italian patients. The main purpose was the identification of predicting factors for: DD development; involvement of multiple rays; involvement of both hands; development of radial DD; development of recurrences and extensions. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was used to investigate medical and drug histories, working and life habits, DD clinical features, familial history, recurrences and extensions. Binary logistic regression, Mann Whitney U-test and Fisher’s exact test were used for the statistical analysis. Results: A role in DD development was found for male sex, cigarette smoking, diabetes and heavy manual work. The development of aggressive DD has been linked to age, male sex, high alcohol intake, dyslipidemias and positive familial history. Conclusion: Further studies might explain the dual relationship between ischemic heart disease and DD. According to our results, the questionnaire used for this study revealed to be an easy-handling instrument to analyze the conditions associated to DD. Nevertheless, its use in further and larger studies is needed to confirm our results as well as the role of the questionnaire itself as investigation tool for clinical studies.

  11. Questionnaires that screen for multiple sleep disorders.

    Klingman, Karen J; Jungquist, Carla R; Perlis, Michael L

    2017-04-01

    The goal of this review was to identify, describe, and evaluate the existing multiple sleep disorders screening questionnaires for their comprehensiveness, brevity, and psychometric quality. A systematic review was conducted using Medline/PubMed, cumulative index to nursing & allied health literature, health and psychosocial instruments and the "grey literature". Search terms were "sleep disorders, screening, questionnaires, and psychometrics". The scope of the search was limited to English language articles for adult age groups from 1989 through 2015. Of the n = 2812 articles identified, most were assessment or treatment guideline reviews, topical reviews, and/or empirical articles. Seven of the articles described multiple sleep disorders screening instruments. Of the identified instruments, two questionnaires (the Holland sleep Disorders questionnaire and sleep-50) were evaluated as comprehensive and one questionnaire (the global sleep assessment questionnaire [GSAQ]) was judged to be both comprehensive and efficient. The GSAQ was found to cover four of the six core intrinsic disorders, sleep insufficiency, and daytime sequela with 11 questions. Accordingly, the GSAQ is the most suitable for application as a general sleep disorders screener. Additional work is required to validate this instrument in the context of primary care. Finally, the future development of multiple sleep disorders screening questionnaires should not only cover all six intrinsic sleep disorders but also acquire some basic demographic information (age, sex, body mass index, presence/absence of bed partner, work status and shift) and some limited data regarding sleep sufficiency and the daytime consequences of sleep disturbance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Self-reported rates of interpersonal conflict vary as a function of questionnaire format: why age-related trends in disagreement (and other events) may not be what they seem.

    Dirghangi, Shrija; Laursen, Brett; Puder, Justin; Bjorklund, David F; DeLay, Dawn

    2014-10-01

    Two studies examine whether self-reports of interpersonal conflict differ as a function of how the question is asked. In Study 1, 56 U.S. college students (M = 20.7 years) completed different versions of a questionnaire, four times, at one week intervals. Participants reported more conflicts with the aid of memory prompts than without, an effect that was especially strong when questions focused on events from the previous day. In Study 2, 123 middle-school students (M = 11.08 years) and 128 primary school students (M = 8.2 years) from the same region completed one of two questionnaires describing conflict during the previous day. Children reported more conflicts with memory prompts than without. The effect was twice as strong for younger children than older children. The findings suggest that increases in reports of conflict across the transition into adolescence may be due to improvements in the ability to recall and recount events in the absence of memory cues. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Self-reported Rates of Interpersonal Conflict Vary as a Function of Questionnaire Format: Why Age-related Trends in Disagreement (and Other Events) May Not be What They Seem

    Dirghangi, Shrija; Laursen, Brett; Puder, Justin; Bjorklund, Dave; DeLay, Dawn

    2014-01-01

    Two studies examine whether self-reports of interpersonal conflict differ as a function of how the question is asked. In Study 1, 56 U.S. college students (M=20.7 years) completed different versions of a questionnaire, four times, at one week intervals. Participants reported more conflicts with the aid of memory prompts than without, an effect that was especially strong when questions focused on events from the previous day. In Study 2, 123 middle-school students (M=11.08 years) and 128 primary school students (M=8.2 years) from the same region completed one of two questionnaires describing conflict during the previous day. Children reported more conflicts with memory prompts than without. The effect was twice as strong for younger children than older children. The findings suggest that increases in reports of conflict across the transition into adolescence may be due to improvements in the ability to recall and recount events in the absence of memory cues. PMID:25086497

  14. Questionnaire de Schwartz

    Alejandro Castro Solano

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El estudio de los valores puede ser abordado desde múltiples perspectivas (filosófica, psicológica, sociológica, etc.. En Psicología, el análisis de las orientaciones valóricas de los individuos ha cobrado especial importancia a partir de las conceptualizaciones de Schwartz (1992, 2001 quien verificó una estructura de diez valores (Poder, Logro, Hedonismo, Estimulación, Autodirección, Universalismo, Benevolencia, Tradición, Conformidad y Seguridad, los cuales se organizan en cuatro bipolaridades (Autotrascendencia, Autopromoción, Conservación y Apertura al cambio en más de 60 países, dando soporte empírico a la clasificación de los valores humanos. Este estudio tiene como objetivos: (a adaptar y validar el Portrait Values Questionnaire (PVQ de Schwartz (1992, 2001 y (b verificar si existen diferencias individuales según dos contextos objeto de estudio (civil y militar y según sexo y edad. Se recogieron datos de una población argentina (N = 692 en tres contextos diferentes: (a población civil (n = 471, (b oficiales militares (n = 97 y (c cadetes (n = 124. El estudio permitió verificar parcialmente la estructura de los valores propuestos por el autor. La fiabilidad del PVQ resulta muy adecuada en los tres contextos estudiados. Asimismo se pudo verificar que los civiles están más orientados hacia el logro de objetivos personales (Autopromoción y la independencia para decir y hacer lo que uno quiere (Apertura al cambio, mientras que los militares están más orientados hacia los valores relacionados con el mantenimiento del orden social, la seguridad, la conservación de las tradiciones (Tradición y Conformidad. Por otra parte, los resultados mostraron que no existen diferencias en las orientaciones valóricas según sexo y edad.

  15. The pornography craving questionnaire: psychometric properties.

    Kraus, Shane; Rosenberg, Harold

    2014-04-01

    Despite the prevalence of pornography use, and recent conceptualization of problematic use as an addiction, we could find no published scale to measure craving for pornography. Therefore, we conducted three studies employing young male pornography users to develop and evaluate such a questionnaire. In Study 1, we had participants rate their agreement with 20 potential craving items after reading a control script or a script designed to induce craving to watch pornography. We dropped eight items because of low endorsement. In Study 2, we revised both the questionnaire and cue exposure stimuli and then evaluated several psychometric properties of the modified questionnaire. Item loadings from a principal components analysis, a high internal consistency reliability coefficient, and a moderate mean inter-item correlation supported interpreting the 12 revised items as a single scale. Correlations of craving scores with preoccupation with pornography, sexual history, compulsive internet use, and sensation seeking provided support for convergent validity, criterion validity, and discriminant validity, respectively. The enhanced imagery script did not impact reported craving; however, more frequent users of pornography reported higher craving than less frequent users regardless of script condition. In Study 3, craving scores demonstrated good one-week test-retest reliability and predicted the number of times participants used pornography during the following week. This questionnaire could be applied in clinical settings to plan and evaluate therapy for problematic users of pornography and as a research tool to assess the prevalence and contextual triggers of craving among different types of pornography users.

  16. Science A history

    Gribbin, John

    2002-01-01

    From award-winning science writer John Gribbin, "Science: A History" is the enthralling story of the men and women who changed the way we see the world, and the turbulent times they lived in. From Galileo, tried by the Inquisition for his ideas, to Newton, who wrote his rivals out of the history books; from Marie Curie, forced to work apart from male students for fear she might excite them, to Louis Agassiz, who marched his colleagues up a mountain to prove that the ice ages had occurred. Filled with pioneers, visionaries, eccentrics and madmen, this is the history of science as it has never been told before.

  17. Entangled histories

    Cotler, Jordan; Wilczek, Frank

    2016-01-01

    We introduce quantum history states and their mathematical framework, thereby reinterpreting and extending the consistent histories approach to quantum theory. Through thought experiments, we demonstrate that our formalism allows us to analyze a quantum version of history in which we reconstruct the past by observations. In particular, we can pass from measurements to inferences about ‘what happened’ in a way that is sensible and free of paradox. Our framework allows for a richer understanding of the temporal structure of quantum theory, and we construct history states that embody peculiar, non-classical correlations in time. (paper)

  18. Marital history from age 15 to 40 years and subsequent 10-year mortality: a longitudinal study of Danish males born in 1953

    Lund, Rikke; Holstein, Bjørn Evald; Osler, Merete

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aims of the present study are to analyse the association between marital status at age 24, 29, 34, and 39 years and subsequent mortality in a cohort of men born in 1953 (sensitive period); to study the impact of number of years married, number of years divorced/widowed, and number...... of Copenhagen, Denmark. Marital status in 1992 as well as start and termination of all previous marital status events from 1968 to 1992 were retrieved from the Danish Civil Registration System. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Were hazard ratios (HR) for all-cause mortality from age 40 to 49 years. RESULTS: We found...... a strong protective effect of being married compared with never being married or divorced/widowed at every age. The association increased in strength with increasing age. Number of years divorced was associated with increased mortality risk in a dose-dependent manner at age 34 and 39 years. One or more...

  19. Analysis of project questionnaires

    Wisbey, Simon

    2012-01-01

    In 2010, representatives of waste agencies of 12 countries (Belgium, Canada, Finland, France, Hungary, Japan, Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom and the USA) answered five questions related to long-term preservation of information and memory in the field of geological disposal: 1. What specific priority areas for long-term memory development have been identified in your agencies/countries? Which are the time scales of largest interest? 2. Do these priority proceed from good practice or/and from specific laws, regulations, policies exist in your country that set out requirements for long-term memory in long-term waste management? 3. How far advanced are you regarding establishing an action plan for long-term information and memory preservation in the field of geological disposal? Are you addressing the following RWMC questions: What information should be preserved? Why? Where? How should it be preserved? Which target groups? Which time horizons? 4. What suggestions do you have for possible areas of focus for RWMC? (e.g. an international project that may assist Members?) What are the untapped areas that deserve more attention? 5. Would you have studies, research, reports, policies that you might share with RWMC members? Common themes throughout the answers were the following: Long-term records should cover: Location and layout of facility, Waste characteristics, Safety assessment data, Generally limited timescales. Key issues to be addressed include: National and International archives, Archival quality media, Use of 'exclusion zones', Markers - anticipated longer lifetimes. In 2011 a supplementary questionnaire was distributed. The following, additional questions were asked: In your view, when making plans for preserving records, knowledge and memory: Who should have responsibility for what and on which time scales? Vis-a-vis question 1, are we satisfied with the current guidance? In which direction should it be improved? What should government

  20. Quality of questionnaires for the assessment of otitis media with effusion in children.

    Gan, R W C; Daniel, M; Ridley, M; Barry, J G

    2018-04-01

    Audiometric tests provide information about hearing in otitis media with effusion (OME). Questionnaires can supplement this information by supporting clinical history-taking as well as potentially providing a standardized and comprehensive assessment of the impact of the disease on a child. There are many possible candidate questionnaires. This study aimed to assess the quality and usability of parent / child questionnaires in OME assessment. Fifteen, published questionnaires, commonly used in audiological departments (Auditory Behaviour in Everyday Life (ABEL), Children's Auditory Performance Scale (CHAPS), Children's Home Inventory for Listening Difficulties (CHILD), Children's Outcome Worksheets (COW), Evaluation of Children's Listening and Processing Skills (ECLiPS), Early Listening Function (ELF), Fisher's Auditory Problem Checklist (FAPC), Hearing Loss 7 (HL-7), Listening Inventory for Education- Revised (LIFE-R Student), Listening Inventory for Education UK Individual Hearing Profile (LIFE-UK IHP), LittlEARS Auditory Questionnaire (LittlEARS), Listening Situations Questionnaire (LSQ), Otitis Media 6 (OM-6), Quality of Life in Children's Ear Problems (OMQ-14), Parents' Evaluation of Aural/Oral Performance of Children (PEACH) were assessed according to the following 8 criteria: conceptual clarity, respondent burden, reliability, validity, normative data, item bias, ceiling/ floor effects, and administrative burden. ECLiPS, LittlEARS and PEACH scored highest overall based on the assessment criteria established for this study. None of the questionnaires fully satisfied all 8 criteria. Although all questionnaires assessed issues considered to be of at least adequate relevance to OME, the majority had weaknesses with respect to the assessment of psychometric properties, such as item bias, floor/ceiling effects or measurement reliability and validity. Publications reporting on the evaluation of reliability, validity, normative data, item bias and ceiling

  1. Questionnaire use among nordic neuropsychologists

    Egeland, Jens; Norup, Anne; Persson, Bengt A.

    2017-01-01

    The core method of neuropsychologists has been to collect structured samples of behavior through standardized tests. Information that cannot be elicited through tests may be gathered by questionnaires asking questions about behavior. Tests may deconstruct cognitive function precisely, but lack...... the ecological validity of questionnaires. Thus, many neuropsychologists have advocated more use of questionnaires, but it is not known whether professional practice has changed. Until recently, personality instruments were the only widespread questionnaires in frequent use among neuropsychologists. We studied...... the inventory use of 702 Nordic neuropsychologists. The most used questionnaires are listed, and differences between countries are analyzed. In addition, the questionnaires are grouped with regard to whether they map cognition, behavior not observable during consultations, emotional symptoms, personality...

  2. Aetiology of thrombosed external haemorrhoids: a questionnaire study

    Gebbensleben, Ole; Hilger, York; Rohde, Henning

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background It is important to better understand the aetiology of thrombosed external haemorrhoids (TEH) because recurrence rates are high, prophylaxis is unknown, and optimal therapy is highly debated. Findings We conducted a questionnaire study of individuals with and without TEH. Aetiology was studied by comparison of answers to a questionnaire given to individuals with and without TEH concerning demography, history, and published aetiologic hypotheses. Participants were evaluated ...

  3. The armour of the common soldier in the late middle ages. Harnischrödel as sources for the history of urban martial culture

    Schmid Regula

    2017-01-01

    The designation Harnischrödel (rolls of armour) lumps together different kinds of urban inventories. They list the names of citizens and inhabitants together with the armour they owned, were compelled to acquire within their civic obligations, or were obliged to lend to able-bodied men. This contribution systematically introduces Harnischrödel of the 14th and 15th c. as important sources for the history of urban martial culture. On the basis of lists preserved in the archives of Swiss towns, ...

  4. The armour of the common soldier in the late middle ages. "Harnischrödel" as sources for the history of urban martial culture

    Schmid, Regula

    2017-01-01

    The designation Harnischrödel (rolls of armour) lumps together different kinds of urban inventories. They list the names of citizens and inhabitants together with the armour they owned, were compelled to acquire within their civic obligations, or were obliged to lend to able-bodied men. This contribution systematically introduces Harnischrödel of the 14th and 15th c. as important sources for the history of urban martial culture. On the basis of lists preserved in the archives of Swiss towns, ...

  5. On the metamorphic history of an Archaean granitoid greenstone terrane, East Pilbara, Western Australia, using the 40Ar/39Ar age spectrum technique

    Wijbrans, J.R.; McDougall, I.

    1987-01-01

    Age spectrum analyses of blue-green hornblendes from amphibolites from the Western Shaw Belt, East Pilbara, Western Australia, indicate an age of at least 3200 Ma for early regional metamorphism. Ages on hornblende and muscovite from the narrow contact zone with the adjacent Yule Batholith probably data updoming of the granitoid gneiss terranes at 2950 Ma. Hornblendes from within the Shaw Batholith and from a contact zone of a post-tectonic granitoid yield ages of 2840-2900 Ma, indicating either prolonged high temperatures within the granitoid gneiss terranes or a separate thermal pulse associated with the intrusion of post-tectonic granitoids. The preservation of very old hornblendes in a narrow greenstone belt surrounded by massive granitoid gneiss domes indicates that remarkable contrasts in metamorphic geotherms existed over short distances during the Late Archaean, suggesting that updoming occurred during a period of rapid tectonism. (orig.)

  6. On the metamorphic history of an Archaean granitoid greenstone terrane, East Pilbara, Western Australia, using the /sup 40/Ar//sup 39/Ar age spectrum technique

    Wijbrans, J.R.; McDougall, I.

    1987-07-01

    Age spectrum analyses of blue-green hornblendes from amphibolites from the Western Shaw Belt, East Pilbara, Western Australia, indicate an age of at least 3200 Ma for early regional metamorphism. Ages on hornblende and muscovite from the narrow contact zone with the adjacent Yule Batholith probably data updoming of the granitoid gneiss terranes at 2950 Ma. Hornblendes from within the Shaw Batholith and from a contact zone of a post-tectonic granitoid yield ages of 2840-2900 Ma, indicating either prolonged high temperatures within the granitoid gneiss terranes or a separate thermal pulse associated with the intrusion of post-tectonic granitoids. The preservation of very old hornblendes in a narrow greenstone belt surrounded by massive granitoid gneiss domes indicates that remarkable contrasts in metamorphic geotherms existed over short distances during the Late Archaean, suggesting that updoming occurred during a period of rapid tectonism.

  7. U-Pb ages of uraniferous opals and implications for the history of beryllium, fluorine, and uranium mineralization at Spor Mountain, Utah

    Ludwig, K. R.; Lindsey, D.A.; Zielinski, R.A.; Simmons, K.R.

    1980-01-01

    The U-Pb isotope systematics of uraniferous opals from Spor Mountain, Utah, were investigated to determine the suitability of such material for geochronologic purposes, and to estimate the timing of uranium and associated beryllium and fluorine mineralization. The results indicate that uraniferous opals can approximate a closed system for uranium and uranium daughters, so that dating samples as young as ???1 m.y. should be possible. In addition, the expected lack of initial 230Th and 231Pa in opals permits valuable information on the initial 234U/238U to be obtained on suitable samples of ???10 m.y. age. The oldest 207Pb/235U apparent age observed, 20.8 ?? 1 m.y., was that of the opal-fluorite core of a nodule from a beryllium deposit in the Spor Mountain Formation. This age is indistinguishable from that of fission-track and K-Ar ages from the host rhyolite, and links the mineralization to the first episode of alkali rhyolite magmatism and related hydrothermal activity at Spor Mountain. Successively younger ages of 13 m.y. and 8-9 m.y. on concentric outer zones of the same nodule indicate that opal formed either episodically or continuously for over 10 m.y. Several samples of both fracture-filling and massive-nodule opal associated with beryllium deposits gave 207Pb/235U apparent ages of 13-16 m.y., which may reflect a restricted period of mineralization or perhaps an averaging of 21- and <13-m.y. periods of opal growth. Several samples of fracture-filling opal in volcanic rocks as young as 6 m.y. gave 207Pb/235U ages of 3.4-4.8 m.y. These ages may reflect hot-spring activity after the last major eruption of alkali rhyolite. ?? 1980.

  8. Cosmogenic nuclide age estimate for Laurentide Ice Sheet recession from the terminal moraine, New Jersey, USA, and constraints on latest Pleistocene ice sheet history

    Corbett, Lee B.; Bierman, Paul R.; Stone, Byron D.; Caffee, Marc W.; Larsen, Patrick L.

    2017-01-01

    The time at which the Laurentide Ice Sheet reached its maximum extent and subsequently retreated from its terminal moraine in New Jersey has been constrained by bracketing radiocarbon ages on preglacial and postglacial sediments. Here, we present measurements of in situ produced 10Be and 26Al in 16 quartz-bearing samples collected from bedrock outcrops and glacial erratics just north of the terminal moraine in north-central New Jersey; as such, our ages represent a minimum limit on the timing of ice recession from the moraine. The data set includes field and laboratory replicates, as well as replication of the entire data set five years after initial measurement. We find that recession of the Laurentide Ice Sheet from the terminal moraine in New Jersey began before 25.2±2.1 ka (10Be, n=16, average, 1 standard deviation). This cosmogenic nuclide exposure age is consistent with existing limiting radiocarbon ages in the study area and cosmogenic nuclide exposure ages from the terminal moraine on Martha’s Vineyard ~300 km to the northeast. The age we propose for Laurentide Ice Sheet retreat from the New Jersey terminal position is broadly consistent with regional and global climate records of the last glacial maximum termination and records of fluvial incision.

  9. Paper to Electronic Questionnaires: Effects on Structured Questionnaire Forms

    Trujillo, Anna C.

    2009-01-01

    With the use of computers, paper questionnaires are being replaced by electronic questionnaires. The formats of traditional paper questionnaires have been found to effect a subject's rating. Consequently, the transition from paper to electronic format can subtly change results. The research presented begins to determine how electronic questionnaire formats change subjective ratings. For formats where subjects used a flow chart to arrive at their rating, starting at the worst and middle ratings of the flow charts were the most accurate but subjects took slightly more time to arrive at their answers. Except for the electronic paper format, starting at the worst rating was the most preferred. The paper and electronic paper versions had the worst accuracy. Therefore, for flowchart type of questionnaires, flowcharts should start at the worst rating and work their way up to better ratings.

