WorldWideScience

Sample records for history process knowledge

  1. Governing Knowledge Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Husted, Kenneth; Michailova, Snejina

    2003-01-01

    An under-researched issue in work within the `knowledge movement' is therelation between organizational issues and knowledge processes (i.e., sharingand creating knowledge). We argue that managers can shape formalorganization structure and organization forms and can influence the moreinformal org...... to Anna Grandori for numerous excellent comments on anearlier draft. The standard disclaimer applies.Keywords: Knowledge creation, knowledge sharing, governance, organizationaleconomics, organizational behavior.......An under-researched issue in work within the `knowledge movement' is therelation between organizational issues and knowledge processes (i.e., sharingand creating knowledge). We argue that managers can shape formalorganization structure and organization forms and can influence the moreinformal...... organizational practices in order to foster knowledge sharing andcreation. Theoretically, we unfold this argument by relying on key ideas oforganizational economics and organizational behaviour studies. We put forwarda number of refutable propositions derived from this reasoning.AcknowledgmentsWe are grateful...

  2. Emotion Processes in Knowledge Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevors, Gregory J.; Kendeou, Panayiota; Butterfuss, Reese

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, a number of insights have been gained into the cognitive processes that explain how individuals overcome misconceptions and revise their previously acquired incorrect knowledge. The current study complements this line of research by investigating the moment-by-moment emotion processes that occur during knowledge revision using a…

  3. Learning processes across knowledge domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall-Andersen, Lene Bjerg; Broberg, Ole

    2014-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to shed light on the problematics of learning across knowledge boundaries in organizational settings. The paper specifically explores learning processes that emerge, when a new knowledge domain is introduced into an existing organizational practice with the ...

  4. Measuring process and knowledge consistency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Kasper; Jensen, Klaes Ladeby; Haug, Anders

    2007-01-01

    When implementing configuration systems, knowledge about products and processes are documented and replicated in the configuration system. This practice assumes that products are specified consistently i.e. on the same rule base and likewise for processes. However, consistency cannot be taken...... for granted; rather the contrary, and attempting to implement a configuration system may easily ignite a political battle. This is because stakes are high in the sense that the rules and processes chosen may only reflect one part of the practice, ignoring a majority of the employees. To avoid this situation......, this paper presents a methodology for measuring product and process consistency prior to implementing a configuration system. The methodology consists of two parts: 1) measuring knowledge consistency and 2) measuring process consistency. Knowledge consistency is measured by developing a questionnaire...

  5. Identifying knowledge in decision-making processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anna Rose Vagn; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2010-01-01

    Managing knowledge reflects the innovation capability of a company. Mapping decision processes and links to knowledge is a way to learn more in structuring knowledge in innovation processes. Through an empirical study the paper aims to identify knowledge...

  6. History Lessons Blend Content Knowledge, Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    For years, educators have been trying to free history instruction from the mire of memorization and propel it with the kinds of inquiry that drive historians themselves. The common core standards may offer more impetus for districts and schools to adopt that brand of instruction. A study of one such approach suggests that it can yield a triple…

  7. Evaluating Knowledge of Business Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andra TURDASAN

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Any organization relies on processes/procedures in order to organize the operations. Those processes can be explicit (e.g. textual descriptions of workflow steps or graphical descriptions or implicit (e.g. employees have learned by experience the steps needed to ‘get things done’. A widely acknowledged fact is that processes change due to internal and/or external factors. How can managers make sure the employees know the last version of the process? The current practice is to test employees by multiple-choice questions. This paper proposes a novel knowledge-testing approach based on graphical and interactive questions. To validate our approach, we set up a single-factor controlled experiment with novices and experts in a faculty admission process. The results show that our approach has better results in terms of correct answers.

  8. The history of knowledge on radiation injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuettmann, W.

    1988-01-01

    The possible endangering with the peaceful utilization of nuclear energy and the fateful threat of mankind by nuclear weapons in a world-wide extent keep the discussion on problems of radiation injuries and the national and international activities to avoid them as well running. In view of the burning discussions, the impression may rise that radiation injuries became aware to the human-being only recently. Actually this knowledge dats back to the turn of the century. The development of the knowledge on radiation injuries originating immediately after discovery of W.C. Roentgen in 1895 is presented concisely. The application of radiotherapy is taken into consideration. A historical retrospect in various sections deals with the initial period of radiogenic skin injuries, with the recognition of radiation injuries at the internal organs, the proof of carcinogenic effects of ionizing radiations and its mutagenic influence. Finally it is presented how experience gained during decades, is used as a basis for the conception of present radiation protection. (author)

  9. From the History of Science to the History of Knowledge – and Back

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renn, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    The history of science can be better understood against the background of a history of knowledge comprising not only theoretical but also intuitive and practical knowledge. This widening of scope necessitates a more concise definition of the concept of knowledge, relating its cognitive to its material and social dimensions. The history of knowledge comprises the history of institutions in which knowledge is produced and transmitted. This is an essential but hitherto neglected aspect of cultural evolution. Taking this aspect into account one is led to the concept of extended evolution, which integrates the perspectives of niche construction and complex regulative networks. The paper illustrates this concept using four examples: the emergence of language, the Neolithic revolution, the invention of writing and the origin of mechanics. PMID:25684777

  10. From the History of Science to the History of Knowledge - and Back.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renn, Jürgen

    2015-02-01

    The history of science can be better understood against the background of a history of knowledge comprising not only theoretical but also intuitive and practical knowledge. This widening of scope necessitates a more concise definition of the concept of knowledge, relating its cognitive to its material and social dimensions. The history of knowledge comprises the history of institutions in which knowledge is produced and transmitted. This is an essential but hitherto neglected aspect of cultural evolution. Taking this aspect into account one is led to the concept of extended evolution, which integrates the perspectives of niche construction and complex regulative networks. The paper illustrates this concept using four examples: the emergence of language, the Neolithic revolution, the invention of writing and the origin of mechanics.

  11. History of Uranium-233(233U)Processing at the Rocky Flats Plant. In support of the RFETS Acceptable Knowledge Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moment, R.L.; Gibbs, F.E.; Freiboth, C.J.

    1999-01-01

    This report documents the processing of Uranium-233 at the Rocky Flats Plant (Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site). The information may be used to meet Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC)and for determining potential Uranium-233 content in applicable residue waste streams

  12. Knowledge management: processes and systems | Igbinovia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge management: processes and systems. ... Information Impact: Journal of Information and Knowledge Management ... observation, role reversal technique, and discussion forums as well as the forms of knowledge representation to include report writing, database management system and institutional repositories.

  13. Trust, Knowledge Creation and Mediating Effects of Knowledge Transfer Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sankowska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates how organizational trust contributes to knowledge transfer processes and knowledge creation both directly and indirectly. The mediation analyses were used. The findings using cross-sectional data from Polish companies suggest a new way of thinking in respect of how crucial is trust to creation of knowledge unconnected to organizational memory.

  14. College Students Constructing Collective Knowledge of Natural Science History in a Collaborative Knowledge Building Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Huang-Yao; Chai, Ching Sing; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates whether engaging college students (n = 42) in a knowledge building environment would help them work as a community to construct their collective knowledge of history of science and, accordingly, develop a more informed scientific view. The study adopted mixed-method analyses and data mainly came from surveys and student…

  15. PENERAPAN KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT: ORAL HISTORY PENANGANAN ARSIP BENCANA TOPAN HAIYAN DI FILIPINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aris Riyadi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge management process using Nonaka’s SECI model in creation of knowledge can provide guidance for learning and developing activities. Nevertheless, understanding the process of socialization, externalization, combination and internalization needs to be deepened with a lot of practice directly. This article provides a framework for real method that synthesizes basic phases as informal knowledge from an expert who has never capture and promotes knowledge before. Purpose of this article is to open earlier tacit knowledge form into process of socialization and internalization. An expert knowledge how to handling damage records by natural disaster will revealed in explicit way through capture process of oral history. Process for document damage recovery is conducted using disaster management procedure or library materials preservation knowledge. Research method for knowledge capture carried through pre-interview, interview and post-interview. Support data such as form of images, diaries, letters, agreements and others are used to reinforce methodology. Applying this method will produce two knowledge directly which are disaster management knowledge and management knowledge processes.

  16. DSS and GIS in Knowledge Transformation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimešová Dana

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge is an important resource for successful decision-making process in the whole society today. The special procedures of control and management of knowledge therefore have to be used. In the area of knowledge management and knowledge engineering basic terms of these disciplines are data, information, knowledge and knowledge transformation. The knowledge can be defined as a dynamic human process of justifying personal beliefs. Knowledge is a product of successful decision-making process. Knowledge transformation is a spiralling process of interactions between explicit and tacit knowledge that leads to the new knowledge. Nonaka and all show, that the combination of these two categories makes possible to conceptualise four conversion steps: Socialisation, Externalisation, Combination and Internalisation (SECI model. Another model of knowledge creation is the Knowledge Transformation Continuum (BCI Knowledge Group that begins with the articulation of a specific instruction representing the best way that a specific task, or series of tasks, should be performed. Knowledge modelling and knowledge representation is an important field of research also in Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence. The definition of knowledge in Artificial Intelligence is a noticeable different, because Artificial Intelligence is typically dealing with formalized knowledge (e.g. ontology. The development of knowledge-based systems was seen as a process of transferring human knowledge to an implemented knowledge base. Decision Support Systems (DSS, Geographical Information Systems (GIS and Operations Research/Management Science (OR/MS modelling process support decision-making process, therefore they also produce a new knowledge. A Decision Support Systems are an interactive computer-based systems helping decision makers complete decision process. Geographic Information Systems provide essential marketing and customer intelligence solutions that lead to better

  17. Role of Knowledge Based Communities in Knowledge Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Ion CEPTUREANU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the new economy, knowledge is an essential component of economic and social systems. The organizational focus has to be on building knowledge-based management, development of human resource and building intellectual capital capabilities. Knowledge-based management is defined, at company level, by economic processes that emphasize creation, selling, buying, learning, storing, developing, sharing and protection of knowledge as a decisive condition for profit and long-term sustainability of the company. Hence, knowledge is, concurently, according to a majoritiy of specialists, raw material, capital, product and an essential input. Knowledge-based communities are one of the main constituent elements of a framework for knowledge based management. These are peer networks consisting of practitioners within an organization, supporting each other to perform better through the exchange and sharing of knowledge. Some large companies have contributed or supported the establishment of numerous communities of practice, some of which may have several thousand members. They operate in different ways, are of different sizes, have different areas of interest and addresses knowledge at different levels of its maturity. This article examines the role of knowledge-based communities from the perspective of knowledge based management, given that the arrangements for organizational learning, creating, sharing, use of knowledge within organizations become more heterogeneous and take forms more difficult to predict by managers and specialists.

  18. Adolescents' knowledge of medical terminology and family health history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastrup, J L; Phillips, S M; Vullo, K; Kang, G; Slomka, L

    1992-01-01

    Compared 309 youths ages 11 to 15 years and their parents with respect to their comprehension of terms for seven common medical disorders: heart attack, stroke, atherosclerosis, ulcer, hypertension, diabetes, and cancer. For two thirds of the adolescent sample, accuracy of reporting of these disorders among the parents and grandparents was assessed. Results indicated considerable variation among disorders with respect to both comprehension of terms and accuracy of family health history. Adolescents' age was a major predictor of knowledge of medical terms (r = .41). Age was not related to accuracy of family health information. Consonant with this finding, adolescents' level of accuracy regarding family health history was generally similar to that of previous adult samples, suggesting that family health information is acquired and retained at an early age. Adolescents were more accurate concerning parents' compared with grandparents' history of hypertension.

  19. Process mining: making knowledge discovery process centric

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalst, van der W.M.P.

    2011-01-01

    Recently, the Task Force on Process Mining released the Process Mining Manifesto. The manifesto is supported by 53 organizations and 77 process mining experts contributed to it. The active contributions from end-users, tool vendors, consultants, analysts, and researchers illustrate the growing

  20. A brief history of process algebra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baeten, J.C.M.

    2005-01-01

    This note addresses the history of process algebra as an area of research in concurrency theory, the theory of parallel and distributed systems in computer science. Origins are traced back to the early seventies of the twentieth century, and developments since that time are sketched. The author

  1. A brief history of process algebra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baeten, J.C.M.

    2004-01-01

    Abstract. This note addresses the history of process algebra as an area of research in concurrency theory, the theory of parallel and distributed systems in computer science. Origins are traced back to the early seventies of the twentieth century, and developments since that time are sketched. The

  2. Microstructure history effect during sequential thermomechanical processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yassar, Reza S.; Murphy, John; Burton, Christina; Horstemeyer, Mark F.; El kadiri, Haitham; Shokuhfar, Tolou

    2008-01-01

    The key to modeling the material processing behavior is the linking of the microstructure evolution to its processing history. This paper quantifies various microstructural features of an aluminum automotive alloy that undergoes sequential thermomechanical processing which is comprised hot rolling of a 150-mm billet to a 75-mm billet, rolling to 3 mm, annealing, and then cold rolling to a 0.8-mm thickness sheet. The microstructural content was characterized by means of electron backscatter diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The results clearly demonstrate the evolution of precipitate morphologies, dislocation structures, and grain orientation distributions. These data can be used to improve material models that claim to capture the history effects of the processing materials

  3. Information technology, knowledge processes, and innovation success

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, X.M.; Zang, F.; Bij, van der J.D.; Weggeman, M.C.D.P.

    2001-01-01

    Despite the obvious linkage between information technologies (IT) and knowledge processes and the apparent strategic importance of both, little research has done to explicitly examine how, if at all, IT and knowledge processes affect firm outcomes. The purpose of this study is to bridge this

  4. Organization of knowledge and the complex identity of history of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso-Goldfarb, Ana M; Waisse, Silvia; Ferraz, Márcia H M

    2013-09-01

    History of science as a formal and autonomous field of research crosses over disciplinary boundaries. For this reason, both its production and its working materials are difficult to classify and catalog according to discipline-based systems of organization of knowledge. Three main problems might be pointed out in this regard: the disciplines themselves are subject to a historical process of transformation; some objects of scientific inquiry resist constraint within rigid disciplinary grids but, rather, extend across several disciplinary boundaries; and the so-called digital revolution has replaced spatial with temporal display sequences and shifted the traditional emphasis on knowledge to user-oriented approaches. The first part of this essay is devoted to a conceptual analysis of the various approaches to the organization of knowledge formulated over time, whereas the second considers the new possibilities afforded by a faceted model of knowledge organization compatible with user-oriented relational databases to the research materials and production of history of science.

  5. A brief history of process algebra

    OpenAIRE

    Baeten, J.C.M.

    2005-01-01

    This note addresses the history of process algebra as an area of research in concurrency theory, the theory of parallel and distributed systems in computer science. Origins are traced back to the early seventies of the twentieth century, and developments since that time are sketched. The author gives his personal views on these matters. He also considers the present situation, and states some challenges for the future.

  6. A brief history of process algebra

    OpenAIRE

    Baeten, J.C.M.

    2004-01-01

    Abstract. This note addresses the history of process algebra as an area of research in concurrency theory, the theory of parallel and distributed systems in computer science. Origins are traced back to the early seventies of the twentieth century, and developments since that time are sketched. The author gives his personal views on these matters. He also considers the present situation, and states some challenges for the future.

  7. Socialization as key process in knowledge management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José GARCÍA-PEÑALVO

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The editorial of this second issue of volume 17,corresponding to 2016, is devoted to socialization process in the knowledge management in order to complement the special section about Social Networks and Education.

  8. Enabling knowledge processes in innovative environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pavesi, S.

    2003-01-01

    The concept of organisational knowledge as a valuable strategic asset has become quite popular recently. Increased competition, globalisation and the emergence of new organisational models built on process-based organisational structures require organisations to create, capture, share and apply

  9. Knowledge representation and natural language processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weischedel, R.M.

    1986-07-01

    In principle, natural language and knowledge representation are closely related. This paper investigates this by demonstrating how several natural language phenomena, such as definite reference, ambiguity, ellipsis, ill-formed input, figures of speech, and vagueness, require diverse knowledge sources and reasoning. The breadth of kinds of knowledge needed to represent morphology, syntax, semantics, and pragmatics is surveyed. Furthermore, several current issues in knowledge representation, such as logic versus semantic nets, general-purpose versus special-purpose reasoners, adequacy of first-order logic, wait-and-see strategies, and default reasoning, are illustrated in terms of their relation to natural language processing and how natural language impact the issues.

  10. Process Grammar and Process History for 2D Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Thomas W.

    ]. The article describes how it is possible to derive the process history for an object from its state at two stages in its development. The aim in this priject is to describe and test an algorithm for deriving the process history of an object form it state at two different stages. First I give a short summary...... and explaining them. As this is a course project some parts and peripheral topics will be teated superficially. Some will be described, som named and some omitted. A few concepts that are directly connected to the problems or their solutions will be treated. The implementation and testing of the methods...

  11. Accumulating Project Management Knowledge Using Process Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niederman, Fred; March, Salvatore T.; Mueller, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Process theory has become an important mechanism for the accumulation of knowledge in a number of disciplines. In contrast with variance theory, which focuses on co-variation of dependent and independent variables, process theory focuses on sequences of activities, their duration and the intervals

  12. Knowledge adquisition strategies in firm innovation processes

    OpenAIRE

    Vega Jurado, Jaider; Gutiérrez Gracia, Antonio; Fernández de Lucio, Ignacio

    2009-01-01

    The recognition of external agents as an important knowledge source to innovation processes means that the firms must face a key decision: generate in-house or acquire externally the required technological knowledge. Owing to its implications, this decision has become a very important topic between academics and practitioners of innovation, promoting the development of a body of theoretical and empirical literature about the factors and motivations which influence it. This paper provides a re...

  13. Knowledge acquisition process as an issue in information sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Bosančić

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an overview of some problems of information science which are explicitly portrayed in literature. It covers the following issues: information explosion, information flood and data deluge, information retrieval and relevance of information, and finally, the problem of scientific communication. The purpose of this paper is to explain why knowledge acquisition, can be considered as an issue in information sciences. The existing theoretical foundation within the information sciences, i.e. the DIKW hierarchy and its key concepts - data, information, knowledge and wisdom, is recognized as a symbolic representation as well as the theoretical foundation of the knowledge acquisition process. Moreover, it seems that the relationship between the DIKW hierarchy and the knowledge acquisition process is essential for a stronger foundation of information sciences in the 'body' of the overall human knowledge. In addition, the history of both the human and machine knowledge acquisition has been considered, as well as a proposal that the DIKW hierarchy take place as a symbol of general knowledge acquisition process, which could equally relate to both human and machine knowledge acquisition. To achieve this goal, it is necessary to modify the existing concept of the DIKW hierarchy. The appropriate modification of the DIKW hierarchy (one of which is presented in this paper could result in a much more solid theoretical foundation of the knowledge acquisition process and information sciences as a whole. The theoretical assumptions on which the knowledge acquisition process may be established as a problem of information science are presented at the end of the paper. The knowledge acquisition process does not necessarily have to be the subject of epistemology. It may establish a stronger link between the concepts of data and knowledge; furthermore, it can be used in the context of scientific research, but on the more primitive level than conducting

  14. History of 232-F, tritium extraction processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackburn, G.W.

    1994-08-01

    In 1950 the Atomic Energy Commission authorized the Savannah River Project principally for the production of tritium and plutonium-239 for use in thermonuclear weapons. 232-F was built as an interim facility in 1953--1954, at a cost of $3.9M. Tritium extraction operations began in October, 1955, after the reactor and separations startups. In July, 1957 a larger tritium facility began operation in 232-H. In 1958 the capacity of 232-H was doubled. Also, in 1957 a new task was assigned to Savannah River, the loading of tritium into reservoirs that would be actual components of thermonuclear weapons. This report describes the history of 232-F, the process for tritium extraction, and the lessons learned over the years that were eventually incorporated into the new Replacement Tritium Facility

  15. Integrating ergonomic knowledge into engineering design processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall-Andersen, Lene Bjerg

    Integrating ergonomic knowledge into engineering design processes has been shown to contribute to healthy and effective designs of workplaces. However, it is also well-recognized that, in practice, ergonomists often have difficulties gaining access to and impacting engineering design processes...... employed in the same company, constituted a supporting factor for the possibilities to integrate ergonomic knowledge into the engineering design processes. However, the integration activities remained discrete and only happened in some of the design projects. A major barrier was related to the business...... to the ergonomic ambitions of the clients. The ergonomists’ ability to navigate, act strategically, and compromise on ergonomic inputs is also important in relation to having an impact in the engineering design processes. Familiarity with the engineering design terminology and the setup of design projects seems...

  16. Knowledge Affords Distinctive Processing in Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, R. Reed; Rawson, Katherine A.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of knowledge on memory generally is processing. However, both conceptual and empirical reasons exist to suspect that the organizational account is incomplete. Recently a revised version of that account has been proposed under the rubric of distinctiveness theory (Rawson & Van Overschelde, 2008). The goal of the experiments reported…

  17. Construction of scientific knowledge in motor learning: history and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Márcio Oliveira

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims to inquire the construction of scientific knowledge in the motor learning area. A necessary historical retrospective on this study field considers the epistemology of Francis Bacon, Karl Popper, Paul Feyerabend and Thomas Kuhn. Bacon and Popper’s conceptions show to be inadequate to explain the scientific progress of motor learning. Feyerabend’s ideas are also inadequate as they lack coherency, even though in some aspects they are adequate. The Kuhnian approach, however, seems more satisfactory, particularly with regard to the notion of “crisis of paradigm” between the ecological approach and the information-processing approach. A critique is offered from human and social sciences perspective. This leads us to reflect on the possible growth of a new paradigm and consider scientific practice as a social practice.

  18. Aiming for knowledge information processing systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchi, K

    1982-01-01

    The Fifth Generation Computer Project in Japan intends to develop a new generation of computers by extensive research in many areas. This paper discusses many research topics which the Japanese are hoping will lead to a radical new knowledge information processing system. Topics discussed include new computer architecture, programming styles, semantics of programming languages, relational databases, linguistics theory, artificial intelligence, functional images and interference systems.

  19. Knowledge Management - Identification of Domain Specific Knowledge Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Michael Holm

    1999-01-01

    Implementation of Information Technology infer substantial changes to an organisation, e.g. changes in jobs, roles of the company's employees, and the knowledge content of these jobs.This paper point out some of the knowledge management issues and challenges in the case of an implementation of an...... performed by humans. Their decisions are based on the integration of three different kinds of knowledge, i.e. uncodifiable or tacit knowledge, codifiable data from acquisition systems, and codifiable best practice from knowledge repositories....

  20. Fair process: managing in the knowledge economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W C; Mauborgne, R

    1997-01-01

    Unlike the traditional factors of production--land, labor, and capital--knowledge is a resource that can't be forced out of people. But creating and sharing knowledge is essential to fostering innovation, the key challenge of the knowledge-based economy. To create a climate in which employees volunteer their creativity and expertise, managers need to look beyond the traditional tools at their disposal. They need to build trust. The authors have studied the links between trust, idea sharing, and corporate performance for more than a decade. They have explored the question of why managers of local subsidiaries so often fail to share information with executives at headquarters. They have studied the dynamics of idea sharing in product development teams, joint ventures, supplier partnerships, and corporate transformations. They offer an explanation for why people resist change even when it would benefit them directly. In every case, the decisive factor was what the authors call fair process--fairness in the way a company makes and executes decisions. The elements of fair process are simple: Engage people's input in decisions that directly affect them. Explain why decisions are made the way they are. Make clear what will be expected of employees after the changes are made. Fair process may sound like a soft issue, but it is crucial to building trust and unlocking ideas. Without it, people are apt to withhold their full cooperation and their creativity. The results are costly: ideas that never see daylight and initiatives that are never seized.

  1. 8 CFR 312.2 - Knowledge of history and government of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... fundamentals of the history, and of the principles and form of government, of the United States. A person who... person who is unable to demonstrate a knowledge and understanding of the fundamentals of the history, and... knowledge and understanding. (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 1115-0208...

  2. Study on a Process-oriented Knowledge Management Model

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Lingling; Li, Jun; Zheng, Xiuyu; Li, Xingsen; Shi, Yong

    2007-01-01

    Now knowledge has become the most important resource of enterprises. Process-oriented knowledge management (POKM) is a new and valuable research field. It may be the most practical method to deal with difficulties in knowledge management. The paper analyzes background, hypothesis and proposes of POKM, define the process knowledge, and give a process-oriented knowledge management model. The model integrates knowledge, process, human, and technology. It can improve the decision support capabili...

  3. History of psychological knowledge in Brazilian culture: Weaving threads on the loom of time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massimi, Marina; Gontijo, Sandro R

    2015-05-01

    After a brief presentation of the research program on the "history of psychological knowledge in the ambit of cultural history," this article addresses 2 issues that we consider particularly important from the methodological point of view: the notion of multiple temporalities (regimes of historicity) and of complexity as characteristics of the contexture of Brazilian culture. It will be shown how both require specific attention from the researcher, because the process of incorporation of psychology in Brazil over time is complex and articulated according to various regimes of historicity that intersect and interpenetrate each other, without being exclusive. Our approach will be exemplified by the concept of memory, showing how this can be grasped in its constitution in Brazilian culture, which is composed of several sedimented layers according to different temporalities. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Optimising the diagnostic imaging process through clinical history documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egan, I.; Baird, M.

    2003-01-01

    In the United Kingdom the 1990s were characterised by radiographer role extension including radiographic reporting and the performance of a variety of contrast examinations. In Australia where a privatised health system constrains the role of radiographers, other ways need to be found to improve professional practice and enhance patient care. One such way is for radiographers to develop knowledge and skills in clinical history taking. The paper advocates the development of a formalised approach to clinical history taking that portrays the radiographer as a professional and advocate of patient rights and welfare. The paper examines history taking approaches used by other health care professionals and proposes a clinical history template using five key areas of interview: area and type of symptoms, current history, past history, special considerations and psychosocial/occupational history. Copyright (2003) Australian Institute of Radiography

  5. The Unity of Knowledge: History as Science and Art

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2013-07-07

    Jul 7, 2013 ... absolute; they are subject to change especially in the light of new evidence. .... regime, nationalist aspirations, religious intolerance, military invasion, etc. Similarly, the ..... The production of historical knowledge. Transafrican ...

  6. Is free knowledge transfer history in the energy sector?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zewald, H.

    2000-01-01

    The European power industry is gradually changing from a government-controlled sector of monopolists to an internationally privatized free sector. Companies that used to cooperate are now competing with one another. The question is: can the international knowledge transfer institutes escape from this competitive climate or will they fall victim to it?

  7. Pedagogical Content Knowledge for World History Teachers: Bridging the Gap between Knowing and Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Lauren McArthur; Bain, Robert B.

    2011-01-01

    The authors are conducting studies to determine what knowledge world history teachers need and how they can use it to plan instruction. In this article, they report on a small but in-depth study designed to examine how four pre-service and six in-service world history teachers think about, organize, and make meaning of separate world historical…

  8. Pedagogical Content Knowledge for World History Teachers: What Is It? How Might Prospective Teachers Develop It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Lauren McArthur; Bain, Robert B.

    2011-01-01

    This article takes up the question of world history teachers' pedagogical content knowledge by reporting on two separate but related projects. In the first, we briefly discuss an empirical investigation one of the authors conducted into the ways that pre- and in-service world history teachers think about, organize, and make meaning of separate and…

  9. Working with the Cold War: Types of Knowledge in Swedish and Australian History Textbook Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammert, Niklas; Sharp, Heather

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a comparative analysis of pupils' activities dealing with the Cold War in Swedish and Australian history textbooks. By focusing on textbook activities to which pupils respond in relation to their learning of a particular topic, this study identifies knowledge types included in a selection of history textbooks. The study also…

  10. Learning Other People's History: Pre-Service Teachers' Developing African American Historical Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, LaGarrett Jarriel

    2014-01-01

    Drawing from the historical lens of cultural memory, I examined the development of three social studies pre-service teachers' African American history knowledge. The participants were engaged in a rigorous summer reading program dedicated to learning African American history. This qualitative case study examined both pre and post interpretations…

  11. Knowledge into action: Some lessons from the histories of hazards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steffen Foss; Gee, D.

    fuels and nuclear power provide lessons for prudent actions on the potential hazards of emerging technologies such as from nanotechnology, GMO food, radio-frequency from mobile phones, and the new generation of nuclear plants (See “Late Lessons from Early Warnings” volume I and II from the European...... and engagement of the public. In this paper, we analyse these latter barriers to getting knowledge into action and illustrate some ways and means by which science and precautionary measures, including regulations, market based instruments, and increased awareness and engagement of the public, could be designed...

  12. Knowledge portal for Six Sigma DMAIC process

    Science.gov (United States)

    ThanhDat, N.; Claudiu, K. V.; Zobia, R.; Lobont, Lucian

    2016-08-01

    Knowledge plays a crucial role in success of DMAIC (Define, Measure, Analysis, Improve, and Control) execution. It is therefore necessary to share and renew the knowledge. Yet, one problem arising is how to create a place where knowledge are collected and shared effectively. We believe that Knowledge Portal (KP) is an important solution for the problem. In this article, the works concerning with requirements and functionalities for KP are first reviewed. Afterwards, a procedure with necessary tools to develop and implement a KP for DMAIC (KPD) is proposed. Particularly, KPD is built on the basis of free and open-source content and learning management systems, and Ontology Engineering. In order to structure and store knowledge, tools such as Protégé, OWL, as well as OWL-RDF Parsers are used. A Knowledge Reasoner module is developed in PHP language, ARC2, MySQL and SPARQL endpoint for the purpose of querying and inferring knowledge available from Ontologies. In order to validate the availability of the procedure, a KPD is built with the proposed functionalities and tools. The authors find that the KPD benefits an organization in constructing Web sites by itself with simple steps of implementation and low initial costs. It creates a space of knowledge exchange and supports effectively collecting DMAIC reports as well as sharing knowledge created. The authors’ evaluation result shows that DMAIC knowledge is found exactly with a high success rate and a good level of response time of queries.

  13. [Concise history of toxicology - from empiric knowledge to science].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompa, Anna; Balázs, Péter

    2018-01-01

    Toxicology is a science of poisonings by xenobiotics and endogenous physiological changes. Its empiric roots may be traced back to the emerging of the human race because the most important pledge of our predecessors' survival was the differentiation between eatable and poisonous plants and animals. In the course of social evolution, there were three main fields of using poisons: 1) hunting and warfare, 2) to settle social tensions by avoiding military conflicts through hiding strategy of eliminating enemies by toxic substances, 3) medicines applied first as anti-poisons and later by introducing strong substances to defeat diseases, but paradoxically active euthanasia is also a part of the whole story. The industrial revolution of the 19th century changed the sporadic occupational diseases to mass conditions. Later the chemical industry and subsequently the mass production of synthetic materials turned out as a global environmental catastrophe. This latest change initiated the emerging of ecological toxicology which is a future history of the concerning ancient science. Orv Hetil. 2018; 159(3): 83-90.

  14. Ion exchange process: History, evolution and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzoldi, P.; Carturan, S.; Sada, C.; Quaranta, A.; Sglavo, V.M.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a review on some aspects and applications of ion exchange process in glasses, ferroelectric and polymers in the fields of optics, nanotechnology, gas sensors and chemical strengthening. The formation of nanoparticles in ion-exchanged glasses, as effect of ion or laser irradiation, is discussed. A discussion on the potentialities of ion exchange process in comparison to ion implantation in optical devices and nanotechnology is also introduced. Analytical techniques applied to the study of the ion exchange process are illustrated. The studies of ion exchange process in “Natural materials” constitute the content of a specific paragraph, for applications in water cleaning. Some initial considerations on the “old age” of this technique are introduced.

  15. Organizational structure features supporting knowledge management processes

    OpenAIRE

    Claver-Cortés, Enrique; Zaragoza Sáez, Patrocinio del Carmen; Pertusa-Ortega, Eva

    2007-01-01

    Purpose – The idea that knowledge management can be a potential source of competitive advantage has gained strength in the last few years. However, a number of business actions are needed to generate an appropriate environment and infrastructure for knowledge creation, transfer and application. Among these actions there stands out the design of an organizational structure, the link of which with knowledge management is the main concern here. More specifically, the present paper has as its aim...

  16. Teachers and the Mapuche Historical-Educational Knowledge in the Teaching of History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Turra-Díaz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a research aimed at revealing the significance of the historical-educational Mapuche knowledge for teachers and its incorporation in the school history. The research subjects were teachers of History at secondary schools located in the province of Arauco, whose students are mostly of Mapuche-lafkenche territorial identity. The study was conducted from a qualitative methodology with a case study design, using the semi-structured interview technique for data collection and a phenomenological method for data analysis and concentration of meanings. The results demonstrate common significance in terms of the relevance of the Mapuche cultural knowledge within the school knowledge, the manifestation of a poor understanding of the Mapuche historical-educational knowledge, and the absence of a pedagogical work including this knowledge in the teaching of History. We conclude that even with the discourses of recognition and appreciation of cultural diversity and of indigenous cultural and educational rights, the school history, in the interethnic context, proposes and promotes a Eurocentric cultural knowledge that replicates the traditional pedagogical discourse of History.

  17. BUSINESS PROCESS MODELLING: A FOUNDATION FOR KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Bosilj-Vukšić

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge management (KM is increasingly recognised as a strategic practice of knowledge-intensive companies, becoming an integral part of an organisation's strategy to improve business performance. This paper provides an overview of business process modelling applications and analyses the relationship between business process modelling and knowledge management projects. It presents the case study of Croatian leading banks and the insurance company, discussing its practical experience in conducting business process modelling projects and investigating the opportunity for integrating business process repository and organisational knowledge as the foundation for knowledge management system development.

  18. Momentum Concept in the Process of Knowledge Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergul, N. Remziye

    2013-01-01

    Abstraction is one of the methods for learning knowledge with using mental processes that cannot be obtained through experiment and observation. RBC model that is based on abstraction in the process of creating knowledge is directly related to mental processes. In this study, the RBC model is used for the high school students' processes of…

  19. Geography and history of the frying process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morton, I. D.

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available How far back in time, frying with oil goes, it is difficult to tell. The rules for sacrifice in Leviticus, Chapter 2, the 3rd book in the Old Testament, which is commonly accepted to date from about 600 BC, distinguishes between bread baked in the oven and that cooked «on the griddle» or «in the pan». Roman authors also describe in the first century AD the frying of eggs. Writers in the Middle Ages, Cervantes and Chaucer both describe the cooking in oil. A number of common proverbs deal with frying in one's own grease in the 14th Century. Soyer describes the grid iron as a primitive utensil but with considerable possibilities in the use and variation of the cooking process. We need only to recall that splendid painting in the El Prado of the fried egg which Professor Varela used as a frontispiece for the first Frying of Food Conference in Madrid in 1986. Different types of oils can be used for the frying of food. Variations in the composition of vegetable oils can normally be traced back to climatic effects and the location of the growing plants. We can expect the height above sea level, the daylight hour length, the mean temperature and the genetic make up of the plant, all to have an effect. Cool conditions during seed maturation can increase the linoleic acid content In plants such as Guizotia Abyssinica to almost 85% of the oil. Similar results have been reported for peanuts grown at different latitudes in the United States.

  20. Socially Grounded Analysis of Knowledge Management Systems and Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guizzardi, R.S.S.; Perini, A.; Dignum, V.

    2008-01-01

    In the struggle to survive and compete in face of constant technological changes and unstable business environments, organizations recognize knowledge as its most valuable asset. Consequently, these organizations often invest on Knowledge Management (KM), seeking to enhance their internal processes

  1. Improvement of product design process by knowledge value analysis

    OpenAIRE

    XU, Yang; BERNARD, Alain; PERRY, Nicolas; LAROCHE, Florent

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, design activities remain the core issue for global product development. As knowledge is more and more integrated, effective analysis of knowledge value becomes very useful for the improvement of product design processes. This paper aims at proposing a framework of knowledge value analysis in the context of product design process. By theoretical analysis and case study, the paper illustrates how knowledge value can be calculated and how the results can help the improvement of product...

  2. Using information technology to support knowledge conversion processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the main roles of Information Technology in Knowledge Management programs is to accelerate the speed of knowledge transfer and creation. The Knowledge Management tools intend to help the processes of collecting and organizing the knowledge of groups of individuals in order to make this knowledge available in a shared base. Due to the largeness of the concept of knowledge, the software market for Knowledge Management seems to be quite confusing. Technology vendors are developing different implementations of the Knowledge Management concepts in their software products. Because of the variety and quantity of Knowledge Management tools available on the market, a typology may be a valuable aid to organizations that are looking for answers to specific needs. The objective of this article is to present guidelines that help to design such a typology. Knowledge Management solutions such as intranet systems, Electronic Document Management (EDM, groupware, workflow, artificial intelligence-based systems, Business Intelligence (BI, knowledge map systems, innovation support, competitive intelligence tools and knowledge portals are discussed in terms of their potential contributions to the processes of creating, registering and sharing knowledge. A number of Knowledge Management tools (Lotus Notes, Microsoft Exchange, Business Objects, Aris Toolset, File Net, Gingo, Vigipro, Sopheon have been checked. The potential of each category of solutions to support the transfer of tacit and/or explicit knowledge and to facilitate the knowledge conversion spiral in the sense of Nonaka and Takeuchi (1995 is discussed.

  3. Beyond the Learning Process and toward the Knowledge Creation Process: Linking Learning and Knowledge in the Supportive Learning Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seung Won; Song, Ji Hoon; Lim, Doo Hun

    2009-01-01

    This integrative literature review synthesizes the concepts and process of organizational knowledge creation with theories of individual learning. The knowledge conversion concept (Nonaka & Takeuchi, 1995; Nonaka, Toyama, & Byosiere, 2001) is used as the basis of the organizational knowledge creation process, while major learning theories relevant…

  4. DSS and GIS in Knowledge Transformation Process

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klimešová, Dana; Brožová, H.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 1 (2009), s. 1-15 ISSN 1803-1617 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Tacit and explicit knowledge * SECI model * Operations Research * Management Science Models Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information

  5. Knowledge and cognitive process dimensions of Technology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Further research is also needed on the reasons why low cognitive demands are made in the teaching of Technology. .... the NCS (Department of Basic Education, 2011), and the topics ..... In the quantitative phase each lesson objective was classified according .... involves the retrieving (listing) of knowledge from memory (at.

  6. Knowledge management: processes and systems | Igbinovia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information Impact: Journal of Information and Knowledge Management. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 8, No 3 (2017) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  7. Greening flood protection through knowledge processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Stephanie; Tatenhove, van J.P.M.; Mol, A.P.J.; Otter, H.S.

    2017-01-01

    Greening flood protection (GFP) is increasingly recognized as an adaptive and flexible approach to water management that is well suited to addressing uncertain futures associated with climate change. In the last decade, GFP knowledge and policies have developed rapidly, but implementation has been

  8. Self-knowledge in the process of interpreting philosophical texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Kulik

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Modern philosophical researches pay attention to various aspects of self-knowledge investigation. For instance, there are works on historical concepts of self-knowledge (e.g. ones by C. Moore, or articles about the place of self-knowledge in the phenomenon of rationality (e.g. ones by J. Roessler, or articles about epistemological lacks of self-knowledge (e.g. ones by J. Fernández. However, our paper is about the aspect that is not in the researchers’ centre of attention. Our study shows that practicing of book reading can be a source of information not only about the content of the books, but also about their readers. We investigate a phenomenon of incompatible interpretations, Ludwig Wittgenstein’s ideas about understanding his texts, Merab Mamardashvili’s concept of ‘novel as a machine’, Ludwig Feuerbach’s theory of specifics of human cognition, and Philosophical Hermeneutics thinkers’ concepts about problems of understanding. The purpose of our paper is to describe possibilities of getting self-knowledge by analyzing the information about the results of philosophical texts reading. The research holds that these results give information about the content of the text as well as a reader’s ideas. A reader can use word forms from the texts to express his own implicit thoughts. Philosophical texts are the most effective tool for doing that because their content and ways of text organization stimulate such an activity. We illustrate these statements by examples from history of philosophy. For instance, we investigate the creation of the theory on the genealogy of morality by Friedrich Nietzsche. Analyzing phrases, which were important for him in the text, a person can estimate his own ideas. If one uses this theoretical model for getting self-knowledge he takes a new source of information about his own implicit ideas. The interpretation of this information will be effective. As a result of analyzing of Friedrich Schleiermacher

  9. Framework for Knowledge Management Processes in Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Shafiei Nikabadi

    2014-02-01

    The innovation aspect of the research is to provide a comprehensive framework for knowledge management processes in supply chain of automotive industry with main indicators for each process. Several investigations have been made for knowledge management but specific research on knowledge management processes in the supply chain has not been observed. Thus providing the framework and indicators for each component of the framework is the innovation of the research

  10. Capturing and Modeling Domain Knowledge Using Natural Language Processing Techniques

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Auger, Alain

    2005-01-01

    .... Initiated in 2004 at Defense Research and Development Canada (DRDC), the SACOT knowledge engineering research project is currently investigating, developing and validating innovative natural language processing (NLP...

  11. Challenges Associated with the Content of the Art History Component in the General Knowledge in Art Subject: Implications for Art History Education in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adom, Dickson; Kquofi, Steve; Agyem, Joe Adu

    2016-01-01

    The content of the Art History component in the General Knowledge in Art subject studied by various Senior High Schools in West Africa is largely of foreign art histories at the expense of the histories of African indigenous arts which are shallowly presented in the teaching syllabus to be taught students. This makes the students appreciate more…

  12. Writing history for the business man: the development of business history between ‘old’ and ‘new’ production of knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ponzoni, E.; Boersma, F.K.

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the recent developments in business history as an academic discipline. Recently, the strategies used by commissioned, academic researchers are to make corporate history an institutional form of knowledge production. Corporate history is the more narrowed, often commissioned,

  13. Shaping Sexual Knowledge: A Cultural History of Sex Education in Twentieth Century Europe. Routledge Studies in the Social History of Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauerteig, Lutz, Ed.; Davidson, Roger, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    The history of sex education enables us to gain valuable insights into the cultural constructions of what different societies have defined as 'normal' sexuality and sexual health. Yet, the history of sex education has only recently attracted the full attention of historians of modern sexuality. "Shaping Sexual Knowledge: A Cultural History of…

  14. Developing and Enacting Pedagogical Content Knowledge for Teaching History: An Exploration of Two Novice Teachers' Growth over Three Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monte-Sano, Chauncey; Budano, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Using artifacts of teachers' practices, classroom observations, and teacher interviews, we explore the development and enactment of 2 novices' pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) for teaching history. We identify and track 4 components of PCK that are relevant to teaching history: representing history, transforming history, attending to students'…

  15. Modeling and knowledge acquisition processes using case-based inference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameneh Khadivar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The method of acquisition and presentation of the organizational Process Knowledge has considered by many KM researches. In this research a model for process knowledge acquisition and presentation has been presented by using the approach of Case Base Reasoning. The validation of the presented model was evaluated by conducting an expert panel. Then a software has been developed based on the presented model and implemented in Eghtesad Novin Bank of Iran. In this company, based on the stages of the presented model, first the knowledge intensive processes has been identified, then the Process Knowledge was stored in a knowledge base in the format of problem/solution/consequent .The retrieval of the knowledge was done based on the similarity of the nearest neighbor algorithm. For validating of the implemented system, results of the system has compared by the results of the decision making of the expert of the process.

  16. Diversity attitudes and group knowledge processing in multicultural organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Jakob; Selmer, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The ability to locate, share, and use knowledge is vital for effective functioning of organizations. However, such knowledge processing can be complicated by increasing cultural diversity. Recent studies have suggested that a group’s diversity attitudes may increase group outcomes. In this study...... diversity only had a positive effect on personal knowledge....

  17. Managing environmental knowledge through learning processes in Spanish hospitality companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cegarra-Navarro, Juan Gabriel; Martinez Martinez, Aurora

    2010-11-01

    The major focus of this research is to investigate whether environmental knowledge has any impact on organizational outcomes through an empirical investigation of 127 Spanish hospitality companies, using structural equation models. Our results show that environmental knowledge is an important determiner for developing organizational outcomes. However, this relationship is completed with just two related constructs: Firstly, the company's acquisition process plays a key role in managing the tension between the knowledge necessary to develop the appropriated environmental initiatives and current knowledge. Secondly, the company's distribution process also sheds light on tangible means for managers to enhance their company's outcomes through environmental knowledge.

  18. Secondary School Mathematics Teachers' Knowledge Levels and Use of History of Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bütüner, Suphi Önder

    2018-01-01

    This study describes secondary school mathematics teachers' use of history of mathematics in their classes and their knowledge levels in this field. The study population included a total of 58 secondary school mathematics teachers working at the secondary schools located in Yozgat city center, and the sample included 32 mathematics teachers from…

  19. Who Writes the Past? Student Perceptions of Wikipedia Knowledge and Credibility in a World History Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calkins, Susanna; Kelley, Matthew R.

    2009-01-01

    The authors describe an inquiry-based learning project that required students in a first-year world history course to reflect on and analyze critically the nature of the knowledge found in Wikipedia--the free, open-content, rapidly evolving, internet encyclopedia. Using a rubric, the authors explored students' perceptions of the collaborative and…

  20. On knowledge structures for process operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirstad, J.

    1981-05-01

    A conceptual framework for operator competency and job training planning and design being developed and used for operators in Swedish nuclear power stations is presented briefly. This conceptual framework represents a training technological approach. It uses terms which are system oriented and familiar to people working in the plant. Another conceptual framework is focusing on the information processing of the operator and its relation to physical, functional and abstract representations of the plant and the process. This conceptual framework has been developed by Risoe in Denmark especially for man process-interaction analysis and design. There are interesting relations between the two structures, e.g. human information processing in plant operation is largely a function of operator learning of the work, the processes and the plants units, its subsystems and components. The two framework are analysed and relations between them are indicated. (author)

  1. Structuring knowledge on Romanian communism: the case of the oral history interview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana PAINCA

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The present paper offers a comprehensive analysis of the way in which the oral history interview can organize knowledge about communism in Romania. The data are retrieved from the book Memorialul Durerii: Întuneric şi lumină (2013 compiled by author Iulia Hossu Longin from dozens of oral history interviews with survivors of communism. As the examination demonstrates, the first element commanding attention is memory. Hence, oral history shifts the focus from memory as object to memory as subject, or as a source of investigation per se. Secondly, the analysis reveals how the extensive use of lists structures knowledge about Romanian communism in an intelligible and insightful way. These lists not only provide a window on the communist experience but they also bring the individual -fighting against the regime - into the foreground.

  2. Knowledge management vs business process management in contemporary enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bitkowska Agnieszka

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to identify the system of knowledge management in contemporary process organizations in business process perspective, especially with regard to technological and social conditions. Methodology is based on literature analysis and case studies. The integration of knowledge management technologies, concepts and methods into organizational business processes is challenging research issue today. The concepts of knowledge management and business process management should be analyzed jointly in the contemporary enterprises. Despite of the growing interest among researchers and practitioners of the concept of the knowledge management referring to business process management there is a lack of articles in this area. Appropriate approach to the modelling of knowledge management processes, as well as the use of IT tools, and a motivation system are of key importance for the introduction of this solution in organizations.

  3. Human Resource Management in the Enhancement Processes of Knowledge Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didi Sundiman

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This research explored Human Resource Management (HRM in enhancement processes of knowledge management. This research explored how HRM practice enhanced the operational of knowledge management. Data were collected by a survey by interviewing 12 informants from Small and Medium Enterprise (SME. The results show that HRM practice gives initiative in the enhancement process of the knowledge management strategy applied to the company. It can be concluded that each sub-component of HRM affects the components of knowledge management, and HRM is highly influential and has a positive effect on quality management processes and vice versa in the work environment.

  4. The knowledge conversion SECI process as innovation indicator analysis factor

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Elaine da [UNESP; Valentim, Marta Lígia Pomim [UNESP

    2013-01-01

    It highlights the innovation importance in the current society and presents innovation indicators applied in 125 countries. We made an analysis in the 80 variables distributed through seven GII pillars, trying to identify the direct, indirect or null incidences of the knowledge conversion way described by the SECI Process. The researched revealed the fact that knowledge management, in this case specifically the knowledge conversion SECI Process, is present in the variables that, according to ...

  5. Integrating knowledge and knowledge processes: A critical incident study of product development projects.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaijenbrink, Jeroen

    2012-01-01

    Various scholars have argued that knowledge processes in organizations are integrally linked in practice. The extant literature though treats them separately and thereby disregards the interactions and tensions between them. A result of this way of studying knowledge processes is that little is

  6. Science in the public sphere a history of lay knowledge and expertise

    CERN Document Server

    Nieto-Galan, Agusti

    2016-01-01

    Science in the Public Sphere presents a broad yet detailed picture of the history of science popularization from the Renaissance to the twenty-first century. Global in focus, it provides an original theoretical framework for analysing the political load of science as an instrument of cultural hegemony and giving a voice to expert and lay protagonists throughout history. Organised into a series of thematic chapters spanning diverse periods and places, this book covers subjects such as the representations of science in print, the media, classrooms and museums, orthodox and heterodox practices, the intersection of the history of science with the history of technology, and the ways in which public opinion and scientific expertise have influenced and shaped one another across the centuries. It concludes by introducing the "participatory turn" of the twenty-first century, a new paradigm of science popularization and a new way of understanding the construction of knowledge. Highly illustrated throughout and coveri...

  7. The knowledge-conversion process in a specialized school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Cesar Mafra Pereira

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This article present the knowledge-conversion process in a small business company located in Belo Horizonte (MG - study of case in a specialized school -, using the theoretical referencial of the four knowledge-conversion processes (NONAKA and TAKEUCHI, 1997.