  10. Immunogenicity and safety of an adjuvanted herpes zoster subunit candidate vaccine in adults ≥ 50 years of age with a prior history of herpes zoster: A phase III, non-randomized, open-label clinical trial.

    Godeaux, Olivier; Kovac, Martina; Shu, Daniel; Grupping, Katrijn; Campora, Laura; Douha, Martine; Heineman, Thomas C; Lal, Himal

    2017-05-04

    This phase III, non-randomized, open-label, multi-center study (NCT01827839) evaluated the immunogenicity and safety of an adjuvanted recombinant subunit herpes zoster (HZ) vaccine (HZ/su) in adults aged ≥ 50 y with prior physician-documented history of HZ. Participants (stratified by age: 50-59, 60-69 and ≥ 70 y) received 2 doses of HZ/su 2 months apart and were followed-up for another 12 months. Anti-glycoprotein E (gE) antibodies were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay before vaccination and 1 month after the second dose (Month 3). Solicited local and general adverse events (AEs) were recorded for 7 d and unsolicited AEs for 30 d after each vaccination. Serious AEs were recorded until study end. The primary immunogenicity objective was met if the lower limit of the 95% confidence interval (CI) of the vaccine response rate (VRR), defined as a 4-fold increase in anti-gE over baseline, at Month 3 was ≥ 60%. 96 participants (32/age group) were enrolled. The primary immunogenicity objective was met, as the VRR at Month 3 was 90.2% (95% CI: 81.7-95.7). Geometric mean anti-gE antibody concentrations at Month 3 were similar across age groups. 77.9% and 71.6% of participants reported local and general solicited AEs, respectively. The most frequent solicited AEs were pain at injection site, fatigue, headache, myalgia and shivering. The HZ/su vaccine was immunogenic in adults aged ≥ 50 y with a physician-documented history of HZ, and no safety concerns were identified.

  11. Land use history, floodplain development, and soil erosion in the vicinity of a millstone production center since the Iron Age in the Segbachtal near Mayen (eastern Eifel, Germany)

    Dotterweich, Markus; Wenzel, Stefan; Schreg, Rainer; Fülling, Alexander; Engel, Max

    2015-04-01

    In Roman times, the stone and pottery production near Mayen in western Germany reached a very high intensity which would have satisfied the needs of a much wider area. The rate and volume of production was unprecedented and never reached the same level thereafter. The Segbach valley study site with an area of only a few square kilometres offers a very special geoarchaeological archive. The Roman land use structures were completely preserved under a 2 meter thick layer of sediment and are now partially exposed in a gully due to erosion. Pedological, sedimentological and geophysical studies at the colluvium and floodplain sediments as well as relict field structures showed that in the last 2500 years there has been a considerable human impact on both water and sediment budgets. This also had various implications on the further development of water courses, soils and relief. Evidence for the development of flood plain sediments can be traced as far back as the late La Tène period, the Roman Iron Age, and since the Middle Ages. On one particular south-facing slope we found evidence of recultivation measures on a former quarry tailing heap dating from the Middle Ages. This and other human construction activities and land uses lead to a significant change in erosion and sedimentation patterns. It is surprising that sedimentation in flood plains was largely absent during the Roman Iron Age despite intensive land use. Evidence shows that flash flood events with intensive accumulation of soil matter in flood plains only occurred during the High Middle Ages. Sediments from the late Middle ages and the Modern Times are largely missing. The research undertaken in Segbach valley not only offers new insights into specific local historical land uses and land use changes but also fundamental knowledge about the principles and impacts of long-term human-environment interactions.

  12. Rotational studies of late-type stars. II. Ages of solar-type stars and the rotational history of the sun

    Soderblom, D.R.

    1983-01-01

    In the first part of this investigation, age indicators for solar-type stars are discussed. A Li abundance-age calibration is derived; it indicates that 1 M/sub sun/ stars have lost as much as 80% of their initial Li before reaching the main sequence. The e-folding time for Li depletion on the main sequence is 1 1/4 Gyr. The distribution of Li abundances for 1 M/sub sun/ stars is consistent with a uniform initial Li abundance for all stars

  13. Methodological Issues in Questionnaire Design.

    Song, Youngshin; Son, Youn Jung; Oh, Doonam

    2015-06-01

    The process of designing a questionnaire is complicated. Many questionnaires on nursing phenomena have been developed and used by nursing researchers. The purpose of this paper was to discuss questionnaire design and factors that should be considered when using existing scales. Methodological issues were discussed, such as factors in the design of questions, steps in developing questionnaires, wording and formatting methods for items, and administrations methods. How to use existing scales, how to facilitate cultural adaptation, and how to prevent socially desirable responding were discussed. Moreover, the triangulation method in questionnaire development was introduced. Steps were recommended for designing questions such as appropriately operationalizing key concepts for the target population, clearly formatting response options, generating items and confirming final items through face or content validity, sufficiently piloting the questionnaire using item analysis, demonstrating reliability and validity, finalizing the scale, and training the administrator. Psychometric properties and cultural equivalence should be evaluated prior to administration when using an existing questionnaire and performing cultural adaptation. In the context of well-defined nursing phenomena, logical and systematic methods will contribute to the development of simple and precise questionnaires.

  14. Space science comes of age: Perspectives in the history of the space sciences Proceedings of the Symposium, Washington, DC, March 23, 24, 1981

    Hanle, P.A.; Chamberlain, V.D.

    1981-01-01

    The development of space science is recounted in two parts, the first written by founders and pioneers in the field who recount some of the important scientific discoveries in their areas, the second offering a preliminary view of space science by professional historians. The subjects of the first part are solar physics, rocket astronomy, the ultraviolet spectra of stars, lunar exploration and geology. James Van Allen's lecture first disclosing his discovery of the radiation belts surrounding the earth is reprinted. The second part includes the story of the development of theories about the origin of the solar system before 1960, a discussion of studies of the upper atmosphere, a concise history of space-launch vehicles, and a review of the politics and funding of the Landsat project

  15. The armour of the common soldier in the late middle ages. Harnischrödel as sources for the history of urban martial culture

    Schmid Regula

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The designation Harnischrödel (rolls of armour lumps together different kinds of urban inventories. They list the names of citizens and inhabitants together with the armour they owned, were compelled to acquire within their civic obligations, or were obliged to lend to able-bodied men. This contribution systematically introduces Harnischrödel of the 14th and 15th c. as important sources for the history of urban martial culture. On the basis of lists preserved in the archives of Swiss towns, it concentrates on information pertaining to the type and quality of an average urban soldier’s gear. Although the results of this analysis are only preliminary – at this point, it is not possible to produce methodologically sound statistics –, the value of the lists as sources is readily evident, as only a smattering of the once massive quantity of actual objects has survived down to the present time.

  16. Relationship Between Tetanus Antitoxin Titration Level and Vaccination History

    Meltem Işıkgöz Taşbakan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: We aimed to determine tetanus antitoxin levels and to evaluate their relationship with history of vaccination among patients applying to the outpatient clinics of a University hospital. Methods: A questionnaire including socio-demographic characteristics and tetanus vaccination status was applied and blood samples taken from 218 subjects between 1 and 30 June 2015. Participants were classified into five groups according to their vaccination timing. Results: The mean age of participants was 46.7±15.4 years and 134 (61.5% were women. Tetanus antitoxin levels were found weak positive in 54 (24.8% patients, positive in 44 (20.2% and strong positive in 120 (55.0%. Tetanus antitoxin level positivity was significantly associated with vaccination timing according to history. Among 105 participants who did not remember being vaccinated or who knew they were vaccinated but did not remember the date, 16 (15.2% remembered the vaccination time when their injury, military service and pregnancy were questioned specifically. Antitoxin levels decreased with increasing age independent of gender (0.9-fold increase/year. Conclusion: We found that the booster dose recommended every 10 years was not applied sufficiently. Tetanus vaccination history must be questioned in more detail among people who do not remember/know their vaccination history, with specific questions regarding pregnancy, military service and injury histories.

  17. Self-Reported Knee Symptoms Assessed by KOOS Questionnaire in Downhill Runners (Skyrunners.

    Giulio Sergio Roi

    Full Text Available The knee is the weight-bearing joint most commonly associated with sports injuries, and therefore is most at risk of developing degenerative changes, including osteoarthritis. Skyrunners can be considered to be at risk of developing symptoms of post-traumatic osteoarthritis due to downhill running.The aim of this study was to analyze the health of the knee joints of a large group of these athletes via a specific self-report questionnaire.This study was carried out by asking the participants of seven official Skyraces (22.4±3.1 km length; 1596±393 m elevation to fill out a questionnaire. Information regarding age, sex, downhill elevation (m during training and competitions over the last month, and history of previous knee injury was also collected before the participants filled out the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS, which is a reliable and validated instrument designed to assess patients' opinions about their knees and associated problems that can result in post-traumatic osteoarthritis. Athletes were divided into six age groups (from 17 to 70 years and 12 groups based on the downhill gradient they had covered over the last month (from 1,000 to 40,000 m.Six hundred twenty-one questionnaires were collected from 45% of the participants in the seven races. Multivariate analysis revealed that self-reported KOOS scores were unrelated to age, sex and monthly downhill gradient. Only 74 (12% of the participants reported previous knee injuries. Significant differences in the five subscales of the KOOS were found between skyrunners with and without previous knee injuries (P<0.01.In the studied population, regular training for downhill running and participation in Skyraces could not be considered risk factors for subjective knee symptoms. Skyrunners with self-reported histories of knee injuries scored worse on all five subscales of the KOOS.

  18. Portraying User Interface History

    Jørgensen, Anker Helms

    2008-01-01

    history. Next the paper analyses a selected sample of papers on UI history at large. The analysis shows that the current state-of-art is featured by three aspects: Firstly internalism, in that the papers adress the tech­nologies in their own right with little con­text­ualization, secondly whiggism...... in that they largely address prevailing UI techno­logies, and thirdly history from above in that they focus on the great deeds of the visionaries. The paper then compares this state-of-art in UI history to the much more mature fields history of computing and history of technology. Based hereon, some speculations......The user interface is coming of age. Papers adressing UI history have appeared in fair amounts in the last 25 years. Most of them address particular aspects such as an in­novative interface paradigm or the contribution of a visionary or a research lab. Contrasting this, papers addres­sing UI...

  19. Family History

    Your family history includes health information about you and your close relatives. Families have many factors in common, including their genes, ... as heart disease, stroke, and cancer. Having a family member with a disease raises your risk, but ...

  20. Health status measurement in COPD: the minimal clinically important difference of the clinical COPD questionnaire

    van den Berg JWK

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patient-reported outcomes (PRO questionnaires are being increasingly used in COPD clinical studies. The challenge facing investigators is to determine what change is significant, ie what is the minimal clinically important difference (MCID. This study aimed to identify the MCID for the clinical COPD questionnaire (CCQ in terms of patient referencing, criterion referencing, and by the standard error of measurement (SEM. Methods Patients were ≥40 years of age, diagnosed with COPD, had a smoking history of >10 pack-years, and were participating in a randomized, controlled clinical trial comparing intravenous and oral prednisolone in patients admitted with an acute exacerbation of COPD. The CCQ was completed on Days 1–7 and 42. A Global Rating of Change (GRC assessment was taken to establish the MCID by patient referencing. For criterion referencing, health events during a period of 1 year after Day 42 were included in this analysis. Results 210 patients were recruited, 168 completed the CCQ questionnaire on Day42. The MCID of the CCQ total score, as indicated by patient referencing in terms of the GRC, was 0.44. The MCID of the CCQ in terms of criterion referencing for the major outcomes was 0.39, and calculation of the SEM resulted in a value of 0.21. Conclusion This investigation, which is the first to determine the MCID of a PRO questionnaire via more than one approach, indicates that the MCID of the CCQ total score is 0.4.

  1. Convergent validity of a brief self-reported physical activity questionnaire.

    Gabriel, Kelley Pettee; Sidney, Stephen; Jacobs, David R; Quesenberry, Charles P; Reis, Jared P; Jiang, Sheng-Fang; Sternfeld, Barbara

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study is to determine whether summary estimates of a self-report physical activity questionnaire that does not specifically assess frequency or duration (the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) physical activity history (PAH)) differs from the summary estimates of one that does (CARDIA Supplemental Questionnaire). After the year 25 examination (2010-2011), 203 CARDIA black and white men and women (age 50.3 ± 3.6 yr) at the Oakland, CA, site participated in this comparison study. The between-questionnaire association and agreement were determined for continuous and categorical estimates on the basis of 1) quartiles and 2) meeting 2008 physical activity guidelines. Differences in participant characteristics by concordance/discordance status were also examined. Finally, receiver operating characteristic curves were computed to determine the accuracy of the PAH compared with the supplemental questionnaire. Reported physical activity levels were high and varied significantly by race and sex (all P women than men were classified as concordant by quartile of vigorous intensity (P = 0.001), but no other participant characteristics were associated with concordant/discordant quartile ranking. Participants classified as concordant on the basis of physical activity guidelines had lower body mass index than those classified as discordant (both P physical activity guidelines. Although it is inconvenient that the PAH is not expressed in more standard units, these findings support the practice of not directly assessing frequency and duration, which are frequent sources of reporting error.

  2. Health status of school children during questionnaire survey in Ogun ...

    that school children in Ogun State do not perceive themselves to be healthy and suggest the use of school health questionnaire to assess and identify common health problems in school children. Keywords: School-age children, common health problems, questionnaire, Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Parasitology Vol.

  3. Validation of a Comprehensive Early Childhood Allergy Questionnaire.

    Minasyan, Anna; Babajanyan, Arman; Campbell, Dianne E; Nanan, Ralph

    2015-09-01

    Parental questionnaires to assess incidence of pediatric allergic disease have been validated for use in school-aged children. Currently, there is no validated questionnaire-based assessment of food allergy, atopic dermatitis (AD), and asthma for infants and young children. The Comprehensive Early Childhood Allergy Questionnaire was designed for detecting AD, asthma, and IgE-mediated food allergies in children aged 1-5 years. A nested case-control design was applied. Parents of 150 children attending pediatric outpatient clinics completed the questionnaire before being clinically assessed by a pediatrician for allergies. Sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility of the questionnaire were assessed. Seventy-seven children were diagnosed with one or more current allergic diseases. The questionnaire demonstrated high overall sensitivity of 0.93 (95% CI 0.86-0.98) with a specificity of 0.79 (95% CI 0.68-0.88). Questionnaire reproducibility was good with a kappa agreement rate for symptom-related questions of 0.45-0.90. Comprehensive Early Childhood Allergy Questionnaire accurately and reliably reflects the presence of allergies in children aged 1-5 years. Its use is warranted as a tool for determining prevalence of allergies in this pediatric age group. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Advantages of video questionnaire in estimating asthma prevalence and risk factors for school children: findings from an asthma survey in American Indian youth.

    Yeh, Fawn; Rhoades, Everett R; Tarpay, Martha; Eichner, June E

    2010-09-01

    The aims of the present study were to estimate the prevalence and risk factors of asthma among a sample of American Indian youth and to evaluate survey instruments used in determining asthma prevalence and risk factors. Three hundred and fifty-two adolescents aged 9 to 21 years enrolled in an Indian boarding school completed an asthma screening. The survey instruments were a written questionnaire and a video-illustrated questionnaire prepared from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC), school health records, and a health questionnaire. Participants also underwent spirometry testing. The prevalence of self-reported asthma varied from 12.7% to 13.4% depending upon the instrument used and the questions asked. A history of hay fever, respiratory infections, and family history of asthma were found to be risk factors for asthma by all instruments. Female gender and living on a reservation were significantly associated with asthma by some, but not all, instruments. Airway obstruction was highly associated with one asthma symptom (wheeze) shown in the video questionnaire. Associations for most risk factors with asthma were strongest for the video questionnaire. The prevalence of self-reported asthma among these American Indian youth was similar to rates reported for other ethnic groups. The video-based questionnaire may be the most sensitive tool for identifying individuals at risk for asthma.

  5. Chemical evolution of the solar neighborhood. II. The age-metallicity relation and the history of star formation in the galactic disk

    Twarog, B.A.

    1980-01-01

    The age-metallicty relation for the disk in the neighborhood of the Sun is derived from four-color and Hβ photometry of a large sample of southern F dwarfs, analyzed in combination with theoretical isochrones. It is found that the mean metallicity of the disk increased by about a factor of 5 between 12 and 5 billion years ago and has increased only slightly since then; this conclusion is independent of the helium abundance assumed for the models

  6. Maltreatment histories of aging out foster youth: A comparison of official investigated reports and self-reports of maltreatment prior to and during out-of-home care.

    Havlicek, Judy; Courtney, Mark E

    2016-02-01

    This study compared official investigated reports of child maltreatment with retrospective self-reports prior to and during out-of-home care for a sample of foster youth who reached the age of majority in out-of-home care in Illinois. Using matched administrative and self-reported data for 474 youth who completed a baseline interview in the Midwest Evaluation of Adult Functioning of Former Foster Youth (i.e. the Midwest study) at ages 17-18, and 386 youth who completed a follow up interview at age 19, this study finds that official reports and self-reports of maltreatment prior to and during out-of-home care differ significantly. Findings from this study add insight into measurement discrepancies, and help to inform understanding of the extent of maltreatment experienced by this sub-sample of young people exiting out-of-home care in adulthood. Study findings have implications for independent living policy and practice in child welfare. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Children with a History of Premature Adrenarche Have Good Health-Related Quality of Life at the Age of 12 Years.

    Liimatta, Jani; Sintonen, Harri; Utriainen, Pauliina; Voutilainen, Raimo; Jääskeläinen, Jarmo

    2018-01-01

    Children with premature adrenarche (PA) are taller and more overweight than their healthy peers, and PA girls have a slightly accelerated pubertal development. There is some evidence that early exposure to androgens may have an influence on psychosocial development. The aim of this cross-sectional case-control study was to evaluate health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in PA children at the age of 12 years. The HRQoL was assessed for 43 PA (36 girls) and 63 control children (52 girls) at the median age of 12.0 years using the standardized 16D instrument, and the scores of the PA children were compared to those of the control children and reference population. The mean overall HRQoL scores did not differ between PA and control girls, PA and control boys, or all PA and control children or the reference population. Independently of PA, overweight girls had a lower mean overall HRQoL score than lean girls, and both overweight girls and boys were on average worse off on the dimension of appearance than their lean peers. PA children have as good self-rated HRQoL as their peers at the age of 12 years. Overweight is associated with a worse HRQoL profile independently of PA. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Dendro-chronological analysis of fossilised wood in order to reconstruct the post-ice-age history of glaciers; Dendrochronologische Auswertung fossiler Hoelzer zur Rekonstruktion der nacheiszeitlichen Gletschergeschichte

    Holzhauser, H.

    2008-07-01

    Around the middle of the 19th century, alpine glaciers advanced to their last maximum extension within the Holocene (the last 11'600 years). Some of the glaciers, especially the Great Aletsch and Gorner, penetrated deeply into wooded land and destroyed numerous trees. Not only were trees destroyed but also valuable arable farmland, alpine farm buildings and dwelling houses. Since the last maximum extension in the 19th century the retreat of the glaciers has accelerated revealing, within the glacier forefields, the remainders of trees once buried. Some of this fossil wood is found in the place where it grew (in situ). Often the wood dates back to a time before the last glacier advance, most of it is several thousands of years old because glacial advance and retreat periods occurred repeatedly within the Holocene. This paper shows the characteristics of fossil wood and how it can be analysed to reconstruct glacial history. It will be demonstrated how glacier length variation can be exactly reconstructed with help of dendrochronology. Thanks to the very exact reconstruction of the glacier length change during the advance periods in the 14th and 16th centuries, the velocities of both the Gorner and Great Aletsch glaciers can be estimated. They range between 7-8 and 20 m per year, in the case of the Gorner glacier, and between 7-8 and 36 m per year, in the case of the Great Aletsch glacier. (author)

  9. The Health Behaviour in School-aged Children: WHO Collaborative Cross-National (HBSC) study: origins, concept, history and development 1982-2008.

    Currie, Candace; Nic Gabhainn, Saoirse; Godeau, Emmanuelle

    2009-09-01

    This paper traces the history of the HBSC study from its origins in the early 1980's to the present day describing how it was first conceptualised scientifically and how this influenced issues of study design. The challenges of managing a cross-national study are explained as are changes and adaptations over time with growth of the study from 3 to over forty country members. The key partnership with the World Health Organisation and its benefits are presented. With developments in scientific management and theoretical perspectives, HBSC has made a substantial contribution to the area of youth health. The last decade has seen increased dissemination to policy makers and evidence that scientific information arising from the study has influenced strategic policy development and practical health improvement programmes. This paper considers some of the key success factors and challenges for the study as it attempts to maximise its scientific output and channels the research findings into health improvement for young people. Future challenges for the study are also considered.

  10. Longing for the Present in the History of History Education

    Wils, Kaat; Verschaffel, Tom

    2012-01-01

    The public debates on history education that occurred in many countries over the past decades have given rise to the idea that people live in an age of "history wars". While these wars are primarily fought on a national level, they are increasingly looked at as a global phenomenon. In most cases, they are the expression of tensions between the…

  11. Comparison of a web-based food record tool and a food-frequency questionnaire and objective validation using the doubly labelled water technique in a Swedish middle-aged population.

    Nybacka, Sanna; Bertéus Forslund, Heléne; Wirfält, Elisabet; Larsson, Ingrid; Ericson, Ulrika; Warensjö Lemming, Eva; Bergström, Göran; Hedblad, Bo; Winkvist, Anna; Lindroos, Anna Karin

    2016-01-01

    Two web-based dietary assessment tools have been developed for use in large-scale studies: the Riksmaten method (4-d food record) and MiniMeal-Q (food-frequency method). The aim of the present study was to examine the ability of these methods to capture energy intake against objectively measured total energy expenditure (TEE) with the doubly labelled water technique (TEE DLW ), and to compare reported energy and macronutrient intake. This study was conducted within the pilot study of the Swedish CArdioPulmonary bioImage Study (SCAPIS), which included 1111 randomly selected men and women aged 50-64 years from the Gothenburg general population. Of these, 200 were enrolled in the SCAPIS diet substudy. TEE DLW was measured in a subsample ( n 40). Compared with TEE DLW , both methods underestimated energy intake: -2·5 (sd  2·9) MJ with the Riksmaten method; -2·3 (sd 3·6) MJ with MiniMeal-Q. Mean reporting accuracy was 80 and 82 %, respectively. The correlation between reported energy intake and TEE DLW was r 0·4 for the Riksmaten method ( P  < 0·05) and r 0·28 (non-significant) for MiniMeal-Q. Women reported similar average intake of energy and macronutrients in both methods whereas men reported higher intakes with the Riksmaten method. Energy-adjusted correlations ranged from 0·14 (polyunsaturated fat) to 0·77 (alcohol). Bland-Altman plots showed acceptable agreement for energy and energy-adjusted protein and carbohydrate intake, whereas the agreement for fat intake was poorer. According to energy intake data, both methods displayed similar precision on energy intake reporting. However, MiniMeal-Q was less successful in ranking individuals than the Riksmaten method. The development of methods to achieve limited under-reporting is a major challenge for future research.

  12. Post-Cruise Questionnaire - Legacy

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Post-Cruise Questionnaire is a mandatory post trip legal document that observers fill out after every trip they have completed.

  13. Glacier History of the Northern Antarctic Peninsula Region Since the End of the Last Ice Age and Implications for Southern Hemisphere Westerly-Climate Changes

    Kaplan, M. R.; Schaefer, J. M.; Strelin, J. A.; Peltier, C.; Southon, J. R.; Lepper, K. E.; Winckler, G.

    2017-12-01

    For the area around James Ross Island, we present new cosmogenic 10Be exposure ages on glacial deposits, and 14C ages on associated fossil materials. These data allow us to reconstruct in detail when and how the Antarctic Peninsula Ice Sheet retreated around the Island as the last Ice Age ended, and afterward when local land-based glaciers fluctuated. Similar to other studies, we found widespread deglaciation during the earliest Holocene, with fjords and bays becoming ice free between about 11,000 and 8,000 years ago. After 7,000 years ago, neoglacial type advances initiated. Then, both expansions and ice free periods occurred from the middle to late Holocene. We compare the new glacier record to those in southern Patagonia, which is on the other side of the Drake Passage, and published Southern Ocean marine records, in order to infer past middle to high latitude changes in the Southern Hemisphere Westerlies. Widespread warmth in the earliest Holocene, to the north and south of the Drake Passage, led to small glacier systems in Patagonia and wide-ranging glacier recession around the northern Antarctic Peninsula. We infer that this early Holocene period of overall glacier recession - from Patagonia to the northern Peninsula - was caused by a persistent far-southerly setting of the westerlies and accompanying warm climates. Subsequently, during the middle Holocene renewed glacier expansions occurred on both sides of the Drake Passage, which reflects that the Westerlies and associated colder climate systems were generally more equatorward. From the middle to late Holocene, glacier expansions and ice free periods (and likely related ice shelf behavior) document how the Westerlies and associated higher-latitude climate systems varied.

  14. Immigrants' utilization of specialist mental healthcare according to age, country of origin, and migration history: a nation-wide register study in Norway.

    Abebe, Dawit Shawel; Lien, Lars; Elstad, Jon Ivar

    2017-06-01

    As the immigrant population rises in Norway, it becomes ever more important to consider the responsiveness of health services to the specific needs of these immigrants. It has been questioned whether access to mental healthcare is adequate among all groups of immigrants. This study aims to examine the use of specialist mental healthcare services among ethnic Norwegians and specific immigrants groups. Register data were used from the Norwegian Patient Registry and Statistics Norway. The sample (age 0-59) consisted of 3.3 million ethnic Norwegians and 200,000 immigrants from 11 countries. Poisson regression models were applied to examine variations in the use of specialist mental healthcare during 2008-2011 according to country of origin, age group, reason for immigration, and length of stay. Immigrant children and adolescents had overall significantly lower use of specialist mental healthcare than ethnic Norwegians of the same age. A distinct exception was the high utilization rate among children and youth from Iran. Among adult immigrants, utilization rates were generally lower than among ethnic Norwegians, particularly those from Poland, Somalia, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam. Adult immigrants from Iraq and Iran, however, had high utilization rates. Refugees had high utilization rates of specialist mental healthcare, while labour immigrants had low use. Utilization rates of specialist mental healthcare are lower among immigrants than Norwegians. Immigrants from Poland, Somalia, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam, had generally quite low rates, while immigrants from Iran had high utilization rates. The findings suggest that specialist mental healthcare in Norway is underutilized among considerable parts of the immigrant population.

  15. The Distribution and Ages of Star Clusters in the Small Magellanic Cloud: Constraints on the Interaction History of the Magellanic Clouds

    Bitsakis, Theodoros; González-Lópezlira, R. A.; Bonfini, P.; Bruzual, G.; Maravelias, G.; Zaritsky, D.; Charlot, S.; Ramírez-Siordia, V. H.

    2018-02-01

    We present a new study of the spatial distribution and ages of the star clusters in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). To detect and estimate the ages of the star clusters we rely on the new fully automated method developed by Bitsakis et al. Our code detects 1319 star clusters in the central 18 deg2 of the SMC we surveyed (1108 of which have never been reported before). The age distribution of those clusters suggests enhanced cluster formation around 240 Myr ago. It also implies significant differences in the cluster distribution of the bar with respect to the rest of the galaxy, with the younger clusters being predominantly located in the bar. Having used the same setup, and data from the same surveys as for our previous study of the LMC, we are able to robustly compare the cluster properties between the two galaxies. Our results suggest that the bulk of the clusters in both galaxies were formed approximately 300 Myr ago, probably during a direct collision between the two galaxies. On the other hand, the locations of the young (≤50 Myr) clusters in both Magellanic Clouds, found where their bars join the H I arms, suggest that cluster formation in those regions is a result of internal dynamical processes. Finally, we discuss the potential causes of the apparent outside-in quenching of cluster formation that we observe in the SMC. Our findings are consistent with an evolutionary scheme where the interactions between the Magellanic Clouds constitute the major mechanism driving their overall evolution.

  16. Fifteen years of the Family Eating and Activity Habits Questionnaire (FEAHQ): an update and review.

    Golan, M

    2014-04-01

    The Family Eating and Activity Habits Questionnaire (FEAHQ) is a 32-item self-report instrument designed to assess the eating and activity habits of family members as well as obesogenic factors in the overall home environment (stimulus and behaviour patterns) related to weight. Originally, this questionnaire, which was developed in Israel, was designed for use in family-based weight-management interventions that emphasized changes in the environment, and in parents' knowledge, behaviours and modelling. It was developed for use with children aged 6-11 years and designed for co-completion by parents or caretakers and their children. Over the years, it has been administered in research and clinical settings in Israel, England, Australia and other countries. Its 15-year anniversary calls for an update in the literature regarding adjustments made to improve its use in different settings and with different ethnic populations and the psychometric properties of the revised version. The goal of this paper is threefold: (i) to describe the history and development of the FEAHQ; (ii) to present new data supporting the psychometric properties of the subscales of the Revised FEAHQ (FEAHQ-R) for ages 6-12 years and (iii) to review the clinical and research literature reporting on FEAHQ subscales. The psychometric properties of the revised questionnaire were evaluated in a randomized control trial and in a naturalistic, community-based study to promote healthy lifestyle among families with children 6-12 years of age from different ethnic populations. The tool demonstrated good test-retest reliability when completed by caretakers and very good internal consistency. The questionnaire scores discriminated between obese and normal-weight children and predicted the weight classification of 66% of the participants. The FEAHQ-R is a useful clinical tool for identifying target behaviors for treatment and monitoring treatment progress that centers on overweight prevention and weight

  17. The MPC and A Questionnaire

    Powell, Danny H.; Elwood, Robert H. Jr.

    2011-01-01

    The questionnaire is the instrument used for recording performance data on the nuclear material protection, control, and accountability (MPC and A) system at a nuclear facility. The performance information provides a basis for evaluating the effectiveness of the MPC and A system. The goal for the questionnaire is to provide an accurate representation of the performance of the MPC and A system as it currently exists in the facility. Performance grades for all basic MPC and A functions should realistically reflect the actual level of performance at the time the survey is conducted. The questionnaire was developed after testing and benchmarking the material control and accountability (MC and A) system effectiveness tool (MSET) in the United States. The benchmarking exercise at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) proved extremely valuable for improving the content and quality of the early versions of the questionnaire. Members of the INL benchmark team identified many areas of the questionnaire where questions should be clarified and areas where additional questions should be incorporated. The questionnaire addresses all elements of the MC and A system. Specific parts pertain to the foundation for the facility's overall MPC and A system, and other parts pertain to the specific functions of the operational MPC and A system. The questionnaire includes performance metrics for each of the basic functions or tasks performed in the operational MPC and A system. All of those basic functions or tasks are represented as basic events in the MPC and A fault tree. Performance metrics are to be used during completion of the questionnaire to report what is actually being done in relation to what should be done in the performance of MPC and A functions.

  18. The controversy surrounding "The man who would be queen": a case history of the politics of science, identity, and sex in the Internet age.

    Dreger, Alice D

    2008-06-01

    In 2003, psychology professor and sex researcher J. Michael Bailey published a book entitled The Man Who Would Be Queen: The Science of Gender-Bending and Transsexualism. The book's portrayal of male-to-female (MTF) transsexualism, based on a theory developed by sexologist Ray Blanchard, outraged some transgender activists. They believed the book to be typical of much of the biomedical literature on transsexuality-oppressive in both tone and claims, insulting to their senses of self, and damaging to their public identities. Some saw the book as especially dangerous because it claimed to be based on rigorous science, was published by an imprint of the National Academy of Sciences, and argued that MTF sex changes are motivated primarily by erotic interests and not by the problem of having the gender identity common to one sex in the body of the other. Dissatisfied with the option of merely criticizing the book, a small number of transwomen (particularly Lynn Conway, Andrea James, and Deirdre McCloskey) worked to try to ruin Bailey. Using published and unpublished sources as well as original interviews, this essay traces the history of the backlash against Bailey and his book. It also provides a thorough exegesis of the book's treatment of transsexuality and includes a comprehensive investigation of the merit of the charges made against Bailey that he had behaved unethically, immorally, and illegally in the production of his book. The essay closes with an epilogue that explores what has happened since 2003 to the central ideas and major players in the controversy.

  19. Environmental history

    Pawson, Eric; Christensen, Andreas Aagaard

    2017-01-01

    Environmental history is an interdisciplinary pursuit that has developed as a form of conscience to counter an increasingly powerful, forward-looking liberal theory of the environment. It deals with the relations between environmental ideas and materialities, from the work of the geographers George...... risks”. These are exposed by environmental history’s focus on long-run analysis and its narrative form that identifies the stories that we tell ourselves about nature. How a better understanding of past environmental transformations helps to analyse society and agency, and what this can mean...... for solutions and policies, is the agenda for an engaged environmental history from now on....

  20. Ildens historier

    Lassen, Henrik Roesgaard

    have been written by Andersen. In several chapters the curiously forgotten history of fire-lighting technology is outlined, and it is demonstrated that "Tællelyset" is written by a person with a modern perspective on how to light a candle - among other things. The central argument in the book springs...... from a point-by-point tracing of 'the origins and history' of Hans Christian Andersen's famous fairy tales. Where did the come from? How did they become the iconic texts that we know today? On this background it becomes quite clear that "Tællelyset" is a modern pastiche and not a genuine Hans Christian...

  1. Regional cerebral blood flow in aged diabetic patients without a history of cerebrovascular accident, determined by N-isopropyl-123I-p-iodoamphetamine with single photon emission CT

    Wakisaka, Masanori; Nagamachi, Shigeki; Inoue, Kenjiro; Morotomi, Yasuyuki; Nunoi, Kiyohide; Fujishima, Masatoshi.

    1989-01-01

    N-isopropyl- 123 I-p-iodoamphetamine (IMP) was used to determine the regional cerebral blood flow in 9 diabetic patients (average age: 71.8 years) and 9 non-diabetic subjects (average age: 71.7 years), none of whom had a history of cerebrovascular accident. There were no significant differences in the physiological or laboratory data between the diabetic and non-diabetic groups except in fasting plasma glucose and HbA 1 c levels. Areas of hypoperfusion of the cerebral hemispheres were observed in 7 diabetic patients, 5 of whom showed multiple lesions. On the other hand, areas of hypoperfusion were observed only in 4 of the non-diabetic subjects and only 1 of these demonstrated multiple lesions. We evaluated the cerebral blood flow semiquantitatively as follows: the area where the radioactive count was 65% or more of the maximum count of the slice was defined as a region of normal cerebral blood flow (ROI-A); the area where the count was 45% or more as region of brain tissue except for ventricles (RUI-B). The numbers of pixels of ROI-A and ROI-B were counted in each slice and the ROI-A/B ratios of 16 slices were averaged individually. The average percent ROI-A/B ratio was significantly lower in the diabetic group than that in the control group (49.4±1.9 (Mean±SEM) vs 56.6±1.9%, p<0.05). These observations suggest that the area of normal regional cerebral blood flow is reduced in aged diabetics, even in the absence of a history of cerebrovascular accident. (author)

  2. Dietary patterns as predictors of successful ageing.

    Hodge, A M; O'Dea, K; English, D R; Giles, G G; Flicker, L

    2014-03-01

    To examine associations between dietary patterns identified by factor analysis, and successful ageing. Prospective cohort study with diet measured in 1990-4, and successful ageing in 2003-7. Ordered logistic regression with outcome determined as dead/usual ageing/successful ageing was used to examine associations with quintile groups of dietary factor scores. Men and women (n=6308), without history of major illness at baseline, and aged >70 years at follow-up, or who had died before follow-up but would have been aged >70 at the commencement of follow-up, from the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study. Frequencies of intake of 121 foods at baseline were collected in a food frequency questionnaire. Anthropometry and other health and lifestyle data were collected. At follow-up, questionnaire data relating to mental health, physical function and medical history were used to define successful ageing. Four dietary factors were identified, characterized by higher loadings for (1) vegetables; (2) fruit, (3) feta, legumes, salad, olive oil, and inverse loadings for tea, margarine, cake, sweet biscuits and puddings; (4) meat, white bread, savoury pastry dishes and fried foods. In models excluding body size, the second factor 'Fruit' was positively associated with successful ageing (OR in top 20% vs lowest 20% of score 1.31, 95%CI (1.05-1.63), p trend across quintile groups 0.001); while the fourth factor 'Meat/fatty foods' was inversely associated (OR in top 20% vs lowest 20% of score 0.69, 95%CI (0.55-0.86), p trend across quintile groups 0.001). Factors 1 and 3 did not show significant associations with successful ageing. The association for 'Fruit' was little altered after adjustment for body size, while for 'Meat/fatty foods' the association was somewhat attenuated. A dietary pattern including plenty of fruit while limiting meat and fried foods may improve the likelihood of ageing successfully.

  3. História e medicina: a herança arcaica de um paradigma History and medicine: the inheritance of an age-old paradigm

    Maria Helena Cabral de Almeida Cardoso

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available A proposta de estudar a interconexão entre história e medicina a partir da herança comum de um modelo de conhecimento implica resgatar o passado como vetor para a reflexão sobre a posição de ambas no estágio atual da produção científica. É nesse sentido que, neste artigo, busca-se discutir não só a historicidade e os fundamentos comuns a esses dois campos do conhecimento, as articulações possíveis de serem estabelecidas entre eles, como também os elementos a serem considerados na pesquisa sobre a imbricação entre os dois campos. Propõe-se uma abordagem em rede capaz de mostrar, por um lado, que tanto os discursos epistemológicos da medicina quanto os da história estruturam-se narrativamente como meio de abarcar conhecimentos específicos acerca de seus objetos e, por outro, que figuras de linguagem, especialmente a metáfora, têm um papel importante na construção e divulgação desses dois campos do saber.Based on inheritance of a common model of knowledge, drawing links between history and medicine represents a proposal to not abandon the contribution the past has to make when reflecting upon the current stage of scientific production in both fields. With this in mind, the present study endeavors to discuss history’s and medicine’s common ground and their historicity, the articulations possible between the two fields, and, lastly, the elements that should be taken into account when researching relations between them. The article proposes a network approach that will demonstrate (1 that both medical and historical studies display a narrative epistemology, used as a means of addressing specific knowledge about their objects of study and (2 that figures of language - the metaphor above all - have an important role to play in the construction and dissemination of both fields.

  4. Development of the young spine questionnaire

    Lauridsen, Henrik Hein; Hestbæk, Lise

    2013-01-01

    .7% (cervical pain today) and 97.9% (thoracic pain today). To improve the understanding of the spinal boundaries we added bony landmarks to the spinal drawings after pilot test I. This resulted in an improved sense of spinal boundary location in pilot test II. Correlations between the rFPS and the interview...... pain score ranged between 0.67 (cervical spine) and 0.79 (lumbar spine). Conclusions The Young Spine Questionnaire contains questions that assess spinal pain and its consequences. The items have been tested for content understanding and agreement between questionnaire scores and interview findings......Background Back pain in children is common and early onset of back pain has been shown to increase the risk of back pain significantly in adulthood. Consequently, preventive efforts must be targeted the young population but research relating to spinal problems in this age group is scarce. Focus has...

  5. The Success Rate in a Complicated Spatial Memory Test Is Determined by Age, Sex, Life History and Search Strategies in Cynomolgus Monkeys

    Darusman, Huda S; Kalliokoski, Otto; Sajuthi, Dondin

    2014-01-01

    to failure and chronological memory recall. These strategies appeared to be shared by most subjects, however, the overall success rate appeared to also depend on individual characteristics including age, gender and whether the subject had been born in caged captivity or not. By elucidating some...... of six identical opaque cups. Although the task was challenging for all subjects, generating a high level of guesswork, evidence of common behaviors when approaching the spatial memory test were found. The search patterns employed by the monkeys suggest the use of landmark cues, adaption in response...... of the underlying cognitive mechanisms, these findings may serve to refine interpretation of future studies using similar delayed response tasks in non-human primates....

  6. Quaternary alluvial fans of Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, northern México: OSL ages and implications for climatic history of the region

    Zúñiga de León, David; Kershaw, Stephen; Mahan, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    Alluvial fans formed from sediments derived from erosion of the Juárez Mountains in northernmost México have a significant flood impact on the Ciudad Juárez, which is built on the fan system. The northern part of Ciudad Juárez is the most active; further south, older parts of the fan, upon which the rest of the city is built, were largely eroded by natural processes prior to human habitation and subsequently modified only recently by human construction. Three aeolian sand samples, collected from the uppermost (youngest) parts of the fan system in the city area, in places where human intervention has not disturbed the sediment, and constrain the latest dates of fan building. Depositional ages of the Quaternary alluvial fans were measured using Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) on aeolian sands that have inter-fingered with alluvial fan material. These dates are: a) sample P1, 31 ka; b) sample P2, 41 ka; c) sample P3, 74 ka, between Oxygen Isotope Stages (OIS) 3 to 5. They demonstrate that fan development, in the area now occupied by the city, terminated in the Late Pleistocene, immediately after what we interpret to have been an extended period of erosion without further deposition, lasting from the Late Pleistocene to Holocene. The three dates broadly correspond to global glacial periods, implying that the cool, dry periods may reflect periods of aeolian transport in northern México in between phases that were wetter to form the alluvial fans. Alluvial fan margins inter-finger with fluvial terrace sediments derived from the Río Bravo, indicating an additional component of fan dissection by Río Bravo lateral erosion, presumed to be active during earlier times than our OSL ages, but these are not yet dated. Further dating is required to ascertain the controls on the fan and fluvial system.

  7. Organic petrology of the Aptian-age section in the downdip Mississippi Interior Salt Basin, Mississippi, USA: Observations and preliminary implications for thermal maturation history

    Valentine, Brett J.; Hackley, Paul C.; Enomoto, Catherine B.; Bove, Alana M.; Dulong, Frank T.; Lohr, Celeste D.; Scott, Krystina R.