  8. Instructional Transaction Theory: Knowledge Relationships among Processes, Entities, and Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, M. David; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Discussion of instructional transaction theory focuses on knowledge representation in an automated instructional design expert system. A knowledge structure called PEA-Net (processes, entities, and activities) is explained; the refrigeration process is used as an example; text resources and graphic resources are described; and simulations are…

  9. Knowledge Revision Processes in Refutation Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendeou, Panayiota; Walsh, Erinn K.; Smith, Emily R.; O'Brien, Edward J.

    2014-01-01

    In the present set of experiments, we systematically examined the processes that occur while reading texts designed to refute and explain commonsense beliefs that reside in readers' long-term memory. In Experiment 1 (n = 36), providing readers with a refutation-plus-explanation of a commonsense belief was sufficient to significantly reduce…

  10. Accumulating project management knowledge through process theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niederman, Fred; March, Salvatore T.; Mueller, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes how the general notion of process theory can provide a foundational component in a portfolio of project management theories. The paper begins by outlining a variety of views pertaining to the nature of theory and theory development. This forms a basis for understanding how

  11. Information Technology and Knowledge Processes : - an Uneasy Couple?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøndsted, J.; Christiansen, N.; Nicolajsen, Hanne Westh

    2001-01-01

    , are both very relevant, interrelated and mutually enabling aspects of the organizational knowledge processes. However it seems as it the research on IT in knowledge management has been primarily concerned with knowledge. We argue that there is a need for studying the work practices in a socio......In this paper we apply the framework of Cook and Brown (1999) to gain a broader perspective on the role of IT in organizational knowledge creation and use. The framework of Cook and Brown suggests that knowledge, as something people possess, and knowing, as the epistemic work done in action......-technical perspective taking the interconnected relationship between knowledge and knowing into account. We explore the role of IT in knowledge processes by studying three different practices. These practices are a pre-defense of a Ph.D. dissertation using a video conferencing system in the area of geophysics...

  12. Selective Bibliography on the History of Computing and Information Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspray, William

    1982-01-01

    Lists some of the better-known and more accessible books on the history of computing and information processing, covering: (1) popular general works; (2) more technical general works; (3) microelectronics and computing; (4) artificial intelligence and robotics; (5) works relating to Charles Babbage; (6) other biographical and personal accounts;…

  13. Maternal history of parentification and warm responsiveness: The mediating role of knowledge of infant development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttall, Amy K; Valentino, Kristin; Wang, Lijuan; Lefever, Jennifer Burke; Borkowski, John G

    2015-12-01

    Maternal history of parentification in the family of origin poses subsequent risk to parenting quality during the transition to parenthood. The present study builds on prior work by evaluating whether the association between maternal parentification history and warm responsiveness is mediated by maternal knowledge of infant development in first time mothers. Using data from a prospective longitudinal study on the transition to motherhood, maternal knowledge of infant development and observational codings of warm responsiveness were examined across the first 18 months of parenthood for 374 mothers who also provided retrospective reports of their childhood parentification experiences. Results indicated that maternal retrospective reports of higher engagement in parentified roles in family of origin were associated with poorer knowledge of infant development across the first 18 months of parenthood and, in turn, less warm responsiveness with 18-month-old children. However, maternal parentification history did not significantly influence changes in maternal warm responsiveness across the transition to parenthood. These findings suggest that preventive interventions targeting maternal knowledge of infant development as early as the prenatal period may be useful for preventing poor warm responsiveness. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Assessment of the Knowledge Acquisition Process in Lithuanian Insurance Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurgita Raudeliūnienė

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Under the development of favourable globalization conditions, the demand for and importance of knowledge in the insurance sector are rapidly growing, which is characterized by the variety of insurance services and offered products as well as by a permanent change in efforts to efficiently meet the needs of society. Therefore, knowledge is becoming a unique factor that leads to the increased exclusivity of the organization in this particular sector when the recently acquired knowledge helps the employees of the company with efficiently performing work activities and creating for consumer advantages that can be hardly imitated by other insurance organizations. However, the process of knowledge acquisition will be worthless without efficient instruments for assessing the procedures leading to obtaining the necessary knowledge on demand and time. Every insurance organization in Lithuania tries to acquire the necessary knowledge on time in the most convenient way; however, researchers and business representatives feel a lack of tools for assessing and improving the knowledge acquisition process. According to scientific literature, a lack of complexity evaluating the knowledge acquisition process creates a precondition for developing instruments for the assessment of this process. The object of research is the evaluation of the knowledge acquisition process in the organizations of Lithuanian insurance sector. The goal of the article is to offer an integrated instrument of the knowledge acquisition process for the organization working in Lithuanian insurance sector. To achieve this goal, the following tasks have been implemented: the analysis of the theoretical aspects of the factors and methods of the knowledge acquisition process; the establishment of the factors specific to organizations in Lithuanian insurance sector for the purposes of assessing the knowledge acquisition process; the identification of the problematic areas of the knowledge

  15. Knowledge Management Enablers and Process in Hospital Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun-Sook

    2017-02-01

    This research aimed to investigate the effects of knowledge management enablers, such as organizational structure, leadership, learning, information technology systems, trust, and collaboration, on the knowledge management process of creation, storage, sharing, and application. Using data from self-administered questionnaires in four Korean tertiary hospitals, this survey investigated the main organizational factors affecting the knowledge management process in these organizations. A total of 779 questionnaires were analyzed using SPSS 18.0 and AMOS 18.0. The results showed that organizational factors affect the knowledge management process differently in each hospital organization. From a managerial perspective, the implications of these factors for developing organizational strategies that encourage and foster the knowledge management process are discussed.

  16. Processes, data structures, and apparatuses for representing knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohimer, Ryan E [West Richland, WA; Thomson, Judi R [Guelph, CA; Harvey, William J [Richland, WA; Paulson, Patrick R [Pasco, WA; Whiting, Mark A [Richland, WA; Tratz, Stephen C [Richland, WA; Chappell, Alan R [Seattle, WA; Butner, R Scott [Richland, WA

    2011-09-20

    Processes, data structures, and apparatuses to represent knowledge are disclosed. The processes can comprise labeling elements in a knowledge signature according to concepts in an ontology and populating the elements with confidence values. The data structures can comprise knowledge signatures stored on computer-readable media. The knowledge signatures comprise a matrix structure having elements labeled according to concepts in an ontology, wherein the value of the element represents a confidence that the concept is present in an information space. The apparatus can comprise a knowledge representation unit having at least one ontology stored on a computer-readable medium, at least one data-receiving device, and a processor configured to generate knowledge signatures by comparing datasets obtained by the data-receiving devices to the ontologies.

  17. A PROCESS-BASED APPROACH TO KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Kovačić, Andrej; Bosilj Vukšić, Vesna; Lončar, Anita

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyses the relationship between business process modelling, knowledge management and information systems development projects. The paper’s main objective is to present business rules as the encoded knowledge of corporate business practices. Further, it introduces a rule-based business activity meta-model as a repository in which business knowledge can be captured and traced from their origin in the business environment through to their implementation in information systems. The c...

  18. Milestones in software engineering and knowledge engineering history: a comparative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Águila, Isabel M; Palma, José; Túnez, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    We present a review of the historical evolution of software engineering, intertwining it with the history of knowledge engineering because "those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it." This retrospective represents a further step forward to understanding the current state of both types of engineerings; history has also positive experiences; some of them we would like to remember and to repeat. Two types of engineerings had parallel and divergent evolutions but following a similar pattern. We also define a set of milestones that represent a convergence or divergence of the software development methodologies. These milestones do not appear at the same time in software engineering and knowledge engineering, so lessons learned in one discipline can help in the evolution of the other one.

  19. Milestones in Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering History: A Comparative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Águila, Isabel M.; Palma, José; Túnez, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    We present a review of the historical evolution of software engineering, intertwining it with the history of knowledge engineering because “those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it.” This retrospective represents a further step forward to understanding the current state of both types of engineerings; history has also positive experiences; some of them we would like to remember and to repeat. Two types of engineerings had parallel and divergent evolutions but following a similar pattern. We also define a set of milestones that represent a convergence or divergence of the software development methodologies. These milestones do not appear at the same time in software engineering and knowledge engineering, so lessons learned in one discipline can help in the evolution of the other one. PMID:24624046

  20. Knowledge of childhood: materiality, text, and the history of science - an interdisciplinary round table discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rietmann, Felix; Schildmann, Mareike; Arni, Caroline; Cook, Daniel Thomas; Giuriato, Davide; Göhlsdorf, Novina; Muigai, Wangui

    2017-03-01

    This round table discussion takes the diversity of discourse and practice shaping modern knowledge about childhood as an opportunity to engage with recent historiographical approaches in the history of science. It draws attention to symmetries and references among scientific, material, literary and artistic cultures and their respective forms of knowledge. The five participating scholars come from various fields in the humanities and social sciences and allude to historiographical and methodological questions through a range of examples. Topics include the emergence of children's rooms in US consumer magazines, research on the unborn in nineteenth-century sciences of development, the framing of autism in nascent child psychiatry, German literary discourses about the child's initiation into writing, and the sociopolitics of racial identity in the photographic depiction of African American infant corpses in the early twentieth century. Throughout the course of the paper, childhood emerges as a topic particularly amenable to interdisciplinary perspectives that take the history of science as part of a broader history of knowledge.

  1. Landscape, Process and Power: Re-evaluating Traditional Environmental Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colleen Marie O'Brien

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Review of Landscape, Process and Power: Re-evaluating Traditional Environmental Knowledge. Serena Heckler, ed. 2009. Berghahn Books, New York. Pp. 304, 21 illustrations, bibliography, index. $95.00 (hardback. ISBN 978-1-84545-549-1

  2. PROCESS DOCUMENTATION: A MODEL FOR KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT IN ORGANIZATIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddadpoor, Asefeh; Taheri, Behjat; Nasri, Mehran; Heydari, Kamal; Bahrami, Gholamreza

    2015-10-01

    Continuous and interconnected processes are a chain of activities that turn the inputs of an organization to its outputs and help achieve partial and overall goals of the organization. These activates are carried out by two types of knowledge in the organization called explicit and implicit knowledge. Among these, implicit knowledge is the knowledge that controls a major part of the activities of an organization, controls these activities internally and will not be transferred to the process owners unless they are present during the organization's work. Therefore the goal of this study is identification of implicit knowledge and its integration with explicit knowledge in order to improve human resources management, physical resource management, information resource management, training of new employees and other activities of Isfahan University of Medical Science. The project for documentation of activities in department of health of Isfahan University of Medical Science was carried out in several stages. First the main processes and related sub processes were identified and categorized with the help of planning expert. The categorization was carried out from smaller processes to larger ones. In this stage the experts of each process wrote down all their daily activities and organized them into general categories based on logical and physical relations between different activities. Then each activity was assigned a specific code. The computer software was designed after understanding the different parts of the processes, including main and sup processes, and categorization, which will be explained in the following sections. The findings of this study showed that documentation of activities can help expose implicit knowledge because all of inputs and outputs of a process along with the length, location, tools and different stages of the process, exchanged information, storage location of the information and information flow can be identified using proper

  3. Visual histories of decision processes for collaborative decision making

    OpenAIRE

    Kozlova, Karine

    2016-01-01

    Remembering, understanding and reconstructing past activities is a necessary part of any learning, sense-making or decision making process. It is also essential for any collaborative activity. This dissertation investigates the design and evaluation of systems to support decision remembering, understanding and reconstruction by groups and individuals. By conducting three qualitative case studies of small professional groups, we identify the critical activities where history functionality is n...

  4. Tank 241-Z-361 process and characterization history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, S.A.

    1997-01-01

    This document is a summary of the history of Tank 241-Z-361 through December 1997. Documents reviewed include engineering files, laboratory notebooks from characterization efforts, waste facility process procedures, supporting documents and interviews of people's recollections of 20 plus years ago. Records of transfers into the tank, past characterization efforts, and speculation will be used to estimate the current condition of Tank 241-Z-361 and its contents

  5. Meeting Organizational Performance with Shared Knowledge Management Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Franco, Massimo; Mariano, Stefania

    2010-01-01

    Using empirical research data, this study investigated how knowledge is stored and retrieved in an American company and contributed to the growing body of literature on the use of knowledge, technology, and memory systems to improve organizational performance. It demonstrated the importance of individual motivation and efforts, managerial capabilities, and shared organizational technologies in the management of organizational processes and revealed factors influencing the processes of knowled...

  6. Working knowledges before and after circa 1800: practices and disciplines in the history of science, technology, and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickstone, John V

    2007-09-01

    Historians of science, inasmuch as they are concerned with knowledges and practices rather than institutions, have tended of late to focus on case studies of common processes such as experiment and publication. In so doing, they tend to treat science as a single category, with various local instantiations. Or, alternatively, they relate cases to their specific local contexts. In neither approach do the cases or their contexts build easily into broader histories, reconstructing changing knowledge practices across time and space. This essay argues that by systematically deconstructing the practices of science and technology and medicine (STM) into common, recurrent elements, we can gain usefully "configurational" views, not just of particular cases and contexts but of synchronic variety and diachronic changes, both short term and long. To this end, we can begin with the customary actors' disciplines of early modern knowledge (natural philosophy, natural history, mixed mathematics, and experimental philosophy), which can be understood as elemental "ways of knowing and working," variously combined and disputed. I argue that these same working knowledges, together with a later mode-synthetic experimentation and systematic invention-may also serve for the analysis of STM from the late eighteenth century to the present. The old divisions continued explicitly and importantly after circa 1800, but they were also "built into" an array of new sciences. This historiographic analysis can help clarify a number of common problems: about the multiplicity of the sciences, the importance of various styles in science, and the relations between science and technology and medicine. It suggests new readings of major changes in STM, including the first and second scientific revolutions and the transformations of biomedicine from the later twentieth century. It offers ways of recasting both microhistories and macrohistories, so reducing the apparent distance between them. And it may thus

  7. Different People in Different Places - Secondary School Students' Knowledge About History of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandolfi, Haira Emanuela

    2018-05-01

    This article presents the results of an exploratory study of students' knowledge about scientists and countries' contributions to science, aiming at answering two research questions: "In which ways are students aware of the history of scientific development carried out by different people in different places of the world? What can be influencing and shaping their awareness?" Thus, this study aimed at depicting students' knowledge about History of Science (HOS), focusing on what they know about science being done by people and communities from different parts of the world and on how this knowledge is constructed through their engagement with school science. An exploratory research was carried out at two multicultural state secondary schools in London, UK, involving 200 students aged 12-15 (58.5% girls, 41.5% boys) and five science teachers. The method involved an initial exploration of students' knowledge about HOS through an open-ended survey, followed by classroom-based observations and semi-structured interviews with the participants. Results showed a disconnection between remembering scientists and knowing about their work and background, hinting at an emphasis on illustrative and decontextualised approaches towards HOS. Additionally, there was a lack of diversity in these students' answers in terms of gender and ethnicity when talking about scientists and countries in science. These findings were further analysed in relation to their implications for school science and for the fields of HOS, science education and public perception of science.

  8. Empirical Research on Spatial Diffusion Process of Knowledge Spillovers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xuehui

    2018-02-01

    Firstly, this paper gave a brief review of the core issues of previous studies on spatial distribution of knowledge spillovers. That laid the theoretical foundation for further research. Secondly, this paper roughly described the diffusion process of solar patents in Bejing-Tianjin-Hebei and the Pearl River Delta regions by means of correlation analysis based on patent information of the application date and address of patentee. After that, this paper introduced the variables of spatial distance, knowledge absorptive capacity, knowledge gap and pollution control and built the empirical model of patent, and then collecting data to test them. The results showed that knowledge absorptive capacity was the most significant factor than the other three, followed by the knowledge gap. The influence of spatial distance on knowledge spillovers was limited and the most weak influence factor was pollution control.

  9. Assumptions of Customer Knowledge Enablement in the Open Innovation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jokubauskienė Raminta

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In the scientific literature, open innovation is one of the most effective means to innovate and gain a competitive advantage. In practice, there is a variety of open innovation activities, but, nevertheless, customers stand as the cornerstone in this area, since the customers’ knowledge is one of the most important sources of new knowledge and ideas. Evaluating the context where are the interactions of open innovation and customer knowledge enablement, it is necessary to take into account the importance of customer knowledge management. Increasingly it is highlighted that customers’ knowledge management facilitates the creation of innovations. However, it should be an examination of other factors that influence the open innovation, and, at the same time, customers’ knowledge management. This article presents a theoretical model, which reveals the assumptions of open innovation process and the impact on the firm’s performance.

  10. Process Knowledge Discovery Using Sparse Principal Component Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Huihui; Gajjar, Shriram; Kulahci, Murat

    2016-01-01

    As the goals of ensuring process safety and energy efficiency become ever more challenging, engineers increasingly rely on data collected from such processes for informed decision making. During recent decades, extracting and interpreting valuable process information from large historical data sets...... SPCA approach that helps uncover the underlying process knowledge regarding variable relations. This approach systematically determines the optimal sparse loadings for each sparse PC while improving interpretability and minimizing information loss. The salient features of the proposed approach...

  11. Relationship Between Concussion History and Concussion Knowledge, Attitudes, and Disclosure Behavior in High School Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Register-Mihalik, Johna K; Valovich McLeod, Tamara C; Linnan, Laura A; Guskiewicz, Kevin M; Marshall, Stephen W

    2017-05-01

    Examine the association between self-reported concussion history and measures of concussion knowledge, attitude, and disclosure behavior. Cross-sectional survey. Classroom. A convenience sample of high school athletes (n = 167; mean age = 15.7 years) from multiple sports completed a validated survey. Concussion history (main predictor) was defined as the number of self-recalled concussions during participants' high school career. The outcomes were recalled concussion disclosure behavior (3 measures) and scales assessing both concussion knowledge and concussion attitude. A greater number of previous concussions was associated with worse attitude to concussion and negative concussion disclosure behavior. For every 3 additional self-recalled concussions, there was a mean decrease of 7.2 points (range of possible scores = 14-98) in concussion attitude score (P = 0.002), a 48% decrease in the self-reported proportion of concussion events disclosed (P = 0.013), and an increased prevalence of self-reported participation in games (67%) and practices (125%) while experiencing signs and symptoms of concussion (P disclosure behavior were identified in youth athletes with a positive history of concussion. Improving disclosure in this subgroup will require targeted efforts addressing negative attitude to concussion.

  12. Islands of knowledge: science and agriculture in the history of Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Prieto, Leida

    2013-12-01

    This essay explores the participation of Latin America and the Caribbean in the construction and circulation of tropical agricultural science during the nineteenth century and the first half of the twentieth century. It uses the term "islands of knowledge" to underscore the idea that each producing region across the global tropics, including Latin America and the Caribbean, was instrumental in the creation, adoption, and application of scientific procedures. At the same time, it emphasizes the value of interchange and interconnection between these regions, as well as the many and heterogeneous local areas, for analyzing what it calls "global archipelago agricultural scientific knowledge." This focus challenges the traditional center/periphery hierarchy and opens it to a wider vision of science and practice in agriculture. This essay shows how writing in related areas of research--specifically, commodity histories, biological exchange studies, and knowledge exchange studies--introduces approaches and case studies that are useful for the history of tropical agricultural science. In particular, this work provides analytical frameworks for developing studies of exchanges across the Global South.

  13. Enhancing the Teaching-Learning Process: A Knowledge Management Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhusry, Mamta; Ranjan, Jayanthi

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to emphasize the need for knowledge management (KM) in the teaching-learning process in technical educational institutions (TEIs) in India, and to assert the impact of information technology (IT) based KM intervention in the teaching-learning process. Design/methodology/approach: The approach of the paper is…

  14. A Compositional Knowledge Level Process Model of Requirements Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herlea, D.E.; Jonker, C.M.; Treur, J.; Wijngaards, W.C.A.

    2002-01-01

    In current literature few detailed process models for Requirements Engineering are presented: usually high-level activities are distinguished, without a more precise specification of each activity. In this paper the process of Requirements Engineering has been analyzed using knowledge-level

  15. Knowledge and Processes in Design. DPS Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirolli, Peter

    Four papers from a project concerning information-processing characterizations of the knowledge and processes involved in design are presented. The project collected and analyzed verbal protocols from instructional designers, architects, and mechanical engineers. A framework was developed for characterizing the problem spaces of design that…

  16. Process fault diagnosis using knowledge-based systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudduth, A.L.

    1991-01-01

    Advancing technology in process plants has led to increased need for computer based process diagnostic systems to assist the operator. One approach to this problem is to use an embedded knowledge based system to interpret measurement signals. Knowledge based systems using only symptom based rules are inadequate for real time diagnosis of dynamic systems; therefore a model based approach is necessary. Though several forms of model based reasoning have been proposed, the use of qualitative causal models incorporating first principles knowledge of process behavior structure, and function appear to have the most promise as a robust modeling methodology. In this paper the structure of a diagnostic system is described which uses model based reasoning and conventional numerical methods to perform process diagnosis. This system is being applied to emergency diesel generator system in nuclear stations

  17. Knowledge and process in Whitehead’s philosophy of organism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Gómez Fernández

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to expound the whiteheadian conception of knowledge as a process. It requires explaining previously the core of his metaphysics, known as the «speculative scheme». All knowledge is essentially a process, not only in a subjective but also in an objective sense, for the British philosopher. Process has to be part of the known object, because sense, relevance and therefore understanding only appear in the process, in creative advance. In accordance with the speculative scheme structure (eternal objects» presupposes a process. The traditional classification of knowledge (sensuous and intellectual ignores the root of all kinds of knowledge: the paradoxical concept of a «non-sensuous perception». This concept emphasizes the «biological» constituent of all act of knowledge, and connects consciousness to reality. Finally I explain the culmination of this gnoseology, known as Reformed Subjectivist Principle. This principle leads to a peculiar realism, far from both Greek and medieval realism and from modern subjectivism likewise.

  18. Soft Systems Methodology Embedded in Organizational Knowledge-Creating Process

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshida, Taketoshi

    2005-01-01

    We clarify the role of tacit knowing in the soft systems methodology. For the purpose we investigate the basic structure of its seven-stage model, while embedding the soft systems methodology in organizational knowledge-creating process. This leads to the introduction of concept creation to the methodology. This changes the basic shape of the soft systems methodology from learning cycle to organizational knowledge-creating spiral where concept creation is the key point.

  19. Natural history collections as windows on evolutionary processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Michael W; Hammond, Talisin T; Wogan, Guinevere O U; Walsh, Rachel E; LaBarbera, Katie; Wommack, Elizabeth A; Martins, Felipe M; Crawford, Jeremy C; Mack, Katya L; Bloch, Luke M; Nachman, Michael W

    2016-02-01

    Natural history collections provide an immense record of biodiversity on Earth. These repositories have traditionally been used to address fundamental questions in biogeography, systematics and conservation. However, they also hold the potential for studying evolution directly. While some of the best direct observations of evolution have come from long-term field studies or from experimental studies in the laboratory, natural history collections are providing new insights into evolutionary change in natural populations. By comparing phenotypic and genotypic changes in populations through time, natural history collections provide a window into evolutionary processes. Recent studies utilizing this approach have revealed some dramatic instances of phenotypic change over short timescales in response to presumably strong selective pressures. In some instances, evolutionary change can be paired with environmental change, providing a context for potential selective forces. Moreover, in a few cases, the genetic basis of phenotypic change is well understood, allowing for insight into adaptive change at multiple levels. These kinds of studies open the door to a wide range of previously intractable questions by enabling the study of evolution through time, analogous to experimental studies in the laboratory, but amenable to a diversity of species over longer timescales in natural populations. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Constructing knowledge through perceptual processes in making craft-art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milla Ojala

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The focus of the study is on the knowledge that is constructed through perceptual processes during craft making in the context of the Finnish Basic Education in the Arts (BEA system. Craft studies in the BEA are defined as craft-art. The research method used is the grounded theory. The data consists of seven interviews and participant observations. Participants in the study are adolescents who study craft-art in the BEA system in Visual Art School, Aimo in Hämeenlinna. The aim of the article is to present, define and reflect on the concepts, properties and dimensions concerning perceptual processes that are discovered in this stage of the study following grounded theory procedures. The perceptual processes are an essential means of constructing knowledge in craft-art. Consequently, one aim of the study is to discuss how these processes are connected to various types of knowledge. The perceptual processes are described by seven concepts: imitative, anticipative, evaluative, experimental, emotional, temporal and bodily perceptions. They indicate on a conceptual level the characteristic of knowledge constructed through perceptual processes in craft-art. Further, theconcepts have several properties that can vary dimensionally between two qualities. The properties are activity, function and position. The dimensions of the properties vary from active to passive, formal to informal and internal to external. In conclusion, the concepts can describe a large range of incidents in different situations. They also seem to describe well the practice of  craft-art and there are several connections with pre-existing concepts of knowledge.Keywords: Craft, Knowledge, Perceptual process, Basic Education in the Arts, Grounded Theory 

  1. Human Processing of Knowledge from Texts: Acquisition, Integration, and Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-06-01

    comprehension. Norwood, N.J.: Ablex, 1977. Craik , F.I.M., and Lockhart , R. S. Levels of processing : for memory research. Journal of Verbal Learning A...Table 5.9 presents summary data regarding the performance levels and memory and search processes of individual subjects. The first row in Table 5.9...R-2256-ARP A June 1979 ARPA Order No.: 189-1 9020 Cybernetics Technology Human Processing of Knowledge from Texts: Acquisition, Integration, and

  2. Investigating Individuals' Intention to be Involved in Knowledge Management Process

    OpenAIRE

    M. J.M. Razi; N. S.A. Karim

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: Implementation of Knowledge Management (KM) process in organizations is considered as essential to be competitive in the present competitive world. Though the modern KM practices highly depend on technology, individuals (organizational members) intention to be involved in KM process plays a major role in the success. Hence, the evaluation of individuals intention is deemed as significant before the actual implementation of KM process in organizations. Nevertheless, inadequa...

  3. "Violent Intent Modeling: Incorporating Cultural Knowledge into the Analytical Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Nibbs, Faith G.

    2007-08-24

    While culture has a significant effect on the appropriate interpretation of textual data, the incorporation of cultural considerations into data transformations has not been systematic. Recognizing that the successful prevention of terrorist activities could hinge on the knowledge of the subcultures, Anthropologist and DHS intern Faith Nibbs has been addressing the need to incorporate cultural knowledge into the analytical process. In this Brown Bag she will present how cultural ideology is being used to understand how the rhetoric of group leaders influences the likelihood of their constituents to engage in violent or radicalized behavior, and how violent intent modeling can benefit from understanding that process.

  4. Knowledge-Centric Technical Support Organization (TSO) Using Process Oriented Knowledge Management Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Safuan Sulaiman; Siti Nurbahyah Hamdan; Mohd Dzul Aiman Aslan

    2014-01-01

    In the United States of America, Process Oriented Knowledge Management (POKM) Model has been successfully implemented in most of Nuclear Power Plants. This approach has been introduced in Nuclear Knowledge Management program by the IAEA since 2011. Malaysia has involved in the IAEA Coordinated Research Project (CRP) focusing the approach started in 2011. The main objective for Malaysian participation of this project is to support readiness in terms of nuclear technical knowledge by Technical Support Organization (TSO) for Nuclear Power Program. This project has focused on several nuclear technical areas which consist of Public Information (PI), Radiological Impact Assessment (RIA), Nuclear Reactor Technology (NRT), Plant and Prototype Development (PDC) and nuclear knowledge management. This paper articulates the detail POKM approach and project experience in implementing the approach at organizational level. (author)

  5. The knowledge of the history of astronomy and a proposal to improve it

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saucedo Morales, Julio Cesar; Loera Gonzalez, Pablo

    In this work we present the results of a survey conducted in Hermosillo, Sonora, México, among several different samples to assess the knowledge of the History of Astronomy (HoA), and at the same time, to evaluate the degree of success of the Astronomy Basic Course (ABC) in teaching this particular subject. We claim that astronomy has always been an important player in the history of civilization; however, as the results of this study indicate, this is not widely known. An example of this is that the work of great astronomers such as Aristarchus and Hipparchus are known to only a small fraction of the population. But people find astronomy attractive, which gives us an opportunity to fill gaps in astronomical knowledge. We present our experience of 25 years (the first half of these in the classroom, and the second half both in classroom and virtual mode through the Internet) teaching astronomy to the public with the ABC. In about 60 hours of class spread over a 3-month period, the ABC covers some of the most relevant topics of astronomy, one of which is a 3-hour session on the HoA, which it is taught trying to captivate the attention of wide audiences while discussing the contributions of astronomy to humankind. Although the level of knowledge of the HoA is somewhat disappointing, meaning that much work needs to be done, we have also found that it really pays off to offer opportunities like the ABC to the public. This success encourages us to present a proposal to extend the ABC, to teach it not just in Spanish as we have been done so far, but also in English and perhaps other languages, collaborations to improve it and to spread its use as an outreach and STEM educational device are most welcome.

  6. Using Knowledge Management to Revise Software-Testing Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogeste, Kersti; Walker, Derek H. T.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to use a knowledge management (KM) approach to effectively revise a utility retailer's software testing process. This paper presents a case study of how the utility organisation's customer services IT production support group improved their test planning skills through applying the American Productivity and Quality Center…

  7. Pattern-Directed Processing of Knowledge from Texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorndyke, Perry W.

    A framework for viewing human text comprehension, memory, and recall is presented that assumes patterns of abstract conceptual relations are used to guide processing. These patterns consist of clusters of knowledge that encode prototypical co-occurrences of situations and events in narrative texts. The patterns are assumed to be a part of a…

  8. A Knowledge-based Environment for Software Process Performance Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Chaves Lessa Schots

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Process performance analysis is a key step for implementing continuous improvement in software organizations. However, the knowledge to execute such analysis is not trivial and the person responsible to executing it must be provided with appropriate support. Aim: This paper presents a knowledge-based environment, named SPEAKER, proposed for supporting software organizations during the execution of process performance analysis. SPEAKER comprises a body of knowledge and a set of activities and tasks for software process performance analysis along with supporting tools to executing these activities and tasks. Method: We conducted an informal literature reviews and a systematic mapping study, which provided basic requirements for the proposed environment. We implemented the SPEAKER environment integrating supporting tools for the execution of activities and tasks of performance analysis and the knowledge necessary to execute them, in order to meet the variability presented by the characteristics of these activities. Results: In this paper, we describe each SPEAKER module and the individual evaluations of these modules, and also present an example of use comprising how the environment can guide the user through a specific performance analysis activity. Conclusion: Although we only conducted individual evaluations of SPEAKER’s modules, the example of use indicates the feasibility of the proposed environment. Therefore, the environment as a whole will be further evaluated to verify if it attains its goal of assisting in the execution of process performance analysis by non-specialist people.

  9. Making decision process knowledge explicit using the product data model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petrusel, R.; Vanderfeesten, I.T.P.; Dolean, Cristina; Mican, D.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new knowledge acquisition and formalization method: the decision mining approach. Basically, we aim to produce a model of the workflow of mental actions performed by decision makers during the decision process. We show that through the use of a Product Data Model (PDM) we

  10. INNOCUOUSNESS + KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT A CONTRIBUTION TO PROCESS IMPROVEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    García Pulido, Yadrián Arnaldo*1, Castillo Zúñiga, Victor Javier2, Medina León, Alberto3, Medina Nogueira, Daylín4, Mayorga Villamar, Carmen Manuela5

    2017-01-01

    The processes improvement is inherent to the business management. In the competitive current market, the businesses adaptation capacity is fundamental. The continuous improvement becomes into the reason of being of the companies, being adapted to the clients, being more efficient and winning in flexibility in the face of an extremely unstable economy. Several tools have been developed with the objective of improving the processes, however the integration of elements of other knowledge areas h...

  11. Prior knowledge processing for initial state of Kalman filter

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Suzdaleva, Evgenia

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 3 (2010), s. 188-202 ISSN 0890-6327 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP201/06/P434 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Kalman filtering * prior knowledge * state-space model * initial state distribution Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory Impact factor: 0.729, year: 2010 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2009/AS/suzdaleva-prior knowledge processing for initial state of kalman filter.pdf

  12. Knowledge in Value Creation Process for Increasing Competitive Advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna ZÁVODSKÁ

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to compare companies by using value creation model and to determine knowledge in these processes. The framework for the value creation process shows problems of case companies in different phases of this process. Knowledge is compared in each of the individual phases of the process and its role in different types of companies. There is identified role of knowledge for increasing competitive advantage. The methodology involves case study from which data are derived and analyzed. The analysis shows that the framework for the value creation process can be used as an analytical tool for value overview in different phases and there is a need for different approaches to improve business and create new value for customers. Based on the analyzed problems, proposed recommendations for improvement are made. These recommendations are based on providing value innovation for customers (end users of software product. Value innovation of software product is considered as crucial for improvement of the companies in machinery industry. Company A has created new value through remote service. This remote service provides several advantages. Customers can prevent problems in machines by implementing software product which is still analyzing and evaluating data from machines. Company B and C were not able to create major value innovation for several years.

  13. Knowledge in Value Creation Process for Increasing Competitive Advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika ŠRAMOVÁ

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to compare companies by using value creation model and to determine knowledge in these processes. The framework for the value creation process shows problems of case companies in different phases of this process. Knowledge is compared in each of the individual phases of the process and its role in different types of companies. There is identified role of knowledge for increasing competitive advantage. The methodology involves case study from which data are derived and analyzed. The analysis shows that the framework for the value creation process can be used as an analytical tool for value overview in different phases and there is a need for different approaches to improve business and create new value for customers. Based on the analyzed problems, proposed recommendations for improvement are made. These recommendations are based on providing value innovation for customers (end users of software product. Value innovation of software product is considered as crucial for improvement of the companies in machinery industry. Company A has created new value through remote service. This remote service provides several advantages. Customers can prevent problems in machines by implementing software product which is still analyzing and evaluating data from machines. Company B and C were not able to create major value innovation for several years.

  14. Editorial: Learning, teaching and disseminating knowledge in business process management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Moormann

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Process-oriented thinking has become the major paradigm for managing companies and other organizations. The push for better processes has been even more intense due to rapidly evolving client needs, borderless global markets and innovations swiftly penetrating the market. Thus, education is decisive for successfully introducing and implementing Business Process Management (BPM initiatives. However, BPM education has been an area of challenge. This special issue aims to provide current research on various aspects of BPM education. It is an initial effort for consolidating better practices, experiences and pedagogical outcomes founded with empirical evidence to contribute towards the three pillars of education: learning, teaching, and disseminating knowledge in BPM.

  15. Acid rain science and politics in Japan: a history of knowledge and action toward sustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ken Wilkening

    2004-07-01

    This is a pioneering work in environmental and Asian history as well as an in-depth analysis of the influence of science on domestic and international environmental politics. The book is composed of the following chapters. Chapter 2 introduces the general set of concepts used to analyze the science-politics nexus. These concepts are employed in the remainder of the book to track and explain the relationship between science and policy related to the acid deposition problem in Japan. Chapter 3 discusses nature, culture, and the acid deposition problem in Japan. It begins with a brief introduction to the acid deposition problem in general. It continues with an overview of elements of Japan's natural environment and culture that are relevant to its acid deposition problems. This is followed by a quick sketch of the history of science in Japan, which in turn serves as a preamble for describing in the final section the environmental and acid deposition chronologies used to organize analysis of Japan's acid deposition history. The swath of history between 1868 and the present (circa 2000) is divided into five environmental eras and six acid deposition periods. Chapters 4-9 discuss in detail each of the six acid deposition periods. Chapter 10 synthesizes and summarizes what was learned in the process of analyzing Japan's acid deposition history, and draws lessons that might be applied to the challenge of creating sustainable societies in Japan, Asia, and the rest of the world. An appendix describes the present state of acid deposition science in Japan.

  16. Natural knowledge as a propaedeutic to self-betterment: Francis Bacon and the transformation of natural history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, James A T

    2012-01-01

    This paper establishes the 'emblematic' use of natural history as a propaedeutic to self-betterment in the Renaissance; in particular, in the natural histories of Gessner and Topsell, but also in the works of Erasmus and Rabelais. Subsequently, it investigates how Francis Bacon's conception of natural history is envisaged in relation to them. The paper contends that, where humanist natural historians understood the use of natural knowledge as a preliminary to individual improvement, Bacon conceived self-betterment foremost as a means to Christian charity, or social-betterment. It thus examines the transformation of the moralizing aspect of Renaissance natural history in Bacon's conception of his Great Instauration.

  17. Knowledge work productivity effect on quality of knowledge work in software development process in SME

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusoff, Mohd Zairol; Mahmuddin, Massudi; Ahmad, Mazida

    2016-08-01

    Knowledge and skill are necessary to develop the capability of knowledge workers. However, there is very little understanding of what the necessary knowledge work (KW) is, and how they influence the quality of knowledge work or knowledge work productivity (KWP) in software development process, including that in small and medium-sized (SME) enterprise. The SME constitutes a major part of the economy and it has been relatively unsuccessful in developing KWP. Accordingly, this paper seeks to explore the influencing dimensions of KWP that effect on the quality of KW in SME environment. First, based on the analysis of the existing literatures, the key characteristics of KW productivity are defined. Second, the conceptual model is proposed, which explores the dimensions of the KWP and its quality. This study analyses data collected from 150 respondents (based on [1], who involve in SME in Malaysia and validates the models by using structural equation modeling (SEM). The results provide an analysis of the effect of KWP on the quality of KW and business success, and have a significant relevance for both research and practice in the SME

  18. Abstract knowledge versus direct experience in processing of binomial expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Emily; Levy, Roger

    2016-12-01

    We ask whether word order preferences for binomial expressions of the form A and B (e.g. bread and butter) are driven by abstract linguistic knowledge of ordering constraints referencing the semantic, phonological, and lexical properties of the constituent words, or by prior direct experience with the specific items in questions. Using forced-choice and self-paced reading tasks, we demonstrate that online processing of never-before-seen binomials is influenced by abstract knowledge of ordering constraints, which we estimate with a probabilistic model. In contrast, online processing of highly frequent binomials is primarily driven by direct experience, which we estimate from corpus frequency counts. We propose a trade-off wherein processing of novel expressions relies upon abstract knowledge, while reliance upon direct experience increases with increased exposure to an expression. Our findings support theories of language processing in which both compositional generation and direct, holistic reuse of multi-word expressions play crucial roles. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Smoking history, knowledge, and attitudes among older residents of a long-term care facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carosella, Ann Marie; Ossip-Klein, Deborah J; Watt, Celia A; Podgorski, Carol

    2002-05-01

    In the absence of empirical literature from the resident perspective, this study provided a first assessment of smoking history, knowledge of the risks of smoking, the risks of environmental tobacco exposure, and the benefits of quitting among older (age 50+) nursing home unit residents, as well as readiness to quit, barriers to quitting, frequency of cessation advice by healthcare givers, and quit-attempt history of residents who smoke. Subjects were 25 smokers and 70 non-smokers housed on long-term nursing home units in a county hospital. Results indicated that smoking status for the majority of residents was similar to when they were admitted, although smokers smoked fewer cigarettes (M = 11.6, SD = 9.2) than prior to admission (M = 18.6, SD = 11.8). Smokers were less likely than non-smokers to agree that smoking is harmful to their health. Both smokers and non-smokers were not well informed of the dangers of passive smoke exposure. The majority of smokers were in precontemplation (no interest in quitting within the next 6 months). Fewer than half of residents who smoked reported receiving cessation advice from physicians (40%) or nurses (36%), and no in-house cessation programs were available. These results suggest gaps in knowledge and resources for smoking cessation in this setting and an opportunity for intervention. This study begins to build an evidence base from the residents' perspective that can be used by healthcare providers, administrators, and policy makers in addressing smoking in the nursing home.

  20. New ways of integrating material knowledge into the design process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højris, Anders; Nielsen, Louise Møller

    2013-01-01

    – based on technical performance, no longer apply. Accordingly the approach in this paper is to view information and knowledge about materials through the perspective of organizational memory and technology brokering. This paper is build upon two cases from the German based design studio: designaffairs...... libraries and thereby access to information on new material possibilities has also changed the way designers integrate knowledge about materials into the design process. This means that the traditional design process model, where the selection of materials takes place after the design of form and function...... in order to help clients to find the right material among hundreds of samples. Furthermore a number of material libraries have also been developed into online database, which provides detailed information about new material and makes the information accessible from almost everywhere. The access to material...

  1. Framework for Knowledge Management Processes in Supply Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Mohsen Shafiei Nikabadi

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of this study is to provide a framework for knowledge management processes in supply chain of automotive industry in iran. This is an applied research and has done as a survey in Iran Khodro and Saipa Company as the largest companies in automotive industry of Iran. In this study 206 experts participated. Reliability methods were cronbach's Alfa and validity tests were content construction and discriminant analysis. To response to 1 main question and 5 sub questions in this resea...

  2. Possibilistic networks for uncertainty knowledge processing in student diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina COCU

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a possibilistic network implementation for uncertain knowledge modeling of the diagnostic process is proposed as a means to achieve student diagnosis in intelligent tutoring system. This approach is proposed in the object oriented programming domain for diagnosis of students learning errors and misconception. In this expertise domain dependencies between data exist that are encoded in the structure of network. Also, it is available qualitative information about these data which are represented and interpreted with qualitative approach of possibility theory. The aim of student diagnosis system is to ensure an adapted support for the student and to sustain the student in personalized learning process and errors explanation.

  3. Tank 241-Z-361 process and characterization history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, S.A.

    1998-01-01

    An Unreviewed Safety Question (Wagoner, 1997) was declared based on lack of adequate authorization basis for Tank 241-Z-361 in the 200W Area at Hanford. This document is a summary of the history of Tank 241-Z-361 through December 1997. Documents reviewed include engineering files, laboratory notebooks from characterization efforts, waste facility process procedures, supporting documents and interviews of people's recollections of over twenty years ago. Records of transfers into the tank, past characterization efforts, and speculation were used to estimate the current condition of Tank 241-Z-361 and its contents. Information about the overall waste system as related to the settling tank was included to help in understanding the numbering system and process relationships. The Plutonium Finishing Plant was built in 1948 and began processing plutonium in mid-1949. The Incinerator (232-Z) operated from December 1961 until May 1973. The Plutonium Reclamation Facility (PRF, 236-Z) began operation in May 1964. The Waste Treatment Facility (242-Z) operated from August 1964 until August 1976. Waste from some processes went through transfer lines to 241-Z sump tanks. High salt and organic waste under normal operation were sent to Z-9 or Z-18 cribs. Water from the retention basin may have also passed through this tank. The transfer lines to 241-Z were numbered D-4 to D-6. The 241-Z sump tanks were numbered D-4 through D-8. The D-4, 5, and 8 drains went to the D-6 sump tank. When D-6 tank was full it was transferred to D-7 tank. Prior to transfer to cribs, the D-7 tank contents was sampled. If the plutonium content was analyzed to be more than 10 g per batch, the material was (generally) reprocessed. Below the discard limit, caustic was added and the material was sent to the cribs via the 241-Z-361 settling tank where solids settled out and the liquid overflowed by gravity to the cribs. Waste liquids that passed through the 241-Z-361 settling tank flowed from PFP to ground in

  4. Knowledge-based processing for aircraft flight control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, John H.; Glass, Emily; Economides, Gregory; Russell, Paul

    1994-01-01

    This Contractor Report documents research in Intelligent Control using knowledge-based processing in a manner dual to methods found in the classic stochastic decision, estimation, and control discipline. Such knowledge-based control has also been called Declarative, and Hybid. Software architectures were sought, employing the parallelism inherent in modern object-oriented modeling and programming. The viewpoint adopted was that Intelligent Control employs a class of domain-specific software architectures having features common over a broad variety of implementations, such as management of aircraft flight, power distribution, etc. As much attention was paid to software engineering issues as to artificial intelligence and control issues. This research considered that particular processing methods from the stochastic and knowledge-based worlds are duals, that is, similar in a broad context. They provide architectural design concepts which serve as bridges between the disparate disciplines of decision, estimation, control, and artificial intelligence. This research was applied to the control of a subsonic transport aircraft in the airport terminal area.

  5. Tool and ideological knowledge in Street Outreach Office working process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kami, Maria Terumi Maruyama; Larocca, Liliana Muller; Chaves, Maria Marta Nolasco; Piosiadlo, Laura Christina Macedo; Albuquerque, Guilherme Souza

    2016-01-01

    To identify ideological knowledge and tool knowledgethat provide support to the Street Outreach Office working process. Qualitative and exploratory research. TwentyStreet Outreach Office professionals and six users collected the data, applying different semi-structured interview schedules for each category of participants. The resulting categories were analyzed in light of tool and ideological knowledge presented in the working process. From the participant discourses the following ideological knowledge emerged: public policies and the needs of the person ina street situation and tool knowledge, as well as devices and tools for the care of people in street situations and a weekly schedule. The focus on the working process discourse, supported by ideological knowledge, was verified. The structural dimension of the objective reality of the population in street situations was perceptible in the social determination of being situating on the street. When daily situations were revealed, the limitations to be overcome in the working process context were noticed. Identificar os saberes ideológicos e instrumentais que subsidiam o processo de trabalho do Consultório na Rua. Pesquisa qualitativa e exploratória. A coleta de dados foi realizada junto a 20 profissionais e seis usuários do Consultório na Rua de um município do sul do Brasil, por meio de entrevistas com roteiros semiestruturados distintos para cada categoria de participantes. As classes resultantes foram analisadas à luz dos saberes ideológicos e instrumentais presentes no processo de trabalho. Dos discursos dos participantes emergiram os saberes ideológicos: políticas públicas e necessidades da pessoa em situação de rua e os saberes instrumentais: dispositivos e instrumentos no cuidado à pessoa em situação de rua e agenda semanal. Constatou-se a centralidade dos discursos no processo de trabalho, sustentado pelos saberes ideológicos. A dimensão estrutural da realidade objetiva da população em

  6. Knowledge processing and faculty engagement in multicultural university settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Jan; Jonasson, Charlotte; Lauring, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    In educational studies much attention has been directed to engagement as a precondition for positive student outcomes. Very few studies, however, have focused on the engagement of the faculty members. This is a regrettable omission because engagement has been argued to lead to more satisfied, more...... – and faculty engagement. Our hypotheses are based on social learning theory and social exchange theory predicting that increased knowledge sharing activities could facilitate an environment in which faculty engagement thrives. In order to test our hypotheses we use multiple regression analysis. We assessed...... indicators of behavioural, cognitive and emotional engagement. Results showed consistent positive associations between group knowledge processing and all the studied faculty engagement indicators. Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed in detail....

  7. Using Geographic Information Systems in Knowledge Management Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Filiz Gürder

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, organizations are required to develop quick and accurate responses to internal and external changes that gain momentum. In this context, knowledge management activities become more important to all organizations. On the other hand, Geographic Information Systems (GIS become common more and more. GIS which address a broad spectrum of users such as public agencies, local communities, civil society organizations, the private sector, academic environment, and personal users have been aiming to solve problems which occurred in location-based areas. GIS are important to get, combine, analyze and transfer the spatial data. Common use of PCs for personal needs, digital geography and improvements of software technologies, also the need to make socially acceptable business decisions facilitated development and widespread use of GIS applications. The main purpose of this paper is to discuss using areas and contribution potentials of GIS in enterprise-wide knowledge management processes.