    2014-01-01

    This study identifies a thermal maturity anomaly within the downdip Mississippi Interior Salt Basin (MISB) of southern Mississippi, USA, through examination of bitumen reflectance data from Aptian-age strata (Sligo Formation, Pine Island Shale, James Limestone, and Rodessa Formation). U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) reconnaissance investigations conducted in 2011–2012 examined Aptian-age thermal maturity trends across the onshore northern Gulf of Mexico region and indicated that the section in the downdip MISB is approaching the wet gas/condensate window (Ro~1.2%). A focused study in 2012–2013 used 6 whole core, one sidewall core, and 49 high-graded cutting samples (depth range of 13,000–16,500 ft [3962.4–5029.2 m] below surface) collected from 15 downdip MISB wells for mineralogy, fluid inclusion, organic geochemistry, and organic petrographic analysis. Based on native solid bitumen reflectance (Ro generally > 0.8%; interpreted to be post-oil indigenous bitumens matured in situ), Ro values increase regionally across the MISB from the southeast to the northwest. Thermal maturity in the eastern half of the basin (Ro range 1.0 to 1.25%) appears to be related to present-day burial depth and shows a gradual increase with respect to depth. To the west, thermal maturity continues to increase even as the Aptian section shallows structurally on the Adams County High (Ro range 1.4 to > 1.8%). After evaluating the possible thermal agents responsible for increasing maturity at shallower depths (i.e., igneous activity, proximity to salt, variations in regional heat flux, and uplift), we tentatively propose that either greater paleoheat flow or deeper burial coupled with uplift in the western part of the MISB could be responsible for the thermal maturity anomaly. Further research and additional data are needed to determine the cause(s) of the thermal anomaly.

  8. A PHYSICAL ACTIVITY QUESTIONNAIRE: REPRODUCIBILITY AND VALIDITY

    Nicolas Barbosa

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the Quantification de L'Activite Physique en Altitude chez les Enfants (QAPACE supervised self-administered questionnaire reproducibility and validity on the estimation of the mean daily energy expenditure (DEE on Bogotá's schoolchildren. The comprehension was assessed on 324 students, whereas the reproducibility was studied on a different random sample of 162 who were exposed twice to it. Reproducibility was assessed using both the Bland-Altman plot and the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC. The validity was studied in a sample of 18 girls and 18 boys randomly selected, which completed the test - re-test study. The DEE derived from the questionnaire was compared with the laboratory measurement results of the peak oxygen uptake (Peak VO2 from ergo-spirometry and Leger Test. The reproducibility ICC was 0.96 (95% C.I. 0.95-0.97; by age categories 8-10, 0.94 (0.89-0. 97; 11-13, 0.98 (0.96- 0.99; 14-16, 0.95 (0.91-0.98. The ICC between mean TEE as estimated by the questionnaire and the direct and indirect Peak VO2 was 0.76 (0.66 (p<0.01; by age categories, 8-10, 11-13, and 14-16 were 0.89 (0.87, 0.76 (0.78 and 0.88 (0.80 respectively. The QAPACE questionnaire is reproducible and valid for estimating PA and showed a high correlation with the Peak VO2 uptake

  9. Business History

    Hansen, Per H.

    2012-01-01

    This article argues that a cultural and narrative perspective can enrich the business history field, encourage new and different questions and answers, and provide new ways of thinking about methods and empirical material. It discusses what culture is and how it relates to narratives. Taking...

  10. LCA History

    Bjørn, Anders; Owsianiak, Mikołaj; Molin, Christine

    2018-01-01

    The idea of LCA was conceived in the 1960s when environmental degradation and in particular the limited access to resources started becoming a concern. This chapter gives a brief summary of the history of LCA since then with a focus on the fields of methodological development, application...

  11. Rewriting History.

    Ramirez, Catherine Clark

    1994-01-01

    Suggests that the telling of vivid stories can help engage elementary students' emotions and increase the chances of fostering an interest in Texas history. Suggests that incorporating elements of the process approach to writing can merge with social studies objectives in creating a curriculum for wisdom. (RS)

  12. Maternal history of eating disorders: Diet quality during pregnancy and infant feeding.

    Nguyen, Anh N; de Barse, Lisanne M; Tiemeier, Henning; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Franco, Oscar H; Jansen, Pauline W; Voortman, Trudy

    2017-02-01

    We studied associations of maternal history of eating disorders (EDs) with diet quality of pregnant women and their infants, and breastfeeding practices. We included 6196 mother-child pairs from Generation R, a population-based cohort in the Netherlands. Maternal history of lifetime EDs was assessed during pregnancy with a questionnaire. Dietary intake during pregnancy and in infancy was assessed with food-frequency questionnaires and diet quality scores were calculated, reflecting adherence to dietary guidelines. Breastfeeding practices were assessed with questionnaires at 2, 6, and 12 months. We observed that, after adjustment for socioeconomic and lifestyle factors, women with a history of EDs had a higher diet quality than women without a history of EDs (B = 0.24 SD, 95%CI: 0.15; 0.33). Mothers with a history of EDs were less likely to breastfeed (unadjusted OR = 0.68, 95%CI: 0.51; 0.93), although no longer statistically significant after adjustment (OR = 0.75, 95%CI: 0.55; 1.03). These findings suggest that mothers with a history of EDs seem slightly less likely to initiate breastfeeding, however, this warrants further investigation. At the age of 1 year, infants of mothers with a history of EDs had a higher diet quality (B = 0.15 SD, 95%CI: 0.02; 0.27). We conclude that mothers with a history of EDs and their infants have a relative good diet quality, although follow-up studies are needed to assess long-term associations with diet in later childhood and adolescence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Uranium-series ages of corals, sea level history, and palaeozoogeography, Canary Islands, Spain: an exploratory study for two Quaternary interglacial periods

    Muhs, Daniel R.; Meco, Joaquín; Simmons, Kathleen R.

    2014-01-01

    We present the first U-series ages of corals from emergent marine deposits on the Canary Islands. Deposits at + 20 m are 481 ± 39 ka, possibly correlative to marine isotope stage (or MIS) 11, while those at + 12 and + 8 m are 120.5 ± 0.8 ka and 130.2 ± 0.8 ka, respectively, correlative to MIS 5.5. The age, elevations, and uplift rates derived from MIS 5.5 deposits on the Canary Islands allow calculations of hypothetical palaeo-sea levels during the MIS 11 high sea stand. Estimates indicate that the MIS 11 high sea stand likely was at least + 9 m (relative to present sea level) and could have been as high as + 24 m. The most conservative estimates of palaeo-sea level during MIS 11 would require an ice mass loss equivalent to all of the modern Greenland and West Antarctic ice sheets; the more extreme estimates would require additional ice mass loss from the East Antarctic ice sheet. Extralimital southern species of mollusks, found in both MIS 11 and MIS 5.5 deposits on the Canary Islands, imply warmer-than-modern sea surface temperatures during at least a part of MIS 11 and much warmer sea surface temperatures during at least a part of MIS 5.5. Both MIS 11 and MIS 5.5 marine deposits on the Canary Islands contain extralimital northern species of mollusks as well, indicating cooler-than-present waters at times during these interglacial periods. We hypothesize that the co-occurrence of extralimital southern and northern species of marine invertebrates in the fossil record of the Canary Islands reflects its geographic location with respect to major synoptic-scale controls on climate and ocean currents. Previous interglacials may have been characterized by early, insolation-forced warming, along with northward migration of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ), accompanied by weakened trade winds and diminished upwelling. This allowed the arrival of extralimital southern taxa from the tropical Senegalese faunal province. During later parts of the MIS 11 and 5

  14. ACADEMIC TRAINING LECTURES-QUESTIONNAIRE

    Françoise Benz

    2004-01-01

    ACADEMIC TRAINING Françoise Benz tel. 73127 academic.training@cern.ch SUGGEST AND WIN! Its time to plan the 2004-2005 lecture series. From today until March 19 you have the chance to give your contribution to planning for next year's Academic Training Lecture Series. At the web site: http://cern.ch/Academic.Training/questionnaire you will find questionnaires proposing topics in high energy physics, applied physics and science and society. Answering the questionnaire will help ensure that the selected topics are as close as possible to your interests. In particular requests and comments from students will be much appreciated. To encourage your contribution, the AT Committee will reward one lucky winner with a small prize, a 50 CHF coupon for a book purchase at the CERN bookshop.

  15. QUESTIONNAIRES PRETESTING IN MARKETING RESEARCH

    ALINA-MIHAELA BABONEA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Designing the perfect survey questionnaire is impossible. However, researchers can still create an effective research. To make your questionnaire effective, it is necessary to pretest it before actually using it. The following paper reveals some general guidelines on pretesting and what to do for a more effective marketing research giving the fact that the existing literature highlights the importance and indispensability of pretesting and on the other hand, does not provide sufficient information in terms of methodology about it. Also, we have tried to explain the importance of questionnaires pretesting before applying them in order to obtain the best results in marketing research and we’ve kept in mind that high quality in this domain means using new tools and improving the existing ones if one searches for efficient results.

  16. Sexual behavioral abstine HIV/AIDS questionnaire: Validation study of an Iranian questionnaire.

    Najarkolaei, Fatemeh Rahmati; Niknami, Shamsaddin; Shokravi, Farkhondeh Amin; Tavafian, Sedigheh Sadat; Fesharaki, Mohammad Gholami; Jafari, Mohammad Reza

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the validity and reliability of the designed sexual, behavioral abstinence, and avoidance of high-risk situation questionnaire (SBAHAQ), with an aim to construct an appropriate development tool in the Iranian population. A descriptive-analytic study was conducted among female undergraduate students of Tehran University, who were selected through cluster random sampling. After reviewing the questionnaires and investigating face and content validity, internal consistency of the questionnaire was assessed by Cronbach's alpha. Explanatory and confirmatory factor analysis was conducted using SPSS and AMOS 16 Software, respectively. The sample consisted of 348 female university students with a mean age of 20.69 ± 1.63 years. The content validity ratio (CVR) coefficient was 0.85 and the reliability of each section of the questionnaire was as follows: Perceived benefit (PB; 0.87), behavioral intention (BI; 0.77), and self-efficacy (SE; 0.85) (Cronbach's alpha totally was 0.83). Explanatory factor analysis showed three factors, including SE, PB, and BI, with the total variance of 61% and Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) index of 88%. These factors were also confirmed by confirmatory factor analysis [adjusted goodness of fitness index (AGFI) = 0.939, root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = 0.039]. This study showed the designed questionnaire provided adequate construct validity and reliability, and could be adequately used to measure sexual abstinence and avoidance of high-risk situations among female students.

  17. Business History as Cultural History

    Lunde Jørgensen, Ida

    The paper engages with the larger question of how cultural heritage becomes taken for granted and offers a complimentary view to the anthropological ʻCopenhagen School’ of business history, one that draws attention to the way corporate wealth directly and indirectly influences the culture available...

  18. Sleep quality in children: questionnaires available in Brazil

    Maria Gabriela Cavalheiro

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this paper was to evaluate and compare the questionnaires regarding sleep quality among children aged up to 12 years old, used in the Portuguese language in Brazil. Material and methods: A search at the literature databases of Lilacs, Scielo and Pubmed was performed using keywords “sleep quality” and “children”. Selected Articles were analysed for age of the studied population, the number of questions and the issues addressed thereby, who realized the application, the analysis of the results, and content. Results: Out of 9377 titles, 11 studies were included, performing 7 different questionnaires: Questionnaire to measure quality of life among children with enlarged palatine and pharyngeal tonsils (translation of OSD-6 (1; Inventory of Sleep Habits for Preschool Children (2; the Questionnaire on Obstructive Sleep Apnoea-18 (OSA-18 (3, Sleep Questionnaire by Reimão and Lefévre - QRL (4; the Questionnaire on Sleep Behaviour Patterns (5 and the translation of the Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children (6; Brief Infant Sleep Questionnaire - BISQ (7 . Six of the questionnaires have covered the following issues: snoring and daytime sleepiness. Conclusions: A total of 7 protocols were found to be available in Brazil, the most commonly mentioned being OSA-18 and OSD-6. The use of protocols as a guided interview helps to define diagnosis and treatment among the paediatric population, but its large variability makes it difficult to compare a standardised monitoring process.

  19. Relationship between family history of alcohol addiction, parents' education level, and smartphone problem use scale scores.

    Beison, Ashley; Rademacher, David J

    2017-03-01

    Background and aims Smartphones are ubiquitous. As smartphones increased in popularity, researchers realized that people were becoming dependent on their smartphones. The purpose here was to provide a better understanding of the factors related to problematic smartphone use (PSPU). Methods The participants were 100 undergraduates (25 males, 75 females) whose ages ranged from 18 to 23 (mean age = 20 years). The participants completed questionnaires to assess gender, ethnicity, year in college, father's education level, mother's education level, family income, age, family history of alcoholism, and PSPU. The Family Tree Questionnaire assessed family history of alcoholism. The Mobile Phone Problem Use Scale (MPPUS) and the Adapted Cell Phone Addiction Test (ACPAT) were used to determine the degree of PSPU. Whereas the MPPUS measures tolerance, escape from other problems, withdrawal, craving, and negative life consequences, the ACPAT measures preoccupation (salience), excessive use, neglecting work, anticipation, lack of control, and neglecting social life. Results Family history of alcoholism and father's education level together explained 26% of the variance in the MPPUS scores and 25% of the variance in the ACPAT scores. The inclusion of mother's education level, ethnicity, family income, age, year in college, and gender did not significantly increase the proportion of variance explained for either MPPUS or ACPAT scores. Discussion and conclusions Family history of alcoholism and father's education level are good predictors of PSPU. As 74%-75% of the variance in PSPU scale scores was not explained, future studies should aim to explain this variance.

  20. Implications of Eocene-age Philippine Sea and forearc basalts for initiation and early history of the Izu-Bonin-Mariana arc

    Yogodzinski, Gene M.; Bizimis, Michael; Hickey-Vargas, Rosemary; McCarthy, Anders; Hocking, Benjamin D.; Savov, Ivan P.; Ishizuka, Osamu; Arculus, Richard

    2018-05-01

    Whole-rock isotope ratio (Hf, Nd, Pb, Sr) and trace element data for basement rocks at ocean drilling Sites U1438, 1201 and 447 immediately west of the KPR (Kyushu-Palau Ridge) are compared to those of FAB (forearc basalts) previously interpreted to be the initial products of IBM subduction volcanism. West-of-KPR basement basalts (drill sites U1438, 1201, 447) and FAB occupy the same Hf-Nd and Pb-Pb isotopic space and share distinctive source characteristics with εHf mostly > 16.5 and up to εHf = 19.8, which is more radiogenic than most Indian mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB). Lead isotopic ratios are depleted, with 206Pb/204Pb = 17.8-18.8 accompanying relatively high 208Pb/204Pb, indicating an Indian-MORB source unlike that of West Philippine Basin plume basalts. Some Sr isotopes show affects of seawater alteration, but samples with 87Sr/86Sr 8.0 appear to preserve magmatic compositions and also indicate a common source for west-of-KPR basement and FAB. Trace element ratios resistant to seawater alteration (La/Yb, Lu/Hf, Zr/Nb, Sm/Nd) in west-of-KPR basement are generally more depleted than normal MORB and so also appear similar to FAB. At Site U1438, only andesite sills intruding sedimentary rocks overlying the basement have subduction-influenced geochemical characteristics (εNd ∼ 6.6, εHf ∼ 13.8, La/Yb > 2.5, Nd/Hf ∼ 9). The key characteristic that unites drill site basement rocks west of KPR and FAB is the nature of their source, which is more depleted in lithophile trace elements than average MORB but with Hf, Nd, and Pb isotope ratios that are common in MORB. The lithophile element-depleted nature of FAB has been linked to initiation of IBM subduction in the Eocene, but Sm-Nd model ages and errorchron relationships in Site U1438 basement indicate that the depleted character of the rocks is a regional characteristic that was produced well prior to the time of subduction initiation and persists today in the source of modern IBM arc volcanic rocks with

  1. River history.

    Vita-Finzi, Claudio

    2012-05-13

    During the last half century, advances in geomorphology-abetted by conceptual and technical developments in geophysics, geochemistry, remote sensing, geodesy, computing and ecology-have enhanced the potential value of fluvial history for reconstructing erosional and depositional sequences on the Earth and on Mars and for evaluating climatic and tectonic changes, the impact of fluvial processes on human settlement and health, and the problems faced in managing unstable fluvial systems. This journal is © 2012 The Royal Society

  2. Environmental History

    Kearns, Gerard

    2004-01-01

    There was a time when almost all Western geography could be termed environmental history. In the late nineteenth century, physical geographers explained landscapes by describing how they had evolved. Likewise, human geographers saw society as shaped by the directing hands of the environment. By the 1960s this had very much changed. Process studies shortened the temporal framework in geographical explanation and cut the cord between nature and society. Now, physical and human...

  3. Variation in reproductive outcomes of women with histories of bulimia nervosa, anorexia nervosa, or eating disorder not otherwise specified relative to the general population and closest-aged sisters.

    Tabler, Jennifer; Utz, Rebecca L; Smith, Ken R; Hanson, Heidi A; Geist, Claudia

    2018-02-01

    This study seeks to examine the long-term reproductive consequences of eating disorders (ED), to assess variation in reproductive outcomes by ED type, and to examine reproductive differences between women with previous ED diagnosis and their discordant sisters. Using a sample of women with previous ED diagnosis generated by the Utah Population Database, this study compares the fecundity (parity) and age at first birth of women by ED subtype (bulimia nervosa [BN], anorexia nervosa [AN], and ED not otherwise specified [EDNOS]) (n = 1,579). We also employed general population match case-control, and discordant sibling pair analyses, to estimate the magnitude of association between EDs and reproductive outcomes. Women previously diagnosed with AN or EDNOS experienced delayed first birth (HRR = 0.33, HRR = 0.34, respectively) and lower parity (IRR = 0.19, IRR = 0.22, respectively) relative to BN (p < .05), the general population (p < .05), and closest-aged sisters (p < .05). Women previously diagnosed with BN experienced more moderate reductions and delays to their reproduction, and had similar reproductive outcomes as their discordant sisters. Clinicians should consider ED type and family fertility histories when addressing the long-term reproductive health needs of women with prior AN, BN, or EDNOS diagnosis. Women previously diagnosed with AN or EDNOS likely experience the greatest reductions and delays in reproduction across their lifespan. Reproductive health screenings may be especially critical for the wellbeing of women with a history of AN or EDNOS. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Development and Validation of the Bicultural Youth Acculturation Questionnaire.

    Kukaswadia, Atif; Janssen, Ian; Pickett, William; Bajwa, Jasmine; Georgiades, Katholiki; Lalonde, Richard N; Quon, Elizabeth C; Safdar, Saba; Pike, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Acculturation is a multidimensional process involving changes in behaviour and beliefs. Questionnaires developed to measure acculturation are typically designed for specific ethnic populations and adult experiences. This study developed a questionnaire that measures acculturation among ethnically diverse populations of youth that can be included as a module in population surveys. Questionnaires measuring acculturation in youth were identified in the literature. The importance of items from the existing questionnaires was determined using a Delphi process and this informed the development of our questionnaire. The questionnaire was then pilot tested using a sample of 248 Canadians aged 18-25 via an online system. Participants identified as East and South East Asian (27.8%), South Asian (17.7%) and Black (13.7%). The majority were 1st (33.5%) or 2nd generation immigrants (52.0%). After redundant items were eliminated, exploratory factor analysis grouped items into domains, and, for each domain, internal consistency, and convergent validity with immigrant generation then age at immigration estimated. A subset of participants re-completed the questionnaire for reliability estimation. The literature review yielded 117 articles that used 13 questionnaires with a total of 440 questions. The Delphi process reduced these to 32 questions. Pilot testing occurred in 248 Canadians aged 18-25. Following item reduction, 16 questions in three domains remained: dominant culture, heritage language, and heritage culture. All had good internal consistency (Cronbach's alphas > .75). The mean dominant domain score increased with immigrant generation (1st generation: 3.69 (95% CI: 3.49-3.89), 2nd: 4.13 (4.00-4.26), 3rd: 4.40 (4.19-4.61)), and mean heritage language score was higher among those who immigrated after age 12 than before (p = .0001), indicative of convergent validity. This Bicultural Youth Acculturation Questionnaire has demonstrated validity. It can be incorporated into

  5. Age determination of subdural hematomas: survey among radiologists.

    Postema, F A M; Sieswerda-Hoogendoorn, Tessa; Majoie, C B L M; van Rijn, R R

    2014-08-01

    Abusive head trauma is a severe form of child abuse. One important diagnostic finding is the presence of a subdural hematoma. Age determination of subdural hematomas is important to relate radiological findings to the clinical history presented by the caregivers. In court this topic is relevant as dating subdural hematomas can lead to identification of a suspect. The aim of our study is to describe the current practice among radiologists in the Netherlands regarding the age determination of subdural hematomas in children. This is a cross-sectional study, describing the results of an online questionnaire regarding dating subdural hematomas among pediatric and neuro-radiologists in the Netherlands. The questionnaire consisted of sociodemographic questions, theoretical questions and eight pediatric cases in which the participants were asked to date subdural hematomas based on imaging findings. Fifty-one out of 172 radiologists (30 %) filled out the questionnaire. The percentage of participants that reported it was possible to date the subdural hematoma varied between 58 and 90 % for the eight different cases. In four of eight cases (50 %), the age of the subdural hematoma as known from clinical history fell within the range reported by the participants. None of the participants was "very certain" of their age determination. The results demonstrate that there is a considerable practice variation among Dutch radiologists regarding the age determination of subdural hematomas. This implicates that dating of subdural hematomas is not suitable to use in court, as no uniformity among experts exists.