  8. Combining natural history collections with fisher knowledge for community-based conservation in Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Abigail S; Naisilsisili, Waisea; Ligairi, Isikele; Drew, Joshua A

    2014-01-01

    Harnessing the traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) of local communities has the potential to enhance conservation planning in developing regions. Marine protected areas (MPAs) that incorporate traditional beliefs about reef tenure are generally more successful in reaching conservation goals and ensuring the participation of local fishermen on vulnerable tropical reef systems. Fiji possesses a unique system of traditional reef management in which local clans or villages, called mataqali, control individual units of a reef, known as qoliqoli, and make independent management decisions based on traditional beliefs and conservation concerns. This is an example of a system, known as customary marine tenure, which has attracted interest from conservation scientists hoping to set up MPAs in vulnerable regions. As one example of this grassroots participation, Nagigi village on the Fijian island of Vanua Levu has expressed interest in setting up an MPA in part of its qoliqoli because of concerns about overfishing. In response to this interest, we took a two-pronged approach to assessing Nagigi's fishery status and conservation needs, first conducting a fishery-independent species survey using destructive sampling and then focusing on fisheries targets identified through fisher interviews. These interviews allowed us to identify heavily targeted species, assess villagers' understanding of reef dynamics over 30 or 40 years of fisheries expansion, and evaluate village support and expectations for a proposed conservation program. Based on our findings we recommend a temporary closure to be in effect for at least three years, allowing one of the more important fishery targets, Lethrinus harak (Forsskål, 1775; Lethrinidae), to complete at least one generation within the reserve. The methodology of matching the proposed marine protected area with the life histories and ecologies of heavily targeted species identified through fisherman and -woman interviews can offer a template

  9. Combining natural history collections with fisher knowledge for community-based conservation in Fiji.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail S Golden

    Full Text Available Harnessing the traditional ecological knowledge (TEK of local communities has the potential to enhance conservation planning in developing regions. Marine protected areas (MPAs that incorporate traditional beliefs about reef tenure are generally more successful in reaching conservation goals and ensuring the participation of local fishermen on vulnerable tropical reef systems. Fiji possesses a unique system of traditional reef management in which local clans or villages, called mataqali, control individual units of a reef, known as qoliqoli, and make independent management decisions based on traditional beliefs and conservation concerns. This is an example of a system, known as customary marine tenure, which has attracted interest from conservation scientists hoping to set up MPAs in vulnerable regions. As one example of this grassroots participation, Nagigi village on the Fijian island of Vanua Levu has expressed interest in setting up an MPA in part of its qoliqoli because of concerns about overfishing. In response to this interest, we took a two-pronged approach to assessing Nagigi's fishery status and conservation needs, first conducting a fishery-independent species survey using destructive sampling and then focusing on fisheries targets identified through fisher interviews. These interviews allowed us to identify heavily targeted species, assess villagers' understanding of reef dynamics over 30 or 40 years of fisheries expansion, and evaluate village support and expectations for a proposed conservation program. Based on our findings we recommend a temporary closure to be in effect for at least three years, allowing one of the more important fishery targets, Lethrinus harak (Forsskål, 1775; Lethrinidae, to complete at least one generation within the reserve. The methodology of matching the proposed marine protected area with the life histories and ecologies of heavily targeted species identified through fisherman and -woman interviews can

  10. Factors associated with young adults' knowledge regarding family history of Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Maria Jose Melo Ramos; Moreira, Thereza Maria Magalhães; Florêncio, Raquel Sampaio; Braga, Predro

    2016-11-21

    to analyze the factors associated with young adults' knowledge regarding family history of stroke. an analytical transversal study, with 579 young adults from state schools, with collection of sociodemographic, clinical and risk factor-related variables, analyzed using logistic regression (backward elimination). a statistical association was detected between age, civil status, and classification of arterial blood pressure and abdominal circumference with knowledge of family history of stroke. In the final logistic regression model, a statistical association was observed between knowledge regarding family history of stroke and the civil status of having a partner (ORa=1.61[1.07-2.42]; p=0.023), abdominal circumference (ORa=0.98[0.96-0.99]; p=0.012) and normal arterial blood pressure (ORa=2.56[1.19-5.52]; p=0.016). an association was observed between socioeconomic factors and risk factors for stroke and knowledge of family history of stroke, suggesting the need for health education or even educational programs on this topic for the clientele in question. analisar os fatores associados ao conhecimento dos adultos jovens sobre histórico familiar de Acidente Vascular Cerebral (AVC). estudo transversal analítico, com 579 adultos jovens de escolas públicas, com coleta de variáveis sociodemográficas, clínicas e de fatores de risco em formulário, analisados utilizando-se regressão logística (backward elimination). detectou-se associação estatística de idade, situação conjugal, classificação da pressão arterial e circunferência abdominal com conhecimento do histórico familiar de AVC. No modelo final de regressão logística, observou-se associação estatística do conhecimento sobre histórico familiar de AVC com situação conjugal com companheiro (ORa=1,61[1,07-2,42]; p=0,023), circunferência abdominal (ORa=0,98[0,96-0,99]; p=0,012) e pressão arterial normal (ORa=2,56[1,19-5,52]; p=0,016). foi constatada associação de fatores socioeconômicos e de

  11. Process plant alarm diagnosis using synthesised fault tree knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trenchard, A.J.

    1990-01-01

    The development of computer based tools, to assist process plant operators in their task of fault/alarm diagnosis, has received much attention over the last twenty five years. More recently, with the emergence of Artificial Intelligence (AI) technology, the research activity in this subject area has heightened. As a result, there are a great variety of fault diagnosis methodologies, using many different approaches to represent the fault propagation behaviour of process plant. These range in complexity from steady state quantitative models to more abstract definitions of the relationships between process alarms. Unfortunately, very few of the techniques have been tried and tested on process plant and even fewer have been judged to be commercial successes. One of the outstanding problems still remains the time and effort required to understand and model the fault propagation behaviour of each considered process. This thesis describes the development of an experimental knowledge based system (KBS) to diagnose process plant faults, as indicated by process variable alarms. In an attempt to minimise the modelling effort, the KBS has been designed to infer diagnoses using a fault tree representation of the process behaviour, generated using an existing fault tree synthesis package (FAULTFINDER). The process is described to FAULTFINDER as a configuration of unit models, derived from a standard model library or by tailoring existing models. The resultant alarm diagnosis methodology appears to work well for hard (non-rectifying) faults, but is likely to be less robust when attempting to diagnose intermittent faults and transient behaviour. The synthesised fault trees were found to contain the bulk of the information required for the diagnostic task, however, this needed to be augmented with extra information in certain circumstances. (author)

  12. Omissions in managing knowledge in innovation processes or how to handle knowledge, humans and tasks : A semio-cognitive approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cijsouw, R. S.; Jorna, R. J.; Rakhorst, G.; Verkerke, G. J.; Charrel, PJ; Galarreta, D

    2007-01-01

    In organizations, innovation is a long-lasting process that is difficult to manage. Innovation is characterized by the use of new (combinations of) knowledge. Innovation, as knowledge creation, is also an activity of individuals. However, neither the individual nor knowledge is studied as

  13. The impact of orthographic knowledge on speech processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Régine Kolinsky

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8026.2012n63p161   The levels-of-processing approach to speech processing (cf. Kolinsky, 1998 distinguishes three levels, from bottom to top: perception, recognition (which involves activation of stored knowledge and formal explicit analysis or comparison (which belongs to metalinguistic ability, and assumes that only the former is immune to literacy-dependent knowledge.  in this contribution, we first briefly review the main ideas and evidence supporting the role of learning to read in the alphabetic system in the development of conscious representations of phonemes, and we contrast conscious and unconscious representations of phonemes. Then, we examine in detail recent compelling behavioral and neuroscientific evidence for the involvement of orthographic representation in the recognition of spoken words. We conclude by arguing that there is a strong need of theoretical re-elaboration of the models of speech recognition, which typically have ignored the influence of reading acquisition.

  14. The Effect of Project-Based History and Nature of Science Practices on the Change of Nature of Scientific Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çibik, Ayse Sert

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the change of pre-service science teachers' views about the nature of scientific knowledge through Project-Based History and Nature of Science training and Conventional Method. The sample of the study consists of two groups of 3rd grade undergraduate students attending teacher preparation program of science…

  15. KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT PROCESSES AND INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT PROCESSES: AN INTEGRATED CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

    OpenAIRE

    HENAO-CALAD, MONICA; RIVERA-MONTOYA, PAULA; URIBE-OCHOA, BEATRIZ

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Intellectual property management, knowledge management are disciplines that have been treated independently, both in academia and in the organizational field. Through the legal discipline of intellectual property, the former manages intangible assets that are eligible for protection (copyright, patents and trademarks, among others) leaving aside those assets that cannot be realized in any way. The latter is devoted to the processes of knowledge management in general, namely, the know...

  16. Managing risk and knowledge in the internationalisation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Rodríguez

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The internationalisation process in a company embodies a series of projects that are performed in different geographical regions. In some cases, especially in SMEs, companies are not capable of predicting the risks that will be faced during the process and they do not have suitable tools to manage the knowledge acquired in previous internationalisation experiences. Therefore, they fail to turn internationalisation into a sustainable competitive advantage. This paper reports the conclusions of a study based on both a bibliographic research and a comprehensive study of a group of industrial companies. This study includes the analysis of 37 internal reports about internationalisation experiences and the carrying out of semi-structured interviews with managers responsible for international operations. We have identified the main factors (risks that prevent successful internationalisation processes and we have proposed a taxonomy of them. Furthermore, we have proposed a general framework (model which provides a common perspective for all internationalisation projects, bringing coherence, and also a certain level of systematisation, to the decisions made in regards to different internationalisation projects. The model provides a systemic vision of the whole internationalisation process and we believe that companies can develop efficient learning systems based on this framework. It would give them differentiation and, therefore, help them to turn internationalisation into a sustainable competitive advantage.

  17. Acquisition and understanding of process knowledge using problem solving methods

    CERN Document Server

    Gómez-Pérez, JM

    2010-01-01

    The development of knowledge-based systems is usually approached through the combined skills of knowledge engineers (KEs) and subject matter experts (SMEs). One of the most critical steps in this activity aims at transferring knowledge from SMEs to formal, machine-readable representations, which allow systems to reason with such knowledge. However, this is a costly and error prone task. Alleviating the knowledge acquisition bottleneck requires enabling SMEs with the means to produce the desired knowledge representations without the help of KEs. This is especially difficult in the case of compl

  18. CNCAN Knowledge Management Process and Tools in Support of Sustainable Development of Regulatory Competences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tronea, M.; Ciurea, C.; Oprisescu, M.; Liutiev, C.; Ghinea, P.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: The paper presents the knowledge management process and the knowledge management portal developed by CNCAN, in the framework of the Regional Excellence Project on Regulatory Capacity Building in Nuclear and Radiological Safety, Emergency Preparedness and Response in Romania. The activities of this project started in 2014. The general process for knowledge management is presented, together with its sub-processes: identification of the necessary knowledge; identification of the risk of knowledge loss; acquisition and/or creation of knowledge; knowledge retention (capture, collect, store and organize knowledge); knowledge utilization; review of the effectiveness of the knowledge management process; identification of opportunities for improving the knowledge management process. The paper also presents a set of indicators of the effectiveness of the knowledge management process and the artifacts, espoused values and basic assumptions supporting an effective knowledge management process. The necessary knowledge has been identified using the IAEA recommendations on managing regulatory body competence and the SARCoN methodology. The knowledge management process has been developed based on the IAEA publications on knowledge management in the nuclear industry and in regulatory bodies. The implementation of the process and the development of the portal are ongoing, with more than 20% of the staff using the portal. (author

  19. The research on construction and application of machining process knowledge base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tan; Qiao, Lihong; Qie, Yifan; Guo, Kai

    2018-03-01

    In order to realize the application of knowledge in machining process design, from the perspective of knowledge in the application of computer aided process planning(CAPP), a hierarchical structure of knowledge classification is established according to the characteristics of mechanical engineering field. The expression of machining process knowledge is structured by means of production rules and the object-oriented methods. Three kinds of knowledge base models are constructed according to the representation of machining process knowledge. In this paper, the definition and classification of machining process knowledge, knowledge model, and the application flow of the process design based on the knowledge base are given, and the main steps of the design decision of the machine tool are carried out as an application by using the knowledge base.

  20. Assessment of Medical Student and Resident/Fellow Knowledge, Comfort, and Training With Sexual History Taking in LGBTQ Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Victoria; Blondeau, Whitney; Bing-You, Robert G

    2015-05-01

    Sexual health is an important aspect of overall health. Barriers to taking an adequate patient sexual history exist. Few studies have explored medical learners' comfort, knowledge, and training surrounding taking sexual histories with lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, questioning/queer (LGBTQ) patients specifically. A 10-question survey was offered to medical students and resident/fellows at one US institution. Survey questions reflected participants' knowledge, comfort, and training related to sexual history taking with attention to LGBTQ care. A total of 159 surveys were returned (rate of 42%). A significantly lower level of comfort existed with taking sexual histories and managing sexual health issues in the LGBTQ segment of the patient population versus all patients, especially in the advanced training group. Participants recognized the importance of understanding their patients' overall sexual health, though medical students rated this as more important than the resident/fellow group did. A correlation existed between both comfort with taking sexual histories and discussing safe sexual practices and management of sexual issues, suggesting that further training would be helpful in this area. Twenty percent of the respondents reported receiving no training at all in eliciting sexual histories in LGBTQ patients. The most preferred format in this study for future training was interviewing standardized patients. Medical students and resident/fellows reported a significantly lower level of comfort with sexual history-taking and management of sexual issues in the LGBTQ population. A comprehensive training format that not only views sexual health as an integral part of overall patient health, but also integrates LGBTQ care, is needed in medical education.

  1. Knowledge Based Cloud FE Simulation of Sheet Metal Forming Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Du; Yuan, Xi; Gao, Haoxiang; Wang, Ailing; Liu, Jun; El Fakir, Omer; Politis, Denis J; Wang, Liliang; Lin, Jianguo

    2016-12-13

    The use of Finite Element (FE) simulation software to adequately predict the outcome of sheet metal forming processes is crucial to enhancing the efficiency and lowering the development time of such processes, whilst reducing costs involved in trial-and-error prototyping. Recent focus on the substitution of steel components with aluminum alloy alternatives in the automotive and aerospace sectors has increased the need to simulate the forming behavior of such alloys for ever more complex component geometries. However these alloys, and in particular their high strength variants, exhibit limited formability at room temperature, and high temperature manufacturing technologies have been developed to form them. Consequently, advanced constitutive models are required to reflect the associated temperature and strain rate effects. Simulating such behavior is computationally very expensive using conventional FE simulation techniques. This paper presents a novel Knowledge Based Cloud FE (KBC-FE) simulation technique that combines advanced material and friction models with conventional FE simulations in an efficient manner thus enhancing the capability of commercial simulation software packages. The application of these methods is demonstrated through two example case studies, namely: the prediction of a material's forming limit under hot stamping conditions, and the tool life prediction under multi-cycle loading conditions.

  2. Qualitative processing of uncertainty, conflicts and redundancy in knowledge bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zbytovsky, V.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes two techniques, created and implemented in the course of development of the real-time on-line expert system Recon at the Nuclear Research Institute at Rez, Czech Republic. The first of them is the qualitative processing of uncertainty, which is based on the introduction of the third logic value to logic data objects, and the credibility flag to arithmetic data objects. The treatment of the third value and credibility flags during the inference, the explanation method based on the graphic representation and the uncertainty processing during the explanation are also mentioned. The second technique, is a semantic checking of knowledge bases, which enables us to recover parts of the bases, that are meaningless, either because of an error during their implementation into a base, or because they are redundant. The paper includes the explanation of basic terms of this method, such as so called conflicts, K-group and K-situation. The two types of the conflict (dead-end and bubble) are also discussed. The paper also offers the complete mathematical apparatus, which the checking method is based on. (author). 4 refs, tabs

  3. Promotion of Cultural Content Knowledge through the Use of the History and Philosophy of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galili, Igal

    2012-01-01

    Historical excurse was suggested as a beneficial form of using the history and philosophy of science in the modules of learning materials developed within the History and Philosophy in Science Teaching project. The paper briefly describes the theoretical framework of the produced modules, addressing ontological and epistemological aspects of…

  4. Nuclear reactor safety: on the history of the regulatory process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okrent, D.

    1981-01-01

    This manuscript is derived from a long report which examines the history of the evolution of light water reactor safety. The central portion of the document provides a historical view of the development of siting policy and the major safety issues which interacted strongly with siting policy. A very incomplete selection of the very many important issues and developments in light water reactor safety is also included. Coverage of the loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) has deliberately been abbreviated to include only a few selected aspects

  5. Empowering production workers with digitally facilitated knowledge processes--a conceptual framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannola, Lea; Richter, Alexander; Richter, Shahper

    2018-01-01

    proposes a conceptual framework for empowering workers in industrial production environments with digitally facilitated knowledge management processes. The framework explores four concrete facets of digital advancements that apply to a wide range of knowledge processes and production strategies...

  6. Vocabulary knowledge predicts lexical processing: Evidence from a group of participants with diverse educational backgrounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mainz, N.; Shao, Z.; Brysbaert, M.; Meyer, A.S.

    2017-01-01

    Vocabulary knowledge is central to a speaker's command of their language. In previous research, greater vocabulary knowledge has been associated with advantages in language processing. In this study, we examined the relationship between individual differences in vocabulary and language processing

  7. KNOWLEDGE SCIENCES AND NANATSUDAKI: A NEW MODEL OF KNOWLEDGE CREATION PROCESSES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrzej P.WIERZBICKI; Yoshiteru NAKAMORI

    2007-01-01

    The paper starts from a discussion of the concepts of knowledge management versus technology management,and the emergence of knowledge sciences.This is followed be a summary of recent results in the theory of knowledge creation.Most of them concern diverse spirals of creative interplay between rational (explicit) and intuitive or emotional (tacit) aspects of knowledge.Some of them concentrate on organizational (market or purpose-oriented) knowledge creation,other describe academic (research-oriented) knowledge creation.The problem addressed in this paper is how to integrate diverse spirals of knowledge creation into a prescriptive or exemplar model that would help to overcome the differences between organizational (market-oriented) and normal academic knowledge creation.As such prescriptive approach,the JAIST Nanatsudaki Model of knowledge creation is proposed.It consists of seven spirals,known from other studies,but integrated in a sequence resulting from the experience of authors in practical management of research activities.Not all of these spirals have to be fully utilized,depending on a particular application,but all of them relate to some essential aspects of either academic or organizational knowledge creation.The paper presents Nanatsudaki Model in detail with comments on consecutive spirals.The results of a survey of opinions about creativity conditions at JAIST indicate the importance of many spirals constituting the Nanatsudaki Model.Directions of further testing the Nanatsudaki Model are indicated.

  8. An ontological knowledge based system for selection of process monitoring and analysis tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Ravendra; Gernaey, Krist; Gani, Rafiqul

    2010-01-01

    monitoring and analysis tools for a wide range of operations has made their selection a difficult, time consuming and challenging task. Therefore, an efficient and systematic knowledge base coupled with an inference system is necessary to support the optimal selection of process monitoring and analysis tools......, satisfying the process and user constraints. A knowledge base consisting of the process knowledge as well as knowledge on measurement methods and tools has been developed. An ontology has been designed for knowledge representation and management. The developed knowledge base has a dual feature. On the one...... procedures has been developed to retrieve the data/information stored in the knowledge base....

  9. An Ontology-Based Conceptual Model For Accumulating And Reusing Knowledge In A DMAIC Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, ThanhDat; Kifor, Claudiu Vasile

    2015-09-01

    DMAIC (Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, and Control) is an important process used to enhance quality of processes basing on knowledge. However, it is difficult to access DMAIC knowledge. Conventional approaches meet a problem arising from structuring and reusing DMAIC knowledge. The main reason is that DMAIC knowledge is not represented and organized systematically. In this article, we overcome the problem basing on a conceptual model that is a combination of DMAIC process, knowledge management, and Ontology engineering. The main idea of our model is to utilizing Ontologies to represent knowledge generated by each of DMAIC phases. We build five different knowledge bases for storing all knowledge of DMAIC phases with the support of necessary tools and appropriate techniques in Information Technology area. Consequently, these knowledge bases provide knowledge available to experts, managers, and web users during or after DMAIC execution in order to share and reuse existing knowledge.

  10. Knowledge Management Capabilities and Organizational Performance: An Investigation into the Effects of Knowledge Infrastructure and Processes on Organizational Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Taejun

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge is one of the most important assets for surviving in the modern business environment. The effective management of that asset mandates continuous adaptation by organizations, and requires employees to strive to improve the company's work processes. Organizations attempt to coordinate their unique knowledge with traditional means as well…

  11. Linking erosion history and mantle processes in southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, J. R.; Braun, J.; Flowers, R. M.; Baby, G.; Wildman, M.; Guillocheau, F.; Robin, C.; Beucher, R.; Brown, R. W.

    2017-12-01

    The large, low relief, high elevation plateau of southern Africa has been the focus of many studies, but there is still considerable debate about how it formed. Lack of tectonic convergence and crustal thickening suggests mantle dynamics play an important role in the evolution of topography there, but the time and specific mechanisms of topographic development are still contested. Many mantle mechanisms of topographic support have been suggested including dynamic topography associated with either deep or shallow mantle thermal anomalies, thermochemical modification of the lithosphere, and plume tails related to Mesozoic magmatic activity. These mechanisms predict different timing and patterns of surface uplift such that better constraints on the uplift history have the potential to constrain the nature of the source of topographic support. Here we test several of these geodynamic hypotheses using a landscape evolution model that is used to predict the erosional response to surface uplift. Several recent studies have provided a clearer picture of the erosion history of the plateau surface and margins using low temperature thermochronology and the geometries of the surrounding offshore depositional systems. Model results are directly compared with these data. We use an inversion method (the Neighborhood Algorithm) to constrain the range in erosional and uplift parameters that can best reproduce the observed data. The combination of different types of geologic information including sedimentary flux, landscape shape, and thermochronolology is valuable for constraining many of these parameters. We show that both the characteristics of the geodynamic forcing as well as the physical characteristics of the eroding plateau have significant control on the plateau erosion patterns. Models that match the erosion history data well suggest uplift of the eastern margin in the Cretaceous ( 100 Ma) followed by uplift of the western margin 20 Myr later. The amplitude of this uplift

  12. Building the competitive intelligence knowledge: processes and activities in a corporate organisation

    OpenAIRE

    Sreenivasulu, V.

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses the process of building and developing comprehensive tools, techniques, support systems, and better methods of harnessing the competitive intelligence knowledge processes. The author stresses the need for building sophisticated methodological competitive intelligence knowledge acquisition, systematic collection of competitive intelligence knowledge from various sources for critical analysis, process, organization, synthesis, assessment, screening, filtering and interpreta...

  13. Knowledge management (KM) processes in organizations theoretical foundations and practice

    CERN Document Server

    McInerney, Claire R

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge Management (KM) is an effort to increase useful knowledge in the organization. It is a natural outgrowth of late twentieth century movements to make organizational management and operations more effective, of higher quality, and more responsive to constituents in a rapidly changing global environment. This document traces the evolution of KM in organizations, summarizing the most influential research and literature in the field. It also presents an overview of selected common and current practices in knowledge management, including the relationship between knowledge management and de

  14. Knowledge Base Applications to Adaptive Space-Time Processing, Volume 5: Knowledge-Based Tracker Rule Book

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morgan, Charles

    2001-01-01

    ... processing algorithm can be applied. The proactive knowledge-based tracker uses information from other sources such as digital terrain maps, radar clutter and interference maps, and target priority assessments to determine the nature...

  15. Liquid radwaste processing history at Fort Calhoun Nuclear Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilau, A.; Rutar, F.

    1989-01-01

    This report presents a historical perspective of liquid radwaste processing at the Fort Calhoun Unit 1 Nuclear Power Station, located in east central Nebraska. Of particular interest is the textual and graphical comparison of the operational implications of the various waste processing methods employed in the last ten years at the Fort Calhoun Station. Fort Calhoun's waste collection and processing systems are described in detail. These process systems include evaporation and solidification employing an in-plant drum solidification system. This solidification system was later replaced with vendor solidification services which solidified wastes in large liners. Ultimately, the plant converted its processing operation to ion exchange cleanup using ion selective media. The operational and economic impact of each of these process systems is discussed including overall costs, personnel exposure, capital expenditure requirements, burial volumes generated, maintenance and reliability assessments. Operational goals and performance criteria employed in the decision-making process for selection of the optimal technology are discussed, including the impact of various influent and effluent requirements

  16. Training and Organizational Effectiveness: Moderating Role of Knowledge Management Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Azmawani Abd; Ng, Siew Imm; Sambasivan, Murali; Wong, Florence

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Training alone is not sufficient to enhance organizational effectiveness to a greater level because not all knowledge obtained from the training is properly transferred and applied to the organization. This study aims to investigate whether efforts invested by Malaysian manufacturers in employee training and knowledge transfer affect…

  17. Activity Specific Knowledge Characteristics in the Internationalization Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søberg, Peder Veng

    2012-01-01

    /methodology/approach – The paper presents a framework primarily based on knowledge management theory, which is illustrated in relation to interesting cases of four companies that are global leaders. Findings – An R&D knowledge gap still exists in China and India. Differences across business activities exist in terms......Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate differences in the characteristics of knowledge, which is very important for the internationalization of different business activities. In particular, the focus is on internationalization in emerging markets such as China and India. Design...... of the characteristics of the knowledge, which is most important for the internationalization in emerging markets within multinational corporations (MNCs). The most important knowledge for the internationalization of R&D activities is more tacit than it is for manufacturing activities and international purchasing...

  18. Self-reports on students' learning processes are academic metacognitive knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Mauro Assis Gomes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study postulates that students' self-reported perceptions on their academic processes are a type of metacognition: academic metacognitive knowledge (AMcK. We investigated, using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM, three hypotheses: (a AMcK explains the variance of factor scores of students' learning approaches (SLA and academic motivation (AM; (b AMcK is distinct from working metacognition (WMC; and (c AMcK has incremental validity, beyond WMC, on the explanation of general academic achievement (GAA variance. Two tests (indicators of WMC and two scales (indicators of AMcK were administered to 684 ten-to-eighteen-year-old Brazilian children and adolescents. Annual grades in Math, Portuguese, Geography and History were used as indicators of GAA. The results show that none of the three hypotheses can be refuted.

  19. Damascus steels: history, processing, properties and carbon dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadsworth, J.

    2007-01-01

    In the mid-1970s, a class of steels containing high levels of carbon (∼ 1-2 wt% C) was developed for superplastic characteristics - that is, the ability to plastically deform to an extraordinary degree in tension at intermediate temperatures. Because these steels also had excellent room temperature properties, they were developed for their commercial potential. In the late 1970s, we became aware of the striking compositional similarities between these modern steels and the ancient steels of Damascus. This observation led us to revisit the history and metallurgy of Damascus steels and related steels. The legends and origins of Damascus steel date back to the time of Alexander the Great (323 BC) and the medieval Crusades (11th and 12th century AD), and this material has also been the subject of scrutiny by famous scientist in Europe, including Michael Faraday. Modern attempts to reproduce the legendary surface patterns which famously characterized Damascus steels are described. The extend to which the characteristics of Damascus steels are unusual is discussed. Finally, a program on radiocarbon dating was initiated to directly determine the age of about 50 ancient steels, including a Damascus knife, and the results are summarized. (author)

  20. On knowledge transfer management as a learning process for ad hoc teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliescu, D.

    2017-08-01

    Knowledge management represents an emerging domain becoming more and more important. Concepts like knowledge codification and personalisation, knowledge life-cycle, social and technological dimensions, knowledge transfer and learning management are integral parts. Focus goes here in the process of knowledge transfer for the case of ad hoc teams. The social dimension of knowledge transfer plays an important role. No single individual actors involved in the process, but a collective one, representing the organisation. It is critically important for knowledge to be managed from the life-cycle point of view. A complex communication network needs to be in place to supports the process of knowledge transfer. Two particular concepts, the bridge tie and transactive memory, would eventually enhance the communication. The paper focuses on an informational communication platform supporting the collaborative work on knowledge transfer. The platform facilitates the creation of a topic language to be used in knowledge modelling, storage and reuse, by the ad hoc teams.

  1. Youth Historians in Harlem: An After-School Blueprint for History Engagement through the Historical Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Barry M.

    2016-01-01

    This manuscript, written with the educator in mind, describes the Youth Historians in Harlem (YHH) program, a twenty-week after-school history program that engaged urban students in history by immersing them in aspects of the historical process. Throughout the program, a group of Black male high school students were apprenticed as historical…

  2. Memories in Motion: Learning, Process, History and Art in Public Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qadri, Debbie

    2015-01-01

    This essay presents an art project as an example of two aspects of public pedagogy. The first, is that the project critically examined how history is made, and through art-making and installation it performed an alternative publishing of history. Secondly, the art project was utilised as both a process and outcome within public space, and through…

  3. Formalization and Interaction: Toward a Comprehensive History of Technology-Related Knowledge in Early Modern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popplow, Marcus

    2015-12-01

    Recent critical approaches to what has conventionally been described as "scientific" and "technical" knowledge in early modern Europe have provided a wealth of new insights. So far, the various analytical concepts suggested by these studies have not yet been comprehensively discussed. The present essay argues that such comprehensive approaches might prove of special value for long-term and cross-cultural reflections on technology-related knowledge. As heuristic tools, the notions of "formalization" and "interaction" are proposed as part of alternative narratives to those highlighting the emergence of "science" as the most relevant development for technology-related knowledge in early modern Europe.

  4. Determinants of the level of knwoledge application: a knowledge-based and information-processing perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, X.M.; Bij, van der J.D.; Weggeman, M.C.D.P.

    2005-01-01

    Knowledge application is of key importance in the development of successful new products. Knowledge application refers to an organization's timely response to technological change by utilizing the knowledge and technology generated into new products and processes. This study uses the knowledge-based

  5. Learning from the History of Distributed Query Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betz, Heiko; Gropengießer, Francis; Hose, Katja

    2012-01-01

    The vision of the Semantic Web has triggered the development of various new applications and opened up new directions in research. Recently, much effort has been put into the development of techniques for query processing over Linked Data. Being based upon techniques originally developed...... for distributed and federated databases, some of them inherit the same or similar problems. Thus, the goal of this paper is to point out pitfalls that the previous generation of researchers has already encountered and to introduce the Linked Data as a Service as an idea that has the potential to solve the problem...... in some scenarios. Hence, this paper discusses nine theses about Linked Data processing and sketches a research agenda for future endeavors in the area of Linked Data processing....

  6. Knowledge Management Innovation of the USCG Counternarcotics Deployment Process

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Espino, James

    2000-01-01

    ...) Pacific Area Tactical Law Enforcement Team (PACAREA TACLET). The focus was on applying knowledge management innovation using the above mentioned methodology to the Law Enforcement Detachment (LEDET) Counternarcotic (CN...

  7. The complete business process handbook body of knowledge from process modeling to BPM

    CERN Document Server

    Rosing, Mark von; Scheer, August-Wilhelm

    2017-01-01

    The Complete Business Process Handbook is the most comprehensive body of knowledge on business processes with revealing new research. Written as a practical guide for Executives, Practitioners, Managers and Students by the authorities that have shaped the way we think and work with process today. It stands out as a masterpiece, being part of the BPM bachelor and master degree curriculum at universities around the world, with revealing academic research and insight from the leaders in the market. This book provides everything you need to know about the processes and frameworks, methods, and approaches to implement BPM. Through real-world examples, best practices, LEADing practices and advice from experts, readers will understand how BPM works and how to best use it to their advantage. Cases from industry leaders and innovators show how early adopters of LEADing Practices improved their businesses by using BPM technology and methodology. As the first of three volumes, this book represents the most comprehensive...

  8. Knowledge acquisition on hazards in chemical and process industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vojnovic, D.; Kozuh, M.

    1992-01-01

    The knowledge acquisition for probabilistic risk assessment and operational safety improvements are described. The procedure HazOp (Hazard and Operability Study) are used for hazard identification. The acquainted knowledge is condensed in the form of cause-consequence matrix which is very convenient for plant logic model start point definition. At the end, the possibility for HazOp performance support by use of Artificial Intelligence approach is considered. (author) [sl

  9. Using Knowledge of the Past to Improve Education Today: US Education History and Policy-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinovskis, Maris A.

    2015-01-01

    Early American historians provided the public and policy-makers with information about US history that provided both entertainment and policy suggestions. As American historians became more professionalised in the early twentieth century, they concentrated more on their own scholarly concerns and less on policy-relevant writings. In recent…

  10. Text Processing of Domain-Related Information for Individuals with High and Low Domain Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilich, George J.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    The way in which previously acquired knowledge affects the processing on new domain-related information was investigated. Text processing was studied in two groups differing in knowledge of the domain of baseball. A knowledge structure for the domain was constructed, and text propositions were classified. (SW)

  11. Which kind of knowledge is suitable for redesigning hospital logistic processes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maruster, L; Jorna, RJ; Miksch, S; Hunter, J; Keravnou, E

    2005-01-01

    A knowledge management perspective is rarely used to model a process. Using the cognitive perspective on knowledge management in which we start our analysis with events and knowledge (bottom-up) instead of with processes and units (top-down), we propose a new approach for redesigning hospital

  12. Plutonium production story at the Hanford site: processes and facilities history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, M.S., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-06-20

    This document tells the history of the actual plutonium production process at the Hanford Site. It contains five major sections: Fuel Fabrication Processes, Irradiation of Nuclear Fuel, Spent Fuel Handling, Radiochemical Reprocessing of Irradiated Fuel, and Plutonium Finishing Operations. Within each section the story of the earliest operations is told, along with changes over time until the end of operations. Chemical and physical processes are described, along with the facilities where these processes were carried out. This document is a processes and facilities history. It does not deal with the waste products of plutonium production.

  13. An integration architecture for knowledge management system and business process management system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jung, J.; Choi, I.; Song, M.S.

    2007-01-01

    Recently, interests in the notion of process-oriented knowledge management (PKM) from academia and industry have been significantly increased. Comprehensive research and development requirements along with a cogent framework, however, have not been proposed for integrating knowledge management (KM)

  14. Knowledge and knowledge bases in the learning process og polish companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Anne

    2003-01-01

    strategies of which are analysed and compared. These strategies have much in common and can be seen as quite successful. Some common problems also exist in relation to mismatches within and between the different knowledge bases. The differences are none the less interesting to consider. They are due......The paper deals with the learning and innovation strategies of manufacturing companies in the economies of transformation. The point of departure is the development of a theoretical framework dealing innovation, knowledge and learning. The case is two manufacturing companies in Poland, the learning...

  15. How has our knowledge of dinosaur diversity through geologic time changed through research history?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennant, Jonathan P; Chiarenza, Alfio Alessandro; Baron, Matthew

    2018-01-01

    Assessments of dinosaur macroevolution at any given time can be biased by the historical publication record. Recent studies have analysed patterns in dinosaur diversity that are based on secular variations in the numbers of published taxa. Many of these have employed a range of approaches that account for changes in the shape of the taxonomic abundance curve, which are largely dependent on databases compiled from the primary published literature. However, how these 'corrected' diversity patterns are influenced by the history of publication remains largely unknown. Here, we investigate the influence of publication history between 1991 and 2015 on our understanding of dinosaur evolution using raw diversity estimates and shareholder quorum subsampling for the three major subgroups: Ornithischia, Sauropodomorpha, and Theropoda. We find that, while sampling generally improves through time, there remain periods and regions in dinosaur evolutionary history where diversity estimates are highly volatile (e.g. the latest Jurassic of Europe, the mid-Cretaceous of North America, and the Late Cretaceous of South America). Our results show that historical changes in database compilation can often substantially influence our interpretations of dinosaur diversity. 'Global' estimates of diversity based on the fossil record are often also based on incomplete, and distinct regional signals, each subject to their own sampling history. Changes in the record of taxon abundance distribution, either through discovery of new taxa or addition of existing taxa to improve sampling evenness, are important in improving the reliability of our interpretations of dinosaur diversity. Furthermore, the number of occurrences and newly identified dinosaurs is still rapidly increasing through time, suggesting that it is entirely possible for much of what we know about dinosaurs at the present to change within the next 20 years.

  16. Exploring Knowledge Creation Processes as a Source of Organizational Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to reestablish the link between theories of organizational learning and knowledge creation – theories that in research, have been pursued as independent themes for almost two decades. Based on the literature review, I build a framework that proposes how the two streams...... build eight propositions that are used to discuss and extend the organizational learning and knowledge creation literatures and to justify the framework’s applicability. Finally, I present the managerial implications and the conclusions of the study....

  17. "What Exactly Is Parliament?": Finding the Place of Substantive Knowledge in History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palek, Dominik

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between knowledge and literacy is a central concern for all teachers. In his teaching, Palek noted that his students were struggling to understand complex substantive concepts such as "parliament" and decided to explore the relationship between students' understanding of a concept and their wider substantive knowledge…

  18. SEMI SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDES THROUGH PROCESS REPORTING ON KNOWLEDGE PRODUCTION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tollestrup, Christian

    2010-01-01

    How can you improve and focus on the knowledge produced through a design project by design students? The range of skills and competencies in design education is not limited to the ability to handle different types of projects themes. In an overall perspective a master education at a university...

  19. Elements of knowledge management in the improvement of business processes

    OpenAIRE

    Brajer-Marczak Renata

    2016-01-01

    The key role in process management is played by the systematic analysis, measurement and improvement of processes. The imperative of continuous introduction of changes in processes is the answer to the changing conditions of competition and the great dynamics in the expectations and preferences of customers. Information related to business process should be collected and formalized in order to improve the execution of processes. In connection with the above, it may be stated that the improvem...

  20. Critical processes of knowledge management: An approach toward the creation of customer value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Cepeda-Carrion

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to contribute to the literature by identifying and analyzing possible combinations between critical knowledge management processes (absorptive capacity, knowledge transfer and knowledge application, which will result in the creation of superior customer value. The main research question this work addresses is: given that customers are demanding each day a greater value, how can organizations create more value to customers from their knowledge management processes and the combination of them? We propose that the combination of the three knowledge management processes builds a dynamic or higher-order capability that results in the creation of superior value for customers.

  1. Knowledge acquisition on hazards in chemical and process industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vojnovic, D; Kozuh, M [Inst. Jozef Stefan, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    1992-07-01

    The knowledge acquisition for probabilistic risk assessment and operational safety improvements are described. The procedure HazOp (Hazard and Operability Study) are used for hazard identification. The acquainted knowledge is condensed in the form of cause-consequence matrix which is very convenient for plant logic model start point definition. At the end, the possibility for HazOp performance support by use of Artificial Intelligence approach is considered. (author) [Slovenian] V clanku se obravnava zbiranje znanja za potrebe verjetnostne ocene tveganja in izboljsanja obratovalne varnosti. Opisan je postopek za razpoznavanje nevarnosti po metodi HazOp. Zbrano znanje je predstavljeno v obliki vzrocno posledicne matrike, kar je primerna oblika za nadaljno uporabo pri logicnem modeliranju objekta. Ravno tako je obravnavana moznost uporabe diagnosticnih metod (umetna inteligenca) pri HazOp analizi. [author].

  2. Agora: A proposal to overcome the limitations of the current knowledge creation process

    OpenAIRE

    ScientistFive

    2015-01-01

    Agora: A proposal to overcome the limitations of the current knowledge creation process ======================================================================================= By Scientistsfive () Abstract: The knowledge creation process is broken and can be improved by a combination of currently emerging tools. The rationale for this proposal is the notion that the current scientific process is not optimal: * Artificially staged competitions (g...

  3. The Knowledge Management for Innovation Processes for SME Sector Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Norek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The complexity and variability of the modern economy means that the informationbecomes a key resource, essential for the proper functioning of anyenterprise and in the broader sense of the country and the national economy.Currently, practically all areas of modern economics are grappling withthe problem of information management, both in theory and practice. It isespecially visible in the attempts to support knowledge management in theareas, which are considered core from the viewpoint of increasing marketcompetitiveness of the company. Knowledge management in the field of company’sinnovative potential or in the area of intellectual capital may serve asan example. This situation forces the search for new solutions of knowledgemanagement in the field of research and evaluation of the innovative potentialof companies. The main purpose of this article is to present an Internetplatform for innovation audit, as a tool which supports knowledge management.An additional goal of this article is to present the preliminary results ofa research carried out by means of the described tools.

  4. Social tagging as a knowledge collecting strategy in the engineering design change process

    OpenAIRE

    Alduchin-Quintero, G.; Contero, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on analysing the feasibility of using social tagging as a tool for knowledge collection and retrieval in the context of the product development process (PDP). This process is a social activity that involves groups of individuals who share a common goal: to design a product . Traditional knowledge-based systems (KBS) are not very well suited to capture the tacit knowledge that is embedded in this process. Social tagging is proposed in this article as the mechanism to exte...

  5. Mars Sample Return: The Next Step Required to Revolutionize Knowledge of Martian Geological and Climatological History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittlefehldt, D. W.

    2012-01-01

    The capability of scientific instrumentation flown on planetary orbiters and landers has made great advances since the signature Viking mission of the seventies. At some point, however, the science return from orbital remote sensing, and even in situ measurements, becomes incremental, rather than revolutionary. This is primarily caused by the low spatial resolution of such measurements, even for landed instrumentation, the incomplete mineralogical record derived from such measurements, the inability to do the detailed textural, mineralogical and compositional characterization needed to demonstrate equilibrium or reaction paths, and the lack of chronological characterization. For the foreseeable future, flight instruments will suffer from this limitation. In order to make the next revolutionary breakthrough in understanding the early geological and climatological history of Mars, samples must be available for interrogation using the full panoply of laboratory-housed analytical instrumentation. Laboratory studies of samples allow for determination of parageneses of rocks through microscopic identification of mineral assemblages, evaluation of equilibrium through electron microbeam analyses of mineral compositions and structures, determination of formation temperatures through secondary ion or thermal ionization mass spectrometry (SIMS or TIMS) analyses of stable isotope compositions. Such details are poorly constrained by orbital data (e.g. phyllosilicate formation at Mawrth Vallis), and incompletely described by in situ measurements (e.g. genesis of Burns formation sediments at Meridiani Planum). Laboratory studies can determine formation, metamorphism and/or alteration ages of samples through SIMS or TIMS of radiogenic isotope systems; a capability well-beyond flight instrumentation. Ideally, sample return should be from a location first scouted by landers such that fairly mature hypotheses have been formulated that can be tested. However, samples from clastic

  6. Knowledge Integrated Business Process Management for Third Party Logistics Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Hongyan

    2013-01-01

    The growing importance of logistics as well as the increasing dynamic complexity of markets, technologies, and customer needs has brought great challenges to logistics. In order to focus on their core competency in such a competitive environment, more and more companies have outsourced a part or the entirety of the logistics process to third party logistics (3PL) service providers. 3PL has played a crucial role in managing logistics processes within supply chain management. Logistics processe...

  7. Text Processing: The Role of Reader Expectations and Background Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-08-01

    essay test were expected, but spend more time processing lower-- level information than if a recognition test were expected. Furthermore, processing ...shifts ii tle amount of time devoted to reading information at various levels in a t.x, structure, rather than dramatic differences in processing patt...structures ( Craik & Lockhart , 1972; Goetz, Schallert, Reynolds, & Radin, 1983). If new information is compatible with existing memory structures, it is

  8. A chapter from lamaze history: birth narratives and authoritative knowledge in france, 1952-1957.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaels, Paula A

    2010-01-01

    THIS ARTICLE ANALYZES BIRTH NARRATIVES GATHERED DURING WHAT CAN BE CONSIDERED A FORMATIVE PERIOD OF THE LAMAZE MOVEMENT IN THE WEST: from 1952 through Fernand Lamaze's death in early 1957. The use of women's birth narratives as an assessment tool is one of Dr. Lamaze's most enduring contributions to obstetric pain management. The early work of Lamaze and his collaborator Pierre Vellay provided a template for studies conducted elsewhere for decades to come. By examining expectations in another time and place, our own standards, so often normalized to the point of invisibility, are thrown into sharp relief. This article addresses the conflicting and contested nature of authoritative knowledge surrounding parturition.

  9. A Chapter From Lamaze History: Birth Narratives and Authoritative Knowledge in France, 1952–1957

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaels, Paula A.

    2010-01-01

    This article analyzes birth narratives gathered during what can be considered a formative period of the Lamaze movement in the West: from 1952 through Fernand Lamaze's death in early 1957. The use of women's birth narratives as an assessment tool is one of Dr. Lamaze's most enduring contributions to obstetric pain management. The early work of Lamaze and his collaborator Pierre Vellay provided a template for studies conducted elsewhere for decades to come. By examining expectations in another time and place, our own standards, so often normalized to the point of invisibility, are thrown into sharp relief. This article addresses the conflicting and contested nature of authoritative knowledge surrounding parturition. PMID:21358829

  10. Open Knowledge Maps: Creating a Visual Interface to the World’s Scientific Knowledge Based on Natural Language Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kraker

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal of Open Knowledge Maps is to create a visual interface to the world’s scientific knowledge. The base for this visual interface consists of so-called knowledge maps, which enable the exploration of existing knowledge and the discovery of new knowledge. Our open source knowledge mapping software applies a mixture of summarization techniques and similarity measures on article metadata, which are iteratively chained together. After processing, the representation is saved in a database for use in a web visualization. In the future, we want to create a space for collective knowledge mapping that brings together individuals and communities involved in exploration and discovery. We want to enable people to guide each other in their discovery by collaboratively annotating and modifying the automatically created maps. Das Ziel von Open Knowledge Map ist es, ein visuelles Interface zum wissenschaftlichen Wissen der Welt bereitzustellen. Die Basis für die dieses Interface sind sogenannte “knowledge maps”, zu deutsch Wissenslandkarten. Wissenslandkarten ermöglichen die Exploration bestehenden Wissens und die Entdeckung neuen Wissens. Unsere Open Source Software wendet für die Erstellung der Wissenslandkarten eine Reihe von Text Mining Verfahren iterativ auf die Metadaten wissenschaftlicher Artikel an. Die daraus resultierende Repräsentation wird in einer Datenbank für die Anzeige in einer Web-Visualisierung abgespeichert. In Zukunft wollen wir einen Raum für das kollektive Erstellen von Wissenslandkarten schaffen, der die Personen und Communities, welche sich mit der Exploration und Entdeckung wissenschaftlichen Wissens beschäftigen, zusammenbringt. Wir wollen es den NutzerInnen ermöglichen, einander in der Literatursuche durch kollaboratives Annotieren und Modifizieren von automatisch erstellten Wissenslandkarten zu unterstützen.

  11. Interrogating History: Promoting Student Activism Using Children's Literature and the Full Circling Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Trisha Wies

    2017-01-01

    Adolescents are often disengaged in the learning process, being more focused on social media and self-interest than classroom content. Full circling is a process that can be used to help students collaboratively engage in learning and actively reflect on historical events--especially those that are under reported in history books. In the present…

  12. A Collaborative Knowledge Management Process for Implementing Healthcare Enterprise Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Po-Hsun; Chen, Sao-Jie; Lai, Jin-Shin; Lai, Feipei

    This paper illustrates a feasible health informatics domain knowledge management process which helps gather useful technology information and reduce many knowledge misunderstandings among engineers who have participated in the IBM mainframe rightsizing project at National Taiwan University (NTU) Hospital. We design an asynchronously sharing mechanism to facilitate the knowledge transfer and our health informatics domain knowledge management process can be used to publish and retrieve documents dynamically. It effectively creates an acceptable discussion environment and even lessens the traditional meeting burden among development engineers. An overall description on the current software development status is presented. Then, the knowledge management implementation of health information systems is proposed.

  13. Systems Engineering Knowledge Asset (SEKA) Management for Higher Performing Engineering Teams: People, Process and Technology toward Effective Knowledge-Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelby, Kenneth R., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Systems engineering teams' value-creation for enterprises is slower than possible due to inefficiencies in communication, learning, common knowledge collaboration and leadership conduct. This dissertation outlines the surrounding people, process and technology dimensions for higher performing engineering teams. It describes a true experiment…

  14. HIGHER SPIRITUAL AND SELF-REGULATIVE CAPACITIES IN ANCIENT KNOWLEDGE SYSTEM - BUDDHISM (APPROACH OF HISTORY OF PSYCHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G V Ozhiganova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The necessity of research on higher spiritual and self-regulative capacities in the context of ancient oriental system of knowledge is expressed. The historical and psychological methods of studying ancient knowledge are described. The methods of the history of psychology, proposed by the author, are used: such as the method of revealing scientific knowledge reserves, aimed at restoring and practical mastering the psychological heritage of ancient times, as well as the experimental method, involving the verification of psychological facts, phenomena and laws described in ancient texts, with the help of modern scientific research methods (observation, experiment, statistical data. Meditative practices and philosophical concepts of Buddhism are considered from the standpoint of modern psychology. The ancient Buddhist meditative practices “Contemplation of the mind”, linked to the concept of “mindfulness” is described. It is concluded that the concept of the mind is the key in the Buddhist system of knowledge. The understanding of the mind in the ancient Buddhist doctrine is compared with a modern interpretation of the concept of “mind” in psychological science, as well as its content is revealed due to psychological terms “higher self-regulative capacities” and “moral-value aspect of spiritual capacities”. It is revealed that in the Buddhist system of knowledge there can be seen close links between higher self-regulative capacities and moral-value aspect of spiritual capacities. The results of empirical studies of the ancient meditative practices and their positive impact on self-regulation of the modern people are submitted.

  15. An Integrated Open Approach to Capturing Systematic Knowledge for Manufacturing Process Innovation Based on Collective Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gangfeng Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Process innovation plays a vital role in the manufacture realization of increasingly complex new products, especially in the context of sustainable development and cleaner production. Knowledge-based innovation design can inspire designers’ creative thinking; however, the existing scattered knowledge has not yet been properly captured and organized according to Computer-Aided Process Innovation (CAPI. Therefore, this paper proposes an integrated approach to tackle this non-trivial issue. By analyzing the design process of CAPI and technical features of open innovation, a novel holistic paradigm of process innovation knowledge capture based on collective intelligence (PIKC-CI is constructed from the perspective of the knowledge life cycle. Then, a multi-source innovation knowledge fusion algorithm based on semantic elements reconfiguration is applied to form new public knowledge. To ensure the credibility and orderliness of innovation knowledge refinement, a collaborative editing strategy based on knowledge lock and knowledge–social trust degree is explored. Finally, a knowledge management system MPI-OKCS integrating the proposed techniques is implemented into the pre-built CAPI general platform, and a welding process innovation example is provided to illustrate the feasibility of the proposed approach. It is expected that our work would lay the foundation for the future knowledge-inspired CAPI and smart process planning.

  16. Measuring Acquisition Workforce Quality Through Dynamic Knowledge and Performance: An Exploratory Investigation to Interrelate Acquisition Knowledge with Process Maturity

    OpenAIRE

    Nissen, Mark E.; Rendon, Rene G.

    2013-01-01

    Acquisition Research Program Sponsored Report Series Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. The efficacy of defense acquisition is highly dependent upon acquisition workforce quality, but assessing such quality remains a major challenge, particularly given the knowledge-intensive and dynamic nature of acquisition organizations and processes. Hence, it is difficult to gauge?much less predict?the impact of leadership interventions in terms of policy, process, reg...