  6. Avatar Embodiment. Towards a Standardized Questionnaire

    Mar Gonzalez-Franco

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Inside virtual reality, users can embody avatars that are collocated from a first-person perspective. When doing so, participants have the feeling that the own body has been substituted by the self-avatar, and that the new body is the source of the sensations. Embodiment is complex as it includes not only body ownership over the avatar, but also agency, co-location, and external appearance. Despite the multiple variables that influence it, the illusion is quite robust, and it can be produced even if the self-avatar is of a different age, size, gender, or race from the participant's own body. Embodiment illusions are therefore the basis for many social VR experiences and a current active research area among the community. Researchers are interested both in the body manipulations that can be accepted, as well as studying how different self-avatars produce different attitudinal, social, perceptual, and behavioral effects. However, findings suggest that despite embodiment being strongly associated with the performance and reactions inside virtual reality, the extent to which the illusion is experienced varies between participants. In this paper, we review the questionnaires used in past experiments and propose a standardized embodiment questionnaire based on 25 questions that are prevalent in the literature. We encourage future virtual reality experiments that include first-person virtual avatars to administer this questionnaire in order to evaluate the degree of embodiment.

  7. The well-being questionnaire

    Pouwer, F; Snoek, Frank J; Van Der Ploeg, Henk M

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Well-being Questionnaire (W-BQ) has been designed to measure psychological well-being in people with a chronic somatic illness and is recommended by the World Health Organization for widespread use. However, studies into the factor structure of this instrument are still limited...

  8. The Otitis Media-6 questionnaire

    Heidemann, Christian Hamilton; Godballe, Christian; Kjeldsen, Anette Drøhse

    2013-01-01

    The Otitis Media-6 questionnaire (OM-6) is the most frequently used instrument to measure health related quality of life in children with otitis media. The main objectives of this study are 1) to translate and cross-culturally adapt the OM-6 into Danish, and 2) to assess important psychometric...

  9. The Antarctica component of postglacial rebound model ICE-6G_C (VM5a) based on GPS positioning, exposure age dating of ice thicknesses, and relative sea level histories

    Argus, Donald F.; Peltier, W. R.; Drummond, R.; Moore, Angelyn W.

    2014-07-01

    A new model of the deglaciation history of Antarctica over the past 25 kyr has been developed, which we refer to herein as ICE-6G_C (VM5a). This revision of its predecessor ICE-5G (VM2) has been constrained to fit all available geological and geodetic observations, consisting of: (1) the present day uplift rates at 42 sites estimated from GPS measurements, (2) ice thickness change at 62 locations estimated from exposure-age dating, (3) Holocene relative sea level histories from 12 locations estimated on the basis of radiocarbon dating and (4) age of the onset of marine sedimentation at nine locations along the Antarctic shelf also estimated on the basis of 14C dating. Our new model fits the totality of these data well. An additional nine GPS-determined site velocities are also estimated for locations known to be influenced by modern ice loss from the Pine Island Bay and Northern Antarctic Peninsula regions. At the 42 locations not influenced by modern ice loss, the quality of the fit of postglacial rebound model ICE-6G_C (VM5A) is characterized by a weighted root mean square residual of 0.9 mm yr-1. The Southern Antarctic Peninsula is inferred to be rising at 2 mm yr-1, requiring there to be less Holocene ice loss there than in the prior model ICE-5G (VM2). The East Antarctica coast is rising at approximately 1 mm yr-1, requiring ice loss from this region to have been small since Last Glacial Maximum. The Ellsworth Mountains, at the base of the Antarctic Peninsula, are inferred to be rising at 5-8 mm yr-1, indicating large ice loss from this area during deglaciation that is poorly sampled by geological data. Horizontal deformation of the Antarctic Plate is minor with two exceptions. First, O'Higgins, at the tip of the Antarctic Peninsula, is moving southeast at a significant 2 mm yr-1 relative to the Antarctic Plate. Secondly, the margins of the Ronne and Ross Ice Shelves are moving horizontally away from the shelf centres at an approximate rate of 0.8 mm yr-1, in

  10. Differences in sexual behavior, health, and history of child abuse among school students who had and had not engaged in sexual activity by the age of 18 years: a cross-sectional study.

    Kastbom, Åsa A; Sydsjö, Gunilla; Bladh, Marie; Priebe, Gisela; Svedin, Carl Göran

    2016-01-01

    Empirical research about late sexual debut and its consequences is limited, and further research is needed. To explore how students who had not had intercourse by the age of 18 years differed in terms of sociodemographic factors, physical and psychological health, sexual behavior, and history of sexual abuse from those who had. This is a cross-sectional survey involving 3,380 Swedish 18-year-olds. Descriptive analyses were used to investigate different types of sexual behavior. Ordinal data concerning alcohol consumption, self-esteem, sexual and physical abuse, parental relationships, sense of coherence, and health were analyzed, and multiple regression was carried out to identify the most important factors associated with no sexual debut. Just under a quarter of the adolescents had not had oral, anal, or vaginal sex by the age of 18 years, and they comprised the index group. They were characterized by being more likely to have caring fathers, parents born outside Europe, lower pornography consumption, lower alcohol and tobacco consumption, less antisocial behavior, and above all lower sexual desire (sometimes, adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 3.8; never/seldom, aOR 13.3) and fewer experiences of sexual abuse (aOR 25.5). Family structure and culture matters when it comes to the age of sexual debut. Adolescents with no sexual debut at 18 years of age seemed to live a more stable and cautious life than more sexual experienced peers, exemplified by fewer antisocial acts, less smoking and alcohol/drug consumption, less sexual desire, and less experience of sexual abuse.

  11. Tunnel - history of

    1998-11-01

    This book introduces history of tunnel in ancient times, the middle ages and modern times, survey of tunnel and classification of bedrock like environment survey of position, survey of the ground, design of tunnel on basic thing of the design, and design of tunnel of bedrock, analysis of stability of tunnel and application of the data, construction of tunnel like lattice girder and steel fiber reinforced shot crete, and maintenance control and repair of tunnel.

  12. Development of the Young Spine Questionnaire

    Lauridsen, Henrik Hein; Hestbæk, Lise

    Agreement between the questionnaire prevalence estimates and the interviews ranged between 83.7% (cervical pain today) and 97.9% (thoracic pain today). Correlations between the rFPS and the interview NRS score ranged between 0.71 (cervical spine) and 0.84 (thoracic spine). Agreement between...... Odense M, Denmark 2. Nordic Institute of Chiropractic and Clinical Biomechanics, Clinical Locomotion Network, Forskerparken 10A, 5230 Odense M, Denmark Background Back pain in children is common and early onset of back pain has been shown to increase the risk of back pain significantly in adulthood....... Therefore preventive efforts must be targeted the young population but research relating to spinal problems in this age group is scarce. Focus has primarily been on the working age population, and therefore specific instruments to measure spinal pain and its consequences, specifically aimed at children...

  13. The CARDIA dietary history: development, implementation, and evaluation.

    McDonald, A; Van Horn, L; Slattery, M; Hilner, J; Bragg, C; Caan, B; Jacobs, D; Liu, K; Hubert, H; Gernhofer, N; Betz, E; Havlik, D

    1991-09-01

    To meet the objectives for dietary assessment in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) prospective study, we developed a dietary history to provide accurate and reliable quantitative data on habitual individual nutrient intakes at baseline. The CARDIA dietary history was an interviewer-administered method that included a short questionnaire regarding general dietary practices followed by a comprehensive food frequency questionnaire about typical intake of foods using the previous month as a reference for recall. For each broad category of foods, participants were questioned in detail about specific foods only if they indicated that they consumed foods from that category. Follow-up questions for selected foods concerned serving size, frequency of consumption, and common additions to these foods. Provision was made for reporting foods not found in the food frequency list. The interview took approximately 45 minutes. Cue cards prompted responses and plastic food models assisted in estimating usual amounts consumed. A precoded format standardized coding for reported items and established the detail needed for recall during the interview. Baseline nutrient analyses from the CARDIA dietary history provided estimates that agreed reasonably well with expected caloric intake for body mass index according to the age- and sex-specific Recommended Dietary Allowances, but were higher than those reported from 24-hour recalls for comparable age, sex, and race groups in the second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The CARDIA dietary history is a comprehensive assessment tool that can provide a dietitian with detailed information regarding habitual eating patterns and nutrient intakes among adults.

  14. Statistical study on the self-selection bias in FDG-PET cancer screening by a questionnaire survey

    Kita, Tamotsu; Yano, Fuzuki; Watanabe, Sadahiro; Soga, Shigeyoshi; Hama, Yukihiro; Shinmoto, Hiroshi; Kosuda, Shigeru

    2008-01-01

    A questionnaire survey was performed to investigate the possible presence of self-selection bias in 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) cancer screening (PET cancer screening). Responders to the questionnaires survey consisted of 80 healthy persons, who answered whether they undergo PET cancer screening, health consciousness, age, sex, and smoking history. The univariate and multivariate analyses on the four parameters were performed between the responders who were to undergo PET cancer screening and the responders who were not. Statistically significant difference was found in health consciousness between the above-mentioned two groups by both univariate and multivariate analysis with the odds ratio of 2.088. The study indicated that self-selection bias should exist in PET cancer screening. (author)

  15. Validity of Short and Long Self-Administered Food Frequency Questionnaires in Ranking Dietary Intake in Middle-Aged and Elderly Japanese in the Japan Public Health Center-Based Prospective Study for the Next Generation (JPHC-NEXT) Protocol Area

    Yokoyama, Yuta; Takachi, Ribeka; Ishihara, Junko; Ishii, Yuri; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Sawada, Norie; Shinozawa, Yurie; Tanaka, Junta; Kato, Erika; Kitamura, Kaori; Nakamura, Kazutoshi; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2016-01-01

    Background Longitudinal epidemiological studies require both the periodic update of intake information via repeated dietary survey and the minimization of subject burden in responding to questionnaires. We developed a 66-item Food Frequency Questionnaire (short-FFQ) for the Japan Public Health Center-based prospective Study for the Next Generation (JPHC-NEXT) follow-up survey using major foods from the FFQ developed for the original JPHC Study. For the JPHC-NEXT baseline survey, we used a larger 172-item FFQ (long-FFQ), which was also derived from the JPHC-FFQ. We compared the validity of ranking individuals by levels of dietary consumption by these FFQs among residents of selected JPHC-NEXT study areas. Methods From 2012 to 2013, 240 men and women aged 40–74 years from five areas in the JPHC-NEXT protocol were asked to respond to the long-FFQ and provide 12-day weighed food records (WFR) as reference; 228 also completed the short-FFQ. Spearman’s correlation coefficients (CCs) between estimates from the FFQs and WFR were calculated and corrected for intra-individual variation of the WFR. Results Median CC values for energy and 53 nutrients for the short-FFQ for men and women were 0.46 and 0.44, respectively. Respective values for the long-FFQ were 0.50 and 0.43. Compared with the long-FFQ, cross-classification into exact plus adjacent quintiles with the short-FFQ ranged from 68% to 91% in men and 58% to 85% in women. Conclusions Similar to the long-FFQ, the short-FFQ provided reasonably valid measures for ranking middle-aged and elderly Japanese for many nutrients and food groups. The short-FFQ can be used in follow-up surveys in prospective cohort studies aimed at updating diet rank information. PMID:27064130

  16. Physical Appearance Concern Questionnaire (PACQ in Iranian Population

    Katayoun Khademi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study is to make questionnaire for screening body dysmorphic disorder sufferers in cosmetic clinics. Methods: A sample of 150 female patients with age average 29.4 years completed Physical Appearance Concern Questionnaire. It has been used as screening tool for screening patients with body dysmorphic disorder symptoms in cosmetic clinics. Results: Result of reliability analysis (α=0.908 and validity have shown the effectiveness of this questionnaire for recognizing individuals with BDD symptoms. Discussion: Physical appearance concern questionnaire can be used in cosmetic clinics for identifying BDD sufferers among clients, with score for the severity of symptoms. Almost all of the researches have been studying in cosmetic clinics or dermatology settings and there is no investigation for people with special needs, thus further research is required in the development of a screening questionnaire or interview for identifying patients with BDD with special needs.

  17. "Cognitive, emotion control, and motor performance of adolescents in the NCANDA study: Contributions from alcohol consumption, age, sex, ethnicity, and family history of addiction": Correction to Sullivan et al. (2016).

    2016-10-01

    Reports an error in "Cognitive, emotion control, and motor performance of adolescents in the NCANDA study: Contributions from alcohol consumption, age, sex, ethnicity, and family history of addiction" by Edith V. Sullivan, Ty Brumback, Susan F. Tapert, Rosemary Fama, Devin Prouty, Sandra A. Brown, Kevin Cummins, Wesley K. Thompson, Ian M. Colrain, Fiona C. Baker, Michael D. De Bellis, Stephen R. Hooper, Duncan B. Clark, Tammy Chung, Bonnie J. Nagel, B. Nolan Nichols, Torsten Rohlfing, Weiwei Chu, Kilian M. Pohl and Adolf Pfefferbaum ( Neuropsychology , 2016[May], Vol 30[4], 449-473). A problem with a computation to invert speed scores is noted and explained in this correction. All statements indicating group differences in speed scores, as well as Table 5 and Figure 8A, have been corrected in the online version of this article. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2016-00613-001.) To investigate development of cognitive and motor functions in healthy adolescents and to explore whether hazardous drinking affects the normal developmental course of those functions. Participants were 831 adolescents recruited across 5 United States sites of the National Consortium on Alcohol and NeuroDevelopment in Adolescence 692 met criteria for no/low alcohol exposure, and 139 exceeded drinking thresholds. Cross-sectional, baseline data were collected with computerized and traditional neuropsychological tests assessing 8 functional domains expressed as composite scores. General additive modeling evaluated factors potentially modulating performance (age, sex, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and pubertal developmental stage). Older no/low-drinking participants achieved better scores than younger ones on 5 accuracy composites (general ability, abstraction, attention, emotion, and balance). Speeded responses for attention, motor speed, and general ability were sensitive to age and pubertal development. The exceeds-threshold group (accounting for age, sex

  18. Uncovering History for Future History Teachers

    Fischer, Fritz

    2010-01-01

    The art of history teaching is at a crossroads. Recent scholarship focuses on the need to change the teaching of history so students can better learn history, and insists that history teachers must move beyond traditional structures and methods of teaching in order to improve their students' abilities to think with history. This article presents…

  19. Subjective Age in Early Adolescence: Relationships with Chronological Age, Pubertal Timing, Desired Age, and Problem Behaviors

    Hubley, Anita M.; Arim, Rubab G.

    2012-01-01

    Subjective age generally refers to the age that one feels. In a cross-sectional questionnaire study of 245 adolescents ages 10-14 years, we examined (a) whether, and when, a cross-over in subjective age occurs, (b) differences in subjective age among pubertal timing groups, (c) correlations between subjective age and each of desired age and five…

  20. Evaluate Stochastikon Magister by Questionnaire

    Xiaomin Zhai

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the continuation of the work of articles “Strategies for Teaching a Novel Approach to Handling Uncertainty Scientifically via Internet”, “A Graphical Tool for Visualizing Bernoulli Stochastics” and “Empirical Evaluation of Stochastikon Magister”. In this paper we evaluate the usability and learnability of the virtual classroom – Stochastikon Magister by questionnaire. The result shows that more than 70% of the teacher candidates, who selected Magister E-Learning programme to learn Bernoulli Stochastics, feel satisfactory with both Magister learning environment and Bernoulli Stochastics teaching content. Besides, most of the participants hold positive attitudes toward the possibility of using E-Learning systems as a replacement of classroom teaching for educating other subjects of mathematics and natural science. The response to the questionnaire is identical with another empirical evaluation of Stochastikon Magister.

  1. Analysis of an environmental exposure health questionnaire in a metropolitan minority population utilizing logistic regression and Support Vector Machines.

    Chen, Chau-Kuang; Bruce, Michelle; Tyler, Lauren; Brown, Claudine; Garrett, Angelica; Goggins, Susan; Lewis-Polite, Brandy; Weriwoh, Mirabel L; Juarez, Paul D; Hood, Darryl B; Skelton, Tyler

    2013-02-01

    The goal of this study was to analyze a 54-item instrument for assessment of perception of exposure to environmental contaminants within the context of the built environment, or exposome. This exposome was defined in five domains to include 1) home and hobby, 2) school, 3) community, 4) occupation, and 5) exposure history. Interviews were conducted with child-bearing-age minority women at Metro Nashville General Hospital at Meharry Medical College. Data were analyzed utilizing DTReg software for Support Vector Machine (SVM) modeling followed by an SPSS package for a logistic regression model. The target (outcome) variable of interest was respondent's residence by ZIP code. The results demonstrate that the rank order of important variables with respect to SVM modeling versus traditional logistic regression models is almost identical. This is the first study documenting that SVM analysis has discriminate power for determination of higher-ordered spatial relationships on an environmental exposure history questionnaire.

  2. Short-term countermeasures questionnaire

    Hogan, R.

    1995-01-01

    This document presents the analysis of a questionnaire transmitted to fourteen countries. The questions were about shot-term countermeasures countries have implemented in case of a nuclear accident. Those questions concerned the main different aspects of the issue, such as the objective of the countermeasures implemented, the kind of measures depending on the people concerned (emergency workers or not, children, pregnant women...), or the use of stable iodine in order to avoid a contamination. (TEC)

  3. Ageing genes

    Rattan, Suresh

    2018-01-01

    The idea of gerontogenes is in line with the evolutionary explanation of ageing as being an emergent phenomenon as a result of the imperfect maintenance and repair systems. Although evolutionary processes did not select for any specific ageing genes that restrict and determine the lifespan...... of an individual, the term ‘gerontogenes’ primarily refers to any genes that may seem to influence ageing and longevity, without being specifically selected for that role. Such genes can also be called ‘virtual gerontogenes’ by virtue of their indirect influence on the rate and process of ageing. More than 1000...... virtual gerontogenes have been associated with ageing and longevity in model organisms and humans. The ‘real’ genes, which do influence the essential lifespan of a species, and have been selected for in accordance with the evolutionary life history of the species, are known as the longevity assurance...

  4. Reduced regional cerebral blood flow in aged noninsulin-dependent diabetic patients with no history of cerebrovascular disease: evaluation by N-isopropyl-123I-p-iodoamphetamine with single-photon emission computed tomography

    Wakisaka, M.; Nagamachi, S.; Inoue, K.; Morotomi, Y.; Nunoi, K.; Fujishima, M.