  17. Capturing and Modeling Domain Knowledge Using Natural Language Processing Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-01

    Intelligence Artificielle , France, May 2001, p. 109- 118 [Barrière, 2001] -----. “Investigating the Causal Relation in Informative Texts”. Terminology, 7:2...out of the flood of information, military have to create new ways of processing sensor and intelligence information, and of providing the results to...have to create new ways of processing sensor and intelligence information, and of providing the results to commanders who must take timely operational

  18. Individual differences in processing coherence markers: the effect of metacognitive knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlaar, M.A.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/412585669; Sanders, T.J.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/075243911; Welie, Camille

    2017-01-01

    Coherence markers such as connectives positively influence the reading process and reading comprehension for most, but not all, readers. Metacognitive knowledge, concerning strategies to regulate the reading process, may explain these individual differences. We investigated how metacognitive

  19. Reasoning about Evolutionary History: Post-Secondary Students' Knowledge of Most Recent Common Ancestry and Homoplasy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabito, Nancy P.; Catley, Kefyn M.; Novick, Laura R.

    2010-01-01

    Evolution curricula are replete with information about Darwin's theory of evolution as well as microevolutionary mechanisms underlying this process of change. However, other fundamental facets of evolutionary theory, particularly those related to macroevolution are often missing. One crucial idea typically overlooked is that of most recent common…

  20. Expert Knowledge, Distinctiveness, and Levels of Processing in Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Steve

    2012-01-01

    The foreign language vocabulary learning research literature often attributes strong mnemonic potency to the cognitive processing of meaning when learning words. Routinely cited as support for this idea are experiments by Craik and Tulving (C&T) demonstrating superior recognition and recall of studied words following semantic tasks ("deep"…

  1. THEORY OF O.M. MEDUSHEVSKAYA’S COGNITIVE HISTORY: PRECISE KNOWLEDGE IN HUMANITIES AND PROFESSIONAL CHOICE OF ACADEMIC COMMUNITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Инна Николаевна Сабенникова

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The theory of cognitive history elaborated by Olga M. Medushevskaia (1922-2007 has obviously been the most important and influential paradigm in Russian philosophy of history and historiography since the collapse of the official Soviet version of Marxist-Leninist methodology at the end of the 20 th century. In this regard the author analyzes the main intellectual roots of the paradigm, its structure and influence on inter-disciplinary debates on the possibility of the precise and verifiable reconstruction of historical past. The author emphasizes the fundamental role of the cognitive theory in the current process of paradigm-change in Russian historiography, in the creation of new research areas, pedagogical practices and the establishment of new professional ethics of academic community.

  2. On the road to eliminate malaria in Sri Lanka: lessons from history, challenges, gaps in knowledge and research needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunaweera, Nadira D; Galappaththy, Gawrie Nl; Wirth, Dyann F

    2014-02-18

    Malaria is one of the most important tropical diseases that has caused devastation throughout the history of mankind. Malaria eradication programmes in the past have had many positive effects but failed to wipe out malaria from most tropical countries, including Sri Lanka. Encouraged by the impressive levels of reduction in malaria case numbers during the past decade, Sri Lanka has launched a programme to eliminate malaria by year 2014. This article reviews the historical milestones associated with the malaria eradication programme that failed subsequently and the events that led to the launch of the ongoing malaria elimination plans at national-level and its strategies that are operational across the entire country. The existing gaps in knowledge are also discussed together with the priority areas for research to fill in these gaps that are posing as challenges to the envisaged goal of wiping out malaria from this island nation.

  3. Utilizing Domain Knowledge in End-to-End Audio Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tax, Tycho; Antich, Jose Luis Diez; Purwins, Hendrik

    2017-01-01

    to learn the commonly-used log-scaled mel-spectrogram transformation. Secondly, we demonstrate that upon initializing the first layers of an end-to-end CNN classifier with the learned transformation, convergence and performance on the ESC-50 environmental sound classification dataset are similar to a CNN......-based model trained on the highly pre-processed log-scaled mel-spectrogram features....

  4. Ba, Japanese-Style Knowledge Creation Concept: A Building Brick of Innovation Process inside Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Pribadi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Survival of a firm in industry will be primarily determined by how efficient it can harness competitive advantage from innovation process. Innovation process itself has strong correlation with knowledge creation, and to understand about innovation, people must understand about knowledge creation process. By successfully harnessing knowledge, people can use those resources to create some innovation product or service that in the end will provide competitive edge into the company. Unfortunately, not much research can be sought to provide more insight on the creation of knowledge inside a company. This paper explores about interesting concept of knowledge creation in Japanese term, which is called as “ba”. Ba concept can be used to describe how tacit knowledge and casual knowledge can be harnessed into a useful knowledge which in turn will be transformed into innovation process. This paper will briefly give some introduction about ba concept and how it is related to innovation process. A brief study of one multinational company will be used to describe how concept of ba is applied in understanding the success story of innovation from knowledge creation.

  5. Processes, dimensions and tools for the management of knowledge in industrial maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Cárcel Carrasco

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge management, implanted in some areas of the company, is usually forgotten in the own service organizations is one of the activities requiring a deep knowledge of the physical assets of the company, that influences the own reliability of the processes of exploitation, the productivity of the company and is where higher level of tacit knowledge based on the experience of the operators. This article is a review of the literature, marking processes, dimensions and tools that can be used for the management of knowledge in the field of industrial maintenance.

  6. A history of engraving and etching techniques: developments of manual intaglio printmaking processes, 1400-2000

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stijnman, A.C.J.

    2012-01-01

    This book surveys the history of the techniques of engraving, etching and plate printing - i.e. that of manual intaglio printmaking processes - from its beginning in the 1430s until today. These developments are observed in the light of the coherence between the technique of the intaglio print (such

  7. Knowledges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berling, Trine Villumsen

    2012-01-01

    Scientific knowledge in international relations has generally focused on an epistemological distinction between rationalism and reflectivism over the last 25 years. This chapter argues that this distinction has created a double distinction between theory/reality and theory/practice, which works...... and reflectivism. Bourdieu, on the contrary, lets the challenge to the theory/reality distinction spill over into a challenge to the theory/practice distinction by thrusting the scientist in the foreground as not just a factor (discourse/genre) but as an actor. In this way, studies of IR need to include a focus...... as a ghost distinction structuring IR research. While reflectivist studies have emphasised the impossibility of detached, objective knowledge production through a dissolution of the theory/reality distinction, the theory/practice distinction has been left largely untouched by both rationalism...

  8. Properly quantized history-dependent Parrondo games, Markov processes, and multiplexing circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bleiler, Steven A. [Fariborz Maseeh Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Portland State University, PO Box 751, Portland, OR 97207 (United States); Khan, Faisal Shah, E-mail: faisal.khan@kustar.ac.a [Khalifa University of Science, Technology and Research, PO Box 127788, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

    2011-05-09

    Highlights: History-dependent Parrondo games are viewed as Markov processes. Quantum mechanical analogues of these Markov processes are constructed. These quantum analogues restrict to the original process on measurement. Relationship between these analogues and a quantum circuits is exhibited. - Abstract: In the context of quantum information theory, 'quantization' of various mathematical and computational constructions is said to occur upon the replacement, at various points in the construction, of the classical randomization notion of probability distribution with higher order randomization notions from quantum mechanics such as quantum superposition with measurement. For this to be done 'properly', a faithful copy of the original construction is required to exist within the new quantum one, just as is required when a function is extended to a larger domain. Here procedures for extending history-dependent Parrondo games, Markov processes and multiplexing circuits to their quantum versions are analyzed from a game theoretic viewpoint, and from this viewpoint, proper quantizations developed.

  9. Integrating complex business processes for knowledge-driven clinical decision support systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaleswaran, Rishikesan; McGregor, Carolyn

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents in detail the component of the Complex Business Process for Stream Processing framework that is responsible for integrating complex business processes to enable knowledge-driven Clinical Decision Support System (CDSS) recommendations. CDSSs aid the clinician in supporting the care of patients by providing accurate data analysis and evidence-based recommendations. However, the incorporation of a dynamic knowledge-management system that supports the definition and enactment of complex business processes and real-time data streams has not been researched. In this paper we discuss the process web service as an innovative method of providing contextual information to a real-time data stream processing CDSS.

  10. Effect of Organizational Culture Factors on Knowledge Management Processes Implementation in Technology & Deputy Tax Planning Agency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Rahimian

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This research was a case study to evaluate the effect of organizational culture on knowledge management processes implementation in Technology & Deputy Tax Planning Agency was done by Survey Method. Population of the study was experts in Technology & Deputy Tax planning of the organization. Research tools included two questionnaires: the organizational culture profile and the processes of knowledge management. The first questionnaire has surveyed the seven components of organizational culture (competitiveness, social responsibility, supportiveness, innovation, emphasis on rewards, performance orientation, and stability. The second has explored six processes such as creation, capture, organization, storage, dissemination and application of knowledge. The results of this research showed that according to the experts the components of organizational culture and knowledge management were in the intermediate level. Between each of the seven components of organizational culture was 70% positive and significant relationship with knowledge management processes. Also, among each of the seven components of organizational culture was positive and significant relationship with knowledge management processes. Regression analysis gave the same result that only two components of social responsibility and performance orientation in predicting the changing role of knowledge management processes have been effective.

  11. A framework of knowledge creation processes in participatory simulation of hospital work systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Simone Nyholm; Broberg, Ole

    2017-04-01

    Participatory simulation (PS) is a method to involve workers in simulating and designing their own future work system. Existing PS studies have focused on analysing the outcome, and minimal attention has been devoted to the process of creating this outcome. In order to study this process, we suggest applying a knowledge creation perspective. The aim of this study was to develop a framework describing the process of how ergonomics knowledge is created in PS. Video recordings from three projects applying PS of hospital work systems constituted the foundation of process mining analysis. The analysis resulted in a framework revealing the sources of ergonomics knowledge creation as sequential relationships between the activities of simulation participants sharing work experiences; experimenting with scenarios; and reflecting on ergonomics consequences. We argue that this framework reveals the hidden steps of PS that are essential when planning and facilitating PS that aims at designing work systems. Practitioner Summary: When facilitating participatory simulation (PS) in work system design, achieving an understanding of the PS process is essential. By applying a knowledge creation perspective and process mining, we investigated the knowledge-creating activities constituting the PS process. The analysis resulted in a framework of the knowledge-creating process in PS.

  12. The impact of family history of breast cancer on knowledge, attitudes, and early detection practices of Mexican women along the Mexico-US border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Yelena; Banegas, Matthew P; Moraros, John; King, Sasha; Prapasiri, Surasri; Thompson, Beti

    2011-10-01

    Rates of breast cancer (BC) have increased in Mexico, with the highest incidence and mortality rates observed in the northern Mexican states. This study aimed to describe the BC knowledge, attitudes and screening practices among Mexican women with and without a family history of BC residing along the Mexico-US border, and identify factors associated with screening behaviors. One hundred and twenty eight Mexican women aged 40 and older completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire on sociodemographic characteristics, knowledge, family history, and screening practices. There were no significant differences between Mexican women with and without a family history. Over 60% of women in both groups had never had a mammogram/breast ultrasound, and more than 50% had never obtained a clinical breast exam. Age, marital status, insurance, and breast cancer knowledge significantly influenced BC screening behaviors among Mexican women. Further research is needed to examine other key factors associated with screening utilization, in effort of improving BC rates.

  13. Implementation of Knowledge Management as Process to Management System of ÚJD SR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabó, V.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: This presentation provides basic information about the development of staff’s knowledge management of Nuclear Regulatory Authority of Slovak Republic. It is a case study about implementation of knowledge management as process to the integrated management system for Slovak regulatory body. (author

  14. Process Mediates Structure: The Relation between Preschool Teacher Education and Preschool Teachers' Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blömeke, Sigrid; Jenßen, Lars; Grassmann, Marianne; Dunekacke, Simone; Wedekind, Hartmut

    2017-01-01

    Data about processes and outcomes of preschool teacher education is scarce. This paper examines the opportunities to learn (OTL) of prospective preschool teachers (N = 1,851) at different types and stages of preschool teacher education and their relation to general pedagogical knowledge (GPK), mathematics pedagogical content knowledge (MPCK), and…

  15. Conceptual Change in Elementary School Teacher Candidate Knowledge of Rock-Cycle Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stofflett, Rene Therese

    1994-01-01

    Investigates the knowledge of elementary school teacher candidates on rock-cycle processes. Three different instructional interventions were used to improve their knowledge: (1) conceptual-change teaching; (2) traditional didactic teaching; and (3) microteaching. The conceptual-change group showed the most growth in understanding, supporting…

  16. Increasing the Process Capacity of a Knowledge Intensive Process Through the Use of Process Reengineering and Knowledge-Value Added Methodologies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Campbell, Errol

    2003-01-01

    In the increasingly dynamic environment of information technology, it has become imperative that organizations continue to seek ways to effectively capture and measure knowledge in order to survive...

  17. The Socratic elenchus and knowledge processes in the 21st century

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It seems therefore that knowledge from the Arts and Humanities lacks that quality. .... deal of power that influences decision making processes within the political and economic domains. ..... 2001). Nietzsche's stance on morality is anti-realist.

  18. A modelling approach to study learning processes with a focus on knowledge creation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naeve, Ambjorn; Yli-Luoma, Pertti; Kravcik, Milos; Lytras, Miltiadis

    2008-01-01

    Naeve, A., Yli-Luoma, P., Kravcik, M., & Lytras, M. D. (2008). A modelling approach to study learning processes with a focus on knowledge creation. International Journal Technology Enhanced Learning, 1(1/2), 1–34.

  19. A diagnostic of knowledge management processes at the restaurant industry SMEs to identify improvements at their productive processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alonso Perez-Soltero

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper is the result of an investigation performed in northwest Mexico with the objective to analyze and diagnose knowledge management (KM processes in small and midsize restaurants. The main purpose of this study was to identify the present state of KM processes in these organizations as a way to identify improvement opportunities as well as to define facilitators and barriers that could difficult the implementation of KM initiatives.Design/methodology/approach: The study was performed in 12 restaurants and two types of questionnaires were applied. The questionnaires were applied to managers and personnel. The questionnaires analyzed knowledge Identification/location, Acquisition/learning, Development, Distribution/transference, Utilization/Application, Preservation/maintenance, and Assessment/valuation.Findings: We found that the respondents agreed that five of the GC processes have an acceptable level of development, while less developed processes were the Preservation/maintenance and Assessment/valuation of knowledge. On the other hand, the main facilitators to implementing KM initiatives are the availability of entrepreneurs to participate, staff responsive to the needs of the company, and staff is willing to share their knowledge. The main barriers are resistance to change, low level of knowledge in the use of technology by some members of the organization; difficulty accepting a strategic plan including knowledge management and unwillingness to document good practices.Originality/value: It is a novel study in Latin America, since no similar work in this productive sector has been found. Additionally, the study has a methodological approach that simultaneously addresses the analysis of the processes of knowledge management, and the identification of facilitators and barriers to implementing knowledge management initiatives.

  20. Immediate survival focus: synthesizing life history theory and dual process models to explain substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, George B; Hardesty, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Researchers have recently applied evolutionary life history theory to the understanding of behaviors often conceived of as prosocial or antisocial. In addition, researchers have applied cognitive science to the understanding of substance use and used dual process models, where explicit cognitive processes are modeled as relatively distinct from implicit cognitive processes, to explain and predict substance use behaviors. In this paper we synthesized these two theoretical perspectives to produce an adaptive and cognitive framework for explaining substance use. We contend that this framework provides new insights into the nature of substance use that may be valuable for both clinicians and researchers.

  1. Immediate Survival Focus: Synthesizing Life History Theory and Dual Process Models to Explain Substance Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George B. Richardson

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Researchers have recently applied evolutionary life history theory to the understanding of behaviors often conceived of as prosocial or antisocial. In addition, researchers have applied cognitive science to the understanding of substance use and used dual process models, where explicit cognitive processes are modeled as relatively distinct from implicit cognitive processes, to explain and predict substance use behaviors. In this paper we synthesized these two theoretical perspectives to produce an adaptive and cognitive framework for explaining substance use. We contend that this framework provides new insights into the nature of substance use that may be valuable for both clinicians and researchers.

  2. Maxima estimate of non gaussian process from observation of time history samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borsoi, L.

    1987-01-01

    The problem constitutes a formidable task but is essential for industrial applications: extreme value design, fatigue analysis, etc. Even for the linear Gaussian case, the process ergodicity does not prevent the observation duration to be long enough to make reliable estimates. As well known, this duration is closely related to the process autocorrelation. A subterfuge, which distorts a little the problem, consists in considering periodic random process and in adjusting the observation duration to a complete period. In the nonlinear case, the stated problem is as much important as time history simulation is presently the only practicable way for analysing structures. Thus it is always interesting to adjust a tractable model to rough time history observations. In some cases this can be done with a Gumble-Poisson model. Then the difficulty is to make reliable estimates of the parameters involved in the model. Unfortunately it seems that even the use of sophisticated Bayesian method does not permit to reduce as wanted the necessary observation duration. One of the difficulties lies in process ergodicity which is often assumed to be based on physical considerations but which is not always rigorously stated. An other difficulty is the confusion between hidden informations - which can be extracted - and missing informations - which cannot be extracted. Finally it must be recalled that the obligation of considering time histories long enough is not always embarrassing due to the current computer cost reduction. (orig./HP)

  3. Learning processes in the professional development of mental health counselors: knowledge restructuring and illness script formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, Josef; Gruber, Hans

    2015-05-01

    An important part of learning processes in the professional development of counselors is the integration of declarative knowledge and professional experience. It was investigated in-how-far mental health counselors at different levels of expertise (experts, intermediates, novices) differ in their availability of experience-based knowledge structures. Participants were prompted with 20 client problems. They had to explain those problems, the explanations were analyzed using think-aloud protocols. The results show that experts' knowledge is organized in script-like structures that integrate declarative knowledge and professional experience and help experts in accessing relevant information about cases. Novices revealed less integrated knowledge structures. It is concluded that knowledge restructuring and illness script formation are crucial parts of the professional learning of counselors.

  4. The Role of External Knowledge Sources and Organizational Design in the Process of Opportunity Exploitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Lyngsie, Jacob; A. Zahra, Shaker

    involving 536 Danish firms shows that the use of external knowledge sources is positively associated with opportunity exploitation, but the strength of this association is significantly influenced by organizational designs that enable the firm to access external knowledge during the process of exploiting......Research highlights the role of external knowledge sources in the recognition of strategic opportunities, but is less forthcoming with respect to the role of such sources during the process of exploiting or realizing opportunities. We build on the knowledge-based view to propose that realizing...... opportunities often involves significant interactions with external knowledge sources. Organizational design can facilitate a firm’s interactions with these sources, while achieving coordination among organizational members engaged in opportunity exploitation. Our analysis of a double-respondent survey...

  5. The Role of External Knowledge Sources and Organizational Design in the Process of Opportunity Exploitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Lyngsie, Jacob; Zahra, Shaker A.

    2013-01-01

    involving 536 Danish firms shows that the use of external knowledge sources is positively associated with opportunity exploitation, but the strength of this association is significantly influenced by organizational designs that enable the firm to access external knowledge during the process of exploiting......Research highlights the role of external knowledge sources in the recognition of strategic opportunities but is less forthcoming with respect to the role of such sources during the process of exploiting or realizing opportunities. We build on the knowledge-based view to propose that realizing...... opportunities often involves significant interactions with external knowledge sources. Organizational design can facilitate a firm's interactions with these sources, while achieving coordination among organizational members engaged in opportunity exploitation. Our analysis of a double-respondent survey...

  6. Knowledge about hereditary cancer of women with family histories of breast, colorectal, or both types of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campacci, N; de Lima, J O; Ramadan, L; Palmero, E I

    2015-03-01

    Usually, the mass media do not address hereditary cancer and their risk factors, nor are these topics discussed at the community level. We used an informative guide on cancer and hereditary cancer, followed by a questionnaire on these topics to investigate the relevant knowledge among women at high risk for hereditary breast and/or colorectal cancer from a population-based cohort. The cohort was composed of 81 Brazilian women with positive family histories of breast and/or colorectal cancer. Strauss and Corbin's Grounded Theory was used for qualitative analysis. The average age of the cohort was 49.9 years old. Three participants (3.9%) were illiterate, 45 (59.2%) had attended elementary school, 14 (18.4%) had secondary school, and 14 (18.4%) held higher education degrees. A total of 47 (54.3%) volunteers were unable to fully understand the information provided in the guide because they did not know the meaning of words such as metastasis, malignant, hereditary, sporadic, or oncogenetics. Notwithstanding, the acceptance of the educational tool utilized was satisfactory, and it enhanced the volunteers' interest in a better understanding of cancer and heredity. Thereby, we concluded that the low knowledge of this important subject and the unawareness about fundamental terms required for the comprehension of this specific type of neoplasm made us believe that the use of the informative guide can provide a great value when used previously to the genetic counseling consultations. Besides, educational tools of easy understanding should be part of everyday clinical practice, from primary to specialized patient care.

  7. The role of knowledge in the processes of creating and implementing innovations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baruk Jerzy

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of changes taking place in the environment of organizations encourages them to design and implement internal changes allowing to sustain the balance between the organizations and their environment. These changes concern the formulation of the main goal of an organization, process and structural solutions, management concept, relations with clients, a different look at resources, using knowledge as a source of innovation etc. One of the conditions for the functioning and development of contemporary organizations is systemic utilization of knowledge for solving the emerging problems, including the creation of innovations. Satisfying this condition requires using knowledge in management. The purpose of this work is to show that knowledge plays a fundamental role in the processes of generating and implementing innovation, that’s why the process of creating innovation has to be manager in a rational way, according to the proposed models.

  8. Designing an Iterative Learning Control Algorithm Based on Process History using limited post process geometrical information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Endelt, Benny Ørtoft; Volk, Wolfram

    2013-01-01

    , there is a number of obstacles which need to be addressed before an industrial implementation is possible, e.g. the proposed control algorithms are often limited by the ability to sample process data with both sufficient accuracy and robustness - this lack of robust sampling technologies is one of the main barriers...

  9. Resisting Official Knowledge: The Incorporation and Abjection of Race and Poverty in High School American History Textbooks, 1960s-2000s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearl, Benjamin Kelsey

    2014-01-01

    Through an interpretive analysis of how high school American history textbooks depict the urban-riots of the late-1960s, in this article the author discusses how textbooks incorporate and abject official knowledge related to the intersections of race and poverty. Incorporation is related with Raymond Williams' theory of the selective tradition and…

  10. Development of an integrated knowledge-base and its management tool for computerized alarm processing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heo, Gyun Young; Choi, Seong Soo; Kim, Han Gon; Chang, Soon Heung

    1997-01-01

    For a long time, a number of alarm processing techniques have been researched to reduce the number of actuated alarms for operators to deal with effectively during the abnormal as well as the normal conditions. However, the strategy that the only systems with a few clear technologies should be used as a part of an alarm annunciation system has been adopted considering the effectiveness and the reliability in actual alarm processing systems. Therefore, alarm processing systems have difficult knowledge-base maintenance problems and limited expansion or enhancement defects. To solve these shortcomings, the integrated knowledge-base which can express the general information related to all the alarm processing techniques is proposed and its management tool, Knowledge Input Tool for Alarm (KIT-A) which can handle the data of the knowledge-base efficiently is developed. Since the integrated knowledge-base with KIT-A can manipulate all the alarm information without the modification of alarm processing system itself, it is expected to considerably advance the overall capability of maintenance and enhancement of the alarm processing systems

  11. THE USE OF TECHNICAL KNOWLEDGE AS DIRECTED TO THE IMPROVEMENT OF EVOLUTIONARY PROCESSES AND DECISION MAKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liane Mahlmann Kipper

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In the current scenario of organizations Process Management aims to perform process in an organized, prioritizing actions through techniques and methods that are linked to the improvement of the organization in the market segment it operates. As a determinant for achieving goals successfully, organizational memory is all important in the management of processes, allowing all areas meet in a systemic way, crediting their information to the various organizational sectors and thus using knowledge to direct an action with a focus planning to achieve strategic organizational goal. The organizational memory can be registered through the development of a knowledge base. The work in question aims to provide a better understanding of the importance of the knowledge base in an organization, to perform appropriate actions, planning, simulating and reaching a decision through meaningful data. Soon after the development of a bibliographic research, a bibliometric study on the proposed topic was accomplished with the main events of the Brazilian scientific areas of production engineering, analyzing how the topic has been addressed by authors in the areas of Process Management and Base Knowledge. The main results so far observed the need for the implementation of knowledge-based models in systems that seek to improve the execution of processes and thus reduce failures and decision-making processes more appropriate.

  12. Supporting the Knowledge-to-Action Process: A Systems-Thinking Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherney, Adrian; Head, Brian

    2011-01-01

    The processes for moving research-based knowledge to the domains of action in social policy and professional practice are complex. Several disciplinary research traditions have illuminated several key aspects of these processes. A more holistic approach, drawing on systems thinking, has also been outlined and advocated by recent contributors to…

  13. Semantic Structure in Vocabulary Knowledge Interacts with Lexical and Sentence Processing in Infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borovsky, Arielle; Ellis, Erica M.; Evans, Julia L.; Elman, Jeffrey L.

    2016-01-01

    Although the size of a child's vocabulary associates with language-processing skills, little is understood regarding how this relation emerges. This investigation asks whether and how the structure of vocabulary knowledge affects language processing in English-learning 24-month-old children (N = 32; 18 F, 14 M). Parental vocabulary report was used…

  14. Using Process Theory for Accumulating Project Management Knowledge : A Seven-Category Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niederman, Fred; Mueller, Benjamin; March, Salvatore T.

    2018-01-01

    Process theory has become an important type of theory for the accumulation of knowledge in a number of disciplines. Process theory focuses on sequences of activities, their duration and the intervals between them, as they lead to particular outcomes. Thus it is particularly relevant to project

  15. Development of cognitive processing and judgments of knowledge in medical students : Analysis of progress test results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cecilio-Fernandes, Dario; Kerdijk, Wouter; Jaarsma, A. D. (Debbie) C.; Tio, Rene A.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Beside acquiring knowledge, medical students should also develop the ability to apply and reflect on it, requiring higher-order cognitive processing. Ideally, students should have reached higher-order cognitive processing when they enter the clinical program. Whether this is the case, is

  16. Using Wiki in Teacher Education: Impact on Knowledge Management Processes and Student Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biasutti, Michele; EL-Deghaidy, Heba

    2012-01-01

    The current study reports on the use of Wiki as an online didactic tool to develop knowledge management (KM) processes in higher education. This study integrates social constructivist principles to learning where learners are pro-active and collaborative through higher order cognitive processes. The study was administered in two countries, namely…

  17. A framework of knowledge creation processes in participatory simulation of hospital work systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Simone Nyholm; Broberg, Ole

    2017-01-01

    Participatory simulation (PS) is a method to involve workers in simulating and designing their own future work system. Existing PS studies have focused on analysing the outcome, and minimal attention has been devoted to the process of creating this outcome. In order to study this process, we...... suggest applying a knowledge creation perspective. The aim of this study was to develop a framework describing the process of how ergonomics knowledge is created in PS. Video recordings from three projects applying PS of hospital work systems constituted the foundation of process mining analysis....... The analysis resulted in a framework revealing the sources of ergonomics knowledge creation as sequential relationships between the activities of simulation participants sharing work experiences; experimenting with scenarios; and reflecting on ergonomics consequences. We argue that this framework reveals...

  18. Design and Implementation of Hydrologic Process Knowledge-base Ontology: A case study for the Infiltration Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elag, M.; Goodall, J. L.

    2013-12-01

    Hydrologic modeling often requires the re-use and integration of models from different disciplines to simulate complex environmental systems. Component-based modeling introduces a flexible approach for integrating physical-based processes across disciplinary boundaries. Several hydrologic-related modeling communities have adopted the component-based approach for simulating complex physical systems by integrating model components across disciplinary boundaries in a workflow. However, it is not always straightforward to create these interdisciplinary models due to the lack of sufficient knowledge about a hydrologic process. This shortcoming is a result of using informal methods for organizing and sharing information about a hydrologic process. A knowledge-based ontology provides such standards and is considered the ideal approach for overcoming this challenge. The aims of this research are to present the methodology used in analyzing the basic hydrologic domain in order to identify hydrologic processes, the ontology itself, and how the proposed ontology is integrated with the Water Resources Component (WRC) ontology. The proposed ontology standardizes the definitions of a hydrologic process, the relationships between hydrologic processes, and their associated scientific equations. The objective of the proposed Hydrologic Process (HP) Ontology is to advance the idea of creating a unified knowledge framework for components' metadata by introducing a domain-level ontology for hydrologic processes. The HP ontology is a step toward an explicit and robust domain knowledge framework that can be evolved through the contribution of domain users. Analysis of the hydrologic domain is accomplished using the Formal Concept Approach (FCA), in which the infiltration process, an important hydrologic process, is examined. Two infiltration methods, the Green-Ampt and Philip's methods, were used to demonstrate the implementation of information in the HP ontology. Furthermore, a SPARQL

  19. Knowledge Management Barriers Identification for the Four Kinds of Business Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Ranjbar Fard

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an appropriate categorization of business processes in order to study the different aspects of knowledge management for each kind of business processes. In this categorization, business processes are classified into the four categories including work-flow oriented, decision oriented, information oriented and motivation oriented. Then, the special attributes and knowledge management barriers for each kind of business processes are discussed. Findings from the literature led to some hypotheses about the most important knowledge management barriers in the four different kinds of business processes. Tentative theory has improved through two case studies for a work-flow oriented business process and a decision oriented business process. Research findings help managers to have process perspective in implementing KM initiatives and remove the most important barriers of KM regarding the type of the considered business processes. Improving the hypotheses related to the information oriented and collaborate oriented business processes through case study in their instance processes and also testing the introduced hypotheses are good start points for further research in the future.

  20. The process of knowledge transference: a matter concerning of teaching of psychiatric nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laís de Mello Santos

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives: To identify the strategies used by teachers to share the contents of Psychiatric Nursing and Mental Health; to describe the stages of knowledge sharing in light of the knowledge transfer process. Method: Qualitative, descriptive-exploratory research of the case study type, carried out with six teachers and 23 students, data production was by semi-structured interview and focus group. For the data analysis, the SECI knowledge conversion model was used: socialization, externalization, combination and internalization. Results: Teachers made socialization and externalization, but did not make clear the assessment and teaching-learning strategies. The combination was completed, but the internalization was unfinished, despite suggesting an attempt to reach it. Conclusion: The feasibility and applicability of the knowledge transfer process to the teaching of Psychiatric Nursing were confirmed.

  1. Ethnobotanical and phytomedicinal knowledge in a long-history protected area, the Abruzzo, Lazio and Molise National Park (Italian Apennines).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idolo, Marisa; Motti, Riccardo; Mazzoleni, Stefano

    2010-02-03

    This study reports on the ethnobotanical and phytomedical knowledge in one of the oldest European Parks, the Abruzzo, Lazio and Molise National Park (Central Italy). We selected this area because we judged the long history of nature preservation as an added value potentially encouraging the survival of uses possibly lost elsewhere. In all, we interviewed 60 key informants (30 men and 30 women) selected among those who, for their current or past occupation or specific interests, were most likely to report accurately on traditional use of plants. The average age of informants was 65 years (range 27-102 years). The ethnobotanical inventory we obtained included 145 taxa from 57 families, corresponding to 435 use-reports: 257 referred to medical applications, 112 to food, 29 to craft plants for domestic uses, 25 to veterinary applications, 6 to harvesting for trade and another 6 to animal food. The most common therapeutic uses in the folk tradition are those that are more easily prepared and/or administered such as external applications of fresh or dried plants, and decoctions. Of 90 species used for medical applications, key informants reported on 181 different uses, 136 of which known to have actual pharmacological properties. Of the uses recorded, 76 (42%) concern external applications, especially to treat wounds. Medical applications accounted for most current uses. Only 24% of the uses we recorded still occur in people's everyday life. Species no longer used include dye plants (Fraxinus ornus, Rubia tinctorum, Scabiosa purpurea, Rhus coriaria and Isatis tinctoria) and plants once employed during pregnancy, for parturition, nursing, abortion (Asplenium trichomanes, Ecballium elaterium, Juniperus sabina and Taxus baccata) or old magical practices (Rosa canina). Our study remarked the relationship existing between the high plant diversity recorded in this biodiversity hotspot of central Apennines and the rich ethnobotanical knowledge. The presence of some very

  2. Expert system and knowledge acquisition technology in ENEA program on nuclear and conventional energy production processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balducelli, C.; Federico, A.; Sapia, R.Di.

    1990-01-01

    On the basis of some experiences performed in ENEA (Thermal Reactor Department) revelant to the project and development of experts systems to support the operator activities in nuclear and conventional energy production processes, the paper tries to point out the outline of a 'generic' plant operator cognitive structure. For this type of expert systems an implementation strategy and a knowledge elicitation methodology are proposed with the intention of giving a support to the knowledge engineer work

  3. The life history of Pseudomonas syringae: linking agriculture to earth system processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Cindy E; Monteil, Caroline L; Berge, Odile

    2013-01-01

    The description of the ecology of Pseudomonas syringae is moving away from that of a ubiquitous epiphytic plant pathogen to one of a multifaceted bacterium sans frontières in fresh water and other ecosystems linked to the water cycle. Discovery of the aquatic facet of its ecology has led to a vision of its life history that integrates spatial and temporal scales spanning billions of years and traversing catchment basins, continents, and the planet and that confronts the implication of roles that are potentially conflicting for agriculture (as a plant pathogen and as an actor in processes leading to rain and snowfall). This new ecological perspective has also yielded insight into epidemiological phenomena linked to disease emergence. Overall, it sets the stage for the integration of more comprehensive contexts of ecology and evolutionary history into comparative genomic analyses to elucidate how P. syringae subverts the attack and defense responses of the cohabitants of the diverse environments it occupies.

  4. IGENPRO knowledge-based digital system for process transient diagnostics and management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morman, J.A.; Reifman, J.; Vitela, J.E.; Wei, T.Y.C.; Applequist, C.A.; Hippely, P.; Kuk, W.; Tsoukalas, L.H.

    1998-01-01

    Verification and validation issues have been perceived as important factors in the large scale deployment of knowledge-based digital systems for plant transient diagnostics and management. Research and development (R and D) is being performed on the IGENPRO package to resolve knowledge base issues. The IGENPRO approach is to structure the knowledge bases on generic thermal-hydraulic (T-H) first principles and not use the conventional event-basis structure. This allows for generic comprehensive knowledge, relatively small knowledge bases and above all the possibility of T-H system/plant independence. To demonstrate concept feasibility the knowledge structure has been implemented in the diagnostic module PRODIAG. Promising laboratory testing results have been obtained using data from the full scope Braidwood PWR operator training simulator. This knowledge structure is now being implemented in the transient management module PROMANA to treat unanticipated events and the PROTREN module is being developed to process actual plant data. Achievement of the IGENPRO R and D goals should contribute to the acceptance of knowledge-based digital systems for transient diagnostics and management. (author)

  5. IGENPRO knowledge-based digital system for process transient diagnostics and management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morman, J.A.; Reifman, J.; Wei, T.Y.C.

    1997-01-01

    Verification and validation issues have been perceived as important factors in the large scale deployment of knowledge-based digital systems for plant transient diagnostics and management. Research and development (R ampersand D) is being performed on the IGENPRO package to resolve knowledge base issues. The IGENPRO approach is to structure the knowledge bases on generic thermal-hydraulic (T-H) first principles and not use the conventional event-basis structure. This allows for generic comprehensive knowledge, relatively small knowledge bases and above all the possibility of T-H system/plant independence. To demonstrate concept feasibility the knowledge structure has been implemented in the diagnostic module PRODIAG. Promising laboratory testing results have been obtained using data from the full scope Braidwood PWR operator training simulator. This knowledge structure is now being implemented in the transient management module PROMANA to treat unanticipated events and the PROTREN module is being developed to process actual plant data. Achievement of the IGENPRO R ampersand D goals should contribute to the acceptance of knowledge-based digital systems for transient diagnostics and management

  6. Knowledge transfer process of Brazilian multinationals: comparing acquired subsidiaries to the greenfield ones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natacha Bertoia Silva

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to explore the knowledge transfer process between the subsidiaries and the headquarter of Brazilian multinationals, and to identify the most used mechanisms for transferring knowledge. This paper also aims to point out existing barriers in this process, comparing acquired subsidiaries to the greenfield ones. International studies have shown differences in the process of knowledge transfer due to the origin of foreign units (entry mode. We surveyed in 2006 and 2007 a sample of 66 Brazilian subsidiaries of multinationals with overseas activities. As a result, the knowledge transfer from the headquarter to the subsidiary has occurred through meetings with top executives and the reception of Brazilian executives in both types of units. The barriers to knowledge transfer are bland, being clearer in acquired subsidiaries. Cultural resistance is the most prominent. When we focus on the acquired units, the hierarchical structure is seen as a barrier, probably reflecting the centralized attitude by the headquarters. At the same time, the lack of incentives for sharing knowledge is more evident in greenfield units. Also, the syndrome of not invented here is a perceived barrier by acquired units.

  7. Knowledge Assisted Integrated Design of a Component and Its Manufacturing Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautham, B. P.; Kulkarni, Nagesh; Khan, Danish; Zagade, Pramod; Reddy, Sreedhar; Uppaluri, Rohith

    Integrated design of a product and its manufacturing processes would significantly reduce the total cost of the products as well as the cost of its development. However this would only be possible if we have a platform that allows us to link together simulations tools used for product design, performance evaluation and its manufacturing processes in a closed loop. In addition to that having a comprehensive knowledgebase that provides systematic knowledge guided assistance to product or process designers who may not possess in-depth design knowledge or in-depth knowledge of the simulation tools, would significantly speed up the end-to-end design process. In this paper, we propose a process and illustrate a case for achieving an integrated product and manufacturing process design assisted by knowledge support for the user to make decisions at various stages. We take transmission component design as an example. The example illustrates the design of a gear for its geometry, material selection and its manufacturing processes, particularly, carburizing-quenching and tempering, and feeding the material properties predicted during heat treatment into performance estimation in a closed loop. It also identifies and illustrates various decision stages in the integrated life cycle and discusses the use of knowledge engineering tools such as rule-based guidance, to assist the designer make informed decisions. Simulation tools developed on various commercial, open-source platforms as well as in-house tools along with knowledge engineering tools are linked to build a framework with appropriate navigation through user-friendly interfaces. This is illustrated through examples in this paper.

  8. A Knowledge Management Approach to Support Software Process Improvement Implementation Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoni, Mariano Angel; Cerdeiral, Cristina; Zanetti, David; Cavalcanti da Rocha, Ana Regina

    The success of software process improvement (SPI) implementation initiatives depends fundamentally of the strategies adopted to support the execution of such initiatives. Therefore, it is essential to define adequate SPI implementation strategies aiming to facilitate the achievement of organizational business goals and to increase the benefits of process improvements. The objective of this work is to present an approach to support the execution of SPI implementation initiatives. We also describe a methodology applied to capture knowledge related to critical success factors that influence SPI initiatives. This knowledge was used to define effective SPI strategies aiming to increase the success of SPI initiatives coordinated by a specific SPI consultancy organization. This work also presents the functionalities of a set of tools integrated in a process-centered knowledge management environment, named CORE-KM, customized to support the presented approach.

  9. Operator agency in process intervention: tampering versus application of tacit knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gestel, P.; Pons, D. J.; Pulakanam, V.

    2015-09-01

    Statistical process control (SPC) theory takes a negative view of adjustment of process settings, which is termed tampering. In contrast, quality and lean programmes actively encourage operators to acts of intervention and personal agency in the improvement of production outcomes. This creates a conflict that requires operator judgement: How does one differentiate between unnecessary tampering and needful intervention? Also, difficult is that operators apply tacit knowledge to such judgements. There is a need to determine where in a given production process the operators are applying tacit knowledge, and whether this is hindering or aiding quality outcomes. The work involved the conjoint application of systems engineering, statistics, and knowledge management principles, in the context of a case study. Systems engineering was used to create a functional model of a real plant. Actual plant data were analysed with the statistical methods of ANOVA, feature selection, and link analysis. This identified the variables to which the output quality was most sensitive. These key variables were mapped back to the functional model. Fieldwork was then directed to those areas to prospect for operator judgement activities. A natural conversational approach was used to determine where and how operators were applying judgement. This contrasts to the interrogative approach of conventional knowledge management. Data are presented for a case study of a meat rendering plant. The results identify specific areas where operators' tacit knowledge and mental model contribute to quality outcomes and untangles the motivations behind their agency. Also evident is how novice and expert operators apply their knowledge differently. Novices were focussed on meeting throughput objectives, and their incomplete understanding of the plant characteristics led them to inadvertently sacrifice quality in the pursuit of productivity in certain situations. Operators' responses to the plant are affected by

  10. Knowledge exchange processes in organizations and policy arenas: a narrative systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contandriopoulos, Damien; Lemire, Marc; Denis, Jean-Louis; Tremblay, Emile

    2010-12-01

    This article presents the main results from a large-scale analytical systematic review on knowledge exchange interventions at the organizational and policymaking levels. The review integrated two broad traditions, one roughly focused on the use of social science research results and the other focused on policymaking and lobbying processes. Data collection was done using systematic snowball sampling. First, we used prospective snowballing to identify all documents citing any of a set of thirty-three seminal papers. This process identified 4,102 documents, 102 of which were retained for in-depth analysis. The bibliographies of these 102 documents were merged and used to identify retrospectively all articles cited five times or more and all books cited seven times or more. All together, 205 documents were analyzed. To develop an integrated model, the data were synthesized using an analytical approach. This article developed integrated conceptualizations of the forms of collective knowledge exchange systems, the nature of the knowledge exchanged, and the definition of collective-level use. This literature synthesis is organized around three dimensions of context: level of polarization (politics), cost-sharing equilibrium (economics), and institutionalized structures of communication (social structuring). The model developed here suggests that research is unlikely to provide context-independent evidence for the intrinsic efficacy of knowledge exchange strategies. To design a knowledge exchange intervention to maximize knowledge use, a detailed analysis of the context could use the kind of framework developed here. © 2010 Milbank Memorial Fund. Published by Wiley Periodicals Inc.

  11. Processing large sensor data sets for safeguards : the knowledge generation system.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Maikel A.; Smartt, Heidi Anne; Matthews, Robert F.

    2012-04-01

    Modern nuclear facilities, such as reprocessing plants, present inspectors with significant challenges due in part to the sheer amount of equipment that must be safeguarded. The Sandia-developed and patented Knowledge Generation system was designed to automatically analyze large amounts of safeguards data to identify anomalous events of interest by comparing sensor readings with those expected from a process of interest and operator declarations. This paper describes a demonstration of the Knowledge Generation system using simulated accountability tank sensor data to represent part of a reprocessing plant. The demonstration indicated that Knowledge Generation has the potential to address several problems critical to the future of safeguards. It could be extended to facilitate remote inspections and trigger random inspections. Knowledge Generation could analyze data to establish trust hierarchies, to facilitate safeguards use of operator-owned sensors.

  12. Interorganizational Diffusion and Transformation of Knowledge in the Process of Product Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinding, Anker Lund

    In the knowledge-based economy interorganizational interaction is regarded as crucial in the process of product innovation. Contributions from Lundvall, Von Hippel and the resource based view of the firm all argue that absorptive capacity is of importance for an efficient use of external knowledge...... knowledge the firm also needs to invest in the establishment of channels and codes of communication to external parties. By emphasizing the relative aspect of absorptive capacity as investment in social capital we argue that absolute absorptive capacity and social capital are complementary. This calls...... with respect to the complementarity between the absolute and the relative aspects of absorptive capacity the dissertation concludes that complementarity exists. The implications for firms and policy makers are that in order to give effective access to absorption investment in both the internal knowledge base...

  13. Research in Social Work: the future in the present. Reflections on the portuguese knowledge building process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Marta

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The debate surrounding the construction of scientific knowledge within social work is discussed. The social work class seeks new foundations that allow within the context of structural change, the strengthening of professional identity and challenge of the vestiges of intellectual segregation that historical constraints have left. This paper seeks to outline a research strategy for reconciliation and coordination of intellectual and professional work in order to give visibility to new and different domains of interpretation and action, while claiming that considering pluri-perspectives potentiates the knowledge transformation process. Underlining this confluence of complex thinking elements, this article incorporates the space-time dimension and discusses and recognizes the unavoidable circularity as a way to interrogate knowledge that is compartmentalized and fragmented, placing an emphasis both on knowledge and on the interrelationship between knowing, doing, being and relating. In addition, examines the recognition of the nature of those relationships among various disciplines and perspectives.

  14. Histoires de vie et Formation de Nouveaux Savoirs Vitaux (Life Histories and the Formation of New Life Knowledge).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineau, Gaston

    1994-01-01

    Describes the use of life histories as a means for making sense of personal events and their application to education. Distinguishes three models for the use of life histories in education: the biographical model, the autobiographical model, and the dialectical model. (22 citations) (MAB)

  15. Learning and Collective Knowledge Construction With Social Media: A Process-Oriented Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmerle, Joachim; Moskaliuk, Johannes; Oeberst, Aileen; Cress, Ulrike

    2015-01-01

    Social media are increasingly being used for educational purposes. The first part of this article briefly reviews literature that reports on educational applications of social media tools. The second part discusses theories that may provide a basis for analyzing the processes that are relevant for individual learning and collective knowledge construction. We argue that a systems-theoretical constructivist approach is appropriate to examine the processes of educational social media use, namely, self-organization, the internalization of information, the externalization of knowledge, and the interplay of externalization and internalization providing the basis of a co-evolution of cognitive and social systems. In the third part we present research findings that illustrate and support this systems-theoretical framework. Concluding, we discuss the implications for educational design and for future research on learning and collective knowledge construction with social media. PMID:26246643

  16. Brain activity and infant attachment history in young men during loss and reward processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quevedo, Karina; Waters, Theodore E A; Scott, Hannah; Roisman, Glenn I; Shaw, Daniel S; Forbes, Erika E

    2017-05-01

    There is now ample evidence that the quality of early attachment experiences shapes expectations for supportive and responsive care and ultimately serves to scaffold adaptation to the salient tasks of development. Nonetheless, few studies have identified neural mechanisms that might give rise to these associations. Using a moderately large sample of low-income male participants recruited during infancy (N = 171), we studied the predictive significance of attachment insecurity and disorganization at age 18 months (as measured in the Strange Situation Procedure) for patterns of neural activation to reward and loss at age 20 years (assessed during a reward-based task as part of a functional magnetic resonance imaging scan). Results indicated that individuals with a history of insecure attachment showed hyperactivity in (a) reward- and emotion-related (e.g., basal ganglia and amygdala) structures and (b) emotion regulation and self-referential processing (cortical midline structures) in response to positive and negative outcomes (and anticipation of those outcomes). Further, the neural activation of individuals with a history of disorganized attachment suggested that they had greater emotional reactivity in anticipation of reward and employed greater cognitive control when negative outcomes were encountered. Overall, results suggest that the quality of early attachments has lasting impacts on brain function and reward processing.

  17. Verbal Knowledge, Working Memory, and Processing Speed as Predictors of Verbal Learning in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rast, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    The present study aimed at modeling individual differences in a verbal learning task by means of a latent structured growth curve approach based on an exponential function that yielded 3 parameters: initial recall, learning rate, and asymptotic performance. Three cognitive variables--speed of information processing, verbal knowledge, working…

  18. Innovation as a distributed, collaborative process of knowledge generation: open, networked innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloep, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Sloep, P. B. (2009). Innovation as a distributed, collaborative process of knowledge generation: open, networked innovation. In V. Hornung-Prähauser & M. Luckmann (Eds.), Kreativität und Innovationskompetenz im digitalen Netz - Creativity and Innovation Competencies in the Web, Sammlung von

  19. Developing a new theory of knowledge sharing : Documenting and reflecting on a messy process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinsons, M.G.; Davison, R.M.; Ou, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Much has been written about theories and how they can be tested. Unfortunately, much less has been written about how to develop them. This paper sheds light on the process of new theory development. We document and reflect on how we developed a context-sensitive indigenous theory of knowledge

  20. Social Impact of Participatory Health Research: Collaborative Non-Linear Processes of Knowledge Mobilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abma, Tineke A.; Cook, Tina; Rämgård, Margaretha; Kleba, Elisabeth; Harris, Janet; Wallerstein, Nina

    2017-01-01

    Social impact, defined as an effect on society, culture, quality of life, community services, or public policy beyond academia, is widely considered as a relevant requirement for scientific research, especially in the field of health care. Traditionally, in health research, the process of knowledge transfer is rather linear and one-sided and has…

  1. Knowledge and Attitudes of Produce and Seafood Processors and Food Safety Educators Regarding Nonthermal Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivarnik, Lori F.; Richard, Nicole L.; Gable, Robert K.; Worobo, Randy W.

    2016-01-01

    A needs assessment survey was designed and administered to measure knowledge of and attitudes toward food safety impacts of nonthermal processing technologies of shellfish and produce industry personnel and extension educators. An online survey was sent via e-mail notification with the survey link through professional listserves. The survey…

  2. Pathways to Parental Knowledge: The Role of Family Process and Family Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Walker, Laura M.; Harper, James M.; Bean, Roy A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was (a) to examine the role of family process on child disclosure, parental solicitation, and parental knowledge and (b) to examine how patterns might differ as a function of family structure. Data for this study were taken from the Flourishing Families Project, which consists of 353 two- and 147 single-parent…

  3. Examining the Relative Contributions of Content Knowledge and Strategic Processing to Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aukerman, Maren; Brown, Rachel; Mokhtari, Kouider; Valencia, Sheila; Palincsar, Annemarie

    2015-01-01

    The essays below were prepared following the LRA session organized by Janice Almasi entitled, "Examining the relative contributions of content knowledge and strategic processing to comprehension." What unites these essays are the personal and historical stances that each writer has taken; in addition, the essays are rich with…

  4. Knowledge Discovery Process: Case Study of RNAV Adherence of Radar Track Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Bryan

    2018-01-01

    This talk is an introduction to the knowledge discovery process, beginning with: identifying the problem, choosing data sources, matching the appropriate machine learning tools, and reviewing the results. The overview will be given in the context of an ongoing study that is assessing RNAV adherence of commercial aircraft in the national airspace.

  5. Facilitating Work Based Learning Projects: A Business Process Oriented Knowledge Management Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miao, Yongwu; Sloep, Peter; Koper, Rob

    2009-01-01

    Miao, Y., Sloep, P. B., & Koper, R. (2009). Facilitating Work Based Learning Projects: A Business Process Oriented Knowledge Management Approach. Presented at the 'Open workshop of TENCompetence - Rethinking Learning and Employment at a Time of Economic Uncertainty-event'. November, 19, 2009,

  6. Facilitating Work Based Learning Projects: A Business Process Oriented Knowledge Management Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miao, Yongwu; Sloep, Peter; Koper, Rob

    2009-01-01

    Miao, Y., Sloep, P. B., & Koper, R. (2010). Facilitating Work Based Learning Projects: A Business Process Oriented Knowledge Management Approach. In D. Griffiths & R. Koper (Eds.), Rethinking Learning and Employment at a Time of Economic Uncertainty. Proceedings of the 6th TENCompetence Open

  7. Knowledge-to-action processes in SHRTN collaborative communities of practice: A study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chambers Larry

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Seniors Health Research Transfer Network (SHRTN Collaborative is a network of networks that work together to improve the health and health care of Ontario seniors. The collaborative facilitates knowledge exchange through a library service, knowledge brokers (KBs, local implementation teams, collaborative technology, and, most importantly, Communities of Practice (CoPs whose members work together to identify innovations, translate evidence, and help implement changes. This project aims to increase our understanding of knowledge-to-action (KTA processes mobilized through SHRTN CoPs that are working to improve the health of Ontario seniors. For this research, KTA refers to the movement of research and experience-based knowledge between social contexts, and the use of that knowledge to improve practice. We will examine the KTA processes themselves, as well as the role of human agents within those processes. The conceptual framework we have adopted to inform our research is the Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (PARIHS framework. Methods/design This study will use a multiple case study design (minimum of nine cases over three years to investigate how SHRTN CoPs work and pursue knowledge exchange in different situations. Each case will yield a unique narrative, framed around the three PARIHS dimensions: evidence, context, and facilitation. Together, the cases will shed light on how SHRTN CoPs approach their knowledge exchange initiatives, and how they respond to challenges and achieve their objectives. Data will be collected using interviews, document analysis, and ethnographic observation. Discussion This research will generate new knowledge about the defining characteristics of CoPs operating in the health system, on leadership roles in CoPs, and on the nature of interaction processes, relationships, and knowledge exchange mechanisms. Our work will yield a better understanding of the factors that

  8. Change Processes and Future Perspectives in the Knowledge Society. The Example of Clothing and Textile Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Tobias Woll

    2006-01-01

    The paper examines change processes und future perspectives in the knowledge society. It presents the clothing and textile industry as an example for a transforming industry in a global economy. The paper reviews existing future studies, which have surveyed change processes and future developments in the clothing and textile industry. Main goals of the review are the identification of changes in work and the description of the restructuring of global value chains within the clothing and texti...

  9. A conceptual knowledge-link model for supporting dental implant process

    OpenAIRE

    Szejka , Anderson Luis; Canciglieri , Osiris ,; Rudek , Marcelo; Panetto , Hervé

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Computer aided techniques widely used as diagnostic and surgical procedures tools are scarcely applied in implantology, which continues using visualization of CT images to define the parameters for dental implant process leaving to the dentist discretion the implant determination, since only the images analysis is non-deterministic. Thus, this research proposes the development of a knowledge-link model integrated to a reasoner system to support dental implant process t...

  10. Resilience processes within the school context of adolescents with sexual violence history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Sandro Gomes Pessoa

    Full Text Available Abstract: This study examines the school context of adolescents with a sexual violence history, highlighting their perceptions of protective and vulnerability mechanisms within a social ecological resilience framework. The study was conducted in a youth service agency located in a mid-sized city in the inner of Sao Paulo state. Initially, 31 male and female adolescents victims of sexual violence, aged 12-18, answered survey items assessing resilience processes. Based on their responses, a subgroup of seven adolescents was selected to participate in individual semi-structured interviews addressing the role of school in their lives. Five key themes were identified in the data, with two overarching categories emerging: ‘evaluation of school structure’ and ‘formative processes through diversity and difference’. Exploration of interview excerpts within these categories revealed that schools occupy an ambivalent space in terms of risk and protective factors in the participants’ lives, with predominately negative social indicators emerging.

  11. The history of magnetization process influence on FMR response of particle systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumitru, Ioan; Stancu, Alexandru

    2007-01-01

    In order to express the history of magnetization process dependence on ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) for a particle system we use a statistical model based on the Preisach model. The precedent magnetization processes define in Preisach plane a configuration of particle magnetization orientations. The particles are considered single domain and saturated and are modeled as Stoner-Wohlfarth particles. The FMR response of the system is computed by summarizing the individual dynamic susceptibility of the particles, keeping account of the initial directions of the particle magnetizations. The FMR spectra of the particle system is determined considering three initial magnetization states: the demagnetized state, the positive saturated state in which all the particles have the magnetization in the static field direction and the negative saturated state when all the particles have the magnetization in the opposite field direction. The static field dependence of the resonance frequency and linewidth are determined as functions of the initial magnetization states

  12. The role of collaborative ontology development in the knowledge negotiation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Norma

    Interdisciplinary research (IDR) collaboration can be defined as the process of integrating experts' knowledge, perspectives, and resources to advance scientific discovery. The flourishing of more complex research problems, together with the growth of scientific and technical knowledge has resulted in the need for researchers from diverse fields to provide different expertise and points of view to tackle these problems. These collaborations, however, introduce a new set of "culture" barriers as participating experts are trained to communicate in discipline-specific languages, theories, and research practices. We propose that building a common knowledge base for research using ontology development techniques can provide a starting point for interdisciplinary knowledge exchange, negotiation, and integration. The goal of this work is to extend ontology development techniques to support the knowledge negotiation process in IDR groups. Towards this goal, this work presents a methodology that extends previous work in collaborative ontology development and integrates learning strategies and tools to enhance interdisciplinary research practices. We evaluate the effectiveness of applying such methodology in three different scenarios that cover educational and research settings. The results of this evaluation confirm that integrating learning strategies can, in fact, be advantageous to overall collaborative practices in IDR groups.

  13. Development of educational system for nuclear power plant operators using knowledge processing techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimura, Seiichi

    1990-01-01

    It is important to carry out effective education optimally adapted to the operator's knowledge level for the enhancement of the operator's ability to deal with abnormal situations. This paper outlines the educational system that realizes effective education using knowledge-processing techniques. This system is composed of three devices. One is a knowledge-processing computer that evaluates the operator's knowledge level and presents educational materials optimally adapted to his knowledge level. Another is a computer for displaying transients and plant equipments. The other is a computer for voice input and output. The educational materials utilize cause-and-effect relationships. It is possible to perform effective education by pointing out the parts the operator failed to understand using the relationships. An evaluation test was performed using several tens of operators by actually operating the system and then impressions were gathered by questionnaire. As a result, the cause-and-effect relationships were proved to be useful to understand the transients. And the contents of the educational materials and the display pictures were also deemed to have practical value. (author)

  14. Differences in knowledge related to dental implants between patients with and without a treatment history of dental implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ken, Yukawa; Tachikawa, Noriko; Kasugai, Shohei

    2017-09-01

    This aim of this study was to investigate the differences between patients with and without a treatment history of dental implants by use of a questionnaire survey in order to determine the information that is required for patients undergoing dental implants. The questionnaires were given to 4512 patients who visited the Tokyo Medical and Dental University Hospital for oral implants between January 2012 and December 2014, and 2972 (66%) valid questionnaires were collected. There were 857 patients with a treatment history of dental implants and 2115 patients without. "Preservation of an adjacent tooth" was the reason that 32% of these patients chose implant therapy, and the patients without treatment history were significantly higher than the patients with one. Significantly, more patients without a treatment history of dental implants selected the after-effects of surgery and pain after surgery as their main concerns for implant therapy compared to those with a treatment history. In the question "Pain after surgery," the patients without treatment history did not know significantly lower than the patients with one. Patients without a treatment history of dental implants placed more importance on the preservation of healthy teeth. Because patients, in particular those without a treatment history of dental implants, are anxious about surgery, we should provide them with more information on treatment than we already do and explain the risks of treatment to them. To keep the credence between doctors and patients, informed consent and patient education on treatment are six important concerns. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. A new method of knowledge processing for equipment diagnosis of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, M.; Fukumoto, A.; Tai, I.; Morioka, T.

    1987-01-01

    In this work, the authors complete the development of a new knowledge processing method and representation for equipment diagnosis of nuclear power plants and evaluate its functions by applying to the maintenance and diagnosis support system of the reactor instrumentation. This knowledge processing method system is based on the Cause Generation and Checking concept and has sufficient performance not only in the diagnosis function but also in the man-machine interfacing function. The maintenance and diagnosis support system based on this method leads to the possibility for users to diagnose various phenomena occurred in an objective equipment to the considerable extent by consulting with the system, even if they don't have enough knowledge. With this system, it becomes easy for operators or plant engineers to take immediate actions to counteract against the abnormality. The maintainability of the equipments is improved and MTTR (Mean Time To Repair) is expected to be shorter. This new knowledge processing method is proved to be suited for fault diagnosis of the equipments of nuclear power plants

  16. Anti-nuclear behavioral intentions: The role of perceived knowledge, information processing, and risk perception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Weiwei; Wei, Jiuchang; Zhao, Dingtao

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the key factors underlying people's anti-nuclear behavioral intentions. The protective action decision model and the heuristic–systematic model were integrated and adapted from a risk information perspective to construct a hypothetical model. A questionnaire study was conducted on a sample of residents near the Haiyang Nuclear Power Plant, which is under construction in Shandong Province, China (N=487). Results show that, as expected, perceived knowledge is vital in predicting people's information insufficiency, information seeking, systematic processing, and risk perception. Moreover, the inverted U relationship between perceived knowledge and anti-nuclear behavioral intentions is indicated in the study. Information insufficiency and information seeking also significantly predict systematic processing. Furthermore, people's behavioral intentions are motivated by risk perception but fail to be stimulated by systematic processing. Implications and recommendations for future research are discussed. - Highlights: • The study explores anti-nuclear behavior from a risk information perspective. • Risk perception and knowledge matter to anti-nuclear behavioral intentions. • Inverted U relationship between knowledge and behavioral intentions is indicated. • More understanding of nuclear power could reduce public opposition.

  17. Voice-enabled Knowledge Engine using Flood Ontology and Natural Language Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sermet, M. Y.; Demir, I.; Krajewski, W. F.

    2015-12-01

    The Iowa Flood Information System (IFIS) is a web-based platform developed by the Iowa Flood Center (IFC) to provide access to flood inundation maps, real-time flood conditions, flood forecasts, flood-related data, information and interactive visualizations for communities in Iowa. The IFIS is designed for use by general public, often people with no domain knowledge and limited general science background. To improve effective communication with such audience, we have introduced a voice-enabled knowledge engine on flood related issues in IFIS. Instead of navigating within many features and interfaces of the information system and web-based sources, the system provides dynamic computations based on a collection of built-in data, analysis, and methods. The IFIS Knowledge Engine connects to real-time stream gauges, in-house data sources, analysis and visualization tools to answer natural language questions. Our goal is the systematization of data and modeling results on flood related issues in Iowa, and to provide an interface for definitive answers to factual queries. The goal of the knowledge engine is to make all flood related knowledge in Iowa easily accessible to everyone, and support voice-enabled natural language input. We aim to integrate and curate all flood related data, implement analytical and visualization tools, and make it possible to compute answers from questions. The IFIS explicitly implements analytical methods and models, as algorithms, and curates all flood related data and resources so that all these resources are computable. The IFIS Knowledge Engine computes the answer by deriving it from its computational knowledge base. The knowledge engine processes the statement, access data warehouse, run complex database queries on the server-side and return outputs in various formats. This presentation provides an overview of IFIS Knowledge Engine, its unique information interface and functionality as an educational tool, and discusses the future plans

  18. Process Knowledge Summary Report for Materials and Fuels Complex Contact-Handled Transuranic Debris Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. P. Grant; P. J. Crane; S. Butler; M. A. Henry

    2010-02-01

    This Process Knowledge Summary Report summarizes the information collected to satisfy the transportation and waste acceptance requirements for the transfer of transuranic (TRU) waste between the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) and the Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project (AMWTP). The information collected includes documentation that addresses the requirements for AMWTP and the applicable portion of their Resource Conservation and Recovery Act permits for receipt and treatment of TRU debris waste in AMWTP. This report has been prepared for contact-handled TRU debris waste generated by the Idaho National Laboratory at MFC. The TRU debris waste will be shipped to AMWTP for purposes of supercompaction. This Process Knowledge Summary Report includes information regarding, but not limited to, the generation process, the physical form, radiological characteristics, and chemical contaminants of the TRU debris waste, prohibited items, and packaging configuration. This report, along with the referenced supporting documents, will create a defensible and auditable record for waste originating from MFC.

  19. Influence of the Migration Process on the Learning Performances of Fuzzy Knowledge Bases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akrout, Khaled; Baron, Luc; Balazinski, Marek

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the influence of the process of migration between populations in GENO-FLOU, which is an environment of learning of fuzzy knowledge bases by genetic algorithms. Initially the algorithm did not use the process of migration. For the learning, the algorithm uses a hybrid coding......, binary for the base of rules and real for the data base. This hybrid coding used with a set of specialized operators of reproduction proven to be an effective environment of learning. Simulations were made in this environment by adding a process of migration. While varying the number of populations...

  20. Primary Manufacturing Processes for Fiber Reinforced Composites: History, Development & Future Research Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapan Bhatt, Alpa; Gohil, Piyush P.; Chaudhary, Vijaykumar

    2018-03-01

    Composite Materials are becoming more popular gradually replacing traditional material with extra strength, lighter weight and superior property. The world is exploring use of fiber reinforced composites in all application which includes air, land and water transport, construction industry, toys, instrumentation, medicine and the list is endless. Based on application and reinforcement used, there are many ways to manufactures parts with fiber reinforced composites. In this paper various manufacturing processes have been discussed at length, to make fiber reinforced composites components. The authors have endeavored to include all the processes available recently in composite industry. Paper first highlights history of fiber reinforced composites manufacturing, and then the comparison of different manufacturing process to build composites have been discussed, to give clear understanding on, which process should be selected, based on reinforcement, matrix and application. All though, there are several advantages to use such fiber reinforcement composites, still industries have not grown at par and there is a lot of scope to improve these industries. At last, where India stands today, what are the challenges in market has been highlighted and future market and research trend of exploring such composite industries have been discussed. This work is carried out as a part of research project sanctioned by GUJCOST, Gandhinagar.

  1. "If We Lose Their Language We Lose Our History": Knowledge and Disposition in Maori Language Acquisition Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albury, Nathan John

    2018-01-01

    Localising knowledge and dispositions helps to predict the likely success of top-down language policies. In so far as language acquisition is a pillar of language revitalisation policy, then community perspectives on learning a minority language deserve attention. This article presents the knowledge, dispositions, and ideas of around 1,300…

  2. Reconstructing depositional processes and history from reservoir stratigraphy: Englebright Lake, Yuba River, northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, N.P.; Wright, S.A.; Alpers, Charles N.; Flint, L.E.; Holmes, C.W.; Rubin, D.M.

    2006-01-01

    Reservoirs provide the opportunity to link watershed history with its stratigraphic record. We analyze sediment cores from a northern California reservoir in the context of hydrologic history, watershed management, and depositional processes. Observations of recent depositional patterns, sediment-transport calculations, and 137CS geochronology support a conceptual model in which the reservoir delta progrades during floods of short duration (days) and is modified during prolonged (weeks to months) drawdowns that rework topset beds and transport sand from topsets to foresets. Sediment coarser than 0.25-0.5 mm. deposits in foresets and topsets, and finer material falls out of suspension as bottomset beds. Simple hydraulic calculations indicate that fine sand (0.063-0.5 mm) is transported into the distal bottomset area only during floods. The overall stratigraphy suggests that two phases of delta building occurred in the reservoir. The first, from dam construction in 1940 to 1970, was heavily influenced by annual, prolonged >20 m drawdowns of the water level. The second, built on top of the first, reflects sedimentation from 1970 to 2002 when the influence of drawdowns was less. Sedimentation rates in the central part of the reservoir have declined ???25% since 1970, likely reflecting a combination of fewer large floods, changes in watershed management, and winnowing of stored hydraulic mining sediment. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  3. A Vertical Approach to Knowledge Management: Codification and Personalization in Software Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahn, Karsten; Nielsen, Peter Axel

    2011-01-01

    Software process improvement is a practical concern in software companies today and it has been addressed in research. Part of this research has applied a knowledge management perspective. Researchers point out that two different strategies exist where a mixture is difficult to maintain......: Personalization (focus on people and their collaboration) and codification (focus on documents and their accessibility). This paper addresses different knowledge management problems of a software company and how they can be alleviated. A prototype, which distinguishes between different organizational levels (e.......g., software managers and software developers) and applies different knowledge management strategies, was built. It consists of a wiki and an enterprise system. This article shows how each part of the system focuses on one of the strategies and describes the differences for tool support. This combination could...

  4. Conceptual dissonance: evaluating the efficacy of natural language processing techniques for validating translational knowledge constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Philip R O; Kwok, Alan; Dhaval, Rakesh; Borlawsky, Tara B

    2009-03-01

    The conduct of large-scale translational studies presents significant challenges related to the storage, management and analysis of integrative data sets. Ideally, the application of methodologies such as conceptual knowledge discovery in databases (CKDD) provides a means for moving beyond intuitive hypothesis discovery and testing in such data sets, and towards the high-throughput generation and evaluation of knowledge-anchored relationships between complex bio-molecular and phenotypic variables. However, the induction of such high-throughput hypotheses is non-trivial, and requires correspondingly high-throughput validation methodologies. In this manuscript, we describe an evaluation of the efficacy of a natural language processing-based approach to validating such hypotheses. As part of this evaluation, we will examine a phenomenon that we have labeled as "Conceptual Dissonance" in which conceptual knowledge derived from two or more sources of comparable scope and granularity cannot be readily integrated or compared using conventional methods and automated tools.

  5. Processing information about support exchanges in close relationships: The role of a knowledge structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulent eTuran

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available People develop knowledge of interpersonal interaction patterns (e.g., prototypes and schemas, which shape how they process incoming information. One such knowledge structure based on attachment theory was examined: the secure base script (the prototypic sequence of events when an attachment figure comforts a close relationship partner in distress. In two studies (N = 53 and N = 119, participants were shown animated film clips in which geometric figures depicted the secure base script and asked to describe the animations. Both studies found that many people readily recognize the secure-base script from these minimal cues quite well, suggesting that this script is not only available in the context of specific relationships (i.e., a relationship-specific knowledge: The generalized (abstract structure of the script is also readily accessible, which would make it possible to apply it to any relationship (including new relationships. Regression analyses suggested that participants who recognized the script were more likely to (a include more animation elements when describing the animations, (b see a common theme in different animations, (c create better organized stories, and (d later recall more details of the animations. These findings suggest that access to this knowledge structure helps a person organize and remember relevant incoming information. Furthermore, in both Study 1 and Study 2, individual differences in the ready recognition of the script were associated with individual differences in having access to another related knowledge: indicators suggesting that a potential relationship partner can be trusted to be supportive and responsive at times of stress. Results of Study 2 also suggest that recognizing the script is associated with those items of an attachment measure that concern giving and receiving support. Thus, these knowledge structures may shape how people process support-relevant information in their everyday lives, potentially

  6. Deriving evaluation indicators for knowledge transfer and dialogue processes in the context of climate research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treffeisen, Renate; Grosfeld, Klaus; Kuhlmann, Franziska

    2017-12-01

    Knowledge transfer and dialogue processes in the field of climate science have captured intensive attention in recent years as being an important part of research activities. Therefore, the demand and pressure to develop a set of indicators for the evaluation of different activities in this field have increased, too. Research institutes are being asked more and more to build up structures in order to map these activities and, thus, are obliged to demonstrate the success of these efforts. This paper aims to serve as an input to stimulate further reflection on the field of evaluation of knowledge transfer and dialogue processes in the context of climate sciences. The work performed in this paper is embedded in the efforts of the German Helmholtz Association in the research field of earth and environment and is driven by the need to apply suitable indicators for knowledge transfer and dialogue processes in climate research center evaluations. We carry out a comparative analysis of three long-term activities and derive a set of indicators for measuring their output and outcome by balancing the wide diversity and range of activity contents as well as the different tools to realize them. The case examples are based on activities which are part of the regional Helmholtz Climate Initiative Regional Climate Change (REKLIM) and the Climate Office for Polar Regions and Sea Level Rise at the Alfred Wegener Institute Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research. Both institutional units have been working on a wide range of different knowledge transfer and dialogue processes since 2008/2009. We demonstrate that indicators for the evaluation must be based on the unique objectives of the individual activities and the framework they are embedded in (e.g., research foci which provide the background for the performed knowledge transfer and dialogue processes) but can partly be classified in a principle two-dimensional scheme. This scheme might serve as a usable basis for climate

  7. Functional knowledge transfer for high-accuracy prediction of under-studied biological processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Y Park

    Full Text Available A key challenge in genetics is identifying the functional roles of genes in pathways. Numerous functional genomics techniques (e.g. machine learning that predict protein function have been developed to address this question. These methods generally build from existing annotations of genes to pathways and thus are often unable to identify additional genes participating in processes that are not already well studied. Many of these processes are well studied in some organism, but not necessarily in an investigator's organism of interest. Sequence-based search methods (e.g. BLAST have been used to transfer such annotation information between organisms. We demonstrate that functional genomics can complement traditional sequence similarity to improve the transfer of gene annotations between organisms. Our method transfers annotations only when functionally appropriate as determined by genomic data and can be used with any prediction algorithm to combine transferred gene function knowledge with organism-specific high-throughput data to enable accurate function prediction. We show that diverse state-of-art machine learning algorithms leveraging functional knowledge transfer (FKT dramatically improve their accuracy in predicting gene-pathway membership, particularly for processes with little experimental knowledge in an organism. We also show that our method compares favorably to annotation transfer by sequence similarity. Next, we deploy FKT with state-of-the-art SVM classifier to predict novel genes to 11,000 biological processes across six diverse organisms and expand the coverage of accurate function predictions to processes that are often ignored because of a dearth of annotated genes in an organism. Finally, we perform in vivo experimental investigation in Danio rerio and confirm the regulatory role of our top predicted novel gene, wnt5b, in leftward cell migration during heart development. FKT is immediately applicable to many bioinformatics

  8. Automatic two- and three-dimensional mesh generation based on fuzzy knowledge processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagawa, G.; Yoshimura, S.; Soneda, N.; Nakao, K.

    1992-09-01

    This paper describes the development of a novel automatic FEM mesh generation algorithm based on the fuzzy knowledge processing technique. A number of local nodal patterns are stored in a nodal pattern database of the mesh generation system. These nodal patterns are determined a priori based on certain theories or past experience of experts of FEM analyses. For example, such human experts can determine certain nodal patterns suitable for stress concentration analyses of cracks, corners, holes and so on. Each nodal pattern possesses a membership function and a procedure of node placement according to this function. In the cases of the nodal patterns for stress concentration regions, the membership function which is utilized in the fuzzy knowledge processing has two meanings, i.e. the “closeness” of nodal location to each stress concentration field as well as “nodal density”. This is attributed to the fact that a denser nodal pattern is required near a stress concentration field. What a user has to do in a practical mesh generation process are to choose several local nodal patterns properly and to designate the maximum nodal density of each pattern. After those simple operations by the user, the system places the chosen nodal patterns automatically in an analysis domain and on its boundary, and connects them smoothly by the fuzzy knowledge processing technique. Then triangular or tetrahedral elements are generated by means of the advancing front method. The key issue of the present algorithm is an easy control of complex two- or three-dimensional nodal density distribution by means of the fuzzy knowledge processing technique. To demonstrate fundamental performances of the present algorithm, a prototype system was constructed with one of object-oriented languages, Smalltalk-80 on a 32-bit microcomputer, Macintosh II. The mesh generation of several two- and three-dimensional domains with cracks, holes and junctions was presented as examples.

  9. Hybrid forecasting of chaotic processes: Using machine learning in conjunction with a knowledge-based model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Jaideep; Wikner, Alexander; Fussell, Rebeckah; Chandra, Sarthak; Hunt, Brian R.; Girvan, Michelle; Ott, Edward

    2018-04-01

    A model-based approach to forecasting chaotic dynamical systems utilizes knowledge of the mechanistic processes governing the dynamics to build an approximate mathematical model of the system. In contrast, machine learning techniques have demonstrated promising results for forecasting chaotic systems purely from past time series measurements of system state variables (training data), without prior knowledge of the system dynamics. The motivation for this paper is the potential of machine learning for filling in the gaps in our underlying mechanistic knowledge that cause widely-used knowledge-based models to be inaccurate. Thus, we here propose a general method that leverages the advantages of these two approaches by combining a knowledge-based model and a machine learning technique to build a hybrid forecasting scheme. Potential applications for such an approach are numerous (e.g., improving weather forecasting). We demonstrate and test the utility of this approach using a particular illustrative version of a machine learning known as reservoir computing, and we apply the resulting hybrid forecaster to a low-dimensional chaotic system, as well as to a high-dimensional spatiotemporal chaotic system. These tests yield extremely promising results in that our hybrid technique is able to accurately predict for a much longer period of time than either its machine-learning component or its model-based component alone.

  10. Pharmacist's knowledge, practice and attitudes toward pharmacovigilance and adverse drug reactions reporting process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyagh, Maysa; Farah, Doaa; Abu Farha, Rana

    2015-04-01

    Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are a major cause of drug related morbidity and mortality. Pharmacovigilance is the science that plays an essential role in the reduction of ADRs, thus the evolution and growth of this science are critical for effective and safe clinical practice. This study is considered the first study in the region to evaluate pharmacist's knowledge, practice and attitudes toward ADRs reporting after establishing the national ADRs reporting center in Jordan. A cross sectional study was used to evaluate pharmacist knowledge and attitude toward ADRs reporting. A structured validated questionnaire was developed for this purpose and a total of 208 pharmacists were recruited to participate in this study. The majority of pharmacists have insufficient awareness and lack of knowledge about pharmacovigilance and ADRs reporting. Also the rate of reporting of ADRs was extremely poor. Several factors were found to discourage pharmacists from reporting ADRs, which include inadequate information available from the patient, unavailability of pharmacist ADRs form when needed, unawareness of the existence of the national ADRs reporting system. Also pharmacists think that ADRs are unimportant or they did not know how to report them. The results of this study suggest that pharmacists have insufficient knowledge about the concept of pharmacovigilance and spontaneous ADRs reporting. On the other hand, pharmacists had positive attitudes toward pharmacovigilance, despite their little experience with ADRs reporting. Educational programs are needed to increase pharmacist's role in the reporting process, and thus to have a positive impact on the overall patient caring process.

  11. The Immediate and Delayed Effects of TV: Impacts of Gender and Processed-Food Intake History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather M. Francis

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Eating while watching TV has generally been found to increase both immediate and delayed energy intake. Here we examine two factors – gender and habitual processed-food intake – that may moderate these effects. Participants [n = 153; 95 women, 58 men; Mage = 19.7 (SD = 2.9; MBMI = 22.4 (SD = 3.1] ate an ad libitum snack either with or without TV, followed around 1 h later by lunch. There was an interaction between TV and gender for both meals. Women tended to consume more snack food in the TV condition, with men consuming more in the no-TV condition. Participants who habitually consumed more processed food also ate more snacks, independent of any other variable, including rated liking. At lunch, men who had earlier snacked with TV ate more than men who had snacked without TV, but this effect was not evident in women. On memory recall, all participants underestimated how much snack food they had eaten, and this was a function of how much they had actually consumed, with greater error only predicted by greater consumption. The results indicate that the effects of TV on eating can vary with gender and that processed-food history can predict snack food intake. While previous findings suggest memory of prior-intake may be impaired by eating while watching TV, the current results suggest this is not necessarily because of TV per se, but because people sometimes consume more food under such conditions.

  12. The Immediate and Delayed Effects of TV: Impacts of Gender and Processed-Food Intake History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Heather M; Stevenson, Richard J; Oaten, Megan J; Mahmut, Mehmet K; Yeomans, Martin R

    2017-01-01

    Eating while watching TV has generally been found to increase both immediate and delayed energy intake. Here we examine two factors - gender and habitual processed-food intake - that may moderate these effects. Participants [ n = 153; 95 women, 58 men; M age = 19.7 ( SD = 2.9); M BMI = 22.4 ( SD = 3.1)] ate an ad libitum snack either with or without TV, followed around 1 h later by lunch. There was an interaction between TV and gender for both meals. Women tended to consume more snack food in the TV condition, with men consuming more in the no-TV condition. Participants who habitually consumed more processed food also ate more snacks, independent of any other variable, including rated liking. At lunch, men who had earlier snacked with TV ate more than men who had snacked without TV, but this effect was not evident in women. On memory recall, all participants underestimated how much snack food they had eaten, and this was a function of how much they had actually consumed, with greater error only predicted by greater consumption. The results indicate that the effects of TV on eating can vary with gender and that processed-food history can predict snack food intake. While previous findings suggest memory of prior-intake may be impaired by eating while watching TV, the current results suggest this is not necessarily because of TV per se , but because people sometimes consume more food under such conditions.

  13. Rethinking infant knowledge: toward an adaptive process account of successes and failures in object permanence tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munakata, Y; McClelland, J L; Johnson, M H; Siegler, R S

    1997-10-01

    Infants seem sensitive to hidden objects in habituation tasks at 3.5 months but fail to retrieve hidden objects until 8 months. The authors first consider principle-based accounts of these successes and failures, in which early successes imply knowledge of principles and failures are attributed to ancillary deficits. One account is that infants younger than 8 months have the object permanence principle but lack means-ends abilities. To test this, 7-month-olds were trained on means-ends behaviors and were tested on retrieval of visible and occluded toys. Means-ends demands were the same, yet infants made more toy-guided retrievals in the visible case. The authors offer an adaptive process account in which knowledge is graded and embedded in specific behavioral processes. Simulation models that learn gradually to represent occluded objects show how this approach can account for success and failure in object permanence tasks without assuming principles and ancillary deficits.

  14. Finding the Sweet Spot: Network Structures and Processes for Increased Knowledge Mobilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Briscoe

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of networks in public education is one of a number of knowledge mobilization (KMb strategies utilized to promote evidence-based research into practice. However, challenges exist in the ability to effectively mobilizing knowledge through external partnership networks. The purpose of this paper is to further explore how networks work. Data was collected from virtual discussions for an interim report for a province-wide government initiative. A secondary analysis of the data was performed. The findings present network structures and processes that partners were engaged in when building a network within education. The implications of this study show that building a network for successful outcomes is complex and metaphorically similar to finding the “sweet spot.” It is challenging but networks that used strategies to align structures and processes proved to achieve more success in mobilizing research to practice.

  15. Managing cultural diversity and the process of knowledge sharing: A case from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Jakob

    2009-01-01

    Ideas of linking cultural diversity and knowledge resources have recently gained momentum in organizational literature, however, little is known about actual knowledge-sharing processes in culturally diverse organizations. This paper contributes to mending such limitations by first reviewing three...... dominant perspectives in the literature relevant to understanding these processes. It is then argued that these perspectives contribute focusing on different aspects of human diversity in organizations and, therefore, that they should not be separated in the analysis of the complex settings that culturally...... diverse organizations represent. This is illustrated with data from an ethnographic fieldwork in a Danish multicultural organization. The final section reflects on implications of using a combination of different theories in analyzing the results, and suggests other possibilities for future research....

  16. Knowledge Base Applications to Adaptive Space-Time Processing, Volume 5: Knowledge-Based Tracker Rule Book

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morgan, Charles

    2001-01-01

    ..., and (2) knowledge of the target's line-of-sight visibility, the competing clutter conditions, and interference at the predicted location so that the optimal radar parameters and space-time adaptive...

  17. The effect of processing history on physical behavior and cellular response for tyrosine-derived polyarylates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doddi, S; Patlolla, A; Shanumunsgarundum, S; Jaffe, M; Collins, G; Arinzeh, T Livingston

    2009-01-01

    Polyarylates have shown promise as fully degradable polymers for drug delivery as well as for structural implant applications due to their range of physicomechanical properties. Processing history, however, could have a significant impact on their overall performance in biologically relevant environments. More specifically, structural changes at the molecular level can occur that will affect a polymer's physical properties and subsequent, cell attachment and growth. The present study was aimed at comparing cell growth on tyrosine-derived polyarylates with that of polylactic acid (PLLA) in their original state and after processing (i.e. undrawn and drawn forms). Two polyarylates having distinct molecular structures were chosen. Strictly, amorphous poly(DTE adipate), denoted as poly(DT 2,4), and poly(DTD) dodecandioate, denoted as poly(DT 12,10), having a more complex, non-crystalline organization, were compared with semi-crystalline PLLA. The degree of shrinkage, thermal characterization, air-water contact angle and surface morphology were determined for each polymer in its undrawn and drawn states. Poly(DT 2,4) and PLLA after processing resulted in greater shrinkage and a slight decrease in hydrophilicity whereas poly(DT 12,10) had minimal shrinkage and became slightly more hydrophilic in its drawn state. Surface morphology or roughness was also altered by processing. In turn, the rate of cell growth and overall cell numbers were reduced significantly on drawn forms of poly(DT 2,4) and PLLA, whereas more favorable growth rates were supported on drawn poly(DT 12,10). These findings indicate that processing effects in amorphous as well as oriented polymeric structures can significantly alter their biological performance.

  18. Building on prior knowledge: schema-dependent encoding processes relate to academic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kesteren, Marlieke T R; Rijpkema, Mark; Ruiter, Dirk J; Morris, Richard G M; Fernández, Guillén

    2014-10-01

    The acquisition and retention of conceptual knowledge is more effective in well-structured curricula that provide an optimal conceptual framework for learning new material. However, the neural mechanisms by which preexisting conceptual schemas facilitate learning are not yet well understood despite their fundamental importance. A preexisting schema has been shown to enhance memory by influencing the balance between activity within the medial-temporal lobe and the medial pFC during mnemonic processes such as encoding, consolidation, and retrieval. Specifically, correctly encoding and retrieving information that is related to preexisting schemas appears rather related to medial prefrontal processing, whereas information unrelated or inconsistent with preexisting schemas rather relates to enhanced medial temporal processing and enhanced interaction between these structures. To further investigate interactions between these regions during conceptual encoding in a real-world university setting, we probed human brain activity and connectivity using fMRI during educationally relevant conceptual encoding carefully embedded within two course programs. Early second-year undergraduate biology and education students were scanned while encoding new facts that were either related or unrelated to the preexisting conceptual knowledge they had acquired during their first year of study. Subsequently, they were tested on their knowledge of these facts 24 hr later. Memory scores were better for course-related information, and this enhancement was associated with larger medial-prefrontal, but smaller medial-temporal subsequent memory effects. These activity differences went along with decreased functional interactions between these regions. Furthermore, schema-related medial-prefrontal subsequent memory effects measured during this experiment were found to be predictive of second-year course performance. These results, obtained in a real-world university setting, reveal brain

  19. Awareness of Knowledge or Awareness of Processing? Implications for Sleep-Related Memory Consolidation

    OpenAIRE

    Yordanova, Juliana; Kolev, Vasil; Verleger, Rolf

    2009-01-01

    The present study assessed the effects of awareness at encoding on off-line learning during sleep. A new framework is suggested according to which two aspects of awareness are distinguished: awareness of task information, and awareness of task processing. The number reduction task (NRT) was employed because it has two levels of organization, an overt one based on explicit knowledge of task instructions, and a covert one based on hidden abstract regularities of task structure (implicit knowled...

  20. Facilitating Work Based Learning Projects: A Business Process Oriented Knowledge Management Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Miao, Yongwu; Sloep, Peter; Koper, Rob

    2009-01-01

    Miao, Y., Sloep, P. B., & Koper, R. (2010). Facilitating Work Based Learning Projects: A Business Process Oriented Knowledge Management Approach. In D. Griffiths & R. Koper (Eds.), Rethinking Learning and Employment at a Time of Economic Uncertainty. Proceedings of the 6th TENCompetence Open workshop (pp. 22-33). November, 19-20, 2009, Manchester, UK. Bolton, UK: Institute for Educational Cybernetics, The University of Bolton. For the complete book please see http://hdl.handle.net/1820/3191

  1. Designing a Model for Knowledge Socialization Using Sociability Processes of Human Resource Management: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Rezaei, K.; Babaei, M.

    2017-01-01

    This study develops a model for knowledge socialization using sociability processes of human resources through an applied research approach. Two types of participants participated in this study. The first type included academic and industrial experts; the second type included employees and managers of Ansar Bank. Ten experts were asked to identify criteria and weigh the identified criteria. Using simple random sampling, the sample size was estimated at 207. Field and archival studies were use...

  2. The pursuit of understanding: A study of exemplary high school students' conceptions of knowledge validation in science and history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boix Mansilla, Veronica Maria

    The study presented examined 16 award-winning high school students' beliefs about the criteria by which scientific theories and historical narratives are deemed trustworthy. It sought to (a) describe such beliefs as students reasoned within each discipline; (b) examine the degree to which such beliefs were organized as coherent systems of thought; and (c) explore the relationship between students' beliefs and their prior disciplinary research experience. Students were multiple-year award-winners at the Massachusetts Science Fair and the National History Day---two pre-collegiate State-level competitions. Two consecutive semi-structured interviews invited students to assess and enhance the trustworthiness of competing accounts of genetic inheritance and the Holocaust in science and history respectively. A combined qualitative and quantitative data analysis yielded the following results: (a) Students valued three standards of acceptability that were common across disciplines: e.g. empirical strength, explanatory power and formal and presentational strength. However, when reasoning within each discipline they tended to define each standard in disciplinary-specific ways. Students also valued standards of acceptability that were not shared across disciplines: i.e., external validity in science and human understanding in history. (b) In science, three distinct epistemological orientations were identified---i.e., "faith in method," "trusting the scientific community" and "working against error." In history students held two distinct epistemologies---i.e., "reproducing the past" and "organizing the past". Students' epistemological orientations tended to operate as collections of mutually supporting ideas about what renders a theory or a narrative acceptable. (c) Contrary to the standard position to date in the literature on epistemological beliefs, results revealed that students' research training in a particular discipline (e.g., science or history) was strongly related to

  3. The fascinating early history of optics! Archaeological optics 2009: our knowledge of the early history of lenses, mirrors, and artificial eyes!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enoch, Jay M.

    2009-08-01

    The early history of optics and vision science (older term: physiological optics) is indeed fascinating. The earliest known true lenses have been found in "eyes" of Egyptian statues which contain superb, complex, and well-polished eye-lens units. The oldest ones known are dated circa 2575 BCE = BC, Dynasty IV, Old Kingdom. These eye-lens units induce a fascinating and powerful visual illusion, but they are just too good to have been the first lenses, or even the first lenses of this design! So saying, no earlier dateable lenses have been found in Egypt or elsewhere. Recently, at the Boston Museum of Fine Arts, the writer noted a previously undetected lens in this series (a first in the Western Hemisphere). Oddly, dateable simpler magnifying lenses and burning glasses seem to have appeared later in time (?)! Manufactured mirrors are quite a bit older, dating from circa 6000 BCE in atal Hyk, located in south-central modern-day Turkey. Using these ancient mirrors, the image quality obtained is remarkable! Recently discovered ancient artificial eyes, located, in situ, in exhumed corpses, have been dated circa 3000 BCE (one discovered in Iran) 5000 BCE (one found in Spain). On the 3000 BCE artificial eye, there are drawn light rays (the writer believes these to be the oldest known depiction of light rays!) spreading out from (or passing into) the iris/ pupil border! Added interesting aspects associated with the early development of light-rays are considered. Thus, early optics can be readily traced back to the Neolithic era (the new stone age), and in some cases before that time period. We have deep roots indeed!

  4. SUPER LEARNING: PROPITIATORS STRATEGIES OF A PROCESS OF PICK UP OF KNOWLEDGE IN FORM ACCELERATED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilma Álamo Sánchez

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available To analyze the strategies of reception of knowledge in quick form and the definition of derivative thought processes of the learning transpersonal, it implies the development of investigations that you/they allow to capture the meaning of the application of Superaprendizaje strategies. This way, the study is based in the neuroscience and in the pattern of the mental spheres for the interpretation of the metabolic activities of the neurons, propitiators of the recording of information, the conception of the brain triuno, model of multiple intelligence, spirituality, personality, cognitive processes, intuition, meditation, and Superaprendizaje strategies: breathing, relaxation, music, aroma, and communication assertive conscience, they conform learning transpersonal.

  5. "Tacit Knowledge" versus "Explicit Knowledge"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanchez, Ron

    creators and carriers. By contrast, the explicit knowledge approach emphasizes processes for articulating knowledge held by individuals, the design of organizational approaches for creating new knowledge, and the development of systems (including information systems) to disseminate articulated knowledge...

  6. Norbert Elias's motion pictures: history, cinema and gestures in the process of civilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algazi, Gadi

    2008-09-01

    Norbert Elias's project in The process of civilization (1939) involved reconstructing invisible movement--both the slow tempoof long-term historical change and the modification of psychic structures and embodied dispositions. To do this, he resorted to uncommon devices: treating historical texts as constituting a series amenable to a rudimentary discourse analysis, he constructed an imagined 'curve of civilization' serving as an approximation of the hidden process of change. Elias's curve was not supposed to represent single past states, but movement itself, its direction and pace. This novel concept of historical representation was related to the perception of cinema as a new medium making actual movement visible. But beyond making it possible to imagine how one could telescope long-term historical process, cinema also held the promise of serving as a microscope, making the minute movements of the human body, gestures and manners available for close inspection. While anthropologists were devising ways of using the new medium to document fleeting gestures and bodily postures, it was used by popular audiences as a source for remodelling behaviour and acquiring polite manners and body techniques, as noticed by such acute observers as Marcel Mauss and Joseph Roth. Hence, popular appropriation of the cinema gave rise to a heightened awareness of the historicity of gestures and the changing modalities of their transmission. Cinema was itself part of the accelerated motion of history, of a perceived change of pace in the process of civilization, which in its turn shed light on its historical antecedents and played an essential role in rethinking the notion of civilization and culture.

  7. Advergaming: Application of Knowledge in the Process of the Competitive Advantage Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Mráček

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the article: The paper is involved in the utilization of the knowledge in the process of the competitive advantage improvement by means of the perspective marketing tool - advergaming. The objective of the article is the informing on the possibilities of the use of the knowledge in the field of the advergaming as the possible tool in the marketing communication, leading to the improvement of the competitive advantage of the companies. Scientific aim: Research objective was to identify how knowledge management is used in the Czech companies with respect to their size. Specific aspect of our research was an influence of knowledge management on a decision making process. On the base of results we have identified the requirement of usage of knowledge management in the area of advertgaming. We argue that this is a possible approach improving competitiveness of companies. Methodology/methods: Data for this paper are the data from the research carried out in the Czech companies. This survey focuses on the share of the application of the knowledge management in surveyed companies. 265 companies from the whole Czech Republic, various segments and industries, starting with the tourism, building industry, hotel industry, transport and ending with the manufacturing and distribution of the detergents and the distribution of the medical materials, were involved in the research. The companies were selected randomly. The necessary data were collected from the total number of 265 companies by means of the questionnaire research, and in certain cases the structured interview was used. The synthesis from the individual parts was made, on the basis of which the following conclusions were based. Findings: The paper identifies the method of the use of the knowledge in the advergaming as a possible starting point for the potential model of the utilization of the knowledge in the marketing communication. Conclusions: (limits, implications

  8. Consultant-Client Relationship and Knowledge Transfer in Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises Change Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Luis F; Ferreira, Aristides I; Can, Amina B

    2016-04-01

    Based on Szulanski's knowledge transfer model, this study examined how the communicational, motivational, and sharing of understanding variables influenced knowledge transfer and change processes in small- and medium-sized enterprises, particularly under projects developed by funded programs. The sample comprised 144 entrepreneurs, mostly male (65.3%) and mostly ages 35 to 45 years (40.3%), who filled an online questionnaire measuring the variables of "sharing of understanding," "motivation," "communication encoding competencies," "source credibility," "knowledge transfer," and "organizational change." Data were collected between 2011 and 2012 and measured the relationship between clients and consultants working in a Portuguese small- and medium-sized enterprise-oriented action learning program. To test the hypotheses, structural equation modeling was conducted to identify the antecedents of sharing of understanding, motivational, and communicational variables, which were positively correlated with the knowledge transfer between consultants and clients. This transfer was also positively correlated with organizational change. Overall, the study provides important considerations for practitioners and academicians and establishes new avenues for future studies concerning the issues of consultant-client relationship and the efficacy of Government-funded programs designed to improve performance of small- and medium-sized enterprises. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. A protocol for a systematic review of the use of process evaluations in knowledge translation research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Shannon D; Rotter, Thomas; Hartling, Lisa; Chambers, Thane; Bannar-Martin, Katherine H

    2014-12-23

    Experimental designs for evaluating knowledge translation (KT) interventions for professional behavior change can provide strong estimates of intervention effectiveness but offer limited insight how the intervention worked or not. Furthermore, trials provide little insight into the ways through which interventions lead to behavior change and how they are moderated by different facilitators and barriers. As a result, the ability to generalize the findings from one study to a different context, organization, or clinical problem is severely compromised. Consequently, researchers have started to explore the causal mechanisms in complementary studies (process evaluations) alongside experimental designs for evaluating KT interventions. This study focuses on improving process evaluations by synthesizing current evidence on process evaluations conducted alongside experimental designs for evaluating KT interventions. A medical research librarian will develop and implement search strategies designed to identify evidence that is relevant to process evaluations in health research. Studies will not be excluded based on design. Included studies must contain a process evaluation component aimed at understanding or evaluating a KT intervention targeting professional behavior change. Two reviewers will perform study selection, quality assessment, and data extraction using standard forms. Disagreements will be resolved through discussion or third party adjudication. Data to be collected include study design, details about data collection approaches and types, theoretical influences, approaches to evaluate intervention dose delivered, intervention dose received, intervention fidelity, intervention reach, data analysis, and study outcomes. This study is not registered with PROSPERO. There is widespread acceptance that the generalizability of quantitative trials of KT interventions would be significantly enhanced to other contexts, health professional groups, and clinical conditions

  10. A knowledge acquisition process to analyse operational problems in solid waste management facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokas, Ioannis M; Panagiotakopoulos, Demetrios C

    2006-08-01

    The available expertise on managing and operating solid waste management (SWM) facilities varies among countries and among types of facilities. Few experts are willing to record their experience, while few researchers systematically investigate the chains of events that could trigger operational failures in a facility; expertise acquisition and dissemination, in SWM, is neither popular nor easy, despite the great need for it. This paper presents a knowledge acquisition process aimed at capturing, codifying and expanding reliable expertise and propagating it to non-experts. The knowledge engineer (KE), the person performing the acquisition, must identify the events (or causes) that could trigger a failure, determine whether a specific event could trigger more than one failure, and establish how various events are related among themselves and how they are linked to specific operational problems. The proposed process, which utilizes logic diagrams (fault trees) widely used in system safety and reliability analyses, was used for the analysis of 24 common landfill operational problems. The acquired knowledge led to the development of a web-based expert system (Landfill Operation Management Advisor, http://loma.civil.duth.gr), which estimates the occurrence possibility of operational problems, provides advice and suggests solutions.

  11. Understanding knowledge transfer in an ergonomics intervention at a poultry processing plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antle, David M; MacKinnon, Scott N; Molgaard, John; Vézina, Nicole; Parent, Robert; Bornstein, Stephen; Leclerc, Louise

    2011-01-01

    This case study reviews the knowledge transfer (KT) process of implementing a knife sharpening and steeling program into a poultry processing plant via a participatory ergonomics intervention. This ergonomics intervention required stakeholder participation at the company level to move a 'train-the-trainer' program, developed in Québec, Canada, into action on the plant's deboning line. Communications and exchanges with key stakeholders, as well as changes in steeling and production behaviours were recorded. The intervention was assumed to be at least partially successful because positive changes in work operations occurred. Ergonomic-related changes such as those documented have been cited in the academic literature as beneficial to worker health. However, several components cited in literature that are associated with a successful participatory ergonomics intervention were not attained during the project. A Dynamic Knowledge Transfer Model was used to identify KT issues that impacted on the success of train-the-trainer program. A debriefing analysis reveals that a failure to consider key participatory ergonomics factors necessary for success were related to capacity deficits in the knowledge dissemination strategy.

  12. Designing a Model for Knowledge Socialization Using Sociability Processes of Human Resource Management: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Rezaei

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study develops a model for knowledge socialization using sociability processes of human resources through an applied research approach. Two types of participants participated in this study. The first type included academic and industrial experts; the second type included employees and managers of Ansar Bank. Ten experts were asked to identify criteria and weigh the identified criteria. Using simple random sampling, the sample size was estimated at 207. Field and archival studies were used to collect data. Validity and reliability of the distributed questionnaire were confirmed by organizational experts. Using theoretical literature and surveying experts, 18 criteria were identified of which 12 criteria (desirable and joyful workplace, management and leadership support in sociability process, training courses, transparency in working relations, team work, organizational trustful climate, job description and job knowledge, tangible incentives, participatory system, informal technique, defined career path, individual values aligned with organizational value were selected by screening for prioritization and analysis. Fuzzy AHP and structural equation modelling based on partial least squares were used for prioritization and weighting. Fuzzy AHP model showed that desirable workplace (0.163, participatory systems and brainstorming (0.149, transparency in working relations (0.114, and informal techniques (0.111 gained the highest weights; finally, PLS model showed that all 12 identified criteria were effective on socialization of knowledge management.