    1990-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow was measured using N-isopropyl- 123 I-iodoamphetamine with single-photon emission computed tomography (CT) in 16 aged patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM, average age 72.8 years, average fasting plasma glucose 7.7 mmol/L), and 12 nondiabetic subjects (71.6 years, 5.3 mmol/L). None had any history of a cerebrovascular accident. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), total cholesterol, and triglyceride levels did not differ between groups. Areas of hypoperfusion were observed in 14 diabetic patients (12 patients had multiple lesions) and in 6 nondiabetic subjects (3 had multiple lesions). Areas where radioactivity was greater than or equal to 65% of the maximum count of the slice was defined as a region with normal cerebral blood flow (region of interest A, ROI-A), and areas where the count was greater than or equal to 45% were defined as brain tissue regions other than ventricles (ROI-B). The average ROI-A/B ratio of 16 slices was used as a semiquantitative indicator of normal cerebral blood flow throughout the entire brain. Mean ROI-A/B ratio was 49.6 +/- 1.7% in the diabetic group, significantly lower than the 57.9 +/- 1.6% at the nondiabetic group (p less than 0.005). The ratio was inversely correlated with SBP (r = -0.61, p less than 0.05), total cholesterol (r = -0.51, p less than 0.05), and atherogenic index (r = -0.64, p less than 0.01), and was positively correlated with high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (r = 0.51, p less than 0.05) in the diabetic, but not the nondiabetic group. These observations suggest that the age-related reduction in cerebral blood flow may be accelerated by a combination of hyperglycemia plus other risk factors for atherosclerosis

  5. Validation of Online Versions of Tinnitus Questionnaires Translated into Swedish

    Müller, Karolina; Edvall, Niklas K.; Idrizbegovic, Esma; Huhn, Robert; Cima, Rilana; Persson, Viktor; Leineweber, Constanze; Westerlund, Hugo; Langguth, Berthold; Schlee, Winfried; Canlon, Barbara; Cederroth, Christopher R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Due to the lack of objective measures for assessing tinnitus, its clinical evaluation largely relies on the use of questionnaires and psychoacoustic tests. A global assessment of tinnitus burden would largely benefit from holistic approaches that not only incorporate measures of tinnitus but also take into account associated fears, emotional aspects (stress, anxiety, and depression), and quality of life. In Sweden, only a few instruments are available for assessing tinnitus, and the existing tools lack validation. Therefore, we translated a set of questionnaires into Swedish and evaluated their reliability and validity in a group of tinnitus subjects. Methods: We translated the English versions of the Tinnitus Functional Index (TFI), the Fear of Tinnitus Questionnaire (FTQ), the Tinnitus Catastrophizing Scale (TCS), the Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ-30), and the Tinnitus Sample Case History Questionnaire (TSCHQ) into Swedish. These translations were delivered via the internet with the already existing Swedish versions of the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Hyperacusis Questionnaire (HQ), and the World Health Organization Quality of Life questionnaire (WHOQoL-BREF). Psychometric properties were evaluated by means of internal consistency [Cronbach's alpha (α)] and test–retest reliability across a 9-week interval [Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC), Cohen's kappa] in order to establish construct as well as clinical validity using a sample of 260 subjects from a population-based cohort. Results: Internal consistency was acceptable for all questionnaires (α > 0.7) with the exception of the “social relationships” subscale of the WHOQoL-BREF. Test–retest reliability was generally acceptable (ICC > 0.70, Cohens kappa > 0.60) for the tinnitus-related questionnaires, except for the TFI “sense of control” subscale and 15 items of the TSCHQ. Spearmen rank correlations showed that

  6. Validation of online versions of tinnitus questionnaires translated into Swedish

    Karolina Müller

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundDue to the lack of objective measures for assessing tinnitus, its clinical evaluation largely relies on the use of questionnaires and psychoacoustic tests. A global assessment of tinnitus burden would largely benefit from holistic approaches that not only incorporate measures of tinnitus but also take into account associated fears, emotional aspects (stress, anxiety, and depression, and quality of life. In Sweden, only a few instruments are available for assessing tinnitus, and the existing tools lack validation. Therefore, we translated a set of questionnaires into Swedish and evaluated their reliability and validity in a group of tinnitus subjects. MethodsWe translated the English versions of the Tinnitus Functional Index (TFI, the Fear of Tinnitus Questionnaire (FTQ, the Tinnitus Catastrophizing Scale (TCS, the Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ-30, and the Tinnitus Sample Case History Questionnaire (TSCHQ into Swedish. These translations were delivered via the internet with the already existing Swedish versions of the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, the Hyperacusis Questionnaire (HQ, and the World Health Organization Quality of Life questionnaire (WHOQoL-BREF. Psychometric properties were evaluated by means of internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha α and test-retest reliability across a 9-week interval (Intraclass Correlation Coefficient ICC, Cohen’s kappa in order to establish construct as well as clinical validity using a sample of 260 subjects from a population-based cohort.ResultsInternal consistency was acceptable for all questionnaires (α >0.7 with the exception of the ‘social relationships’ subscale of the WHOQoL-BREF. Test-retest reliability was generally acceptable (ICC >.70, Cohens Kappa >.60 for the tinnitus-related questionnaires, except for the TFI ‘sense of control’ subscale and 15 items of the TSCHQ. Spearmen rank correlations showed that almost all

  7. The genetic history of Ice Age Europe

    Fu, Q.; Posth, C.; Hajdinjak, M.; Petr, M.; Mallick, S.; Fernandes, D.; Furtwängler, A.; Haak, W.; Meyer, M.; Mittnik, A.; Nickel, B.; Peltzer, A.; Rohland, N.; Slon, V.; Talamo, S.; Lazaridis, I.; Lipson, M.; Mathieson, I.; Schiffels, S.; Skoglund, P.; Derevianko, A. P.; Drozdov, N.; Slavinsky, V.; Tsybankov, A.; Cremonesi, R. G.; Mallegni, F.; Gély, B.; Vacca, E.; Morales, M. R. G.; Straus, L. G.; Neugebauer-Maresch, Ch.; Teschler-Nicola, M.; Constantin, S.; Moldovan, O. T.; Benazzi, S.; Peresani, M.; Coppola, D.; Lari, M.; Ricci, S.; Ronchitelli, A.; Valentin, F.; Thevenet, C.; Wehrberger, K.; Grigorescu, D.; Rougier, H.; Crevecoeur, I.; Flas, D.; Semal, P.; Mannino, M. A.; Cupillard, Ch.; Bocherens, H.; Conard, N. J.; Harvati, K.; Moiseyev, V.; Drucker, D. G.; Svoboda, Jiří; Richards, M. P.; Caramelli, D.; Pinhasi, R.; Kelso, J.; Patterson, N.; Krause, J.; Pääbo, S.; Reich, D.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 534, č. 7606 (2016), s. 200-205 ISSN 0028-0836 Institutional support: RVO:68081758 Keywords : genetics * Pleistocene * Europe * modern humans * Neanderthal Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology OBOR OECD: Archaeology Impact factor: 40.137, year: 2016

  8. The genetic history of Ice Age Europe

    Fu, Qiaomei; Posth, Cosimo; Hajdinjak, Mateja

    2016-01-01

    Modern humans arrived in Europe ~45,000 years ago, but little is known about their genetic composition before the start of farming ~8,500 years ago. Here we analyse genome-wide data from 51 Eurasians from ~45,000–7,000 years ago. Over this time, the proportion of Neanderthal DNA decreased from 3–...... ~19,000 years ago. During the major warming period after ~14,000 years ago, a genetic component related to present-day Near Easterners became widespread in Europe. These results document how population turnover and migration have been recurring themes of European prehistory....

  9. The contribution of family history to hearing loss in an older population.

    McMahon, Catherine M; Kifley, Annette; Rochtchina, Elena; Newall, Philip; Mitchell, Paul

    2008-08-01

    Although it has been well established that the prevalence of and severity of hearing loss increase with age, the contribution of familial factors to age-related hearing loss cannot be quantified. This is largely because hearing loss in older people has both genetic and environmental contributions. As environmental factors play an increasing role with age, it is difficult to delineate the separate contribution of genetic factors to age-related hearing loss. In a population-based survey of hearing loss in a representative older Australian community, we attempted to overcome this using logistic regression analysis, accounting for known factors associated with hearing loss including age, sex, noise exposure at work, diabetes, and current smoking. We tested hearing thresholds using pure tone audiometry and used a forced choice questionnaire to determine the nature of family history in a population of individuals aged 50 yrs or older in a defined region, west of Sydney, Australia (N = 2669). We compared the characteristics of participants with and without family history of hearing loss. Of those reporting a positive family history, we compared subgroups for age, gender and severity of hearing loss, and trends by the severity of hearing loss. Logistic regression was used to obtain odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) that compared the chances of having hearing loss in participants with and without family history, after adjusting for other factors known associated with hearing loss. Our findings indicate that family history was most strongly associated with moderate to severe age-related hearing loss. We found a strong association between maternal family history of hearing loss and moderate to severe hearing loss in women (adjusted OR 3.0; 95% CI 1.6-5.6 in women with without a maternal history). Paternal family history of hearing loss was also significantly, though less strongly, associated with moderate-severe hearing loss in men (adjusted OR 2.0; CI 1

  10. Cygnus History

    Henderson, David J.; Gignac, Raymond E.; Good, Douglas E.; Hansen, Mark D.; Mitton, Charles V.; Nelson, Daniel S.; Ormond, Eugene C.; Cordova, Steve R.; Molina, Isidro; Smith, John R.; Rose, Evan A.

    2009-01-01

    The Cygnus Dual Beam Radiographic Facility consists of two identical radiographic sources: Cygnus 1 and Cygnus 2. This Radiographic Facility is located in an underground tunnel test area at the Nevada Test Site. The sources were developed to produce high-resolution images for dynamic plutonium experiments. This work will recount and discuss salient maintenance and operational issues encountered during the history of Cygnus. A brief description of Cygnus systems and rational for design selections will set the stage for this historical narrative. It is intended to highlight the team-derived solutions for technical problems encountered during extended periods of maintenance and operation. While many of the issues are typical to pulsed power systems, some of the solutions are unique. It is hoped that other source teams will benefit from this presentation, as well as other necessary disciplines (e.g., source users, system architects, facility designers and managers, funding managers, and team leaders)

  11. Environmental history

    Pawson, Eric; Christensen, Andreas Aagaard

    2017-01-01

    Environmental history is an interdisciplinary pursuit that has developed as a form of conscience to counter an increasingly powerful, forward-looking liberal theory of the environment. It deals with the relations between environmental ideas and materialities, from the work of the geographers George...... Perkins Marsh, Carl Sauer, and Clarence Glacken, to more recent global-scale assessments of the impact of the “great acceleration” since 1950. Today’s “runaway world” paradoxically embraces risk management in an attempt to determine its own future whilst generating a whole new category of “manufactured...... risks”. These are exposed by environmental history’s focus on long-run analysis and its narrative form that identifies the stories that we tell ourselves about nature. How a better understanding of past environmental transformations helps to analyse society and agency, and what this can mean...

  12. Abdominal Aortic Diameter Is Increased in Males with a Family History of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    Mejnert Jørgensen, Trine; Houlind, K; Green, A

    2014-01-01

    and a half times increased prevalence of AAA compared with +FH with male relatives with AAA with an OR of 2.65. CONCLUSIONS: First-degree male relatives of AAA patients have wider aortas and a twofold higher prevalence of AAA compared with the age adjusted background population. The prevalence of AAA...... measurement of maximum antero-posterior aortic diameter. Family history obtained by questionnaire. Multivariate regression analysis was used to test for confounders: age, sex, smoking, comorbidity and medication. RESULTS: From the screened cohort, 569 participants had at least one first degree relative...

  13. Public History

    Marta Gouveia de Oliveira Rovai

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como proposta apresentar o conceito e as práticas de História Pública como um novo posicionamento da ciência histórica em diálogo com profissionais da comunicação, no sentido de produzir e divulgar as experiências humanas. Para isso, discute-se a origem do conceito de História Pública e as diferentes formas de educação histórica que a utilização das novas tecnologias podem proporcionar (dentre elas a internet. Nesse sentido, convida-se o leitor para a reflexão sobre as possibilidades de publicização e de democratização do conhecimento histórico e da cultura, ampliando-se a oportunidade de produção, de divulgação e de acesso do público a diferentes formas experiências no tempo. O artigo também intenciona chamar atenção dos profissionais que lidam com a História e com a Comunicação para os perigos de produções exclusivamente submetidas ao mercado que transformam a popularização da História no reforço de estigmas culturais.   PALAVRAS-CHAVE: História Pública; Educação histórica e Comunicação; democratização e estigmatização.     ABSTRACT This article aims to present the concept and practices of Public History as a new positioning of historical science in dialogue with communication professionals, in the sense of producing and disseminating human experiences. For this, the origin of the concept of Public History and the different forms of historical education that the use of the new technologies can provide (among them the Internet is discussed. In this sense, the reader is invited to reflect on the possibilities of publicizing and democratizing historical knowledge and culture, expanding the opportunity for production, dissemination and public access to different forms of experience in time. The article also intends to draw attention from professionals dealing with History and Communication to the dangers of exclusively commercialized productions that transform the popularization

  14. Star Formation Histories of Nearby Dwarf Galaxies

    Grebel, Eva K.

    2000-01-01

    Properties of nearby dwarf galaxies are briefly discussed. Dwarf galaxies vary widely in their star formation histories, the ages of their subpopulations, and in their enrichment history. Furthermore, many dwarf galaxies show evidence for spatial variations in their star formation history; often in the form of very extended old populations and radial gradients in age and metallicity. Determining factors in dwarf galaxy evolution appear to be both galaxy mass and environment. We may be observi...

  15. Differences in sexual behavior, health, and history of child abuse among school students who had and had not engaged in sexual activity by the age of 18 years: a cross-sectional study

    Kastbom ÅA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Åsa A Kastbom,1,2 Gunilla Sydsjö,3 Marie Bladh,3 Gisela Priebe,4,5 Carl Göran Svedin2 1Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Linköping University Hospital, 2Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Medical Faculty, Linköping University, Linköping, 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, and Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Medical Faculty, Linköping University, Linköping, 4Department of Psychology, Linnæus University, Växjö, 5Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Lund University, Lund, Sweden Background: Empirical research about late sexual debut and its consequences is limited, and further research is needed. Objective: To explore how students who had not had intercourse by the age of 18 years differed in terms of sociodemographic factors, physical and psychological health, sexual behavior, and history of sexual abuse from those who had. Materials and methods: This is a cross-sectional survey involving 3,380 Swedish 18-year-olds. Descriptive analyses were used to investigate different types of sexual behavior. Ordinal data concerning alcohol consumption, self-esteem, sexual and physical abuse, parental relationships, sense of coherence, and health were analyzed, and multiple regression was carried out to identify the most important factors associated with no sexual debut. Results: Just under a quarter of the adolescents had not had oral, anal, or vaginal sex by the age of 18 years, and they comprised the index group. They were characterized by being more likely to have caring fathers, parents born outside Europe, lower pornography consumption, lower alcohol and tobacco consumption, less antisocial behavior, and above all lower sexual desire (sometimes, adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 3.8; never/seldom, aOR 13.3 and fewer experiences of sexual abuse (aOR 25.5. Family structure and culture matters when it comes to the age of sexual debut. Conclusion: Adolescents

  16. Readability of Questionnaires Assessing Listening Difficulties Associated with (Central) Auditory Processing Disorders

    Atcherson, Samuel R.; Richburg, Cynthia M.; Zraick, Richard I.; George, Cassandra M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Eight English-language, student- or parent proxy-administered questionnaires for (central) auditory processing disorders, or (C)APD, were analyzed for readability. For student questionnaires, readability levels were checked against the approximate reading grade levels by intended administration age per the questionnaires' developers. For…

  17. Bleeding score in Type 1 von Willebrand disease patients using the ISTH-BAT questionnaire.

    Pathare, A; Al Omrani, S; Al Hajri, F; Al Obaidani, N; Al Balushi, B; Al Falahi, K

    2018-04-01

    Bleeding assessment tools have evolved in the last decade to standardize the assessment of the severity of bleeding symptom in a consistent way. In 2010, the International Society on Thrombosis and Hemostasis-Bleeding Assessment Tool (ISTH-BAT) was developed and validated. Our aim was to administer ISTH-BAT questionnaire to the Omani patients with type 1 VWD and obtain the bleeding score (BS). We also studied the severity of their bleeding symptoms and correlated it with the BS as well as with the laboratory parameters. Forty-eight type I VWD index cases and 52 normal subjects were interviewed and the ISTH-BAT questionnaire administered. The BS was calculated based on a history of bleeding symptoms from 12 different sites according to the standard ISTH-BAT questionnaire. Laboratory parameters were obtained from patient's medical records. The mean age of this cohort was 27 years (range, 6-49) with 60% being females. The median time to administer this questionnaire was 10 minutes with an interquartile range (IQR) from 8 to 17 minutes. Overall, the median BS was 7 (IQR; 2,11) although individual scores ranged between 0 and 36. The BS was negatively correlated with VWF: Ag, VWF: RCo, and VWF: CB and the Spearman's correlation coefficient "rho" was, respectively, -0.15, -0.08, and -0.22. The ISTH-BAT BS is designed to reflect the severity of bleeding. Our results demonstrate the inherent variability of this bleeding pattern. We also found that the ISTH-BAT BS significantly correlated with VWF: Ag and VWF: CB. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. 19 CFR 357.105 - Questionnaires.

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Questionnaires. 357.105 Section 357.105 Customs... Questionnaires. For reviews conducted under section 106(b)(2), the Secretary normally will send questionnaires to potential producers/suppliers of the product to determine whether it is in short supply. Questionnaires...

  19. My brief history

    Hawking, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    My Brief History recounts Stephen Hawking’s improbable journey, from his postwar London boyhood to his years of international acclaim and celebrity. Lavishly illustrated with rarely seen photographs, this concise, witty, and candid account introduces readers to a Hawking rarely glimpsed in previous books: the inquisitive schoolboy whose classmates nicknamed him Einstein; the jokester who once placed a bet with a colleague over the existence of a particular black hole; and the young husband and father struggling to gain a foothold in the world of physics and cosmology. Writing with characteristic humility and humor, Hawking opens up about the challenges that confronted him following his diagnosis of ALS at age twenty-one. Tracing his development as a thinker, he explains how the prospect of an early death urged him onward through numerous intellectual breakthroughs, and talks about the genesis of his masterpiece A Brief History of Time—one of the iconic books of the twentieth century.

  20. Reliability of GMFCS family report questionnaire

    Rackauskaite, Gija; Thorsen, Poul; Uldall, Peter Vilhelm

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the reliability of the web-based GMFCS Family Report Questionnaire (GMFCS-FR) between 8 and 11 years old children, compared with the GMFCS-Expanded and Revised (GMFCS-E&R). Method: The GMFCS-FR was translated from the English GMFCS-FR into Danish after the CanChild guidelines;...... Danish children with CP. The tendency for less-ability rating by families is important when performing and comparing results from epidemiological studies based on GMFCS-FR and GMFCS-E&R. [Box: see text].......Purpose: To examine the reliability of the web-based GMFCS Family Report Questionnaire (GMFCS-FR) between 8 and 11 years old children, compared with the GMFCS-Expanded and Revised (GMFCS-E&R). Method: The GMFCS-FR was translated from the English GMFCS-FR into Danish after the CanChild guidelines......; only the order of levels was chosen like in the GMFCS-E&R. Families of 30 children with spastic and dystonic cerebral palsy (age from 8 to 11 years, randomly selected from a cerebral palsy register) answered the GMFCS-FR and were later interviewed by two physiotherapists. Participants and non...

  1. Polish adaptation of Bad Sobernheim Stress Questionnaire-Brace and Bad Sobernheim Stress Questionnaire-Deformity.

    Misterska, Ewa; Głowacki, Maciej; Harasymczuk, Jerzy

    2009-12-01

    Bad Sobernheim Stress Questionnaire-Brace and Bad Sobernheim Stress Questionnaire-Deformity are relatively new tools aimed at facilitating the evaluation of long-term results of therapy in persons with idiopathic scoliosis undergoing conservative treatment. To use these tools properly in Poland, they must be translated into Polish and adapted to the Polish cultural settings. The process of cultural adaptation of the questionnaires was compliant with the guidelines of International Quality of Life Assessment (IQOLA) Project. In the first stage, two independent translators converted the originals into Polish. Stage two, consisted of a comparison of the originals and two translated versions. During that stage, the team of two translators and authors of the project identified differences in those translations and created a combination of the two. In the third stage, two independent translators, who were native speakers of German, translated the adjusted version of the Polish translation into the language of the original document. At the last stage, a commission composed of: specialists in orthopedics, translators, a statistician and a psychologist reviewed all translations and drafted a pre-final version of the questionnaires. Thirty-five adolescent girls with idiopathic scoliosis who were treated with Cheneau brace were subjected to the questionnaire assessment. All patients were treated in an out-patient setting by a specialist in orthopedics at the Chair and Clinic of Orthopedics and Traumatology. Median age of patients was 14.8 SD 1.5, median value of the Cobb's angle was 27.8 degrees SD 7.4. 48.6% of patients had thoracic scoliosis, 31.4% had thoracolumbar scoliosis, and 20% patients had lumbar scoliosis. Median results obtained by means of the Polish version of BSSQ-Brace and BSSQ-Deformity questionnaires were 17.9 SD 5.0 and 11.3 SD 4.7, respectively. Internal consistency of BSSQ-Brace and BSSQ-Deformity was at the level of 0.80 and 0.87, whereas the value of

  2. Effects of prior testing lasting a full year in NCANDA adolescents: Contributions from age, sex, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, site, family history of alcohol or drug abuse, and baseline performance

    Edith V. Sullivan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Longitudinal study provides a robust method for tracking developmental trajectories. Yet inherent problems of retesting pose challenges in distinguishing biological developmental change from prior testing experience. We examined factors potentially influencing change scores on 16 neuropsychological test composites over 1 year in 568 adolescents in the National Consortium on Alcohol and NeuroDevelopment in Adolescence (NCANDA project. The twice-minus-once-tested method revealed that performance gain was mainly attributable to testing experience (practice with little contribution from predicted developmental effects. Group mean practice slopes for 13 composites indicated that 60% to ∼100% variance was attributable to test experience; General Ability accuracy showed the least practice effect (29%. Lower baseline performance, especially in younger participants, was a strong predictor of greater gain. Contributions from age, sex, ethnicity, examination site, socioeconomic status, or family history of alcohol/substance abuse were nil to small, even where statistically significant. Recognizing that a substantial proportion of change in longitudinal testing, even over 1-year, is attributable to testing experience indicates caution against assuming that performance gain observed during periods of maturation necessarily reflects development. Estimates of testing experience, a form of learning, may be a relevant metric for detecting interim influences, such as alcohol use or traumatic episodes, on behavior.