  13. Vocabulary Knowledge Predicts Lexical Processing: Evidence from a Group of Participants with Diverse Educational Backgrounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Mainz

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Vocabulary knowledge is central to a speaker's command of their language. In previous research, greater vocabulary knowledge has been associated with advantages in language processing. In this study, we examined the relationship between individual differences in vocabulary and language processing performance more closely by (i using a battery of vocabulary tests instead of just one test, and (ii testing not only university students (Experiment 1 but young adults from a broader range of educational backgrounds (Experiment 2. Five vocabulary tests were developed, including multiple-choice and open antonym and synonym tests and a definition test, and administered together with two established measures of vocabulary. Language processing performance was measured using a lexical decision task. In Experiment 1, vocabulary and word frequency were found to predict word recognition speed while we did not observe an interaction between the effects. In Experiment 2, word recognition performance was predicted by word frequency and the interaction between word frequency and vocabulary, with high-vocabulary individuals showing smaller frequency effects. While overall the individual vocabulary tests were correlated and showed similar relationships with language processing as compared to a composite measure of all tests, they appeared to share less variance in Experiment 2 than in Experiment 1. Implications of our findings concerning the assessment of vocabulary size in individual differences studies and the investigation of individuals from more varied backgrounds are discussed.

  14. Vocabulary Knowledge Predicts Lexical Processing: Evidence from a Group of Participants with Diverse Educational Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainz, Nina; Shao, Zeshu; Brysbaert, Marc; Meyer, Antje S.

    2017-01-01

    Vocabulary knowledge is central to a speaker's command of their language. In previous research, greater vocabulary knowledge has been associated with advantages in language processing. In this study, we examined the relationship between individual differences in vocabulary and language processing performance more closely by (i) using a battery of vocabulary tests instead of just one test, and (ii) testing not only university students (Experiment 1) but young adults from a broader range of educational backgrounds (Experiment 2). Five vocabulary tests were developed, including multiple-choice and open antonym and synonym tests and a definition test, and administered together with two established measures of vocabulary. Language processing performance was measured using a lexical decision task. In Experiment 1, vocabulary and word frequency were found to predict word recognition speed while we did not observe an interaction between the effects. In Experiment 2, word recognition performance was predicted by word frequency and the interaction between word frequency and vocabulary, with high-vocabulary individuals showing smaller frequency effects. While overall the individual vocabulary tests were correlated and showed similar relationships with language processing as compared to a composite measure of all tests, they appeared to share less variance in Experiment 2 than in Experiment 1. Implications of our findings concerning the assessment of vocabulary size in individual differences studies and the investigation of individuals from more varied backgrounds are discussed. PMID:28751871

  15. Didactical Reconstruction of Processes in Knowledge Construction: Pre-Service Physics Teachers Learning the Law of Electromagnetic Induction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantyla, Terhi

    2012-01-01

    In physics teacher education, two central goals are first to learn the structures of physics knowledge, and second the processes of its construction. To know the structure is to know the framework of concepts and laws; to know the processes is to know where the knowledge comes from, how the framework is constructed, and how it can be justified.…

  16. SUCCESSION PROCESS IN A FAMILY BUSINESS: KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT OVERCOMING RESISTANCE TO ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia de Sá Freire

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the perception of a family business’ employees over changes brought about by the company’s succession procsess through the identification of existing problems and the probabilities of overcoming them. The company was classified as a family business organization as per Bernhoeft´s (1991 definition, and the perspectives proposed by Motta (2001 were used as a basis for change analysis. The succession challenges were studied through the knowledge management viewpoint. The methodological approach is characterized as a qualitative descriptive study done through interviews and document analysis. Quantitative data was used, with the application of questionnaires in order to obtain primary data. Data analysis is mainly characterized by its qualitative and descriptive content. After data analysis, the following issues were detected: (1 lack of or inneficient internal communication, (2 the decision making process was either slow or not committed to the desired results and (3 there was either dual leadership or no leadership. It was concluded that in order to achieve the objectives of the changes, it would require a new look into the intraorganizational integration to eliminate features of the family business such as lack of dialogue and unilateral decisions. It is finally suggested the use of strategies for sharing information and knowledge that will pave the way for understanding the entire succession process, overcoming uncertainties and individual resistance. Thus, the inclusion of Knowledge Management in the family business succession process will result in more aware leaders, managers and employees in terms of change of power during the mentioned process.

  17. Incorporating Semantic Knowledge into Dynamic Data Processing for Smart Power Grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Qunzhi; Simmhan, Yogesh; Prasanna, Viktor

    2012-11-15

    Semantic Web allows us to model and query time-invariant or slowly evolving knowledge using ontologies. Emerging applications in Cyber Physical Systems such as Smart Power Grids that require continuous information monitoring and integration present novel opportunities and challenges for Semantic Web technologies. Semantic Web is promising to model diverse Smart Grid domain knowledge for enhanced situation awareness and response by multi-disciplinary participants. However, current technology does pose a performance overhead for dynamic analysis of sensor measurements. In this paper, we combine semantic web and complex event processing for stream based semantic querying. We illustrate its adoption in the USC Campus Micro-Grid for detecting and enacting dynamic response strategies to peak power situations by diverse user roles. We also describe the semantic ontology and event query model that supports this. Further, we introduce and evaluate caching techniques to improve the response time for semantic event queries to meet our application needs and enable sustainable energy management.

  18. "Making History Go" at a Local Community Center: Popular Media and the Construction of Historical Knowledge among African American Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriadis, Greg

    2000-01-01

    Looks at how young people use historical knowledge, gained from media sources, to deal with current situations. A group of young African Americans draw on behavioral examples from the film, "Panther," instead of school-based learning, to give them ways to deal with the Ku Klux Klan in their neighborhood. (DAJ)

  19. Learning to hunt Crocodiles: social organization in the process of knowledge generation and the emergence of management practices among Mayan of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamudio, Fernando; Bello-Baltazar, Eduardo; Estrada-Lugo, Erin I J

    2013-05-24

    New kinds of knowledge, usage patterns and management strategies of natural resources emerge in local communities as a way of coping with uncertainty in a changing world. Studying how human groups adapt and create new livelihoods strategies are important research topics for creating policies in natural resources management. Here, we study the adoption and development of lagartos (Crocodylus moreletii) commercial hunting by Mayan people from a communal land in Quintana Roo state. Two questions guided our work: how did the Mayan learn to hunt lagartos? And how, and in what context, did knowledge and management practices emerge? We believe that social structures, knowledge and preexisting skills facilitate the hunting learning process, but lagarto ecological knowledge and organizational practice were developed in a "learning by doing" process. We conducted free, semi-structured and in-depth interviews over 17 prestigious lagartos hunters who reconstructed the activity through oral history. Then, we analyzed the sources of information and routes of learning and investigated the role of previous knowledge and social organization in the development of this novel activity. Finally, we discussed the emergence of hunting in relation to the characteristic of natural resource and the tenure system. Lagarto hunting for skin selling was a short-term activity, which represented an alternative source of money for some Mayans known as lagarteros. They acquired different types of knowledge and skills through various sources of experience (individual practice, or from foreign hunters and other Mayan hunters). The developed management system involved a set of local knowledge about lagartos ecology and a social organization structure that was then articulated in the formation of "working groups" with particular hunting locations (rumbos and trabajaderos), rotation strategies and collaboration among them. Access rules and regulations identified were in an incipient state of development

  20. Predictive Method for Correct Identification of Archaeological Charred Grape Seeds: Support for Advances in Knowledge of Grape Domestication Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ucchesu, Mariano; Orrù, Martino; Grillo, Oscar; Venora, Gianfranco; Paglietti, Giacomo; Ardu, Andrea; Bacchetta, Gianluigi

    2016-01-01

    The identification of archaeological charred grape seeds is a difficult task due to the alteration of the morphological seeds shape. In archaeobotanical studies, for the correct discrimination between Vitis vinifera subsp. sylvestris and Vitis vinifera subsp. vinifera grape seeds it is very important to understand the history and origin of the domesticated grapevine. In this work, different carbonisation experiments were carried out using a hearth to reproduce the same burning conditions that occurred in archaeological contexts. In addition, several carbonisation trials on modern wild and cultivated grape seeds were performed using a muffle furnace. For comparison with archaeological materials, modern grape seed samples were obtained using seven different temperatures of carbonisation ranging between 180 and 340ºC for 120 min. Analysing the grape seed size and shape by computer vision techniques, and applying the stepwise linear discriminant analysis (LDA) method, discrimination of the wild from the cultivated charred grape seeds was possible. An overall correct classification of 93.3% was achieved. Applying the same statistical procedure to compare modern charred with archaeological grape seeds, found in Sardinia and dating back to the Early Bronze Age (2017–1751 2σ cal. BC), allowed 75.0% of the cases to be identified as wild grape. The proposed method proved to be a useful and effective procedure in identifying, with high accuracy, the charred grape seeds found in archaeological sites. Moreover, it may be considered valid support for advances in the knowledge and comprehension of viticulture adoption and the grape domestication process. The same methodology may also be successful when applied to other plant remains, and provide important information about the history of domesticated plants. PMID:26901361

  1. Linking children's neuropsychological processing of emotion with their knowledge of emotion expression regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watling, Dawn; Bourne, Victoria J

    2007-09-01

    Understanding of emotions has been shown to develop between the ages of 4 and 10 years; however, individual differences exist in this development. While previous research has typically examined these differences in terms of developmental and/or social factors, little research has considered the possible impact of neuropsychological development on the behavioural understanding of emotions. Emotion processing tends to be lateralised to the right hemisphere of the brain in adults, yet this pattern is not as evident in children until around the age of 10 years. In this study 136 children between 5 and 10 years were given both behavioural and neuropsychological tests of emotion processing. The behavioural task examined expression regulation knowledge (ERK) for prosocial and self-presentational hypothetical interactions. The chimeric faces test was given as a measure of lateralisation for processing positive facial emotion. An interaction between age and lateralisation for emotion processing was predictive of children's ERK for only the self-presentational interactions. The relationships between children's ERK and lateralisation for emotion processing changes across the three age groups, emerging as a positive relationship in the 10-year-olds. The 10-years-olds who were more lateralised to the right hemisphere for emotion processing tended to show greater understanding of the need for regulating negative emotions during interactions that would have a self-presentational motivation. This finding suggests an association between the behavioural and neuropsychological development of emotion processing.

  2. Mechanisms of self-organized criticality in social processes of knowledge creation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadić, Bosiljka; Dankulov, Marija Mitrović; Melnik, Roderick

    2017-09-01

    In online social dynamics, a robust scale invariance appears as a key feature of collaborative efforts that lead to new social value. The underlying empirical data thus offers a unique opportunity to study the origin of self-organized criticality (SOC) in social systems. In contrast to physical systems in the laboratory, various human attributes of the actors play an essential role in the process along with the contents (cognitive, emotional) of the communicated artifacts. As a prototypical example, we consider the social endeavor of knowledge creation via Questions and Answers (Q&A). Using a large empirical data set from one of such Q&A sites and theoretical modeling, we reveal fundamental characteristics of SOC by investigating the temporal correlations at all scales and the role of cognitive contents to the avalanches of the knowledge-creation process. Our analysis shows that the universal social dynamics with power-law inhomogeneities of the actions and delay times provides the primary mechanism for self-tuning towards the critical state; it leads to the long-range correlations and the event clustering in response to the external driving by the arrival of new users. In addition, the involved cognitive contents (systematically annotated in the data and observed in the model) exert important constraints that identify unique classes of the knowledge-creation avalanches. Specifically, besides determining a fine structure of the developing knowledge networks, they affect the values of scaling exponents and the geometry of large avalanches and shape the multifractal spectrum. Furthermore, we find that the level of the activity of the communities that share the knowledge correlates with the fluctuations of the innovation rate, implying that the increase of innovation may serve as the active principle of self-organization. To identify relevant parameters and unravel the role of the network evolution underlying the process in the social system under consideration, we

  3. Mechanisms of self-organized criticality in social processes of knowledge creation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadić, Bosiljka; Dankulov, Marija Mitrović; Melnik, Roderick

    2017-09-01

    In online social dynamics, a robust scale invariance appears as a key feature of collaborative efforts that lead to new social value. The underlying empirical data thus offers a unique opportunity to study the origin of self-organized criticality (SOC) in social systems. In contrast to physical systems in the laboratory, various human attributes of the actors play an essential role in the process along with the contents (cognitive, emotional) of the communicated artifacts. As a prototypical example, we consider the social endeavor of knowledge creation via Questions and Answers (Q&A). Using a large empirical data set from one of such Q&A sites and theoretical modeling, we reveal fundamental characteristics of SOC by investigating the temporal correlations at all scales and the role of cognitive contents to the avalanches of the knowledge-creation process. Our analysis shows that the universal social dynamics with power-law inhomogeneities of the actions and delay times provides the primary mechanism for self-tuning towards the critical state; it leads to the long-range correlations and the event clustering in response to the external driving by the arrival of new users. In addition, the involved cognitive contents (systematically annotated in the data and observed in the model) exert important constraints that identify unique classes of the knowledge-creation avalanches. Specifically, besides determining a fine structure of the developing knowledge networks, they affect the values of scaling exponents and the geometry of large avalanches and shape the multifractal spectrum. Furthermore, we find that the level of the activity of the communities that share the knowledge correlates with the fluctuations of the innovation rate, implying that the increase of innovation may serve as the active principle of self-organization. To identify relevant parameters and unravel the role of the network evolution underlying the process in the social system under consideration, we

  4. Business Process Management – A Traditional Approach Versus a Knowledge Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Paiano

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The enterprise management represents a heterogeneous aggregate of both resources and assets that need to be coordinated and orchestrated in order to reach the goals related to the business mission. Influences and forces that may influence this process, and also for that they should be considered, are not concentrated in the business environment, but they are related to the entireoperational context of a company. For this reason, business processes must be the most versatile and flexible with respect to the changes that occur within the whole operational context of a company.Considering the supportive role that information systems play in favour of Business Process Management - BPM, it is also essential to implement a constant, continuous and quick mechanism for the information system alignment with respect to the evolution followed by business processes.In particular, such mechanism must intervene on BPM systems in order to keep them aligned and compliant with respect to both the context changes and the regulations. In order to facilitate this alignment mechanism, companies are already referring to the support offered by specific solutions, such as knowledge bases. In this context, a possible solution might be the approach we propose, which is based on a specific framework called Process Management System. Our methodology implements a knowledge base support for business experts, which is not limited to the BPM operating phases, but includes also the engineering and prototyping activities of the corresponding information system. This paper aims to compare and evaluate a traditional BPM approach with respect to theapproach we propose. In effect, such analysis aims to emphasize the lack of traditional methodology especially with respect to the alignment between business processes and information systems, along with their compliance with context domain and regulations.

  5. Knowledge management as a tool for improving business processes: an action research approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurora Martínez-Martínez

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study is to investigate the importance of Knowledge Management as a tool for improving business processes in a different context from the industrial organizations, as an archaeological museum. Design/methodology/approach: Using data collected from the National Museum of the Sultanate of Oman in Muscat, a methodology for analysis and improvement of processes (the Business Cycle Management Process, CMP is designed and validated. This application is described as an eight phases process based on Six Sigma DMAIC. The model has a characteristic "P" shape. Findings: As the results obtained by the process improvement initiative show, we highlight the relevance of the improvement in all aspects regarding the security in showcases in that context. Research limitations/implications: The complexity of implementing indicators and the partial vision of the project as data were only obtained from a part of one of the companies involved in the construction of the museum. An important implication of this paper is in order to present a methodology to improve the museum processes focusing on the reduction of errors and also adding value for the visitors. Practical implications: The relevance to intervene on certain relevant variables at different levels of management performance is verified. Social implications: Improving the quality of leisure services in order to the identification of certain challenges regarding the nature and competitiveness of cultural services. Originality/value: The current work has served as a repository of knowledge applicable to new similar projects, in which to take into account the peculiarities of each case and in particular the level of quality demanded by the client in a cultural context. It is important to take into account the degree of avoidable dissatisfaction (number of solvable problems that would lead to dissatisfaction, the opportunity for improvement, the reduction of operational waste and the need

  6. Chance: from metaphysical principle to explanatory concept. The idea of uncertainty in a natural history of knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morizot, Baptiste

    2012-09-01

    The term "chance" has been given varied and different meanings in the history of occidental thought, carrying metaphysical connotations and controversial power. Despite the obscurity implied by this polysemy, this term is still frequently used without undergoing the conceptual clarifications that could locate its precise meaning and its original function in a theory. Here I propose a brief genealogical draft of this term and of its conceptual forms, from Aristotle to Darwin, to demonstrate the necessity of specifying what function it is fulfilling in each precise theoretical framework, in order not to be overwhelmed by the wide spectrum of the word. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Traditional flat breads spread from the Fertile Crescent: Production process and history of baking systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Pasqualone

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The “flat” breads include a multitude of bread types different from each other but are always relatively thin, ranging from a few millimeters to a few centimeters in thickness. These breads, whose origin is very ancient, fit well into the context of a subsistence economy: i they can be obtained from cereals other than wheat, such as pseudocereals or legumes, allowing the use of sustainable local productions from marginal lands; ii they do not necessarily require an oven to be baked; iii they can serve as a dish and as a spoon/fork; iv they can be dehydrated by a second baking process, preventing the growth of molds and extending the shelf life; v they are transported with little encumbrance. These strong points make flat breads very popular, traditionally in Near East and Central Asia and also in some Mediterranean areas, in the Arabian Peninsula, and in the Indian subcontinent. By a multidisciplinary approach, this review gives an insight into the variety of traditional flat breads from the Fertile Crescent and related regions, classifying them on the basis of their production process. Moreover, the baking systems adopted to prepare flat breads are reviewed, such as vertical ovens (tannur and tabun and griddles (saj, whose structure, origin, history, and values are described in detail. This overview shows that these breads have survived until today because of their versatility. In fact, flat breads can be produced both in the same way as they were made thousands of years ago and in modern fully automatic industrial lines, allowing tradition to meet innovation. Keywords: Flat bread, Pancake-like bread, saj, tannur, Vertical oven

  8. How Knowledge of Ancient Egyptian Women Can Influence Today’s Gender Role: Does History Matter in Gender Psychology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Radwa; Moustafa, Ahmed A.; Moftah, Marie Z.; Karim, Ahmed A.

    2017-01-01

    A gender role is a set of societal norms dictating what types of behaviors are considered desirable or appropriate for a person based on their sex. However, socially constructed gender roles can lead to equal rights between genders but also to severe disadvantages and discrimination with a remarkable variety between different countries. Based on social indicators and gender statistics, “women in the Arab region are on average more disadvantaged economically, politically, and socially than women in other regions.” According to Banduras’ social learning theory, we argue that profound knowledge of the historical contributions of Ancient Egyptian female pioneers in science, arts, and even in ruling Egypt as Pharaohs can improve today’s gender role in Egypt and Middle Eastern countries. Therefore, this article provides an elaborate review of the gender role of women in Ancient Egypt, outlining their prominence, influence, and admiration in ancient societies, and discusses the possible psychological impact of this knowledge on today’s gender role. We suggest that future empirical research should investigate how enhancing the knowledge of women from Ancient Egypt can improve today’s gender role in Egypt and the Middle East. Bandura’s social learning theory is outlined as a possible framework for future research. PMID:28105022

  9. How Knowledge of Ancient Egyptian Women Can Influence Today's Gender Role: Does History Matter in Gender Psychology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Radwa; Moustafa, Ahmed A; Moftah, Marie Z; Karim, Ahmed A

    2016-01-01

    A gender role is a set of societal norms dictating what types of behaviors are considered desirable or appropriate for a person based on their sex. However, socially constructed gender roles can lead to equal rights between genders but also to severe disadvantages and discrimination with a remarkable variety between different countries. Based on social indicators and gender statistics, "women in the Arab region are on average more disadvantaged economically, politically, and socially than women in other regions." According to Banduras' social learning theory, we argue that profound knowledge of the historical contributions of Ancient Egyptian female pioneers in science, arts, and even in ruling Egypt as Pharaohs can improve today's gender role in Egypt and Middle Eastern countries. Therefore, this article provides an elaborate review of the gender role of women in Ancient Egypt, outlining their prominence, influence, and admiration in ancient societies, and discusses the possible psychological impact of this knowledge on today's gender role. We suggest that future empirical research should investigate how enhancing the knowledge of women from Ancient Egypt can improve today's gender role in Egypt and the Middle East. Bandura's social learning theory is outlined as a possible framework for future research.

  10. KNOWLEDGE ENGINEERING TO AID THE RECRUITMENT PROCESS OF AN INDUSTRY BY IDENTIFYING SUPERIOR SELECTION CRITERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Sivaram

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recruitment of the most appropriate employees and their retention are the immense challenges for the HR department of most of the industries. Every year IT companies recruit fresh graduates through their campus selection programs. Usually industries examine the skills of the candidate by conducting tests, group discussion and number of interviews. This process requires enormous amount of effort and investment. During each phase of the recruitment process, candidates are filtered based on some performance criteria. The problem domain is complex and the aspects of candidates that impact the recruitment process is not explicit. The intelligence of the recruitment process is spread among the domain experts and extracted through knowledge acquisition techniques. This research focuses on investigating the underlying criteria and tries to capitalize on the existing patterns, to minimize the effort made during the recruitment process. The approach here is to provide the insights through in-depth empirical characterization and evaluation of decision trees for the recruitment problem domain. Experiments were conducted with the data collected from an IT industry to support their hiring decisions. Pruned and unpruned trees were constructed using ID3, C4.5 and CART algorithms. It was observed that the performance of the C4.5 algorithm is high. The recruitment process differs for each industry based on the nature of the projects carried out. Experiments were conducted to determine the attributes that best fits the problem domain. Using the constructed decision trees discussions were made with the domain experts to deduce viable decision rules.

  11. Tell Me Why! Content Knowledge Predicts Process-Orientation of Math Researchers' and Math Teachers' Explanations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachner, Andreas; Nückles, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    In two studies, we investigated the impact of instructors' different knowledge bases on the quality of their instructional explanations. In Study 1, we asked 20 mathematics teachers (with high pedagogical content knowledge, but lower content knowledge) and 15 mathematicians (with lower pedagogical content knowledge, but high content knowledge) to…

  12. Adolescent fathers: knowledge of and involvement in the breast feeding process in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres de Lacerda, Ana Catarina; Lucena de Vasconcelos, Maria Gorete; Nascimento de Alencar, Eloine; Osório, Mônica Maria; Pontes, Cleide Maria

    2014-03-01

    to understand the ways in which adolescent fathers participate in the breast feeding process in the family environment in North-eastern Brazil. a descriptive, exploratory, qualitative study was undertaken involving 10 couples with infants aged 6-8 months living in a single community in Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews with questions to guide the interviewer. Data were analysed using thematic content analysis, and interpreted under the theoretical reference of being an adolescent father within the context of breast feeding. from the data collected, three themes were identified: knowledge of the benefits of breast feeding for the child's health; discontinued participation of the father in breast feeding during the pregnancy-childbearing cycle; and exclusion of the adolescent father from the breast feeding process. The adolescent fathers knew about the benefits of breast feeding in terms of the child's health, but did not mention benefits for the mother, the family or society. For some adolescent fathers, their participation in the breast feeding process started during pregnancy, whereas for others, it was only initiated after the infant was born. One of the fathers was prevented, by his wife and mother-in-law, from participating in the breast feeding process. the involvement of adolescent fathers in the breast feeding process oscillated during the pregnancy-childbearing cycle. This may be due to the patriarchal cultural heritage, Brazilian paternity laws, and the fact that these fathers were adolescents. This study showed that adolescent parents were knowledgeable about breast feeding. Finally, fathers want a new model of parenting in which the man participates in child care. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A European Perspective on Auditory Processing Disorder-Current Knowledge and Future Research Focus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliki (Vivian Iliadou

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Current notions of “hearing impairment,” as reflected in clinical audiological practice, do not acknowledge the needs of individuals who have normal hearing pure tone sensitivity but who experience auditory processing difficulties in everyday life that are indexed by reduced performance in other more sophisticated audiometric tests such as speech audiometry in noise or complex non-speech sound perception. This disorder, defined as “Auditory Processing Disorder” (APD or “Central Auditory Processing Disorder” is classified in the current tenth version of the International Classification of diseases as H93.25 and in the forthcoming beta eleventh version. APDs may have detrimental effects on the affected individual, with low esteem, anxiety, and depression, and symptoms may remain into adulthood. These disorders may interfere with learning per se and with communication, social, emotional, and academic-work aspects of life. The objective of the present paper is to define a baseline European APD consensus formulated by experienced clinicians and researchers in this specific field of human auditory science. A secondary aim is to identify issues that future research needs to address in order to further clarify the nature of APD and thus assist in optimum diagnosis and evidence-based management. This European consensus presents the main symptoms, conditions, and specific medical history elements that should lead to auditory processing evaluation. Consensus on definition of the disorder, optimum diagnostic pathway, and appropriate management are highlighted alongside a perspective on future research focus.

  14. Knowledge mobilized by a critical thinking process deployed by nursing students in practical care situations: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechasseur, Kathleen; Lazure, Ginette; Guilbert, Louise

    2011-09-01

    This paper is a report of a qualitative study of mobilization of knowledge within the critical thinking process deployed by female undergraduate nursing students in practical care situations. Holistic practice is based on variety of knowledge mobilized by a critical thinking process. Novices and, more specifically, students experience many difficulties in this regard. Therefore, a better understanding of the knowledge they mobilize in their practice is important for nurse educators. A qualitative study, guided by grounded theory, was carried out. Sixteen nursing students, registered in an undergraduate programme in an Eastern Canadian university, were recruited. Descriptions of practical care situations were obtained through explicitation interviews in 2007. A sociodemographic questionnaire, semi-structured interviews and field notes were also used. Data were analysed using an approach based on grounded theory. An additional stage of analysis involved data condensation. Various types of knowledge guide nursing students' practice. These include intrapersonal, interpersonal, perceptual, moral/ethical, experiential, practical, scientific and contextual knowledge. The mobilization of these types of knowledge is only possible when the process of critical thinking has attained a higher level, giving rise to a new knowledge that we have termed combinational constructive knowledge rather than aesthetic knowledge. Clarification of the types of knowledge guiding the practice of student nurses and of the role of critical thinking in their mobilization could lead to innovative educational strategies. The findings provide guidance for the revision and development of both academic and clinical training programmes. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. A fuzzy mathematics model for radioactive waste characterization by process knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.; Stevens, S.; Elam, K.; Vrba, J.

    1994-01-01

    Fuzzy mathematics and fuzzy logic are means for making decisions that can integrate complicated combinations of hard and soft factors and produce mathematically validated results that can be independently verified. In this particular application, several sources of information regarding the waste stream have been compiled, including facility operating records, other waste generated from the facility in the past, laboratory analysis results, and interviews with facility personnel. A fuzzy mathematics model is used to interrelate these various sources of information and arrive at a defensible estimate of the contaminant concentration in the final waste product. The model accounts for the separate process knowledge-based contaminant concentrations by providing a weighted averaging technique to incorporate information from the various sources. Reliability estimates are provided for each of the component pieces of information and combined using the model into an estimate that provides a near-probabilistic value for contaminant concentration. The speadsheet accounts for the estimated uncertainty in the concentration on the basis of open-quotes reliability curves,close quotes which are derived from personal process knowledge as well as limited independent measurements

  16. Identification of parametric models with a priori knowledge of process properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janiszowski Krzysztof B.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An approach to estimation of a parametric discrete-time model of a process in the case of some a priori knowledge of the investigated process properties is presented. The knowledge of plant properties is introduced in the form of linear bounds, which can be determined for the coefficient vector of the parametric model studied. The approach yields special biased estimation of model coefficients that preserves demanded properties. A formula for estimation of the model coefficients is derived and combined with a recursive scheme determined for minimization of the sum of absolute model errors. The estimation problem of a model with known static gains of inputs is discussed and proper formulas are derived. This approach can overcome the non-identifiability problem which has been observed during estimation based on measurements recorded in industrial closed-loop control systems. The application of the proposed approach to estimation of a model for an industrial plant (a water injector into the steam flow in a power plant is presented and discussed.

  17. The acknowledge project: toward improved efficiency in the knowledge acquisition process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marty, J.C.; Ramparany, F.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents a general overview of the ACKnowledge Project (Acquisition of Knowledge). Knowledge Acquisition is a critical and time-consuming phase in the development of expert systems. The ACKnowledge project aims at improving the efficiency of knowledge acquisition by analyzing and evaluating knowledge acquisition techniques, and developing a Knowledge Engineering Workbench that supports the Knowledge Engineer from the early stage of knowledge aquisition up to the implementation of the knowledge base in large and complex application domains such as the diagnosis of dynamic computer networks

  18. Whose Knowledge, Whose Values? The Contribution of Local Knowledge to Education Policy Processes: A Case Study of Research Development Initiatives in the Small State of Saint Lucia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Keith; Crossley, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This paper draws upon a case study of education in the small Caribbean state of Saint Lucia (population 154,000) to examine how local knowledge and values can influence the education policy process. It is argued that recent research development initiatives have strengthened the ability of Saint Lucia to mediate international education agendas to…

  19. Effect of power history on the shape and the thermal stress of a large sapphire crystal during the Kyropoulos process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tran Phu; Chuang, Hsiao-Tsun; Chen, Jyh-Chen; Hu, Chieh

    2018-02-01

    In this study, the effect of the power history on the shape of a sapphire crystal and the thermal stress during the Kyropoulos process are numerically investigated. The simulation results show that the thermal stress is strongly dependent on the power history. The thermal stress distributions in the crystal for all growth stages produced with different power histories are also studied. The results show that high von Mises stress regions are found close to the seed of the crystal, the highly curved crystal surface and the crystal-melt interface. The maximum thermal stress, which occurs at the crystal-melt interface, increases significantly in value as the crystal expands at the crown. After this, there is reduction in the maximum thermal stress as the crystal lengthens. There is a remarkable enhancement in the maximum von Mises stress when the crystal-melt interface is close to the bottom of the crucible. There are two obvious peaks in the maximum Von Mises stress, at the end of the crown stage and in the final stage, when cracking defects can form. To alleviate this problem, different power histories are considered in order to optimize the process to produce the lowest thermal stress in the crystal. The optimal power history is found to produce a significant reduction in the thermal stress in the crown stage.

  20. The rotation and fracture history of Europa from modeling of tidal-tectonic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoden, Alyssa Rose

    Europa's surface displays a complex history of tectonic activity, much of which has been linked to tidal stress caused by Europa's eccentric orbit and possibly non-synchronous rotation of the ice shell. Cycloids are arcuate features thought to have formed in response to tidal normal stress while strike-slip motion along preexisting faults has been attributed to tidal shear stress. Tectonic features thus provide constraints on the rotational parameters that govern tidal stress, and can help us develop an understanding of the tidal-tectonic processes operating on ice covered ocean moons. In the first part of this work (Chapter 3), I test tidal models that include obliquity, fast precession, stress due to non-synchronous rotation (NSR), and physical libration by comparing how well each model reproduces observed cycloids. To do this, I have designed and implemented an automated parameter-searching algorithm that relies on a quantitative measure of fit quality to identify the best fits to observed cycloids. I apply statistical techniques to determine the tidal model best supported by the data and constrain the values of Europa's rotational parameters. Cycloids indicate a time-varying obliquity of about 1° and a physical libration in phase with the eccentricity libration, with amplitude >1°. To obtain good fits, cycloids must be translated in longitude, which implies non-synchronous rotation of the icy shell. However, stress from NSR is not well-supported, indicating that the rotation rate is slow enough that these stresses relax. I build upon the results of cycloid modeling in the second section by applying calculations of tidal stress that include obliquity to the formation of strike-slip faults. I predict the slip directions of faults with the standard formation model---tidal walking (Chapter 5)---and with a new mechanical model I have developed, called shell tectonics (Chapter 6). The shell tectonics model incorporates linear elasticity to determine slip and stress

  1. Parameter identification of process simulation models as a means for knowledge acquisition and technology transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batzias, Dimitris F.; Ifanti, Konstantina

    2012-12-01

    Process simulation models are usually empirical, therefore there is an inherent difficulty in serving as carriers for knowledge acquisition and technology transfer, since their parameters have no physical meaning to facilitate verification of the dependence on the production conditions; in such a case, a 'black box' regression model or a neural network might be used to simply connect input-output characteristics. In several cases, scientific/mechanismic models may be proved valid, in which case parameter identification is required to find out the independent/explanatory variables and parameters, which each parameter depends on. This is a difficult task, since the phenomenological level at which each parameter is defined is different. In this paper, we have developed a methodological framework under the form of an algorithmic procedure to solve this problem. The main parts of this procedure are: (i) stratification of relevant knowledge in discrete layers immediately adjacent to the layer that the initial model under investigation belongs to, (ii) design of the ontology corresponding to these layers, (iii) elimination of the less relevant parts of the ontology by thinning, (iv) retrieval of the stronger interrelations between the remaining nodes within the revised ontological network, and (v) parameter identification taking into account the most influential interrelations revealed in (iv). The functionality of this methodology is demonstrated by quoting two representative case examples on wastewater treatment.

  2. Linguistic knowledge, processing speed, and metacognitive knowledge in first- and second-language reading comprehension : A componential analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gelderen, Amos; Schoonen, Rob; de Glopper, Kees; Hulstijn, Jan; Simis, Annegien; Snellings, Patrick; Stevenson, Marie

    The authors report results of a study into the role of components of first-language (L1; Dutch) and second-language (L2; English) reading comprehension. Differences in the contributions of components of L1 and L2 reading comprehension are analyzed, in particular processing speed in L1 and L2.

  3. Linguistic knowledge, processing speed and metacognitive knowledge in first and second language reading comprehension; a componential analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gelderen, A.; Schoonen, R.; de Glopper, K.; Hulstijn, J.; Simis, A.; Snellings, P.; Stevenson, M.

    2004-01-01

    The authors report results of a study into the role of components of first-language (L1; Dutch) and second-language (L2; English) reading comprehension. Differences in the contributions of components of L1 and L2 reading comprehension are analyzed, in particular processing speed in L1 and L2.

  4. The role of managing knowledge and information in BIM implementation processes in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nývlt Vladimír

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Czech construction sector is at the initial stages of implementing and assessing Building Information Management (BIM on pilot projects. Object modeling developed over the last 20 years is seemed as a stable ground for many professionals. 3D data models are basis for further concepts associated with BIM, helping to support Co-ordinated Project Information (CPI and Integrated Project Delivery (IPD. This paper presents the role of managing knowledge, information and critical success factors (CSF associated with BIM implementation within the construction industry in the Czech Republic. Determining the CSF in the context of BIM maturity levels should support BIM implementation processes within the construction industry and also within the associated bodies (education, government, technology.

  5. Harnessing Biomedical Natural Language Processing Tools to Identify Medicinal Plant Knowledge from Historical Texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vivekanand; Law, Wayne; Balick, Michael J; Sarkar, Indra Neil

    2017-01-01

    The growing amount of data describing historical medicinal uses of plants from digitization efforts provides the opportunity to develop systematic approaches for identifying potential plant-based therapies. However, the task of cataloguing plant use information from natural language text is a challenging task for ethnobotanists. To date, there have been only limited adoption of informatics approaches used for supporting the identification of ethnobotanical information associated with medicinal uses. This study explored the feasibility of using biomedical terminologies and natural language processing approaches for extracting relevant plant-associated therapeutic use information from historical biodiversity literature collection available from the Biodiversity Heritage Library. The results from this preliminary study suggest that there is potential utility of informatics methods to identify medicinal plant knowledge from digitized resources as well as highlight opportunities for improvement.

  6. Networked Learning as a Process of Identification in the Intersection of collaborative Knowledge Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Rina; Sorensen, Elsebeth Korsgaard

    2011-01-01

    goals. In relation to objectives of competencies, attention is given to creative, innovative and action-oriented types. This paper addresses the role of OER in design of innovative, networked learning processes in diverse educational contexts of higher education, continuing education and in relation......Within professional education a recent shift has taken place. Professional education has moved from specialized education and update of professional knowledge, over competence-based education, to, recently, education with goals such as creativity, innovation, entrepreneur- and entrepreneurship....... OECDs Centre for Educational Research and Innovation (CERI) reveals this tendency. The core idea here is that education, in a very goal-directed way, supports initiatives, which – in turn – results in added-value to society. As such, the educational shift may be interpreted as related to societal change...

  7. A Developmental and Process Approach to "Choice Categories": Imagination and "Tacit Knowledge".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyra, Maria C D P

    2016-09-01

    A developmental process approach is proposed in order to contribute to reflect upon "choice categories" as the phenomena of human individuation (Mammen and Mironenko, Integrative Psychological and Behavioral Science, 49:681-713, 2015; Mammen, 2016). Firstly we contrapose this perspective to the results referred by Krøjgaard (Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science, 50(2), 264-276, 2016) regarding infant development. Subsequently, we discuss the role of imagination and the role of Polanyi's "tacit knowledge" as contributing to complement the concept of "choice categories". By this way we aim to highlight the heuristic value of focusing on the quality of the dynamics that guide developmental changes and its embeddedness in sociocultural milieu.

  8. Knowledge modelling and reliability processing: presentation of the Figaro language and associated tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouissou, M.; Villatte, N.; Bouhadana, H.; Bannelier, M.

    1991-12-01

    EDF has been developing for several years an integrated set of knowledge-based and algorithmic tools for automation of reliability assessment of complex (especially sequential) systems. In this environment, the reliability expert has at his disposal all the powerful software tools for qualitative and quantitative processing, besides he gets various means to generate automatically the inputs for these tools, through the acquisition of graphical data. The development of these tools has been based on FIGARO, a specific language, which was built to get an homogeneous system modelling. Various compilers and interpreters get a FIGARO model into conventional models, such as fault-trees, Markov chains, Petri Networks. In this report, we introduce the main basics of FIGARO language, illustrating them with examples

  9. History of Turkish Air Force Aviation School and the Process of Transition to Air Force Academy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman YALÇIN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Turkish aviation has started as a military entity. The foundation of ‘’Tayyare Komisyonu’’ (Airplane Comission in June 1, 1911 has been accepted as the official starting point. The organization of aviation includes pilot training, airplane supply, fondation of aviation school, establishment of combatant units, and building the air vehicles with local and national endeavour. Later, air defense systems, meteorology, training observers, machine specialist and technicians has gained importance as well. Turkish aviation has been built upon the ruins of the last wars of Ottoman Empire. After the invasion of the British and the French, Ottoman aviators moved to Maltepe and then to various parts of Anatolia eventually. During the Independence War, aviation school was founded in Eskişehir, moved to Adana, Konya, and came back to Adana again. After the Greek forces were expelled from Anatolia via İzmir, aviation school was moved to İzmir. In 1925, it was brought back to Eskişehir on October 1, 1951. After WWII, the duration of training in order to be a pilot was six years. In 1929, aviation school turned out to be an academic institution as well. On October 1, 1951, Air Force Academy was established in Eskişehir. Due to high sound of jet air planes, the academy was moved to İzmir in 1954. Education and training were restructured there and the quality was raised. In 1967, Air Force Academy was moved back to Yeşilköy where Turkish aviation was born some 47 years ago. Due to academic diversity and rich culture heritage, a productive period has started in Istanbul. Air Force Academy has been an institution offering BA level education since 2001 whose process goes back to 1990s. Around 90 civilian and 50 military academicians conduct education and research per year. Military training including Yalova encampment site, affective domain training, and sports activities are also conducted as well. With a 103 years history and around 16.000 graduates

  10. Learning processes of students pre-vocational secondary education: relations between goal orientations, information processing strategies and development of conceptual knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, M.; Brok, den P.J.; Beijaard, D.; Teune, P.J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate relations between goal orientations, information processing strategies and development of conceptual knowledge of pre-vocational secondary education students (n = 719; 14 schools). Students' preferences for certain types of goals and information

  11. Knowledge processes, distribution and alignment: Spatio-materialities and transformations in MRI praxis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoshinaka, Yutaka

    2002-01-01

    This paper explores the mediation of sociomaterial practices and the spaces of their unfolding in diagnostic imaging as relates to Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). In the course of an MRI exam, from the screening of the patient to the scanning itself, and onto the subsequent processing and analy......This paper explores the mediation of sociomaterial practices and the spaces of their unfolding in diagnostic imaging as relates to Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). In the course of an MRI exam, from the screening of the patient to the scanning itself, and onto the subsequent processing....... The individual elements are, in and of themselves, conditioned, in part, by the ontological basis of their production, and inclusion within the new collective. The study takes its outset in this inherent tension, problematizing the knowledge processes that enter into the construction and mediation of the images...... (PACS). Paradoxically, in spite of MRI being a digital modality, the very sociomaterial contingencies of IT and electronic media come to have significant bearing on the spaces in which MRI’s can be articulated in practice through ‘filmless’ radiology....

  12. One NASA: Sharing Knowledge Through an Agency-wide Process Asset Library (PAL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truss, Baraka J.

    2006-01-01

    This poster session will cover the key purpose and components behind implementing the NASA PAL website. This session will present the current results, describing the process used to create the website, the current usage measure, and will demonstrate how NASA is truly becoming ONE. The target audience for the poster session includes those currently implementing the CMMI model and looking for PAL adoption techniques. To continue to be the leader in space, science and technology, NASA is using this agency-wide PAL to share knowledge, work products and lessons learned through this website. Many organizations have failed to recognize how the efforts of process improvement fit into overall organizational effort. However, NASA as an agency has adopted the benefits of process improvement by the creation of this website to foster communication between its ten centers. The poster session will cover the following, topics outlined below: 1) Website purpose; 2) Characteristics of the website; 3) User accounts status; 4) Website content size; and 5) Usage percentages.

  13. Finding the music of speech: Musical knowledge influences pitch processing in speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanden Bosch der Nederlanden, Christina M; Hannon, Erin E; Snyder, Joel S

    2015-10-01

    Few studies comparing music and language processing have adequately controlled for low-level acoustical differences, making it unclear whether differences in music and language processing arise from domain-specific knowledge, acoustic characteristics, or both. We controlled acoustic characteristics by using the speech-to-song illusion, which often results in a perceptual transformation to song after several repetitions of an utterance. Participants performed a same-different pitch discrimination task for the initial repetition (heard as speech) and the final repetition (heard as song). Better detection was observed for pitch changes that violated rather than conformed to Western musical scale structure, but only when utterances transformed to song, indicating that music-specific pitch representations were activated and influenced perception. This shows that music-specific processes can be activated when an utterance is heard as song, suggesting that the high-level status of a stimulus as either language or music can be behaviorally dissociated from low-level acoustic factors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. TOSCA - first international registry to address knowledge gaps in the natural history and management of tuberous sclerosis complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingswood, John C; Bruzzi, Paolo; Curatolo, Paolo; de Vries, Petrus J; Fladrowski, Carla; Hertzberg, Christoph; Jansen, Anna C; Jozwiak, Sergiusz; Nabbout, Rima; Sauter, Matthias; Touraine, Renaud; O'Callaghan, Finbar; Zonnenberg, Bernard; Crippa, Stefania; Comis, Silvia; d'Augères, Guillaume Beaure; Belousova, Elena; Carter, Tom; Cottin, Vincent; Dahlin, Maria; Ferreira, José Carlos; Macaya, Alfons; Benedik, Mirjana Perkovic; Sander, Valentin; Youroukos, Sotirios; Castellana, Ramon; Ulker, Bulent; Feucht, Martha

    2014-11-26

    data availability in 2014. The results of TOSCA will assist in filling the gaps in understanding the natural history of TSC and help in planning better management and surveillance strategies. This large-scale international registry to study TSC could serve as a model to encourage planning of similar registries for other rare diseases.

  15. Exploring the behavioural patterns of knowledge dimensions and cognitive processes in peer-moderated asynchronous online discussions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajar Ghadirian

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Peer moderation has been used as a beneficial strategy in asynchronous online discussions to assist student learning performance. However, most studies in peer-moderated asynchronous online discussions (PMAOD have focused only on learning effectiveness and perceptions of students rather than on students’ knowledge dimensions and cognitive processing patterns. This study combined quantitative content analysis (QCA and lag sequential analysis (LSA to explore student knowledge dimensions and cognitive processing patterns in PMAOD. The participants were 84 students in an undergraduate blended course from University Putra Malaysia (UPM, Malaysia. The Revised Bloom Taxonomy (RBT was used as the codification scheme to code the discussion transcripts of participants assigned the role of peer moderators in a reciprocal manner over seven weeks. Behavioural distributions and patterns of high- and low-quality discussion groups were compared. Results showed that students were primarily sharing knowledge dimensions and cognitive processes of metacognition and understanding, respectively. Additionally, it was found that there was a modest proportion of off-topic discussions. Nonetheless, by means of LSA, it was found that PMAOD exhibited a certain degree of self-sustainability in knowledge and cognitive process behaviours, with the exceptions of procedural knowledge and the cognitive process of applyingand, in terms of diversity in knowledge dimension and cognitive processing, high-quality discussion groups outperformed low-quality groups.

  16. Information Compression, Multiple Alignment, and the Representation and Processing of Knowledge in the Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, J Gerard

    2016-01-01

    The SP theory of intelligence , with its realization in the SP computer model , aims to simplify and integrate observations and concepts across artificial intelligence, mainstream computing, mathematics, and human perception and cognition, with information compression as a unifying theme. This paper describes how abstract structures and processes in the theory may be realized in terms of neurons, their interconnections, and the transmission of signals between neurons. This part of the SP theory- SP-neural -is a tentative and partial model for the representation and processing of knowledge in the brain. Empirical support for the SP theory-outlined in the paper-provides indirect support for SP-neural. In the abstract part of the SP theory (SP-abstract), all kinds of knowledge are represented with patterns , where a pattern is an array of atomic symbols in one or two dimensions. In SP-neural, the concept of a "pattern" is realized as an array of neurons called a pattern assembly , similar to Hebb's concept of a "cell assembly" but with important differences. Central to the processing of information in SP-abstract is information compression via the matching and unification of patterns (ICMUP) and, more specifically, information compression via the powerful concept of multiple alignment , borrowed and adapted from bioinformatics. Processes such as pattern recognition, reasoning and problem solving are achieved via the building of multiple alignments, while unsupervised learning is achieved by creating patterns from sensory information and also by creating patterns from multiple alignments in which there is a partial match between one pattern and another. It is envisaged that, in SP-neural, short-lived neural structures equivalent to multiple alignments will be created via an inter-play of excitatory and inhibitory neural signals. It is also envisaged that unsupervised learning will be achieved by the creation of pattern assemblies from sensory information and from the

  17. Information Compression, Multiple Alignment, and the Representation and Processing of Knowledge in the Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Gerard Wolff

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The SP theory of intelligence, with its realisation in the SP computer model, aims to simplify and integrate observations and concepts across artificial intelligence, mainstream computing, mathematics, and human perception and cognition, with information compression as a unifying theme. This paper describes how abstract structures and processes in the theory may be realised in terms of neurons, their interconnections, and the transmission of signals between neurons. This part of the SP theory -- SP-neural -- is a tentative and partial model for the representation and processing of knowledge in the brain. Empirical support for the SP theory -- outlined in the paper -- provides indirect support for SP-neural.In the abstract part of the SP theory (SP-abstract, all kinds of knowledge are represented with patterns, where a pattern is an array of atomic symbols in one or two dimensions. In SP-neural, the concept of a ‘pattern’ is realised as an array of neurons called a pattern assembly, similar to Hebb's concept of a ‘cell assembly’ but with important differences.Central to the processing of information in SP-abstract is information compression via the matching and unification of patterns (ICMUP and, more specifically, information compression via the powerful concept of multiple alignment, borrowed and adapted from bioinformatics. Processes such as pattern recognition, reasoning and problem solving are achieved via the building of multiple alignments, while unsupervised learning is achieved by creating patterns from sensory information and also by creating patterns from multiple alignments in which there is a partial match between one pattern and another.It is envisaged that, in SP-neural, short-lived neural structures equivalent to multiple alignments will be created via an inter-play of excitatory and inhibitory neural signals. It is also envisaged that unsupervised learning will be achieved by the creation of pattern assemblies from

  18. The Effects of Current Mood and Prior Depressive History on Self-Schematic Processing in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupan, Brian A.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Explores recall of positive and negative self-descriptive adjectives by children with current or past histories of diagnosable depression; these children showed even stronger recall of negative self-descriptive adjectives than in previous research. However, extent of previous depression did not predict degree of negativity of current self-schema…

  19. The Ciência & Saúde Coletiva journal and the process of institutionalization of a field of knowledge and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Everardo Duarte

    2015-07-01

    This paper takes as its starting point the concepts that make up the process of institutionalization of a field of knowledge in the following phases: 1. Differentiation of subjects, methods and techniques of knowledge or existing disciplines, 2. The subject previously considered as peripheral is now seem as part of a particular field of knowledge, 3. The new field becomes significant in the set of an area and starts the standardization of recruitment of human resources, selection of experts and financial resources, and 4. Consolidation of the new field, building its culture within the scientific community, with its social networks of communication, scientific associations and its own publications. Our central objective is to analyze the role of the Ciência e Saúde Coletiva Journal in the process of institutionalization of the Collective Health; we situate the Collective Health and its stages, make a brief report on the history of scientific publications by emphasizing the Brazilian studies on the public health field, and work the early stages of the Journal.

  20. [Knowledge of the "Gräfenberg zone" and female ejaculation in ancient Indian sexual science. A medical history contribution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, R

    1999-01-01

    Ancient Indian texts in sexology (kamaśastra) from the 11th century onwards prove that their authors knew about the area later termed the "Gräfenberg zone" in Europe, as well as about the female ejaculation connected with the stimulation of this area. The Gräfenberg zone is a sexually arousable zone in the front part of the vagina, stimulation of which can lead to the discharge of liquid from the urethra, a phenomenon which is described as female ejaculation. The german gynaecologist Ernst Gräfenberg, who worked in America, described this zone, situated beneath the clitoris, for the first time (at least in this century) in Western medicine in an article published in 1950. (There are, however, evidences, that the 17th-century anatomist Regnier de Graaf had knowledge about the mentioned erogenous zone as well as female ejaculation.) Since the 1980s the so-called Gräfenberg zone, popularly termed "G-spot", and female ejaculation have been controversially discussed medically as well as in popular science, first in the United States, then in Europe; both phenomena have meanwhile been accepted as facts in medical manuals and reference books (e.g. the "Pschyrembel"). Whereas the oldest and most well-known sexological-erotological work of Ancient India, the Kamasutra, dating probably from the third century A.D., apparently did not know the Gräfenberg zone and female ejaculation, texts such as the Pañcasayaka (11th century), Jayamangala (Yaśodhara's commentary on the Kamasutra from the 13th century), the Ratirahasya (13th century), as well as the late kamaśastra-works Smaradipika and Anangaranga (16th century?) demonstrably describe both, the Gräfenberg zone and female ejaculation, in great detail. The female ejaculation is described already in the 7th century in a non-kamaśastra-text, in a work of the poet Amaru called the Amaruśataka.

  1. The Positions of Virtual Knowledge Brokers in the Core Process of Open Innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hacievliyagil, N.K.; Maisonneuve, Y.E.; Auger, J.F.; Hartmann, L.

    2007-01-01

    Several companies are implementing the strategy of open innovation in their research and development operations. They become more dependent, therefore, on their capabilities to exchange knowledge and technology with external parties. To facilitate these exchanges, virtual knowledge brokers use

  2. Integrating shallow and deep knowledge in the design of an on-line process monitoring system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallanti, M.; Gilardoni, L.; Guida, G.; Stefanini, A.; Tomada, L.

    1989-01-01

    Monitoring and malfunctions diagnosis of complex industrial plants involves, in addition to shallow empirical knowledge about plant operation, also deep knowledge about structure and function. This paper presents the results obtained in the design and experimentation of PROP and PROP-2 systems, devoted to on-line monitoring and diagnosis of pollution phenomena in the cycle water of a thermal power plant. In particular, it focuses on PROP-2 architecture, with encompasses a four-level hierarchical knowledge base including both empirical knowledge and a deep model of the plant. Shallow knowledge is represented by production rules and event-graphs (a formalism for expressing procedural knowledge), while deep knowledge is expressed using a representation language based on the concept of component. One major contribution of the proposed approach has been to show in a running experimental system that a suitable blend of shallow and deep knowledge can offer substantial advantages over a single paradigm.

  3. Toward the integration of expert knowledge and instrumental data to control food processes: application to Camembert-type cheese ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicard, M; Perrot, N; Leclercq-Perlat, M-N; Baudrit, C; Corrieu, G

    2011-01-01

    Modeling the cheese ripening process remains a challenge because of its complexity. We still lack the knowledge necessary to understand the interactions that take place at different levels of scale during the process. However, information may be gathered from expert knowledge. Combining this expertise with knowledge extracted from experimental databases may allow a better understanding of the entire ripening process. The aim of this study was to elicit expert knowledge and to check its validity to assess the evolution of organoleptic quality during a dynamic food process: Camembert cheese ripening. Experiments on a pilot scale were carried out at different temperatures and relative humidities to obtain contrasting ripening kinetics. During these experiments, macroscopic evolution was evaluated from an expert's point of view and instrumental measurements were carried out to simultaneously monitor microbiological, physicochemical, and biochemical kinetics. A correlation of 76% was established between the microbiological, physicochemical, and biochemical data and the sensory phases measured according to expert knowledge, highlighting the validity of the experts' measurements. In the future, it is hoped that this expert knowledge may be integrated into food process models to build better decision-aid systems that will make it possible to preserve organoleptic qualities by linking them to other phenomena at the microscopic level. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. An integrative approach to knowledge transfer and integration: Spanning boundaries through objects, people and processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijn, M.; Rijnveld, M.

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge transfer and integration is the main challenge in many knowledge management projects. This challenge follows from the observation that it is difficult to determine how and what knowledge may transfer from one person to another, from one team to another and from one network or organization

  5. Cybernetics: A Possible Solution for the "Knowledge Gap" between "External" and "Internal" in Evaluation Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin-Rozalis, Miri

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of the knowledge gap between evaluators and the entity being evaluated: the dilemma of the knowledge of professional evaluators vs. the in-depth knowledge of the evaluated subjects. In order to optimize evaluative outcomes, the author suggests an approach based on ideas borrowed from the science of cybernetics as a…

  6. A Process-Based Knowledge Management System for Schools: A Case Study in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chi-Lung; Lu, Hsi-Peng; Yang, Chyan; Hou, Huei-Tse

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge management systems, or KMSs, have been widely adopted in business organizations, yet little research exists on the actual integration of the knowledge management model and the application of KMSs in secondary schools. In the present study, the common difficulties and limitations regarding the implementation of knowledge management into…

  7. Analysis of a Knowledge-Management-Based Process of Transferring Project Management Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioi, Toshihiro; Ono, Masakazu; Ishii, Kota; Kato, Kazuhiko

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to propose a method for the transfer of knowledge and skills in project management (PM) based on techniques in knowledge management (KM). Design/methodology/approach: The literature contains studies on methods to extract experiential knowledge in PM, but few studies exist that focus on methods to convert…

  8. A Knowledge Management Technology Architecture for Educational Research Organisations: Scaffolding Research Projects and Workflow Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthukumar; Hedberg, John G.

    2005-01-01

    There is growing recognition that the economic climate of the world is shifting towards a knowledge-based economy where knowledge will be cherished as the most prized asset. In this regard, technology can be leveraged as a useful tool in effectually managing the knowledge capital of an organisation. Although several research studies have advanced…

  9. Why an open common-knowledge process about decommissioning funds? How transparency supports democracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BOVY, Michel

    2006-01-01

    Future generations will receive funds and have to manage the financial burdens linked to the technical heritage of the past nuclear activities. This shows the challenges of ethical requirements in this particular field, its cultural background as well as what it stands for. Another question is how the operators or the governmental bodies will interpret their decisions and justify these based on a hierarchy of principles where utilitarianism and egalitarianism have a central meaning. We aim at showing how a comparison of common criteria for decommissioning funds could help democracy and how a common knowledge could be developed by an open expertise process. The function of the control of the systems [1], that favours a democratic regulatory process in each country, calls for sufficient answers with regard to decommissioning funds, compared to other essential social needs. He has to adequately respond to the population with a higher degree of transparency in the priority of choices between different ways of using and controlling these funds. This asks for more social accountability and makes experts more responsible to Society for which they should work. (author)

  10. Improving Knowledge and Process for International Emergency Medicine Fellowship Applicants: A Call for a Uniform Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrielle A. Jacquet

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. There are currently 34 International Emergency Medicine (IEM fellowship programs. Applicants and programs are increasing in number and diversity. Without a standardized application, applicants have a difficulty approaching programs in an informed and an organized method; a streamlined application system is necessary. Objectives. To measure fellows’ knowledge of their programs’ curricula prior to starting fellowship and to determine what percent of fellows and program directors would support a universal application system. Methods. A focus group of program directors, recent, and current fellows convened to determine the most important features of an IEM fellowship application process. A survey was administered electronically to a convenience sample of 78 participants from 34 programs. Respondents included fellowship directors, fellows, and recent graduates. Results. Most fellows (70% did not know their program’s curriculum prior to starting fellowship. The majority of program directors and fellows support a uniform application service (81% and 67%, resp. and deadline (85% for both. A minority of program directors (35% and fellows (30% support a formal match. Conclusions. Program directors and fellows support a uniform application service and deadline, but not a formalized match. Forums for disseminating IEM fellowship information and for administering a uniform application service and deadline are currently in development to improve the process.

  11. Evaluation of the implementation of the knowledge management processes in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences teaching hospitals, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Sharifian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Recognition and implementation of knowledge management have an important effect on improving the quality of hospital activities. According to the direct relationship with the society’s health, health and treatment departments need knowledgeable and skillful staff. Thus, this research investigated different dimensions of the knowledge management processes in teaching hospitals of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences in 2014. Method: This cross-sectional analytical study was performed on 103 top and middle-ranked managers of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences hospitals. The instrument was a valid and reliable questionnaire containing six knowledge management dimensions. Data were analyzed in SPSS software version 16, using the one-sample t-test and ANOVA. Results: The results of the study showed that among the processes of knowledge management dimensions, “acquisition and knowledge creation”(mean=3.2 and “strategy and policy of knowledge” (mean=3.13 had the highest ranks and “assessment and feedback of knowledge” (mean=2.86 and “knowledge sharing” (mean=2.61 were at the lowest levels. The comparison between these six dimensions demonstrated that there were significant relationships among “strategy and policy of knowledge” and “acquisition and knowledge creation” (p=0.047,“strategy and policy of knowledge” and “organizing and documenting of knowledge” (p=0.206, “organizing and documenting of knowledge” and “knowledge sharing” (p=0.259, “organizing and documenting of knowledge” and “use and reuse of knowledge” (p=0.325, “use and reuse of knowledge”, and “knowledge sharing” (p=0.100. Conclusion: According to the results, the conditions of “strategy and policy of knowledge” and “acquisition and knowledge creation” dimensions are at the average level and other dimensions of knowledge management processes are poor in teaching hospitals of Shiraz University of Medical

  12. From fibrinolysis to the plasminogen-plasmin system and beyond: a remarkable growth of knowledge, with personal observations on the history of fibrinolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwaan, Hau C

    2014-07-01

    Great advances have been made in our understanding of the fibrinolytic system from the initial discovery of proteolysis of fibrin by plasmin to the multifaceted and complex role of the plasminogen-plasmin (P-P) system. We now know that the P-P system is composed of several serine proteases and their inhibitors (serpins). This system is involved in many physiological functions, including embryogenesis, cell migration, and wound healing. They also play an important role in the pathogenesis of many diseases, including atherosclerosis, obesity, cancer, and even autoimmune disorders, and neuronal degeneration. Knowledge of their role in cancer enables their use as a prognostic factor. Therapeutic use of various forms of proteases derived from this system has been employed as thrombolytic agents. In addition, small molecules designed to inhibit many of the components of the P-P system are now available for clinical trial, aimed at treatment of these various disorders. The history of such remarkable development of our knowledge on fibrinolysis is reviewed in this article. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  13. Engaging policy-makers, heath system managers, and policy analysts in the knowledge synthesis process: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricco, Andrea C; Zarin, Wasifa; Rios, Patricia; Nincic, Vera; Khan, Paul A; Ghassemi, Marco; Diaz, Sanober; Pham, Ba'; Straus, Sharon E; Langlois, Etienne V

    2018-02-12

    It is unclear how to engage a wide range of knowledge users in research. We aimed to map the evidence on engaging knowledge users with an emphasis on policy-makers, health system managers, and policy analysts in the knowledge synthesis process through a scoping review. We used the Joanna Briggs Institute guidance for scoping reviews. Nine electronic databases (e.g., MEDLINE), two grey literature sources (e.g., OpenSIGLE), and reference lists of relevant systematic reviews were searched from 1996 to August 2016. We included any type of study describing strategies, barriers and facilitators, or assessing the impact of engaging policy-makers, health system managers, and policy analysts in the knowledge synthesis process. Screening and data abstraction were conducted by two reviewers independently with a third reviewer resolving discrepancies. Frequency and thematic analyses were conducted. After screening 8395 titles and abstracts followed by 394 full-texts, 84 unique documents and 7 companion reports fulfilled our eligibility criteria. All 84 documents were published in the last 10 years, and half were prepared in North America. The most common type of knowledge synthesis with knowledge user engagement was a systematic review (36%). The knowledge synthesis most commonly addressed an issue at the level of national healthcare system (48%) and focused on health services delivery (17%) in high-income countries (86%). Policy-makers were the most common (64%) knowledge users, followed by healthcare professionals (49%) and government agencies as well as patients and caregivers (34%). Knowledge users were engaged in conceptualization and design (49%), literature search and data collection (52%), data synthesis and interpretation (71%), and knowledge dissemination and application (44%). Knowledge users were most commonly engaged as key informants through meetings and workshops as well as surveys, focus groups, and interviews either in-person or by telephone and emails

  14. The history of imitation in learning theory: the language acquisition process.

    OpenAIRE

    Kymissis, E; Poulson, C L

    1990-01-01

    The concept of imitation has undergone different analyses in the hands of different learning theorists throughout the history of psychology. From Thorndike's connectionism to Pavlov's classical conditioning, Hull's monistic theory, Mowrer's two-factor theory, and Skinner's operant theory, there have been several divergent accounts of the conditions that produce imitation and the conditions under which imitation itself may facilitate language acquisition. In tracing the roots of the concept of...

  15. Knowledge-based inspection:modelling complex processes with the integrated Safeguards Modelling Method (iSMM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abazi, F.

    2011-01-01

    Increased level of complexity in almost every discipline and operation today raises the demand for knowledge in order to successfully run an organization whether to generate profit or to attain a non-profit mission. Traditional way of transferring knowledge to information systems rich in data structures and complex algorithms continue to hinder the ability to swiftly turnover concepts into operations. Diagrammatic modelling commonly applied in engineering in order to represent concepts or reality remains to be an excellent way of converging knowledge from domain experts. The nuclear verification domain represents ever more a matter which has great importance to the World safety and security. Demand for knowledge about nuclear processes and verification activities used to offset potential misuse of nuclear technology will intensify with the growth of the subject technology. This Doctoral thesis contributes with a model-based approach for representing complex process such as nuclear inspections. The work presented contributes to other domains characterized with knowledge intensive and complex processes. Based on characteristics of a complex process a conceptual framework was established as the theoretical basis for creating a number of modelling languages to represent the domain. The integrated Safeguards Modelling Method (iSMM) is formalized through an integrated meta-model. The diagrammatic modelling languages represent the verification domain and relevant nuclear verification aspects. Such a meta-model conceptualizes the relation between practices of process management, knowledge management and domain specific verification principles. This fusion is considered as necessary in order to create quality processes. The study also extends the formalization achieved through a meta-model by contributing with a formalization language based on Pattern Theory. Through the use of graphical and mathematical constructs of the theory, process structures are formalized enhancing

  16. Preservation of Records, Knowledge and Memory across Generations (RK and M). Loss of Information, Records, Knowledge and Memory - Key Factors in the History of Conventional Waste Disposal. Final Report March 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buser, Marcos; Tunbrant, Sofie; Wisbey, Simon

    2014-01-01

    multiple reasons for memory loss. Finally, this case study provides some key insights for the future management of information and archives, and for maximizing the potential for successful retention of knowledge and memory. It is important to recognize that the bodies responsible for the nuclear industry will have to address the problems related to the preservation of knowledge and memory in a very fundamental and pro-active way. It is still unclear to what extent policy makers and authorities in the nuclear field are really aware of the importance of preserving knowledge and of the necessity to build up a culture of memory. As the history of landfills shows, failures in the past with regards to information and knowledge management are largely responsible for the problems and the subsequent costs of remediation programs. From this perspective it is essential to supplement the existing laws of those countries that utilise nuclear energy, in order to store relevant knowledge for the future

  17. Spatial knowledge dynamics of innovation processes: local and non-local aspects of buzz and collective learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanner, Anne Nygaard

    2014-01-01

    learning processes and require face-to-face contact. In sum, the innovation biography method contributes in uncovering innovation processes and how these rely on many different configurations of spatial knowledge dynamics, including buzz, local ties and global pipelines. The findings imply that policy...

  18. Students' goal orientations, information processing strategies and knowledge development in competence-based pre-vocational secondary education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, M.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, learning processes of students in competence-based Pre-Vocational Secondary Education (PVSE; in Dutch vmbo) were investigated. The study aimed at describing the relation between goal orientations, information processing strategies and the development of knowledge of these students.

  19. Causal knowledge extraction by natural language processing in material science: a case study in chemical vapor deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuya Kajikawa

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Scientific publications written in natural language still play a central role as our knowledge source. However, due to the flood of publications, the literature survey process has become a highly time-consuming and tangled process, especially for novices of the discipline. Therefore, tools supporting the literature-survey process may help the individual scientist to explore new useful domains. Natural language processing (NLP is expected as one of the promising techniques to retrieve, abstract, and extract knowledge. In this contribution, NLP is firstly applied to the literature of chemical vapor deposition (CVD, which is a sub-discipline of materials science and is a complex and interdisciplinary field of research involving chemists, physicists, engineers, and materials scientists. Causal knowledge extraction from the literature is demonstrated using NLP.

  20. Improving process of teaching students by means of methods and tools of knowledge management and e-learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lech Banachowski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The process of teaching students is of the greatest importance. It is important to study how to manage it to achieve the best advantages to the students and the university. The authors propose to apply the methods and tools of knowledge management and e-learning. The potential of knowledge management lies in the optimization of university processes, in introducing organizational learning and in helping to take well grounded decisions. The potential of e-learning lies in the improvement of the quality of education, in higher flexibility and adaptability of teaching process to the needs of individual students and in lowering the cost of education. The article shows how to apply e-portfolios and information systems to support the teaching process and knowledge management at academic institutions.

  1. Learning processes of students in competence-based pre-vocational secondary education: relations between goal orientations, information processing strategies and development of conceptual knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. M. Koopman; prof dr Douwe Beijaard; Dr P.J. Teune; P. den Brok

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate relations between goal orientations, information processing strategies and development of conceptual knowledge of pre-vocational secondary education students (n=719; 14 schools). Students' preferences for certain types of goals and information processing

  2. Learning Processes of Students in Pre-Vocational Secondary Education: Relations between Goal Orientations, Information Processing Strategies and Development of Conceptual Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopman, Maaike; Den Brok, Perry; Beijaard, Douwe; Teune, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate relations between goal orientations, information processing strategies and development of conceptual knowledge of pre-vocational secondary education students (n = 719; 14 schools). Students' preferences for certain types of goals and information processing strategies were examined using questionnaires.…

  3. Semantic knowledge for histopathological image analysis: from ontologies to processing portals and deep learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kergosien, Yannick L.; Racoceanu, Daniel

    2017-11-01

    This article presents our vision about the next generation of challenges in computational/digital pathology. The key role of the domain ontology, developed in a sustainable manner (i.e. using reference checklists and protocols, as the living semantic repositories), opens the way to effective/sustainable traceability and relevance feedback concerning the use of existing machine learning algorithms, proven to be very performant in the latest digital pathology challenges (i.e. convolutional neural networks). Being able to work in an accessible web-service environment, with strictly controlled issues regarding intellectual property (image and data processing/analysis algorithms) and medical data/image confidentiality is essential for the future. Among the web-services involved in the proposed approach, the living yellow pages in the area of computational pathology seems to be very important in order to reach an operational awareness, validation, and feasibility. This represents a very promising way to go to the next generation of tools, able to bring more guidance to the computer scientists and confidence to the pathologists, towards an effective/efficient daily use. Besides, a consistent feedback and insights will be more likely to emerge in the near future - from these sophisticated machine learning tools - back to the pathologists-, strengthening, therefore, the interaction between the different actors of a sustainable biomedical ecosystem (patients, clinicians, biologists, engineers, scientists etc.). Beside going digital/computational - with virtual slide technology demanding new workflows-, Pathology must prepare for another coming revolution: semantic web technologies now enable the knowledge of experts to be stored in databases, shared through the Internet, and accessible by machines. Traceability, disambiguation of reports, quality monitoring, interoperability between health centers are some of the associated benefits that pathologists were seeking. However

  4. MODELING OF STAFF COMMUNICATION PROCESSES IN MANAGING UNFORMALIZED KNOWLEDGE OF THE COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga E. Bashina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the actual economic issues of modeling of staff communication processesin managing of unformalized knowledge for decision making. Since unformalized knowledge isoften has a tacit form, i.e. personal experience and intuitions, held in employees’ heads then the main way of transmission of such knowledge is communications between employees. Modelingof the exchange and dissemination of unformalized knowledge and information among employeeswas made within the framework of social network analyses methods: a group of employees isconsidered as an interconnected system consisting of nodes (persons, members of the groupand the connections between them (relations. As a part of modeling a management procedure for managing the unformalized knowledge is proposed. This management procedure implies a preliminary analysis, planning and creating a technological infrastructure that supports the exchangeprocesses, distribution and partial formalization of unformalized knowledge.

  5. Knowledge based decision making method for the selection of mixed refrigerant systems for energy efficient LNG processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Mohd Shariq; Lee, Sanggyu; Rangaiah, G.P.; Lee, Moonyong

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Practical method for finding optimum refrigerant composition is proposed for LNG plant. • Knowledge of boiling point differences in refrigerant component is employed. • Implementation of process knowledge notably makes LNG process energy efficient. • Optimization of LNG plant is more transparent using process knowledge. - Abstract: Mixed refrigerant (MR) systems are used in many industrial applications because of their high energy efficiency, compact design and energy-efficient heat transfer compared to other processes operating with pure refrigerants. The performance of MR systems depends strongly on the optimum refrigerant composition, which is difficult to obtain. This paper proposes a simple and practical method for selecting the appropriate refrigerant composition, which was inspired by (i) knowledge of the boiling point difference in MR components, and (ii) their specific refrigeration effect in bringing a MR system close to reversible operation. A feasibility plot and composite curves were used for full enforcement of the approach temperature. The proposed knowledge-based optimization approach was described and applied to a single MR and a propane precooled MR system for natural gas liquefaction. Maximization of the heat exchanger exergy efficiency was considered as the optimization objective to achieve an energy efficient design goal. Several case studies on single MR and propane precooled MR processes were performed to show the effectiveness of the proposed method. The application of the proposed method is not restricted to liquefiers, and can be applied to any refrigerator and cryogenic cooler where a MR is involved

  6. Application of knowledge-based network processing to automated gas chromatography data interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levis, A.P.; Timpany, R.G.; Klotter, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    A method of translating a two-way table of qualified symptom/cause relationships into a four layer Expert Network for diagnosis of machine or sample preparation failure for Gas Chromatography is presented. This method has proven to successfully capture an expert's ability to predict causes of failure in a Gas Chromatograph based on a small set of symptoms, derived from a chromatogram, in spite of poorly defined category delineations and definitions. In addition, the resulting network possesses the advantages inherent in most neural networks: the ability to function correctly in the presence of missing or uncertain inputs and the ability to improve performance through data-based training procedures. Acquisition of knowledge from the domain experts produced a group of imprecise cause-to-symptom relationships. These are reproduced as parallel pathways composed of Symptom-Filter-Combination-Cause node chains in the network representation. Each symptom signal is passed through a Filter node to determine if the signal should be interpreted as positive or negative evidence and then modified according to the relationship established by the domain experts. The signals from several processed symptoms are then combined in the Combination node(s) for a given cause. The resulting value is passed to the Cause node and the highest valued Cause node is then selected as the most probable cause of failure

  7. Session 2 report the process of decision making in Finland: Its history and outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aebersold, M.

    2002-01-01

    The round-table discussions focussed on three questions: what were the most important steps in the decision-making process for the different stakeholders? What influenced the process and the outcome? What are the lessons learnt? (authors)

  8. The effect of thermal history on microstructure of Er_2O_3 coating layer prepared by MOCVD process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Masaki; Takezawa, Makoto; Hishinuma, Yoshimitsu; Tanaka, Teruya; Muroga, Takeo; Ikeno, Susumu; Lee, Seungwon; Matsuda, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Er_2O_3 is a high potential candidate material for tritium permeation barrier and electrical insulator coating for advanced breeding blanket systems with liquid metal or molten-salt types. Recently, Hishinuma et al. reported to form homogeneous Er_2O_3 coating layer on the inner surface of metal pipe using Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD) process. In this study, the influence of thermal history on microstructure of Er_2O_3 coating layer on stainless steel 316 (SUS 316) substrate by MOCVD process was investigated using SEM, TEM and XRD. The ring and net shape selected-area electron diffraction (SAED) patterns of Er_2O_3 coating were obtained each SUS substrates, revealed that homogeneous Er_2O_3 coating had been formed on SUS substrate diffraction patterns. Close inspection of SEM images of the surface on the Er_2O_3 coating before and after thermal cycling up to 700degC in argon atmosphere, it is confirmed that the Er_2O_3 particles were refined by thermal history. The column-like Er_2O_3 grains were promoted to change to granular structure by thermal history. >From the cross-sectional plane of TEM observations, the formation of interlayer between Er_2O_3 coating and SUS substrate was also confirmed. (author)

  9. The ethical formation process of the learners who study Marxism-leninism and History. Particularities o f this process in Rafael Maria de Mendive teachers training university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Cabrera Domínguez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the systematization of the work of different authors about the theme discussed and the analysis made by the author according to the characteristics of the process of ethic formation of the students form the Marxism Leninism and History carrer during the initial formation stage, centred in an interdisciplinary perspective in ̈Rafael Maria de Mendive ̈ University of Pedagogical Sciences ̈ form Pinar del Rio. This work takes as a starting point the materialistic and dialectical method, in the relation man-society, in the Pedagogy and General Didactics and in the current situation of this process.

  10. Exploitation of process knowledge for the monitoring and closed loop control of fermentation processes; Erschliessen von Prozesswissen fuer das Monitoring und die Regelung von Fermentationsprozessen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grote, Bianca; Hitzmann, Bernd [Hohenheim Univ., Stuttgart (Germany). FG Prozessanalytik und Getreidetechnologie; John, Jinu Mulamoottil

    2011-07-01

    The significance of process knowledge for the monitoring and closed loop control of biotechnical processes is demonstrated. An important problem of the development of chemometric models is the expense of calibration measurements required to calculate values of process variables from unselective measurements. To reduce this expense a method was developed which uses a dynamic process model instead of measurements. As an example the chemometric modeling will be discussed of a baker's yeast cultivation measuring fluorescence spectra and estimating biomass, glucose, and ethanol concentrations. We demonstrate the exploitation of process knowledge during an Escherichia colifermentation for the closed loop control of glucose concentration by using an extended Kalman filter. Here the effective dead time and the measurement noise will be compensated by this method. The glucose set point is 0.05g/L. The yield of the process exceeds by far that of batch fermentations. (orig.)

  11. Knowledge as an Asset and Knowledge Management

    OpenAIRE

    Sevinç Gülseçen

    2014-01-01

    The most valuable resource available to any organization today is its knowledge asset which is stored in processes and information systems, corporate data warehouses, employees’ brains, copyrights and patents. Knowledge management is the process of capturing, distributing, and effectively using this knowledge. The factors affecting Knowledge Management can be listed as follows: organizational culture, knowledge manager, the evolution of knowledge, knowledge polution and technology.

  12. Finding the Sweet Spot: Network Structures and Processes for Increased Knowledge Mobilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briscoe, Patricia; Pollock, Katina; Campbell, Carol; Carr-Harris, Shasta

    2015-01-01

    The use of networks in public education is one of many knowledge mobilization (KMb) strategies utilized to promote evidence-based research into practice. However, challenges exist in the ability to mobilize knowledge through networks. The purpose of this paper is to explore how networks work. Data were collected from virtual discussions for an…

  13. The Result of Developing Secondary School Students' Public Conscience through Process-Knowledge Management in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homsin, Nawattakorn; Chantarasombat, Chalard; Yeamsang, Theerawatta

    2015-01-01

    This research uses Mixed-Methodology applied research and development together with participatory action research. The model is appropriate for the context environment. The participants were able to complete the learning activities in participatory forms of knowledge management, using the following five-step model: 1) Knowledge Identification, 2)…

  14. Process Improvement through Software Operation Knowledge : If the SOK Fits, Wear It!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Schuur, H.W.

    2011-01-01

    Although the software industry is flourishing, and software-producing organizations strive for high levels of end-user satisfaction, these organizations do only limitedly recognize and use knowledge of the in-the-field operation of their software (e.g. software operation knowledge or SOK). Less than

  15. The relation between prior knowledge and students' collaborative discovery learning processes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijlers, Aaltje H.; de Jong, Anthonius J.M.

    2005-01-01

    In this study we investigate how prior knowledge influences knowledge development during collaborative discovery learning. Fifteen dyads of students (pre-university education, 15-16 years old) worked on a discovery learning task in the physics field of kinematics. The (face-to-face) communication

  16. The basic professional knowledge of teachers and suborganizational transformation processes of external pressure?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Jens Hansen

    Danish research (Hansen 2009; Lund 2012) have shown, that the basic professional knowledge of the profession of teachers (theoretical and philosophical pedagogy and didactics ) is under press, when different kinds of extern pressure (Scott 2008, Institutions and Organizations) are to be implemented....../transformed into new practice. Reforms and normative expectations (fx evidence based teaching) etc. are constant and increasing demands from the society to the school. When these kinds of external demands are met and transformed with knowledge in the everyday life of schools, other aspects of knowledge than basic...... professional knowledge seem to take over. Furthermore this seems to happen in a paradoxical way, because it happens against an explicit wish in the profession of teachers. Research question: Which practices on a sub organizational level in schools can secure and support that the basic professional knowledge...

  17. Food and Drug Administration Drug Approval Process: A History and Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Christopher Ty

    2016-03-01

    In this article, the processing of investigational and new drug applications is described and the standard and expedited review processes are examined. The efforts of the US Food and Drug Administration to ensure greater agency transparency and fiscal responsibility and intensify oversight during the drug development and approval process are reviewed. Often attributed to a decrease in the number of uninsured adults, both the increase in prescription drug sales and the high costs associated with bringing a new drug to market highlight the necessity for a streamlined and cost-effective process to deliver these drugs safely and effectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. R- and s-process nuclei in the early history of the galaxy: HD 122563

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sneden, C.; Parthasarathy, M.

    1983-01-01

    New high-resolution, high signal-to-noise spectra in the blue and ultraviolet spectral regions have been obtained for the extremely metal-poor giant star HD 122563. A complete model atmosphere, spectrum synthesis analysis of this star has been performed, employing a large number of weak iron-peak species lines and laboratory oscillator strengths. Spectral features of many rare earth elements have been detected in the ultraviolet. The large overdeficiency of nearly a factor of 10 for the s-process element barium is confirmed and is shown to extend to the other s-process elements La, Ce, Pr, Nd, and Sm. The r-process elements Eu, Gd, Dy, and possibly Er and Yb are less deficient than the s-process elements but do exhibit lower ratios with respect to iron-peak elements than in the Sun. A supplementary differential analysis of HD 122563 with respect to the Sun shows that the heavy-element abundances are not very model-atmosphere dependent. The heavy-element abundances can be understood with nucleosynthesis models in which the progenitors of this star produce mainly r-process isotopes. A small contribution of the s-process to the creation of the elements Sr, Y, Zr, and possibly Ba is not ruled out, but such traditional s-process elements as La, Pr, and Nd appear to have been made in the r-process in stellar generations prior to the formation of HD 122563

  19. A Perspective on the History of Process and Outcome Research in Counseling Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Clara E.; Corbett, Maureen M.

    1993-01-01

    Traces development of process and outcome research from before foundation of counseling psychology in 1946 to present. Describes influence of Carl Rogers's theory, behavior, psychoanalytic, systems, interpersonal, and social influence theories. Covers Eysenck's challenge to efficacy of psychotherapy; uniformity myth that process and outcome are…

  20. Effects of processing method and moisture history on laboratory fungal resistance of wood-HDPE composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig M. Clemons; Rebecca E. Ibach

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the effects of composite processing and moisture sorption on laboratory fungal resistance of wood-plastic composites. A 2-week water soaking or cyclic boiling-drying procedure was used to infuse moisture into composites made from high-density polyethylene filled with 50 percent wood flour and processed by extrusion, compression...

  1. A first-principles generic methodology for representing the knowledge base of a process diagnostic expert system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reifman, J.; Briggs, L.L.; Wei, T.Y.C.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper we present a methodology for identifying faulty component candidates of process malfunctions through basic physical principles of conservation, functional classification of components and information from the process schematics. The basic principles of macroscopic balance of mass, momentum and energy in thermal hydraulic control volumes are applied in a novel approach to incorporate deep knowledge into the knowledge base. Additional deep knowledge is incorporated through the functional classification of process components according to their influence in disturbing the macroscopic balance equations. Information from the process schematics is applied to identify the faulty component candidates after the type of imbalance in the control volumes is matched against the functional classification of the components. Except for the information from the process schematics, this approach is completely general and independent of the process under consideration. The use of basic first-principles, which are physically correct, and the process-independent architecture of the diagnosis procedure allow for the verification and validation of the system. A prototype process diagnosis expert system is developed and a test problem is presented to identify faulty component candidates in the presence of a single failure in a hypothetical balance of plant of a liquid metal nuclear reactor plant

  2. Knowledge Sharing is Knowledge Creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge sharing and knowledge transfer are important to knowledge communication. However when groups of knowledge workers engage in knowledge communication activities, it easily turns into mere mechanical information processing despite other ambitions. This article relates literature of knowledge...... communication and knowledge creation to an intervention study in a large Danish food production company. For some time a specific group of employees uttered a wish for knowledge sharing, but it never really happened. The group was observed and submitted to metaphor analysis as well as analysis of co...

  3. Process Flow Features as a Host-Based Event Knowledge Representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-14

    sequences of packets. The time window concept of observing past packets was used to model history or mem- ory. Having memory of past packets can increase the...network statistics ( IPv4 statistics and IPv6 statistics), and IP routing table information. 3.3.2 Data Preparation. The following subsections outlines...vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 3–35, 1999. 13. R. Kemmerer and G. Vigna, “Intrusion detection: a brief history and overview,” Computer, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 27–30

  4. Prior Knowledge and the Learning of Science. A Review of Ausubel's Theory of This Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, L. H. T.; Fensham, P. J.

    1974-01-01

    Examines Ausubel's theory of learning as a model of the role concerning the influence of prior knowledge on how learning occurs. Research evidence for Ausubel's theory is presented and discussed. Implications of Ausubel's theory for teaching are summarized. (PEB)

  5. The map: An essential tool in the teaching-learning process of the Marxism-Leninism and History curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montero, Martiza Isabel

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the use of maps in teaching Geography by a sample of professor at “José Marti” College of Education. A systematic use of maps constitutes one of the major problems in the teaching-learning process in the Marxism-Leninism and History Curriculum. Likewise, it has been identify as a shortcoming in graduates and in-service trainees. It would be recommendable to highlight the value and importance of maps in teaching, consequently a number of suggestions are given to lead, reflection and discussion by the teacher’s.

  6. The growth of materials processing in space - A history of government support for new technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckannan, E. C.

    1983-01-01

    Development of a given technology for national defense and large systems developments when the task is too large or risky for entrepreneurs, yet is clearly in the best interest of the nation are discussed. Advanced research to identify areas of interest was completed. Examples of commercial opportunities are the McDonnell-Douglas Corporation purification process for pharmaceutical products and the Microgravity Research Associates process for growing gallium arsenide crystals in space.

  7. Living Slow and Being Moral : Life History Predicts the Dual Process of Other-Centered Reasoning and Judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Nan; Hawk, Skyler T; Chang, Lei

    2018-06-01

    Drawing from the dual process model of morality and life history theory, the present research examined the role of cognitive and emotional processes as bridges between basic environmental challenges (i.e., unpredictability and competition) and other-centered moral orientation (i.e., prioritizing the welfare of others). In two survey studies, cognitive and emotional processes represented by future-oriented planning and emotional attachment, respectively (Study 1, N = 405), or by perspective taking and empathic concern, respectively (Study 2, N = 424), positively predicted other-centeredness in prosocial moral reasoning (Study 1) and moral judgment dilemmas based on rationality or intuition (Study 2). Cognitive processes were more closely related to rational aspects of other-centeredness, whereas the emotional processes were more closely related to the intuitive aspects of other-centeredness (Study 2). Finally, the cognitive and emotional processes also mediated negative effects of unpredictability (i.e., negative life events and childhood financial insecurity), as well as positive effects of individual-level, contest competition (i.e., educational and occupational competition) on other-centeredness. Overall, these findings support the view that cognitive and emotional processes do not necessarily contradict each other. Rather, they might work in concert to promote other-centeredness in various circumstances and might be attributed to humans' developmental flexibility in the face of environmental challenges.

  8. Working with the ineffable: Toward a process of understanding and communicating qualitative research knowledge and experience through design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coxon, Ian Robert

    2013-01-01

    The work described in this paper addresses the conference call for "New processes, tools or approaches that facilitate knowledge exchange and collaboration" between academia and creative people. It introduces a research-for-design program that we at the Experience-based Designing Centre in Denmar...... found to others. It requires creative thinking and collaborative effort to make the kinds of breakthroughs that we have so far. We would like the opportunity to continue this process at this conference with the help of our peers...... thinking. All of these stages involve researchers either academic or from practice, trying to communicate ineffable forms of knowledge to others. It is difficult enough to gain access to this knowledge in the first place, then to know what to do with it when you find it or how to communicate what you have...

  9. Defining the eHealth Information Niche in the Family Physician/Patient Examination and Knowledge Transfer Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellington, Virginia Beth Elder

    2012-01-01

    This research study was undertaken to gain a richer understanding of the use of patient-introduced online health information during the physician/patient examination and knowledge transfer process. Utilizing qualitative data obtained from ten family physician interviews and workflow modeling using activity diagrams and task structure charts, this…

  10. Multi-national knowledge strategies, policy and the upgrading process of regions: Revisiting the automotive industry in Ostrava and Shanghai

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuijl, E. van; Carvalho, L.; Winden, W. van; Jacobs, W.A.A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper revisits how and why new multinational knowledge-based strategies and multi-level governmental policies influence the upgrading process of regions in developing economies. Automotive multinationals traditionally exploited local asset conditions, but it is shown that they have also been

  11. Exploring gender and gender pairing in the knowledge elaboration processes of students using computer-supported collaborative learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ding, N.; Bosker, R. J.; Harskamp, E. G.

    The aim of the study is to investigate the influence of gender and gender pairing on students' learning performances and knowledge elaboration processes in Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL). A sample of ninety-six secondary school students, participated in a two-week experiment.

  12. Students' General Knowledge of the Learning Process: A Mixed Methods Study Illustrating Integrated Data Collection and Data Consolidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Velzen, Joke H.

    2018-01-01

    There were two purposes for this mixed methods study: to investigate (a) the realistic meaning of awareness and understanding as the underlying constructs of general knowledge of the learning process and (b) a procedure for data consolidation. The participants were 11th-grade high school and first-year university students. Integrated data…

  13. No knowledge without processes : process mining as a tool to find out what people and organizations really do

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Aalst, W.M.P.; Fred, A.; Filipe, J.; Dietz, J.L.G.; Aveiro, D.; Liu, K.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, process mining emerged as a new scientific discipline on the interface between process models and event data. Whereas conventional Business Process Management (BPM) approaches are mostly model-driven with little consideration for event data, the increasing availability of high-quality data

  14. Valid knowledge for the professional design of large and complex design processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aken, van J.E.

    2004-01-01

    The organization and planning of design processes, which we may regard as design process design, is an important issue. Especially for large and complex design-processes traditional approaches to process design may no longer suffice. The design literature gives quite some design process models. As

  15. Success factors in the processes of commercialization of knowledge – relational and communicational aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena Feldy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to identify the ways of communication that increase the chances of researchers being at different stages of a scientific career to collaborate with companies. Inefficient communication and the closeness of research units to the environment are considered to be the greatest barriers to the development of R&D cooperation between science and industry. Lack of knowledge results in the formation of negative stereotypes on both young and senior researchers. The former are considered incompetent, while the latter – too little interested in cooperation with companies or holding high financial expectations. However, according to the research outcomes companies prefer to invest their resources in studies carried out by experienced and acclaimed scientists. The higher status has a researcher, the greater variety of contacts with industry he possess. Thanks to contacts developed throughout their scientific career senior researchers usually cooperate with business more frequently. In turn, young scientists are more open to undertaking new forms of cooperation. However, in some cases they have to reduce their engagement as they are overloaded by teaching duties. Considering presented evidence, I assumed that the way of sharing the research findings, that resulted in establishing cooperation with industry, varied at different stages of scientific career. In order to verify this assumption, I used logit regression. The first model constructed examines how different ways of communication affect the likelihood of cooperation with companies in the case of postdoctoral researchers, and the second model – in the case of more experienced researchers, i.e. associate professors and professors. In addition, there is a set of variables that are controlled in each of the models (such as: a type of scientific unit that employed a researcher, a field of science that a researcher represented and a type of research that she/he carried out. I

  16. Accessible Knowledge - Knowledge on Accessibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Inge Mette

    2015-01-01

    Although serious efforts are made internationally and nationally, it is a slow process to make our physical environment accessible. In the actual design process, architects play a major role. But what kinds of knowledge, including research-based knowledge, do practicing architects make use of when...... designing accessible environments? The answer to the question is crucially important since it affects how knowledge is distributed and how accessibility can be ensured. In order to get first-hand knowledge about the design process and the sources from which they gain knowledge, 11 qualitative interviews...... were conducted with architects with experience of designing for accessibility. The analysis draws on two theoretical distinctions. The first is research-based knowledge versus knowledge used by architects. The second is context-independent knowledge versus context-dependent knowledge. The practitioners...

  17. An Interdisciplinary Undergraduate Space Physics Course: Understanding the Process of Science Through One Field's Colorful History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Ramon E.

    1996-01-01

    Science education in this country is in its greatest period of ferment since the post-Sputnik frenzy a generation ago. In that earlier time, however, educators' emphasis was on producing more scientists and engineers. Today we recognize that all Americans need a good science background. The ability to observe, measure, think quantitatively, and reach logical conclusions based on available evidence is a set of skills that everyone entering the workforce needs to acquire if our country is to be competitive in a global economy. Moreover, as public policy increasingly crystallizes around scientific issues, it is critical that citizens be educated in science so that they may provide informed debate and on these issues. In order to develop this idea more fully, I proposed to teach a historically based course about space physics as an honors course at the University of Maryland-College Park (UMCP). The honors program at UMCP was established to foster broad-based undergraduate courses that utilize innovative teaching techniques to provide exemplary education to a select group of students. I designed an introductory course that would have four basic goals: to acquaint students with geomagnetic and auroral phenomena and their relationship to the space environment; to examine issues related to the history of science using the evolution of the field as an example; to develop familiarity with basic skills such as describing and interpreting observations, analyzing scientific papers, and communicating the results of their own research; and to provide some understanding of basic physics, especially those aspect that play a role in the near-earth space environment.

  18. Social Information Processing Skills in Children with Histories of Heavy Prenatal Alcohol Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Christie L.; Bjorkquist, Olivia A.; Price, Joseph M.; Mattson, Sarah N.; Riley, Edward P.

    2009-01-01

    Based on caregiver report, children with prenatal alcohol exposure have difficulty with social functioning, but little is known about their social cognition. The current study assessed the social information processing patterns of school-age children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure using a paradigm based on Crick and Dodge's reformulated…

  19. Contaminants of the bismuth phosphate process as signifiers of nuclear reprocessing history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwantes, Jon M.; Sweet, Lucas E.

    2012-01-01

    Reagents used in spent nuclear fuel recycling impart unique contaminant patterns into the product stream of the process. Efforts are underway at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to characterize and understand the relationship between these patterns and the process that created them. A main challenge to this effort, recycling processes that were employed at the Hanford site from 1944-1989 have been retired for decades. This precludes direct measurements of the contaminant patterns that propagate within product streams of these facilities. In the absence of any operating recycling facilities at Hanford, we have taken a multipronged approach to cataloging contaminants of U.S. reprocessing activities using: (1) historical records summarizing contaminants within the final Pu metal button product of these facilities; (2) samples of opportunity that represent intermediate products of these processes; and (3) lab-scale experiments and model simulations designed to replicate contaminant patterns at each stage of nuclear fuel reprocessing. This report provides a summary of the progress and results from Fiscal Year (April 1, 2010-September 30) 2011.

  20. Practising dance history: reflections on the shared processes of dance historians and dance makers.

    OpenAIRE

    Carter, Alexandra; Committee on research in dance

    2007-01-01

    Recent trends have identified ways in which practitioners engage in research processes which are commensurate with those of traditional scholarship. Using historiography as an example, it is argued that scholarship is also, conversely, an artistic act in its use of 'expert intuition' and in the creation of its language and narrative fictions.

  1. A Conceptual Model for the Creation of a Process-Oriented Knowledge Map (POK-Map and Implementation in an Electric Power Distribution Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Teimourpour

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Helping a company organize and capture the knowledge used by its employees and business processes is a daunting task. In this work we examine several proposed methodologies and synthesize them into a new methodology that we demonstrate through a case study of an electric power distribution company. This is a practical research study. First, the research approach for creating the knowledge map is process-oriented and the processes are considered as the main elements of the model. This research was done in four stages: literature review, model editing, model validation and case study. The Delphi method was used for the research model validation. Some of the important outputs of this research were mapping knowledge flows, determining the level of knowledge assets, expert-area knowledge map, preparing knowledge meta-model, and updating the knowledge map according to the company’s processes. Besides identifying, auditing and visualizing tacit and explicit knowledge, this knowledge mapping enables us to analyze the knowledge areas’ situation and subsequently help us to improve the processes and overall performance. So, a process map does knowledge mapping in a clear and accurate frame. Once the knowledge is used in processes, it creates value.

  2. Inferring the demographic history from DNA sequences: An importance sampling approach based on non-homogeneous processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ait Kaci Azzou, S; Larribe, F; Froda, S

    2016-10-01

    In Ait Kaci Azzou et al. (2015) we introduced an Importance Sampling (IS) approach for estimating the demographic history of a sample of DNA sequences, the skywis plot. More precisely, we proposed a new nonparametric estimate of a population size that changes over time. We showed on simulated data that the skywis plot can work well in typical situations where the effective population size does not undergo very steep changes. In this paper, we introduce an iterative procedure which extends the previous method and gives good estimates under such rapid variations. In the iterative calibrated skywis plot we approximate the effective population size by a piecewise constant function, whose values are re-estimated at each step. These piecewise constant functions are used to generate the waiting times of non homogeneous Poisson processes related to a coalescent process with mutation under a variable population size model. Moreover, the present IS procedure is based on a modified version of the Stephens and Donnelly (2000) proposal distribution. Finally, we apply the iterative calibrated skywis plot method to a simulated data set from a rapidly expanding exponential model, and we show that the method based on this new IS strategy correctly reconstructs the demographic history. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Apatite fission track analysis: geological thermal history analysis based on a three-dimensional random process of linear radiation damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galbraith, R.F.; Laslett, G.M.; Green, P.F.; Duddy, I.R.

    1990-01-01

    Spontaneous fission of uranium atoms over geological time creates a random process of linearly shaped features (fission tracks) inside an apatite crystal. The theoretical distributions associated with this process are governed by the elapsed time and temperature history, but other factors are also reflected in empirical measurements as consequences of sampling by plane section and chemical etching. These include geometrical biases leading to over-representation of long tracks, the shape and orientation of host features when sampling totally confined tracks, and 'gaps' in heavily annealed tracks. We study the estimation of geological parameters in the presence of these factors using measurements on both confined tracks and projected semi-tracks. Of particular interest is a history of sedimentation, uplift and erosion giving rise to a two-component mixture of tracks in which the parameters reflect the current temperature, the maximum temperature and the timing of uplift. A full likelihood analysis based on all measured densities, lengths and orientations is feasible, but because some geometrical biases and measurement limitations are only partly understood it seems preferable to use conditional likelihoods given numbers and orientations of confined tracks. (author)

  4. Process evaluation of knowledge transfer across industries: Leveraging Coca-Cola's supply chain expertise for medicine availability in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnander, Erika; Yuan, Christina T; Ahmed, Shirin; Cherlin, Emily; Talbert-Slagle, Kristina; Curry, Leslie A

    2017-01-01

    Persistent gaps in the availability of essential medicines have slowed the achievement of global health targets. Despite the supply chain knowledge and expertise that ministries of health might glean from other industries, limited empirical research has examined the process of knowledge transfer from other industries into global public health. We examined a partnership designed to improve the availability of medical supplies in Tanzania by transferring knowledge from The Coca-Cola system to Tanzania's Medical Stores Department (MSD). We conducted a process evaluation including in-depth interviews with 70 participants between July 2011 and May 2014, corresponding to each phase of the partnership, with focus on challenges and strategies to address them, as well as benefits perceived by partners. Partners faced challenges in (1) identifying relevant knowledge to transfer, (2) translating operational solutions from Coca-Cola to MSD, and (3) maintaining momentum between project phases. Strategies to respond to these challenges emerged through real-time problem solving and included (1) leveraging the receptivity of MSD leadership, (2) engaging a boundary spanner to identify knowledge to transfer, (3) promoting local recognition of commonalities across industries, (4) engaging external technical experts to manage translation activities, (5) developing tools with visible benefits for MSD, (6) investing in local relationships, and (7) providing time and space for the partnership model to evolve. Benefits of the partnership perceived by MSD staff included enhanced collaboration and communication, more proactive orientations in managing operations, and greater attention to performance management. Benefits perceived by Coca-Cola staff included strengthened knowledge transfer capability and enhanced job satisfaction. Linking theoretical constructs with practical experiences from the field, we highlight the challenges, emergent strategies, and perceived benefits of a partnership

  5. Process evaluation of knowledge transfer across industries: Leveraging Coca-Cola’s supply chain expertise for medicine availability in Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Christina T.; Ahmed, Shirin; Cherlin, Emily; Talbert-Slagle, Kristina; Curry, Leslie A.