  3. Validation of a food frequency questionnaire to assess macronutrient and micronutrient intake among Jordanians.

    Tayyem, Reema Fayez; Abu-Mweis, Suhad S; Bawadi, Hiba Ahmad; Agraib, Lana; Bani-Hani, Kamal

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the validity and reliability of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) among a convenience sample of healthy adults in Jordan. A modified version of the questionnaire known as Diet History Questionnaire I, which measures dietary intakes over a 1-year period, was administrated to 101 apparently healthy men and women recruited from three large medical centers in Jordan. Fifty-five participants completed the modified FFQ and three 24-hour recalls. Participants (N=101) completed the FFQ two times separated by a 1-month period. Reliability of the FFQ was assessed using test-retest method. Mean age of participants was 33.4±18.5 years. Energy, carbohydrate, fiber, fat, saturated fat, calcium, and iron had deattenuated correlations of .732, .563, .544, .487, .484, .451, and .459, respectively. The FFQ and 24-hour recalls produced similar agreement percentages ranging between 25.5% and 43.6%. Mean energy-adjusted reliability coefficients ranged from .695 to .943. A Cronbach's α for the total FFQ items of .857 was found. The modified FFQ has reasonable relative validity and reliability for energy, carbohydrate, fiber, fat, saturated fat, calcium, and iron intakes in Jordanian adults over a 1-year period. However, its application may require additional modifications and validation efforts. Future research is warranted to further modify and test the FFQ in a larger and more diverse sample of Jordanians as well as to develop FFQ for the use among other age groups. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Improving the quality of adult mortality data collected in demographic surveys: validation study of a new siblings' survival questionnaire in Niakhar, Senegal.

    Helleringer, Stéphane; Pison, Gilles; Masquelier, Bruno; Kanté, Almamy Malick; Douillot, Laetitia; Duthé, Géraldine; Sokhna, Cheikh; Delaunay, Valérie

    2014-05-01

    In countries with limited vital registration, adult mortality is frequently estimated using siblings' survival histories (SSHs) collected during Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS). These data are affected by reporting errors. We developed a new SSH questionnaire, the siblings' survival calendar (SSC). It incorporates supplementary interviewing techniques to limit omissions of siblings and uses an event history calendar to improve reports of dates and ages. We hypothesized that the SSC would improve the quality of adult mortality data. We conducted a retrospective validation study among the population of the Niakhar Health and Demographic Surveillance System in Senegal. We randomly assigned men and women aged 15-59 y to an interview with either the DHS questionnaire or the SSC. We compared SSHs collected in each group to prospective data on adult mortality collected in Niakhar. The SSC reduced respondents' tendency to round reports of dates and ages to the nearest multiple of five or ten ("heaping"). The SSC also had higher sensitivity in recording adult female deaths: among respondents whose sister(s) had died at an adult age in the past 15 y, 89.6% reported an adult female death during SSC interviews versus 75.6% in DHS interviews (p = 0.027). The specificity of the SSC was similar to that of the DHS questionnaire, i.e., it did not increase the number of false reports of deaths. However, the SSC did not improve the reporting of adult deaths among the brothers of respondents. Study limitations include sample selectivity, limited external validity, and multiple testing. The SSC has the potential to collect more accurate SSHs than the questionnaire used in DHS. Further research is needed to assess the effects of the SSC on estimates of adult mortality rates. Additional validation studies should be conducted in different social and epidemiological settings. Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN06849961

  5. Improving the Quality of Adult Mortality Data Collected in Demographic Surveys: Validation Study of a New Siblings' Survival Questionnaire in Niakhar, Senegal

    Helleringer, Stéphane; Pison, Gilles; Masquelier, Bruno; Kanté, Almamy Malick; Douillot, Laetitia; Duthé, Géraldine; Sokhna, Cheikh; Delaunay, Valérie

    2014-01-01

    Background In countries with limited vital registration, adult mortality is frequently estimated using siblings' survival histories (SSHs) collected during Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS). These data are affected by reporting errors. We developed a new SSH questionnaire, the siblings' survival calendar (SSC). It incorporates supplementary interviewing techniques to limit omissions of siblings and uses an event history calendar to improve reports of dates and ages. We hypothesized that the SSC would improve the quality of adult mortality data. Methods and Findings We conducted a retrospective validation study among the population of the Niakhar Health and Demographic Surveillance System in Senegal. We randomly assigned men and women aged 15–59 y to an interview with either the DHS questionnaire or the SSC. We compared SSHs collected in each group to prospective data on adult mortality collected in Niakhar. The SSC reduced respondents' tendency to round reports of dates and ages to the nearest multiple of five or ten (“heaping”). The SSC also had higher sensitivity in recording adult female deaths: among respondents whose sister(s) had died at an adult age in the past 15 y, 89.6% reported an adult female death during SSC interviews versus 75.6% in DHS interviews (p = 0.027). The specificity of the SSC was similar to that of the DHS questionnaire, i.e., it did not increase the number of false reports of deaths. However, the SSC did not improve the reporting of adult deaths among the brothers of respondents. Study limitations include sample selectivity, limited external validity, and multiple testing. Conclusions The SSC has the potential to collect more accurate SSHs than the questionnaire used in DHS. Further research is needed to assess the effects of the SSC on estimates of adult mortality rates. Additional validation studies should be conducted in different social and epidemiological settings. Trial Registration Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN06849961

  6. Effect of attitudes towards patients on sexual history taking: a survey of Iranian-American physicians in California, USA.

    Rashidian, Mitra; Minichiello, Victor; Knutsen, Synnove F; Ghamsary, Mark

    2017-11-01

    Although obtaining sexual history from patients is essential, the attitudes of physicians can become a barrier to sexual health care. Iranian-American physicians may face particular challenges because talking about sexuality is considered a taboo within their culture. Our study examined these physicians' attitudes when taking a sexual history from their patients. In 2013, a self-administrated questionnaire was sent to 1550 Iranian-American physicians in California, USA. Using factor analysis, the principal components approach with a Varimax rotation was used on a set of 12-item questions (five-point Likert scales) to detect latent factors that explain attitudes affecting sexual history taking. Scores are generated to determine physicians' attitudes towards sexual history taking. In total, 354 questionnaires were returned (23% response rate). Three factors were identified as internally consistent (Cronbach's α=0.84 - 0.94): (1) attitude towards various patients; (2) female sexuality; and (3) age and marriage. Significant association were found between these three factors and some variables such as physicians' gender, country of medical graduation, religion, birthplace and age. Results revealed that cultural attitudes are important factors affecting physicians' involvement in sexual history taking. Additional studies from this population and other subpopulations of US physicians are needed. New strategies that reflect on physicians' attitude on sexual healthcare delivery is needed. If confirmed in other studies, our findings could have implications for the training of medical graduates globally.

  7. Asthma history, job type and job changes among US nurses.

    Dumas, Orianne; Varraso, Raphaëlle; Zock, Jan Paul; Henneberger, Paul K; Speizer, Frank E; Wiley, Aleta S; Le Moual, Nicole; Camargo, Carlos A

    2015-07-01

    Nurses are at increased risk of occupational asthma, an observation that may be related to disinfectants exposure. Whether asthma history influences job type or job changes among nurses is unknown. We investigated this issue in a large cohort of nurses. The Nurses' Health Study II is a prospective study of US female nurses enrolled in 1989 (ages 24-44 years). Job status and asthma were assessed in biennial (1989-2011) and asthma-specific questionnaires (1998, 2003). Associations between asthma history at baseline (diagnosis before 1989, n=5311) and job type at baseline were evaluated by multinomial logistic regression. The relations of asthma history and severity during follow-up to subsequent job changes were evaluated by Cox models. The analytic cohort included 98 048 nurses. Compared with nurses in education/administration (likely low disinfectant exposure jobs), women with asthma history at baseline were less often employed in jobs with likely high disinfectant exposure, such as operating rooms (odds ratio 0.73 (95% CI 0.63 to 0.86)) and emergency room/inpatient units (0.89 (0.82 to 0.97)). During a 22-year follow-up, nurses with a baseline history of asthma were more likely to move to jobs with lower exposure to disinfectants (HR 1.13 (1.07 to 1.18)), especially among those with more severe asthma (HR for mild persistent: 1.13; moderate persistent 1.26; severe persistent: 1.50, compared with intermittent asthma, p trend: 0.004). Asthma history was associated with baseline job type and subsequent job changes among nurses. This may partly reflect avoidance of tasks involving disinfectant use, and may introduce bias in cross-sectional studies on disinfectant exposure and asthma in nurses. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  8. Importance of updating family cancer history in childhood cancer survivors.

    Russo, Selena; Warby, Meera; Tucker, Katherine M; Wakefield, Claire E; Cohn, Richard J

    2017-10-01

    Estimates of the number of childhood cancers with a genetic basis range from 5-8.5% found in germline samples to 29% based on clinical criteria. Family history-taking practice is a fundamental first step in detecting at risk individuals and families. This study focused on Li-Fraumeni Syndrome (LFS), a highly penetrant cancer syndrome. Reported family history in a cohort of 648 of cancer survivor cohort (CCS) was examined. Eligible CCS were: (i) aged up to 14 years at diagnosis; (ii) more than 5 years postdiagnosis; (iii) treated for a childhood cancer at the study hospitals in NSW, Australia; (iv) in remission for more than 3 years. CCS completed self-administered questionnaires. Medical records confirmed diagnosis and treatment-related information. Our findings reveal an increased cancer risk among sibling and relatives of CCS. 91% of siblings diagnosed with cancer were diagnosed under the age of 40 and about 30% diagnosed under the aged of 15 revealing a 5- (RR = 5.1; 95% CI, 3.3-7.9) and 44-fold (RR = 44.6; 95% CI, 18.4-108.3) increased risked of cancer compared with the Australian population, respectively. About 2% of CCS reported that they had been diagnosed with a genetic cancer syndrome. However, 11% of survivors described a family history pattern which met Chompret criteria for screening for TP53 mutations associated with LFS. Our data suggests that familial cancer predispositions may be initially overlooked. Aperiodic and accurate ascertainment of family cancer history of childhood cancer patients and survivors is therefore recommended.

  9. Status of Development of Premature Children from 4 to 12 Months in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU Admission Based on the ASQ Questionnaire

    sara Kazeroono

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds & aim: Early diagnosis of developmental delays in children with high risk history of hospitalization in the intensive care unit is essential. Children with one or more risk factors before or around birth are more at risk for developmental delay. The aim of this study was to determine the evolution and history of premature children admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit. Methods: the present descriptive study was conducted on 80 premature children admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit of the Imam Sajad (AS hospital, Yasuj, Iran, with a history of developmental delay at the ages of 4, 6.12 months using the ASQ questionnaire. The questionnaire contains 30 questions including five fields such as communication, gross motor, fine motor, social-personal, problem solving. Along with questionnaire, other essential information were completed. The collected data were analyzed using Chi-square test. Results: among 80 patients, 43 cases (53.8 % were male, with an average weight of 1734.37+-445.50 gr. Regarding communication, gross motor, fine motor, social-personal, problem solving, the results were abnormal at the rate of 10, 30, 27.5, 23.8 and 23.8% respectively. There was no significant relationship found among different fields of development, birth weight, gestational age and Apgar score a significant relationship was found. A significant relationship between infants born through normal delivery and infants born via Caesarean section was realized (p<0.05. Conclusion: Despite the natural evolution, the majority of premature children with a history of NICU admission, a significant number have developmental disorder and need to consider early to avoid complications in the future.

  10. The second version of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire

    Pejtersen, Jan Hyld; Kristensen, Tage Søndergård; Borg, Vilhelm

    2010-01-01

    AIMS: The aim of the present paper is to present the development of the second version of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ II). METHODS: The development of COPSOQ II took place in five main steps: (1) We considered practical experience from the use of COPSOQ I, in particular...... feedback from workplace studies where the questionnaire had been used; (2) All scales concerning workplace factors in COPSOQ I were analyzed for differential item functioning (DIF) with regard to gender, age and occupational status; (3) A test version of COPSOQ II including new scales and items...... was developed and tested in a representative sample of working Danes between 20 and 59 years of age. In all, 3,517 Danish employees participated in the study. The overall response rate was 60.4%; (4) Based on psychometric analyses, the final questionnaire was developed; and (5) Criteria-related validity...

  11. The water balance questionnaire: design, reliability and validity of a questionnaire to evaluate water balance in the general population.

    Malisova, Olga; Bountziouka, Vassiliki; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Zampelas, Antonis; Kapsokefalou, Maria

    2012-03-01

    There is a need to develop a questionnaire as a research tool for the evaluation of water balance in the general population. The water balance questionnaire (WBQ) was designed to evaluate water intake from fluid and solid foods and drinking water, and water loss from urine, faeces and sweat at sedentary conditions and physical activity. For validation purposes, the WBQ was administrated in 40 apparently healthy participants aged 22-57 years (37.5% males). Hydration indices in urine (24 h volume, osmolality, specific gravity, pH, colour) were measured through established procedures. Furthermore, the questionnaire was administered twice to 175 subjects to evaluate its reliability. Kendall's τ-b and the Bland and Altman method were used to assess the questionnaire's validity and reliability. The proposed WBQ to assess water balance in healthy individuals was found to be valid and reliable, and it could thus be a useful tool in future projects that aim to evaluate water balance.

  12. Evaluation of a Parental Questionnaire to Identify Atopic Dermatitis in Infants and Preschool Children

    Laura B. von Kobyletzki; Staffan Janson; Mikael Hasselgren; Carl-Gustaf Bornehag; Åke Svensson

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To develop and validate a questionnaire for detecting atopic dermatitis in infants and small children from the age of 2 months. Methods: Parents to 60 children answered a written questionnaire prior to a physical examination and individual semistructured interview. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of validity, sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of the questionnaire were performed. Results: A total of 27 girls and 33 boys, aged 2 to 71 months, 35 with and...

  13. Test-retest reliability of the Work Ability Index questionnaire

    de Zwart, B. C. H.; Frings-Dresen, M. H. W.; Van Duivenbooden, J. C.

    2002-01-01

    The goal of the study was to assess the test-retest reliability of the Work Ability Index (WAI) questionnaire. Reliability was tested using a test-retest design with a 4 week interval between measurements. Valid data were collected among 97 elderly construction workers aged 40 years and older. We

  14. Assessment of Physical Activity by Applying IPAQ Questionnaire

    Biernat, Elzbieta; Stupnicki, Romuald; Lebiedzinski, Bartlomiej; Janczewska, Lidia

    2008-01-01

    Study aim: To assess the suitability of the short 7-day IPAQ (self-completed) adapted to Polish population. Material and methods: Two surveys were conducted in 2005 on 296 random subjects (aged 20-60 years) from Warsaw and the Mazowiecki region. From these, 54 men and 79 women were requested to fill questionnaires, and 70 men and 93 women, were…

  15. Reliability and validity of international physical activity questionnaire ...

    The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), a standardised method for assessing physical activity, has been tested at 14 centres in 12 countries on adults aged 18 to 65 years. However, there is no standardised instrument to determine levels of physical activity amongst Malay-speaking adults in Malaysia.

  16. The Sport Imagery Questionnaire for Children (SIQ-C)

    Hall, C. R.; Munroe-Chandler, K. J.; Fishburne, G. J.; Hall, N. D.

    2009-01-01

    Athletes of all ages report using imagery extensively to enhance their sport performance. The Sport Imagery Questionnaire (Hall, Mack, Paivio, & Hausenblas, 1998) was developed to assess cognitive and motivational imagery used by adult athletes. No such instrument currently exists to measure the use of imagery by young athletes. The aim of the…

  17. Factorial and construct validity of the Sibling Relationship Questionnaire

    Derkman, M.M.S.; Scholte, R.H.J.; Veld, W.M. van der; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    The psychometric properties of the shortened version of the Sibling Relationship Questionnaire (SRQ; Furman & Buhrmester, 1985) were examined in a sample of 428 Dutch adolescents, aged 13 to 16. In order to examine the dimensions Warmth/Closeness and Conflict, as proposed by Furman and Buhrmester,

  18. Hypertriglyceridemic Waist Phenotype in Adolescents Aged 15 to 18 Years

    Caridad Hernández Gutiérrez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: presence of the hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype is a predictor of cardiometabolic deterioration, increased type 2 diabetes mellitus and coronary heart disease. Objective: to determine the hypertriglyceridemic waist phenotype in adolescents aged 15 to 18 years from the Area III of Cienfuegos. Method: a case series study was conducted in a universe of 198 adolescents aged 15 to 18 years who attended a consultation created for this study at the Octavio de la Concepción y de la Pedraja University Polyclinic in Cienfuegos municipality from March to December 2013. Each patient completed a questionnaire including the following variables: age, sex, personal medical history, family medical history, weight, height, body mass index, presence of acanthosis nigricans, triglycerides and perimeter. Results: frequency of the phenotype was determined in 15.1 % of the participants with a slight predominance of the 18 age group (16.3 % and female sex (8.6 %. Twenty-one point six percent of the adolescents with a family history of obesity and 21.7 % of those with first-degree diabetic relatives presented the phenotype, being hypertriglyceridemia the most significant condition. Conclusions: a relationship between a family history of diabetes mellitus, obesity, body mass index above the 90th percentile value and presence of the phenotype was established.

  19. Development and Validation of the Bicultural Youth Acculturation Questionnaire

    Kukaswadia, Atif; Janssen, Ian; Pickett, William; Bajwa, Jasmine; Georgiades, Katholiki; Lalonde, Richard N.; Quon, Elizabeth C.; Safdar, Saba; Pike, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Acculturation is a multidimensional process involving changes in behaviour and beliefs. Questionnaires developed to measure acculturation are typically designed for specific ethnic populations and adult experiences. This study developed a questionnaire that measures acculturation among ethnically diverse populations of youth that can be included as a module in population surveys. Methods Questionnaires measuring acculturation in youth were identified in the literature. The importance of items from the existing questionnaires was determined using a Delphi process and this informed the development of our questionnaire. The questionnaire was then pilot tested using a sample of 248 Canadians aged 18–25 via an online system. Participants identified as East and South East Asian (27.8%), South Asian (17.7%) and Black (13.7%). The majority were 1st (33.5%) or 2nd generation immigrants (52.0%). After redundant items were eliminated, exploratory factor analysis grouped items into domains, and, for each domain, internal consistency, and convergent validity with immigrant generation then age at immigration estimated. A subset of participants re-completed the questionnaire for reliability estimation. Results The literature review yielded 117 articles that used 13 questionnaires with a total of 440 questions. The Delphi process reduced these to 32 questions. Pilot testing occurred in 248 Canadians aged 18–25. Following item reduction, 16 questions in three domains remained: dominant culture, heritage language, and heritage culture. All had good internal consistency (Cronbach’s alphas > .75). The mean dominant domain score increased with immigrant generation (1st generation: 3.69 (95% CI: 3.49–3.89), 2nd: 4.13 (4.00–4.26), 3rd: 4.40 (4.19–4.61)), and mean heritage language score was higher among those who immigrated after age 12 than before (p = .0001), indicative of convergent validity. Conclusions This Bicultural Youth Acculturation Questionnaire has

  20. Women with a history of childhood sexual abuse. Long-term social and psychiatric aspects

    Kristensen, Ellids; Lau, Marianne

    2007-01-01

    The socio-demographics and psychiatric diagnoses in a clinical sample of women with a history of mainly intrafamilial childhood sexual abuse (CSA) are described. The women were referred to five psychiatric centres for incest group psychotherapy. Data were gathered using interviews and self......-administered questionnaires. Over a period of 2.5 years, 385 women with mean age of 33 years were referred with a history of CSA. Three hundred and forty of those had experienced intrafamilial CSA. The average age at first abuse was 6.8 years, and it lasted for a mean of 6 years. The women had been abused by a mean of 1.......5 perpetrators. A quarter of the women had been subjected to violence in connection with the sexual abuse. The likelihood of violence having occurred rose significantly if there was more than one perpetrator and/or if penetration had been part of the sexual abuse. Violence was less common if the perpetrator...

  1. Evaluation of significance of positive familial history in prevalence of hypertension in Isfahan

    Tavassoli A

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is one of the most important modifiable risk factors of vascular heart disease. Control of hypertension in different age groups has a significant effect upon the control and prevention of vascular heart disease. A familial pattern is observed in the distribution of blood pressure in different societies. Family history of hypertension has a profound effect on the future risk of developing hypertension. The blood pressure of approximately 8150 inhabitants of Isfahan aged above 18 years was measured during 1993-94. Blood pressure measurements were performed according to the standards set by WHO i.e., on two separate occasions, in the sitting position, and from both arms. A questionnaire was completed consisting of 26 questions, including questions regarding history of hypertension in first and second-degree relatives. Cases with a blood pressure of 140/90 mmHg or more, were referred to the Cardiovascular Research Center of Isfahan for further evaluation. Mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure was higher in cases with a positive family history of hypertension. In this study, 37.4% of the men with hypertension and 45.4% of hypertensive women had positive history of hypertension in first-degree relatives. The association between positive family history and hypertension was not significant in men (P=0.62, but it was significant in women (P=0.000. This difference was less pronounced in the older age groups, which could be explained by the illiteracy of most of the older cases and their ignorance of the existence of hypertension in family members. After correcting for the effects of confounding factors, it appears that positive family history has a stronger association with the development of hypertension in women. Moreover, positive family history is a strong prognostic factor in the likelihood of hypertension in the children of affected cases. These findings emphasize the importance of routine blood pressure measurement in children and

  2. Database of Standardized Questionnaires About Walking & Bicycling

    This database contains questionnaire items and a list of validation studies for standardized items related to walking and biking. The items come from multiple national and international physical activity questionnaires.

  3. Surveys and questionnaires in nursing research.

    Timmins, Fiona

    2015-06-17

    Surveys and questionnaires are often used in nursing research to elicit the views of large groups of people to develop the nursing knowledge base. This article provides an overview of survey and questionnaire use in nursing research, clarifies the place of the questionnaire as a data collection tool in quantitative research design and provides information and advice about best practice in the development of quantitative surveys and questionnaires.

  4. Celebrate Women's History.

    Leonard, Carolyn M.; Baradar, Mariam

    This teachers' guide to activities celebrating Women's History Month focuses on women whose important contributions have been omitted from history textbooks. Women's History Month grew from a 1977 celebration of Women's History Week and is intended to bring women's history into the school curriculum. International Women's Day, celebrated on March…

  5. Construction and validation of attitudes toward plagiarism questionnaire.

    Mavrinac, Martina; Brumini, Gordana; Bilić-Zulle, Lidija; Petrovecki, Mladen

    2010-06-01

    To develop and test the psychometric characteristics of a questionnaire measuring attitudes toward plagiarism. Participants were 227 undergraduates and graduate students (128 women and 99 men) from three Croatian universities, with a median age of 21 years (range 18 to 48). Research was conducted from March to June 2009. For the purpose of construction of the first version of the questionnaire, 67 statements (items) were developed. The statements were based on the relevant literature and were developed following rules and recommendations for questionnaire writing, and 36 items were chosen for final validation. Factor analysis was used to find out the factor structure of the questionnaire and to measure construct validity. The final version of the questionnaire consisted of 29 items divided into a three-factor structure: factor I - positive attitude toward plagiarism (12 items); factor II - negative attitude toward plagiarism (7 items); and factor III - subjective norms toward plagiarism (10 items). Cronbach alpha was calculated to confirm the reliability of the scale: factor I - alpha=0.83; factor II - alpha=0.79; and factor III - alpha=0.85. Correlations between factors were: -0.37 between I and II, -0.41 between I and III, and +0.31 between II and III. Attitudes Toward Plagiarism questionnaire was developed, with good psychometric characteristics. It will be used in future research as a standardized tool for measuring attitudes toward plagiarism.

  6. Relation between family history, obesity and risk for diabetes and heart disease in Pakistani children

    Basit, A.; Hakeem, R.; Hydrie, M.Z.; Ahmadani, M.Y.; Masood, Q.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To assess the differences in relative risk of developing diabetes and CHD, obesity, fasting blood glucose, insulin and lipids of children having family history of diabetes or heart disease in first or second degree relatives as compared to control group. Design: Children were given a questionnaire to collect demographic data and to assess their dietary habits and family history. Anthropometric measurements and blood samples for fasting blood glucose, insulin and lipids of 8-10 years old children from 4 schools was taken. Subjects: Children having positive family history of diabetes (n=44) or heart disease (n=16) in first or second degree relatives were compared with a control group (n=39). Results: Children having positive family history for diabetes had slightly higher mean values for BMI, waist circumference, arm fat % as compared to the controls but the differences were not statistically significant. Overweight children (>85th Percentile of BMI for age) did not differ significantly in terms of various risk indicators however those who were in the uppermost tertile of arm fat % had significantly higher total Cholesterol, Triglycerides, LDL-C, LDL:HDL and Insulin levels (P<0.05 in each case). Conclusion: Diabetes and CVD risks from positive family history for the disease are probably mediated through increased body fat percentage. Thus even when information about family history of disease is lacking, arm-fat-percentage could be used as an important screening tool for determining the risk status of children. (author)

  7. Sexual dysfunction risk and quality of life among women with a history of sexual abuse.

    Carreiro, Andrea V; Micelli, Ligia P; Sousa, Maria H; Bahamondes, Luis; Fernandes, Arlete

    2016-09-01

    To assess scores for sexual dysfunction risk and quality of life in a cohort of women in Brazil who had a history of sexual abuse. The present study was a secondary analysis of a cross-sectional study conducted between February 1, 2011 and May 31, 2012. Women aged 18-49years attending a family planning clinic at the University of Campinas, Brazil, who were in a heterosexual relationship and reported engaging in sexual intercourse in the 4weeks prior to the study were enrolled. Participants were asked to complete the World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire, Abbreviated Version, and the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) questionnaire. Data were grouped based on a history of sexual abuse. An FSFI score of no higher than 26.55 was considered the cut off for sexual dysfunction. The prevalence of FSFI-defined sexual dysfunction was higher in participants with a history of sexual abuse (Phistory of sexual abuse had significantly lower scores across all quality of life domains. Increased risk of sexual dysfunction among women with a history of sexual abuse suggests potential problems in the sex lives of individuals in this population. Healthcare professionals should be alert to this diagnosis. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. MIDAS questionnaire modification for a new MIDAS junior questionnaire: a clinical experience at the Neurological Institute "C. Besta".

    Grazzi, L

    2004-10-01

    During the last decade researchers have begun to employ standardised methodologies to investigate the global impact of primary headaches. Disease-specific instruments have been developed to measure headache-related disability. The MIDAS questionnaire, which is the most extensively studied of these instruments, was designed to assess the overall impact of headaches over the 3 months before compilation. The MIDAS questionnaire is an optimal tool to assess headache-related disability in adults in relation to patients' daily activities. Primary headaches are a recurrent problem for children and adolescents. Forty percent of children have experienced headaches by the age of 7 years increasing to 75% by the age of 15. In a recent report we determined the suitability of the MIDAS questionnaire in its original form for assessing disability in children and adolescents suffering from different kinds of headache. This was the first step of a line of research aimed to develop a new MIDAS questionnaire adapted for young patients. In this second study the aims were: (1) to produce a new version of the MIDAS questionnaire specific for young patients suffering from different forms of headache; (2) to assess the reliability of this new instrument; (3) to assess its sensitivity to treatment intervention.

  9. Precariousness and discontinuous work history in association with health.

    Sirviö, Anitta; Ek, Ellen; Jokelainen, Jari; Koiranen, Markku; Järvikoski, Timo; Taanila, Anja

    2012-06-01

    Precarious type of employment may have a negative impact on health, notably on low psychological wellbeing. The basis of the former relationship is constructed by definition and operationalisation of precariousness. In this research, we first experimented with a construct of work history in the operationalisation of precariousness and second studied the relationship between precariousness and health. The research data originated from a large population-based birth cohort (NFBC 1966). The study sample consists of 3449 respondents to the postal questionnaire at the age of 31 and the information supplemented by the register data of the Finnish Centre for Pensions. Health was measured by self-reports of doctor-diagnosed/treated illnesses and HSCL-25 for mental symptoms. Our operationalisation with a construct of discontinuous work history captured the precarious insecure relation to work. The precarious workers were found to have proportionally more mental symptoms in comparison with permanent workers. The perception of distress was stronger among precarious workers who perceived high job insecurity. However, there were no differences in doctor-diagnosed/treated illnesses between precarious and permanent workers. The study suggests that the construct of work history is a useful element in defining precariousness. The study also illustrates the association of precariousness, perceived job insecurity, and mental distress. The study suggests further research on disadvantages experienced by precarious workers.

  10. The STOP-BANG questionnaire as a screening tool for obstructive sleep apneainduced hypertension in Asian population

    Tanut Pavarangkul

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is a common public health issue. If left untreated, OSA may cause a large health economic burden from cardiovascular complications particularly stroke. The diagnosis of OSA can be made by polysomnography, but its availability is limited in the developing countries in Asia. STOP-BANG questionnaire is a good screening tool but may need some adjustment for Asian population. STOP-BANG stands for: Snoring history, Tired during the day, Observed stop breathing while sleep, High blood pressure, body mass index (BMI more than 35 kg/m2, Age more than 50 years, Neck circumference more than 40 cm and male Gender. We compared clinical features in STOP-BANG questionnaire between 42 OSA induced hypertension patients and 82 healthy control subjects in the Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Thailand. The best cutoff point for the BMI and the neck circumference were 24.5 kg/m2 and 36 cm, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the BMI cutoff point were 97.2% and 91.40, while those of the neck circumference were 94.7% and 82.9%. In conclusion, the appropriate cutoff points of BMI and neck circumference for Thai STOP-BANG questionnaire were 25 kg/m2 and 36 cm.

  11. Calibration of the food list and portion sizes of a food frequency questionnaire applied to free-living elderly people.

    Pfrimer, Karina; Sartorelli, Daniela Saes; Rosa, Flavia Troncon; Mendes Resende, Cristina Maria; Viera, Daniela Vieira Pallos; Rabito, Estela Iraci; Scagliusi, Fernanda Baeza; Moriguti, Eny Kiyomi Uemora; Monteiro, Jaqueline Pontes; Ferriolli, Eduardo

    2013-05-01

    To calibrate the food list and relative portion sizes of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for application to a free-living, healthy, elderly population. Cross-sectional study. One hundred free-living, healthy participants, aged from 60 to 75 y, randomly selected from among individuals in the area served by the Family Health Program, School of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto, University of São Paulo. A Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and a Diet History Questionnaire (DH) were applied by trained dietitians. Each food item of the FFQ had its portion size recalculated according to the percentiles referenced by the volunteers in the DH (25th = small, 50th = medium, and 75th = large). The list of foods and portion sizes of the original FFQ and those obtained by the application of the DH were compared. The percent contribution of energy, protein, fat, carbohydrate, folic acid, vitamin C, calcium, and fiber of each food item mentioned in the FFQ was determined from the data obtained by the application of the DH. FFQ, as compared with the DH, provided good estimation of the intake of protein, calcium, folic acid, and fiber (paired t test P food list were found to be appropriate for application to healthy, urban, free-living elderly people in Ribeirao Preto, Brazil. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Family history and its association to curve size and treatment in 1,463 patients with idiopathic scoliosis.

    Grauers, Anna; Danielsson, Aina; Karlsson, Magnus; Ohlin, Acke; Gerdhem, Paul

    2013-11-01

    To study family history in relation to curve severity, gender, age at diagnosis and treatment in idiopathic scoliosis. A self-assessment questionnaire on family history of scoliosis was administered to 1,463 untreated, brace or surgically treated idiopathic scoliosis patients. Out of the 1,463 patients, 51 % had one or more relatives with scoliosis. There was no significant difference between females and males, nor between juvenile and adolescent study participants in this respect (p = 0.939 and 0.110, respectively). There was a significant difference in maximum curve size between patients with one or more relatives with scoliosis (median 35°, interquartile range 25) and patients without any relative with scoliosis (median 32°, interquartile range 23) (p = 0.022). When stratifying patients according to treatment (observation, brace treatment or surgery), we found that it was more common to have a relative with scoliosis among the treated patients (p = 0.011). The OR for being treated was 1.32 (95% CI 1.06-1.64) when the patient had a relative with scoliosis, compared to not having. Larger curve sizes were found in patients with a family history of scoliosis than in the ones without. No relation between family history and gender or between family history and age at onset of idiopathic scoliosis was found. Although the presence of a family history of scoliosis may not be a strong prognostic risk factor, it indicates that these patients are at higher risk of developing a more severe curve.

  13. Human Life History Strategies.

    Chua, Kristine J; Lukaszewski, Aaron W; Grant, DeMond M; Sng, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Human life history (LH) strategies are theoretically regulated by developmental exposure to environmental cues that ancestrally predicted LH-relevant world states (e.g., risk of morbidity-mortality). Recent modeling work has raised the question of whether the association of childhood family factors with adult LH variation arises via (i) direct sampling of external environmental cues during development and/or (ii) calibration of LH strategies to internal somatic condition (i.e., health), which itself reflects exposure to variably favorable environments. The present research tested between these possibilities through three online surveys involving a total of over 26,000 participants. Participants completed questionnaires assessing components of self-reported environmental harshness (i.e., socioeconomic status, family neglect, and neighborhood crime), health status, and various LH-related psychological and behavioral phenotypes (e.g., mating strategies, paranoia, and anxiety), modeled as a unidimensional latent variable. Structural equation models suggested that exposure to harsh ecologies had direct effects on latent LH strategy as well as indirect effects on latent LH strategy mediated via health status. These findings suggest that human LH strategies may be calibrated to both external and internal cues and that such calibrational effects manifest in a wide range of psychological and behavioral phenotypes.

  14. Human Life History Strategies

    Kristine J. Chua

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Human life history (LH strategies are theoretically regulated by developmental exposure to environmental cues that ancestrally predicted LH-relevant world states (e.g., risk of morbidity–mortality. Recent modeling work has raised the question of whether the association of childhood family factors with adult LH variation arises via (i direct sampling of external environmental cues during development and/or (ii calibration of LH strategies to internal somatic condition (i.e., health, which itself reflects exposure to variably favorable environments. The present research tested between these possibilities through three online surveys involving a total of over 26,000 participants. Participants completed questionnaires assessing components of self-reported environmental harshness (i.e., socioeconomic status, family neglect, and neighborhood crime, health status, and various LH-related psychological and behavioral phenotypes (e.g., mating strategies, paranoia, and anxiety, modeled as a unidimensional latent variable. Structural equation models suggested that exposure to harsh ecologies had direct effects on latent LH strategy as well as indirect effects on latent LH strategy mediated via health status. These findings suggest that human LH strategies may be calibrated to both external and internal cues and that such calibrational effects manifest in a wide range of psychological and behavioral phenotypes.

  15. Implications for cancer genetics practice of pro-actively assessing family history in a General Practice cohort in North West London.

    Kohut, Kelly; D'Mello, Lucia; Bancroft, Elizabeth K; Thomas, Sarah; Young, Mary-Anne; Myhill, Kathryn; Shanley, Susan; Briggs, Brian H J; Newman, Michelle; Saraf, Ifthikhar M; Cox, Penny; Scambler, Sarah; Wagman, Lyndon; Wyndham, Michael T; Eeles, Rosalind A; Ferris, Michelle

    2012-03-01

    At present cancer genetics referrals are reactive to individuals asking for a referral and providing a family history thereafter. A previous pilot study in a single General Practice (GP) catchment area in North London showed a 1.5-fold increase in breast cancer risk in the Ashkenazi Jewish population compared with the non-Ashkenazi mixed population. The breast cancer incidence was equal in the Ashkenazim in both pre- and postmenopausal groups. We wanted to investigate the effect of proactively seeking family history data from the entire female population of the practice to determine the effect on cancer genetics referral. Objectives To determine the need for cancer genetics intervention for women in a single GP catchment area. (1) to determine the incidence and strength of family history of cancer in women aged over 18 in the practice, (2) to offer cancer genetics advice and determine the uptake of counselling in those with a positive family history, (3) to identify potential BRCA1/BRCA2 gene mutation carriers who can be offered clinical follow up with appropriate translational research studies. Design Population-based cohort study of one General Practice female population. Participants Three hundred and eighty-three women over the age of 18 from one General Practice who responded to a questionnaire about family history of cancer. The whole female adult GP population was the target and the total number sampled was 3,820. Results 10% of patients completed the questionnaire (n = 383). A family history of cancer was present in 338 cases, 95 went on to have genetic counselling or had previously had counselling and 47 were genetically tested. We identified three carriers of an Ashkenazi Jewish founder mutation in BRCA1. Conclusions Response rate to a family history questionnaire such as that used in genetics centres was low (10%) and other approaches will be needed to proactively assess family history. Although the Ashkenazim are present in 39% of the GP catchment

  16. Age-related hearing loss

    ... grow older. Your genes and loud noise (from rock concerts or music headphones) may play a large role. The following factors contribute to age-related hearing loss: Family history (age-related hearing loss tends to run in ...

  17. Increased risk of metabolic disorders in healthy young adults with family history of diabetes: from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Survey.

    Moon, Joon Ho; Roh, Eun; Oh, Tae Jung; Kim, Kyoung Min; Moon, Jae Hoon; Lim, Soo; Jang, Hak Chul; Choi, Sung Hee

    2017-01-01

    We assessed the impact of a family history of diabetes on type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and behavioral traits in young Korean adults. Subjects aged 25-44 years were included, and the presence of a family history of diabetes was obtained by a self-reported questionnaire (the Korea National Health and Nutrition Survey 2010). We compared the prevalence of type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome, and other metabolic parameters, including blood pressure and lipid profile. Of 2059 participants, those with a family history of diabetes involving first-degree relatives (n = 489, 23.7%) had a significantly higher prevalence of impaired fasting glucose (14.3 vs. 11.7%) and type 2 diabetes (6.7 vs. 1.8%), compared to those without a family history ( P  metabolic syndrome (21.3 vs. 12.1%, P  family history of diabetes. Among subjects exhibiting normal glucose tolerance (n = 1704), those with a family history of diabetes had higher fasting glucose (89.0 vs. 87.8 mg/dL, P  family history of diabetes. Young adults with a family history of diabetes had an increased risk of type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome, even though they currently exhibited a normal glycemic profile. Proactive lifestyle consultation is requested especially among healthy young population with a family history of diabetes.

  18. Psychometric properties of the Violent Experiences Questionnaire.

    King, Alan R; Russell, Tiffany D

    2017-05-01

    The Violent Experiences Questionnaire-Revised (VEQ-R) is a brief retrospective self-report inventory which provides estimates of annual frequencies of childhood physical abuse, sibling physical abuse, exposure to parental violence, peer bullying, and corporal punishment as they were experienced from ages 5 to 16. The VEQ-R indices rely on a frequency metric that estimates the number of days on average per year a specified class of behavior occurred over a 12year retrospective period. All scores range from a frequency of 0 to a high of 104. Scale normative data was generated from both a college (N=1266) and national (N=1290) sample to expand the research applicability of this relatively new inventory. Subscales were added to estimate the frequency of victimization during childhood, the pre-teen years, and adolescence. Four "hostility" component indices were derived from perpetrator source (parent, sibling, peer, or domestic). Thresholds were established to for High, Moderate, Low, and No Risk classifications. Subscales dimensions were found to have both adequate internal and temporal consistency. Evidence of concurrent and discriminant validity was generated using the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale-Short-Form © , LONGSCAN Physical Abuse Self-Report scale, and Physical Punishment scale of the Assessing Environments III inventory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Personal resource questionnaire: a systematic review.

    Tawalbeh, Loai I; Ahmad, Muayyad M

    2013-09-01

    Social support is a key nursing variable. No review has yet systematically assessed the effectiveness of the personal resource questionnaire (PRQ) as a measure of perceived social support. This article reviewed nine previous studies that used the PRQ (Brandt & Weinert, 1981). Completed studies were identified through searches of indexes that included PubMed, the Cumulative Index for Nursing and EBSCO host, and Ovid. Studies that reported PRQ scores, sample descriptions, and sample sizes and that tested the relationship between the PRQ and study variables were included in the present review. Three other studies were included that did not report on PRQ correlations with other health variables. The included studies addressed a variety of health problems and different population in different settings. Cronbach's alphas for the included studies ranged from .87 to .93, supporting the internal consistency of the PRQ. Hypothesized relationships between the PRQ and study variables including health promotion behavior, self-care behavior, self-efficacy, self-esteem, stress, depression, loneliness, pain, and disability were supported, providing positive evidence for PRQ construct validity. Included studies used the PRQ to address disparate populations in terms of age, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, and educational background. This review found the PRQ to be a reliable and valid tool for measuring perceived social support across a wide range of populations. Further studies are necessary to examine the relationship between social support and selected demographics among populations with different cultural backgrounds.

  20. A history of salt.

    Cirillo, M; Capasso, G; Di Leo, V A; De Santo, N G

    1994-01-01

    The medical history of salt begins in ancient times and is closely related to different aspects of human history. Salt may be extracted from sea water, mineral deposits, surface encrustations, saline lakes and brine springs. In many inland areas, wood was used as a fuel source for evaporation of brine and this practice led to major deafforestation in central Europe. Salt played a central role in the economies of many regions, and is often reflected in place names. Salt was also used as a basis for population censuses and taxation, and salt monopolies were practised in many states. Salt was sometimes implicated in the outbreak of conflict, e.g. the French Revolution and the Indian War of Independence. Salt has also been invested with many cultural and religious meanings, from the ancient Egyptians to the Middle Ages. Man's innate appetite for salt may be related to his evolution from predominantly vegetarian anthropoids, and it is noteworthy that those people who live mainly on protein and milk or who drink salty water do not generally salt their food, whereas those who live mainly on vegetables, rice and cereals use much more salt. Medicinal use tended to emphasize the positive aspects of salt, e.g. prevention of putrefaction, reduction of tissue swelling, treatment of diarrhea. Evidence was also available to ancient peoples of its relationship to fertility, particularly in domestic animals. The history of salt thus represents a unique example for studying the impact of a widely used dietary substance on different important aspects of man's life, including medical philosophy.