    2017-01-01

    Persistent gaps in the availability of essential medicines have slowed the achievement of global health targets. Despite the supply chain knowledge and expertise that ministries of health might glean from other industries, limited empirical research has examined the process of knowledge transfer from other industries into global public health. We examined a partnership designed to improve the availability of medical supplies in Tanzania by transferring knowledge from The Coca-Cola system to Tanzania’s Medical Stores Department (MSD). We conducted a process evaluation including in-depth interviews with 70 participants between July 2011 and May 2014, corresponding to each phase of the partnership, with focus on challenges and strategies to address them, as well as benefits perceived by partners. Partners faced challenges in (1) identifying relevant knowledge to transfer, (2) translating operational solutions from Coca-Cola to MSD, and (3) maintaining momentum between project phases. Strategies to respond to these challenges emerged through real-time problem solving and included (1) leveraging the receptivity of MSD leadership, (2) engaging a boundary spanner to identify knowledge to transfer, (3) promoting local recognition of commonalities across industries, (4) engaging external technical experts to manage translation activities, (5) developing tools with visible benefits for MSD, (6) investing in local relationships, and (7) providing time and space for the partnership model to evolve. Benefits of the partnership perceived by MSD staff included enhanced collaboration and communication, more proactive orientations in managing operations, and greater attention to performance management. Benefits perceived by Coca-Cola staff included strengthened knowledge transfer capability and enhanced job satisfaction. Linking theoretical constructs with practical experiences from the field, we highlight the challenges, emergent strategies, and perceived benefits of a

  6. Process evaluation of knowledge transfer across industries: Leveraging Coca-Cola's supply chain expertise for medicine availability in Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Linnander

    Full Text Available Persistent gaps in the availability of essential medicines have slowed the achievement of global health targets. Despite the supply chain knowledge and expertise that ministries of health might glean from other industries, limited empirical research has examined the process of knowledge transfer from other industries into global public health. We examined a partnership designed to improve the availability of medical supplies in Tanzania by transferring knowledge from The Coca-Cola system to Tanzania's Medical Stores Department (MSD. We conducted a process evaluation including in-depth interviews with 70 participants between July 2011 and May 2014, corresponding to each phase of the partnership, with focus on challenges and strategies to address them, as well as benefits perceived by partners. Partners faced challenges in (1 identifying relevant knowledge to transfer, (2 translating operational solutions from Coca-Cola to MSD, and (3 maintaining momentum between project phases. Strategies to respond to these challenges emerged through real-time problem solving and included (1 leveraging the receptivity of MSD leadership, (2 engaging a boundary spanner to identify knowledge to transfer, (3 promoting local recognition of commonalities across industries, (4 engaging external technical experts to manage translation activities, (5 developing tools with visible benefits for MSD, (6 investing in local relationships, and (7 providing time and space for the partnership model to evolve. Benefits of the partnership perceived by MSD staff included enhanced collaboration and communication, more proactive orientations in managing operations, and greater attention to performance management. Benefits perceived by Coca-Cola staff included strengthened knowledge transfer capability and enhanced job satisfaction. Linking theoretical constructs with practical experiences from the field, we highlight the challenges, emergent strategies, and perceived benefits of a

  7. Evaluating evaluation as a communication process. What role for formative evaluation in ICT-based knowledge acquisition?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    USEILLE Philippe

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available This article examines how formative evaluation as a communication process contributes to knowledge acquisition in using ICT (Information and Communication Technologies. Previous studies, especially in the field of education and training, have shown that formative evaluation plays a crucial part in the learning process because it contributes to learning to learn. Through formative evaluation, the learner becomes aware of errors and can adjust learning strategies to the situation. In addition, formative evaluation provides the teaching side with significant and useful information. Consequently, ICT researches have developed a wide range of solutions for this specific purpose. It is however difficult to check the efficiency of these tools by considering the effects of ICT in the knowledge acquisition process. I suggest that formative evaluation includes also a communication system that has an effect on the learning process. This study tackles the issue by proposing an alternative approach to formative evaluation that considers it as both a learning and a communication process. The study is based on SADT (Structure Analysis and Design Technique that provides a suitable description for the whole complex communication process. It allows a rigorous understanding and identification of the variables of evaluation as a communication process in order to take care of an ICT frame. Finally, this article outlines a multidisciplinary method to evaluate formative evaluation by focusing on the validity facets of the communication process. Keywords: formative evaluation, communication process, validity criteria, ICT training context.

  8. A Method to Make Classification of the Heat Treatment Processes Performed on Bronze Using Incomplete Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kluska-Nawarecka S.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the problem of selection of heat treatment parameters to obtain the required mechanical properties in heat- treated bronzes. A methodology for the construction of a classification model based on rough set theory is presented. A model of this type allows the construction of inference rules also in the case when our knowledge of the existing phenomena is incomplete, and this is situation commonly encountered when new materials enter the market. In the case of new test materials, such as the grade of bronze described in this article, we still lack full knowledge and the choice of heat treatment parameters is based on a fragmentary knowledge resulting from experimental studies. The measurement results can be useful in building of a model, this model, however, cannot be deterministic, but can only approximate the stochastic nature of phenomena. The use of rough set theory allows for efficient inference also in areas that are not yet fully explored.

  9. Effects of coal contamination on early life history processes of a reef-building coral, Acropora tenuis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Kathryn L E; Hoogenboom, Mia O; Brinkman, Diane L; Burns, Kathryn A; Negri, Andrew P

    2017-01-15

    Successful reproduction and larval dispersal are important for the persistence of marine invertebrate populations, and these early life history processes can be sensitive to marine pollution. Coal is emerging as a contaminant of interest due to the proximity of ports and shipping lanes to coral reefs. To assess the potential hazard of this contaminant, gametes, newly developed embryos, larvae and juveniles of the coral Acropora tenuis were exposed to a range of coal leachate, suspended coal, and coal smothering treatments. Fertilisation was the most sensitive reproductive process tested. Embryo survivorship decreased with increasing suspended coal concentrations and exposure duration, effects on larval settlement varied between treatments, while effects on juvenile survivorship were minimal. Leachate exposures had negligible effects on fertilisation and larval settlement. These results indicate that coral recruitment could be affected by spills that produce plumes of suspended coal particles which interact with gametes and embryos soon after spawning. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Talk, trust and time: a longitudinal study evaluating knowledge translation and exchange processes for research on violence against women

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Violence against women (VAW) is a major public health problem. Translation of VAW research to policy and practice is an area that remains understudied, but provides the opportunity to examine knowledge translation and exchange (KTE) processes in a complex, multi-stakeholder context. In a series of studies including two randomized trials, the McMaster University VAW Research Program studied one key research gap: evidence about the effectiveness of screening women for exposure to intimate partner violence. This project developed and evaluated KTE strategies to share research findings with policymakers, health and community service providers, and women's advocates. Methods A longitudinal cross-sectional design, applying concurrent mixed data collection methods (surveys, interviews, and focus groups), was used to evaluate the utility of specific KTE strategies, including a series of workshops and a day-long Family Violence Knowledge Exchange Forum, on research sharing, uptake, and use. Results Participants valued the opportunity to meet with researchers, provide feedback on key messages, and make personal connections with other stakeholders. A number of factors specific to the knowledge itself, stakeholders' contexts, and the nature of the knowledge gap being addressed influenced the uptake, sharing, and use of the research. The types of knowledge use changed across time, and were specifically related to both the types of decisions being made, and to stage of decision making; most reported use was conceptual or symbolic, with few examples of instrumental use. Participants did report actively sharing the research findings with their own networks. Further examination of these second-order knowledge-sharing processes is required, including development of appropriate methods and measures for its assessment. Some participants reported that they would not use the research evidence in their decision making when it contradicted professional experiences, while others

  11. Talk, trust and time: a longitudinal study evaluating knowledge translation and exchange processes for research on violence against women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Susan M

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Violence against women (VAW is a major public health problem. Translation of VAW research to policy and practice is an area that remains understudied, but provides the opportunity to examine knowledge translation and exchange (KTE processes in a complex, multi-stakeholder context. In a series of studies including two randomized trials, the McMaster University VAW Research Program studied one key research gap: evidence about the effectiveness of screening women for exposure to intimate partner violence. This project developed and evaluated KTE strategies to share research findings with policymakers, health and community service providers, and women's advocates. Methods A longitudinal cross-sectional design, applying concurrent mixed data collection methods (surveys, interviews, and focus groups, was used to evaluate the utility of specific KTE strategies, including a series of workshops and a day-long Family Violence Knowledge Exchange Forum, on research sharing, uptake, and use. Results Participants valued the opportunity to meet with researchers, provide feedback on key messages, and make personal connections with other stakeholders. A number of factors specific to the knowledge itself, stakeholders' contexts, and the nature of the knowledge gap being addressed influenced the uptake, sharing, and use of the research. The types of knowledge use changed across time, and were specifically related to both the types of decisions being made, and to stage of decision making; most reported use was conceptual or symbolic, with few examples of instrumental use. Participants did report actively sharing the research findings with their own networks. Further examination of these second-order knowledge-sharing processes is required, including development of appropriate methods and measures for its assessment. Some participants reported that they would not use the research evidence in their decision making when it contradicted professional

  12. Manufacturing history of etanercept (Enbrel®): Consistency of product quality through major process revisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassett, Brian; Singh, Ena; Mahgoub, Ehab; O'Brien, Julie; Vicik, Steven M; Fitzpatrick, Brian

    2018-01-01

    Etanercept (ETN) (Enbrel®) is a soluble protein that binds to, and specifically inhibits, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), a proinflammatory cytokine. ETN is synthesized in Chinese hamster ovary cells by recombinant DNA technology as a fusion protein, with a fully human TNFRII ectodomain linked to the Fc portion of human IgG1. Successful manufacture of biologics, such as ETN, requires sophisticated process and product understanding, as well as meticulous control of operations to maintain product consistency. The objective of this evaluation was to show that the product profile of ETN drug substance (DS) has been consistent over the course of production. Multiple orthogonal biochemical analyses, which included evaluation of attributes indicative of product purity, potency, and quality, were assessed on >2,000 batches of ETN from three sites of DS manufacture, during the period 1998-2015. Based on the key quality attributes of product purity (assessed by hydrophobic interaction chromatography HPLC), binding activity (to TNF by ELISA), potency (inhibition of TNF-induced apoptosis by cell-based bioassay) and quality (N-linked oligosaccharide map), we show that the integrity of ETN DS has remained consistent over time. This consistency was maintained through three major enhancements to the initial process of manufacturing that were supported by detailed comparability assessments, and approved by the European Medicines Agency. Examination of results for all major quality attributes for ETN DS indicates a highly consistent process for over 18 years and throughout changes to the manufacturing process, without affecting safety and efficacy, as demonstrated across a wide range of clinical trials of ETN in multiple inflammatory diseases.

  13. Burning transformations: Fire history effects on organic matter processing from hillslopes to streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, R. T.; Gilbertson, A.; Maxwell, K.

    2017-12-01

    Disturbance strongly regulates material and energy flows, changing ecosystem pattern and process. An increase in the size and severity of fire, particularly in the Intermountain West, over the last several decades is expected to continue due to a warming climate. Predicting how fire will alter the net ecosystem carbon balance requires us to understand how carbon is stored, processed, and transferred. Here we present results from paired watersheds focused on five 2002 severe fires in Colorado to examine how organic matter is processed along the hillslope and within the stream. Comparing soil samples and water extractable organic matter (WEOM) between burned and unburned sites illustrates the impact of fire: burned soils have 50% organic matter (OM) content as unburned soils, regardless of geomorphic position. While a smaller pool, soil OM (SOM) in burned sites is more susceptible to microbial degradation (pmineral rich, organic poor, portion of the soil. Interestingly, the systematic shifts in OM amounts and quality (as measured by SUVA, E2:E3, and fluorescence) within the terrestrial system in response to fire, are not seen in stream exports. As such, while there are significant relationships (p<0.05) between stream DOM quality, DOM bioavailability, and stream metabolism, burned watersheds are not exporting DOM that is more bioavailable. In addition, despite different terrestrial OM pools, burned and unburned watersheds export statistically similar amounts of DOM per unit area, suggesting that a larger fraction of OM is transferred from the terrestrial to aquatic ecosystem within fire affected landscapes.

  14. Radiochronology of marine sediments and its application to the knowledge of the process of environmental pollution in coastal Cuban ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso-Hernández, Carlos M.; Díaz-Asencio, Misael; Gómez-Batista, Miguel; Bolaños-Alvares, Yoelvis; Muñoz-Caravaca, Alain; Morera-Gómez, Yasser

    2016-01-01

    The results achieved in the implementation of the radiochronology of marine sediments for the reconstruction of databases and knowledge of the evolution of environmental pollution in four coastal ecosystems of national significance are presented in this paper Fluxes of selected heavy metals and persistent organic compounds are discussed for the Cienfuegos and Havana bays and Sagua and La Coloma estuaries. Finally, is showed the effectiveness of radiochronology of sediments as a useful tool for environmental management and knowledge of temporal processes of pollution in the aquatic environment. (author)

  15. THE ESSENCE OF ENTREPRENEURIAL PROCESS AND THE COMPLEXITY OF THE INDIVIDUAL: PERCEPTIONS FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF KNOWLEDGE TYPOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Vick

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The scenario described by the recent theoretical conceptions about innovation reflects a moment of transition from industrial paradigm to knowledge paradigm. A great expectation is arisen over the individuals responsible for defining contexts, promoting innovation and identifying opportunities. In the interest of approaching a wider concept of the entrepreneurial process and the understanding of this activity on the individual and group levels, the review promotes a discussion about the synergy between the competency and the inherent individual traits, as well as its insertion in team work, based on the dimensions of the knowledge typologies.

  16. Playing a 3-Stringed Violin: Innovation via the Joint Evolution of People, Process, and Knowledge Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Lynne P.

    2010-01-01

    Users continuously evaluate the value and performance of their Knowledge Management Systems (KMS). As suggested by a punctuated socio-technical system process model, today's success can quickly become tomorrow's failure should the KMS fail to meet evolving needs and expectations. The more deeply a tool is embedded in the actual work process, the more vulnerable it is to emergent changes and perturbations. This paper uses the metaphor of a "3-stringed violin" to explore how differing levels of user knowledge about tools and processes can lead to system perturbations and how the active involvement of other actors can dampen the impact of perturbations, i.e., help the system survive the operational equivalent of a broken string. Recommendations suggest ways to increase system resiliency and contribute to incremental innovation.

  17. Extending Organizational Contingency Theory to Team Performance - An Information Processing and Knowledge Flows Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    acquisition, transfer, and depreciation of knowledge in service organizations: Productivity in franchises . Management Science, 41(11, Focused Issue on...Slevin, D.P. 1993. Entrepreneurship and the concept of fit: A model and empirical tests. Strategic Management Journal, 14(2): 137-153. Naval

  18. Leveraging the Relationship: Knowledge Processes in School-University Research Networks of Master's Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelissen, Frank; Daly, Alan J.; Liou, Yi-Hwa; Van Swet, Jacqueline; Beijaard, Douwe; Bergen, Theo C. M.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the way developing, sharing and using of research-based knowledge occurred in the school-university research network of a master's programme for in-service teachers in the Netherlands. Over a 10-month period, a combination of quantitative and qualitative network data was collected. Data were analysed at three network…

  19. The Collective Knowledge of Social Tags: Direct and Indirect Influences on Navigation, Learning, and Information Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cress, Ulrike; Held, Christoph; Kimmerle, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    Tag clouds generated in social tagging systems can capture the collective knowledge of communities. Using as a basis spreading activation theories, information foraging theory, and the co-evolution model of cognitive and social systems, we present here a model for an "extended information scent," which proposes that both collective and individual…

  20. Accelerating Tacit Knowledge Building of Client-Facing Consultants: Can Organizations Better Support These Learning Processes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQueen, Robert J.; Janson, Annick

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to examine factors which influence how tacit knowledge is built and applied by client-facing consultants. Design/methodology/approach: Qualitative methods (interviews, thematic analysis) were used to gather and analyse data from 15 consultants in an agricultural extension context. Findings: Twenty-six factors about how…

  1. Artificial intelligence in process control: Knowledge base for the shuttle ECS model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiffler, A. Kent

    1989-01-01

    The general operation of KATE, an artificial intelligence controller, is outlined. A shuttle environmental control system (ECS) demonstration system for KATE is explained. The knowledge base model for this system is derived. An experimental test procedure is given to verify parameters in the model.

  2. Framing and interorganizational knowledge transfer: A process study of collaborative innovation in the aircraft industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Burg, J.C.; Berends, J.J.; van Raaij, E.

    2014-01-01

    This article explains how and why organizational actors' decisions about interorganizational knowledge transfer might change over time. We find that organizational actors' framing of future innovation developments, as either an opportunity or a threat, motivates them to engage or disengage in

  3. Stretching the Academic Harness: Knowledge Construction in the Process of Academic Mobility in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz-Garcia, Ana Luisa; Chiappa, Roxana

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we analyse the impact of academic mobility on the construction of knowledge for Chilean scholars who have studied abroad. We conducted 41 semi-structured interviews with Chilean-born scholars in the social sciences and humanities, who accepted jobs at national research universities in Chile after receiving their doctorates abroad.…

  4. First-order fire effects on herbs and Shrubs: present knowledge and process modeling needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsten Stephan; Melanie Miller; Matthew B. Dickinson

    2010-01-01

    Herbaceous plants and shrubs have received little attention in terms of fire effects modeling despite their critical role in ecosystem integrity and resilience after wildfires and prescribed burns. In this paper, we summarize current knowledge of direct effects of fire on herb and shrub (including cacti) vegetative tissues and seed banks, propose key components for...

  5. What We do Know and What We Need to Know About Knowledge in the Growth Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caiazza, Rosa; Foss, Nicolai Juul; Volpe, Tiziana

    2016-01-01

    , and as such, it makes the intervention points through which people management can facilitate organizational effectiveness through innovation more transparent. Originality/value: – The paper provides guidance for future researchers on knowledge and innovation diffusion. It encourages innovation in our thinking...

  6. What you Know is What you Parse : How situational knowledge affects sentence processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteeg, N.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/296136972

    2009-01-01

    You will never believe what happened at the party yesterday! Ellen kissed Ruben and Peter…. Suppose this is the last thing you read in your friend’s e-mail before your computer breaks down. If you have some prior knowledge regarding the situation described, you would be able to guess how the

  7. How do collaboration and investments in knowledge management affect process innovation in services?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ashok, M.; Narula, R.; Martinez-Noya, A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Despite the keen interest in radical and incremental innovation, few studies have tested the varying impact of firm-level factors in service sectors. This paper analyses how collaboration with existing and prospective users, and investments in knowledge management (KM) practices can be

  8. Patterns and processes in the evolutionary history of parrotfishes (Family Labridae)

    KAUST Repository

    Choat, John. H.; klanten, Oya. S.; Van Herwerden, Lynne; Robertson, D. Ross; Clements, Kendall D.

    2012-01-01

    Phylogenetic reconstruction of the evolutionary relationships among 61 of the 70 species of the parrotfish genera Chlorurus and Scarus (Family Labridae) based on mitochondrial and nuclear gene sequences retrieved 15 well-supported clades with mid Pliocene/Pleistocene diversification. Twenty-two reciprocally monophyletic sister-species pairs were identified: 64% were allopatric, and the remainder were sympatric. Age of divergence was similar for allopatric and sympatric species pairs. Sympatric sister pairs displayed greater divergence in morphology, ecology, and sexually dimorphic colour patterns than did allopatric pairs, suggesting that both genetic drift in allopatric species pairs and ecologically adaptive divergence between members of sympatric pairs have played a role in diversification. Basal species typically have small geographical ranges and are restricted to geographically and ecologically peripheral reef habitats. We found little evidence that a single dominant process has driven diversification, nor did we detect a pattern of discrete, sequential stages of diversification in relation to habitat, ecology, and reproductive biology. The evolution of Chlorurus and Scarus has been complex, involving a number of speciation processes. © 2012 The Linnean Society of London.

  9. [The contribution of inflammatory process in pathogenesis and natural history of atrial fibrillation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyśko, Dorota; Gajek, Jacek; Mazurek, Walentyna

    2005-02-01

    The inflammatory process plays important role in pathogenesis of some cardiovascular diseases. Atrial fibrillation is atrial arrhythmia with rapid, asynchronous activation of atrial myocytes. The inflammatory process can be responsible for atrial electrical and anatomical remodeling and therefore shifts towards arrhythmia persistence. The presence of systemic inflammation may be assessed by means of C-reactive protein (CRP) measurement. Maximal concentration of CRP coincidences with the peak of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation occurrence in patients after cardiac surgery. In patients with sinus rhythm the concentration of CRP is a risk factor for this arrhythmia in long-term follow-up. In patients with atrial fibrillation mean CRP concentration is 2-fold higher comparing to control group. CRP concentration is higher in patients with chronic than paroxysmal form of this arrhythmia. High CRP level predicts worse results of direct current cardioversion and more frequent paroxysms of atrial fibrillation during follow-up. Besides of, the patients with echocardiographic signs of thromboembolic risk have higher CRP levels than control subjects. There is no data about the influence of anti-inflammatory therapy on atrial fibrillation or its recurrences.

  10. Patterns and processes in the evolutionary history of parrotfishes (Family Labridae)

    KAUST Repository

    Choat, John. H.

    2012-09-05

    Phylogenetic reconstruction of the evolutionary relationships among 61 of the 70 species of the parrotfish genera Chlorurus and Scarus (Family Labridae) based on mitochondrial and nuclear gene sequences retrieved 15 well-supported clades with mid Pliocene/Pleistocene diversification. Twenty-two reciprocally monophyletic sister-species pairs were identified: 64% were allopatric, and the remainder were sympatric. Age of divergence was similar for allopatric and sympatric species pairs. Sympatric sister pairs displayed greater divergence in morphology, ecology, and sexually dimorphic colour patterns than did allopatric pairs, suggesting that both genetic drift in allopatric species pairs and ecologically adaptive divergence between members of sympatric pairs have played a role in diversification. Basal species typically have small geographical ranges and are restricted to geographically and ecologically peripheral reef habitats. We found little evidence that a single dominant process has driven diversification, nor did we detect a pattern of discrete, sequential stages of diversification in relation to habitat, ecology, and reproductive biology. The evolution of Chlorurus and Scarus has been complex, involving a number of speciation processes. © 2012 The Linnean Society of London.

  11. Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine knowledge, attitudes, and uptake in college students: Implications from the Precaution Adoption Process Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine human papillomavirus (HPV) and HPV vaccine knowledge, attitudes, and uptake in college students and to identify factors associated with vaccination status utilizing the Precaution Adoption Process Model (PAPM). The sample included 383 undergraduates from a public university who participated in February and March 2015. Students were emailed an anonymous online survey assessing knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions related to HPV and HPV vaccination, as well as their stage in the PAPM regarding vaccination completion. Significantly more females (47.3%) than males (15.8%) were vaccinated. While most students had basic knowledge of HPV, they had low perceptions of their susceptibility to contract HPV. Most unvaccinated students were in the early stages of decision-making related to vaccination. Campus health centers have an opportunity to increase HPV vaccination rates. This study indicates that students need prompts from providers, as well as education regarding susceptibility to HPV. PMID:28786994

  12. The Acquisition Process as a Vehicle for Enabling Knowledge Management in the Lifecycle of Complex Federal Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Helen; Spence, Matt Chew; Holm, Jeanne; Koga, Dennis (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This white paper explores how to increase the success and operation of critical, complex, national systems by effectively capturing knowledge management requirements within the federal acquisition process. Although we focus on aerospace flight systems, the principles outlined within may have a general applicability to other critical federal systems as well. Fundamental design deficiencies in federal, mission-critical systems have contributed to recent, highly visible system failures, such as the V-22 Osprey and the Delta rocket family. These failures indicate that the current mechanisms for knowledge management and risk management are inadequate to meet the challenges imposed by the rising complexity of critical systems. Failures of aerospace system operations and vehicles may have been prevented or lessened through utilization of better knowledge management and information management techniques.

  13. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) injection well: Operations history and hydrochemical inventory of the waste stream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fromm, J.; McCurry, M.; Hackett, W.; Welhan, J.

    1994-01-01

    Department of Energy (DOE), United States Geological Survey (USGS), and Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) documents were searched for information regarding service disposal operations, and the chemical characteristics and volumes of the service waste emplaced in, and above, the Eastern Snake River Plain aquifer (ESRP) from 1953-1992. A summary database has been developed which synthesizes available, but dispersed, information. This assembled data records spatial, volumetric and chemical input patterns which will help establish the initial contaminant water characteristics required in computer modeling, aid in interpreting the monitoring well network hydrochemical information, and contribute to a better understanding of contaminant transport in the aquifer near the ICPP. Gaps and uncertainties in the input record are also identified with respect to time and type. 39 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs

  14. Software: our quest for excellence. Honoring 50 years of software history, progress, and process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The Software Quality Forum was established by the Software Quality Assurance (SQA) Subcommittee, which serves as a technical advisory group on software engineering and quality initiatives and issues for DOE`s quality managers. The forum serves as an opportunity for all those involved in implementing SQA programs to meet and share ideas and concerns. Participation from managers, quality engineers, and software professionals provides an ideal environment for identifying and discussing issues and concerns. The interaction provided by the forum contributes to the realization of a shared goal--high quality software product. Topics include: testing, software measurement, software surety, software reliability, SQA practices, assessments, software process improvement, certification and licensing of software professionals, CASE tools, software project management, inspections, and management`s role in ensuring SQA. The bulk of this document consists of vugraphs. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  15. Model-based Rational and Systematic Protein Purification Process Development : A Knowledge-based Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kungah Nfor, B.

    2011-01-01

    The increasing market and regulatory (quality and safety) demands on therapeutic proteins calls for radical improvement in their manufacturing processes. Addressing these challenges requires the adoption of strategies and tools that enable faster and more efficient process development. This thesis

  16. WAN Optimization: A Business Process Reengineering and Knowledge Value Added Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    processing is not affected. Reliability The Customer or Order systems are unavailable. If either fails, order processing halts and alerts are...online immediately, and sends a fax to the customer who orders the container. The whole order processing process can be completed in one day. IT plays...Messages build up in the OrderQ until the email server restarts. Messages are then sent by the SendEmail component to remove the backlog. Order

  17. Participatory Modeling Processes to Build Community Knowledge Using Shared Model and Data Resources and in a Transboundary Pacific Northwest Watershed (Nooksack River Basin, Washington, USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandaragoda, C.; Dumas, M.

    2014-12-01

    As with many western US watersheds, the Nooksack River Basin faces strong pressures associated with climate variability and change, rapid population growth, and deep-rooted water law. This transboundary basin includes contributing areas in British Columbia, Canada, and has a long history of joint data collection, model development, and facilitated communication between governmental (federal, tribal, state, local), environmental, timber, agricultural, and recreational user groups. However, each entity in the watershed responds to unique data coordination, information sharing, and adaptive management regimes and thresholds, further increasing the complexity of watershed management. Over the past four years, participatory methods were used to compile and review scientific data and models, including fish habitat (endangered salmonid species), channel hydraulics, climate data, agricultural, municipal and industrial water use, and integrated watershed scale distributed hydrologic models from over 15 years of projects (from jointly funded to independent shared work by individual companies, agencies, and universities). A specific outcome of the work includes participatory design of a collective problem statement used for guidance on future investment of shared resources and development of a data-generation process where modeling results are communicated in a three-tiers for 1) public/decision-making, 2) technical, and 3) research audiences. We establish features for successful participation using tools that are iteratively developed, tested for usability through incremental knowledge building, and designed to provide rigor in modeling. A general outcome of the work is ongoing support by tribal, state, and local governments, as well as the agricultural community, to continue the generation of shared watershed data using models in a dynamic legal and regulatory setting, where two federally recognized tribes have requested federal court resolution of federal treaty rights

  18. Case-based reasoning as a technique for knowledge management in business process redesign

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Limam Mansar, S.; Reijers, H.A.; Marir, F.

    2003-01-01

    Business Process Redesign (BPR) helps rethinking a process in order to enhance its performance. Practitioners have been developing methodologies to support BPR implementation. However, most methodologies lack actual guidance on deriving a process design threatening the success of BPR. In this paper,

  19. Writing cases as a knowledge capture process in a competitive intelligence program

    OpenAIRE

    Mallowan , Monica; Marcon , Christian

    2009-01-01

    International audience; Students in Competitive Intelligence (CI) programs submit a report following their internship in an organisation. It is proposed that the result of their experiences be shared with their peers, in the form of cases written for in-class analysis. A knowledge base is thus created, which gradually becomes the program's memory and, by its constant renewal and connection with the reality, the most useful teaching tool for the professor.

  20. Developing "My Asthma Diary": a process exemplar of a patient-driven arts-based knowledge translation tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archibald, Mandy M; Hartling, Lisa; Ali, Samina; Caine, Vera; Scott, Shannon D

    2018-06-05

    Although it is well established that family-centered education is critical to managing childhood asthma, the information needs of parents of children with asthma are not being met through current educational approaches. Patient-driven educational materials that leverage the power of the storytelling and the arts show promise in communicating health information and assisting in illness self-management. However, such arts-based knowledge translation approaches are in their infancy, and little is known about how to develop such tools for parents. This paper reports on the development of "My Asthma Diary" - an innovative knowledge translation tool based on rigorous research evidence and tailored to parents' asthma-related information needs. We used a multi-stage process to develop four eBook prototypes of "My Asthma Diary." We conducted formative research on parents' information needs and identified high quality research evidence on childhood asthma, and used these data to inform the development of the asthma eBooks. We established interdisciplinary consulting teams with health researchers, practitioners, and artists to help iteratively create the knowledge translation tools. We describe the iterative, transdisciplinary process of developing asthma eBooks which incorporates: (I) parents' preferences and information needs on childhood asthma, (II) quality evidence on childhood asthma and its management, and (III) the engaging and informative powers of storytelling and visual art as methods to communicate complex health information to parents. We identified four dominant methodological and procedural challenges encountered during this process: (I) working within an inter-disciplinary team, (II) quantity and ordering of information, (III) creating a composite narrative, and (IV) balancing actual and ideal management scenarios. We describe a replicable and rigorous multi-staged approach to developing a patient-driven, creative knowledge translation tool, which can be

  1. A comparative study of EVA with and without thermal history for different lamination process parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drabczyk, Kazimierz, E-mail: kazimierz.drabczyk@wp.pl [Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science, 25 Reymonta St., 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Panek, Piotr [Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science, 25 Reymonta St., 30-059 Krakow (Poland)

    2012-09-01

    In more than 80% of the worldwide photovoltaic (PV) modules, mostly very fragile and 200 {mu}m thick, crystalline silicon solar cells are encapsulated into ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) foils, which bond the module components together, provide physical protection, electrical insulation and a barrier for moisture ingress. The understanding of what can happen with EVA during its transport, storage and lamination process is necessary to optimize the quality of the PV module for its long exposure to outdoor weather conditions. Achieving a proper cross-link density of over 70%, it is essential to overcome the cold flow of EVA and to make the module durable. In this work, the feasibility of the use of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) compared with the solvent extraction (SE) method by toluene were evaluated in order to provide structural information on the EVA curing kinetics and the cross-link density. DSC tests were performed on a DTA DuPont1600 tester. The temperature range for the test was from -50 Degree-Sign C to 200 Degree-Sign C, with the heating rate of 10 Degree-Sign C/min, and the endothermic and exothermic peaks were evaluated. Toluene solvent extractions were performed on the same set of samples that were analyzed by DSC. The measured cross-link density shows a direct dependence on the pre-lamination conditions of EVA, which is in good agreement with the data obtained with the DSC method.

  2. 'The biggest legal battle in UK casino history': Processes and politics of 'cheating' in sociotechnical networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mark R

    2018-04-01

    Previous literature on cheating has focused on defining the concept, assigning responsibility to individual players, collaborative social processes or technical faults in a game's rules. By contrast, this paper applies an actor-network perspective to understanding 'cheating' in games, and explores how the concept is rhetorically effective in sociotechnical controversies. The article identifies human and nonhuman actors whose interests and properties were translated in a case study of 'edge sorting' - identifying minor but crucial differences in tessellated patterns on the backs of playing cards, and using these to estimate their values. In the ensuing legal controversy, the defending actors - casinos - retranslated the interests of actors to position edge sorting as cheating. This allowed the casinos to emerge victorious in a legal battle over almost twenty million dollars. Analyzing this dispute shows that cheating is both sociotechnically complex as an act and an extremely powerful rhetorical tool for actors seeking to prevent changes to previously-established networks. Science and Technology Studies (STS) offers a rich toolkit for examining cheating, but in addition the cheating discourse may be valuable to STS, enlarging our repertoire of actor strategies relevant to sociotechnical disputes.

  3. A comparative study of EVA with and without thermal history for different lamination process parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drabczyk, Kazimierz; Panek, Piotr

    2012-01-01

    In more than 80% of the worldwide photovoltaic (PV) modules, mostly very fragile and 200 μm thick, crystalline silicon solar cells are encapsulated into ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) foils, which bond the module components together, provide physical protection, electrical insulation and a barrier for moisture ingress. The understanding of what can happen with EVA during its transport, storage and lamination process is necessary to optimize the quality of the PV module for its long exposure to outdoor weather conditions. Achieving a proper cross-link density of over 70%, it is essential to overcome the cold flow of EVA and to make the module durable. In this work, the feasibility of the use of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) compared with the solvent extraction (SE) method by toluene were evaluated in order to provide structural information on the EVA curing kinetics and the cross-link density. DSC tests were performed on a DTA DuPont1600 tester. The temperature range for the test was from −50 °C to 200 °C, with the heating rate of 10 °C/min, and the endothermic and exothermic peaks were evaluated. Toluene solvent extractions were performed on the same set of samples that were analyzed by DSC. The measured cross-link density shows a direct dependence on the pre-lamination conditions of EVA, which is in good agreement with the data obtained with the DSC method.

  4. Monitoring and analysis of air emissions based on condition models derived from process history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Liukkonen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of online information on operating conditions is necessary when reducing air emissions in energy plants. In this respect, automated monitoring and control are of primary concern, particularly in biomass combustion. As monitoring of emissions in power plants is ever more challenging because of low-grade fuels and fuel mixtures, new monitoring applications are needed to extract essential information from the large amount of measurement data. The management of emissions in energy boilers lacks economically efficient, fast, and competent computational systems that could support decision-making regarding the improvement of emission efficiency. In this paper, a novel emission monitoring platform based on the self-organizing map method is presented. The system is capable, not only of visualizing the prevailing status of the process and detecting problem situations (i.e. increased emission release rates, but also of analyzing these situations automatically and presenting factors potentially affecting them. The system is demonstrated using measurement data from an industrial circulating fluidized bed boiler fired by forest residue as the primary fuel and coal as the supporting fuel.

  5. Knowledge sharing in intercultural team work : what factors can influence knowledge sharing process in intercultural team work? the case of Finnish and Vietnamese team

    OpenAIRE

    Truong, Minh Chau

    2010-01-01

    The transition from an industrial to a post industrial knowledge economy provides and increases in the proportion of jobs that are knowledge intensive. There are statistical analyses typically show that managerial and professional work regarding to knowledge intensive becoming one of the fastest growing occupational groups since the 1980s. Elias and Gregory; Fleming et al. (1994, cited in Hislop 2013:7). Knowledge management, therefore is a contemporary field which provides many interesting ...

  6. Determination of the appropriate use of pavement surface history in the KDOT life-cycle analysis process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    The primary objective of this study was to evaluate KDOTs pavement surfacing history and recommend : whether or not the departments life-cycle cost analysis (LCCA) procedure should include a surfacing history : component, and, if so, how the LC...

  7. “I Have To Confess I Cannot Read History So,”

    OpenAIRE

    Topa, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    This study aims at a better understanding of Peirce’s conception of a philosophy of history. Peirce has a well defined place for historiography in his classification of the sciences, but what he has to say about history as a philosopher is not primarily referring to it as a form of historiographic knowledge, but to history as a process and a medium. As a process, history is, fundamentally, a cooperative activity of man resulting in civilization and capable of varying categoriological degrees ...

  8. Development of a Mini-Freeze Dryer for Material-Sparing Laboratory Processing with Representative Product Temperature History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeidat, Wasfy M; Sahni, Ekneet; Kessler, William; Pikal, Michael

    2018-02-01

    The goal of the work described in this publication was to evaluate a new, small, material-sparing freeze dryer, denoted as the "mini-freeze dryer or mini-FD", capable of reproducing the product temperature history of larger freeze dryers, thereby facilitating scale-up. The mini-FD wall temperatures can be controlled to mimic loading procedures and dryer process characteristics of larger dryers. The mini-FD is equipped with a tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) water vapor mass flow monitor and with other advanced process analytical technology (PAT) sensors. Drying experiments were performed to demonstrate scalability to larger freeze dryers, including the determination of vial heat transfer coefficients, K v . Product temperature histories during K v runs were evaluated and compared with those obtained with a commercial laboratory-scale freeze dryer (LyoStar II) for sucrose and mannitol product formulations. When the mini-FD wall temperature was set at the LyoStar II band temperature (- 20°C) to mimic lab dryer edge vials, edge vial drying in the mini-FD possessed an average K v within 5% of those obtained during drying in the LyoStar II. When the wall temperature of the mini-FD was set equal to the central vial product temperature, edge vials behaved as center vials, possessing a K v value within 5% of those measured in the LyoStar II. During both K v runs and complete product freeze drying runs, the temperature-time profiles for the average edge vials and central vial in the mini-FD agreed well with the average edge and average central vials of the LyoStar II.

  9. Knowledge Sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holdt Christensen, Peter

    The concept of knowledge management has, indeed, become a buzzword that every single organization is expected to practice and live by. Knowledge management is about managing the organization's knowledge for the common good of the organization -but practicing knowledge management is not as simple...... as that. This article focuses on knowledge sharing as the process seeking to reduce the resources spent on reinventing the wheel.The article introduces the concept of time sensitiveness; i.e. that knowledge is either urgently needed, or not that urgently needed. Furthermore, knowledge sharing...... is considered as either a push or pull system. Four strategies for sharing knowledge - help, post-it, manuals and meeting, and advice are introduced. Each strategy requires different channels for sharing knowledge. An empirical analysis in a production facility highlights how the strategies can be practiced....

  10. An integrated knowledge-based framework for synthesis and design of enterprise-wide processing networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sin, Gürkan

    material, product portfolio and process technology selection for a given market scenario, their sustainability metrics and risk of investment under market uncertainties enabling risk-aware decision making. The framework is highlighted with successful applications for soybean oil processing (food technology......, the synthesis and design of processing networks is a complex and multidisciplinary problem, which involves many strategic and tactical decisions at business (considering financial criteria, market competition, supply chain network, etc) and engineering levels (considering synthesis, design and optimization...

  11. Fast-track knowledge transfer from climate studies to user's decision-making process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côté, Hélène; de Elía, Ramón; Larrivée, Caroline; Chaumont, Diane

    2017-04-01

    Over the last decade, many countries implemented various initiatives to bring their scientific community to develop more research projects addressing end-user needs. This shift in priorities gave rise to new expressions such as « actionable science », « co-production of knowledge » etc. This phenomenon is noteworthy in climate and climate change related research due to the pressing needs for societies to both adapt to climate change and quickly reduce greenhouse gases emissions. Although the attempt to include users into their projects made perfect sense, academic and even governmental researchers have often been overwhelmed by the "language barrier", the variety of needs, and the magnitude of the viewpoint change required to provide salient, credible and legitimate information to decision makers. In addition, many researchers worry that their growing involvement with users might jeopardize the progress of their own scientific interests and slowdown their academic careers. Useŕs needs are not necessarily well defined nor solely driven by scientific issues. They are a more or less complex mixture of short-term obligations like the sudden realization that an imminent decision needs to take climate change into account, long-term concerns about their risks and vulnerabilities, and knowledge gaps involving interdisciplinary inputs and communication challenges. In this context, the emergence of boundary organizations is a convincing approach to build the interface between science and end users. Since a single individual or even a single organization is rarely able to completely fulfill useŕs expectations, this presentation will show how strong and productive links between academia, boundary organization and users can stimulate knowledge transfer among all parties. To that purpose, examples will be taken from the 15-year existence of Ouranos Consortium on Regional Climatology and Adaptation to Climate Change (Montreal, Canada). We will see how Ouranoś staff -with

  12. Processes of Dis–location and Re–location of Knowledge and Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Bougleux

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Historical analysis of domination patterns identifies phases of ongoing dialectics between rich and poor world areas, claiming instances of self-determination and empowerment in international programs of cooperation. At the same time, new major imbalances in relations of power emerge between new global players, who appear to be committed in a competition towards the Western model of development, mainly characterized by the control over technologies and knowledge/. /Such practices of emulation provide examples of complicity with the hegemonic rhetoric, and help strengthen pairs of opposites (emerging/advanced, technological/intuitive, hegemonic/subaltern increasingly polarized and less dialectical.

  13. Safe meat-handling knowledge, attitudes and practices of private and government meat processing plants' workers: implications for future policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesokan, H K; Raji, A O Q

    2014-03-01

    Food-borne disease outbreaks remain a major global health challenge and cross-contamination from raw meat due to poor handling is a major cause in developing countries. Adequate knowledge of meat handlers is important in limiting these outbreaks. This study evaluated and compared the safe meat-handling knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of private (PMPP) and government meat processing plants' (GMPP) workers in south-western Nigeria. This cross sectional study comprised 190 meat handlers (PMPP = 55; GMPP = 135). Data concerning their safe meat-handling knowledge, attitudes and practices as well as their socio-demographic characteristics, such as age, gender and work experience were collected. A significant association was observed between the type of meat processing plants and their knowledge (p = 0.000), attitudes (p = 0.000) and practices (p = 0.000) of safe meat-handling. Meat handlers in the GMPP were respectively, about 17 times (OR = 0.060, 95% CI: 0.018-0.203), 57 times (OR = 0.019, 95% CI: 0.007-0.054) and 111 times (OR = 0.009, 95% CI: 0.001- 0.067) less likely to obtain good knowledge, attitude and practice level of safe meat-handling than those from PMPP. Further, KAP levels were significantly associated with age group, education and work experience (p < 0.05). Study findings suggest the need for future policy in food industry in developing countries to accommodate increased involvement of private sector for improved food safety and quality delivery. Public health education on safe food handling and hygiene should be on the front burner among food handlers in general.

  14. A review of concentrated flow erosion processes on rangelands: fundamental understanding and knowledge gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concentrated flow erosion processes are distinguished from splash and sheetflow processes in their enhanced ability to mobilize and transport large amounts of soil, water and dissolved elements. On rangelands, soil, nutrients and water are scarce and only narrow margins of resource losses are tolera...

  15. A methodology integrating Petri nets and knowledge-based systems to support process family planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Linda L.; Xu, Qianli; Helo, Petri

    2012-01-01

    Planning production processes for product families have been well recognised as an effective means of achieving successful product family development. However, most existing approaches do not lend themselves to planning production processes with focus on the optimality of the cohort of a product

  16. Segmentation of the hippocampus by transferring algorithmic knowledge for large cohort processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyreau, Benjamin; Sato, Kazunori; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Taki, Yasuyuki

    2018-01-01

    The hippocampus is a particularly interesting target for neuroscience research studies due to its essential role within the human brain. In large human cohort studies, bilateral hippocampal structures are frequently identified and measured to gain insight into human behaviour or genomic variability in neuropsychiatric disorders of interest. Automatic segmentation is performed using various algorithms, with FreeSurfer being a popular option. In this manuscript, we present a method to segment the bilateral hippocampus using a deep-learned appearance model. Deep convolutional neural networks (ConvNets) have shown great success in recent years, due to their ability to learn meaningful features from a mass of training data. Our method relies on the following key novelties: (i) we use a wide and variable training set coming from multiple cohorts (ii) our training labels come in part from the output of the FreeSurfer algorithm, and (iii) we include synthetic data and use a powerful data augmentation scheme. Our method proves to be robust, and it has fast inference (deep neural-network methods can easily encode, and even improve, existing anatomical knowledge, even when this knowledge exists in algorithmic form. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Use of e-learning in clinical clerkships: effects on acquisition of dermatological knowledge and learning processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Herm; Nagtzaam, Ivo; Heeneman, Sylvia

    2018-01-01

    Objectives To obtain a deeper understanding of how the e-learning program, Education in Dermatology (ED), affects the acquisition of dermatological knowledge and the underlying learning processes of medical students in their clinical phase. Methods The study used a mixed method design with a convergent parallel collection of data. Medical students (n=62) from Maastricht University (The Netherlands) were randomized to either a conventional teaching group (control group n=30) or conventional teaching plus the e-learning program (application on smartphone) group (e-learning group n=32). Pre- and post-intervention knowledge test results were analysed using an independent t-test. Individual semi-structured interviews (n=9) were conducted and verbatim-transcribed recordings were analysed using King’s template analysis. Results The e-learning program positively influenced students’ level of knowledge and their process of learning. A significant difference was found in the post-test scores for the control group (M=51.4, SD=6.43) and the e-learning group (M=73.09, SD=5.12); t(60)=-14.75, pe-learning program stimulated students’ learning as the application promoted the identification and recognition of skin disorders, the use of references, creation of documents and sharing information with colleagues. Conclusions This study demonstrated that use of the e-learning program led to a significant improvement in basic dermatological knowledge. The underlying learning processes indicated that e-learning programs in dermatology filled a vital gap in the understanding of clinical reasoning in dermatology. These results might be useful when developing (clinical) teaching formats with a special focus on visual disciplines.  PMID:29352748

  18. Use of e-learning in clinical clerkships: effects on acquisition of dermatological knowledge and learning processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fransen, Frederike; Martens, Herm; Nagtzaam, Ivo; Heeneman, Sylvia

    2018-01-17

    To obtain a deeper understanding of how the e-learning program, Education in Dermatology (ED), affects the acquisition of dermatological knowledge and the underlying learning processes of medical students in their clinical phase. The study used a mixed method design with a convergent parallel collection of data. Medical students (n=62) from Maastricht University (The Netherlands) were randomized to either a conventional teaching group (control group n=30) or conventional teaching plus the e-learning program (application on smartphone) group (e-learning group n=32). Pre- and post-intervention knowledge test results were analysed using an independent t-test. Individual semi-structured interviews (n=9) were conducted and verbatim-transcribed recordings were analysed using King's template analysis. The e-learning program positively influenced students' level of knowledge and their process of learning. A significant difference was found in the post-test scores for the control group (M=51.4, SD=6.43) and the e-learning group (M=73.09, SD=5.12); t(60)=-14.75, pe-learning program stimulated students' learning as the application promoted the identification and recognition of skin disorders, the use of references, creation of documents and sharing information with colleagues. This study demonstrated that use of the e-learning program led to a significant improvement in basic dermatological knowledge. The underlying learning processes indicated that e-learning programs in dermatology filled a vital gap in the understanding of clinical reasoning in dermatology. These results might be useful when developing (clinical) teaching formats with a special focus on visual disciplines.

  19. Identity, History, Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surovtsev V.A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the role of historical narratives in the formation of identity. Rüsen’s thesis on the contradiction of traditional historical identities that suggest an ethnocentric position with the processes of intercultural communication is analyzed. The potential of historical narratives in overcoming (or restricting ethnocentrism is considered. It is shown that ethnocentrism is constituted by kinds of the configuration of historical writing rather than by a subjective position of historical narrative authors. The types of stories suggest a the way of making history using only the criteria of success and failure in the interpretation of the past; b interpretation of history as teleological continuity; c merely the necessity to justify (to substantiate claims or to discredit something. It is alleged that the realization that the form of historical knowledge constructs, not discovers, can facilitate liberation from referential fallacy on the whole and enslavement by certain kinds of stories in particular. It is concluded that the recognition of the constitutive nature of historical narratives allows being independent from the traditional forms of historical knowledge and traditional ideas about their cultural value. In particular, it allows reconsidering the need to apply historical knowledge when constructing identity.

  20. Chess knowledge predicts chess memory even after controlling for chess experience: Evidence for the role of high-level processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, David M; Chang, Yu-Hsuan A

    2018-04-01

    The expertise effect in memory for chess positions is one of the most robust effects in cognitive psychology. One explanation of this effect is that chess recall is based on the recognition of familiar patterns and that experts have learned more and larger patterns. Template theory and its instantiation as a computational model are based on this explanation. An alternative explanation is that the expertise effect is due, in part, to stronger players having better and more conceptual knowledge, with this knowledge facilitating memory performance. Our literature review supports the latter view. In our experiment, a sample of 79 chess players were given a test of memory for chess positions, a test of declarative chess knowledge, a test of fluid intelligence, and a questionnaire concerning the amount of time they had played nontournament chess and the amount of time they had studied chess. We determined the numbers of tournament games the players had played from chess databases. Chess knowledge correlated .67 with chess memory and accounted for 16% of the variance after controlling for chess experience. Fluid intelligence accounted for an additional 13% of the variance. These results support the conclusion that both high-level conceptual processing and low-level recognition of familiar patterns play important roles in memory for chess positions.